WorldWideScience

Sample records for hierarchical transactive control

  1. Similarity based mixed transaction concurrency control protocol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Yi; LU Yan-sheng

    2005-01-01

    Due to the various performance requirements and data access restrictions of different types of real-time transactions, concurrency control protocols which had been designed for the systems with single type of transactions are not sufficient for mixed real-time database systems (MRTDBS), where different types of real-time transactions coexist in the systems concurrently. In this paper, a new concurrency control protocol MRTT_CC for mixed real-time transactions is proposed. The new strategy integrates with different concurrency control protocols to meet the deadline requirements of different types of real-time transactions. The data similarity concept is also explored in the new protocol to reduce the blocking time of soft real-time transactions, which increases their chances to meet the deadlines. Simulation experiments show that the new protocol has gained good performance.

  2. Private benefits in corporate control transactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Thomas

    This paper presents an analytical framework from which it can be inferred whether sellers or buyers in corporate control transactions value private benefits highest. I am thus able to suggest an answer to the question: Are blocks of shares traded because the buyer is a more efficient monitor...... with high security benefits, or because the buyer has high private benefits from the control rights that come with the shares? Using voting rights as the vehicle for private benefits, I find that the selling shareholders in block transactions attach more value to private benefits than the buyers. In tender...... offer transactions, the answer is that private benefits are insignificant to both sides of the transaction. As an alternative measure of the transaction premium, I calculate the abnormal return premium. This represents the stock market's valuation of the transaction. I find that the stock market puts...

  3. Network Constrained Transactive Control for Electric Vehicles Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Junjie; Yang, Guangya; Bindner, Henrik W.

    2015-01-01

    Electric vehicles (EVs) are commonly recognized as smart grid assets in addition to their environmental benefits. However, uncoordinated charging or sole cost minimization based charging of electric vehicles may bring undesirable peak demands and voltage violations in the distribution system....... This paper applies the transactive control concept to integrate electric vehicles into the power distribution system with the purpose of minimizing the charging cost of electric vehicles as well as preventing grid congestions and voltage violations. A hierarchical EV management system is proposed where three...... actors are considered: distribution system operator (DSO), fleet operators and EV owners. In the lower level of the hierarchy, the fleet operator centrally manages the charging schedule of electric vehicles; in the upper level of the hierarchy, the DSO uses transactive control technique to coordinate...

  4. Private Benefits in Corporate Control Transactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an analytical framework from which it can be inferred whether sellers or buyers in block transactions value private benefits highest. I am thus able to suggest an answer to the question: Are blocks of shares traded because the buyer has high security benefits, or because...... the buyer has high private benefits from the control rights that come with the shares? Using voting rights as the vehicle for private benefits, I find that the selling shareholders in block transactions attaches more value to private benefits than the buyers and that toeholds are insignificant...

  5. Private benefits in corporate control transactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Thomas

    This paper presents an analytical framework from which it can be inferred whether sellers or buyers in corporate control transactions value private benefits highest. I am thus able to suggest an answer to the question: Are blocks of shares traded because the buyer is a more efficient monitor...

  6. Private benefits in corporate control transactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Thomas

    with high security benefits, or because the buyer has high private benefits from the control rights that come with the shares? Using voting rights as the vehicle for private benefits, I find that the selling shareholders in block transactions attach more value to private benefits than the buyers. In tender...... shareholders have a very small effect on these results, but that they do attach more value to private benefits....

  7. Hierarchical Control for Smart Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trangbæk, K; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with hierarchical model predictive control (MPC) of smart grid systems. The design consists of a high level MPC controller, a second level of so-called aggregators, which reduces the computational and communication-related load on the high-level control, and a lower level...... of autonomous consumers. The control system is tasked with balancing electric power production and consumption within the smart grid, and makes active use of the flexibility of a large number of power producing and/or power consuming units. The objective is to accommodate the load variation on the grid, arising...

  8. Transaction-Based Building Controls Framework, Volume 1: Reference Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somasundaram, Sriram [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Pratt, Robert G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Akyol, Bora A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fernandez, Nicholas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Foster, Nikolas AF [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Katipamula, Srinivas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mayhorn, Ebony T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Somani, Abhishek [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Steckley, Andrew C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    This document proposes a framework concept to achieve the objectives of raising buildings’ efficiency and energy savings potential benefitting building owners and operators. We call it a transaction-based framework, wherein mutually-beneficial and cost-effective market-based transactions can be enabled between multiple players across different domains. Transaction-based building controls are one part of the transactional energy framework. While these controls realize benefits by enabling automatic, market-based intra-building efficiency optimizations, the transactional energy framework provides similar benefits using the same market -based structure, yet on a larger scale and beyond just buildings, to the society at large.

  9. Transaction-Based Building Controls Framework, Volume 1: Reference Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somasundaram, Sriram; Pratt, Robert G.; Akyol, Bora A.; Fernandez, Nicholas; Foster, Nikolas AF; Katipamula, Srinivas; Mayhorn, Ebony T.; Somani, Abhishek; Steckley, Andrew C.; Taylor, Zachary T.

    2014-04-28

    This document proposes a framework concept to achieve the objectives of raising buildings’ efficiency and energy savings potential benefitting building owners and operators. We call it a transaction-based framework, wherein mutually-beneficial and cost-effective market-based transactions can be enabled between multiple players across different domains. Transaction-based building controls are one part of the transactional energy framework. While these controls realize benefits by enabling automatic, market-based intra-building efficiency optimizations, the transactional energy framework provides similar benefits using the same market -based structure, yet on a larger scale and beyond just buildings, to the society at large.

  10. Transactions Concurrency Control in Web Service Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alrifai, Mohammad; Dolog, Peter; Nejdl, Wolfgang

    2006-01-01

    an engineering point of view as it does not change the way consumers or clients of web services have to be programmed. Furthermore, it avoids direct communication between transaction coordinators which preserves security by keeping the information about business transactions restricted to the coordinators which......Business transactions in web service environments run with relaxed isolation and atomicity property. In such environments, transactions can commit and roll back independently on each other. Transaction management has to reflect this issue and address the problems which result for example from...... concurrent access to web service resources and data. In this paper we propose an extension to the WS-Transaction Protocol which ensures the consistency of the data when independent business transactions access the data concurrently under the relaxed transaction properties. Our extension is based...

  11. Transactions Concurrency Control in Web Service Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alrifai, Mohammad; Dolog, Peter; Nejdl, Wolfgang

    2006-01-01

    on transaction dependency graphs maintained at the service provider side. We have implemented such a protocol on top of WS-Transaction. The extension on the web service provider side is simple to achieve as it can be an integral part of the service invocation mechanism. It has also an advantage from...... an engineering point of view as it does not change the way consumers or clients of web services have to be programmed. Furthermore, it avoids direct communication between transaction coordinators which preserves security by keeping the information about business transactions restricted to the coordinators which......Business transactions in web service environments run with relaxed isolation and atomicity property. In such environments, transactions can commit and roll back independently on each other. Transaction management has to reflect this issue and address the problems which result for example from...

  12. Extending Software Transactional Memory in Clojure with Side-Effects and Transaction Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren Kejser; Thomsen, Lone Leth

    2016-01-01

    do however not support execution of code with side-effects and provide no methods for synchronising threads. Additional concurrency mechanisms on top of STM are needed for these use cases, increasing the complexity of the code. We present multiple constructs allowing functions with side-effects...... to be executed as part of a transaction. These constructs are made accessible through a uniform interface, making them interchangeable. We present constructs providing explicit control of transactions. Through these constructs transactions can synchronise threads based on the current program state, abort...

  13. Transactive Control of Commercial Buildings for Demand Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, He; Corbin, Charles D.; Kalsi, Karanjit; Pratt, Robert G.

    2017-01-01

    Transactive control is a type of distributed control strategy that uses market mechanism to engage self-interested responsive loads to achieve power balance in the electrical power grid. In this paper, we propose a transactive control approach of commercial building Heating, Ventilation, and Air- Conditioning (HVAC) systems for demand response. We first describe the system models, and identify their model parameters using data collected from Systems Engineering Building (SEB) located on our Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) campus. We next present a transactive control market structure for commercial building HVAC system, and describe its agent bidding and market clearing strategies. Several case studies are performed in a simulation environment using Building Control Virtual Test Bed (BCVTB) and calibrated SEB EnergyPlus model. We show that the proposed transactive control approach is very effective at peak clipping, load shifting, and strategic conservation for commercial building HVAC systems.

  14. Transactive Control and Coordination of Distributed Assets for Ancillary Services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subbarao, Krishnappa [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fuller, Jason C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kalsi, Karanjit [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Somani, Abhishek [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Pratt, Robert G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Widergren, Steven E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Chassin, David P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-09-18

    The need to diversify energy supplies, the need to mitigate energy-related environmental impact, and the entry of electric vehicles in large numbers present challenges and opportunities to power system professionals. Wind and solar power provide many benefits, and to reap the benefits the resulting increased variability—forecasted as well as unforecasted—should be addressed. A majority of states and the District of Columbia, representing over half of the total load, have passed renewable portfolio standards. California’s plans call for 33% renewable energy by 2020. For grid balancing and for meeting reliability standards, ancillary services are needed. The needs for these services are poised to increase significantly. Demand resources are receiving increasing attention as one means of providing the ancillary services. Control and coordination of a large number (~millions) of distributed smart grid assets requires innovative approaches. One such approach is transactive control and coordination (TC2)—a distributed, hierarchical, agent-based incentive and control system. The TC2 paradigm is to create a market-like control system in which participation is voluntary and the participant sets the price for participation. For transactions that are frequent, automation of bids and responses is necessary. Such an approach has been developed and demonstrated at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The devices, typically thermostatically controlled heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) loads, send their bids—the quantity of energy they need and, based on the consumer preferences encoded in a simple user interface, the price they are willing to pay. The typical bid period is 5 minutes. By aggregating all the bids, a demand curve is generated by the aggregating entity, and matched with a supply curve or supply constraint. The aggregator transmits the clearing price to the devices. The winning devices proceed to consume the energy they bid for and won

  15. Extending Software Transactional Memory in Clojure with Side-Effects and Transaction Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren Kejser; Thomsen, Lone Leth

    2016-01-01

    do however not support execution of code with side-effects and provide no methods for synchronising threads. Additional concurrency mechanisms on top of STM are needed for these use cases, increasing the complexity of the code. We present multiple constructs allowing functions with side......-effects to be executed as part of a transaction. These constructs are made accessible through a uniform interface, making them interchangeable. We present constructs providing explicit control of transactions. Through these constructs transactions can synchronise threads based on the current program state, abort...... additional capabilities to Clojure's STM implementation without violating its ACI properties. Through a usability evaluation with a small sample size we show that using these constructs reduces both the number of lines of code and the development time compared to Clojure 1.8. Last we demonstrate through...

  16. DC Hierarchical Control System for Microgrid Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Xiaonan; Sun, Kai; Guerrero, Josep M.; Huang, Lipei

    2013-01-01

    In order to enhance the DC side performance of AC-DC hybrid microgrid,a DC hierarchical control system is proposed in this paper.To meet the requirement of DC load sharing between the parallel power interfaces,droop method is adopted.Meanwhile,DC voltage secondary control is employed to restore the deviation in the DC bus voltage.The hierarchical control system is composed of two levels.DC voltage and AC current controllers are achieved in the primary control level.

  17. 31 CFR 800.214 - Foreign government-controlled transaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Foreign government-controlled transaction. 800.214 Section 800.214 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance... control of a U.S. business by a foreign government or a person controlled by or acting on behalf of...

  18. Hierarchical control of electron-transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westerhoff, Hans V.; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal; Egger, Louis;

    1997-01-01

    In this chapter the role of electron transfer in determining the behaviour of the ATP synthesising enzyme in E. coli is analysed. It is concluded that the latter enzyme lacks control because of special properties of the electron transfer components. These properties range from absence of a strong...... back pressure by the protonmotive force on the rate of electron transfer to hierarchical regulation of the expression of the gens that encode the electron transfer proteins as a response to changes in the bioenergetic properties of the cell.The discussion uses Hierarchical Control Analysis...

  19. Hierarchical Control of Thermostatically Controller Loads for Primary Frequency Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Haoran; Wu, Qiuwei; Huang, Shaojun

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a hierarchical control of Thermostatically Controlled Loads (TCLs) to provide primary frequency control support. The control architecture is comprised of three levels. At the high level, an aggregator coordinates multiple distribution substations and dispatches the primary...... respond to the frequency event autonomously. Case studies show that the proposed controller can efficiently respond to frequency events and fulfill the requirement specified by the system operator. The users’ comforts are not compromised and the short cycling of TCLs is largely reduced. Due...

  20. Product market competition, ultimate controlling structure and related party transactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenglan Chen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that product market competition has an important effect on corporate strategies and internal governance mechanisms. Using a sample of China’s listed firms from 2004 to 2009, we explore the relationship between product market competition and normal related party transactions and find a significant positive relationship. In addition, we investigate the substitutive effect of product market competition and the cash flow rights owned by ultimate controlling shareholders on the extent of normal related party transactions. In particular, our results suggest a positive relationship between the ultimate controlling shareholders’ cash flow rights and normal related party transactions that is strongest in noncompetitive industries and weakens as product market competition increases.

  1. Hierarchical Robot Control In A Multisensor Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhanu, Bir; Thune, Nils; Lee, Jih Kun; Thune, Mari

    1987-03-01

    Automatic recognition, inspection, manipulation and assembly of objects will be a common denominator in most of tomorrow's highly automated factories. These tasks will be handled by intelligent computer controlled robots with multisensor capabilities which contribute to desired flexibility and adaptability. The control of a robot in such a multisensor environment becomes of crucial importance as the complexity of the problem grows exponentially with the number of sensors, tasks, commands and objects. In this paper we present an approach which uses CAD (Computer-Aided Design) based geometric and functional models of objects together with action oriented neuroschemas to recognize and manipulate objects by a robot in a multisensor environment. The hierarchical robot control system is being implemented on a BBN Butterfly multi processor. Index terms: CAD, Hierarchical Control, Hypothesis Generation and Verification, Parallel Processing, Schemas

  2. A secure solution on hierarchical access control

    CERN Document Server

    Wei, Chuan-Sheng; Huang, Tone-Yau; Ong, Yao Lin

    2011-01-01

    Hierarchical access control is an important and traditional problem in information security. In 2001, Wu et.al. proposed an elegant solution for hierarchical access control by the secure-filter. Jeng and Wang presented an improvement of Wu et. al.'s method by the ECC cryptosystem. However, secure-filter method is insecure in dynaminc access control. Lie, Hsu and Tripathy, Paul pointed out some secure leaks on the secure-filter and presented some improvements to eliminate these secure flaws. In this paper, we revise the secure-filter in Jeng-Wang method and propose another secure solutions in hierarchical access control problem. CA is a super security class (user) in our proposed method and the secure-filter of $u_i$ in our solutions is a polynomial of degree $n_i+1$ in $\\mathbb{Z}_p^*$, $f_i(x)=(x-h_i)(x-a_1)...(x-a_{n_i})+L_{l_i}(K_i)$. Although the degree of our secure-filter is larger than others solutions, our solution is secure and efficient in dynamics access control.

  3. Hierarchical unilamellar vesicles of controlled compositional heterogeneity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maik Hadorn

    Full Text Available Eukaryotic life contains hierarchical vesicular architectures (i.e. organelles that are crucial for material production and trafficking, information storage and access, as well as energy production. In order to perform specific tasks, these compartments differ among each other in their membrane composition and their internal cargo and also differ from the cell membrane and the cytosol. Man-made structures that reproduce this nested architecture not only offer a deeper understanding of the functionalities and evolution of organelle-bearing eukaryotic life but also allow the engineering of novel biomimetic technologies. Here, we show the newly developed vesicle-in-water-in-oil emulsion transfer preparation technique to result in giant unilamellar vesicles internally compartmentalized by unilamellar vesicles of different membrane composition and internal cargo, i.e. hierarchical unilamellar vesicles of controlled compositional heterogeneity. The compartmentalized giant unilamellar vesicles were subsequently isolated by a separation step exploiting the heterogeneity of the membrane composition and the encapsulated cargo. Due to the controlled, efficient, and technically straightforward character of the new preparation technique, this study allows the hierarchical fabrication of compartmentalized giant unilamellar vesicles of controlled compositional heterogeneity and will ease the development of eukaryotic cell mimics that resemble their natural templates as well as the fabrication of novel multi-agent drug delivery systems for combination therapies and complex artificial microreactors.

  4. Hierarchical Control for Multiple DC Microgrids Clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shafiee, Qobad; Dragicevic, Tomislav; Vasquez, Juan Carlos;

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a distributed hierarchical control framework to ensure reliable operation of dc Microgrid (MG) clusters. In this hierarchy, primary control is used to regulate the common bus voltage inside each MG locally. An adaptive droop method is proposed for this level which determines....... Another distributed policy is employed then to regulate the power flow among the MGs according to their local SOCs. The proposed distributed controllers on each MG communicate with only the neighbor MGs through a communication infrastructure. Finally, the small signal model is expanded for dc MG clusters...

  5. Components of the costs of controlling quality: a transaction cost economics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiles, R A; Mick, S S

    1997-01-01

    This article identifies the components that contribute to a healthcare organization's costs in controlling quality. A central tenet of our argument is that at its core, quality is the result of a series of transactions among members of a diverse network. Transaction cost economics is applied internally to analyze intraorganizational transactions that contribute to quality control, and questions for future research are posed.

  6. Extending Software Transactional Memory in Clojure with Side-Effects and Transaction Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren Kejser; Thomsen, Lone Leth

    2016-01-01

    In conjunction with the increase of multi-core processors the use of functional programming languages has increased in recent years. The functional language Clojure has concurrency as a core feature, and provides Software Transactional Memory (STM) as a substitute for locks. Transactions in Cloju...

  7. Transactive control: a framework for operating power systems characterized by high penetration of distributed energy resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Junjie; Yang, Guangya; Kok, Koen

    2016-01-01

    The increasing number of distributed energy resources connected to power systems raises operational challenges for the network operator, such as introducing grid congestion and voltage deviations in the distribution network level, as well as increasing balancing needs at the whole system level......, followed by a literature review and demonstration projects that apply to transactive control. Cases are then presented to illustrate the transactive control framework. At the end, discussions and research directions are presented, for applying transactive control to operating power systems, characterized...

  8. The Abstract Machine Model for Transaction-based System Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chassin, David P.

    2003-01-31

    Recent work applying statistical mechanics to economic modeling has demonstrated the effectiveness of using thermodynamic theory to address the complexities of large scale economic systems. Transaction-based control systems depend on the conjecture that when control of thermodynamic systems is based on price-mediated strategies (e.g., auctions, markets), the optimal allocation of resources in a market-based control system results in an emergent optimal control of the thermodynamic system. This paper proposes an abstract machine model as the necessary precursor for demonstrating this conjecture and establishes the dynamic laws as the basis for a special theory of emergence applied to the global behavior and control of complex adaptive systems. The abstract machine in a large system amounts to the analog of a particle in thermodynamic theory. The permit the establishment of a theory dynamic control of complex system behavior based on statistical mechanics. Thus we may be better able to engineer a few simple control laws for a very small number of devices types, which when deployed in very large numbers and operated as a system of many interacting markets yields the stable and optimal control of the thermodynamic system.

  9. Hierarchical robust nonlinear switching control design for propulsion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonessa, Alexander

    1999-09-01

    The desire for developing an integrated control system- design methodology for advanced propulsion systems has led to significant activity in modeling and control of flow compression systems in recent years. In this dissertation we develop a novel hierarchical switching control framework for addressing the compressor aerodynamic instabilities of rotating stall and surge. The proposed control framework accounts for the coupling between higher-order modes while explicitly addressing actuator rate saturation constraints and system modeling uncertainty. To develop a hierarchical nonlinear switching control framework, first we develop generalized Lyapunov and invariant set theorems for nonlinear dynamical systems wherein all regularity assumptions on the Lyapunov function and the system dynamics are removed. In particular, local and global stability theorems are given using lower semicontinuous Lyapunov functions. Furthermore, generalized invariant set theorems are derived wherein system trajectories converge to a union of largest invariant sets contained in intersections over finite intervals of the closure of generalized Lyapunov level surfaces. The proposed results provide transparent generalizations to standard Lyapunov and invariant set theorems. Using the generalized Lyapunov and invariant set theorems, a nonlinear control-system design framework predicated on a hierarchical switching controller architecture parameterized over a set of moving system equilibria is developed. Specifically, using equilibria- dependent Lyapunov functions, a hierarchical nonlinear control strategy is developed that stabilizes a given nonlinear system by stabilizing a collection of nonlinear controlled subsystems. The switching nonlinear controller architecture is designed based on a generalized lower semicontinuous Lyapunov function obtained by minimizing a potential function over a given switching set induced by the parameterized system equilibria. The proposed framework provides a

  10. Transactive Control and Coordination of Distributed Assets for Ancillary Services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subbarao, Krishnappa; Fuller, Jason C.; Kalsi, Karanjit; Somani, Abhishek; Pratt, Robert G.; Widergren, Steven E.; Chassin, David P.

    2013-09-18

    The need to diversify energy supplies, the need to mitigate energy-related environmental impact, and the entry of electric vehicles in large numbers present challenges and opportunities to power system professionals. Wind and solar power provide many benefits, and to reap the benefits the resulting increased variability—forecasted as well as unforecasted—should be addressed. Demand resources are receiving increasing attention as one means of providing the grid balancing services. Control and coordination of a large number (~millions) of distributed smart grid assets requires innovative approaches. One such is transactive control and coordination (TC2)—a distributed, agent-based incentive and control system. The TC2 paradigm is to create a market system with the following characteristics: • Participation should be entirely voluntary. • The participant decides at what price s/he is willing to participate. • The bids and responses are automated. Such an approach has been developed and demonstrated by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for energy markets. It is the purpose of this project to develop a similar approach for ancillary services. In this report, the following ancillary services are considered: • spinning reserve • ramping • regulation. These services are to be provided by the following devices: • refrigerators • water heaters • clothes dryers • variable speed drives. The important results are summarized below: The regulation signal can be divided into an energy-neutral high frequency component and a low frequency component. The high frequency component is particularly well suited for demand resources. The low frequency component, which carries energy non-neutrality, can be handled by a combination of generators and demand resources. An explicit method for such a separation is obtained from an exponentially weighted moving average filter. Causal filters (i.e., filters that process only present and past values of a signal

  11. Challenges and Opportunities for Transactive Control of Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment. A Reference Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Xin [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Meintz, Andrew [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-07-29

    This report seeks to characterize the opportunities and challenges that arise in developing a transactive control strategy for grid-EVSE integration in various use-case scenarios in a way that provides end-user, energy market, grid, and societal benefits. A detailed review provides information about EVSE integration market trends and stakeholder activities. This is followed by an exploration of value proposition for transactive control of EVSE at both the home scale and the building/campus scale. This report will serve as a reference guide for stakeholders in the grid-EVSE integration area, illustrate potential implementations, and identify a high-value research project for overcoming the barriers and unlocking the benefits of transactive controls of EVSE. While it is not intended to specify the technical details of the transactive control solution, the report contains a list of use cases describing potential applications of transactive control of EVSE, barriers to implementing these applications, and research and development (R&D) opportunities to overcome the barriers. The use cases of transactive control of EVSE are listed in Table ES1.

  12. Spinning out of Control: Dialogical Transactions in an English Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fecho, Bob; Amatucci, Kristi Bruce

    2008-01-01

    Using the experiences of Andy, a working class adolescent exploring his gay identity, and the dialogical and transactional relationship he developed with Kristi, his senior-year English teacher, we argue that the teaching of reading and writing must be seen as more than the learning of discrete skills to enable future employment. On the contrary,…

  13. Hierarchical Control for Multiple DC-Microgrids Clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shafiee, Qobad; Dragicevic, Tomislav; Vasquez, Juan Carlos

    2014-01-01

    DC microgrids (MGs) have gained research interest during the recent years because of many potential advantages as compared to the ac system. To ensure reliable operation of a low-voltage dc MG as well as its intelligent operation with the other DC MGs, a hierarchical control is proposed in this p......DC microgrids (MGs) have gained research interest during the recent years because of many potential advantages as compared to the ac system. To ensure reliable operation of a low-voltage dc MG as well as its intelligent operation with the other DC MGs, a hierarchical control is proposed...

  14. Disturbance observer based hierarchical control of coaxial-rotor UAV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtari, M Rida; Cherki, Brahim; Braham, Amal Choukchou

    2017-03-01

    This paper propose an hierarchical controller based on a new disturbance observer with finite time convergence (FTDO) to solve the path tracking of a small coaxial-rotor-typs Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) despite of unknown aerodynamic efforts. The hierarchical control technique is used to separate the flight control problem into an inner loop that controls attitude and an outer loop that controls the thrust force acting on the vehicle. The new disturbance observer with finite time convergence is intergated to online estimate the unknown uncertainties and disturbances and to actively compensate them in finite time.The analysis further extends to the design of a control law that takes the disturbance estimation procedure into account. Numerical simulations are carried out to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed control strategy.

  15. Hierarchical Process Control of Chemical Vapor Infiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-05-31

    in these variables with reference to Figure 8. Conventional PID controllers are beneficially employed at this level in order to retain industry...to achieve minimum controlled-variable variations. PID controllers are beneficially employed at this level to retain industry standard functions useful

  16. Hierarchical Model Predictive Control for Resource Distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Trangbæk, K; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with hierarchichal model predictive control (MPC) of distributed systems. A three level hierachical approach is proposed, consisting of a high level MPC controller, a second level of so-called aggregators, controlled by an online MPC-like algorithm, and a lower level of autonomous...... facilitates plug-and-play addition of subsystems without redesign of any controllers. The method is supported by a number of simulations featuring a three-level smart-grid power control system for a small isolated power grid....

  17. Nonlinear robust hierarchical control for nonlinear uncertain systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonessa Alexander

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A nonlinear robust control-system design framework predicated on a hierarchical switching controller architecture parameterized over a set of moving nominal system equilibria is developed. Specifically, using equilibria-dependent Lyapunov functions, a hierarchical nonlinear robust control strategy is developed that robustly stabilizes a given nonlinear system over a prescribed range of system uncertainty by robustly stabilizing a collection of nonlinear controlled uncertain subsystems. The robust switching nonlinear controller architecture is designed based on a generalized (lower semicontinuous Lyapunov function obtained by minimizing a potential function over a given switching set induced by the parameterized nominal system equilibria. The proposed framework robustly stabilizes a compact positively invariant set of a given nonlinear uncertain dynamical system with structured parametric uncertainty. Finally, the efficacy of the proposed approach is demonstrated on a jet engine propulsion control problem with uncertain pressure-flow map data.

  18. Study on Hierarchical Structure of Detailed Control Planning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Using case studies,this paper analyzes the characteristics of detailed control planning and its hierarchical controls,the form and composition of plan content,and methodological innovations.It then suggests improvements to the planning structure that are oriented at adaptability,fairness,centrality,and scientific principles with regard to the content,methods,and results of the planning.Regarding the hierarchical control system,the paper suggests that the detailed control plan should be composed of "block planning" and "plot planning".It is believed that through a combination of block and plot planning,the problem of joining long-term and short-term planning will be solved and it will be possible to address the need for adjustment and revision of detailed control plan.

  19. MULTILEVEL RECURRENT MODEL FOR HIERARCHICAL CONTROL OF COMPLEX REGIONAL SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey V. Masloboev

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Subject of research. The research goal and scope are development of methods and software for mathematical and computer modeling of the regional security information support systems as multilevel hierarchical systems. Such systems are characterized by loosely formalization, multiple-aspect of descendent system processes and their interconnectivity, high level dynamics and uncertainty. The research methodology is based on functional-target approach and principles of multilevel hierarchical system theory. The work considers analysis and structural-algorithmic synthesis problem-solving of the multilevel computer-aided systems intended for management and decision-making information support in the field of regional security. Main results. A hierarchical control multilevel model of regional socio-economic system complex security has been developed. The model is based on functional-target approach and provides both formal statement and solving, and practical implementation of the automated information system structure and control algorithms synthesis problems of regional security management optimal in terms of specified criteria. An approach for intralevel and interlevel coordination problem-solving in the multilevel hierarchical systems has been proposed on the basis of model application. The coordination is provided at the expense of interconnection requirements satisfaction between the functioning quality indexes (objective functions, which are optimized by the different elements of multilevel systems. That gives the possibility for sufficient coherence reaching of the local decisions, being made on the different control levels, under decentralized decision-making and external environment high dynamics. Recurrent model application provides security control mathematical models formation of regional socioeconomic systems, functioning under uncertainty. Practical relevance. The model implementation makes it possible to automate synthesis realization of

  20. Hierarchical Control of the ATLAS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Barriuso-Poy, Alex; Llobet-Valero, E

    2007-01-01

    Control systems at High Energy Physics (HEP) experiments are becoming increasingly complex mainly due to the size, complexity and data volume associated to the front-end instrumentation. In particular, this becomes visible for the ATLAS experiment at the LHC accelerator at CERN. ATLAS will be the largest particle detector ever built, result of an international collaboration of more than 150 institutes. The experiment is composed of 9 different specialized sub-detectors that perform different tasks and have different requirements for operation. The system in charge of the safe and coherent operation of the whole experiment is called Detector Control System (DCS). This thesis presents the integration of the ATLAS DCS into a global control tree following the natural segmentation of the experiment into sub-detectors and smaller sub-systems. The integration of the many different systems composing the DCS includes issues such as: back-end organization, process model identification, fault detection, synchronization ...

  1. Hierarchical Control of the ATLAS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Barriuso-Poy, Alex; Llobet-Valero, E

    2007-01-01

    Control systems at High Energy Physics (HEP) experiments are becoming increasingly complex mainly due to the size, complexity and data volume associated to the front-end instrumentation. In particular, this becomes visible for the ATLAS experiment at the LHC accelerator at CERN. ATLAS will be the largest particle detector ever built, result of an international collaboration of more than 150 institutes. The experiment is composed of 9 different specialized sub-detectors that perform different tasks and have different requirements for operation. The system in charge of the safe and coherent operation of the whole experiment is called Detector Control System (DCS). This thesis presents the integration of the ATLAS DCS into a global control tree following the natural segmentation of the experiment into sub-detectors and smaller sub-systems. The integration of the many different systems composing the DCS includes issues such as: back-end organization, process model identification, fault detection, synchronization ...

  2. Influence of transaction costs on controlling activity of territorial taxation bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya A. Bondareva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective to disclose and justify transaction costs of controlling activities of the territorial taxation bodies and their impact on tax control under the need for effective functioning and optimal decision making with a view of reducing the state expenditures on tax control. Methods general scientific synthesis deduction induction generalization testing interviewing observation forecasting scientific abstraction statistical analysis logic and methods of grouping and classification expert assessment. Results the analysis and grouping of transaction costs of controlling activities of the territorial taxation bodies have been carried out. It was found that the most time and resource consuming are onsite tax inspections. The factors that have a significant impact on the efficiency of tax control were revealed. It is proved that the release of material and time resources contributes to the transformation of the tax bodies. Scientific novelty the main problem of implementation of the onsite tax control is its costs. The existing studies do not give a systematic list of tax control costs of the territorial tax bodies in general and transaction costs of tax control in particular. The author shows that the reduction of transaction costs as factors of influence on the tax control will free up the working time of the inspectors and will bring economic benefits and also will allow to consolidate territorial tax bodies and change the status of a tax inspector. Practical significance reducing the cost of tax control is becoming increasingly important in terms of saving financial resources of the state.

  3. Controlling the wettability of hierarchically structured thermoplastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortese, Barbara; Morgan, Hywel

    2012-01-10

    Surfaces play an important role in defining the properties of materials, controlling wetting, adsorption, or desorption of biomolecules, and sealing/bonding of different materials. We have combined microscale features with plasma-etched nanoscale roughness and chemical modification to tailor the wettability of the substrates. Cyclic olefin polymers and copolymers (COPs/COCs) were processed to make a range of surfaces with controlled superhydrophobic or -hydrophilic properties. The hydrophobic properties of the polymers were increased by the introduction of microstructures of varying geometry and spacing through hot embossing. The COC/COP substrates were functionalized by plasma activation in O(2), CF(4), and a mixture of both gases. The plasma etching introduces nanoscale roughness and also chemically modifies the surface, creating either highly hydrophilic or highly hydrophobic (contact angle >150°) surfaces depending on the gas mixture. The influence of geometry and chemistries was characterized by atomic force microscopy, contact angle measurements, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Measurements of the contact angle and contact angle hysteresis demonstrated long-term stability of the superhydrophobic/superhydrophilic characteristics (>6 months).

  4. Transaction-based building controls framework, Volume 2: Platform descriptive model and requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akyol, Bora A. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Haack, Jereme N. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Carpenter, Brandon J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Katipamula, Srinivas [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lutes, Robert G. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hernandez, George [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-07-31

    Transaction-based Building Controls (TBC) offer a control systems platform that provides an agent execution environment that meets the growing requirements for security, resource utilization, and reliability. This report outlines the requirements for a platform to meet these needs and describes an illustrative/exemplary implementation.

  5. Product market competition,ultimate controlling structure and related party transactions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shenglan Chen; Kun Wang; Xiaoxue Li

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that product market competition has an important effect on corporate strategies and internal governance mechanisms. Using a sample of China’s listed firms from 2004 to 2009, we explore the relationship between product market competition and normal related party transactions and find a significant positive relationship. In addition, we investigate the substitutive effect of product market competition and the cash flow rights owned by ultimate controlling shareholders on the extent of normal related party transactions. In particular, our results suggest a positive relationship between the ultimate controlling shareholders’ cash flow rights and normal related party transactions that is strongest in noncompetitive industries and weakens as product market competition increases.

  6. A solution for concurrency control and long transaction management in SDBMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Min; XIE Kun-qing; MA Xiu-jun; SUN Yu-xiang; FENG Xue-bing

    2004-01-01

    The problem of long transactions is a significant problem in spatial database.The checkout mechanism and multi-version mechanism are two kind methods of solving the problem of long transactions. In this paper, we present a Shallow Version Management mechanism to realize multi-version mechanism in spatial database. And we introduced a increment storage and dynamic version views building method to improve efficiency of storing and consulting. We also illuminate how to resolve the problem of long transaction concurrency control in spatial database by using multi-version mechanism. At the end of this paper, we introduce some required means to version management in spatial database,like converge, compress and delete.

  7. Hierarchical cooperative control for multiagent systems with switching directed topologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jianqiang; Cao, Jinde

    2015-10-01

    The hierarchical cooperative control problem is concerned for a two-layer networked multiagent system under switching directed topologies. The group cooperative objective is to achieve finite-time formation control for the upper layer of leaders and containment control for the lower layer of followers. Two kinds of cooperative strategies, including centralized-distributed control and distributed-distributed control, are proposed for two types of switching laws: 1) random switching law with the dwell time and 2) Markov switching law with stationary distribution. Utilizing the state transition matrix methods and matrix measure techniques, some sufficient conditions are derived for asymptotical containment control and exponential almost sure containment control, respectively. Finally, some numerical examples are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control schemes.

  8. Hierarchical control based on Hopfield network for nonseparable optimization problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The nonseparable optimization control problem is considered, where the overall objective function is not of an additive form with respect to subsystems. Since there exists the problem that computation is very slow when using iterative algorithms in multiobjective optimization, Hopfield optimization hierarchical network based on IPM is presented to overcome such slow computation difficulty. Asymptotic stability of this Hopfield network is proved and its equilibrium point is the optimal point of the original problem. The simulation shows that the net is effective to deal with the optimization control problem for large-scale nonseparable steady state systems.

  9. Agent-based distributed hierarchical control of dc microgrid systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meng, Lexuan; Vasquez, Juan Carlos; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2014-01-01

    In order to enable distributed control and management for microgrids, this paper explores the application of information consensus and local decisionmaking methods formulating an agent based distributed hierarchical control system. A droop controlled paralleled DC/DC converter system is taken...... as a case study. The objective is to enhance the system efficiency by finding the optimal sharing ratio of load current. Virtual resistances in local control systems are taken as decision variables. Consensus algorithms are applied for global information discovery and local control systems coordination....... Standard genetic algorithm is applied in each local control system in order to search for a global optimum. Hardware-in-Loop simulation results are shown to demonstrate the effectiveness of the method....

  10. The Hierarchical Database Decomposition Approach to Database Concurrency Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-12-01

    approach, we postulate a model of transaction behavior under two phase locking as shown in Figure 39(a) and a model of that under multiversion ...transaction put in the block queue until it is reactivated. Under multiversion timestamping, however, the request is always granted. Once the request

  11. Hierarchical Control for Optimal and Distributed Operation of Microgrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meng, Lexuan

    of the underlying communication features (sampling time, topology, parameters, etc.). System dynamics and sensitivity analysis are conducted based on the proposed model. A MG central controller is also developed based on the experimental system in the intelligent MG lab in Aalborg University for providing...... are also conducted in order to ensure safe operation during the optimization procedure. In addition, as the secondary and tertiary controls require global information to perform the functions, they are usually implemented in centralized fashion. In this sense the communication links are required from...... the central unit to each local unit, a single point of failure in the central controller may jerpodize the safety of the whole system, and the flexibility of the system is limited. Consequently, this project proposes the application of dynamic consensus algorithm (DCA) into existing hierarchical control...

  12. Application of Network-Constrained Transactive Control to Electric Vehicle Charging for Secure Grid Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Junjie; Yang, Guangya; Bindner, Henrik W.

    2016-01-01

    including power transformer congestion and voltage violations. In this method, a price coordinator is introduced to facilitate the interaction between the distribution system operator (DSO) and aggregators in the smart grid. Electric vehicles are used to illustrate the proposed network......This paper develops a network-constrained transactive control method to integrate distributed energy resources (DERs) into a power distribution system with the purpose of optimizing the operational cost of DERs and power losses of the distribution network as well as preventing grid problems......-constrained transactive control method. Mathematical models are presented to describe the operation of the control method. Finally, simulations are presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed method. To guarantee its optimality, we also checked the numerical results obtained with the network...

  13. Hierarchical Model Predictive Control for Plug-and-Play Resource Distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Trangbæk, K; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    This chapter deals with hierarchical model predictive control (MPC) of distributed systems. A three level hierarchical approach is proposed, consisting of a high level MPC controller, a second level of so-called aggregators, controlled by an online MPC-like algorithm, and a lower level of autonom......This chapter deals with hierarchical model predictive control (MPC) of distributed systems. A three level hierarchical approach is proposed, consisting of a high level MPC controller, a second level of so-called aggregators, controlled by an online MPC-like algorithm, and a lower level...

  14. Fuzzy/Kalman Hierarchical Horizontal Motion Control of Underactuated ROVs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco M. Raimondi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A new closed loop fuzzy motion control system including on-line Kalman's filter (KF for the two dimensional motion of underactuated and underwater Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV is presented. Since the sway force is unactuated, new continuous and discrete time models are developed using a polar transformation. A new hierarchical control architecture is developed, where the high level fuzzy guidance controller generates the surge speed and the yaw rate needed to achieve the objective of planar motion, while the low level controller gives the thruster surge force and the yaw control signals. The Fuzzy controller ensures robustness with respect to uncertainties due to the marine environment, forward surge speed and saturation of the control signals. Also Lyapunov's stability of the motion errors is proved based on the properties of the fuzzy maps. If Inertial Measurement Unit data (IMU is employed for the feedback directly, aleatory noises due to accelerometers and gyros damage the performances of the motion control. These noises denote a king of non parametric uncertainty which perturbs the model of the ROV. Therefore a KF is inserted in the feedback of the control system to compensate for the above uncertainties and estimate the feedback signals with more precision.

  15. Fuzzy/Kalman Hierarchical Horizontal Motion Control of Underactuated ROVs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco M. Raimondi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A new closed loop fuzzy motion control system including on-line Kalman's filter (KF for the two dimensional motion of underactuated and underwater Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV is presented. Since the sway force is unactuated, new continuous and discrete time models are developed using a polar transformation. A new hierarchical control architecture is developed, where the high level fuzzy guidance controller generates the surge speed and the yaw rate needed to achieve the objective of planar motion, while the low level controller gives the thruster surge force and the yaw torque control signals. The Fuzzy controller ensures robustness with respect to uncertainties due to the marine environment, forward surge speed and saturation of the control signals. Also Lyapunov's stability of the motion errors is proved based on the properties of the fuzzy maps. If Inertial Measurement Unit data (IMU is employed for the feedback directly, aleatory noises due to accelerometers and gyros damage the performances of the motion control. These noises denote a kind of non parametric uncertainty which perturbs the model of the ROV. Therefore a KF is inserted in the feedback of the control system to compensate for the above uncertainties and estimate the feedback signals with more precision.

  16. 31 CFR 594.513 - Transactions with entities under the control of the Palestinian President and certain other...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Licensing Policy § 594.513 Transactions with entities under the control of the Palestinian President and...; and the Palestinian Monetary Authority. (b) Effective April 12, 2006, U.S. financial institutions are...

  17. 31 CFR 595.511 - Transactions with entities under the control of the Palestinian President and certain other...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Policy § 595.511 Transactions with entities under the control of the Palestinian President and certain...; and the Palestinian Monetary Authority. (b) Effective April 12, 2006, U.S. financial institutions are...

  18. Correction: β-Sialon nanowires, nanobelts and hierarchical nanostructures: morphology control, growth mechanism and cathodoluminescence properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Juntong; Huang, Zhaohui; Liu, Yangai; Fang, Minghao; Chen, Kai; Huang, Yaoting; Huang, Saifang; Ji, Haipeng; Yang, Jingzhou; Wu, Xiaowen; Zhang, Shaowei

    2016-07-01

    Correction for `β-Sialon nanowires, nanobelts and hierarchical nanostructures: morphology control, growth mechanism and cathodoluminescence properties' by Juntong Huang, et al., Nanoscale, 2014, 6, 424-432.

  19. A Fuzzy Logic Based Supervisory Hierarchical Control Scheme for Real Time Pressure Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    N.Kanagaraj; P.Sivashanmugam; S.Paramasivam

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a supervisory hierarchical fuzzy controller (SHFC) for regulating pressure in a real-time pilot pressure control system.The input scaling factor tuning of a direct expert controller is made using the error and process input parameters in a closed loop system in order to obtain better controller performance for set-point change and load disturbances.This on-line tuning method reduces operator involvement and enhances the controller performance to a wide operating range.The hierarchical control scheme consists of an intelligent upper level supervisory fuzzy controller and a lower level direct fuzzy controller.The upper level controller provides a mechanism to the main goal of the system and the lower level controller delivers the solutions to a particular situation. The control algorithm for the proposed scheme has been developed and tested using an ARM7 microcontroller-based embedded target board for a nonlinear pressure process having dead time.To demonstrate the effectiveness,the results of the proposed hierarchical controller,fuzzy controller and conventional proportional-integral (PI) controller are analyzed.The results prove that the SHFC performance is better in terms of stability and robustness than the conventional control methods.

  20. Hierarchical control of motor units in voluntary contractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Carlo J; Contessa, Paola

    2012-01-01

    For the past five decades there has been wide acceptance of a relationship between the firing rate of motor units and the afterhyperpolarization of motoneurons. It has been promulgated that the higher-threshold, larger-soma, motoneurons fire faster than the lower-threshold, smaller-soma, motor units. This relationship was based on studies on anesthetized cats with electrically stimulated motoneurons. We questioned its applicability to motor unit control during voluntary contractions in humans. We found that during linearly force-increasing contractions, firing rates increased as exponential functions. At any time and force level, including at recruitment, the firing rate values were inversely related to the recruitment threshold of the motor unit. The time constants of the exponential functions were directly related to the recruitment threshold. From the Henneman size principle it follows that the characteristics of the firing rates are also related to the size of the soma. The "firing rate spectrum" presents a beautifully simple control scheme in which, at any given time or force, the firing rate value of earlier-recruited motor units is greater than that of later-recruited motor units. This hierarchical control scheme describes a mechanism that provides an effective economy of force generation for the earlier-recruited lower force-twitch motor units, and reduces the fatigue of later-recruited higher force-twitch motor units-both characteristics being well suited for generating and sustaining force during the fight-or-flight response.

  1. Controlled Growth of a Hierarchical Nickel Carbide "Dandelion" Nanostructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Liang; Zhao, Wenxia; Qin, Yueling; Swihart, Mark T

    2016-07-01

    We present a new type of highly hierarchical but nonporous nanostructure with a unique "dandelion" morphology. Based on the time evolution of these Ni3 C nanostructures, we suggest a mechanism for their formation. This type of hierarchical nanocrystal, with high accessible specific surface area in a relatively large (ca. 750 nm overall diameter) stable structure, can be valuable in catalysis and related applications.

  2. Road Network Selection Based on Road Hierarchical Structure Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HE Haiwei

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A new road network selection method based on hierarchical structure is studied. Firstly, road network is built as strokes which are then classified into hierarchical collections according to the criteria of betweenness centrality value (BC value. Secondly, the hierarchical structure of the strokes is enhanced using structural characteristic identification technique. Thirdly, the importance calculation model was established according to the relationships among the hierarchical structure of the strokes. Finally, the importance values of strokes are got supported with the model's hierarchical calculation, and with which the road network is selected. Tests are done to verify the advantage of this method by comparing it with other common stroke-oriented methods using three kinds of typical road network data. Comparision of the results show that this method had few need to semantic data, and could eliminate the negative influence of edge strokes caused by the criteria of BC value well. So, it is better to maintain the global hierarchical structure of road network, and suitable to meet with the selection of various kinds of road network at the same time.

  3. 31 CFR 515.559 - Certain transactions by U.S.-owned or controlled foreign firms with Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... controlled foreign firms with Cuba. 515.559 Section 515.559 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating... transactions by U.S.-owned or controlled foreign firms with Cuba. (a) Effective October 23, 1992, no specific... controlled firms in third countries and Cuba for the exportation to Cuba of commodities produced in...

  4. A Hierarchical Algorithm for Integrated Scheduling and Control With Applications to Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sokoler, Leo Emil; Dinesen, Peter Juhler; Jørgensen, John Bagterp

    2016-01-01

    The contribution of this paper is a hierarchical algorithm for integrated scheduling and control via model predictive control of hybrid systems. The controlled system is a linear system composed of continuous control, state, and output variables. Binary variables occur as scheduling decisions...... portfolio case study show that the hierarchical algorithm reduces the computation to solve the OCP by several orders of magnitude. The improvement in computation time is achieved without a significant increase in the overall cost of operation....

  5. Hierarchical model-based predictive control of a power plant portfolio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edlund, Kristian; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Jørgensen, John Bagterp

    2011-01-01

    control” – becomes increasingly important as the ratio of renewable energy in a power system grows. As a consequence, tomorrow's “smart grids” require highly flexible and scalable control systems compared to conventional power systems. This paper proposes a hierarchical model-based predictive control...... design for power system portfolio control, which aims specifically at meeting these demands.The design involves a two-layer hierarchical structure with clearly defined interfaces that facilitate an object-oriented implementation approach. The same hierarchical structure is reflected in the underlying...

  6. Hierarchical sliding mode control for under-actuated cranes design, analysis and simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Qian, Dianwei

    2015-01-01

    This book reports on the latest developments in sliding mode overhead crane control, presenting novel research ideas and findings on sliding mode control (SMC), hierarchical SMC and compensator design-based hierarchical sliding mode. The results, which were previously scattered across various journals and conference proceedings, are now presented in a systematic and unified form. The book will be of interest to researchers, engineers and graduate students in control engineering and mechanical engineering who want to learn the methods and applications of SMC.

  7. 77 FR 22480 - Guidance Under Section 267(f); Deferral of Loss on Transactions Between Members of a Controlled...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-16

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BI92 Guidance Under Section 267(f); Deferral of Loss on Transactions Between Members of a Controlled Group AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION... controlled group and there would be recognition of loss under consolidated return principles or until...

  8. Loss Performance Modeling for Hierarchical Heterogeneous Wireless Networks With Speed-Sensitive Call Admission Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Qian; Huang, Yue-Cai; Ko, King-Tim;

    2011-01-01

    dimensioning and planning. This paper investigates the computationally efficient loss performance modeling for multiservice in hierarchical heterogeneous wireless networks. A speed-sensitive call admission control (CAC) scheme is considered in our model to assign overflowed calls to appropriate tiers...

  9. Vehicle Chassis Integrated Control Based on Multimodel and Multilevel Hierarchical Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-en Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at the differences of vehicle chassis key subsystems influence on vehicle handling stability and effective acting regions, comprehensive considering of the nonlinear characteristic of the tires and the dynamic coupling among suspension, steering, and braking subsystems in vehicle chassis, the 14-DOF full vehicle model is built. Based on the control characteristic local optimum of each subsystem, multilevel hierarchical control theory is adopted and the vehicle stability coordinated control system including organization, coordination, and execution level is established. Using sliding mode control theory and the inverse tire model, the generalized target forces and moments from organization level are translated into the tire sideslip angle and slip ratio. And then, based on the principle of functional allocation, the control functions of each subsystem are coordinated and the function decoupling of vehicle chassis complex system is realized. The Matlab/Simulink platform is used and the full vehicle stability coordinated control system is simulated. The results show that the full vehicle coordinated control system based on multilevel hierarchical control theory can improve the vehicle stability preferably than the subsystem combined control and uncontrolled system.

  10. Microgrids: Hierarchical Control and an Overview of the Control and Reserve Management Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandoorn, T.L.; Vasquez, Juan Carlos; de Kooning, D.M.

    2013-01-01

    in the network, allowing the DG units to actively contribute in the frequency and voltage regulation. Microgrids can provide such coordination by aggregating DG, (controllable) loads and storage in small-scale networks, that can operate both in grid-connected and islanded mode. Here, the islanded operating...... as either local or centralized. In this article, the hierarchical control for application in microgrids is discussed and an overview of the control strategies is given with respect to the reserve provision by the DG units, loads and storage equipment....

  11. Hierarchical Control of Droop-Controlled DC and AC Microgrids - A General Approach Towards Standardization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerrero, Josep M.; Vásquez, Juan V.; Teodorescu, Remus

    2009-01-01

    DC and AC Microgrids are key elements to integrate renewable and distributed energy resources as well as distributed energy storage systems. In the last years, efforts toward the standardization of these Microgrids have been made. In this sense, this paper present the hierarchical control derived...... the deviations produced by the primary control; and iii) the tertiary control manage the power flow between the microgrid and the external electrical distribution system. Results from a hierarchicalcontrolled microgrid are provided to show the feasibility of the proposed approach....

  12. Distributed Hierarchical Control of Multi-Area Power Systems with Improved Primary Frequency Regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lian, Jianming; Marinovici, Laurentiu D.; Kalsi, Karanjit; Du, Pengwei; Elizondo, Marcelo A.

    2012-12-12

    The conventional distributed hierarchical control architecture for multi-area power systems is revisited. In this paper, a new distributed hierarchical control architecture is proposed. In the proposed architecture, pilot generators are selected in each area to be equipped with decentralized robust control as a supplementary to the conventional droop speed control. With the improved primary frequency control, the system frequency can be restored to the nominal value without the help of secondary frequency control, which reduces the burden of the automatic generation control for frequency restoration. Moreover, the low frequency inter-area electromechanical oscillations can also be effectively damped. The effectiveness of the proposed distributed hierarchical control architecture is validated through detailed simulations.

  13. Preventing Distribution Grid Congestion by Integrating Indirect Control in a Hierarchical Electric Vehicles Management System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Junjie; Si, Chengyong; Lind, Morten

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a hierarchical management system is proposed to integrate electric vehicles (EVs) into a distribution grid. Three types of actors are included in the system: Distribution system operators (DSOs), Fleet operators (FOs) and EV owners. In contrast to a typical hierarchical control...... system where the upper level controller directly controls the lower level subordinated nodes, this study aims to integrate two common indirect control methods:market-based control and price-based control into the hierarchical electric vehicles management system. Specifically, on the lower level...... of the hierarchy, the FOs coordinate the charging behaviors of their EV users using a price-based control method. A parametric utility model is used on the lower level to characterize price elasticity of electric vehicles and thus used by the FO to coordinate the individual EV charging. On the upper level...

  14. STEADY-STATE HIERARCHICAL INTELLIGENT CONTROL OF LARGE-SCALE INDUSTRIAL PROCESSES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAN Baiwu

    2004-01-01

    This paper considers the fourth stage of development of hierarchical control ofindustrial processes to the intelligent control and optimization stage, and reviews what theauthor and his Group have been investigating for the past decade in the on-line steady-state hierarchical intelligent control of large-scale industrial processes (LSIP)This papergives a definition of intelligent control of large-scale systems first, and then reviews the useof neural networks for identification and optimization, the use of expert systems to solvesome kinds of hierarchical multi-objective optimization problems by an intelligent decisionunit (ID), the use of fuzzy logic control, and the use of iterative learning controlSeveralimplementation examples are introducedThis paper reviews other main achievements ofthe Group alsoFinally this paper gives a perspective of future development.

  15. Hierarchical Control of Parallel AC-DC Converter Interfaces for Hybrid Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Xiaonan; Guerrero, Josep M.; Sun, Kai;

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a hierarchical control system for parallel power electronics interfaces between ac bus and dc bus in a hybrid microgrid is presented. Both standalone and grid-connected operation modes in the dc side of the microgrid are analyzed. Concretely, a three-level hierarchical control syst...... the three control levels is developed in order to adjust the main control parameters and study the system stability. Experimental results of a 2×2.2 kW parallel ac-dc converter system have shown satisfactory realization of the designed system.......In this paper, a hierarchical control system for parallel power electronics interfaces between ac bus and dc bus in a hybrid microgrid is presented. Both standalone and grid-connected operation modes in the dc side of the microgrid are analyzed. Concretely, a three-level hierarchical control system...... is implemented. In the primary control level, the decentralized control is realized by using the droop method. Local ac current proportional-resonant controller and dc voltage proportional-integral controller are employed. When the local load is connected to the dc bus, dc droop control is applied to obtain...

  16. A method of transition conflict resolving in hierarchical control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łabiak, Grzegorz

    2016-09-01

    The paper concerns the problem of automatic solving of transition conflicts in hierarchical concurrent state machines (also known as UML state machine). Preparing by the designer a formal specification of a behaviour free from conflicts can be very complex. In this paper, it is proposed a method for solving conflicts through transition predicates modification. Partially specified predicates in the nondeterministic diagram are transformed into a symbolic Boolean space, whose points of the space code all possible valuations of transition predicates. Next, all valuations under partial specifications are logically multiplied by a function which represents all possible orthogonal predicate valuations. The result of this operation contains all possible collections of predicates, which under given partial specification make that the original diagram is conflict free and deterministic.

  17. Hierarchical Control Strategy for the Cooperative Braking System of Electric Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Jiankun Peng; Hongwen He; Wei Liu; Hongqiang Guo

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a hierarchical control strategy for cooperative braking system of an electric vehicle with separated driven axles. Two layers are defined: the top layer is used to optimize the braking stability based on two sliding mode control strategies, namely, the interaxle control mode and signal-axle control strategies; the interaxle control strategy generates the ideal braking force distribution in general braking condition, and the single-axle control strategy can ensure braking s...

  18. Transaction management

    CERN Document Server

    Chorafas, Dimitris N, Dr

    1998-01-01

    This book provides an essential update for experienced data processing professionals, transaction managers and database specialists who are seeking system solutions beyond the confines of traditional approaches. It provides practical advice on how to manage complex transactions and share distributed databases on client servers and the Internet. Based on extensive research in over 100 companies in the USA, Europe, Japan and the UK, topics covered include :ʺ the challenge of global transaction requirements within an expanding business perspectiveʺ how to handle long transactions and their consti

  19. Transactional Memory

    CERN Document Server

    Harris, Tim; Rajwar, Ravi

    2010-01-01

    The advent of multicore processors has renewed interest in the idea of incorporating transactions into the programming model used to write parallel programs.This approach, known as transactional memory, offers an alternative, and hopefully better, way to coordinate concurrent threads. The ACI(atomicity, consistency, isolation) properties of transactions provide a foundation to ensure that concurrent reads and writes of shared data do not produce inconsistent or incorrect results. At a higher level, a computation wrapped in a transaction executes atomically - either it completes successfullyand

  20. Control of the negative IRES trans-acting factor KHSRP by ubiquitination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Yu-An; Hung, Chuan-Tien; Chien, Kun-Yi; Shih, Shin-Ru

    2017-01-01

    Cells and viruses can utilize internal ribosome entry sites (IRES) to drive translation when cap-dependent translation is inhibited by stress or viral factors. IRES trans-acting factors (ITAFs) are known to participate in such cap-independent translation, but there are gaps in the understanding as to how ITAFs, particularly negative ITAFs, regulate IRES-driven translation. This study found that Lys109, Lys121 and Lys122 represent critical ubiquitination sites for far upstream element-binding protein 2 (KHSRP, also known as KH-type splicing regulatory protein or FBP2), a negative ITAF. Mutations at these sites subsequently reduced KHSRP ubiquitination and abolished its inhibitory effect on IRES-driven translation. We further found that interaction between the Kelch domain of Kelch-like protein 12 (KLHL12) and the C-terminal domain of KHSRP contributed to KHSRP ubiquitination, leading to downregulation of enterovirus IRES-mediated translation in infected cells and increased competition against other positive ITAFs. Together, these results show that ubiquitination can exert control over IRES-driven translation via modification of ITAFs, and to the best of our knowledge, this is the first description of such a regulatory mechanism for IRES-dependent translation. PMID:27899653

  1. Hierarchical Distributed Control Design for Multi-agent Systems Using Approximate Simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Yu-Tao; HONG Yi-Guang

    2013-01-01

    In this paper,we consider a hierarchical control design for multi-agent systems based on approximate simulation.To reduce complexity,we first construct a simple abstract system to guide the agents,then we discuss the simulation relations between the abstract system and multiple agents.With the help of this abstract system,distributed hierarchical control is proposed to complete a coordination task.By virtue of a common Lyapunov function,we analyze the collective behaviors with switching multi-agent topology in light of simulation functions.

  2. Micro-transactions for concurrent data structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meawad, Fadi; Iyer, Karthik; Schoeberl, Martin;

    2013-01-01

    Transactional memory is a promising technique for enforcing disciplined access to shared data in a multiprocessor system. Transactional memory simplifies the implementation of a variety of concurrent data structures. In this paper, we study the benefits of a modest, real-time aware, hardware...... implementation of transactional memory that we call micro-transactions. In particular, we argue that hardware support for micro-transactions allows us to efficiently implement certain data structures. Those data structures are difficult to realize with the atomic operations provided by stock hardware and provide......, atomic instructions, and micro-transactions. Our results suggest that transactional memory is an interesting alternative to traditional concurrency control mechanisms....

  3. Hierarchical Control Strategy for the Cooperative Braking System of Electric Vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jiankun; He, Hongwen; Liu, Wei; Guo, Hongqiang

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a hierarchical control strategy for cooperative braking system of an electric vehicle with separated driven axles. Two layers are defined: the top layer is used to optimize the braking stability based on two sliding mode control strategies, namely, the interaxle control mode and signal-axle control strategies; the interaxle control strategy generates the ideal braking force distribution in general braking condition, and the single-axle control strategy can ensure braking safety in emergency braking condition; the bottom layer is used to maximize the regenerative braking energy recovery efficiency with a reallocated braking torque strategy; the reallocated braking torque strategy can recovery braking energy as much as possible in the premise of meeting battery charging power. The simulation results show that the proposed hierarchical control strategy is reasonable and can adapt to different typical road surfaces and load cases; the vehicle braking stability and safety can be guaranteed; furthermore, the regenerative braking energy recovery efficiency can be improved.

  4. The hierarchical expert tuning of PID controllers using tools of soft computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karray, F; Gueaieb, W; Al-Sharhan, S

    2002-01-01

    We present soft computing-based results pertaining to the hierarchical tuning process of PID controllers located within the control loop of a class of nonlinear systems. The results are compared with PID controllers implemented either in a stand alone scheme or as a part of conventional gain scheduling structure. This work is motivated by the increasing need in the industry to design highly reliable and efficient controllers for dealing with regulation and tracking capabilities of complex processes characterized by nonlinearities and possibly time varying parameters. The soft computing-based controllers proposed are hybrid in nature in that they integrate within a well-defined hierarchical structure the benefits of hard algorithmic controllers with those having supervisory capabilities. The controllers proposed also have the distinct features of learning and auto-tuning without the need for tedious and computationally extensive online systems identification schemes.

  5. Safe Commits for Transactional Featherweight Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuong Tran, Thi Mai; Steffen, Martin

    Transactions are a high-level alternative for low-level concurrency-control mechanisms such as locks, semaphores, monitors. A recent proposal for integrating transactional features into programming languages is Transactional Featherweight Java (TFJ), extending Featherweight Java by adding transactions. With support for nested and multi-threaded transactions, its transactional model is rather expressive. In particular, the constructs governing transactions - to start and to commit a transaction - can be used freely with a non-lexical scope. On the downside, this flexibility also allows for an incorrect use of these constructs, e.g., trying to perform a commit outside any transaction. To catch those kinds of errors, we introduce a static type and effect system for the safe use of transactions for TFJ. We prove the soundness of our type system by subject reduction.

  6. Controlling Torque Distribution for Parallel Hybrid Vehicle Based on Hierarchical Structure Fuzzy Logic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HuangMiao-hua; JinGuo-dong

    2003-01-01

    The Hierarchical Structure Fuzzy Logic Control(HSFLC) strategies of torque distribute for Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) in the mocle of operation of the vehicle i. e. , acceleration, cruise, deceleration etc. have been studied. Using secondly developed the hybrid vehicle simulation tool ADVISOR, the dynamic model of PHEV has been set up by MATLAB/SIMULINK. The engine, motor as well as the battery characteristics have been studied. Simulation results show that the proposed hierarchical structured fuzzy logic control strategy is effective over the entire operating range of the vehicle in terms of fuel economy. Based on the analyses of the simulation results and driver's experiences, a fuzzy controller is designed and developed to control the torque distribution. The controller is evaluated via hardware-in-the-loop simulator (HILS). The results show that controller verify its value.

  7. Enriching the Hierarchical Model of Achievement Motivation: Autonomous and Controlling Reasons Underlying Achievement Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michou, Aikaterini; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Mouratidis, Athanasios; Lens, Willy

    2014-01-01

    Background: The hierarchical model of achievement motivation presumes that achievement goals channel the achievement motives of need for achievement and fear of failure towards motivational outcomes. Yet, less is known whether autonomous and controlling reasons underlying the pursuit of achievement goals can serve as additional pathways between…

  8. Hierarchical predictive control scheme for distributed energy storage integrated with residential demand and photovoltaic generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lampropoulos, I.; Garoufalis, P.; van den Bosch, P.P.J.; Kling, W.L.

    2015-01-01

    A hierarchical control scheme is defined for the energy management of a battery energy storage system which is integrated in a low-voltage distribution grid with residential customers and photovoltaic installations. The scope is the economic optimisation of the integrated system by employing predict

  9. A Quality Control Design for Validating Hierarchical Sequencing of Programed Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennyson, Robert D.; Boutwell, Richard C.

    A quality control model is proposed to facilitate development of effective instructional programs. The theories of R. M. Gagne and of M. D. Merrill provide the foundations for a theory of sequencing behavior into a hierarchical order in order to improve the learning potential of an instructional program. The initial step in the procedural model is…

  10. Hierarchical Motion Control for a Team of Humanoid Soccer Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Joon Yi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Robot soccer has become an effective benchmarking problem for robotics research as it requires many aspects of robotics including perception, self localization, motion planning and distributed coordination to work in uncertain and adversarial environments. Especially with humanoid robots that lack inherent stability, a capable and robust motion controller is crucial for generating walking and kicking motions without losing balance. In this paper, we describe the details of a motion controller to control a team of humanoid soccer robots, which consists of a hierarchy of controllers with different time frames and abstraction levels. A low level controller governs the real time control of each joint angle, either using target joint angles or target endpoint transforms. A mid-level controller handles bipedal locomotion and balancing of the robot. A high level controller decides the long term behavior of the robot, and finally the team level controller coordinates the behavior of a group of robots by means of asynchronous communication between the robots. The suggested motion system has been successfully used by many humanoid robot teams at the RoboCup international robot soccer competitions, which has awarded us five successful championships in a row.

  11. Hierarchical Motion Control for a Team of Humanoid Soccer Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Joon Yi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Robot soccer has become an effective benchmarking problem for robotics research as it requires many aspects of robotics including perception, self localization, motion planning and distributed coordination to work in uncertain and adversarial environments. Especially with humanoid robots that lack inherent stability, a capable and robust motion controller is crucial for generating walking and kicking motions without losing balance. In this paper, we describe the details of a motion controller to control a team of humanoid soccer robots, which consists of a hierarchy of controllers with different time frames and abstraction levels. A low level controller governs the real time control of each joint angle, either using target joint angles or target endpoint transforms. A mid-level controller handles bipedal locomotion and balancing of the robot. A high level controller decides the long term behavior of the robot, and finally the team level controller coordinates the behavior of a group of robots by means of asynchronous communication between the robots. The suggested motion system has been successfully used by many humanoid robot teams at the RoboCup international robot soccer competitions, which has awarded us five successful championships in a row.

  12. Hierarchical Control Scheme for Voltage Unbalance Compensation in Islanded Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savaghebi, Mehdi; Guerrero, Josep M.; Jalilian, Alireza;

    2011-01-01

    active and reactive power controllers, virtual impedance loop and voltage and current controllers. The secondary level is designed to compensate the voltage unbalance at the load bus (LB) of the islanded microgrid. Also, restoration of LB voltage amplitude and microgrid frequency to the rated values...... is considered in the secondary level. These functions are achieved by proper control of distributed generators (DGs) interface converters. The presented simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed control structure in compensating the voltage unbalance and restoring the voltage amplitude...

  13. Hierarchical type-2 fuzzy aggregation of fuzzy controllers

    CERN Document Server

    Cervantes, Leticia

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on the fields of fuzzy logic, granular computing and also considering the control area. These areas can work together to solve various control problems, the idea is that this combination of areas would enable even more complex problem solving and better results. In this book we test the proposed method using two benchmark problems: the total flight control and the problem of water level control for a 3 tank system. When fuzzy logic is used it make it easy to performed the simulations, these fuzzy systems help to model the behavior of a real systems, using the fuzzy systems fuzzy rules are generated and with this can generate the behavior of any variable depending on the inputs and linguistic value. For this reason this work considers the proposed architecture using fuzzy systems and with this improve the behavior of the complex control problems.

  14. Robust Hierarchical Control for Uncertain Multivariable Hexarotor Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Multirotor helicopter attracts more attention due to its increased load capacity and being highly maneuverable. However, these helicopters are uncertain multivariable systems, which pose a challenge for their robust controller design. In this paper, a robust two-loop control scheme is proposed for a hexarotor system. The resulted controller consists of a nominal controller and a robust compensator. The robust compensators are added to restrain the influences of uncertainties such as nonlinear dynamics, coupling, parametric uncertainties, and external disturbances. It is proven that the tracking errors are ultimately bounded with specified boundaries by choosing the parameters of the robust compensators. Simulation results on the hexarotor demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control method.

  15. Hierarchical Control for Voltage Harmonics Compensation in Multi-Area Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hashempour, Mohammad M.; Firoozabadi, Mehdi Savaghebi; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez

    2015-01-01

    is proposed. Hierarchical control is applied to control DGs inverters and APFs in a coordinated way. Primary control consists of power droop controller of DGs, selective virtual impedance and voltage/current regulators. Based on the secondary control, voltage compensation of Points of Common Coupling (PCCs......) of multi-area microgrid is carried out by DGs. Voltage compensation of PCCs by DGs may cause violation from maximum allowable voltage distortion at DGs terminals. Thus, tertiary control is used to mitigate these violations by using APF in proper coordination with secondary control. Evaluation...

  16. Exporting Variables in a Hierarchically Distributed Control System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamizo Llatas, M.

    1995-07-01

    We describe the Remote Variable Access Service (RVAS), a network service developed and used in the distributed control and monitoring system of the TJ-II Heliac, which is under construction at CIEMAT (Madrid, Spain) and devoted to plasma studies in the nuclear fusion field. The architecture of the TJ-II control system consists of one central Sun workstation Sparc 10 and several autonomous subsystems based on VME crates with embedded processors running the OS-9 (V.24) real time operating system. The RVAS service allows state variables in local control processes running in subsystems to be exported to remote processes running in the central control workstation. Thus we extend the concept of exporting of file systems in UNIX machines to variables in processes running in different machines. (Author) 6 refs.

  17. Control Strategies for Islanded Microgrid using Enhanced Hierarchical Control Structure with Multiple Current-Loop Damping Schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Yang; Shen, Pan; Zhao, Xin

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the modeling, controller design, and stability analysis of the islanded microgrid (MG) using enhanced hierarchical control structure with multiple current loop damping schemes is proposed. The islanded MG is consisted of the parallel-connected voltage source inverters using LCL...

  18. A Hierarchical Fuzzy Control Design for Indoor Mobile Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foudil Abdessemed

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a motion control for an autonomous robot navigation using fuzzy logic motion control and stereo vision based path-planning module. This requires the capability to maneuver in a complex unknown environment. The mobile robot uses intuitive fuzzy rules and is expected to reach a specific target or follow a prespecified trajectory while moving among unforeseen obstacles. The robot's mission depends on the choice of the task. In this paper, behavioral-based control architecture is adopted, and each local navigational task is analyzed in terms of primitive behaviors. Our approach is systematic and original in the sense that some of the fuzzy rules are not triggered in face of critical situations for which the stere

  19. Hierarchical Model Predictive Control for Sustainable Building Automation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Mayer

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A hierarchicalmodel predictive controller (HMPC is proposed for flexible and sustainable building automation. The implications of a building automation system for sustainability are defined, and model predictive control is introduced as an ideal tool to cover all requirements. The HMPC is presented as a development suitable for the optimization of modern buildings, as well as retrofitting. The performance and flexibility of the HMPC is demonstrated by simulation studies of a modern office building, and the perfect interaction with future smart grids is shown.

  20. On the hierarchical risk-averse control problems for diffusion processes

    OpenAIRE

    Befekadu, Getachew K.; Veremyev, Alexander; Pasiliao, Eduardo L.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we consider a risk-averse control problem for diffusion processes, in which there is a partition of the admissible control strategy into two decision-making groups (namely, the {\\it leader} and {\\it follower}) with different cost functionals and risk-averse satisfactions. Our approach, based on a hierarchical optimization framework, requires that a certain level of risk-averse satisfaction be achieved for the {\\it leader} as a priority over that of the {\\it follower's} risk-ave...

  1. Flexible System Integration and Advanced Hierarchical Control Architectures in the Microgrid Research Laboratory of Aalborg University

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meng, Lexuan; Hernández, Adriana Carolina Luna; Diaz, Enrique Rodriguez

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the system integration and hierarchical control implementation in an inverter-based microgrid research laboratory (MGRL) in Aalborg University, Denmark. MGRL aims to provide a flexible experimental platform for comprehensive studies of microgrids. The structure of the laboratory...... system supervision, advanced secondary and tertiary management are realized in a microgrid central controller. The software and hardware schemes are described. Several example case studies are introduced and performed in order to achieve power quality regulation, energy management and flywheel energy...

  2. Hierarchical control of procedural and declarative category-learning systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Benjamin O; Crossley, Matthew J; Ashby, F Gregory

    2017-02-16

    Substantial evidence suggests that human category learning is governed by the interaction of multiple qualitatively distinct neural systems. In this view, procedural memory is used to learn stimulus-response associations, and declarative memory is used to apply explicit rules and test hypotheses about category membership. However, much less is known about the interaction between these systems: how is control passed between systems as they interact to influence motor resources? Here, we used fMRI to elucidate the neural correlates of switching between procedural and declarative categorization systems. We identified a key region of the cerebellum (left Crus I) whose activity was bidirectionally modulated depending on switch direction. We also identified regions of the default mode network (DMN) that were selectively connected to left Crus I during switching. We propose that the cerebellum-in coordination with the DMN-serves a critical role in passing control between procedural and declarative memory systems.

  3. Linear Logic Validation and Hierarchical Modeling for Interactive Storytelling Control

    OpenAIRE

    Dang, Kim Dung; Pham, Phuong Thao; Champagnat, Ronan; Rabah, Mourad

    2013-01-01

    International audience; The games are typical interactive applications where the system has to react to user actions and behavior with respect to some predefined rules established by the designer. The storytelling allows the interactive system to unfold the scenario of the game story according to these inputs and constraints. In order to improve system's behavior, the scenario should be structured and the system's control should be validated. In this paper, we deal with these two issues. We f...

  4. Naturalizing sense of agency with a hierarchical event-control approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devpriya Kumar

    Full Text Available Unraveling the mechanisms underlying self and agency has been a difficult scientific problem. We argue for an event-control approach for naturalizing the sense of agency by focusing on the role of perception-action regularities present at different hierarchical levels and contributing to the sense of self as an agent. The amount of control at different levels of the control hierarchy determines the sense of agency. The current study investigates this approach in a set of two experiments using a scenario containing multiple agents sharing a common goal where one of the agents is partially controlled by the participant. The participant competed with other agents for achieving the goal and subsequently answered questions on identification (which agent was controlled by the participant, the degree to which they are confident about their identification (sense of identification and the degree to which the participant believed he/she had control over his/her actions (sense of authorship. Results indicate a hierarchical relationship between goal-level control (higher level and perceptual-motor control (lower level for sense of agency. Sense of identification ratings increased with perceptual-motor control when the goal was not completed but did not vary with perceptual-motor control when the goal was completed. Sense of authorship showed a similar interaction effect only in experiment 2 that had only one competing agent unlike the larger number of competing agents in experiment 1. The effect of hierarchical control can also be seen in the misidentification pattern and misidentification was greater with the agent affording greater control. Results from the two studies support the event-control approach in understanding sense of agency as grounded in control. The study also offers a novel paradigm for empirically studying sense of agency and self.

  5. GOTHIC: Gravitational oct-tree code accelerated by hierarchical time step controlling

    CERN Document Server

    Miki, Yohei

    2016-01-01

    The tree method is a widely implemented algorithm for collisionless $N$-body simulations in astrophysics well suited for GPU(s). Adopting hierarchical time stepping can accelerate $N$-body simulations; however, it is infrequently implemented and its potential remains untested in GPU implementations. We have developed a Gravitational Oct-Tree code accelerated by HIerarchical time step Controlling named \\texttt{GOTHIC}, which adopts both the tree method and the hierarchical time step. The code adopts some adaptive optimizations by monitoring the execution time of each function on-the-fly and minimizes the time-to-solution by balancing the measured time of multiple functions. Results of performance measurements with realistic particle distribution performed on NVIDIA Tesla M2090, K20X, and GeForce GTX TITAN X, which are representative GPUs of the Fermi, Kepler, and Maxwell generation of GPUs, show that the hierarchical time step achieves a speedup by a factor of around 3--5 times compared to the shared time step...

  6. GOTHIC: Gravitational oct-tree code accelerated by hierarchical time step controlling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miki, Yohei; Umemura, Masayuki

    2017-04-01

    The tree method is a widely implemented algorithm for collisionless N-body simulations in astrophysics well suited for GPU(s). Adopting hierarchical time stepping can accelerate N-body simulations; however, it is infrequently implemented and its potential remains untested in GPU implementations. We have developed a Gravitational Oct-Tree code accelerated by HIerarchical time step Controlling named GOTHIC, which adopts both the tree method and the hierarchical time step. The code adopts some adaptive optimizations by monitoring the execution time of each function on-the-fly and minimizes the time-to-solution by balancing the measured time of multiple functions. Results of performance measurements with realistic particle distribution performed on NVIDIA Tesla M2090, K20X, and GeForce GTX TITAN X, which are representative GPUs of the Fermi, Kepler, and Maxwell generation of GPUs, show that the hierarchical time step achieves a speedup by a factor of around 3-5 times compared to the shared time step. The measured elapsed time per step of GOTHIC is 0.30 s or 0.44 s on GTX TITAN X when the particle distribution represents the Andromeda galaxy or the NFW sphere, respectively, with 224 = 16,777,216 particles. The averaged performance of the code corresponds to 10-30% of the theoretical single precision peak performance of the GPU.

  7. Hierarchical Control with Virtual Resistance Optimization for Efficiency Enhancement and State-of-Charge Balancing in DC Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meng, Lexuan; Dragicevic, Tomislav; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a hierarchical control scheme which applies optimization method into DC microgrids in order to improve the system overall efficiency while considering the State-of-Charge (SoC) balancing at the same time. Primary droop controller, secondary voltage restoration controller...... and tertiary optimization tool formulate the complete hierarchical control system. Virtual resistances are taken as the decision variables for achieving the objective. simulation results are presented to verify the proposed approach....

  8. Control of entity interactions in a hierarchical variable resolution simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, D.R.

    1997-10-01

    There has long been interest in variable resolution modeling to support military analysis for a broad range of interest areas. Despite the ever-present desire for models of greater fidelity at the expense of analysis and computation resources, models of moderate to low fidelity are still required at many levels of decision-making. Problems can arise due to the issue of consistency among the family of models used for analysis. To address this and other problems, models of variable resolution have been suggested. However, such variable resolution architectures inherently carry their own set of issues which must be resolved in order to be useful. First, what are the structural requirements for a variable resolution model; and second, how are interactions between entities governed, especially when the entities have different resolutions? This paper addresses these issues and discusses key mechanisms needed to develop a variable resolution combat simulation that meets several core requirements for such models: seamless aggregation/disaggregation, appropriate interactions between entities of differing resolution, and control of the aggregation/disaggregation process.

  9. Control of entity interactions in a hierarchical variable resolution simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, D.R.

    1997-08-01

    There has long been interest in variable resolution modeling to support military analysis for a broad range of interest areas. Despite the ever-present desire for models of greater fidelity at the expense of analysis and computation resources, models of moderate to low fidelity are still required at many levels of decision-making. Problems can arise due to the issue of consistency among the family of models used for analysis. To address this and other problems, models of variable resolution have been suggested. However, such variable resolution architectures inherently carry their own set of issues which must be resolved in order to be useful. First, what are the structural requirements for a variable resolution model; and second, how are interactions between entities governed, especially when the entities have different resolutions? This paper addresses these issues and discusses key mechanisms needed to develop a variable resolution combat simulation that meets several core requirements for such models: seamless aggregation/disaggregation, appropriate interactions between entities of differing resolution, and control of the aggregation/disaggregation process.

  10. Bioactive Hierarchical Structures for Genetic Control of Bone Morphogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Sepulveda

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available For thirty years it has been known that certain compositions of Na2O-CaO-P2O5-SiO 2 glasses will form a mechanically strong, chemical bond to bone. These materials have become known as bioactive glasses and the process of bonding is called bioactive fixation. Bioactive glasses are widely used clinically in the repair of bone defects. Recent research at the Imperial College Tissue Engineering Centre has now established that there is a genetic control of the cellular response to bioactive materials. Seven families of genes are up-regulated when primary human osteoblasts are exposed to the ionic dissolution products of bioactive glasses. The gene expression occurs very rapidly, within two days, and includes enhanced expression of cell cycle regulators. The consequence is rapid differentiation of the osteoblasts into a mature phenotype and formation of large three-dimensional bone nodules within six days in vitro. These cell culture results correlate with extensive human clinical results using the same bioactive material. The new genetic theory of bioactive materials provides a scientific foundation for molecular design of new generation of resorbable bioactive materials for tissue engineering and in situ tissue regeneration and repair. Application of this theory to the synthesis of bioactive foams for tissue engineering of bone is described.

  11. Hierarchical Control and Skilled Typing: Evidence for Word-Level Control over the Execution of Individual Keystrokes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crump, Matthew J. C.; Logan, Gordon D.

    2010-01-01

    Routine actions are commonly assumed to be controlled by hierarchically organized processes and representations. In the domain of typing theories, word-level information is assumed to activate the constituent keystrokes required to type each letter in a word. We tested this assumption directly using a novel single-letter probe technique. Subjects…

  12. Review of Active and Reactive Power Sharing Strategies in Hierarchical Controlled Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Yang; Li, Hong; Shen, Pan

    2017-01-01

    Microgrids consist of multiple parallel-connected distributed generation (DG) units with coordinated control strategies, which are able to operate in both grid-connected and islanded mode. Microgrids are attracting more and more attention since they can alleviate the stress of main transmission...... strategies are utilized as supplements of the conventional droop controls and virtual impedance methods. The improved hierarchical control approaches such as the algorithms based on graph theory, multi-agent system, the gain scheduling method and predictive control have been proposed to achieve proper...

  13. Design and evaluation of a hierarchical control architecture for an autonomous underwater vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BIAN Xin-qian; QIN Zheng; YAN Zhe-ping

    2008-01-01

    This paper researches on a kind of control architecture for autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV). After describing the hybrid property of the AUV control system, we present the hierarchical AUV control architecture. The architecture is organized in three layers: mission layer, task layer and execution layer. State supervisor and task coordinator are two key modules handling discrete events, so we describe these two modules in detail. Finally, we carried out a series of tests to verify this architecture. The test results show that the AUV can perform autonomous missions effectively and safely. We can conclude the control architecture is valid and practical.

  14. SOFM Neural Network Based Hierarchical Topology Control for Wireless Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Well-designed network topology provides vital support for routing, data fusion, and target tracking in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Self-organization feature map (SOFM) neural network is a major branch of artificial neural networks, which has self-organizing and self-learning features. In this paper, we propose a cluster-based topology control algorithm for WSNs, named SOFMHTC, which uses SOFM neural network to form a hierarchical network structure, completes cluster head selection by the...

  15. Hierarchical Decentralized Control Strategy for Demand-Side Primary Frequency Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lian, Jianming; Hansen, Jacob; Marinovici, Laurentiu D.; Kalsi, Karanjit

    2016-07-21

    The Grid Friendly$^\\textrm{TM}$ Appliance~(GFA) controller, developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, was designed for the purpose of autonomously switching off appliances by detecting under-frequency events. In this paper, a new frequency responsive load~(FRL) controller is first proposed by extending the functionality of the original GFA controller. The proposed FRL controller can autonomously switch on (or off) end-use loads by detecting over-frequency (or under-frequency) events through local frequency measurement. Then, a hierarchical decentralized control framework is developed for engaging the end-use loads to provide primary frequency response with the proposed FRL controller. The developed framework has several important features that are desirable in terms of providing primary frequency control. It not only exclusively maintains the autonomous operation of the end-use loads, but also effectively overcomes the stability issue associated with high penetration of FRLs. The simulation results illustrate the effectiveness of the developed hierarchical control framework for providing primary frequency response with the proposed FRL controller.

  16. Hierarchical robot control structure and Newton's divided difference approach to robot path planning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A hierarchical robot control is proposed for robot soccer system. The Newton' s divided difference is utilized in robot path planning. This paper describes the problems encoutered, software design considerations, vision algorithm and controls of individual robots. The solutions.to the problems implemented are simple and di rect. It is observed that many of the ideas and solutions can be evolved based on simple theories and concepts. This paper focuses on software structure of multi-agent controls, vision algorithm and simple path planning method.

  17. Development of design support tool using integrated hierarchical control chart (HCC) and IEC61131 for nuclear power plant control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasimi, E.; Gabbar, H.A. [Univ. of Ontario Inst. of Tech., Oshawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This paper proposes a new intelligent and highly automated Hierarchical Control Chart (HCC) and operations mapping solution for nuclear power plant operators that provides control system designers, developers and operators with a single view of all elements and systems across a power plant with the integrated interactive data access and information retrieval capabilities that enables a faster fault diagnostics as well aids in a more efficient decision making for the routine daily tasks. (author)

  18. Controlled Synthesis and Magnetic Properties of Uniform Hierarchical Polyhedral α-Fe2O3 Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Nguyen Viet; Yang, Yong; Thi, Cao Minh; Phuc, Le Hong; Nogami, Masayuki

    2017-02-01

    The controlled synthesis of uniform hierarchical polyhedral iron (Fe) micro-/nanoscale oxide particles with the α-Fe2O3 structure is presented. The hierarchical polyhedral iron oxide particles were synthesized by modified polyol methods with sodium borohydride as a powerful and efficient reducing agent. A critical heat treatment process used during the synthesis allowed for the interesting formation of α-Fe2O3 hematite with a micro-/nanoscale structure. The structure and weak ferromagnetism of the α-Fe2O3 particles were investigated by x-ray diffraction with whole pattern fitting and Rietveld refinement, scanning electron microscopy, and by vibrating sample magnetometry. The as-prepared α-Fe2O3 particles and the three dimensional models presented have promising practical applications for energy storage and conversion in batteries, capacitors, and fuel cells, and related spintronic devices and technologies.

  19. Transactional Network Platform: Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katipamula, Srinivas; Lutes, Robert G.; Ngo, Hung; Underhill, Ronald M.

    2013-10-31

    In FY13, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) with funding from the Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Building Technologies Office (BTO) designed, prototyped and tested a transactional network platform to support energy, operational and financial transactions between any networked entities (equipment, organizations, buildings, grid, etc.). Initially, in FY13, the concept demonstrated transactions between packaged rooftop air conditioners and heat pump units (RTUs) and the electric grid using applications or "agents" that reside on the platform, on the equipment, on a local building controller or in the Cloud. The transactional network project is a multi-lab effort with Oakridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) also contributing to the effort. PNNL coordinated the project and also was responsible for the development of the transactional network (TN) platform and three different applications associated with RTUs. This document describes two applications or "agents" in details, and also summarizes the platform. The TN platform details are described in another companion document.

  20. Hierarchical LiFePO4 with a controllable growth of the (010) facet for lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Binbin; Ruan, Hongcheng; Zheng, Cheng; Fei, Hailong; Wei, Mingdeng

    2013-09-27

    Hierarchically structured LiFePO4 was successfully synthesized by ionic liquid solvothermal method. These hierarchically structured LiFePO4 samples were constructed from nanostructured platelets with their (010) facets mainly exposed. To the best of our knowledge, facet control of a hierarchical LiFePO4 crystal has not been reported yet. Based on a series of experimental results, a tentative mechanism for the formation of these hierarchical structures was proposed. After these hierarchically structured LiFePO4 samples were coated with a thin carbon layer and used as cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries, they exhibited excellent high-rate discharge capability and cycling stability. For instance, a capacity of 95% can be maintained for the LiFePO4 sample at a rate as high as 20 C, even after 1000 cycles.

  1. Hierarchical Control Strategy for the Cooperative Braking System of Electric Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jiankun; He, Hongwen; Guo, Hongqiang

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a hierarchical control strategy for cooperative braking system of an electric vehicle with separated driven axles. Two layers are defined: the top layer is used to optimize the braking stability based on two sliding mode control strategies, namely, the interaxle control mode and signal-axle control strategies; the interaxle control strategy generates the ideal braking force distribution in general braking condition, and the single-axle control strategy can ensure braking safety in emergency braking condition; the bottom layer is used to maximize the regenerative braking energy recovery efficiency with a reallocated braking torque strategy; the reallocated braking torque strategy can recovery braking energy as much as possible in the premise of meeting battery charging power. The simulation results show that the proposed hierarchical control strategy is reasonable and can adapt to different typical road surfaces and load cases; the vehicle braking stability and safety can be guaranteed; furthermore, the regenerative braking energy recovery efficiency can be improved. PMID:26236772

  2. Hierarchical Control Strategy for the Cooperative Braking System of Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiankun Peng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a hierarchical control strategy for cooperative braking system of an electric vehicle with separated driven axles. Two layers are defined: the top layer is used to optimize the braking stability based on two sliding mode control strategies, namely, the interaxle control mode and signal-axle control strategies; the interaxle control strategy generates the ideal braking force distribution in general braking condition, and the single-axle control strategy can ensure braking safety in emergency braking condition; the bottom layer is used to maximize the regenerative braking energy recovery efficiency with a reallocated braking torque strategy; the reallocated braking torque strategy can recovery braking energy as much as possible in the premise of meeting battery charging power. The simulation results show that the proposed hierarchical control strategy is reasonable and can adapt to different typical road surfaces and load cases; the vehicle braking stability and safety can be guaranteed; furthermore, the regenerative braking energy recovery efficiency can be improved.

  3. Hierarchical rule-based monitoring and fuzzy logic control for neuromuscular block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shieh, J S; Fan, S Z; Chang, L W; Liu, C C

    2000-01-01

    The important task for anaesthetists is to provide an adequate degree of neuromuscular block during surgical operations, so that it should not be difficult to antagonize at the end of surgery. Therefore, this study examined the application of a simple technique (i.e., fuzzy logic) to an almost ideal muscle relaxant (i.e., rocuronium) at general anaesthesia in order to control the system more easily, efficiently, intelligently and safely during an operation. The characteristics of neuromuscular blockade induced by rocuronium were studied in 10 ASA I or II adult patients anaesthetized with inhalational (i.e., isoflurane) anaesthesia. A Datex Relaxograph was used to monitor neuromuscular block. And, ulnar nerve was stimulated supramaximally with repeated train-of-four via surface electrodes at the wrist. Initially a notebook personal computer was linked to a Datex Relaxograph to monitor electromyogram (EMG) signals which had been pruned by a three-level hierarchical structure of filters in order to design a controller for administering muscle relaxants. Furthermore, a four-level hierarchical fuzzy logic controller using the fuzzy logic and rule of thumb concept has been incorporated into the system. The Student's test was used to compare the variance between the groups. p control of muscle relaxation with a mean T1% error of -0.19 (SD 0.66) % accommodating a range in mean infusion rate (MIR) of 0.21-0.49 mg x kg(-1) x h(-1). When these results were compared with our previous ones using the same hierarchical structure applied to mivacurium, less variation in the T1% error (p controller activity of these two drugs showed no significant difference (p > 0.5). However, the consistent medium coefficient variance (CV) of the MIR of both rocuronium (i.e., 36.13 (SD 9.35) %) and mivacurium (i.e., 34.03 (SD 10.76) %) indicated a good controller activity. The results showed that a hierarchical rule-based monitoring and fuzzy logic control architecture can provide stable control

  4. Distributed Hierarchical Control Architecture for Transient Dynamics Improvement in Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marinovici, Laurentiu D.; Lian, Jianming; Kalsi, Karanjit; Du, Pengwei; Elizondo, Marcelo A.

    2013-08-24

    In this paper, a novel distributed hierarchical coordinated control architecture is proposed for large scale power systems. The newly considered architecture facilitates frequency restoration and power balancing functions to be decoupled and implemented at different levels. At the local level, decentralized robust generator controllers are designed to quickly restore frequency after large faults and disturbances in the system. The controllers presented herein are shown to improve transient stability performance, as compared to conventional governor and excitation control. At the area level, Automatic Generation Control (AGC) is modified and coordinates with the decentralized robust controllers to reach the interchange schedule in the tie lines. The interaction of local and zonal controllers is validated through detailed simulations.

  5. Evaluating Transactive Controls of Integrated Transmission and Distribution Systems using the Framework for Network Co-Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Jacob; Edgar, Thomas W.; Daily, Jeffrey A.; Wu, Di

    2017-07-03

    With an ever-evolving power grid, concerns regarding how to maintain system stability, efficiency, and reliability remain constant because of increasing uncertainties and decreasing rotating inertia. To alleviate some of these concerns, demand response represents a viable solution and is virtually an untapped resource in the current power grid. This work describes a hierarchical control framework that allows coordination between distributed energy resources and demand response. This control framework is composed of two control layers: a coordination layer that ensures aggregations of resources are coordinated to achieve system objectives and a device layer that controls individual resources to assure the predetermined power profile is tracked in real time. Large-scale simulations are executed to study the hierarchical control, requiring advancements in simulation capabilities. Technical advancements necessary to investigate and answer control interaction questions, including the Framework for Network Co-Simulation platform and Arion modeling capability, are detailed. Insights into the interdependencies of controls across a complex system and how they must be tuned, as well as validation of the effectiveness of the proposed control framework, are yielded using a large-scale integrated transmission system model coupled with multiple distribution systems.

  6. Controlled Synthesis and Ferrimagnetism of Homogeneous Hierarchical CoFe2O4 Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Nguyen Viet; Yang, Yong; Thi, Cao Minh; Phuc, Le Hong; Lu, Le Trong; Nogami, Masayuki

    2017-10-01

    Uniform, large, spherical, hierarchical CoFe2O4 spinel particles have been successfully prepared by a modified polyol method using NaBH4 and NaOH, revealing controlled size, shape, and morphology with high crystallinity in a certain microscale range. Their inverse AB2O4-type crystal structure was intensively studied by x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Using stock solutions of CoCl2 and FeCl3 precursors in 1:2 ratio, CoFe2O4 particles were formed well with high crystallinity in the best inverse spinel structure in space group Fd-3m. The fascinating ferrimagnetic and hysteretic properties of the as-prepared hierarchical CoFe2O4 spinel particles were investigated by vibrating-sample magnetometry (VSM) at room temperature (RT). The results confirm formation of hierarchical CoFe2O4 microscale particles with inverse-spinel AB2O4-type structure and high magnetization by modified polyol method with heat treatment.

  7. Directed assembly of bio-inspired hierarchical materials with controlled nanofibrillar architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Peter; Napier, Bradley; Zhao, Siwei; Mitropoulos, Alexander N.; Applegate, Matthew B.; Marelli, Benedetto; Kaplan, David L.; Omenetto, Fiorenzo G.

    2017-05-01

    In natural systems, directed self-assembly of structural proteins produces complex, hierarchical materials that exhibit a unique combination of mechanical, chemical and transport properties. This controlled process covers dimensions ranging from the nano- to the macroscale. Such materials are desirable to synthesize integrated and adaptive materials and systems. We describe a bio-inspired process to generate hierarchically defined structures with multiscale morphology by using regenerated silk fibroin. The combination of protein self-assembly and microscale mechanical constraints is used to form oriented, porous nanofibrillar networks within predesigned macroscopic structures. This approach allows us to predefine the mechanical and physical properties of these materials, achieved by the definition of gradients in nano- to macroscale order. We fabricate centimetre-scale material geometries including anchors, cables, lattices and webs, as well as functional materials with structure-dependent strength and anisotropic thermal transport. Finally, multiple three-dimensional geometries and doped nanofibrillar constructs are presented to illustrate the facile integration of synthetic and natural additives to form functional, interactive, hierarchical networks.

  8. 31 CFR 545.521 - Transactions related to U.S. citizens residing in the territory of Afghanistan controlled by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... residing in the territory of Afghanistan controlled by the Taliban. 545.521 Section 545.521 Money and... Statements of Licensing Policy § 545.521 Transactions related to U.S. citizens residing in the territory of Afghanistan controlled by the Taliban. U.S. citizens who reside on a permanent basis in the territory...

  9. A multi-mode operation control strategy for flexible microgrid based on sliding-mode direct voltage and hierarchical controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qinjin; Liu, Yancheng; Zhao, Youtao; Wang, Ning

    2016-03-01

    Multi-mode operation and transient stability are two problems that significantly affect flexible microgrid (MG). This paper proposes a multi-mode operation control strategy for flexible MG based on a three-layer hierarchical structure. The proposed structure is composed of autonomous, cooperative, and scheduling controllers. Autonomous controller is utilized to control the performance of the single micro-source inverter. An adaptive sliding-mode direct voltage loop and an improved droop power loop based on virtual negative impedance are presented respectively to enhance the system disturbance-rejection performance and the power sharing accuracy. Cooperative controller, which is composed of secondary voltage/frequency control and phase synchronization control, is designed to eliminate the voltage/frequency deviations produced by the autonomous controller and prepare for grid connection. Scheduling controller manages the power flow between the MG and the grid. The MG with the improved hierarchical control scheme can achieve seamless transitions from islanded to grid-connected mode and have a good transient performance. In addition the presented work can also optimize the power quality issues and improve the load power sharing accuracy between parallel VSIs. Finally, the transient performance and effectiveness of the proposed control scheme are evaluated by theoretical analysis and simulation results.

  10. Leasing transactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radmila Presová

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes trade operations in lea­sin­g companies as specific businesses enabling acquisition of possession by legal and physical persons by gradual repayments of the purchase price. On a diagram it shows the complexity of business relations between the main participants of a lea­sin­g transaction, which are production companies, lea­sin­g companies and those interested in the subject of lea­sin­g. To capture the complexity of relations, there are also included all other participants. Their function in a lea­sin­g transaction starts only at the moment, when the leaseholders are not able to pay their liabilities to which they agreed in the innominate contract. Paper clarifies the term “lea­sin­g with zero mark-up”. With the help of calculation it describes the basis of a lea­sin­g transaction, where significantly participates also the production company, insurance company and commercial bank. All these subjects have certain benefits from a realized transaction. These are enabled by their close business relationships with the lea­sin­g company, which is sufficiently clear from the diagram and it is also substantiated by calculations. Paper includes a definition of lea­sin­g operations, as well as a ma­the­ma­ti­cal model of lea­sin­g payments calculation for a car. A part of the paper is also dealing with a cession of a lea­sin­g contract in the person of a leaseholder as a specific case enforced by financial issues of the leaseholder. The paper elaborates alternatives of evaluating client’s bonding capacity with the help of financial indicators.

  11. Transactional Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Grahn, Håkan

    2010-01-01

    Current and future processor generations are based on multicore architectures where the performance increase comes from an increasing number of cores on a chip. In order to utilize the performance potential of multicore architectures the programs also need to be parallel, but writing parallel programs is a non-trivial task. Transactional memory tries to ease parallel program development by providing atomic and isolated execution of code sequences, enabling software composability and protected...

  12. 21 CFR 1404.215 - Which nonprocurement transactions are not covered transactions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Which nonprocurement transactions are not covered transactions? 1404.215 Section 1404.215 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE... transaction that the Office of National Drug Control Policy needs to respond to a national or...

  13. Human performance in monitoring and controlling hierarchical large-scale systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henneman, R.L.; Rouse, W.B.

    1984-03-01

    Human performance in monitoring and controlling activities in a hierarchical large-scale network, such as a communications system, is considered. A scenario is described that is used in an experiment to examine three factors affecting humans functioning as network supervisor: cluster size (number of elements per display page), number of levels of pages in the hierarchy, and failure rate per element. It is indicated by the results that increasing cluster size improves performance, increasing number of levels degrades performance, and failure rate affects only subjects strategies.

  14. Design and Co-simulation of Hierarchical Architecture for Demand Response Control and Coordination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhattarai, Bishnu Prasad; Lévesque, Martin; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2017-01-01

    Demand response (DR) plays a key role for optimum asset utilization and to avoid or delay the need of new infrastructure investment. However, coordinated execution of multiple DRs is desired to maximize the DR benefits. In this study, we propose a hierarchical DR architecture (HDRA) to control...... and coordinate the performance of various DR categories such that the operation of every DR category is backed-up by time delayed action of the others. A reliable, cost-effective communication infrastructure based on ZigBee, WiMAX, and fibers is designed to facilitate the HDRA execution. The performance...

  15. Resilient control of cyber-physical systems against intelligent attacker: a hierarchal stackelberg game approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yuan; Sun, Fuchun; Liu, Huaping

    2016-07-01

    This paper is concerned with the resilient control under denial-of-service attack launched by the intelligent attacker. The resilient control system is modelled as a multi-stage hierarchical game with a corresponding hierarchy of decisions made at cyber and physical layer, respectively. Specifically, the interaction in the cyber layer between different security agents is modelled as a static infinite Stackelberg game, while in the underlying physical layer the full-information H∞ minimax control with package drops is modelled as a different Stackelberg game. Both games are solved sequentially, which is consistent with the actual situations. Finally, the proposed method is applied to the load frequency control of the power system, which demonstrates its effectiveness.

  16. A Hierarchical Control Scheme for Reactive Power and Harmonic Current Sharing in Islanded Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorzadeh, Iman; Firoozabadi, Mehdi Savaghebi; Askarian Abyaneh, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    of each inverter output current are extracted at primary level and transmitted to the secondary controller. Then, instantaneous circulating currents at different frequencies are calculated and applied by the secondary level to generate proper control signals for accurate reactive power and harmonic......In this paper, a hierarchical control scheme consisting of primary and secondary levels is proposed for achieving accurate reactive power and harmonic currents sharing among interface inverters of distributed generators (DGs) in islanded microgrids. Firstly, fundamental and main harmonic components...... current sharing among the inverters. Consequently, these signals are sent to the primary level and inserted as voltage references after passing the control blocks. In contrast to the conventional virtual impedance schemes, where reactive power and harmonic current sharing are realized at the expense...

  17. Hierarchical flight control system synthesis for rotorcraft-based unmanned aerial vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Hyunchul

    The Berkeley Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) research aims to design, implement, and analyze a group of autonomous intelligent UAVs and UGVs (Unmanned Ground Vehicles). The goal of this dissertation is to provide a comprehensive procedural methodology to design, implement, and test rotorcraft-based unmanned aerial vehicles (RUAVs). We choose the rotorcraft as the base platform for our aerial agents because it offers ideal maneuverability for our target scenarios such as the pursuit-evasion game. Aided by many enabling technologies such as lightweight and powerful computers, high-accuracy navigation sensors and communication devices, it is now possible to construct RUAVs capable of precise navigation and intelligent behavior by the decentralized onboard control system. Building a fully functioning RUAV requires a deep understanding of aeronautics, control theory and computer science as well as a tremendous effort for implementation. These two aspects are often inseparable and therefore equally highlighted throughout this research. The problem of multiple vehicle coordination is approached through the notion of a hierarchical system. The idea behind the proposed architecture is to build a hierarchical multiple-layer system that gradually decomposes the abstract mission objectives into the physical quantities of control input. Each RUAV incorporated into this system performs the given tasks and reports the results through the hierarchical communication channel back to the higher-level coordinator. In our research, we provide a theoretical and practical approach to build a number of RUAVs based on commercially available navigation sensors, computer systems, and radio-controlled helicopters. For the controller design, the dynamic model of the helicopter is first built. The helicopter exhibits a very complicated multi-input multi-output, nonlinear, time-varying and coupled dynamics, which is exposed to severe exogenous disturbances. This poses considerable difficulties for

  18. 21 CFR 1404.200 - What is a covered transaction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is a covered transaction? 1404.200 Section 1404.200 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Covered Transactions § 1404.200 What is a covered transaction? A covered transaction is...

  19. Unifying Memory and Database Transactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Ricardo J.; Lourenço, João M.

    Software Transactional Memory is a concurrency control technique gaining increasing popularity, as it provides high-level concurrency control constructs and eases the development of highly multi-threaded applications. But this easiness comes at the expense of restricting the operations that can be executed within a memory transaction, and operations such as terminal and file I/O are either not allowed or incur in serious performance penalties. Database I/O is another example of operations that usually are not allowed within a memory transaction. This paper proposes to combine memory and database transactions in a single unified model, benefiting from the ACID properties of the database transactions and from the speed of main memory data processing. The new unified model covers, without differentiating, both memory and database operations. Thus, the users are allowed to freely intertwine memory and database accesses within the same transaction, knowing that the memory and database contents will always remain consistent and that the transaction will atomically abort or commit the operations in both memory and database. This approach allows to increase the granularity of the in-memory atomic actions and hence, simplifies the reasoning about them.

  20. Microgrid Central Controller Development and Hierarchical Control Implementation in the Intelligent MicroGrid Lab of Aalborg University

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meng, Lexuan; Savaghebi, Mehdi; Andrade, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a microgrid central controller in an inverter-based intelligent microgrid (iMG) lab in Aalborg University, Denmark. The iMG lab aims to provide a flexible experimental platform for comprehensive studies of microgrids. The complete control system applied...... in this lab is based on the hierarchical control scheme for microgrids and includes primary, secondary and tertiary control. The structure of the lab, including the lab facilities, configurations and communication network, is first introduced. Primary control loops are developed in MATLAB....../Simulink and compiled to dSPACEs for local control purposes. In order to realize system supervision and proper secondary and tertiary management, a LabVIEW-based microgrid central controller is also developed. The software and hardware schemes are described. An example case is introduced and tested in the iMG lab...

  1. Multicast Address Management and Connection Control Based on Hierarchical Autonomous Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jian; ZHANG Fuyan

    1999-01-01

    Multicast capability, including multicast address and multicast routing mechanisms, at the network layeris necessary in order to reduce the bandwidth requirements of multiparty, multicast applications. Based on hierarchical autonomous structure in accordance with the self-organization topologies of Internet, the paper puts forward a multicast address management scheme that is shown to be robust and scalable. Connection control hierarchy (CCH) based on master/slave relationship and a simple efficient building algorithm of multi-point connection is also built. The paper also describes the normal operations of multicast address management andmulti-point connection controller. Through simulation experiment, HAM, CM and DDM of Multicast Address Allocation are compared. HAM integrates the merits of CM and DDM, which is efficient as a whole, robust andscalable. CCH raises the efficiency of connection control, and is highly robust, flexible and scalable.

  2. Frequency Stability of Hierarchically Controlled Hybrid Photovoltaic-Battery-Hydropower Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guan, Yajuan; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez; Guerrero, Josep M.;

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid photovoltaic (PV) -battery-hydropower microgrids can be considered to enhance electricity accessibility and availability in remote areas. However, the coexistence of different renewable energy sources with different inertias and control strategies may affect system stability. In this paper......, a hierarchical controller for hybrid PV-battery-hydropower microgrid is proposed in order to achieve the parallel operation of hydropower and PV-battery system with different rates, and to guarantee power sharing performance among PV voltage controlled inverters, while the required power to hydropower...... is derived to analyze the system stability of the hybrid microgrid. The simulation results show system frequency and voltage stability for a hybrid microgrid demonstration which includes 2 MWp PV installations, a 15.2 MWh battery system, and a 12.8 MVA hydropower plant. Experimental results on a small...

  3. Hierarchical control framework for integrated coordination between distributed energy resources and demand response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Di; Lian, Jianming; Sun, Yannan; Yang, Tao; Hansen, Jacob

    2017-09-01

    Demand response is representing a significant but largely untapped resource that can greatly enhance the flexibility and reliability of power systems. In this paper, a hierarchical control framework is proposed to facilitate the integrated coordination between distributed energy resources and demand response. The proposed framework consists of coordination and device layers. In the coordination layer, various resource aggregations are optimally coordinated in a distributed manner to achieve the system-level objectives. In the device layer, individual resources are controlled in real time to follow the optimal power generation or consumption dispatched from the coordination layer. For the purpose of practical applications, a method is presented to determine the utility functions of controllable loads by taking into account the real-time load dynamics and the preferences of individual customers. The effectiveness of the proposed framework is validated by detailed simulation studies.

  4. Hierarchical Brokering with Feedback Control Framework in Mobile Device-Centric Clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Lieh Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a hierarchical brokering architecture (HiBA and Mobile Multicloud Networking (MMCN feedback control framework for mobile device-centric cloud (MDC2 computing. Exploiting the MMCN framework and RESTful web-based interconnection, each tier broker probes resource state of its federation for control and management. Real-time and seamless services were developed. Case studies including intrafederation energy-aware balancing based on fuzzy feedback control and higher tier load balancing are further demonstrated to show how HiBA with MMCN relieves the embedding of algorithms when developing services. Theoretical performance model and real-world experiments both show that an MDC2 based on HiBA features better quality in terms of resource availability and network latency if it federates devices with enough resources distributed in lower tier hierarchy. The proposed HiBA realizes a development platform for MDC2 computing which is a feasible solution to User-Centric Networks (UCNs.

  5. Conceptual framework for distributed expert-system use in time-sensitive hierarchical control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henningsen, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    There are many problems faced by decision makers involved in complex, time-sensitive hierarchical control systems. These may include maintaining knowledge of the functional status of the system components, forecasting the impact of past and future events, transferring information to a distant or poorly connected location, changing the requirements for an operation according to resources available, or creating an independent course of action when system connectivity falls. These problems are transdisciplinary in nature, so decision makers in a variety of organizations face them. This research develops a framework for the use of distributed expert systems in support of time-sensitive hierarchical control systems. Attention is focused on determining ways to enhance the likelihood that a system will remain functional during a crisis in which one or more of the system nodes fail. Options in the use of distributed expert systems for this purpose are developed following investigation of related research in the areas of cooperative and distributed systems. A prototype under development of a generic system model called DES (distributed expert systems) is described. DES is a trimular form of support structure, where a trimule is defined to be a combination of a human decision agent, a component system model and an expert system. This concept is an extension of the domular theory of Tenney and Sandell (1981).

  6. Intelligent Hierarchical Modal Control of a Novel Manipulator with Slewing and Deployable Links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modi, V. J.; Zhang, J.; de Silva, C. W.

    1. Introduction The Space Shuttle based Canada arm has vividly demonstrated its application in launching of satellites as well as retrieval of disabled spacecraft for repair. There have been proposals for free flying robotic systems with appropriate instrumentation to monitor health of spacecraft, identify problems and even perform corrective measures. Most of these applications involve multilink manipulators with revolute joints for which there is a vast body of literature [1]. On the other hand, manipulators with revolute as well as prismatic joints, permitting slewing as well as deployment/retrieval of links, have received relatively little attention [2]. Such variable geometry, snake-like manipulators have distinct advantages of reduced coupling effects leading to simpler equations of motion and inverse kinematics, less number of singularity conditions, and ease of obstacle avoidance [3]. 2. Hierarchical Structure The control system developed for the deployable manipulator has a three-level structure. This hierarchical structure takes the advantages of a crisp controller; specially, a modal controller, with those of a soft, knowledge-based, supervisory control . The overall structure can be separated and developed as three main layers. The first layer is the lowest layer of the control system. It deals with information coming from sensors attached to the plant ( manipulator). This type of information is characterized by a large amount of individual data points of high resolution, produced and collected at high frequency. The crisp controller that is used is a state feedback regulator with its feedback gain matrix determined using the eigenstructure assignment approach. The data processing for monitoring and evaluation of the system performance occurs in this intermediate or second layer. Here high-resolution, crisp data from sensors are filtered to afford representation of the current state of the manipulator. This servo-expert layer acts as an interface

  7. Hierarchical Velocity Control Based on Differential Flatness for a DC/DC Buck Converter-DC Motor System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Silva-Ortigoza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a hierarchical controller that carries out the angular velocity trajectory tracking task for a DC motor driven by a DC/DC Buck converter. The high level control is related to the DC motor and the low level control is dedicated to the DC/DC Buck converter; both controls are designed via differential flatness. The high level control provides a desired voltage profile for the DC motor to achieve the tracking of a desired angular velocity trajectory. Then, a low level control is designed to ensure that the output voltage of the DC/DC Buck converter tracks the voltage profile imposed by the high level control. In order to experimentally verify the hierarchical controller performance, a DS1104 electronic board from dSPACE and Matlab-Simulink are used. The switched implementation of the hierarchical average controller is accomplished by means of pulse width modulation. Experimental results of the hierarchical controller for the velocity trajectory tracking task show good performance and robustness against the uncertainties associated with different system parameters.

  8. A novel decentralized hierarchical access control scheme for the medical scenario

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskeland, Sigurd; Prasad, Neeli R.

    2006-01-01

    Electronic patient records contains highly personal and confidential information that it is essential to keep private. Thus, only the medical professionals providing care to a patient should access the patient record of the concerning patient. As personal medical data can be considered...... to be the property of the corresponding patient, it is justified that patients should have the opportunity to exert control over their own data. In this paper, we propose a cryptographic access control scheme allowing patients to grant medical teams authorizations to access their medical data. Moreover......, the hierarchical aspects of teams are taken into account so that the modules of the patient record are to be accessed according to the individual privileges of the medical professionals of the team. Thus, more privileged users obtain larger portions of the data than less privileged users....

  9. Controllable synthesis of α-sulfur spheres with hierarchical nanostructures for efficient visible-light-driven photocatalytic ability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dang, Xueming; Zhang, Xiufang, E-mail: zhangxf@dlpu.edu.cn; Zhang, Weiqiang; Dong, Xiaoli; Wang, Guowen; Ma, Hongchao

    2015-08-30

    Highlights: • α-Sulfur spheres with hierarchical nanostructures are controllably produced. • Addition quantity of PVP affects photocatalytic ability of α-sulfur. • The enhanced photocatalytic ability of α-sulfur hierarchical sphere is found. - Abstract: Visible-light-active α-sulfur spheres with hierarchical nanostructures were fabricated by simple solution-phase synthesis with PVP as the template for enhanced photocatalytic ability. The α-sulfur hierarchical spheres with an ultrahigh specific surface area can controllable synthesized by changing the addition quantity of PVP. The obtained products are systematically studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV–vis absorption spectroscopy (DRS), Fluorescence (FL) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET). The photocatalytic activity of the as-prepared samples is evaluated by photocatalytic degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) aqueous solution under visible light illumination. The results indicate that the morphology, specific surface area, photo absorbance ability, the separation efficiency of photogenerated carriers and the reactant adsorption performance can be controlled by varying the addition quantity of PVP. When 200 mg PVP is added, α-sulfur hierarchical spheres with uniform particle size about 1 μm and ultrahigh specific surface area of 67.1 m{sup 2}/g is obtained, and its photocatalytic activity reaches a maximum value, which can be attributed to the combined effects of photo absorbance ability, the separation efficiency of photogenerated carriers and the reactant adsorption performance.

  10. H-RBAC: A Hierarchical Access Control Model for SaaS Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dancheng Li

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available SaaS is a new way to deploy software as a hosted service and accessed over the Internet which means the customers don’t need to maintain the software code and data on their own servers. So it’s more important for SaaS systems to take security issues into account. Access control is a security mechanism that enables an authority to access to certain restricted areas and resources according to the permissions assigned to a user. Several access models have been proposed to realize the access control of single instance systems. However, most of the existing models couldn’t address the following SaaS system problems: (1 role name conflicts (2 cross-level management (3 the isomerism of tenants' access control (4 temporal delegation constraints. This paper describes a hierarchical RBAC model called H-RBAC solves all the four problems of SaaS systems mentioned above. This model addresses the SaaS system access control in both system level and tenant level. It combines the advantages of RBDM and ARBAC97 model and introduces temporal constraints to SaaS access control model. In addition, a practical approach to implement the access control module for SaaS systems based on H-RBAC model is also proposed in this paper.

  11. Hierarchical structural control of visual properties in self-assembled photonic-plasmonic pigments

    CERN Document Server

    Koay, Natalie; Kay, Theresa M; Nerger, Bryan A; Miles-Rossouw, Malaika; Shirman, Tanya; Vu, Thy L; England, Grant; Phillips, Katherine R; Utech, Stefanie; Vogel, Nicolas; Kolle, Mathias; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    We present a simple one-pot co-assembly method for the synthesis of hierarchically structured pigment particles consisting of silica inverse-opal bricks that are doped with plasmonic absorbers. We study the interplay between the plasmonic and photonic resonances and their effect on the visual appearance of macroscopic collections of photonic bricks that are distributed in randomized orientations. Manipulating the pore geometry tunes the wavelength- and angle-dependence of the scattering profile, which can be engineered to produce angle-dependent Bragg resonances that can either enhance or contrast with the color produced by the plasmonic absorber. By controlling the overall dimensions of the photonic bricks and their aspect ratios, their preferential alignment can either be encouraged or suppressed. This causes the Bragg resonance to appear either as uniform color travel in the former case or as sparse iridescent sparkle in the later case. By manipulating the surface chemistry of these photonic bricks, which ...

  12. Energy Management Systems and tertiary regulation in hierarchical control architectures for islanded micro-grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanseverino, Eleonora Riva; Di Silvestre, Maria Luisa; Quang, Ninh Nguyen;

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the structure of the highest level of a hierarchical control architecture for micro-grids is proposed. Such structure includes two sub-levels: the Energy Management System, EMS, and the tertiary regulation. The first devoted to energy resources allocation in each time slot based...... on marginal production costs, the latter aiming at finding the match between production and consumption satisfying the constraints set by the EMS level about the energy production in each time slot. Neglecting the efficiency of the different energy generation systems as well as that of the infrastructure...... for electrical energy distribution, the problem dealt with by the EMS sub-level is linear and can be solved by well known Linear Programming optimization procedures. The tertiary sub-level, below the EMS, optimizes mainly technical objectives and requires the solution of the Optimal Power Flow problem. After...

  13. Enforcing Access Control in Virtual Organizations Using Hierarchical Attribute-Based Encryption

    CERN Document Server

    Asim, Muhammad; Petkovic, Milan; Trivellato, Daniel; Zannone, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    Virtual organizations are dynamic, inter-organizational collaborations that involve systems and services belonging to different security domains. Several solutions have been proposed to guarantee the enforcement of the access control policies protecting the information exchanged in a distributed system, but none of them addresses the dynamicity characterizing virtual organizations. In this paper we propose a dynamic hierarchical attribute-based encryption (D-HABE) scheme that allows the institutions in a virtual organization to encrypt information according to an attribute-based policy in such a way that only users with the appropriate attributes can decrypt it. In addition, we introduce a key management scheme that determines which user is entitled to receive which attribute key from which domain authority.

  14. Hierarchical charge distribution controls self-assembly process of silk in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Cencen; Liu, Lijie; Kaplan, David L.; Zhu, Hesun; Lu, Qiang

    2015-12-01

    Silk materials with different nanostructures have been developed without the understanding of the inherent transformation mechanism. Here we attempt to reveal the conversion road of the various nanostructures and determine the critical regulating factors. The regulating conversion processes influenced by a hierarchical charge distribution were investigated, showing different transformations between molecules, nanoparticles and nanofibers. Various repulsion and compressive forces existed among silk fibroin molecules and aggregates due to the exterior and interior distribution of charge, which further controlled their aggregating and deaggregating behaviors and finally formed nanofibers with different sizes. Synergistic action derived from molecular mobility and concentrations could also tune the assembly process and final nanostructures. It is suggested that the complicated silk fibroin assembly processes comply a same rule based on charge distribution, offering a promising way to develop silk-based materials with designed nanostructures.

  15. Management control of interfirm transactional relationships : the case of industrial renovation and maintenance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer-Kooistra, J; Vosselman, EGJ

    2000-01-01

    This paper is focused on the way in which interfirm relations can be drawn up and controlled. Drawing on contracting theories a model is built of the management control structure of interfirm relationships. The model consists of three control patterns and of contingency factors that influence the ch

  16. Enriching the hierarchical model of achievement motivation: autonomous and controlling reasons underlying achievement goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michou, Aikaterini; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Mouratidis, Athanasios; Lens, Willy

    2014-12-01

    The hierarchical model of achievement motivation presumes that achievement goals channel the achievement motives of need for achievement and fear of failure towards motivational outcomes. Yet, less is known whether autonomous and controlling reasons underlying the pursuit of achievement goals can serve as additional pathways between achievement motives and outcomes. We tested whether mastery approach, performance approach, and performance avoidance goals and their underlying autonomous and controlling reasons would jointly explain the relation between achievement motives (i.e., fear of failure and need for achievement) and learning strategies (Study 1). Additionally, we examined whether the autonomous and controlling reasons underlying learners' dominant achievement goal would account for the link between achievement motives and the educational outcomes of learning strategies and cheating (Study 2). Six hundred and six Greek adolescent students (Mage = 15.05, SD = 1.43) and 435 university students (Mage M = 20.51, SD = 2.80) participated in studies 1 and 2, respectively. In both studies, a correlational design was used and the hypotheses were tested via path modelling. Autonomous and controlling reasons underlying the pursuit of achievement goals mediated, respectively, the relation of need for achievement and fear of failure to aspects of learning outcomes. Autonomous and controlling reasons underlying achievement goals could further explain learners' functioning in achievement settings. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  17. Adaptive Hierarchical Voltage Control of a DFIG-Based Wind Power Plant for a Grid Fault

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jinho; Muljadi, Eduard; Park, Jung-Wook; Kang, Yong Cheol

    2016-11-01

    This paper proposes an adaptive hierarchical voltage control scheme of a doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG)-based wind power plant (WPP) that can secure more reserve of reactive power (Q) in the WPP against a grid fault. To achieve this, each DFIG controller employs an adaptive reactive power to voltage (Q-V) characteristic. The proposed adaptive Q-V characteristic is temporally modified depending on the available Q capability of a DFIG; it is dependent on the distance from a DFIG to the point of common coupling (PCC). The proposed characteristic secures more Q reserve in the WPP than the fixed one. Furthermore, it allows DFIGs to promptly inject up to the Q limit, thereby improving the PCC voltage support. To avert an overvoltage after the fault clearance, washout filters are implemented in the WPP and DFIG controllers; they can prevent a surplus Q injection after the fault clearance by eliminating the accumulated values in the proportional-integral controllers of both controllers during the fault. Test results demonstrate that the scheme can improve the voltage support capability during the fault and suppress transient overvoltage after the fault clearance under scenarios of various system and fault conditions; therefore, it helps ensure grid resilience by supporting the voltage stability.

  18. Activate distributed energy resources' services: Hierarchical voltage controller as an application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Xue; Kosek, Anna Magdalena; Gehrke, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    The flexibilities from controllable distributed energy resources (DERs) offer the opportunities to mitigate some of the operation problems in the power distribution grid. The provision of system services requires the aggregation and coordination of their flexibilities, in order to obtain the flex...... the efficient aggregation and dispatch, and it simplifies the optimization complexity; the involvement of DER flexibilities in voltage services can significantly improve the voltage quality and reduce the grid power loss without additional regulating devices....... the flexible capacity of large scale. In this paper, a hierarchical controller is presented to activate the aggregation, and tries to obtain a global optimum of the grid operation. A distribution grid with large penetration of highly varying generation or load is under the risk that the voltage quality...... delivered to the end users is very poor. Hence, a coordinated voltage control function is investigated given such control hierarchy utilizing the flexibilities from the DER units to obtain an optimal voltage profile along the distribution feeder. The results are two folded: the controller enables...

  19. Establishing Causality Using Longitudinal Hierarchical Linear Modeling: An Illustration Predicting Achievement From Self-Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duckworth, Angela Lee; Tsukayama, Eli; May, Henry

    2010-10-01

    The predictive validity of personality for important life outcomes is well established, but conventional longitudinal analyses cannot rule out the possibility that unmeasured third-variable confounds fully account for the observed relationships. Longitudinal hierarchical linear models (HLM) with time-varying covariates allow each subject to serve as his or her own control, thus eliminating between-individual confounds. HLM also allows the directionality of the causal relationship to be tested by reversing time-lagged predictor and outcome variables. We illustrate these techniques through a series of models that demonstrate that within-individual changes in self-control over time predict subsequent changes in GPA but not vice-versa. The evidence supporting a causal role for self-control was not moderated by IQ, gender, ethnicity, or income. Further analyses rule out one time-varying confound: self-esteem. The analytic approach taken in this study provides the strongest evidence to date for the causal role of self-control in determining achievement.

  20. Preventing conflicts among bid curves used with transactive controllers in a market-based resource allocation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Jason C.; Chassin, David P.; Pratt, Robert G.; Hauer, Matthew; Tuffner, Francis K.

    2017-03-07

    Disclosed herein are representative embodiments of methods, apparatus, and systems for distributing a resource (such as electricity) using a resource allocation system. One of the disclosed embodiments is a method for operating a transactive thermostatic controller configured to submit bids to a market-based resource allocation system. According to the exemplary method, a first bid curve is determined, the first bid curve indicating a first set of bid prices for corresponding temperatures and being associated with a cooling mode of operation for a heating and cooling system. A second bid curve is also determined, the second bid curve indicating a second set of bid prices for corresponding temperatures and being associated with a heating mode of operation for a heating and cooling system. In this embodiment, the first bid curve, the second bid curve, or both the first bid curve and the second bid curve are modified to prevent overlap of any portion of the first bid curve and the second bid curve.

  1. Preventing conflicts among bid curves used with transactive controllers in a market-based resource allocation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, Jason C.; Chassin, David P.; Pratt, Robert G.; Hauer, Matthew; Tuffner, Francis K.

    2017-03-07

    Disclosed herein are representative embodiments of methods, apparatus, and systems for distributing a resource (such as electricity) using a resource allocation system. One of the disclosed embodiments is a method for operating a transactive thermostatic controller configured to submit bids to a market-based resource allocation system. According to the exemplary method, a first bid curve is determined, the first bid curve indicating a first set of bid prices for corresponding temperatures and being associated with a cooling mode of operation for a heating and cooling system. A second bid curve is also determined, the second bid curve indicating a second set of bid prices for corresponding temperatures and being associated with a heating mode of operation for a heating and cooling system. In this embodiment, the first bid curve, the second bid curve, or both the first bid curve and the second bid curve are modified to prevent overlap of any portion of the first bid curve and the second bid curve.

  2. Governance and control as mediating instruments in an inter-firm relationship: towards collaboration or transactions?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zahir-ul-Hassan, M.K.; Minnaar, R.A.; Vosselman, E.G.J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the mediation of governance and control structures in an inter-firm relationship between a semiconductor producer and its contractor. As mediating instruments the contract and the control structures are not just pre-given results of distanced managerial decision-making, but are g

  3. Object-based task-level control: A hierarchical control architecture for remote operation of space robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, H. D.; Miles, E. S.; Rock, S. J.; Cannon, R. H.

    1994-01-01

    Expanding man's presence in space requires capable, dexterous robots capable of being controlled from the Earth. Traditional 'hand-in-glove' control paradigms require the human operator to directly control virtually every aspect of the robot's operation. While the human provides excellent judgment and perception, human interaction is limited by low bandwidth, delayed communications. These delays make 'hand-in-glove' operation from Earth impractical. In order to alleviate many of the problems inherent to remote operation, Stanford University's Aerospace Robotics Laboratory (ARL) has developed the Object-Based Task-Level Control architecture. Object-Based Task-Level Control (OBTLC) removes the burden of teleoperation from the human operator and enables execution of tasks not possible with current techniques. OBTLC is a hierarchical approach to control where the human operator is able to specify high-level, object-related tasks through an intuitive graphical user interface. Infrequent task-level command replace constant joystick operations, eliminating communications bandwidth and time delay problems. The details of robot control and task execution are handled entirely by the robot and computer control system. The ARL has implemented the OBTLC architecture on a set of Free-Flying Space Robots. The capability of the OBTLC architecture has been demonstrated by controlling the ARL Free-Flying Space Robots from NASA Ames Research Center.

  4. MODEM: a multi-agent hierarchical structure to model the human motor control system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emadi Andani, Mehran; Bahrami, Fariba; Jabehdar Maralani, Parviz; Ijspeert, Auke Jan

    2009-12-01

    In this study, based on behavioral and neurophysiological facts, a new hierarchical multi-agent architecture is proposed to model the human motor control system. Performance of the proposed structure is investigated by simulating the control of sit to stand movement. To develop the model, concepts of mixture of experts, modular structure, and some aspects of equilibrium point hypothesis were brought together. We have called this architecture MODularized Experts Model (MODEM). Human motor system is modeled at the joint torque level and the role of the muscles has been embedded in the function of the joint compliance characteristics. The input to the motor system, i.e., the central command, is the reciprocal command. At the lower level, there are several experts to generate the central command to control the task according to the details of the movement. The number of experts depends on the task to be performed. At the higher level, a "gate selector" block selects the suitable subordinate expert considering the context of the task. Each expert consists of a main controller and a predictor as well as several auxiliary modules. The main controller of an expert learns to control the performance of a given task by generating appropriate central commands under given conditions and/or constraints. The auxiliary modules of this expert learn to scrutinize the generated central command by the main controller. Auxiliary modules increase their intervention to correct the central command if the movement error is increased due to an external disturbance. Each auxiliary module acts autonomously and can be interpreted as an agent. Each agent is responsible for one joint and, therefore, the number of the agents of each expert is equal to the number of joints. Our results indicate that this architecture is robust against external disturbances, signal-dependent noise in sensory information, and changes in the environment. We also discuss the neurophysiological and behavioral basis of

  5. A Rapid Prototyping Tool for Embedded, Real-Time Hierarchical Control Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramamoorthy Subramanian

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Laboratory Virtual Instrumentation and Engineering Workbench (LabVIEW is a graphical programming tool based on the dataflow language G. Recently, runtime support for a hard real-time environment has become available for LabVIEW, which makes it an option for embedded systems prototyping. Due to its characteristics, the environment presents itself as an ideal tool for both the design and implementation of embedded software. In this paper, we study the design and implementation of embedded software by using G as the specification language and the LabVIEW RT real-time platform. One of the main advantages of this approach is that the environment leads itself to a very smooth transition from design to implementation, allowing for powerful cosimulation strategies (e.g., hardware in the loop, runtime modeling. We characterize the semantics and formal model of computation of G. We compare it to other models of computation and develop design rules and algorithms to propose sound embedded design in the language. We investigate the specification and mapping of hierarchical control systems in LabVIEW and G. Finally, we describe the development of a state-of-the-art embedded motion control system using LabVIEW as the specification, simulation and implementation tool, using the proposed design principles. The solution is state-of-the-art in terms of flexibility and control performance.

  6. Hierarchical Control Scheme for Improving Transient Voltage Recovery of a DFIG-Based WPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jinho; Muljadi, Eduard; Kang, Yong Cheol

    2015-06-05

    Modern grid codes require that wind power plants (WPPs) inject reactive power according to the voltage dip at a point of interconnection (POI). This requirement helps to support a POI voltage during a fault. However, if a fault is cleared, the POI and wind turbine generator (WTG) voltages are likely to exceed acceptable levels unless the WPP reduces the injected reactive power quickly. This might deteriorate the stability of a grid by allowing the disconnection of WTGs to avoid any damage. This paper proposes a hierarchical control scheme of a doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG)-based WPP. The proposed scheme aims to improve the reactive power injecting capability during the fault and suppress the overvoltage after the fault clearance. To achieve the former, an adaptive reactive power-to-voltage scheme is implemented in each DFIG controller so that a DFIG with a larger reactive power capability will inject more reactive power. To achieve the latter, a washout filter is used to capture a high frequency component contained in the WPP voltage, which is used to remove the accumulated values in the proportional-integral controllers. Test results indicate that the scheme successfully supports the grid voltage during the fault, and recovers WPP voltages without exceeding the limit after the fault clearance.

  7. A Rapid Prototyping Tool for Embedded, Real-Time Hierarchical Control Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Andrade

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory Virtual Instrumentation and Engineering Workbench (LabVIEW is a graphical programming tool based on the dataflow language G. Recently, runtime support for a hard real-time environment has become available for LabVIEW, which makes it an option for embedded systems prototyping. Due to its characteristics, the environment presents itself as an ideal tool for both the design and implementation of embedded software. In this paper, we study the design and implementation of embedded software by using G as the specification language and the LabVIEW RT real-time platform. One of the main advantages of this approach is that the environment leads itself to a very smooth transition from design to implementation, allowing for powerful cosimulation strategies (e.g., hardware in the loop, runtime modeling. We characterize the semantics and formal model of computation of G. We compare it to other models of computation and develop design rules and algorithms to propose sound embedded design in the language. We investigate the specification and mapping of hierarchical control systems in LabVIEW and G. Finally, we describe the development of a state-of-the-art embedded motion control system using LabVIEW as the specification, simulation and implementation tool, using the proposed design principles. The solution is state-of-the-art in terms of flexibility and control performance.

  8. Adolescent externalizing behaviour, psychological control, and peer rejection: Transactional links and dopaminergic moderation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, Annelies; Van Den Noortgate, Wim; Goossens, Luc; Verschueren, Karine; Colpin, Hilde; Claes, Stephan; Van Heel, Martijn; Van Leeuwen, Karla

    2017-09-01

    This study investigated (1) reciprocal links among parental psychological control, peer rejection, and adolescent externalizing (aggressive and rule-breaking behaviour), and (2) the moderating effect of an adolescent genetic factor (biologically informed polygenic score for dopamine signalling). Three-year longitudinal data from 1,116 adolescents (51% boys; M age = 13.79) and their parents included psychological measures (adolescent-reported psychological control, peer-reported rejection, and parent-reported aggressive and rule-breaking behaviour). Cross-lagged analyses showed bidirectional effects between psychological control and both aggressive and rule-breaking behaviour and a unidirectional effect of peer rejection on both forms of problem behaviour over time. Multigroup structural equation modelling revealed genetic moderation only for rule-breaking behaviour: for adolescents with intermediate levels of dopamine signalling significant environmental effects were present, whereas adolescent effects of rule-breaking behaviour on psychological control were significant for adolescents with both intermediate and high profiles and effects on peer rejection only for adolescents with high dopamine profiles. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Parental psychological control is related to adolescent externalizing problems. Experiencing peer rejection reinforces aggressive and rule-breaking behaviour. Single-gene studies show that dopaminergic genes influence externalizing problems directly or in interaction with the environment. What does this study add? Parental psychological control and adolescent aggressive and rule-breaking behaviour exacerbate one another longitudinally. Longitudinal associations between peer rejection and both subtypes of externalizing behaviour are unidirectional. With a polygenic approach, dopaminergic moderation is present for rule-breaking behaviour only. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  9. Hierarchical path planning and control of a small fixed-wing UAV: Theory and experimental validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Dongwon

    2007-12-01

    problem is formulated by setting up geometric linear constraints as well as boundary conditions. Subsequently, we construct B-spline path templates by solving a set of distinct optimization problems. For application in UAV motion planning, the path templates are incorporated to replace parts of the entire path by the smooth B-spline paths. Each path segment is stitched together while preserving continuity to obtain a final smooth reference path to be used for path following control. The path following control for a small fixed-wing UAV to track the prescribed smooth reference path is also addressed. Assuming the UAV is equipped with an autopilot for low level control, we adopt a kinematic error model with respect to the moving Serret-Frenet frame attached to a path for tracking controller design. A kinematic path following control law that commands heading rate is presented. Backstepping is applied to derive the roll angle command by taking into account the approximate closed-loop roll dynamics. A parameter adaptation technique is employed to account for the inaccurate time constant of the closed-loop roll dynamics during actual implementation. Finally, we implement the proposed hierarchical path control of a small UAV on the actual hardware platform, which is based on an 1/5 scale R/C model airframe (Decathlon) and the autopilot hardware and software. Based on the hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation environment, the proposed hierarchical path control algorithm has been validated through on-line, real-time implementation on a small micro-controller. By a seamless integration of the control algorithms for path planning, path smoothing, and path following, it has been demonstrated that the UAV equipped with a small autopilot having limited computational resources manages to accomplish the path control objective to reach the goal while avoiding obstacles with minimal human intervention.

  10. Design of IP Camera Access Control Protocol by Utilizing Hierarchical Group Key

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungho Kang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Unlike CCTV, security video surveillance devices, which we have generally known about, IP cameras which are connected to a network either with or without wire, provide monitoring services through a built-in web-server. Due to the fact that IP cameras can use a network such as the Internet, multiple IP cameras can be installed at a long distance and each IP camera can utilize the function of a web server individually. Even though IP cameras have this kind of advantage, it has difficulties in access control management and weakness in user certification, too. Particularly, because the market of IP cameras did not begin to be realized a long while ago, systems which are systematized from the perspective of security have not been built up yet. Additionally, it contains severe weaknesses in terms of access authority to the IP camera web server, certification of users, and certification of IP cameras which are newly installed within a network, etc. This research grouped IP cameras hierarchically to manage them systematically, and provided access control and data confidentiality between groups by utilizing group keys. In addition, IP cameras and users are certified by using PKI-based certification, and weak points of security such as confidentiality and integrity, etc., are improved by encrypting passwords. Thus, this research presents specific protocols of the entire process and proved through experiments that this method can be actually applied.

  11. An Efficient Admission Control Algorithm for Load Balancing In Hierarchical Mobile IPv6 Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Harini, Prof P

    2009-01-01

    In hierarchical Mobile IPv6 networks, Mobility Anchor Point (MAP) may become a single point of bottleneck as it handles more and more mobile nodes (MNs). A number of schemes have been proposed to achieve load balancing among different MAPs. However, signaling reduction is still imperfect because these schemes also avoid the effect of the number of CNs. Also only the balancing of MN is performed, but not the balancing of the actual traffic load, since CN of each MN may be different. This paper proposes an efficient admission control algorithm along with a replacement mechanism for HMIPv6 networks. The admission control algorithm is based on the number of serving CNs and achieves actual load balancing among MAPs. Moreover, a replacement mechanism is introduced to decrease the new MN blocking probability and the handoff MN dropping probability. By simulation results, we show that, the handoff delay and packet loss are reduced in our scheme, when compared with the standard HMIPv6 based handoff.

  12. Minimizing Segregation During the Controlled Directional Solidification of Dendritic Alloys Publication: Metallurgical and Materials Transactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grugel, R. N.; Fedoseyev, A. I.; Kim, S.; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Gravity-driven thermosolutal convection that arises during controlled directional solidification (DS) of dendritic alloys promotes detrimental macro-segregation (e.g. freckles and steepling) in products such as turbine blades. Considerable time and effort has been spent to experimentally and theoretically investigate this phenomena; although our knowledge has advanced to the point where convection can be modeled and accurately compared to experimental results, little has been done to minimize its onset and deleterious effects. The experimental work demonstrates that segregation can be. minimized and microstructural uniformity promoted when a slow axial rotation is applied to the sample crucible during controlled directional solidification processing. Numerical modeling utilizing continuation and bifurcation methods have been employed to develop accurate physical and mathematical models with the intent of identifying and optimizing processing parameters.

  13. Progesterone and oestrogen in pregnancy and parturition: comparative aspects and hierarchical control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heap, R B; Galil, A K; Harrison, F A; Jenkin, G; Perry, J S

    1977-01-01

    The different ways in which the progesterone requirements of pregnancy are met in various species are reviewed here. Progesterone production expressed in terms of metabolic body weight lies within about one order of magnitude in several species (but not in the rat), whether the hormone is predominantly ovarian or placental in origin. Parturition is usually preceded by a decrease in the plasma concentration of progesterone and the evidence which suggests that a decrease in secretion involves enzyme induction is summarized. In the sheep a sequence of well-marked hormonal changes can be discerned--an increase in fetal cortisol secretion followed by a fall in placental progesterone and a rise in oestrogen and prostaglandin F2alpha secretion. This sequence has been interpreted in terms of hierarchical control theory which envisages a series of levels placed in a descending order of importance and in which there is a downward transmission of a signal from a higher level that modifies activity at a lower level. A dominant level in the hierarchy in the sheep and pig seems to be the fetal hypothalamus and pituitary, but in the rabbit the maternal hypothalamus, pituitary and ovary play a more dominant role.

  14. Preparation of magnetic hierarchically porous microspheres with temperature-controlled wettability for removal of oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Shengyang; Ding, Yunzhe; Jiang, Lei; Li, Guangtao

    2017-04-15

    A series of monodispersed microspheres with hierarchically porous structures were prepared by microfluidic devices. Phase separation of the silica sol in microdroplets was adopted to construct these structures. The effects of velocity ratios (for both the continuous and the dispersed phases), collection solvents and calcination temperatures were investigated. The diameters of the microspheres were tuned from 148μm to 940μm by adjusting the velocity ratio. Tests revealed that the surface areas and pore volumes of the microspheres can reach 495m(2)g(-1) and 0.6068mlg(-1), respectively. The macroporous structure can be controlled by the collection solvents, and the wettability of the microspheres is determined by the calcination temperature. A calcination temperature of 450°C leads to a hydrophilic surface property. Fe3O4 nanoparticles were added to the silica sol to form magnetic microspheres, and the porous structure was not affected. This kind of hybrid microsphere adsorbs 3.29 times its own weight in toluene. These spheres can adsorb oil on water surfaces, and then be removed from the water with an external magnetic field. The microspheres can be recovered and reused more than 10 times. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Formation and shape-control of hierarchical cobalt nanostructures using quaternary ammonium salts in aqueous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, Ruchi; Mehra, Anurag

    2017-01-01

    Aggregation and self-assembly are influenced by molecular interactions. With precise control of molecular interactions, in this study, a wide range of nanostructures ranging from zero-dimensional nanospheres to hierarchical nanoplates and spindles have been successfully synthesized at ambient temperature in aqueous solution. The nanostructures reported here are formed by aggregation of spherical seed particles (monomers) in presence of quaternary ammonium salts. Hydroxide ions and a magnetic moment of the monomers are essential to induce shape anisotropy in the nanostructures. The cobalt nanoplates are studied in detail, and a growth mechanism based on collision, aggregation, and crystal consolidation is proposed based on a electron microscopy studies. The growth mechanism is generalized for rods, spindles, and nearly spherical nanostructures, obtained by varying the cation group in the quaternary ammonium hydroxides. Electron diffraction shows different predominant lattice planes on the edge and on the surface of a nanoplate. The study explains, hereto unaddressed, the temporal evolution of complex magnetic nanostructures. These ferromagnetic nanostructures represent an interesting combination of shape anisotropy and magnetic characteristics.

  16. Femtosecond double-pulse fabrication of hierarchical nanostructures based on electron dynamics control for high surface-enhanced Raman scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ning; Li, Xin; Jiang, Lan; Shi, Xuesong; Li, Cong; Lu, Yongfeng

    2013-09-15

    This Letter presents a simple, efficient approach for high surface-enhanced Raman scattering by one-step controllable fabrication of hierarchical structures (nanoparticles+subwavelength ripples) on silicon substrates in silver nitrate solutions using femtosecond double pulses based on nanoscale electron dynamics control. As the delays of the double pulses increase from 0 fs to 1 ps, the hierarchical structures can be controlled with (1) nanoparticles--the number of nanoparticles in the range of 40-100 nm reaches the maximum at 800 fs and (2) ripples--the subwavelength ripples become intermittent with decreased ablation depths. The redistributed nanoparticles and the modified ripple structures contribute to the maximum enhancement factor of 2.2×10(8) (measured by 10(-6)  M rhodamine 6G solution) at the pulse delay of 800 fs.

  17. Controllable fabrication of large-scale hierarchical silver nanostructures for long-term stable and ultrasensitive SERS substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jing; Fang, Jinghuai; Cheng, Mingfei; Gong, Xiao

    2016-09-01

    In this work, we aim to prepare effective and long-term stable hierarchical silver nanostructures serving as surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates simply via displacement reaction on Aluminum foils. In our experiments, Hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) is used as cationic surfactant to control the velocity of displacement reaction as well as the hierarchical morphology of the resultant. We find that the volume ratio of CTAB to AgNO3 plays a dominant role in regulating the hierarchical structures besides the influence of displacement reaction time. These as-prepared hierarchical morphologies demonstrate excellent SERS sensitivity, structural stability and reproducibility with low values of relative standard deviation less than 20 %. The high SERS analytical enhancement factor of ~6.7 × 108 is achieved even at the concentration of Crystal Violet (CV) as low as 10-7 M, which is sufficient for single-molecule detection. The detection limit of CV is 10-9 M in this study. We believe that this simple and rapid approach integrating advantages of low-cost production and high reproducibility would be a promising way to facilitate routine SERS detection and will get wide applications in chemical synthesis.

  18. Are watershed and lacustrine controls on planktonic N2 fixation hierarchically structured?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, J Thad; Doyle, Robert D; Prochnow, Shane J; White, Joseph D

    2008-04-01

    N2 fixation can be an important source of N to limnetic ecosystems and can influence the structure of phytoplankton communities. However, watershed-scale conditions that favor N2 fixation in lakes and reservoirs have not been well studied. We measured N2 fixation and lacustrine variables monthly over a 19-month period in Waco Reservoir, Texas, USA, and linked these data with nutrient-loading estimates from a physically based watershed model. Readily available topographic, soil, land cover, effluent discharge, and climate data were used in the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to derive watershed nutrient-loading estimates. Categorical and regression tree (CART) analysis revealed that lacustrine and watershed correlates of N2 fixation were hierarchically structured. Lacustrine conditions showed greater predictive capability temporally. For instance, low NO3(-) concentration (27 degrees C) in the reservoir were correlated with the initiation of N2 fixation seasonally. When lacustrine conditions were favorable for N2 fixation, watershed conditions appeared to influence spatial patterns of N2 fixation within the reservoir. For example, spatially explicit patterns of N2 fixation were correlated with the ratio of N:P in nutrient loadings and the N loading rate, which were driven by anthropogenic activity in the watershed and periods of low stream flow, respectively. Although N2 fixation contributed <5% of the annual N load to the reservoir, 37% of the N load was derived from atmospheric N2 fixation during summertime when stream flow in the watershed was low. This study provides evidence that watershed anthropogenic activity can exert control on planktonic N2 fixation, but that temporality is controlled by lacustrine conditions. Furthermore, this study also supports suggestions that reduced inflows may increase the propensity of N2-fixing cyanobacterial blooms in receiving waters of anthropogenically modified landscapes.

  19. Correlation between Hierarchical Structure and Processing Control of Large-area Spray-coated Polymer Solar Cells toward High Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu-Ching; Tsao, Cheng-Si; Cha, Hou-Chin; Chuang, Chih-Min; Su, Chun-Jen; Jeng, U-Ser; Chen, Charn-Ying

    2016-01-28

    The formation mechanism of a spray-coated film is different from that of a spin-coated film. This study employs grazing incidence small- and wide-angle X-ray Scattering (GISAXS and GIWAXS, respectively) quantitatively and systematically to investigate the hierarchical structure and phase-separated behavior of a spray-deposited blend film. The formation of PCBM clusters involves mutual interactions with both the P3HT crystal domains and droplet boundary. The processing control and the formed hierarchical structure of the active layer in the spray-coated polymer/fullerene blend film are compared to those in the spin-coated film. How the different post-treatments, such as thermal and solvent vapor annealing, tailor the hierarchical structure of the spray-coated films is quantitatively studied. Finally, the relationship between the processing control and tailored BHJ structures and the performance of polymer solar cell devices is established here, taking into account the evolution of the device area from 1 × 0.3 and 1 × 1 cm(2). The formation and control of the special networks formed by the PCBM cluster and P3HT crystallites, respectively, are related to the droplet boundary. These structures are favorable for the transverse transport of electrons and holes.

  20. Correlation between Hierarchical Structure and Processing Control of Large-area Spray-coated Polymer Solar Cells toward High Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu-Ching; Tsao, Cheng-Si; Cha, Hou-Chin; Chuang, Chih-Min; Su, Chun-Jen; Jeng, U-Ser; Chen, Charn-Ying

    2016-01-01

    The formation mechanism of a spray-coated film is different from that of a spin-coated film. This study employs grazing incidence small- and wide-angle X-ray Scattering (GISAXS and GIWAXS, respectively) quantitatively and systematically to investigate the hierarchical structure and phase-separated behavior of a spray-deposited blend film. The formation of PCBM clusters involves mutual interactions with both the P3HT crystal domains and droplet boundary. The processing control and the formed hierarchical structure of the active layer in the spray-coated polymer/fullerene blend film are compared to those in the spin-coated film. How the different post-treatments, such as thermal and solvent vapor annealing, tailor the hierarchical structure of the spray-coated films is quantitatively studied. Finally, the relationship between the processing control and tailored BHJ structures and the performance of polymer solar cell devices is established here, taking into account the evolution of the device area from 1 × 0.3 and 1 × 1 cm2. The formation and control of the special networks formed by the PCBM cluster and P3HT crystallites, respectively, are related to the droplet boundary. These structures are favorable for the transverse transport of electrons and holes. PMID:26817585

  1. 21 CFR 1404.205 - Why is it important if a particular transaction is a covered transaction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Why is it important if a particular transaction is a covered transaction? 1404.205 Section 1404.205 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Covered Transactions § 1404.205 Why is...

  2. Evaluation of the hierarchical control of distributed Energy Storage Systems in islanded Microgrids based on Std IEC/ISO 62264

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palizban, Omid; Kauhaniemi, Kimmo; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a decentralized control methodology based on hierarchical control levels is investigated. In recent years, efforts have been made to standardize microgrids (MGs), and the decentralized control method evaluated here is based on the IEC/ISO 62264 standard. Since the main challenge...... proportionally and directly proportionally, respectively, to the state of charge (SoC) of each battery unit during discharging and charging mode. To evaluate this decentralized method based on the IEC/ISO 62264 standard, PSCAD/EMTDC software is used....

  3. HIERARCHICAL ACCESS CONTROL IN DYNAMIC PEER GROUPS USING SYMMETRIC POLYNOMIAL AND TREE BASED GROUP ELLIPTIC CURVE DIFFIE HELLMAN SCHEME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafeesa Begum Jeddy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hierarchical Access Control in group communication is an active area of research which is difficult to achieve it. Its primary objective is to allow users of a higher authority group to access information or resource held by lower group users and preventing the lower group users to access information held by higher class users. Large collection of collaborative applications in organizations inherently has hierarchical structures for functioning, where providing security by efficient group key management is a big challenging issue. While preserving centralized methods for hierarchical access control, it is difficult to achieve efficiency as a single membership change will result in lot of changes which are difficult to maintain. So, using distributed key agreement techniques is more appropriate for this scenario. This study explore on novel group key agreement approach, which combines both the symmetric polynomial scheme and Tree Based Group elliptic Curve key exchange. Also, it yields a secure protocol suite that is good in fault-tolerant and simple. The efficiency of SP-TGECDH is better than many other schemes. Using TGECDH makes the scheme suitable small Low powered devices.

  4. Shape Controlled Hierarchical Porous Hydrophobic/Oleophilic Metal-Organic Nanofibrous Gel Composites for Oil Adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaramulu, Kolleboyina; Geyer, Florian; Petr, Martin; Zboril, Radek; Vollmer, Doris; Fischer, Roland A

    2017-03-01

    A versatile and facile synthetic route toward a ultralight hierarchical poroushybrid composed of metal-organic gels and fluorinated graphene oxide is reported. The composite gels show excellent absorbency of oil and various organic solvents due to their prominent meso/macropores, notable hydrophobicity, and superoleophilicity. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Controlled Fabrication of Flower-like Nickel Oxide Hierarchical Structures and Their Application in Water Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linxia Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Flower-like NiO hierarchical structures with 2–5 μm diameter assembled from nanosheet building blocks have been successfully fabricated via a wet-chemical method combined with thermodecomposition technology. The template-free method is facile and effective in preparing flower-like NiO superstructures in high yield. The intermediate product and final hierarchical structures are characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform IR (FTIR, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. The effects of growth temperature and reaction time on the morphologies of the as-prepared structures were investigated by SEM characterization and a possible mechanism for the formation of flower-like NiO is proposed. Based on the nitrogen adsorption and desorption measurements, the BET surface area of the as-obtained sample is 55.7 m2/g and the pore-size distribution plot indicates a bimodal mesopore distribution, with pore sizes of ca. 2.6 nm and 7.4 nm, respectively. In comparison with sphere-like and rod-like structures, the flower-like NiO hierarchical structures show an excellent ability to rapidly remove various pollutants when used as adsorbent and photocatalyst in waste-water treatment, which may be attributed to its unique hierarchical and porous surface structures.

  6. Phase-Controlled Iron Oxide Nanobox Deposited on Hierarchically Structured Graphene Networks for Lithium Ion Storage and Photocatalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Sol; Lee, Young-Chul; Park, Ho Seok

    2016-01-01

    The phase control, hierarchical architecturing and hybridization of iron oxide is important for achieving multifunctional capability for many practical applications. Herein, hierarchically structured reduced graphene oxide (hrGO)/α-Fe2O3 and γ-Fe3O4 nanobox hybrids (hrGO/α-Fe and hrGO/γ-Fe NBhs) are synthesized via a one-pot, hydrothermal process and their functionality controlled by the crystalline phases is adapted for energy storage and photocatalysis. The three-dimensionally (3D) macroporous structure of hrGO/α-Fe NBhs is constructed, while α-Fe2O3 nanoboxes (NBs) in a proximate contact with the hrGO surface are simultaneously grown during a hydrothermal treatment. The discrete α-Fe2O3 NBs are uniformly distributed on the surface of the hrGO/α-Fe and confined in the 3D architecture, thereby inhibiting the restacking of rGO. After the subsequent phase transition into γ-Fe3O4, the hierarchical structure and the uniform distribution of NBs are preserved. Despite lower initial capacity, the hrGO/α-Fe NBhs show better rate and cyclic performances than those of commercial rGO/α-Fe due to the uniform distribution of discrete α-Fe2O3 NBs and electronic conductivity, macroporosity, and buffering effect of the hrGO for lithium ion battery anodes. Moreover, the catalytic activity and kinetics of hrGO/γ-Fe NBhs are enhanced for photo-Fenton reaction because of the uniform distribution of discrete γ-Fe3O4 NBs on the 3D hierarchical architecture.

  7. Distributed Management of Concurrent Web Service Transactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alrifai, Mohammad; Dolog, Peter; Balke, Wolf-Tilo

    2009-01-01

    Business processes involve dynamic compositions of interleaved tasks. Therefore, ensuring reliable transactional processing of Web services is crucial for the success of Web service-based B2B and B2C applications. But the inherent autonomy and heterogeneity of Web services render the applicability...... of conventional ACID transaction models for Web services far from being straightforward. Current Web service transaction models relax the isolation property and rely on compensation mechanisms to ensure atomicity of business transactions in the presence of service failures. However, ensuring consistency...... in the open and dynamic environment of Web services, where interleaving business transactions enter and exit the system independently, remains an open issue. In this paper, we address this problem and propose an architecture that supports concurrency control on the Web services level. An extension...

  8. Hierarchical hybrid control network design based on LON and master-slave RS-422/485 protocol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭可; 陈际达; 陈岚

    2002-01-01

    Aiming at the weaknesses of LON bus, combining the coexistence of fieldbus and DCS (Distribu-ted Control Systems) in control networks, the authors introduce a hierarchical hybrid control network design based on LON and master-slave RS-422/485 protocol. This design adopts LON as the trunk, master-slave RS-422/485 control networks are connected to LON as special subnets by dedicated gateways. It is an implementation method for isomerous control network integration. Data management is ranked according to real-time requirements for different network data. The core components, such as control network nodes, router and gateway, are detailed in the paper. The design utilizes both communication advantage of LonWorks technology and the more powerful control ability of universal MCUs or PLCs, thus it greatly increases system response speed and performance-cost ratio.

  9. Negative Sequence Droop Method based Hierarchical Control for Low Voltage Ride-Through in Grid-Interactive Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Xin; Firoozabadi, Mehdi Savaghebi; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez

    2015-01-01

    . In this paper, a voltage support strategy based on negative sequence droop control, which regulate the positive/negative sequence active and reactive power flow by means of sending proper voltage reference to the inner control loop, is proposed for the grid connected MGs to ride through voltage sags under...... complex line impedance conditions. In this case, the MGs should inject a certain amount of positive and negative sequence power to the grid so that the voltage quality at load side can be maintained at a satisfied level. A two layer hierarchical control strategy is proposed in this paper. The primary...... control loop consists of voltage and current inner loops, conventional droop control and virtual impedance loop while the secondary control loop is based on positive/negative sequence droop control which can achieve power injection under voltage sags. Experimental results with asymmetrical voltage sags...

  10. Rapid phase-controlled microwave synthesis of nanostructured hierarchical tetragonal and cubic β-In 2S 3 dandelion flowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, S. D.; Jagadale, T. C.; Apte, S. K.; Sonawane, R. S.; Kulkarni, M. V.; Patil, S. I.; Ogale, S. B.; Kale, B. B.

    2008-02-01

    Phase controlled synthesis of hierarchical nanostructured β-In 2S 3 dandelion flowers is realized by a rapid microwave solvothermal process using indium metal, nitric acid and thiourea as precursors. The tetragonal and cubic phases of the compound have been successfully and separately stabilized in the same type of dandelion morphology by using aqueous-mediated and methanol-mediated synthesis, respectively. The possible mechanism responsible for phase control is discussed. Optical properties of the flowers as well as their hydrogen generation capability by photodecomposition of H 2S under visible light are also reported.

  11. Controllable preparation of hierarchically core–shell structure NiO/C microspheres for non-enzymatic glucose sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Zhenzhen; Yin, Haoyong; Nie, Qiulin, E-mail: nieqiulin@hdu.edu.cn

    2015-05-25

    Highlights: • Hierarchically core–shell structure NiO/C microspheres were prepared. • The NiO/C microspheres were obtained via layer-by-layer assembly methods. • The NiO/C sensor shows excellent performance in glucose detection. • Good stability and anti-interference were also obtained on the NiO/C sensor. - Abstract: Hierarchically core–shell structure NiO/C microspheres were controllably fabricated with a facile hydrothermal method via layer-by-layer assembly. The single-/double-/triple-/quadri-shelled NiO/C microspheres were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The results showed that the NiO/C composites are flower-like hierarchically structured microspheres composed of the interconnecting porous nanoplates with the thickness of about 50 nm. Every nanoplate is assembled by NiO nanoparticles with diameter about 10 nm. All the multi-shelled NiO/C microspheres show high electro-catalytic activity toward the oxidation of glucose. The double-shelled NiO/C glucose sensor exhibits the best performance with a much wider linear range of 2 μM–1.279 mM, higher sensitivity of 30.19 mA mM{sup −1} cm{sup −2} and lower detection limit of 2 μM. Importantly, long-term stability and favorable anti-interference were obtained thanks to the hierarchically core–shell structure.

  12. Adaptive Hierarchical Sliding Mode Control with Input Saturation for Attitude Regulation of Multi-satellite Tethered System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhiqiang; Sun, Guanghui

    2017-06-01

    This paper proposes a novel adaptive hierarchical sliding mode control for the attitude regulation of the multi-satellite inline tethered system, where the input saturation is taken into account. The governing equations for the attitude dynamics of the three-satellite inline tethered system are derived firstly by utilizing Lagrangian mechanics theory. Considering the fact that the attitude of the central satellite can be adjusted by using the simple exponential stabilization scheme, the decoupling of the central satellite and the terminal ones is presented, and in addition, the new adaptive sliding mode control law is applied to stabilize the attitude dynamics of the two terminal satellites based on the synchronization and partial contraction theory. In the adaptive hierarchical sliding mode control design, the input is modeled as saturated input due to the fact that the flywheel torque is bounded, and meanwhile, an adaptive update rate is introduced to eliminate the effect of the saturated input and the external perturbation. The proposed control scheme can be applied on the two-satellite system to achieve fixed-point rotation. Numerical results validate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  13. Adaptive Hierarchical Sliding Mode Control with Input Saturation for Attitude Regulation of Multi-satellite Tethered System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhiqiang; Sun, Guanghui

    2016-11-01

    This paper proposes a novel adaptive hierarchical sliding mode control for the attitude regulation of the multi-satellite inline tethered system, where the input saturation is taken into account. The governing equations for the attitude dynamics of the three-satellite inline tethered system are derived firstly by utilizing Lagrangian mechanics theory. Considering the fact that the attitude of the central satellite can be adjusted by using the simple exponential stabilization scheme, the decoupling of the central satellite and the terminal ones is presented, and in addition, the new adaptive sliding mode control law is applied to stabilize the attitude dynamics of the two terminal satellites based on the synchronization and partial contraction theory. In the adaptive hierarchical sliding mode control design, the input is modeled as saturated input due to the fact that the flywheel torque is bounded, and meanwhile, an adaptive update rate is introduced to eliminate the effect of the saturated input and the external perturbation. The proposed control scheme can be applied on the two-satellite system to achieve fixed-point rotation. Numerical results validate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  14. Unbundling Transaction Services in the Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Lomet, David; Weikum, Gerhard; Zwilling, Mike

    2009-01-01

    The traditional architecture for a DBMS engine has the recovery, concurrency control and access method code tightly bound together in a storage engine for records. We propose a different approach, where the storage engine is factored into two layers (each of which might have multiple heterogeneous instances). A Transactional Component (TC) works at a logical level only: it knows about transactions and their "logical" concurrency control and undo/redo recovery, but it does not know about page layout, B-trees etc. A Data Component (DC) knows about the physical storage structure. It supports a record oriented interface that provides atomic operations, but it does not know about transactions. Providing atomic record operations may itself involve DC-local concurrency control and recovery, which can be implemented using system transactions. The interaction of the mechanisms in TC and DC leads to multi-level redo (unlike the repeat history paradigm for redo in integrated engines). This refactoring of the system arch...

  15. Controllable synthesis of branched ZnO/Si nanowire arrays with hierarchical structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shengli; Yang, Qianqian; Yu, Binbin; Li, Dingguo; Zhao, Ruisheng; Li, Shuping; Kang, Junyong

    2014-01-01

    A rational approach for creating branched ZnO/Si nanowire arrays with hierarchical structure was developed based on a combination of three simple and cost-effective synthesis pathways. The crucial procedure included growth of crystalline Si nanowire arrays as backbones by chemical etching of Si substrates, deposition of ZnO thin film as a seed layer by magnetron sputtering, and fabrication of ZnO nanowire arrays as branches by hydrothermal growth. The successful synthesis of ZnO/Si heterogeneous nanostructures was confirmed by morphologic, structural, and optical characterizations. The roles of key experimental parameters, such as the etchant solution, the substrate direction, and the seed layer on the hierarchical nanostructure formation, were systematically investigated. It was demonstrated that an etchant solution with an appropriate redox potential of the oxidant was crucial for a moderate etching speed to achieve a well-aligned Si nanowire array with solid and round surface. Meanwhile, the presence of gravity gradient was a key issue for the growth of branched ZnO nanowire arrays. The substrate should be placed vertically or facedown in contrast to the solution surface during the hydrothermal growth. Otherwise, only the condensation of the ZnO nanoparticles took place in a form of film on the substrate surface. The seed layer played another important role in the growth of ZnO nanowire arrays, as it provided nucleation sites and determined the growing direction and density of the nanowire arrays for reducing the thermodynamic barrier. The results of this study might provide insight on the synthesis of hierarchical three-dimensional nanostructure materials and offer an approach for the development of complex devices and advanced applications.

  16. Integrity in Transactional Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    This chapter begins with a discussion of the impact of limited resources on the integrity of transactions between students and student affairs administrators. A framework and guiding principles for maintaining integrity are offered, and then some general principles for transactions with students are presented. Next, the chapter involves integrity…

  17. Automation of control and analysis of execution of official duties and instructions in the hierarchical organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demchenko A.I.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the problem of monitoring over execution of official duties of employees. This problem is characteristic of the enterprises having a hierarchical management structure. The functions and the modes of monitoring are defined, the types of analysis of the staff activities are provided. The description of the program complex allowing distributing functions and instructions for between the employees is given. The developed computer program allows tracking the performance, creating reports. The computer program has a demarcation of access rights and provides the can be operated in both local, and a large-scale network.

  18. Networks and transaction costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henning, Christian H.C.A.; Henningsen, Geraldine; Henningsen, Arne

    Based on the well-known fact that social networks can provide effective mechanisms that help to increase the trust level between two trade partners, we apply a simple game-theoretical framework to derive transaction costs as a high risk of opportunistic behavior in a repeated trade relation...... transaction cost functions for all traded farm inputs and outputs. Estimation results based on a sample of 315 Polish farms imply a significant influence of social network structures on farm’s transaction costs. Moreover, estimated transaction costs correspond to a reasonable amount of farm specific shadow...... determined by the density and size of trading networks. In the empirical part of the paper we apply a two stage procedure to estimate the impact of social network structures on farm’s transaction costs observed for different input and output markets. At a first stage we estimate a multiple input...

  19. Transaction Processing in Mobile Real-Time Database Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEIXiangdong; ZHAOYuelong; YUANXiaoli

    2005-01-01

    Multiversion optimistic concurrency control protocol (MVOCC) is presented for processing mobile real-tlme transactions. The protocol can eliminate conflicts between read-only and update transactions and resolve data conflicts flexibly using dynamic adjustment of serialization order to avoid unnecessary restarts of transactions. The Mobile hosts (MHs) do not need to synchronize with each other and server for data conflict detection. Read-only transactions can be efficiently processed at MHs. Response time of read-only transactions is greatly improved. Local validation of transactions is performed at MHs. To prevent cached data inconsistent transactions that survive in local validation must be submitted to server for global validation. The protocol presented is compared with OCC-TI-WAIT50 and HP2PL by simulation experiments. The results of experiment show that the protocol performs better than other protocols under normal load.

  20. Controllable synthesis of ZnO hierarchical architectures and their photocatalytic property

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Linxia; Zhang, Baoliang; Li, Wei; Li, Xiangjie; Xin, Tinjun; Zhang, Qiuyu

    2014-11-01

    A facile solution route to synthesize ZnO hierarchical architectures was carried out employing trisodium citrate as structure-directing agent. Three different morphologies and crystal phase samples, including double-layer hexagonal prism ascribed to wurtzite ZnO (JCPDS No. 36-1451), porous microspheres ascribed to an unusual ZnO phase (JCPDS No. 21-1486) and smooth solid amorphous zinc citrate microsphere, were obtained. FESEM, TEM, XRD and FT-IR spectroscope were used to investigate the structure character of the products. The influence of the citrate concentration on ZnO microstructure was studied. It was found that the citrate concentration played a key role in evolution of the morphology and crystal phase. On the basis of experimental results, a possible formation mechanism of the ZnO hierarchical nanostructures was proposed. Photocatalytic property of the samples was evaluated by photodegradation reaction of methylene blue (MB) under UV irradiation. Among these products, double-layer hexagonal prism samples exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity.

  1. Precise size control over ultrafine rutile titania nanocrystallites in hierarchical nanotubular silica/titania hybrids with efficient photocatalytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yuanqing; Huang, Jianguo

    2013-08-12

    Hierarchical-structured nanotubular silica/titania hybrids incorporated with particle-size-controllable ultrafine rutile titania nanocrystallites were realized by deposition of ultrathin titania sandwiched silica gel films onto each nanofiber of natural cellulose substances (e.g., common commercial filter paper) and subsequent flame burning in air. The rapid flame burning transforms the initially amorphous titania into rutile phase titania, and the silica gel films suppress the crystallite growth of rutile titania, thereby achieving nano-precise size regulation of ultrafine rutile titania nanocrystallites densely embedded in the silica films of the nanotubes. The average diameters of these nanocrystallites are adjustable in a range of approximately 3.3-16.0 nm by a crystallite size increment rate of about 2.4 nm per titania deposition cycle. The silica films transfer the electrons activated by crystalline titania and generate catalytic reactive species at the outer surface. The size-tuned ultrafine rutile titania nanocrystallites distributed in the unique hierarchical networks significantly improve the photocatalytic performance of the rutile phase titania, thereby enabling a highly efficient photocatalytic degradation of the methylene blue dye under ultraviolet light irradiation, which is even superior to the pure anatase-titania-based materials. The facile stepwise size control of the rutile titania crystallites described here opens an effective pathway for the design and preparation of fine-nanostructured rutile phase titania materials to explore potential applications.

  2. Controlled synthesis, growth mechanism and highly efficient solar photocatalysis of nitrogen-doped bismuth subcarbonate hierarchical nanosheets architectures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Fan; Sun, Yanjuan; Ho, Wing-Kei; Wu, Zhongbiao

    2012-07-21

    The synthesis and self-assembly of hierarchical architectures from nanoscale building blocks with unique morphology, orientation and dimension have opened up new opportunities to enhance their functional performances and remain a great challenge. This work represents tunable synthesis of various types of 3D monodisperse in situ N-doped (BiO)(2)CO(3) hierarchical architectures composed of 2D single-crystal nanosheets with dominant (001) facets by a one-pot template-free hydrothermal method from bismuth citrate and ammonia solution. Depending on the concentration of ammonia solution, the morphology of N-doped (BiO)(2)CO(3), including dandelion-like, hydrangea-like and peony flower-like microspheres, can be selectively constructed due to different self-assembly patterns of nanosheets. It was revealed that the ammonia played dual roles in the formation of N-doped (BiO)(2)CO(3) architectures. One is to hydrolyze bismuth citrate, and the other is to behave as a nitrogen doping source. The in situ doped nitrogen substituted for oxygen in (BiO)(2)CO(3) and subsequently narrowed the band gap, making N-doped (BiO)(2)CO(3) visible light active. Due to the special nanosheets architectures, the prepared various N-doped (BiO)(2)CO(3) materials exhibited especially efficient photocatalytic activity and high durability for the removal of NO in air under both visible and UV light irradiation. Based on the direct observation of the growth process with respect to phase structure, chemical composition and morphological structure, a novel growth mechanism is revealed, which involves a unique multistep pathway, including reaction-nucleation, aggregation, crystallization, dissolution-recrystallization, and Ostwald ripening. The facile synthesis approach and the proposed growth mechanism could provide new insights into the design and controlled synthesis of inorganic hierarchical materials with new or enhanced properties.

  3. A Hierarchical Reliability Control Method for a Space Manipulator Based on the Strategy of Autonomous Decision-Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Gao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to maintain and enhance the operational reliability of a robotic manipulator deployed in space, an operational reliability system control method is presented in this paper. First, a method to divide factors affecting the operational reliability is proposed, which divides the operational reliability factors into task-related factors and cost-related factors. Then the models describing the relationships between the two kinds of factors and control variables are established. Based on this, a multivariable and multiconstraint optimization model is constructed. Second, a hierarchical system control model which incorporates the operational reliability factors is constructed. The control process of the space manipulator is divided into three layers: task planning, path planning, and motion control. Operational reliability related performance parameters are measured and used as the system’s feedback. Taking the factors affecting the operational reliability into consideration, the system can autonomously decide which control layer of the system should be optimized and how to optimize it using a control level adjustment decision module. The operational reliability factors affect these three control levels in the form of control variable constraints. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed method can achieve a greater probability of meeting the task accuracy requirements, while extending the expected lifetime of the space manipulator.

  4. Controlling Hierarchically Self-Assembly in Supramolecular Tailed-Dendron Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlet-Lacroix, Nathalie; Rao, Jingui; Zhang, Afang; Schlüter, Dieter; Ruokolainen, Janne; Mezzenga, Raffaele

    2010-03-01

    We study the self-assembly of a dendritic macromolecular system formed by a second-generation dendron and a polymer chain emanating from its focal point. We use supramolecular ionic interactions to attach to the periphery of the dendrons sulphated alkyl tails. The resulting ``triblock copolymers'' have a molecular architecture similar to a four-arm pitchfork with varying arms and holder lengths. The bulk morphologies observed by SAXS and TEM show thermodynamically stable, hierarchical ``inverted'' hexagonal or lamellar structures. The structural models for the molecular packing emerging from experimental findings are benchmarked to available self-consistent field theories (SCFT) and experiments and theoretical predictions are found in perfect agreement. The present results show that supramolecular systems based on tailed dendrons and surfactants can be used to scale up of the structural organization from the liquid crystalline length scale to the block copolymer length scale, while preserving the inverted unconventional morphologies offering new possibilities in the design of nanostructured materials.

  5. Micromechanics of hierarchical materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mishnaevsky, Leon, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    A short overview of micromechanical models of hierarchical materials (hybrid composites, biomaterials, fractal materials, etc.) is given. Several examples of the modeling of strength and damage in hierarchical materials are summarized, among them, 3D FE model of hybrid composites...... with nanoengineered matrix, fiber bundle model of UD composites with hierarchically clustered fibers and 3D multilevel model of wood considered as a gradient, cellular material with layered composite cell walls. The main areas of research in micromechanics of hierarchical materials are identified, among them......, the investigations of the effects of load redistribution between reinforcing elements at different scale levels, of the possibilities to control different material properties and to ensure synergy of strengthening effects at different scale levels and using the nanoreinforcement effects. The main future directions...

  6. Hierarchical auxetic mechanical metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatt, Ruben; Mizzi, Luke; Azzopardi, Joseph I; Azzopardi, Keith M; Attard, Daphne; Casha, Aaron; Briffa, Joseph; Grima, Joseph N

    2015-02-11

    Auxetic mechanical metamaterials are engineered systems that exhibit the unusual macroscopic property of a negative Poisson's ratio due to sub-unit structure rather than chemical composition. Although their unique behaviour makes them superior to conventional materials in many practical applications, they are limited in availability. Here, we propose a new class of hierarchical auxetics based on the rotating rigid units mechanism. These systems retain the enhanced properties from having a negative Poisson's ratio with the added benefits of being a hierarchical system. Using simulations on typical hierarchical multi-level rotating squares, we show that, through design, one can control the extent of auxeticity, degree of aperture and size of the different pores in the system. This makes the system more versatile than similar non-hierarchical ones, making them promising candidates for industrial and biomedical applications, such as stents and skin grafts.

  7. Hierarchical Auxetic Mechanical Metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatt, Ruben; Mizzi, Luke; Azzopardi, Joseph I.; Azzopardi, Keith M.; Attard, Daphne; Casha, Aaron; Briffa, Joseph; Grima, Joseph N.

    2015-02-01

    Auxetic mechanical metamaterials are engineered systems that exhibit the unusual macroscopic property of a negative Poisson's ratio due to sub-unit structure rather than chemical composition. Although their unique behaviour makes them superior to conventional materials in many practical applications, they are limited in availability. Here, we propose a new class of hierarchical auxetics based on the rotating rigid units mechanism. These systems retain the enhanced properties from having a negative Poisson's ratio with the added benefits of being a hierarchical system. Using simulations on typical hierarchical multi-level rotating squares, we show that, through design, one can control the extent of auxeticity, degree of aperture and size of the different pores in the system. This makes the system more versatile than similar non-hierarchical ones, making them promising candidates for industrial and biomedical applications, such as stents and skin grafts.

  8. Transactional vs. Strategic Sourcing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mark Ware

    2010-01-01

    .... It's frequently a situation of "here's the comparator that's needed. . .find it yesterday." Having to source a comparator in a very short amount of time can impose a transactional approach to sourcing, rather than a strategic one...

  9. Hierarchical nitrogen doped bismuth niobate architectures: Controllable synthesis and excellent photocatalytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Jungang, E-mail: lorinhjg@yahoo.com.cn [School of Metallurgical and Ecological Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Cao, Rui; Wang, Zheng [School of Metallurgical and Ecological Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Jiao, Shuqiang, E-mail: sjiao@ustb.edu.cn [School of Metallurgical and Ecological Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhu, Hongmin [School of Metallurgical and Ecological Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2012-05-30

    Graphical abstract: Efficient visible-light-driven photocatalysts of peony-like nitrogen doped Bi{sub 3}NbO{sub 7} hierarchical architectures and silver-layered Bi{sub 3}NbO{sub 7-x}Nx heterostructures were successfully synthesized in this discovery. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer N-Bi{sub 3}NbO{sub 7} architectures were synthesized via two-step hydrothermal process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electronic structure calculations indicated that N replaced O in samples. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Growth mechanism is proposed for transformation of nanoparticles to microflowers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Excellent activities of N-Bi{sub 3}NbO{sub 7} architectures were obtained for degradation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Enhanced photocatalytic performance was observed for Ag/N-Bi{sub 3}NbO{sub 7} architectures. - Abstract: Nitrogen doped bismuth niobate (N-Bi{sub 3}NbO{sub 7}) hierarchical architectures were synthesized via a facile two-step hydrothermal process. XRD patterns revealed that the defect fluorite-type crystal structure of Bi{sub 3}NbO{sub 7} remained intact upon nitrogen doping. Electron microscopy showed the N-Bi{sub 3}NbO{sub 7} architecture has a unique peony-like spherical superstructure composed of numerous nanosheets. UV-vis spectra indicated that nitrogen doping in the compound results in a red-shift of the absorption edge from 450 nm to 470 nm. XPS indicated that [Bi/Nb]-N bonds were formed by inducing nitrogen to replace a small amount of oxygen in Bi{sub 3}NbO{sub 7-x}N{sub x}, which is explained by electronic structure calculations including energy band and density of states. Based on observations of architectures formation, a possible growth mechanism was proposed to explain the transformation of polyhedral-like nanoparticles to peony-like microflowers via an Ostwald riping mechanism followed by self-assembly. The N-Bi{sub 3}NbO{sub 7} architectures due to the large specific surface area and nitrogen doping exhibited higher

  10. Adaptive Hierarchical Control for the Muscle Strength Training of Stroke Survivors in Robot-aided Upper-limb Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guozheng Xu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Muscle strength training for stroke patients is of vital importance for helping survivors to progressively restore muscle strength and improve the performance of their activities in daily living (ADL. An adaptive hierarchical therapy control framework which integrates the patient’s real biomechanical state estimation with task‐performance quantitative evaluation is proposed. Firstly, a high‐level progressive resistive supervisory controller is designed to determine the resistive force base for each training session based on the patient’s online task‐performance evaluation. Then, a low‐level adaptive resistive force triggered controller is presented to further regulate the interactive resistive force corresponding to the patient’s real‐time biomechanical state ‐ characterized by the patient’s bio‐damping and bio‐stiffness in the course of one training session, so that the patient is challenged in a moderate but engaging and motivating way. Finally, a therapeutic robot system using a Barrett WAMTM compliant manipulator is set up. We recruited eighteen inpatient and outpatient stroke participants who were randomly allocated in experimental (robot‐aided and control (conventional physical therapy groups and enrolled for sixteen weeks of progressive resistance training. The preliminary results show that the proposed therapy control strategies can enhance the recovery of strength and motor control ability.

  11. The chromosome axis controls meiotic events through a hierarchical assembly of HORMA domain proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yumi; Rosenberg, Scott C; Kugel, Christine L; Kostow, Nora; Rog, Ofer; Davydov, Vitaliy; Su, Tiffany Y; Dernburg, Abby F; Corbett, Kevin D

    2014-11-24

    Proteins of the HORMA domain family play central, but poorly understood, roles in chromosome organization and dynamics during meiosis. In Caenorhabditis elegans, four such proteins (HIM-3, HTP-1, HTP-2, and HTP-3) have distinct but overlapping functions. Through combined biochemical, structural, and in vivo analysis, we find that these proteins form hierarchical complexes through binding of their HORMA domains to cognate peptides within their partners' C-terminal tails, analogous to the "safety belt" binding mechanism of Mad2. These interactions are critical for recruitment of HIM-3, HTP-1, and HTP-2 to chromosome axes. HTP-3, in addition to recruiting the other HORMA domain proteins to the axis, plays an independent role in sister chromatid cohesion and double-strand break formation. Finally, we find that mammalian HORMAD1 binds a motif found both at its own C terminus and at that of HORMAD2, indicating that this mode of intermolecular association is a conserved feature of meiotic chromosome structure in eukaryotes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A Hybrid System of Hierarchical Planning of Behaviour Selection Networks for Mobile Robot Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Seol Lee

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available An office delivery robot receives a large amount of sensory data and there is uncertainty in its action outcomes. The robot should not only accomplish its goals using environmental information, but also consider various exceptions simultaneously. In this paper, we propose a hybrid system using hierarchical planning of modular behaviour selection networks to generate autonomous behaviour in the office delivery robot. Behaviour selection networks, one of the well-known behaviour-based methods suitable for goal-oriented tasks, are made up of several smaller behaviour modules. Planning is attached to the construct and adjust sequences of the modules by considering the sub-goals, the priority in each task and the user feedback. This helps the robot to quickly react in dynamic situations as well as achieve global goals efficiently. The proposed system is verified with both the Webot simulator and a Khepera II robot that runs in a real office environment carrying out delivery tasks. Experimental results have shown that a robot can achieve goals and generate module sequences successfully even in unpredictable situations. Additionally, the proposed planning method reduced the elapsed time during tasks by 17.5% since it adjusts the behaviour module sequences more effectively.

  13. Controlled synthesis of hierarchical TiO2 nanoparticles on glass fibres and their photocatalytic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin; Yang, Sudong; Mäder, Edith; Ma, Peng-Cheng

    2014-09-07

    This paper reports the synthesis of novel photocatalysts consisting of TiO2 nanoparticles and glass fibres (GF) using a two-step process. The method involves the hydrolysis of titanium tetrachloride in the presence of GF and a following hydrothermal process under alkaline conditions. Various techniques are employed to characterize the morphology, structure and crystallinity of TiO2 on the fibre surface. The results show that depending on the experiment setups, TiO2 nanoparticles exhibit spherical or flake-like morphology, forming characteristic hierarchical structures along with flexible GF. Flake-like TiO2/GF exhibits much enhanced photocatalytic activity thanks to the large surface area and the hetero-junction of anatase and TiO2-B phases observed in its structure. An interesting observation is that the alkali treatment of GF leads to the formation of porous structures on the fibre surface, facilitating the adsorption-concentration-promoted photocatalytic process. The removal ratio of the organic dye by employing TiO2/GF remains more than 80% after six cyclic runs, showing the reusability of photocatalysts in real application. The novelty of this work lies in the synergy arising from materials with unique morphologies, structures and availabilities as well as capabilities in separating photogenerated electron-hole pairs, which have not been specifically considered previously in photocatalytic semiconductors.

  14. Valuation of Transactive Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammerstrom, Donald J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Corbin, Charles D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fernandez, Nicholas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Homer, Juliet S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Makhmalbaf, Atefe [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Pratt, Robert G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Somani, Abhishek [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gilbert, Erik I. [Navigant Consulting, Boulder, CO (United States); Chandler, Shawn [Navigant Consulting, Portland, OR (United States); Shandross, Richard [Navigant Consulting, Burlington, MA (United States)

    2016-05-12

    This is a final report from a project funded by the U.S. Department of Energy to formulate and test a methodology for valuation of systems where transaction-based mechanisms coordinate the exchange of value between the system’s actors. Today, the principal commodity being exchanged is electrical energy, and such mechanisms are called transactive energy systems. The authors strove to lay a foundation for meaningful valuations of transactive systems in general, and transactive energy systems as a special case. The word valuation is used in many different ways. This report proposes a valuation methodology that is inclusive of many types of valuations. Many will be familiar with cost-benefit valuations, in which both costs and benefits are assessed to determine whether the assets are worth their cost. Another set of valuation methods attempt to optimize an outcome using available resources, as is the case with integrated resource planning. In the end, this report’s methodology was most influenced by and most resembles the integrated-resource-planning approach. Regardless, we wish to enforce the premise that all valuations are comparative and should clearly specify a baseline scenario. A long, annotated list of prior valuation studies and valuation methodologies that influenced this report has been appended to this report. Much research is being conducted today concerning transactive systems, but only a handful of transactive system mechanisms have been formulated and field tested. They are found to be quite diverse, and the documentation of the various mechanisms is uneven in breadth and quality. It is therefore not adequate to simply assert that a valuation scenario includes a transactive system; certain characteristics and qualities of the chosen transactive system mechanism must be defined and stated. The report lists and discusses most of the known transactive system mechanisms. It offers a set of questions that may be used to help specify important

  15. On Energy Efficient Hierarchical Cross-Layer Design: Joint Power Control and Routing for Ad Hoc Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Comaniciu, Cristina

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, a hierarchical cross-layer design approach is proposed to increase energy efficiency in ad hoc networks through joint adaptation of nodes' transmitting powers and route selection. The design maintains the advantages of the classic OSI model, while accounting for the cross-coupling between layers, through information sharing. The proposed joint power control and routing algorithm is shown to increase significantly the overall energy efficiency of the network, at the expense of a moderate increase in complexity. Performance enhancement of the joint design using multiuser detection is also investigated, and it is shown that the use of multiuser detection can increase the capacity of the ad hoc network significantly for a given level of energy consumption.

  16. Morphology and Crystallinity-controlled Synthesis of Manganese Cobalt Oxide/Manganese Dioxides Hierarchical Nanostructures for High-Performance Supercapacitors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fei; Li; Gang; Li; Hao; Chen; Jia; Qi; Jia; Fan; Dong; Yao; Bo; Hu; Zheng; Guo; Shang; 张育新

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate a novel preparative strategy for the well-controlled MnCo2O4.5@MnO2 hierarchical nanostructures.Bothδ-MnO2 nanosheets andα-MnO2 nanorods can uniformly decorate the surface of MnCo2O4.5nanowires to form core-shell heterostructures.Detailed electrochemical characterization reveals that MnCo2O4.5@δ-MnO2 pattern exhibits not only high specific capacitance of 357.5 F g-1at a scan rate of 0.5 A g-1,but also good cycle stability(97%capacitance retention after 1000 cycles at a scan rate of 5 A g-1),which make it have a promising application as a supercapacitor electrode material.

  17. A novel 300 kW arc plasma inverter system based on hierarchical controlled building block structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    To date, the high power arc plasma technology is widely used. A next generation high power arc plasma system based on building block structure is presented. The whole arc plasma inverter system is composed of 12 paralleled units to increase the system output capability. The hierarchical control system is adopted to improve the reliability and flexibility of the high power arc plasma inverter. To ensure the reliable turn on and off of the IGBT module in each building block unit, a special pulse drive circuit is designed by using pulse transformer. The experimental result indicates that the high power arc plasma inverter system can transfer 300 kW arc plasma energy reliably with high efficiency.

  18. On Energy-Efficient Hierarchical Cross-Layer Design: Joint Power Control and Routing for Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poor HVincent

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A hierarchical cross-layer design approach is proposed to increase energy efficiency in ad hoc networks through joint adaptation of nodes' transmitting powers and route selection. The design maintains the advantages of the classic OSI model, while accounting for the cross-coupling between layers, through information sharing. The proposed joint power control and routing algorithm is shown to increase significantly the overall energy efficiency of the network, at the expense of a moderate increase in complexity. Performance enhancement of the joint design using multiuser detection is also investigated, and it is shown that the use of multiuser detection can increase the capacity of the ad hoc network significantly for a given level of energy consumption.

  19. Hierarchical tree-structured control network for the Antares laser facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGirt, F.

    1979-01-01

    The design and implementation of a distributed, computer-based control system for the Antares 100-kJ gas laser fusion facility is presented. Control system requirements and their operational interrelationships that consider both integrated system control and individual subsystem control are described. Several configurations of minicomputers are established to provide direct control of sets of microcomputers and to provide points of operator-laser interaction. Over 100 microcomputers are located very close to the laser device control points or sources of data and perform the real-time functions of the control system, such as data and control signal multiplexing, stepping motor control, and vacuum and gas system control. These microcomputers are designed to be supported as an integral part of the control network and to be software compatible with the larger minicomputers.

  20. 31 CFR 500.511 - Transactions by certain business enterprises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... organization engaging in business pursuant to this section shall not engage in any transaction, pursuant to... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transactions by certain business... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL...

  1. 31 CFR 515.511 - Transactions by certain business enterprises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... organization engaging in business pursuant to this section shall not engage in any transaction, pursuant to... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transactions by certain business... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUBAN ASSETS CONTROL...

  2. Hierarchical photocatalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Yu, Jiaguo; Jaroniec, Mietek

    2016-05-01

    As a green and sustainable technology, semiconductor-based heterogeneous photocatalysis has received much attention in the last few decades because it has potential to solve both energy and environmental problems. To achieve efficient photocatalysts, various hierarchical semiconductors have been designed and fabricated at the micro/nanometer scale in recent years. This review presents a critical appraisal of fabrication methods, growth mechanisms and applications of advanced hierarchical photocatalysts. Especially, the different synthesis strategies such as two-step templating, in situ template-sacrificial dissolution, self-templating method, in situ template-free assembly, chemically induced self-transformation and post-synthesis treatment are highlighted. Finally, some important applications including photocatalytic degradation of pollutants, photocatalytic H2 production and photocatalytic CO2 reduction are reviewed. A thorough assessment of the progress made in photocatalysis may open new opportunities in designing highly effective hierarchical photocatalysts for advanced applications ranging from thermal catalysis, separation and purification processes to solar cells.

  3. Complexity, Robustness, and Multistability in Network Systems with Switching Topologies: A Hierarchical Hybrid Control Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-22

    Control Problem for UAV For- mations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2.2. Output Feedback Adaptive...10 2.6. On the Equivalence Between Dissipativity and Optimality of Discontinuous Nonlinear Regulators for Filippov Dynamical Systems...dynamical 1 systems controlled by optimal and inverse optimal discontinuous regulators . These results were used to design protocol controllers for group

  4. COED Transactions, Vol. X, No. 1, January 1978. Design and Simulation of an Automobile Guidance Control System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefani, R. T.

    This document describes the design of an automatic guidance and control system for a passenger car. A simulation of that system is presented. Analog outputs are provided which compare human operator control to automatic control. One human control possibility is to provide the operator with sufficient feedback information that resulting performance…

  5. COED Transactions, Vol. X, No. 1, January 1978. Design and Simulation of an Automobile Guidance Control System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefani, R. T.

    This document describes the design of an automatic guidance and control system for a passenger car. A simulation of that system is presented. Analog outputs are provided which compare human operator control to automatic control. One human control possibility is to provide the operator with sufficient feedback information that resulting performance…

  6. Hierarchical nanostructures of copper(II) phthalocyanine on electrospun TiO(2) nanofibers: controllable solvothermal-fabrication and enhanced visible photocatalytic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingyi; Shao, Changlu; Guo, Zengcai; Zhang, Zhenyi; Mu, Jingbo; Cao, Tieping; Liu, Yichun

    2011-02-01

    In the present work, 2,9,16,23-tetranitrophthalocyanine copper(II) (TNCuPc)/TiO(2) hierarchical nanostructures were successfully fabricated by a simple combination method of electrospinning technique and solvothermal processing. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-vis diffuse reflectance (DR), Fourier transform infrared spectrum (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and thermal gravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA) were used to characterize the as-synthesized TNCuPc/TiO(2) hierarchical nanostructures. The results showed that the secondary TNCuPc nanostructures were not only successfully grown on the primary TiO(2) nanofibers substrates but also uniformly distributed without aggregation. By adjusting the solvothermal fabrication parameters, the TNCuPc nanowires or nanoflowers were facilely fabricated, and also the loading amounts of TNCuPc could be controlled on the TNCuPc/TiO(2) hierarchical nanostructural nanofibers. And, there might exist the interaction between TNCuPc and TiO(2). A possible mechanism for the formation of TNCuPc/TiO(2) hierarchical nanostructures was suggested. The photocatalytic studies revealed that the TNCuPc/TiO(2) hierarchical nanostructures exhibited enhanced photocatalytic efficiency of photodegradation of Rhodamine B (RB) compared with the pure TNCuPc or TiO(2) nanofibers under visible-light irradiation.

  7. 3级递阶舰艇作战系统控制结构%Kind of three-level hierarchical control architecture for shipborne combat system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕遐东; 姚腾钢; 黄心汉

    2011-01-01

    介绍了一种舰艇作战系统3级递阶集成控制结构,该结构自上而下包括系统组织级、资源协调级和设备执行级,形成了“信号-数据-知识”的3层信息递阶关系和“伺服-协调-组织”的3层控制递阶关系;同时融合了基于领域专家设计经验和指挥员作战知识的学习控制,结合“人在回路”设计实现人机智能的统一.针对作战系统分级递阶控制的信息度量、资源调度的离散事件建模、基于知识/规则的系统控制等基础理论问题进行了分析探讨.%A kind of three-level hierarchical control architecture for shipborne combat system Was introduced. The architecture consisted of three control levels from top to bottom including system-organizing layer, resource-coordinating layer and device-executing layer. It induced "signal-data-knowledge" hierarchical information model and "servo-coordinate-organize" hierarchical control model. The architecture also fused learning control based on expert experience and commander knowledge to integrate with human and machine intelligence by "man-in-loop" design. Considering hierarchical information evaluation, discrete event modeling for resource scheduling and knowledge-based system control, these theoretical fundamental issues had been discussed to combat system's hierarchical control application.

  8. A novel decentralized hierarchical access control scheme for the medical scenario

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskeland, Sigurd; Prasad, Neeli R.

    2006-01-01

    to be the property of the corresponding patient, it is justified that patients should have the opportunity to exert control over their own data. In this paper, we propose a cryptographic access control scheme allowing patients to grant medical teams authorizations to access their medical data. Moreover...

  9. Optimizing data access for wind farm control over hierarchical communication networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jacob Theilgaard; Findrik, Mislav; Madsen, Tatiana Kozlova

    2016-01-01

    and communication networks on the controller performance. We start by investigating the effects of a communication network that introduces delays in the information access for the central controller. The control performance as measured by accumulated fatigue is shown to be significantly impacted by communication....... This information quality metric is called mismatch probability, mmPr, and is used to express quantitatively the information accuracy in a given scenario. Lastly measurements of different communication technologies have been performed in order to carry out the analysis in a practically relevant scenario......In this paper we investigate a centralized wind farm controller which runs periodically. The controller attempts to reduce the damage a wind turbine sustains during operation by estimating fatigue based on the wind turbine state. The investigation focuses on the impact of information access...

  10. Resources and Transaction Costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Kirsten; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2004-01-01

    AbstractThe economics of property rights furthers the resource-based view in a number ofways. Resource analysis is refined by conceptualizing resources as composed ofmultiple attributes to which property rights may be held. A resource owner's abilityto create, appropriate and sustain value from...... resources depends on the propertyrights that she holds to those resources and on the transaction costs of exchanging,defining and protecting the relevant property rights. While transaction costs aremajor sources of value dissipation, value may be created by reducing suchdissipation. Implications for the RBV...

  11. Modelling Real Property Transactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkjær, Erik

    2002-01-01

    . The developed models and a subsequent comparative analysis can be used for improving the efficiency of the procedures. Further-more, the COST action will support Ph.D.-studies by providing a much-needed international research framework and a basis for Ph.D.-level courses. The paper develops on the multi...... of researchers relate to surveying studies, and hence to the FIG. The main objective of the action is to improve the transparency of real property markets and to provide a stronger basis for the reduction of costs of real property transactions by preparing a set of models of real property transaction...

  12. Remarks on Hierarchic Control for a Linearized Micropolar Fluids System in Moving Domains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jesus, Isaías Pereira de, E-mail: isaias@ufpi.edu.br [Universidade Federal do Piauí, Dpto. Matemática (Brazil)

    2015-12-15

    We study a Stackelberg strategy subject to the evolutionary linearized micropolar fluids equations in domains with moving boundaries, considering a Nash multi-objective equilibrium (non necessarily cooperative) for the “follower players” (as is called in the economy field) and an optimal problem for the leader player with approximate controllability objective. We will obtain the following main results: the existence and uniqueness of Nash equilibrium and its characterization, the approximate controllability of the linearized micropolar system with respect to the leader control and the existence and uniqueness of the Stackelberg–Nash problem, where the optimality system for the leader is given.

  13. On the hierarchical optimal control of a chain of distributed systems

    OpenAIRE

    Befekadu, Getachew K.; Pasiliao, Eduardo L.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we consider a chain of distributed systems governed by a degenerate parabolic equation, which satisfies a weak H\\"{o}rmander type condition, with a control distributed over an open subdomain. In particular, we consider two objectives that we would like to accomplish. The first one being of a controllability type that consists of guaranteeing the terminal state to reach a target set starting from an initial condition; while the second one is keeping the state trajectory of the o...

  14. Serial grey-box model of a stratified thermal tank for hierarchical control of a solar plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arahal, Manuel R. [Universidad de Sevilla, Dpto. de Ingenieria de Sistemas y Automatica, Camino de los Descubrimientos s/n, 41092 Sevilla (Spain); Cirre, Cristina M. [Convenio Universidad de Almeria-Plataforma Solar de Almeria, Ctra. Senes s/n, 04200 Tabernas, Almeria (Spain); Berenguel, Manuel [Universidad de Almeria, Dpto. Lenguajes y Computacion, Ctra. Sacramento s/n, 04120, Almeria (Spain)

    2008-05-15

    The ACUREX collector field together with a thermal storage tank and a power conversion system forms the Small Solar Power Systems plant of the Plataforma Solar de Almeria, a facility that has been used for research for the last 25 years. A simulator of the collector field produced by the last author has been available to and used as a test-bed for control strategies. Up to now, however, there is not a model for the whole plant. Such model is needed for hierarchical control schemes also proposed by the authors. In this paper a model of the thermal storage tank is derived using the Simultaneous Perturbation Stochastic Approximation technique to adjust the parameters of a serial grey-box model structure. The benefits of the proposed approach are discussed in the context of the intended use, requiring a model capable of simulating the behavior of the storage tank with low computational load and low error over medium to large horizons. The model is tested against real data in a variety of situations showing its performance in terms of simulation error in the temperature profile and in the usable energy stored in the tank. The results obtained demonstrate the viability of the proposed approach. (author)

  15. Transacted Memory for Smart Cards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartel, Pieter H.; Butler, Michael J.; de Jong, Eduard; Longley, Mark; Olivieira, J.N.; Zave, P.

    A transacted memory that is implemented using EEPROM technology offers persistence, undoability and auditing. The transacted memory system is formally specified in Z, and refined in two steps to a prototype C implementation / SPIN model. Conclusions are offered both on the transacted memory system

  16. 76 FR 18255 - Amendment to Prohibited Transaction Exemption (PTE) 96-23 for Plan Asset Transactions Determined...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ... plan sponsor or its designee retains the right to veto or approve such transaction; (b) The transaction...) The combined voting power of all classes of stock entitled to vote or the total value of the shares of...'' means the power to exercise a controlling influence over the management or policies of a person other...

  17. Strategy Implementation through Hierarchical Couplings in a Management Control Package : An Explorative Case Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kolk, Berend; Schokker, Tom

    2016-01-01

    We examine how couplings of management control (MC) elements help to implement an organization’s strategy. Despite prior research stating that couplings between MC elements form fruitful soil for further research, empirical studies in this area are still scarce. We draw on coupling theory to explore

  18. Active Power Quality Improvement Strategy for Grid-connected Microgrid Based on Hierarchical Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Feng; Sun, Kai; Guan, Yajuan

    2017-01-01

    When connected to a distorted grid utility, droop-controlled grid-connected microgrids (DCGC-MG) exhibit low equivalent impedance. The harmonic and unbalanced voltage at the point of common coupling (PCC) deteriorates the power quality of the grid-connected current (GCC) of DCGC-MG. This work...

  19. An effective and secure key-management scheme for hierarchical access control in E-medicine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odelu, Vanga; Das, Ashok Kumar; Goswami, Adrijit

    2013-04-01

    Recently several hierarchical access control schemes are proposed in the literature to provide security of e-medicine systems. However, most of them are either insecure against 'man-in-the-middle attack' or they require high storage and computational overheads. Wu and Chen proposed a key management method to solve dynamic access control problems in a user hierarchy based on hybrid cryptosystem. Though their scheme improves computational efficiency over Nikooghadam et al.'s approach, it suffers from large storage space for public parameters in public domain and computational inefficiency due to costly elliptic curve point multiplication. Recently, Nikooghadam and Zakerolhosseini showed that Wu-Chen's scheme is vulnerable to man-in-the-middle attack. In order to remedy this security weakness in Wu-Chen's scheme, they proposed a secure scheme which is again based on ECC (elliptic curve cryptography) and efficient one-way hash function. However, their scheme incurs huge computational cost for providing verification of public information in the public domain as their scheme uses ECC digital signature which is costly when compared to symmetric-key cryptosystem. In this paper, we propose an effective access control scheme in user hierarchy which is only based on symmetric-key cryptosystem and efficient one-way hash function. We show that our scheme reduces significantly the storage space for both public and private domains, and computational complexity when compared to Wu-Chen's scheme, Nikooghadam-Zakerolhosseini's scheme, and other related schemes. Through the informal and formal security analysis, we further show that our scheme is secure against different attacks and also man-in-the-middle attack. Moreover, dynamic access control problems in our scheme are also solved efficiently compared to other related schemes, making our scheme is much suitable for practical applications of e-medicine systems.

  20. Modelling Real Property Transactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkjær, Erik

    2003-01-01

    Der er store forskelle i financieringsomkostningerne ved hussalg i forskellige lande. Er disse forskelle nødvendige? og kan udgifterne reduceres? Sådanne spørgsmål søger forskningsprojektet ?Modelling Real Property Transactions?, officielt sat i værk indenfor rammerne af COST (European Co...

  1. Transactional Analysis in Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewson, Julie; Turner, Colin

    Although Transactional Analysis (TA) has heavily influenced psychotherapy, little has been written to parallel that influence in areas of organization theory, organization behavior, or management studies. This book is intended primarily for people working in management roles. In part one, personal experiences are drawn upon to describe a fictional…

  2. Transactive Energy Simulation Platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-03-24

    TESP combines existing domain simulators in the electric power grid, with new transactive agents, growth models and evaluation scripts. The existing domain simulators include GridLAB-D for the distribution grid and single-family residential buildings, MATPOWER for transmission and bulk generation, and EnergyPlus for large buildings. More are planned for subsequent versions of TESP. The new elements are: • TEAgents - simulate market participants and transactive systems for market clearing. Some of this functionality was extracted from GridLAB-D and implemented in Python for customization by PNNL and others. • Growth Model - a means for simulating system changes over a multiyear period, including both normal load growth and specific investment decisions. Customizable in Python code. • Evaluation Script - a means of evaluating different transactive systems through customizable post-processing in Python code. TESP provides a method for other researchers and vendors to design transactive systems, and test them in a virtual environment. It allows customization of the key components by modifying Python code.

  3. Value and Transaction Costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Kirsten; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2003-01-01

    caused by transaction costs), andnew types of resources (i.e., capture and protection capabilities), clarifies the roleof contracting in the exercise of market power, and suggests that `strategizing'and `economizing' perspectives are related to a larger extent than is normallyrecognized. Refutable...

  4. Economic COP Optimization of a Heat Pump with Hierarchical Model Predictive Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tahersima, Fatemeh; Stoustrup, Jakob; Rasmussen, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    A low-temperature heating system is studied in this paper. It consists of hydronic under-floor heating pipes and an air/ground source heat pump. The heat pump in such a setup is conventionally controlled only by feed-forwarding the ambient temperature. Having shown >10% cut-down on electricity...... bills by involving feedback control in a previous study, this paper has continued the same line of argument and has investigated effects of a priori knowledge on weather forecast and electricity price profile to alleviate the total electricity cost subject to constraints on resident's thermal comfort......'s coefficient of performance. At the same time, it determines the actual temperature set-points of the rooms by deviating from the user-defined set-points within a thermal tolerance zone. Simulations results confirm significant cut-down on electricity bills without sacrificing resident thermal comfort...

  5. Multiple-Time-Scales Hierarchical Frequency Stability Control Strategy of Medium-Voltage Isolated Microgrid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Zhuoli; Yang, Ping; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, an islanded medium-voltage (MV) microgrid placed in Dongao Island is presented, which integrates renewable-energy-based distributed generations (DGs), energy storage system (ESS), and local loads. In an isolated microgrid without connection to the main grid to support the frequency...... of Zone B. Theoretical analysis, time-domain simulation and field test results under various conditions and scenarios in the Dongao Island microgrid are presented to prove the validity of the introduced control strategy....

  6. Scheduling transactions in mobile distributed real-time database systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEI Xiang-dong; ZHAO Yue-long; CHEN Song-qiao; YUAN Xiao-li

    2008-01-01

    A DMVOCC-MVDA (distributed multiversion optimistic concurrency control with multiversion dynamic adjustment) protocol was presented to process mobile distributed real-time transaction in mobile broadcast environments. At the mobile hosts, all transactions perform local pre-validation. The local pre-validation process is carried out against the committed transactions at the server in the last broadcast cycle. Transactions that survive in local pre-validation must be submitted to the server for local final validation. The new protocol eliminates conflicts between mobile read-only and mobile update transactions, and resolves data conflicts flexibly by using multiversion dynamic adjustment of serialization order to avoid unnecessary restarts of transactions.Mobile read-only transactions can be committed with no-blocking, and respond time of mobile read-only transactions is greatly shortened. The tolerance of mobile transactions of disconnections from the broadcast channel is increased. In global validation mobile distributed transactions have to do check to ensure distributed serializability in all participants. The simulation results show that the new concurrency control protocol proposed offers better performance than other protocols in terms of miss rate, restart rate,commit rate. Under high work load (think time is 1s) the miss rate of DMVOCC-MVDA is only 14.6%, is significantly lower than that of other protocols. The restart rate of DMVOCC-MVDA is only 32.3%, showing that DMVOCC-MVDA can effectively reduce the restart rate of mobile transactions. And the commit rate of DMVOCC-MVDA is up to 61.2%, which is obviously higher than that of other protocols.

  7. Mesochanneled hierarchically porous aluminosiloxane aerogel microspheres as a stable support for pH-responsive controlled drug release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazhayal, Linsha; Talasila, Sindhoor; Abdul Azeez, Peer Mohamed; Solaiappan, Ananthakumar

    2014-09-10

    The molecular-scale self-assembly of a 3D aluminosiloxane (Al-O-Si) hybrid gel network was successfully performed via the cocondensation of hydrolyzed alumina (AlOOH) and (3-aminopropyl)trimethoxysilane (APS). It was transformed into a microspherical aerogel framework of Al-O-Si containing mesochannels with tunable hierarchically bimodal meso/macroporosities by a subcritical drying technique. Good homogeneity of AlOOH and APS brought during the synthesis guaranteed a uniform distribution of two metal oxides in a single body. A systematic characterization of the aerogel support was carried out using FTIR, SEM, TEM, nitrogen adsorption/desorption analysis, WAXS, SAXS, and ξ-potential measurement in order to explore the material for drug uptake and release. The drug loading and release capacity and chemical stability of an aluminosiloxane aerogel were studied using two nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, ibuprofen and aspirin. A comprehensive evaluation of the aluminosiloxane aerogel with ordered mesoporous MCM-41 was also performed. Aerogel supports showed a high drug loading capacity and a pH-responsive controlled-release property compared to MCM-41. Meanwhile, kinetic modeling studies indicate that the drug releases with a zero-order profile following the Korsmeyer-Peppas model. The biocompatibility of aluminosiloxane aerogels was established via ex vivo and in vivo studies. We also outline the use of aluminosiloxane aerogel as a support for a possible 3D matrix for an osteoconductive structure for bone tissue engineering.

  8. Controlled lecithin release from a hierarchical architecture on blood-contacting surface to reduce hemolysis of stored red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Qiang; Fan, Qunfu; Ye, Wei; Hou, Jianwen; Wong, Shing-Chung; Xu, Xiaodong; Yin, Jinghua

    2014-06-25

    Hemolysis of red blood cells (RBCs) caused by implant devices in vivo and nonpolyvinyl chloride containers for RBC preservation in vitro has recently gained much attention. To develop blood-contacting biomaterials with long-term antihemolysis capability, we present a facile method to construct a hydrophilic, 3D hierarchical architecture on the surface of styrene-b-(ethylene-co-butylene)-b-styrene elastomer (SEBS) with poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO)/lecithin nano/microfibers. The strategy is based on electrospinning of PEO/lecithin fibers onto the surface of poly [poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate] [P(PEGMEMA)]-modified SEBS, which renders SEBS suitable for RBC storage in vitro. We demonstrate that the constructed 3D architecture is composed of hydrophilic micro- and nanofibers, which transforms to hydrogel networks immediately in blood; the controlled release of lecithin is achieved by gradual dissolution of PEO/lecithin hydrogels, and the interaction of lecithin with RBCs maintains the membrane flexibility and normal RBC shape. Thus, the blood-contacting surface reduces both mechanical and oxidative damage to RBC membranes, resulting in low hemolysis of preserved RBCs. This work not only paves new way to fabricate high hemocompatible biomaterials for RBC storage in vitro, but provides basic principles to design and develop antihemolysis biomaterials for implantation in vivo.

  9. Modeling and sensitivity analysis of consensus algorithm based distributed hierarchical control for dc microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meng, Lexuan; Dragicevic, Tomislav; Vasquez, Juan Carlos

    2015-01-01

    of dynamic study. The aim of this paper is to model the complete DC microgrid system in z-domain and perform sensitivity analysis for the complete system. A generalized modeling method is proposed and the system dynamics under different control parameters, communication topologies and communication speed...... the dynamics of electrical and communication systems interact with each other. Apart from that, the communication characteristics also affect the dynamics of the system. Due to discrete nature of information exchange in communication network, Laplace domain analysis is not accurate enough for this kind...

  10. Admission Control for Multiservices Traffic in Hierarchical Mobile IPv6 Networks by Using Fuzzy Inference System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Shyr Wu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available CAC (Call Admission Control plays a significant role in providing QoS (Quality of Service in mobile wireless networks. In addition to much research that focuses on modified Mobile IP to get better efficient handover performance, CAC should be introduced to Mobile IP-based network to guarantee the QoS for users. In this paper, we propose a CAC scheme which incorporates multiple traffic types and adjusts the admission threshold dynamically using fuzzy control logic to achieve better usage of resources. The method can provide QoS in Mobile IPv6 networks with few modifications on MAP (Mobility Anchor Point functionality and slight change in BU (Binding Update message formats. According to the simulation results, the proposed scheme presents good performance of voice and video traffic at the expenses of poor performance on data traffic. It is evident that these CAC schemes can reduce the probability of the handoff dropping and the cell overload and limit the probability of the new call blocking.

  11. Building on the Enriched Hierarchical Model of Achievement Motivation: Autonomous and Controlling Reasons Underlying Mastery Goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aikaterini Michou

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Two motivational theories – the Achievement Goal Theory and Self-Determination Theory – have recently been combined to explain students’ motivation, making it possible to study the “what” and the “why” of learners’ achievement strivings. The present study built on this approach by (a investigating whether the distinction between autonomous or volitional and controlling or pressuring reasons can be meaningfully applied to the adoption of mastery-avoidance goals, (b investigating the concurrent and prospective relations between mastery-avoidance goals and their underlying reasons and learning strategies when mastery-approach goals and their underlying reasons were also considered, and by (c incorporating psychological need experiences as an explanatory variable in the relation between achievement motives (i.e., the motive to succeed and motive to avoid failure and both mastery goals and their underlying reasons. In two Turkish university students samples ('N' = 226, 'Mage '= 22.36; 'N' = 331, 'Mage '= 19.5, autonomous and controlling reasons appeared applicable to mastery-avoidance goals and regression and path analysis further showed that mastery-avoidance goals and their underlying autonomous reasons fail to predicted learning strategies over and above the pursuit of mastery-approach goals and their underlying reasons. Finally, need experiences were established as mediators between achievement motives and both mastery goals and their underlying reasons.

  12. 26 CFR 1.482-9 - Methods to determine taxable income in connection with a controlled services transaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., proprietary quality control systems and specially trained data entry experts used to ensure the highest degree... can accurately forecast its need for widgets. Using these forecasts, each customer over the course of... inventory management system that allows Company P to order components necessary for assembly of the...

  13. Surface temperature-controlling factors during transaction of Mexican monsoon in the Sonoran Desert, North-West Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tereshchenko, I.; Zolotokrilin, A.; Titkova, T.; Brito, L.; Monzon, C.

    2009-12-01

    Correlation between albedo and dry land surface temperature can serve as an indicator of processes, which control the temperature. The term dry land is used in reference to arid, semi-arid and dry subhumid regions, whose humidification coefficient ranges between 0.05 and 0.65 according to United Nations Convention to combat desertification in those countries experiencing serious drought and desertification, particularly in Africa. Geneva, 1994. The three main competing factors of underlying surface temperature control are an inherent feature of dry lands: first - radiation, second - evapotranspiration, third - aerodynamic control. This study is focused on seasonal cycle of parameters, which control surface temperature in the Sonora desert (North-West Mexico). The understanding of this process is important for monitoring of desertification. This is so because in a certain year, the time span of the period, during which the radiation factor is predominant, is an important factor in the desertification process. One indirect characteristic of prevalence of the radiation factor is Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), which is an indicator of green phytomass. The main features of the ratio between albedo and surface temperature are discussed in terms of analysis of monthly means (albedo, temperature, NDVI) in the state of Sonora (29-32N, 111-115W), in particular, within the box 30-31N, 112-113W. The analysis of synchronous time series of albedo, surface temperature and NDVI has shown that the dominating temperature-controlling factors can switch within the year in the study area. The radiation factor is dominant in dry months (April - May) and the surface temperature is negatively correlated with albedo. This can cause generation of positive albedo-precipitation feedback, which in turn contributes to the desertification process.

  14. 31 CFR 800.207 - Covered transaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Covered transaction. 800.207 Section 800.207 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF..., which could result in control of a U.S. business by a foreign person....

  15. Template-particle stabilized bicontinuous emulsion yielding controlled assembly of hierarchical high-flux filtration membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Samuel C; Kohll, A Xavier; Raso, Renzo A; Schumacher, Christoph M; Grass, Robert N; Stark, Wendelin J

    2015-01-14

    A novel solvent-evaporation-based process that exploits template-particle stabilized bicontinuous emulsions for the formation of previously unreached membrane morphologies is reported in this article. Porous membranes have a wide range of applications spanning from water filtration, pharmaceutical purification, and battery separators to scaffolds for tissue engineering. Different situations require different membrane morphologies including various pore sizes and pore gradients. However, most of the previously reported membrane preparation procedures are restricted to specific morphologies and morphology alterations require an extensive optimization process. The tertiary system presented in this article, which consists of a poly(ether sulfone)/dimethylacetamide (PES/DMAc) solution, glycerol, and ZnO-nanoparticles, allows simple and exact tuning of pore diameters ranging from sub-20 nm, up to 100 nm. At the same time, the pore size gradient is controlled from 0 up to 840%/μm yielding extreme asymmetry. In addition to structural analysis, water flux rates of over 5600 L m(-2) h(-1) are measured for membranes retaining 45 nm silica beads.

  16. Controlling the contractile strength of engineered cardiac muscle by hierarchal tissue architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Adam W; Alford, Patrick W; Jin, Hongwei; Ripplinger, Crystal M; Werdich, Andreas A; Sheehy, Sean P; Grosberg, Anna; Parker, Kevin Kit

    2012-08-01

    The heart is a muscular organ with a wrapping, laminar structure embedded with neural and vascular networks, collagen fibrils, fibroblasts, and cardiac myocytes that facilitate contraction. We hypothesized that these non-muscle components may have functional benefit, serving as important structural alignment cues in inter- and intra-cellular organization of cardiac myocytes. Previous studies have demonstrated that alignment of engineered myocardium enhances calcium handling, but how this impacts actual force generation remains unclear. Quantitative assays are needed to determine the effect of alignment on contractile function and muscle physiology. To test this, micropatterned surfaces were used to build 2-dimensional myocardium from neonatal rat ventricular myocytes with distinct architectures: confluent isotropic (serving as the unaligned control), confluent anisotropic, and 20 μm spaced, parallel arrays of multicellular myocardial fibers. We combined image analysis of sarcomere orientation with muscular thin film contractile force assays in order to calculate the peak sarcomere-generated stress as a function of tissue architecture. Here we report that increasing peak systolic stress in engineered cardiac tissues corresponds with increasing sarcomere alignment. This change is larger than would be anticipated from enhanced calcium handling and increased uniaxial alignment alone. These results suggest that boundary conditions (heterogeneities) encoded in the extracellular space can regulate muscle tissue function, and that structural organization and cytoskeletal alignment are critically important for maximizing peak force generation.

  17. Hierarchical Robot Control System and Method for Controlling Select Degrees of Freedom of an Object Using Multiple Manipulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdallah, Muhammad E. (Inventor); Platt, Robert (Inventor); Wampler, II, Charles W. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A robotic system includes a robot having manipulators for grasping an object using one of a plurality of grasp types during a primary task, and a controller. The controller controls the manipulators during the primary task using a multiple-task control hierarchy, and automatically parameterizes the internal forces of the system for each grasp type in response to an input signal. The primary task is defined at an object-level of control, e.g., using a closed-chain transformation, such that only select degrees of freedom are commanded for the object. A control system for the robotic system has a host machine and algorithm for controlling the manipulators using the above hierarchy. A method for controlling the system includes receiving and processing the input signal using the host machine, including defining the primary task at the object-level of control, e.g., using a closed-chain definition, and parameterizing the internal forces for each of grasp type.

  18. Transaction based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunka, Frantisek; Matula, Jiri

    2017-07-01

    Transaction based approach is utilized in some methodologies in business process modeling. Essential parts of these transactions are human beings. The notion of agent or actor role is usually used for them. The paper on a particular example describes possibilities of Design Engineering Methodology for Organizations (DEMO) and Resource-Event-Agent (REA) methodology. Whereas the DEMO methodology can be regarded as a generic methodology having its foundation in the theory of Enterprise Ontology the REA methodology is regarded as the domain specific methodology and has its origin in accountancy systems. The results of these approaches is that the DEMO methodology captures everything that happens in the reality with a good empirical evidence whereas the REA methodology captures only changes connected with economic events. Economic events represent either change of the property rights to economic resource or consumption or production of economic resources. This results from the essence of economic events and their connection to economic resources.

  19. Growth of self-organized hierarchical ZnO nanoarchitectures by a simple In/In2S3 controlled thermal evaporation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Guozhen; Bando, Yoshio; Lee, Cheol-Jin

    2005-06-02

    Novel hierarchical ZnO nanoarchitectures, such as microtrepangs, microbelts, nanoflowers, nanocombs, nanowheels, and nanofans assembled by ZnO nanocones, nanobowling pins, nanobottles, nanoarrows, and nanonails, have had their growth controlled by the thermal evaporation of Zn and a mixture of In and In2S3. Both the morphologies of the products and their construction units could be efficiently controlled by simple adjustment of the weight ratio of In/In2S3. The phase structure, morphologies, and photoluminescence properties of the ZnO products were investigated by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and photoluminescence spectroscopy. These novel hierarchical ZnO nanoarchitectures may be attractive building blocks for creating optical or other nanodevices.

  20. Controllable growth of polyaniline nanowire arrays on hierarchical macro/mesoporous graphene foams for high-performance flexible supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Pingping; Zhao, Xin; Li, Yingzhi; Zhang, Qinghua

    2017-01-01

    Free-standing hierarchical macro/mesoporous flexible graphene foam have been constructed by rational intergration ofwell dispersed graphene oxide sheets and amino-modified polystyrene (PS) spheres through a facile ;templating and embossing; technique. The three dimensional (3D) macro/mesoporous flexible graphene foam not only inherits the uniform porous structures of graphene foam, but also contains hierarchical macro/mesopores on the struts by sacrificing PS spheres and the activation of KOH, which could providing rapid pathways for ionic and electronic transport to high specific capacitance. Vertically polyaniline (PANI) nanowire arrays are then uniformly deposited onto the hierarchical macro/mesoporous graphene foam(fRGO-F/PANI) by a simple in situ polymerization, which show a high specific capacitance of 939 F g-1. Thanks to the synergistic function of 3D bicontinuous hierarchical porous structure of graphene foam and effective immobilization of PANI nanowires on the struts, the assembled symmetric supercapctior with fRGO-F/PANI as electrodes exhibits a maximum energy density and power density of 20.9 Wh kg-1 and 103.2 kW kg-1, respectively. Moreover, it also displays an excellent cyclic stability with a 88.7% retention after 5000 cycles.

  1. Transaction Costs For Innovations Diffusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilya A. Romanov

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the analysis of transaction costs of the innovations distribution. The factors, affecting the innovations diffusion in accordance with the clusters, relations, dynamics of the distribution are disclosed. Transaction costs as a result of bounded rationality of economic entities are detected. The inevitability of transaction costs as an objective phenomenon is shown. Their dependence on the quality of economic information and information uncertainty is indicated. Correlative approach for the analysis of these costs is applied. The article justifies that the reduction of transaction costs increases the efficiency of innovations.

  2. Two-layer hierarchical control solutions for traffic signal%面向交通信号的两层递阶控制解决方案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戈军; 周莲英

    2015-01-01

    针对现有交通信号控制系统的诸多不足,提出了一种用于交通信号控制的两层递阶多Agent系统解决方案。通过将交通网络进行区域划分,利用底层Agent控制各交叉口,顶层Agent控制区域,从而实现两层递阶控制。底层Agent采用经典Q学习同步学习最优策略,顶层Agent利用Tile Coding非凡的连续空间处理能力,实现Q学习的动作值函数逼近方法。仿真实验结果表明,该分层递阶控制不但提高了交通信号控制系统效率,而且也为大规模应用提供了很好的可伸缩解决方案。%In view of the existing deficiencies of traffic signal control system, this paper proposes two-layer hierarchical multi-Agent system solution for traffic signal control. Through regional division of the traffic network, it uses the bottom level Agent to control the intersection, the top level Agent to control areas, so as to achieve the two-layer hierarchical con-trol. The bottom level Agent uses the classical Q-learning to synchronize the optimal strategy, the top level Agent utilizes the special continuous space processing ability of Tile Coding to achieve Q learning of action value function approxima-tion method. The simulation test results show that, the hierarchical control not only improves the efficiency of traffic signal control system, but also provides a good scalable solution for large-scale applications.

  3. Hierarchically Structured Electrospun Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole E. Zander

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional electrospun nanofibers have a myriad of applications ranging from scaffolds for tissue engineering to components of biosensors and energy harvesting devices. The generally smooth one-dimensional structure of the fibers has stood as a limitation to several interesting novel applications. Control of fiber diameter, porosity and collector geometry will be briefly discussed, as will more traditional methods for controlling fiber morphology and fiber mat architecture. The remainder of the review will focus on new techniques to prepare hierarchically structured fibers. Fibers with hierarchical primary structures—including helical, buckled, and beads-on-a-string fibers, as well as fibers with secondary structures, such as nanopores, nanopillars, nanorods, and internally structured fibers and their applications—will be discussed. These new materials with helical/buckled morphology are expected to possess unique optical and mechanical properties with possible applications for negative refractive index materials, highly stretchable/high-tensile-strength materials, and components in microelectromechanical devices. Core-shell type fibers enable a much wider variety of materials to be electrospun and are expected to be widely applied in the sensing, drug delivery/controlled release fields, and in the encapsulation of live cells for biological applications. Materials with a hierarchical secondary structure are expected to provide new superhydrophobic and self-cleaning materials.

  4. Hierarchical Approach for Online Mining--Emphasis towards Software Metrics

    CERN Document Server

    Saradhi, M V Vijaya; Satish, P

    2010-01-01

    Several multi-pass algorithms have been proposed for Association Rule Mining from static repositories. However, such algorithms are incapable of online processing of transaction streams. In this paper we introduce an efficient single-pass algorithm for mining association rules, given a hierarchical classification amongest items. Processing efficiency is achieved by utilizing two optimizations, hierarchy aware counting and transaction reduction, which become possible in the context of hierarchical classification. This paper considers the problem of integrating constraints that are Boolean expression over the presence or absence of items into the association discovery algorithm. This paper present three integrated algorithms for mining association rules with item constraints and discuss their tradeoffs. It is concluded that the variation of complexity depends on the measure of DIT (Depth of Inheritance Tree) and NOC (Number of Children) in the context of Hierarchical Classification.

  5. Fluid dynamics transactions

    CERN Document Server

    Fiszdon, W

    1965-01-01

    Fluid Dynamics Transactions, Volume 2 compiles 46 papers on fluid dynamics, a subdiscipline of fluid mechanics that deals with fluid flow. The topics discussed in this book include developments in interference theory for aeronautical applications; diffusion from sources in a turbulent boundary layer; unsteady motion of a finite wing span in a compressible medium; and wall pressure covariance and comparison with experiment. The certain classes of non-stationary axially symmetric flows in magneto-gas-dynamics; description of the phenomenon of secondary flows in curved channels by means of co

  6. Problem of two-level hierarchical minimax program control the final state of regional social and economic system with incomplete information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorikov, A. F.

    2016-12-01

    In this article we consider a discrete-time dynamical system consisting of a set a controllable objects (region and forming it municipalities). The dynamics each of these is described by the corresponding linear or nonlinear discrete-time recurrent vector relations and its control system consist from two levels: basic level (control level I) that is dominating level and auxiliary level (control level II) that is subordinate level. Both levels have different criterions of functioning and united by information and control connections which defined in advance. In this article we study the problem of optimization of guaranteed result for program control by the final state of regional social and economic system in the presence of risks vectors. For this problem we propose a mathematical model in the form of two-level hierarchical minimax program control problem of the final states of this system with incomplete information and the general scheme for its solving.

  7. Transactive Campus Energy Systems: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katipamula, Srinivas; Corbin, Charles D.; Haack, Jereme N.; Hao, He; Kim, Woohyun; Hostick, Donna J.; Akyol, Bora A.; Allwardt, Craig H.; Carpenter, Brandon J.; Huang, Sen; Liu, Guopeng; Lutes, Robert G.; Makhmalbaf, Atefe; Mendon, Vrushali V.; Ngo, Hung; Somasundaram, Sriram; Underhill, Ronald M.; Zhao, Mingjie

    2017-09-26

    Transactive energy refers to the combination of economic and control techniques to improve grid reliability and efficiency. The fundamental purpose of transactive energy management is to seamlessly coordinate the operation of large numbers of new intelligent assets—such as distributed solar, energy storage and responsive building loads—to provide the flexibility needed to operate the power grid reliably and at minimum cost, particularly one filled with intermittent renewable generation such as the Pacific Northwest. It addresses the key challenge of providing smooth, stable, and predictable “control” of these assets, despite the fact that most are neither owned nor directly controlled by the power grid. The Clean Energy and Transactive Campus (CETC) work described in this report was done as part of a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between the U.S. Department of Energy’s Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and the Washington State Department of Commerce (Commerce) through the Clean Energy Fund (CEF). The project team consisted of PNNL, the University of Washington (UW) and Washington State University (WSU), to connect the PNNL, UW, and WSU campuses to form a multi-campus testbed for transaction-based energy management—transactive—solutions. Building on the foundational transactive system established by the Pacific Northwest Smart Grid Demonstration (PNWSGD), the purpose of the project was to construct the testbed as both a regional flexibility resource and as a platform for research and development (R&D) on buildings/grid integration and information-based energy efficiency. This report provides a summary of the various tasks performed under the CRADA.

  8. 一类高阶线性系统的分层控制%Hierarchical Control of a Class of High-dimensional Linear Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨开红; 季海波

    2015-01-01

    近年来,一种基于系统层次结构的分层控制方法发展了起来,它主要针对的是高阶复杂系统。为了分析和控制这类系统,我们首先根据需要构建一个合适的低阶抽象系统,然后在此基础上分析和设计原始系统控制律,即所谓的接口函数。本文将此方法用于一类高阶线性系统的稳定控制问题,并得到了相应的控制律。最后,算例部分的仿真结果说明了这种方法的有效性。%Recently, the hierarchical control method based on a hierarchical architecture has been developed, which is mainly aimed at large-scale complex systems. In order to analyze and control this class of systems, we at first, construct an appropri-ate and low-dimensional abstract system, then synthesize and lift the control law from the obtained abstraction of the original system by the notion of interface function. This paper studies the stable control problem of a class of high-dimensional linear systems and obtains the results by employing the hierarchical control method. Finally, a simulation example is given to illus-trate the effectiveness of this method.

  9. Transaction Cost Economics : The Origins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williamson, Oliver E.

    2010-01-01

    This paper is an autobiographical recollection of how my interest in and work on transaction cost economics progressively developed. It begins with an overview of the transaction cost economics project. A sketch of my undergraduate and graduate education follows. Key events in the 1960s that set the

  10. Controllable synthesis of hierarchical MnOx/TiO2 composite nanofibers for complete oxidation of low-concentration acetone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xuecheng; Zhang, Shuo; Yu, Xinning; Zhu, Xinbo; Zheng, Chenghang; Gao, Xiang; Luo, Zhongyang; Cen, Kefa

    2017-09-05

    A novel hierarchical MnOx/TiO2 composite nanofiber was fabricated by combining the electrospinning technique and hydrothermal growth method. The synthesized nanomaterial, which comprised primary TiO2 nanofibers and secondary MnOx nanoneedles, was further investigated for complete catalytic oxidation of volatile organic compounds for the first time, and this presented high-oxidation performance on low-concentration acetone. The morphological, structural, physicochemical characterization, and catalytic performance analyses demonstrated that the highest catalytic activity was achieved from the obtained MnOx/TiO2 nanofiber catalyst with 30wt.% manganese loading. This finding can be ascribed to the synergistic effect of the specific hierarchical nanofibrous morphology, the abundant surface-adsorbed oxygen, the superior redox property, and the sufficient specific surface. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Decision, Transaction, Law and Contract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Carsten Allan

    is transaction cost economics in the tradition of Oliver E. Williamson. The foundation for this tradition was laid by 1991 Nobel Laureate Ronald Coase in a paper, “The Nature of the Firm” in 1937. But the breakthrough as an influential research program was achieved with Williamson’s influential “Markets...... traditional neo-classical economic theory have been analyzed using this framework. Prominent examples are analyses of vertical integration, the M-form organization and the employment relation. The purpose of this dissertation has been to develop the “Williamsonian” tradition in transaction cost economics...... further. Compared to earlier contributions, the mode of analysis employed differs in at least three ways. Firstly, the analysis is made in terms of the decision premises for entering a transactional relationship. This is in opposition to traditional transaction cost economics, where the transaction...

  12. Trust management for e-transactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vishwas Patil; R K Shyamasundar

    2005-04-01

    There has been enormous increase in transactions and cooperativecomputing services on the internet. This is both a technical and a social phenomenon. Transactions and services over the internet have global reach and users, known or unknown to the service provider, might be interested in availing access or participating in the cooperative transaction in a distributed manner. Thus, it is very important for service providers to identify and establish trustworthiness of potential collaborators, which they do by writing contracts (e.g. access control, security policies; the words contract and policy are used interchangeably) without violating the privacy and confidentiality laws that prevail across geographical boundaries. But as the system becomes complex and dynamic, contractual incompleteness arises since it becomes cumbersome to mention potentially large set of outcomes of the user’s choice of action. Trust plays a crucial role in the design of optimal contracts; not all the relevant, valuable information on the user’s choice of action is incorporated in the equilibrium contract. It may also be noted in that traditional transactions, the notion of seeing is believing plays a vital role. However, in e-transactions, this is not the case. The challenge is to see how in such a scenario trust can indeed be generated. Note that the presence of trust facilitates cooperative behaviour and allows for exchange to occur in situations where its absence would preclude trade. In this paper, we shall present a comparative analysis of various approaches of trust management in practice that integrates technology with other factors. We shall also bring out the relative deficiencies and how these issues are tackled in our ongoing work that facilitates execution of optimal contracts.

  13. Hierarchical Control Strategy of Heat and Power for Zero Energy Buildings including Hybrid Fuel Cell/Photovoltaic Power Sources and Plug-in Electric Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghiasi, Mohammad Iman; Aliakbar Golkar, Masoud; Hajizadeh, Amin

    2016-01-01

    complexities and uncertainties in this kind of hybrid system, a hybrid supervisory control with an adaptive fuzzy sliding power control strategy is proposed to regulate the amount of requested fuel from a fuel cell power source to produce the electrical power and heat. Then, simulation results are used......This paper presents a hierarchical control strategy for heat and electric power control of a building integrating hybrid renewable power sources including photovoltaic, fuel cell and battery energy storage with Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEV) in smart distribution systems. Because...... of the controllability of fuel cell power, this power sources plays the main role for providing heat and electric power to zero emission buildings. First, the power flow structure between hybrid power resources is described. To do so, all necessary electrical and thermal equations are investigated. Next, due to the many...

  14. Hierarchical Control Strategy of Heat and Power for Zero Energy Buildings including Hybrid Fuel Cell/Photovoltaic Power Sources and Plug-in Electric Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghiasi, Mohammad Iman; Aliakbar Golkar, Masoud; Hajizadeh, Amin

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a hierarchical control strategy for heat and electric power control of a building integrating hybrid renewable power sources including photovoltaic, fuel cell and battery energy storage with Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEV) in smart distribution systems. Because...... of the controllability of fuel cell power, this power sources plays the main role for providing heat and electric power to zero emission buildings. First, the power flow structure between hybrid power resources is described. To do so, all necessary electrical and thermal equations are investigated. Next, due to the many...... complexities and uncertainties in this kind of hybrid system, a hybrid supervisory control with an adaptive fuzzy sliding power control strategy is proposed to regulate the amount of requested fuel from a fuel cell power source to produce the electrical power and heat. Then, simulation results are used...

  15. 21 CFR 1404.405 - May I enter into a covered transaction with a participant if a principal of the transaction is...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Responsibilities of Office of National Drug Control Policy Officials Regarding Transactions § 1404.405 May I enter into a... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false May I enter into a covered transaction with...

  16. Deadline-aware scheduling for Software Transactional Memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maldonado, Walter; Marlier, Patrick; Felber, Pascal

    2011-01-01

    Software Transactional Memory (STM) is an optimistic concurrency control mechanism that simplifies the development of parallel programs. Still, the interest of STM has not yet been demonstrated for reactive applications that require bounded response time for some of their operations. We propose...... experimental evaluation shows that our approach significantly improves the chance of a transaction meeting its deadline when its progress is hampered by conflicts....

  17. FINANCING OF INTERNATIONAL TRANSACTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RADU NICOLAE BĂLUNĂ

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Financing (funding is essentially the purchase of funds necessary for a business. This can be done from internal sources (company’s own funds or external (borrowed funds. The high value of goods traded in international trade makes revenues generated from internal resources not sufficient to settle the value of the goods. Thus, it is frequent to resort to borrowed funds. In International Business Transactions, external financing is done both by classical techniques of credit (credit supplier and buyer credit and modern techniques of financing (factoring, forfeiting, leasing all trade tailored. In terms of the length of financing, accounting funding is short-term (1-12 months and long-term financing (over a year. In principle, export and import operations prevailing short-term financing techniques, while international investment and industrial cooperation actions are specific long-term funding

  18. Two mutations in the locus control region hypersensitivity site-2 (5' HS-2) of haplotype 19 beta s chromosomes alter binding of trans-acting factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, J C; Scott, D F; Lanclos, K D

    1996-01-01

    There are five major haplotypes associated with sickle cell anemia (SS). Individuals homozygous for haplotypes 3 (Senegal) and 31 (Saudi Arabian) have high fetal hemoglobin (HbF) levels (15 to 30% of total hemoglobin) whereas individuals homozygous for haplotypes 17 (Cameroon), 19 (Benin), and 20 (Bantu) have low HbF levels (1 to 10%). We previously identified several point mutations in the LCR 5'HS-2 that were specific for haplotype 19 beta s chromosomes (compared to the GenBank HUMHBB reference sequence, T-->G at position 8580, A-->G at position 8598, and A-->T at position 9114). We postulated that one or more of these mutations may alter the binding of specific trans-acting factors and ultimately affect the expression of HbF in these sickle cell patients. We performed gel mobility shift assays using 32P-end-labeled double-stranded 19mers corresponding to each of the LCR 5'HS-2 normal (GenBank) and mutant sequences. Nuclear extracts prepared from HeLa and HEL cells were used in our experiments and neither the normal nor mutant sequence at position 8580 bound trans-acting factors in either nuclear extract. The 8598 mutant increased binding of Sp1; using purified protein and both nuclear extracts. HEL extracts were used to quantify the increase in Sp1 binding to the 8598 mutation and we found an increase in binding of 66 and 47%, respectively, in two shifted bands. The 9114 mutation sharply decreased binding of an unknown trans-acting factor by 74%. This factor was present in both HeLa and HEL nuclear extracts.

  19. Hierarchical nitrogen and cobalt co-doped TiO{sub 2} prepared by an interface-controlled self-aggregation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Shishuai; Li, Qiang; Hou, Chengcheng; Feng, Xiaodong; Guan, Zisheng, E-mail: zishengguan@163.com

    2013-10-25

    Highlights: •N–Co-codoped TiO{sub 2} was prepared by hydrothermal method at vapor–liquid interface. •Hierarchical N–Co-codoped TiO{sub 2} was synthesized. •Growth mechanism of N–Co-codoped TiO{sub 2} was discussed. •Ferromagnetism was found on the titanate N–Co-codoped TiO{sub 2} at room temperature. •Light absorption edge of N–Co-codoped TiO{sub 2} was shifted to visible light region. -- Abstract: Hierarchical N and Co co-doped TiO{sub 2} (NCT) self-aggregates were prepared by the interfacial self-aggregation in an autoclave, where a mixed Ti(SO{sub 4}){sub 2} and Co(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} solution reacted with polyacrylate-controlled-releasing ammonia at the vapor–liquid interface. The SEM images show that the typical hierarchical NCT self-aggregates were composed of perpendicular nanosheets on the top, granule aggregates in the middle, and flower-like nanosheets at the bottom. A possible mechanism of their formation has been proposed on the basis of a series of experiments. We found that the morphology and crystal structure of the NCT self-aggregates can be controlled by adjusting reaction temperature, reaction time, and the amount of ammonia solution. The demonstration of hysteresis loops in the magnetization curves indicates that the NCT self-aggregate samples prepared at 150 °C were ferromagnetic at room temperature. The absorption spectra of the samples prepared at 150 °C showed evident absorption in the visible region. These NCT self-aggregates may be potentially useful in photoelectrochemical and magneto-electronic applications.

  20. 产权交易对污染治理效用的经济学分析%Economic Analysis of the Utility of Property Rights Transaction on Pollution Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈国兰; 罗淳

    2014-01-01

    There are differences in implementation cost and effect among different environmental management tools.The paper analyzes the cost and utility of environmental capacity property rights transaction on pollution control by the method of economics, and points out that as a market-based economic incentive policy,this measure has obvious advantages on cost and utility com-pared with traditional command control measures and Pigovian tax.Hence,environmental capacity property rights transaction should become an important tool and trend to solve environmental issues by market mechanism.%不同环境管理工具的实施成本和管理成效具有差异性。本文运用经济学方法分析了环境容量产权交易对于污染治理的成本及效用,认为环境容量产权交易作为一种以市场机制为基础的经济激励政策,与传统的命令控制型政策及庇古手段相比,具有成本和效用方面的显著优势,应成为依托市场机制解决环境问题的一条有效途径。

  1. VOLTTRON Lite: Integration Platform for the Transactional Network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haack, Jereme N.; Katipamula, Srinivas; Akyol, Bora A.; Lutes, Robert G.

    2013-10-31

    In FY13, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) with funding from the Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Building Technologies Office (BTO) designed, prototyped and tested a transactional network platform. The platform is intended to support energy, operational and financial transactions between any networked entities (equipment, organizations, buildings, grid, etc.). Initially, in FY13, the concept demonstrated transactions between packaged rooftop units (RTUs) and the electric grid using applications or “agents” that reside on the platform, on the equipment, on local building controller or in the Cloud. This document describes the core of the transactional network platform, the Volttron Lite™ software and associated services hosted on the platform. Future enhancements are also discussed. The appendix of the document provides examples of how to use the various services hosted on the platform.

  2. Certifying Concurrent Programs Using Transactional Memory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Long Li; Yu Zhang; Yi-Yun Chen; Yong Li

    2009-01-01

    Transactional memory (TM) is a new promising concurrency-control mechanism that can avoid many of the pitfalls of the traditional lock-based techniques. TM systems handle data races between threads automatically so that programmers do not have to reason about the interaction of threads manually. TM provides a programming model that may make the development of multi-threaded programs easier. Much work has been done to explore the various implementation strategies of TM systems and to achieve better performance, but little has been done on how to formally reason about programs using TM and how to make sure that such reasoning is sound. In this paper, we focus on the semantics of transactional memory and present a proof-carrying code (PCC) system for reasoning about programs using TM . We formalize our reasoning with respect to the TM semantics, prove its soundness, and use examples to demonstrate its effectiveness.

  3. Principles of Transactional Memory The Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Guerraoui, Rachid

    2010-01-01

    Transactional memory (TM) is an appealing paradigm for concurrent programming on shared memory architectures. With a TM, threads of an application communicate, and synchronize their actions, via in-memory transactions. Each transaction can perform any number of operations on shared data, and then either commit or abort. When the transaction commits, the effects of all its operations become immediately visible to other transactions; when it aborts, however, those effects are entirely discarded. Transactions are atomic: programmers get the illusion that every transaction executes all its operati

  4. On Predictive Modeling for Optimizing Transaction Execution in Parallel OLTP Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Pavlo, Andrew; Zdonik, Stanley

    2011-01-01

    A new emerging class of parallel database management systems (DBMS) is designed to take advantage of the partitionable workloads of on-line transaction processing (OLTP) applications. Transactions in these systems are optimized to execute to completion on a single node in a shared-nothing cluster without needing to coordinate with other nodes or use expensive concurrency control measures. But some OLTP applications cannot be partitioned such that all of their transactions execute within a single-partition in this manner. These distributed transactions access data not stored within their local partitions and subsequently require more heavy-weight concurrency control protocols. Further difficulties arise when the transaction's execution properties, such as the number of partitions it may need to access or whether it will abort, are not known beforehand. The DBMS could mitigate these performance issues if it is provided with additional information about transactions. Thus, in this paper we present a Markov model...

  5. Hierarchical Network Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomadsen, Tommy

    2005-01-01

    of different types of hierarchical networks. This is supplemented by a review of ring network design problems and a presentation of a model allowing for modeling most hierarchical networks. We use methods based on linear programming to design the hierarchical networks. Thus, a brief introduction to the various....... The thesis investigates models for hierarchical network design and methods used to design such networks. In addition, ring network design is considered, since ring networks commonly appear in the design of hierarchical networks. The thesis introduces hierarchical networks, including a classification scheme...... linear programming based methods is included. The thesis is thus suitable as a foundation for study of design of hierarchical networks. The major contribution of the thesis consists of seven papers which are included in the appendix. The papers address hierarchical network design and/or ring network...

  6. Transactional interactive multimedia banner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shae, Zon-Yin; Wang, Xiping; von Kaenel, Juerg

    2000-05-01

    Advertising in TV broadcasting has shown that multimedia is a very effective means to present merchandise and attract shoppers. This has been applied to the Web by including animated multimedia banner ads on web pages. However, the issues of coupling interactive browsing, shopping, and secure transactions e.g. from inside a multimedia banner, have only recently started to being explored. Currently there is an explosively growing amount of back-end services available (e.g., business to business commerce (B2B), business to consumer (B2C) commerce, and infomercial services) in the Internet. These services are mostly accessible through static HTML web pages at a few specific web portals. In this paper, we will investigate the feasibility of using interactive multimedia banners as pervasive access point for the B2C, B2B, and infomercial services. We present a system architecture that involves a layer of middleware agents functioning as the bridge between the interactive multimedia banners and back-end services.

  7. Realisation of functions of planning and organisation in the system of management of transaction expenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krush Peter V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article lies in building a functional model of management of transaction expenses of an enterprise with specification of stages of realisation of planning functions in an organisation. In the result of the study the article marks out functions of management of transaction expenses, which ensure transformation of incoming (financial resources into outgoing ones (optimised transaction expenses. The article identifies stages of realisation of “Planning transaction expenses” and “Organisation of management of transaction expenses” functions. It characterises in detail responsibilities of enterprise subdivisions that deal with management of transaction expenses. It establishes that the original element of the planning function is the budget of transaction expenses for a planning period and organisation – job descriptions of employees with detailed description of their duties and authorities, rights and obligations. The prospect of further scientific developments is study of stages of realisation of such management functions as “Motivation of personnel on rational use of funds and management of transaction expenses”, “Control over the state of management of transaction expenses” and “Regulation of the process of management of transaction expenses” of enterprises.

  8. Hierarchical Multiagent Reinforcement Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-25

    In this paper, we investigate the use of hierarchical reinforcement learning (HRL) to speed up the acquisition of cooperative multiagent tasks. We...introduce a hierarchical multiagent reinforcement learning (RL) framework and propose a hierarchical multiagent RL algorithm called Cooperative HRL. In

  9. A Model of Hierarchical Key Assignment Scheme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhigang; ZHAO Jing; XU Maozhi

    2006-01-01

    A model of the hierarchical key assignment scheme is approached in this paper, which can be used with any cryptography algorithm. Besides, the optimal dynamic control property of a hierarchical key assignment scheme will be defined in this paper. Also, our scheme model will meet this property.

  10. Mechanism and control of the structural evolution of a polymer solar cell from a bulk heterojunction to a thermally unstable hierarchical structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Charn-Ying; Tsao, Cheng-Si; Huang, Yu-Ching; Liu, Hung-Wei; Chiu, Wen-Yen; Chuang, Chih-Min; Jeng, U-Ser; Su, Chun-Jen; Wu, Wei-Ru; Su, Wei-Fang; Wang, Leeyih

    2013-08-21

    We simultaneously employed grazing incidence small-angle and wide-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS and GIWAXS) techniques to quantitatively study the structural evolution and kinetic behavior of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) crystallization, [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) aggregation and amorphous P3HT/PCBM domains from a bulk heterojunction (BHJ) to a thermally unstable structure. The independent phase separation regimes on the nanoscale (∼10 nm), mesoscale (∼100 nm) and macroscale (∼μm) are revealed for the first time. Bis-PCBM molecules as inhibitors incorporated into the P3HT/PCBM blend films were adopted as a case study of a control strategy for improving the thermal stability of P3HT/PCBM solar cell. The detailed information on the formation, growth, transformation and mutual interaction between different phases during the hierarchical structural evolution of P3HT/PCBM:xbis-PCBM (x = 8-100%) blend films are presented herein. This systematic study proposes the mechanisms of thermal instability for a polymer/fullerene-based solar cell. We demonstrate a new fundamental concept that the structural evolution and thermal stability of mesoscale amorphous P3HT/PCBM domains during heating are the origin of controlling thermal instability rather than those of nanoscale thermally-stable BHJ structures. It leads to a low-cost and easy-fabrication control strategy for effectively tailoring the hierarchical morphology against thermal instability from molecular to macro scales. The optimum treatment achieving high thermal stability, control of mesoscale domains, can be effectively designed. It is independent of the original BHJ nanostructure design of a polymer/fullerene-based solar cell with high performance. It advances the general knowledge on the thermal instability directly arising from the nanoscale structure.

  11. The consequences of hospital autonomization in Colombia: a transaction cost economics analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castano, Ramon; Mills, Anne

    2013-03-01

    Granting autonomy to public hospitals in developing countries has been common over recent decades, and implies a shift from hierarchical to contract-based relationships with health authorities. Theory on transactions costs in contractual relationships suggests they stem from relationship-specific investments and contract incompleteness. Transaction cost economics argues that the parties involved in exchanges seek to reduce transaction costs. The objective of this research was to analyse the relationships observed between purchasers and the 22 public hospitals of the city of Bogota, Colombia, in order to understand the role of relationship-specific investments and contract incompleteness as sources of transaction costs, through a largely qualitative study. We found that contract-based relationships showed relevant transaction costs associated mainly with contract incompleteness, not with relationship-specific investments. Regarding relationships between insurers and local hospitals for primary care services, compulsory contracting regulations locked-in the parties to the contracts. For high-complexity services (e.g. inpatient care), no restrictions applied and relationships suggested transaction-cost minimizing behaviour. Contract incompleteness was found to be a source of transaction costs on its own. We conclude that transaction costs seemed to play a key role in contract-based relationships, and contract incompleteness by itself appeared to be a source of transaction costs. The same findings are likely in other contexts because of difficulties in defining, observing and verifying the contracted products and the underlying information asymmetries. The role of compulsory contracting might be context-specific, although it is likely to emerge in other settings due to the safety-net role of public hospitals.

  12. Automatic Transaction Compensation for Reliable Grid Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fei-Long Tang; Ming-Lu Li; Joshua Zhexue Huang

    2006-01-01

    As grid technology is expanding from scientific computing to business applications, service oriented grid computing is aimed at providing reliable services for users and hiding complexity of service processes from them. The grid services for coordinating long-lived transactions that occur in business applications play an important role in reliable grid applications. In this paper, the grid transaction service (GridTS) is proposed for dealing with long-lived business transactions. We present a compensation-based long-lived transaction coordination algorithm that enables users to select results from committed sub-transactions. Unlike other long-lived transaction models that require application programmers to develop corresponding compensating transactions, GridTS can automatically generate compensating transactions on execution of a long-lived grid transaction. The simulation result has demonstrated the feasibility of GridTS and effectiveness of the corresponding algorithm.

  13. Hierarchical Network Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomadsen, Tommy

    2005-01-01

    Communication networks are immensely important today, since both companies and individuals use numerous services that rely on them. This thesis considers the design of hierarchical (communication) networks. Hierarchical networks consist of layers of networks and are well-suited for coping...... the clusters. The design of hierarchical networks involves clustering of nodes, hub selection, and network design, i.e. selection of links and routing of ows. Hierarchical networks have been in use for decades, but integrated design of these networks has only been considered for very special types of networks....... The thesis investigates models for hierarchical network design and methods used to design such networks. In addition, ring network design is considered, since ring networks commonly appear in the design of hierarchical networks. The thesis introduces hierarchical networks, including a classification scheme...

  14. 移动环境下实时事务处理%Real-time Transaction Processing in a Mobile Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李国徽; 杨进才; 王洪亚

    2003-01-01

    With the advances in mobile computing technology,there is an increasing demand for processing real-timetransactions in a mobile environment. This paper proposes a multi-version data model. Based on this data model, wepresent a relative timing correctness criterion for real-time transactions in a mobile environment. As long as the datastaleness is in a controlled extent,it is unnecessary for all the accessed data are valid when a real-time transactioncommits. Also this paper gives a transaction execution model based on the image transaction concept. All these strate-gies not only decreas the cost for the transaction concurrency control,but also increase the possibility to meet mobilereal-time transactions' deadlines by sacrificing the relatively transaction timing correctness. This is in accordance withthe real-time transaction property that a relatively correct and in-time result is more preferable than an absolutely cor-rect but obsolete result.

  15. The rostral prefrontal cortex underlies individual differences in working memory capacity: An approach from the hierarchical model of the cognitive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minamoto, Takehiro; Yaoi, Ken; Osaka, Mariko; Osaka, Naoyuki

    2015-10-01

    Neuroimaging and behavioral evidence has suggested that the lateral prefrontal cortex is involved in individual differences in working memory capacity (WMC). However, few studies have localized the neural structures that differentiate high and low WMC individuals, considering the functional architecture of the prefrontal cortex. The present study aimed to identify a frontal region that underlies individual differences from the perspective of the hierarchical architecture of the frontal cortex. By manipulating an episodic factor of cognitive control (control in selecting an appropriate task set according to a temporal context) and using a parametric modulation analysis, we found that both high- and low- WMC individuals have similar activation patterns in the premotor cortex (BA6, 8), caudal prefrontal cortex (BA44, 45), and frontopolar cortex (BA10, 11), but differed in the rostral part of the prefrontal cortex (BA46/47); high WMC individuals showed greater activation in the higher episodic control condition, whereas low WMC individuals showed reduced activation when episodic control was required. Similar patterns of activation were found in the right inferior parietal and middle/inferior temporal cortices. These results indicate that the rostral prefrontal cortex, which supports episodic cognitive control, possibly by sending a weighting signal toward the inferior parietal and middle/inferior temporal cortices that modulate saliency and sensory processing, underlies individual differences in WMC. Episodic control account, which considers the organization of the prefrontal cortex, fits well with previous findings of individual differences in WMC.

  16. PRODUCT LIFECYCLE OPTIMISATION OF CAR CLIMATE CONTROLS USING ANALYTICAL HIERARCHICAL PROCESS (AHP ANALYSIS AND A MULTI-OBJECTIVE GROUPING GENETIC ALGORITHM (MOGGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MICHAEL J. LEE

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A product’s lifecycle performance (e.g. assembly, outsourcing, maintenance and recycling can often be improved through modularity. However, modularisation under different and often conflicting lifecycle objectives is a complex problem that will ultimately require trade-offs. This paper presents a novel multi-objective modularity optimisation framework; the application of which is illustrated through the modularisation of a car climate control system. Central to the framework is a specially designed multi-objective grouping genetic algorithm (MOGGA that is able to generate a whole range of alternative product modularisations. Scenario analysis, using the principles of the analytical hierarchical process (AHP, is then carried out to explore the solution set and choose a suitable modular architecture that optimises the product lifecycle according to the company’s strategic vision.

  17. HTML thin client and transactions

    CERN Document Server

    Touchette, J F

    1999-01-01

    When writing applications for thin clients such as Web browsers, you face several challenges that do not exist with fat-client applications written in Visual Basic, Delphi, or Java. For one thing, your development tools do not include facilities for automatically building reliable, nonrepeatable transactions into applications. Consequently, you must devise your own techniques to prevent users from transmitting duplicate transactions. The author explains how to implement reliable, nonrepeatable transactions using a technique that is applicable to any Java Server Development Kit based architecture. Although the examples presented are based on the IBM WebSphere 2.1 Application Server, they do not make use of any IBM WebSphere extensions. In short, the concepts presented here can be implemented in Perl CGI and ASP scripts, and the sample code has been tested with JDK 1.1.6 and 1.2. (0 refs).

  18. Decision, Transaction, Law and Contract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Carsten Allan

    Copy from ”Preface to Post Doctoral Dissertation” ”Decision, transaction, law and contract” The period since 1970 has witnessed an explosion in contributions to what is now often referred to as the new institutional economics. One of the most influential (but also most atypical) of these approaches...... traditional neo-classical economic theory have been analyzed using this framework. Prominent examples are analyses of vertical integration, the M-form organization and the employment relation. The purpose of this dissertation has been to develop the “Williamsonian” tradition in transaction cost economics...... is transaction cost economics in the tradition of Oliver E. Williamson. The foundation for this tradition was laid by 1991 Nobel Laureate Ronald Coase in a paper, “The Nature of the Firm” in 1937. But the breakthrough as an influential research program was achieved with Williamson’s influential “Markets...

  19. Algorithm for solving of two-level hierarchical minimax program control problem in discrete-time dynamical system with incomplete information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorikov, A. F.

    2016-12-01

    This article discusses the discrete-time dynamical system consisting from two controlled objects and described by a linear recurrent vector equations in the presence of uncertain perturbations. This dynamical system has two levels of a control: dominant level (the first level or the level I) and subordinate level (the second level or the level II) and both have different linear terminal criterions of functioning and united a priori by determined information and control connections. It is assumed that the sets constraining all a priori undefined parameters are known and they are a finite sets or convex, closed and bounded polyhedrons in the corresponding finite-dimensional vector spaces. For the dynamical system in question, we propose a mathematical formalization in the form of solving two-level hierarchical minimax program control problem with incomplete information. In this article for solving of the investigated problem is proposed the algorithm that has a form of a recurrent procedure of solving a linear programming and a finite optimization problems. The results obtained in this article can be used for computer simulation of an actual dynamical processes and for designing controlling and navigation systems.

  20. Security of the Internet Transactions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Felix Musau; Shengbing Ren; Shouyi Yu

    2002-01-01

    The new generation of networked business solutions brings legacy data and applications to the world wide Web, and lets companies redefine internal and external business processes. The present need for internet transaction has forced many business to adopt the internet forms of distribution of its business items. This has threatened security, hence needs to be given a key priority. This paper alights the key areas on how to protect the information we transact on the internet. It also aims at improving the security of our data and the computers we use to access this data.

  1. Transactions in domain-specific information systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacek, Jaroslav

    2017-07-01

    Substantial number of the current information system (IS) implementations is based on transaction approach. In addition, most of the implementations are domain-specific (e.g. accounting IS, resource planning IS). Therefore, we have to have a generic transaction model to build and verify domain-specific IS. The paper proposes a new transaction model for domain-specific ontologies. This model is based on value oriented business process modelling technique. The transaction model is formalized by the Petri Net theory. First part of the paper presents common business processes and analyses related to business process modeling. Second part defines the transactional model delimited by REA enterprise ontology paradigm and introduces states of the generic transaction model. The generic model proposal is defined and visualized by the Petri Net modelling tool. Third part shows application of the generic transaction model. Last part of the paper concludes results and discusses a practical usability of the generic transaction model.

  2. Homogenization and asymptotics for small transaction costs

    CERN Document Server

    Soner, H Mete

    2012-01-01

    We consider the classical Merton problem of lifetime consumption-portfolio optimization problem with small proportional transaction costs. The first order term in the asymptotic expansion is explicitly calculated through a singular ergodic control problem which can be solved in closed form in the one-dimensional case. Unlike the existing literature, we consider a general utility function and general dynamics for the underlying assets. Our arguments are based on ideas from the homogenization theory and use the convergence tools from the theory of viscosity solutions. The multidimensional case is studied in our accompanying paper using the same approach.

  3. Culture and subculture in transactional letter writing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaw, Philip; Okamura, Akiko

    2000-01-01

    This study examines the relative contributions of subculture membership and mother-tongue status/target culture membership in writing transactional letters. We examined the letters accompanying articles initially submitted for publication by 26 NSE and 23 NNSE academics, and compared them...... to use appropriate language. The native non-professionals controlled some appropriate phrases, and were able to use appropriate vocabulary, but had very little idea of the rhetoric, while the non-native non-professionals produced grammatically competent letters that were inappropriate in both rhetoric...

  4. Hierarchical control theory and power system automation research%分层递阶控制理论与电力系统自动化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯进兵

    2012-01-01

      随着科学技术及电力设计的发展,电力系统的自动化水平日益提高,智能控制技术在电力系统中的应用越越来越深入。本文分析了分层递阶控制理论与电力系统智能化之间的联系,以及相似的理论与实践间的相互促进关系。并在电力控制系统中引入了仿人智能控制理论,分析了职能技术在电力自动化系统中的应用。%  with the development of science and technology and design of electric power development,power system automation level increasing,intel igent control technology and its application in power system is more and more thorough.This paper analyzes the hierarchical control theory and power system intel igent connection between theory and practice,as wel as the similarity of the mutual promotion relationship.And in the power control is introduced to the system of the imitation of human intel igent control theory,analysis the function of technology in electric power automation system application.

  5. Transaction Costs, Information Technology and Development

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Nirvikar

    2004-01-01

    This paper explores potential channels through which information technology (IT) affects economic development. The channel emphasized here is the reduction of transaction costs through the use of information technology. We discuss the nature of transaction costs, their possible impacts on economic outcomes, and the impacts of IT on transaction costs. We provide a theoretical discussion of how a reduction in transaction costs may affect the number of intermediate goods that are produced, and i...

  6. Explaining the Value of Transactional Lawyering

    OpenAIRE

    Schwarcz, Steven L.

    2006-01-01

    This article attempts, empirically, to explain the value that lawyers add when acting as counsel to parties in business transactions. Contrary to existing scholarship, which is based mostly on theory, this article shows that transactional lawyers add value primarily by reducing regulatory costs, thereby challenging the reigning models of transactional lawyers as "transaction cost engineers" and "reputational intermediaries." This new model not only helps inform contract theory but also reveal...

  7. Nonblocking Scheduling for Web Service Transactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alrifai, Mohammad; Balke, Wolf-Tilo; Dolog, Peter

    2007-01-01

    For improved flexibility and concurrent usage existing transaction management models for Web services relax the isolation property of Web service-based transactions. Correctness of the concurrent execution then has to be ensured by commit order-preserving transaction schedulers. However, local...

  8. A Strategic Market Game with Transactions Costs,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-03-30

    Hahn, F. M. (1971), "Equilibrium with Transaction Cost ," Econo- metrica, 39, 417-439. [91 Hicks, J. R. (1938), Value and Capital, Oxford University...of an Exchange Economy with Transaction Cost ," International Economic Review, 15, 699-717. [12] Kurz, M. (1974b), "Equilibrium with Transaction Costs

  9. Reactions to Corporate Insider’s Transactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Caspar; Søpstad, Nicolai

    2015-01-01

    . Based on a comprehensive collection of stock market announcements from Danish CEOs and chairmen we find that insiders’ transactions influence share prices. However, it appears that there is a surprisingly difference, as buy transactions by chairmen have a much higher impact compared to CEO transactions...

  10. 31 CFR 547.406 - Offshore transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offshore transactions. 547.406 Section 547.406 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... REGULATIONS Interpretations § 547.406 Offshore transactions. The prohibitions in § 547.201 on transactions or...

  11. Hierarchical System and the Controlling in Firms%科层制度与企业内部控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋婵蓉; 徐向阳

    2011-01-01

    Moral hazard is an important reason which incurs teamwork' s low efficiency. Traditional theory holds that people who have the residual claim to exert oversight functions can settle this problem effectively, the firm is essentially a monitoring mechanism. But, in fact, in order to enable the supervisors who have activity to supervise others, we do not need to give the residual claim to the supervisors. In a team game,the principal can design a discriminatory incentives, make supervisors and supervisees ( under the supervision of the supervisor) choosing hardworking to constitute a Nash equilibrium. The hierarchical nature of the firm greatly reduces the incentive costs, and make certain cooperation which face the Prisoner's Dilemma can be achieved.%道德风险引起的搭便车是使团队效率低下的重要原因,传统理论认为让一个具有剩余索取权的人发挥监督职能将有效解决这一问题。但实际上,为使监督者有积极性监督别人,并不需要赋予监督者剩余索取权。在一个团队合作的博弈中,委托人只需采用一个歧视性的激励机制,即科层制度,使监督者和被监督者都选择努力工作构成一个纳什均衡。科层制度使得完成相同任务的代理人具有不同的收益,因此本质上是一个具有监督功能的歧视性激励机制。企业的科层性质大大减少了激励成本,并使得某些面临囚徒困境的合作得以实现。

  12. Transactions on Computational Science IX

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The 9th issue of the Transactions on Computational Science journal, edited by François Anton, is devoted to the subject of Voronoi diagrams in science and engineering. The 9 papers included in the issue constitute extended versions of selected papers from the International Symposium on Voronoi...

  13. Transactions on Computational Science IX

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The 9th issue of the Transactions on Computational Science journal, edited by François Anton, is devoted to the subject of Voronoi diagrams in science and engineering. The 9 papers included in the issue constitute extended versions of selected papers from the International Symposium on Voronoi...

  14. Reconsidering Moore's Transactional Distance Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giossos, Yiannis; Koutsouba, Maria; Lionarakis, Antonis; Skavantzos, Kosmas

    2009-01-01

    One of the core theories of distance education is Michael Graham Moore's "Theory of Transactional Distance" that provides the broad framework of the pedagogy of distance education and allows the generation of almost infinite number of hypotheses for research. However, the review of the existing studies relating to the theory showed the use of a…

  15. Queuing Theory and Reference Transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terbille, Charles

    1995-01-01

    Examines the implications of applying the queuing theory to three different reference situations: (1) random patron arrivals; (2) random durations of transactions; and (3) use of two librarians. Tables and figures represent results from spreadsheet calculations of queues for each reference situation. (JMV)

  16. GolS controls the response to gold by the hierarchical induction of Salmonella-specific genes that include a CBA efflux-coding operon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontel, Lucas B; Audero, María E Pérez; Espariz, Martín; Checa, Susana K; Soncini, Fernando C

    2007-11-01

    Salmonella employs a specific set of proteins that allows it to detect the presence of gold salts in the environment and to mount the appropriate resistance response. This includes a P-type ATPase, GolT, and a small cytoplasmic metal binding protein, GolB. Their expression is controlled by a MerR-like sensor, GolS, which is highly selective for Au ions. Here, we identify a new GolS-controlled operon named gesABC which codes for a CBA efflux system, and establish its role in Au resistance. GesABC can also mediate drug resistance when induced by Au in a GolS-dependent manner, in a strain deleted in the main drug transporter acrAB. The GolS-controlled transcription of gesABC differs from the other GolS-regulated loci. It is activated by gold, but not induced by copper, even in a strain deleted of the main Cu transporter gene copA, which triggers a substantial GolS-dependent induction of golTS and golB. We demonstrate that the Au-dependent induction of gesABC transcription requires higher GolS levels than for the other members of the gol regulon. This correlates with a divergent GolS operator in the gesABC promoter. We propose that the hierarchical induction within the gol regulon allows Salmonella to cope with Au-contaminated environments.

  17. 分层递阶多模型自适应解耦控制器%Multivariable Adaptive Decoupling Controller Using Hierarchical Multiple Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王昕; 李少远; 岳恒

    2005-01-01

    To solve the problem such as too many models, long computing time and so on, a hierarchical multiple models direct adaptive decoupling controller is designed. It consists of multiple levels. In the upper level, the best model is chosen according to the switching index. Then multiple fixed models are constructed on line to cover the region which the above chosen fixed model lies in.In the last level, one free-running and one re-initialized adaptive model are added to guarantee the stability and improve the transient response. By selection of the weighting polynomial matrix, it not only eliminates the steady output error and places the poles of the closed loop system arbitrarily, but also decouples the system dynamically. At last, for this multiple models switching system, global convergence is obtained under common assumptions. Compared with the conventional multiple models adaptive controller, it reduces the number of the fixed models greatly. If the same number of the fixed models is used, the system transient response and decoupling result are improved. The simulation example illustrates the power of the derived controller.

  18. The Correlates of Subordination : Transaction Costs and the Design of Military Alliances, 1815-2003

    OpenAIRE

    Wig, Tore

    2011-01-01

    Security relationships between states can be categorized as more or less hierarchical. Some relationships are characterized by dominance and subordination, while others are highly egalitarian. Why relationships vary along this continuum has never been studied quantitatively in the International Relations literature. In this thesis I set out to test the most popular and well-developed theory on this subject, namely the transaction-cost theory of international security relationships. Using a ra...

  19. Poor governance design: Its impact on transaction costs and value creation.

    OpenAIRE

    Hargreaves, John; Price, Ilfryn

    2014-01-01

    We argue the hierarchical nature of contractual governance within outsourced services is not effective, consequently increasing transaction costs for the Buyer and Supplier, and reducing value in use. We studied outsourced public sector Repairs and Maintenance (R&M) contracts considering the contracts within the relational exchange and their role in governing and directing the delivery of services. A key feature is delivery via a Value network, Buyers and Suppliers outsourcing elements o...

  20. Fatty acid as structure directing agent for controlled secondary growth of CoFe2O4 nanoparticles to achieve mesoscale assemblies: A facile approach for developing hierarchical structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saikia, K.; Kaushik, S. D.; Sen, D.; Mazumder, S.; Deb, P.

    2016-08-01

    Mesoscale hierarchical assemblies have emerged out as a new class of structures between fine dimension nanoparticles and bulk structures, having distinctly different physical properties from either side. Controlling the self-assembly process of primary nanoparticles and subsequent secondary growth mechanism is the key aspect for achieving such ordered structures. In this work, we introduce a new insight on achieving hierarchical assemblies of CoFe2O4 nanoparticles based on the temporal stability of the primary nanoparticles, where, the growth and stability of the primary particles are controlled by using oleic acid. It is found that the developed particles, at a critical concentration of oleic acid, prefer a secondary growth process, rather than promoting their individual growth. Domination of the attractive hydrophobic interaction over steric repulsion among the primary particles at this critical concentration of oleic acid is found to be the key factor for the initial aggregation of the primary particles, which eventually leads to the formation of spherical hierarchical assemblies via oriented attachment. It is also realized that the extremely well or poor stability conditions of the primary particles do not allow this secondary growth process. Estimated values of Co2+ distribution factor show that the cation distribution factor of CoFe2O4 system is not affected by the nature of dominant growth processes, when these are controlled. Interestingly, magnetic measurements reflect the stronger interparticle interaction in the hierarchical system and high magnetic moment values at low magnetic field.

  1. Influences of transaction costs in environmental policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coggan, Anthea [CSIRO Sustainable Ecosystems, 306 Carmody Rd., St. Lucia, Qld, 4067 (Australia); Whitten, Stuart M. [CSIRO Sustainable Ecosystems, Gungahlin Homestead, Bellenden St., Gungahlin, Canberra (Australia); Bennett, Jeff [Crawford School of Economics and Government, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2010-07-15

    There is a growing literature reporting the extent of transaction costs for environmental policies. However understanding why transaction costs occur and why they are small or large is also important for efficient policy selection and evaluation. Following an analysis of the organisational economics literature and reports of the extent of transaction costs for a number of environmental policies, three key influences to transaction costs in environmental policies are identified. These are the following: (1) the characteristics of the transaction for the environmental good; (2) the nature of the transactors; and (3) the current institutional environment and arrangements. These affect transaction costs to the government and all other parties influenced by a policy. Transaction costs occur due to actions of information collection and policy design, policy enactment and establishment, implementation and contracting, administration and monitoring, and enforcement. An interrogation of transaction cost influences reveals that: (1) the influence varies between parties and is affected by the actions and interactions of and between all parties to a policy; (2) how transaction costs are experienced varies across time; and (3) who experiences transaction costs depends on the policy itself. Future policy selection and refinement will benefit from empirical analysis of the causes of transaction costs. (author)

  2. Hierarchical modeling and control of hybrid systems with two layers; Hierarchische Modellierung und Regelung hybrider Systeme auf zwei Ebenen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stursberg, Olaf; Paschedag, Tina; Rungger, Matthias; Ding, Hao [Kassel Univ. (Germany). Fachgebiet Regelungs- und Systemtheorie

    2010-08-15

    While hybrid dynamic models are, to a certain degree, established for modeling systems with heterogeneous dynamics, most approaches for design and analysis of hybrid systems are restricted to monolithic models without hierarchy. This contribution first shows, how modular hybrid systems with two layers of decision, as appropriate for representing manufacturing systems for example, can be modeled systematically. The second part proposes a technique for fixing discrete inputs (for coordinating control) and continuous inputs (for embedded continuous controllers) in combination. The method uses a graph-based search on the upper decision layer, while principles of predictive control are used on the lower layer. The procedure of modeling and control is illustrated for a manufacturing process. (orig.)

  3. Facile synthesis of hierarchical conducting polymer nanotubes derived from nanofibers and their application for controlled drug release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jie; Wang, Lu; Guo, Rong

    2011-05-18

    Hollowing of inorganic nano/micromaterials can be realized by well-known Ostwald ripening and Kirkendall processes. However, hollowing of organic polymer without sacrificial templates is seldom seen. Herein, we demonstrate for the first time that conducting polymer nanofibers can be transformed into nanotubes by a simple, effective, and controllable swelling-evaporation strategy. By controlling swelling degree, surface-patterned poly(o-toluidine) (POT) nanofibers, and nanotubes with controllable inner diameter can be fabricated. Novel characteristics of such nanotubes, such as patterned surfaces and sealed tips, will endow them with enhanced properties when applied in fields as controlled drug delivery, noble metal nanocatalysts supporter, and adsorbent for heavy-metal ions.

  4. 21 CFR 1404.335 - What information must I provide before entering into a covered transaction with the Office of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... into a covered transaction with the Office of National Drug Control Policy? 1404.335 Section 1404.335 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION... Office of National Drug Control Policy? Before you enter into a covered transaction at the primary...

  5. Controlled synthesis of ZnO branched nanorod arrays by hierarchical solution growth and application in dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang Xiaoming, E-mail: cexmfang@scut.edu.cn; Peng Lihua; Shang Xiaoying; Zhang Zhengguo

    2011-07-29

    We demonstrate the controlled synthesis of ZnO branched nanorod arrays on fluorine-doped SnO{sub 2}-coated glass substrates by the hierarchical solution growth method. In the secondary growth, the concentration of Zn(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}/hexamethylenetetramine plays an important role in controlling the morphology of the branched nanorod arrays, besides that of diaminopropane used as a structure-directing agent to induce the growth of branches. The population density and morphology of the branched nanorod arrays depend on those of the nanorod arrays obtained from the primary growth, which can be modulated though the concentration of Zn(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}/hexamethylenetetramine in the primary growth solution. The dye-sensitized ZnO branched nanorod arrays exhibit much stronger optical absorption as compared with its corresponding primary nanorod arrays, suggesting that the addition of the branches improves light harvesting. The dye-sensitized solar cell based on the optimized ZnO branched nanorod array reaches a conversion efficiency of 1.66% under the light radiation of 1000 W/m{sup 2}. The branched nanorod arrays can also be applied in other application fields of ZnO.

  6. Hierarchical control of virginiamycin production in Streptomyces virginiae by three pathway-specific regulators: VmsS, VmsT and VmsR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulsawat, Nattika; Kitani, Shigeru; Fukushima, Eriko; Nihira, Takuya

    2009-04-01

    Two regulatory genes encoding a Streptomyces antibiotic regulatory protein (vmsS) and a response regulator (vmsT) of a bacterial two-component signal transduction system are present in the left-hand region of the biosynthetic gene cluster of the antibiotic virginiamycin, which is composed of virginiamycin M (VM) and virginiamycin S (VS), in Streptomyces virginiae. Disruption of vmsS abolished both VM and VS biosynthesis, with drastic alteration of the transcriptional profile for virginiamycin biosynthetic genes, whereas disruption of vmsT resulted in only a loss of VM biosynthesis, suggesting that vmsS is a pathway-specific regulator for both VM and VS biosynthesis, and that vmsT is a pathway-specific regulator for VM biosynthesis alone. Gene expression profiles determined by semiquantitative RT-PCR on the virginiamycin biosynthetic gene cluster demonstrated that vmsS controls the biosynthetic genes for VM and VS, and vmsT controls unidentified gene(s) of VM biosynthesis located outside the biosynthetic gene cluster. In addition, transcriptional analysis of a deletion mutant of vmsR located in the clustered regulatory region in the virginiamycin cluster (and which also acts as a SARP-family activator for both VM and VS biosynthesis) indicated that the expression of vmsS and vmsT is under the control of vmsR, and vmsR also contributes to the expression of VM and VS biosynthetic genes, independent of vmsS and vmsT. Therefore, coordinated virginiamycin biosynthesis is controlled by three pathway-specific regulators which hierarchically control the expression of the biosynthetic gene cluster.

  7. 31 CFR 596.201 - Prohibited financial transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., orders, directives, rulings, instructions, licenses, or otherwise, no United States person, on or after... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TERRORISM LIST GOVERNMENTS SANCTIONS... terrorism, shall engage in a financial transaction with the government of that country. (b) Countries...

  8. 31 CFR 545.508 - Transactions related to telecommunications authorized.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... telecommunications authorized. 545.508 Section 545.508 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... related to telecommunications authorized. All transactions ordinarily incident to the receipt or transmission of telecommunications involving the territory of Afghanistan controlled by the Taliban...

  9. 12 CFR 303.82 - Transactions requiring prior notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... company requiring prior notice to the FDIC, if, immediately after the transaction, the acquiring person..., shall give the FDIC 60 days prior written notice, as specified in § 303.84, before acquiring control of an insured state nonmember bank or any parent company, unless the acquisition is exempt under §...

  10. Optimal hedging of Derivatives with transaction costs

    CERN Document Server

    Aurell, E; Aurell, Erik; Muratore-Ginanneschi, Paolo

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the optimal strategy over a finite time horizon for a portfolio of stock and bond and a derivative in an multiplicative Markovian market model with transaction costs (friction). The optimization problem is solved by a Hamilton-Bellman-Jacobi equation, which by the verification theorem has well-behaved solutions if certain conditions on a potential are satisfied. In the case at hand, these conditions simply imply arbitrage-free ("Black-Scholes") pricing of the derivative. While pricing is hence not changed by friction allow a portfolio to fluctuate around a delta hedge. In the limit of weak friction, we determine the optimal control to essentially be of two parts: a strong control, which tries to bring the stock-and-derivative portfolio towards a Black-Scholes delta hedge; and a weak control, which moves the portfolio by adding or subtracting a Black-Scholes hedge. For simplicity we assume growth-optimal investment criteria and quadratic friction.

  11. Controllable assembly of well-defined monodisperse Au nanoparticles on hierarchical ZnO microspheres for enhanced visible-light-driven photocatalytic and antibacterial activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuan; Fang, Hua-Bin; Zheng, Yan-Zhen; Ye, Rongqin; Tao, Xia; Chen, Jian-Feng

    2015-11-01

    A high-efficiency visible-light-driven photocatalyst composed of homogeneously distributed Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) well-defined on hierarchical ZnO microspheres (ZMS) via a controllable layer-by-layer self-assembly technique is demonstrated. The gradual growth of the characteristic absorption bands of Au loaded on ZnO in the visible light region with an increasing number of assemblies indicates the enhancement of the light harvesting ability of the ZMS/Au composites as well as the reproducibility and controllability of the entire assembly process. Results on the photoelectrochemical performance characterized by EIS and transient photocurrent response spectra indicate that the ZMS/Au composites possess increased photoinduced charge separation and transfer efficiency compared to the pure ZMS film. As a result, the hybrid composites exhibited enhanced decomposition activity for methylene blue and salicylic acid as well as antibacterial activity in killing S. aureus and E. coli under visible light irradiation. It can be noted that well-distributed Au components even at a rather low Au/ZnO weight ratio of ~1.2% also exhibited extraordinary photocatalysis. Such a facile and controllable self-assembly approach may be viable for preparing high-performance visible-light-driven ZMS/Au photocatalysts in a simple and controllable way, and consequently, the technology may extend to other plasmon-enhanced heterostructures made of nanostructured semiconductors and noble metals for great potential application in environmental protection.A high-efficiency visible-light-driven photocatalyst composed of homogeneously distributed Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) well-defined on hierarchical ZnO microspheres (ZMS) via a controllable layer-by-layer self-assembly technique is demonstrated. The gradual growth of the characteristic absorption bands of Au loaded on ZnO in the visible light region with an increasing number of assemblies indicates the enhancement of the light harvesting ability of

  12. Size-controlled synthesis of hierarchical nanoporous iron based fluorides and their high performances in rechargeable lithium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yan; Wen, Zhao-yin; Jin, Jun; Wu, Xiang-wei; Rui, Kun

    2014-06-21

    High performance nanostructured iron fluorides with controllable sizes were successfully synthesized using oleylamine as a size tuning agent for the first time. They exhibited excellent cathode performances with large retensive capacities exceeding 200 mA h g(-1) after 50 cycles and outstanding rate performances of nearly 100 mA h g(-1) even at 10 C.

  13. 论慈善组织不当关联交易中控制人的民事责任%On Civil Liability of Controller of Charitable Organization in Affiliated Transaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李军

    2016-01-01

    慈善组织在他人控制下从事的不当关联交易行为严重损害了慈善组织的利益,我国法律忽视了对控制人民事责任的追究,不足以有效遏制不法行为。追究控制人民事责任的理论基础是慈善组织独立法人资格不容外部控制人侵犯、慈善组织内部控制人对组织负有信义义务。控制人民事责任的性质属于侵权责任,责任的实现方式不限于赔偿责任,并根据情形的不同分别追究责任主体的连带责任或按份责任。%The interest of charitable organizations will be harmed severely when it involving affiliated transaction under the con -trol of others .The law ignored investigating controller ’ s civil liability and it is insufficient to curb controller ’ s wrongful act .Theo-retical foundations to pursue civil liability of controller are independent legal personality which charitable organization enjoy and couldn’ t be violated by external controller and fiduciary duty which internal controller should bear .Civil liability of controller belong to tort liability, and the implementation forms of civil liability are not limited to compensation liability .The liability subject should bear joint and several liability or shared liability according to the different situation .

  14. Hierarchical Energy Balance Control for MMC-based DC Grid%基于MMC的直流电网分层能量平衡控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阎发友; 汤广福; 贺之渊; 孔明; 安婷

    2016-01-01

    The key to maintain secure and stable operation of DC grid is to keep the instantaneous energy balance of DC system. Considering the energy balance control strategy, the literatures more focus on the energy balance control among converters while ignoring the instantaneous energy balance control inside the converter. This paper, considering the modular multilevel converter (MMC) based DC grid, investigateed the energy balance control inside MMC. Firstly, according to energy transfer in the arms, it analyzed the commutation process of the MMC. Then according the relationship between the submodule (SM) voltage and instantaneous energy flow in the arms, a control strategy to regulate the SM voltage was proposed to maintain the energy balance in the MMC. A hierarchical energy control architecture for DC grid was proposed by combining the system level energy control and internal energy balance control of MMC. The simulation results verified the effectiveness of the proposed control methodology.%直流电网的瞬时能量平衡控制是其安全稳定运行的关键。当前,研究人员在进行直流电网的能量平衡控制策略设计时,重点关注了换流器之间的功率平衡控制,而忽视了换流器内部的瞬态能量平衡控制,因此无法满足直流系统暂稳态能量在较小时间尺度上进行平衡调控的要求。以基于模块化多电平换流器(modular multilevel converter,MMC)的直流电网为研究对象,重点对MMC的内部瞬态能量平衡控制进行了研究。首先,从MMC桥臂瞬时功率转移出发,对MMC的换流过程进行了分析;然后,以不同换流回路瞬态能量平衡为控制目标,分别提出了基于子模块电容能量平均值反馈控制和波动值预估控制策略;最后,通过PSCAD电磁暂态仿真,验证了所提出方法的有效性。

  15. Frequency-Division Power Sharing and Hierarchical Control Design for DC Shipboard Microgrids with Hybrid Energy Storage Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jin, Zheming; Meng, Lexuan; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez

    2017-01-01

    Due to the increasing need to reduce the cost and emission of ships, shipboard applications are calling advanced technologies to go onboard. Recently, cleaner power sources (i.e. gas turbines, fuel cell, solar and wind power), energy storage, advanced control and power/energy management are intro......Due to the increasing need to reduce the cost and emission of ships, shipboard applications are calling advanced technologies to go onboard. Recently, cleaner power sources (i.e. gas turbines, fuel cell, solar and wind power), energy storage, advanced control and power/energy management...... are introduced to meet the new requirement, and therefore, making shipboard power system more like a microgrid. In this paper, a frequency-division based power sharing method is proposed to solve the contradiction between fuel efficiency and dynamic load conditions of marine vessels. With effective design...

  16. PayPal Transactions Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razvan Toader

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent threads to prominent organizations and companies have greatly increased the need for information security. Many measures have been designed and developed to guard against threats from outsider attacks. Technologies are actively implemented to prohibit such attacks that could actively prohibit rogue connections. In this paper, common vulnerabilities for PayPal transactions identified as well as solutions for defending against them.

  17. Identifying Bitcoin users by transaction behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaco, John V.

    2015-05-01

    Digital currencies, such as Bitcoin, offer convenience and security to criminals operating in the black marketplace. Some Bitcoin marketplaces, such as Silk Road, even claim anonymity. This claim contradicts the findings in this work, where long term transactional behavior is used to identify and verify account holders. Transaction timestamps and network properties observed over time contribute to this finding. The timestamp of each transaction is the result of many factors: the desire purchase an item, daily schedule and activities, as well as hardware and network latency. Dynamic network properties of the transaction, such as coin flow and the number of edge outputs and inputs, contribute further to reveal account identity. In this paper, we propose a novel methodology for identifying and verifying Bitcoin users based on the observation of Bitcoin transactions over time. The behavior we attempt to quantify roughly occurs in the social band of Newell's time scale. A subset of the Blockchain 230686 is taken, selecting users that initiated between 100 and 1000 unique transactions per month for at least 6 different months. This dataset shows evidence of being nonrandom and nonlinear, thus a dynamical systems approach is taken. Classification and authentication accuracies are obtained under various representations of the monthly Bitcoin samples: outgoing transactions, as well as both outgoing and incoming transactions are considered, along with the timing and dynamic network properties of transaction sequences. The most appropriate representations of monthly Bitcoin samples are proposed. Results show an inherent lack of anonymity by exploiting patterns in long-term transactional behavior.

  18. Visualizing Dynamic Bitcoin Transaction Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinn, Dan; Birch, David; Akroyd, David; Molina-Solana, Miguel; Guo, Yike; Knottenbelt, William J

    2016-06-01

    This work presents a systemic top-down visualization of Bitcoin transaction activity to explore dynamically generated patterns of algorithmic behavior. Bitcoin dominates the cryptocurrency markets and presents researchers with a rich source of real-time transactional data. The pseudonymous yet public nature of the data presents opportunities for the discovery of human and algorithmic behavioral patterns of interest to many parties such as financial regulators, protocol designers, and security analysts. However, retaining visual fidelity to the underlying data to retain a fuller understanding of activity within the network remains challenging, particularly in real time. We expose an effective force-directed graph visualization employed in our large-scale data observation facility to accelerate this data exploration and derive useful insight among domain experts and the general public alike. The high-fidelity visualizations demonstrated in this article allowed for collaborative discovery of unexpected high frequency transaction patterns, including automated laundering operations, and the evolution of multiple distinct algorithmic denial of service attacks on the Bitcoin network.

  19. Visualizing Dynamic Bitcoin Transaction Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinn, Dan; Birch, David; Akroyd, David; Molina-Solana, Miguel; Guo, Yike; Knottenbelt, William J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This work presents a systemic top-down visualization of Bitcoin transaction activity to explore dynamically generated patterns of algorithmic behavior. Bitcoin dominates the cryptocurrency markets and presents researchers with a rich source of real-time transactional data. The pseudonymous yet public nature of the data presents opportunities for the discovery of human and algorithmic behavioral patterns of interest to many parties such as financial regulators, protocol designers, and security analysts. However, retaining visual fidelity to the underlying data to retain a fuller understanding of activity within the network remains challenging, particularly in real time. We expose an effective force-directed graph visualization employed in our large-scale data observation facility to accelerate this data exploration and derive useful insight among domain experts and the general public alike. The high-fidelity visualizations demonstrated in this article allowed for collaborative discovery of unexpected high frequency transaction patterns, including automated laundering operations, and the evolution of multiple distinct algorithmic denial of service attacks on the Bitcoin network. PMID:27441715

  20. The IG-DMR and the MEG3-DMR at human chromosome 14q32.2: hierarchical interaction and distinct functional properties as imprinting control centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagami, Masayo; O'Sullivan, Maureen J; Green, Andrew J; Watabe, Yoshiyuki; Arisaka, Osamu; Masawa, Nobuhide; Matsuoka, Kentarou; Fukami, Maki; Matsubara, Keiko; Kato, Fumiko; Ferguson-Smith, Anne C; Ogata, Tsutomu

    2010-06-17

    Human chromosome 14q32.2 harbors the germline-derived primary DLK1-MEG3 intergenic differentially methylated region (IG-DMR) and the postfertilization-derived secondary MEG3-DMR, together with multiple imprinted genes. Although previous studies in cases with microdeletions and epimutations affecting both DMRs and paternal/maternal uniparental disomy 14-like phenotypes argue for a critical regulatory function of the two DMRs for the 14q32.2 imprinted region, the precise role of the individual DMR remains to be clarified. We studied an infant with upd(14)pat body and placental phenotypes and a heterozygous microdeletion involving the IG-DMR alone (patient 1) and a neonate with upd(14)pat body, but no placental phenotype and a heterozygous microdeletion involving the MEG3-DMR alone (patient 2). The results generated from the analysis of these two patients imply that the IG-DMR and the MEG3-DMR function as imprinting control centers in the placenta and the body, respectively, with a hierarchical interaction for the methylation pattern in the body governed by the IG-DMR. To our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating an essential long-range imprinting regulatory function for the secondary DMR.

  1. The IG-DMR and the MEG3-DMR at human chromosome 14q32.2: hierarchical interaction and distinct functional properties as imprinting control centers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayo Kagami

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Human chromosome 14q32.2 harbors the germline-derived primary DLK1-MEG3 intergenic differentially methylated region (IG-DMR and the postfertilization-derived secondary MEG3-DMR, together with multiple imprinted genes. Although previous studies in cases with microdeletions and epimutations affecting both DMRs and paternal/maternal uniparental disomy 14-like phenotypes argue for a critical regulatory function of the two DMRs for the 14q32.2 imprinted region, the precise role of the individual DMR remains to be clarified. We studied an infant with upd(14pat body and placental phenotypes and a heterozygous microdeletion involving the IG-DMR alone (patient 1 and a neonate with upd(14pat body, but no placental phenotype and a heterozygous microdeletion involving the MEG3-DMR alone (patient 2. The results generated from the analysis of these two patients imply that the IG-DMR and the MEG3-DMR function as imprinting control centers in the placenta and the body, respectively, with a hierarchical interaction for the methylation pattern in the body governed by the IG-DMR. To our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating an essential long-range imprinting regulatory function for the secondary DMR.

  2. A hybrid Bayesian hierarchical model combining cohort and case-control studies for meta-analysis of diagnostic tests: Accounting for partial verification bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaoye; Chen, Yong; Cole, Stephen R; Chu, Haitao

    2014-05-26

    To account for between-study heterogeneity in meta-analysis of diagnostic accuracy studies, bivariate random effects models have been recommended to jointly model the sensitivities and specificities. As study design and population vary, the definition of disease status or severity could differ across studies. Consequently, sensitivity and specificity may be correlated with disease prevalence. To account for this dependence, a trivariate random effects model had been proposed. However, the proposed approach can only include cohort studies with information estimating study-specific disease prevalence. In addition, some diagnostic accuracy studies only select a subset of samples to be verified by the reference test. It is known that ignoring unverified subjects may lead to partial verification bias in the estimation of prevalence, sensitivities, and specificities in a single study. However, the impact of this bias on a meta-analysis has not been investigated. In this paper, we propose a novel hybrid Bayesian hierarchical model combining cohort and case-control studies and correcting partial verification bias at the same time. We investigate the performance of the proposed methods through a set of simulation studies. Two case studies on assessing the diagnostic accuracy of gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in detecting lymph node metastases and of adrenal fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in characterizing adrenal masses are presented.

  3. Onboard hierarchical network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunesi, Luca; Armbruster, Philippe

    2004-02-01

    The objective of this paper is to demonstrate a suitable hierarchical networking solution to improve capabilities and performances of space systems, with significant recurrent costs saving and more efficient design & manufacturing flows. Classically, a satellite can be split in two functional sub-systems: the platform and the payload complement. The platform is in charge of providing power, attitude & orbit control and up/down-link services, whereas the payload represents the scientific and/or operational instruments/transponders and embodies the objectives of the mission. One major possibility to improve the performance of payloads, by limiting the data return to pertinent information, is to process data on board thanks to a proper implementation of the payload data system. In this way, it is possible to share non-recurring development costs by exploiting a system that can be adopted by the majority of space missions. It is believed that the Modular and Scalable Payload Data System, under development by ESA, provides a suitable solution to fulfil a large range of future mission requirements. The backbone of the system is the standardised high data rate SpaceWire network http://www.ecss.nl/. As complement, a lower speed command and control bus connecting peripherals is required. For instance, at instrument level, there is a need for a "local" low complexity bus, which gives the possibility to command and control sensors and actuators. Moreover, most of the connections at sub-system level are related to discrete signals management or simple telemetry acquisitions, which can easily and efficiently be handled by a local bus. An on-board hierarchical network can therefore be defined by interconnecting high-speed links and local buses. Additionally, it is worth stressing another important aspect of the design process: Agencies and ESA in particular are frequently confronted with a big consortium of geographically spread companies located in different countries, each one

  4. Hierarchical Nacre Mimetics with Synergistic Mechanical Properties by Control of Molecular Interactions in Self-Healing Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Baolei; Jasinski, Nils; Benitez, Alejandro; Noack, Manuel; Park, Daesung; Goldmann, Anja S; Barner-Kowollik, Christopher; Walther, Andreas

    2015-07-20

    Designing the reversible interactions of biopolymers remains a grand challenge for an integral mimicry of mechanically superior biological composites. Yet, they are the key to synergistic combinations of stiffness and toughness by providing sacrificial bonds with hidden length scales. To address this challenge, dynamic polymers were designed with low glass-transition temperature T(g) and bonded by quadruple hydrogen-bonding motifs, and subsequently assembled with high-aspect-ratio synthetic nanoclays to generate nacre-mimetic films. The high dynamics and self-healing of the polymers render transparent films with a near-perfectly aligned structure. Varying the polymer composition allows molecular control over the mechanical properties up to very stiff and very strong films (E≈45 GPa, σ(UTS)≈270 MPa). Stable crack propagation and multiple toughening mechanisms occur in situations of balanced dynamics, enabling synergistic combinations of stiffness and toughness. Excellent gas barrier properties complement the multifunctional property profile.

  5. Hierarchical matrices algorithms and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Hackbusch, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    This self-contained monograph presents matrix algorithms and their analysis. The new technique enables not only the solution of linear systems but also the approximation of matrix functions, e.g., the matrix exponential. Other applications include the solution of matrix equations, e.g., the Lyapunov or Riccati equation. The required mathematical background can be found in the appendix. The numerical treatment of fully populated large-scale matrices is usually rather costly. However, the technique of hierarchical matrices makes it possible to store matrices and to perform matrix operations approximately with almost linear cost and a controllable degree of approximation error. For important classes of matrices, the computational cost increases only logarithmically with the approximation error. The operations provided include the matrix inversion and LU decomposition. Since large-scale linear algebra problems are standard in scientific computing, the subject of hierarchical matrices is of interest to scientists ...

  6. Strategy and mechanism for controlling the direction of defect evolution in graphene: preparation of high quality defect healed and hierarchically porous graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Kecheng; Tian, Yin; Zhang, Yongzhi; Yang, Xiaodan; Bai, Chiyao; Luo, Yue; Zhao, Xiaosheng; Ma, Lijian; Li, Shoujian

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, a novel approach for controlling the direction of defect evolution in graphene through intercalation of organic small molecules into graphite oxide (GO) combined with a one-pot microwave-assisted reaction is reported. By using ethanol as intercalator, the bulk production of high quality graphene with its defects being satisfactorily healed is achieved. The repair of defects using extraneous carbon atoms and the hybrid state of these carbon atoms are definitely demonstrated using isotopic tracing studies with 13C-labeled ethanol combined with 13C solid-state NMR. The defect healed graphene shows excellent crystallinity, extremely low oxygen content (C : O ratio of 23.8) and has the highest sheet conductivity (61 500 S m-1) compared to all other reported graphene products derived from GO. By using methanol or benzene as intercalators, hierarchically porous graphene with a self-supported 3-dimensional framework (~917 m2 g-1) containing both macropores and mesopores (2-5 nm) is obtained. This graphene possesses a distinctive amorphous carbon structure around the edge of the nanopores, which could be conducive to enhancing the lithium storage performance (up to 580 mA h g-1 after 300 cycles) when tested as an anode of lithium ion batteries, and might have promising applications in the field of electrode materials, catalysis, and separation, and so on. The mechanism involved for the controlled defect evolution is also proposed. The simple, ultrafast and unified strategy developed in this research provides a practical and effective approach to harness structural defects in graphene-based materials, which could also be expanded for designing and preparing other ordered carbon materials with specific structures.In this paper, a novel approach for controlling the direction of defect evolution in graphene through intercalation of organic small molecules into graphite oxide (GO) combined with a one-pot microwave-assisted reaction is reported. By using ethanol as

  7. Introduction into Hierarchical Matrices

    KAUST Repository

    Litvinenko, Alexander

    2013-12-05

    Hierarchical matrices allow us to reduce computational storage and cost from cubic to almost linear. This technique can be applied for solving PDEs, integral equations, matrix equations and approximation of large covariance and precision matrices.

  8. Applied Bayesian Hierarchical Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Congdon, Peter D

    2010-01-01

    Bayesian methods facilitate the analysis of complex models and data structures. Emphasizing data applications, alternative modeling specifications, and computer implementation, this book provides a practical overview of methods for Bayesian analysis of hierarchical models.

  9. Programming with Hierarchical Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørbæk, Peter

    This report desribes the hierarchical maps used as a central data structure in the Corundum framework. We describe its most prominent features, ague for its usefulness and briefly describe some of the software prototypes implemented using the technology....

  10. Catalysis with hierarchical zeolites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Martin Spangsberg; Taarning, Esben; Egeblad, Kresten

    2011-01-01

    Hierarchical (or mesoporous) zeolites have attracted significant attention during the first decade of the 21st century, and so far this interest continues to increase. There have already been several reviews giving detailed accounts of the developments emphasizing different aspects of this research...... topic. Until now, the main reason for developing hierarchical zeolites has been to achieve heterogeneous catalysts with improved performance but this particular facet has not yet been reviewed in detail. Thus, the present paper summaries and categorizes the catalytic studies utilizing hierarchical...... zeolites that have been reported hitherto. Prototypical examples from some of the different categories of catalytic reactions that have been studied using hierarchical zeolite catalysts are highlighted. This clearly illustrates the different ways that improved performance can be achieved with this family...

  11. Strategy and mechanism for controlling the direction of defect evolution in graphene: preparation of high quality defect healed and hierarchically porous graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Kecheng; Tian, Yin; Zhang, Yongzhi; Yang, Xiaodan; Bai, Chiyao; Luo, Yue; Zhao, Xiaosheng; Ma, Lijian; Li, Shoujian

    2014-11-21

    In this paper, a novel approach for controlling the direction of defect evolution in graphene through intercalation of organic small molecules into graphite oxide (GO) combined with a one-pot microwave-assisted reaction is reported. By using ethanol as intercalator, the bulk production of high quality graphene with its defects being satisfactorily healed is achieved. The repair of defects using extraneous carbon atoms and the hybrid state of these carbon atoms are definitely demonstrated using isotopic tracing studies with (13)C-labeled ethanol combined with (13)C solid-state NMR. The defect healed graphene shows excellent crystallinity, extremely low oxygen content (C : O ratio of 23.8) and has the highest sheet conductivity (61 500 S m(-1)) compared to all other reported graphene products derived from GO. By using methanol or benzene as intercalators, hierarchically porous graphene with a self-supported 3-dimensional framework (∼917 m(2) g(-1)) containing both macropores and mesopores (2-5 nm) is obtained. This graphene possesses a distinctive amorphous carbon structure around the edge of the nanopores, which could be conducive to enhancing the lithium storage performance (up to 580 mA h g(-1) after 300 cycles) when tested as an anode of lithium ion batteries, and might have promising applications in the field of electrode materials, catalysis, and separation, and so on. The mechanism involved for the controlled defect evolution is also proposed. The simple, ultrafast and unified strategy developed in this research provides a practical and effective approach to harness structural defects in graphene-based materials, which could also be expanded for designing and preparing other ordered carbon materials with specific structures.

  12. Transaction costs in beans market in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Eterno Venâncio Assunção

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed to evaluate the presence of transaction costs in the beans market in Brazil. Therefore, threshold autoregressive (TAR models were used to check co-integration and the existence of transaction costs in the Brazilian beans market. The results confirmed the presence of transaction costs in the beans market, which are mainly related to the freight component of production, since the markets are often far away from the producing regions.

  13. Information Management in Creative Engineering Design and Capabilities of Database Transactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Kim; Eastman, C. A.; Jeng, T. S.

    1997-01-01

    This paper examines the information management requirements and sets forth the general criteria for collaboration and concurrency control in creative engineering design. Our work attempts to recognize the full range of concurrency, collaboration and complex transactions structure now practiced in...

  14. Hierarchical Nanoceramics for Industrial Process Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruud, James, A.; Brosnan, Kristen, H.; Striker, Todd; Ramaswamy, Vidya; Aceto, Steven, C.; Gao, Yan; Willson, Patrick, D.; Manoharan, Mohan; Armstrong, Eric, N., Wachsman, Eric, D.; Kao, Chi-Chang

    2011-07-15

    This project developed a robust, tunable, hierarchical nanoceramics materials platform for industrial process sensors in harsh-environments. Control of material structure at multiple length scales from nano to macro increased the sensing response of the materials to combustion gases. These materials operated at relatively high temperatures, enabling detection close to the source of combustion. It is anticipated that these materials can form the basis for a new class of sensors enabling widespread use of efficient combustion processes with closed loop feedback control in the energy-intensive industries. The first phase of the project focused on materials selection and process development, leading to hierarchical nanoceramics that were evaluated for sensing performance. The second phase focused on optimizing the materials processes and microstructures, followed by validation of performance of a prototype sensor in a laboratory combustion environment. The objectives of this project were achieved by: (1) synthesizing and optimizing hierarchical nanostructures; (2) synthesizing and optimizing sensing nanomaterials; (3) integrating sensing functionality into hierarchical nanostructures; (4) demonstrating material performance in a sensing element; and (5) validating material performance in a simulated service environment. The project developed hierarchical nanoceramic electrodes for mixed potential zirconia gas sensors with increased surface area and demonstrated tailored electrocatalytic activity operable at high temperatures enabling detection of products of combustion such as NOx close to the source of combustion. Methods were developed for synthesis of hierarchical nanostructures with high, stable surface area, integrated catalytic functionality within the structures for gas sensing, and demonstrated materials performance in harsh lab and combustion gas environments.

  15. Transaction of Marine Fishing Right: Theoretical Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Jishen; Long Wenjun

    2008-01-01

    The difference between fishermen's fishing catch and the optimal fishing catch is the basic reason for the transaction of marine fishing rights (TMFR). The effects of productive cost, non-productive cost, use-cost, transaction cost, productive revenue and non-productive revenue on the TMFR and the optimal fishing catch are analyzed. This paper draws following conclusions: the non-productive revenue has a positive effect on the TMFR, and other factors, such as non-productive cost, usecost and transaction cost, have a negative effect; the TMFR will promote the resource allocation; the high transaction cost may affect the implementation of TMFR.

  16. 34 CFR 85.205 - Why is it important if a particular transaction is a covered transaction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Why is it important if a particular transaction is a covered transaction? 85.205 Section 85.205 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education... particular transaction is a covered transaction? The importance of a covered transaction depends upon who...

  17. Managing transaction risks in interdependent supply chains: an extended transaction cost economics perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wever, M.; Wognum, P.M.; Trienekens, J.H.; Omta, S.W.F.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examines the management of transaction risks in supply chains. Risk management studies often ignore the wider supply chain context in which individual transactions take place. However, risk management strategies which are suitable to use when only a single transaction is considered

  18. 31 CFR 547.404 - Transactions ordinarily incident to a licensed transaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... licensed transaction. 547.404 Section 547.404 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... THE CONGO SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Interpretations § 547.404 Transactions ordinarily incident to a... blocked pursuant to § 547.201(a); or (b) An ordinarily incident transaction, not explicitly authorized...

  19. Tapping Transaction Costs to Forecast Acquisition Cost Breaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    management , survival analysis  lead image by Diane Fleischer 58 Controlling cost growth for a major defense acquisition program (MDAP) has been...directing and controlling a totally integrated engineering effort of a system or program.” Program management is defined as “the business and...56 Defense ARJ, January 2016, Vol. 23 No. 1 : 56–76 TAPPING Transaction Costs to Forecast Acquisition COST BREACHES Laura E. Armey and Diana I

  20. Economic transactions, opportunistic behavior and protective mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Carsten Allan

    Whenever actors participate in transactions they expose themselves to risks of various kinds. Some of these risks are attributable to events outside the control of the participants and are unavoidable. Others originate in, or are aggrevated by, opportunistic actions undertaken by contract partners...... and other co-operators. This paper is concerned with the latter type of risk and the protection against it. Six protective mechanisms, which may serve as safeguards against opportunistic behavior, are presented and discussed. Special attention is paid to reputation effects. It is noted that such effects may...... account for the lack of opportunistic behavior with which networks are often credited. No protective mechanism is, however, effective under all circumstances....

  1. Growth rate controlled synthesis of hierarchical Bi2S3/In2S3 core/shell microspheres with enhanced photocatalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Juan; Tian, Guohui; Chen, Yajie; Shi, Yunhan; Tian, Chungui; Pan, Kai; Fu, Honggang

    2014-02-01

    Core/shell heterostructure composite has great potential applications in photocatalytic field because the introduction of core can remarkably improve charge transport and enhance the electron-hole separation. Herein, hierarchical Bi2S3/In2S3 core/shell structured microspheres were prepared via a simple one-pot hydrothermal process based on different growth rate of the two kinds of sulphides. The results showed that, the as-prepared hierarchical Bi2S3/In2S3 core/shell heterostructure exhibits significant visible light photocatalytic activity for degradation of 2, 4-dichlorophenol. The introduction of Bi2S3 core can not only improve charge transport and enhance the electron-hole separation, but also broaden the visible light response. The hierarchical porous folwer-like shell of In2S3 could increase the specific surface area and remarkably enhanced the chemical stability of Bi2S3 against oxidation.

  2. Programming Idioms for Transactional Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Kehrt

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Transactional events (TE are an extension of Concurrent ML (CML, a programming model for synchronous message-passing. Prior work has focused on TE's formal semantics and its implementation. This paper considers programming idioms, particularly those that vary unexpectedly from the corresponding CML idioms. First, we solve a subtle problem with client-server protocols in TE. Second, we argue that CML's wrap and guard primitives do not translate well to TE, and we suggest useful workarounds. Finally, we discuss how to rewrite CML protocols that use abort actions.

  3. A Study of the Relationship Among the Ultimate Controllers, Institutional Investors, and Related Party Transactions-Based on China’s A-share Listed Companies%终极控制人、机构投资者与关联交易的关系研究--基于我国A股上市公司的实证检验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨蓉; 张旭

    2015-01-01

    From the perspectives of specific types of related party transactions and related party transactions as a whole, this paper samples China’s listed companies from 2008-2012, analyzing the influence of the ulti-mate controllers over the related party transactions of the listed companies and the role of institutional inves-tors in them. The study shows that the greater the two rights of the ultimate controllers diverge, the greater the scale of related party transactions is;it also displays that the state-owned listed companies have a higher demand for related party transactions than non-state-owned listed companies;institutional investors play the role of a check and balance, and their role over the state-owned listed companies is weaker than non-state-owned listed companies. State-owned listed companies and non-state-owned listed companies have different preferences for the three kinds of related party transactions and the checks and balances the institutional in-vestors have over them are also different.%以2008-2012年我国上市公司为样本,分别从关联交易整体和关联交易具体类型两个角度,研究了终极控制人对上市公司关联交易的影响,以及机构投资者对它们的作用。实证表明:终极控制人两权分离越大,关联交易规模就越大,且国有控股上市公司对关联交易的需求要高于非国有控股上市公司;机构投资者对其产生了制衡作用,其对国有控股上市公司的制衡要弱于非国有控股上市公司。国有控股上市公司和非国有控股上市公司对三类关联交易的选择各有偏重,机构投资者对它们各自的制衡也存在差异。

  4. Kinetically Controlled Synthesis of Pt-Based One-Dimensional Hierarchically Porous Nanostructures with Large Mesopores as Highly Efficient ORR Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Shaofang; Zhu, Chengzhou; Song, Junhua; Engelhard, Mark H.; Xia, Haibing; Du, Dan; Lin, Yuehe

    2016-12-28

    Rational design and construction of Pt-based porous nanostructures with large mesopores have triggered significant considerations because of their high surface area and more efficient mass transport. Hydrochloric acid-induced kinetic reduction of metal precursors in the presence of soft template F-127 and hard template tellurium nanowires has been successfully demonstrated to construct one-dimensional hierarchical porous PtCu alloy nanostructures with large mesopores. Moreover, the electrochemical experiments demonstrated that the resultant PtCu hierarchically porous nanostructures with optimized composition exhibit enhanced electrocatalytic performance for oxygen reduction reaction.

  5. Analysis hierarchical model for discrete event systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciortea, E. M.

    2015-11-01

    The This paper presents the hierarchical model based on discrete event network for robotic systems. Based on the hierarchical approach, Petri network is analysed as a network of the highest conceptual level and the lowest level of local control. For modelling and control of complex robotic systems using extended Petri nets. Such a system is structured, controlled and analysed in this paper by using Visual Object Net ++ package that is relatively simple and easy to use, and the results are shown as representations easy to interpret. The hierarchical structure of the robotic system is implemented on computers analysed using specialized programs. Implementation of hierarchical model discrete event systems, as a real-time operating system on a computer network connected via a serial bus is possible, where each computer is dedicated to local and Petri model of a subsystem global robotic system. Since Petri models are simplified to apply general computers, analysis, modelling, complex manufacturing systems control can be achieved using Petri nets. Discrete event systems is a pragmatic tool for modelling industrial systems. For system modelling using Petri nets because we have our system where discrete event. To highlight the auxiliary time Petri model using transport stream divided into hierarchical levels and sections are analysed successively. Proposed robotic system simulation using timed Petri, offers the opportunity to view the robotic time. Application of goods or robotic and transmission times obtained by measuring spot is obtained graphics showing the average time for transport activity, using the parameters sets of finished products. individually.

  6. Analysis and Research for the Technology of Remote Transaction Mirror Image

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Jian-hua; ZHU Xiao-jun

    2004-01-01

    The technology of remote transaction mirror image is a feasible, low-investment and well-effect disaster backup scheme in finance business system. The basic idea, construction, working principles and characteristic of remote transaction mirror image are presented in this paper. We analyze and compare similarities and differences among this disaster backup scheme and others usually used. The technology of remote transaction mirror image have the advantages such as less requiring of software and hardware system platform, low-investment, being able to control and restore lost data, insuring the data consistency and integrity.

  7. Parallel hierarchical radiosity rendering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, M.

    1993-07-01

    In this dissertation, the step-by-step development of a scalable parallel hierarchical radiosity renderer is documented. First, a new look is taken at the traditional radiosity equation, and a new form is presented in which the matrix of linear system coefficients is transformed into a symmetric matrix, thereby simplifying the problem and enabling a new solution technique to be applied. Next, the state-of-the-art hierarchical radiosity methods are examined for their suitability to parallel implementation, and scalability. Significant enhancements are also discovered which both improve their theoretical foundations and improve the images they generate. The resultant hierarchical radiosity algorithm is then examined for sources of parallelism, and for an architectural mapping. Several architectural mappings are discussed. A few key algorithmic changes are suggested during the process of making the algorithm parallel. Next, the performance, efficiency, and scalability of the algorithm are analyzed. The dissertation closes with a discussion of several ideas which have the potential to further enhance the hierarchical radiosity method, or provide an entirely new forum for the application of hierarchical methods.

  8. 21 CFR 1310.08 - Excluded transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... international transactions of Lugol's Solution (consisting of 5 percent iodine and 10 percent potassium iodide in an aqueous solution) in original manufacturer's packaging of one-fluid-ounce (30 milliliters) or... CHEMICALS AND CERTAIN MACHINES § 1310.08 Excluded transactions. Pursuant to 21 U.S.C....

  9. Clinical HBSE Concentration: A Transactional Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Rosemary L.

    1999-01-01

    Outlines a transactional model for addressing the underrepresentation of key areas in advanced clinical courses in human behavior in the social environment (HBSE), looking at social work's understanding of the biological and spiritual aspects of human beings. The transactional model is distinguished from other reductionist or interactionist models…

  10. The transactional approach in company boundaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Chaihuaque Dueñas

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This article shows the relationship between market and firms through the theory of transactional cost and the relationsthat determine the structure and boundaries of the firm. Using the assumptions from the transactional cost approach,this article proposes some variables that determine optimal organizational structures and their boundaries.

  11. 76 FR 22633 - Retail Foreign Exchange Transactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    ... exposure to retail forex transactions or any other foreign exchange risk. Section 48.12--Authorization to... Office of the Comptroller of the Currency 12 CFR Part 48 RIN 1557-AD42 Retail Foreign Exchange... engage in off-exchange transactions in foreign currency with retail customers. The proposed rule also...

  12. 31 CFR 103.63 - Structured transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Structured transactions. 103.63 Section 103.63 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance FINANCIAL RECORDKEEPING AND REPORTING OF CURRENCY AND FOREIGN TRANSACTIONS General Provisions § 103.63...

  13. 76 FR 41676 - Retail Foreign Exchange Transactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-15

    ... ``retail forex transactions,'' and as further defined below) with a registered broker or dealer (``broker... forex business until July 16, 2012, provided that the broker-dealer complies with the Securities... applicable to retail forex transactions. DATES: Effective Date: Rule 15b12-1T is effective on July 15, 2011...

  14. 19 CFR 152.103 - Transaction value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CLASSIFICATION AND APPRAISEMENT OF MERCHANDISE Valuation of Merchandise § 152.103 Transaction... made directly or indirectly. Example 1. In a transaction with foreign Company X, a U.S. firm pays Company X $10,000 for a shipment of meat products, packed ready for shipment to the United States....

  15. Controlled Fabrication of Silk Protein Sericin Mediated Hierarchical Hybrid Flowers and Their Excellent Adsorption Capability of Heavy Metal Ions of Pb(II), Cd(II) and Hg(II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koley, Pradyot; Sakurai, Makoto; Aono, Masakazu

    2016-01-27

    Fabrication of protein-inorganic hybrid materials of innumerable hierarchical patterns plays a major role in the development of multifunctional advanced materials with their improved features in synergistic way. However, effective fabrication and applications of the hybrid structures is limited due to the difficulty in control and production cost. Here, we report the controlled fabrication of complex hybrid flowers with hierarchical porosity through a green and facile coprecipitation method by using industrial waste natural silk protein sericin. The large surface areas and porosity of the microsize hybrid flowers enable water purification through adsorption of different heavy metal ions. The high adsorption capacity depends on their morphology, which is changed largely by sericin concentration in their fabrication. Superior adsorption and greater selectivity of the Pb(II) ions have been confirmed by the characteristic growth of needle-shaped nanowires on the hierarchical surface of the hybrid flowers. These hybrid flowers show excellent thermal stability even after complete evaporation of the protein molecules, significantly increasing the porosity of the flower petals. A simple, cost-effective and environmental friendly fabrication method of the porous flowers will lead to a new solution to water pollution required in the modern industrial society.

  16. The topology of card transaction money flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanin, Massimiliano; Papo, David; Romance, Miguel; Criado, Regino; Moral, Santiago

    2016-11-01

    Money flow models are essential tools to understand different economical phenomena, like saving propensities and wealth distributions. In spite of their importance, most of them are based on synthetic transaction networks with simple topologies, e.g. random or scale-free ones, as the characterisation of real networks is made difficult by the confidentiality and sensitivity of money transaction data. Here, we present an analysis of the topology created by real credit card transactions from one of the biggest world banks, and show how different distributions, e.g. number of transactions per card or amount, have nontrivial characteristics. We further describe a stochastic model to create transactions data sets, feeding from the obtained distributions, which will allow researchers to create more realistic money flow models.

  17. An Object—Oriented Transaction Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾君忠

    1993-01-01

    In object-oriented database systems(OOBSs),the traditional transaction models are no longer suitable because of the difference between the object-oriented data model(OODM)and the conventional data models(e.g.relational data model).In this paper,transction models for advanced database applications are reviewed and their shortcomings are analyzed.Exchangeability of operations is proposed instead of commuativity and recoverability for using more semantics in transaction management.As a result,an object-oriented transaction model(in short,OOTM)is presented.It is not modeled for some special application,but directly based on object-oriented paradigms.A transaction is regarded as an interpretation of a metho.Each transaction(even subtransactions)keeps relative ACID(Atomicity,Consistency,Isolation,Durability)properties,therefore the special problems appearing in OOBSs such as“long transactions”,“visibility of inconsistent database state”can be solved.

  18. Neutrosophic Hierarchical Clustering Algoritms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rıdvan Şahin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Interval neutrosophic set (INS is a generalization of interval valued intuitionistic fuzzy set (IVIFS, whose the membership and non-membership values of elements consist of fuzzy range, while single valued neutrosophic set (SVNS is regarded as extension of intuitionistic fuzzy set (IFS. In this paper, we extend the hierarchical clustering techniques proposed for IFSs and IVIFSs to SVNSs and INSs respectively. Based on the traditional hierarchical clustering procedure, the single valued neutrosophic aggregation operator, and the basic distance measures between SVNSs, we define a single valued neutrosophic hierarchical clustering algorithm for clustering SVNSs. Then we extend the algorithm to classify an interval neutrosophic data. Finally, we present some numerical examples in order to show the effectiveness and availability of the developed clustering algorithms.

  19. 风电直流微网的电压分层协调控制%Hierarchical Coordinated Control of Wind Turbine-based DC Microgrid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王毅; 张丽荣; 李和明; 刘均鹏

    2013-01-01

    For the microgrid system dominated by new energy power generation, the DC microgrid has become a new microgrid technology with its advantages. Taking a wind turbine-based DC microgrid configuration as an example, different operation modes are described and a three-layer voltage hierarchical coordinated control strategy is proposed. Each power electronic converter coordinates its control method by monitoring the DC voltage variation to keep the power balance of the DC microgrid under different operating conditions. Each unit is controlled independently without communicating with each other, which simplifies the control structure and increases the control flexibility. The proposed control strategy is validated by simulation on a DC microgrid with permanent magnet synchronous generator based wind turbines and energy storage battery. The simulation results show that the converters have the ability to respond quickly to the DC voltage variation caused by the various operating conditions, such as variations of wind speed and loads, AC grid fault, so that the stability and the power supply quality of the DC microgrid system are improved.%对于以新能源发电为主的微网系统,直流微网以其显著优势成为微网技术新的研究方向.该文以风电直流微网为例,在分析直流微网的构成以及各种运行模式的基础上,提出电压分层协调控制策略.该控制策略通过检测直流电压的变化量来协调各电力电子变流器的工作方式,从而确保在不同工况下都能保持微网内的有功功率平衡.各变流器独立工作,无需相互通信,可简化控制系统结构,并使直流微网具备“即插即用”功能.通过对含永磁风电机组、储能蓄电池的直流微网的仿真分析,验证所提控制策略对直流微网的有效控制.在风速或负荷变化、电网故障、蓄电池达到容量限定值等各种工作状态下,各端变流器都能根据直流电压变化量做出快速响应,从而

  20. Il B2B e il paradigma dei costi di transazione (B2B and the Transaction Costs Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierluigi Sabbatini

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Business to Business (B2B Internet commerce causes a significant contraction of transaction costs. According to the Coase paradigm, we would thus expect a deverticalization of the industry and broader scope for anonymous market mechanisms. In reality, such expectations are not fully borne out by the facts. When the industrial structure is concentrated the B2Bgenerally loses its independence, and is owned by the firms which most contribute to its development, e.g. the ones able to bring the liquidity to it. The B2B governance mechanism established by these firms gives hierarchical mechanisms a role which they do not usually play in extensive, anonymous markets.         JEL Codes: D23, L86Keywords: Cost, Transaction Costs, Transactions

  1. 面向城市水资源监测的WSN拓扑控制算法%The WSN Hierarchical Topology Control Algorithm for Urban Water Resources Monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐华; 马岚; 刘军

    2015-01-01

    To solve the problems of traditional water resources monitoring systems ’ monitoring cycle being long,degree of automation being low, a water resources monitoring system for the urban areas based on WSN is proposed in this paper.The LEECH algorithm of the existing WSN hierarchi-cal topology control algorithm’s cluster head nodes in the network are randomly distribution,so it is easy for imbalanced communication distance be-tween cluster member nodes and cluster heads, cluster head node and network gateway nodes. This study is an effort to solve this problem. Through the Matlab software,the performance of the algorithm is simulated,and the results show that the improved algorithm LEACH E can better balance node energy consumption.On the basis of stable network connectivity,the survival time of the network monitoring,compared with LEACH algorithm,is enhanced by about 26%, thereby saving the operation costs of the monitoring net-work.%针对传统的水资源监测系统监测周期长、自动化程度低的问题,提出了一种基于 WSN 的城市水资源监测系统。对已有的 WSN 层次拓扑控制的LEACH 算法,由于簇头节点在网络内的分布是随机的,容易造成簇成员节点与簇头间、簇头节点与网关节点间的通信距离不平衡,故对此不足进行了改进。通过 Matlab 仿真软件对算法性能进行仿真,结果表明该改进算法 LEACH E 能够更好地均衡节点的能量消耗,在保证网络连通性的前提下,监测网络的生存时间比 LEACH 算法提升了约26%,从而节约了监测网络的运行成本。

  2. Hierarchical Porous Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grote, Christopher John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-07

    Materials Design is often at the forefront of technological innovation. While there has always been a push to generate increasingly low density materials, such as aero or hydrogels, more recently the idea of bicontinuous structures has gone more into play. This review will cover some of the methods and applications for generating both porous, and hierarchically porous structures.

  3. Entrepreneurship, Transaction Costs, and Resource Attributes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Kirsten; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    This paper responds to Kim and Mahoney's "How Property Rights Economics Furthers the Resource-Based View: Resources, Transaction Costs and Entrepreneurial Discovery" (a comment on Foss and Foss, 2005). While we agree with many of their arguments, we argue that they fail to recognize how exactly...... transaction costs and property rights shape the process of entrepreneurial discovery. We provide a sketch of the mechanisms that link entrepreneurship, property rights, and transaction costs in a resource-based setting, contributing further to the attempt to take the RBV in a more dynamic direction....

  4. Entrepreneurship, transaction costs, and resource attributes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Kirsten; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2006-01-01

    This paper responds to Kim and Mahoney's "How Property Rights Economics Furthers the Resource-Based View: Resources, Transaction Costs and Entrepreneurial Discovery" (a comment on Foss and Foss, 2005). While we agree with many of their arguments, we argue that they fail to recognise how exactly...... transaction costs shape the process of entrepreneurial discovery. We provide a sketch of the mechanisms that link entrepreneurship, property rights, and transaction costs in a resource-based setting, contributing further to the attempt to take the RBV in a more dynamic direction....

  5. Accounting costs of transactions in real estate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkjær, Erik

    2005-01-01

    The costs of transactions in real estate is of importance for households, for investors, for statistical services, for governmental and international bodies concerned with the efficient delivery of basic state functions, as well as for research. The paper takes a multi-disciplinary approach...... in relating theoretical conceptualizations of transaction costs to national accounting and further to the identification and quantification of actions on units of real estate. The notion of satellite accounting of the System of National Accounts is applied to the segment of society concerned with changes...... in real estate. The paper ends up with an estimate of the cost of a major real property transaction in Denmark....

  6. Security of M-Commerce transactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion IVAN

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this material electronic market are defined. How they are structured. Security in E-Commerce applications is very important both at the administrative level and from the user perspective. The new trend in the field is the M-commerce that involves making purchases through mobile devices. And for M-commerce transactions the security is a very important thing. Here's how to analyze the security of M-commerce transactions and ways to increase security for these transactions taking into account the organization of M-Commerce applications, software used, hardware used and other important issues in the development of these applications.

  7. Controlled synthesis, asymmetrical transport behavior and luminescence properties of lanthanide doped ZnO mushroom-like 3D hierarchical structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Dan; Lu, Wei; Jin, Lin; Li, Chunyang; Luo, Wen; Wang, Mengnan; Wang, Zhenling; Hao, Jianhua

    2014-11-21

    Lanthanide doped ZnO mushroom-like 3D hierarchical structures have been fabricated by polyol-mediated method and characterized by various microstructural and optical techniques. The results indicate that the as-prepared ZnO:Ln(3+) (Ln = Tb, Eu) samples have a hexagonal phase structure and possess a mushroom-like 3D hierarchical morphology. The length of the whole mushroom from stipe bottom to pileus top is about 1.0 μm, and the diameters of pileus and stipe are about 0.8 μm and 0.4 μm, respectively. It is found that the flow of N2 is the key parameter for the formation of the novel ZnO structure and the addition of (NH4)2HPO4 has a prominent effect on the phase structure and the growth of mushroom-like morphology. The potential mechanism of forming this morphology is proposed. The pileus of the formed mushroom is assembled by several radial ZnO:Ln(3+) nanorods, whereas the stipe is composed of over layered ZnO:Ln(3+) nanosheets. Moreover, asymmetrical I-V characteristic curves of ZnO:Ln(3+) mushrooms indicate that the texture composition of the 3D hierarchical morphology might lead to the asymmetrical transport behavior of electrical conductivity. Lanthanide doped ZnO samples can exhibit red or green emission under the excitation of UV light.

  8. Pattern of secure bilateral transactions ensuring power economic dispatch in hybrid electricity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Ashwani; Gao, Wenzhong [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Tennessee Tech University, Cookeville, TN 38505 (United States)

    2009-07-15

    This paper proposes a new method for secure bilateral transactions determination ensuring economic power dispatch of the generators using new AC distribution factors for pool and bilateral coordinated markets. The new optimization problem considers simultaneous minimization of deviations from scheduled transactions and fuel cost of the generators in the network. The fuel cost has been obtained for hybrid market model and impact of different percentage of bilateral demand on fuel cost, generation share, and pattern of transactions has also been determined. The impact of optimally located unified power flow controller (UPFC) on the bilateral transactions, fuel cost and generation pattern has also been studied. The results have also been obtained for pool market model. The proposed technique has been applied on IEEE 24-bus reliability test system (RTS). (author)

  9. 16 CFR 801.90 - Transactions or devices for avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transactions or devices for avoidance. 801.90 Section 801.90 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENTS AND... Transactions or devices for avoidance. Any transaction(s) or other device(s) entered into or employed for...

  10. 31 CFR 560.526 - Commodities trading and related transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... transaction, that the goods would be for delivery to Iran or to the Government of Iran; (2) The United States... Iranian-origin goods, or transactions incidental to such trading, where: (1) No party to the transaction... for the United States person to determine at the time of entry into the transaction, given all...

  11. Traffic Rules in Electronic Financial Transactions (EFT Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vedran Batoš

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the traffic rules in the EFT (ElectronicFinancial Transactions networks, based on the implementationof the solution called Gold-Net developed and implementedby Euronet Worldwide Inc. Following the traffic rulesin EFT networks, out of its worldwide experience, Gold-Netevolved a comprehensive and expandable EFT network solutiondesigned to meet an institution's needs today and in the future.It is an ITM (Integrated Transaction Management solution,modular and expandable, and consists of a comprehensiveEFT software modules with ATM and POS driving capabilities.The combination of ATM management and the onlineconnection form the intercept processing control module. Asthe marketplace grows, this solution ensures that an ente1prisemay position itself for future growth and expanded service offerings.

  12. AN AGENT BASED TRANSACTION PROCESSING SCHEME FOR DISCONNECTED MOBILE NODES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.L. Walter Jeyakumar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We present a mobile transaction framework in which mobile users can share data which is stored in the cache of a mobile agent. This mobile agent is a special mobile node which coordinates the sharing process. The proposed framework allows mobile affiliation work groups to be formed dynamically with a mobile agent and mobile hosts. Using short range wireless communication technology, mobile users can simultaneously access the data from the cache of the mobile agent. The data Access Manager module at the mobile agent enforces concurrency control using cache invalidation technique. This model supports disconnected mobile computing allowing mobile agent to move along with the Mobile Hosts. The proposed Transaction frame work has been simulated in Java 2 and performance of this scheme is compared with existing frame works.

  13. 微电网电压分层控制与补偿机制研究%Study on hierarchical control and compensation mechanism of micro-grid voltage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎金英; 艾欣

    2016-01-01

    Micro-grid technology has many advantages. However,the instability of distributed generations in the micro-grid will lead to difficulty in operation controlling of the grid,especially the voltage at the point of common coupling (PCC) could be unbalanced. Consequently,the hierarchical control method is proposed to compensate this unbalance voltage. In this control method,the hierarchical control structure is composed of two levels. The upper control level sends control signals to control the lower control level. These control signals are the positive- and negative-sequence components of the unbalanced voltage. Micro-grid adopts rotating dq frame based synchronization technology,such as synchronous reference frame phase-locked loop (SRF -PLL)and decoupled double synchronous reference frame phase-locked loop(DDSRF- PLL)etc.. The micro-grid is synchronously connected to the electricity grid,and gains voltage magnitude by controlling the inverter. Matlab/Simulink software is used to set up the simulation model of connecting micro-grid to the main grid. The simulation results show that the hierarchical control method is effective to implement micro-grid control.%微电网技术具有许多优点,然而微电网中的分布式电源自身的不稳定性会导致微电网的运行控制困难,特别是公共连接点处会出现电压不平衡。为了补偿此不平衡电压,提出了分层控制方法。该方法将电网运行控制分为上下2层,由上层控制发送控制信号,并由下层控制来实施,此控制信号与正序电压分量和负序电压分量有关;在dq旋转坐标下,依靠同步坐标系锁相环(SRF-PLL)和解耦的双同步坐标系锁相环(DDSRF-PLL)等并网同步技术将微电网同步地接入电网,并通过控制逆变器得到电压幅值。仿真结果表明:分层控制方法能够较好地实现对微电网的控制。

  14. 5 CFR 919.205 - Why is it important if a particular transaction is a covered transaction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Why is it important if a particular transaction is a covered transaction? 919.205 Section 919.205 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL... (NONPROCUREMENT) Covered Transactions § 919.205 Why is it important if a particular transaction is a...

  15. 31 CFR 19.205 - Why is it important if a particular transaction is a covered transaction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Why is it important if a particular transaction is a covered transaction? 19.205 Section 19.205 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the....205 Why is it important if a particular transaction is a covered transaction? The importance of a...

  16. Guarding against Collateral Damage during Chromatin Transactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altmeyer, Matthias; Lukas, Jiri

    2013-01-01

    Signal amplifications are vital for chromatin function, yet they also bear the risk of transforming into unrestrained, self-escalating, and potentially harmful responses. Examples of inbuilt limitations are emerging, revealing how chromatin transactions are confined within physiological boundaries....

  17. Governance structures for real estate transactions: Markets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    networks in the governance of real-estate transactions under three property rights regimes in ..... makers may engage in corruption and other forms of 'rent-seeking' behaviour, benefiting .... trust or other corporate body. The key difference from ...

  18. Conceptualizing and Measuring Transformational and Transactional Leadership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ulrich Thy; Bøgh Andersen, Lotte; Bro, Louise Ladegaard

    2016-01-01

    Existing conceptualizations and measures of transformational and transactional leadership have unclear theoretical bases, confound leadership and its effects, and are not necessarily suitable for public organizations. Overcoming these problems is necessary to test how leadership affects performan...

  19. Anonymity And Accountability In Web Based Transactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.Jayasree

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Decreased privacy is an unavoidable consequence in the drive to make the world a more secure, safer place, according to some analysts. In the on-line world, the conflict between privacy and security manifests itself in a debate between anonymity and accountability. Balance between Anonymity and Accountability is a major concern in web based transactions. The protection of users’ privacy when performing web-based transactions is an important factor in the acceptance and use of Internet and web services. There is a tremendous improvement in the automation of the way we pay for goods and services by the variety and growth of electronic banking services available to the consumers. Hence there is a need for the ultimate structure of the new electronic transaction system that has a substantial impact on the personal privacy as well as on the nature and extent of criminal use of E- transactions. This paper presents an approach for such structure.

  20. The transactional interpretation of quantum mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, John G.

    2001-06-01

    The transactional interpretation of quantum mechanics [1] was originally published in 1986 and is now about 14 years old. It is an explicitly nonlocal and Lorentz invariant alternative to the Copenhagen interpretation. It interprets the formalism for a quantum interaction as describing a "handshake" between retarded waves (ψ) and advanced waves (ψ*) for each quantum event or "transaction" in which energy, momentum, angular momentum, and other conserved quantities are transferred. The transactional interpretation offers the advantages that (1) it is actually "visible" in the formalism of quantum mechanics, (2) it is economical, involving fewer independent assumptions than its rivals, (3) it is paradox-free, resolving all of the paradoxes of standard quantum theory including nonlocality and wave function collapse, (4) it does not give a privileged role to observers or measurements, and (5) it permits the visualization of quantum events. We will review the transactional interpretation and some of its applications to "quantum paradoxes."

  1. Collaborative Hierarchical Sparse Modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Sprechmann, Pablo; Sapiro, Guillermo; Eldar, Yonina C

    2010-01-01

    Sparse modeling is a powerful framework for data analysis and processing. Traditionally, encoding in this framework is done by solving an l_1-regularized linear regression problem, usually called Lasso. In this work we first combine the sparsity-inducing property of the Lasso model, at the individual feature level, with the block-sparsity property of the group Lasso model, where sparse groups of features are jointly encoded, obtaining a sparsity pattern hierarchically structured. This results in the hierarchical Lasso, which shows important practical modeling advantages. We then extend this approach to the collaborative case, where a set of simultaneously coded signals share the same sparsity pattern at the higher (group) level but not necessarily at the lower one. Signals then share the same active groups, or classes, but not necessarily the same active set. This is very well suited for applications such as source separation. An efficient optimization procedure, which guarantees convergence to the global opt...

  2. Conceptualizing and Measuring Transformational and Transactional Leadership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ulrich Thy; Andersen, Lotte Bøgh; Ladegaard, Louise

    2016-01-01

    Existing conceptualizations and measures of transformational and transactional leadership have unclear theoretical bases, confound leadership and its effects, and are not necessarily suitable for public organizations. Overcoming these problems is necessary to test how leadership affects performance....... Many public administration scholars apply the concepts, emphasizing the need to ensure that the concepts are applicable in both public and private organizations. The article reconceptualizes transformational and transactional leadership and develops and tests revised measures that can be employed...

  3. Mutual authentication in electronic commerce transactions.

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Electronic commerce is a large and ever growing industry. Online transactions are returning ever-growing revenues to electronic merchants. The e-commerce industry is still facing a range of problems concerning the process of completion of online transactions. Such problems are connected to consumer fears dealing with the identity of online merchants, their security pre- cautions and methods for accepting online payments. This thesis develops and presents a Mutual Authentication Model (MAM), w...

  4. Hierarchical manifold learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Kanwal K; Rao, Anil; Price, Anthony N; Wolz, Robin; Hajnal, Jo; Rueckert, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    We present a novel method of hierarchical manifold learning which aims to automatically discover regional variations within images. This involves constructing manifolds in a hierarchy of image patches of increasing granularity, while ensuring consistency between hierarchy levels. We demonstrate its utility in two very different settings: (1) to learn the regional correlations in motion within a sequence of time-resolved images of the thoracic cavity; (2) to find discriminative regions of 3D brain images in the classification of neurodegenerative disease,

  5. 基于临界区划分的实时事务并发控制机制%COR-based Concurrency Control Strategies in the Real-time Transaction Model Supporting Functional Alternatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏家莉; 王文乐; 朱文婷; 曹重华

    2013-01-01

    针对支持功能替代的实时事务模型,根据替代做处理的数据对象将替代划分为若干个临界区,提出了临界区动态相容检测方法,提出了基于临界区动态相容的并发控制策略COR-CCS:分区封锁策略、支持预释放的封锁策略、按序提交策略和级联回滚策略,并给出了相应的并发控制实现算法.当实时系统中存在资源冲突时,若高优先级替代未完成的临界区与低优先级替代动态相容,可令二者并发执行.实验仿真结果证明,COR-CCS策略有利减少低优先级替代等待时间、提高系统成功率和CPU有效利用率.%In the real-time system model based on functional alternatives, we divided the alternatives into Critical Operation Regions (short for CORs) according to the data that they handled, and proposed the method to examine the dynamic compatibility between two CORs. Also, we present the strategies, named COR-CCS, that can improve the concurrence of the alternatives, such as: the strategy of locking each by COR, the strategy of pre-releasing lock, the strategy of orderly submitting and the strategy of cascaded roll-backing. After that we gave the algorithm of COR-based concurrency control. When scheduling the real-time system with data confliction, the alternatives can concurrently executed if the CORS in the alternative with higher priority is dynamic compatibility with the lower priority alternative. The experimental results showed that the COR-CCS is effect on reducing the waiting time of the lower priority alternatives, increasing the successful execution ratio of the transactions, and improving the CPU usage.

  6. HDS: Hierarchical Data System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Dave; Walter, Anton; Lupton, W. F.; Warren-Smith, Rodney F.; Lawden, Mike; McIlwrath, Brian; Peden, J. C. M.; Jenness, Tim; Draper, Peter W.

    2015-02-01

    The Hierarchical Data System (HDS) is a file-based hierarchical data system designed for the storage of a wide variety of information. It is particularly suited to the storage of large multi-dimensional arrays (with their ancillary data) where efficient access is needed. It is a key component of the Starlink software collection (ascl:1110.012) and is used by the Starlink N-Dimensional Data Format (NDF) library (ascl:1411.023). HDS organizes data into hierarchies, broadly similar to the directory structure of a hierarchical filing system, but contained within a single HDS container file. The structures stored in these files are self-describing and flexible; HDS supports modification and extension of structures previously created, as well as functions such as deletion, copying, and renaming. All information stored in HDS files is portable between the machines on which HDS is implemented. Thus, there are no format conversion problems when moving between machines. HDS can write files in a private binary format (version 4), or be layered on top of HDF5 (version 5).

  7. Hierarchical video summarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratakonda, Krishna; Sezan, M. Ibrahim; Crinon, Regis J.

    1998-12-01

    We address the problem of key-frame summarization of vide in the absence of any a priori information about its content. This is a common problem that is encountered in home videos. We propose a hierarchical key-frame summarization algorithm where a coarse-to-fine key-frame summary is generated. A hierarchical key-frame summary facilitates multi-level browsing where the user can quickly discover the content of the video by accessing its coarsest but most compact summary and then view a desired segment of the video with increasingly more detail. At the finest level, the summary is generated on the basis of color features of video frames, using an extension of a recently proposed key-frame extraction algorithm. The finest level key-frames are recursively clustered using a novel pairwise K-means clustering approach with temporal consecutiveness constraint. We also address summarization of MPEG-2 compressed video without fully decoding the bitstream. We also propose efficient mechanisms that facilitate decoding the video when the hierarchical summary is utilized in browsing and playback of video segments starting at selected key-frames.

  8. Hierarchical fuzzy identification of MR damper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Hu, Haiyan

    2009-07-01

    Magneto-rheological (MR) dampers, recently, have found many successful applications in civil engineering and numerous area of mechanical engineering. When an MR damper is to be used for vibration suppression, an inevitable problem is to determine the input voltage so as to gain the desired restoring force determined from the control law. This is the so-called inverse problem of MR dampers and is always an obstacle in the application of MR dampers to vibration control. It is extremely difficult to get the inverse model of MR damper because MR dampers are highly nonlinear and hysteretic. When identifying the inverse model of MR damper with simple fuzzy system, there maybe exists curse of dimensionality of fuzzy system. Therefore, it will take much more time, and even the inverse model may not be identifiable. The paper presents two-layer hierarchical fuzzy system, that is, two-layer hierarchical ANFIS to deal with the curse of dimensionality of the fuzzy identification of MR damper and to identify the inverse model of MR damper. Data used for training the model are generated from numerical simulation of nonlinear differential equations. The numerical simulation proves that the proposed hierarchical fuzzy system can model the inverse model of MR damper much more quickly than simple fuzzy system without any reduction of identification precision. Such hierarchical ANFIS shows the higher priority for the complicated system, and can also be used in system identification and system control for the complicated system.

  9. Revision of Import and Export Requirements for Controlled Substances, Listed Chemicals, and Tableting and Encapsulating Machines, Including Changes To Implement the International Trade Data System (ITDS); Revision of Reporting Requirements for Domestic Transactions in Listed Chemicals and Tableting and Encapsulating Machines; and Technical Amendments. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-30

    The Drug Enforcement Administration is updating its regulations for the import and export of tableting and encapsulating machines, controlled substances, and listed chemicals, and its regulations relating to reports required for domestic transactions in listed chemicals, gamma-hydroxybutyric acid, and tableting and encapsulating machines. In accordance with Executive Order 13563, the Drug Enforcement Administration has reviewed its import and export regulations and reporting requirements for domestic transactions in listed chemicals (and gamma-hydroxybutyric acid) and tableting and encapsulating machines, and evaluated them for clarity, consistency, continued accuracy, and effectiveness. The amendments clarify certain policies and reflect current procedures and technological advancements. The amendments also allow for the implementation, as applicable to tableting and encapsulating machines, controlled substances, and listed chemicals, of the President's Executive Order 13659 on streamlining the export/import process and requiring the government-wide utilization of the International Trade Data System (ITDS). This rule additionally contains amendments that implement recent changes to the Controlled Substances Import and Export Act (CSIEA) for reexportation of controlled substances among members of the European Economic Area made by the Improving Regulatory Transparency for New Medical Therapies Act. The rule also includes additional substantive and technical and stylistic amendments.

  10. Morphology and interfacial energetics controls for hierarchical anatase/rutile TiO2 nanostructured array for efficient photoelectrochemical water splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jih-Sheng; Liao, Wen-Pin; Wu, Jih-Jen

    2013-08-14

    In this work, a three-dimensional (3D) hierarchical TiO2 nanostructured array is constructed on the basis of the considerations of morphology and interfacial energetics for photoelectrochemical water splitting. The photoelectrode is composed of a core-shell structure where the core portion is a rutile TiO2 nanodendrite (ND) array and the shell portion is rutile and anatase TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) sequentially located on the surface. The TiO2 ND array provides a fast electron transport pathway due to its quasi-single-crystalline structure. The 3D configuration with NPs in the shell portion provides a larger surface area for more efficient photocharge separation without significantly sacrificing the electron collection efficiency. Moreover, anatase TiO2 NPs constructed on the surface of the ND/rutile TiO2 NP nanostructured array enhance charge separation and suppress charge recombination at the interfacial region due to the higher conduction band edge of anatase TiO2 compared to that of rutile TiO2. A photocurrent density and photoconversion efficiency of 2.08 mA cm(-2) at 1.23 V vs reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE) and 1.13% at 0.51 V vs RHE are, respectively, attained using the hierarchical TiO2 nanostructured array photoelectrochemical cell under illumination of AM 1.5G (100 mW cm(-2)).

  11. Nonlinear Robust Control Theory and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-18

    IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control , pp. 228-238...34Robustness in the presence of mixed parametric uncertainty and unmodelled dynamics," IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control , pp. 25-38, 1991. 8 [10...Letter, 1994. [14] B. Moore, "Principal component analysis of linear systems: Controllability, observ- ability and model reduction," IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control ,

  12. Theory, Methods, and Applications of Nonlinear Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control , Volume...tracking control using input-to-state stability,” IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control , Volume 57, Number 5, May 2012, pp. 1320-1326. [MZ12a... Transactions on Automatic Control , Volume 55, Number 4, April 2010, pp. 841-854. 4 [MM10b] Mazenc, F., and M. Malisoff, “Stabilization of

  13. Artificial Intelligence Theory and Reconfigurable Control Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-06-30

    IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control , Vol...AC-iS, No. 1, Feb 1970. 5. Sklansky, J., "Learning Systems for Automatic Control", IEEE = Transactions on Automatic Control , Vol...34A Gerfcale itellihoode Raio ,-. ~Aproc tohemesecio and Ca Suis nwEtimat eeion" (: Jump in-Linea & -,"Ŗ. Systems", IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control ,

  14. A real-time transaction service for grid computing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Feilong; Li Minglu; Joshua Huang Zhexue; Frank Tong; Cao Jian

    2005-01-01

    A real-time transaction service aims at ensuring the consistency of real-time and transactional Grid applications. This paper proposes an efficient real-time transaction service (RTTS). It provides abilities to discover qualified services, I.e., participants, to execute specified sub-transactions, coordinate real-time Grid transactions, calculate deadline and assign priority for scheduling concurrent transactions. The service discovery adopts the two-level registry mechanismto adapt to transient Grid services. The coordination algorithm invokes multiplefunctional alternative services for each sub-transaction so that it remarkablyimproves the successful ratio of real-time transactions. The experiment result shows that the RTTS can well coordinate real-time transactions for Grid service environment and shield users from the complex process.

  15. Hierarchical Control for Optimised Operation of a Gas Plant At Mobil Oil La commande hiérarchique pour une conduite optimisée d'unité de gas plant (Mobil Oil française

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerbi O.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available This article shows the interest and the benefit of hierarchical control through a typical example as applied to a gas plant. After a description of the hierarchical control principles, the plant is presented to highlight the interest of such an approach. The implemented control architecture consists of regular controllers and two Model Based Predictive Control algorithms (MONOREG and IDCOM-HIECON whose capabilities were helpful in this application. The implementation of these algorithms follows several steps which make use of the corresponding CAD tools. The performance is evaluated in different operating conditions, once the designed controllers are installed on the process computer. En s'appuyant sur une application exemplaire, cet article décrit l'intérêt et l'apport de la commande hiérarchique dans la conduite optimisée d'une unité. Après une description des principes de la hiérarchisation, la présentation de l'atelier gas plantmet en évidence l'intérêt d'une telle approche. L'architecture de commande fait intervenir des régulations classiques et deux algorithmes de commande prédictive mono et multivariable (MONOREG et IDCOM-HIECON dont les fonctionnalités sont mises à profit dans l'application. La mise en oeuvre de ces algorithmes comprend plusieurs étapes qui exploitent les outils de CAO associés. Après implantation dans le calculateur du site, les performances sont évaluées dans les différents modes opératoires.

  16. Detecting Hierarchical Structure in Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herlau, Tue; Mørup, Morten; Schmidt, Mikkel Nørgaard;

    2012-01-01

    a generative Bayesian model that is able to infer whether hierarchies are present or not from a hypothesis space encompassing all types of hierarchical tree structures. For efficient inference we propose a collapsed Gibbs sampling procedure that jointly infers a partition and its hierarchical structure......Many real-world networks exhibit hierarchical organization. Previous models of hierarchies within relational data has focused on binary trees; however, for many networks it is unknown whether there is hierarchical structure, and if there is, a binary tree might not account well for it. We propose....... On synthetic and real data we demonstrate that our model can detect hierarchical structure leading to better link-prediction than competing models. Our model can be used to detect if a network exhibits hierarchical structure, thereby leading to a better comprehension and statistical account the network....

  17. Context updates are hierarchical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Karl Ingason

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This squib studies the order in which elements are added to the shared context of interlocutors in a conversation. It focuses on context updates within one hierarchical structure and argues that structurally higher elements are entered into the context before lower elements, even if the structurally higher elements are pronounced after the lower elements. The crucial data are drawn from a comparison of relative clauses in two head-initial languages, English and Icelandic, and two head-final languages, Korean and Japanese. The findings have consequences for any theory of a dynamic semantics.

  18. Assessing Transaction Environment Conditions for Investment and Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishlanova Marina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper contains characteristic description of the transaction-based approach and identifies problems of studying the transaction envi-ronment for investments and construction. It also discusses the results of transaction cost analysis in the real estate sector, and assessment of the business environment in Russia. The authors present indirect assessment of transaction environment through the economic freedom index, detailed particularly for Russia; they demonstrate the transaction environment structure and offer methodological recommendations on evaluation of transaction environment for investment and construction.

  19. Transactions Security Tools in Account Receivables Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Wodyńska

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Large competition among goods and services suppliers caused that granting clients deferred term of payment became a standard, so in other word granting clients commercial credit is a standard. Companies try to limit credit risk by securing their trade transactions in accordance with their credit policy that determines in some way the choice of trade transaction security tools.This article presents a full range of trade transaction security tools according to the general division into personal and property securities. The author pays attention to the fact that while conducting a proper credit policy in relation to clients, a company has chances to monitor efficiently the receivables and insist on their payment as well as use, as needed, the earlier prepared trade transaction security tools.The author convinces that regardless of the choice of trade transaction security tools, or reasons leading the receivables managing person, the basic criterion of security evaluation shall be its real, checked and verified value. The pledge on an object that does not exist is not worth much. The same applies to security granted by an insolvent person.

  20. APPLICATION OF HIERARCHICAL REINFORCEMENT LEARNING IN ENGINEERING DOMAIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI LI; Qingtai YE; Changming ZHU

    2005-01-01

    The slow convergence rate of reinforcement learning algorithms limits their wider application.In engineering domains, hierarchical reinforcement learning is developed to perform actions temporally according to prior knowledge. This system can converge fast due to reduced state space.There is a test of elevator group control to show the power of the new system. Two conventional group control algorithms are adopted as prior knowledge. Performance indicates that hierarchical reinforcement learning can reduce the learning time dramatically.

  1. Optimizing Concurrent M3-Transactions: A Fuzzy Constraint Satisfaction Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng LI

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to the high connectivity and great convenience, many E-commerce application systems have a high transaction volume. Consequently, the system state changes rapidly and it is likely that customers issue transactions based on out-of-date state information. Thus, the potential of transaction abortion increases greatly. To address this problem, we proposed an M3-transaction model. An M3-transaction is a generalized transaction where users can issue their preferences in a request by specifying multiple criteria and optional data resources simultaneously within one transaction. In this paper, we introduce the transaction grouping and group evaluation techniques. We consider evaluating a group of M3-transactions arrived to the system within a short duration together. The system makes optimal decisions in allocating data to transactions to achieve better customer satisfaction and lower transaction failure rate. We apply the fuzzy constraint satisfaction approach for decision-making. We also conduct experimental studies to evaluate the performance of our approach. The results show that the M3-transaction with group evaluation is more resilient to failure and yields much better performance than the traditional transaction model.

  2. Optimizing Concurrent M3-Transactions: A Fuzzy Constraint Satisfaction Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng LI

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to the high connectivity and great convenience, many E-commerce application systems have a high transaction volume. Consequently, the system state changes rapidly and it is likely that customers issue transactions based on out-of-date state information. Thus, the potential of transaction abortion increases greatly. To address this problem, we proposed an M3-transaction model. An M3-transaction is a generalized transaction where users can issue their preferences in a request by specifying multiple criteria and optional data resources simultaneously within one transaction. In this paper, we introduce the transaction grouping and group evaluation techniques. We consider evaluating a group of M3-transactions arrived to the system within a short duration together. The system makes optimal decisions in allocating data to transactions to achieve better customer satisfaction and lower transaction failure rate. We apply the fuzzy constraint satisfaction approach for decision-making. We also conduct experimental studies to evaluate the performance of our approach. The results show that the M3-transaction with group evaluation is more resilient to failure and yields much better performance than the traditional transaction model.

  3. Transaction charges allocation using sensitivity factor methodology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Charles Raja; J Jeslin Drusila Nesamalar; P Venkatesh

    2014-04-01

    Deregulation of the electricity industry aims for creating a competitive market to trade electricity, which generates a host of new technical challenges among market participants and power system researchers. One of the major challenges is to establish a cost for system services on a nondiscriminatory basis. In this paper, the evaluation of transmission cost is proposed based on sensitivity factor method like AC Power Transfer Distribution Factor (ACPTDF) method for bilateral and multilateral transactions. The transacted power is estimated by ACPTDF method for each transaction. The advantages of the proposed methodology are demonstrated on a sample 6 bus, IEEE 30 bus and Indian Utility 69 bus systems. The solution provides a better pricing approach that can impact a more reasonable economic indicator for transmission cost.

  4. The transaction as a quantum concept

    CERN Document Server

    Leonardo, Chiatti

    2012-01-01

    This essay intends to present a novel approach to the concept of "transaction" in quantum physics. Breaking with Cramer's original theory, the transaction is not connected to the simultaneously retarded and advanced spacetime propagation of classical fields, as in the spirit of Wheeler-Feynman electrodynamics. Instead, the transaction is seen as an archetypal structure intrinsic within the quantum formalism. The present approach is advantageous in that, while preserving the essential point of Cramer's theory, is also fully consistent with the standard quantum formalism. In particular, it has the advantage of avoiding the introduction of elements which are completely extraneous to quantum formalism (such as the propagation of real physical waves in four-dimensional spacetime, the phase difference between offer and confirmation waves which is necessary for the elimination of "tails", the echoing mechanism, etc.)

  5. Buyer protection for e-commerce transactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Laskowski

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Buyer protection has been a major challenge for e-commerce entrepreneurs and engineers building application for executing transactions on-line. The threat connected with e-commerce is mostly connected with problems in authenticating users performing the buy/sell action. Key webportals such as eBay.com and Paypal.com offer 100% money back buyer protection programs for transactions that were unsuccessful or purchased goods were substantially different from the provided description. The aim of this article is to analyze procedures of acquiring compensation in buyer protection programs procedures. The case study enclosed in the article seem to advocate that buyer protection programs does not insure e-commerce transactions. Any kind of money back guarantee is affected by the current marketing policy of the company. The user agreement does not directly impose an obligation of receiving compensation by the user.

  6. 物联网感知层一种分层访问控制方案%A Hierarchical Access Control Scheme for Perceptual Layer of IoT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马骏; 郭渊博; 马建峰; 熊金波; 张涛

    2013-01-01

    在物联网感知层中,用于信息采集的感知层节点需要根据隐私、安全或定制消费等需要,按不同级别提供授权用户的数据访问,这导致传统的访问控制方案无法满足用户安全高效的按需访问需求.为此,提出了一种分层访问控制方案.将同安全级别感知节点划分为一个层次节点,由层次节点之间形成的偏序关系构成一个分层的访问控制模型.本方案的优势体现在:每个用户和分层节点仅存储单个密钥材料,通过密钥推导获得访问当前及下层所有资源的密钥值,减少存储开销的同时提高了系统的安全强度;支持层次节点的动态扩展及密钥材料的动态更新;满足标准模型下的可证明安全及其他扩展安全.分析表明,方案能很好地满足物联网感知层的访问控制需求.%The perceptual layer is at the most front-end of information collection,which plays a fundamental role in the Internet of Things (IoT).In the perceptual layer,mass perceptual nodes are required to sense a vast range of different data types for authorized users in accordance with privacy,security,and customization.This leads to the problem that traditional access control schemes (IBAC,RBAC etc.) fail to meet the requirements of users who want secure and efficient access resources ondemand.In this paper,a hierarchical access control scheme for perceptual layer of the IoT is presented.In the scheme,every hierarchical node,representing a class in the access hierarchy,is composed of perceptual nodes which provide information with the same levels of security.More hierarchical nodes can be modeled as a set of partially ordered classes.Besides,the scheme considers the limited computational and storage capacity of mass perceptual nodes.Compared with previous proposals,the scheme has the following advantages:Every user and perceptual node possesses a single key material to get some keys by a deterministic key derivation algorithm

  7. A hierarchical porous bowl-like PLA@MSNs-COOH composite for pH-dominated long-term controlled release of doxorubicin and integrated nanoparticle for potential second treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jianming; Wu, Runrun; Dai, Xiaohui; Yin, Yijie; Pan, Guoqing; Meng, Minjia; Shi, Weidong; Yan, Yongsheng

    2015-04-13

    We chemically integrated mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) and macroporous bowl-like polylactic acid (pBPLA) matrix, for noninvasive electrostatic loading and long-term controlled doxorubicin (DOX) release, to prepare a hierarchical porous bowl-like pBPLA@MSNs-COOH composite with a nonspherical and hierarchical porous structure. Strong electrostatic interaction with DOX rendered excellent encapsulation efficiency (up to 90.14%) to the composite. DOX release showed pH-dominated drug release kinetics; thus, maintaining a weak acidic pH (e.g., 5.0) triggered sustained release, suggesting the composite's great potential for long-term therapeutic approaches. In-vitro cell viability assays further confirmed that the composite was biocompatible and that the loaded drugs were pharmacologically active, exhibiting dosage-dependent cytotoxicity. Additionally, a wound-healing assay revealed the composite's intrinsic ability to inhibit cell migration. Moreover, pH- and time-dependent leaching of the integrated MSNs due to pBPLA matrix degradation allow us to infer that the leached (and drug loaded) MSNs may be engulfed by cancer cells contributing to a second wave of DOX-mediated cytotoxicity following pH-triggered DOX release.

  8. 21 CFR 1404.220 - Are any procurement contracts included as covered transactions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Are any procurement contracts included as covered transactions? 1404.220 Section 1404.220 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE... the consent of a(n) Office of National Drug Control Policy official. In that case, the...

  9. Exploitation of Clustering Techniques in Transactional Healthcare Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naeem Ahmad Mahoto

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Healthcare service centres equipped with electronic health systems have improved their resources as well as treatment processes. The dynamic nature of healthcare data of each individual makes it complex and difficult for physicians to manually mediate them; therefore, automatic techniques are essential to manage the quality and standardization of treatment procedures. Exploratory data analysis, patternanalysis and grouping of data is managed using clustering techniques, which work as an unsupervised classification. A number of healthcare applications are developed that use several data mining techniques for classification, clustering and extracting useful information from healthcare data. The challenging issue in this domain is to select adequate data mining algorithm for optimal results. This paper exploits three different clustering algorithms: DBSCAN (Density-Based Clustering, agglomerative hierarchical and k-means in real transactional healthcare data of diabetic patients (taken as case study to analyse their performance in large and dispersed healthcare data. The best solution of cluster sets among the exploited algorithms is evaluated using clustering quality indexes and is selected to identify the possible subgroups of patients having similar treatment patterns

  10. Biometrics Identity Authentication in Secure Electronic Transactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepu Saini

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available There are so many ways by which a person can be identified, but authentication of a person by biometric methods is assumed to be more secure. There are many reasons behind this e.g. in this world each person is having different biometric features, even thetwins in this world having different biometrics features. In electronic transactions, biometric method is used from very early days but now a day’s it is supposed to be the best and secure method for electronic transactions. In this paper the concepts regarding biometric identity authentication are explained.

  11. Plural Governance: A Modified Transaction Cost Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mols, Niels Peter; Menard, Claude

    2014-01-01

    a model relating transaction cost and resource-based variables to the cost of the plural form. The model is then used to analyze when the plural form is efficient compared to alternative governance structures. We also use the model to discuss the strength of three plural form synergies.......Plural governance is a form of governance where a firm both makes and buys similar goods or services. Despite a widespread use of plural governance there are no transaction cost models of how plural governance affects performance. This paper reviews the literature about plural forms and proposes...

  12. 2008 Annual Report of SGCC on Electricity Market Transactions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    On April 14,2009,the State Grid Corporation of China (SGCC) held the press conference in Beijing on electricity market transactions and then released the "2008 Annual Report of SGCC on Electricity Market Transactions".

  13. Hierarchical partial order ranking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsen, Lars

    2008-09-01

    Assessing the potential impact on environmental and human health from the production and use of chemicals or from polluted sites involves a multi-criteria evaluation scheme. A priori several parameters are to address, e.g., production tonnage, specific release scenarios, geographical and site-specific factors in addition to various substance dependent parameters. Further socio-economic factors may be taken into consideration. The number of parameters to be included may well appear to be prohibitive for developing a sensible model. The study introduces hierarchical partial order ranking (HPOR) that remedies this problem. By HPOR the original parameters are initially grouped based on their mutual connection and a set of meta-descriptors is derived representing the ranking corresponding to the single groups of descriptors, respectively. A second partial order ranking is carried out based on the meta-descriptors, the final ranking being disclosed though average ranks. An illustrative example on the prioritization of polluted sites is given.

  14. Trees and Hierarchical Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Haeseler, Arndt

    1990-01-01

    The "raison d'etre" of hierarchical dustering theory stems from one basic phe­ nomenon: This is the notorious non-transitivity of similarity relations. In spite of the fact that very often two objects may be quite similar to a third without being that similar to each other, one still wants to dassify objects according to their similarity. This should be achieved by grouping them into a hierarchy of non-overlapping dusters such that any two objects in ~ne duster appear to be more related to each other than they are to objects outside this duster. In everyday life, as well as in essentially every field of scientific investigation, there is an urge to reduce complexity by recognizing and establishing reasonable das­ sification schemes. Unfortunately, this is counterbalanced by the experience of seemingly unavoidable deadlocks caused by the existence of sequences of objects, each comparatively similar to the next, but the last rather different from the first.

  15. Hierarchical Affinity Propagation

    CERN Document Server

    Givoni, Inmar; Frey, Brendan J

    2012-01-01

    Affinity propagation is an exemplar-based clustering algorithm that finds a set of data-points that best exemplify the data, and associates each datapoint with one exemplar. We extend affinity propagation in a principled way to solve the hierarchical clustering problem, which arises in a variety of domains including biology, sensor networks and decision making in operational research. We derive an inference algorithm that operates by propagating information up and down the hierarchy, and is efficient despite the high-order potentials required for the graphical model formulation. We demonstrate that our method outperforms greedy techniques that cluster one layer at a time. We show that on an artificial dataset designed to mimic the HIV-strain mutation dynamics, our method outperforms related methods. For real HIV sequences, where the ground truth is not available, we show our method achieves better results, in terms of the underlying objective function, and show the results correspond meaningfully to geographi...

  16. Optimisation by hierarchical search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zintchenko, Ilia; Hastings, Matthew; Troyer, Matthias

    2015-03-01

    Finding optimal values for a set of variables relative to a cost function gives rise to some of the hardest problems in physics, computer science and applied mathematics. Although often very simple in their formulation, these problems have a complex cost function landscape which prevents currently known algorithms from efficiently finding the global optimum. Countless techniques have been proposed to partially circumvent this problem, but an efficient method is yet to be found. We present a heuristic, general purpose approach to potentially improve the performance of conventional algorithms or special purpose hardware devices by optimising groups of variables in a hierarchical way. We apply this approach to problems in combinatorial optimisation, machine learning and other fields.

  17. How hierarchical is language use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Stefan L.; Bod, Rens; Christiansen, Morten H.

    2012-01-01

    It is generally assumed that hierarchical phrase structure plays a central role in human language. However, considerations of simplicity and evolutionary continuity suggest that hierarchical structure should not be invoked too hastily. Indeed, recent neurophysiological, behavioural and computational studies show that sequential sentence structure has considerable explanatory power and that hierarchical processing is often not involved. In this paper, we review evidence from the recent literature supporting the hypothesis that sequential structure may be fundamental to the comprehension, production and acquisition of human language. Moreover, we provide a preliminary sketch outlining a non-hierarchical model of language use and discuss its implications and testable predictions. If linguistic phenomena can be explained by sequential rather than hierarchical structure, this will have considerable impact in a wide range of fields, such as linguistics, ethology, cognitive neuroscience, psychology and computer science. PMID:22977157

  18. How hierarchical is language use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Stefan L; Bod, Rens; Christiansen, Morten H

    2012-11-22

    It is generally assumed that hierarchical phrase structure plays a central role in human language. However, considerations of simplicity and evolutionary continuity suggest that hierarchical structure should not be invoked too hastily. Indeed, recent neurophysiological, behavioural and computational studies show that sequential sentence structure has considerable explanatory power and that hierarchical processing is often not involved. In this paper, we review evidence from the recent literature supporting the hypothesis that sequential structure may be fundamental to the comprehension, production and acquisition of human language. Moreover, we provide a preliminary sketch outlining a non-hierarchical model of language use and discuss its implications and testable predictions. If linguistic phenomena can be explained by sequential rather than hierarchical structure, this will have considerable impact in a wide range of fields, such as linguistics, ethology, cognitive neuroscience, psychology and computer science.

  19. Associative Hierarchical Random Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladický, L'ubor; Russell, Chris; Kohli, Pushmeet; Torr, Philip H S

    2014-06-01

    This paper makes two contributions: the first is the proposal of a new model-The associative hierarchical random field (AHRF), and a novel algorithm for its optimization; the second is the application of this model to the problem of semantic segmentation. Most methods for semantic segmentation are formulated as a labeling problem for variables that might correspond to either pixels or segments such as super-pixels. It is well known that the generation of super pixel segmentations is not unique. This has motivated many researchers to use multiple super pixel segmentations for problems such as semantic segmentation or single view reconstruction. These super-pixels have not yet been combined in a principled manner, this is a difficult problem, as they may overlap, or be nested in such a way that the segmentations form a segmentation tree. Our new hierarchical random field model allows information from all of the multiple segmentations to contribute to a global energy. MAP inference in this model can be performed efficiently using powerful graph cut based move making algorithms. Our framework generalizes much of the previous work based on pixels or segments, and the resulting labelings can be viewed both as a detailed segmentation at the pixel level, or at the other extreme, as a segment selector that pieces together a solution like a jigsaw, selecting the best segments from different segmentations as pieces. We evaluate its performance on some of the most challenging data sets for object class segmentation, and show that this ability to perform inference using multiple overlapping segmentations leads to state-of-the-art results.

  20. 45 CFR 162.1901 - Medicaid pharmacy subrogation transaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Medicaid pharmacy subrogation transaction. 162... STANDARDS AND RELATED REQUIREMENTS ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Medicaid Pharmacy Subrogation § 162.1901 Medicaid pharmacy subrogation transaction. The Medicaid pharmacy subrogation transaction is the...

  1. 10 CFR 72.78 - Nuclear material transaction reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... shall submit a Nuclear Material Transaction Report in computer-readable format as specified in the... shall submit a Nuclear Material Transaction Report in computer-readable format in accordance with... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nuclear material transaction reports. 72.78 Section...

  2. 10 CFR 74.15 - Nuclear material transaction reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... for transfers and receipts, shall submit a Nuclear Material Transaction Report, in computer-readable.... Each licensee who transfers the material shall submit a Nuclear Material Transaction Report in computer.... Each licensee who receives the material shall submit a Nuclear Material Transaction Report in...

  3. 76 FR 46652 - Retail Foreign Exchange Transactions (Regulation NN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-03

    ... otherwise mitigating its own exposure to retail forex transactions or any other foreign exchange risk... CFR Part 240 RIN 7100-AD 79 Retail Foreign Exchange Transactions (Regulation NN) AGENCY: Board of... into, certain types of foreign exchange transactions described in section 2(c)(2)(B)(i)(I) of the CEA...

  4. Electronic Business Transaction Infrastructure Analysis Using Petri Nets and Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feller, Andrew Lee

    2010-01-01

    Rapid growth in eBusiness has made industry and commerce increasingly dependent on the hardware and software infrastructure that enables high-volume transaction processing across the Internet. Large transaction volumes at major industrial-firm data centers rely on robust transaction protocols and adequately provisioned hardware capacity to ensure…

  5. An Architecture for Nested Transaction Support on Standard Database Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boertjes, E.M.; Grefen, P.W.P.J.; Vonk, J.; Apers, Peter M.G.

    Many applications dealing with complex processes require database support for nested transactions. Current commercial database systems lack this kind of support, offering flat, non-nested transactions only. This paper presents a three-layer architecture for implementing nested transaction support on

  6. Impulse Control of Brownian Motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-11-01

    convert some of his cash into securities, and for this he pays a fixed transaction cost K plus a proportional cost of k times the transaction size...securities, incurring a transaction cost of K+kq. (le never liquidates securities except when it is necessary to maintain a positive cash balance.) On the...and incurring a total transaction cost of L+1s. (If the initial cash balance exceeds S, the controller imediately buys enough securities to reduce

  7. 31 CFR 800.302 - Transactions that are not covered transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... transaction is solely for the purpose of passive investment. (See § 800.223.) Example 1. In an open market... into a contractual arrangement to acquire the entire armored personnel carrier business operations...

  8. Modeling hierarchical structures - Hierarchical Linear Modeling using MPlus

    CERN Document Server

    Jelonek, M

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the technique (and its linkage with physics) of overcoming problems connected to modeling social structures, which are typically hierarchical. Hierarchical Linear Models provide a conceptual and statistical mechanism for drawing conclusions regarding the influence of phenomena at different levels of analysis. In the social sciences it is used to analyze many problems such as educational, organizational or market dilemma. This paper introduces the logic of modeling hierarchical linear equations and estimation based on MPlus software. I present my own model to illustrate the impact of different factors on school acceptation level.

  9. 31 CFR 545.208 - Exempt transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exempt transactions. 545.208 Section 545.208 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... assist in the creation of information or informational materials; and, with respect to information or...

  10. 31 CFR 515.206 - Exempt transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exempt transactions. 515.206 Section 515.206 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... the creation of information or informational materials, and payment of royalties to a designated...

  11. 31 CFR 537.210 - Exempt transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exempt transactions. 537.210 Section 537.210 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... assist in the creation of information or informational materials; and, with respect to information or...

  12. 31 CFR 587.206 - Exempt transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exempt transactions. 587.206 Section 587.206 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF...-produce, create, or assist in the creation of information or informational materials; and, with respect to...

  13. 31 CFR 538.212 - Exempt transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exempt transactions. 538.212 Section 538.212 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... services to market, produce or co-produce, create or assist in the creation of information and...

  14. 31 CFR 595.206 - Exempt transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exempt transactions. 595.206 Section 595.206 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF..., provision of services to market, produce or co-produce, create or assist in the creation of information and...

  15. 31 CFR 586.206 - Exempt transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exempt transactions. 586.206 Section 586.206 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... or assist in the creation of information and informational materials, and payment of royalties to...

  16. 31 CFR 588.206 - Exempt transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exempt transactions. 588.206 Section 588.206 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... assist in the creation of information or informational materials; and, with respect to information or...

  17. 31 CFR 542.206 - Exempt transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exempt transactions. 542.206 Section 542.206 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... assist in the creation of information or informational materials; and, with respect to information or...

  18. 31 CFR 800.303 - Lending transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lending transactions. 800.303 Section 800.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... the creation in the foreign person of a secured interest in securities or other assets of the U.S...

  19. 31 CFR 548.206 - Exempt transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exempt transactions. 548.206 Section 548.206 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... assist in the creation of information or informational materials; and, with respect to information or...

  20. 31 CFR 539.204 - Exempt transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exempt transactions. 539.204 Section 539.204 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... of services to market, produce or co-produce, create, or assist in the creation of information or...

  1. 31 CFR 541.206 - Exempt transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exempt transactions. 541.206 Section 541.206 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... assist in the creation of information or informational materials; and, with respect to information or...

  2. 31 CFR 560.210 - Exempt transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exempt transactions. 560.210 Section 560.210 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... services to market, produce or co-produce, create or assist in the creation of information and...

  3. 31 CFR 544.206 - Exempt transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exempt transactions. 544.206 Section 544.206 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF...-produce, create, or assist in the creation of information or informational materials; and, with respect to...

  4. 31 CFR 536.205 - Exempt transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exempt transactions. 536.205 Section 536.205 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... creation of information and informational materials, and payment of royalties to a specially designated...

  5. A Serialization Graph Construction for Nested Transactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-02-01

    allowing replacement of entire subtrees of nested activity by single actions as well as the reordering of actions in a history . Also, they do not...systems. 28 [11] N. Lynch, M. Merritt, W. Weihl, and A. Fekete. A theory of atomic transactions. In International Conference on Database Theory, Bruges

  6. 5 CFR 919.970 - Nonprocurement transaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nonprocurement transaction. 919.970 Section 919.970 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 919.970...

  7. Offshoring in the transaction costs theory

    OpenAIRE

    Jakub Kraciuk

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents an idea of offshoring, a concept assuming movement and realization of production and service processes abroad. It displays different kinds of offshoring as well as presents the transaction cost theory, which considerably influences in explanation of offshoring activities. There were also presented attractiveness of particular countries for running offshoring activities as well as the global and Polish offshoring markets.

  8. Portfolio Optimization Model with Transaction Costs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu-ping Chen; Chong Li; Sheng-hong Li; Xiong-wei Wu

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of the article is to formulate, under the l∞ risk measure, a model of portfolio selection with transaction costs and then investigate the optimal strategy within the proposed. The characterization of a optimal strategy and the efficient algorithm for finding the optimal strategy are given.

  9. 31 CFR 551.201 - Prohibited transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibited transactions. 551.201 Section 551.201 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... § 551.201: Section 203 of the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706)...

  10. Foreign experience of regulating international trade transactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klymenko L. V.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the international experience of state regulating international trade transactions; nature, directions and contradictions of contemporary processes of globalization are defined; components of regulatory and incentive means in system of state supporting foreign trade activity of commodity producers are considered; general provisions for the improvement of state regulation mechanisms of export-import activities in Ukraine are determined.

  11. 77 FR 62177 - Retail Foreign Exchange Transactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-12

    ... \\5\\ (a retail foreign exchange (forex) rule). Transactions described in section 2(c)(2)(B)(i)(I...'s retail forex rule must treat similarly all such futures and options and all agreements, contracts... forex rules must prescribe appropriate requirements with respect to disclosure, recordkeeping, capital...

  12. 76 FR 56094 - Retail Foreign Exchange Transactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-12

    ... requirements enumerated in the OCC's retail forex rule. The rule implements the provision of the Dodd-Frank... forex rule). A transaction described in section 2(c)(2)(B)(i)(I) includes ``an agreement, contract, or... institutions. See 12 U.S.C. 1813(c)(1). \\3\\ For purposes of the retail forex rules, ``Federal regulatory agency...

  13. Editorial for IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede

    2007-01-01

    Our IEEE transactions on power electronics has had some very positive progress these past years under the leadership of Dr. Daan van Wyk. Papers have been processed efficiently both in review time and publication time. This success has spread throughout the whole power electronics community which...

  14. Editorial for IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede

    2007-01-01

    Our IEEE transactions on power electronics has had some very positive progress these past years under the leadership of Dr. Daan van Wyk. Papers have been processed efficiently both in review time and publication time. This success has spread throughout the whole power electronics community which...

  15. Nonlinear Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control , AC- 48, pp. 1712-1723, (2003). [14] C.I. Byrnes, A. Isidori...Nonlinear internal models for output regulation,” IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control , AC-49, pp. 2244-2247, (2004). [15] C.I. Byrnes, F. Celani, A...approach,” IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control , 48 (Dec. 2003), 2172–2190. 2. C. I. Byrnes, “Differential Forms and Dynamical Systems,” to appear

  16. Zero tolerance for incorrect data: Best practices in SQL transaction programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laiho, M.; Skourlas, C.; Dervos, D. A.

    2015-02-01

    DBMS products differ in the way they support even the basic SQL transaction services. In this paper, a framework of best practices in SQL transaction programming is given and discussed. The SQL developers are advised to experiment with and verify the services supported by the DBMS product used. The framework has been developed by DBTechNet, a European network of teachers, trainers and ICT professionals. A course module on SQL transactions, offered by the LLP "DBTech VET Teachers" programme, is also presented and discussed. Aims and objectives of the programme include the introduction of the topics and content of SQL transactions and concurrency control to HE/VET curricula and addressing the need for initial and continuous training on these topics to in-company trainers, VET teachers, and Higher Education students. An overview of the course module, its learning outcomes, the education and training (E&T) content, virtual database labs with hands-on self-practicing exercises, plus instructions for the teacher/trainer on the pedagogy and the usage of the course modules' content are briefly described. The main principle adopted is to "Learn by verifying in practice" and the transactions course motto is: "Zero Tolerance for Incorrect Data".

  17. 2 CFR 180.205 - Why is it important if a particular transaction is a covered transaction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Why is it important if a particular transaction is a covered transaction? 180.205 Section 180.205 Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND... GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Covered Transactions § 180.205 Why is it important if...

  18. 22 CFR 208.205 - Why is it important to know if a particular transaction is a covered transaction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Why is it important to know if a particular transaction is a covered transaction? 208.205 Section 208.205 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Covered Transactions § 208.205 Why is...

  19. 17 CFR 242.601 - Dissemination of transaction reports and last sale data with respect to transactions in NMS stocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... reports and last sale data with respect to transactions in NMS stocks. 242.601 Section 242.601 Commodity..., AND NMS AND CUSTOMER MARGIN REQUIREMENTS FOR SECURITY FUTURES Regulation Nms-Regulation of the... transactions in NMS stocks. (a) Filing and effectiveness of transaction reporting plans. (1) Every...

  20. Energy Constrained Hierarchical Task Scheduling Algorithm for Mobile Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjun Singh

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In mobile grids, scheduling the computation tasks and the communication transactions onto the target architecture is the important problem when a mobile grid environment and a pre-selected architecture are given. Even though the scheduling problem is a traditional topic, almost all previous work focuses on maximizing the performance through the scheduling process. The algorithms developed this way are not suitable for real-time embedded applications, in which the main objective is to minimize the energy consumption of the system under tight performance constraints. This paper entails an energy constrained hierarchical task scheduling algorithm for Mobile Grids to minimize the power consumption of the mobile nodes. The task is rescheduled when the mobile node moves beyond the transmission range. The performance is estimated based on the average delay and packet delivery ratio based on nodes and flows. The performance metrics are analysed using NS-2 simulator.

  1. How to deal with malleability of BitCoin transactions

    OpenAIRE

    Andrychowicz, Marcin; Dziembowski, Stefan; Malinowski, Daniel; Mazurek, Łukasz

    2013-01-01

    BitCoin transactions are malleable in a sense that given a transaction an adversary can easily construct an equivalent transaction which has a different hash. This can pose a serious problem in some BitCoin distributed contracts in which changing a transaction's hash may result in the protocol disruption and a financial loss. The problem mostly concerns protocols, which use a "refund" transaction to withdraw a deposit in a case of the protocol interruption. In this short note, we show a gener...

  2. The Role of Transaction Cost Economics in Selecting Firm Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia DAVID

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available From the first beginning Transaction Cost Economics (TCE was concerned by the reason and circumstances when the firms choose the hierarchy instead of market for organizing a transaction. Further this analysis model was expended to considering other governance modes, as relational contracting. Even it was mostly criticized Transaction Cost Economics has an important role in choosing the firm strategy based on a transaction costs analysis. The purpose of this present paper is to offer an transaction assessment griddle – a new instrument for managers in choosing the firm strategy.

  3. Cost effective and shape controlled approach to synthesize hierarchically assembled NiO nanoflakes for the removal of toxic heavy metal ions in aqueous solution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K Yogesh Kumar; H B Muralidhara; Y Arthoba Nayaka; H Hanumanthappa; M S Veena; S R Kiran Kumar

    2015-02-01

    Hierarchical mesoporous NiO nanoflakes (NiOs) have been synthesized in high yield via a simple, economical and environmentally friendly hydrothermal route. The as-prepared NiOs were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), scanning electronicmicroscopy (SEM), transmission electronmicroscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction patterns (SAED), X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and nitrogen adsorption–desorption techniques (Brunauer–Emmett–Teller, BET). Adsorption of heavy metal ions onto the as-prepared sample from aqueous solutions was investigated using differential pulse anodic stripping voltametry (DPASV) technique and discussed. The product possesses a BET surface area of 69.27 m2 g-1. It is found that NiOs exhibited the excellent performance for the removal of Hg(II), Pb(II) and Cd(II) from aqueous solution. The equilibrium adsorption data of Hg(II), Pb(II) and Cd(II) on the as-prepared NiOs were analyzed by Langmuir and Freundlich models, suggesting that the Langmuir model provides the better correlation of the experimental data. The adsorption capacities for removal of Hg(II), Pb(II) and Cd(II) were determined using the Langmuir equation and found to be 1324.5, 1428.9 and 1428.5 mg g-1, respectively. Adsorption kinetics of all the metal ions followed pseudo second-order model. Moreover, NiOs can be recycled by simple acid treatment, which could retain the high removal efficiency in three successive cycles. This study suggests that nanoflakes could be explored as a new adsorbent with high efficiency and recyclability for removing heavy metal ions from aqueous solution.

  4. Synthesis of Hierarchically Structured Hybrid Materials by Controlled Self-Assembly of Metal-Organic Framework with Mesoporous Silica for CO2 Adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chong; Li, Bingxue; Zhou, Lijin; Xia, Zefeng; Feng, Nengjie; Ding, Jing; Wang, Lei; Wan, Hui; Guan, Guofeng

    2017-07-12

    The HKUST-1@SBA-15 composites with hierarchical pore structure were constructed by in situ self-assembly of metal-organic framework (MOF) with mesoporous silica. The structure directing role of SBA-15 had an obvious impact on the growth of MOF crystals, which in turn affected the morphologies and structural properties of the composites. The pristine HKUST-1 and the composites with different content of SBA-15 were characterized by XRD, N2 adsorption-desorption, SEM, TEM, FT-IR, TG, XPS, and CO2-TPD techniques. It was found that the composites were assembled by oriented growth of MOF nanocrystals on the surfaces of SBA-15 matrix. The interactions between surface silanol groups and metal centers induced structural changes and resulted in the increases in surface areas as well as micropore volumes of hybrid materials. Besides, the additional constraints from SBA-15 also restrained the expansion of HKUST-1, contributing to their smaller crystal sizes in the composites. The adsorption isotherms of CO2 on the materials were measured and applied to calculate the isosteric heats of adsorption. The HS-1 composite exhibited an increase of 15.9% in CO2 uptake capacity compared with that of HKUST-1. Moreover, its higher isosteric heats of CO2 adsorption indicated the stronger interactions between the surfaces and CO2 molecules. The adsorption rate of the composite was also improved due to the introduction of mesopores. Ten cycles of CO2 adsorption-desorption experiments implied that the HS-1 had excellent reversibility of CO2 adsorption. This study was intended to provide the possibility of assembling new composites with tailored properties based on MOF and mesoporous silica to satisfy the requirements of various applications.

  5. Hereditary Portfolio Optimization with Taxes and Fixed Plus Proportional Transaction Costs—Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mou-Hsiung Chang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is the continuation of the paper entitled “Hereditary portfolio optimization with taxes and fixed plus proportional transaction costs I” that treats an infinite-time horizon hereditary portfolio optimization problem in a market that consists of one savings account and one stock account. Within the solvency region, the investor is allowed to consume from the savings account and can make transactions between the two assets subject to paying capital-gain taxes as well as a fixed plus proportional transaction cost. The investor is to seek an optimal consumption-trading strategy in order to maximize the expected utility from the total discounted consumption. The portfolio optimization problem is formulated as an infinite dimensional stochastic classical impulse control problem due to the hereditary nature of the stock price dynamics and inventories. This paper contains the verification theorem for the optimal strategy. It also proves that the value function is a viscosity solution of the QVHJBI.

  6. Modeling hierarchical structures - Hierarchical Linear Modeling using MPlus

    OpenAIRE

    Jelonek, Magdalena

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the technique (and its linkage with physics) of overcoming problems connected to modeling social structures, which are typically hierarchical. Hierarchical Linear Models provide a conceptual and statistical mechanism for drawing conclusions regarding the influence of phenomena at different levels of analysis. In the social sciences it is used to analyze many problems such as educational, organizational or market dilemma. This paper introduces the logic of m...

  7. Cooperative Control of Distributed Autonomous Vehicles in Adversarial Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-14

    IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control , March 2006. Computation and control language programming environment: Design...to Nash equilibria”, IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control , March 2005. Differential games with probabilistic models: Many representations of...Accepted for publication, IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control , 2006. Language Evolution: This work is indirectly related to the problem of consensus.

  8. Application of Adaptive Techniques to Problems in Control and Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control in 1982. (2...signals in the adaptive system. These results will appear in the IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control . A brief comparison of the two schemes described...Model Reference Adaptive Control in the Presence of Bounded Disturbances" S&IS Report No. 8103, March 1981 (to appear in IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control )

  9. Hierarchical fringe tracking

    CERN Document Server

    Petrov, Romain G; Boskri, Abdelkarim; Folcher, Jean-Pierre; Lagarde, Stephane; Bresson, Yves; Benkhaldoum, Zouhair; Lazrek, Mohamed; Rakshit, Suvendu

    2014-01-01

    The limiting magnitude is a key issue for optical interferometry. Pairwise fringe trackers based on the integrated optics concepts used for example in GRAVITY seem limited to about K=10.5 with the 8m Unit Telescopes of the VLTI, and there is a general "common sense" statement that the efficiency of fringe tracking, and hence the sensitivity of optical interferometry, must decrease as the number of apertures increases, at least in the near infrared where we are still limited by detector readout noise. Here we present a Hierarchical Fringe Tracking (HFT) concept with sensitivity at least equal to this of a two apertures fringe trackers. HFT is based of the combination of the apertures in pairs, then in pairs of pairs then in pairs of groups. The key HFT module is a device that behaves like a spatial filter for two telescopes (2TSF) and transmits all or most of the flux of a cophased pair in a single mode beam. We give an example of such an achromatic 2TSF, based on very broadband dispersed fringes analyzed by g...

  10. Hierarchical Reverberation Mapping

    CERN Document Server

    Brewer, Brendon J

    2013-01-01

    Reverberation mapping (RM) is an important technique in studies of active galactic nuclei (AGN). The key idea of RM is to measure the time lag $\\tau$ between variations in the continuum emission from the accretion disc and subsequent response of the broad line region (BLR). The measurement of $\\tau$ is typically used to estimate the physical size of the BLR and is combined with other measurements to estimate the black hole mass $M_{\\rm BH}$. A major difficulty with RM campaigns is the large amount of data needed to measure $\\tau$. Recently, Fine et al (2012) introduced a new approach to RM where the BLR light curve is sparsely sampled, but this is counteracted by observing a large sample of AGN, rather than a single system. The results are combined to infer properties of the sample of AGN. In this letter we implement this method using a hierarchical Bayesian model and contrast this with the results from the previous stacked cross-correlation technique. We find that our inferences are more precise and allow fo...

  11. Design of Hierarchical Structures for Synchronized Deformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifi, Hamed; Javan, Anooshe Rezaee; Ghaedizadeh, Arash; Shen, Jianhu; Xu, Shanqing; Xie, Yi Min

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we propose a general method for creating a new type of hierarchical structures at any level in both 2D and 3D. A simple rule based on a rotate-and-mirror procedure is introduced to achieve multi-level hierarchies. These new hierarchical structures have remarkably few degrees of freedom compared to existing designs by other methods. More importantly, these structures exhibit synchronized motions during opening or closure, resulting in uniform and easily-controllable deformations. Furthermore, a simple analytical formula is found which can be used to avoid collision of units of the structure during the closing process. The novel design concept is verified by mathematical analyses, computational simulations and physical experiments.

  12. Agent-Based Cooperative Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-12-01

    IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control , vol. 45, issue 12, Dec, 2000, pp. 2253-2270. [15] A. M. Bloch, Dong Eui Chang, N. E. Leonard, J. E...Marsden, “Controlled Lagrangians and the stabilization of mechanical systems. II. Potential shaping,” IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control , vol. 46...a new approach to constructive nonlinear control,” IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control , Volume 49, Issue 7, July

  13. Transactional Analysis and Gestalt Therapy Used in Conjunction with Group Counseling for Married Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisson, P. Joe; And Others

    1977-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of combining Transactional Analysis and Gestalt therapy with group counseling for married couples. Six treatment couples and 12 control group members were pre/post administered the Tennessee Self-Concept Scale to assess changes in the level of their self-esteem. There were some significant results. (Author/JEL)

  14. 78 FR 30397 - Identification of Entity Pursuant to the Iranian Transactions and Sanctions Regulations and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Treasury Department's Office of Foreign Assets Control (``OFAC'') is publishing the name of one entity identified as the Government of Iran under the Iranian Transactions...

  15. 31 CFR 585.212 - Prohibited transactions related to scientific and technical cooperation, cultural exchanges, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibited transactions related to scientific and technical cooperation, cultural exchanges, and other official visits. 585.212 Section 585.212 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  16. 17 CFR 32.12 - Exemption from suspension of commodity option transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... any trading control with respect to such account, and (D) An indicator of whether the account is... market to such person, or suspending or revoking the registration of such person as a commodity trading... TRADING COMMISSION REGULATION OF COMMODITY OPTION TRANSACTIONS § 32.12 Exemption from suspension of...

  17. 17 CFR 229.1006 - (Item 1006) Purposes of the transaction and plans or proposals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... extraordinary transaction, such as a merger, reorganization or liquidation, involving the subject company or any... other actions that could impede the acquisition of control of the subject company. (d) Subject company... other acquisition of the subject company's securities by the filing person, any of its subsidiaries,...

  18. Hierarchical materials: Background and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    Hierarchical design draws inspiration from analysis of biological materials and has opened new possibilities for enhancing performance and enabling new functionalities and extraordinary properties. With the development of nanotechnology, the necessary technological requirements for the manufactur...

  19. Hierarchical clustering for graph visualization

    CERN Document Server

    Clémençon, Stéphan; Rossi, Fabrice; Tran, Viet Chi

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a graph visualization methodology based on hierarchical maximal modularity clustering, with interactive and significant coarsening and refining possibilities. An application of this method to HIV epidemic analysis in Cuba is outlined.

  20. Direct hierarchical assembly of nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ting; Zhao, Yue; Thorkelsson, Kari

    2014-07-22

    The present invention provides hierarchical assemblies of a block copolymer, a bifunctional linking compound and a nanoparticle. The block copolymers form one micro-domain and the nanoparticles another micro-domain.