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Sample records for hierarchical swine breeding

  1. Integrated systems analysis of sow replacement rates in a hierarchical swine breeding structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faust, M A; Robison, O W; Tess, M W

    1993-11-01

    Sow replacement rates in a three-tiered breeding structure were investigated for a 10-yr planning horizon using a stochastic life-cycle swine production model. Market hogs were produced in a three-breed static crossing program and marketed on a liveweight basis. Growth and reproductive traits of individual pigs were simulated using genetic, environmental, and economic parameters. Sows were culled after a maximum of 1, 5, or 10 parities. Systems were defined by maximum sow age at culling and included combinations of 1- and 5-parity nucleus and 1-, 5-, and 10-parity multiplier and commercial tiers. Economic response to index selection was considerable for all culling alternatives with yearly increases in system profits ranging from $1.06 to 1.44 for each commercial hog marketed. When sows were culled after one parity in nucleus, multiplier, and commercial tiers, respectively (1,1,1), annual changes in net returns and all cost measures were 40 to 50% larger than responses in systems with lower sow replacement rates. Based on 10-yr averages for net returns, systems with low multiplier- and commercial-level replacement rates were more profitable than systems with higher replacement rates. The most profitable system (5,10,10) differed from the least profitable system (1,1,1) by more than $10 per pig, but when the (1,1,1) system was excluded, the range was only $3 per pig. The system with lowest replacement rates supported 3,388 more multiplier and 34,151 more commercial sows from a 750-sow nucleus level than the (1,1,1) system. Output from the two extremes differed by > 664,000 commercial market hogs sold.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Genetic and economic analyses of sow replacement rates in the commercial tier of a hierarchical swine breeding structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faust, M A; Robison, O W; Tess, M W

    1993-06-01

    Commercial-level sow replacement rates were investigated for a 10-yr planning horizon using a stochastic life-cycle swine production model. A three-tiered breeding structure was modeled for the production of market hogs in a three-breed static crossing scheme. Growth and reproductive traits of individual pigs were simulated using genetic, environmental, and economic parameters. Culling was after a maximum of 1, 5, or 10 parities in commercial levels within 1- and 5-parity nucleus and 1-, 5-, and 10-parity multiplier combinations. Yearly changes and average phenotypic levels were computed for pig and sow performance and economic measures. For growth traits, greater commercial level response was for systems with higher sow replacement rates, 110 to 115% of lowest response. Phenotypic changes in net returns ranged from $.85 to 1.01 x pig-1 x yr-1. Average growth performances were highest for systems with greatest genetic trend. Highest kilograms.sow-1 x year-1 finished was for 10-parity commercial alternatives. System differences in total costs and returns per pig resulted primarily from differences in replacement costs. Removal of the gilt system from analyses often reduced ranges among systems for economic measures by more than 70%. Systems with the lowest commercial replacement rates were most profitable. Within these systems, those with higher genetic change had highest net returns. For high replacement rates, no more than 175% of market value could be paid for gilts, but with lower sow replacement rates commercial units could justify as much as 450%.

  3. Computerized management support for swine breeding farms.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huirne, R.B.M.

    1990-01-01

    1. INTRODUCTIONThe investigations described in this thesis have been directed towards computerized management support for swine breeding farms, focused on sow productivity and profitability. The study is composed of three basic parts: (1) basic description and definition of farm man

  4. Computerized management support for swine breeding farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huirne, R.B.M.

    1990-01-01

    1. INTRODUCTION

    The investigations described in this thesis have been directed towards computerized management support for swine breeding farms, focused on sow productivity and profitability. The study is composed of three basic parts: (1) basic description and

  5. Phylogenetic Relationships of the Mangalitsa Swine Breed Inferred from Mitochondrial DNA Variation

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    Sergiu Emil Georgescu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The Mangalitsa pig, a swine breed belonging to the protected gene fund of original and primitive animal breeds of the FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization, has been known to inhabit Romanian territories since the 19th century. The aim of this study was to compare the Mangalitsa breed with several European and Asiatic swine breeds in order to emphasize its uniqueness and to elucidate its origin. For this purpose, we analyzed a 613 bp mitochondrial DNA D-loop fragment and 1140 bp of the cytochrome b gene in a population of Mangalitsa pigs and the polymorphic sites were compared with sequences from GenBank originating from other swine breeds. Taking into account the total of 24 breeds and 5 different Wild Boar populations analyzed, 86 polymorphic sites representing 32 haplotypes were observed, with an average percentage of polymorphic sites of 4.9%. Three Neighbor-Joining phylogenetic trees were constructed based on Kimura 2-parameter distances, using D-loop, cytochrome b and mitochondrial reunited sequences. For the analyzed Mangalitsa population, four distinct haplotypes were identified, including one that was common to other breeds. Our study suggests that the Mangalitsa swine originate from primitive breeds which might be directly derived from the Wild Boar.

  6. Systematic Epidemiological Investigations of Cases of Senecavirus A in US Swine Breeding Herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, K L; Mowrer, C; Canon, A; Linhares, D C L; Rademacher, C; Karriker, L A; Holtkamp, D J

    2017-02-01

    Epidemiological investigations were conducted on a case series of six Senecavirus A (SVA)-affected breeding herds in the United States to determine potential routes of introduction and enhance the swine industry's knowledge of SVA's clinical presentation and spread. Each SVA-affected herd was evaluated using a standard form to ensure that all relevant data were collected. The form was used to guide a detailed discussion about the clinical presentation of SVA and risk events that occurred in the 4 weeks prior to the first observation of clinical signs with the herd veterinarian and farm personnel. Each event was then subjectively assigned a risk level of low, medium or high likelihood for SVA introduction by the investigation team. The clinical presentation of SVA varied by case. All SVA-affected herds (six of six) reported increases in pre-weaning mortality and sow anorexia. Vesicular lesions were observed in four of six herds, and mild-to-moderate neonatal diarrhoea was observed in three of six herds. No gross anatomic or histologic lesions were observed in neonatal pigs that tested positive for SVA via PCR. Multiple potential routes of introduction were identified. Events subjectively rated as high risk for SVA introduction were on-farm employee entry (six of six), carcass disposal (four of six), cull sow removal (three of six) and breeding replacement entry (two of six). Non-swine domestic animals, rodents, other visitors, repairs outside swine barns, feed delivery, weaned pig removal and semen entry were assigned a high risk level in one of six herds. Cases occurred in breeding herds of all sizes with variable biosecurity in both swine dense and swine sparse areas. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Comparative study of leptin and leptin receptor gene expression in different swine breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgescu, S E; Manea, M A; Dinescu, S; Costache, M

    2014-02-14

    Leptin is an important regulator of appetite, energy metabolism, and reproduction and is mainly synthesized in the adipocytes and then secreted into the bloodstream. The leptin receptor was classified as type I cytokine receptor due to its structural homology with IL-6 receptors and the signaling pathways in which they are both involved. The aim of our study is to comparatively assess the gene expression levels of leptin (lep) and leptin receptor (lepr) in different swine breeds specialized either in meat production (Duroc, Belgian Landrace, Large White, Synthetic Lines LS-345, and LSP-2000) or fat production (Mangalitsa) in order to correlate them with morphological and productivity characteristics. Additionally, lepr pattern of expression was evaluated comparatively between different tissue types in the Mangalitsa breed. Our results revealed high expression of the lep gene in Mangalitsa compared to those of all the other breeds, while for the lepr gene, average/medium levels were registered in Mangalitsa and increased pattern of expression was found in the synthetic lines LS-345 and LSP-2000. Regarding the comparative analysis of lepr gene expression in various tissues in the Mangalitsa breed, elevated levels were found in the liver and kidney, while the lowest expression was identified in the brain and muscles. Our results suggest that the Mangalitsa population exhibits leptin resistance, which might be correlated with atypical morpho-productive characteristics for this breed, such as below-average prolificacy and a strong tendency to accumulate fat.

  8. Swine breeding activity influence on the water quality on a agricultural microbasin in southwest of Parana State

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    Franciele Aní Caovilla Follador

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This work had as objective evaluate the influence of the swine breeding activity on the quality of the superficial water resources in the Mandurim River microbasin in Francisco Beltrao, state of Paraná, Brazil. For this purpose were selected two points of monitoring: the first located upstream close to the springs, choused because represent the area which don’t receive contribution of swine wastes and, the second point, located downstream, close to the mouth of the river, immediately after of the last swine breeding property of the watershed. The water collects were realized with monthly frequency, since 11/04/2003 to 07/26/2005, were analyzed the parameters: thermotolerants coliform, dissolved oxygen, BOD, COD, pH, P, N, NO2, NO3, Cu e Zn and the results were confronted with the standards established by CONAMA 357/05 Resolution. The result of the trophic state index reached 32.3 because the water of the watershed was classified as oligotrophic. The water quality index reached 103.63, an optimum water quality. Even though the water being adequate to the legal parameters, some parameters, as thermotolerant coliform, which reached a maximum value of 5.000 NMP 100 mL-1, BOD and COD indicated water contamination downstream of the swine breeding activity, in some periods of the year, demonstrating the importance of continuous monitoring.

  9. The SNPs Analysis of the Exons of Three Genes of MyoD Gene Family in Seven Swine Breeds (Line)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jing-fen; LIU Di; YU Hao

    2005-01-01

    The study objects includes seven swine breeds: Minzhu, Sanjiangbaizhu, Yorkshire, Landrace, Junmuyihao, Duroc and Double muscle Yorkshire. According to the sequences of MyoG, MyoD and Myf5 of swine in GenBank, seventeen pairs of primers for MyoG, MyoD and Myf5 were designed. PCR-SSCP technology was applied to detect SNPs of the exons of the three genes. The results showed that no polymorphism was in MyoG and MyoD, and some SNPs were in three exons of Myf5. There was one mutant site in the first exon of Myf5 (G → C), three mutant sites in the second exon of Myf5 (C → A, A → G and G → A); in the third exon of Myf5, there was one base A deficiency at 3 387 bp, three bases T deficiency at 3 417 bp, one mutant site at 3 443 bp (T → C).This study obtained a tendency conclusion that gene frequency of allele M of Myf5 on the one hand is positively correlated with lean meat percentage, on the other hand is correlated with the orientation of selective breeding; it also deduced that allele F is possibly correlated with high lean meat percentage. Through statistical analysis, allele A, B, C of Myf5 have no obvious correlation with lean meat percentage of different swine breeds, In addition, the high polymorphism of Myf5 showed that seven swine breeds are rich in genetic variation, and have high selective competency.

  10. Differences in X-chromosome transcriptional activity and cholesterol metabolism between placentae from swine breeds from Asian and Western origins.

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    Steve R Bischoff

    Full Text Available To gain insight into differences in placental physiology between two swine breeds noted for their dissimilar reproductive performance, that is, the Chinese Meishan and white composite (WC, we examined gene expression profiles of placental tissues collected at 25, 45, 65, 85, and 105 days of gestation by microarrays. Using a linear mixed model, a total of 1,595 differentially expressed genes were identified between the two pig breeds using a false-discovery rate q-value ≤0.05. Among these genes, we identified breed-specific isoforms of XIST, a long non-coding RNA responsible X-chromosome dosage compensation in females. Additionally, we explored the interaction of placental gene expression and chromosomal location by DIGMAP and identified three Sus scrofa X chromosomal bands (Xq13, Xq21, Xp11 that represent transcriptionally active clusters that differ between Meishan and WC during placental development. Also, pathway analysis identified fundamental breed differences in placental cholesterol trafficking and its synthesis. Direct measurement of cholesterol confirmed that the cholesterol content was significantly higher in the Meishan versus WC placentae. Taken together, this work identifies key metabolic pathways that differ in the placentae of two swine breeds noted for differences in reproductive prolificacy.

  11. Phenotypic characterization of naturalized swine breeds in Brazil, Uruguay and Colombia

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    Concepta McManus

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Morphometric data was collected on 859 naturalized swine in Brazil (Piau, Tatu, Nilo, Caruncho, Casco de Burro, Moura, Monteiro and Rabo de Peixe, Colombia (Criolla Zungo, Sanpedreño and Casco de Mula and Uruguay (Mamellado, both on farm and in published material. Information was collected on breed, sex and age, as well as various morphometric measurements. Analysis of variance was carried out using PROC MIXED of SAS ® on phenotypic data. The coefficients of variance varied between 11.50 and 83.81%, and the coefficient of determination was medium to high. Females were in general smaller for most measurements than males, showing sexual dimorphism. The Moura was the closest naturalized breed to the commercial breeds, followed by the Piau, while the Monteiro was the furtherest. The dendrogram obtained from morphological information showed a division of the pigs into three groups. Characterization was possible using morphological and morphometric data.Foram colhidos dados morfométricos de 859 suínos naturalizados do Brasil (Piau, Tatu, Nilo, Caruncho, Casco de Burro, Moura, Monteiro e Rabo de Peixe, Colômbia (Criolla Zungo, Sanpedreño e Casco de Mula e Uruguai (Mamellado Dados sobre raça, sexo e idade foram coletados, assim como varias avaliações morfométricas. A análise de variância foi realizada utilizando-se o procedimento PROC GLM do SAS sobre os dados morfométricos. Os coeficientes de variância oscilaram de 11,50 a 83,81% e o coeficiente de determinação foi de moderado a alto. As fêmeas foram em geral menores na maioria das avaliações em relação aos machos, indicando dimorfismo sexual. A Moura foi a raça naturalizada mais próxima das raças comerciais, seguida da Piau, enquanto a Monteiro apresentou-se mais distante. O dendograma obtido a partir de informações morfológicas apresentou divisão dentro de três grupos. A caracterização foi possível utilizando-se dados morfológicos e morfométricos.

  12. Spatial patterns of breeding success of grizzly bears derived from hierarchical multistate models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Jason T; Wheatley, Matthew; Mackenzie, Darryl

    2014-10-01

    Conservation programs often manage populations indirectly through the landscapes in which they live. Empirically, linking reproductive success with landscape structure and anthropogenic change is a first step in understanding and managing the spatial mechanisms that affect reproduction, but this link is not sufficiently informed by data. Hierarchical multistate occupancy models can forge these links by estimating spatial patterns of reproductive success across landscapes. To illustrate, we surveyed the occurrence of grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) in the Canadian Rocky Mountains Alberta, Canada. We deployed camera traps for 6 weeks at 54 surveys sites in different types of land cover. We used hierarchical multistate occupancy models to estimate probability of detection, grizzly bear occupancy, and probability of reproductive success at each site. Grizzly bear occupancy varied among cover types and was greater in herbaceous alpine ecotones than in low-elevation wetlands or mid-elevation conifer forests. The conditional probability of reproductive success given grizzly bear occupancy was 30% (SE = 0.14). Grizzly bears with cubs had a higher probability of detection than grizzly bears without cubs, but sites were correctly classified as being occupied by breeding females 49% of the time based on raw data and thus would have been underestimated by half. Repeated surveys and multistate modeling reduced the probability of misclassifying sites occupied by breeders as unoccupied to grizzly bear occupancy varied across the landscape. Those patches with highest probabilities of breeding occupancy-herbaceous alpine ecotones-were small and highly dispersed and are projected to shrink as treelines advance due to climate warming. Understanding spatial correlates in breeding distribution is a key requirement for species conservation in the face of climate change and can help identify priorities for landscape management and protection.

  13. [Serological examinations for swine vesicular disease (SVD) in a closed pig breeding herd using ELISA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannwitz, Gunter; Haas, Bernd; Hoffmann, Bernd; Fischer, Sebastian

    2009-01-01

    In a closed pig establishment housing about 18,000 pigs, 2895 gilts were tested pre-export for SVD (swine vesicular disease) antibodies using Ceditest/PrioCHECK SVDV-AB ELISA. 130 gilts (4.5%) tested positive. In addition, 561 animals of this farm were sampled per random for SVD serology. One in 241 weaners (0.4%), eight in 150 gilts (5.3%) and 18 in 170 (10.6%) pregnant sows tested ELISA SVD-antibody positive. Of the ELISA positive samples, 23 tested positive in VNT (virus neutralization test). Of these, 20 VNT-positive animals were re-sampled two weeks later and re-tested via ELISA and VNT in different laboratories, displaying falling titres with one to two animals remaining VNT-positive. Epidemiological investigations and clinical examinations on site did not yield any evidence for SVD. 745 faecal samples taken from individual pigs and collected from pens tested negative in SVDV-RNA-PCR. 40 of these samples tested negative in virus isolation on cell culture. Pathological examinations on fallen pigs did not reveal any evidence for SVD either. After comparing our ELISA results with data recorded in the ELISA validation by Chenard et al. (1998), we propose that the published test performance is perhaps not currently applicable for the commercial test. Provided that SVD-antibody negative pigs were tested, a specificity of 99.6% in weaners, 95.5% in gilts and 89.4% in pregnant sows would appear to be more appropriate for the Ceditest/PrioCHECK SVDV-AB ELISA. Details are provided for all examined pigs regarding husbandry, breed, age, weeks pregnant and previous vaccinations. The results of other serological tests on the same sera are given. Possible clusterings of false-positive SVD-ELISA results are discussed.

  14. Sex and breed-dependent organ development and metabolic responses in foetuses from lean and obese/leptin resistant swine.

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    Laura Torres-Rovira

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to determine the effects of breed and sex on growth patterns and metabolic features of advanced-pregnancy foetuses exposed to the same environmental conditions. Thus, at Day 62 of pregnancy, swine foetuses from an obese breed with leptin resistance (Iberian breed were compared to lean crossbred foetuses (25% Large White ×25% Landrace ×50% Pietrain. There were differential developmental patterns in foetuses with leptin resistance, mainly a higher relative weight of the brain resembling "brain-sparing effect". Prioritization of brain growth may be protective for the adequate growth and postnatal survival of the Iberian individuals, an ancient breed reared in extensive semi-feral conditions for centuries. There were also clear sex-related differences in foetal development and metabolism in the Iberian breed. Female Iberian foetuses were similar in size and weight to male littermates but had a significantly higher relative liver to body weight ratio resembling "liver-sparing effect" and a trend for a higher relative intestine to body ratio. Moreover, the availability of triglycerides, cholesterol and IL-6 in female Iberian foetuses was similar to that of lean crossbred foetuses. Overall, these features may favour a better postnatal survival and development of females, the sex more critical for the species survival. These findings set the basis for future translational studies aimed at increasing the knowledge on the interaction between genetic and environmental factors in the early programming of the adult phenotype.

  15. STR Profiling for Discrimination between Wild and Domestic Swine Specimens and between Main Breeds of Domestic Pigs Reared in Belarus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rębała, Krzysztof; Rabtsava, Alina A.; Kotova, Svetlana A.; Kipen, Viachaslau N.; Zhurina, Natalja V.; Gandzha, Alla I.; Tsybovsky, Iosif S.

    2016-01-01

    A panel comprising 16 short tandem repeats (STRs) and a gender-specific amelogenin marker was worked out and tested for robustness in discrimination between wild and domestic swine subspecies encountered in Europe, between regional populations of wild boars and between main breeds of domestic pigs reared in Belarus. The STR dataset comprised 310 wild boars, inhabiting all administrative regions of Belarus, and 313 domestic pigs, representing three local and three cosmopolitan lines. Additionally, a total of 835 wild boars were genotyped for the presence of melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) alleles specific for domestic pigs. Correctness of assignment of STR profiles to appropriate populations was measured by log-likelihood ratios (log-LRs). All samples were correctly identified as wild boars or domestic pigs with average log-LR of 42.4 (LR = 2.6×1018). On the other hand, as many as 50 out of 835 (6.0%) genotyped wild boars from Belarus possessed MC1R alleles specific to domestic pigs, demonstrating supremacy of our STR profiling system over traditional differentiation between wild boars and domestic pigs, based on single binary markers. Mean log-LRs for allocation of wild boars to their regions of origin and of domestic pigs to appropriate breeds were 2.3 (LR = 9.7) and 13.4 (LR = 6.6×105), respectively. Our results demonstrate the developed STR profiling system to be a highly efficient tool for differentiation between wild and domestic swine subspecies and between diverse breeds of domestic pigs as well as for verification of genetic identity of porcine specimens for the purpose of forensic investigations of wildlife crimes, assurance of veterinary public health, parentage control in animal husbandry, food safety management and traceability of livestock products. PMID:27851802

  16. When can a veterinarian be expected to detect classical swine fever virus among breeding sows in a herd during an outbreak?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engel, B.; Bouma, A.; Stegeman, J.A.; Buist, W.; Elbers, A.R.W.; Kogut, J.; Döpfer, D.; Jong, de M.C.M.

    2005-01-01

    The herd sensitivity (HSe) and herd specificity (Hsp) of clinical diagnosis of an infection with classical swine fever (CSF) virus during veterinary inspection of breeding sows in a herd was evaluated. Data gathered from visits to herds during the CSF outbreak in 1997¿1998 in The Netherlands were us

  17. The effect of breed and sex on sulfamethazine, enrofloxacin, fenbendazole and flunixin meglumine pharmacokinetic parameters in swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, J T; Baynes, R E; Brooks, J D; Yeatts, J L; Bellis, B; Ashwell, M S; Routh, P; O'Nan, A T; Maltecca, C

    2014-12-01

    Drug use in livestock has received increased attention due to welfare concerns and food safety. Characterizing heterogeneity in the way swine populations respond to drugs could allow for group-specific dose or drug recommendations. Our objective was to determine whether drug clearance differs across genetic backgrounds and sex for sulfamethazine, enrofloxacin, fenbendazole and flunixin meglumine. Two sires from each of four breeds were mated to a common sow population. The nursery pigs generated (n = 114) were utilized in a random crossover design. Drugs were administered intravenously and blood collected a minimum of 10 times over 48 h. A non-compartmental analysis of drug and metabolite plasma concentration vs. time profiles was performed. Within-drug and metabolite analysis of pharmacokinetic parameters included fixed effects of drug administration date, sex and breed of sire. Breed differences existed for flunixin meglumine (P-value<0.05; Cl, Vdss ) and oxfendazole (P-value<0.05, AUC0→∞ ). Sex differences existed for oxfendazole (P-value < 0.05; Tmax ) and sulfamethazine (P-value < 0.05, Cl). Differences in drug clearance were seen, and future work will determine the degree of additive genetic variation utilizing a larger population.

  18. A general review of competition genetic effects with an emphasis on swine breeding.

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    Chen, C Y; Johnson, R K; Newman, S; Van Vleck, L D

    2007-09-30

    A review of previous studies is presented on estimates of genetic parameters and responses to selection with traditional breeding approaches, on correlations between agonistic behavior and growth performance, and on theoretical frameworks for selection incorporating interactions among individuals and on practical methods for incorporating competition effects in breeding programs.

  19. Monitoring the occurrence of patens foramen ovale in fattening swine breeds continuation

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    Bajan L.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of foramen ovale patens (FOP was investigated in 96 hearts taken from the Slovak meat-type (SM, 38 hearts from Yorkshire (YO, 51 hearts from Slovak meat-type x Yorkshire (SM x YO, 43 hearts from Pietrain x Yorkshire (PN x YO and 45 hearts from Pietrain x Slovak meat-type (PN x SM breeds. The investigation was done at the Station for Research and Meat Quality Evaluation. We determined the presence of FOP only in the hearts collected from SM in 7 cases, which is 13.7% of the occurrence, and in the PN x SM in 4 cases (11.2%. We did not observe any occurrence of FOP in the other investigated breeds. All of the investigated positive cases of FOP were in the male breeds of the SM. In the cross breeds of PN x SM two positive cases of FOP were found in both sexes. As far as the size of the FOP is concerned, there have been documented 2mmdiameter in four cases and 3mmin three cases in the SM breeds. On the other hand, in the PN x SM cross breeds neither case had more than 2 mm in size. After camparing these results with our previous work, we decided further to investigate the occurrence of these heart defects at the line level of each meat breed.

  20. A general review of competition genetic effects with an emphasis on swine breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    A review of previous studies will be presented on estimates of genetic parameters and less than expected responses to selection with traditional breeding approaches, on correlations between competitive behavior and growth performance, on theoretical frameworks for selection incorporating competition...

  1. Influenza A virus in swine breeding herds: Combination of vaccination and biosecurity practices can reduce likelihood of endemic piglet reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, L A; Torremorell, M; Craft, M E

    2017-03-01

    Recent modelling and empirical work on influenza A virus (IAV) suggests that piglets play an important role as an endemic reservoir. The objective of this study is to test intervention strategies aimed at reducing the incidence of IAV in piglets and ideally, preventing piglets from becoming exposed in the first place. These interventions include biosecurity measures, vaccination, and management options that swine producers may employ individually or jointly to control IAV in their herds. We have developed a stochastic Susceptible-Exposed-Infectious-Recovered-Vaccinated (SEIRV) model that reflects the spatial organization of a standard breeding herd and accounts for the different production classes of pigs therein. Notably, this model allows for loss of immunity for vaccinated and recovered animals, and for vaccinated animals to have different latency and infectious periods from unvaccinated animals as suggested by the literature. The interventions tested include: (1) varied timing of gilt introductions to the breeding herd, (2) gilt separation (no indirect transmission to or from the gilt development unit), (3) gilt vaccination upon arrival to the farm, (4) early weaning, and (5) vaccination strategies of sows with different timing (mass and pre-farrow) and efficacy (homologous vs. heterologous). We conducted a Latin Hypercube Sampling and Partial Rank Correlation Coefficient (LHS-PRCC) analysis combined with a random forest analysis to assess the relative importance of each epidemiological parameter in determining epidemic outcomes. In concert, mass vaccination, early weaning of piglets (removal 0-7days after birth), gilt separation, gilt vaccination, and longer periods between introductions of gilts (6 months) were the most effective at reducing prevalence. Endemic prevalence overall was reduced by 51% relative to the null case; endemic prevalence in piglets was reduced by 74%; and IAV was eliminated completely from the herd in 23% of all simulations. Importantly

  2. Ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions from a modern U.S. swine breeding-gestation-farrowing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinn, John P.; Xin, Hongwei; Shepherd, Timothy A.; Li, Hong; Burns, Robert T.

    2014-12-01

    Aerial emissions from livestock production continue to be an area of attention and concern for both the potential health and environmental impacts. However, information of gaseous, especially greenhouse gas (GHG), emissions for swine breeding/gestation and farrowing production systems is limited. The purpose of this study was to quantify ammonia (NH3), carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O), and methane (CH4) concentrations and emissions from a modern breeding-gestation-farrowing system located in central Iowa, USA. A 4300-sow farm was selected for the extensive field monitoring which employed a Mobile Air Emission Monitoring Unit equipped with state-of-the-art gas analyzers and a data acquisition system. The monitored portion of the farm facility consisted of a deep-pit breeding/early gestation (B/EG) barn (1800 head), a deep-pit late gestation (LG) barn (1800 head), and two shallow-pit (pull-plug) farrowing rooms (40 head per room). A dynamic flux chamber was used to monitor gaseous emissions from the external manure storage for the farrowing rooms. Data were collected for 29 consecutive months (January 2011 through June 2013). Daily indoor NH3, CO2, N2O, and CH4 concentrations (ppm, mean ± SD) were 12.0 (±7.6), 1594 (±797), 0.31 (±0.11), and 28.5 (±9.8), respectively, in the breeding/gestation barns; and 9.7 (±4.1), 1536 (±701), 0.30 (±0.10), and 78.3 (±37), respectively, in the farrowing rooms. Daily emissions per animal unit (AU, 500 kg live weight) were 35.1 g NH3, 7.46 kg CO2, 0.17 g N2O, and 263.4 g CH4 for sows in the B/EG barn; and 28.2 g NH3, 6.50 kg CO2, 0.12 g N2O, and 201.3 g CH4 for sows in the LG barn. The average daily emissions per AU (sow and piglets) of the farrowing rooms during the lactation period (birth to weaning) were: 59.7 g NH3, 16.4 kg CO2, 0.73 g N2O, and 107 g CH4. For the monitored period, the external manure storage had the following average daily emission per m2 surface area: 1.26 g NH3, 137 g CO2, and 94.8 g CH4, which

  3. Breed-specific adjustment factors for reproductive traits in Duroc, Hampshire, Landrace, and Yorkshire swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culbertson, M S; Mabry, J W; Bertrand, J K; Nelson, A H

    1997-09-01

    Number born alive (NBA) and litter weaning weight (LWT) can be influenced by many factors, including environment, parity, age at farrowing, lactation length, and genetic merit as well as number of pigs after transfer (NAT) and weaning age (WNAGE) for LWT. The objectives of this study were to estimate adjustment factors for NBA and LWT using all effects in the model and to refine parity effects by including age of the sow in parity 1 (P1) and parity 2 (P2). The models used included fixed effects of contemporary groups and parity/age class, random direct genetic and permanent environment effects, as well as the fixed effects of NAT and WNAGE for LWT. A large effect due to age of the sow at breeding within P1 and P2 was found and new adjustments were found to differ from previous studies. In the Yorkshire population, for example, the average P1 adjustment was 1.0 pig in this study, compared to the current .69; however, this ranges from 1.46 for the youngest P1 females to .57 for the oldest. Similarly, in P2 the average adjustment was found to be .50, with an adjustment of .99 for the youngest P2 and 0 for the oldest. Also, age of dam was found to contribute variation to P1 litter records for LWT. A residual analysis showed nonsignificant differences (P > .60) across the age classes after using the new adjustments; however, significant differences (P < .01) remained after using the current adjustments.

  4. Control of a Reassortant Pandemic 2009 H1N1 Influenza Virus Outbreak in an Intensive Swine Breeding Farm: Effect of Vaccination and Enhanced Farm Management Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Beato, Maria Serena; Angeloni, Giorgia; Monne, Isabella; Buniolo, Filippo; Zuliani, Federica; Morini, Matteo; Castellan, Alberto; Bonfanti, Lebana; Marangon, Stefano

    2015-04-13

    Influenza A viruses in swine cause considerable economic losses and raise concerns about their zoonotic potential. The current paucity of thorough empirical assessments of influenza A virus infection levels in swine herds under different control interventions hinders our understanding of their effectiveness. Between 2012 and 2013, recurrent outbreaks of respiratory disease caused by a reassortant pandemic 2009 H1N1 (H1N1pdm) virus were registered in a swine breeding farm in North-East Italy, providing the opportunity to assess an outbreak response plan based on vaccination and enhanced farm management. All sows/gilts were vaccinated with a H1N1pdm-specific vaccine, biosecurity was enhanced, weaning cycles were lengthened, and cross-fostering of piglets was banned. All tested piglets had maternally-derived antibodies at 30 days of age and were detectable in 5.3% of ~90 day-old piglets. There was a significant reduction in H1N1pdm RT-PCR detections after the intervention. Although our study could not fully determine the extent to which the observed trends in seropositivity or RT-PCR positivity among piglets were due to the intervention or to the natural course of the disease in the herd, we provided suggestive evidence that the applied measures were useful in controlling the outbreak, even without an all-in/all-out system, while keeping farm productivity at full.

  5. Association between Genetic Polymorphism in the Swine Leukocyte Antigen-DRA Gene and Piglet Diarrhea in Three Chinese Pig Breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Q L; Zhao, S G; Wang, D W; Feng, Y; Jiang, T T; Huang, X Y; Gun, S B

    2014-09-01

    The swine leukocyte antigen (SLA)-DRA locus is noteworthy among other SLA class II loci for its limited variation and has not been investigated in depth. This study was investigated to detect polymorphisms of four exons of SLA-DRA gene and its association with piglet diarrhea in Landrace, Large White and Duroc pigs. No polymorphisms were detected in exon 3, while 2 SNPs (c.178G>A and c.211T>C), 2 SNPs (c.3093A>C and c.3104C>T) and 5 SNPs (c.4167A>G, c.4184A>G, c.4194A>G, c.4246A>G and c.4293G>A) were detected in exon 1, exon 2 and exon 4 respectively, and 1 SNP (c.4081T>C) in intron 3. Statistical results showed that genotype had significant effect on piglet diarrhea, individuals with genotype BC had a higher diarrhea score when compared with the genotypes AA, AB, AC and CC. Futhermore, genotype AC had a higher diarrhea score than the genotype CC in exon 1 (ppiglet diarrhea appeared that Hap2, 5, 8, 10, and 14 may be the susceptible haplotypes and Hap9 may be the resistant haplotype to piglet diarrhea. The genetic variations identified of the SLA-DRA gene may potentially be functional mutations related to piglet diarrhea.

  6. 9 CFR 52.3 - Appraisal of swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES SWINE DESTROYED BECAUSE OF PSEUDORABIES § 52.3 Appraisal of swine. (a) Herds of swine and individual breeding sows to be destroyed because they... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appraisal of swine. 52.3 Section 52.3...

  7. 76 FR 29991 - Live Goats and Swine for Export; Removal of Certain Testing Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ... brucellosis testing of goats and breeding swine intended for export to countries that do not require such... brucellosis prior to export. Some countries do not require that goats and breeding swine be tested for... eliminate the requirement for pre-export tuberculosis and brucellosis testing of goats and breeding...

  8. 规模化猪场种猪猪瘟免疫方式和剂量的探讨%Immunity Method and Dose of Breeding Pigs against Classical Swine Fever Virus (CSFV) on Large-scale Pig Farms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗才庆

    2012-01-01

      对福建某公司2010年、2011年“一刀切”免疫(一年春、秋各免疫1次,每头每次免疫剂量1.5头份猪瘟兔化弱毒脾淋苗)的4561份种猪血清样品采用 HerdChek 猪瘟抗体检测试剂盒进行抗体检测,评价种猪猪瘟免疫效果,保证猪瘟免疫合格率达到80%以上,为规模化猪场种猪进行猪瘟免疫提供科学依据.结果显示:2010年、2011年种猪抗体检测合格率为86.70%、84.32%,对抗体不合格种猪再一次加强免疫后抗体检测总合格率91.28%、89.74%.由此表明:种猪猪瘟全群采用“一刀切”免疫猪瘟兔化弱毒脾淋苗,可以起到良好的免疫效果%  To evaluate the status of the immunity in breeding pigs against classical swine fever virus (CSFV), en-sure that the satisfactory levels of immunity was higher than 80% and provide a scientific basis for the immunity in breeding pigs against CSFV on the large-scale pig farms, 4561 serum samples from a large-scale pig farms in Fu-jian were collected and tested by HerdChek ELISA , which were immunized by "impose uniformity" method. The breeding pigs immunized with the HCLV bovine testis Lymph tissue origin vaccine at dose of 1.5ml/sow/time, ev-ery year twice on spring and autumn respectively. The results showed that the satisfactory levels of antibodies a-gainst CSFV in 2011 and 2012 were 86.70% and 84.32%, respectively. After immunizing once again to the unsat-isfactory levels of antibodies of breeding pigs, the total satisfactory levels of antibodies were 91.28% and 89.74%, respectively. The primary result reveals that the breeding herd immunized with the HCLV bovine testis Lymph tis-sue origin vaccine by "impose uniformity" method could play a good immune effect.

  9. Swine in biomedical research. V. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tumbleson, M.E.

    1986-01-01

    This volume presents information on the following topics: the history of pigs; conceptual and operational history of the development of miniature swine; breeding program and population standards of the Gottingen miniature swine; moral, social and scientific aspects of the use of swine in research; fertility in gilts inseminated with frozen boar semen stored at -196 C for eight years; ultrastructure of piglet liver; porcine models in surgical research; anesthesia in swine; pulse monitoring, intravascular and instramuscular injection sites in pigs; collagen biosynthesis and collagen content as a measure of dermal healing in experimental wounds in domestic swine; methods for hair removal; swine as a cardiac surgical model; bone marrow transplantation in miniature swine; technical aspects of small intestinal transplantation in young pigs; models; the pig in studies of diarrhea pathophysiology; use of swine to validate airflow perturbation device for airways resistance measurements in humans; swine as a model for human diabetes; and the weanling Yorkshire pig as an animal model for measuring percutaneous penetration.

  10. Evaluation of the long-term effect of air filtration on the occurrence of new PRRSV infections in large breeding herds in swine-dense regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dee, Scott; Cano, Jean Paul; Spronk, Gordon; Reicks, Darwin; Ruen, Paul; Pitkin, Andrea; Polson, Dale

    2012-05-01

    Airborne transmission of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a risk factor for the infection of susceptible populations. Therefore, a long‑term sustainability study of air filtration as a means to reduce this risk was conducted. Participating herds (n = 38) were organized into 4 independent cohorts and the effect of air filtration on the occurrence of new PRRSV infections was analyzed at 3 different levels from September 2008 to January 2012 including the likelihood of infection in contemporary filtered and non-filtered herds, the likelihood of infection before and after implementation of filtration and the time to failure in filtered and non-filtered herds. Results indicated that new PRRSV infections in filtered breeding herds were significantly lower than in contemporary non-filtered control herds (P filtration was 7.97 times higher than the odds after filtration was initiated (P filtration on reducing the occurrence of new PRRSV infections in the study population was demonstrated.

  11. Mapping urban and peri-urban breeding habitats of Aedes mosquitoes using a fuzzy analytical hierarchical process based on climatic and physical parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Shahzad Sarfraz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The spread of dengue fever depends mainly on the availability of favourable breeding sites for its mosquito vectors around human dwellings. To investigate if the various factors influencing breeding habitats can be mapped from space, dengue indices, such as the container index, the house index and the Breteau index, were calculated from Ministry of Public health data collected three times annually in Phitsanulok, Thailand between 2009 and 2011. The most influential factors were found to be temperature, humidity, rainfall, population density, elevation and land cover. Models were worked out using parameters mostly derived from freely available satellite images and fuzzy logic software with parameter synchronisation and a predication algorithm based on data mining and the Decision Tree method. The models developed were found to be sufficiently flexible to accommodate additional parameters and sampling data that might improve prediction of favourable breeding hotspots. The algorithm applied can not only be used for the prediction of near real-time scenarios with respect to dengue, but can also be applied for monitoring other diseases influenced by environmental and climatic factors. The multi-criteria model presented is a cost-effective way of identifying outbreak hotspots and early warning systems lend themselves for development based on this strategy. The proposed approach demonstrates the successful utilisation of remotely sensed images to map mosquito breeding habitats.

  12. Mapping urban and peri-urban breeding habitats of Aedes mosquitoes using a fuzzy analytical hierarchical process based on climatic and physical parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarfraz, Muhammad Shahzad; Tripathi, Nagesh K; Faruque, Fazlay S; Bajwa, Usama Ijaz; Kitamoto, Asanobu; Souris, Marc

    2014-12-01

    The spread of dengue fever depends mainly on the availability of favourable breeding sites for its mosquito vectors around human dwellings. To investigate if the various factors influencing breeding habitats can be mapped from space, dengue indices, such as the container index, the house index and the Breteau index, were calculated from Ministry of Public health data collected three times annually in Phitsanulok, Thailand between 2009 and 2011. The most influential factors were found to be temperature, humidity, rainfall, population density, elevation and land cover. Models were worked out using parameters mostly derived from freely available satellite images and fuzzy logic software with parameter synchronisation and a predication algorithm based on data mining and the Decision Tree method. The models developed were found to be sufficiently flexible to accommodate additional parameters and sampling data that might improve prediction of favourable breeding hotspots. The algorithm applied can not only be used for the prediction of near real-time scenarios with respect to dengue, but can also be applied for monitoring other diseases influenced by environmental and climatic factors. The multi-criteria model presented is a cost-effective way of identifying outbreak hotspots and early warning systems lend themselves for development based on this strategy. The proposed approach demonstrates the successful utilisation of remotely sensed images to map mosquito breeding habitats.

  13. 75 FR 56912 - Live Goats and Swine for Export; Removal of Certain Testing Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ... requirement for pre-export tuberculosis and brucellosis testing of goats and breeding swine intended for... exportation be tested for tuberculosis and, for some goats, brucellosis prior to export. Section 91.9 requires... countries do not require that goats and breeding swine be tested for tuberculosis and brucellosis prior...

  14. Deletion of African swine fever virus Georgia 2007 virulence-associated gene 9GL (B119L) leads to virus attenuation in swine at low doses while inducing an effective protection against homologous challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    African swine fever virus (ASFV) is the etiological agent of a contagious and often lethal viral disease of domestic pigs that has significant economic consequences for swine breeding. The control of African Swine Fever (ASF) has been hampered by the unavailability of vaccines. Experimental vaccines...

  15. Swine origin influenza (swine flu).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, Meghna R; Lodha, Rakesh; Kabra, S K

    2009-08-01

    Swine origin influenza was first recognized in the border area of Mexico and United States in April 2009 and during a short span of two months became the first pandemic. The currently circulating strain of swine origin influenza virus of the H1N1 strain has undergone triple reassortment and contains genes from the avian, swine and human viruses. It is transmitted by droplets or fomites. Incubation period is 2 to 7 days. Common clinical symptoms are indistinguishable by any viral respiratory illness, and include fever, cough, sore throat and myalgia. A feature seen more frequently with swine origin influenza is GI upset. Less than 10% of patients require hospitalization. Patients at risk of developing severe disease are - younger than five years, elderly, pregnant women, with chronic systemic illnesses, adolescents on aspirin. Of the severe manifestations of swine origin influenza, pneumonia and respiratory failure are the most common. Unusual symptoms reported are conjunctivitis, parotitis, hemophagocytic syndrome. Infants may present with fever and lethargy with no respiratory symptoms. Diagnosis is based on RT PCR, Viral culture or increasing neutralizing antibodies. Principle of treatment consist of isolation, universal precautions, good infection control practices, supportive care and use of antiviral drugs. Antiviral drugs effective against H1N1 virus include: oseltamivir and zamanavir. With good supportive care case fatality is less than 1%. Preventive measures include: social distancing, practicing respiratory etiquette, hand hygiene and use of chemoprohylaxis with antiviral drugs. Vaccine against H1N1 is not available at present, but will be available in near future.

  16. Occurrence of tylosin in swine wastewater in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Sánchez, Liliana; Garzón-Zúñiga, Marco Antonio; Buelna, Gerardo; Moeller-Chávez, Gabriela Eleonora; Noyola, Adalberto; Avilez-Flores, Martha; Estrada-Arriaga, Edson B

    2013-01-01

    This study determined a tylosin concentration in swine wastewater located in a Mexican pig farm, during different stages of the pigs' growth. The detection of antibiotics in swine wastewater is complex due to its high concentration of solids. Analytical method was developed for detection of tylosin in swine wastewater and swine slurry. Average recoveries of tylosin in the liquid and solid phase were greater than 51 and 44%, respectively, with a greater total recovery of 95%. The results indicated the presence of tylosin in swine wastewater and slurry at concentrations greater than the ones reported in the literature. In grab samples of swine wastewater, the tylosin detected showed concentrations of 56, 72 and 8.6 μg L(-1), in breeding-gestation, nursery pigs, and grow-finishing area, respectively. In composite samples, the concentration of tylosin was 11.8 μg L(-1) for the breeding-gestation area and 2.4 μg L(-1) for the grow-finishing area. For slurry, the concentration of tylosin was 20.6 and 17.8 μg L(-1), for the breeding-gestation and grow-finishing area, respectively. This study presents the detection of a high concentration of tylosin in breeding-gestation and nursery pigs. Traces of tylosin in wastewater from grow-finishing stage were found although the animals were not receiving antibiotics.

  17. New biotechnological procedures in swine reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrujkić Tihomir

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available New biotechnological procedures and the use of hormones in swine breeding are aimed at increasing the number of piglets in the litter. In small herds and groups, selected sows with 16 mammary complexes (tits can yield up to 32 piglets, or porkers, per year per sow. In order to achieve such reproduction results, special, individual stalls for sow deliveries are used, in addition to biotechnological methods, with a warm core and floor heating, phased diet and clean facilities. The ovulation value in swine is determined by their genetic and paragenetic effects, and it is often provoked and increased with injections and preparations for superovulation. However, the results vary, since any administration of hormone injecions can reduce the reproductive cycle, shorten the duration of estrus, or disrupt the work of ovaries and create cystic follicles. The use of follicle-stimulating hormones in quantities up to 1000 IU per animal for the induction and synchronization of estrus has become customary for sows and gilts, as well as the use of prostaglandins, the use of GnRH for increasing ovulation in swine and increasing the number of follicles >4 mm in diameter in the implementation of new biotechnologies in swine breeding, increases the number of ovulations and fertility in swine. In this way, reproduction is raised to the highest possible level, and artificial insemination of sows has 12 separate rules which enable better and more successful artificial insemination of sows.

  18. Swine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plain, Ronald L; Lawrence, John D

    2003-07-01

    The US swine industry is large and growing. The quantity of pork desired by consumers of US pork is growing at the rate of 1.5%/y. New production systems and new technology have enabled production per sow to grow at a rate of 4% annually in recent years. Consequently, the number of sows in the United States is declining. Because productivity growth is outpacing demand growth, the deflated price of hogs and pork is declining. Hog production and prices continue to exhibit strong seasonal and cyclic patterns. Pork production is usually lowest in the summer and highest in the fall. Production and prices tend to follow 4-year patterns. The US swine industry continues to evolve toward fewer and larger producers who rely on contracts for both hog production and marketing. In 2000, over half of the hogs marketed were from approximately 156 firms marketing more than 50,000 head annually. These producers finished 60% of their production in contract facilities. Over 90% of their marketings were under contract or were owned by a packer. These producers expressed a high level of satisfaction with hog production. Both they and their contract growers were satisfied with production contracts. These large producers were satisfied with their marketing contracts and planned to continue them in the future. The hog industry has changed a great deal in the last decade. There is little reason to believe this rapid rate of change will not continue. This swine industry is highly competitive and profit driven. Profit margins are too small to allow producers the luxury of ignoring new technology and innovative production systems. Consequently, hog production will continue its rapid evolution from traditional agriculture to typical industry.

  19. A Delphi exercise used to identify potential causes of variation in litter size of Ontario swine

    OpenAIRE

    Dewey, Catherine E.; Martin, S. Wayne; Friendship, Robert M.; Kennedy, Brain

    1992-01-01

    Forty-eight people, considered to the swine experts, were asked to collaborate in a Delphi exercise to identify the factors which they believed affect litter size in Ontario swine. The panel included 16 animal scientists, 16 pork producers, and 16 veterinarians in swine practice. The ten factors with the highest ratings were parity of the sow, mycotoxins in the feed, infections with porcine parvovirus or Leptospira spp., breeding gilts on their second versus first observed estrus, the timing ...

  20. Structural vulnerability of the French swine industry trade network to the spread of infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautureau, S; Dufour, B; Durand, B

    2012-07-01

    appeared less structurally vulnerable than ruminant trade networks. This fragmentation is explained by the hierarchical structure, which thus limits the structural vulnerability of the global trade network. However, inside communities, the hierarchical structure of the swine production system would favour the spread of an infectious agent (especially if introduced in breeding herds).

  1. Influence of mycotoxin zearalenone on the swine reproductive failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prodanov-Radulović Jasna Z.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive failure in swine is often a difficult diagnostic problem. If diagnoses of infectious disease or management related problems are not obtained, feed quality and safety may be questioned. Mycotoxins are often present in swine feed in the amount that can have detrimental impact on production and reproduction. Problems are expressed only as alterations of the reproductive cycle, reduced feed intake, slow growth or impaired feed efficiency. In Serbia, generally speaking, high concentrations of mycotoxins were noticed, especially mycotoxin zearalenone. High presence of zearalenone in swine feed is probably due to climatic influence and should be monitored constantly. This paper includes field observations regarding the influence of moldy feed containing mycotoxin zearalenone on the occurrence of the reproductive failure in swine breeding categories (sows, gilts and boars. The material for this research was obtained from four swine farms where certain reproductive disorders and health problems in breeding animals were detected. Depending on the specificity of each evaluated case and available material, the applied research methods included: anamnestic and clinical evaluation, pathomorphological examination, standard laboratory testing for detection of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, and microbiological feed testing, in order to examine the presence of fungi and mycotoxins by applying the method of thin layer chromatography. On the basis of the obtained results, it could be concluded that mycotoxin zearalenone was detected in all examined feed samples. The presence of mycotoxin in feed was directly related to the reproductive failures in the examined swine categories (vulvovaginitis, endometritis, rebreeding, infertility. Swine reproduction represents the base for intensive swine production. The presence of mycotoxins in swine feed have influence on the reproduction and health status of pigs and under certain conditions may significantly

  2. Patterns of molecular genetic variation among cat breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn; David, Victor A; Pflueger, Solveig M; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Wade, Claire M; O'Brien, Stephen J; Johnson, Warren E

    2008-01-01

    Genetic variation in cat breeds was assessed utilizing a panel of short tandem repeat (STR) loci genotyped in 38 cat breeds and 284 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genotyped in 24 breeds. Population structure in cat breeds generally reflects their recent ancestry and absence of strong breed barriers between some breeds. There is a wide range in the robustness of population definition, from breeds demonstrating high definition to breeds with as little as a third of their genetic variation partitioning into a single population. Utilizing the STRUCTURE algorithm, there was no clear demarcation of the number of population subdivisions; 16 breeds could not be resolved into independent populations, the consequence of outcrossing in established breeds to recently developed breeds with common ancestry. These 16 breeds were divided into 6 populations. Ninety-six percent of cats in a sample set of 1040 were correctly assigned to their classified breed or breed group/population. Average breed STR heterozygosities ranged from moderate (0.53; Havana, Korat) to high (0.85; Norwegian Forest Cat, Manx). Most of the variation in cat breeds was observed within a breed population (83.7%), versus 16.3% of the variation observed between populations. The hierarchical relationships of cat breeds is poorly defined as demonstrated by phylogenetic trees generated from both STR and SNP data, though phylogeographic grouping of breeds derived completely or in part from Southeast Asian ancestors was apparent.

  3. Distribution of Salmonella serovars in breeding, nursery, and grow-to-finish pigs, and risk factors for shedding in ten farrow-to-finish swine farms in Alberta and Saskatchewan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Wendy; Rajić, Andrijana; Waldner, Cheryl; McFall, Margaret; Chow, Eva; Muckle, Anne; Rosengren, Leigh

    2010-04-01

    The study objectives were to investigate Salmonella prevalence, serovar distribution, and risk factors for shedding in 10 purposively selected farrow-to-finish farms in Saskatchewan and Alberta. Pooled fecal samples from the breeding and grow-finish phases and individual fecal samples from breeding, nursery, and grow-finish pigs were cultured for Salmonella; serotyping of isolates was performed. Pig and pen characteristics were recorded for each pig and pen sampled.Overall, 407/1143 (36%) of samples were Salmonella positive; within-farm prevalence ranged from 1% to 79%. Sows, nursery, and grow-finish pigs accounted for 43%, 29%, and 28% of positive samples, respectively. More Salmonella were detected in pooled pen than individual pig samples (P finisher (OR 2.9, P finish farms and should be targeted in control efforts. The latter might also apply to the use of pelleted feed, which remains the most consistently reported significant risk factor for Salmonella shedding in pigs.

  4. Hierarchical photocatalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Yu, Jiaguo; Jaroniec, Mietek

    2016-05-01

    As a green and sustainable technology, semiconductor-based heterogeneous photocatalysis has received much attention in the last few decades because it has potential to solve both energy and environmental problems. To achieve efficient photocatalysts, various hierarchical semiconductors have been designed and fabricated at the micro/nanometer scale in recent years. This review presents a critical appraisal of fabrication methods, growth mechanisms and applications of advanced hierarchical photocatalysts. Especially, the different synthesis strategies such as two-step templating, in situ template-sacrificial dissolution, self-templating method, in situ template-free assembly, chemically induced self-transformation and post-synthesis treatment are highlighted. Finally, some important applications including photocatalytic degradation of pollutants, photocatalytic H2 production and photocatalytic CO2 reduction are reviewed. A thorough assessment of the progress made in photocatalysis may open new opportunities in designing highly effective hierarchical photocatalysts for advanced applications ranging from thermal catalysis, separation and purification processes to solar cells.

  5. Swine flu in Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2009-01-01

    Emerging swine flu (variant H1N1 influenza virus infection)is a new problem in medicine.The outbreaks in Mexico,USA and Canada bring attention to medical scientists that thing infection might finalize in the global pandemic situation.In this specific paper,the author hereby discusses on the situation of swine flu in Asia.

  6. Swine Fecal Metagenomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metagenomic approaches are providing rapid and more robust means to investigate the composition and functional genetic potential of complex microbial communities. In this study, we utilized a metagenomic approach to further understand the functional diversity of the swine gut. To...

  7. Swine brucellosis: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olsen SC

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available SC Olsen, FM Tatum Infectious Bacterial Diseases of Livestock Research Unit, National Animal Disease Center, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Ames, IA, USA Abstract: Brucella suis is a significant zoonotic species that is present in domestic livestock and wildlife in many countries worldwide. Transmission from animal reservoirs is the source of human infection as human-to-human transmission is very rare. Although swine brucellosis causes economic losses in domestic livestock, preventing human infection is the primary reason for its emphasis in disease control programs. Although disease prevalence varies worldwide, in areas outside of Europe, swine brucellosis is predominantly caused by B. suis biovars 1 and 3. In Europe, swine are predominantly infected with biovar 2 which is much less pathogenic in humans. In many areas worldwide, feral or wild populations of swine are important reservoir hosts. Like other Brucella spp. in their natural host, B. suis has developed mechanisms to survive in an intracellular environment and evade immune detection. Limitations in sensitivity and specificity of current diagnostics require use at a herd level, rather for individual animals. There is currently no commercial vaccine approved for preventing brucellosis in swine. Although not feasible in all situations, whole-herd depopulation is the most effective regulatory mechanism to control swine brucellosis. Keywords: livestock, transmission, pathogenicity, vaccine, host, infection

  8. 9 CFR 85.5 - Interstate movement of infected swine or exposed swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... or exposed swine. 85.5 Section 85.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... PRODUCTS PSEUDORABIES § 85.5 Interstate movement of infected swine or exposed swine. Infected swine or exposed swine, other than swine described in § 85.4 (a) or (b), shall only be moved interstate...

  9. Mitochondrial DNA sequence and phylogenetic evaluation of geographically disparate Sus scrofa breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, M V; Brandebourg, T D; Kohn, M C; Ðikić, D; Irwin, M H; Pinkert, C A

    2015-01-01

    Next generation sequencing of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) facilitates studies into the metabolic characteristics of production animals and their relation to production traits. Sequence analysis of mtDNA from pure-bred swine with highly disparate production characteristics (Mangalica Blonde, Mangalica Swallow-bellied, Meishan, Turopolje, and Yorkshire) was initiated to evaluate the influence of mtDNA polymorphisms on mitochondrial function. Herein, we report the complete mtDNA sequences of five Sus scrofa breeds and evaluate their position within the phylogeny of domestic swine. Phenotypic traits of Yorkshire, Mangalica Blonde, and Swallow-belly swine are presented to demonstrate their metabolic characteristics. Our data support the division of European and Asian breeds noted previously and confirm European ancestry of Mangalica and Turopolje breeds. Furthermore, mtDNA differences between breeds suggest function-altering changes in proteins involved in oxidative phosphorylation such as ATP synthase 6 (MT-ATP6), cytochrome oxidase I (MT-CO1), cytochrome oxidase III (MT-CO3), and cytochrome b (MT-CYB), supporting the hypothesis that mtDNA polymorphisms contribute to differences in metabolic traits between swine breeds. Our sequence data form the basis for future research into the roles of mtDNA in determining production traits in domestic animals. Additionally, such studies should provide insight into how mtDNA haplotype influences the extreme adiposity observed in Mangalica breeds.

  10. Gene expression profiling of valvular interstitial cells in Rapacz familial hypercholesterolemic swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M. Porras

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Rapacz familial hypercholesterolemic (RFH swine is a well-established model of human FH, a highly prevalent hereditary disease associated with increased risk of coronary artery disease and calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD. However, while these animals have been used extensively for the study of atherosclerosis, the heart valves from RFH swine have not previously been examined. We report the analysis of valvular interstitial cell gene expression in adult (two year old and juvenile (three months old RFH and WT swine by microarray analysis via the Affymetrix Porcine Genome Array (GEO #: GSE53997. Principal component and hierarchical clustering analysis revealed grouping and almost no variability between the RFH juvenile and WT juvenile groups. Additionally, only 21 genes were found differentially expressed between these two experimental groups whereas over 900 genes were differentially expressed when comparing either RFH or WT juvenile swine to RFH adults.

  11. Swine Brucellosis: Current Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brucella suis is a significant zoonosis that is present in domestic livestock and wildlife in many countries worldwide. Transmission from animal reservoirs is the source of human infection as human to human transmission is very rare. Although swine brucellosis causes economic losses in domestic liv...

  12. Non-Foodborne Swine Zoonotic Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Angjelovski, Branko; Dovenski, Toni

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to give an overview of novel swine non-foodborne zoonotic diseases that have been prominent in the last decade in swine industry. The number of swine present worldwide and the large percentage of population that consume pork, swine represent significant reservoir of potential zoonoses. Numerous of human cases of swine non-foodborne zoonoses were reported all over the world. Although much progress is made to control swine non-foodborne zoonoses, we must remain vigilant...

  13. Control of African swine fever epidemics in industrialized swine populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq; Bøtner, Anette; Mortensen, Sten

    2016-01-01

    African swine fever (ASF) is a notifiable infectious disease with a high impact on swine health. The disease is endemic in certain regions in the Baltic countries and has spread to Poland constituting a risk of ASF spread toward Western Europe. Therefore, as part of contingency planning, it is im......African swine fever (ASF) is a notifiable infectious disease with a high impact on swine health. The disease is endemic in certain regions in the Baltic countries and has spread to Poland constituting a risk of ASF spread toward Western Europe. Therefore, as part of contingency planning...

  14. Genotoxicity of swine effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Techio, V H; Stolberg, J; Kunz, A; Zanin, E; Perdomo, C C

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed at the investigation of genotoxic effects of swine effluents from different stages of a treatment system for swine wastes through bioassay of stamen hairs and micronuclei in Tradescantia (clone BNL 4430). No significant differences (p≥0.05) regarding the genic mutations were found in the bioassay of stamen hairs, independently of the effluent analysed. For the genotoxicity test with micronuclei, the plants exposed to raw wastes, to sludge, and to effluent of the biodigester have presented higher rates of chromosomal damages (micronuclei), with significant differences in relation to the control group and other effluent of the waste treatment system (p≤0.05). The association between the chemical parameters and the genotoxicity data have shown that the variables COD and TKN have presented significant correlation (p≤0.05) with the number of mutagenic events in the tetrads.

  15. Circoviral infections in swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivetić Vojin

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Circoviral infections in swine have appeared only recently and they today attract the attention of large numbers of researchers all over the world. They represent a great mystery, an unknown in veterinary medicine, both in our country and in the world. The causes of these infections are circoviruses, called after the DNA which is shaped like a circle. A large number of authors today believe the PCV-2 causes two pathological entities in weaned piglets which are known as porcine multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS and porcine dermatitis nephropathy syndrome (PDNS. Current investigations indicate that there is a causal connection between these two syndromes. These two new diseases, which have recently spread all over the world, cause serious losses, great concern and confusion, especially when they occur simultaneously or in a sequence in the same herd, or in parallel with other pathogenes, primarily with the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV and the porcine parvovirus (PPV. PMWS was first described in Canada in 1991. It most often affect pigs aged 5-12 weeks. The main clinical expression, depending on the stage of progression is diarrhea, delayed development or depressed growth, stuntedness, dyspnea ictherus, eyelid swelling, and lymphadenopathy. More rarely, there are neurological symptoms. Prominent suppression of the immune system is the main characteristic of PMWS, and a wave of secondary bacterial infection is also observed. PDNS is a new disease of economic importance, which mostly affects older swine, from 5 weeks to 5 months of age. The most prominent clinical symptoms in seriously ill piglets is extensive dermatitis, mostly on the chest, abdomen, haunches and forelegs, with the appearance of purple-red swellings of different shape and size. The swine are depressive febrile, anorectic, all of which leads to stunted growth. They are inactive. Mortality is often about 15%. PDNS is a differentially diagnostically

  16. Hierarchical Network Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomadsen, Tommy

    2005-01-01

    of different types of hierarchical networks. This is supplemented by a review of ring network design problems and a presentation of a model allowing for modeling most hierarchical networks. We use methods based on linear programming to design the hierarchical networks. Thus, a brief introduction to the various....... The thesis investigates models for hierarchical network design and methods used to design such networks. In addition, ring network design is considered, since ring networks commonly appear in the design of hierarchical networks. The thesis introduces hierarchical networks, including a classification scheme...... linear programming based methods is included. The thesis is thus suitable as a foundation for study of design of hierarchical networks. The major contribution of the thesis consists of seven papers which are included in the appendix. The papers address hierarchical network design and/or ring network...

  17. Hierarchical Multiagent Reinforcement Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-25

    In this paper, we investigate the use of hierarchical reinforcement learning (HRL) to speed up the acquisition of cooperative multiagent tasks. We...introduce a hierarchical multiagent reinforcement learning (RL) framework and propose a hierarchical multiagent RL algorithm called Cooperative HRL. In

  18. Hierarchical Network Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomadsen, Tommy

    2005-01-01

    Communication networks are immensely important today, since both companies and individuals use numerous services that rely on them. This thesis considers the design of hierarchical (communication) networks. Hierarchical networks consist of layers of networks and are well-suited for coping...... the clusters. The design of hierarchical networks involves clustering of nodes, hub selection, and network design, i.e. selection of links and routing of ows. Hierarchical networks have been in use for decades, but integrated design of these networks has only been considered for very special types of networks....... The thesis investigates models for hierarchical network design and methods used to design such networks. In addition, ring network design is considered, since ring networks commonly appear in the design of hierarchical networks. The thesis introduces hierarchical networks, including a classification scheme...

  19. Metabolic syndrome and coronary artery disease in Ossabaw compared with Yucatan swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neeb, Zachary P; Edwards, Jason M; Alloosh, Mouhamad; Long, Xin; Mokelke, Eric A; Sturek, Michael

    2010-08-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS), a compilation of associated risk factors, increases the risk of type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease (CAD, atherosclerosis), which can progress to the point of artery occlusion. Stents are the primary interventional treatment for occlusive CAD, and patients with MetS and hyperinsulinemia have increased restenosis. Because of its thrifty genotype, the Ossabaw pig is a model of MetS. We tested the hypothesis that, when fed high-fat diet, Ossabaw swine develop more features of MetS, greater native CAD, and greater stent-induced CAD than do Yucatan swine. Animals of each breed were divided randomly into 2 groups and fed 2 different calorie-matched diets for 40 wk: control diet (C) and high-fat, high-cholesterol atherogenic diet (H). A bare metal stent was placed in the circumflex artery, and pigs were allowed to recover for 3 wk. Characteristics of MetS, macrovascular and microvascular CAD, in-stent stenosis, and Ca(2+) signaling in coronary smooth muscle cells were evaluated. MetS characteristics including, obesity, glucose intolerance, hyperinsulinemia, and elevated arterial pressure were elevated in Ossabaw swine compared to Yucatan swine. Ossabaw swine with MetS had more extensive and diffuse native CAD and in-stent stenosis and impaired coronary blood flow regulation compared with Yucatan. In-stent atherosclerotic lesions in Ossabaw coronary arteries were less fibrous and more cellular. Coronary smooth muscle cells from Ossabaw had impaired Ca(2+) efflux and intracellular sequestration versus cells from Yucatan swine. Therefore, Ossabaw swine are a superior model of MetS, subsequent CAD, and cellular Ca(2+) signaling defects, whereas Yucatan swine are leaner and relatively resistant to MetS and CAD.

  20. Antigenic characterization of classical swine fever virus YC11WB isolates from wild boar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Seong-In; Kim, Yong Kwan; Lim, Ji-Ae; Han, Song-Hee; Hyun, Hee-Suk; Kim, Ki-Sun; Hyun, Bang-Hun; Kim, Jae-Jo; Cho, In-Soo; Song, Jae-Young; Choi, Sung-Hyun; Kim, Seung-Hoe; An, Dong-Jun

    2016-08-10

    Classical swine fever (CSF), a highly contagious disease that affects domestic pigs and wild boar, has serious economic implications. The present study examined the virulence and transmission of strain YC11WB (isolated from a wild boar in 2011) in breeding wild boar. Virulence in domestic pigs was also examined. Based on the severe clinical signs and high mortality observed among breeding wild boar, the pathogenicity of strain YC11WB resembled that of typical acute CSF. Surprisingly, in contrast to strain SW03 (isolated from breeding pigs in 2003), strain YC11WB also showed both acute and strong virulence in breeding pigs. None of three specific monoclonal antibodies (7F2, 7F83, and 6F65) raised against the B/C domain of the SW03 E2 protein bound to the B/C domain of strain YC11WB due to amino acid mutations ((720)K→R and (723)N→S) in the YC11WB E2 protein. Although strains YC11WB and SW03 belong to subgroup 2.1b, they showed different mortality rates in breeding pigs. Thus, if breeding pigs have not developed protective immunity against classical swine fever virus, they may be susceptible to YC11WB transmitted by wild boar, resulting in severe economic losses for the pig industry.

  1. Effect of dietary restriction on carcass composition and adipocyte cellularity of swine with different propensities for obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etherton, T D; Wangsness, P J; Hammers, V M; Ziegler, J H

    1982-12-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine whether dietary restriction altered body composition and adipocyte cellularity similarly in growing lean (Yorkshire) and obese (Ossabaw) swine. Yorkshire (YR) and Ossabaw (OR) swine were fed 65% of the weekly intake of ad libitum-fed Yorkshire (YA) and Ossabaw (OA) swine for 20 weeks. At 200 days of age, adipose tissue mass was 7-fold lower and muscle mass was 50% lower in YR than YA. However, adipose tissue mass of OR was only 2.6-fold less than OA. Furthermore, muscle mass did not differ between OR and OA. Adipocyte number per carcass was 6-fold higher in YA than YR. No differences in carcass adipocyte number were observed between OA and OR. Dietary restriction resulted in a reduced adipocyte size in both breeds of swine. However, adipocyte size for both dietary treatments was greater for obese than lean swine. When carcass adipocyte number was expressed per Kilogram of muscle, there were no differences among YA, OA, and OR; however, this ratio was lower in YR. These results demonstrate: 1) that alterations in nutrient partitioning as measured by accretion of these tissues are different in lean and obese swine when intake is restricted, 2) that differences in adipose tissue mass of YA and OA are due to differences in cell size, and 3) that muscle growth and adipocyte hyperplasia in swine may have a physiological relationship.

  2. Swine Flu Threatens the World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The epidemic spreads from Mexico to other countries at an alarming rate How serious is the swine flu? It is so sensitive that the White House had to reassure reporters that U.S. President Barack Obama is still in good health after visiting Mexico in mid-April. Besides the United States and Canada, swine flu cases have appeared in Europe and Asia. The world now faces a "public health emergency of

  3. 9 CFR 94.10 - Swine from regions where classical swine fever exists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... swine fever exists. 94.10 Section 94.10 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... PRODUCTS RINDERPEST, FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE VESICULAR DISEASE, AND BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY: PROHIBITED AND...

  4. Indigenous knowledge of animal breeding and breeds

    OpenAIRE

    I. Kohler-Rollefson

    2004-01-01

    Indigenous knowledge of animal breeding (IK-AB) includes concepts and practices used to influence the genetic composition of herds. Indigenous selection is often based on preferences based on physical characteristics, vigor, social and economic insurance. This issue paper summarizes the value of indigenous knowledge and local breeds to achieve agricultural sustainability. Links to IK-AB information are also provided. Available in SANREM office, ES

  5. Swine Influenza/Variant Influenza Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Other Information on Swine Influenza/Variant Influenza Virus Language: English (US) Español ...

  6. Comparison of antimicrobial susceptibility among Clostridium difficile isolated from an integrated human and swine population in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Keri N; Scott, Harvey M; Harvey, Roger B; Norby, Bo; Hume, Michael E

    2014-04-01

    Clostridium difficile can be a major problem in hospitals because the bacterium primarily affects individuals with an altered intestinal flora; this largely occurs through prolonged antibiotic use. Proposed sources of increased community-acquired infections are food animals and retail meats. The objective of this study was to compare the antimicrobial resistance patterns of C. difficile isolated from a closed, integrated population of humans and swine to increase understanding of the bacterium in these populations. Swine fecal samples were collected from a vertically flowing swine population consisting of farrowing, nursery, breeding, and grower/finisher production groups. Human wastewater samples were collected from swine worker and nonworker occupational group cohorts. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed on 523 C. difficile strains from the population using the commercially available agar diffusion Epsilometer test (Etest(®)) for 11 different antimicrobials. All of the swine and human strains were susceptible to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, piperacillin/tazobactam, and vancomycin. In addition, all of the human strains were susceptible to chloramphenicol. The majority of the human and swine strains were resistant to cefoxitin and ciprofloxacin. Statistically significant differences in antimicrobial susceptibility were found among the swine production groups for ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, and clindamycin. No significant differences in antimicrobial susceptibility were found across human occupational group cohorts. We found that 8.3% of the swine strains and 13.3% of the human strains exhibited resistance to metronidazole. The finding of differences in susceptibility patterns between human and swine strains of C. difficile provides evidence that transmission between host species in this integrated population is unlikely.

  7. Scrapie in swine: a diagnostic challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    A naturally occurring prion disease has not been recognized in swine, but the agent of bovine spongiform encephalopathy does transmit to swine by experimental routes. Swine are thought to have a robust species barrier when exposed to the naturally occurring prion diseases of other species, but the s...

  8. Respiratory diseases and allergic sensitization in swine breeders: a population-based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli, Luigina; Facchetti, Susanna; Raffetti, Elena; Donato, Francesco; D'Anna, Mauro

    2015-11-01

    The daily occupation as a swine breeder involves exposure to several bacterial components and organic dusts and inhalation of a large amount of allergens. To investigate the risk of respiratory diseases and atopy in swine breeders compared with the general population living in the same area. A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in an agricultural area of northern Italy that enrolled a random sample of resident male breeders and non-breeders. Demographic features, comorbidities, and presence of allergic respiratory disease were retrieved through interview. Prick tests for common allergens were performed. An evaluation of pollen and mold in air samples taken inside and outside some swine confinement buildings also was performed. One hundred one male breeders (78 native-born, mean age ± SD 43.0 ± 11.1 years) and 82 non-breeders (43.0 ± 11.1 years) were enrolled. When restricting the analysis to native-born subjects, breeders vs non-breeders showed a lower prevalence of respiratory allergy (12.8% vs 31.1%, respectively, P = .002), asthma (6.4% vs 15.8%, P = .059), rhinitis (16.7% vs 51.2%, P swine buildings investigated, particularly when the pigs were inside vs outside the buildings. This study suggests that swine breeding does not increase, and might decrease, the risk of pollen sensitization and allergic disease. Copyright © 2015 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Genomic dairy cattle breeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, Thomas; Sandøe, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss the potential consequences of modern dairy cattle breeding for the welfare of dairy cows. The paper focuses on so-called genomic selection, which deploys thousands of genetic markers to estimate breeding values. The discussion should help to structure...... the thoughts of breeders and other stakeholders on how to best make use of genomic breeding in the future. Intensive breeding has played a major role in securing dramatic increases in milk yield since the Second World War. Until recently, the main focus in dairy cattle breeding was on production traits......, unfavourable genetic trends for metabolic, reproductive, claw and leg diseases indicate that these attempts have been insufficient. Today, novel genome-wide sequencing techniques are revolutionising dairy cattle breeding; these enable genetic changes to occur at least twice as rapidly as previously. While...

  10. Genomic dairy cattle breeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, Thomas; Sandøe, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss the potential consequences of modern dairy cattle breeding for the welfare of dairy cows. The paper focuses on so-called genomic selection, which deploys thousands of genetic markers to estimate breeding values. The discussion should help to structure...... the thoughts of breeders and other stakeholders on how to best make use of genomic breeding in the future. Intensive breeding has played a major role in securing dramatic increases in milk yield since the Second World War. Until recently, the main focus in dairy cattle breeding was on production traits......, unfavourable genetic trends for metabolic, reproductive, claw and leg diseases indicate that these attempts have been insufficient. Today, novel genome-wide sequencing techniques are revolutionising dairy cattle breeding; these enable genetic changes to occur at least twice as rapidly as previously. While...

  11. Swine Flu -A Comprehensive View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vandana; Sood, Meenakshi

    2012-07-01

    The present article is aimed on comprehensive view of Swine flu. It was first isolated from pigs in 1930 in USA. Pandemic caused by H1N1 in 2009 brought it in limelight. Itís a viral respiratory disease caused by viruses that infects pigs, resulting in nasal secretions, barking cough, decreased appetite, and listless behavior. Swine virus consist of eight RNA strands, one strand derived from human flu strains, two from avian (bird) strains, and five from swine strains. Swine flu spreads from infected person to healthy person by inhalation or ingestion of droplets contaminated with virus while sneezing or coughing. Two antiviral agents have been reported to help prevent or reduce the effects of swine flu, flu shot and nasal spray. WHO recommended for pandemic period to prevent its future outbreaks through vaccines or non-vaccines means. Antiviral drugs effective against this virus are Tamiflu and Relenza. Rapid antigen testing (RIDT), DFA testing, viral culture, and molecular testing (RT-PCR) are used for its diagnosis in laboratory

  12. Feed quality in swine diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Branislav

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper will demonstrate the quality of some feed used in swine diet. The emphasis will be on feed whose incorporation into mixes could result in unfavorable effects on production, health and economic production of swine. Data will be presented on maize and its possible negative effects, having in mind toxins. Soybean meal, or genetically modified soybean meal, will also be observed. The next feed which will be discussed will be soybean whey obtained by different procedures and the potential dangers of its use in swine diet rations. Sunflower meal, feed of animal origin, with emphasis on fish flour and meat-bone flour will also be covered in the work. A feed which has been attracting particular attention lately is yeast imported from Italy. Its quality characteristics will be discussed, the so-called non-protein nitrogen. Analyses of mineral feed will include sources of phosphorus, phosphates (monocalciumphosphate, dicalcium phosphate phytases and resolving the problem of phosphorus in swine rations. Finally, an inevitable segment are synthetic amino acids, especially lysine and its role in swine diet.

  13. Engineered Swine Models of Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienne L. Watson

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, the technology to engineer genetically modified swine has seen many advancements, and because their physiology is remarkably similar to that of humans, swine models of cancer may be extremely valuable for preclinical safety studies as well as toxicity testing of pharmaceuticals prior to the start of human clinical trials. Hence, the benefits of using swine as a large animal model in cancer research and the potential applications and future opportunities of utilizing pigs in cancer modeling are immense. In this review, we discuss how pigs have been and can be used as a biomedical models for cancer research, with an emphasis on current technologies. We have focused on applications of precision genetics that can provide models that mimic human cancer predisposition syndromes. In particular, we describe the advantages of targeted gene-editing using custom endonucleases, specifically TALENs and CRISPRs, and transposon systems, to make novel pig models of cancer with broad preclinical applications.

  14. Micromechanics of hierarchical materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mishnaevsky, Leon, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    A short overview of micromechanical models of hierarchical materials (hybrid composites, biomaterials, fractal materials, etc.) is given. Several examples of the modeling of strength and damage in hierarchical materials are summarized, among them, 3D FE model of hybrid composites...... with nanoengineered matrix, fiber bundle model of UD composites with hierarchically clustered fibers and 3D multilevel model of wood considered as a gradient, cellular material with layered composite cell walls. The main areas of research in micromechanics of hierarchical materials are identified, among them......, the investigations of the effects of load redistribution between reinforcing elements at different scale levels, of the possibilities to control different material properties and to ensure synergy of strengthening effects at different scale levels and using the nanoreinforcement effects. The main future directions...

  15. Hierarchical auxetic mechanical metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatt, Ruben; Mizzi, Luke; Azzopardi, Joseph I; Azzopardi, Keith M; Attard, Daphne; Casha, Aaron; Briffa, Joseph; Grima, Joseph N

    2015-02-11

    Auxetic mechanical metamaterials are engineered systems that exhibit the unusual macroscopic property of a negative Poisson's ratio due to sub-unit structure rather than chemical composition. Although their unique behaviour makes them superior to conventional materials in many practical applications, they are limited in availability. Here, we propose a new class of hierarchical auxetics based on the rotating rigid units mechanism. These systems retain the enhanced properties from having a negative Poisson's ratio with the added benefits of being a hierarchical system. Using simulations on typical hierarchical multi-level rotating squares, we show that, through design, one can control the extent of auxeticity, degree of aperture and size of the different pores in the system. This makes the system more versatile than similar non-hierarchical ones, making them promising candidates for industrial and biomedical applications, such as stents and skin grafts.

  16. Introduction into Hierarchical Matrices

    KAUST Repository

    Litvinenko, Alexander

    2013-12-05

    Hierarchical matrices allow us to reduce computational storage and cost from cubic to almost linear. This technique can be applied for solving PDEs, integral equations, matrix equations and approximation of large covariance and precision matrices.

  17. Hierarchical Auxetic Mechanical Metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatt, Ruben; Mizzi, Luke; Azzopardi, Joseph I.; Azzopardi, Keith M.; Attard, Daphne; Casha, Aaron; Briffa, Joseph; Grima, Joseph N.

    2015-02-01

    Auxetic mechanical metamaterials are engineered systems that exhibit the unusual macroscopic property of a negative Poisson's ratio due to sub-unit structure rather than chemical composition. Although their unique behaviour makes them superior to conventional materials in many practical applications, they are limited in availability. Here, we propose a new class of hierarchical auxetics based on the rotating rigid units mechanism. These systems retain the enhanced properties from having a negative Poisson's ratio with the added benefits of being a hierarchical system. Using simulations on typical hierarchical multi-level rotating squares, we show that, through design, one can control the extent of auxeticity, degree of aperture and size of the different pores in the system. This makes the system more versatile than similar non-hierarchical ones, making them promising candidates for industrial and biomedical applications, such as stents and skin grafts.

  18. Applied Bayesian Hierarchical Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Congdon, Peter D

    2010-01-01

    Bayesian methods facilitate the analysis of complex models and data structures. Emphasizing data applications, alternative modeling specifications, and computer implementation, this book provides a practical overview of methods for Bayesian analysis of hierarchical models.

  19. Programming with Hierarchical Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørbæk, Peter

    This report desribes the hierarchical maps used as a central data structure in the Corundum framework. We describe its most prominent features, ague for its usefulness and briefly describe some of the software prototypes implemented using the technology....

  20. Catalysis with hierarchical zeolites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Martin Spangsberg; Taarning, Esben; Egeblad, Kresten

    2011-01-01

    Hierarchical (or mesoporous) zeolites have attracted significant attention during the first decade of the 21st century, and so far this interest continues to increase. There have already been several reviews giving detailed accounts of the developments emphasizing different aspects of this research...... topic. Until now, the main reason for developing hierarchical zeolites has been to achieve heterogeneous catalysts with improved performance but this particular facet has not yet been reviewed in detail. Thus, the present paper summaries and categorizes the catalytic studies utilizing hierarchical...... zeolites that have been reported hitherto. Prototypical examples from some of the different categories of catalytic reactions that have been studied using hierarchical zeolite catalysts are highlighted. This clearly illustrates the different ways that improved performance can be achieved with this family...

  1. Implementation in breeding programmes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coffey, M.P.; McParland, S.; Bastin, C.; Wall, E.; Berry, D.P.; Veerkamp, R.F.

    2013-01-01

    Genetic improvement is easy when selecting for one heritable and well-recorded trait at a time. Many industrialised national dairy herds have overall breeding indices that incorporate a range of traits balanced by their known or estimated economic value. Future breeding goals will contain more non-p

  2. Implementation in breeding programmes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coffey, M.P.; McParland, S.; Bastin, C.; Wall, E.; Berry, D.P.; Veerkamp, R.F.

    2013-01-01

    Genetic improvement is easy when selecting for one heritable and well-recorded trait at a time. Many industrialised national dairy herds have overall breeding indices that incorporate a range of traits balanced by their known or estimated economic value. Future breeding goals will contain more non-p

  3. Overview of Classical Swine Fever (Hog Cholera, Classical Swine fever)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Classical swine fever is a contagious often fatal disease of pigs clinically characterized by high body temperature, lethargy, yellowish diarrhea, vomits and purple skin discoloration of ears, lower abdomen and legs. It was first described in the early 19th century in the USA. Later, a condition i...

  4. 9 CFR 85.6 - Interstate movement of pseudorabies vaccinate swine, except swine from qualified negative gene...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... vaccinate swine, except swine from qualified negative gene-altered vaccinated herds, not known to be..., except swine from qualified negative gene-altered vaccinated herds, not known to be infected with or exposed to pseudorabies. Pseudorabies vaccinate swine, except swine from qualified negative...

  5. PRINCIPLES OF ANIMAL BREEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Jovanovac

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available University textbook Principles of Animal Breeding is intended for students of agriculture and veterinary medicine. The material is the adapted curricula of undergraduate and graduate level studies in the framework of which the modules Principles of animal breeding as well as Basics of genetics and selection of animals attended are listened. The textbook contains 14 chapters and a glossary of terms. Its concept enables combining fundamental and modern knowledge in the breeding and selection of animals based on balanced and quality manner. The textbook material can be divided into several thematic sections. The first one relates to the classical notions of domestic animals breeding such as the history of breeding, domestication, breed, hereditary and non-hereditary variability and description of general and production traits. The second section focuses on the basic concepts in population and quantitative genetics, as well as biometrics. The third unit is dedicated to the principles of selection and domestic animals improving. The fourth unit relates to the current concepts and objectives of the molecular markers use in domestic animals selection and breeding. The above material has been submitted to the Croatian universities, but so far it has not been published as a textbook. The Ministry of Science, Education and Sports of Republic of Croatia approved financial support for the textbook publication.

  6. Epidemic Status of Swine Influenza Virus in China

    OpenAIRE

    Kong, Weili; Ye, Jiahui; Guan, Shangsong; Liu, Jinhua; Pu, Juan

    2013-01-01

    As one of the most significant swine diseases, in recent years, swine influenza (SI) has had an immense impact on public health and has raised extensive public concerns in China. Swine are predisposed to both avian and human influenza virus infections, between that and/or swine influenza viruses, genetic reassortment could occur. This analysis aims at introducing the history of swine influenza virus, the serological epidemiology of swine influenza virus infection, the clinical details of swin...

  7. Parallel hierarchical radiosity rendering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, M.

    1993-07-01

    In this dissertation, the step-by-step development of a scalable parallel hierarchical radiosity renderer is documented. First, a new look is taken at the traditional radiosity equation, and a new form is presented in which the matrix of linear system coefficients is transformed into a symmetric matrix, thereby simplifying the problem and enabling a new solution technique to be applied. Next, the state-of-the-art hierarchical radiosity methods are examined for their suitability to parallel implementation, and scalability. Significant enhancements are also discovered which both improve their theoretical foundations and improve the images they generate. The resultant hierarchical radiosity algorithm is then examined for sources of parallelism, and for an architectural mapping. Several architectural mappings are discussed. A few key algorithmic changes are suggested during the process of making the algorithm parallel. Next, the performance, efficiency, and scalability of the algorithm are analyzed. The dissertation closes with a discussion of several ideas which have the potential to further enhance the hierarchical radiosity method, or provide an entirely new forum for the application of hierarchical methods.

  8. The clinical and pathomorphological diagnosis of mycotoxicosis in different swine categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prodanov Jasna Z.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The issue of mycotoxins and mycotoxicosis in veterinary medicine is directly connected to the usage of mouldy and/or adversely stored grains (corn, wheat, barley used in animal feed. In swine production, in our geographical region, the most common are mycotoxicosis caused by zearalenon (F-2 toxin, but aflatoxins, ochratoxin and trichothecenes can also be found. For the known mycotoxins of clinical importance, the response is usually subacute or chronic and the presenting clinical signs are often vague. Mostly the problems are expressed only as alterations of the reproductive cycle, reduced feed intake and slow growth. However, if we consider the clinical signs and pathomorphological picture of mycotoxicosis in different swine categories (breeding animals, suckling and weaned piglets, fatteners, the age dependent changes can be found. Some mycotoxins have hepatotoxic, nephrotoxic and immunosuppressive effects, which further complicate the clinical and pathomorphological picture and diagnosis of mycotoxicosis in swine. The material for this research included the samples provided from ten swine farms. In different swine categories health disorders, resembling to the problem with mycotoxins were detected. The applied research methods included clinical evaluation and pathomorphological examination and laboratory microbiological feed testing, in order to examine the presence of fungi and some mycotoxins (aflatoxins, zearalenon, ochratoxin A and trichothecenes. On the basis of the obtained results, it may be concluded that the most frequently detected mycotoxin in the examined feed samples was zearalenon. The presence of mycotoxin in feed was directly connected to the reproductive failures and diagnosed health disorders in the examined swine categories (vulvovaginitis, skin necrosis, pneumonia, gastroenteritis.

  9. African swine fever virus serotype-specific proteins are significant protective antigens for African swine fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    African swine fever (ASF) is an emerging disease threat for the swine industry worldwide. No ASF vaccine is available and progress is hindered by lack of knowledge concerning the extent of African swine fever virus (ASFV) strain diversity and the viral antigens conferring type specific protective im...

  10. 9 CFR 94.14 - Swine from regions where swine vesicular disease exists; importations prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS RINDERPEST, FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE VESICULAR DISEASE, AND BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY... vesicular disease exists; importations prohibited. 94.14 Section 94.14 Animals and Animal Products...

  11. Birds - Breeding [ds60

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This data set provides access to information gathered on annual breeding bird surveys in California using a map layer developed by the Department. This data layer...

  12. Waterfowl breeding population survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Waterfowl breeding population surveys have been completed annually on the Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska since 1986. Methods for the 2011 Arctic Coastal Plain...

  13. Waterfowl breeding population survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Waterfowl breeding population surveys have been completed annually on the Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska since 1986. Methods for the 2010 Arctic Coastal Plain...

  14. Garlic breeding system innovations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, S.J.; Kamenetsky, R.; Féréol, L.; Barandiaran, X.; Rabinowitch, H.D.; Chovelon, V.; Kik, C.

    2007-01-01

    This review outlines innovative methods for garlic breeding improvement and discusses the techniques used to increase variation like mutagenesis and in vitro techniques, as well as the current developments in florogenesis, sexual hybridization, genetic transformation and mass propagation. Sexual ste

  15. Neutrosophic Hierarchical Clustering Algoritms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rıdvan Şahin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Interval neutrosophic set (INS is a generalization of interval valued intuitionistic fuzzy set (IVIFS, whose the membership and non-membership values of elements consist of fuzzy range, while single valued neutrosophic set (SVNS is regarded as extension of intuitionistic fuzzy set (IFS. In this paper, we extend the hierarchical clustering techniques proposed for IFSs and IVIFSs to SVNSs and INSs respectively. Based on the traditional hierarchical clustering procedure, the single valued neutrosophic aggregation operator, and the basic distance measures between SVNSs, we define a single valued neutrosophic hierarchical clustering algorithm for clustering SVNSs. Then we extend the algorithm to classify an interval neutrosophic data. Finally, we present some numerical examples in order to show the effectiveness and availability of the developed clustering algorithms.

  16. Differential Gene Expression across Breed and Sex in Commercial Pigs Administered Fenbendazole and Flunixin Meglumine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Jeremy T; O'Nan, Audrey T; Maltecca, Christian; Baynes, Ronald E; Ashwell, Melissa S

    2015-01-01

    Characterizing the variability in transcript levels across breeds and sex in swine for genes that play a role in drug metabolism may shed light on breed and sex differences in drug metabolism. The objective of the study is to determine if there is heterogeneity between swine breeds and sex in transcript levels for genes previously shown to play a role in drug metabolism for animals administered flunixin meglumine or fenbendazole. Crossbred nursery female and castrated male pigs (n = 169) spread across 5 groups were utilized. Sires (n = 15) of the pigs were purebred Duroc, Landrace, Yorkshire or Hampshire boars mated to a common sow population. Animals were randomly placed into the following treatments: no drug (control), flunixin meglumine, or fenbendazole. One hour after the second dosing, animals were sacrificed and liver samples collected. Quantitative Real-Time PCR was used to measure liver gene expression of the following genes: SULT1A1, ABCB1, CYP1A2, CYP2E1, CYP3A22 and CYP3A29. The control animals were used to investigate baseline transcript level differences across breed and sex. Post drug administration transcript differences across breed and sex were investigated by comparing animals administered the drug to the controls. Contrasts to determine fold change were constructed from a model that included fixed and random effects within each drug. Significant (P-value fenbendazole, respectively. The current analysis found transcript level differences across swine breeds and sex for multiple genes, which provides greater insight into the relationship between flunixin meglumine and fenbendazole and known drug metabolizing genes.

  17. PRINCIPLES OF ANIMAL BREEDING

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    University textbook Principles of Animal Breeding is intended for students of agriculture and veterinary medicine. The material is the adapted curricula of undergraduate and graduate level studies in the framework of which the modules Principles of animal breeding as well as Basics of genetics and selection of animals attended are listened. The textbook contains 14 chapters and a glossary of terms. Its concept enables combining fundamental and modern knowledge in the ...

  18. Vulnerability of the British swine industry to classical swine fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porphyre, Thibaud; Correia-Gomes, Carla; Chase-Topping, Margo E.; Gamado, Kokouvi; Auty, Harriet K.; Hutchinson, Ian; Reeves, Aaron; Gunn, George J.; Woolhouse, Mark E. J.

    2017-01-01

    Classical swine fever (CSF) is a notifiable, highly contagious viral disease of swine which results in severe welfare and economic consequences in affected countries. To improve preparedness, it is critical to have some understanding of how CSF would spread should it be introduced. Based on the data recorded during the 2000 epidemic of CSF in Great Britain (GB), a spatially explicit, premises-based model was developed to explore the risk of CSF spread in GB. We found that large outbreaks of CSF would be rare and generated from a limited number of areas in GB. Despite the consistently low vulnerability of the British swine industry to large CSF outbreaks, we identified concerns with respect to the role played by the non-commercial sector of the industry. The model further revealed how various epidemiological features may influence the spread of CSF in GB, highlighting the importance of between-farm biosecurity in preventing widespread dissemination of the virus. Knowledge of factors affecting the risk of spread are key components for surveillance planning and resource allocation, and this work provides a valuable stepping stone in guiding policy on CSF surveillance and control in GB. PMID:28225040

  19. Swine leukocyte antigen (SLA) diversity in Sinclair and Hanford swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Chak-Sum; Martens, Gregory W; Amoss, Max S; Gomez-Raya, Luis; Beattie, Craig W; Smith, Douglas M

    2010-03-01

    The swine leukocyte antigen (SLA) haplotype B is associated with increased penetrance of the tumor traits in Sinclair swine cutaneous melanoma (SSCM). We established a series of SinclairxHanford swine crosses to facilitate genetic mapping of the tumor-associated loci. In this study, the SLA diversity in the founding animals was characterized for effective selection of maximum tumor penetrance in the pedigrees. Using the sequence-based typing (SBT) method we identified a total of 29 alleles at five polymorphic SLA loci (SLA-1, SLA-3, SLA-2, DRB1 and DQB1) representing six class I and five class II haplotypes. We subsequently developed a rapid PCR-based typing assay using sequence-specific primers (PCR-SSP) to efficiently follow the SLA types of the crossbred progeny. In a total of 469 animals we identified three crossovers within the class I region and three between the class I and class II regions, which corresponded to recombination frequencies of 0.39% and 0.56%, respectively. We also confirmed the presence of two expressed SLA-1 loci in three of the class I haplotypes and were able to determine the relative chromosomal arrangement of the duplicated loci in two haplotypes. This study furthers our understanding of the allelic architecture and polymorphism of the SLA system and will facilitate the mapping of loci associated with the expression of SSCM. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Hierarchical Training Mode for Market Demand Oriented Outstanding Seed Industry Talents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuechun; WANG; Hongni; WANG; Shishun; TAO

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzed the trend of seed industry development in-depth and studied changes in quantity and quality of demands for seed industry talents. To adapt to " breeding,propagating and selling" integration and internationalized trend of seed industry,it stated that hierarchical training mode is an ideal mode for training outstanding seed industry talents. Finally,it elaborated specific objectives and requirements of the hierarchical training mode,i. e. undergraduate- master- doctor.

  1. Hierarchical Porous Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grote, Christopher John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-07

    Materials Design is often at the forefront of technological innovation. While there has always been a push to generate increasingly low density materials, such as aero or hydrogels, more recently the idea of bicontinuous structures has gone more into play. This review will cover some of the methods and applications for generating both porous, and hierarchically porous structures.

  2. Broiler breeding : breeding goals, selection schemes and the usefulness of local breeds for China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiang, X.

    1999-01-01

    This dissertation considers three aspects of broiler breeding: definition of breeding goals, selection schemes for specialized lines, and the usefulness of local breeds for China. Economic values in broiler breeding were derived based on a deterministic model. A systematic design for the application

  3. Breeding-assisted genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poland, Jesse

    2015-04-01

    The revolution of inexpensive sequencing has ushered in an unprecedented age of genomics. The promise of using this technology to accelerate plant breeding is being realized with a vision of genomics-assisted breeding that will lead to rapid genetic gain for expensive and difficult traits. The reality is now that robust phenotypic data is an increasing limiting resource to complement the current wealth of genomic information. While genomics has been hailed as the discipline to fundamentally change the scope of plant breeding, a more symbiotic relationship is likely to emerge. In the context of developing and evaluating large populations needed for functional genomics, none excel in this area more than plant breeders. While genetic studies have long relied on dedicated, well-structured populations, the resources dedicated to these populations in the context of readily available, inexpensive genotyping is making this philosophy less tractable relative to directly focusing functional genomics on material in breeding programs. Through shifting effort for basic genomic studies from dedicated structured populations, to capturing the entire scope of genetic determinants in breeding lines, we can move towards not only furthering our understanding of functional genomics in plants, but also rapidly improving crops for increased food security, availability and nutrition.

  4. Behaviour characteristics estimation tool of genetic distance between sheep breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eko Handiwirawan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Information on the estimation of genetic distances and differentiation among sheep breeds are needed in crossing and conservation programs. This research aims to study of utilizing behaviour characteristic variables to differentiate and estimate genetic distance between the sheep breeds. The study was conducted at Cilebut and Bogor Animal House of Indonesian Research Institute for Animal Production. Five sheep breeds used were Barbados Black Belly Cross (BC, Garut Composite (KG, Garut Local (LG, Sumatera Composite (KS and St. Croix Cross (SC, with total sample of 50 heads. A total of 10 variables of behavior traits were observed in this study. Analysis of variances and significance tests were applied to compare between sheep breeds and performed for all of behavior traits using PROC GLM of SAS Program ver. 9.0. PROC CANDISC was used for canonical discriminant analyses, the hierarchical clustering was performed using the PROC CLUSTER by Average Linkage method (Unweighted Pair-Group Method Using Arithmetic Averages, UPGMA, and the dendogram for the five sheep breeds was described using PROC TREE. The differentiator variables for the behavior traits were standing and feeding duration. The canonical plotting based on behavioral characteristics could differentiate BC, KS and LG (with KG and SC sheeps. Estimation of genetic distance based on the behavior traits is less accurate for grouping of sheep breeds.

  5. 9 CFR 206.2 - Swine contract library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Swine contract library. 206.2 Section... STOCKYARDS PROGRAMS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWINE CONTRACT LIBRARY § 206.2 Swine contract library. (a) Do... swine contract library will be made available to the public? GIPSA will summarize the information it...

  6. 9 CFR 311.20 - Sexual odor of swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sexual odor of swine. 311.20 Section... Sexual odor of swine. (a) Carcasses of swine which give off a pronounced sexual odor shall be condemned. (b) The meat of swine carcasses which give off a sexual odor less than pronounced may be passed for...

  7. Classical Swine Fever Virus-Rluc Replicons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risager, Peter Christian; Belsham, Graham J.; Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun

    Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is the etiologic agent of the severe porcine disease, classical swine fever. Unraveling the molecular determinants of efficient replication is crucial for gaining proper knowledge of the pathogenic traits of this virus. Monitoring the replication competence within...

  8. Swine flu vaccination for patients with cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In oncology, vaccination is accepted as an important preventive measure. As a tertiary prevention protocol, several vaccines are recommended for the oncology patients. The newest vaccine in medicine is swine flu vaccine which is developed for prevention of novel H1N1 influenza virus infection. In this paper, the author will briefly discuss on swine flu vaccination for oncology patients.

  9. Advances in Swine biomedical Model Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    This manuscript is a short update on the diversity of swine biomedical models and the importance of genomics in their continued development. The swine has been used as a major mammalian model for human studies because of the similarity in size and physiology, and in organ development and disease pro...

  10. Whole-genome resequencing analyses of five pig breeds, including Korean wild and native, and three European origin breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jung-Woo; Chung, Won-Hyong; Lee, Kyung-Tai; Cho, Eun-Seok; Lee, Si-Woo; Choi, Bong-Hwan; Lee, Sang-Heon; Lim, Wonjun; Lim, Dajeong; Lee, Yun-Gyeong; Hong, Joon-Ki; Kim, Doo-Wan; Jeon, Hyeon-Jeong; Kim, Jiwoong; Kim, Namshin; Kim, Tae-Hun

    2015-08-01

    Pigs have been one of the most important sources of meat for humans, and their productivity has been substantially improved by recent strong selection. Here, we present whole-genome resequencing analyses of 55 pigs of five breeds representing Korean native pigs, wild boar and three European origin breeds. 1,673.1 Gb of sequence reads were mapped to the Swine reference assembly, covering ∼99.2% of the reference genome, at an average of ∼11.7-fold coverage. We detected 20,123,573 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), of which 25.5% were novel. We extracted 35,458 of non-synonymous SNPs in 9,904 genes, which may contribute to traits of interest. The whole SNP sets were further used to access the population structures of the breeds, using multiple methodologies, including phylogenetic, similarity matrix, and population structure analysis. They showed clear population clusters with respect to each breed. Furthermore, we scanned the whole genomes to identify signatures of selection throughout the genome. The result revealed several promising loci that might underlie economically important traits in pigs, such as the CLDN1 and TWIST1 genes. These discoveries provide useful genomic information for further study of the discrete genetic mechanisms associated with economically important traits in pigs.

  11. Welfare in horse breeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, M.L.H.; Sandøe, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Welfare problems related to the way horses are bred, whether by coitus or by the application of artificial reproduction techniques (ARTs), have been given no discrete consideration within the academic literature. This paper reviews the existing knowledge base about welfare issues in horse breeding...... and identifies areas in which data is lacking. We suggest that all methods of horse breeding are associated with potential welfare problems, but also that the judicious use of ARTs can sometimes help to address those problems. We discuss how negative welfare effects could be identified and limited and how...

  12. Welfare in horse breeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, M.L.H.; Sandøe, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Welfare problems related to the way horses are bred, whether by coitus or by the application of artificial reproduction techniques (ARTs), have been given no discrete consideration within the academic literature. This paper reviews the existing knowledge base about welfare issues in horse breeding...... and identifies areas in which data is lacking. We suggest that all methods of horse breeding are associated with potential welfare problems, but also that the judicious use of ARTs can sometimes help to address those problems. We discuss how negative welfare effects could be identified and limited and how...

  13. Collaborative Hierarchical Sparse Modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Sprechmann, Pablo; Sapiro, Guillermo; Eldar, Yonina C

    2010-01-01

    Sparse modeling is a powerful framework for data analysis and processing. Traditionally, encoding in this framework is done by solving an l_1-regularized linear regression problem, usually called Lasso. In this work we first combine the sparsity-inducing property of the Lasso model, at the individual feature level, with the block-sparsity property of the group Lasso model, where sparse groups of features are jointly encoded, obtaining a sparsity pattern hierarchically structured. This results in the hierarchical Lasso, which shows important practical modeling advantages. We then extend this approach to the collaborative case, where a set of simultaneously coded signals share the same sparsity pattern at the higher (group) level but not necessarily at the lower one. Signals then share the same active groups, or classes, but not necessarily the same active set. This is very well suited for applications such as source separation. An efficient optimization procedure, which guarantees convergence to the global opt...

  14. Genetic evolution of recently emerged novel human-like swine H3 influenza A viruses (IAV) in United States swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction Influenza A virus (IAV) is a major cause of respiratory disease in swine. IAV transmission from humans to swine is a major contributor to swine IAV diversity. In 2012, a novel H3N2 with an HA (hu-H3) and NA derived from human seasonal H3N2 was detected in United States (US) swine. The h...

  15. Hierarchical manifold learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Kanwal K; Rao, Anil; Price, Anthony N; Wolz, Robin; Hajnal, Jo; Rueckert, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    We present a novel method of hierarchical manifold learning which aims to automatically discover regional variations within images. This involves constructing manifolds in a hierarchy of image patches of increasing granularity, while ensuring consistency between hierarchy levels. We demonstrate its utility in two very different settings: (1) to learn the regional correlations in motion within a sequence of time-resolved images of the thoracic cavity; (2) to find discriminative regions of 3D brain images in the classification of neurodegenerative disease,

  16. PHYLOGENETIC ANALYSIS OF THE SWINE LEUKOCYTE ANTIGEN-6 GENE GENERATED FROM SPLEENTISSUE OF KOREAN NATIVE PIG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaeyoung Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to search genetic variants, to investigate phylogenetic relationships between pig breeds and to provide basic genetic information of Korean Native Pigs (KNP using the variations of the Swine Leukocyte Antigen-6 (SLA-6 gene. Cloning of the Swine Leukocyte Antigen (SLA-6 gene in the MHC non-classical region was performed with spleen tissues of Korean Native Pigs (KNP. Sequencing analysis identified 10 genetic variants positioned at nucleotides 108 (T>C, 251 (G>A, 324 (C>A, 460 (T>C, 556 (T>C, 559 (A>G, 598 (G>A, 665 (T>C, 920 (G>A and 1,115 (G>A. The identified sequences were submitted into GenBank with accession numbers (DQ992502-10 and DQ976363 according to the specified locations of each SNP. Clustering analysis revealed that KNP was formed to a major group, showing close genetic relationships with SLA-6*0105, SLA-6*01w01 and SLA-6*w02sa01 alleles except DQ992503. KNP showed the low nucleotide diversity with significant differences of the ratio of ti/tv (transition/transversion compared with other breeds. The identified variants of the SLA-6 gene are useful information to differentiate phylogenetic relationships between KNP and other pig breeds. The unique results of the SLA-6 SNPs of KNP will serve as reference study for further analyses of gene fixations in evolution studies."

  17. Hierarchically Structured Electrospun Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole E. Zander

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional electrospun nanofibers have a myriad of applications ranging from scaffolds for tissue engineering to components of biosensors and energy harvesting devices. The generally smooth one-dimensional structure of the fibers has stood as a limitation to several interesting novel applications. Control of fiber diameter, porosity and collector geometry will be briefly discussed, as will more traditional methods for controlling fiber morphology and fiber mat architecture. The remainder of the review will focus on new techniques to prepare hierarchically structured fibers. Fibers with hierarchical primary structures—including helical, buckled, and beads-on-a-string fibers, as well as fibers with secondary structures, such as nanopores, nanopillars, nanorods, and internally structured fibers and their applications—will be discussed. These new materials with helical/buckled morphology are expected to possess unique optical and mechanical properties with possible applications for negative refractive index materials, highly stretchable/high-tensile-strength materials, and components in microelectromechanical devices. Core-shell type fibers enable a much wider variety of materials to be electrospun and are expected to be widely applied in the sensing, drug delivery/controlled release fields, and in the encapsulation of live cells for biological applications. Materials with a hierarchical secondary structure are expected to provide new superhydrophobic and self-cleaning materials.

  18. HDS: Hierarchical Data System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Dave; Walter, Anton; Lupton, W. F.; Warren-Smith, Rodney F.; Lawden, Mike; McIlwrath, Brian; Peden, J. C. M.; Jenness, Tim; Draper, Peter W.

    2015-02-01

    The Hierarchical Data System (HDS) is a file-based hierarchical data system designed for the storage of a wide variety of information. It is particularly suited to the storage of large multi-dimensional arrays (with their ancillary data) where efficient access is needed. It is a key component of the Starlink software collection (ascl:1110.012) and is used by the Starlink N-Dimensional Data Format (NDF) library (ascl:1411.023). HDS organizes data into hierarchies, broadly similar to the directory structure of a hierarchical filing system, but contained within a single HDS container file. The structures stored in these files are self-describing and flexible; HDS supports modification and extension of structures previously created, as well as functions such as deletion, copying, and renaming. All information stored in HDS files is portable between the machines on which HDS is implemented. Thus, there are no format conversion problems when moving between machines. HDS can write files in a private binary format (version 4), or be layered on top of HDF5 (version 5).

  19. Hierarchical video summarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratakonda, Krishna; Sezan, M. Ibrahim; Crinon, Regis J.

    1998-12-01

    We address the problem of key-frame summarization of vide in the absence of any a priori information about its content. This is a common problem that is encountered in home videos. We propose a hierarchical key-frame summarization algorithm where a coarse-to-fine key-frame summary is generated. A hierarchical key-frame summary facilitates multi-level browsing where the user can quickly discover the content of the video by accessing its coarsest but most compact summary and then view a desired segment of the video with increasingly more detail. At the finest level, the summary is generated on the basis of color features of video frames, using an extension of a recently proposed key-frame extraction algorithm. The finest level key-frames are recursively clustered using a novel pairwise K-means clustering approach with temporal consecutiveness constraint. We also address summarization of MPEG-2 compressed video without fully decoding the bitstream. We also propose efficient mechanisms that facilitate decoding the video when the hierarchical summary is utilized in browsing and playback of video segments starting at selected key-frames.

  20. Differential Gene Expression across Breed and Sex in Commercial Pigs Administered Fenbendazole and Flunixin Meglumine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Jeremy T.; O’Nan, Audrey T.; Maltecca, Christian; Baynes, Ronald E.; Ashwell, Melissa S.

    2015-01-01

    Characterizing the variability in transcript levels across breeds and sex in swine for genes that play a role in drug metabolism may shed light on breed and sex differences in drug metabolism. The objective of the study is to determine if there is heterogeneity between swine breeds and sex in transcript levels for genes previously shown to play a role in drug metabolism for animals administered flunixin meglumine or fenbendazole. Crossbred nursery female and castrated male pigs (n = 169) spread across 5 groups were utilized. Sires (n = 15) of the pigs were purebred Duroc, Landrace, Yorkshire or Hampshire boars mated to a common sow population. Animals were randomly placed into the following treatments: no drug (control), flunixin meglumine, or fenbendazole. One hour after the second dosing, animals were sacrificed and liver samples collected. Quantitative Real-Time PCR was used to measure liver gene expression of the following genes: SULT1A1, ABCB1, CYP1A2, CYP2E1, CYP3A22 and CYP3A29. The control animals were used to investigate baseline transcript level differences across breed and sex. Post drug administration transcript differences across breed and sex were investigated by comparing animals administered the drug to the controls. Contrasts to determine fold change were constructed from a model that included fixed and random effects within each drug. Significant (P-value <0.007) basal transcript differences were found across breeds for SULT1A1, CYP3A29 and CYP3A22. Across drugs, significant (P-value <0.0038) transcript differences existed between animals given a drug and controls across breeds and sex for ABCB1, PS and CYP1A2. Significant (P <0.0038) transcript differences across breeds were found for CYP2E1 and SULT1A1 for flunixin meglumine and fenbendazole, respectively. The current analysis found transcript level differences across swine breeds and sex for multiple genes, which provides greater insight into the relationship between flunixin meglumine and

  1. Differential Gene Expression across Breed and Sex in Commercial Pigs Administered Fenbendazole and Flunixin Meglumine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy T Howard

    Full Text Available Characterizing the variability in transcript levels across breeds and sex in swine for genes that play a role in drug metabolism may shed light on breed and sex differences in drug metabolism. The objective of the study is to determine if there is heterogeneity between swine breeds and sex in transcript levels for genes previously shown to play a role in drug metabolism for animals administered flunixin meglumine or fenbendazole. Crossbred nursery female and castrated male pigs (n = 169 spread across 5 groups were utilized. Sires (n = 15 of the pigs were purebred Duroc, Landrace, Yorkshire or Hampshire boars mated to a common sow population. Animals were randomly placed into the following treatments: no drug (control, flunixin meglumine, or fenbendazole. One hour after the second dosing, animals were sacrificed and liver samples collected. Quantitative Real-Time PCR was used to measure liver gene expression of the following genes: SULT1A1, ABCB1, CYP1A2, CYP2E1, CYP3A22 and CYP3A29. The control animals were used to investigate baseline transcript level differences across breed and sex. Post drug administration transcript differences across breed and sex were investigated by comparing animals administered the drug to the controls. Contrasts to determine fold change were constructed from a model that included fixed and random effects within each drug. Significant (P-value <0.007 basal transcript differences were found across breeds for SULT1A1, CYP3A29 and CYP3A22. Across drugs, significant (P-value <0.0038 transcript differences existed between animals given a drug and controls across breeds and sex for ABCB1, PS and CYP1A2. Significant (P <0.0038 transcript differences across breeds were found for CYP2E1 and SULT1A1 for flunixin meglumine and fenbendazole, respectively. The current analysis found transcript level differences across swine breeds and sex for multiple genes, which provides greater insight into the relationship between flunixin

  2. Breeding kennel management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, S

    1992-09-01

    Veterinarians and dog breeders should work together to establish protocols for health care and breeding management that are based on sound scientific principles as well as practical systems. These protocols should involve bitches, stud dogs, and puppies. Tantamount importance must be placed on record keeping so that problems may be identified and solved before they are irreversible.

  3. Plant breeding and genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ultimate goal of plant breeding is to develop improved crops. Improvements can be made in crop productivity, crop processing and marketing, and/or consumer quality. The process of developing an improved cultivar begins with intercrossing lines with high performance for the traits of interest, th...

  4. Travelling to breed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drent, RJ; Fox, AD; Stahl, J

    2006-01-01

    Traditionally, investigation of the dynamics of avian migration has been heavily biased towards the autumn return trip to the wintering quarters. Since the migratory prelude to breeding has direct fitness consequences, the European Science Foundation recently redressed the balance and sponsored a wo

  5. Penguin breeding in Edinburgh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gillespie, T.H.; F.R.S.E.,; F.Z.S.,

    1939-01-01

    The Scottish National Zoological Park at Edinburgh has been notably successful in keeping and breeding penguins. It is happy in possessing as a friend and benefactor, Mr Theodore E. Salvesen, head of the firm of Christian Salvesen & Co., Leith, to whose interest and generosity it owes the great numb

  6. Presence of influenza viruses in backyard poultry and swine in El Yali wetland, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo-Vasquez, N; Di Pillo, F; Lazo, A; Jiménez-Bluhm, P; Schultz-Cherry, S; Hamilton-West, C

    2016-11-01

    In South America little is known regarding influenza virus circulating in backyard poultry and swine populations. Backyard productive systems (BPS) that breed swine and poultry are widely distributed throughout Chile with high density in the central zone, and several BPS are located within the "El Yali" (EY) ecosystem, which is one of the most important wetlands in South America. Here, 130 different wild bird species have been described, of them, at least 22 species migrate yearly from North America for nesting. For this reason, EY is considered as a high-risk zone for avian influenza virus. This study aims to identify if backyard poultry and swine bred in the EY ecosystem have been exposed to influenza A virus and if so, to identify influenza virus subtypes. A biosecurity and handling survey was applied and samples were collected from BPS in two seasons (spring 2013 and fall 2014) for influenza seroprevalence, and in one season (fall 2014) for virus presence. Seroprevalence at BPS level was 42% (95% CI:22-49) during spring 2013 and 60% (95% CI 43-72) in fall 2014. rRT-PCR for the influenza A matrix gene indicated a viral prevalence of 27% (95% CI:14-39) at BPS level in fall 2014. Eight farms (73% of rRT-PCR positive farms) were also positive to the Elisa test at the same time. One BPS was simultaneously positive (rRT-PCR) in multiple species (poultry, swine and geese) and a H1N2 virus was identified from swine, exemplifying the risk that these BPS may pose for generation of novel influenza viruses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Reverse breeding: a novel breeding approach based on engineered meiosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirks, R.; Dun, van K.P.M.; Snoo, de B.; Berg, van den M.; Lelivelt, C.L.C.; Voermans, W.; Woudenberg, L.; Wit, de J.P.C.; Reinink, K.; Schut, J.W.; Jong, de J.H.S.G.M.; Wijnker, T.G.

    2009-01-01

    Reverse breeding (RB) is a novel plant breeding technique designed to directly produce parental lines for any heterozygous plant, one of the most sought after goals in plant breeding. RB generates perfectly complementing homozygous parental lines through engineered meiosis. The method is based on re

  8. Could be the swine responsible of transmission to the humans of Dientamoeba fragilis infection?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Crotti

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Dientamoeba fragilis, atypical protozoon because “flagellate without flagella” but amoeba-like, of whom we know only the trophozoitic stage (an so its brittleness outside intestinal tract, is a frequent responsible of intestinal human infections, worldwide, and some authors relate that D. fragilis is the most frequent protozoon and parasite that can infects humans. Actually we don’t know a sure potential “reservoir” in animals who are strictly in contact with humans, and it is difficult to understand its epidemiological chain, otherwise the transmissions to humans and from humans to humans. For all these reasons we performed another study on subjects of swine breedings, and among people who work in these breedings, that are in direct contact or not with pigs. Using standardized methodologies, we analyzed 224 faecal specimens of swine and 15 human specimens.We use for identification of D. fragilis the Giemsa stain.These were the results: D. fragilis was observed in 50.9% of pigs and 20% among humans (30% in workers strictly in contact with breedings and pigs, 0% in familiars or other without a closed contact with swines. Other commensal protozoa were observed with variable associations, but in this article we want to analyze the possible transmission from this pigs to humans (and for us this protozoon is undoubtedly a “reservoir” of D. fragilis for humans, and underline two aspects: for the research of this protozoon, standard procedures area mandatory, with a permanent stain, as Giemsa stain, is necessary, and in all humans with various intestinal infections or troubles, particularly “irritable bowel syndrome” (or similar ones, the specimens must be analyzed for D. fragilis. At least we think that in the near future molecular studies are important for confirming this our observations, and for verifying eventual and probable differences inside genotypes of this very suggestive protozoon, that until now present not rarely

  9. Estimação de parâmetros genéticos em características de desempenho de suínos das raças Large White, Landrace e Duroc Estimation of genetic parameters on performance traits of Large White, Landrace and Duroc swine breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Ribeiro Corrêa da Costa

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Dados de suínos Large White (LW, Landrace (LD e Duroc (DU foram utilizados na estimação dos componentes de variância para peso ajustado aos 70 dias (PA70, ganho de peso diário (GPD e espessura de toucinho (ET. Os componentes de (covariância foram estimados pelo método de máxima verossimilhança restrita (REML. Esses componentes foram utilizados no cálculo das estimativas das herdabilidades, do efeito comum de leitegada e das correlações genéticas, de leitegada e residual. As características apresentaram valores de herdabilidades de médio a alto, indicando a possibilidade de ganhos genéticos por meio de seleção. As correlações genéticas entre PA70 e GPD (LW = 0,46; LD = 0,08; e DU = -0,47 e entre PA70 e ET (LW = 0,48; LD = 0,31; e DU = 0,47 indicam que a pré-seleção, efetuada aos 70 dias, pode influir na seleção de GPD e ET. As correlações entre GPD e ET (LW = 0,31; LD = 0,33; e DU = 0,02 indicam a necessidade de se trabalhar com métodos ou com procedimentos multivariados, para seleção dessas características em programas de melhoramento genético.Large White (LW, Landrace (LD and Duroc (DU swine data were used to estimate the variance components for adjusted weight at 70-days of age (AW70, average daily gain (ADG and backfat thickness (BT. The (co variance components were estimated by the restricted maximum likelihood (REML method. These components were used to calculate the estimates of heritabilities; common litter effect; and genetic, common litter and residual correlations. The heritability values ranged from medium to high, indicating the possibility of genetic gains by selection. The genetic correlations between AW70 and ADG (LW = 0.46; LD = 0.08; and DU = -0.47 and between AW70 and BT (LW = 0.48; LD = 0.31; and DU = 0.47 indicate that a pre-selection performed when pigs are 70-days of age can affect selection for ADG and BT. Correlations between ADG and BT (LW = 0.31; LD = 0.33; and DU = 0.02 indicate the

  10. Detecting Hierarchical Structure in Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herlau, Tue; Mørup, Morten; Schmidt, Mikkel Nørgaard;

    2012-01-01

    a generative Bayesian model that is able to infer whether hierarchies are present or not from a hypothesis space encompassing all types of hierarchical tree structures. For efficient inference we propose a collapsed Gibbs sampling procedure that jointly infers a partition and its hierarchical structure......Many real-world networks exhibit hierarchical organization. Previous models of hierarchies within relational data has focused on binary trees; however, for many networks it is unknown whether there is hierarchical structure, and if there is, a binary tree might not account well for it. We propose....... On synthetic and real data we demonstrate that our model can detect hierarchical structure leading to better link-prediction than competing models. Our model can be used to detect if a network exhibits hierarchical structure, thereby leading to a better comprehension and statistical account the network....

  11. Context updates are hierarchical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Karl Ingason

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This squib studies the order in which elements are added to the shared context of interlocutors in a conversation. It focuses on context updates within one hierarchical structure and argues that structurally higher elements are entered into the context before lower elements, even if the structurally higher elements are pronounced after the lower elements. The crucial data are drawn from a comparison of relative clauses in two head-initial languages, English and Icelandic, and two head-final languages, Korean and Japanese. The findings have consequences for any theory of a dynamic semantics.

  12. Hierarchical models and the analysis of bird survey information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, J.R.; Link, W.A.

    2003-01-01

    Management of birds often requires analysis of collections of estimates. We describe a hierarchical modeling approach to the analysis of these data, in which parameters associated with the individual species estimates are treated as random variables, and probability statements are made about the species parameters conditioned on the data. A Markov-Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) procedure is used to fit the hierarchical model. This approach is computer intensive, and is based upon simulation. MCMC allows for estimation both of parameters and of derived statistics. To illustrate the application of this method, we use the case in which we are interested in attributes of a collection of estimates of population change. Using data for 28 species of grassland-breeding birds from the North American Breeding Bird Survey, we estimate the number of species with increasing populations, provide precision-adjusted rankings of species trends, and describe a measure of population stability as the probability that the trend for a species is within a certain interval. Hierarchical models can be applied to a variety of bird survey applications, and we are investigating their use in estimation of population change from survey data.

  13. Swine flu - A pandemic outbreak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jini George

    Full Text Available Hippocrates had described influenza like outbreak in 412 B.C. and since then repeated influenza like epidemics and pandemics have been recorded in recent times. One of the greatest killers of all time was the pandemic of swine flu (Spanish flu of 1918-1919, when 230 million people died. Annual influenza epidemics are estimated to affect 5–15% of the global population, resulting in severe illness in 3–5 million patients causing 250,000–500,000 deaths worldwide. Severe illness and deaths occur mainly in the high-risk populations of infants, the elderly and chronically ill patients. The 2009 outbreak of swine flu is thought to be a mutation more specifically a reassortment of four known strains of influenza A virus subtype H1N1; one endemic in humans, one endemic in birds, and two endemic in pigs. WHO officially declared the outbreak to be a pandemic on June 11, 2009, but stressed that the new designation was a result of the global "spread of the virus," not its severity. [Vet World 2009; 2(12.000: 472-474

  14. Efeito da raça, dieta, época e ordem de parição na concentração de imunoglobulina G no colostro de suínos Effect of breed, diet, period and lactation numbers on immunoglobulin G concentration in swine colostrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Machado Neto

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo estudar os efeitos da raça, dieta, época do ano e ordem de parição na concentração de imunoglobulina G (IgG no colostro de porcas. A concentração de IgG foi determinada no colostro de 60 porcas, 33 da raça Large White e 27 da raça Landrace, submetidas a dietas contendo 0%, 7%, 14% e 21% de levedura seca (LS. A levedura seca de destilaria de álcool de cana-de-açúcar (Saccharomyces cerevisiae substituiu parte do milho e do farelo de soja da ração mantendo o nível de 14% de proteína bruta. Não foi verificado efeito significativo (P>0,05 de raça e da dieta sobre a concentração de IgG do colostro. Os valores mais elevados de IgG foram observados no colostro de porcas que pariram entre maio e outubro (PThe objective of the present study was to determine the effects of breed, diet, period of the year and lactation numbers on the concentration of immunoglobulin G (IgG in sows colostrum. IgG concentration was determined in colostrum of 60 sows (33 Large White and 27 Landrace submitted to four different diets with 0%, 7%, 14% and 21% of dried yeast. Dried yeast from alcohol of sugar cane industry (Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used as substitute for corn and soybean mill keeping the level of crude protein at 14%. IgG concentration in the colostrum was not affected by breed and diet. Higher concentration of IgG was found in colostrum of sows farrowing occurred between May and October (P<0.05. Quadratic (P<0.10 and cubic (P<0.01 effects of parturition order on IgG concentration were detected. Females from first parturition had lower concentration (P<0.05 of IgG (49.98±7.9 mg/mL compared to females from second (92.70±5.9 mg/mL, third (70.72±5.6 mg/mL and fourth (85.56±9.0 mg/mL parturition, demonstrating that animals with more immunological experience have higher concentrations of IgG in the colostrum.

  15. Geochemical fate of arsenic in swine litter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quazi, S.; Makris, K.; Sarkar, D.; Datta, R.; Punamiya, P.

    2007-12-01

    Swine diet is often supplemented by organoarsenicals, such as roxarsone to treat diseases and to promote growth. Recent data reported roxarsone degradation under anaerobic conditions in poultry litter, but no such data exist for swine wastes typically stored in unprotected lagoons in concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs). However, serious environmental health risk may arise upon significant arsenic (As) release into solution. The problem may be exacerbated under certain environmental conditions where organoarsenicals, such as roxarsone transform into the more toxic inorganic As, posing serious health risk to the surrounding ecosystem. The objective of this study were to analyze swine wastes collected from 19 randomly selected CAFOs in the USA for As concentrations, and to determine the geochemical fate of As in the swine waste suspensions. Swine wastes were analyzed for total-recoverable, total soluble, and water-extractable As, which were measured by ICP-MS. Speciation of As was performed following a well-established hyphenated technique using HPLC- ICPMS. Swine waste suspensions differed in solids contents; thus, the particulate matters with varying As concentrations were spiked with roxarsone and incubated under dark/light and aerobic/anaerobic conditions. Findings show the prevalence of inorganic As [As(V)] in swine waste suspension solutions. Roxarsone underwent degradation to both organoarsenicals, such as p-ASA, as well as inorganic arsenate and to a number of unidentified metabolites. Roxarsone degradation kinetics was influenced by the solids content and the air conditions (anaerobic/aerobic) of the swine waste suspensions. Maximum degradation rates were observed under anaerobic conditions, in suspensions which were low in solids content. Roxarsone degradation was primarily microbially-mediated, but in certain cases abiotic degradation was also observed, which were significantly slower.

  16. Genetic structure, relationships and admixture with wild relatives in native pig breeds from Iberia and its islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gama, Luis T; Martínez, Amparo M; Carolino, Inês; Landi, Vincenzo; Delgado, Juan V; Vicente, Antonio A; Vega-Pla, José L; Cortés, Oscar; Sousa, Conceição O

    2013-06-14

    Native pig breeds in the Iberian Peninsula are broadly classified as belonging to either the Celtic or the Mediterranean breed groups, but there are other local populations that do not fit into any of these groups. Most of the native pig breeds in Iberia are in danger of extinction, and the assessment of their genetic diversity and population structure, relationships and possible admixture between breeds, and the appraisal of conservation alternatives are crucial to adopt appropriate management strategies. A panel of 24 microsatellite markers was used to genotype 844 animals representing the 17 most important native swine breeds and wild populations existing in Portugal and Spain and various statistical tools were applied to analyze the results. Genetic diversity was high in the breeds studied, with an overall mean of 13.6 alleles per locus and an average expected heterozygosity of 0.80. Signs of genetic bottlenecks were observed in breeds with a small census size, and population substructure was present in some of the breeds with larger census sizes. Variability among breeds accounted for about 20% of the total genetic diversity, and was explained mostly by differences among the Celtic, Mediterranean and Basque breed groups, rather than by differences between domestic and wild pigs. Breeds clustered closely according to group, and proximity was detected between wild pigs and the Mediterranean cluster of breeds. Most breeds had their own structure and identity, with very little evidence of admixture, except for the Retinto and Entrepelado varieties of the Mediterranean group, which are very similar. Genetic influence of the identified breed clusters extends beyond the specific geographical areas across borders throughout the Iberian Peninsula, with a very sharp transition from one breed group to another. Analysis of conservation priorities confirms that the ranking of a breed for conservation depends on the emphasis placed on its contribution to the between- and

  17. Swine in biomedical research. V. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tumbleson, M.E.

    1986-01-01

    This volume presents information on the following topics: the effect of dietary fiber on growing pigs; preparation of a cerebral perfusion model in the pig - anatomic considerations; a review of the utilization of lactose, glucose, sucrose, and cornstarch by neonatal piglets reared artificially; histology of piglet liver, swine hematology; use of swine as a model of musculoskeletal growth in animals; boar and human sperm as cellular models for membrane phospholipiid biosynthesis and degradation; a stereotaxic atlas of the developing swine (Sus Scrofa) forebrain; the effect of ethanol on liver mitochondrial Ca++-uptake; control of feed intake in pigs; the pig as a model of abberations associated with carbohydrate and lipid metabolism; whey and cholesterol in swine; vitamin and mineral nutrition and malnutrition; cadmium absorption, distribution and excretion in young and adult minature swine; a piglet model for infant total parenteral nutrition studies; swine in perinatal research; the endocrine pancreas of the fetal pig; cardiovascular physiology of the pig fetus; and the effect of sow's milk versus formula on the superior mesenteric blood flow of newborn piglets.

  18. Acute calcium homeostasis in MHS swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, G G; Morrell, D F; Brain, V; Jaros, G G

    1987-07-01

    To elucidate a pathogenesis for the reduction in bone calcium content observed in MHS individuals, we studied the acute calcium homeostasis of MHS swine. This was achieved by the serial measurement, with a calcium selective electrode, of calcium transients in Landrace MHS (five) and control Landrace/large white cross MH negative (five) swine following IV bolus injection of calcium gluconate 0.1 mmol X kg-1--a dose which induced an acute 45 per cent increase in plasma ionised calcium. Experimental animals were anaesthetised with ketamine 10 mg X kg-1 IM, thiopentone (intermittent divided doses) 15-25 mg X kg-1 (total) IV and N2O/O2 (FIO2 0.3) by IPPV to maintain a normal blood gas, acid/base state. The plasma ionised calcium decay curve observed in MHS swine did not differ from that of control normal swine. Further it was noted that the induced acute rise in plasma ionised calcium failed to trigger the MH syndrome in any MHS swine. It is concluded that the mechanisms of acute calcium homeostasis in MHS swine are normal. An explanation for the reduction in bone calcium content observed in MHS individuals must be sought, therefore, through study of the slow long-term component of the calcium regulatory process. In addition, the conventional strictures placed on the use, in MHS patients, of calcium gluconate are called in question.

  19. Effect of Genetic Diversity in Swine Leukocyte Antigen-DRA Gene on Piglet Diarrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaoyu; Yang, Qiaoli; Yuan, Junhu; Liu, Lixia; Sun, Wenyang; Jiang, Yingdi; Zhao, Shengguo; Zhang, Shengwei; Huang, Wangzhou; Gun, Shuangbao

    2016-01-01

    The swine leukocyte antigens (SLAs) are the multigene families related to immune responses. Little is known about the effect of the DRA gene on diarrheal disease. This study reported the genetic diversity of the DRA gene in exons 1, 3 and 4 in 290 Chinese Yantai black pigs. No variation was identified in exon 3. In exon 1, three genotypes and two alleles were identified, generated by two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). In exon 4, there were eight genotypes and five alleles containing seven SNPs were detected with four SNPs being novel SNPs. The low polymorphism found in swine DRA is consistent with the concept that the DRA gene is highly conserved among all mammalian species. Statistical analyses indicated that the genotypes of exon 1 were not significantly associated with piglet diarrhea (p > 0.05); however, genotypes C4C4 (1.80 ± 0.33) and A4E4 (1.66 ± 0.25) of exon 4 were significantly susceptible to diarrhea (p < 0.01). These indicate that the particular genotypes of the DRA gene are susceptible to diarrheal disease, which provides valuable information for disease-resistance breeding in swine. PMID:27429004

  20. Effect of Genetic Diversity in Swine Leukocyte Antigen-DRA Gene on Piglet Diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyu Huang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The swine leukocyte antigens (SLAs are the multigene families related to immune responses. Little is known about the effect of the DRA gene on diarrheal disease. This study reported the genetic diversity of the DRA gene in exons 1, 3 and 4 in 290 Chinese Yantai black pigs. No variation was identified in exon 3. In exon 1, three genotypes and two alleles were identified, generated by two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. In exon 4, there were eight genotypes and five alleles containing seven SNPs were detected with four SNPs being novel SNPs. The low polymorphism found in swine DRA is consistent with the concept that the DRA gene is highly conserved among all mammalian species. Statistical analyses indicated that the genotypes of exon 1 were not significantly associated with piglet diarrhea (p > 0.05; however, genotypes C4C4 (1.80 ± 0.33 and A4E4 (1.66 ± 0.25 of exon 4 were significantly susceptible to diarrhea (p < 0.01. These indicate that the particular genotypes of the DRA gene are susceptible to diarrheal disease, which provides valuable information for disease-resistance breeding in swine.

  1. Assessment of swine-specific bacteriophages of Bacteroides fragilis in swine farms with different antibiotic practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leknoi, Yuranan; Mongkolsuk, Skorn; Sirikanchana, Kwanrawee

    2017-04-01

    We assessed the occurrence and specificity of bacteriophages of Bacteroides fragilis in swine farms for their potential application in microbial source tracking. A local B. fragilis host strain, SP25 (DSM29413), was isolated from a pooled swine feces sample taken from a non-antibiotic farm. This strain was highly specific to swine fecal materials because it did not detect bacteriophages in any samples from human sewage, sheep, goats, cattle, dogs, and cats. The reference B. fragilis strain, RYC2056, could detect phages in swine samples but also detected phages in most human sewage and polluted urban canal samples. Phages of SP25 exist in the proximity of certain swine farms, regardless of their antibiotic use (p > 0.05). B. fragilis strain SP25 exhibited relatively high resistance to most of the veterinary antimicrobial agents tested. Interestingly, most farms that were positive for SP25 phages were also positive for RYC2056 phages. In conclusion, the swine-specific SP25 strain has the potential to indicate swine fecal contamination in certain bodies of water. Bacterial isolates with larger distributions are being studied and validated. This study highlights the importance of assessing the abundance of phages in local swine populations before determining their potential applicability for source tracking in local surface waters.

  2. Pathogenesis and transmission studies: non-swine influenza A viruses in the swine host

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract Influenza A virus (IAV) causes disease in poultry, pigs, and people with wild waterfowl being the natural reservoir. IAV strains have been periodically transmitted between swine and humans in both directions and avian IAV have also sporadically infected swine. If an individual is infected w...

  3. Antimicrobial use in swine production and its effect on the swine gut microbiota and antimicrobial resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Devin B; Chénier, Martin R

    2015-11-01

    Antimicrobials have been used in swine production at subtherapeutic levels since the early 1950s to increase feed efficiency and promote growth. In North America, a number of antimicrobials are available for use in swine. However, the continuous administration of subtherapeutic, low concentrations of antimicrobials to pigs also provides selective pressure for antimicrobial-resistant bacteria and resistance determinants. For this reason, subtherapeutic antimicrobial use in livestock remains a source of controversy and concern. The swine gut microbiota demonstrates a number of changes in response to antimicrobial administration depending on the dosage, duration of treatment, age of the pigs, and gut location that is sampled. Both culture-independent and -dependent studies have also shown that the swine gut microbiota contains a large number of antimicrobial resistance determinants even in the absence of antimicrobial exposure. Heavy metals, such as zinc and copper, which are often added at relatively high doses to swine feed, may also play a role in maintaining antimicrobial resistance and in the stability of the swine gut microbiota. This review focuses on the use of antimicrobials in swine production, with an emphasis on the North American regulatory context, and their effect on the swine gut microbiota and on antimicrobial resistance determinants in the gut microbiota.

  4. Swine flu: a Birmingham experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scriven, James; Mcewen, Ruth; Mistry, Sanjay; Green, Chris; Osman, Husam; Bailey, Mark; Ellis, Christopher

    2009-12-01

    By the beginning of July 2009 the West Midlands had seen more cases of novel H1N1 influenza (swine flu) than any other region in the U.K. Over a three-week period almost 850 people presented to Heartlands Hospital with flu-like symptoms. Of those admitted 52 adults were subsequently confirmed as having H1N1 infection. Most were younger than 30 and not from traditional influenza risk groups. The main risk factor for severe disease was asthma, and to a lesser extent pregnancy and obesity. Seven patients were admitted to intensive care and five developed an acute lung injury requiring prolonged admission. Two patients required extra corporeal membrane oxygenation and one died. Despite increased workload normal clinical services were unaffected. The hospital was not closed to admissions nor was it paralysed by staff absence. With a predicted second wave expected at the end of 2009, efforts to maintain effective community assessment remain crucial.

  5. African swine fever : transboundary diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M-L. Penrith

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available African swine fever (ASF is a devastating haemorrhagic fever of pigs that causes up to 100 % mortality, for which there is no vaccine. It is caused by a unique DNA virus that is maintained in an ancient cycle between warthogs and argasid ticks, making it the only known DNA arbovirus. ASF has a high potential for transboundary spread, and has twice been transported from Africa to other continents - Europe and subsequently the Caribbean and Brazil (1957, 1959 and the Caucasus (2007. It is also a devastating constraint for pig production in Africa. Research at Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute has made and is making important contributions to knowledge of this disease, focusing on the cycle in warthogs and tampans and transmission from that cycle to domestic pigs, resistance to its effects in domestic pigs, and the molecular genetic characterisation and epidemiology of the virus.

  6. Hierarchical partial order ranking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsen, Lars

    2008-09-01

    Assessing the potential impact on environmental and human health from the production and use of chemicals or from polluted sites involves a multi-criteria evaluation scheme. A priori several parameters are to address, e.g., production tonnage, specific release scenarios, geographical and site-specific factors in addition to various substance dependent parameters. Further socio-economic factors may be taken into consideration. The number of parameters to be included may well appear to be prohibitive for developing a sensible model. The study introduces hierarchical partial order ranking (HPOR) that remedies this problem. By HPOR the original parameters are initially grouped based on their mutual connection and a set of meta-descriptors is derived representing the ranking corresponding to the single groups of descriptors, respectively. A second partial order ranking is carried out based on the meta-descriptors, the final ranking being disclosed though average ranks. An illustrative example on the prioritization of polluted sites is given.

  7. Trees and Hierarchical Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Haeseler, Arndt

    1990-01-01

    The "raison d'etre" of hierarchical dustering theory stems from one basic phe­ nomenon: This is the notorious non-transitivity of similarity relations. In spite of the fact that very often two objects may be quite similar to a third without being that similar to each other, one still wants to dassify objects according to their similarity. This should be achieved by grouping them into a hierarchy of non-overlapping dusters such that any two objects in ~ne duster appear to be more related to each other than they are to objects outside this duster. In everyday life, as well as in essentially every field of scientific investigation, there is an urge to reduce complexity by recognizing and establishing reasonable das­ sification schemes. Unfortunately, this is counterbalanced by the experience of seemingly unavoidable deadlocks caused by the existence of sequences of objects, each comparatively similar to the next, but the last rather different from the first.

  8. Hierarchical Affinity Propagation

    CERN Document Server

    Givoni, Inmar; Frey, Brendan J

    2012-01-01

    Affinity propagation is an exemplar-based clustering algorithm that finds a set of data-points that best exemplify the data, and associates each datapoint with one exemplar. We extend affinity propagation in a principled way to solve the hierarchical clustering problem, which arises in a variety of domains including biology, sensor networks and decision making in operational research. We derive an inference algorithm that operates by propagating information up and down the hierarchy, and is efficient despite the high-order potentials required for the graphical model formulation. We demonstrate that our method outperforms greedy techniques that cluster one layer at a time. We show that on an artificial dataset designed to mimic the HIV-strain mutation dynamics, our method outperforms related methods. For real HIV sequences, where the ground truth is not available, we show our method achieves better results, in terms of the underlying objective function, and show the results correspond meaningfully to geographi...

  9. Optimisation by hierarchical search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zintchenko, Ilia; Hastings, Matthew; Troyer, Matthias

    2015-03-01

    Finding optimal values for a set of variables relative to a cost function gives rise to some of the hardest problems in physics, computer science and applied mathematics. Although often very simple in their formulation, these problems have a complex cost function landscape which prevents currently known algorithms from efficiently finding the global optimum. Countless techniques have been proposed to partially circumvent this problem, but an efficient method is yet to be found. We present a heuristic, general purpose approach to potentially improve the performance of conventional algorithms or special purpose hardware devices by optimising groups of variables in a hierarchical way. We apply this approach to problems in combinatorial optimisation, machine learning and other fields.

  10. How hierarchical is language use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Stefan L.; Bod, Rens; Christiansen, Morten H.

    2012-01-01

    It is generally assumed that hierarchical phrase structure plays a central role in human language. However, considerations of simplicity and evolutionary continuity suggest that hierarchical structure should not be invoked too hastily. Indeed, recent neurophysiological, behavioural and computational studies show that sequential sentence structure has considerable explanatory power and that hierarchical processing is often not involved. In this paper, we review evidence from the recent literature supporting the hypothesis that sequential structure may be fundamental to the comprehension, production and acquisition of human language. Moreover, we provide a preliminary sketch outlining a non-hierarchical model of language use and discuss its implications and testable predictions. If linguistic phenomena can be explained by sequential rather than hierarchical structure, this will have considerable impact in a wide range of fields, such as linguistics, ethology, cognitive neuroscience, psychology and computer science. PMID:22977157

  11. How hierarchical is language use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Stefan L; Bod, Rens; Christiansen, Morten H

    2012-11-22

    It is generally assumed that hierarchical phrase structure plays a central role in human language. However, considerations of simplicity and evolutionary continuity suggest that hierarchical structure should not be invoked too hastily. Indeed, recent neurophysiological, behavioural and computational studies show that sequential sentence structure has considerable explanatory power and that hierarchical processing is often not involved. In this paper, we review evidence from the recent literature supporting the hypothesis that sequential structure may be fundamental to the comprehension, production and acquisition of human language. Moreover, we provide a preliminary sketch outlining a non-hierarchical model of language use and discuss its implications and testable predictions. If linguistic phenomena can be explained by sequential rather than hierarchical structure, this will have considerable impact in a wide range of fields, such as linguistics, ethology, cognitive neuroscience, psychology and computer science.

  12. Associative Hierarchical Random Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladický, L'ubor; Russell, Chris; Kohli, Pushmeet; Torr, Philip H S

    2014-06-01

    This paper makes two contributions: the first is the proposal of a new model-The associative hierarchical random field (AHRF), and a novel algorithm for its optimization; the second is the application of this model to the problem of semantic segmentation. Most methods for semantic segmentation are formulated as a labeling problem for variables that might correspond to either pixels or segments such as super-pixels. It is well known that the generation of super pixel segmentations is not unique. This has motivated many researchers to use multiple super pixel segmentations for problems such as semantic segmentation or single view reconstruction. These super-pixels have not yet been combined in a principled manner, this is a difficult problem, as they may overlap, or be nested in such a way that the segmentations form a segmentation tree. Our new hierarchical random field model allows information from all of the multiple segmentations to contribute to a global energy. MAP inference in this model can be performed efficiently using powerful graph cut based move making algorithms. Our framework generalizes much of the previous work based on pixels or segments, and the resulting labelings can be viewed both as a detailed segmentation at the pixel level, or at the other extreme, as a segment selector that pieces together a solution like a jigsaw, selecting the best segments from different segmentations as pieces. We evaluate its performance on some of the most challenging data sets for object class segmentation, and show that this ability to perform inference using multiple overlapping segmentations leads to state-of-the-art results.

  13. Beyond breeding area management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lykke; Thorup, Kasper; Tøttrup, Anders P.

    Every year, billions of songbirds migrate thousands of kilometres between their European breeding grounds and African overwintering area. As migratory birds are dependent on resources at a number of sites varying in both space and time, they are likely to be more vulnerable to environmental change...... technological advances are currently enabling us to track yet smaller songbirds throughout their migration cycle providing valuable insight into the life cycle of individual birds. However, direct tracking of migratory birds has so far mainly been conducted on single populations and our understanding of entire...... and provide important information for conservation management of migratory birds....

  14. Breeding tropical forages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Jank

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Brazil has the largest commercial beef cattle herd and is the main beef exporter in the world. Cultivated pastures arethe basis for the Brazilian beef production, and occupy an area of 101.4 million hectares. However, very few forage cultivars arecommercially available, and the majority of these are of apomictic reproduction, thus genetically homogeneous. Tropical foragebreeding is at its infancy, but much investment and efforts have been applied in the last three decades and some new cultivars havebeen released. In this paper, origin of different species, modes of reproduction, breeding programs and targets are discussed andthe resulting new cultivars released are presented.

  15. Oxygen radical-scavenging capacities of peptides from swine blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oxygen radical-scavenging capacities of peptides from swine blood. ... African Journal of Biotechnology. Journal Home ... Swine blood is generally discarded except for the small amount that is used in soybean curd and other food products.

  16. Source tracking swine fecal waste in surface water proximal to swine concentrated animal feeding operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaney, Christopher D; Myers, Kevin; Wing, Steve; Hall, Devon; Baron, Dothula; Stewart, Jill R

    2015-04-01

    Swine farming has gone through many changes in the last few decades, resulting in operations with a high animal density known as confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs). These operations produce a large quantity of fecal waste whose environmental impacts are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate microbial water quality in surface waters proximal to swine CAFOs including microbial source tracking of fecal microbes specific to swine. For one year, surface water samples at up- and downstream sites proximal to swine CAFO lagoon waste land application sites were tested for fecal indicator bacteria (fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli and Enterococcus) and candidate swine-specific microbial source-tracking (MST) markers (Bacteroidales Pig-1-Bac, Pig-2-Bac, and Pig-Bac-2, and methanogen P23-2). Testing of 187 samples showed high fecal indicator bacteria concentrations at both up- and downstream sites. Overall, 40%, 23%, and 61% of samples exceeded state and federal recreational water quality guidelines for fecal coliforms, E. coli, and Enterococcus, respectively. Pig-1-Bac and Pig-2-Bac showed the highest specificity to swine fecal wastes and were 2.47 (95% confidence interval [CI]=1.03, 5.94) and 2.30 times (95% CI=0.90, 5.88) as prevalent proximal down- than proximal upstream of swine CAFOs, respectively. Pig-1-Bac and Pig-2-Bac were also 2.87 (95% CI=1.21, 6.80) and 3.36 (95% CI=1.34, 8.41) times as prevalent when 48 hour antecedent rainfall was greater than versus less than the mean, respectively. Results suggest diffuse and overall poor sanitary quality of surface waters where swine CAFO density is high. Pig-1-Bac and Pig-2-Bac are useful for tracking off-site conveyance of swine fecal wastes into surface waters proximal to and downstream of swine CAFOs and during rain events. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Source tracking swine fecal waste in surface water proximal to swine concentrated animal feeding operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaney, Christopher D.; Myers, Kevin; Wing, Steve; Hall, Devon; Baron, Dothula; Stewart, Jill R.

    2015-01-01

    Swine farming has gone through many changes in the last few decades, resulting in operations with a high animal density known as confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs). These operations produce a large quantity of fecal waste whose environmental impacts are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate microbial water quality in surface waters proximal to swine CAFOs including microbial source tracking of fecal microbes specific to swine. For one year, surface water samples at up- and downstream sites proximal to swine CAFO lagoon waste land application sites were tested for fecal indicator bacteria (fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli and Enterococcus) and candidate swine-specific microbial source-tracking (MST) markers (Bacteroidales Pig-1-Bac, Pig-2-Bac, and Pig-Bac-2, and methanogen P23-2). Testing of 187 samples showed high fecal indicator bacteria concentrations at both up- and downstream sites. Overall, 40%, 23%, and 61% of samples exceeded state and federal recreational water quality guidelines for fecal coliforms, E. coli, and Enterococcus, respectively. Pig-1-Bac and Pig-2-Bac showed the highest specificity to swine fecal wastes and were 2.47 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.03, 5.94) and 2.30 times (95% CI = 0.90, 5.88) as prevalent proximal down- than proximal upstream of swine CAFOs, respectively. Pig-1-Bac and Pig-2-Bac were also 2.87 (95% CI = 1.21, 6.80) and 3.36 (95% CI = 1.34, 8.41) times as prevalent when 48 hour antecedent rainfall was greater than versus less than the mean, respectively. Results suggest diffuse and overall poor sanitary quality of surface waters where swine CAFO density is high. Pig-1-Bac and Pig-2-Bac are useful for tracking off-site conveyance of swine fecal wastes into surface waters proximal to and downstream of swine CAFOs and during rain events. PMID:25600418

  18. Modeling hierarchical structures - Hierarchical Linear Modeling using MPlus

    CERN Document Server

    Jelonek, M

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the technique (and its linkage with physics) of overcoming problems connected to modeling social structures, which are typically hierarchical. Hierarchical Linear Models provide a conceptual and statistical mechanism for drawing conclusions regarding the influence of phenomena at different levels of analysis. In the social sciences it is used to analyze many problems such as educational, organizational or market dilemma. This paper introduces the logic of modeling hierarchical linear equations and estimation based on MPlus software. I present my own model to illustrate the impact of different factors on school acceptation level.

  19. Radiation mutation breeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Hi Sup; Kim, Jae Sung; Kim, Jin Kyu; Shin, In Chul; Lim, Young Taek

    1998-04-01

    In order to develop an advanced technical knowledge for the selection of better mutants, some of the crops were irradiated and the mutation rate, the survival rate and the method for selction of a mutant were studied. Furthermore, this study aimed to obtain basic data applicable to the development of genetic resources by evaluation and analysis the specific character for selection of the superior mutant and its plant breeding. 1. selection of the mutant with a superior resistance against environment in the principal crops 1) New varieties of mutant rices such as Wonpyeongbyeo, Wongwangbyeo, Winmibyeo, and heogseon chalbeyeo (sticky forma) were registered in the national variety list and made an application to crop variety protection right. They are under review now. 2) We also keep on studying on the number of a grain of 8 lines of excellent mutant rice for the purpose of improvement of breeding . 3) We selected 3 lines which have a resistance to pod and stem blight in large soybean, 31 lines with small grain size and higher yield, 112 lines of soybean of cooking, 7 lines of low lipoxygenase content, and 12 lines with decreased phytic acid content by 20 % compared to the previous level. 2. Selection of advanced Mugunwha (Rose of Sharon) mutant 1) Bagseul, a new variety of mutant, was developed and 30 plantlets of it are being proliferated. 2) Fifty-three lines of a mutant having a various morphologies were selected.

  20. 9 CFR 78.32 - Brucellosis exposed swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis exposed swine. 78.32... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Swine Because of Brucellosis § 78.32 Brucellosis exposed swine....

  1. 9 CFR 78.31 - Brucellosis reactor swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis reactor swine. 78.31... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Swine Because of Brucellosis § 78.31 Brucellosis reactor swine....

  2. 9 CFR 93.505 - Certificate for swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... freedom from the said diseases of the district of origin only: And provided further, That in the case of... disease of the district of origin only. For domestic swine, the certificate shall also show that the entire region of origin is free of African swine fever and swine vesicular disease and that, for 60...

  3. Towards an improved understanding of African swine fever virus transmission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cardoso de Carvalho Ferreira, H.

    2013-01-01

    African swine fever is a haemorrhagic disease of swine caused by African swine fever virus (ASFV). Estimates of virus transmission (direct or indirect) parameters for ASFV are necessary in order to model the spread of the virus, and to design more efficient control measures. Results presented on thi

  4. Recoding classical swine fever virus (CSFV) structural glycoprotein E2 produces complete virus attenuation in swine and protects infected animals against disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Controlling classical swine fever (CSF) involves vaccination in endemic regions and preemptive slaughter of infected swine herds during epidemics. Generally, live attenuated vaccines induce solid immunity. Using diverse approaches, reverse genetics has been useful in developing classical swine fever...

  5. Modeling hierarchical structures - Hierarchical Linear Modeling using MPlus

    OpenAIRE

    Jelonek, Magdalena

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the technique (and its linkage with physics) of overcoming problems connected to modeling social structures, which are typically hierarchical. Hierarchical Linear Models provide a conceptual and statistical mechanism for drawing conclusions regarding the influence of phenomena at different levels of analysis. In the social sciences it is used to analyze many problems such as educational, organizational or market dilemma. This paper introduces the logic of m...

  6. Hierarchical fringe tracking

    CERN Document Server

    Petrov, Romain G; Boskri, Abdelkarim; Folcher, Jean-Pierre; Lagarde, Stephane; Bresson, Yves; Benkhaldoum, Zouhair; Lazrek, Mohamed; Rakshit, Suvendu

    2014-01-01

    The limiting magnitude is a key issue for optical interferometry. Pairwise fringe trackers based on the integrated optics concepts used for example in GRAVITY seem limited to about K=10.5 with the 8m Unit Telescopes of the VLTI, and there is a general "common sense" statement that the efficiency of fringe tracking, and hence the sensitivity of optical interferometry, must decrease as the number of apertures increases, at least in the near infrared where we are still limited by detector readout noise. Here we present a Hierarchical Fringe Tracking (HFT) concept with sensitivity at least equal to this of a two apertures fringe trackers. HFT is based of the combination of the apertures in pairs, then in pairs of pairs then in pairs of groups. The key HFT module is a device that behaves like a spatial filter for two telescopes (2TSF) and transmits all or most of the flux of a cophased pair in a single mode beam. We give an example of such an achromatic 2TSF, based on very broadband dispersed fringes analyzed by g...

  7. Onboard hierarchical network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunesi, Luca; Armbruster, Philippe

    2004-02-01

    The objective of this paper is to demonstrate a suitable hierarchical networking solution to improve capabilities and performances of space systems, with significant recurrent costs saving and more efficient design & manufacturing flows. Classically, a satellite can be split in two functional sub-systems: the platform and the payload complement. The platform is in charge of providing power, attitude & orbit control and up/down-link services, whereas the payload represents the scientific and/or operational instruments/transponders and embodies the objectives of the mission. One major possibility to improve the performance of payloads, by limiting the data return to pertinent information, is to process data on board thanks to a proper implementation of the payload data system. In this way, it is possible to share non-recurring development costs by exploiting a system that can be adopted by the majority of space missions. It is believed that the Modular and Scalable Payload Data System, under development by ESA, provides a suitable solution to fulfil a large range of future mission requirements. The backbone of the system is the standardised high data rate SpaceWire network http://www.ecss.nl/. As complement, a lower speed command and control bus connecting peripherals is required. For instance, at instrument level, there is a need for a "local" low complexity bus, which gives the possibility to command and control sensors and actuators. Moreover, most of the connections at sub-system level are related to discrete signals management or simple telemetry acquisitions, which can easily and efficiently be handled by a local bus. An on-board hierarchical network can therefore be defined by interconnecting high-speed links and local buses. Additionally, it is worth stressing another important aspect of the design process: Agencies and ESA in particular are frequently confronted with a big consortium of geographically spread companies located in different countries, each one

  8. Hierarchical Reverberation Mapping

    CERN Document Server

    Brewer, Brendon J

    2013-01-01

    Reverberation mapping (RM) is an important technique in studies of active galactic nuclei (AGN). The key idea of RM is to measure the time lag $\\tau$ between variations in the continuum emission from the accretion disc and subsequent response of the broad line region (BLR). The measurement of $\\tau$ is typically used to estimate the physical size of the BLR and is combined with other measurements to estimate the black hole mass $M_{\\rm BH}$. A major difficulty with RM campaigns is the large amount of data needed to measure $\\tau$. Recently, Fine et al (2012) introduced a new approach to RM where the BLR light curve is sparsely sampled, but this is counteracted by observing a large sample of AGN, rather than a single system. The results are combined to infer properties of the sample of AGN. In this letter we implement this method using a hierarchical Bayesian model and contrast this with the results from the previous stacked cross-correlation technique. We find that our inferences are more precise and allow fo...

  9. Next generation breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barabaschi, Delfina; Tondelli, Alessandro; Desiderio, Francesca; Volante, Andrea; Vaccino, Patrizia; Valè, Giampiero; Cattivelli, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    The genomic revolution of the past decade has greatly improved our understanding of the genetic make-up of living organisms. The sequencing of crop genomes has completely changed our vision and interpretation of genome organization and evolution. Re-sequencing allows the identification of an unlimited number of markers as well as the analysis of germplasm allelic diversity based on allele mining approaches. High throughput marker technologies coupled with advanced phenotyping platforms provide new opportunities for discovering marker-trait associations which can sustain genomic-assisted breeding. The availability of genome sequencing information is enabling genome editing (site-specific mutagenesis), to obtain gene sequences desired by breeders. This review illustrates how next generation sequencing-derived information can be used to tailor genomic tools for different breeders' needs to revolutionize crop improvement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Biotechnology in maize breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović-Drinić Snežana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Maize is one of the most important economic crops and the best studied and most tractable genetic system among monocots. The development of biotechnology has led to a great increase in our knowledge of maize genetics and understanding of the structure and behaviour of maize genomes. Conventional breeding practices can now be complemented by a number of new and powerful techniques. Some of these often referred to as molecular methods, enable scientists to see the layout of the entire genome of any organism and to select plants with preferred characteristics by "reading" at the molecular level, saving precious time and resources. DNA markers have provided valuable tools in various analyses ranging from phylogenetic analysis to the positional cloning of genes. Application of molecular markers for genetic studies of maize include: assessment of genetic variability and characterization of germ plasm, identification and fingerprinting of genotypes, estimation of genetic distance, detection of monogamic and quantitative trait loci, marker assisted selection, identification of sequence of useful candidate genes, etc. The development of high-density molecular maps which has been facilitated by PCR-based markers, have made the mapping and tagging of almost any trait possible and serve as bases for marker assisted selection. Sequencing of maize genomes would help to elucidate gene function, gene regulation and their expression. Modern biotechnology also includes an array of tools for introducing or deieting a particular gene or genes to produce plants with novel traits. Development of informatics and biotechnology are resulted in bioinformatic as well as in expansion of microarrey technique. Modern biotechnologies could complement and improve the efficiency of traditional selection and breeding techniques to enhance agricultural productivity.

  11. Potato breeding in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, de H.

    1953-01-01

    A remarkable feature of potato breeding in the Netherlands is the great number of private breeders who have concentrated their efforts on the improvement of the potato. The author calls attention to some circumstances and measures that have made potato breeding attractive in the Netherlands

  12. Hierarchical materials: Background and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    Hierarchical design draws inspiration from analysis of biological materials and has opened new possibilities for enhancing performance and enabling new functionalities and extraordinary properties. With the development of nanotechnology, the necessary technological requirements for the manufactur...

  13. Hierarchical clustering for graph visualization

    CERN Document Server

    Clémençon, Stéphan; Rossi, Fabrice; Tran, Viet Chi

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a graph visualization methodology based on hierarchical maximal modularity clustering, with interactive and significant coarsening and refining possibilities. An application of this method to HIV epidemic analysis in Cuba is outlined.

  14. Direct hierarchical assembly of nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ting; Zhao, Yue; Thorkelsson, Kari

    2014-07-22

    The present invention provides hierarchical assemblies of a block copolymer, a bifunctional linking compound and a nanoparticle. The block copolymers form one micro-domain and the nanoparticles another micro-domain.

  15. Functional annotation of hierarchical modularity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanchana Padmanabhan

    Full Text Available In biological networks of molecular interactions in a cell, network motifs that are biologically relevant are also functionally coherent, or form functional modules. These functionally coherent modules combine in a hierarchical manner into larger, less cohesive subsystems, thus revealing one of the essential design principles of system-level cellular organization and function-hierarchical modularity. Arguably, hierarchical modularity has not been explicitly taken into consideration by most, if not all, functional annotation systems. As a result, the existing methods would often fail to assign a statistically significant functional coherence score to biologically relevant molecular machines. We developed a methodology for hierarchical functional annotation. Given the hierarchical taxonomy of functional concepts (e.g., Gene Ontology and the association of individual genes or proteins with these concepts (e.g., GO terms, our method will assign a Hierarchical Modularity Score (HMS to each node in the hierarchy of functional modules; the HMS score and its p-value measure functional coherence of each module in the hierarchy. While existing methods annotate each module with a set of "enriched" functional terms in a bag of genes, our complementary method provides the hierarchical functional annotation of the modules and their hierarchically organized components. A hierarchical organization of functional modules often comes as a bi-product of cluster analysis of gene expression data or protein interaction data. Otherwise, our method will automatically build such a hierarchy by directly incorporating the functional taxonomy information into the hierarchy search process and by allowing multi-functional genes to be part of more than one component in the hierarchy. In addition, its underlying HMS scoring metric ensures that functional specificity of the terms across different levels of the hierarchical taxonomy is properly treated. We have evaluated our

  16. Simulating the epidemiological and economic effects of an African swine fever epidemic in industrialized swine populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq; Bøtner, Anette; Mortensen, Sten

    2016-01-01

    African swine fever (ASF) is a notifiable infectious disease with a considerable impact on animal health and is currently one of the most important emerging diseases of domestic pigs. ASF was introduced into Georgia in 2007 and subsequently spread to the Russian Federation and several Eastern...... to simulate the spread of ASF virus between domestic swine herds exemplified by the Danish swine population. ASF was simulated to spread via animal movement, low- or medium-risk contacts and local spread. Each epidemic was initiated in a randomly selected herd – either in a nucleus herd, a sow herd...

  17. Estimation of the transmission dynamics of African swine fever virus within a swine house

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J. P.; Larsen, T. S.; Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq

    2017-01-01

    The spread of African swine fever virus (ASFV) threatens to reach further parts of Europe. In countries with a large swine production, an outbreak of ASF may result in devastating economic consequences for the swine industry. Simulation models can assist decision makers setting up contingency plans......·00 (95% CI 0-1). Furthermore, we simulated the spread of ASFV within a pig house using a modified SEIR-model to establish the time from infection of one animal until ASFV is detected in the herd. Based on a chosen detection limit of 2·55% equivalent to 10 dead pigs out of 360, the disease would...

  18. Hierarchical architecture of active knits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Julianna; Luntz, Jonathan; Brei, Diann

    2013-12-01

    Nature eloquently utilizes hierarchical structures to form the world around us. Applying the hierarchical architecture paradigm to smart materials can provide a basis for a new genre of actuators which produce complex actuation motions. One promising example of cellular architecture—active knits—provides complex three-dimensional distributed actuation motions with expanded operational performance through a hierarchically organized structure. The hierarchical structure arranges a single fiber of active material, such as shape memory alloys (SMAs), into a cellular network of interlacing adjacent loops according to a knitting grid. This paper defines a four-level hierarchical classification of knit structures: the basic knit loop, knit patterns, grid patterns, and restructured grids. Each level of the hierarchy provides increased architectural complexity, resulting in expanded kinematic actuation motions of active knits. The range of kinematic actuation motions are displayed through experimental examples of different SMA active knits. The results from this paper illustrate and classify the ways in which each level of the hierarchical knit architecture leverages the performance of the base smart material to generate unique actuation motions, providing necessary insight to best exploit this new actuation paradigm.

  19. Advanced hierarchical distance sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royle, Andy

    2016-01-01

    In this chapter, we cover a number of important extensions of the basic hierarchical distance-sampling (HDS) framework from Chapter 8. First, we discuss the inclusion of “individual covariates,” such as group size, in the HDS model. This is important in many surveys where animals form natural groups that are the primary observation unit, with the size of the group expected to have some influence on detectability. We also discuss HDS integrated with time-removal and double-observer or capture-recapture sampling. These “combined protocols” can be formulated as HDS models with individual covariates, and thus they have a commonality with HDS models involving group structure (group size being just another individual covariate). We cover several varieties of open-population HDS models that accommodate population dynamics. On one end of the spectrum, we cover models that allow replicate distance sampling surveys within a year, which estimate abundance relative to availability and temporary emigration through time. We consider a robust design version of that model. We then consider models with explicit dynamics based on the Dail and Madsen (2011) model and the work of Sollmann et al. (2015). The final major theme of this chapter is relatively newly developed spatial distance sampling models that accommodate explicit models describing the spatial distribution of individuals known as Point Process models. We provide novel formulations of spatial DS and HDS models in this chapter, including implementations of those models in the unmarked package using a hack of the pcount function for N-mixture models.

  20. Reassortment patterns in Swine influenza viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Khiabanian

    Full Text Available Three human influenza pandemics occurred in the twentieth century, in 1918, 1957, and 1968. Influenza pandemic strains are the results of emerging viruses from non-human reservoirs to which humans have little or no immunity. At least two of these pandemic strains, in 1957 and in 1968, were the results of reassortments between human and avian viruses. Also, many cases of swine influenza viruses have reportedly infected humans, in particular, the recent H1N1 influenza virus of swine origin, isolated in Mexico and the United States. Pigs are documented to allow productive replication of human, avian, and swine influenza viruses. Thus it has been conjectured that pigs are the "mixing vessel" that create the avian-human reassortant strains, causing the human pandemics. Hence, studying the process and patterns of viral reassortment, especially in pigs, is a key to better understanding of human influenza pandemics. In the last few years, databases containing sequences of influenza A viruses, including swine viruses, collected since 1918 from diverse geographical locations, have been developed and made publicly available. In this paper, we study an ensemble of swine influenza viruses to analyze the reassortment phenomena through several statistical techniques. The reassortment patterns in swine viruses prove to be similar to the previous results found in human viruses, both in vitro and in vivo, that the surface glycoprotein coding segments reassort most often. Moreover, we find that one of the polymerase segments (PB1, reassorted in the strains responsible for the last two human pandemics, also reassorts frequently.

  1. Occurrence of (fluoro)quinolones and (fluoro)quinolone resistance in soil receiving swine manure for 11 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yonggang; Yu, Wantai; Ma, Qiang; Zhou, Hua

    2015-10-15

    Because of the widespread use of antibiotics in animal breeding, the agricultural application of animal manure can lead to the introduction of antibiotics, antibiotic-resistant bacteria and antibiotic resistance genes to the soil and surrounding environment, which may pose a threat to public health. In this study, we investigated the status of (fluoro)quinolone (FQ) residues and FQ resistance levels in soil with and without receiving long-term swine manure. Six FQs (pipemidic acid, lomefloxacin, enrofloxacin, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and ofloxacin) were only detected in manured soil, with individual concentrations ranging from below the detection limit to 27.2 μg kg(-1) and increasing with the increase in swine manure application rates. Higher load rates of swine manure yielded a higher number of ciprofloxacin-resistant (CIPr) bacteria after spreading. A total of 24 CIPr bacterial isolates were obtained from the tested soil, which belonged to four phyla (Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, and Bacteroidetes) or were related to nine different genera. Only 18 isolates from manured soil were positive for five plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes (aac(6')-Ib-cr, qnrD, qepA, oqxA, and oqxB). To our knowledge, this study is the first to examine the occurrence of PMQR genes in FQ-resistant bacteria from the soil environment. A similar result was observed for the total DNA from soil, with the exception of aac(6')-Ib being detected in the control sample. The absolute and relative abundances of total PMQR genes also increased with fertilization quantity. Significant correlations were observed between FQ resistance levels and FQ concentrations. These results indicated that the agricultural application of swine manure led to FQ residues and enhanced FQ resistance. This investigation provides baseline data on FQ resistance profiles in soils receiving long-term swine manure. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. 9 CFR 309.5 - Swine; disposal because of hog cholera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... responsibility for the control of swine diseases in the State where the swine are located. (b) All swine, even... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Swine; disposal because of hog cholera... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.5 Swine; disposal because of hog cholera. (a) All...

  3. Influenza exposure in United States feral swine populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, J.S.; Minnis, R.B.; Campbell, T.A.; Barras, S.; DeYoung, R.W.; Pabilonia, K.; Avery, M.L.; Sullivan, H.; Clark, L.; McLean, R.G.

    2008-01-01

    Swine play an important role in the disease ecology of influenza. Having cellular receptors in common with birds and humans, swine provide opportunities for mixed infections and potential for genetic reassortment between avian, human, and porcine influenza. Feral swine populations are rapidly expanding in both numbers and range and are increasingly coming into contact with waterfowl, humans, and agricultural operations. In this study, over 875 feral swine were sampled from six states across the United States for serologic evidence of exposure to influenza. In Oklahoma, Florida, and Missouri, USA, no seropositive feral swine were detected. Seropositive swine were detected in California, Mississippi, and Texas, USA. Antibody prevalences in these states were 1% in Mississippi, 5% in California, and 14.4% in Texas. All seropositive swine were exposed to H3N2 subtype, the predominant subtype currently circulating in domestic swine. The only exceptions were in San Saba County, Texas, where of the 15 seropositive samples, four were positive for H1N1 and seven for both H1N1 and H3N2. In Texas, there was large geographical and temporal variation in antibody prevalence and no obvious connection to domestic swine operations. No evidence of exposure to avian influenza in feral swine was uncovered. From these results it is apparent that influenza in feral swine poses a risk primarily to swine production operations. However, because feral swine share habitat with waterfowl, prey on and scavenge dead and dying birds, are highly mobile, and are increasingly coming into contact with humans, the potential for these animals to become infected with avian or human influenza in addition to swine influenza is a distinct possibility. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2008.

  4. RosBREED: Enabling Marker-Assisted Breeding in Rosaceae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genomics research has not yet been translated into routine practical application in breeding Rosaceae fruit crops (peach, apple, strawberry, cherry, apricot, pear, raspberry, etc.). Through dedicated efforts of many researchers worldwide, a wealth of genomics resources has accumulated, including ES...

  5. RosBREED: Enabling marker-assisted breeding in Rosaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iezzoni, A.F.; Weebadde, C.; Luby, J.; Yue, C.; Weg, van de W.E.; Fazio, G.; Main, D.; Peace, C.P.; Bassil, N.V.; McFerson, J.

    2010-01-01

    Genomics research has not yet been translated into routine practical application in breeding Rosaceae fruit crops (peach, apple, strawberry, cherry, apricot, pear, raspberry, etc.). Through dedicated efforts of many researchers worldwide, a wealth of genomics resources has accumulated, including EST

  6. Hierarchical topic modeling with nested hierarchical Dirichlet process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-qun DING; Shan-ping LI; Zhen ZHANG; Bin SHEN

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with the statistical modeling of latent topic hierarchies in text corpora. The height of the topic tree is assumed as fixed, while the number of topics on each level as unknown a priori and to be inferred from data. Taking a nonparametric Bayesian approach to this problem, we propose a new probabilistic generative model based on the nested hierarchical Dirichlet process (nHDP) and present a Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling algorithm for the inference of the topic tree structure as welt as the word distribution of each topic and topic distribution of each document. Our theoretical analysis and experiment results show that this model can produce a more compact hierarchical topic structure and captures more free-grained topic relationships compared to the hierarchical latent Dirichlet allocation model.

  7. Proteomic analysis of swine serum following highly virulent classical swine fever virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Huan-cheng

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Classical swine fever virus (CSFV belongs to the genus Pestivirus within the family Flaviviridae. Virulent strains of classical swine fever virus (CSFV cause severe disease in pigs characterized by immunosuppression, thrombocytopenia and disseminated intravascular coagulation, which causes significant economic losses to the pig industry worldwide. Methods To reveal proteomic changes in swine serum during the acute stage of lethal CSFV infection, 5 of 10 pigs were inoculated with the virulent CSFV Shimen strain, the remainder serving as uninfected controls. A serum sample was taken at 3 days post-infection from each swine, at a stage when there were no clinical symptoms other than increased rectal temperatures (≥40°C. The samples were treated to remove serum albumin and immunoglobulin (IgG, and then subjected to two-dimension differential gel electrophoresis. Results Quantitative intensity analysis revealed 17 protein spots showing at least 1.5-fold quantitative alteration in expression. Ten spots were successfully identified by MALDI-TOF MS or LTQ MS. Expression of 4 proteins was increased and 6 decreased in CSFV-infected pigs. Functions of these proteins included blood coagulation, anti-inflammatory activity and angiogenesis. Conclusion These proteins with altered expression may have important implications in the pathogenesis of classical swine fever and provide a clue for identification of biomarkers for classical swine fever early diagnosis.

  8. Illinois’ 2000 breeding season report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the 2000 breeding season for grassland birds in Illinois. The report begins by summarizing weather conditions throughout the season and...

  9. Atlantic Flyway Breeding Waterfowl Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Atlantic Flyway Technical Section initiated this breeding waterfowl survey in 11 northeast states ranging from New Hampshire to Virginia.

  10. Tricolored Blackbird - Breeding [ds20

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — These data come from observations of breeding tricolored blackbirds throughout their range in California. NAD27 coordinates are given in the data for each record....

  11. Bee Queen Breeding Methods - Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Patruica

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The biological potential of a bee family is mainly generated by the biological value of the queen. Whether we grow queens widely or just for our own apiaries, we must consider the acquisition of high-quality biological material, and also the creation of optimal feeding and caring conditions, in order to obtain high genetic value queens. Queen breeding technology starts with the setting of hoeing families, nurse families, drone-breeding families – necessary for the pairing of young queens, and also of the families which will provide the bees used to populate the nuclei where the next queens will hatch. The complex of requirements for the breeding of good, high-production queens is sometimes hard to met, under the application of artificial methods. The selection of breeding method must rely on all these requirements and on the beekeeper’s level of training.

  12. Denitrification enzyme activity in swine wastewater lagoons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaerobic lagoons are typically used for treatment of swine wastewater. Although these anaerobic lagoons were once thought to be relatively simple in their physical, chemical, and biological processes, they are actually very sophisticated. Recent reports of high levels of di-nitrogen emissions and h...

  13. Swine MRSA isolates form robust biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization of livestock animals is common and prevalence rates for pigs have been reported to be as high as 49%. Measures to prevent, control, or eliminate MRSA in swine is of considerable public health concern. Bacterial colonization ...

  14. Swine Influenza Viruses: a North American Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Influenza is a zoonotic viral disease that represents a health and economic threat to both humans and animals worldwide. Swine influenza was first recognized clinically in pigs in the Midwestern U.S. in 1918, coinciding with the human influenza pandemic known as the Spanish flu. Since that time swin...

  15. 75 FR 16641 - Swine Contract Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    ... result of a pricing determination included in a contract that establishes a minimum and/or maximum level... application of any premiums or discounts, expressed in dollars per unit. Boar. A sexually-intact male swine... result of a pricing determination included in a contract that establishes a minimum and/or maximum level...

  16. Mutations induced in plant breeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barriga B, P. (Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia. Inst. de Produccion y Sanidad Vegetal)

    1984-10-01

    The most significant aspects of the use of ionizing radiations in plant breeding are reviewed. Aspects such as basic principles of mutation, expression and selection in obtention of mutants, methods for using induced mutations and sucess achieved with this methodology in plant breeding are reviewed. Results obtained in a program of induced mutation on wheat for high content of protein and lysine at the Universidad Austral de Chile are presented.

  17. Deliberate change without hierarchical influence?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørskov, Sladjana; Kesting, Peter; Ulhøi, John Parm

    2017-01-01

    Purpose This paper aims to present that deliberate change is strongly associated with formal structures and top-down influence. Hierarchical configurations have been used to structure processes, overcome resistance and get things done. But is deliberate change also possible without formal...... reveals that deliberate change is indeed achievable in a non-hierarchical collaborative OSS community context. However, it presupposes the presence and active involvement of informal change agents. The paper identifies and specifies four key drivers for change agents’ influence. Originality....../value The findings contribute to organisational analysis by providing a deeper understanding of the importance of leadership in making deliberate change possible in non-hierarchical settings. It points to the importance of “change-by-conviction”, essentially based on voluntary behaviour. This can open the door...

  18. Static Correctness of Hierarchical Procedures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff

    1990-01-01

    A system of hierarchical, fully recursive types in a truly imperative language allows program fragments written for small types to be reused for all larger types. To exploit this property to enable type-safe hierarchical procedures, it is necessary to impose a static requirement on procedure calls....... We introduce an example language and prove the existence of a sound requirement which preserves static correctness while allowing hierarchical procedures. This requirement is further shown to be optimal, in the sense that it imposes as few restrictions as possible. This establishes the theoretical...... basis for a general type hierarchy with static type checking, which enables first-order polymorphism combined with multiple inheritance and specialization in a language with assignments. We extend the results to include opaque types. An opaque version of a type is different from the original but has...

  19. Structural integrity of hierarchical composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Paggi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Interface mechanical problems are of paramount importance in engineering and materials science. Traditionally, due to the complexity of modelling their mechanical behaviour, interfaces are often treated as defects and their features are not explored. In this study, a different approach is illustrated, where the interfaces play an active role in the design of innovative hierarchical composites and are fundamental for their structural integrity. Numerical examples regarding cutting tools made of hierarchical cellular polycrystalline materials are proposed, showing that tailoring of interface properties at the different scales is the way to achieve superior mechanical responses that cannot be obtained using standard materials

  20. Characterization of swine stress gene by DNA testing using plucked hair as a source of DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastos Reginaldo Gaspar

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The swine stress gene (hal in recessive homozygotes (nn leads to porcine stress syndrome (PSS, and is associated with pale, soft, exudative pork (PSE. In heterozygosis (Nn it is linked to poor carcass quality. A total of 179 pigs (86 Large White, 69 Landrace, 12 Duroc and 12 Pietrain were characterized as normal homozygotes (NN, heterozygotes or recessive homozygotes following amplification of a target region of the hal gene using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR, followed by a restriction endonuclease assay. Plucked hair was used as a source of genomic DNA. The resulting PCR was digested with the restriction enzyme CfoI, followed by agarose gel electrophoresis. Of 179 animals tested, 70% were NN, 28% were Nn, and 2% were nn. The frequency of heterozygotes was higher (P < 0.05 in Landrace (0.43 for Nn than in Large White pigs (0.09 for Nn. Nine of the 12 Pietrain animals were Nn and three were nn, suggesting a high frequency for the n allele in this breed. These results may be related to the incidence of PSS and PSE in these two breeds, both of which are widely used in breeding programs. The utilization of plucked hair as the source of genomic DNA was a non-invasive and quick method to screen farm animals.

  1. Analysis of Swine Movements in a Province in Northern Vietnam and Application in the Design of Surveillance Strategies for Infectious Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudon, E; Fournié, G; Hiep, D T; Pham, T T H; Duboz, R; Gély, M; Peiris, M; Cowling, B J; Ton, V D; Peyre, M

    2017-04-01

    While swine production is rapidly growing in South-East Asia, the structure of the swine industry and the dynamic of pig movements have not been well-studied. However, this knowledge is a prerequisite for understanding the dynamic of disease transmission in swine populations and designing cost-effective surveillance strategies for infectious diseases. In this study, we assessed the farming and trading practices in the Vietnamese swine familial farming sector, which accounts for most pigs in Vietnam, and for which disease surveillance is a major challenge. Farmers from two communes of a Red River Delta Province (northern Vietnam) were interviewed, along with traders involved in pig transactions. Major differences in the trade structure were observed between the two communes. One commune had mainly transversal trades, that is between farms of equivalent sizes, whereas the other had pyramidal trades, that is from larger to smaller farms. Companies and large familial farrow-to-finish farms were likely to act as major sources of disease spread through pig sales, demonstrating their importance for disease control. Familial fattening farms with high pig purchases were at greater risk of disease introduction and should be targeted for disease detection as part of a risk-based surveillance. In contrast, many other familial farms were isolated or weakly connected to the swine trade network limiting their relevance for surveillance activities. However, some of these farms used boar hiring for breeding, increasing the risk of disease spread. Most familial farms were slaughtering pigs at the farm or in small local slaughterhouses, making the surveillance at the slaughterhouse inefficient. In terms of spatial distribution of the trades, the results suggested that northern provinces were highly connected and showed some connection with central and southern provinces. These results are useful to develop risk-based surveillance protocols for disease detection in the swine familial

  2. The global antigenic diversity of swine influenza A viruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lewis, Nicola S; Russell, Colin A; Langat, Pinky

    2016-01-01

    Swine influenza presents a substantial disease burden for pig populations worldwide and poses a potential pandemic threat to humans. There is considerable diversity in both H1 and H3 influenza viruses circulating in swine due to the frequent introductions of viruses from humans and birds coupled...... with geographic segregation of global swine populations. Much of this diversity is characterized genetically but the antigenic diversity of these viruses is poorly understood. Critically, the antigenic diversity shapes the risk profile of swine influenza viruses in terms of their epizootic and pandemic potential....... Here, using the most comprehensive set of swine influenza virus antigenic data compiled to date, we quantify the antigenic diversity of swine influenza viruses on a multi-continental scale. The substantial antigenic diversity of recently circulating viruses in different parts of the world adds...

  3. Sensory Hierarchical Organization and Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skapof, Jerome

    The purpose of this study was to judge the viability of an operational approach aimed at assessing response styles in reading using the hypothesis of sensory hierarchical organization. A sample of 103 middle-class children from a New York City public school, between the ages of five and seven, took part in a three phase experiment. Phase one…

  4. Memory Stacking in Hierarchical Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westö, Johan; May, Patrick J C; Tiitinen, Hannu

    2016-02-01

    Robust representations of sounds with a complex spectrotemporal structure are thought to emerge in hierarchically organized auditory cortex, but the computational advantage of this hierarchy remains unknown. Here, we used computational models to study how such hierarchical structures affect temporal binding in neural networks. We equipped individual units in different types of feedforward networks with local memory mechanisms storing recent inputs and observed how this affected the ability of the networks to process stimuli context dependently. Our findings illustrate that these local memories stack up in hierarchical structures and hence allow network units to exhibit selectivity to spectral sequences longer than the time spans of the local memories. We also illustrate that short-term synaptic plasticity is a potential local memory mechanism within the auditory cortex, and we show that it can bring robustness to context dependence against variation in the temporal rate of stimuli, while introducing nonlinearities to response profiles that are not well captured by standard linear spectrotemporal receptive field models. The results therefore indicate that short-term synaptic plasticity might provide hierarchically structured auditory cortex with computational capabilities important for robust representations of spectrotemporal patterns.

  5. Breeding performance in the Italian chicken breed Mericanel della Brianza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Cerolini

    Full Text Available In Italy, 90 local avian breeds were described; the majority (61% were classified as extinct and only 8.9% as still widely spread. Therefore, efforts for conservation of Italian avian breeds are urgently required. The aim of this study was to record the breeding performance of the Italian breed Mericanel della Brianza to multiply a small population, in order to develop a conservation programme. Fourteen females and eight males were available at the beginning of the reproductive season in 2009 and organised into eight families (1 male/1-2 females kept in floor pens. Birds received a photoperiod of 14L:10D and were fed ad libitum. Breeding performance was recorded from March to June. Egg production and egg weight were recorded daily; eggs were set every two weeks and fertility, embryo mortality and hatchability were recorded. Mean egg production was 37% and mean egg weight was 34±3.49 g. High fertility values from 94% to 87% were recorded in the first three settings and the overall mean fertility value was 81.6%. Overall hatchability was only 49.6% owing to a high proportion of dead embryos. Embryo mortality occurred mainly between days 2 and 7 of incubation and during hatching. The highest hatchability values were recorded in settings 1 and 2, 69% and 60% respectively, and a large decrease was found in the subsequent settings. Marked variations in egg production, fertility, hatchability and embryo mortality were found among families. The present results represent the basic know ledge of reproductive parameters necessary to improve the reproductive efficiency of the breed within a conservation plan.

  6. Breeding performance in the Italian chicken breed Mericanel della Brianza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano P. Marelli

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In Italy, 90 local avian breeds were described, the majority (61% were classified extinct and only 8.9 % still diffused. Therefore, efforts for conservation of Italian avian breeds are urgently required. The aim of this study was to record the breeding performance of the Italian breed Mericanel della Brianza and multiply a small population, in order to develop a conservation program. Fourteen females and 8 males were available at the beginning of the reproductive season in 2009 and organized in 8 families (1 male/1-2 females kept in floor pens. Birds received a photoperiod of 14L:10D and fed ad libitum. Breeding performance was recorded from March to June. Egg production and egg weight were recorded daily; eggs were set every 2 weeks and fertility, embryo mortality and hatchability were recorded. Mean egg production was 37% and mean egg weight was 34±3.49 g. High fertility values were recorded in the first three settings, from 94 to 87%, and the overall mean fertility value was 81.6%. Overall hatchability was only 49.6% due to a high proportion of dead embryos. Embryo mortality occurred mainly between day 2 and 7 of incubation and during hatch. Highest hatchability values were recorded in setting 1 and 2, 69 and 60% respectively, and a great decrease was found in the following settings. Great variations in egg production, fertility, hatchability and embryo mortality were found among families. The present results are the basic knowledge on reproductive parameters necessary to improve the reproductive efficiency of the breed within a conservation plan.

  7. New insights into the role of ticks in African swine fever epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Vizcaíno, J M; Mur, L; Bastos, A D S; Penrith, M L

    2015-08-01

    African swine fever (ASF), one of the most important diseases of swine, is present in many African countries, as well as in eastern Europe, Russia and Sardinia. It is caused by a complex virus, ASF virus (ASFV), for which neither vaccine nor treatment is available. ASFV affects swine of all breeds and ages, and also replicates in soft ticks of the genus Ornithodoros, facilitating ASFV persistence and reocurrence of disease. Depending on the involvement of these ticks, and the presence or not of sylvatic asymptomatic animals, several epidemiological cycles have been identified. The disease persists in East and southern African countries in a sylvatic cycle between O. porcinus (of the O. moubata species complex) and common warthogs. In some countries a domestic pig-tick cycle exists, whereas in other regions, notably West Africa, the role of soft ticks has not been demonstrated, and ASFV is transmitted between domestic pigs in the absence of tick vectors. Even in several East and Central African countries which have the sylvatic or domestic cycle, the majority of outbreaks are not associated with ticks or wild suids. In Europe, O. erraticus was detected and identified as a crucial vector for ASF maintenance in outdoor pig production on the Iberian Peninsula. However, in most parts of Europe, there is a lack of information about the distribution and role of Ornithodoros ticks in ASF persistence, particularly in eastern regions. This article reviews ASF epidemiology and its main characteristics, with a special focus on the distribution and role of soft ticks in ASF persistence in different settings. Information abouttick detection, control measures and future directions for research is also included.

  8. History of ‘swine fever’ in Southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary-Louise Penrith

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The histories of the two swine fevers in southern Africa differ widely. Classical swine fever (hog cholera has been known in the northern hemisphere since 1830 and it is probable that early cases of ‘swine fever’ in European settlers’ pigs in southern Africa were accepted to be that disease. It was only in 1921 that the first description of African swine fever as an entity different from classical swine fever was published after the disease had been studied in settlers’ pigs in Kenya. Shortly after that, reports of African swine fever in settlers’ pigs emerged from South Africa and Angola. In South Africa, the report related to pigs in the north-eastern part of the country. Previously (in 1905 or earlier a disease assumed to be classical swine fever caused high mortality among pigs in the Western Cape and was only eradicated in 1918. African swine fever was found over the following years to be endemic in most southern African countries. Classical swine fever, however, apart from an introduction with subsequent endemic establishment in Madagascar and a number of introductions into Mauritius, the last one in 2000, had apparently remained absent from the region until it was diagnosed in the Western and subsequently the Eastern Cape of South Africa in 2005. It was eradicated by 2007. The history of these diseases in the southern African region demonstrates their importance and their potential for spread over long distances, emphasising the need for improved management of both diseases wherever they occur.

  9. Evolution, plant breeding and biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Ceccarelli

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with changes in biodiversity during the course of evolution, plant domestication and plant breeding. It shows than man has had a strong influence on the progressive decrease of biodiversity, unconscious at first and deliberate in modern times. The decrease in biodiversity in the agricultures of the North causes a severe threat to food security and is in contrasts with the conservation of biodiversity which is part of the culture of several populations in the South. The concluding section of the paper shows that man could have guided evolution in a different way and shows an example of participatory plant breeding, a type of breeding which is done in collaboration with farmers and is based on selection for specific adaptation. Even though participatory plant breeding has been practiced for only about 20 years and by relatively few groups, the effects on both biodiversity and crop production are impressive. Eventually the paper shows how participatory plant breeding can be developed into ‘evolutionary plant breeding’ to cope in a dynamic way with climate changes.

  10. CASSAVA BREEDING I: THE VALUE OF BREEDING VALUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán Ceballos

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Breeding cassava relies on several selection stages (single row trial-SRT; preliminary; advanced; and uniform yield trials - UYT. This study uses data from 14 years of evaluations. From more than 20,000 genotypes initially evaluated only 114 reached the last stage. The objective was to assess how the data at SRT could be used to predict the probabilities of genotypes reaching the UYT. Phenotypic data from each genotype at SRT was integrated into the selection index (SIN used by the cassava breeding program. Average SIN from all the progenies derived from each progenitor was then obtained. Average SIN is an approximation of the breeding value of each progenitor. Data clearly suggested that some genotypes were better progenitors than others (e.g. high number of their progenies reaching the UYT, suggesting important variation in breeding values of progenitors. However, regression of average SIN of each parental genotype on the number of their respective progenies reaching UYT resulted in a negligible coefficient of determination (r2 = 0.05. Breeding value (e.g. average SIN at SRT was not efficient predicting which genotypes were more likely to reach the UYT stage. Number of families and progenies derived from a given progenitor were more efficient predicting the probabilities of the progeny from a given parent reaching the UYT stage. Large within-family genetic variation tends to mask the true breeding value of each progenitor. The use of partially inbred progenitors (e.g. S1 or S2 genotypes would reduce the within-family genetic variation thus making the assessment of breeding value more accurate. Moreover, partial inbreeding of progenitors can improve the breeding value of the original (S0 parental material and sharply accelerate genetic gains. For instance, homozygous S1 genotypes for the dominant resistance to cassava mosaic disease could be generated and selected. All gametes from these selected S1 genotypes would carry the desirable allele

  11. Cassava Breeding I: The Value of Breeding Value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballos, Hernán; Pérez, Juan C.; Joaqui Barandica, Orlando; Lenis, Jorge I.; Morante, Nelson; Calle, Fernando; Pino, Lizbeth; Hershey, Clair H.

    2016-01-01

    Breeding cassava relies on several selection stages (single row trial-SRT; preliminary; advanced; and uniform yield trials—UYT). This study uses data from 14 years of evaluations. From more than 20,000 genotypes initially evaluated only 114 reached the last stage. The objective was to assess how the data at SRT could be used to predict the probabilities of genotypes reaching the UYT. Phenotypic data from each genotype at SRT was integrated into the selection index (SIN) used by the cassava breeding program. Average SIN from all the progenies derived from each progenitor was then obtained. Average SIN is an approximation of the breeding value of each progenitor. Data clearly suggested that some genotypes were better progenitors than others (e.g., high number of their progenies reaching the UYT), suggesting important variation in breeding values of progenitors. However, regression of average SIN of each parental genotype on the number of their respective progenies reaching UYT resulted in a negligible coefficient of determination (r2 = 0.05). Breeding value (e.g., average SIN) at SRT was not efficient predicting which genotypes were more likely to reach the UYT stage. Number of families and progenies derived from a given progenitor were more efficient predicting the probabilities of the progeny from a given parent reaching the UYT stage. Large within-family genetic variation tends to mask the true breeding value of each progenitor. The use of partially inbred progenitors (e.g., S1 or S2 genotypes) would reduce the within-family genetic variation thus making the assessment of breeding value more accurate. Moreover, partial inbreeding of progenitors can improve the breeding value of the original (S0) parental material and sharply accelerate genetic gains. For instance, homozygous S1 genotypes for the dominant resistance to cassava mosaic disease (CMD) could be generated and selected. All gametes from these selected S1 genotypes would carry the desirable allele and

  12. Detection of quantitative trait loci affecting haematological traits in swine via genome scanning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niu Xiao-Yan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Haematological traits, which consist of mainly three components: leukocyte traits, erythrocyte traits and platelet traits, play extremely important role in animal immune function and disease resistance. But knowledge of the genetic background controlling variability of these traits is very limited, especially in swine. Results In the present study, 18 haematological traits (7 leukocyte traits, 7 erythrocyte traits and 4 platelet traits were measured in a pig resource population consisting of 368 purebred piglets of three breeds (Landrace, Large White and Songliao Black Pig, after inoculation with the swine fever vaccine when the pigs were 21 days old. A whole-genome scan of QTL for these traits was performed using 206 microsatellite markers covering all 18 autosomes and the X chromosome. Using variance component analysis based on a linear mixed model and the false discovery rate (FDR test, 35 QTL with FDR FDR FDR Conclusions Very few QTL were previously identified for hematological traits of pigs and never in purebred populations. Most of the QTL detected here, in particular the QTL for the platelet traits, have not been reported before. Our results lay important foundation for identifying the causal genes underlying the hematological trait variations in pigs.

  13. Relationship of trade patterns of the Danish swine industry animal movements network to potential disease spread

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bigras-Poulin, Michel; Barfod, Kristen; Mortensen, Sten

    2007-01-01

    , by providing network knowledge to the local veterinarian in charge of controlling disease spread, should also be evaluated as a potential tool to manage epidemics during the crisis. Geographic information systems could also be linked in the approach to produce knowledge about local transmission of disease.......The movements of animals were analysed under the conceptual framework of graph theory in mathematics. The swine production related premises of Denmark were considered to constitute the nodes of a network and the links were the animal movements. In this framework, each farm will have a network...... of other premises to which it will be linked. A premise was a farm (breeding, rearing or slaughter pig), an abattoir or a trade market. The overall network was divided in premise specific subnets that linked the other premises from and to which animals were moved. This approach allowed us to visualise...

  14. The Black of Strei – a Swine Population on the Verge of Extinction in Banat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Matiuti

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The Black of Strei swine was declared to be extinct in 1974, but research conducted in 2008-2010 proved that there are still 61 specimens (Black of Strei proper and hybrids in the Hatzeg county and in the Lugoj area. Body measurements have been made in the case of those specimens and they showed that the specimens are a morphoproductive type. The local people appreciate the Black of Strei especially for its fat and bard which are very dry and used in order to obtain the traditional food products in the area. Prolificacy of sows farrowing is an 8 piglets per gestation. This breed is best kept in organic farms. The Black of Strei females are usually cross-bred with wildboar (Sus scrofa ferus males, the hybrids’ meat being very appreciated.

  15. Diet of canvasbacks during breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, J.E.; Serie, J.R.; Noyes, J.H.

    1990-01-01

    We examined diets of canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) breeding in southwestern Manitoba during 1977-81. Percent volume of animal foods consumed did not differ between males and females nor among prenesting, rapid follicle growth, laying, incubation, and renesting periods in females (mean = 50.1%). Tubers and shoots of fennelleaf pondweed (Potamogeton pectinatus) and midge larvae (Chironomidae) were the predominant foods, comprising on average 45% and 23% of the diet volume, respectively. Continued importance of plant foods to canvasbacks throughout reproduction contrasts with the mostly invertebrate diets of other prairie-breeding ducks, and does not fit current theories of nutritional ecology of breeding anatids (i.e., females meet the protein requirements of reproduction by consuming a high proportion of animal foods).

  16. Successful cloning of the Yucatan minipig using commercial/occidental breeds as oocyte donors and embryo recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Jose L; Collins, Bruce; York, Abby; Bischoff, Steve; Sommer, Jeff; Tsai, Shengdar; Petters, Robert M; Piedrahita, Jorge A

    2008-06-01

    The widespread application of porcine SCNT to biomedical research is being hampered by the large adult size (300-600 lbs) of the commercial breeds commonly used for SCNT. The Yucatan minipig, in contrast, has an adult weight of 140-150 lbs and a long history of utility in biomedical research. In order to combine the wide availability of commercial swine with the biomedical value of the Yucatan minipig, we utilized SCNT using the Yucatan as nuclear donors and commercial swine as both oocyte donors and recipients. Of six recipient gilts receiving 631 SCNT embryos, three went to term and delivered seven piglets, four of which survived to adulthood. Additionally, we obtained fetal fibroblasts from a cloned Yucatan and used them for a second round of SCNT. Of three recipients receiving 315 reconstructed embryos, one went to term and delivered three piglets, one of which survived to adulthood. Both microsatellite and D-loop sequence analysis confirmed that all of the piglets generated were nuclear-mitochondrial hybrids carrying Yucatan nuclear DNA and commercial breed mitochondrial DNA. This report shows that it is possible to produce viable Yucatan SCNT clones and opens up the possibility of developing valuable biomedical models in this porcine breed.

  17. New Artificial Insemination Technologies for Swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortolozzo, F P; Menegat, M B; Mellagi, A P G; Bernardi, M L; Wentz, I

    2015-07-01

    Better efficiency in swine artificial insemination (AI) is accomplished by reducing the necessary number of sperm cells and achieving high reproductive performance. Some strategies have been developed for use under field conditions, such as the site of sperm deposition (post-cervical AI), a single AI with control of oestrus and ovulation (fixed-time AI), and the better use of high genetic merit boars, to spread their genes as much as possible. To apply these technologies, it is important to understand some anatomical limits, physiological aspects and farm requirements. In this review, we point out some strategies to achieve higher efficiency on the use of sperm for AI technology application in swine species.

  18. Emperor penguins breeding on iceshelves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fretwell, Peter T; Trathan, Phil N; Wienecke, Barbara; Kooyman, Gerald L

    2014-01-01

    We describe a new breeding behaviour discovered in emperor penguins; utilizing satellite and aerial-survey observations four emperor penguin breeding colonies have been recorded as existing on ice-shelves. Emperors have previously been considered as a sea-ice obligate species, with 44 of the 46 colonies located on sea-ice (the other two small colonies are on land). Of the colonies found on ice-shelves, two are newly discovered, and these have been recorded on shelves every season that they have been observed, the other two have been recorded both on ice-shelves and sea-ice in different breeding seasons. We conduct two analyses; the first using synthetic aperture radar data to assess why the largest of the four colonies, for which we have most data, locates sometimes on the shelf and sometimes on the sea-ice, and find that in years where the sea-ice forms late, the colony relocates onto the ice-shelf. The second analysis uses a number of environmental variables to test the habitat marginality of all emperor penguin breeding sites. We find that three of the four colonies reported in this study are in the most northerly, warmest conditions where sea-ice is often sub-optimal. The emperor penguin's reliance on sea-ice as a breeding platform coupled with recent concerns over changed sea-ice patterns consequent on regional warming, has led to their designation as "near threatened" in the IUCN red list. Current climate models predict that future loss of sea-ice around the Antarctic coastline will negatively impact emperor numbers; recent estimates suggest a halving of the population by 2052. The discovery of this new breeding behaviour at marginal sites could mitigate some of the consequences of sea-ice loss; potential benefits and whether these are permanent or temporary need to be considered and understood before further attempts are made to predict the population trajectory of this iconic species.

  19. Correlated response of peripheral blood cytokines with selection for reduced mycoplasma pneumonia of swine lesions in Landrace pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Takumi; Okamura, Toshihiro; Kojima-Shibata, Chihiro; Kadowaki, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Eisaku; Uenishi, Hirohide; Suzuki, Keiichi

    2016-04-01

    Mycoplasma pneumonia of swine (MPS) is responsible for significant economic losses in the swine industry. We selected Landrace pigs for reduced MPS pulmonary lesions over five generations, and measured concentrations of the following cytokines: interleukin (IL)-10, IL-13, IL-17, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interferon (IFN)-γ to estimate their correlation with MPS lesions. Sheep red blood cells (SRBC) were injected twice intramuscularly at 70 and 95 kg body weight. Blood serum samples were collected after 1 week of secondary SRBC inoculation and cytokine concentrations were analyzed by ELISA. Genetic parameters and breeding values were estimated. The heritability estimates of IL-10, IL-13, IL-17, TNF-α and IFN-γ were 0.20 ± 0.06, 0.12 ± 0.06, 0.27 ± 0.07, 0.20 ± 0.10 and 0.05 ± 0.03, respectively. Genetic correlations of IL-17 and TNF-α with pulmonary MPS lesions were high (-0.86 ± 0.13 and 0.69 ± 0.29, respectively) and those of IFN-γ and IL-13 with MPS lesions were moderately negative (-0.45). Through selection, the breeding values of IL-17 and IFN-γ increased substantially and those of TNF-α decreased. These results suggest that innate and cellular immunity are more important for the suppression of pulmonary lesions in MPS than humoral-mediated immunity, such as antibody response.

  20. Hierarchical Prisoner's Dilemma in Hierarchical Public-Goods Game

    CERN Document Server

    Fujimoto, Yuma; Kaneko, Kunihiko

    2016-01-01

    The dilemma in cooperation is one of the major concerns in game theory. In a public-goods game, each individual pays a cost for cooperation, or to prevent defection, and receives a reward from the collected cost in a group. Thus, defection is beneficial for each individual, while cooperation is beneficial for the group. Now, groups (say, countries) consisting of individual players also play games. To study such a multi-level game, we introduce a hierarchical public-goods (HPG) game in which two groups compete for finite resources by utilizing costs collected from individuals in each group. Analyzing this HPG game, we found a hierarchical prisoner's dilemma, in which groups choose the defection policy (say, armaments) as a Nash strategy to optimize each group's benefit, while cooperation optimizes the total benefit. On the other hand, for each individual within a group, refusing to pay the cost (say, tax) is a Nash strategy, which turns to be a cooperation policy for the group, thus leading to a hierarchical d...

  1. Breeding monkeys for biomedical research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, G. H.; Golarzdebourne, M. N.; Keeling, M. E.

    1973-01-01

    Captive bred rhesus monkeys show much less pathology than wild born animals. The monkeys may be bred in cages or in an outdoor compound. Cage bred animals are not psychologically normal which makes then unsuited for some types of space related research. Compound breeding provides contact between mother and infant and an opportunity for the infants to play with their peers which are important requirements to help maintain their behavioral integrity. Offspring harvested after a year in the compound appear behaviorally normal and show little histopathology. Compound breeding is also an economical method for the rapid production of young animals. The colony can double its size about every two and a half years.

  2. Modelling the Growth of Swine Flu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Ian

    2010-01-01

    The spread of swine flu has been a cause of great concern globally. With no vaccine developed as yet, (at time of writing in July 2009) and given the fact that modern-day humans can travel speedily across the world, there are fears that this disease may spread out of control. The worst-case scenario would be one of unfettered exponential growth.…

  3. Genomic regions associated with kyphosis in swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shackelford Steven D

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A back curvature defect similar to kyphosis in humans has been observed in swine herds. The defect ranges from mild to severe curvature of the thoracic vertebrate in split carcasses and has an estimated heritability of 0.3. The objective of this study was to identify genomic regions that affect this trait. Results Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP associations performed with 198 SNPs and microsatellite markers in a Duroc-Landrace-Yorkshire resource population (U.S. Meat Animal Research Center, USMARC resource population of swine provided regions of association with this trait on 15 chromosomes. Positional candidate genes, especially those involved in human skeletal development pathways, were selected for SNP identification. SNPs in 16 candidate genes were genotyped in an F2 population (n = 371 and the USMARC resource herd (n = 1,257 with kyphosis scores. SNPs in KCNN2 on SSC2, RYR1 and PLOD1 on SSC6 and MYST4 on SSC14 were significantly associated with kyphosis in the resource population of swine (P ≤ 0.05. SNPs in CER1 and CDH7 on SSC1, PSMA5 on SSC4, HOXC6 and HOXC8 on SSC5, ADAMTS18 on SSC6 and SOX9 on SSC12 were significantly associated with the kyphosis trait in the F2 population of swine (P ≤ 0.05. Conclusions These data suggest that this kyphosis trait may be affected by several loci and that these may differ by population. Carcass value could be improved by effectively removing this undesirable trait from pig populations.

  4. Sport horses : breeding specialist from a single breeding programme?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rovere, G.A.

    2016-01-01

    Summary The general goal of this thesis was to provide information useful for the breeding programme of the Royal Dutch Warmblood Studbook (KWPN) in relation with the ongoing specialisation of the population. Data provided by KWPN consisted of records from studbook-first inspection,

  5. Development of breeding objectives for beef cattle breeding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mnr J F Kluyts

    The purpose of this article is to review the development of breeding objectives in beef cattle ... selection criteria, and estimation of phenotypic and genetic parameters. ... Unfortunately, the evolution from a performance .... The beef cattle industry has a history of chasing and promoting maximum values (e.g. maximum weight).

  6. Breed base representation in dairy animals of 5 breeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inheritance of DNA from different dairy breeds can be determined by genotyping, just as individual ancestors such as parents, grandparents, or even great grandparents can be identified correctly in a high percentage of the cases by genotyping even if not reported or reported incorrectly in pedigrees...

  7. Patterns of arterial vascularization in swine hearts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria G.F. Pinto

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This study aimed to characterize the patterns of arterial vascularization in swine hearts. Ninety swine hearts were submitted to the Spalteholz diaphanization technique in order to dissect the coronary arteries. Three types of arterial vascularization patterns were characterized through the behaviorof the rami circumflexus and interventricularis, namely: balanced, right and left types. The balanced pattern was the most frequently (42.2%; in this case, the rami circumflexus and interventricularis occupied their respective sulci. The right type (40% was further categorized into three vascularization subtypes. In the first, ramus circumflexus dexter branched from the ramus interventricularis subsinuosus. In the second, the arteria coronaria dextra branched from ramus interventricularis subsinuosus and ramus circumflexus. In the third model, arteria coronaria sinister branched from ramus interventricularis paraconalis. The left type (17.7% exhibited two subtypes. In the first, ramus interventricularis paraconalis ran through the entire corresponding sulcus and the ventral third of sulcus interventricularis subsinuosus, and ramus interventricularis subsinuosus occupied the dorsal and middle third of its respective sulcus. In the second, ramus interventricularis subsinuosus branched from arteria coronaria dextra and ran through the dorsal and medium thirds of its respective sulcus, and the ventral third was occupied by the collateral branch of ramus circumflexus sinister. Our results reinforce the thesis that the blood distribution system through the coronary artery in swine is similar to human, not only in qualitative but also by a quantitative comparison.

  8. African swine fever: an epidemiological update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Vizcaíno, J M; Mur, L; Martínez-López, B

    2012-03-01

    African swine fever (ASF) is one of the most important swine diseases, mainly because of its significant sanitary and socioeconomic consequences. This review gives an update on the epidemiology of the disease and reviews key issues and strategies to improve control of the disease and promote its eradication. Several characteristics of ASF virus (ASFV) make its control and eradication difficult, including the absence of available vaccines, marked virus resistance in infected material and contaminated animal products, and a complex epidemiology and transmission involving tick reservoir virus interactions. The incidence of ASF has not only increased on the African continent over the last 15 years, so that it now affects West African countries, Mauritius and Madagascar, but it has also reached new areas, such as the Caucasus region in 2007. In fact, the rapid spread of the disease on the European continent and the uncontrolled situation in the Russian Federation places all countries at great risk as a result of intense global trade. The proximity of some affected areas to the European Union (EU) borders (African swine fever -free countries should be aware of the potential risk of ASF incursion and implement risk reduction measures such as trade controls and other sanitary measures. This review will discuss lessons learnt so far about ASF control, current challenges to its control and future studies needed to support global efforts at prevention and control.

  9. Epidemiology of African swine fever virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costard, S; Mur, L; Lubroth, J; Sanchez-Vizcaino, J M; Pfeiffer, D U

    2013-04-01

    African swine fever virus used to occur primarily in Africa. There had been occasional incursions into Europe or America which apart from the endemic situation on the island of Sardinia always had been successfully controlled. But following an introduction of the virus in 2007, it now has expanded its geographical distribution into Caucasus and Eastern Europe where it has not been controlled, to date. African swine fever affects domestic and wild pig species, and can involve tick vectors. The ability of the virus to survive within a particular ecosystem is defined by the ecology of its wild host populations and the characteristics of livestock production systems, which influence host and vector species densities and interrelationships. African swine fever has high morbidity in naïve pig populations and can result in very high mortality. There is no vaccine or treatment available. Apart from stamping out and movement control, there are no control measures, thereby potentially resulting in extreme losses for producers. Prevention and control of the infection requires good understanding of its epidemiology, so that targeted measures can be instigated.

  10. Recent advancements in the hormonal stimulation of ovulation in swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knox RV

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Robert V Knox Department of Animal Sciences, 360 Animal Sciences Laboratory, University of Illinois, Champaign Urbana, IL, USA Abstract: Induction of ovulation for controlled breeding is available for use around the world, and conditions for practical application appear promising. Many of the hormones available, such as human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH and its analogs, as well as porcine luteinizing hormone (pLH, have been shown to be effective for advancing or synchronizing ovulation in gilts and weaned sows. Each of the hormones has unique attributes with respect to the physiology of its actions, how it is administered, its efficacy, and approval for use. The timing for induction of ovulation during the follicle phase is critical as follicle maturity changes over time, and the success of the response is determined by the stage of follicle development. Female fertility is also a primary factor affecting the success of ovulation induction and fixed time insemination protocols. Approximately 80%–90% of female pigs will develop mature follicles following weaning in sows and synchronization of estrus in gilts. However, those gilts and sows with follicles that are less developed and mature, or those that develop with abnormalities, will not respond to an ovulatory surge of LH. To address this problem, some protocols induce follicle development in all females, which can improve the overall reliability of the ovulation response. Control of ovulation is practical for use with fixed time artificial insemination and should prove highly advantageous for low-dose and single-service artificial insemination and for use with frozen-thawed and sex-sorted sperm. Keywords: artificial insemination, follicle, hormone, ovulation, swine

  11. Comparison of molecular breeding values based on within- and across-breed training in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachman, Stephen D; Spangler, Matthew L; Bennett, Gary L; Hanford, Kathryn J; Kuehn, Larry A; Snelling, Warren M; Thallman, R Mark; Saatchi, Mahdi; Garrick, Dorian J; Schnabel, Robert D; Taylor, Jeremy F; Pollak, E John

    2013-08-16

    Although the efficacy of genomic predictors based on within-breed training looks promising, it is necessary to develop and evaluate across-breed predictors for the technology to be fully applied in the beef industry. The efficacies of genomic predictors trained in one breed and utilized to predict genetic merit in differing breeds based on simulation studies have been reported, as have the efficacies of predictors trained using data from multiple breeds to predict the genetic merit of purebreds. However, comparable studies using beef cattle field data have not been reported. Molecular breeding values for weaning and yearling weight were derived and evaluated using a database containing BovineSNP50 genotypes for 7294 animals from 13 breeds in the training set and 2277 animals from seven breeds (Angus, Red Angus, Hereford, Charolais, Gelbvieh, Limousin, and Simmental) in the evaluation set. Six single-breed and four across-breed genomic predictors were trained using pooled data from purebred animals. Molecular breeding values were evaluated using field data, including genotypes for 2227 animals and phenotypic records of animals born in 2008 or later. Accuracies of molecular breeding values were estimated based on the genetic correlation between the molecular breeding value and trait phenotype. With one exception, the estimated genetic correlations of within-breed molecular breeding values with trait phenotype were greater than 0.28 when evaluated in the breed used for training. Most estimated genetic correlations for the across-breed trained molecular breeding values were moderate (> 0.30). When molecular breeding values were evaluated in breeds that were not in the training set, estimated genetic correlations clustered around zero. Even for closely related breeds, within- or across-breed trained molecular breeding values have limited prediction accuracy for breeds that were not in the training set. For breeds in the training set, across- and within-breed trained

  12. Estimation of linkage disequilibrium in four US pig breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badke Yvonne M

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The success of marker assisted selection depends on the amount of linkage disequilibrium (LD across the genome. To implement marker assisted selection in the swine breeding industry, information about extent and degree of LD is essential. The objective of this study is to estimate LD in four US breeds of pigs (Duroc, Hampshire, Landrace, and Yorkshire and subsequently calculate persistence of phase among them using a 60 k SNP panel. In addition, we report LD when using only a fraction of the available markers, to estimate persistence of LD over distance. Results Average r2 between adjacent SNP across all chromosomes was 0.36 for Landrace, 0.39 for Yorkshire, 0.44 for Hampshire and 0.46 for Duroc. For markers 1 Mb apart, r2 ranged from 0.15 for Landrace to 0.20 for Hampshire. Reducing the marker panel to 10% of its original density, average r2 ranged between 0.20 for Landrace to 0.25 for Duroc. We also estimated persistence of phase as a measure of prediction reliability of markers in one breed by those in another and found that markers less than 10 kb apart could be predicted with a maximal accuracy of 0.92 for Landrace with Yorkshire. Conclusions Our estimates of LD, although in good agreement with previous reports, are more comprehensive and based on a larger panel of markers. Our estimates also confirmed earlier findings reporting higher LD in pigs than in American Holstein cattle, especially at increasing marker distances (> 1 Mb. High average LD (r2 > 0.4 between adjacent SNP found in this study is an important precursor for the implementation of marker assisted selection within a livestock species. Results of this study are relevant to the US purebred pig industry and critical for the design of programs of whole genome marker assisted evaluation and selection. In addition, results indicate that a more cost efficient implementation of marker assisted selection using low density panels with genotype imputation, would be

  13. Hierarchical structure of biological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcocer-Cuarón, Carlos; Rivera, Ana L; Castaño, Victor M

    2014-01-01

    A general theory of biological systems, based on few fundamental propositions, allows a generalization of both Wierner and Berthalanffy approaches to theoretical biology. Here, a biological system is defined as a set of self-organized, differentiated elements that interact pair-wise through various networks and media, isolated from other sets by boundaries. Their relation to other systems can be described as a closed loop in a steady-state, which leads to a hierarchical structure and functioning of the biological system. Our thermodynamical approach of hierarchical character can be applied to biological systems of varying sizes through some general principles, based on the exchange of energy information and/or mass from and within the systems. PMID:24145961

  14. Automatic Hierarchical Color Image Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Huang

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Organizing images into semantic categories can be extremely useful for content-based image retrieval and image annotation. Grouping images into semantic classes is a difficult problem, however. Image classification attempts to solve this hard problem by using low-level image features. In this paper, we propose a method for hierarchical classification of images via supervised learning. This scheme relies on using a good low-level feature and subsequently performing feature-space reconfiguration using singular value decomposition to reduce noise and dimensionality. We use the training data to obtain a hierarchical classification tree that can be used to categorize new images. Our experimental results suggest that this scheme not only performs better than standard nearest-neighbor techniques, but also has both storage and computational advantages.

  15. Intuitionistic fuzzy hierarchical clustering algorithms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Zeshui

    2009-01-01

    Intuitionistic fuzzy set (IFS) is a set of 2-tuple arguments, each of which is characterized by a mem-bership degree and a nonmembership degree. The generalized form of IFS is interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy set (IVIFS), whose components are intervals rather than exact numbers. IFSs and IVIFSs have been found to be very useful to describe vagueness and uncertainty. However, it seems that little attention has been focused on the clus-tering analysis of IFSs and IVIFSs. An intuitionistic fuzzy hierarchical algorithm is introduced for clustering IFSs, which is based on the traditional hierarchical clustering procedure, the intuitionistic fuzzy aggregation operator, and the basic distance measures between IFSs: the Hamming distance, normalized Hamming, weighted Hamming, the Euclidean distance, the normalized Euclidean distance, and the weighted Euclidean distance. Subsequently, the algorithm is extended for clustering IVIFSs. Finally the algorithm and its extended form are applied to the classifications of building materials and enterprises respectively.

  16. Hierarchical Formation of Galactic Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Elmegreen, B G

    2006-01-01

    Young stellar groupings and clusters have hierarchical patterns ranging from flocculent spiral arms and star complexes on the largest scale to OB associations, OB subgroups, small loose groups, clusters and cluster subclumps on the smallest scales. There is no obvious transition in morphology at the cluster boundary, suggesting that clusters are only the inner parts of the hierarchy where stars have had enough time to mix. The power-law cluster mass function follows from this hierarchical structure: n(M_cl) M_cl^-b for b~2. This value of b is independently required by the observation that the summed IMFs from many clusters in a galaxy equals approximately the IMF of each cluster.

  17. Hierarchical matrices algorithms and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Hackbusch, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    This self-contained monograph presents matrix algorithms and their analysis. The new technique enables not only the solution of linear systems but also the approximation of matrix functions, e.g., the matrix exponential. Other applications include the solution of matrix equations, e.g., the Lyapunov or Riccati equation. The required mathematical background can be found in the appendix. The numerical treatment of fully populated large-scale matrices is usually rather costly. However, the technique of hierarchical matrices makes it possible to store matrices and to perform matrix operations approximately with almost linear cost and a controllable degree of approximation error. For important classes of matrices, the computational cost increases only logarithmically with the approximation error. The operations provided include the matrix inversion and LU decomposition. Since large-scale linear algebra problems are standard in scientific computing, the subject of hierarchical matrices is of interest to scientists ...

  18. Hierarchical Cont-Bouchaud model

    CERN Document Server

    Paluch, Robert; Holyst, Janusz A

    2015-01-01

    We extend the well-known Cont-Bouchaud model to include a hierarchical topology of agent's interactions. The influence of hierarchy on system dynamics is investigated by two models. The first one is based on a multi-level, nested Erdos-Renyi random graph and individual decisions by agents according to Potts dynamics. This approach does not lead to a broad return distribution outside a parameter regime close to the original Cont-Bouchaud model. In the second model we introduce a limited hierarchical Erdos-Renyi graph, where merging of clusters at a level h+1 involves only clusters that have merged at the previous level h and we use the original Cont-Bouchaud agent dynamics on resulting clusters. The second model leads to a heavy-tail distribution of cluster sizes and relative price changes in a wide range of connection densities, not only close to the percolation threshold.

  19. Hierarchical Clustering and Active Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Hatziminaoglou, E; Manrique, A

    2000-01-01

    The growth of Super Massive Black Holes and the parallel development of activity in galactic nuclei are implemented in an analytic code of hierarchical clustering. The evolution of the luminosity function of quasars and AGN will be computed with special attention paid to the connection between quasars and Seyfert galaxies. One of the major interests of the model is the parallel study of quasar formation and evolution and the History of Star Formation.

  20. Hybrid and hierarchical composite materials

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Chang-Soo; Sano, Tomoko

    2015-01-01

    This book addresses a broad spectrum of areas in both hybrid materials and hierarchical composites, including recent development of processing technologies, structural designs, modern computer simulation techniques, and the relationships between the processing-structure-property-performance. Each topic is introduced at length with numerous  and detailed examples and over 150 illustrations.   In addition, the authors present a method of categorizing these materials, so that representative examples of all material classes are discussed.

  1. 9 CFR 94.24 - Restrictions on the importation of pork, pork products, and swine from the APHIS-defined EU CSF...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS RINDERPEST, FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE VESICULAR DISEASE, AND...

  2. Treatment Protocols as Hierarchical Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Bassat, Moshe; Carlson, Richard W.; Puri, Vinod K.; Weil, Max Harry

    1978-01-01

    We view a treatment protocol as a hierarchical structure of therapeutic modules. The lowest level of this structure consists of individual therapeutic actions. Combinations of individual actions define higher level modules, which we call routines. Routines are designed to manage limited clinical problems, such as the routine for fluid loading to correct hypovolemia. Combinations of routines and additional actions, together with comments, questions, or precautions organized in a branching logic, in turn, define the treatment protocol for a given disorder. Adoption of this modular approach may facilitate the formulation of treatment protocols, since the physician is not required to prepare complex flowcharts. This hierarchical approach also allows protocols to be updated and modified in a flexible manner. By use of such a standard format, individual components may be fitted together to create protocols for multiple disorders. The technique is suited for computer implementation. We believe that this hierarchical approach may facilitate standarization of patient care as well as aid in clinical teaching. A protocol for acute pancreatitis is used to illustrate this technique.

  3. The evolution of potato breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potato cultivars in most regions of the world are tetraploid and clonally propagated. For over a century, the breeding strategy has been phenotypic recurrent selection. However, the polyploid nature of the crop prevents breeders from eliminating deleterious alleles and assembling positive alleles fo...

  4. Rose breeding: past, present, prospects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de D.P.; Dubois, L.A.M.

    1996-01-01

    In this review the PAST, PRESENT and PROSPECT will be considered as three separate periods in the history of the breeding and development of rose cultivars. The recurring theme is the genetic variation. This theme was chosen because there is justified doubt as to sufficient genetic variation

  5. Rose breeding: past, present, prospects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de D.P.; Dubois, L.A.M.

    1996-01-01

    In this review the PAST, PRESENT and PROSPECT will be considered as three separate periods in the history of the breeding and development of rose cultivars. The recurring theme is the genetic variation. This theme was chosen because there is justified doubt as to sufficient genetic variation availab

  6. Accuracies of genomically estimated breeding values from pure-breed and across-breed predictions in Australian beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerner, Vinzent; Johnston, David J; Tier, Bruce

    2014-10-24

    The major obstacles for the implementation of genomic selection in Australian beef cattle are the variety of breeds and in general, small numbers of genotyped and phenotyped individuals per breed. The Australian Beef Cooperative Research Center (Beef CRC) investigated these issues by deriving genomic prediction equations (PE) from a training set of animals that covers a range of breeds and crosses including Angus, Murray Grey, Shorthorn, Hereford, Brahman, Belmont Red, Santa Gertrudis and Tropical Composite. This paper presents accuracies of genomically estimated breeding values (GEBV) that were calculated from these PE in the commercial pure-breed beef cattle seed stock sector. PE derived by the Beef CRC from multi-breed and pure-breed training populations were applied to genotyped Angus, Limousin and Brahman sires and young animals, but with no pure-breed Limousin in the training population. The accuracy of the resulting GEBV was assessed by their genetic correlation to their phenotypic target trait in a bi-variate REML approach that models GEBV as trait observations. Accuracies of most GEBV for Angus and Brahman were between 0.1 and 0.4, with accuracies for abattoir carcass traits generally greater than for live animal body composition traits and reproduction traits. Estimated accuracies greater than 0.5 were only observed for Brahman abattoir carcass traits and for Angus carcass rib fat. Averaged across traits within breeds, accuracies of GEBV were highest when PE from the pooled across-breed training population were used. However, for the Angus and Brahman breeds the difference in accuracy from using pure-breed PE was small. For the Limousin breed no reasonable results could be achieved for any trait. Although accuracies were generally low compared to published accuracies estimated within breeds, they are in line with those derived in other multi-breed populations. Thus PE developed by the Beef CRC can contribute to the implementation of genomic selection in

  7. COMPARATIVE STUDIES REGARDING THE HEAVY METALS IONS AND CONDUCTIBILITY, IN WASTE WATERS FROM SMITHFIELD –PERIAM SWINE FARM, TIMIS COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELEONORA NISTOR

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to present the results of the investigation for the surface waters pollution with different ions, Ph, electric conductibility and organic substances from Smithfield-Periam swine breeding complex. Concentrations of magnesium, sulphates, sodium and potassium are situated under the limits accepted for the first class of the surface waters in the new system of cleaning. Electric conductivity values are over the limits accepted by STAS for the surface waters in the old cleaning system and framed in standard limits in the new wastewaters cleaning system. Ph of the analyzed wastewaters is framed in the standard of the surface waters for both cleaning wastewaters systems. With the exception of organic substances, the new system of wastewaters cleaning used in the Smithfield–Periam swine farm is better and in the same is avoiding the pollution for surface waters.

  8. 9 CFR 94.9 - Pork and pork products from regions where classical swine fever exists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... where classical swine fever exists. 94.9 Section 94.9 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT... FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE VESICULAR DISEASE, AND BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY: PROHIBITED AND RESTRICTED IMPORTATIONS § 94.9 Pork and pork products from regions where classical swine...

  9. 9 CFR 93.515 - Appearance of disease among swine in quarantine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appearance of disease among swine in...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.515 Appearance of disease among swine in quarantine. If any contagious disease appears among swine during the quarantine period special...

  10. 9 CFR 94.12 - Pork and pork products from regions where swine vesicular disease exists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... where swine vesicular disease exists. 94.12 Section 94.12 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT... POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS RINDERPEST, FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE VESICULAR DISEASE, AND BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY: PROHIBITED...

  11. Pseudorabies virus in wild swine: a global perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, T; Hahn, E C; Tottewitz, F; Kramer, M; Klupp, B G; Mettenleiter, T C; Freuling, C

    2011-10-01

    Suid herpesvirus 1 (SuHV1, syn. Aujeszky's disease virus [ADV] or pseudorabies virus [PrV]), which belongs to the family Herpesviridae, subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae, genus Varicellovirus is the causative agent of Aujeszky's disease (AD, pseudorabies), a notifiable disease, that causes substantial economic losses to the swine industry in countries, where AD is present. Members of the family Suidae (true pigs) are the only natural hosts for PrV, although the virus can infect numerous other mammals including ruminants, carnivores and rodents. Despite the tremendous progress that has been made in controlling and eliminating PrV in domestic pigs, there is mounting evidence that PrV infections are more widespread in wild swine across the world than originally thought. Unfortunately, our understanding of the extent of PrV infections in these wild populations and of the threat to domestic swine is still fragmentary. This review aims at giving a global perspective on PrV infections in wild swine by scrutinizing the current state of knowledge concerning (i) the global occurrence of PrV infections in free-living populations of wild swine, e.g., wild boar and feral swine, (ii) the molecular characterization of wild swine PrV, (iii) infection characteristics of PrV in populations of wild swine, (iv) the risk of spillover infections to domestic pigs, (v) potential risk-mitigating measures, focusing on further research needs.

  12. PREVALENCE OF CLOSTRIDIUM DIFFICILE IN AN INTEGRATED SWINE OPERATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to compare the prevalence of Clostridium difficile among different age and production groups of swine in a vertically integrated swine operation in Texas in 2006 and to compare our isolates to other animal and human isolates. Isolation of C. difficile was performed u...

  13. Varied prevalence of Clostridium difficile in an integrated swine operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to compare the prevalence of Clostridium difficile among different age and production groups of swine in a vertically integrated swine operation in Texas in 2006 and to compare our isolates to other animal and human isolates. Preliminary results are based on 131 C. d...

  14. Transmission rate of African swine fever virus under experimental conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalho Ferreira, de H.C.; Backer, J.A.; Weesendorp, E.; Klinkenberg, D.; Stegeman, J.A.; Loeffen, W.L.A.

    2013-01-01

    African swine fever (ASF) is a highly lethal, viral disease of swine. No vaccine is available, so controlling an ASF outbreak is highly dependent on zoosanitary measures, such as stamping out infected herds and quarantining of affected areas. Information on ASF transmission parameters could allow

  15. Global migration of influenza A viruses in swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    The emergence of the 2009 A/H1N1 pandemic virus underscores the importance of understanding how influenza A viruses evolve in swine on a global scale. To reveal the frequency, patterns and drivers of the spread of swine influenza virus globally, we conducted the largest phylogenetic analysis of swin...

  16. Lysozyme as an alternative to antibiotics in swine feed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antibiotics have been fed at subtherapeutic levels to swine as growth promoters for more than 60 years, and the majority of swine produced in the U.S. receive antibiotics in their feed at some point in their production cycle. These compounds benefit the producers by minimizing production losses by ...

  17. Economic losses to Iberian swine production from forest fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan Ramon Molina Martinez; Miguel Herrera Machuca; Ricardo Zamora Diaz; Fancisco Rodriguez y Silva; Armando Gonzalez-Caban

    2011-01-01

    Most forestry property in Andalusia is privately held. One of the most important possibilities for economic development of rural areas is the use of pasture lands (dehesa in Spanish). During the spring–summer season, swine grazing takes advantage of grasses between the trees, and during winter (harsher times), they use Quercus tree fruit. Swine production has a direct...

  18. Population dynamics of swine influenza virus in finishing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loeffen, W.L.A.

    2008-01-01

    Influenza virus infections in swine were first noticed in the US in 1918, during the human pandemic of the Spanish flu. In Europe, seroprevalences for the three most common swine influenza strains at the moment, H1N1, H3N2 and H1N2, range from 20-80% in finishing pigs at the end of the finishing per

  19. Transmission rate of African swine fever virus under experimental conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalho Ferreira, de H.C.; Backer, J.A.; Weesendorp, E.; Klinkenberg, D.; Stegeman, J.A.; Loeffen, W.L.A.

    2013-01-01

    African swine fever (ASF) is a highly lethal, viral disease of swine. No vaccine is available, so controlling an ASF outbreak is highly dependent on zoosanitary measures, such as stamping out infected herds and quarantining of affected areas. Information on ASF transmission parameters could allow fo

  20. Emergence of African swine fever virus, northwestern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Pooneh; Sohrabi, Amir; Ashrafihelan, Javad; Edalat, Rosita; Alamdari, Mehran; Masoudi, Mohammadhossein; Mostofi, Saied; Azadmanesh, Kayhan

    2010-12-01

    In 2008, African swine fever was introduced into Georgia, after which it spread to neighboring Armenia, Azerbaijan, and the Russian Federation. That same year, PCR and sequence analysis identified African swine fever virus in samples from 3 dead female wild boars in northwestern Iran. Wild boars may serve as a reservoir.

  1. Population dynamics of swine influenza virus in finishing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loeffen, W.L.A.

    2008-01-01

    Influenza virus infections in swine were first noticed in the US in 1918, during the human pandemic of the Spanish flu. In Europe, seroprevalences for the three most common swine influenza strains at the moment, H1N1, H3N2 and H1N2, range from 20-80% in finishing pigs at the end of the finishing

  2. Assignment of the SLA alleles and reproductive potential of selective breeding Duroc pig lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soe, Ok Kar; Ohba, Yasunori; Imaeda, Noriaki; Nishii, Naohito; Takasu, Masaki; Yoshioka, Gou; Kawata, Hisako; Shigenari, Atsuko; Uenishi, Hirohide; Inoko, Hidetoshi; Ando, Asako; Kitagawa, Hitoshi

    2008-01-01

    Pigs with defined swine leukocyte antigen (SLA) haplotypes and their detailed information are useful for transplantation and immunological studies. We developed two herds of SLA homozygous Duroc pigs with novel SLA haplotypes and characterized their reproductive potential. For selective inbreeding, a pair of Duroc pigs was chosen as initial breeders, and substantial breeding within progenies was carried out for eight generations. In the selective breeding Duroc pigs, SLA haplotypes were assigned by nucleotide sequence determination of reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) products of three SLA classical class I genes and two class II genes. Based on this sequence information, we developed a rapid and simple SLA class II DNA typing method by polymerase chain reaction-sequence specific primer (PCR-SSP) technique. As a complementary method for the characterization of the SLA haplotypes, genetic polymorphisms of 36 microsatellite (MS) markers within the SLA region were also analyzed in the selective breeding pigs with SLA homozygous/heterozygous haplotypes. Among the selective breeding pigs from the third to fifth generations, only two SLA haplotypes were identified by the RT-PCR based SLA typing method; Hp-27.30 (SLA-1*08an03, SLA-1*06an04, SLA-2*0102, SLA-3*0101 DRB1*1101 and DQB1*0503) and Hp-60.13 (SLA-1*an02, SLA-2*1002, SLA-3*0502, DRB1*0403 and DQB1*0303). In these two SLA haplotypes, two class I haplotypes, Hp-27.0 and Hp-60.0, are novel. Furthermore, two class II haplotypes, Hp-0.30 and Hp-0.13, which were previously reported in Korean native pigs and pigs of Hanford breed, respectively, were also assigned by a simple assay using a PCR-SSP technique in the entire selective breeding stock. Moreover, two haplotype specific MS patterns were observed across the entire SLA region in the selective breeding (homozygous/heterozygous) pigs. No morphological abnormalities were observed in selective breeding pigs. The theoretical inbreeding coefficient

  3. Conservation priorities for Ethiopian sheep breeds combining threat status, breed merits and contributions to genetic diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Windig Jack J

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Prioritizing livestock breeds for conservation needs to incorporate both genetic and non-genetic aspects important for the survival of the breeds. Here, we apply a maximum-utility-strategy to prioritize 14 traditional Ethiopian sheep breeds based on their threat status, contributions to farmer livelihoods (current breed merits and contributions to genetic diversity. Contributions of the breeds to genetic diversity were quantified using Eding's marker-estimated kinship approaches. Non-genetic aspects included threats (e.g. low population size, low preferences by farmers and current merits (economic, ecological and cultural merits. Threat analysis identified eight of the 14 breeds as threatened. Analysis of current merits showed that sub-alpine and arid-lowland breeds contribute most to farmer livelihoods in comparison to other breeds. The highest contribution to the genetic diversity conserved was from the Simien breed. Simien showed high between-breed (low between-breed kinship = 0.04 as well as high within-breed diversity (low within-breed kinship = 0.09 and high HE = 0.73 and allelic richness = 6.83. We combined the results on threat status, current breed merits and contributions to genetic diversity to produce a ranking of the 14 breeds for conservation purposes. Our results balance the trade-offs between conserving breeds as insurance against future uncertainties and current sustainable utilization. The ranking of breeds provides a basis for conservation strategies for Ethiopian sheep and contributes to a regional or global conservation plan.

  4. Native Pig and Chicken Breed Database: NPCDB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Hyeon-Soo; Kim, Dae-Won; Chun, Se-Yoon; Sung, Samsun; Kim, Hyeon-Jeong; Cho, Seoae; Kim, Heebal; Oh, Sung-Jong

    2014-10-01

    Indigenous (native) breeds of livestock have higher disease resistance and adaptation to the environment due to high genetic diversity. Even though their extinction rate is accelerated due to the increase of commercial breeds, natural disaster, and civil war, there is a lack of well-established databases for the native breeds. Thus, we constructed the native pig and chicken breed database (NPCDB) which integrates available information on the breeds from around the world. It is a nonprofit public database aimed to provide information on the genetic resources of indigenous pig and chicken breeds for their conservation. The NPCDB (http://npcdb.snu.ac.kr/) provides the phenotypic information and population size of each breed as well as its specific habitat. In addition, it provides information on the distribution of genetic resources across the country. The database will contribute to understanding of the breed's characteristics such as disease resistance and adaptation to environmental changes as well as the conservation of indigenous genetic resources.

  5. Greenhouse gas emission and groundwater pollution potential of soils amended with raw swine manure, dry and wet pyrolyzed swine biochars

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this research is to study the greenhouse gas emission and groundwater pollution potentials of the soils amended with raw swine solid and swine biochars made from different thermochemical conditions. Triplicate sets of small pots were designed: 1) control soil with a 50/50 mixture of...

  6. 9 CFR 93.504 - Import permits for swine and for swine specimens for diagnostic purposes; and reservation fees...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... specimen will be moved only for scientific research or museum display purposes. (Signature of importer... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Import permits for swine and for swine... APHIS. 93.504 Section 93.504 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION...

  7. Selective breeding in organic dairy production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, W.J.

    2009-01-01

    Organic dairy farming started to take off in the early 1990s, when the European Union laid down organic standards for animal production. Until now, however, only incidental steps have been taken towards organic breeding and organic farmers mainly use breeding stock from conventional breeding program

  8. Vision of breeding for organic agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, W.J.; Groen, A.; Roep, D.; Veerkamp, R.F.; Baars, T.

    2003-01-01

    Taking the current breeding situation as the starting point, a number of scenarios are described for each animal sector which could gradually lead to a system of breeding which is more organic both in its aims and in the chain-based approach. The naturalness of the breeding techniques is an

  9. Selective breeding in organic dairy production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, W.J.

    2009-01-01

    Organic dairy farming started to take off in the early 1990s, when the European Union laid down organic standards for animal production. Until now, however, only incidental steps have been taken towards organic breeding and organic farmers mainly use breeding stock from conventional breeding program

  10. Selective breeding in organic dairy production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, W.J.

    2009-01-01

    Organic dairy farming started to take off in the early 1990s, when the European Union laid down organic standards for animal production. Until now, however, only incidental steps have been taken towards organic breeding and organic farmers mainly use breeding stock from conventional breeding

  11. Some tropical viral diseases that can mimic swine flu in pediatrics

    OpenAIRE

    Wiwanitkit, Viroj

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Swine flu is an important emerging infection that is presently pandemic around the world. The pediatric population is an important group that can be infected with swine flu. Generally, common presentations of swine flu include fever and respiratory presentations. However, there are several infections that can have similar presentations to swine flu. In this specific article, the author will briefly discuss on some tropical viral diseases that can mimic swine flu in pediatrics. ...

  12. Some tropical viral diseases that can mimic swine flu in pediatrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viroj WIWANITKIT

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Swine flu is an important emerging infection that is presently pandemic around the world. The pediatric population is an important group that can be infected with swine flu. Generally, common presentations of swine flu include fever and respiratory presentations. However, there are several infections that can have similar presentations to swine flu. In this specific article, the author will briefly discuss on some tropical viral diseases that can mimic swine flu in pediatrics.

  13. Risk factors associated with swine dysentery in East-European pig production units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko C.P.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to determine the risk factors for swine dysentery in East-European middle-size to large farrow to finish units with separate breeding and grower-finisher facilities. Ten breeding animals (3-10% of the female inventory and 10 grower tinisher pigs (80-140 days-of age were sampled in each herd for polymerase chain reaction testing (PCR for Brachyspira hyodysenteriae (B hyo in their feces. Of 139 farrow to finish units, 51 (36.7% were positive, 49 (35,3% were negative, and 39 (28.1% were inconclusive for B hyo by PCR. In breeding subunits, twelve variables passed the screening criterion for risk factors (P<.2 for B hyo PCR positivity. The odds of the breeding subunits being B hyo PCR positive were 3.5 times greater when the grower-finisher subunit was positive and the fiber content of the diet was >6%. Use of "all in all out" farrowing policy and having >60% multiparous sows, each reduced the odds of being B hyo PCR positive about fourfold. In growing-finishing subunits, fourteen variables passed the screening criterion for risk factors (P<-2 for B hyo PCR positivity. B hyo PCR positive status of the breeding subunits and higher fiber content of the diet were the most influential variable, with the odds of the grower-finisher subunits being B hyo PCR positive almost eight times greater when the breeding subunit was also B hyo PCR positive. Grower-finisher B hyo PCR positivity was also associated with the percentage of pigs housed on concrete slats, with the odds of being positive 7.5 times higher for subunits where more that 70% of the animals were kept on concrete slats compared to all other floor types. There was a strong association between grower-finisher status and whether the animals were in outdoor lots with the odds of being B hyo PCR positive substantially lower for pigs in outdoor lots compared with all other surfaces.

  14. Grooming relationships between breeding females and adult group members in cooperatively breeding moustached tamarins (Saguinus mystax).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löttker, Petra; Huck, Maren; Zinner, Dietmar P; Heymann, Eckhard W

    2007-10-01

    Grooming is the most common form of affiliative behavior in primates that apart from hygienic and hedonistic benefits offers important social benefits for the performing individuals. This study examined grooming behavior in a cooperatively breeding primate species, characterized by single female breeding per group, polyandrous matings, dizygotic twinning, delayed offspring dispersal, and intensive helping behavior. In this system, breeding females profit from the presence of helpers but also helpers profit from staying in a group and assisting in infant care due to the accumulation of direct and indirect fitness benefits. We examined grooming relationships of breeding females with three classes of partners (breeding males, potentially breeding males, (sub)adult non-breeding offspring) during three reproductive phases (post-partum ovarian inactivity, ovarian activity, pregnancy) in two groups of wild moustached tamarins (Saguinus mystax). We investigated whether grooming can be used to regulate group size by either "pay-for-help" or "pay-to-stay" mechanisms. Grooming of breeding females with breeding males and non-breeding offspring was more intense and more balanced than with potentially breeding males, and most grooming occurred during the breeding females' pregnancies. Grooming was skewed toward more investment by the breeding females with breeding males during the phases of ovarian activity, and with potentially breeding males during pregnancies. Our results suggest that grooming might be a mechanism used by female moustached tamarins to induce mate association with the breeding male, and to induce certain individuals to stay in the group and help with infant care.

  15. A simple language to script and simulate breeding schemes: the breeding scheme language

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is difficult for plant breeders to determine an optimal breeding strategy given that the problem involves many factors, such as target trait genetic architecture and breeding resource availability. There are many possible breeding schemes for each breeding program. Although simulation study may b...

  16. Emperor penguins breeding on iceshelves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter T Fretwell

    Full Text Available We describe a new breeding behaviour discovered in emperor penguins; utilizing satellite and aerial-survey observations four emperor penguin breeding colonies have been recorded as existing on ice-shelves. Emperors have previously been considered as a sea-ice obligate species, with 44 of the 46 colonies located on sea-ice (the other two small colonies are on land. Of the colonies found on ice-shelves, two are newly discovered, and these have been recorded on shelves every season that they have been observed, the other two have been recorded both on ice-shelves and sea-ice in different breeding seasons. We conduct two analyses; the first using synthetic aperture radar data to assess why the largest of the four colonies, for which we have most data, locates sometimes on the shelf and sometimes on the sea-ice, and find that in years where the sea-ice forms late, the colony relocates onto the ice-shelf. The second analysis uses a number of environmental variables to test the habitat marginality of all emperor penguin breeding sites. We find that three of the four colonies reported in this study are in the most northerly, warmest conditions where sea-ice is often sub-optimal. The emperor penguin's reliance on sea-ice as a breeding platform coupled with recent concerns over changed sea-ice patterns consequent on regional warming, has led to their designation as "near threatened" in the IUCN red list. Current climate models predict that future loss of sea-ice around the Antarctic coastline will negatively impact emperor numbers; recent estimates suggest a halving of the population by 2052. The discovery of this new breeding behaviour at marginal sites could mitigate some of the consequences of sea-ice loss; potential benefits and whether these are permanent or temporary need to be considered and understood before further attempts are made to predict the population trajectory of this iconic species.

  17. 75 FR 33574 - Notice of Revision and Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Swine Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-14

    ... interstate spread of swine diseases and protect swine health and to request extension of approval of the... INFORMATION CONTACT: For information on regulations to prevent the interstate spread of swine diseases and to... interstate movement of swine within a production system to prevent the spread of swine diseases, and Part 85...

  18. 77 FR 14726 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Swine...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-13

    ... certain animal diseases, including classical swine fever (CSF), rinderpest, foot-and-mouth disease, swine vesicular disease, and African swine fever. Section 94.24 deals specifically with the importation of pork... Collection; Importation of Swine and Swine Products From the European Union AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health...

  19. Quantitative approach for the risk assessment of African swine fever and Classical swine fever introduction into the United States through legal imports of pigs and swine products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Ibatá, Diana María; Martínez-López, Beatriz; Quijada, Darla; Burton, Kenneth

    2017-01-01

    The US livestock safety strongly depends on its capacity to prevent the introduction of Transboundary Animal Diseases (TADs). Therefore, accurate and updated information on the location and origin of those potential TADs risks is essential, so preventive measures as market restrictions can be put on place. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the current risk of African swine fever (ASF) and Classical swine fever (CSF) introduction into the US through the legal importations of live pigs and swine products using a quantitative approach that could be later applied to other risks. Four quantitative stochastic risk assessment models were developed to estimate the monthly probabilities of ASF and CSF release into the US, and the exposure of susceptible populations (domestic and feral swine) to these introductions at state level. The results suggest a low annual probability of either ASF or CSF introduction into the US, by any of the analyzed pathways (5.5*10−3). Being the probability of introduction through legal imports of live pigs (1.8*10−3 for ASF, and 2.5*10−3 for CSF) higher than the risk of legally imported swine products (8.90*10−4 for ASF, and 1.56*10−3 for CSF). This could be caused due to the low probability of exposure associated with this type of commodity (products). The risk of feral pigs accessing to swine products discarded in landfills was slightly higher than the potential exposure of domestic pigs through swill feeding. The identification of the months at highest risk, the origin of the higher risk imports, and the location of the US states most vulnerable to those introductions (Iowa, Minnesota and Wisconsin for live swine and California, Florida and Texas for swine products), is valuable information that would help to design prevention, risk-mitigation and early-detection strategies that would help to minimize the catastrophic consequences of potential ASF/CSF introductions into the US. PMID:28797058

  20. Assortative mating and fragmentation within dog breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailer Frank

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are around 400 internationally recognized dog breeds in the world today, with a remarkable diversity in size, shape, color and behavior. Breeds are considered to be uniform groups with similar physical characteristics, shaped by selection rooted in human preferences. This has led to a large genetic difference between breeds and a large extent of linkage disequilibrium within breeds. These characteristics are important for association mapping of candidate genes for diseases and therefore make dogs ideal models for gene mapping of human disorders. However, genetic uniformity within breeds may not always be the case. We studied patterns of genetic diversity within 164 poodles and compared it to 133 dogs from eight other breeds. Results Our analyses revealed strong population structure within poodles, with differences among some poodle groups as pronounced as those among other well-recognized breeds. Pedigree analysis going three generations back in time confirmed that subgroups within poodles result from assortative mating imposed by breed standards as well as breeder preferences. Matings have not taken place at random or within traditionally identified size classes in poodles. Instead, a novel set of five poodle groups was identified, defined by combinations of size and color, which is not officially recognized by the kennel clubs. Patterns of genetic diversity in other breeds suggest that assortative mating leading to fragmentation may be a common feature within many dog breeds. Conclusion The genetic structure observed in poodles is the result of local mating patterns, implying that breed fragmentation may be different in different countries. Such pronounced structuring within dog breeds can increase the power of association mapping studies, but also represents a serious problem if ignored. In dog breeding, individuals are selected on the basis of morphology, behaviour, working or show purposes, as well as geographic

  1. Assortative mating and fragmentation within dog breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björnerfeldt, Susanne; Hailer, Frank; Nord, Maria; Vilà, Carles

    2008-01-28

    There are around 400 internationally recognized dog breeds in the world today, with a remarkable diversity in size, shape, color and behavior. Breeds are considered to be uniform groups with similar physical characteristics, shaped by selection rooted in human preferences. This has led to a large genetic difference between breeds and a large extent of linkage disequilibrium within breeds. These characteristics are important for association mapping of candidate genes for diseases and therefore make dogs ideal models for gene mapping of human disorders. However, genetic uniformity within breeds may not always be the case. We studied patterns of genetic diversity within 164 poodles and compared it to 133 dogs from eight other breeds. Our analyses revealed strong population structure within poodles, with differences among some poodle groups as pronounced as those among other well-recognized breeds. Pedigree analysis going three generations back in time confirmed that subgroups within poodles result from assortative mating imposed by breed standards as well as breeder preferences. Matings have not taken place at random or within traditionally identified size classes in poodles. Instead, a novel set of five poodle groups was identified, defined by combinations of size and color, which is not officially recognized by the kennel clubs. Patterns of genetic diversity in other breeds suggest that assortative mating leading to fragmentation may be a common feature within many dog breeds. The genetic structure observed in poodles is the result of local mating patterns, implying that breed fragmentation may be different in different countries. Such pronounced structuring within dog breeds can increase the power of association mapping studies, but also represents a serious problem if ignored. In dog breeding, individuals are selected on the basis of morphology, behaviour, working or show purposes, as well as geographic population structure. The same processes which have

  2. Breeding quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zurita-Silva, Andrés; Fuentes, Francisco; Zamora, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) originated in the Andean region of South America; this species is associated with exceptional grain nutritional quality and is highly valued for its ability to tolerate abiotic stresses. However, its introduction outside the Andes has yet to take off on a large...... scale. In the Andes, quinoa has until recently been marginally grown by small-scale Andean farmers, leading to minor interest in the crop from urban consumers and the industry. Quinoa breeding programs were not initiated until the 1960s in the Andes, and elsewhere from the 1970s onwards. New molecular...... tools available for the existing quinoa breeding programs, which are critically examined in this review, will enable us to tackle the limitations of allotetraploidy and genetic specificities. The recent progress, together with the declaration of "The International Year of the Quinoa" by the Food...

  3. Hierarchical Control for Smart Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trangbæk, K; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with hierarchical model predictive control (MPC) of smart grid systems. The design consists of a high level MPC controller, a second level of so-called aggregators, which reduces the computational and communication-related load on the high-level control, and a lower level...... of autonomous consumers. The control system is tasked with balancing electric power production and consumption within the smart grid, and makes active use of the flexibility of a large number of power producing and/or power consuming units. The objective is to accommodate the load variation on the grid, arising...

  4. Analysis of Swine Leukocyte Antigen Haplotypes in Yucatan Miniature Pigs Used as Biomedical Model Animal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Nu-Ri; Seo, Dong-Won; Choi, Ki-Myung; Ko, Na-Young; Kim, Ji-Ho; Kim, Hyun-Il; Jung, Woo-Young; Lee, Jun-Heon

    2016-03-01

    The porcine major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is called swine leukocyte antigen (SLA), which controls immune responses and transplantation reactions. The SLA is mapped on pig chromosome 7 (SSC7) near the centromere. In this study, 3 class I (SLA-1, SLA-3, and SLA-2) and 3 class II (DRB1, DQB1, and DQA) genes were used for investigation of SLA haplotypes in Yucatan miniature pigs in Korea. This pig breed is a well-known model organism for biomedical research worldwide. The current study indicated that Korean Yucatan pig population had 3 Class I haplotypes (Lr-4.0, Lr-6.0, and Lr-25.0) and 3 class II haplotypes (Lr-0.5, Lr-0.7, and Lr-0.25). The combinations of SLA class I and II haplotype together, 2 homozygous (Lr-4.5/4.5 and Lr-6.7/6.7) and 3 heterozygous (Lr-4.5/6.7, Lr-4.5/25.25, and Lr-6.7/25.25) haplotypes were identified, including previously unidentified new heterozygous haplotypes (Lr-4.5/4.7). In addition, a new SLA allele typing method using Agilent 2100 bioanalyzer was developed that permitted more rapid identification of SLA haplotypes. These results will facilitate the breeding of SLA homozygous Yucatan pigs and will expedite the possible use of these pigs for the biomedical research, especially xenotransplantation research.

  5. [Antigenic diversity of African swine fever viruses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sereda, A D; Balyshev, V M

    2011-01-01

    Data on the seroimmunotypic and hemadsorbing characteristics of African swine fever virus (ASF) are summarized. According to the results of immunological sampling in pigs and those of hemagglutination inhibition test, the known ASFV strains and isolates were divided into 11 groups, 8 were characterized as seroimmunogroups having their specific reference strains. A 110-140-kD ASFV serotype-specific nonstructural major glycoprotein was identified. It is suggested that it is the glycoprotein that corresponds to the genetic engineering detected virus-specific homolog of lymphocyte membrane protein CD2, gene deletion of which results in the loss of hemadsorbing properties by ASFV.

  6. Zeolites in poultry and swine production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Félix Schneider

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Zeolites are minerals that have intriguing properties such as water absorption, ion adsorption and cation exchange capacity. There are approximately 80 species of natural zeolites recognized and hundreds of artificial zeolites, which have been researched in several fields. Due to their chemical characteristics, zeolites have great potential for use in animal production, especially in poultry and swine farms, as food additives, litter amendment and treatment of residues, with direct and indirect effects on performance, yield and quality of carcass, ambience of farm sheds and reduction of environmental pollution.

  7. SOYBEAN - MOLECULAR ASPECTS OF BREEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Sudarić

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The book Soybean: Molecular Aspects of Breeding focuses recent progress in our understanding of the genetics and molecular biology of soybean. This book is divided into four parts and contains 22 chapters. Part I, Molecular Biology and Biotechnology focuses advances in molecular biology and laboratory procedures that have been developed recently to manipulate DNA. Part II, Breeding for abiotic stress covers proteomics approaches form as a powerful tool for investigating the molecular mechanisms of the plant responses to various types of abiotic stresses. Part III, Breeding for biotic stress addresses issues related to application of molecular based strategies in order to increase soybean resistance to various biotic factors. Part IV, Recent Technology reviews recent technologies into the realm of soybean monitoring, processing and product use. While the information accumulated in this book is of primary interest for plant breeders, valuable insights are also offered to agronomists, molecular biologists, physiologists, plant pathologists, food scientists and students. The book is a result of efforts made by many experts from different countries (USA, Japan, Croatia, Serbia, China, Canada, Malawi, Iran, Hong Kong, Brasil, Mexico.

  8. Charge Breeding of Radioactive Ions

    CERN Document Server

    Wenander, F J C

    2013-01-01

    Charge breeding is a technique to increase the charge state of ions, in many cases radioactive ions. The singly charged radioactive ions, produced in an isotope separator on-line facility, and extracted with a low kinetic energy of some tens of keV, are injected into a charge breeder, where the charge state is increased to Q. The transformed ions are either directed towards a dedicated experiment requiring highly charged ions, or post-accelerated to higher beam energies. In this paper the physics processes involved in the production of highly charged ions will be introduced, and the injection and extraction beam parameters of the charge breeder defined. A description of the three main charge-breeding methods is given, namely: electron stripping in gas jet or foil; external ion injection into an electron-beam ion source/trap (EBIS/T); and external ion injection into an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS). In addition, some preparatory devices for charge breeding and practical beam delivery aspects ...

  9. Hierarchical Structures in Hypertext Learning Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezdan, Eniko; Kester, Liesbeth; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Bezdan, E., Kester, L., & Kirschner, P. A. (2011, 9 September). Hierarchical Structures in Hypertext Learning Environments. Presentation for the visit of KU Leuven, Open University, Heerlen, The Netherlands.

  10. Interaction between mycotoxins and causative agents of swine infective diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prodanov-Radulović Jasna Z.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of fungi that can contaminate animal feeds at all stages of food production chain. Consumption of feed contaminated with mycotoxins may result in immunosuppression, which represents a predisposing factor for occurence of infectious diseases in livestock. The influence on immune system is of special interest in swine industry. The technology on swine farms demands frequent vaccinations, which may be a problem in the case of immunocompromised animals. The aim of this paper was evaluation of mycotoxin influence on swine farms, as secondary factors for destabilization of animals’ immunological system. Material for this research included the samples from five swine farms, where health disorders, i.e. clinical and patomorphological signs resembling the problem with infectious diseases in different swine categories, were detected. The applied research methods included: epidemiological and clinical evaluation, pathomorphological examination, laboratory testing of bacteriological and virusological tissue originating from dead animals, and microbiological feed testing in order to examine the presence of fungi and mycotoxins. The obtained results indicated the existence of positive interaction between mycotoxins and causative agents of swine infective diseases. Despite continual pharmaco- and immunoprophylaxis in swine, the health problems of bacterial ethiology (colibacilosis, enteroxemia, dysentery, pneumonia, endometritis were detected. From an epidemiological point of view, the presence of mycotoxins in animal feed may induce a breakdown of active immunity and occurrence of disease even in properly vaccinated animals.

  11. Vacuum pyrolysis of swine manure : biochar production and characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, M. [Inst. de recherche et de developpement en agroenvironnement Inc., Quebec City, PQ (Canada); Centre de recherche industrielle du Quebec, Quebec City, PQ (Canada); Godbout, S.; Larouche, J.P.; Lemay, S.P.; Pelletier, F. [Inst. de recherche et de developpement en agroenvironnement Inc., Quebec City, PQ (Canada); Solomatnikova, O. [Centre de recherche industrielle du Quebec, Quebec City, PQ (Canada); Brar, S.K. [Inst. national de la recherche scientifique, eau, terre et environnement, Quebec City, PQ (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Quebec accounts for nearly 25 per cent of swine production in Canada. The issue of swine manure is addressed through land spreading and conversion into fertilizer. However, current regulations restrict the use of swine manure as fertilizer on most farmlands due to the problem of surplus phosphorus and nitrogen. Although many technologies exist to separate phosphorus and nitrogen from the organic-rich dry matter in swine manure, about 40 per cent of the treated waste matter must still be disposed in an environmentally sound manner. This study investigated the technical feasibility of pretreating the swine manure solids into biofuels on a farm-scale basis using vacuum pyrolysis process. A custom built stainless steel pressure vessel was used to carry out pyrolysis reaction of swine manure biomass at a temperature range between 200 to 600 degrees C under vacuum. The pyrolytic vapour was condensed in 2 glass condensers in series. The biochar was collected directly from the pyrolysis vessel following completion of the pyrolysis batch. The non condensable vapour and gases were considered as losses. Biochar, bio-oil, an aqueous phase and a gas mixture were the 4 products of the pyrolysis process. A thermogravimetric analysis of the swine manure samples was conducted before the pyrolysis tests. The study showed that 238 degrees C is the optimal pyrolysis temperature for biochar production.

  12. Pandemism of swine flu and its prospective drug therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, R K; Tripathi, P; Rawat, G

    2012-12-01

    Swine flu is a respiratory disease caused by influenza A H1N1 virus. The current pandemic of swine flu is most probably due to a mutation-more specifically, a re-assortment of four known strains of influenza A virus subtype H1N1. Antigenic variation of influenza viruses while circulating in the population is an important factor leading to difficulties in controlling influenza by vaccination. Due to the global effect of swine flu and its effect on humans, extensive investigations are being undertaken. In this context, Tamiflu is the only available drug used in the prophylaxis of this disease and is made from the compound shikimic acid. Due to the sudden increase in the demand of shikimic acid, its price has increased greatly. Thus, it is necessary to find an alternative approach for the treatment of swine flu. This review presents the overall information of swine flu, beginning from its emergence to the prevention and treatment of the disease, with a major emphasis on the alternative approach (bacterial fermentation process) for the treatment of swine flu. The alternative approach for the treatment of swine flu includes the production of shikimic acid from a fermentation process and it can be produced in large quantities without any time limitations.

  13. Dynamic Organization of Hierarchical Memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurikawa, Tomoki; Kaneko, Kunihiko

    2016-01-01

    In the brain, external objects are categorized in a hierarchical way. Although it is widely accepted that objects are represented as static attractors in neural state space, this view does not take account interaction between intrinsic neural dynamics and external input, which is essential to understand how neural system responds to inputs. Indeed, structured spontaneous neural activity without external inputs is known to exist, and its relationship with evoked activities is discussed. Then, how categorical representation is embedded into the spontaneous and evoked activities has to be uncovered. To address this question, we studied bifurcation process with increasing input after hierarchically clustered associative memories are learned. We found a "dynamic categorization"; neural activity without input wanders globally over the state space including all memories. Then with the increase of input strength, diffuse representation of higher category exhibits transitions to focused ones specific to each object. The hierarchy of memories is embedded in the transition probability from one memory to another during the spontaneous dynamics. With increased input strength, neural activity wanders over a narrower state space including a smaller set of memories, showing more specific category or memory corresponding to the applied input. Moreover, such coarse-to-fine transitions are also observed temporally during transient process under constant input, which agrees with experimental findings in the temporal cortex. These results suggest the hierarchy emerging through interaction with an external input underlies hierarchy during transient process, as well as in the spontaneous activity.

  14. Genetic diversity of eleven European pig breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foulley Jean-Louis

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A set of eleven pig breeds originating from six European countries, and including a small sample of wild pigs, was chosen for this study of genetic diversity. Diversity was evaluated on the basis of 18 microsatellite markers typed over a total of 483 DNA samples collected. Average breed heterozygosity varied from 0.35 to 0.60. Genotypic frequencies generally agreed with Hardy-Weinberg expectations, apart from the German Landrace and Schwäbisch-Hällisches breeds, which showed significantly reduced heterozygosity. Breed differentiation was significant as shown by the high among-breed fixation index (overall FST = 0.27, and confirmed by the clustering based on the genetic distances between individuals, which grouped essentially all individuals in 11 clusters corresponding to the 11 breeds. The genetic distances between breeds were first used to construct phylogenetic trees. The trees indicated that a genetic drift model might explain the divergence of the two German breeds, but no reliable phylogeny could be inferred among the remaining breeds. The same distances were also used to measure the global diversity of the set of breeds considered, and to evaluate the marginal loss of diversity attached to each breed. In that respect, the French Basque breed appeared to be the most "unique" in the set considered. This study, which remains to be extended to a larger set of European breeds, indicates that using genetic distances between breeds of farm animals in a classical taxonomic approach may not give clear resolution, but points to their usefulness in a prospective evaluation of diversity.

  15. Breeding without breeding: is a complete pedigree necessary for efficient breeding?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousry A El-Kassaby

    Full Text Available Complete pedigree information is a prerequisite for modern breeding and the ranking of parents and offspring for selection and deployment decisions. DNA fingerprinting and pedigree reconstruction can substitute for artificial matings, by allowing parentage delineation of naturally produced offspring. Here, we report on the efficacy of a breeding concept called "Breeding without Breeding" (BwB that circumvents artificial matings, focusing instead on a subset of randomly sampled, maternally known but paternally unknown offspring to delineate their paternal parentage. We then generate the information needed to rank those offspring and their paternal parents, using a combination of complete (full-sib: FS and incomplete (half-sib: HS analyses of the constructed pedigrees. Using a random sample of wind-pollinated offspring from 15 females (seed donors, growing in a 41-parent western larch population, BwB is evaluated and compared to two commonly used testing methods that rely on either incomplete (maternal half-sib, open-pollinated: OP or complete (FS pedigree designs. BwB produced results superior to those from the incomplete design and virtually identical to those from the complete pedigree methods. The combined use of complete and incomplete pedigree information permitted evaluating all parents, both maternal and paternal, as well as all offspring, a result that could not have been accomplished with either the OP or FS methods alone. We also discuss the optimum experimental setting, in terms of the proportion of fingerprinted offspring, the size of the assembled maternal and paternal half-sib families, the role of external gene flow, and selfing, as well as the number of parents that could be realistically tested with BwB.

  16. Swine influenza viruses: an Asian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Young-Ki; Pascua, Phillippe Noriel Q; Song, Min-Suk

    2013-01-01

    Swine influenza viruses (SIVs) are respiratory viral pathogens of pigs that are capable of causing serious global public health concerns in human. Because of their dual susceptibility to mammalian and avian influenza A viruses, pigs are the leading intermediate hosts for genetic reassortment and interspecies transmission and serve as reservoirs of antigenically divergent human viruses from which zoonotic stains with pandemic potential may arise. Pandemic influenza viruses emerging after the 1918 Spanish flu have originated in asia. Although distinct lineages of North American and European SIVs of the H1N1, H3N2, and HiN2 subtypes have been widely studied, less is known about the porcine viruses that are circulating among pig populations throughout Asia. The current review understanding of Contemporary viruses, human infection with SIVs, and the potential threat of novel pandemic strains are described, Furthermore, to best use the limited resources that are available for comprehensive genetic assessment of influenza, consensus efforts among Asian nations to increase epidemiosurveillance of swine herds is also strongly promoted.

  17. Swine manure digestate treatment using electrocoagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rúbia Mores

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Anaerobic biodigestion is an appropriate alternative for the treatment of swine wastewater due to its biogas generation properties and the possibility of its application as a source of energy for heating or electricity. However, digestate can still contain high levels of turbidity, organic carbon and nutrients and must be correctly managed as a biofertilizer, or treated to avoid any impact on the environment. Considering this, electrocoagulation (EC shows promise as a technology because of its ease of handling and high efficiency in effluent remediation. This study aimed to evaluate the performance of EC in a batch system in the treatment of swine wastewater digestate. The wastewater used in the treatment was sampled from a 10 m3 biodigestor effluent (digestate located at Concórdia, Santa Catarina, Brazil. A batch-scale experiment was carried out to evaluate the following two variables: electrode distance (ED and voltage applied (V. The removal efficiency levels (% for the best operational condition (2 cm, 5 V after 30 min were: 97 %, 98 %, 77 % and 10 % for color, turbidity, total organic carbon (TOC and total nitrogen (TN, respectively. The EC batch system produced efficient results, underlining its promise as an alternative to be applied in the treatment of digestate.

  18. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in the U.S. swine herd using sera collected during the National Animal Health Monitoring Survey (Swine 2006)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sera and data on swine management practices was collected during the voluntary survey of 185 grower/finisher swine production sites located in 16 states accounting for >90% of U.S. swine production . A total of 6,238 sera were tested for T. gondii antibodies using a commercial ELISA assay; all posit...

  19. Discovering hierarchical structure in normal relational data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Mikkel Nørgaard; Herlau, Tue; Mørup, Morten

    2014-01-01

    Hierarchical clustering is a widely used tool for structuring and visualizing complex data using similarity. Traditionally, hierarchical clustering is based on local heuristics that do not explicitly provide assessment of the statistical saliency of the extracted hierarchy. We propose a non-param...

  20. Discursive Hierarchical Patterning in Economics Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung, Jane

    2011-01-01

    This paper attempts to apply Lung's (2008) model of the discursive hierarchical patterning of cases to a closer and more specific study of Economics cases and proposes a model of the distinct discursive hierarchical patterning of the same. It examines a corpus of 150 Economics cases with a view to uncovering the patterns of discourse construction.…

  1. A Model of Hierarchical Key Assignment Scheme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhigang; ZHAO Jing; XU Maozhi

    2006-01-01

    A model of the hierarchical key assignment scheme is approached in this paper, which can be used with any cryptography algorithm. Besides, the optimal dynamic control property of a hierarchical key assignment scheme will be defined in this paper. Also, our scheme model will meet this property.

  2. Breeding schemes in reindeer husbandry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Rönnegård

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper was to investigate annual genetic gain from selection (G, and the influence of selection on the inbreeding effective population size (Ne, for different possible breeding schemes within a reindeer herding district. The breeding schemes were analysed for different proportions of the population within a herding district included in the selection programme. Two different breeding schemes were analysed: an open nucleus scheme where males mix and mate between owner flocks, and a closed nucleus scheme where the males in non-selected owner flocks are culled to maximise G in the whole population. The theory of expected long-term genetic contributions was used and maternal effects were included in the analyses. Realistic parameter values were used for the population, modelled with 5000 reindeer in the population and a sex ratio of 14 adult females per male. The standard deviation of calf weights was 4.1 kg. Four different situations were explored and the results showed: 1. When the population was randomly culled, Ne equalled 2400. 2. When the whole population was selected on calf weights, Ne equalled 1700 and the total annual genetic gain (direct + maternal in calf weight was 0.42 kg. 3. For the open nucleus scheme, G increased monotonically from 0 to 0.42 kg as the proportion of the population included in the selection programme increased from 0 to 1.0, and Ne decreased correspondingly from 2400 to 1700. 4. In the closed nucleus scheme the lowest value of Ne was 1300. For a given proportion of the population included in the selection programme, the difference in G between a closed nucleus scheme and an open one was up to 0.13 kg. We conclude that for mass selection based on calf weights in herding districts with 2000 animals or more, there are no risks of inbreeding effects caused by selection.

  3. Galaxy formation through hierarchical clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Simon D. M.; Frenk, Carlos S.

    1991-01-01

    Analytic methods for studying the formation of galaxies by gas condensation within massive dark halos are presented. The present scheme applies to cosmogonies where structure grows through hierarchical clustering of a mixture of gas and dissipationless dark matter. The simplest models consistent with the current understanding of N-body work on dissipationless clustering, and that of numerical and analytic work on gas evolution and cooling are adopted. Standard models for the evolution of the stellar population are also employed, and new models for the way star formation heats and enriches the surrounding gas are constructed. Detailed results are presented for a cold dark matter universe with Omega = 1 and H(0) = 50 km/s/Mpc, but the present methods are applicable to other models. The present luminosity functions contain significantly more faint galaxies than are observed.

  4. Groups possessing extensive hierarchical decompositions

    CERN Document Server

    Januszkiewicz, T; Leary, I J

    2009-01-01

    Kropholler's class of groups is the smallest class of groups which contains all finite groups and is closed under the following operator: whenever $G$ admits a finite-dimensional contractible $G$-CW-complex in which all stabilizer groups are in the class, then $G$ is itself in the class. Kropholler's class admits a hierarchical structure, i.e., a natural filtration indexed by the ordinals. For example, stage 0 of the hierarchy is the class of all finite groups, and stage 1 contains all groups of finite virtual cohomological dimension. We show that for each countable ordinal $\\alpha$, there is a countable group that is in Kropholler's class which does not appear until the $\\alpha+1$st stage of the hierarchy. Previously this was known only for $\\alpha= 0$, 1 and 2. The groups that we construct contain torsion. We also review the construction of a torsion-free group that lies in the third stage of the hierarchy.

  5. Quantum transport through hierarchical structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boettcher, S; Varghese, C; Novotny, M A

    2011-04-01

    The transport of quantum electrons through hierarchical lattices is of interest because such lattices have some properties of both regular lattices and random systems. We calculate the electron transmission as a function of energy in the tight-binding approximation for two related Hanoi networks. HN3 is a Hanoi network with every site having three bonds. HN5 has additional bonds added to HN3 to make the average number of bonds per site equal to five. We present a renormalization group approach to solve the matrix equation involved in this quantum transport calculation. We observe band gaps in HN3, while no such band gaps are observed in linear networks or in HN5. We provide a detailed scaling analysis near the edges of these band gaps.

  6. Hierarchical networks of scientific journals

    CERN Document Server

    Palla, Gergely; Mones, Enys; Pollner, Péter; Vicsek, Tamás

    2015-01-01

    Scientific journals are the repositories of the gradually accumulating knowledge of mankind about the world surrounding us. Just as our knowledge is organised into classes ranging from major disciplines, subjects and fields to increasingly specific topics, journals can also be categorised into groups using various metrics. In addition to the set of topics characteristic for a journal, they can also be ranked regarding their relevance from the point of overall influence. One widespread measure is impact factor, but in the present paper we intend to reconstruct a much more detailed description by studying the hierarchical relations between the journals based on citation data. We use a measure related to the notion of m-reaching centrality and find a network which shows the level of influence of a journal from the point of the direction and efficiency with which information spreads through the network. We can also obtain an alternative network using a suitably modified nested hierarchy extraction method applied ...

  7. Adaptive Sampling in Hierarchical Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knap, J; Barton, N R; Hornung, R D; Arsenlis, A; Becker, R; Jefferson, D R

    2007-07-09

    We propose an adaptive sampling methodology for hierarchical multi-scale simulation. The method utilizes a moving kriging interpolation to significantly reduce the number of evaluations of finer-scale response functions to provide essential constitutive information to a coarser-scale simulation model. The underlying interpolation scheme is unstructured and adaptive to handle the transient nature of a simulation. To handle the dynamic construction and searching of a potentially large set of finer-scale response data, we employ a dynamic metric tree database. We study the performance of our adaptive sampling methodology for a two-level multi-scale model involving a coarse-scale finite element simulation and a finer-scale crystal plasticity based constitutive law.

  8. Multicollinearity in hierarchical linear models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Han; Jiang, Shanhe; Land, Kenneth C

    2015-09-01

    This study investigates an ill-posed problem (multicollinearity) in Hierarchical Linear Models from both the data and the model perspectives. We propose an intuitive, effective approach to diagnosing the presence of multicollinearity and its remedies in this class of models. A simulation study demonstrates the impacts of multicollinearity on coefficient estimates, associated standard errors, and variance components at various levels of multicollinearity for finite sample sizes typical in social science studies. We further investigate the role multicollinearity plays at each level for estimation of coefficient parameters in terms of shrinkage. Based on these analyses, we recommend a top-down method for assessing multicollinearity in HLMs that first examines the contextual predictors (Level-2 in a two-level model) and then the individual predictors (Level-1) and uses the results for data collection, research problem redefinition, model re-specification, variable selection and estimation of a final model.

  9. Investigation of exposure to swine influenza viruses in Ontario (Canada) finisher herds in 2004 and 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poljak, Zvonimir; Friendship, Robert M; Carman, Susy; McNab, W Bruce; Dewey, Catherine E

    2008-01-01

    The epidemiology of influenza in the North American swine population has changed since the emergence of a triple-reassortant H3N2 influenza virus. Although seen previously in North America, the Ontario swine population had likely been free of viruses of the reassortant H3N2 lineage until 2005. The objective of this study was to investigate the frequency and distribution of exposure to H1N1 and H3N2 subtypes in the Ontario finisher pig population prior to and after the H3N2 outbreak that occurred in 2005. This included investigating prevalence and spatial distribution of positive herds, assessing proportion of random variation at different hierarchical levels, and evaluating selected demographic factors and management procedures as potential risk factors. In total, 919 and 978 sera collected in cross-sectional studies from 46 and 49 finisher herds in 2004 and 2005 were tested by a H1N1 subtype-specific and a H3N2 subtype-specific commercial ELISA. For the H1N1 subtype, the point prevalence of positive herds (>3 reactors) was 19.5% and 30.6% in 2004 and 2005, respectively. For the H3N2 subtype the point prevalence of positive herds (>3 reactors) was 6.5% and 40.8% in 2004 and 2005, respectively. Sera from 2004 that were positive on H3N2 ELISA did not cross-react with any of the H3N2 variants used as antigen on a sequential HI test. Only herds positive for H3N2 subtype in 2005 clustered in space (Pbanks as a useful resource for retrospective comparisons.

  10. Hierarchically Nanostructured Materials for Sustainable Environmental Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zheng; Guo, Yanbing; Liu, Cai-Hong; Gao, Pu-Xian

    2013-11-01

    This article presents a comprehensive overview of the hierarchical nanostructured materials with either geometry or composition complexity in environmental applications. The hierarchical nanostructures offer advantages of high surface area, synergistic interactions and multiple functionalities towards water remediation, environmental gas sensing and monitoring as well as catalytic gas treatment. Recent advances in synthetic strategies for various hierarchical morphologies such as hollow spheres and urchin-shaped architectures have been reviewed. In addition to the chemical synthesis, the physical mechanisms associated with the materials design and device fabrication have been discussed for each specific application. The development and application of hierarchical complex perovskite oxide nanostructures have also been introduced in photocatalytic water remediation, gas sensing and catalytic converter. Hierarchical nanostructures will open up many possibilities for materials design and device fabrication in environmental chemistry and technology.

  11. A neural signature of hierarchical reinforcement learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribas-Fernandes, José J F; Solway, Alec; Diuk, Carlos; McGuire, Joseph T; Barto, Andrew G; Niv, Yael; Botvinick, Matthew M

    2011-07-28

    Human behavior displays hierarchical structure: simple actions cohere into subtask sequences, which work together to accomplish overall task goals. Although the neural substrates of such hierarchy have been the target of increasing research, they remain poorly understood. We propose that the computations supporting hierarchical behavior may relate to those in hierarchical reinforcement learning (HRL), a machine-learning framework that extends reinforcement-learning mechanisms into hierarchical domains. To test this, we leveraged a distinctive prediction arising from HRL. In ordinary reinforcement learning, reward prediction errors are computed when there is an unanticipated change in the prospects for accomplishing overall task goals. HRL entails that prediction errors should also occur in relation to task subgoals. In three neuroimaging studies we observed neural responses consistent with such subgoal-related reward prediction errors, within structures previously implicated in reinforcement learning. The results reported support the relevance of HRL to the neural processes underlying hierarchical behavior.

  12. Hierarchical Identity-Based Lossy Trapdoor Functions

    CERN Document Server

    Escala, Alex; Libert, Benoit; Rafols, Carla

    2012-01-01

    Lossy trapdoor functions, introduced by Peikert and Waters (STOC'08), have received a lot of attention in the last years, because of their wide range of applications in theoretical cryptography. The notion has been recently extended to the identity-based scenario by Bellare et al. (Eurocrypt'12). We provide one more step in this direction, by considering the notion of hierarchical identity-based lossy trapdoor functions (HIB-LTDFs). Hierarchical identity-based cryptography generalizes identitybased cryptography in the sense that identities are organized in a hierarchical way; a parent identity has more power than its descendants, because it can generate valid secret keys for them. Hierarchical identity-based cryptography has been proved very useful both for practical applications and to establish theoretical relations with other cryptographic primitives. In order to realize HIB-LTDFs, we first build a weakly secure hierarchical predicate encryption scheme. This scheme, which may be of independent interest, is...

  13. Hierarchically nanostructured materials for sustainable environmental applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zheng; Guo, Yanbing; Liu, Cai-Hong; Gao, Pu-Xian

    2013-01-01

    This review presents a comprehensive overview of the hierarchical nanostructured materials with either geometry or composition complexity in environmental applications. The hierarchical nanostructures offer advantages of high surface area, synergistic interactions, and multiple functionalities toward water remediation, biosensing, environmental gas sensing and monitoring as well as catalytic gas treatment. Recent advances in synthetic strategies for various hierarchical morphologies such as hollow spheres and urchin-shaped architectures have been reviewed. In addition to the chemical synthesis, the physical mechanisms associated with the materials design and device fabrication have been discussed for each specific application. The development and application of hierarchical complex perovskite oxide nanostructures have also been introduced in photocatalytic water remediation, gas sensing, and catalytic converter. Hierarchical nanostructures will open up many possibilities for materials design and device fabrication in environmental chemistry and technology. PMID:24790946

  14. Hierarchically Nanostructured Materials for Sustainable Environmental Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng eRen

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a comprehensive overview of the hierarchical nanostructured materials with either geometry or composition complexity in environmental applications. The hierarchical nanostructures offer advantages of high surface area, synergistic interactions and multiple functionalities towards water remediation, environmental gas sensing and monitoring as well as catalytic gas treatment. Recent advances in synthetic strategies for various hierarchical morphologies such as hollow spheres and urchin-shaped architectures have been reviewed. In addition to the chemical synthesis, the physical mechanisms associated with the materials design and device fabrication have been discussed for each specific application. The development and application of hierarchical complex perovskite oxide nanostructures have also been introduced in photocatalytic water remediation, gas sensing and catalytic converter. Hierarchical nanostructures will open up many possibilities for materials design and device fabrication in environmental chemistry and technology.

  15. Removal of nitrogen from anaerobically digested swine wastewater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-29

    Aug 29, 2011 ... ammonia oxidizing bacteria; NOB, nitrite oxidizing bacteria;. SBR, sequencing .... anoxic reactor, the sulfur-packed biofilter and the mixed liquor in ..... bioreactor for treatment of strong nitrogenous swine wastewater. Process ...

  16. Oseltamivir resistance in swine influenza: a brief discussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Swine flu, an atypical H1N1 influenza virus infection, is a new emerging infectious disease starting from Mexico in 2009, and is presently pandemic around the world. For treatment of this infection, oseltamivir is recommended as drug of choice. Generally, a big problem for using oseltamivir in treatment of classical H1NI influenza virus infection is drug resistance. In this brief paper, the author discusses on the situation of oseltamivir resistance in swine influenza. Briefly, the oseltamivir resistance of swine flu is expected to be possible due to many underlying factors. It is needed to perform surveillance on oseltamivir resistance in swine flu. Planning for management of case of emerging oseltamivir drug resistance is needed.

  17. Kinetics of Methane Production from Swine Manure and Buffalo Manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chen; Cao, Weixing; Liu, Ronghou

    2015-10-01

    The degradation kinetics of swine and buffalo manure for methane production was investigated. Six kinetic models were employed to describe the corresponding experimental data. These models were evaluated by two statistical measurements, which were root mean square prediction error (RMSPE) and Akaike's information criterion (AIC). The results showed that the logistic and Fitzhugh models could predict the experimental data very well for the digestion of swine and buffalo manure, respectively. The predicted methane yield potential for swine and buffalo manure was 487.9 and 340.4 mL CH4/g volatile solid (VS), respectively, which was close to experimental values, when the digestion temperature was 36 ± 1 °C in the biochemical methane potential assays. Besides, the rate constant revealed that swine manure had a much faster methane production rate than buffalo manure.

  18. Production system dynamism and parasitic interac- tion of swine in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    parasite. ... variation in the distribution of these parasitic infections in different areas but not ... Swine production is increasing from time to time in many parts of tropical .... good (for those kept in clean concrete floor with drainage system), medium.

  19. The Romanian Swine Market in the EU Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvius STANCIU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Pork is a traditional food product for Romania, representing more than half of the annual meat consumption per capita. Swine farming is an activity mainly at full time households, ensuring subsistence, representing a source for commercial exchanges, ensuring workforce stability in the rural areas. The Romanian pork production has presented a slightly fluctuating evolution in recent years. The paper proposes a review of the domestic production, consumption, origin and price of swine sold in the Romanian market. The comunity competitive conditions, the export limitation and food crisis (horse meat scandal, spoiled meat scandal, swine fever or swine flu affected domestic production and exports. Data used in this paper represent statistical information provided by specialized national, European or global institutions, information presented in the media, journals, food industry treatises/dissertations or official information submitted by the Ministry of Agriculture.

  20. Hierarchically Nanoporous Bioactive Glasses for High Efficiency Immobilization of Enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, W.; Min, D.D.; Zhang, X.D.

    2014-01-01

    Bioactive glasses with hierarchical nanoporosity and structures have been heavily involved in immobilization of enzymes. Because of meticulous design and ingenious hierarchical nanostructuration of porosities from yeast cell biotemplates, hierarchically nanostructured porous bioactive glasses can...

  1. Hierarchical mutual information for the comparison of hierarchical community structures in complex networks

    CERN Document Server

    Perotti, Juan Ignacio; Caldarelli, Guido

    2015-01-01

    The quest for a quantitative characterization of community and modular structure of complex networks produced a variety of methods and algorithms to classify different networks. However, it is not clear if such methods provide consistent, robust and meaningful results when considering hierarchies as a whole. Part of the problem is the lack of a similarity measure for the comparison of hierarchical community structures. In this work we give a contribution by introducing the {\\it hierarchical mutual information}, which is a generalization of the traditional mutual information, and allows to compare hierarchical partitions and hierarchical community structures. The {\\it normalized} version of the hierarchical mutual information should behave analogously to the traditional normalized mutual information. Here, the correct behavior of the hierarchical mutual information is corroborated on an extensive battery of numerical experiments. The experiments are performed on artificial hierarchies, and on the hierarchical ...

  2. Breeding for behavioural change in farm animails

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; D'eath, RB; Lawrence, AB

    2009-01-01

    examples, such as breeding for good maternal behaviour, could enhance welfare, production and naturalness, although dilemmas emerge where improved welfare could result from breeding away from natural behaviour. Selection against certain behaviours may carry a risk of creating animals which are generally......In farm animal breeding, behavioural traits are rarely included in selection programmes despite their potential to improve animal production and welfare. Breeding goals have been broadened beyond production traits in most farm animal species to include health and functional traits......, and opportunities exist to increase the inclusion of behaviour in breeding indices. On a technical level, breeding for behaviour presents a number of particular challenges compared to physical traits. It is much more difficult and time-consuming to directly measure behaviour in a consistent and reliable manner...

  3. A Blast Model of Traumatic Brain Injury in Swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    public release; distribution unlimited Although blast-induced traumatic brain injury (BI- TBI ) is a significant cause of morbidity and behavioral...survival model of BI- TBI in swine. Traumatic Brain Injury , Swine, Blast, Model Development U U U 7 USAMRMC W81XWH-08-2-0082... Injury , TBI Scientific Advisor, Defense Center of Excellence for Psychological Health and Traumatic Brain Injury ) and Dr. Tamara Crowder at the DoD

  4. Toxicokinetics of Microcystin and Dihydro-Microcystin in Swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-14

    AND METHODS Animals- Landrace -cross, specific pathogen free female swine weighing 18 to 24 kg were given free access to feed and water until 12 hours...MATERIALS AND METHODS Animals- Landrace cross specific pathogen free female swine weighing from 18 to 24 kg were group housed and given free access to...ileal loop model. Materials and Methods Animals- Landrace -cross, specific pathogen free female pigs weighing 18 to 24 kg were given free access to feed

  5. Interaction between mycotoxins and causative agents of swine infective diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Prodanov-Radulović Jasna Z.; Došen Radoslav Đ.; Stojanov Igor M.; Pušić Ivan M.; Živkov-Baloš Milica M.; Ratajac Radomir D.

    2011-01-01

    Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of fungi that can contaminate animal feeds at all stages of food production chain. Consumption of feed contaminated with mycotoxins may result in immunosuppression, which represents a predisposing factor for occurence of infectious diseases in livestock. The influence on immune system is of special interest in swine industry. The technology on swine farms demands frequent vaccinations, which may be a problem in the case of immunocompromised animals. ...

  6. [African swine fever in Russian Federation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaberezhnyĭ, A D; Aliper, T I; Grebennikova, T A; Verkhovskiĭ, O A; Sanchez-Vizcaino, J M; Mur, Lina; Nepoklonov, E A; L'vov, D K

    2012-01-01

    African swine fever (ASF) is an infectious viral disease that causes high economic losses due to the necessity of depopulation of pigs in affected areas, sanitary measures, trade restrictions, etc. The virus (ASFV) is relatively stable in the unprocessed meat products and environment. Thus, large areas are at risk due to free movement of people and products. The ASFV does not affect people and animals, except the wild and domestic pigs. Some ticks can become infected and carry the virus for years. Adaptation of the virus by changing into the less virulent form would mean the threat of an endemic situation to the area. The disease is endemic in domestic and wild pigs in most of sub-Saharan Africa and Sardinia, Italy. There is no treatment for ASF, and no vaccine has been developed. In case of infection with less virulent ASFV strains, the recovered pigs could spread the virus as long as their live. In terms of clinical symptoms, ASF is very similar to Classical Swine Fever. The methods of laboratory diagnostics are well developed and efficient for identification of ASFV and virus-specific antibodies. Experience of eradication of ASF in Spain suggests the importance of serological monitoring of pigs. In the spring of 2007, the ASF was detected in the Caucasus region. Same virus was detected in Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Russia. The ASFV circulating in the Caucasus and the Russian Federation is a highly virulent virus. No reduction of the virulence was observed since the first outbreak in Georgia. In the last years, the ASF remained in the Caucasus, southern parts of Russia and appeared occasionally as far as St. Petersburg and St. Petersburg region, and in the area of Nizhny Novgorod. Domestic pigs play an important role in the ASFV spread; they transfer the virus to the wild boars. The virus circulates in the population of wild boars depending on their density in the area. Occasionally, the disease is spread from wild to domestic pigs. There is no evidence of

  7. Breeding of speciality maize for industrial purposes

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The breeding programme on speciality maize with specific traits was established at the Maize Research Institute, Zemun Polje, several decades ago. The initial material was collected, new methods applying to breeding of speciality maize, i.e. popping maize, sweet maize and white-seeded maize, were introduced. The aim was to enhance and improve variability of the initial material for breeding these three types of maize. Then, inbred lines of good combining abilities were developed and used as c...

  8. Development Of Space Breeding In China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Luxiang

    2009-01-01

    @@ Space breeding provides a new technical platform for Chinese agricaltural scientists to explore the mechanism of crop mutation induced during spaceflight and breeds new varieties of crops. It is important for China to develop the space breeding industry,maintain China's lead position in this field,serve agricultural production better,promote China's sustainable and healthy agricultural development,and ensure national food safety.

  9. The Breeding Bird Survey, 1966

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, C.S.; Van Velzen, W.T.

    1967-01-01

    A Breeding Bird Survey of a large section on North America was conducted during June 1966. Cooperators ran a total of 585 Survey routes in 26 eastern States and 4 Canadian Provinces. Future coverage of established routes will enable changes in the abundance of North American breeding birds to be measured. Routes are selected at random on the basis of one-degree blocks of latitude and longitude. Each 241/2-mile route, with 3-minute stops spaced one-half mile apart, is driven by automobile. All birds heard or seen at the stops are recorded on special forms and the data are then transferred to machine punch cards. The average number of birds per route is tabulated by State, along with the total number of each species and the percent of routes and stops upon which they were recorded. Maps are presented showing the range and abundance of selected species. Also, a year-to-year comparison is made of populations of selected species on Maryland routes in 1965 and 1966.

  10. Molecular tools for breeding basidiomycetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, L; Larraya, L M; Pisabarro, A G

    2000-09-01

    The industrial production of edible basidiomycetes is increasing every year as a response to the increasing public demand of them because of their nutritional properties. About a dozen of fungal species can be currently produced for food with sound industrial and economic bases. Notwithstanding, this production is threatened by biotic and abiotic factors that make it necessary to improve the fungal strains currently used in industry. Breeding of edible basidiomycetes, however, has been mainly empirical and slow since the genetic tools useful in the selection of the new genetic material to be introduced in the commercial strains have not been developed for these fungi as it was for other organisms. In this review we will discuss the main genetic factors that should be considered to develop breeding approaches and tools for higher basidiomycetes. These factors are (i) the genetic system controlling fungal mating; (ii) the genomic structure and organisation of these fungi; and (iii) the identification of genes involved in the control of quantitative traits. We will discuss the weight of these factors using the oyster mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus as a model organism for most of the edible fungi cultivated industrially.

  11. Report of mecC-carrying MRSA in domestic swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angen, Ø.; Stegger, M.; Larsen, J.; Lilje, B.; Kaya, H.; Pedersen, K. S.; Jakobsen, A.; Petersen, A.; Larsen, A. R.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives We unexpectedly identified MRSA isolates carrying mecC (mecC-MRSA) from a Danish swine farm located in eastern Zealand. The objective of the present study was to investigate the origin of these isolates and their genetic relatedness to other mecC-MRSA isolates from Zealand. Methods WGS was used to infer the phylogenetic relationship between 19 identified mecC-MRSA isolates from the swine farm and 34 additional epidemiologically unrelated human isolates from the same geographical region of Denmark. Variations in the accessory genome were investigated by bioinformatics tools, and antibiotic susceptibility profiles were assessed by MIC determination. Results mecC-MRSA was isolated from a domestic swine farm, but not from cattle reared at the same farm. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all mecC-MRSA isolates from both farm animals and workers formed a separate cluster, whereas human isolates from the same municipality belonged to a closely related cluster. Analysis of the accessory genome supported this relationship. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of mecC-MRSA isolated from domestic swine. The investigation strongly indicates that transmission of mecC-MRSA has taken place on the swine farm between the farmers and swine. The close clustering of farm isolates and isolates from the same municipality suggests a local transmission of mecC-MRSA. PMID:27650187

  12. Breeding without Breeding: Is a Complete Pedigree Necessary for Efficient Breeding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kassaby, Yousry A.; Cappa, Eduardo P.; Liewlaksaneeyanawin, Cherdsak; Klápště, Jaroslav; Lstibůrek, Milan

    2011-01-01

    Complete pedigree information is a prerequisite for modern breeding and the ranking of parents and offspring for selection and deployment decisions. DNA fingerprinting and pedigree reconstruction can substitute for artificial matings, by allowing parentage delineation of naturally produced offspring. Here, we report on the efficacy of a breeding concept called “Breeding without Breeding” (BwB) that circumvents artificial matings, focusing instead on a subset of randomly sampled, maternally known but paternally unknown offspring to delineate their paternal parentage. We then generate the information needed to rank those offspring and their paternal parents, using a combination of complete (full-sib: FS) and incomplete (half-sib: HS) analyses of the constructed pedigrees. Using a random sample of wind-pollinated offspring from 15 females (seed donors), growing in a 41-parent western larch population, BwB is evaluated and compared to two commonly used testing methods that rely on either incomplete (maternal half-sib, open-pollinated: OP) or complete (FS) pedigree designs. BwB produced results superior to those from the incomplete design and virtually identical to those from the complete pedigree methods. The combined use of complete and incomplete pedigree information permitted evaluating all parents, both maternal and paternal, as well as all offspring, a result that could not have been accomplished with either the OP or FS methods alone. We also discuss the optimum experimental setting, in terms of the proportion of fingerprinted offspring, the size of the assembled maternal and paternal half-sib families, the role of external gene flow, and selfing, as well as the number of parents that could be realistically tested with BwB. PMID:21991342

  13. Chemical classification of cattle. 1. Breed groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, C M; Manwell, C

    1980-01-01

    From approximately 1000 papers with data on protein polymorphism in some 216 breeds of cattle, 10 polymorphic proteins were compared in means and variances of gene frequencies (arcsin p 1/2) for ten well-recognized breed groups for 196 of the breeds. The polymorphic proteins were alpha-lactalbumin, beta-lactoglobulin, caseins (alpha s1, beta and chi), serum albumin, transferrin, haemoglobin, amylase I and carbonic anhydrase II. The breed groups were North European, Pied Lowland, European Red brachyceros, Channel Island brachyceros, Upland brachyceros, primigenius-brachyceros mixed, primigenius, Indian Zebu, African Humped (with Zebu admixture), and African Humped (Sanga). The coherence within groups and the differences between groups are often impressive. Only carbonic anhydrase II fails to differentiate at least some of the major breed groups. In some cases paradoxical distributions of rare genetic variants can be explained by a more detailed inspection of breed history. The chemical data support the morphological and geographical divisions of cattle into major breed groups. There are three distinct but related brachyceros groups; for some polymorphisms the two Channel Island breeds, the Jersey and the Guernsey, are quite divergent. Although some authorities have considered the Pied Lowland as primigenius, it is a very distinct breed group.

  14. Genomics-assisted breeding in fruit trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Hiroyoshi; Minamikawa, Mai F; Kajiya-Kanegae, Hiromi; Ishimori, Motoyuki; Hayashi, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Recent advancements in genomic analysis technologies have opened up new avenues to promote the efficiency of plant breeding. Novel genomics-based approaches for plant breeding and genetics research, such as genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and genomic selection (GS), are useful, especially in fruit tree breeding. The breeding of fruit trees is hindered by their long generation time, large plant size, long juvenile phase, and the necessity to wait for the physiological maturity of the plant to assess the marketable product (fruit). In this article, we describe the potential of genomics-assisted breeding, which uses these novel genomics-based approaches, to break through these barriers in conventional fruit tree breeding. We first introduce the molecular marker systems and whole-genome sequence data that are available for fruit tree breeding. Next we introduce the statistical methods for biparental linkage and quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping as well as GWAS and GS. We then review QTL mapping, GWAS, and GS studies conducted on fruit trees. We also review novel technologies for rapid generation advancement. Finally, we note the future prospects of genomics-assisted fruit tree breeding and problems that need to be overcome in the breeding.

  15. Molecular epidemiology study of swine influenza virus revealing a reassorted virus H1N1 in swine farms in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Lester J; Perera, Carmen Laura; Coronado, Liani; Rios, Liliam; Vega, Armando; Frías, Maria T; Ganges, Llilianne; Núñez, José Ignacio; Díaz de Arce, Heidy

    2015-05-01

    In this report, we describe the emergence of reassorted H1N1 swine influenza virus, originated from a reassortment event between the H1N1 pandemic influenza virus (H1N1p/2009) and endemic swine influenza virus in Cuban swine population. In November 2010, a clinical respiratory outbreak was reported on a pig fattening farm in Cuba. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all the genes of one of the isolate obtained, with the exception of neuraminidase, belonged to the H1N1p/2009 cluster. This finding suggests that H1N1pdm has been established in swine and has become a reservoir of reassortment that may produce new viruses with both animal and public health risks.

  16. Outbreak of swine influenza in Argentina reveals a non-contemporary human H3N2 virus highly transmissible among pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappuccio, Javier A; Pena, Lindomar; Dibárbora, Marina; Rimondi, Agustina; Piñeyro, Pablo; Insarralde, Lucas; Quiroga, María A; Machuca, Mariana; Craig, Maria I; Olivera, Valeria; Chockalingam, Ashok; Perfumo, Carlos J; Perez, Daniel R; Pereda, Ariel

    2011-12-01

    Sporadic outbreaks of human H3N2 influenza A virus (IAV) infections in swine populations have been reported in Asia, Europe and North America since 1970. In South America, serological surveys in pigs indicate that IAVs of the H3 and H1 subtypes are currently in circulation; however, neither virus isolation nor characterization has been reported. In November 2008, an outbreak of respiratory disease in pigs consistent with swine influenza virus (SIV) infection was detected in Argentina. The current study describes the clinical epidemiology, pathology, and molecular and biological characteristics of the virus. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the virus isolate shared nucleotide identities of 96-98 % with H3N2 IAVs that circulated in humans from 2000 to 2003. Antigenically, sera from experimentally inoculated animals cross-reacted mainly with non-contemporary human-origin H3N2 influenza viruses. In an experimental infection in a commercial swine breed, the virus was of low virulence but was transmitted efficiently to contact pigs and caused severe disease when an infected animal acquired a secondary bacterial infection. This is the first report of a wholly human H3N2 IAV associated with clinical disease in pigs in South America. These studies highlight the importance of two-way transmission of IAVs and SIVs between pigs and humans, and call for enhanced influenza surveillance in the pig population worldwide.

  17. The productivity of various pure breed and cross breed of imported pigs during lactation period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djamuara Aritonang

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available A study has been conducted to evaluate the productivity of pure breeds and cross breeds of imported pigs. Sixteen strains of pigs with five best sows were selected based on litter size and birth weight on the second parity. The results of the study showed that the pure breed performance was better than the cross breeds, as shown by the litter size, birth and weaned weight, less mortality, better mothering ability and better feed efficiency. Between pure breed, the Landrace and Yorkshire were better than other sows and between the cross breed, the LH and YL performed better than other crossbreeds. It is recommended that the pure breed especially Landrace and Yorkshire and LH and YL of cross breed are better than others

  18. Survey of quality of swine feed mixes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mašić Zoran

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of analyses of the chemical composition of 455 samples, microbiological analysis of 412 samples, and mucotoxicological analyses of 212 samples of feed mixes for different categories of swine which arrived for control at authorized laboratories from the territory of the Republic of Serbia during the period from 2000 until 2001. The analyses of 455 swine feed mix samples showed that as many as 185 feed mixes do not meet the quality condition on protein content envisaged by legal regulations, and the highest discrepancy was determined in feed mixes for piglets. Analyses of Ca, P and NaCl contents showed that the mixes in a large number of cases contain insufficient quantities, and in a considerable number even quantities which are not permitted. Analyses of the contents of certain microelements showed that mixes contain insufficient quantities in a large number of cases, especially of copper, manganese and zinc. The number of saprophytic bacteria greatly varied depending on the type of feed mix but all examined samples contained a permitted number of saprophytic bacteria. These analyses most often isolated Bacillus spp., Staphylococcus spp., coliform bacteries, and Micrococcus spp.. Most examined samples contained a permitted number of clostridia, and a smaller number of samples mostly for piglets, showed an impermissible number of clostridia. The quantity of mold fungi in mixes was significantly higher in mixes for young animals, and the determination of fungi most frequently resulted in the isolation of Penicillium spp., Aspergillus spp., Fusarium spp., and Mucor spp.. The mucotoxin analysis of 212 feed mixes showed that only 30.2% were within permitted levels, and the differences between the mixes for young and adult animals were not significant. The mucotoxins most often present were zearalenon and ochratoxin, and all mixes in which aflatoxin and trychotecenes were identified contained these toxins in quantities

  19. Differentiation of European wild boar (Sus scrofa scrofa) and domestic swine (Sus scrofa domestica) meats by PCR analysis targeting the mitochondrial D-loop and the nuclear melanocortin receptor 1 (MC1R) genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajardo, Violeta; González, Isabel; Martín, Irene; Rojas, Marı A; Hernández, Pablo E; Garcı A, Teresa; Martín, Rosario

    2008-03-01

    This work describes the differentiation of European wild boar (Sus scrofa scrofa) and domestic swine (Sus scrofa domestica) meats by PCR targeting sequences from two molecular markers: the mitochondrial displacement loop (D-loop) region and the nuclear melanocortin receptor 1 (MC1R) gene. A polymorphic D-loop fragment (∼270bp) was amplified and sequenced in a number of wild and domestic Sus scrofa meat samples, to find a nucleotide region suitable for PCR-RFLP analysis. Sequence data showed the presence of only a few point mutations across Sus scrofa D-loop sequences, not allowing direct discrimination between wild boar and domestic swine meats. Later, the MC1R gene was targeted and Sus scrofa-specific primers designed to amplify a 795bp MC1R fragment. Subsequent RFLP analysis of the MC1R swine-specific amplicons allowed selection of BspHI and BstUI endonucleases to carry out intraspecific Sus scrofa differentiation. Digestion of MC1R amplicons with the chosen enzymes generated characteristic PCR-RFLP profiles that allowed discrimination among meats from wild and domestic swine specimens. The technique also enabled the detection of samples that yielded heterozygous profiles, suggesting hybrids resulting from wild boar and domestic pig breeding. The PCR-RFLP reported here, targeting the MC1R gene may be routinely applied to verify the correct labelling of game products.

  20. Comparative activity of some veterinary pharmaceutical products in swine dysentery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina, T. Romeo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the diseases that cause great damage in the pig breeding farms, Brachyspyra swine dysentery has a special importance because involve great losses both by growth failure and high mortality andsignificant costs to the prevention and control. The study was conducted in a swine farm in Timis County, where the disease was originally identified in autumn of year 2009. Cumulative adverse conditions have affected the rate of morbidity and mortality. Themost common clinical developments in the unit were usually acute and subacute. Research included: a comparative study of the effectiveness of tiamulin fumarate, hydrogenated and dimetridazole powder in sick acute and subacute forms in piglets, at the weaning period; the comparative study of efficiency in therapy of soluble tiamulin (the tiamulin fumarate-hydrogenated and of the injection of piglets effective and the study of growth indicators: average daily gain.Experiment IGroup I consisted in 15 piglets with an average weight per lot of 7.60 kg/head (batch weight: 114kg received p.o. dimetridazole insoluble powder (Romvac Bucharest, mixed in feed, for 5 days dose of 25 mg/kg.bw. During the observation, two mortalities were recorded, representing 13.33% of the treated lot. Other animals from the group were clinically cured, the signs of the disease gradually disappeared, and the temperature returned to normal enteric symptoms. The observation period after the 21 days of experiment, the batchweight was 114.2 kg, corresponding to growth registered 95.5 g/head/day.Group II, of 15 pigs with enteritis clinical signs, have had an average weight per lot of 7.48 kg/head, and he has undergone treatment with tiamulin product (Novartis Animal Health soluble granules, in drinking water. Treatments were performed for 5 consecutive days at a dose of 60 mg/liter of drinking water. In this group, diarrhea symptoms decreased and general status of the animals gradually improved, no mortality was recorded five days

  1. Across Breed QTL Detection and Genomic Prediction in French and Danish Dairy Cattle Breeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van den Berg, Irene; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Hozé, C

    Our objective was to investigate the potential benefits of using sequence data to improve across breed genomic prediction, using data from five French and Danish dairy cattle breeds. First, QTL for protein yield were detected using high density genotypes. Part of the QTL detected within breed was...

  2. Conservation priorities for Ethiopian sheep breeds combining threat status, breed merits and contributions to genetic diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gizaw, S.; Komen, J.; Windig, J.J.; Hanotte, O.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Prioritizing livestock breeds for conservation needs to incorporate both genetic and non-genetic aspects important for the survival of the breeds. Here, we apply a maximum-utility-strategy to prioritize 14 traditional Ethiopian sheep breeds based on their threat status, contributions to farmer livel

  3. Across Breed QTL Detection and Genomic Prediction in French and Danish Dairy Cattle Breeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van den Berg, Irene; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Hozé, C

    Our objective was to investigate the potential benefits of using sequence data to improve across breed genomic prediction, using data from five French and Danish dairy cattle breeds. First, QTL for protein yield were detected using high density genotypes. Part of the QTL detected within breed was...

  4. Artificiat insemination vercus natural breeding in a multi.breed beef ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    calving-to-breeding period the following breeding season and a reduced ..... the first four weeks of the calving season, while only 49 9o of the calves born as a result ... breeding season rather than leaving the job to the bulls later in the season.

  5. Breeding programmes for smallholder sheep farming systems: II. Optimization of cooperative village breeding schemes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gizaw, S.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Valle-Zarate, A.; Haile, A.; Rischkowsky, B.; Dessie, T.; Mwai, A.O.

    2014-01-01

    A simulation study was conducted to optimize a cooperative village-based sheep breeding scheme for Menz sheep of Ethiopia. Genetic gains and profits were estimated under nine levels of farmers' participation and three scenarios of controlled breeding achieved in the breeding programme, as well as un

  6. Isolation and characterisation of a novel antibacterial peptide from a native swine intestinal tract-derived bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Haiyun; Ji, Shengyue; Peng, Jiayin; Han, Peng; An, Xiaopeng; Wang, Shan; Cao, Binyun

    2017-02-27

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are highly associated with antipathogenic activity, without generating drug resistance in targeted bacteria. In this study, the existence of AMPs in the Tibetan swine, a China-native, cold-resistant and seldom-sick breed of pig, was investigated. A peptide secreted by a Tibetan swine intestinal tract-derived Bacillus strain was isolated using reversed-phase chromatography (RPC), ultrafiltration and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). The peptide was identified by mass spectrometry and was characterised for activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The 16-amino acid peptide (ASVVNKLTGGVAGLLK), named TP, had a molecular mass of 1568.919 Da and exhibited inhibitory activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria [minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 2.5-5 µM and 10-20 µM for E. coli and S. aureus, respectively] as well as human MKN-45 and NB4 tumour cell lines [50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) = 4.686 µM and 11.479 µM, respectively]. TP also exhibited weak haemolytic activity. Furthermore, TP enhanced cell membrane permeability and K(+) outflow, bound with E. coli genomic DNA in vitro and inhibited E. coli growth. Thus, TP represents a strong candidate as an antibacterial peptide.

  7. Diet-Induced Swine Model with Obesity/Leptin Resistance for the Study of Metabolic Syndrome and Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Torres-Rovira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to determine the suitability of a swine breed with leptin resistance and predisposition to obesity (the Iberian pig as model for studies on metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. Thus, six Iberian sows had ad libitum access to food enriched with saturated fat (SFAD group; food consumption was estimated to be 4.5 kg/animal/day whilst four females acted as controls and were fed with 2 kg/animal/day of a commercial maintenance diet. After three months of differential feeding, SFAD animals developed central obesity, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance and impaired glucose tolerance, and elevated blood pressure; the five parameters associated with the metabolic syndrome. Thus, the current study characterizes the Iberian pig as a robust, amenable, and reliable translational model for studies on nutrition-associated diseases.

  8. Hierarchically structured, nitrogen-doped carbon membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Hong

    2017-08-03

    The present invention is a structure, method of making and method of use for a novel macroscopic hierarchically structured, nitrogen-doped, nano-porous carbon membrane (HNDCMs) with asymmetric and hierarchical pore architecture that can be produced on a large-scale approach. The unique HNDCM holds great promise as components in separation and advanced carbon devices because they could offer unconventional fluidic transport phenomena on the nanoscale. Overall, the invention set forth herein covers a hierarchically structured, nitrogen-doped carbon membranes and methods of making and using such a membranes.

  9. A Model for Slicing JAVA Programs Hierarchically

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bi-Xin Li; Xiao-Cong Fan; Jun Pang; Jian-Jun Zhao

    2004-01-01

    Program slicing can be effectively used to debug, test, analyze, understand and maintain objectoriented software. In this paper, a new slicing model is proposed to slice Java programs based on their inherent hierarchical feature. The main idea of hierarchical slicing is to slice programs in a stepwise way, from package level, to class level, method level, and finally up to statement level. The stepwise slicing algorithm and the related graph reachability algorithms are presented, the architecture of the Java program Analyzing Tool (JATO) based on hierarchical slicing model is provided, the applications and a small case study are also discussed.

  10. Hierarchical analysis of acceptable use policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Laughton

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Acceptable use policies (AUPs are vital tools for organizations to protect themselves and their employees from misuse of computer facilities provided. A well structured, thorough AUP is essential for any organization. It is impossible for an effective AUP to deal with every clause and remain readable. For this reason, some sections of an AUP carry more weight than others, denoting importance. The methodology used to develop the hierarchical analysis is a literature review, where various sources were consulted. This hierarchical approach to AUP analysis attempts to highlight important sections and clauses dealt with in an AUP. The emphasis of the hierarchal analysis is to prioritize the objectives of an AUP.

  11. Hierarchical modeling and analysis for spatial data

    CERN Document Server

    Banerjee, Sudipto; Gelfand, Alan E

    2003-01-01

    Among the many uses of hierarchical modeling, their application to the statistical analysis of spatial and spatio-temporal data from areas such as epidemiology And environmental science has proven particularly fruitful. Yet to date, the few books that address the subject have been either too narrowly focused on specific aspects of spatial analysis, or written at a level often inaccessible to those lacking a strong background in mathematical statistics.Hierarchical Modeling and Analysis for Spatial Data is the first accessible, self-contained treatment of hierarchical methods, modeling, and dat

  12. Epidemiologic survey in Swiss group-housed breeding rabbits: extent of lesions and potential risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrist, Claude A; van den Borne, Bart H P; Bigler, Lotti M; Buchwalder, Theres; Roth, Beatrice A

    2013-02-01

    In Switzerland, group-housing for breeding rabbit does is not explicitly required by law, but label programmes, as well as the general public and animal welfare groups, are advocating it. Although group-housing is of great benefit to the gregariously living rabbits, the establishment of a social hierarchy within the group might lead to stress and lesions. In the present epidemiological study, lesions were scored twice on 30% of the breeding does on all 28 commercial Swiss farms with group-housed breeding does. Additionally, a detailed questionnaire was filled out with all producers to determine risk factors potentially associated with lesions. Data were analysed using hierarchical proportional odds models. About 33% of the does examined had lesions, including wounds that were almost healed and small scratches. Severe lesions were counted on 9% of the animals. Differences between seasons in lesions score were identified, with the extent of lesions being higher in summer than in spring. Fewer lesions occurred on farms on which mastitis was more common. More lesions were found on farms where the does were isolated between littering and artificial insemination than on farms without isolation. According to the producers, most of the aggression occurred directly after the isolation phase when the does were regrouped again. We conclude that lesions in group-housed breeding does might be reduced by appropriate reproductive management.

  13. Three-Level Mixed-Effects Logistic Regression Analysis Reveals Complex Epidemiology of Swine Rotaviruses in Diagnostic Samples from North America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitipong Homwong

    Full Text Available Rotaviruses (RV are important causes of diarrhea in animals, especially in domestic animals. Of the 9 RV species, rotavirus A, B, and C (RVA, RVB, and RVC, respectively had been established as important causes of diarrhea in pigs. The Minnesota Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory receives swine stool samples from North America to determine the etiologic agents of disease. Between November 2009 and October 2011, 7,508 samples from pigs with diarrhea were submitted to determine if enteric pathogens, including RV, were present in the samples. All samples were tested for RVA, RVB, and RVC by real time RT-PCR. The majority of the samples (82% were positive for RVA, RVB, and/or RVC. To better understand the risk factors associated with RV infections in swine diagnostic samples, three-level mixed-effects logistic regression models (3L-MLMs were used to estimate associations among RV species, age, and geographical variability within the major swine production regions in North America. The conditional odds ratios (cORs for RVA and RVB detection were lower for 1-3 day old pigs when compared to any other age group. However, the cOR of RVC detection in 1-3 day old pigs was significantly higher (p 55 day old age groups. Furthermore, pigs in the 21-55 day old age group had statistically higher cORs of RV co-detection compared to 1-3 day old pigs (p < 0.001. The 3L-MLMs indicated that RV status was more similar within states than among states or within each region. Our results indicated that 3L-MLMs are a powerful and adaptable tool to handle and analyze large-hierarchical datasets. In addition, our results indicated that, overall, swine RV epidemiology is complex, and RV species are associated with different age groups and vary by regions in North America.

  14. A Microtitration Agglutination Test for Detecting Group E Streptococcus Infection in Swine

    OpenAIRE

    1982-01-01

    A microtitration agglutination test was developed and evaluated for detecting infection of swine with group E streptococci type IV, the most common causative agent of streptococcic lymphadenitis of swine.

  15. Breeding for Grass Seed Yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boelt, Birte; Studer, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    Seed yield is a trait of major interest for many fodder and amenity grass species and has received increasing attention since seed multiplication is economically relevant for novel grass cultivars to compete in the commercial market. Although seed yield is a complex trait and affected...... by agricultural practices as well as environmental factors, traits related to seed production reveal considerable genetic variation, prerequisite for improvement by direct or indirect selection. This chapter first reports on the biological and physiological basics of the grass reproduction system, then highlights...... important aspects and components affecting the seed yield potential and the agronomic and environmental aspects affecting the utilization and realization of the seed yield potential. Finally, it discusses the potential of plant breeding to sustainably improve total seed yield in fodder and amenity grasses....

  16. Immunization of African Indigenous Pigs with Attenuated Genotype I African Swine Fever Virus OURT88/3 Induces Protection Against Challenge with Virulent Strains of Genotype I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulumba-Mfumu, L K; Goatley, L C; Saegerman, C; Takamatsu, H-H; Dixon, L K

    2016-10-01

    The attenuated African swine fever virus genotype I strain OURT88/3 has previously been shown to induce protection of European breeds of domestic pigs against challenge with virulent isolates. To determine whether protective immune responses could also be induced in indigenous breeds of pigs from the Kinshassa region in Democratic Republic of Congo, we immunized a group of eight pigs with OURT88/3 strain and challenged the pigs 3 weeks later with virulent genotype I strain OURT88/1. Four of the pigs were protected against challenge. Three of the eight pigs died from African swine fever virus and a fourth from an unknown cause. The remaining four pigs all survived challenge with a recent virulent genotype I strain from the Democratic Republic of Congo, DRC 085/10. Control groups of non-immune pigs challenged with OURT88/1 or DRC 085/10 developed signs of acute ASFV as expected and had high levels of virus genome in blood.

  17. Image meshing via hierarchical optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao XIE; Ruo-feng TONG‡

    2016-01-01

    Vector graphic, as a kind of geometric representation of raster images, has many advantages, e.g., defi nition independence and editing facility. A popular way to convert raster images into vector graphics is image meshing, the aim of which is to fi nd a mesh to represent an image as faithfully as possible. For traditional meshing algorithms, the crux of the problem resides mainly in the high non-linearity and non-smoothness of the objective, which makes it difficult to fi nd a desirable optimal solution. To ameliorate this situation, we present a hierarchical optimization algorithm solving the problem from coarser levels to fi ner ones, providing initialization for each level with its coarser ascent. To further simplify the problem, the original non-convex problem is converted to a linear least squares one, and thus becomes convex, which makes the problem much easier to solve. A dictionary learning framework is used to combine geometry and topology elegantly. Then an alternating scheme is employed to solve both parts. Experiments show that our algorithm runs fast and achieves better results than existing ones for most images.

  18. Image meshing via hierarchical optimization*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao XIE; Ruo-feng TONGS

    2016-01-01

    Vector graphic, as a kind of geometric representation of raster images, has many advantages, e.g., definition independence and editing facility. A popular way to convert raster images into vector graphics is image meshing, the aim of which is to find a mesh to represent an image as faithfully as possible. For traditional meshing algorithms, the crux of the problem resides mainly in the high non-linearity and non-smoothness of the objective, which makes it difficult to find a desirable optimal solution. To ameliorate this situation, we present a hierarchical optimization algorithm solving the problem from coarser levels to finer ones, providing initialization for each level with its coarser ascent. To further simplify the problem, the original non-convex problem is converted to a linear least squares one, and thus becomes convex, which makes the problem much easier to solve. A dictionary learning framework is used to combine geometry and topology elegantly. Then an alternating scheme is employed to solve both parts. Experiments show that our algorithm runs fast and achieves better results than existing ones for most images.

  19. Hierarchical Bayes Ensemble Kalman Filtering

    CERN Document Server

    Tsyrulnikov, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Ensemble Kalman filtering (EnKF), when applied to high-dimensional systems, suffers from an inevitably small affordable ensemble size, which results in poor estimates of the background error covariance matrix ${\\bf B}$. The common remedy is a kind of regularization, usually an ad-hoc spatial covariance localization (tapering) combined with artificial covariance inflation. Instead of using an ad-hoc regularization, we adopt the idea by Myrseth and Omre (2010) and explicitly admit that the ${\\bf B}$ matrix is unknown and random and estimate it along with the state (${\\bf x}$) in an optimal hierarchical Bayes analysis scheme. We separate forecast errors into predictability errors (i.e. forecast errors due to uncertainties in the initial data) and model errors (forecast errors due to imperfections in the forecast model) and include the two respective components ${\\bf P}$ and ${\\bf Q}$ of the ${\\bf B}$ matrix into the extended control vector $({\\bf x},{\\bf P},{\\bf Q})$. Similarly, we break the traditional backgrou...

  20. [Genetic diversity based on swine leukocyte antigen complex mi-crosatellites(SLA-MS) in five pig populations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hui; Liu, Rong-Hui; Li, Hua; Zuo, Qi-Zhen; Li, Yan; Wu, Zhen-Fang

    2012-11-01

    The genetic diversity of swine leukocyte antigen complex (SLA) was studied among Guangdong local pigs, Huanan wild boars (S.s. chirodontus) and introduced pigs, which aimed at providing a theoretical foundation for further pig anti-disease resistance breeding. Pietrain pigs, Duroc pigs, Large black-white pigs, Lantang pigs, and Huanan wild boars were genotyped by employing 18 microsatellites in swine leukocyte antigen complex (SLA-MS). The result showed that the average diversity in SLA II was higher (He=0.628, PIC=0.581) than that in SLA I (He=0.530, PIC=0.474) and in SLA III (He=0.526, PIC=0.458). The molecular diversity indices (MDI) of Huanan wild boars was the highest(0.716), followed by Lantang pigs (0.614), Large black-white pigs (0.559), Pietrain pigs (0.550) and Duroc pigs (0.507). As a whole, the genetic diversity of Huanan wild boars was the highest over Guangdong native pigs and introduced pigs. Large black-white pigs and Duroc pigs had ever happened a severe bottleneck by comparison with the Garza-Williamson index (GWI) in Huanan wild boar. From the genetic distance, one clade was that Lantang pigs were first clustered with Huanan wild boar, and then grouped together with Large black-white pigs; another clade was that Pietrain pigs were independently clustered with Duroc pigs in the NJ tree. The results would establish the foundation for pig conservation of germplasm resource, disease resistance breeding, and multiplicative strains.

  1. Spatio-temporal Analysis of African Swine Fever in Sardinia (2012-2014): Trends in Domestic Pigs and Wild Boar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, I; Rodríguez, A; Feliziani, F; Rolesu, S; de la Torre, A

    2017-04-01

    African swine fever (ASF) is a notifiable viral disease affecting domestic pigs and wild boars that has been endemic in Sardinia since 1978. Several risk factors complicate the control of ASF in Sardinia: generally poor level of biosecurity, traditional breeding practices, illegal behaviour in movements and feeding of pigs, and sporadic occurrence of long-term carriers. A previous study describes the disease in Sardinia during 1978-2013. The aim of this study was to gain more in-depth knowledge of the spatio-temporal pattern of ASF in Sardinia during 2012 to May 2014, comparing patterns of occurrence in domestic pigs and wild boar and identifying areas of local transmission. African swine fever notifications were studied considering seasonality, spatial autocorrelation, spatial point pattern and spatio-temporal clusters. Results showed differences in temporal and spatial pattern of wild boar and domestic pig notifications. The peak in wild boar notifications (October 2013 to February 2014) occurred six months after than in domestic pig (May to early summer 2013). Notifications of cases in both host species tended to be clustered, with a maximum significant distance of spatial association of 15 and 25 km in domestic pigs and wild boars, respectively. Five clusters for local ASF transmission were identified for domestic pigs, with a mean radius and duration of 4 km (3-9 km) and 38 days (6-55 days), respectively. Any wild boar clusters were found. The apparently secondary role of wild boar in ASF spread in Sardinia could be explained by certain socio-economic factors (illegal free-range pig breeding or the mingling of herds. The lack of effectiveness of previous surveillance and control programmes reveals the necessity of employing a new approach). Results present here provide better knowledge of the dynamics of ASF in Sardinia, which could be used in a more comprehensive risk analysis necessary to introduce a new approach in the eradication strategy.

  2. Genetic polymorphism of the swine major histocompatibility complex ( SLA) class I genes, SLA-1, -2 and -3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Asako; Kawata, Hisako; Shigenari, Atsuko; Anzai, Tatsuya; Ota, Masao; Katsuyama, Yoshihiko; Sada, Masaharu; Goto, Rieko; Takeshima, Shin-Nosuke; Aida, Yoko; Iwanaga, Takahiro; Fujimura, Nobuyuki; Suzuki, Yoshiyuki; Gojobori, Takashi; Inoko, Hidetoshi

    2003-12-01

    In order to identify and characterize genetic polymorphism of the swine major histocompatibility complex ( Mhc: SLA) class I genes, RT-PCR products of the second and third exons of the three SLA classical class I genes, SLA-1, SLA-2 and SLA-3 were subjected to nucleotide determination. These analyses allowed the identification of four, eight and seven alleles at the SLA-1, SLA-2 and SLA-3 loci, respectively, from three different breeds of miniature swine and one mixed breed. Among them, 12 alleles were novel. Construction of a phylogenetic tree using the nucleotide sequences of those 19 alleles indicated that the SLA-1 and -2 genes are more closely related to each other than to SLA-3. Selective forces operating at single amino acid sites of the SLA class I molecules were analyzed by the Adaptsite Package program. Ten positive selection sites were found at the putative antigen recognition sites (ARSs). Among the 14 positively selected sites observed in the human MHC ( HLA) classical class I molecules, eight corresponding positions in the SLA class I molecules were inferred as positively selected. On the other hand, four amino acids at the putative ARSs were identified as negatively selected in the SLA class I molecules. These results suggest that selective forces operating in the SLA class I molecules are almost similar to those of the HLA class I molecules, although several functional sites for antigen and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte recognition by the SLA class I molecules may be different from those of the HLA class I molecules.

  3. Swine Leukocyte Antigen Diversity in Canadian Specific Pathogen-Free Yorkshire and Landrace Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Caixia; Quan, Jinqiang; Jiang, Xinjie; Li, Changwen; Lu, Xiaoye; Chen, Hongyan

    2017-01-01

    The highly polymorphic swine major histocompatibility complex (MHC), termed swine leukocyte antigen (SLA), is associated with different levels of immunologic responses to infectious diseases, vaccines, and transplantation. Pig breeds with known SLA haplotypes are important genetic resources for biomedical research. Canadian Yorkshire and Landrace pigs represent the current specific pathogen-free (SPF) breeding stock maintained in the isolation environment at the Harbin Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences. In this study, we identified 61 alleles at five polymorphic SLA loci (SLA-1, SLA-2, SLA-3, DRB1, and DQB1) representing 17 class I haplotypes and 11 class II haplotypes using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) sequence-based typing and PCR-sequence specific primers methods in 367 Canadian SPF Yorkshire and Landrace pigs. The official designation of the alleles has been assigned by the SLA Nomenclature Committee of the International Society for Animal Genetics and released in updated Immuno Polymorphism Database-MHC SLA sequence database [Release 2.0.0.3 (2016-11-03)]. The submissions confirmed some unassigned alleles and standardized nomenclatures of many previously unconfirmed alleles in the GenBank database. Three class I haplotypes, Hp-37.0, 63.0, and 73.0, appeared to be novel and have not previously been reported in other pig populations. One crossover within the class I region and two between class I and class II regions were observed, resulting in three new recombinant haplotypes. The presence of the duplicated SLA-1 locus was confirmed in three class I haplotypes Hp-28.0, Hp-35.0, and Hp-63.0. Furthermore, we also analyzed the functional diversities of 19 identified frequent SLA class I molecules in this study and confirmed the existence of four supertypes using the MHCcluster method. These results will be useful for studying the adaptive immune response and immunological phenotypic differences in

  4. Validation of Respiratory Inductance Plethysmography for Measuring Tidal Volume in Swine

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Measuring tidal volume (VT) in nonintubated swine or swine with leaking breathing circuits is challenging. The aim of this study was to validate respiratory inductance plethysmography (RIP) for measuring VT in swine that are comparable in size to adult humans. To determine calibration curves, VT and RIP readings were obtained from anesthetized swine (n = 8; weight, 46–50 kg) during positive-pressure (mechanical) ventilation and spontaneous breathing. For positive-pressure ventilation, 6 pigs ...

  5. Cattle breeding goals and production circumstances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, A.F.

    1989-01-01

    This thesis gives the results of a study on the relationship between cattle breeding goals and production circumstances. The relationship between breeding goals and production circumstances mostly arises from the influences of production circumstances on the economic values of genetic

  6. Breed predisposition to canine gastric carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seim-Wikse, Tonje; Jörundsson, Einar; Nødtvedt, Ane

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has indicated a breed predisposition to gastric carcinoma in dogs. However, results to date are inconsistent since several studies have failed to prove such a predisposition. Better knowledge of breeds at risk could facilitate early detection of gastric carcinoma in dogs. The ai...

  7. Breed predisposition to canine gastric carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seim-Wikse, Tonje; Jörundsson, Einar; Nødtvedt, Ane;

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has indicated a breed predisposition to gastric carcinoma in dogs. However, results to date are inconsistent since several studies have failed to prove such a predisposition. Better knowledge of breeds at risk could facilitate early detection of gastric carcinoma in dogs. The ai...

  8. Genetic diversity of 11 European pig breeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lavall, G.; Iannuccelli, N.; Legault, C.; Milan, D.; Groenen, M.A.M.; Andersson, L.; Fredholm, M.; Geldermann, H.; Foulley, J.L.; Chevalet, C.; Ollivier, L.

    2000-01-01

    A set of eleven pig breeds originating from six European countries, and including a small sample of wild pigs, was chosen for this study of genetic diversity. Diversity was evaluated on the basis of 18 microsatellite markers typed over a total of 483 DNA samples collected. Average breed heterozygosi

  9. Cattle breeding goals and production circumstances.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, A.F.

    1989-01-01

    This thesis gives the results of a study on the relationship between cattle breeding goals and production circumstances. The relationship between breeding goals and production circumstances mostly arises from the influences of production circumstances on the economic values of geneticim

  10. Lily breeding research in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuyl, van J.M.; Holsteijn, van H.M.C.

    1996-01-01

    At the Centre for Plant Breeding and Reproduction Research (CPRO-DLO) in Wageningen lily breeding research in the Netherlands is concentrated. To this end sources of germplasm (genetic material) are maintained in a lily species and cultivar collection. Research is done on long term storage of this c

  11. Plant Breeding: Surprisingly, Less Sex Is Better.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Peter J; Rigola, Diana; Schauer, Stephen E

    2016-02-01

    Introduction of apomixis, asexual reproduction through seeds, into crop species has the potential to dramatically transform plant breeding. A new study demonstrates that traits can be stably transferred between generations in newly produced apomictic lines, and heralds a breeding revolution needed to increase food production for the growing planet.

  12. Breeding for behavioural change in farm animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Eath, R.B.; Conington, J.; Lawrence, A.B.

    2010-01-01

    In farm animal breeding, behavioural traits are rarely included in selection programmes despite their potential to improve animal production and welfare. Breeding goals have been broadened beyond production traits in most farm animal species to include health and functional traits, and opportunit...

  13. Breeding for behavioural change in farm animails

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; D'eath, RB; Lawrence, AB

    2009-01-01

    examples, such as breeding for good maternal behaviour, could enhance welfare, production and naturalness, although dilemmas emerge where improved welfare could result from breeding away from natural behaviour. Selection against certain behaviours may carry a risk of creating animals which are generally...

  14. Impact of selective breeding on European aquaculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, K.; Chavanne, H.; Berentsen, P.; Komen, H.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives of this study were to determine the combined market share of breeding companies in aquaculture production in Europe, to describe the main characteristics of breeding companies and their programs, and to provide per species estimates on cumulative genetic gain in growth performance. Sur

  15. Livestock Update : Beef-Horse-Poultry-Sheep-Swine

    OpenAIRE

    Greiner, Scott Patrick; McCann, Mark A.; Neil, Scott J.; Harmon, Deidre D.; Whittier, W. Dee

    2013-01-01

    Includes articles on August herd management, phosphorus supplementation of beef cattle, 2013 across-breed EPD table, Applied Reproduction in Beef Cattle event, sheep breeding season tips, and a sheep update.

  16. Determinants of adults' intention to vaccinate against pandemic swine flu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goodwin Robin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vaccination is one of the cornerstones of controlling an influenza pandemic. To optimise vaccination rates in the general population, ways of identifying determinants that influence decisions to have or not to have a vaccination need to be understood. Therefore, this study aimed to predict intention to have a swine influenza vaccination in an adult population in the UK. An extension of the Theory of Planned Behaviour provided the theoretical framework for the study. Methods Three hundred and sixty two adults from the UK, who were not in vaccination priority groups, completed either an online (n = 306 or pen and paper (n = 56 questionnaire. Data were collected from 30th October 2009, just after swine flu vaccination became available in the UK, and concluded on 31st December 2009. The main outcome of interest was future swine flu vaccination intentions. Results The extended Theory of Planned Behaviour predicted 60% of adults' intention to have a swine flu vaccination with attitude, subjective norm, perceived control, anticipating feelings of regret (the impact of missing a vaccination opportunity, intention to have a seasonal vaccine this year, one perceived barrier: "I cannot be bothered to get a swine flu vaccination" and two perceived benefits: "vaccination decreases my chance of getting swine flu or its complications" and "if I get vaccinated for swine flu, I will decrease the frequency of having to consult my doctor," being significant predictors of intention. Black British were less likely to intend to have a vaccination compared to Asian or White respondents. Conclusions Theoretical frameworks which identify determinants that influence decisions to have a pandemic influenza vaccination are useful. The implications of this research are discussed with a view to maximising any future pandemic influenza vaccination uptake using theoretically-driven applications.

  17. Breeding for behavioural change in farm animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Eath, R.B.; Conington, J.; Lawrence, A.B.

    2010-01-01

    In farm animal breeding, behavioural traits are rarely included in selection programmes despite their potential to improve animal production and welfare. Breeding goals have been broadened beyond production traits in most farm animal species to include health and functional traits...... in order to evaluate the large numbers of animals necessary for a breeding programme. For this reason, the development and validation of proxy measures of key behavioural traits is often required. Despite these difficulties, behavioural traits have been introduced by certain breeders. For example, ease...... of handling is now included in some beef cattle breeding programmes. While breeding for behaviour is potentially beneficial, ethical concerns have been raised. Since animals are adapted to the environment rather than the other way around, there may be a loss of 'naturalness' and/or animal integrity. Some...

  18. Selection criteria in organic cattle breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Mila

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The central issue in process of organizing organic cattle breeding is the knowledge about specificities of this kind of production, good knowledge of breed characteristics (body composition, immune tolerance, expressed predisposition towards some diseases, production properties. Research centres, in collaboration with producers, have defined the essential features on which the selection programmes in organic cattle breeding are based on. Of the greatest importance for veterinary service is the fact that selection programmes in organic cattle breeding are in the first place based on giving priority to healthy animals, with strong immune system, good reproductive characteristics, which can be in production system for a long period. Additional important selective criteria is specific body resistance and adaptability of autochtonous breeds to environmental conditions. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TP 31085

  19. An Automatic Hierarchical Delay Analysis Tool

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FaridMheir-El-Saadi; BozenaKaminska

    1994-01-01

    The performance analysis of VLSI integrated circuits(ICs) with flat tools is slow and even sometimes impossible to complete.Some hierarchical tools have been developed to speed up the analysis of these large ICs.However,these hierarchical tools suffer from a poor interaction with the CAD database and poorly automatized operations.We introduce a general hierarchical framework for performance analysis to solve these problems.The circuit analysis is automatic under the proposed framework.Information that has been automatically abstracted in the hierarchy is kept in database properties along with the topological information.A limited software implementation of the framework,PREDICT,has also been developed to analyze the delay performance.Experimental results show that hierarchical analysis CPU time and memory requirements are low if heuristics are used during the abstraction process.

  20. Packaging glass with hierarchically nanostructured surface

    KAUST Repository

    He, Jr-Hau

    2017-08-03

    An optical device includes an active region and packaging glass located on top of the active region. A top surface of the packaging glass includes hierarchical nanostructures comprised of honeycombed nanowalls (HNWs) and nanorod (NR) structures extending from the HNWs.

  1. Generation of hierarchically correlated multivariate symbolic sequences

    CERN Document Server

    Tumminello, Mi; Mantegna, R N

    2008-01-01

    We introduce an algorithm to generate multivariate series of symbols from a finite alphabet with a given hierarchical structure of similarities. The target hierarchical structure of similarities is arbitrary, for instance the one obtained by some hierarchical clustering procedure as applied to an empirical matrix of Hamming distances. The algorithm can be interpreted as the finite alphabet equivalent of the recently introduced hierarchically nested factor model (M. Tumminello et al. EPL 78 (3) 30006 (2007)). The algorithm is based on a generating mechanism that is different from the one used in the mutation rate approach. We apply the proposed methodology for investigating the relationship between the bootstrap value associated with a node of a phylogeny and the probability of finding that node in the true phylogeny.

  2. Hierarchical modularity in human brain functional networks

    CERN Document Server

    Meunier, D; Fornito, A; Ersche, K D; Bullmore, E T; 10.3389/neuro.11.037.2009

    2010-01-01

    The idea that complex systems have a hierarchical modular organization originates in the early 1960s and has recently attracted fresh support from quantitative studies of large scale, real-life networks. Here we investigate the hierarchical modular (or "modules-within-modules") decomposition of human brain functional networks, measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in 18 healthy volunteers under no-task or resting conditions. We used a customized template to extract networks with more than 1800 regional nodes, and we applied a fast algorithm to identify nested modular structure at several hierarchical levels. We used mutual information, 0 < I < 1, to estimate the similarity of community structure of networks in different subjects, and to identify the individual network that is most representative of the group. Results show that human brain functional networks have a hierarchical modular organization with a fair degree of similarity between subjects, I=0.63. The largest 5 modules at ...

  3. HIERARCHICAL ORGANIZATION OF INFORMATION, IN RELATIONAL DATABASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demian Horia

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I will present different types of representation, of hierarchical information inside a relational database. I also will compare them to find the best organization for specific scenarios.

  4. Hierarchical Network Design Using Simulated Annealing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomadsen, Tommy; Clausen, Jens

    2002-01-01

    The hierarchical network problem is the problem of finding the least cost network, with nodes divided into groups, edges connecting nodes in each groups and groups ordered in a hierarchy. The idea of hierarchical networks comes from telecommunication networks where hierarchies exist. Hierarchical...... networks are described and a mathematical model is proposed for a two level version of the hierarchical network problem. The problem is to determine which edges should connect nodes, and how demand is routed in the network. The problem is solved heuristically using simulated annealing which as a sub......-algorithm uses a construction algorithm to determine edges and route the demand. Performance for different versions of the algorithm are reported in terms of runtime and quality of the solutions. The algorithm is able to find solutions of reasonable quality in approximately 1 hour for networks with 100 nodes....

  5. When to Use Hierarchical Linear Modeling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Veronika Huta

    2014-01-01

    Previous publications on hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) have provided guidance on how to perform the analysis, yet there is relatively little information on two questions that arise even before analysis...

  6. An introduction to hierarchical linear modeling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Woltman, Heather; Feldstain, Andrea; MacKay, J. Christine; Rocchi, Meredith

    2012-01-01

    This tutorial aims to introduce Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM). A simple explanation of HLM is provided that describes when to use this statistical technique and identifies key factors to consider before conducting this analysis...

  7. Conservation Laws in the Hierarchical Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijeren, H. van; Gallavotti, G.; Knops, H.

    1974-01-01

    An exposition of the renormalization-group equations for the hierarchical model is given. Attention is drawn to some properties of the spin distribution functions which are conserved under the action of the renormalization group.

  8. Hierarchical DSE for multi-ASIP platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Micconi, Laura; Corvino, Rosilde; Gangadharan, Deepak;

    2013-01-01

    This work proposes a hierarchical Design Space Exploration (DSE) for the design of multi-processor platforms targeted to specific applications with strict timing and area constraints. In particular, it considers platforms integrating multiple Application Specific Instruction Set Processors (ASIPs...

  9. 9 CFR 71.19 - Identification of swine in interstate commerce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... to the premises on which the swine originated; and (8) Any other official identification device or... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Identification of swine in interstate... GENERAL PROVISIONS § 71.19 Identification of swine in interstate commerce. (a)(1) Except as provided in...

  10. 9 CFR 94.3 - Organs, glands, extracts, or secretions of ruminants or swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... ANIMAL PRODUCTS RINDERPEST, FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE VESICULAR DISEASE, AND BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY: PROHIBITED AND..., originating in any region where rinderpest or foot-and-mouth disease exists, as designated in § 94.1,...

  11. Impact of dietary carbohydrate and protein source and content on swine manure foaming properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet ingredients are thought to contribute to foaming problems associated with swine deep-pit systems. Two experiments explored the impact of protein and carbohydrate sources in swine diets on the physicochemical properties, methane production potential, and foaming characteristics of swine manure. ...

  12. 78 FR 23740 - Notice of Availability of a Swine Brucellosis and Pseudorabies Proposed Action Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-22

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Notice of Availability of a Swine Brucellosis and Pseudorabies... swine brucellosis and pseudorabies available for public review and comment. This action will allow... a potential new approach to managing swine brucellosis and pseudorabies available for public...

  13. Comparison of aerated marsh-pond-marsh and continuous marsh constructed wetlands for treating swine wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increased swine production in North Carolina has resulted in greater waste generation and is demanding some emerging new innovative technologies to effectively treat swine wastewater. One of the cost-effective and passive methods to treat swine wastewater is using constructed wetlands. The objective...

  14. Wind Tunnel Evaluation of Vegetative Buffer Effects on Air Flow near Swine Production Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increasing concerns about generation and transport of swine odor constituents have substantiated wind tunnel simulation studies on air flow dynamics near swine production facilities. A possible odor mitigation strategy is a forest vegetative buffer as a windbreak barrier near swine facilities becaus...

  15. 76 FR 81467 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment for Field Testing Swine Influenza Vaccine, RNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-28

    ... Swine Influenza Vaccine, RNA AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice... test, an unlicensed Swine Influenza Vaccine, RNA. The environmental assessment, which is based on a...: Requester: Harrisvaccines, Inc. Product: Swine Influenza Vaccine, RNA. Field Test Locations: North...

  16. Immunologic mechanisms in the adaptation of swine farm workers to their work environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bønløkke, Jakob Hjort; Cormier, Yvon; Veillette, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Swine building exposure causes inflammatory reactions that appear to be attenuated with prolonged periods of contact. The mechanisms behind this adaptation to a dusty and endotoxin-rich environment are poorly understood. Our aim was to compare levels of selected inflammatory mediators in swine farm...... for these proteins in adaptation to the swine building environment after repeated exposures....

  17. Genetic diversity in Tunisian horse breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Jemmali

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at screening genetic diversity and differentiation in four horse breeds raised in Tunisia, the Barb, Arab-Barb, Arabian, and English Thoroughbred breeds. A total of 200 blood samples (50 for each breed were collected from the jugular veins of animals, and genomic DNA was extracted. The analysis of the genetic structure was carried out using a panel of 16 microsatellite loci. Results showed that all studied microsatellite markers were highly polymorphic in all breeds. Overall, a total of 147 alleles were detected using the 16 microsatellite loci. The average number of alleles per locus was 7.52 (0.49, 7.35 (0.54, 6.3 (0.44, and 6 (0.38 for the Arab-Barb, Barb, Arabian, and English Thoroughbred breeds, respectively. The observed heterozygosities ranged from 0.63 (0.03 in the English Thoroughbred to 0.72 in the Arab-Barb breeds, whereas the expected heterozygosities were between 0.68 (0.02 in the English Thoroughbred and 0.73 in the Barb breeds. All FST values calculated by pairwise breed combinations were significantly different from zero (p  <  0.05 and an important genetic differentiation among breeds was revealed. Genetic distances, the factorial correspondence, and principal coordinate analyses showed that the important amount of genetic variation was within population. These results may facilitate conservation programs for the studied breeds and enhance preserve their genetic diversity.

  18. Hierarchical organization versus self-organization

    OpenAIRE

    Busseniers, Evo

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we try to define the difference between hierarchical organization and self-organization. Organization is defined as a structure with a function. So we can define the difference between hierarchical organization and self-organization both on the structure as on the function. In the next two chapters these two definitions are given. For the structure we will use some existing definitions in graph theory, for the function we will use existing theory on (self-)organization. In the t...

  19. Hierarchical decision making for flood risk reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Custer, Rocco; Nishijima, Kazuyoshi

    2013-01-01

    . In current practice, structures are often optimized individually without considering benefits of having a hierarchy of protection structures. It is here argued, that the joint consideration of hierarchically integrated protection structures is beneficial. A hierarchical decision model is utilized to analyze...... and compare the benefit of large upstream protection structures and local downstream protection structures in regard to epistemic uncertainty parameters. Results suggest that epistemic uncertainty influences the outcome of the decision model and that, depending on the magnitude of epistemic uncertainty...

  20. Hierarchical self-organization of tectonic plates

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The Earth's surface is subdivided into eight large tectonic plates and many smaller ones. We reconstruct the plate tessellation history and demonstrate that both large and small plates display two distinct hierarchical patterns, described by different power-law size-relationships. While small plates display little organisational change through time, the structure of the large plates oscillate between minimum and maximum hierarchical tessellations. The organization of large plates rapidly chan...

  1. Angelic Hierarchical Planning: Optimal and Online Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-06

    restrict our attention to plans in I∗(Act, s0). Definition 2. ( Parr and Russell , 1998) A plan ah∗ is hierarchically optimal iff ah∗ = argmina∈I∗(Act,s0):T...Murdock, Dan Wu, and Fusun Yaman. SHOP2: An HTN planning system. JAIR, 20:379–404, 2003. Ronald Parr and Stuart Russell . Reinforcement Learning with...Angelic Hierarchical Planning: Optimal and Online Algorithms Bhaskara Marthi Stuart J. Russell Jason Wolfe Electrical Engineering and Computer

  2. Hierarchical Needs, Income Comparisons and Happiness Levels

    OpenAIRE

    Drakopoulos, Stavros

    2011-01-01

    The cornerstone of the hierarchical approach is that there are some basic human needs which must be satisfied before non-basic needs come into the picture. The hierarchical structure of needs implies that the satisfaction of primary needs provides substantial increases to individual happiness compared to the subsequent satisfaction of secondary needs. This idea can be combined with the concept of comparison income which means that individuals compare rewards with individuals with similar char...

  3. A hierarchical nest survival model integrating incomplete temporally varying covariates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Converse, Sarah J.; Royle, J. Andrew; Adler, Peter H.; Urbanek, Richard P.; Barzan, Jeb A.

    2013-01-01

    Nest success is a critical determinant of the dynamics of avian populations, and nest survival modeling has played a key role in advancing avian ecology and management. Beginning with the development of daily nest survival models, and proceeding through subsequent extensions, the capacity for modeling the effects of hypothesized factors on nest survival has expanded greatly. We extend nest survival models further by introducing an approach to deal with incompletely observed, temporally varying covariates using a hierarchical model. Hierarchical modeling offers a way to separate process and observational components of demographic models to obtain estimates of the parameters of primary interest, and to evaluate structural effects of ecological and management interest. We built a hierarchical model for daily nest survival to analyze nest data from reintroduced whooping cranes (Grus americana) in the Eastern Migratory Population. This reintroduction effort has been beset by poor reproduction, apparently due primarily to nest abandonment by breeding birds. We used the model to assess support for the hypothesis that nest abandonment is caused by harassment from biting insects. We obtained indices of blood-feeding insect populations based on the spatially interpolated counts of insects captured in carbon dioxide traps. However, insect trapping was not conducted daily, and so we had incomplete information on a temporally variable covariate of interest. We therefore supplemented our nest survival model with a parallel model for estimating the values of the missing insect covariates. We used Bayesian model selection to identify the best predictors of daily nest survival. Our results suggest that the black fly Simulium annulus may be negatively affecting nest survival of reintroduced whooping cranes, with decreasing nest survival as abundance of S. annulus increases. The modeling framework we have developed will be applied in the future to a larger data set to evaluate the

  4. Association of the estrogen receptor gene Pvu II restriction polymorphism with expected progeny differences for reproductive and performance traits in swine herds in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Amélia Aparecida Santana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Estrogen has an important function in swine reproduction and growth. A Pvu II restriction enzyme polymorphism has been proven to be an important genetic variation in the estrogen receptor gene (ESR and may be considered as a candidate gene for use in pig production but there is no data regarding the prevalence of this polymorphism in the Brazilian pig population. We used DNA samples from the following three purebred pig breeds: Large White (336 females and 26 males, Landrace (304 females and 27 males and Pietrain (125 females and 11 males. The ESR genotyping was performed using PCR-RFLP. For each breed, genotypes for the ESR gene were compared independently for expected progeny differences (EPD in litter size (LS, average daily weight gain (DWG (g/day and back fat thickness (BT as measured in mm by ultrasound. In the Large White breed, but not the other breeds, the ESR genotype was significantly (p < 0.05 associated to LS, DWG and BT. Large Whites genotyped as AA or AB had higher EPD values for the LS and BT traits compared to BB Large Whites, while AA Large Whites had higher DWG EPD values than BB Large Whites. Our results for the Large White population showed that the A allele has a beneficial effect on LS, DWG and BT expected progeny differences.

  5. Evaluating Hierarchical Structure in Music Annotations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFee, Brian; Nieto, Oriol; Farbood, Morwaread M; Bello, Juan Pablo

    2017-01-01

    Music exhibits structure at multiple scales, ranging from motifs to large-scale functional components. When inferring the structure of a piece, different listeners may attend to different temporal scales, which can result in disagreements when they describe the same piece. In the field of music informatics research (MIR), it is common to use corpora annotated with structural boundaries at different levels. By quantifying disagreements between multiple annotators, previous research has yielded several insights relevant to the study of music cognition. First, annotators tend to agree when structural boundaries are ambiguous. Second, this ambiguity seems to depend on musical features, time scale, and genre. Furthermore, it is possible to tune current annotation evaluation metrics to better align with these perceptual differences. However, previous work has not directly analyzed the effects of hierarchical structure because the existing methods for comparing structural annotations are designed for "flat" descriptions, and do not readily generalize to hierarchical annotations. In this paper, we extend and generalize previous work on the evaluation of hierarchical descriptions of musical structure. We derive an evaluation metric which can compare hierarchical annotations holistically across multiple levels. sing this metric, we investigate inter-annotator agreement on the multilevel annotations of two different music corpora, investigate the influence of acoustic properties on hierarchical annotations, and evaluate existing hierarchical segmentation algorithms against the distribution of inter-annotator agreement.

  6. Evaluating Hierarchical Structure in Music Annotations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian McFee

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Music exhibits structure at multiple scales, ranging from motifs to large-scale functional components. When inferring the structure of a piece, different listeners may attend to different temporal scales, which can result in disagreements when they describe the same piece. In the field of music informatics research (MIR, it is common to use corpora annotated with structural boundaries at different levels. By quantifying disagreements between multiple annotators, previous research has yielded several insights relevant to the study of music cognition. First, annotators tend to agree when structural boundaries are ambiguous. Second, this ambiguity seems to depend on musical features, time scale, and genre. Furthermore, it is possible to tune current annotation evaluation metrics to better align with these perceptual differences. However, previous work has not directly analyzed the effects of hierarchical structure because the existing methods for comparing structural annotations are designed for “flat” descriptions, and do not readily generalize to hierarchical annotations. In this paper, we extend and generalize previous work on the evaluation of hierarchical descriptions of musical structure. We derive an evaluation metric which can compare hierarchical annotations holistically across multiple levels. sing this metric, we investigate inter-annotator agreement on the multilevel annotations of two different music corpora, investigate the influence of acoustic properties on hierarchical annotations, and evaluate existing hierarchical segmentation algorithms against the distribution of inter-annotator agreement.

  7. Hierarchical Nanoceramics for Industrial Process Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruud, James, A.; Brosnan, Kristen, H.; Striker, Todd; Ramaswamy, Vidya; Aceto, Steven, C.; Gao, Yan; Willson, Patrick, D.; Manoharan, Mohan; Armstrong, Eric, N., Wachsman, Eric, D.; Kao, Chi-Chang

    2011-07-15

    This project developed a robust, tunable, hierarchical nanoceramics materials platform for industrial process sensors in harsh-environments. Control of material structure at multiple length scales from nano to macro increased the sensing response of the materials to combustion gases. These materials operated at relatively high temperatures, enabling detection close to the source of combustion. It is anticipated that these materials can form the basis for a new class of sensors enabling widespread use of efficient combustion processes with closed loop feedback control in the energy-intensive industries. The first phase of the project focused on materials selection and process development, leading to hierarchical nanoceramics that were evaluated for sensing performance. The second phase focused on optimizing the materials processes and microstructures, followed by validation of performance of a prototype sensor in a laboratory combustion environment. The objectives of this project were achieved by: (1) synthesizing and optimizing hierarchical nanostructures; (2) synthesizing and optimizing sensing nanomaterials; (3) integrating sensing functionality into hierarchical nanostructures; (4) demonstrating material performance in a sensing element; and (5) validating material performance in a simulated service environment. The project developed hierarchical nanoceramic electrodes for mixed potential zirconia gas sensors with increased surface area and demonstrated tailored electrocatalytic activity operable at high temperatures enabling detection of products of combustion such as NOx close to the source of combustion. Methods were developed for synthesis of hierarchical nanostructures with high, stable surface area, integrated catalytic functionality within the structures for gas sensing, and demonstrated materials performance in harsh lab and combustion gas environments.

  8. CROSSING OF HOLSTEIN HORSE BREED WITH SOME OTHER BREEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Ljubešić

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available An experiment of crossing a heavier-weight semi-breed horse (Holstein with mares of Croatian Posavian type draft horse resulted in possibility of such further crossing. Attained product meets today’s market requirements: firstly as an export-meat category that meets Italian market requirements, since other markets are not well known, secondly, it can be used as a sport-tourist-recreation horse. It must be pointed out that all produced hybrids did not meet the needs of these two basic criteria. In spite of being potential slaughtery head with good utilization, each produced head can be, according to its exterial properties, used as a sporttourist animal that showed certain usable values and results proven by the experiment. The hybrids showed some hereditory draft horse properties shown on enclosed photos. In addition, exterier measures show that former knowledge on hybrids can respond the question of a horse raising on non-utilized pastures which they got used to very well. Thus these horses are able to be estimated by their body development just as our native draft Posavian type horse including possibility of using them as a sport-tourist-recreation horse.

  9. Livestock breeding for sustainability to mitigate global warming, with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Livestock breeding for sustainability to mitigate global warming, with the emphasis ... is essential in implementing efficient breeding systems to cope with climate change. Sophisticated statistical models continue to support animal breeding and ...

  10. HIERARCHICAL OPTIMIZATION MODEL ON GEONETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Zha

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In existing construction experience of Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI, GeoNetwork, as the geographical information integrated solution, is an effective way of building SDI. During GeoNetwork serving as an internet application, several shortcomings are exposed. The first one is that the time consuming of data loading has been considerately increasing with the growth of metadata count. Consequently, the efficiency of query and search service becomes lower. Another problem is that stability and robustness are both ruined since huge amount of metadata. The final flaw is that the requirements of multi-user concurrent accessing based on massive data are not effectively satisfied on the internet. A novel approach, Hierarchical Optimization Model (HOM, is presented to solve the incapability of GeoNetwork working with massive data in this paper. HOM optimizes the GeoNetwork from these aspects: internal procedure, external deployment strategies, etc. This model builds an efficient index for accessing huge metadata and supporting concurrent processes. In this way, the services based on GeoNetwork can maintain stable while running massive metadata. As an experiment, we deployed more than 30 GeoNetwork nodes, and harvest nearly 1.1 million metadata. From the contrast between the HOM-improved software and the original one, the model makes indexing and retrieval processes more quickly and keeps the speed stable on metadata amount increasing. It also shows stable on multi-user concurrent accessing to system services, the experiment achieved good results and proved that our optimization model is efficient and reliable.

  11. Antibodies against avian-like A (H1N1) swine influenza virus among swine farm residents in eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xiuchen; Yin, Xin; Rao, Baizhong; Xie, Chunfang; Zhang, Pengchao; Qi, Xian; Wei, Ping; Liu, Huili

    2014-04-01

    In 2007, the avian-like H1N1 virus (A/swine/Zhejiang/1/07) was first isolated in pigs in China. Recently, it was reported that a 3-year-old boy was infected with avian-like A (H1N1) swine influenza virus (SIV) in Jiangsu Province, China. To investigate the prevalence of avian-like A (H1N1) SIV infection among swine farm residents in eastern China, an active influenza surveillance program was conducted on swine farms in this region from May 21, 2010 through April 22, 2012. A total of 1,162 participants were enrolled, including 1,136 persons from 48 pig farms, as well as 26 pig farm veterinarians. A total of 10.7% and 7.8% swine farm residents were positive for antibodies against avian-like A (H1N1) SIV by HI and NT assay, respectively, using 40 as the cut-off antibody titer. Meanwhile, all the serum samples collected from a control of healthy city residents were negative against avian-like A (H1N1) SIV. As the difference in numbers of antibody positive samples between the swine farm residents and health city residents controls was statistically significant (P = 0.002), these data suggest that occupational exposure to pigs may increase swine farm residents' and veterinarians' risk of avian-like A (H1N1) SIV infection in eastern China. This study provides the first data on avian-like A (H1N1) SIV infections in humans in China; the potential for avian-like A (H1N1) SIV entering the human population should also be taken into consideration.

  12. Novel reassortant swine influenza viruses are circulating in Danish pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breum, Solvej Østergaard; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Trebbien, Ramona

    The Danish surveillance program for influenza A virus in pigs has revealed that two novel reassortant swine influenza viruses may now be circulating in the Danish swine population, since they each have been detected in at least two submissions from different herds in 2011 as well as in 2012. One...... of the reassortant viruses comprised a HA gene similar to H1 of H1N1 avian-like swine influenza virus (SIV) and a NA gene most closely related to N2 gene of human H3N2 influenza virus that circulated in humans in the mid 1990s. The internal genes of this reassortant virus with the subtype H1avN2hu all belonged......1pdm09 influenza virus lineage. Swine influenza virus with a similar subtype to H1pdm09N2sw has previously been found in pigs in Italy and Germany. Detailed analyses of viral genes will further elucidate the relationship between these new swine influenza viruses found in the different countries...

  13. Global migration of influenza A viruses in swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Martha I; Viboud, Cécile; Vincent, Amy L; Culhane, Marie R; Detmer, Susan E; Wentworth, David E; Rambaut, Andrew; Suchard, Marc A; Holmes, Edward C; Lemey, Philippe

    2015-03-27

    The complex and unresolved evolutionary origins of the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic exposed major gaps in our knowledge of the global spatial ecology and evolution of influenza A viruses in swine (swIAVs). Here we undertake an expansive phylogenetic analysis of swIAV sequence data and demonstrate that the global live swine trade strongly predicts the spatial dissemination of swIAVs, with Europe and North America acting as sources of viruses in Asian countries. In contrast, China has the world's largest swine population but is not a major exporter of live swine, and is not an important source of swIAVs in neighbouring Asian countries or globally. A meta-population simulation model incorporating trade data predicts that the global ecology of swIAVs is more complex than previously thought, and the United States and China's large swine populations are unlikely to be representative of swIAV diversity in their respective geographic regions, requiring independent surveillance efforts throughout Latin America and Asia.

  14. Swine farm wastewater and mineral fertilization in corn cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pâmela A. M. Pereira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In the long run, swine wastewater can provide benefits to the soil-plant relationship, when its use is planned and the potential environmental impacts are monitored. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of continuous application of swine wastewater, associated with mineral fertilization, after six years of management in no-tillage and crop rotation (14 production cycles, on the chemical conditions of the soil and the corn crop. The doses of wastewater were 0, 100, 200, 300 m3 ha-1 during the cycle. The effects of the association between mineral fertilization at sowing and swine wastewater were evaluated simultaneously. Swine wastewater at the dose of 100 m3 ha-1 promoted availability and absorption of P, K+, Mg2+ and Zn2+ without causing toxicity to plants or damage to the soil, constituting a viable, low-cost alternative of water reuse and fertilization for farmers. The nutrients N, P, K+ and B must be complemented with mineral fertilization. Special attention should be directed to the accumulation of Zn2+ in the soil along the time of swine wastewater application.

  15. Disinfection effectiveness of slightly acidic electrolysed water in swine barns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, X X; Li, B M; Zhang, Q; Lin, B Zh; Ge, L P; Wang, C Y; Cao, W

    2013-09-01

    To evaluate the disinfection effectiveness of slightly acidic electrolysed water (SAEW, pH 6·25-6·53), a new environmental friendly agent for inactivating micro-organisms adhered to the facility and aerosolized in the air of the swine barns and to explore the application of SAEW in livestock industries. Bacteria and fungi were isolated from the swine house air and treated by SAEW. The SAEW solution was flushed onto surfaces and sprayed within the whole swine barn. SAEW with an available chlorine concentration (ACC) of 300 mg l(-1) can inhibit isolated microbes completely. The usage of SAEW (300 mg l(-1) ) resulted in a significant (P reduced 59% of the airborne organisms in 30 min and kept the population of microbes at a reduced level for at least 8 h. SAEW treatment also reduced pathogens on surfaces (P reduce infections in swine barns. The results of this study provide information on the antimicrobial efficiency of SAEW on the airborne bacteria and fungi in swine barns. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  16. Breeding objectives for Targhee sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, R C; Notter, D R; Kuehn, L A; Kott, R W

    2007-11-01

    Breeding objectives were developed for Targhee sheep under rangeland production conditions. Traits considered were those for which EPD were available from the US National Sheep Improvement Program and included direct and maternal effects on 120-d weaning weight (WW and MM, respectively); yearling weight (YW); yearling fleece weight, fiber diameter, and staple length; and percent lamb crop (PLC), measured as the number of lambs born per 100 ewes lambing. A bioeconomic model was used to predict the effects of a change of 1 additive SD in EPD for each trait, holding all other traits constant at their mean, on animal performance, feed requirements, feed costs, and economic returns. Resulting economic weightings were then used to derive selection indexes. Indexes were derived separately for 3 prolificacy levels (1.41, 1.55, and 1.70 lambs/ewe lambing), 2 triplet survival levels (50 and 67%), 2 lamb pricing policies (with or without discounting of prices for heavy feeder lambs), and 3 forage cost scenarios (renting pasture, purchasing hay, or reducing flock size to accommodate increased nutrient requirements for production). Increasing PLC generally had the largest impact on profitability, although an increase in WW was equally important, with low feed costs and no discounting of prices for heavy feeder lambs. Increases in PLC were recommended at all 3 prolificacy levels, but with low triplet survival the value of increasing PLC eventually declined as the mean litter size increased to approximately 2.15 lambs/ewe lambing and above. Increasing YW (independent of WW) increased ewe maintenance costs and reduced profitability. Predicted changes in breeding values for WW and YW under index selection varied with lamb pricing policy and feed costs. With low feed costs or no discounts for heavy lambs, YW increased at a modest rate in association with increasing WW, but with high feed costs or discounting of heavy lambs, genetic trends in WW were reduced by approximately 50% to

  17. Native Pig and Chicken Breed Database: NPCDB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeon-Soo Jeong

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous (native breeds of livestock have higher disease resistance and adaptation to the environment due to high genetic diversity. Even though their extinction rate is accelerated due to the increase of commercial breeds, natural disaster, and civil war, there is a lack of well-established databases for the native breeds. Thus, we constructed the native pig and chicken breed database (NPCDB which integrates available information on the breeds from around the world. It is a nonprofit public database aimed to provide information on the genetic resources of indigenous pig and chicken breeds for their conservation. The NPCDB (http://npcdb.snu.ac.kr/ provides the phenotypic information and population size of each breed as well as its specific habitat. In addition, it provides information on the distribution of genetic resources across the country. The database will contribute to understanding of the breed’s characteristics such as disease resistance and adaptation to environmental changes as well as the conservation of indigenous genetic resources.

  18. LINE CONSTRUCTION OF NONIUS BREED IN SLOVAKIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Mlyneková

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays breeding has become the problem often solved in European states and it has been paid much attention by breeding organizations. In terms of hippology as well as some urgent requirements from the side of nonius breeders we have focussed on this particular breed especially from the reason of its further survival and development in Slovakia. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the growth indicators as well as the achievement level of the stallions since 1927 to the present. Based on our research of the nonius body lines we can state that at present there are 3 stallions that are followers of the N VIII horse line founder. In general, there are 12 stallions that are active within this breed in Slovakia. It was statistically confirmed that this particular breed grew much stronger through the goal-directed breeding work, improved nutrition as well as the immediate breeding site. It was quite complicated to evaluate the performance tests because the individual indicators were significantly influenced by the subjective views of the commitee members performing the evaluation. The next factor which prevents the objective evaluation is the fact that in the period up to 1979, the performance tests were valued by the 100 point system and from the year 1980 by the 10 point system. That is why we take the performance test results into account only as supplemental ones, which can provide a kind of amendment to the observed biological parameters.

  19. Advances in Japanese pear breeding in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Toshihiro

    2016-01-01

    The Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) is one of the most widely grown fruit trees in Japan, and it has been used throughout Japan's history. The commercial production of pears increased rapidly with the successive discoveries of the chance seedling cultivars 'Chojuro' and 'Nijisseiki' around 1890, and the development of new cultivars has continued since 1915. The late-maturing, leading cultivars 'Niitaka' and 'Shinko' were released during the initial breeding stage. Furthermore, systematic breeding by the Horticultural Research Station (currently, NARO Institute of Fruit Tree Science, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization (NIFTS)) began in 1935, which mainly aimed to improve fruit quality by focusing on flesh texture and black spot disease resistance. To date, 22 cultivars have been released, including 'Kosui', 'Hosui', and 'Akizuki', which are current leading cultivars from the breeding program. Four induced mutant cultivars induced by gamma irradiation, which exhibit some resistance to black spot disease, were released from the Institute of Radiation Breeding. Among these cultivars, 'Gold Nijisseiki' has become a leading cultivar. Moreover, 'Nansui' from the Nagano prefectural institute breeding program was released, and it has also become a leading cultivar. Current breeding objectives at NIFTS mainly combine superior fruit quality with traits related to labor and cost reduction, multiple disease resistance, or self-compatibility. Regarding future breeding, marker-assisted selection for each trait, QTL analyses, genome-wide association studies, and genomic selection analyses are currently in progress.

  20. Expression of porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs) in melanomas of Munich miniature swine (MMS) Troll.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieckhoff, Britta; Puhlmann, Jenny; Büscher, Kristina; Hafner-Marx, Angela; Herbach, Nadja; Bannert, Norbert; Büttner, Mathias; Wanke, Rüdiger; Kurth, Reinhard; Denner, Joachim

    2007-07-20

    Porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs) are integrated in the genome of all pig breeds. Since some of them are able to infect human cells, they might represent a risk for xenotransplantation using pig cells or organs. However, the expression and biological role of PERVs in healthy pigs as well as in porcine tumours is largely unknown. Since we and others have recently shown overexpression of a human endogenous retrovirus, HERV-K, in human melanomas, we studied the expression of PERVs in melanomas of selectively bred Munich miniature swine (MMS) Troll. This breeding herd of MMS Troll is characterised by a high prevalence of melanomas, which histologically resemble various types of cutaneous melanomas in humans. Several genetic factors have been defined when studying inheritance of melanomas and melanocytic nevi in MMS Troll. Here we show that the polytropic PERV-A and PERV-B as well as the ecotropic PERV-C are present in the genome of all melanoma bearing MMS Troll investigated. Most interestingly, in the spleen, but not in other organs, recombinant PERV-A/C proviruses were found. PERV expression was found elevated in melanomas when compared to normal skin and viral proteins were expressed in melanomas and pulmonary metastasis-derived melanoma cell cultures. During passaging of these cells in vitro the expression of PERV mRNA and protein increased and virus particles were released as shown by RT activity in the supernatant and by electron microscopy. Genomic RNA of PERV-A, -B and -C were found in pelleted virus particles. Although PERV expression was elevated in melanomas and pulmonary metastasis-derived cell cultures, the function of the virus in tumour development is still unclear.

  1. Characterization and phylogenetic analysis of the swine leukocyte antigen 3 gene from Korean native pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, H Y; Choi, Y C; Park, H N

    2015-05-18

    We investigated the phylogenetic relationships between pig breeds, compared the genetic similarity between humans and pigs, and provided basic genetic information on Korean native pigs (KNPs), using genetic variants of the swine leukocyte antigen 3 (SLA-3) gene. Primers were based on sequences from GenBank (accession Nos. AF464010 and AF464009). Polymerase chain reaction analysis amplified approximately 1727 bp of segments, which contained 1086 bp of coding regions and 641 bp of the 3'- and 5'-untranslated regions. Bacterial artificial chromosome clones of miniature pigs were used for sequencing the SLA-3 genomic region, which was 3114 bp in total length, including the coding (1086 bp) and non-coding (2028 bp) regions. Sequence analysis detected 53 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), based on a minor allele frequency greater than 0.01, which is low compared with other pig breeds, and the results suggest that there is low genetic variability in KNPs. Comparative analysis revealed that humans possess approximately three times more genetic variation than do pigs. Approximately 71% of SNPs in exons 2 and 3 were detected in KNPs, and exon 5 in humans is a highly polymorphic region. Newly identified sequences of SLA-3 using KNPs were submitted to GenBank (accession No. DQ992512-18). Cluster analysis revealed that KNPs were grouped according to three major alleles: SLA-3*0502 (DQ992518), SLA-3*0302 (DQ992513 and DQ992516), and SLA-3*0303 (DQ992512, DQ992514, DQ992515, and DQ992517). Alignments revealed that humans have a relatively close genetic relationship with pigs and chimpanzees. The information provided by this study may be useful in KNP management.

  2. Breeding Practices in Sheep Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Shejal

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The sheep is an important economic livestock species, contributing greatly to the Indian economy, especially in arid, semi arid and mountain areas. The current population in world is 1110.78 millions, around 44.85 millions (1987 sheeps in India (ICAR., 2002. Sheeps are mostly reared for meat and wool. The average annual wool production per sheep is between 3.5 to 5.5 kg of fine quality wool in Australia, New Zealand and U.S.S.R., where as in India except Magra sheep which annually yield more than 2 kg wool having staple length 5.8 cm, the average of rest of the wool produced is less than 1.0 kg per sheep of inferior quality (Banerjee G.C., 1998. Therefore many farmers in southern India adapted sheep rearing for meat production than for wool production. For yielding more production from sheep farming one should have sound knowledge of general information related to the reproduction and different breeding practices. [Vet. World 2009; 2(1.000: 43-44

  3. Reverse zoonosis of influenza to swine: new perspectives on the human-animal interface

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, Martha I.; Vincent, Amy L.

    2015-01-01

    The origins of the influenza A (H1N1) pandemic of 2009 in swine are unknown, highlighting gaps in our understanding of influenza A virus ecology and evolution. Here we review how recently strengthened influenza virus surveillance in pigs has revealed that influenza virus transmission from humans to swine is far more frequent than swine-to-human zoonosis, and is central in seeding swine globally with new viral diversity. The scale of global human-to-swine transmission represents the largest ‘r...

  4. Fc receptors do not mediate African swine fever virus replication in macrophages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcami, A.; Vinuela, E. (Centro de Biologia Molecular, Universidad Autonoma, Madrid (Spain))

    1991-04-01

    Titration experiments in swine macrophages have shown that African swine fever virus infectivity was not enhanced in the presence of antiviral antibodies. The early viral protein synthesis and the viral DNA replication in swine macrophages infected with virus-antibody complexes were inhibited in the presence of high doses of uv-inactivated virus, which saturated specific virus receptors, but not when Fc receptors were saturated with antibodies. These results indicate that African swine fever virus does not infect swine macrophages through Fc receptors and that the normal entry pathway through virus receptors is not bypassed by the virus-antibody complexes.

  5. Fate of tetracyclines in swine manure of three selected swine farms in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min Qiao; Wangda Chen; Jianqiang Su; Bing Zhang; Cai Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Veterinary antibiotics can enter the environment due to the common practice of land application of manure from treated animals.The environmental fate of tetracyclines in swine manure after composting and field application remains largely unknown.This study analyzed the concentrations of tetracyclines in manure,manure-based compost and compost amended soil in selected swine farms from Beijing,Jiaxing and Putian,China to determine the dilution effects of antibiotics when released into the soil environment.The results demonstrate that residues of antibiotics were detected in all samples and chlortetracycline as well as its degradation products should be regarded critically concerning their potential ecotoxicity.Application of manure-based compost to soil could reduce the possible risk posed by antibiotic contamination,but the trigger value of 100 μg/kg was still exceeded in soil samples (776.1 μg/kg dw) from Putian City after application of compost.Field studies such as the present one can help to improve the routine administration of antibiotic-containing composted manure.

  6. Management and Breeding Soundness of Mature Bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Colin W

    2016-07-01

    Mature bulls must be fed a balanced ration, vaccinated appropriately, and undergo a breeding soundness evaluation to ensure they meet what is required of a short, but intense breeding season. To be classified as a satisfactory potential breeder, minimum standards for physical soundness, scrotal circumference, sperm motility, and sperm morphology must be achieved using an accepted bull-breeding soundness evaluation format. Sperm production requires approximately 70 days. Heat and stress are the most common insults to spermatogenesis, causing an increase in morphologic abnormalities with obesity-associated scrotal fat accumulation being the most frequent cause of elevated testicular temperature in mature bulls.

  7. Hierarchical linear regression models for conditional quantiles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Maozai; CHEN Gemai

    2006-01-01

    The quantile regression has several useful features and therefore is gradually developing into a comprehensive approach to the statistical analysis of linear and nonlinear response models,but it cannot deal effectively with the data with a hierarchical structure.In practice,the existence of such data hierarchies is neither accidental nor ignorable,it is a common phenomenon.To ignore this hierarchical data structure risks overlooking the importance of group effects,and may also render many of the traditional statistical analysis techniques used for studying data relationships invalid.On the other hand,the hierarchical models take a hierarchical data structure into account and have also many applications in statistics,ranging from overdispersion to constructing min-max estimators.However,the hierarchical models are virtually the mean regression,therefore,they cannot be used to characterize the entire conditional distribution of a dependent variable given high-dimensional covariates.Furthermore,the estimated coefficient vector (marginal effects)is sensitive to an outlier observation on the dependent variable.In this article,a new approach,which is based on the Gauss-Seidel iteration and taking a full advantage of the quantile regression and hierarchical models,is developed.On the theoretical front,we also consider the asymptotic properties of the new method,obtaining the simple conditions for an n1/2-convergence and an asymptotic normality.We also illustrate the use of the technique with the real educational data which is hierarchical and how the results can be explained.

  8. Estimating occurrence and detection probabilities for stream-breeding salamanders in the Gulf Coastal Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Jennifer Y.; Waddle, J. Hardin; Qualls, Carl P.

    2017-01-01

    Large gaps exist in our knowledge of the ecology of stream-breeding plethodontid salamanders in the Gulf Coastal Plain. Data describing where these salamanders are likely to occur along environmental gradients, as well as their likelihood of detection, are important for the prevention and management of amphibian declines. We used presence/absence data from leaf litter bag surveys and a hierarchical Bayesian multispecies single-season occupancy model to estimate the occurrence of five species of plethodontids across reaches in headwater streams in the Gulf Coastal Plain. Average detection probabilities were high (range = 0.432–0.942) and unaffected by sampling covariates specific to the use of litter bags (i.e., bag submergence, sampling season, in-stream cover). Estimates of occurrence probabilities differed substantially between species (range = 0.092–0.703) and were influenced by the size of the upstream drainage area and by the maximum proportion of the reach that dried. The effects of these two factors were not equivalent across species. Our results demonstrate that hierarchical multispecies models successfully estimate occurrence parameters for both rare and common stream-breeding plethodontids. The resulting models clarify how species are distributed within stream networks, and they provide baseline values that will be useful in evaluating the conservation statuses of plethodontid species within lotic systems in the Gulf Coastal Plain.

  9. Intensive swine production and pork safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Peter R

    2011-02-01

    Major structural changes in livestock production in developed countries, particularly intensive confinement production and increases in herd and flock sizes, have raised several societal concerns about the future directions and implications of livestock food production, including the safety of meat products. This review of the major parasitic and bacterial foodborne pathogens associated with pork production indicates that pork safety in the United States has improved demonstrably over recent decades. Most notably, changes in swine production methods have been associated with virtual elimination of risk of the foodborne parasites Taenia solium, Trichinella spiralis, and Toxoplasma gondii from pigs reared on modern intensive farms. This represents a substantial public health achievement that has gone largely unheralded. Regulatory changes have led to demonstrably lower prevalence of Salmonella on pork carcasses, but control of bacterial foodborne pathogens on farms remains a significant challenge. Available evidence does not support the hypothesis that intensive pork production has increased risk for the major bacterial foodborne pathogens that are common commensals of the pig (Salmonella, Campylobacter, Listeria, and Yersinia enterocolitica), or that pigs produced in alternative systems are at reduced risk of colonization with these organisms. However, pigs raised in outdoor systems inherently confront higher risks of exposure to foodborne parasites, particularly T. gondii.

  10. Measurement of arsenic relative bioavailability in swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brattin, William; Casteel, Stan

    2013-01-01

    This study describes a method for measuring the relative oral bioavailability (RBA) of arsenic (As) in soil and other soil-like media using young swine as the animal model. Groups of animals are exposed to site soil or sodium arsenate orally for 12 d. Forty-eight-hour urine samples were collected from each animal on d 6-7, 8-9, and 10-11 and were analyzed for total As. The urinary excretion fraction (UEF) for each group was estimated by plotting the mass of As excreted in urine by each animal as a function of the dose administered, and then fitting a linear model to the data using simultaneous weighted linear regression. The RBA of a test material is calculated as the ratio of the UEF value for the test material divided by the UEF of the reference material. Uncertainty around the RBA estimate is calculated using Fieller's theorem. Application of this method to a series of test soils indicates that RBA values for As can range from 18 to 52%. This wide variability supports the conclusion that there may be important differences in RBA between sites, and that use of a site-specific RBA value is likely to increase the accuracy of risk estimates for exposure to As in soil.

  11. ASAS Centennial Paper: Animal breeding research and the Journal of Animal Science: A century of co-evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohenboken, W D

    2009-01-01

    Animal breeding reports in the Journal of Animal Science (JAS) and in its predecessor, Proceedings of the American Society of Animal Production, were counted and categorized. In 22 volumes of the Proceedings of the American Society of Animal Production, 155 articles had animal breeding content, of which 54% were research reports, 17% extension communications, and 28% syntheses or reviews. Several of the latter featured advice from the livestock industry to the scientific community. Thirty-one percent of articles concerned swine, whereas beef cattle, dairy cattle, and sheep each accounted for an additional 20%. In the 67 yr of JAS publication, 3,045 research papers were identified with animal breeding content, nearly half of them published since 1990. Growth in publication output was modest during the 1950s, robust in the 1960s through 1980s, moderate in the 1990s, and static in the 2000s. Important topics included genetic resource evaluation (a subject in 55% of all manuscripts), genetic parameter estimation, selection programs, and nonrandom mating systems. Maternal effects and genotype x environment interactions were featured in 17 and 15% of all manuscripts, respectively, whereas 6% dealt with a simply inherited trait. Only 4% of manuscripts included economic analysis of a breeding program or intervention. Interest in molecular biology and biometry has surged in the 1990s and 2000s. Approximately 50% of all papers involved cattle, a fifth of which concerned dairy cattle or beef x dairy crossbreds. A quarter of papers concerned swine, 15% concerned sheep, and 3% considered laboratory rodents, with the proportional contribution of sheep research decreasing across time. Authors from the Midwestern and Southern sections of the American Society of Animal Science had greater proportional contributions than Western and Northeastern section authors, and contributions of university and state experiment station authors outnumbered those of USDA-ARS authors. The

  12. Insulin addition to swine semen diluted and cooled at 15 ºC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro César Pereira Cunha

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of adding different doses of insulin to swine semen processed and stored at 15 ºC. The experiment used sixteen ejaculates from four commercial breeding pigs, distributed in a randomized block design (ejaculate with split plot along time (0, 24, 48 and 72 hours of storage with four treatments (insulin levels - 0.0 4.0 8.0 and 12.0 IU per dose and 16 repetitions. The experimental unit was made of two insemination doses of 100 mL each, with 3×10(9 spermatozoids. Insulin used was NPH-human, added at the time of processing the doses. The addition of insulin did not affect motility, sperm viability, the percentage of abnormal cells, the osmotic resistance or the degradation rate of motility in 120 minutes. There was a linear decrease in semen quality over storage time, regardless of insulin levels. The addition of insulin at the mentioned concentrations does not influence the quality of insemination dose in pigs.

  13. Building hierarchical models of avian distributions for the State of Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, J.E.; Peterson, J.T.; Conroy, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    To predict the distributions of breeding birds in the state of Georgia, USA, we built hierarchical models consisting of 4 levels of nested mapping units of decreasing area: 90,000 ha, 3,600 ha, 144 ha, and 5.76 ha. We used the Partners in Flight database of point counts to generate presence and absence data at locations across the state of Georgia for 9 avian species: Acadian flycatcher (Empidonax virescens), brownheaded nuthatch (Sitta pusilla), Carolina wren (Thryothorus ludovicianus), indigo bunting (Passerina cyanea), northern cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis), prairie warbler (Dendroica discolor), yellow-billed cuckoo (Coccyxus americanus), white-eyed vireo (Vireo griseus), and wood thrush (Hylocichla mustelina). At each location, we estimated hierarchical-level-specific habitat measurements using the Georgia GAP Analysis18 class land cover and other Geographic Information System sources. We created candidate, species-specific occupancy models based on previously reported relationships, and fit these using Markov chain Monte Carlo procedures implemented in OpenBugs. We then created a confidence model set for each species based on Akaike's Information Criterion. We found hierarchical habitat relationships for all species. Three-fold cross-validation estimates of model accuracy indicated an average overall correct classification rate of 60.5%. Comparisons with existing Georgia GAP Analysis models indicated that our models were more accurate overall. Our results provide guidance to wildlife scientists and managers seeking predict avian occurrence as a function of local and landscape-level habitat attributes.

  14. 9 CFR 94.17 - Dry-cured pork products from regions where foot-and-mouth disease, rinderpest, African swine...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... RINDERPEST, FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER... where foot-and-mouth disease, rinderpest, African swine fever, classical swine fever, or swine vesicular disease exists. 94.17 Section 94.17 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION...

  15. Self-assembled biomimetic superhydrophobic hierarchical arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hongta; Dou, Xuan; Fang, Yin; Jiang, Peng

    2013-09-01

    Here, we report a simple and inexpensive bottom-up technology for fabricating superhydrophobic coatings with hierarchical micro-/nano-structures, which are inspired by the binary periodic structure found on the superhydrophobic compound eyes of some insects (e.g., mosquitoes and moths). Binary colloidal arrays consisting of exemplary large (4 and 30 μm) and small (300 nm) silica spheres are first assembled by a scalable Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technology in a layer-by-layer manner. After surface modification with fluorosilanes, the self-assembled hierarchical particle arrays become superhydrophobic with an apparent water contact angle (CA) larger than 150°. The throughput of the resulting superhydrophobic coatings with hierarchical structures can be significantly improved by templating the binary periodic structures of the LB-assembled colloidal arrays into UV-curable fluoropolymers by a soft lithography approach. Superhydrophobic perfluoroether acrylate hierarchical arrays with large CAs and small CA hysteresis can be faithfully replicated onto various substrates. Both experiments and theoretical calculations based on the Cassie's dewetting model demonstrate the importance of the hierarchical structure in achieving the final superhydrophobic surface states. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Analysis hierarchical model for discrete event systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciortea, E. M.

    2015-11-01

    The This paper presents the hierarchical model based on discrete event network for robotic systems. Based on the hierarchical approach, Petri network is analysed as a network of the highest conceptual level and the lowest level of local control. For modelling and control of complex robotic systems using extended Petri nets. Such a system is structured, controlled and analysed in this paper by using Visual Object Net ++ package that is relatively simple and easy to use, and the results are shown as representations easy to interpret. The hierarchical structure of the robotic system is implemented on computers analysed using specialized programs. Implementation of hierarchical model discrete event systems, as a real-time operating system on a computer network connected via a serial bus is possible, where each computer is dedicated to local and Petri model of a subsystem global robotic system. Since Petri models are simplified to apply general computers, analysis, modelling, complex manufacturing systems control can be achieved using Petri nets. Discrete event systems is a pragmatic tool for modelling industrial systems. For system modelling using Petri nets because we have our system where discrete event. To highlight the auxiliary time Petri model using transport stream divided into hierarchical levels and sections are analysed successively. Proposed robotic system simulation using timed Petri, offers the opportunity to view the robotic time. Application of goods or robotic and transmission times obtained by measuring spot is obtained graphics showing the average time for transport activity, using the parameters sets of finished products. individually.

  17. Hierarchical models and chaotic spin glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berker, A. Nihat; McKay, Susan R.

    1984-09-01

    Renormalization-group studies in position space have led to the discovery of hierarchical models which are exactly solvable, exhibiting nonclassical critical behavior at finite temperature. Position-space renormalization-group approximations that had been widely and successfully used are in fact alternatively applicable as exact solutions of hierarchical models, this realizability guaranteeing important physical requirements. For example, a hierarchized version of the Sierpiriski gasket is presented, corresponding to a renormalization-group approximation which has quantitatively yielded the multicritical phase diagrams of submonolayers on graphite. Hierarchical models are now being studied directly as a testing ground for new concepts. For example, with the introduction of frustration, chaotic renormalization-group trajectories were obtained for the first time. Thus, strong and weak correlations are randomly intermingled at successive length scales, and a new microscopic picture and mechanism for a spin glass emerges. An upper critical dimension occurs via a boundary crisis mechanism in cluster-hierarchical variants developed to have well-behaved susceptibilities.

  18. The ascent of cat breeds: genetic evaluations of breeds and worldwide random-bred populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipinski, Monika J; Froenicke, Lutz; Baysac, Kathleen C; Billings, Nicholas C; Leutenegger, Christian M; Levy, Alon M; Longeri, Maria; Niini, Tirri; Ozpinar, Haydar; Slater, Margaret R; Pedersen, Niels C; Lyons, Leslie A

    2008-01-01

    The diaspora of the modern cat was traced with microsatellite markers from the presumed site of domestication to distant regions of the world. Genetic data were derived from over 1100 individuals, representing 17 random-bred populations from five continents and 22 breeds. The Mediterranean was reconfirmed to be the probable site of domestication. Genetic diversity has remained broad throughout the world, with distinct genetic clustering in the Mediterranean basin, Europe/America, Asia and Africa. However, Asian cats appeared to have separated early and expanded in relative isolation. Most breeds were derived from indigenous cats of their purported regions of origin. However, the Persian and Japanese bobtail were more aligned with European/American than with Mediterranean basin or Asian clusters. Three recently derived breeds were not distinct from their parental breeds of origin. Pure breeding was associated with a loss of genetic diversity; however, this loss did not correlate with breed popularity or age.

  19. Isolation and analysis of odorous components in swine manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuhara, A; Fuwa, K

    1983-12-23

    Systematic procedures are described for the isolation and extraction of odorous components in swine faeces, urine and rotten mixtures of swine faeces and urine. Samples were frozen and subjected to vacuum distillation in the frozen state. The distillate was continuously extracted with diethyl ether. The residue was extracted with diethyl ether and the extract was subjected to vacuum distillation. The former extract and the latter distillate were combined and concentrated. Recovery by these procedures was considered. Odorous compounds isolated were analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

  20. Lumbricidae as transitory hosts in Metastrongylus infection in swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Ivan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Metastrongylidosis or lungworm disease in swine is a disease caused by several types of nematodes of the genus Metastrongylus. Metastrongylidae are biohelminths whose causes use transitory hosts for their development and maintaining their biological cycle, and in this case they are numerous species of Lumbricidae (earthworms. Depending on the geographic environment, numerous representatives of Lumbricidae persist as transitory hosts. In our environment, these are dominant earthworm species of the genus Eisenia spp, Dandreobena spp, Allopbophora spp, Lubricus spp, Octoiasium spp, Bimastus spp, and rarely those from the genus Heledrillus spp. Swine are infected perorally with Metastrongylidae when they ingest infected earthworms.

  1. Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey was initiated experimentally in 1947 and became operational in 1955. It is conducted cooperatively by the U.S....

  2. Western Ontario: Waterfowl breeding population survey: 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for western Ontario during 1986. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  3. California Least Tern Breeding Survey 1995 Season

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Sterna antillarum browni) nested at 37 sites along the coast of California. This 7% decrease in breeding population size from 1994 brings to an end the trend since...

  4. Final Performance Report : Snowy Plover Breeding Distribution

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Surveys of breeding populations and nesting habitat of the snowy plover were conducted from January to August, 1989 along the Gulf Coast of Florida and Alabama....

  5. Waterfowl breeding population survey: Southern Saskatchewan: 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for southern Saskatchewan during 2000. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  6. Waterfowl breeding pair survey: Southern Alberta: 1981

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for southern Alberta during 1981. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  7. Waterfowl breeding population survey: Southern Manitoba: 1983

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for southern Manitoba during 1983. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  8. Waterfowl breeding population survey for Montana: 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for Montana during 1993. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide information on...

  9. Waterfowl breeding population survey for Montana: 1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for Montana during 1998. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide information on...

  10. Waterfowl breeding population survey: Southern Saskatchewan: 1983

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for southern Saskatchewan during 1983. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  11. Central Quebec: Waterfowl breeding population survey: 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for Central Quebec during 2000. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  12. Western Ontario: Waterfowl breeding population survey: 1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for western Ontario during 1989. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  13. Western Ontario: Waterfowl breeding population survey: 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for western Ontario during 1995. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  14. Western Ontario: Waterfowl breeding population survey: 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for western Ontario during 1993. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  15. Western Ontario: Waterfowl breeding population survey: 1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for western Ontario during 1994. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  16. Western Ontario: Waterfowl breeding population survey: 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for western Ontario during 1996. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  17. Western Ontario: Waterfowl breeding population survey: 1987

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for western Ontario during 1987. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  18. Western Ontario: Waterfowl breeding population survey: 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for western Ontario during 1992. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  19. Western Ontario: Waterfowl breeding population survey: 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for western Ontario during 1990. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  20. Western Ontario: Waterfowl breeding population survey: 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for western Ontario during 1997. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  1. Western Ontario: Waterfowl breeding population survey: 1988

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for western Ontario during 1988. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  2. Prospects for Hybrid Breeding in Bioenergy Grasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aguirre, Andrea Arias; Studer, Bruno; Frei, Ursula

    2012-01-01

    of different hybrid breeding schemes to optimally exploit heterosis for biomass yield in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), two perennial model grass species for bioenergy production. Starting with a careful evaluation of current population and synthetic breeding methods......, we address crucial topics to implement hybrid breeding, such as the availability and development of heterotic groups, as well as biological mechanisms for hybridization control such as self-incompatibility (SI) and male sterility (MS). Finally, we present potential hybrid breeding schemes based on SI...... and MS for the two bioenergy grass species, and discuss how molecular tools and synteny can be used to transfer relevant information for genes controlling these biological mechanisms across grass species...

  3. Low reproductive performance and high sow mortality in a pig breeding herd: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rueda López MA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sow performance is a key component of the productivity of commercial pig farms. Reproductive failure in the sow is common in pig production. For every 100 sows served, 89 should farrow. In absence of specific diseases such as porcine parvovirus, pseudo-rabies, swine fever, leptospirosis and brucellosis, management failures are the most important causes of loss. A syndrome associated with reproductive inefficiency, and post-service vaginal discharge and high sow mortality in a commercial pig farm is described. Pregnancy failures exceeded 20% and sow mortality exceeded 12% for two consecutive years. The abnormal post-service vaginal discharge rate was 1.7% during the period of investigation. An investigation involving an analysis of farm records, a review of breeding management practices, clinical examinations, laboratory analysis and examination of urogenital organs was conducted. The main contributing factors found were a sub-optimal gilt breeding management, an inadequate culling policy in combination with a sub-optimal culling rate and the presence of cystitis in more than 1% of the urogenital organs examined. The high sow mortality rate was related to an aged breeding herd. A control programme was recommended based on management changes involving oestrus detection, movement of gilts post-service, hygiene in the service area, boar exposure post-service and urinary acidification. This programme failed to increase the farrowing rate due to incomplete implementation of the recommendations made. The farrowing rate increased to 86.5% subsequent to a farm manager change in January 2005, which resulted in complete implementation of the control programme.

  4. Prunus transcription factors: Breeding perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valmor João Bianchi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Many plant processes depend on differential gene expression, which is generally controlled by complex proteins called transcription factors (TFs. In peach, 1,533 TFs have been identified, accounting for about 5.5% of the 27,852 protein-coding genes. These TFs are the reference for the rest of the Prunus species. TF studies in Prunus have been performed on the gene expression analysis of different agronomic traits, including control of the flowering process, fruit quality, and biotic and abiotic stress resistance. These studies, using quantitative RT-PCR, have mainly been performed in peach, and to a lesser extent in other species, including almond, apricot, black cherry, Fuji cherry, Japanese apricot, plum, and sour and sweet cherry. Other tools have also been used in TF studies, including cDNA-AFLP, LC-ESI-MS, RNA and DNA blotting or mapping. More recently, new tools assayed include microarray and high-throughput DNA sequencing (DNA-Seq and RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq. New functional genomics opportunities include genome resequencing and the well-known synteny among Prunus genomes and transcriptomes. These new functional studies should be applied in breeding programs in the development of molecular markers. With the genome sequences available, some strategies that have been used in model systems (such as SNP genotyping assays and genotyping-by-sequencing may be applicable in the functional analysis of Prunus TFs as well. In addition, the knowledge of the gene functions and position in the peach reference genome of the TFs represents an additional advantage. These facts could greatly facilitate the isolation of genes via QTL (quantitative trait loci map-based cloning in the different Prunus species, following the association of these TFs with the identified QTLs using the peach reference genome.

  5. Introductions and evolution of human-origin seasonal influenza a viruses in multinational swine populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Martha I; Wentworth, David E; Culhane, Marie R; Vincent, Amy L; Viboud, Cecile; LaPointe, Matthew P; Lin, Xudong; Holmes, Edward C; Detmer, Susan E

    2014-09-01

    The capacity of influenza A viruses to cross species barriers presents a continual threat to human and animal health. Knowledge of the human-swine interface is particularly important for understanding how viruses with pandemic potential evolve in swine hosts. We sequenced the genomes of 141 influenza viruses collected from North American swine during 2002 to 2011 and identified a swine virus that possessed all eight genome segments of human seasonal A/H3N2 virus origin. A molecular clock analysis indicates that this virus--A/sw/Saskatchewan/02903/2009(H3N2)--has likely circulated undetected in swine for at least 7 years. For historical context, we performed a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of an additional 1,404 whole-genome sequences from swine influenza A viruses collected globally during 1931 to 2013. Human-to-swine transmission occurred frequently over this time period, with 20 discrete introductions of human seasonal influenza A viruses showing sustained onward transmission in swine for at least 1 year since 1965. Notably, human-origin hemagglutinin (H1 and H3) and neuraminidase (particularly N2) segments were detected in swine at a much higher rate than the six internal gene segments, suggesting an association between the acquisition of swine-origin internal genes via reassortment and the adaptation of human influenza viruses to new swine hosts. Further understanding of the fitness constraints on the adaptation of human viruses to swine, and vice versa, at a genomic level is central to understanding the complex multihost ecology of influenza and the disease threats that swine and humans pose to each other. The swine origin of the 2009 A/H1N1 pandemic virus underscored the importance of understanding how influenza A virus evolves in these animals hosts. While the importance of reassortment in generating genetically diverse influenza viruses in swine is well documented, the role of human-to-swine transmission has not been as intensively studied. Through a

  6. Genetic variation of the East Balkan Swine (Sus scrofa) in Bulgaria, revealed by mitochondrial DNA and Y chromosomal DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, D; Doichev, V D; Raichev, E G; Palova, N A; Nakev, J L; Yordanov, Y M; Kaneko, Y; Masuda, R

    2015-04-01

    East Balkan Swine (EBS) Sus scrofa is the only aboriginal domesticated pig breed in Bulgaria and is distributed on the western coast of the Black Sea in Bulgaria. To reveal the breed's genetic characteristics, we analysed mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and Y chromosomal DNA sequences of EBS in Bulgaria. Nucleotide diversity (πn ) of the mtDNA control region, including two newly found haplotypes, in 54 EBS was higher (0.014 ± 0.007) compared with that of European (0.005 ± 0.003) and Asian (0.006 ± 0.003) domestic pigs and wild boar. The median-joining network based on the mtDNA control region showed that the EBS and wild boar in Bulgaria comprised mainly two major mtDNA clades, European clade E1 (61.3%) and Asian clade A (38.7%). The coexistence of two mtDNA clades in EBS in Bulgaria may be the relict of historical pig translocation. Among the Bulgarian EBS colonies, the geographical differences in distribution of two mtDNA clades (E1 and A) could be attributed to the source pig populations and/or historical crossbreeding with imported pigs. In addition, analysis of the Y chromosomal DNA sequences for the EBS revealed that all of the EBS had haplotype HY1, which is dominant in European domestic pigs.

  7. [Pain caused by breeding: definition, judgment, pathogenesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, A

    1997-02-01

    Special terms of the "German Animal Protection Law (section 11b)"and the "European Agreement for Protection of Domestic Animals" particularly "torture-breeding, genetic characteristics, well-being, soundness, pains, injuries and specific use" are commented. Examples of torture-breedings are discussed: Dog (Merle-faktor, brachycephalie, atrichosis), cat (Mans-factor, W-gene, folded-ears), birds (tuffs, ear-drops, tailesness, hypertrophy of bill-warts, abnormal position of tarsal-joints, hypertrophy of imposing behavior).

  8. Testicular Histomorphometric Evaluation of Zebu Bull Breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Antônio Terrabuio Andreussi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the quantitative histology and testicular biometrics in zebu bulls of different breeds. Testicular fragments of Nelore (n=10, Polled Nelore (n=6, Gir (n=5, Guzerat (n=5 and Tabapuã bulls (n=5 were used. The fragments were perfusion-fixed in Karnovsky solution, embedded in glycol methacrylate and stained with toluidine blue-1% sodium borate. The Nelore animals had a higher tubular volumetric proportion (85.2% and greater height of the seminiferous epithelium (73.2 µm than the Gir, Guzerat and Tabapuã breeds. The Nelore animals also had a higher volumetric proportion of Leydig cells (5.2% than the Guzerat and Tabapuã breeds. There was no significant difference for any of these parameters between the Nelore and Polled Nelore breeds. The gonadosomatic index, seminiferous tubule diameter, cross-sectional area of the seminiferous tubule and tubule length (total length and length per gram of testicular parenchyma did not vary among the breeds studied. The morphometric parameters evaluated suggested that the genetic selection applied to the Nelore and Polled Nelore breeds improved the efficiency of spermatogenesis in these breeders.

  9. Citrus breeding, genetics and genomics in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omura, Mitsuo; Shimada, Takehiko

    2016-01-01

    Citrus is one of the most cultivated fruits in the world, and satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) is a major cultivated citrus in Japan. Many excellent cultivars derived from satsuma mandarin have been released through the improvement of mandarins using a conventional breeding method. The citrus breeding program is a lengthy process owing to the long juvenility, and it is predicted that marker-assisted selection (MAS) will overcome the obstacle and improve the efficiency of conventional breeding methods. To promote citrus molecular breeding in Japan, a genetic mapping was initiated in 1987, and the experimental tools and resources necessary for citrus functional genomics have been developed in relation to the physiological analysis of satsuma mandarin. In this paper, we review the progress of citrus breeding and genome researches in Japan and report the studies on genetic mapping, expression sequence tag cataloguing, and molecular characterization of breeding characteristics, mainly in terms of the metabolism of bio-functional substances as well as factors relating to, for example, fruit quality, disease resistance, polyembryony, and flowering. PMID:27069387

  10. Citrus breeding, genetics and genomics in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omura, Mitsuo; Shimada, Takehiko

    2016-01-01

    Citrus is one of the most cultivated fruits in the world, and satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) is a major cultivated citrus in Japan. Many excellent cultivars derived from satsuma mandarin have been released through the improvement of mandarins using a conventional breeding method. The citrus breeding program is a lengthy process owing to the long juvenility, and it is predicted that marker-assisted selection (MAS) will overcome the obstacle and improve the efficiency of conventional breeding methods. To promote citrus molecular breeding in Japan, a genetic mapping was initiated in 1987, and the experimental tools and resources necessary for citrus functional genomics have been developed in relation to the physiological analysis of satsuma mandarin. In this paper, we review the progress of citrus breeding and genome researches in Japan and report the studies on genetic mapping, expression sequence tag cataloguing, and molecular characterization of breeding characteristics, mainly in terms of the metabolism of bio-functional substances as well as factors relating to, for example, fruit quality, disease resistance, polyembryony, and flowering.

  11. Neutronic Comparison of Tritium-Breeding Performance of Candidate Tritium-Breeding Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑善良; 吴宜灿

    2003-01-01

    Tritium self-sustainment, which will meet the fuel requirement of fusion reactor, isone of the key issues of fusion power development. The tritium breeding performances of varioustritium-breeding materials are compared based on a series of neutronics calculations using three-dimensional Monte Carlo neutron-photon transport code MCNP/4C with the IAEA FENDL-2data library. The effects of the dimensions of the tritium-breeding zone and the enrichment of 6Lion Tritium Breeding Ratio (TBR) are analyzed. The effects of Be as a neutron multiplier on TBRare also calculated.

  12. Biased trapping issue on weighted hierarchical networks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Meifeng Dai; Jie Liu; Feng Zhu

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, we present trapping issues of weight-dependent walks on weighted hierarchical networks which are based on the classic scale-free hierarchical networks. Assuming that edge’s weight is used as local information by a random walker, we introduce a biased walk. The biased walk is that a walker, at each step, chooses one of its neighbours with a probability proportional to the weight of the edge. We focus on a particular case with the immobile trap positioned at the hub node which has the largest degree in the weighted hierarchical networks. Using a method based on generating functions, we determine explicitly the mean first-passage time (MFPT) for the trapping issue. Let parameter (0 < < 1) be the weight factor. We show that the efficiency of the trapping process depends on the parameter a; the smaller the value of a, the more efficient is the trapping process.

  13. Improving broadcast channel rate using hierarchical modulation

    CERN Document Server

    Meric, Hugo; Arnal, Fabrice; Lesthievent, Guy; Boucheret, Marie-Laure

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the design of a broadcast system where the aim is to maximise the throughput. This task is usually challenging due to the channel variability. Forty years ago, Cover introduced and compared two schemes: time sharing and superposition coding. The second scheme was proved to be optimal for some channels. Modern satellite communications systems such as DVB-SH and DVB-S2 mainly rely on time sharing strategy to optimize throughput. They consider hierarchical modulation, a practical implementation of superposition coding, but only for unequal error protection or backward compatibility purposes. We propose in this article to combine time sharing and hierarchical modulation together and show how this scheme can improve the performance in terms of available rate. We present the gain on a simple channel modeling the broadcasting area of a satellite. Our work is applied to the DVB-SH standard, which considers hierarchical modulation as an optional feature.

  14. Incentive Mechanisms for Hierarchical Spectrum Markets

    CERN Document Server

    Iosifidis, George; Alpcan, Tansu; Koutsopoulos, Iordanis

    2011-01-01

    We study spectrum allocation mechanisms in hierarchical multi-layer markets which are expected to proliferate in the near future based on the current spectrum policy reform proposals. We consider a setting where a state agency sells spectrum to Primary Operators (POs) and in turn these resell it to Secondary Operators (SOs) through auctions. We show that these hierarchical markets do not result in a socially efficient spectrum allocation which is aimed by the agency, due to lack of coordination among the entities in different layers and the inherently selfish revenue-maximizing strategy of POs. In order to reconcile these opposing objectives, we propose an incentive mechanism which aligns the strategy and the actions of the POs with the objective of the agency, and thus it leads to system performance improvement in terms of social welfare. This pricing based mechanism constitutes a method for hierarchical market regulation and requires the feedback provision from SOs. A basic component of the proposed incenti...

  15. Hierarchical self-organization of tectonic plates

    CERN Document Server

    Morra, Gabriele; Müller, R Dietmar

    2010-01-01

    The Earth's surface is subdivided into eight large tectonic plates and many smaller ones. We reconstruct the plate tessellation history and demonstrate that both large and small plates display two distinct hierarchical patterns, described by different power-law size-relationships. While small plates display little organisational change through time, the structure of the large plates oscillate between minimum and maximum hierarchical tessellations. The organization of large plates rapidly changes from a weak hierarchy at 120-100 million years ago (Ma) towards a strong hierarchy, which peaked at 65-50, Ma subsequently relaxing back towards a minimum hierarchical structure. We suggest that this fluctuation reflects an alternation between top and bottom driven plate tectonics, revealing a previously undiscovered tectonic cyclicity at a timescale of 100 million years.

  16. Towards a sustainable manufacture of hierarchical zeolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verboekend, Danny; Pérez-Ramírez, Javier

    2014-03-01

    Hierarchical zeolites have been established as a superior type of aluminosilicate catalysts compared to their conventional (purely microporous) counterparts. An impressive array of bottom-up and top-down approaches has been developed during the last decade to design and subsequently exploit these exciting materials catalytically. However, the sustainability of the developed synthetic methods has rarely been addressed. This paper highlights important criteria to ensure the ecological and economic viability of the manufacture of hierarchical zeolites. Moreover, by using base leaching as a promising case study, we verify a variety of approaches to increase reactor productivity, recycle waste streams, prevent the combustion of organic compounds, and minimize separation efforts. By reducing their synthetic footprint, hierarchical zeolites are positioned as an integral part of sustainable chemistry. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Classification using Hierarchical Naive Bayes models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langseth, Helge; Dyhre Nielsen, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Classification problems have a long history in the machine learning literature. One of the simplest, and yet most consistently well-performing set of classifiers is the Naïve Bayes models. However, an inherent problem with these classifiers is the assumption that all attributes used to describe...... an instance are conditionally independent given the class of that instance. When this assumption is violated (which is often the case in practice) it can reduce classification accuracy due to “information double-counting” and interaction omission. In this paper we focus on a relatively new set of models......, termed Hierarchical Naïve Bayes models. Hierarchical Naïve Bayes models extend the modeling flexibility of Naïve Bayes models by introducing latent variables to relax some of the independence statements in these models. We propose a simple algorithm for learning Hierarchical Naïve Bayes models...

  18. Hierarchical Neural Network Structures for Phoneme Recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Vasquez, Daniel; Minker, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    In this book, hierarchical structures based on neural networks are investigated for automatic speech recognition. These structures are evaluated on the phoneme recognition task where a  Hybrid Hidden Markov Model/Artificial Neural Network paradigm is used. The baseline hierarchical scheme consists of two levels each which is based on a Multilayered Perceptron. Additionally, the output of the first level serves as a second level input. The computational speed of the phoneme recognizer can be substantially increased by removing redundant information still contained at the first level output. Several techniques based on temporal and phonetic criteria have been investigated to remove this redundant information. The computational time could be reduced by 57% whilst keeping the system accuracy comparable to the baseline hierarchical approach.

  19. Universal hierarchical behavior of citation networks

    CERN Document Server

    Mones, Enys; Vicsek, Tamás

    2014-01-01

    Many of the essential features of the evolution of scientific research are imprinted in the structure of citation networks. Connections in these networks imply information about the transfer of knowledge among papers, or in other words, edges describe the impact of papers on other publications. This inherent meaning of the edges infers that citation networks can exhibit hierarchical features, that is typical of networks based on decision-making. In this paper, we investigate the hierarchical structure of citation networks consisting of papers in the same field. We find that the majority of the networks follow a universal trend towards a highly hierarchical state, and i) the various fields display differences only concerning their phase in life (distance from the "birth" of a field) or ii) the characteristic time according to which they are approaching the stationary state. We also show by a simple argument that the alterations in the behavior are related to and can be understood by the degree of specializatio...

  20. Static and dynamic friction of hierarchical surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costagliola, Gianluca; Bosia, Federico; Pugno, Nicola M.

    2016-12-01

    Hierarchical structures are very common in nature, but only recently have they been systematically studied in materials science, in order to understand the specific effects they can have on the mechanical properties of various systems. Structural hierarchy provides a way to tune and optimize macroscopic mechanical properties starting from simple base constituents and new materials are nowadays designed exploiting this possibility. This can be true also in the field of tribology. In this paper we study the effect of hierarchical patterned surfaces on the static and dynamic friction coefficients of an elastic material. Our results are obtained by means of numerical simulations using a one-dimensional spring-block model, which has previously been used to investigate various aspects of friction. Despite the simplicity of the model, we highlight some possible mechanisms that explain how hierarchical structures can significantly modify the friction coefficients of a material, providing a means to achieve tunability.

  1. Hierarchical control of electron-transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westerhoff, Hans V.; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal; Egger, Louis;

    1997-01-01

    In this chapter the role of electron transfer in determining the behaviour of the ATP synthesising enzyme in E. coli is analysed. It is concluded that the latter enzyme lacks control because of special properties of the electron transfer components. These properties range from absence of a strong...... back pressure by the protonmotive force on the rate of electron transfer to hierarchical regulation of the expression of the gens that encode the electron transfer proteins as a response to changes in the bioenergetic properties of the cell.The discussion uses Hierarchical Control Analysis...

  2. Genetic Algorithm for Hierarchical Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajid Hussain

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Large scale wireless sensor networks (WSNs can be used for various pervasive and ubiquitous applications such as security, health-care, industry automation, agriculture, environment and habitat monitoring. As hierarchical clusters can reduce the energy consumption requirements for WSNs, we investigate intelligent techniques for cluster formation and management. A genetic algorithm (GA is used to create energy efficient clusters for data dissemination in wireless sensor networks. The simulation results show that the proposed intelligent hierarchical clustering technique can extend the network lifetime for different network deployment environments.

  3. DC Hierarchical Control System for Microgrid Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Xiaonan; Sun, Kai; Guerrero, Josep M.; Huang, Lipei

    2013-01-01

    In order to enhance the DC side performance of AC-DC hybrid microgrid,a DC hierarchical control system is proposed in this paper.To meet the requirement of DC load sharing between the parallel power interfaces,droop method is adopted.Meanwhile,DC voltage secondary control is employed to restore the deviation in the DC bus voltage.The hierarchical control system is composed of two levels.DC voltage and AC current controllers are achieved in the primary control level.

  4. Hierarchical social networks and information flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Luis; F. F. Mendes, Jose; Sanjuán, Miguel A. F.

    2002-12-01

    Using a simple model for the information flow on social networks, we show that the traditional hierarchical topologies frequently used by companies and organizations, are poorly designed in terms of efficiency. Moreover, we prove that this type of structures are the result of the individual aim of monopolizing as much information as possible within the network. As the information is an appropriate measurement of centrality, we conclude that this kind of topology is so attractive for leaders, because the global influence each actor has within the network is completely determined by the hierarchical level occupied.

  5. Analyzing security protocols in hierarchical networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Ye; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2006-01-01

    Validating security protocols is a well-known hard problem even in a simple setting of a single global network. But a real network often consists of, besides the public-accessed part, several sub-networks and thereby forms a hierarchical structure. In this paper we first present a process calculus...... capturing the characteristics of hierarchical networks and describe the behavior of protocols on such networks. We then develop a static analysis to automate the validation. Finally we demonstrate how the technique can benefit the protocol development and the design of network systems by presenting a series...

  6. Hierarchic Models of Turbulence, Superfluidity and Superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Kaivarainen, A

    2000-01-01

    New models of Turbulence, Superfluidity and Superconductivity, based on new Hierarchic theory, general for liquids and solids (physics/0102086), have been proposed. CONTENTS: 1 Turbulence. General description; 2 Mesoscopic mechanism of turbulence; 3 Superfluidity. General description; 4 Mesoscopic scenario of fluidity; 5 Superfluidity as a hierarchic self-organization process; 6 Superfluidity in 3He; 7 Superconductivity: General properties of metals and semiconductors; Plasma oscillations; Cyclotron resonance; Electroconductivity; 8. Microscopic theory of superconductivity (BCS); 9. Mesoscopic scenario of superconductivity: Interpretation of experimental data in the framework of mesoscopic model of superconductivity.

  7. Hierarchical Analysis of the Omega Ontology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joslyn, Cliff A.; Paulson, Patrick R.

    2009-12-01

    Initial delivery for mathematical analysis of the Omega Ontology. We provide an analysis of the hierarchical structure of a version of the Omega Ontology currently in use within the US Government. After providing an initial statistical analysis of the distribution of all link types in the ontology, we then provide a detailed order theoretical analysis of each of the four main hierarchical links present. This order theoretical analysis includes the distribution of components and their properties, their parent/child and multiple inheritance structure, and the distribution of their vertical ranks.

  8. 50 CFR 15.24 - Permits for cooperative breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Permits for cooperative breeding. 15.24... PLANTS WILD BIRD CONSERVATION ACT Permits and Approval of Cooperative Breeding Programs § 15.24 Permits for cooperative breeding. (a) Application requirements for permits for cooperative breeding....

  9. African swine fever virus eradication in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penrith, Mary-Louise; Vosloo, Wilna; Jori, Ferran; Bastos, Armanda D S

    2013-04-01

    African swine fever was reported in domestic pigs in 26 African countries during the period 2009-2011. The virus exists in an ancient sylvatic cycle between warthogs (Phacochoerus africanus) and argasid ticks of the Ornithodoros moubata complex in many of the countries reporting outbreaks and in two further countries in the region. Eradication of the virus from the countries in eastern and southern Africa where the classic sylvatic cycle occurs is clearly not an option. However, the virus has become endemic in domestic pigs in 20 countries and the great majority of outbreaks in recent decades, even in some countries where the sylvatic cycle occurs, have been associated with movement of infected pigs and pig meat. Pig production and marketing and ASF control in Africa have been examined in order to identify risk factors for the maintenance and spread of ASF. These include large pig populations, traditional free-range husbandry systems, lack of biosecurity in semi-intensive and intensive husbandry systems, lack of organisation in both pig production and pig marketing that results in lack of incentives for investment in pig farming, and ineffective management of ASF. Most of these factors are linked to poverty, yet pigs are recognised as a livestock species that can be used to improve livelihoods and contribute significantly to food security. The changes needed and how they might be implemented in order to reduce the risk of ASF to pig producers in Africa and to the rest of the world are explored. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Strategy and Opportunity for The Development of Duck Breeding Farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Hardy Prasetyo

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The recent development of duck farming requires the availability of good quality breeding stocks commercially in order to improve productivity and efficiency . Presently, there is no commercial duck breeding farm which can produce good quality breeding stocks . This article presents information on alternatives in developing duck breeding farm, particularly for layer ducks . There are two alternative approaches in duck breeding farms : (1 Group breeding farm, which belongs to duck farmers' group, as part of a group production system, and (2 Commercial breeding farm, by an individual private company/Semi-Government Institution in a commercial scale and particularly for export market . A good breeding farm requires appropriate systems for selection and mating of the animals in order to guarantee the quality of the breeding stocks being produced . A breeding farm must be economically and technically feasible as an economic entity, so that economic analysis and marketing must be prepared seriously.

  11. Presence of gastrointestinal parasites in swine and human of four swine production farms in Cundinamarca- Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María F Mendoza-Gómez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Determine the presence and the type of endoparasites with zoonotic potential in swine and human of two technified and two semi-technified farms in the department of Cundinamarca, Colombia. Materials and methods. Three serial samplings of feces were taken in a pen row within intervals of 15 days, in two technified and two semi-technified farms in different age groups distributed as follows: pregnant-sows, nursing-females, boars, weaners, suckling-piglets, and growing-pig. By means of informed consent thirty-three people agreed to enter the study. Thirty-three samples from men and women of different ages were received. The pool and individual samples of fecal were evaluated by direct analysis, qualitative flotation and sedimentation techniques and modified ZiehlNeelsen stain. Results. For the porcine population, on the average, the results obtained from both technified farms showed that Balantidium coli (42%, Endolimax nana (21.9% and Iodamoeba bütschlii (7.8% were the most common parasites. In semi-technified farms they were: Entamoeba coli (40%, Endolimax nana (35%, Iodamoeba bütschlii (25% and Balantidium coli (5%. By means of the test chi2 it is possible to conclude that there is a significant difference between the parasites species and the type of farm. The results obtained in human showed the presence of parasites as: E. coli (42.2%, Entamoeba hystolitica/dispar (12.1%, E. nana (9.1%, B. coli (9.1%, I. bütschlii (3.0% and Blastocystis hominis (3.0%. Conclusions. The presence of parasites such as Balantidium coli, Endolimax nana, Iodamoeba bütschlii and Entamoeba coli in swine and human suggests a possible rotation of parasitic species between hosts.

  12. Reconstructing the highly virulent Classical Swine Fever Virus strain Koslov

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fahnøe, Ulrik; Pedersen, Anders Gorm; Nielsen, Jens

    Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) may be highly virulent in pigs with a mortality rate close to 100%. The CSFV “Koslov strain” is known to be one of the most virulent CSFV, but so far a functional cloned cDNA of this strain has not been described. We suggest that this may be due to the error...

  13. Detection of a Novel Porcine Parvovirus in Chinese Swine Herds

    Science.gov (United States)

    To determine whether the recently reported novel porcine parvovirus type 4 (PPV4) is prevalent in China, a set of PPV4 specific primers were designed and used for the molecular survey of PPV4 among clinical samples. The results indicated a positive detection for PPV4 in Chinese swine herds of 1.84% ...

  14. Pathogenesis, diagnosis and epizootiology of swine vesicular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, Aaldert

    2000-01-01

    The work described in this thesis was initiated after the outbreaks of swine vesicular disease (SVD) in the Netherlands in 1992. The thesis starts with a general introduction on SVD and the virus causing SVD. Infection with SVD virus had been absent from the Netherlands for 17 years, and before 1992

  15. The future of influenza A virus vaccines for swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Economic losses due to influenza A virus (IAV) infections are substantial and a global problem, ranking among the top three major health challenges in the swine industry. Currently, H1 and H3 subtypes circulate in pigs globally associated with different combinations of N1 and N2 subtypes; however, t...

  16. Zeolite and swine inoculum effect on poultry manure biomethanation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kougias, Panagiotis; Fotidis, Ioannis; Zaganas, I.D.

    2013-01-01

    Poultry manure is an ammonia-rich substrate that inhibits methanogenesis, causing severe problems to the anaerobic digestion process. In this study, the effect of different natural zeolite concentrations on the mesophilic anaerobic digestion of poultry waste inoculated with well-digested swine...

  17. Excluding feral swine, javelina and raccoons from deer bait stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Here we present a design and construction procedure for a physical and electric barrier fence to prevent feral swine (Sus scrofa), javelina (Pecari tajacu), raccoons (Procyon lotor), and perhaps other non-target animals from accessing or damaging bait stations designed to administer acaricide treatm...

  18. Composting swine manure from high rise finishing facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over the last twenty years there have been considerable increases in the incidence of human infections with bacteria that are resistant to commonly used antibiotics. This has precipitated concerns about the use of antibiotics in livestock production. Composting of swine manure has several advantages...

  19. Swine Influenza Viruses – Evolution and Zoonotic Potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fobian, Kristina

    mixing vessels of new IAVs. Furthermore, transmission of IAVs from swine to human and vice versa has been documented on several occasions and further classifies this virus as a highly important zoonosis. This aspect enhances the possibility of the formation and establishment of new and potentially more...

  20. Comparative prevalence of immune evasion complex genes associated with beta-hemolysin converting bacteriophages in MRSA ST5 isolates from swine, swine facilities, humans with swine contact, and humans with no swine contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livestock associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) draws concern from the public health community because in some countries these organisms may represent the largest reservoir of MRSA outside hospital settings. Recent studies indicate LA-MRSA strains from swine are more genet...