WorldWideScience

Sample records for hierarchical spatial organisation

  1. SAMPLING ADAPTIVE STRATEGY AND SPATIAL ORGANISATION ESTIMATION OF SOIL ANIMAL COMMUNITIES AT VARIOUS HIERARCHICAL LEVELS OF URBANISED TERRITORIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baljuk J.A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In work the algorithm of adaptive strategy of optimum spatial sampling for studying of the spatial organisation of communities of soil animals in the conditions of an urbanization have been presented. As operating variables the principal components obtained as a result of the analysis of the field data on soil penetration resistance, soils electrical conductivity and density of a forest stand, collected on a quasiregular grid have been used. The locations of experimental polygons have been stated by means of program ESAP. The sampling has been made on a regular grid within experimental polygons. The biogeocoenological estimation of experimental polygons have been made on a basis of A.L.Belgard's ecomorphic analysis. The spatial configuration of biogeocoenosis types has been established on the basis of the data of earth remote sensing and the analysis of digital elevation model. The algorithm was suggested which allows to reveal the spatial organisation of soil animal communities at investigated point, biogeocoenosis, and landscape.

  2. Hierarchical organisation in perception of orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinelli, D; Antonucci, G; Daini, R; Martelli, M L; Zoccolotti, P

    1999-01-01

    According to Rock [1990, in The Legacy of Solomon Asch (Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates)], hierarchical organisation of perception describes cases in which the orientation of an object is affected by the immediately surrounding elements in the visual field. Various experiments were performed to study the hierarchical organisation of orientation perception. In most of them the rod-and-frame-illusion (RFI: change of the apparent vertical measured on a central rod surrounded by a tilted frame) was measured in the presence/absence of a second inner frame. The first three experiments showed that, when the inner frame is vertical, the direction and size of the illusion are consistent with expectancies based on the hierarchical organisation hypothesis. An analysis of published and unpublished data collected on a large number of subjects showed that orientational hierarchical effects are independent from the absolute size of the RFI. In experiments 4 to 7 we examined the perceptual conditions of the inner stimulus (enclosure, orientation, and presence of luminance borders) critical for obtaining a hierarchical organisation effect. Although an inner vertical square was effective in reducing the illusion (experiment 3), an inner circle enclosing the rod was ineffective (experiment 4). This indicates that definite orientation is necessary to modulate the illusion. However, orientational information provided by a vertical or horizontal rectangle presented near the rod, but not enclosing it, did not modulate the RFI (experiment 5). This suggests that the presence of a figure with oriented contours enclosing the rod is critical. In experiments 6 and 7 we studied whether the presence of luminance borders is important or whether the inner upright square might be effective also if made of subjective contours. When the subjective contour figure was salient and the observers perceived it clearly, its effectiveness in modulating the RFI was comparable to that observed with

  3. The organisation of spatial and temporal relations in memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondina, Renante; Curtiss, Kaitlin; Meltzer, Jed A; Barense, Morgan D; Ryan, Jennifer D

    2017-04-01

    Episodic memories are comprised of details of "where" and "when"; spatial and temporal relations, respectively. However, evidence from behavioural, neuropsychological, and neuroimaging studies has provided mixed interpretations about how memories for spatial and temporal relations are organised-they may be hierarchical, fully interactive, or independent. In the current study, we examined the interaction of memory for spatial and temporal relations. Using explicit reports and eye-tracking, we assessed younger and older adults' memory for spatial and temporal relations of objects that were presented singly across time in unique spatial locations. Explicit change detection of spatial relations was affected by a change in temporal relations, but explicit change detection of temporal relations was not affected by a change in spatial relations. Younger and older adults showed eye movement evidence of incidental memory for temporal relations, but only younger adults showed eye movement evidence of incidental memory for spatial relations. Together, these findings point towards a hierarchical organisation of relational memory. The implications of these findings are discussed in the context of the neural mechanisms that may support such a hierarchical organisation of memory.

  4. Hierarchical organisation of Britain through percolation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Arcaute, Elsa; Hatna, Erez; Murcio, Roberto; Vargas-Ruiz, Camilo; Masucci, Paolo; Wang, Jiaqiu; Batty, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Urban systems present hierarchical structures at many different scales. These are observed as administrative regional delimitations, which are the outcome of geographical, political and historical constraints. Using percolation theory on the street intersections and on the road network of Britain, we obtain hierarchies at different scales that are independent of administrative arrangements. Natural boundaries, such as islands and National Parks, consistently emerge at the largest/regional scales. Cities are devised through recursive percolations on each of the emerging clusters, but the system does not undergo a phase transition at the distance threshold at which cities can be defined. This specific distance is obtained by computing the fractal dimension of the clusters extracted at each distance threshold. We observe that the fractal dimension presents a maximum over all the different distance thresholds. The clusters obtained at this maximum are in very good correspondence to the morphological definition of...

  5. Hierarchical radial and polar organisation of chromosomes in human sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millan, N M; Lau, P; Hann, M; Ioannou, D; Hoffman, D; Barrionuevo, M; Maxson, W; Ory, S; Tempest, H G

    2012-10-01

    It is well established that chromosomes occupy distinct positions within the interphase nuclei, conferring a potential functional implication to the genome. In addition, alterations in the nuclear organisation patterns have been associated with disease phenotypes (e.g. cancer or laminopathies). The human sperm is the smallest cell in the body with specific DNA packaging and the mission of delivering the paternal genome to the oocyte during fertilisation. Studies of nuclear organisation in the sperm have postulated nonrandom chromosome position and have proposed a chromocentre model with the centromeres facing toward the interior and the telomeres toward the periphery of the nucleus. Most studies have assessed the nuclear address in the sperm longitudinally predominantly using centromeric or telomeric probes and to a lesser extent with whole chromosome paints. To date, studies investigating the radial organisation of human sperm have been limited. The purpose of this study was to utilise whole chromosome paints for six clinically important chromosomes (18, 19, 21, 22, X, and Y) to investigate nuclear address by assessing their radial and longitudinal nuclear organisation. A total of 10,800 sperm were analysed in nine normozoospermic individuals. The results have shown nonrandom chromosome position for all chromosomes using both methods of analysis. We present novel radial and polar analysis of chromosome territory localization within the human sperm nucleus. Specifically, a hierarchical organisation was observed radially with chromosomes organised from the interior to the periphery (chromosomes 22, 21, Y, X, 19, and 18 respectively) and polar organisation from the sperm head to tail (chromosomes X, 19, Y, 22, 21, and 18, respectively). We provide evidence of defined nuclear organisation in the human sperm and discuss the function of organisation and potential possible clinical ramifications of these results in regards to male infertility and early human development.

  6. Composition and hierarchical organisation of a spider silk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Sponner

    Full Text Available Albeit silks are fairly well understood on a molecular level, their hierarchical organisation and the full complexity of constituents in the spun fibre remain poorly defined. Here we link morphological defined structural elements in dragline silk of Nephila clavipes to their biochemical composition and physicochemical properties. Five layers of different make-ups could be distinguished. Of these only the two core layers contained the known silk proteins, but all can vitally contribute to the mechanical performance or properties of the silk fibre. Understanding the composite nature of silk and its supra-molecular organisation will open avenues in the production of high performance fibres based on artificially spun silk material.

  7. Hierarchical modeling and analysis for spatial data

    CERN Document Server

    Banerjee, Sudipto; Gelfand, Alan E

    2003-01-01

    Among the many uses of hierarchical modeling, their application to the statistical analysis of spatial and spatio-temporal data from areas such as epidemiology And environmental science has proven particularly fruitful. Yet to date, the few books that address the subject have been either too narrowly focused on specific aspects of spatial analysis, or written at a level often inaccessible to those lacking a strong background in mathematical statistics.Hierarchical Modeling and Analysis for Spatial Data is the first accessible, self-contained treatment of hierarchical methods, modeling, and dat

  8. Hierarchical clustering using correlation metric and spatial continuity constraint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stork, Christopher L.; Brewer, Luke N.

    2012-10-02

    Large data sets are analyzed by hierarchical clustering using correlation as a similarity measure. This provides results that are superior to those obtained using a Euclidean distance similarity measure. A spatial continuity constraint may be applied in hierarchical clustering analysis of images.

  9. Optimal risky bidding strategy for a generating company by self-organising hierarchical particle swarm optimisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boonchuay, Chanwit [Energy Field of Study, School of Environment, Resources and Development, Asian Institute of Technology (Thailand); Ongsakul, Weerakorn, E-mail: ongsakul@ait.asi [Energy Field of Study, School of Environment, Resources and Development, Asian Institute of Technology (Thailand)

    2011-02-15

    In this paper, an optimal risky bidding strategy for a generating company (GenCo) by self-organising hierarchical particle swarm optimisation with time-varying acceleration coefficients (SPSO-TVAC) is proposed. A significant risk index based on mean-standard deviation ratio (MSR) is maximised to provide the optimal bid prices and quantities. The Monte Carlo (MC) method is employed to simulate rivals' behaviour in competitive environment. Non-convex operating cost functions of thermal generating units and minimum up/down time constraints are taken into account. The proposed bidding strategy is implemented in a multi-hourly trading in a uniform price spot market and compared to other particle swarm optimisation (PSO). Test results indicate that the proposed SPSO-TVAC approach can provide a higher MSR than the other PSO methods. It is potentially applicable to risk management of profit variation of GenCo in spot market.

  10. Hierarchical Bayesian spatial models for multispecies conservation planning and monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Carlos; Johnson, Devin S; Dunk, Jeffrey R; Zielinski, William J

    2010-12-01

    Biologists who develop and apply habitat models are often familiar with the statistical challenges posed by their data's spatial structure but are unsure of whether the use of complex spatial models will increase the utility of model results in planning. We compared the relative performance of nonspatial and hierarchical Bayesian spatial models for three vertebrate and invertebrate taxa of conservation concern (Church's sideband snails [Monadenia churchi], red tree voles [Arborimus longicaudus], and Pacific fishers [Martes pennanti pacifica]) that provide examples of a range of distributional extents and dispersal abilities. We used presence-absence data derived from regional monitoring programs to develop models with both landscape and site-level environmental covariates. We used Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithms and a conditional autoregressive or intrinsic conditional autoregressive model framework to fit spatial models. The fit of Bayesian spatial models was between 35 and 55% better than the fit of nonspatial analogue models. Bayesian spatial models outperformed analogous models developed with maximum entropy (Maxent) methods. Although the best spatial and nonspatial models included similar environmental variables, spatial models provided estimates of residual spatial effects that suggested how ecological processes might structure distribution patterns. Spatial models built from presence-absence data improved fit most for localized endemic species with ranges constrained by poorly known biogeographic factors and for widely distributed species suspected to be strongly affected by unmeasured environmental variables or population processes. By treating spatial effects as a variable of interest rather than a nuisance, hierarchical Bayesian spatial models, especially when they are based on a common broad-scale spatial lattice (here the national Forest Inventory and Analysis grid of 24 km(2) hexagons), can increase the relevance of habitat models to multispecies

  11. Organisational aspects of spatial information infrastructure in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielecka, Elzbieta; Zwirowicz-Rutkowska, Agnieszka

    2013-06-01

    One of the more important elements of spatial information infrastructure is the organisational structure defining the obligations and dependencies between stakeholders that are responsible for the infrastructure. Many SDI practitioners and theoreticians emphasise that its influence on the success or failure of activities undertaken is significantly greater than that of technical aspects. Being aware of the role of the organisational structure in the creating, operating and maintenance of spatial information infrastructure (SII), Polish legislators placed appropriate regulations in the Spatial Information Infrastructure Act, being the transposition of the INSPIRE Directive into Polish Law. The principal spatial information infrastructure stakeholders are discussed in the article and also the scope of cooperation between them. The tasks and relationships between stakeholders are illustrated in UML, in both the use case and the class diagram. Mentioned also are the main problems and obstructions resulting from imprecise legal regulations. Jednym z istotniejszych komponentów infrastruktury informacji przestrzennej (IIP) jest struktura organizacyjna określająca m.in. zależności pomiędzy organizacjami tworzącymi infrastrukturę. Wielu praktyków i teoretyków SDI podkreśla, że wpływ aspektów organizacyjnych na sukces lub porażkę SDI jest dużo większy niż elementów technicznych. Mając świadomość znaczącej roli struktury organizacyjnej w tworzeniu, funkcjonowaniu i zarządzaniu infrastrukturą przestrzenną w Polsce, legislatorzy umieścili odpowiednie zapisy w ustawie z dnia 4 marca 2010 r. o infrastrukturze informacji przestrzennej, będącej transpozycją dyrektywy INSPIRE do prawa polskiego. W artykule omówiono strukturę organizacyjną IIP w Polsce, podając (m.in. w postaci diagramów UML) obowiązki poszczególnych organów administracji zaangażowanych w jej budowę i rozwój, a także omówiono zależności i zakres współpracy pomi

  12. Image Segmentation by Hierarchical Spatial and Color Spaces Clustering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Wei

    2005-01-01

    Image segmentation, as a basic building block for many high-level image analysis problems, has attracted many research attentions over years. Existing approaches, however, are mainly focusing on the clustering analysis in the single channel information, i.e., either in color or spatial space, which may lead to unsatisfactory segmentation performance. Considering the spatial and color spaces jointly, this paper proposes a new hierarchical image segmentation algorithm, which alternately clusters the image regions in color and spatial spaces in a fine to coarse manner. Without losing the perceptual consistence, the proposed algorithm achieves the segmentation result using only very few number of colors according to user specification.

  13. Organisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindkvist, Pia

    Du vil som læser få et indblik i, hvordan omgivelsernes ændrede krav til virksomhederne ændrer på organisations- og ledelsesteorien. Baggrunden for ”Organisation – videregående uddannelser” er, at give dig egenskaberne til at analysere og vurdere ledelsesmæssige og organisatoriske problemer...

  14. Spatial moments of catchment rainfall: rainfall spatial organisation, basin morphology, and flood response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Zoccatelli

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a set of spatial rainfall statistics (termed "spatial moments of catchment rainfall" quantifying the dependence existing between spatial rainfall organisation, basin morphology and runoff response. These statistics describe the spatial rainfall organisation in terms of concentration and dispersion statistics as a function of the distance measured along the flow routing coordinate. The introduction of these statistics permits derivation of a simple relationship for the quantification of catchment-scale storm velocity. The concept of the catchment-scale storm velocity takes into account the role of relative catchment orientation and morphology with respect to storm motion and kinematics. The paper illustrates the derivation of the statistics from an analytical framework recently proposed in literature and explains the conceptual meaning of the statistics by applying them to five extreme flash floods occurred in various European regions in the period 2002–2007. High resolution radar rainfall fields and a distributed hydrologic model are employed to examine how effective are these statistics in describing the degree of spatial rainfall organisation which is important for runoff modelling. This is obtained by quantifying the effects of neglecting the spatial rainfall variability on flood modelling, with a focus on runoff timing. The size of the study catchments ranges between 36 to 982 km2. The analysis reported here shows that the spatial moments of catchment rainfall can be effectively employed to isolate and describe the features of rainfall spatial organization which have significant impact on runoff simulation. These statistics provide useful information on what space-time scales rainfall has to be monitored, given certain catchment and flood characteristics, and what are the effects of space-time aggregation on flood response modeling.

  15. ECoS, a framework for modelling hierarchical spatial systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, John R W; Gorley, Ray N

    2003-10-01

    A general framework for modelling hierarchical spatial systems has been developed and implemented as the ECoS3 software package. The structure of this framework is described, and illustrated with representative examples. It allows the set-up and integration of sets of advection-diffusion equations representing multiple constituents interacting in a spatial context. Multiple spaces can be defined, with zero, one or two-dimensions and can be nested, and linked through constituent transfers. Model structure is generally object-oriented and hierarchical, reflecting the natural relations within its real-world analogue. Velocities, dispersions and inter-constituent transfers, together with additional functions, are defined as properties of constituents to which they apply. The resulting modular structure of ECoS models facilitates cut and paste model development, and template model components have been developed for the assembly of a range of estuarine water quality models. Published examples of applications to the geochemical dynamics of estuaries are listed.

  16. A hierarchical model for spatial capture-recapture data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royle, J. Andrew; Young, K.V.

    2008-01-01

    Estimating density is a fundamental objective of many animal population studies. Application of methods for estimating population size from ostensibly closed populations is widespread, but ineffective for estimating absolute density because most populations are subject to short-term movements or so-called temporary emigration. This phenomenon invalidates the resulting estimates because the effective sample area is unknown. A number of methods involving the adjustment of estimates based on heuristic considerations are in widespread use. In this paper, a hierarchical model of spatially indexed capture recapture data is proposed for sampling based on area searches of spatial sample units subject to uniform sampling intensity. The hierarchical model contains explicit models for the distribution of individuals and their movements, in addition to an observation model that is conditional on the location of individuals during sampling. Bayesian analysis of the hierarchical model is achieved by the use of data augmentation, which allows for a straightforward implementation in the freely available software WinBUGS. We present results of a simulation study that was carried out to evaluate the operating characteristics of the Bayesian estimator under variable densities and movement patterns of individuals. An application of the model is presented for survey data on the flat-tailed horned lizard (Phrynosoma mcallii) in Arizona, USA.

  17. Organisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Henrik B.; Hansen, Kaj; Heide, Asbjørn;

    Bogen giver en indføring i de centrale emner indenfor organisation og ledelse. Bogen henvender sig især til akademi- og diplomuddannelserne samt uddannelser til professionsbachelorer, der alle har et anvendelsesorienteret formål. Endvidere henvender bogen sig til uddannelser og kurser, der...... beskæftiger sig med ledelse og organisation på et videregående niveau. Til bogen er der udarbejdet en lang række supplerende materialer til undervisere og studerende i form af opgaver og cases, test med tilhørende svar, vejledninger i opgaveløsning og projektarbejde. dette univers kan findes på bogens...... hjemmeside på www.organisation.academica.dk...

  18. Spatial Bayesian hierarchical modelling of extreme sea states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, Colm; O'Sullivan, John; Sweeney, Conor; Dias, Frédéric; Parnell, Andrew C.

    2016-11-01

    A Bayesian hierarchical framework is used to model extreme sea states, incorporating a latent spatial process to more effectively capture the spatial variation of the extremes. The model is applied to a 34-year hindcast of significant wave height off the west coast of Ireland. The generalised Pareto distribution is fitted to declustered peaks over a threshold given by the 99.8th percentile of the data. Return levels of significant wave height are computed and compared against those from a model based on the commonly-used maximum likelihood inference method. The Bayesian spatial model produces smoother maps of return levels. Furthermore, this approach greatly reduces the uncertainty in the estimates, thus providing information on extremes which is more useful for practical applications.

  19. Spatial organisation of an ecological niche of the urbozem mesofauna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Y. Pakhomov

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Study results of the spatial organisation of urbozem mesofauna are presented. We used the OMI-analysis methods. Field research was made in June, 1st, 2011 inthe Botanical Gardenof Dnipropetrovsk National University(DNU (earlier – the territoryof Y. Gagarinpark, Dnipropetrovsk. The studied plot is situated at a distance of 220 mfrom the Building 1 of DNU and at a distance of 60 mfrom Y. Gagarin Avenue(the Southeast direction. The plot consists of 15 transects directed in a perpendicular manner in relation to the Avenue. Each transect is made of seven sample points. The distance between points is 2 m. The coordinates of lower left point have been taken as (0; 0. The plot represents artificial forest-park planting. The vegetation has typically wood mesotrophic mesophilic character (93.3% – silvants, 90.0% – mesotrophes, 81.7% – mesophiles. In each point the soil mesofauna was studied; temperature, electrical conductivity and soil penetration resistance, dead leaves layer and herbage height were measured. Soil-zoological test area had a size of 25 × 25 cm. We found that earthworms are numerous and saprohages are presented by 5 species. The Aporrectodea caliginosa trapezoides (Duges, 1828 is a dominant species. Along with that species an ecological group of endogeic earthworms is presented by A. rosea rosea (Savigny, 1826 and Octolasion lacteum (Oerley, 1885. An ecological diversity of earthworms is supplemented by epigeic Lumbricus rubellus Hoffmeister, 1843 and anecic Octodrilus transpadanus (Rosa, 1884. The hygromorphs of earthworms range from ultrahygrophiles to mesophiles. The coenomorphic spectrum of earthworms is also rather wide and presented by “pratants”, “stepants”, “palludants” and “silvants”. The complex of earthworms in studied area is taxonomically and ecologically diverse. The ecological structure of soil animal community is presented by such dominant ecological groups as saprohages, pratants, hygrophiles

  20. Organisational and Occupational Boundaries in Australian Universities: The Hierarchical Positioning of Female Professional Staff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Andrea; Fitzgerald, Tanya

    2014-01-01

    The effects of gender on organisational structures for professional university staff have been largely overlooked in the literature. Using data from one Australian university, we examine the location of professional female staff in the organisational hierarchy. Our analysis indicated that significant gendered segregation existed within and across…

  1. Organisational and Occupational Boundaries in Australian Universities: The Hierarchical Positioning of Female Professional Staff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Andrea; Fitzgerald, Tanya

    2014-01-01

    The effects of gender on organisational structures for professional university staff have been largely overlooked in the literature. Using data from one Australian university, we examine the location of professional female staff in the organisational hierarchy. Our analysis indicated that significant gendered segregation existed within and across…

  2. Free recall learning of hierarchically organised lists by adults with Asperger's syndrome: additional evidence for diminished relational processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowler, Dermot M; Gaigg, Sebastian B; Gardiner, John M

    2009-04-01

    The Task Support Hypothesis (TSH, Bowler et al. Neuropsychologia 35:65-70 1997) states that individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show better memory when test procedures provide support for retrieval. The present study aimed to see whether this principle also applied at encoding. Twenty participants with high-functioning ASD and 20 matched comparison participants studied arrays of 112 words over four trials. Words were arranged either under hierarchically embedded category headings (e.g. Instruments-String-Plucked-Violin) or randomly. Both groups showed similar overall recall and better recall for the hierarchically organised words. However, the ASD participants made less use of information about relations between words and more use of item-specific information in their recall, confirming earlier reports of relational difficulties in this population.

  3. Spatially Resolved Monitoring of Drying of Hierarchical Porous Organic Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, Manuel Isaac; Silletta, Emilia V; Gomez, Cesar G; Strumia, Miriam C; Stapf, Siegfried; Monti, Gustavo Alberto; Mattea, Carlos; Acosta, Rodolfo H

    2016-03-01

    Evaporation kinetics of water confined in hierarchal polymeric porous media is studied by low field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Systems synthesized with various degrees of cross-linker density render networks with similar pore sizes but different response when soaked with water. Polymeric networks with low percentage of cross-linker can undergo swelling, which affects the porosity as well as the drying kinetics. The drying process is monitored macroscopically by single-sided NMR, with spatial resolution of 100 μm, while microscopic information is obtained by measurements of spin-spin relaxation times (T2). Transition from a funicular to a pendular regime, where hydraulic connectivity is lost and the capillary flow cannot compensate for the surface evaporation, can be observed from inspection of the water content in different sample layers. Relaxation measurements indicate that even when the larger pore structures are depleted of water, capillary flow occurs through smaller voids.

  4. Interplay of Bacterial Interactions and Spatial Organisation in Multispecies Biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Wenzheng

    understanding of interspecies interactions and molecular mechanisms behind these activities of complex communities in combina-tion with omics technologies. Manuscript I demonstrates the apparent and predictable correlation between interspecific interactions and spatial organization of microbes in mul...... of member species’ spatial organization on biofilm formation and community assembly. The observations from Manuscript II suggest that low abundance key species can significantly impact the spatial organization and hereby stabilize the func-tion and composition of complex microbiomes. Manuscript III...

  5. Hierarchical spatial structure of stream fish colonization and extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitt, N.P.; Roberts, J.H.

    2012-01-01

    Spatial variation in extinction and colonization is expected to influence community composition over time. In stream fish communities, local species richness (alpha diversity) and species turnover (beta diversity) are thought to be regulated by high extinction rates in headwater streams and high colonization rates in downstream areas. We evaluated the spatiotemporal structure of fish communities in streams originally surveyed by Burton and Odum 1945 (Ecology 26: 182-194) in Virginia, USA and explored the effects of species traits on extinction and colonization dynamics. We documented dramatic changes in fish community structure at both the site and stream scales. Of the 34 fish species observed, 20 (59%) were present in both time periods, but 11 (32%) colonized the study area and three (9%) were extirpated over time. Within streams, alpha diversity increased in two of three streams but beta diversity decreased dramatically in all streams due to fish community homogenization caused by colonization of common species and extirpation of rare species. Among streams, however, fish communities differentiated over time. Regression trees indicated that reproductive life-history traits such as spawning mound construction, associations with mound-building species, and high fecundity were important predictors of species persistence or colonization. Conversely, native fishes not associated with mound-building exhibited the highest rates of extirpation from streams. Our results demonstrate that stream fish colonization and extinction dynamics exhibit hierarchical spatial structure and suggest that mound-building fishes serve as keystone species for colonization of headwater streams.

  6. Spatial Hierarchical Bayesian Analysis of the Historical Extreme Streamflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafi, M. R.; Moradkhani, H.

    2012-04-01

    Analysis of the climate change impact on extreme hydro-climatic events is crucial for future hydrologic/hydraulic designs and water resources decision making. The purpose of this study is to investigate the changes of the extreme value distribution parameters with respect to time to reflect upon the impact of climate change. We develop a statistical model using the observed streamflow data of the Columbia River Basin in USA to estimate the changes of high flows as a function of time as well as other variables. Generalized Pareto Distribution (GPD) is used to model the upper 95% flows during December through March for 31 gauge stations. In the process layer of the model the covariates including time, latitude, longitude, elevation and basin area are considered to assess the sensitivity of the model to each variable. Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method is used to estimate the parameters. The Spatial Hierarchical Bayesian technique models the GPD parameters spatially and borrows strength from other locations by pooling data together, while providing an explicit estimation of the uncertainties in all stages of modeling.

  7. Spatial organisation and biomass development after relaying of mussel seed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capelle, Jacob J.; Wijsman, Jeroen W. M.; Schellekens, Tim; van Stralen, Marnix R.; Herman, Peter M. J.; Smaal, Aad C.

    2014-01-01

    It is not known whether and by what factors spatial heterogeneity in mussels (Mytilus edulis L.) affects mussel production in human-created mussel beds. In a field experiment, the same number of mussels was relayed on four different areas within plots of the same size, resulting in four treatments with different mussel densities. Density, individual weight and spatial structure of mussels were followed per treatment. The uniformly placed mussels on different areas redistributed into new patches, but mussels did not spread out over a larger area. Initial mussel density affected redistribution and mussel survival. At high densities mussels redistributed into a uniform matrix or in a few larger patches, that showed larger losses than at low densities, where mussels redistributed into a high number of patches. Growth rate and condition index of the mussels did not differ between treatments and no relation was found between treatment and number of foraging shore crabs, which was the major predator of mussels in this experiment. We hypothesise that the relation between initial mussel density and mussel loss after relaying is associated with redistribution, with less competition for space when mussels are positioned at the edge of a mussel patch. The very high mussel losses that we observed in the experiment within four weeks after relaying were the major factor in biomass development. Mussel bed formation concerns mussel growers and managers involved in natural mussel bed restoration. Initial mussel survival determines the success of these activities. The present study shows the effects of mussel relaying on spatial redistribution for the first time under field conditions, and underlines the importance of edge effects in understanding mussel loss in redistribution. Mussel survival after relaying will be higher when the mussels are distributed homogeneously and in relatively low density.

  8. Benefits of incorporating spatial organisation of catchments for a semi-distributed hydrological model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, Andreas; Oppel, Henning

    2017-04-01

    To represent the hydrological behaviour of catchments a model should reproduce/reflect the hydrologically most relevant catchment characteristics. These are heterogeneously distributed within a watershed but often interrelated and subject of a certain spatial organisation. Since common models are mostly based on fundamental assumptions about hydrological processes, the reduction of variance of catchment properties as well as the incorporation of the spatial organisation of the catchment is desirable. We have developed a method that combines the idea of the width-function used for determination of the geomorphologic unit hydrograph with information about soil or topography. With this method we are able to assess the spatial organisation of selected catchment characteristics. An algorithm was developed that structures a watershed into sub-basins and other spatial units to minimise its heterogeneity. The outcomes of this algorithm are used for the spatial setup of a semi-distributed model. Since the spatial organisation of a catchment is not bound to a single characteristic, we have to embed information of multiple catchment properties. For this purpose we applied a fuzzy-based method to combine the spatial setup for multiple single characteristics into a union, optimal spatial differentiation. Utilizing this method, we are able to propose a spatial structure for a semi-distributed hydrological model, comprising the definition of sub-basins and a zonal classification within each sub-basin. Besides the improved spatial structuring, the performed analysis ameliorates modelling in another way. The spatial variability of catchment characteristics, which is considered by a minimum of heterogeneity in the zones, can be considered in a parameter constrained calibration scheme in a case study both options were used to explore the benefits of incorporating the spatial organisation and derived parameter constraints for the parametrisation of a HBV-96 model. We use two benchmark

  9. Likelihood Approximation With Hierarchical Matrices For Large Spatial Datasets

    KAUST Repository

    Litvinenko, Alexander

    2017-09-03

    We use available measurements to estimate the unknown parameters (variance, smoothness parameter, and covariance length) of a covariance function by maximizing the joint Gaussian log-likelihood function. To overcome cubic complexity in the linear algebra, we approximate the discretized covariance function in the hierarchical (H-) matrix format. The H-matrix format has a log-linear computational cost and storage O(kn log n), where the rank k is a small integer and n is the number of locations. The H-matrix technique allows us to work with general covariance matrices in an efficient way, since H-matrices can approximate inhomogeneous covariance functions, with a fairly general mesh that is not necessarily axes-parallel, and neither the covariance matrix itself nor its inverse have to be sparse. We demonstrate our method with Monte Carlo simulations and an application to soil moisture data. The C, C++ codes and data are freely available.

  10. An Adaptive Method for Mining Hierarchical Spatial Co-location Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAI Jiannan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Mining spatial co-location patterns plays a key role in spatial data mining. Spatial co-location patterns refer to subsets of features whose objects are frequently located in close geographic proximity. Due to spatial heterogeneity, spatial co-location patterns are usually not the same across geographic space. However, existing methods are mainly designed to discover global spatial co-location patterns, and not suitable for detecting regional spatial co-location patterns. On that account, an adaptive method for mining hierarchical spatial co-location patterns is proposed in this paper. Firstly, global spatial co-location patterns are detected and other non-prevalent co-location patterns are identified as candidate regional co-location patterns. Then, for each candidate pattern, adaptive spatial clustering method is used to delineate localities of that pattern in the study area, and participation ratio is utilized to measure the prevalence of the candidate co-location pattern. Finally, an overlap operation is developed to deduce localities of (k+1-size co-location patterns from localities of k-size co-location patterns. Experiments on both simulated and real-life datasets show that the proposed method is effective for detecting hierarchical spatial co-location patterns.

  11. A spatial analysis of hierarchical waste transport structures under growing demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanguy, Audrey; Glaus, Mathias; Laforest, Valérie; Villot, Jonathan; Hausler, Robert

    2016-10-01

    The design of waste management systems rarely accounts for the spatio-temporal evolution of the demand. However, recent studies suggest that this evolution affects the planning of waste management activities like the choice and location of treatment facilities. As a result, the transport structure could also be affected by these changes. The objective of this paper is to study the influence of the spatio-temporal evolution of the demand on the strategic planning of a waste transport structure. More particularly this study aims at evaluating the effect of varying spatial parameters on the economic performance of hierarchical structures (with one transfer station). To this end, three consecutive generations of three different spatial distributions were tested for hierarchical and non-hierarchical transport structures based on costs minimization. Results showed that a hierarchical structure is economically viable for large and clustered spatial distributions. The distance parameter was decisive but the loading ratio of trucks and the formation of clusters of sources also impacted the attractiveness of the transfer station. Thus the territories' morphology should influence strategies as regards to the installation of transfer stations. The use of spatial-explicit tools such as the transport model presented in this work that take into account the territory's evolution are needed to help waste managers in the strategic planning of waste transport structures.

  12. Hierarchical spatial point process analysis for a plant community with high biodiversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illian, Janine B.; Møller, Jesper; Waagepetersen, Rasmus

    2009-01-01

    A complex multivariate spatial point pattern of a plant community with high biodiversity is modelled using a hierarchical multivariate point process model. In the model, interactions between plants with different post-fire regeneration strategies are of key interest. We consider initially a maximum...

  13. Constructing low-dimensional stochastic wind models through hierarchical spatial temporal decomposition

    OpenAIRE

    Guo,Qiang; Rajewski, Daniel; Takle, Eugene; Ganapathysubramanian, Baskar

    2016-01-01

    Current wind turbine simulations successfully use turbulence generating tools for modeling behavior. However, they lack the ability to reproduce variabilities in wind dynamics and inherent stochastic structures (like temporal and spatial coherences, sporadic bursts, high shear regions). This necessitates a more realistic parameterization of the wind that encodes location-, topography-, diurnal-, seasonal and stochastic affects. In this work, we develop a hierarchical temporal and spatial deco...

  14. Spatial Object Aggregation Based on Data Structure,Local Triangulation and Hierarchical Analyzing Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This paper focuses on the methods and process of spatial aggregation based on semantic and geometric characteristics of spatial objects and relations among the objects with the help of spatial data structure (Formal Data Structure),the Local Constrained Delaunay Triangulations and semantic hierarchy.The adjacent relation among connected objects and unconnected objects has been studied through constrained triangle as elementary processing unit in aggregation operation.The hierarchical semantic analytical matrix is given for analyzing the similarity between objects types and between objects.Several different cases of aggregation have been presented in this paper.

  15. Hierarchical spatial capture-recapture models: Modeling population density from stratified populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royle, J. Andrew; Converse, Sarah J.

    2014-01-01

    Capture–recapture studies are often conducted on populations that are stratified by space, time or other factors. In this paper, we develop a Bayesian spatial capture–recapture (SCR) modelling framework for stratified populations – when sampling occurs within multiple distinct spatial and temporal strata.We describe a hierarchical model that integrates distinct models for both the spatial encounter history data from capture–recapture sampling, and also for modelling variation in density among strata. We use an implementation of data augmentation to parameterize the model in terms of a latent categorical stratum or group membership variable, which provides a convenient implementation in popular BUGS software packages.We provide an example application to an experimental study involving small-mammal sampling on multiple trapping grids over multiple years, where the main interest is in modelling a treatment effect on population density among the trapping grids.Many capture–recapture studies involve some aspect of spatial or temporal replication that requires some attention to modelling variation among groups or strata. We propose a hierarchical model that allows explicit modelling of group or strata effects. Because the model is formulated for individual encounter histories and is easily implemented in the BUGS language and other free software, it also provides a general framework for modelling individual effects, such as are present in SCR models.

  16. Integrating population dynamics models and distance sampling data: a spatial hierarchical state-space approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeem, Khurram; Moore, Jeffrey E; Zhang, Ying; Chipman, Hugh

    2016-07-01

    Stochastic versions of Gompertz, Ricker, and various other dynamics models play a fundamental role in quantifying strength of density dependence and studying long-term dynamics of wildlife populations. These models are frequently estimated using time series of abundance estimates that are inevitably subject to observation error and missing data. This issue can be addressed with a state-space modeling framework that jointly estimates the observed data model and the underlying stochastic population dynamics (SPD) model. In cases where abundance data are from multiple locations with a smaller spatial resolution (e.g., from mark-recapture and distance sampling studies), models are conventionally fitted to spatially pooled estimates of yearly abundances. Here, we demonstrate that a spatial version of SPD models can be directly estimated from short time series of spatially referenced distance sampling data in a unified hierarchical state-space modeling framework that also allows for spatial variance (covariance) in population growth. We also show that a full range of likelihood based inference, including estimability diagnostics and model selection, is feasible in this class of models using a data cloning algorithm. We further show through simulation experiments that the hierarchical state-space framework introduced herein efficiently captures the underlying dynamical parameters and spatial abundance distribution. We apply our methodology by analyzing a time series of line-transect distance sampling data for fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus) off the U.S. west coast. Although there were only seven surveys conducted during the study time frame, 1991-2014, our analysis detected presence of strong density regulation and provided reliable estimates of fin whale densities. In summary, we show that the integrative framework developed herein allows ecologists to better infer key population characteristics such as presence of density regulation and spatial variability in a

  17. Hierarchical spatial models for predicting pygmy rabbit distribution and relative abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, T.L.; Odei, J.B.; Hooten, M.B.; Edwards, T.C.

    2010-01-01

    Conservationists routinely use species distribution models to plan conservation, restoration and development actions, while ecologists use them to infer process from pattern. These models tend to work well for common or easily observable species, but are of limited utility for rare and cryptic species. This may be because honest accounting of known observation bias and spatial autocorrelation are rarely included, thereby limiting statistical inference of resulting distribution maps. We specified and implemented a spatially explicit Bayesian hierarchical model for a cryptic mammal species (pygmy rabbit Brachylagus idahoensis). Our approach used two levels of indirect sign that are naturally hierarchical (burrows and faecal pellets) to build a model that allows for inference on regression coefficients as well as spatially explicit model parameters. We also produced maps of rabbit distribution (occupied burrows) and relative abundance (number of burrows expected to be occupied by pygmy rabbits). The model demonstrated statistically rigorous spatial prediction by including spatial autocorrelation and measurement uncertainty. We demonstrated flexibility of our modelling framework by depicting probabilistic distribution predictions using different assumptions of pygmy rabbit habitat requirements. Spatial representations of the variance of posterior predictive distributions were obtained to evaluate heterogeneity in model fit across the spatial domain. Leave-one-out cross-validation was conducted to evaluate the overall model fit. Synthesis and applications. Our method draws on the strengths of previous work, thereby bridging and extending two active areas of ecological research: species distribution models and multi-state occupancy modelling. Our framework can be extended to encompass both larger extents and other species for which direct estimation of abundance is difficult. ?? 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation ?? 2010 British Ecological Society.

  18. Spatial Patterns in Biofilm Diversity across Hierarchical Levels of River-Floodplain Landscapes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Peipoch

    Full Text Available River-floodplain systems are among the most diverse and productive ecosystems, but the effects of biophysical complexity at multiple scales on microbial biodiversity have not been studied. Here, we investigated how the hierarchical organization of river systems (i.e., region, floodplain, zone, habitats, and microhabitats influences epilithic biofilm community assemblage patterns by characterizing microbial communities using 16S rRNA gene sequence data and analyzing bacterial species distribution across local and regional scales. Results indicate that regional and local environmental filters concurrently sort bacterial species, suggesting that spatial configuration of epilithic biofilms resembles patterns of larger organisms in floodplain ecosystems. Along the hierarchical organization of fluvial systems, floodplains constitute a vector of maximum environmental heterogeneity and consequently act as a major landscape filter for biofilm species. Thus, river basins and associated floodplains may simply reflect very large scale 'patches' within which environmental conditions select for community composition of epilithic biofilms.

  19. Spatial organisation of four enzymes from Stevia rebaudiana that are involved in steviol glycoside synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, Tania V; Richman, Alex S; Menassa, Rima; Brandle, Jim E

    2006-05-01

    The sweet steviol glycosides found in the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana Bert. are derived from the diterpene steviol which is produced from a branch of the gibberellic acid (GA) biosynthetic pathway. An understanding of the spatial organisation of the two pathways including subcellular compartmentation provides important insight for the metabolic engineering of steviol glycosides as well as other secondary metabolites in plants. The final step of GA biosynthesis, before the branch point for steviol production, is the formation of (-)-kaurenoic acid from (-)-kaurene, catalysed by kaurene oxidase (KO). Downstream of this, the first committed step in steviol glycoside synthesis is the hydroxylation of kaurenoic acid to form steviol which is then sequentially glucosylated by a series of UDP-glucosyltransferases (UGTs) to produce the variety of steviol glycosides. The subcellular location of KO and three of the UGTs involved in steviol glycoside biosynthesis was investigated by expression of GFP fusions and cell fractionation which revealed KO to be associated with the endoplasmic reticulum and the UGTs in the cytoplasm. It has also been shown by expressing the Stevia UGTs in Arabidopsis that the pathway can be partially reconstituted by recruitment of a native Arabidopsis glucosyltransferase.

  20. Community turnover of wood-inhabiting fungi across hierarchical spatial scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrego, Nerea; García-Baquero, Gonzalo; Halme, Panu; Ovaskainen, Otso; Salcedo, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    For efficient use of conservation resources it is important to determine how species diversity changes across spatial scales. In many poorly known species groups little is known about at which spatial scales the conservation efforts should be focused. Here we examined how the community turnover of wood-inhabiting fungi is realised at three hierarchical levels, and how much of community variation is explained by variation in resource composition and spatial proximity. The hierarchical study design consisted of management type (fixed factor), forest site (random factor, nested within management type) and study plots (randomly placed plots within each study site). To examine how species richness varied across the three hierarchical scales, randomized species accumulation curves and additive partitioning of species richness were applied. To analyse variation in wood-inhabiting species and dead wood composition at each scale, linear and Permanova modelling approaches were used. Wood-inhabiting fungal communities were dominated by rare and infrequent species. The similarity of fungal communities was higher within sites and within management categories than among sites or between the two management categories, and it decreased with increasing distance among the sampling plots and with decreasing similarity of dead wood resources. However, only a small part of community variation could be explained by these factors. The species present in managed forests were in a large extent a subset of those species present in natural forests. Our results suggest that in particular the protection of rare species requires a large total area. As managed forests have only little additional value complementing the diversity of natural forests, the conservation of natural forests is the key to ecologically effective conservation. As the dissimilarity of fungal communities increases with distance, the conserved natural forest sites should be broadly distributed in space, yet the individual

  1. Community turnover of wood-inhabiting fungi across hierarchical spatial scales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerea Abrego

    Full Text Available For efficient use of conservation resources it is important to determine how species diversity changes across spatial scales. In many poorly known species groups little is known about at which spatial scales the conservation efforts should be focused. Here we examined how the community turnover of wood-inhabiting fungi is realised at three hierarchical levels, and how much of community variation is explained by variation in resource composition and spatial proximity. The hierarchical study design consisted of management type (fixed factor, forest site (random factor, nested within management type and study plots (randomly placed plots within each study site. To examine how species richness varied across the three hierarchical scales, randomized species accumulation curves and additive partitioning of species richness were applied. To analyse variation in wood-inhabiting species and dead wood composition at each scale, linear and Permanova modelling approaches were used. Wood-inhabiting fungal communities were dominated by rare and infrequent species. The similarity of fungal communities was higher within sites and within management categories than among sites or between the two management categories, and it decreased with increasing distance among the sampling plots and with decreasing similarity of dead wood resources. However, only a small part of community variation could be explained by these factors. The species present in managed forests were in a large extent a subset of those species present in natural forests. Our results suggest that in particular the protection of rare species requires a large total area. As managed forests have only little additional value complementing the diversity of natural forests, the conservation of natural forests is the key to ecologically effective conservation. As the dissimilarity of fungal communities increases with distance, the conserved natural forest sites should be broadly distributed in space, yet

  2. A neurodynamical model of visual attention: feedback enhancement of spatial resolution in a hierarchical system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deco, G; Zihl, J

    2001-01-01

    Human beings have the capacity to recognize objects in natural visual scenes with high efficiency despite the complexity of such scenes, which usually contain multiple objects. One possible mechanism for dealing with this problem is selective attention. Psychophysical evidence strongly suggests that selective attention can enhance the spatial resolution in the input region corresponding to the focus of attention. In this work we adopt a computational neuroscience perspective to analyze the attentional enhancement of spatial resolution in the area containing the objects of interest. We extend and apply the computational model of Deco and Schürmann (2000), which consists of several modules with feedforward and feedback interconnections describing the mutual links between different areas of the visual cortex. Each module analyses the visual input with different spatial resolution and can be thought of as a hierarchical predictor at a given level of resolution. Moreover, each hierarchical predictor has a submodule that consists of a group of neurons performing a biologically based 2D Gabor wavelet transformation at a given resolution level. The attention control decides in which local regions the spatial resolution should be enhanced in a serial fashion. In this sense, the scene is first analyzed at a coarse resolution level, and the focus of attention enhances iteratively the resolution at the location of an object until the object is identified. We propose and simulate new psychophysical experiments where the effect of the attentional enhancement of spatial resolution can be demonstrated by predicting different reaction time profiles in visual search experiments where the target and distractors are defined at different levels of resolution.

  3. Hierarchical mechanisms of spatially contagious seed dispersal in complex seed-disperser networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedriani, José M; Wiegand, Thorsten

    2014-02-01

    Intra- and interspecific spatially contagious seed dispersal has far-reaching implications for plant recruitment, distribution, and community assemblage. However, logistical and analytical limitations have curtailed our understanding concerning the mechanisms and resulting spatial patterns of contagious seed dispersal in most systems and, especially, in complex seed-disperser networks. We investigated mechanisms of seed aggregation using techniques of spatial point pattern analysis and extensive data sets on mutispecific endozoochorous seed rain generated by five frugivorous mammals in three Mediterranean shrublands over two seasons. Our novel analytical approach revealed three hierarchical and complementary mechanisms of seed aggregation acting at different levels (fecal samples, seeds, pairs of seed species) and spatial scales. First, the three local guilds of frugivores tended to deliver their feces highly aggregated at small and intermediate spatial scales, and the overall pattern of fecal delivery could be described well by a nested double-cluster Thomas process. Second, once the strong observed fecal aggregation was accounted for, the distribution of mammal feces containing seeds was clustered within the pattern of all feces (i.e., with and without seeds), and the density of fecal samples containing seeds was higher than expected around other feces containing seeds in two out of the three studied seed-disperser networks. Finally, at a finer level, mark correlation analyses revealed that for some plant species pairs, the number of dispersed seeds was positively associated either at small or large spatial scales. Despite the relatively invariant patterning of nested double-clustering, some attributes of endozoochorous seed rain (e.g., intensity, scales of aggregation) were variable among study sites due to changes in the ecological context in which seeds and their dispersers interact. Our investigation disentangles for the first time the hierarchy of synergic

  4. Hierarchical state space partitioning with a network self-organising map for the recognition of ST-T segment changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerianos, A; Vladutu, L; Papadimitriou, S

    2000-07-01

    The problem of maximising the performance of ST-T segment automatic recognition for ischaemia detection is a difficult pattern classification problem. The paper proposes the network self-organising map (NetSOM) model as an enhancement to the Kohonen self-organised map (SOM) model. This model is capable of effectively decomposing complex large-scale pattern classification problems into a number of partitions, each of which is more manageable with a local classification device. The NetSOM attempts to generalize the regularization and ordering potential of the basic SOM from the space of vectors to the space of approximating functions. It becomes a device for the ordering of local experts (i.e. independent neural networks) over its lattice of neurons and for their selection and co-ordination. Each local expert is an independent neural network that is trained and activated under the control of the NetSOM. This method is evaluated with examples from the European ST-T database. The first results obtained after the application of NetSOM to ST-T segment change recognition show a significant improvement in the performance compared with that obtained with monolithic approaches, i.e. with single network types. The basic SOM model has attained an average ischaemic beat sensitivity of 73.6% and an average ischaemic beat predictivity of 68.3%. The work reports and discusses the improvements that have been obtained from the implementation of a NetSOM classification system with both multilayer perceptrons and radial basis function (RBF) networks as local experts for the ST-T segment change problem. Specifically, the NetSOM with multilayer perceptrons (radial basis functions) as local experts has improved the results over the basic SOM to an average ischaemic beat sensitivity of 75.9% (77.7%) and an average ischaemic beat predictivity of 72.5% (74.1%).

  5. LiDAR based prediction of forest biomass using hierarchical models with spatially varying coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babcock, Chad; Finley, Andrew O.; Bradford, John B.; Kolka, Randall K.; Birdsey, Richard A.; Ryan, Michael G.

    2015-01-01

    Many studies and production inventory systems have shown the utility of coupling covariates derived from Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data with forest variables measured on georeferenced inventory plots through regression models. The objective of this study was to propose and assess the use of a Bayesian hierarchical modeling framework that accommodates both residual spatial dependence and non-stationarity of model covariates through the introduction of spatial random effects. We explored this objective using four forest inventory datasets that are part of the North American Carbon Program, each comprising point-referenced measures of above-ground forest biomass and discrete LiDAR. For each dataset, we considered at least five regression model specifications of varying complexity. Models were assessed based on goodness of fit criteria and predictive performance using a 10-fold cross-validation procedure. Results showed that the addition of spatial random effects to the regression model intercept improved fit and predictive performance in the presence of substantial residual spatial dependence. Additionally, in some cases, allowing either some or all regression slope parameters to vary spatially, via the addition of spatial random effects, further improved model fit and predictive performance. In other instances, models showed improved fit but decreased predictive performance—indicating over-fitting and underscoring the need for cross-validation to assess predictive ability. The proposed Bayesian modeling framework provided access to pixel-level posterior predictive distributions that were useful for uncertainty mapping, diagnosing spatial extrapolation issues, revealing missing model covariates, and discovering locally significant parameters.

  6. A Hierarchical Approach to Estimate Spatially Available Potential of Primary Forest Residues for Bioenergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin Oğuz Çoban

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the major steps in setting up a bioenergy utilization system is to determine the potential availability of forest biomass. This study illustrates the methodology of estimating the spatial availability of primary forest residues in naturally occurring brutian pine forests, which are considerable components of forest biomass. A spatial database system was created to respectively calculate the theoretical, technical, and spatially economical biomass potentials that were subject to limitation by stand ages, forest functions, site indexes, slopes, and distance zones. To quantify primary forest residues (PFR, the conversion rates were processed, ranging from 24.1% to 26% of allowable cut volume for early thinning, 15 to 20% for thinning, and 11.1% for final felling. The results showed that the total accumulation of theoretical primary forest residues was 86,554.7 green tons in 10 years’ time, 71% of which could be ecologically available. Furthermore, the spatially available biomass potential was 6,095.4 tons per year within a radial distance of 30 km. In the future, the proposed hierarchical process can be applied to brutian pine stands in the Mediterranean region using a larger dataset that will provide a truer representation of the regional variation.

  7. Modeling inter-subject variability in fMRI activation location: A Bayesian hierarchical spatial model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lei; Johnson, Timothy D.; Nichols, Thomas E.; Nee, Derek E.

    2010-01-01

    Summary The aim of this work is to develop a spatial model for multi-subject fMRI data. There has been extensive work on univariate modeling of each voxel for single and multi-subject data, some work on spatial modeling of single-subject data, and some recent work on spatial modeling of multi-subject data. However, there has been no work on spatial models that explicitly account for inter-subject variability in activation locations. In this work, we use the idea of activation centers and model the inter-subject variability in activation locations directly. Our model is specified in a Bayesian hierarchical frame work which allows us to draw inferences at all levels: the population level, the individual level and the voxel level. We use Gaussian mixtures for the probability that an individual has a particular activation. This helps answer an important question which is not addressed by any of the previous methods: What proportion of subjects had a significant activity in a given region. Our approach incorporates the unknown number of mixture components into the model as a parameter whose posterior distribution is estimated by reversible jump Markov Chain Monte Carlo. We demonstrate our method with a fMRI study of resolving proactive interference and show dramatically better precision of localization with our method relative to the standard mass-univariate method. Although we are motivated by fMRI data, this model could easily be modified to handle other types of imaging data. PMID:19210732

  8. Spatial patterns of breeding success of grizzly bears derived from hierarchical multistate models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Jason T; Wheatley, Matthew; Mackenzie, Darryl

    2014-10-01

    Conservation programs often manage populations indirectly through the landscapes in which they live. Empirically, linking reproductive success with landscape structure and anthropogenic change is a first step in understanding and managing the spatial mechanisms that affect reproduction, but this link is not sufficiently informed by data. Hierarchical multistate occupancy models can forge these links by estimating spatial patterns of reproductive success across landscapes. To illustrate, we surveyed the occurrence of grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) in the Canadian Rocky Mountains Alberta, Canada. We deployed camera traps for 6 weeks at 54 surveys sites in different types of land cover. We used hierarchical multistate occupancy models to estimate probability of detection, grizzly bear occupancy, and probability of reproductive success at each site. Grizzly bear occupancy varied among cover types and was greater in herbaceous alpine ecotones than in low-elevation wetlands or mid-elevation conifer forests. The conditional probability of reproductive success given grizzly bear occupancy was 30% (SE = 0.14). Grizzly bears with cubs had a higher probability of detection than grizzly bears without cubs, but sites were correctly classified as being occupied by breeding females 49% of the time based on raw data and thus would have been underestimated by half. Repeated surveys and multistate modeling reduced the probability of misclassifying sites occupied by breeders as unoccupied to grizzly bear occupancy varied across the landscape. Those patches with highest probabilities of breeding occupancy-herbaceous alpine ecotones-were small and highly dispersed and are projected to shrink as treelines advance due to climate warming. Understanding spatial correlates in breeding distribution is a key requirement for species conservation in the face of climate change and can help identify priorities for landscape management and protection.

  9. MEG source localization of spatially extended generators of epileptic activity: comparing entropic and hierarchical bayesian approaches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasheda Arman Chowdhury

    Full Text Available Localizing the generators of epileptic activity in the brain using Electro-EncephaloGraphy (EEG or Magneto-EncephaloGraphy (MEG signals is of particular interest during the pre-surgical investigation of epilepsy. Epileptic discharges can be detectable from background brain activity, provided they are associated with spatially extended generators. Using realistic simulations of epileptic activity, this study evaluates the ability of distributed source localization methods to accurately estimate the location of the generators and their sensitivity to the spatial extent of such generators when using MEG data. Source localization methods based on two types of realistic models have been investigated: (i brain activity may be modeled using cortical parcels and (ii brain activity is assumed to be locally smooth within each parcel. A Data Driven Parcellization (DDP method was used to segment the cortical surface into non-overlapping parcels and diffusion-based spatial priors were used to model local spatial smoothness within parcels. These models were implemented within the Maximum Entropy on the Mean (MEM and the Hierarchical Bayesian (HB source localization frameworks. We proposed new methods in this context and compared them with other standard ones using Monte Carlo simulations of realistic MEG data involving sources of several spatial extents and depths. Detection accuracy of each method was quantified using Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC analysis and localization error metrics. Our results showed that methods implemented within the MEM framework were sensitive to all spatial extents of the sources ranging from 3 cm(2 to 30 cm(2, whatever were the number and size of the parcels defining the model. To reach a similar level of accuracy within the HB framework, a model using parcels larger than the size of the sources should be considered.

  10. Estimating temporal trend in the presence of spatial complexity: A Bayesian hierarchical model for a wetland plant population undergoing restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodhouse, T.J.; Irvine, K.M.; Vierling, K.T.; Vierling, L.A.

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring programs that evaluate restoration and inform adaptive management are important for addressing environmental degradation. These efforts may be well served by spatially explicit hierarchical approaches to modeling because of unavoidable spatial structure inherited from past land use patterns and other factors. We developed Bayesian hierarchical models to estimate trends from annual density counts observed in a spatially structured wetland forb (Camassia quamash [camas]) population following the cessation of grazing and mowing on the study area, and in a separate reference population of camas. The restoration site was bisected by roads and drainage ditches, resulting in distinct subpopulations ("zones") with different land use histories. We modeled this spatial structure by fitting zone-specific intercepts and slopes. We allowed spatial covariance parameters in the model to vary by zone, as in stratified kriging, accommodating anisotropy and improving computation and biological interpretation. Trend estimates provided evidence of a positive effect of passive restoration, and the strength of evidence was influenced by the amount of spatial structure in the model. Allowing trends to vary among zones and accounting for topographic heterogeneity increased precision of trend estimates. Accounting for spatial autocorrelation shifted parameter coefficients in ways that varied among zones depending on strength of statistical shrinkage, autocorrelation and topographic heterogeneity-a phenomenon not widely described. Spatially explicit estimates of trend from hierarchical models will generally be more useful to land managers than pooled regional estimates and provide more realistic assessments of uncertainty. The ability to grapple with historical contingency is an appealing benefit of this approach.

  11. A spectral-spatial-dynamic hierarchical Bayesian (SSD-HB) model for estimating soybean yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazama, Yoriko; Kujirai, Toshihiro

    2014-10-01

    A method called a "spectral-spatial-dynamic hierarchical-Bayesian (SSD-HB) model," which can deal with many parameters (such as spectral and weather information all together) by reducing the occurrence of multicollinearity, is proposed. Experiments conducted on soybean yields in Brazil fields with a RapidEye satellite image indicate that the proposed SSD-HB model can predict soybean yield with a higher degree of accuracy than other estimation methods commonly used in remote-sensing applications. In the case of the SSD-HB model, the mean absolute error between estimated yield of the target area and actual yield is 0.28 t/ha, compared to 0.34 t/ha when conventional PLS regression was applied, showing the potential effectiveness of the proposed model.

  12. A BAYESIAN HIERARCHICAL SPATIAL MODEL FOR DENTAL CARIES ASSESSMENT USING NON-GAUSSIAN MARKOV RANDOM FIELDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Ick Hoon; Yuan, Ying; Bandyopadhyay, Dipankar

    2016-01-01

    Research in dental caries generates data with two levels of hierarchy: that of a tooth overall and that of the different surfaces of the tooth. The outcomes often exhibit spatial referencing among neighboring teeth and surfaces, i.e., the disease status of a tooth or surface might be influenced by the status of a set of proximal teeth/surfaces. Assessments of dental caries (tooth decay) at the tooth level yield binary outcomes indicating the presence/absence of teeth, and trinary outcomes at the surface level indicating healthy, decayed, or filled surfaces. The presence of these mixed discrete responses complicates the data analysis under a unified framework. To mitigate complications, we develop a Bayesian two-level hierarchical model under suitable (spatial) Markov random field assumptions that accommodates the natural hierarchy within the mixed responses. At the first level, we utilize an autologistic model to accommodate the spatial dependence for the tooth-level binary outcomes. For the second level and conditioned on a tooth being non-missing, we utilize a Potts model to accommodate the spatial referencing for the surface-level trinary outcomes. The regression models at both levels were controlled for plausible covariates (risk factors) of caries, and remain connected through shared parameters. To tackle the computational challenges in our Bayesian estimation scheme caused due to the doubly-intractable normalizing constant, we employ a double Metropolis-Hastings sampler. We compare and contrast our model performances to the standard non-spatial (naive) model using a small simulation study, and illustrate via an application to a clinical dataset on dental caries. PMID:27807470

  13. From Spatial Data to Synchronised Actions: the Network-centric Organisation of spatial decision support for risk and emergency management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neuvel, J.M.M.; Scholten, H.J.; Brink, van den A.

    2012-01-01

    A considerable amount of the required information in risk and emergency management is geographical, but this information does not always reach the right actors at the right time, so how can geographical information be organised in such a way that it supports risk and emergency management more

  14. From Spatial Data to Synchronised Actions: the Network-centric Organisation of spatial decision support for risk and emergency management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neuvel, J.M.M.; Scholten, H.J.; Brink, van den A.

    2012-01-01

    A considerable amount of the required information in risk and emergency management is geographical, but this information does not always reach the right actors at the right time, so how can geographical information be organised in such a way that it supports risk and emergency management more effect

  15. Prioritizing the risk of plant pests by clustering methods; self-organising maps, k-means and hierarchical clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Worner

    2013-09-01

    -means, hierarchical clustering and the incorporation of the SOM analysis into criteria based approaches to assess pest risk.

  16. The Gown and the Korowai: Maori Doctoral Students and the Spatial Organisation of Academic Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Sue; McKinley, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    This paper draws on 38 student interviews carried out in the course of the team research project "Teaching and Learning in the Supervision of Maori Doctoral Students". Maori doctoral thesis work takes place in the intersections between the Maori (tribal) world of identifications and obligations, the organisational and epistemological…

  17. The Gown and the Korowai: Maori Doctoral Students and the Spatial Organisation of Academic Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Sue; McKinley, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    This paper draws on 38 student interviews carried out in the course of the team research project "Teaching and Learning in the Supervision of Maori Doctoral Students". Maori doctoral thesis work takes place in the intersections between the Maori (tribal) world of identifications and obligations, the organisational and epistemological…

  18. Performance-oriented Architecture and the Spatial and Material Organisation Complex. Rethinking the Definition, Role and Performative Capacity of the Spatial and Material Boundaries of the Built Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Ulrich Hensel

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on the proposition that performance-oriented design is characterised by four domains of ‘active agency’: the human subject, the spatial and material organisation complex and the environment (Hensel, 2010. While these four domains are seen to be interdependent and interacting with one another, it is nevertheless necessary to examine each in its own right. However, the spatial and material organisation complex contains both the spatial and material domains, which are interdependent to such a degree that these need to be examined in relation to one another and also in relation to the specific environment they are set within and interacting with. To explore this combined domain within the context of performance-oriented design is the aim of this article, in particularly in relation to the question of the definition and performative capacity of spatial and material boundaries. The various sections are accompanied by research by design efforts undertaken in specified academic contexts, which are intended as examples of modes and areas of inquiry relative to the purpose of this article.

  19. Crucial nesting habitat for gunnison sage-grouse: A spatially explicit hierarchical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldridge, C.L.; Saher, D.J.; Childers, T.M.; Stahlnecker, K.E.; Bowen, Z.H.

    2012-01-01

    Gunnison sage-grouse (Centrocercus minimus) is a species of special concern and is currently considered a candidate species under Endangered Species Act. Careful management is therefore required to ensure that suitable habitat is maintained, particularly because much of the species' current distribution is faced with exurban development pressures. We assessed hierarchical nest site selection patterns of Gunnison sage-grouse inhabiting the western portion of the Gunnison Basin, Colorado, USA, at multiple spatial scales, using logistic regression-based resource selection functions. Models were selected using Akaike Information Criterion corrected for small sample sizes (AIC c) and predictive surfaces were generated using model averaged relative probabilities. Landscape-scale factors that had the most influence on nest site selection included the proportion of sagebrush cover >5%, mean productivity, and density of 2 wheel-drive roads. The landscape-scale predictive surface captured 97% of known Gunnison sage-grouse nests within the top 5 of 10 prediction bins, implicating 57% of the basin as crucial nesting habitat. Crucial habitat identified by the landscape model was used to define the extent for patch-scale modeling efforts. Patch-scale variables that had the greatest influence on nest site selection were the proportion of big sagebrush cover >10%, distance to residential development, distance to high volume paved roads, and mean productivity. This model accurately predicted independent nest locations. The unique hierarchical structure of our models more accurately captures the nested nature of habitat selection, and allowed for increased discrimination within larger landscapes of suitable habitat. We extrapolated the landscape-scale model to the entire Gunnison Basin because of conservation concerns for this species. We believe this predictive surface is a valuable tool which can be incorporated into land use and conservation planning as well the assessment of

  20. Demographic Data Assessment using Novel 3DCCOM Spatial Hierarchical Clustering: A Case Study of Sonipat Block, Haryana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamta Malik

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Cluster detection is a tool employed by GIS scientists who specialize in the field of spatial analysis. This study employed a combination of GIS, RS and a novel 3DCCOM spatial data clustering algorithm to assess the rural demographic development strategies of Sonepat block, Haryana, India. This Study is undertaken in the rural and rural-based district in India to demonstrate the integration of village-level spatial and non-spatial data in GIS environment using Hierarchical Clustering. Spatial clusters of living standard parameters, including family members, male and female population, sex ratio, total male and female education ratio etc. The paper also envisages future development and usefulness of this community GIS, Spatial data clustering tool for grass-root level planning. Any data that showsgeographic (spatial variability can be subject to cluster analysis.

  1. AN OPTIMUM VEHICULAR PATH ALGORITHM FOR TRAFFIC NETWORK BASED ON HIERARCHICAL SPATIAL REASONING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Human beings' intellection is the characteristic of a distinct hierarchy and can be taken to construct a heuristic in the shortest path algorithms.It is detailed in this paper how to utilize the hierarchical reasoning on the basis of greedy and directional strategy to establish a spatial heuristic,so as to improve running efficiency and suitability of shortest path algorithm for traffic network.The authors divide urban traffic network into three hierarchies and set forward a new node hierarchy division rule to avoid the unreliable solution of shortest path.It is argued that the shortest path,no matter distance shortest or time shortest,is usually not the favorite of drivers in practice.Some factors difficult to expect or quantify influence the drivers' choice greatly.It makes the drivers prefer choosing a less shortest,but more reliable or flexible path to travel on.The presented optimum path algorithm,in addition to the improvement of the running efficiency of shortest path algorithms up to several times,reduces the emergence of those factors,conforms to the intellection characteristic of human beings,and is more easily accepted by drivers.Moreover,it does not require the completeness of networks in the lowest hierarchy and the applicability and fault tolerance of the algorithm have improved.The experiment result shows the advantages of the presented algorithm.The authors argued that the algorithm has great potential application for navigation systems of large-scale traffic networks.

  2. Robust Face Recognition by Hierarchical Kernel Associative Memory Models Based on Spatial Domain Gabor Transforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bai-ling Zhang

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Face recognition can be studied as an associative memory (AM problem and kernel-based AM models have been proven efficient. In this paper, a hierarchical Kernel Associative Memory (KAM face recognition scheme with a multiscale Gabor transform, is proposed. The pyramidal multiscale Gabor decomposition proposed by Nestares, Navarro, Portilla and Tabernero not only provides a very efficient implementation of the Gabor transform in the spatial domain, but also permits a fast reconstruction of images. In our method, face images of each person are first decomposed into their multiscale representations by a quasicomplete Gabor transform, which are then modelled by Kernel Associative Memories. In the recognition stage, a query face image is also represented by a Gabor multiresolution pyramid and the reconstructions from different KAM models corresponding to even Gabor channels are then simply summed to give the recall. The recognition scheme was thoroughly tested using several benchmarking face datasets, including the AR faces, UMIST faces, JAFFE faces and Yale A faces, which include different kind of face variations from occlusions, pose, expression and illumination. The experiment results show that the proposed method demonstrated strong robustness in recognizing faces under different conditions, particularly under occlusions, pose alterations and expression changes.

  3. Additive partitioning of coral reef fish diversity across hierarchical spatial scales throughout the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco-Ramos, Vanessa; Arias-González, Jesús Ernesto

    2013-01-01

    There is an increasing need to examine regional patterns of diversity in coral-reef systems since their biodiversity is declining globally. In this sense, additive partitioning might be useful since it quantifies the contribution of alpha and beta to total diversity across different scales. We applied this approach using an unbalanced design across four hierarchical scales (80 sites, 22 subregions, six ecoregions, and the Caribbean basin). Reef-fish species were compiled from the Reef Environmental Education Foundation (REEF) database and distributions were confirmed with published data. Permutation tests were used to compare observed values to those expected by chance. The primary objective was to identify patterns of reef-fish diversity across multiple spatial scales under different scenarios, examining factors such as fisheries and demographic connectivity. Total diversity at the Caribbean scale was attributed to β-diversity (nearly 62% of the species), with the highest β-diversity at the site scale. [Formula: see text]-diversity was higher than expected by chance in all scenarios and at all studied scales. This suggests that fish assemblages are more homogenous than expected, particularly at the ecoregion scale. Within each ecoregion, diversity was mainly attributed to alpha, except for the Southern ecoregion where there was a greater difference in species among sites. β-components were lower than expected in all ecoregions, indicating that fishes within each ecoregion are a subsample of the same species pool. The scenario involving the effects of fisheries showed a shift in dominance for β-diversity from regions to subregions, with no major changes to the diversity patterns. In contrast, demographic connectivity partially explained the diversity pattern. β-components were low within connectivity regions and higher than expected by chance when comparing between them. Our results highlight the importance of ecoregions as a spatial scale to conserve local

  4. Additive partitioning of coral reef fish diversity across hierarchical spatial scales throughout the Caribbean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Francisco-Ramos

    Full Text Available There is an increasing need to examine regional patterns of diversity in coral-reef systems since their biodiversity is declining globally. In this sense, additive partitioning might be useful since it quantifies the contribution of alpha and beta to total diversity across different scales. We applied this approach using an unbalanced design across four hierarchical scales (80 sites, 22 subregions, six ecoregions, and the Caribbean basin. Reef-fish species were compiled from the Reef Environmental Education Foundation (REEF database and distributions were confirmed with published data. Permutation tests were used to compare observed values to those expected by chance. The primary objective was to identify patterns of reef-fish diversity across multiple spatial scales under different scenarios, examining factors such as fisheries and demographic connectivity. Total diversity at the Caribbean scale was attributed to β-diversity (nearly 62% of the species, with the highest β-diversity at the site scale. [Formula: see text]-diversity was higher than expected by chance in all scenarios and at all studied scales. This suggests that fish assemblages are more homogenous than expected, particularly at the ecoregion scale. Within each ecoregion, diversity was mainly attributed to alpha, except for the Southern ecoregion where there was a greater difference in species among sites. β-components were lower than expected in all ecoregions, indicating that fishes within each ecoregion are a subsample of the same species pool. The scenario involving the effects of fisheries showed a shift in dominance for β-diversity from regions to subregions, with no major changes to the diversity patterns. In contrast, demographic connectivity partially explained the diversity pattern. β-components were low within connectivity regions and higher than expected by chance when comparing between them. Our results highlight the importance of ecoregions as a spatial scale to

  5. Spatiotemporal Pattern Formation in BioFluids I: Cell Shape Perturbants As Evidence of Spatially-Organised Membrane Flows

    CERN Document Server

    Lofthouse, J T

    2003-01-01

    I show the assumed Bilayer structure of cell membranes is Topologically falsified by known aminophospholipid dynamics in metabolically-active, Far from Equilibrium cells. The sensitivity of lipid and cytoplasmic flows to temperature, surfactants, viscosity and the gravity vector are used to suggest that rather than being random viscous fluids as currently assumed, both are actually spatially-organised by convective and shear driven mechanisms in vivo. I show how protein-lipid feedback provokes a Gestalt Shift in Cell Mechanics by demonstrating that the primary forces involved in shape changes are generated by bifurcations in fluid flow Topology, which induce affine deformations of the cytoskeletal lattice. The feedback model allows the transduction of Gravitational information into biological form, is universally applicable, and provides a rationale for Homeoviscous Adaptation, and the extensive lipid polymorphism observed in Nature.

  6. Structural Biology of DNA Repair: Spatial Organisation of the Multicomponent Complexes of Nonhomologous End Joining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Ochi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ plays a major role in double-strand break DNA repair, which involves a series of steps mediated by multiprotein complexes. A ring-shaped Ku70/Ku80 heterodimer forms first at broken DNA ends, DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs binds to mediate synapsis and nucleases process DNA overhangs. DNA ligase IV (LigIV is recruited as a complex with XRCC4 for ligation, with XLF/Cernunnos, playing a role in enhancing activity of LigIV. We describe how a combination of methods—X-ray crystallography, electron microscopy and small angle X-ray scattering—can give insights into the transient multicomponent complexes that mediate NHEJ. We first consider the organisation of DNA-PKcs/Ku70/Ku80/DNA complex (DNA-PK and then discuss emerging evidence concerning LigIV/XRCC4/XLF/DNA and higher-order complexes. We conclude by discussing roles of multiprotein systems in maintaining high signal-to-noise and the value of structural studies in developing new therapies in oncology and elsewhere.

  7. The co-evolution and spatial organisation of soils, landforms, vegetation, and hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willgoose, G. R.; Cohen, S.; Hancock, G. R.; Hobley, E. U.; Saco, P. M.

    2012-12-01

    Soils are the intermediary for many important environmental processes, and in many cases may be a significant driver of the response of these processes. Moreover the soils themselves are a response (over pedogenic timescales) to these same environmental processes. Soil timescales range from decades (for some fractions of soils carbon, and microbiological processes) through millennia (for vegetation and other fractions of soil carbon) to millions of years (for soil response to landforms). Thus that if we are to model pedogenesis in an attempt to understand the spatial distribution of soils (hillslope, catchment, or landscape scales) and their dynamic response (as for instance drivers of sediment load for basin subsidence analysis) we will need to quantify timescale of response and spatial and temporal links of the process dynamics of pedogenesis, landform evolution, vegetation and hydrology. This presentation summarises progress in our group in this coupling of processes across disparate time and space scales. We will show data that we have collected for pedogenesis, soil carbon and landforms that identify timescales for different components of the processes, and computer simulations where we have inferred other timescales from process response. We will present a framework which we believe will allow us to simplify the complexity of the spatial and temporal coupling by using spatial and temporal scale breaks in the processes.

  8. Parasites Sustain and Enhance RNA-Like Replicators through Spatial Self-Organisation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Sandro Colizzi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In a prebiotic RNA world, parasitic behaviour may be favoured because template dependent replication happens in trans, thus being altruistic. Spatially extended systems are known to reduce harmful effects of parasites. Here we present a spatial system to show that evolution of replication is (indirectly enhanced by strong parasites, and we characterise the phase transition that leads to this mode of evolution. Building on the insights of this analysis, we identify two scenarios, namely periodic disruptions and longer replication time-span, in which speciation occurs and an evolved parasite-like lineage enables the evolutionary increase of replication rates in replicators. Finally, we show that parasites co-evolving with replicators are selected to become weaker, i.e. worse templates for replication when the duration of replication is increased. We conclude that parasites may not be considered a problem for evolution in a prebiotic system, but a degree of freedom that can be exploited by evolution to enhance the evolvability of replicators, by means of emergent levels of selection.

  9. Parasites Sustain and Enhance RNA-Like Replicators through Spatial Self-Organisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colizzi, Enrico Sandro; Hogeweg, Paulien

    2016-04-01

    In a prebiotic RNA world, parasitic behaviour may be favoured because template dependent replication happens in trans, thus being altruistic. Spatially extended systems are known to reduce harmful effects of parasites. Here we present a spatial system to show that evolution of replication is (indirectly) enhanced by strong parasites, and we characterise the phase transition that leads to this mode of evolution. Building on the insights of this analysis, we identify two scenarios, namely periodic disruptions and longer replication time-span, in which speciation occurs and an evolved parasite-like lineage enables the evolutionary increase of replication rates in replicators. Finally, we show that parasites co-evolving with replicators are selected to become weaker, i.e. worse templates for replication when the duration of replication is increased. We conclude that parasites may not be considered a problem for evolution in a prebiotic system, but a degree of freedom that can be exploited by evolution to enhance the evolvability of replicators, by means of emergent levels of selection.

  10. Multifractal spatial organisation in hydrothermal gold systems of the Archaean Yilgarn craton, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, Mark; Ord, Alison; Hobbs, Bruce

    2015-04-01

    A range of factors controls the location of hydrothermal alteration and gold mineralisation in the Earth's crust. These include the broad-scale lithospheric architecture, availability of fluid sources, fluid composition and pH, pressure-temperature conditions, microscopic to macroscopic structural development, the distribution of primary lithologies, and the extent of fluid-rock interactions. Consequently, the spatial distribution of alteration and mineralization in hydrothermal systems is complex and often considered highly irregular. However, despite this, do they organize themselves in a configuration that can be documented and quantified? Wavelets, mathematical functions representing wave-like oscillations, are commonly used in digital signals analysis. Wavelet-based multifractal analysis involves incrementally scanning a wavelet across the dataset multiple times (varying its scale) and recording its degree of fit to the signal at each interval. This approach (the wavelet transform modulus maxima method) highlights patterns of self-similarity present in the dataset and addresses the range of scales over which these patterns replicate themselves (expressed by their range in 'fractal dimension'). Focusing on seven gold ore bodies in the Archaean Yilgarn craton of Western Australia, this study investigates whether different aspects of hydrothermal gold systems evolve to organize themselves spatially as multifractals. Four ore bodies were selected from the Sunrise Dam deposit (situated in the Laverton tectonic zone of the Kurnalpi terrane) in addition to the Imperial, Majestic and Salt Creek gold prospects, situated in the Yindarlgooda dome of the Mount Monger goldfield (approximately 40km due east of Kalgoorlie). The Vogue, GQ, Cosmo East and Astro ore bodies at Sunrise Dam were chosen because they exhibit different structural geometries and relationships between gold and associated host-rock alteration styles. Wavelet-based analysis was conducted on 0.5m and 1m

  11. Cell invasion in the spheroid sprouting assay: a spatial organisation analysis adaptable to cell behaviour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Blacher

    Full Text Available The endothelial cell spheroid assay provides a suitable in vitro model to study (lymph angiogenesis and test pro- and anti-(lymph angiogenic factors or drugs. Usually, the extent of cell invasion, observed through optical microscopy, is measured. The present study proposes the spatial distribution of migrated cells as a new descriptor of the (lymph angiogenic response. The utility of this novel method rests with its capacity to locally characterise spheroid structure, allowing not only the investigation of single and collective cell invasion but also the evolution of the spheroid core itself. Moreover, the proposed method can be applied to 2D-projected spheroid images obtained by optical microscopy, as well as to 3D images acquired by confocal microscopy. To validate the proposed methodology, endothelial cell invasion was evaluated under different experimental conditions. The results were compared with widely used global parameters. The comparison shows that our method prevents local spheroid modifications from being overlooked and leading to the possible misinterpretation of results.

  12. A Hierarchical Multi-Temporal InSAR Method for Increasing the Spatial Density of Deformation Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Li

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Point-like targets are useful in providing surface deformation with the time series of synthetic aperture radar (SAR images using the multi-temporal interferometric synthetic aperture radar (MTInSAR methodology. However, the spatial density of point-like targets is low, especially in non-urban areas. In this paper, a hierarchical MTInSAR method is proposed to increase the spatial density of deformation measurements by tracking both the point-like targets and the distributed targets with the temporal steadiness of radar backscattering. To efficiently reduce error propagation, the deformation rates on point-like targets with lower amplitude dispersion index values are first estimated using a least squared estimator and a region growing method. Afterwards, the distributed targets are identified using the amplitude dispersion index and a Pearson correlation coefficient through a multi-level processing strategy. Meanwhile, the deformation rates on distributed targets are estimated during the multi-level processing. The proposed MTInSAR method has been tested for subsidence detection over a suburban area located in Tianjin, China using 40 high-resolution TerraSAR-X images acquired between 2009 and 2010, and validated using the ground-based leveling measurements. The experiment results indicate that the spatial density of deformation measurements can be increased by about 250% and that subsidence accuracy can reach to the millimeter level by using the hierarchical MTInSAR method.

  13. Hierarchical spatial segregation of two Mediterranean vole species: the role of patch-network structure and matrix composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pita, Ricardo; Lambin, Xavier; Mira, António; Beja, Pedro

    2016-09-01

    According to ecological theory, the coexistence of competitors in patchy environments may be facilitated by hierarchical spatial segregation along axes of environmental variation, but empirical evidence is limited. Cabrera and water voles show a metapopulation-like structure in Mediterranean farmland, where they are known to segregate along space, habitat, and time axes within habitat patches. Here, we assess whether segregation also occurs among and within landscapes, and how this is influenced by patch-network and matrix composition. We surveyed 75 landscapes, each covering 78 ha, where we mapped all habitat patches potentially suitable for Cabrera and water voles, and the area effectively occupied by each species (extent of occupancy). The relatively large water vole tended to be the sole occupant of landscapes with high habitat amount but relatively low patch density (i.e., with a few large patches), and with a predominantly agricultural matrix, whereas landscapes with high patch density (i.e., many small patches) and low agricultural cover, tended to be occupied exclusively by the small Cabrera vole. The two species tended to co-occur in landscapes with intermediate patch-network and matrix characteristics, though their extents of occurrence were negatively correlated after controlling for environmental effects. In combination with our previous studies on the Cabrera-water vole system, these findings illustrated empirically the occurrence of hierarchical spatial segregation, ranging from within-patches to among-landscapes. Overall, our study suggests that recognizing the hierarchical nature of spatial segregation patterns and their major environmental drivers should enhance our understanding of species coexistence in patchy environments.

  14. Organizational and Spatial Dynamics of Attentional Focusing in Hierarchically Structured Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeari, Menahem; Goldsmith, Morris

    2011-01-01

    Is the focusing of visual attention object-based, space-based, both, or neither? Attentional focusing latencies in hierarchically structured compound-letter objects were examined, orthogonally manipulating global size (larger vs. smaller) and organizational complexity (two-level structure vs. three-level structure). In a dynamic focusing task,…

  15. Four archetypal networked organisations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Treurniet, W.; Buul, K. van

    2015-01-01

    Complex and multifaceted problems such as emergencies typically require coordinated effort by a network of different organisations. These networks typically rely less on formal hierarchical structures and instead have a stronger focus on allowing the dynamics to emerge in the process of collaboratio

  16. Investigation of the degree of organisational influence on patient experience scores in acute medical admission units in all acute hospitals in England using multilevel hierarchical regression modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Previous studies found that hospital and specialty have limited influence on patient experience scores, and patient level factors are more important. This could be due to heterogeneity of experience delivery across subunits within organisations. We aimed to determine whether organisation level factors have greater impact if scores for the same subspecialty microsystem are analysed in each hospital. Setting Acute medical admission units in all NHS Acute Trusts in England. Participants We analysed patient experience data from the English Adult Inpatient Survey which is administered to 850 patients annually in each acute NHS Trusts in England. We selected all 8753 patients who returned the survey and who were emergency medical admissions and stayed in their admission unit for 1–2 nights, so as to isolate the experience delivered during the acute admission process. Primary and secondary outcome measures We used multilevel logistic regression to determine the apportioned influence of host organisation and of organisation level factors (size and teaching status), and patient level factors (demographics, presence of long-term conditions and disabilities). We selected ‘being treated with respect and dignity’ and ‘pain control’ as primary outcome parameters. Other Picker Domain question scores were analysed as secondary parameters. Results The proportion of overall variance attributable at organisational level was small; 0.5% (NS) for respect and dignity, 0.4% (NS) for pain control. Long-standing conditions and consequent disabilities were associated with low scores. Other item scores also showed that most influence was from patient level factors. Conclusions When a single microsystem, the acute medical admission process, is isolated, variance in experience scores is mainly explainable by patient level factors with limited organisational level influence. This has implications for the use of generic patient experience surveys for comparison between

  17. Spatial organisation of badgers (Meles meles in a medium-density population in Luxembourg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain C Frantz

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract
    Any hypothesis aiming to explain the social organisation of Eurasian badgers Meles meles has to consider its wide inter-population variability. We used radiotracking techniques to investigate the spatial organisation and the pattern of space-use by badger in Luxembourg, where badger density can be considered moderate compared to most of Europe.
    Eight badgers belonging to five social groups were caught and radio-collared. The size of individual home ranges, as assesses by 100% minimum convex polygons in spring-summer 2002 and 2003, varied from 42.5 ha to 171.8 ha. Core areas corresponded to the 50-70% kernel isopleths and covered an average of 10.1% of individual home ranges. The home ranges of badgers caught at the same sett overlapped largely (average 83.3%, whilst the overlap between neighbouring ranges did not exceed 13.8%. Altogether six boundary latrines were found at the intersection of group ranges. Overall, the spatial system of the Luxembourg badgers is quite flexible, with the boundaries of some group ranges remaining constant over the years, while others may expand or contract.
    Riassunto
    Organizzazione spaziale del tasso (Meles meles in una popolazione a media densità del Lussemburgo.
    Qualsiasi ipotesi che voglia spiegare l’organizzazione sociale del tasso Meles meles, deve tener conto della sua ampia variabilità tra le popolazioni.
    Tramite la radiotelemetria e il monitoraggio delle latrine, la struttura territoriale e l’uso dello spazio da parte del tasso sono stati analizzati in una popolazione del Lussemburgo, dove la densità della specie può essere considerata intermedia rispetto ai valori noti per il resto dell’Europa.
    Sono stati marcati con radio-collari otto tassi, appartenenti a cinque diversi gruppi sociali. Le dimensioni delle aree vitali, stimate con il minimo poligono convesso al 100

  18. Hierarchical Spatial Reasoning and Case of Way-Finding%层次空间推理机制及其在路径寻找方面的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翁敏; 蒋珊珊; 瞿荣

    2008-01-01

    Human beings use hierarchies to simplify their conceptual models of reality and to perform reasoning more efficiently.Hierarchical structures are conceptually imposed on space and allow performance of complex tasks in very large con-texts easily.Hierarchical spatial reasoning is an important method for solving spatial problems.This paper briefly discusses the definition and frame of hierarchical spatial reasoning and its application to way-finding of road networks.

  19. Hierarchical multivariate mixture generalized linear models for the analysis of spatial data: An application to disease mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torabi, Mahmoud

    2016-09-01

    Disease mapping of a single disease has been widely studied in the public health setup. Simultaneous modeling of related diseases can also be a valuable tool both from the epidemiological and from the statistical point of view. In particular, when we have several measurements recorded at each spatial location, we need to consider multivariate models in order to handle the dependence among the multivariate components as well as the spatial dependence between locations. It is then customary to use multivariate spatial models assuming the same distribution through the entire population density. However, in many circumstances, it is a very strong assumption to have the same distribution for all the areas of population density. To overcome this issue, we propose a hierarchical multivariate mixture generalized linear model to simultaneously analyze spatial Normal and non-Normal outcomes. As an application of our proposed approach, esophageal and lung cancer deaths in Minnesota are used to show the outperformance of assuming different distributions for different counties of Minnesota rather than assuming a single distribution for the population density. Performance of the proposed approach is also evaluated through a simulation study. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Nanoparticles and self-organisation: the emergence of hierarchical properties from the nanoparticle soup (i.e., the small is getting bigger). Concluding remarks for Faraday Discussion: Nanoparticle Synthesis and Assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffrin, David J

    2015-01-01

    Some four years ago, one of the participants in this Discussion (Prof. Nicholas Kotov) predicted that: "within five years we shall see multiple examples of electronic, sensor, optical and other devices utilizing self-assembled superstructures" (N. A. Kotov, J. Mater. Chem., 2011, 21, 16673-16674). Although this prediction came partially to fruition, we have witnessed an unprecedented interest in the properties of materials at the nanoscale. The point highlighted by Kotov, however, was the importance of self-assembly of structures from well characterised building blocks to yield hierarchical structures, hopefully with predictable properties, a concept that is an everyday pursuit of synthetic chemists. This Discussion has brought together researchers from a wide range of disciplines, i.e., colloid science, modelling, nanoparticle synthesis and organisation, magnetic and optical materials, and new imaging methods, within the excellent traditional Faraday Discussion format, to discuss advances in areas relevant to the main theme of the meeting.

  1. A hierarchical model for estimating the spatial distribution and abundance of animals detected by continuous-time recorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorazio, Robert; Karanth, K. Ullas

    2017-01-01

    MotivationSeveral spatial capture-recapture (SCR) models have been developed to estimate animal abundance by analyzing the detections of individuals in a spatial array of traps. Most of these models do not use the actual dates and times of detection, even though this information is readily available when using continuous-time recorders, such as microphones or motion-activated cameras. Instead most SCR models either partition the period of trap operation into a set of subjectively chosen discrete intervals and ignore multiple detections of the same individual within each interval, or they simply use the frequency of detections during the period of trap operation and ignore the observed times of detection. Both practices make inefficient use of potentially important information in the data.Model and data analysisWe developed a hierarchical SCR model to estimate the spatial distribution and abundance of animals detected with continuous-time recorders. Our model includes two kinds of point processes: a spatial process to specify the distribution of latent activity centers of individuals within the region of sampling and a temporal process to specify temporal patterns in the detections of individuals. We illustrated this SCR model by analyzing spatial and temporal patterns evident in the camera-trap detections of tigers living in and around the Nagarahole Tiger Reserve in India. We also conducted a simulation study to examine the performance of our model when analyzing data sets of greater complexity than the tiger data.BenefitsOur approach provides three important benefits: First, it exploits all of the information in SCR data obtained using continuous-time recorders. Second, it is sufficiently versatile to allow the effects of both space use and behavior of animals to be specified as functions of covariates that vary over space and time. Third, it allows both the spatial distribution and abundance of individuals to be estimated, effectively providing a species

  2. A hierarchical model for estimating the spatial distribution and abundance of animals detected by continuous-time recorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorazio, Robert M; Karanth, K Ullas

    2017-01-01

    Several spatial capture-recapture (SCR) models have been developed to estimate animal abundance by analyzing the detections of individuals in a spatial array of traps. Most of these models do not use the actual dates and times of detection, even though this information is readily available when using continuous-time recorders, such as microphones or motion-activated cameras. Instead most SCR models either partition the period of trap operation into a set of subjectively chosen discrete intervals and ignore multiple detections of the same individual within each interval, or they simply use the frequency of detections during the period of trap operation and ignore the observed times of detection. Both practices make inefficient use of potentially important information in the data. We developed a hierarchical SCR model to estimate the spatial distribution and abundance of animals detected with continuous-time recorders. Our model includes two kinds of point processes: a spatial process to specify the distribution of latent activity centers of individuals within the region of sampling and a temporal process to specify temporal patterns in the detections of individuals. We illustrated this SCR model by analyzing spatial and temporal patterns evident in the camera-trap detections of tigers living in and around the Nagarahole Tiger Reserve in India. We also conducted a simulation study to examine the performance of our model when analyzing data sets of greater complexity than the tiger data. Our approach provides three important benefits: First, it exploits all of the information in SCR data obtained using continuous-time recorders. Second, it is sufficiently versatile to allow the effects of both space use and behavior of animals to be specified as functions of covariates that vary over space and time. Third, it allows both the spatial distribution and abundance of individuals to be estimated, effectively providing a species distribution model, even in cases where

  3. A hierarchical spatial framework and database for the national river fish habitat condition assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L.; Infante, D.; Esselman, P.; Cooper, A.; Wu, D.; Taylor, W.; Beard, D.; Whelan, G.; Ostroff, A.

    2011-01-01

    Fisheries management programs, such as the National Fish Habitat Action Plan (NFHAP), urgently need a nationwide spatial framework and database for health assessment and policy development to protect and improve riverine systems. To meet this need, we developed a spatial framework and database using National Hydrography Dataset Plus (I-.100,000-scale); http://www.horizon-systems.com/nhdplus). This framework uses interconfluence river reaches and their local and network catchments as fundamental spatial river units and a series of ecological and political spatial descriptors as hierarchy structures to allow users to extract or analyze information at spatial scales that they define. This database consists of variables describing channel characteristics, network position/connectivity, climate, elevation, gradient, and size. It contains a series of catchment-natural and human-induced factors that are known to influence river characteristics. Our framework and database assembles all river reaches and their descriptors in one place for the first time for the conterminous United States. This framework and database provides users with the capability of adding data, conducting analyses, developing management scenarios and regulation, and tracking management progresses at a variety of spatial scales. This database provides the essential data needs for achieving the objectives of NFHAP and other management programs. The downloadable beta version database is available at http://ec2-184-73-40-15.compute-1.amazonaws.com/nfhap/main/.

  4. Developmental trajectories of hierarchical visuo-spatial processing in fragile X syndrome and ASD: Within- and cross-syndrome variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballantyne, Carrie J; Núñez, María

    2016-01-01

    Despite the advances in understanding visuo-spatial processing in developmental disorders such as ASD and fragile X syndrome (FXS), less is known about the profile of those with a comorbid diagnosis, or the role of within-disorder disparities between individuals across the ASD spectrum. Using a developmental trajectory approach, we tested 5 groups of children: Typically developing, FXS, FXS+ASD, ASD individuals who had low-moderate symptoms (HFA) and ASD individuals who had severe symptoms (LFA). Symptoms of ASD were assessed using the Childhood Autism Rating Scale: CARS and hierarchical visuo-spatial processing was assessed using the Navon task. Crucially, results differed between HFA and LFA participants. Furthermore, the pattern of results differed between those who had a diagnosis of FXS only and FXS+ASD. Poorer performance within the FXS groups and the group who are low functioning on the ASD spectrum indicated a delayed developmental rate compared to typical controls. This study showed that diagnosis and severity of symptoms are indicative of differences in visuo-spatial processing styles. It is important that heterogeneity within FXS and ASD populations are considered in subsequent studies and look beyond diagnostic group differences. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Neighborhood social capital and crime victimization: comparison of spatial regression analysis and hierarchical regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Daisuke; Ikeda, Ken'ichi; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2012-11-01

    Crime is an important determinant of public health outcomes, including quality of life, mental well-being, and health behavior. A body of research has documented the association between community social capital and crime victimization. The association between social capital and crime victimization has been examined at multiple levels of spatial aggregation, ranging from entire countries, to states, metropolitan areas, counties, and neighborhoods. In multilevel analysis, the spatial boundaries at level 2 are most often drawn from administrative boundaries (e.g., Census tracts in the U.S.). One problem with adopting administrative definitions of neighborhoods is that it ignores spatial spillover. We conducted a study of social capital and crime victimization in one ward of Tokyo city, using a spatial Durbin model with an inverse-distance weighting matrix that assigned each respondent a unique level of "exposure" to social capital based on all other residents' perceptions. The study is based on a postal questionnaire sent to 20-69 years old residents of Arakawa Ward, Tokyo. The response rate was 43.7%. We examined the contextual influence of generalized trust, perceptions of reciprocity, two types of social network variables, as well as two principal components of social capital (constructed from the above four variables). Our outcome measure was self-reported crime victimization in the last five years. In the spatial Durbin model, we found that neighborhood generalized trust, reciprocity, supportive networks and two principal components of social capital were each inversely associated with crime victimization. By contrast, a multilevel regression performed with the same data (using administrative neighborhood boundaries) found generally null associations between neighborhood social capital and crime. Spatial regression methods may be more appropriate for investigating the contextual influence of social capital in homogeneous cultural settings such as Japan.

  6. Reduced Rank Mixed Effects Models for Spatially Correlated Hierarchical Functional Data

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Lan

    2010-03-01

    Hierarchical functional data are widely seen in complex studies where sub-units are nested within units, which in turn are nested within treatment groups. We propose a general framework of functional mixed effects model for such data: within unit and within sub-unit variations are modeled through two separate sets of principal components; the sub-unit level functions are allowed to be correlated. Penalized splines are used to model both the mean functions and the principal components functions, where roughness penalties are used to regularize the spline fit. An EM algorithm is developed to fit the model, while the specific covariance structure of the model is utilized for computational efficiency to avoid storage and inversion of large matrices. Our dimension reduction with principal components provides an effective solution to the difficult tasks of modeling the covariance kernel of a random function and modeling the correlation between functions. The proposed methodology is illustrated using simulations and an empirical data set from a colon carcinogenesis study. Supplemental materials are available online.

  7. Organisational Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢苑苑

    2014-01-01

    In the process of global economy, there is a growing demand for organisational learning. This article critically reviews four models of organisational learning and applies them to the work experience of the author.

  8. Organisational Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2006

    2006-01-01

    An understanding of organisational structure can provide guidance for organisations that want to change and innovate. Many writers agree that this understanding allows organisations to shape how their work is done to ultimately achieve their business goals--and that too often structure is given little consideration in business strategy and…

  9. 建筑物层次空间聚类方法研究%Hierarchical spatial clustering of buildings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓敏; 孙前虎; 文小岳; 徐枫

    2011-01-01

    建筑物空间聚类是实现居民地地图自动综合的有效方法.基于图论和Gestalt原理,发展了一种层次的建筑物聚类方法.该方法可以深层次地挖掘建筑物图形的视觉特性,将面状地物信息充分合理地表达在聚类结果中.依据视觉感知原理,借助Dealaunay三角网构建方法,分析了地图上建筑物的自身形状特性和相互间的邻接关系,并依据建筑物间的可视区域均值距离建立了加权邻近结构图,确定了建筑物的邻近关系(定性约束).根据Gestalt准则将邻近性、方向性和几何特征等量化为旋转卡壳距离约束和几何相似度约束.通过实例验证了层次聚类方法得到更加符合人类认知的建筑物聚类结果.%Spatial clustering provides an effective approach for generalization of residential area in automated cartographic generalization.Based on graph theory and Gestalt principle, a hierarchical approach is proposed in this paper.This approach can be utilized to discover the graphical structure formed by buildings, which is obtained with the consideration of shape, size and neighboring relations.The neighboring relations are determined by Dclaunay triangulation, which is a qualitative constraint among buildings.A weighted neighboring structural graph is obtained by setting visual distance as the weight of the linking edge between adjacent buildings.Two levels of quantitative constraints are developed by considering the Gestalt factors, I.e.proximity, orientation and geometry of buildings.One is the rotating calipers minimum distance;the other is the geometric similarity measure.Through experiments it is illustrated that the results by the hierarchical spatial clustering proposed in this paper are consistent with human perception.

  10. Hierarchical spatial structure of genetically variable nucleopolyhedroviruses infecting cyclic populations of western tent caterpillars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Dawn; Cory, Jenny S; Myers, Judith H

    2003-04-01

    The cyclic population dynamics of western tent caterpillars, Malacosoma californicum pluviale, are associated with epizootics of a nucleopolyhedrovirus, McplNPV. Given the dynamic fluctuations in host abundance and levels of viral infection, host resistance and virus virulence might be expected to change during different phases of the cycle. As a first step in determining if McplNPV virulence and population structure change with host density, we used restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis to examine the genetic diversity of McplNPV infecting western tent caterpillar populations at different spatial scales. Thirteen dominant genetic variants were identified in 39 virus isolates (individual larvae) collected from field populations during one year of low host density, and another distinct variant was discovered among nine additional isolates in two subsequent years of declining host density. The distribution of these genetic variants was not random and indicated that the McplNPV population was structured at several spatial levels. A high proportion of the variation could be explained by family grouping, which suggested that isolates collected within a family were more likely to be the same than isolates compared among populations. Additionally, virus variants from within populations (sites) were more likely to be the same than isolates collected from tent caterpillar populations on different islands. This may indicate that there is limited mixing of virus among tent caterpillar families and populations when host population density is low. Thus there is potential for the virus to become locally adapted to western tent caterpillar populations in different sites. However, no dominant genotype was observed at any site. Whether and how selection acts on the genetically diverse nucleopolyhedrovirus populations as host density changes will be investigated over the next cycle of tent caterpillar populations.

  11. Organisational Art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferro-Thomsen, Martin

    creation of a practical utopia (?heterotopia?) in the organisational context. The case study makes use of both art- and organisational theory. The thesis concludes with an outline of a framework for OA that is derived from contemporary theory of mainly Relational Aesthetics (Bourriaud), Conceptual Art......University of Copenhagen / Learning Lab Denmark. 2005 Kort beskrivelse: Organisational Art is a tentative title for an art form that works together with organisations to produce art. This is most often done together with non-artist members of the organisation and on-site in their social context. OA...... is characterised as socially engaged, conceptual, discursive, site-specific and contextual. Abstract: This investigation is about Organisational Art (OA), which is a tentative title for an art form that works together with organisations (companies, institutions, communities, governments and NGOs) to produce art...

  12. Organisational Art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferro-Thomsen, Martin

    University of Copenhagen / Learning Lab Denmark. 2005 Kort beskrivelse: Organisational Art is a tentative title for an art form that works together with organisations to produce art. This is most often done together with non-artist members of the organisation and on-site in their social context. OA...... is characterised as socially engaged, conceptual, discursive, site-specific and contextual. Abstract: This investigation is about Organisational Art (OA), which is a tentative title for an art form that works together with organisations (companies, institutions, communities, governments and NGOs) to produce art....... This is most often done together with non-artist members of the organisation and on-site in their social context. OA is characterised as socially engaged, conceptual, discursive, site-specific and contextual. It is argued that OA seeks to advance both art and the organisation of human work/life by crossing...

  13. The spatial distribution of cold gas in hierarchical galaxy formation models

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Han-Seek; Benson, A J; Cole, S; Frenk, C S; Lacey, C G; Power, C; Schneider, M

    2010-01-01

    The distribution of cold gas in dark matter haloes is driven by key processes in galaxy formation: gas cooling, galaxy mergers, star formation and reheating of gas by supernovae. We compare the predictions of four different galaxy formation models for the spatial distribution of cold gas. We find that satellite galaxies make little contribution to the abundance or clustering strength of cold gas selected samples, and are far less important than they are in optically selected samples. The halo occupation distribution function of present-day central galaxies with cold gas mass > 10^9 h^-1 Msun is peaked around a halo mass of ~ 10^11 h^-1 Msun, a scale that is set by the AGN suppression of gas cooling. The model predictions for the projected correlation function are in good agreement with measurements from the HI Parkes All-Sky Survey. We compare the effective volume of possible surveys with the Square Kilometre Array with those expected for a redshift survey in the near-infrared. Future redshift surveys using n...

  14. 空间方向关系的分级细节描述%Hierarchical Detailed Description for Spatial Direction Relations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王净; 江刚武; 郭锐

    2008-01-01

    Direction relation is an important spatial relation. Descriptions and representations for direction relations have dif- ferent levels of detail because of the varying dimensions of spatial objects and different scales of the embedding spaces. Based on a direction- relation matrix, the hierarchical frame of spatial direction relations which partitions direction relations orderly and thoroughly is built. Interior direction relations are used to perfect the representation of direction relations and the binary-encoding idea is creatively applied to construct an interior detailed matrix describing multiple interior direction rela- tions by a uniform matrix. The model integrates topological information into the description model for direction relations, which will lay the foundations of spatial compositive reasoning.

  15. Organising integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axelsson, Runo

    2013-01-01

    an increasing lack of integration in the health and welfare system. In the 2000’s, there has been a re-centralisation through mergers of hospitals, regions and state agencies. It has become clear, however, that mergers do not promote integration but rather increase the bureaucratisation of the system. Model......Background: In Sweden, as in many other countries, there has been a succession of trends in the organisation of health care and other welfare services. These trends have had different implications for the integration of services in the health and welfare system. Aims: One aim is to discuss...... the implications of different organisational trends for the integration of health and welfare services. Another aim is to introduce a Swedish model of financial coordination as a flexible way to organise integration. Organisational trends: In the 1960’s there was an expansion of health and welfare services leading...

  16. Inquiring Organisations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Courtney

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available Churchman (1971 developed five archetypal models of inquiring systems in an effort to expand the field of management information systems along a philosophical path. Contemporary businesses can use the ideas developed by Churchman to become productive and efficient inquiring organisations. This paper explores the relationship between inquiry and learning in organisations and how information technology can be used to support the process of knowledge creation in the context of inquiring systems.

  17. Strategic Organisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Juul; Knudsen, Thorbjørn

    Key aspects of organizational structure are intricately linked to the way strategy making processes modify available resources and develop firm capabilities over time in response to changing conditions. Environmental contingency rationales suggest that hierarchical organizations with centralized ...

  18. Between Organisation and Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stang Våland, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    . In this process, the open-office layout was introduced as a premediated design condition, a format that the users initially resisted. The paper discusses how end-user participation as a method and spatial design as a perspective may inform change in organisations. Although the users' resistance toward the open......This paper contributes to our sparse knowledge on the relationship between organisational and architectural design. It is based on an ethnographic study of the process of designing a municipality town hall, in which end-user participation constituted an integrated part of the design process...

  19. Spatial and temporal patterns of bank failure during extreme flood events: Evidence of nonlinearity and self-organised criticality at the basin scale?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, C. J.; Croke, J. C.; Grove, J. R.

    2012-04-01

    Non-linearity in physical systems provides a conceptual framework to explain complex patterns and form that are derived from complex internal dynamics rather than external forcings, and can be used to inform modeling and improve landscape management. One process that has been investigated previously to explore the existence of self-organised critical system (SOC) in river systems at the basin-scale is bank failure. Spatial trends in bank failure have been previously quantified to determine if the distribution of bank failures at the basin scale exhibit the necessary power law magnitude/frequency distributions. More commonly bank failures are investigated at a small-scale using several cross-sections with strong emphasis on local-scale factors such as bank height, cohesion and hydraulic properties. Advancing our understanding of non-linearity in such processes, however, requires many more studies where both the spatial and temporal measurements of the process can be used to investigate the existence or otherwise of non-linearity and self-organised criticality. This study presents measurements of bank failure throughout the Lockyer catchment in southeast Queensland, Australia, which experienced an extreme flood event in January 2011 resulting in the loss of human lives and geomorphic channel change. The most dominant form of fluvial adjustment consisted of changes in channel geometry and notably widespread bank failures, which were readily identifiable as 'scalloped' shaped failure scarps. The spatial extents of these were mapped using high-resolution LiDAR derived digital elevation model and were verified by field surveys and air photos. Pre-flood event LiDAR coverage for the catchment also existed allowing direct comparison of the magnitude and frequency of bank failures from both pre and post-flood time periods. Data were collected and analysed within a GIS framework and investigated for power-law relationships. Bank failures appeared random and occurred

  20. Organisational Effectiveness in Military Organisations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-11-01

    Internalisation of organisational goals Conflict Role and norm congruence Interpersonal skills Managerial task skills Information management and comunication...single pysical work facility and a 40 hour work week." I n-9- There is also a wide spread attitude in military organisatin (Cahn and Nadel, 1978) that...systems; management skills and assessment and organisational systems. The U.S. Army experience in this very ambitious undertaking and its demise have

  1. Organisational Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Peter

    This Ph.D. research is carried out for the business unit at LEGO concerned with Internet shopping (e-business) called LEGO Direct. The research is concerned with the issues of organisational change and management. The research is partly sponsored by LEGO Company and Aalborg University The research...... understanding of organizational change and its processes both theoretical as well as empirical. In the search for interesting and relevant theories that would fulfill the goal of thesis, we learnt that the field of organisational change was complex and widely spread across lots of disciplines and paradigms......, ranging from areas such as engineering, psychology, management, and sociology. We also learnt that all of the theories were adding bits and pieces to our understanding of organisational change. During the search and selection, we found that it would be interesting to analyse what can be gained from...

  2. Organisation Matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Unphon, Hataichanok; Dittrich, Yvonne

    2008-01-01

    Our work aims at understanding the design rationale for product line architecture by focusing on the design of common data access modules for complex simulation software products. This paper presents empirical evidence of organisational and business domain aspects that influence the development o...... of product line architecture. We suggest that the assessment of use-situation and his tory of organisational structure should be considered when creating product line architectures, especially for products that are tailored and used interactively.......Our work aims at understanding the design rationale for product line architecture by focusing on the design of common data access modules for complex simulation software products. This paper presents empirical evidence of organisational and business domain aspects that influence the development...

  3. Organisational Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Peter

    This Ph.D. research is carried out for the business unit at LEGO concerned with Internet shopping (e-business) called LEGO Direct. The research is concerned with the issues of organisational change and management. The research is partly sponsored by LEGO Company and Aalborg University The research......, ranging from areas such as engineering, psychology, management, and sociology. We also learnt that all of the theories were adding bits and pieces to our understanding of organisational change. During the search and selection, we found that it would be interesting to analyse what can be gained from...... understanding of organizational change and its processes both theoretical as well as empirical. In the search for interesting and relevant theories that would fulfill the goal of thesis, we learnt that the field of organisational change was complex and widely spread across lots of disciplines and paradigms...

  4. Learning organisations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Jelenc Krašovec

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available A vast array of economical, social, political, cultural and other factors influences the transformed role of learning and education in the society, as well as the functioning of local community and its social and communication patterns. The influences which are manifested as global problems can only be successfully solved on the level of local community. Analogously with the society in general, there is a great need of transforming a local community into a learning, flexible and interconnected environment which takes into account different interests, wishes and needs regarding learning and being active. The fundamental answer to changes is the strategy of lifelong learning and education which requires reorganisation of all walks of life (work, free time, family, mass media, culture, sport, education and transforming of organisations into learning organisations. With learning society based on networks of knowledge individuals are turning into learning individuals, and organisations into learning organisations; people who learn take the responsibility of their progress, learning denotes partnership among learning people, teachers, parents, employers and local community, so that they work together to achieve better results.

  5. TEAM ORGANISERING

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levisen, Vinie; Haugaard, Lena

    2004-01-01

    organisation som denne? Når teams i samtiden anses for at være en organisationsform, der fremmer organisatorisk læring, beror det på, at teamet antages at udgøre et ikke-hierarkisk arbejdsfællesskab, hvor erfaringer udveksles og problemer løses. Teamorganisering kan imidlertid udformes på mange forskellige...

  6. Organising integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axelsson, Runo

    2013-01-01

    to large-scale bureaucratic structures of centralised control. In the 1980’s there was a period of decentralisation to smaller organisational units, which was followed in the 1990’s by an introduction of market mechanisms in accordance with the New Public Management. During this period, there has been...

  7. Barndommens organisering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndommens Organisering undersøger og diskuterer dansk barndom som et samfundsmæssigt fænomen. Det er bogens mål at pege på en mangfoldighed af organiseringsprocesser, der på forskellig vis bidrager til at skabe barndommens rum, både de symbolske og de materielle. Bogens artikler er skrevet af...

  8. Hierarchical population monitoring of greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) in Nevada and California—Identifying populations for management at the appropriate spatial scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Peter S.; Prochazka, Brian G.; Ricca, Mark A.; Wann, Gregory T.; Aldridge, Cameron; Hanser, Steven E.; Doherty, Kevin E; O'Donnell, Michael S.; Edmunds, David R.; Espinosa, Shawn P.

    2017-08-10

    Population ecologists have long recognized the importance of ecological scale in understanding processes that guide observed demographic patterns for wildlife species. However, directly incorporating spatial and temporal scale into monitoring strategies that detect whether trajectories are driven by local or regional factors is challenging and rarely implemented. Identifying the appropriate scale is critical to the development of management actions that can attenuate or reverse population declines. We describe a novel example of a monitoring framework for estimating annual rates of population change for greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) within a hierarchical and spatially nested structure. Specifically, we conducted Bayesian analyses on a 17-year dataset (2000–2016) of lek counts in Nevada and northeastern California to estimate annual rates of population change, and compared trends across nested spatial scales. We identified leks and larger scale populations in immediate need of management, based on the occurrence of two criteria: (1) crossing of a destabilizing threshold designed to identify significant rates of population decline at a particular nested scale; and (2) crossing of decoupling thresholds designed to identify rates of population decline at smaller scales that decouple from rates of population change at a larger spatial scale. This approach establishes how declines affected by local disturbances can be separated from those operating at larger scales (for example, broad-scale wildfire and region-wide drought). Given the threshold output from our analysis, this adaptive management framework can be implemented readily and annually to facilitate responsive and effective actions for sage-grouse populations in the Great Basin. The rules of the framework can also be modified to identify populations responding positively to management action or demonstrating strong resilience to disturbance. Similar hierarchical approaches might be beneficial

  9. Organisational learning by way of organisational development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elkjær, Bente

    project contributes toorganisational learning. The point of departure is a municipality in Denmark workingtoward digitalising its administration. The conclusion is that the success of such aprocess very much depends on an organisation's ability to encompass severalunderstandings of organisational......In the paper, the idea is explored of organisational learning as the opening andclosure of organisational space for inquiry or reflective thinking, as a way toconstruct organisational learning as an object for research. This is done by asking thequestion of whether an organisational development...

  10. Hierarchical Bayesian spatial models for predicting multiple forest variables using waveform LiDAR, hyperspectral imagery, and large inventory datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, Andrew O.; Banerjee, Sudipto; Cook, Bruce D.; Bradford, John B.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we detail a multivariate spatial regression model that couples LiDAR, hyperspectral and forest inventory data to predict forest outcome variables at a high spatial resolution. The proposed model is used to analyze forest inventory data collected on the US Forest Service Penobscot Experimental Forest (PEF), ME, USA. In addition to helping meet the regression model's assumptions, results from the PEF analysis suggest that the addition of multivariate spatial random effects improves model fit and predictive ability, compared with two commonly applied modeling approaches. This improvement results from explicitly modeling the covariation among forest outcome variables and spatial dependence among observations through the random effects. Direct application of such multivariate models to even moderately large datasets is often computationally infeasible because of cubic order matrix algorithms involved in estimation. We apply a spatial dimension reduction technique to help overcome this computational hurdle without sacrificing richness in modeling.

  11. Asymmetric Learning Transfer between Imagined Viewer- and Object-Rotations: Evidence of a Hierarchical Organization of Spatial Reference Frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellizzer, Giuseppe; Ba, Maryse Badan; Zanello, Adriano; Merlo, Marco C. G.

    2009-01-01

    Neural resources subserving spatial processing in either egocentric or allocentric reference frames are, at least partly, dissociated. However, it is unclear whether these two types of representations are independent or whether they interact. We investigated this question using a learning transfer paradigm. The experiment and material were…

  12. New evidence on the spatial organisation of the Valencina de la Concepción Copper Age settlement: geophysical survey between La Pastora and Montelirio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wheatley, David

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The major Copper Age settlement of Valencina de la Concepción has been the subject of research interest over more than a century. The history of previous investigations at the site has resulted in a heterogeneous archaeological record that is particularly difficult and that displays significant gaps and problems. In this paper, we present the results of a geophysical survey carried out in December 2004 between the La Pastora and Montelirio sectors of this site in response to a proposed road development that was never put into practice, and which revealed several previously unknown features. These data are assessed in the light of the results obtained from the excavation carried out between 2007 and 2008 at the immediately adjacent sector of PP4-Montelirio, currently under study by us, where several dozen prehistoric features (both, non-megalithic and megalithic, funerary and non-funerary, were found. Altogether, this new evidence makes a significant contribution to the spatial interpretation of the Valencina de la Concepción site, particularly as they convey the first-ever cartography of a large area of this settlement. From this evidence, a discussion is made concerning the density and diversity of the features identified both between La Pastora and Montelirio as well as at the PP4-Montelirio sector, their potential patterns and sequence. This raises questions regarding the traditional separation of the site into ‘settlement’ and ‘necropolis’ areas and contributes more generally to a better understanding of the spatial organisation of this large prehistoric settlement.

    El gran asentamiento de la Edad del Cobre de Valencina de la Concepción ha sido objeto de numerosas investigaciones a lo largo de más de un siglo. Estas investigaciones han dado lugar a un registro arqueológico heterogéneo particularmente difícil de interpretar, y que presenta importantes vacíos y problemas. En este artículo se exponen los

  13. Hierarchical structure of genetic distances: Effects of matrix size, spatial distribution and correlation structure among gene frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Melo Rodrigues

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Geographic structure of genetic distances among local populations within species, based on allozyme data, has usually been evaluated by estimating genetic distances clustered with hierarchical algorithms, such as the unweighted pair-group method by arithmetic averages (UPGMA. The distortion produced in the clustering process is estimated by the cophenetic correlation coefficient. This hierarchical approach, however, can fail to produce an accurate representation of genetic distances among populations in a low dimensional space, especially when continuous (clinal or reticulate patterns of variation exist. In the present study, we analyzed 50 genetic distance matrices from the literature, for animal taxa ranging from Platyhelminthes to Mammalia, in order to determine in which situations the UPGMA is useful to understand patterns of genetic variation among populations. The cophenetic correlation coefficients, derived from UPGMA based on three types of genetic distance coefficients, were correlated with other parameters of each matrix, including number of populations, loci, alleles, maximum geographic distance among populations, relative magnitude of the first eigenvalue of covariance matrix among alleles and logarithm of body size. Most cophenetic correlations were higher than 0.80, and the highest values appeared for Nei's and Rogers' genetic distances. The relationship between cophenetic correlation coefficients and the other parameters analyzed was defined by an "envelope space", forming triangles in which higher values of cophenetic correlations are found for higher values in the parameters, though low values do not necessarily correspond to high cophenetic correlations. We concluded that UPGMA is useful to describe genetic distances based on large distance matrices (both in terms of elevated number of populations or alleles, when dimensionality of the system is low (matrices with large first eigenvalues or when local populations are separated

  14. Organising to Enable Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brink, Tove

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this conceptual paper is to reveal how organising can enable innovation across organisational layers and organisational units. This approach calls for a cross-disciplinary literature review. The aim is to provide an integrated understanding of innovation in an organisational approa...... of explorative and exploitative learning in uncertain environments. Shedding light on the cross-disciplinary theories to organise innovation provides a contribution at the firm level to enable innovation.......The purpose of this conceptual paper is to reveal how organising can enable innovation across organisational layers and organisational units. This approach calls for a cross-disciplinary literature review. The aim is to provide an integrated understanding of innovation in an organisational approach....... The findings reveal a continous organising process between individual/ team creativity and organisational structures/control to enable innovation at firm level. Organising provides a dynamic approach and contains the integrated reconstruction of creativity, structures and boundaries for enhanced balance...

  15. Combining qualitative and quantitative spatial and temporal information in a hierarchical structure: Approximate reasoning for plan execution monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoebel, Louis J.

    1993-01-01

    The problem of plan generation (PG) and the problem of plan execution monitoring (PEM), including updating, queries, and resource-bounded replanning, have different reasoning and representation requirements. PEM requires the integration of qualitative and quantitative information. PEM is the receiving of data about the world in which a plan or agent is executing. The problem is to quickly determine the relevance of the data, the consistency of the data with respect to the expected effects, and if execution should continue. Only spatial and temporal aspects of the plan are addressed for relevance in this work. Current temporal reasoning systems are deficient in computational aspects or expressiveness. This work presents a hybrid qualitative and quantitative system that is fully expressive in its assertion language while offering certain computational efficiencies. In order to proceed, methods incorporating approximate reasoning using hierarchies, notions of locality, constraint expansion, and absolute parameters need be used and are shown to be useful for the anytime nature of PEM.

  16. Understanding the genetic diversity, spatial genetic structure and mating system at the hierarchical levels of fruits and individuals of a continuous Theobroma cacao population from the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, C R S; Albuquerque, P S B; Ervedosa, F R; Mota, J W S; Figueira, A; Sebbenn, A M

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the mating patterns of populations of tree species is a key component of ex situ genetic conservation. In this study, we analysed the genetic diversity, spatial genetic structure (SGS) and mating system at the hierarchical levels of fruits and individuals as well as pollen dispersal patterns in a continuous population of Theobroma cacao in Pará State, Brazil. A total of 156 individuals in a 0.56 ha plot were mapped and genotyped for nine microsatellite loci. For the mating system analyses, 50 seeds were collected from nine seed trees by sampling five fruits per tree (10 seeds per fruit). Among the 156 individuals, 127 had unique multilocus genotypes, and the remaining were clones. The population was spatially aggregated; it demonstrated a significant SGS up to 15 m that could be attributed primarily to the presence of clones. However, the short seed dispersal distance also contributed to this pattern. Population matings occurred mainly via outcrossing, but selfing was observed in some seed trees, which indicated the presence of individual variation for self-incompatibility. The matings were also correlated, especially within (r̂p(m)=0.607) rather than among the fruits (r̂p(m)=0.099), which suggested that a small number of pollen donors fertilised each fruit. The paternity analysis suggested a high proportion of pollen migration (61.3%), although within the plot, most of the pollen dispersal encompassed short distances (28 m). The determination of these novel parameters provides the fundamental information required to establish long-term ex situ conservation strategies for this important tropical species. PMID:21139632

  17. Hierarchical self-organization of tectonic plates

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The Earth's surface is subdivided into eight large tectonic plates and many smaller ones. We reconstruct the plate tessellation history and demonstrate that both large and small plates display two distinct hierarchical patterns, described by different power-law size-relationships. While small plates display little organisational change through time, the structure of the large plates oscillate between minimum and maximum hierarchical tessellations. The organization of large plates rapidly chan...

  18. Deliberate change without hierarchical influence?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørskov, Sladjana; Kesting, Peter; Ulhøi, John Parm

    2017-01-01

    Purpose This paper aims to present that deliberate change is strongly associated with formal structures and top-down influence. Hierarchical configurations have been used to structure processes, overcome resistance and get things done. But is deliberate change also possible without formal...... reveals that deliberate change is indeed achievable in a non-hierarchical collaborative OSS community context. However, it presupposes the presence and active involvement of informal change agents. The paper identifies and specifies four key drivers for change agents’ influence. Originality....../value The findings contribute to organisational analysis by providing a deeper understanding of the importance of leadership in making deliberate change possible in non-hierarchical settings. It points to the importance of “change-by-conviction”, essentially based on voluntary behaviour. This can open the door...

  19. Hierarchical photocatalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Yu, Jiaguo; Jaroniec, Mietek

    2016-05-01

    As a green and sustainable technology, semiconductor-based heterogeneous photocatalysis has received much attention in the last few decades because it has potential to solve both energy and environmental problems. To achieve efficient photocatalysts, various hierarchical semiconductors have been designed and fabricated at the micro/nanometer scale in recent years. This review presents a critical appraisal of fabrication methods, growth mechanisms and applications of advanced hierarchical photocatalysts. Especially, the different synthesis strategies such as two-step templating, in situ template-sacrificial dissolution, self-templating method, in situ template-free assembly, chemically induced self-transformation and post-synthesis treatment are highlighted. Finally, some important applications including photocatalytic degradation of pollutants, photocatalytic H2 production and photocatalytic CO2 reduction are reviewed. A thorough assessment of the progress made in photocatalysis may open new opportunities in designing highly effective hierarchical photocatalysts for advanced applications ranging from thermal catalysis, separation and purification processes to solar cells.

  20. The network organisation of consumer complaints

    CERN Document Server

    Rocha, Luis Enrique Correa; 10.1209/0295-5075/91/28005

    2010-01-01

    Interaction between consumers and companies can create conflict. When a consensus is unreachable there are legal authorities to resolve the case. This letter is a study of data from the Brazilian Department of Justice from which we build a bipartite network of categories of complaints linked to the companies receiving those complaints. We find the complaint categories organised in an hierarchical way where companies only get complaints of lower degree if they already got complaints of higher degree. The fraction of resolved complaints for a company appears to be nearly independent on the equity of the company but is positively correlated with the total number of complaints received. We construct feature vectors based on the edge-weight - the weight of an edge represents the times complaints of a category have been filed against that company - and use these vectors to study the similarity between the categories of complaints. From this analysis, we obtain trees mapping the hierarchical organisation of the comp...

  1. Organizzazione spaziale e reti comunitarie come strategie di contrasto alla criminalità urbana / Organisation dans l’espace et réseaux communautaires comme stratégies pour combattre la criminalité urbaine / Spatial organisation and community networks as strategies to fight urban crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batella Wagner

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Cet article présente une réflexion sur le rôle de la population et de son organisation dans l’espace pour combattre la criminalité urbaine. Il existe une riche bibliographie sur le sens d’appartenance, la communauté et les relations communautaires vues comme un moyen d’organiser un groupe de personnes pour combattre les phénomènes criminels. Toutefois, même s’il faut admettre que l’espace joue un rôle majeur dans ces processus, il est regrettable de mettre en évidence que peu d’études mettent l’accent sur cette question. Pour aborder cette approche, les auteurs proposent donc un travail dans deux directions. La première s’adresse à la dimension théorique de la relation entre crime et espace, soulignant le rôle de la géographie du crime pour combattre la criminalité urbaine. Avec la deuxième, les auteurs présentent une étude de cas relative à la création d’un réseau de voisins sur un quartier de la ville de Belo Horizonte au Brésil, dans le but d’évaluer cette expérience en matière de lutte contre la criminalité urbaine. Les résultats montrent que l’espace est une dimension prépondérante dans les études sur la criminalité et aussi pour la combattre.AbstractThis article presents a reflection on the role of population and its spatial organisation to fight urban crime. An extensive literature exists on the sense of belonging, community and community relations as a way of organising a group of people to fight crime. However, even accepting that space plays an important role in these processes, few studies focus on this topic. To tackle these issues, the article proposes two directions. The first one will address the theoretical dimension of the relationship between crime and space, emphasizing the role of the geography of crime to fight urban crime. Then, the authors present a case study of the establishment of a network of neighbours in a district of the city of Belo Horizonte (Brazil, in order

  2. Organisation og demokrati

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fink, Jørgen Troelssøn

    1995-01-01

    the role of the business organisations of tyhe urban trades in the democratisation of Denmark 1830- 1915......the role of the business organisations of tyhe urban trades in the democratisation of Denmark 1830- 1915...

  3. Administrativ organisation og ansvar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, Jannik C; Krogsgaard, Kim

    2003-01-01

    The paper describes the current organisation of clinical trials in Danish hospitals, with particular emphasis on the relationship between hospitals and the pharmaceutical industry. Legal responsibilities as well as mutual agreements on collaboration and organisation are described and discussed....

  4. Organising to Enable Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brink, Tove

    2016-01-01

    . The findings reveal a continous organising process between individual/ team creativity and organisational structures/control to enable innovation at firm level. Organising provides a dynamic approach and contains the integrated reconstruction of creativity, structures and boundaries for enhanced balance......The purpose of this conceptual paper is to reveal how organising can enable innovation across organisational layers and organisational units. This approach calls for a cross-disciplinary literature review. The aim is to provide an integrated understanding of innovation in an organisational approach...... of explorative and exploitative learning in uncertain environments. Shedding light on the cross-disciplinary theories to organise innovation provides a contribution at the firm level to enable innovation....

  5. Organisational Structure & Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2006

    2006-01-01

    Structural change is seen as a way to meet the challenges of the future that face many organisations. While some writers agree that broad-ranging structural change may not always transform an organisation or enhance its performance, others claim that innovation will be a major source of competitive advantage to organisations, particularly when…

  6. Organisational intelligence and distributed AI

    OpenAIRE

    Kirn, Stefan

    1995-01-01

    The analysis of this chapter starts from organisational theory, and from this it draws conclusions for the design, and possible organisational applications, of Distributed AI systems. We first review how the concept of organisations has emerged from non-organised black-box entities to so-called computerised organisations. Within this context, organisational researchers have started to redesign their models of intelligent organisations with respect to the availability of advanced computing tec...

  7. Etude pluridisciplinaire en écologie lagunaire (étang de Thau, France) : stratégie d'échantillonnage et organisation spatiale du phytoplancton

    OpenAIRE

    Jarry, Vincent

    1990-01-01

    Une étude pluridisciplinaire sur l'écologie l'étang de Thau a permis de récolter une quantité importante d'information, à quatre périodes différentes de l'année (1986-1987), sur un réseau de 63 stations réparties selon un maillage carré de 1 km. Fort de cette information multivariée nous proposons une méthodologie pour sélectionner un sous-ensemble de station (20) permettant de reproduire la répartition spatiale d'une dizaine de variables environnementales. Après cette première réflexio...

  8. Organisational Structures & Considerations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiijf, H.A.M.; Healey, J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this section is to review specific types of national cyber security (NCS) areas (also called ‘mandates’) and examine the organisational and collaborative models associated with them. Before discussing the wide variety of organisational structures at the national and international leve

  9. Kommunikation skaber din organisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Heidi

    KOMMUNIKATION skaber din ORGANISATION tager udgangspunkt i en narrativ tilgang til kommunikation, hvor organisationen skabes i mødet mellem ledere, medarbejdere, organisation og omverden. Historier hjælper os med at skabe mening, og er derfor vigtige både som et udviklingsværktøj i organisationen...

  10. The network organisation of consumer complaints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, L. E. C.; Holme, P.

    2010-07-01

    Interaction between consumers and companies can create conflict. When a consensus is unreachable there are legal authorities to resolve the case. This letter is a study of data from the Brazilian Department of Justice from which we build a bipartite network of categories of complaints linked to the companies receiving those complaints. We find the complaint categories organised in an hierarchical way where companies only get complaints of lower degree if they already got complaints of higher degree. The fraction of resolved complaints for a company appears to be nearly independent of the equity of the company but is positively correlated with the total number of complaints received. We construct feature vectors based on the edge-weight —the weight of an edge represents the times complaints of a category have been filed against that company— and use these vectors to study the similarity between the categories of complaints. From this analysis, we obtain trees mapping the hierarchical organisation of the complaints. We also apply principal component analysis to the set of feature vectors concluding that a reduction of the dimensionality of these from 8827 to 27 gives an optimal hierarchical representation.

  11. Organisational skills and tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicker, Paul

    2009-04-01

    While this article mainly applies to practitioners who have responsibilities for leading teams or supervising practitioners, many of the skills and tools described here may also apply to students or junior practitioners. The purpose of this article is to highlight some of the main points about organisation, some of the organisational skills and tools that are available, and some examples of how these skills and tools can be used to make practitioners more effective at organising their workload. It is important to realise that organising work and doing work are two completely different things and shouldn't be mixed up. For example, it would be very difficult to start organising work in the middle of a busy operating list: the organisation of the work must come before the work starts and therefore preparation is often an important first step in organising work. As such, some of the tools and skills described in this article may need to be used hours or even days prior to the actual work taking place.

  12. Teambuilding in selected organisation

    OpenAIRE

    Havránková, Markéta

    2016-01-01

    Today, teams are an integral part of almost every organisation. As such, teamwork has become a popular trend in recent years. But in order for a team to operate well, an organisations management must help too. Whether communication needs to be improved in a team, or the performance of employees must be increased, without mutual co-operation organisations cannot expect the best possible results. The objective of this bachelors thesis is to identify and assess teamwork and the use of te...

  13. Self-organising software

    CERN Document Server

    Serugendo, Giovanna Di Marzo; Karageorgos, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    Self-organisation, self-regulation, self-repair and self-maintenance are promising conceptual approaches for dealing with complex distributed interactive software and information-handling systems. Self-organising applications dynamically change their functionality and structure without direct user intervention, responding to changes in requirements and the environment. This is the first book to offer an integrated view of self-organisation technologies applied to distributed systems, particularly focusing on multiagent systems. The editors developed this integrated book with three aims: to exp

  14. Responding to Organisational Misbehaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmgreen, Lise-Lotte

    2017-01-01

    Over the past decades, the seriousness with which organisational crises have developed has, in part, been contingent on public access to social media platforms. Analysing two Danish organisational crises, the article explores whether the conceptual repertoires that underlie public evaluation...... of organisational behaviour are embedded in shared social and cultural practices that allow them to be expressed and shared easily and intuitively. The findings suggest that by drawing on well-established experiential domains in social and cultural life, users in public social media may instantiate frames...

  15. Researching enterprises between organisation and organising

    OpenAIRE

    Elkjær, Bente; Brandi, Ulrik

    2010-01-01

    RESEARCHING ENTERPRISES BETWEEN ORGANISATION AND ORGANISINGUlrik Brandi & Bente Elkjaer, Department of Learning, University of Aarhus, Danish School of Education, Tuborgvej 164, 2400 Copenhagen NV, DenmarkShort paper submission to the 26th European Group of Organization Studies Colloquium, Waves of Globalization: Repetition and difference in organizing over time and space. June 30 - July 3 2010, Lisbon, Portugal.Sub-theme 16:  Investigating Organization as Becoming in a World on the Move ...

  16. Spatially branched hierarchical ZnO nanorod-TiO2 nanotube array heterostructures for versatile photocatalytic and photoelectrocatalytic applications: towards intimate integration of 1D-1D hybrid nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Fang-Xing; Hung, Sung-Fu; Tao, Hua Bing; Miao, Jianwei; Yang, Hong Bin; Liu, Bin

    2014-11-01

    Hierarchically ordered ZnO nanorods (NRs) decorated nanoporous-layer-covered TiO2 nanotube array (ZnO NRs/NP-TNTAs) nanocomposites have been prepared by an efficient, two-step anodization route combined with an electrochemical deposition strategy, by which monodispersed one-dimensional (1D) ZnO NRs were uniformly grown on the framework of NP-TNTAs. The crystal phases, morphologies, optical properties, photocatalytic as well as photoelectrocatalytic performances of the well-defined ZnO NRs/NP-TNTAs heterostructures were systematically explored to clarify the structure-property correlation. It was found that the ZnO NRs/NP-TNTAs heterostructure exhibits significantly enhanced photocatalytic and photoelectrocatalytic performances, along with favorable photostability toward degradation of organic pollutants under UV light irradiation, as compared to the single component counterparts. The remarkably enhanced photoactivity of ZnO NRs/NP-TNTAs heterostructure is ascribed to the intimate interfacial integration between ZnO NRs and NP-TNTAs substrate imparted by the unique spatially branched hierarchical structure, thereby contributing to the efficient transfer and separation of photogenerated electron-hole charge carriers. Moreover, the specific active species during the photocatalytic process was unambiguously determined and photocatalytic mechanism was tentatively presented. It is anticipated that our work could provide new insights for the construction of various hierarchical 1D-1D hybrid nanocomposites for extensive photocatalytic applications.Hierarchically ordered ZnO nanorods (NRs) decorated nanoporous-layer-covered TiO2 nanotube array (ZnO NRs/NP-TNTAs) nanocomposites have been prepared by an efficient, two-step anodization route combined with an electrochemical deposition strategy, by which monodispersed one-dimensional (1D) ZnO NRs were uniformly grown on the framework of NP-TNTAs. The crystal phases, morphologies, optical properties, photocatalytic as well as

  17. Organisational Theatre and Polyphony

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matula, Linda; Badham, Richard; Meisiek, Stefan

    This paper details the conditions leading up to and influencing an organisational theatre intervention as part of an organisational change program at a newly established cancer clinic. The paper explores the social and political interactions and negotiations shaping the structure and conditions...... of the organisational theatre event. It focuses in particular on the alignments and clashes between the different human resource voices in defining the ‘surface’ formal purpose for the intervention and the embeddedness of such interactions and negotiations in ‘deeper’ cultural and social conditions. The paper provides...... the first in-depth longitudinal study of shaping and negotiation of an organisational theatre event and the ways in which it is influenced by a polyphonic multivocality and takes the form of selective and partial forms of harmonious expression in establishing meaningful cooperation. The paper reveals...

  18. The Compassionate Organisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Poul Erik Flyvholm; Isaksson, Maria

    2015-01-01

    they serve. At a critical time for the public sector with inadequate funding and dominance of New Public Management approaches, will it be more motivated to portray itself as expert and efficient rather than altruistic? Design/methodology/approach – The paper applies a rhetorical framework to provide...... a detailed analysis of organisational value statements posted on the websites of public and private organisations. The research considers the value priorities of fifty organisations in the UK and Scandinavia in order to gauge the extent of convergence between the two sectors’ preferred discourses. Findings......Structured Abstract: Purpose – This paper tests whether organisations in the public domain have embraced a corporate type of discourse, mirroring the private sector’s preferred orientation towards expertise, or whether they maintain their traditional discourse of goodwill towards the publics...

  19. Leveraging organisational cultural capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Scheel

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Organisational culture discourse mandates a linear approach of diagnosis, measurement and gap analysis as standard practice in relation to most culture change initiatives. Therefore, a problem solving framework geared toward “fixing�? and/or realigning an organisation’s culture is usually prescribed. The traditional problem solving model seeks to identify gaps between current and desired organisational cultural states, inhibiting the discovery of an organisation’s unique values and strengths, namely its cultural capital. In pursuit of discovering and leveraging organisational cultural capital, a descriptive case study is used to show how an Appreciative Inquiry process can rejuvenate the spirit of an organisation as a system-wide inquiry mobilises a workforce toward a shared vision.

  20. Organisations in Innovation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borrás, Susana

    Organisations are crucial elements in an innovation system. Yet, their role is so ubiquitous that it is difficult to grasp and to examine from the perspective of public policy. Besides, links between the literature at firm and system levels on the one hand, and public policy and governance studies...... on the other, are still scarce. The purpose of this paper is to define the conceptual background of innovation policy in relation to the role of organisations in general, and entrepreneurship and intrapreneurship in particular. In so doing, this paper aims at making three contributions. Firstly......, it distinguishes between different types of organisations in the innovation system, a crucial topic in understanding innovation dynamics and blurring borders. Secondly, it identifies the organisation-related bottlenecks in the innovation system, and examines the policy instruments to solve them. Thirdly...

  1. Strategy Development in Organisations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lene

    1999-01-01

    " as used in practice and literature. Emphasis is put on how the term is related to the problem, the organisation, the strategy process and the practical way of methodologically developing the strategy. Finally, alternative strategy developing perspectives are presented.......There exist certain ambiguities with the converging fields of information technology and organisational strategy development. The term "IT strategy" has evolved and reflects in some respects this confusion. This paper discusses some of the ambiguities and difficulties of the term "IT strategy...

  2. Strategy Development in Organisations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lene

    1999-01-01

    There exist certain ambiguities with the converging fields of information technology and organisational strategy development. The term "IT strategy" has evolved and reflects in some respects this confusion. This paper discusses some of the ambiguities and difficulties of the term "IT strategy......" as used in practice and literature. Emphasis is put on how the term is related to the problem, the organisation, the strategy process and the practical way of methodologically developing the strategy. Finally, alternative strategy developing perspectives are presented....

  3. Organisational learning in professional discourses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Sedláček

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Authors of the paper discuss the concept of organisational learning. Theyrefer to a wide range of definitions and concepts, point out some differences from related or analogous concepts used, such as knowledge management and learning organisation. They note the discussions that relate to key topics. These discussions concern levels at which organisational learning can take place, the effect on behaviour organisational performance. The following section of this article presents organisational learning as a process and describes the stages of organisational learning. The purpose of the article is to provide an overview of efforts to define organisational learning, including criticism of the results of this effort. The last partis devoted to selected theories and empirical findings on organisational learning atschool. The authors stress the importance of organisational learning for schools asspecific organisations and express request to examine the processes of organisational learning in this context.

  4. Relationship between hierarchic - spatial differentiation of social structure and population size of municipalities in turkey: Evidence from the election case of local administration in 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Çiftçi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Turkey, whose population is young and dynamic, is a country where social change has a high acceleration. This circumstance has led to a spatial heterogeneity of social structure in the scale of campuses. Almost all the municipalities differ significantly from each other. In results of statistical applications, it was possible to conclude that there is a relationship between spatial differentiation of social structure indicators (PDI, PIDI and population sizes in municipalities. This relationship also supports that there was a differentiation of graded spatial social structure among municipalities in the Turkey of 2004. It is possible to make contact with this to the spatial differentiation that moves in parallel with population size and is in transition degree from a community to a society.

  5. Reflections on artist organisations international

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coumans, Anke; Straatman, Bibi

    2015-01-01

    The Artist Organisations International conference, organised by Florian Malzacher, Jonas Staal and Joanna Warsza, took place in Berlin’s HAU theatre from 9 to 11 January 2015. The organisers emphasised how it seems that more and more activist artists are creating organisational structures that incre

  6. Spiking neurons in a hierarchical self-organizing map model can learn to develop spatial and temporal properties of entorhinal grid cells and hippocampal place cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen K Pilly

    Full Text Available Medial entorhinal grid cells and hippocampal place cells provide neural correlates of spatial representation in the brain. A place cell typically fires whenever an animal is present in one or more spatial regions, or places, of an environment. A grid cell typically fires in multiple spatial regions that form a regular hexagonal grid structure extending throughout the environment. Different grid and place cells prefer spatially offset regions, with their firing fields increasing in size along the dorsoventral axes of the medial entorhinal cortex and hippocampus. The spacing between neighboring fields for a grid cell also increases along the dorsoventral axis. This article presents a neural model whose spiking neurons operate in a hierarchy of self-organizing maps, each obeying the same laws. This spiking GridPlaceMap model simulates how grid cells and place cells may develop. It responds to realistic rat navigational trajectories by learning grid cells with hexagonal grid firing fields of multiple spatial scales and place cells with one or more firing fields that match neurophysiological data about these cells and their development in juvenile rats. The place cells represent much larger spaces than the grid cells, which enable them to support navigational behaviors. Both self-organizing maps amplify and learn to categorize the most frequent and energetic co-occurrences of their inputs. The current results build upon a previous rate-based model of grid and place cell learning, and thus illustrate a general method for converting rate-based adaptive neural models, without the loss of any of their analog properties, into models whose cells obey spiking dynamics. New properties of the spiking GridPlaceMap model include the appearance of theta band modulation. The spiking model also opens a path for implementation in brain-emulating nanochips comprised of networks of noisy spiking neurons with multiple-level adaptive weights for controlling autonomous

  7. Identifying the Hierarchical Regional Spatial Structure Using Internet Big Data%基于互联网大数据的区域多层次空间结构分析研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛方曲; 刘卫东

    2016-01-01

    大数据逐渐成为各领域学者开展研究的重要途径,目前在人文-经济地理学界逐渐得到重视,并进行了初步应用,相关研究依据尺度不同可以分为居民出行和消费、城市空间结构、区域社会经济联系等。但目前大数据在人文-经济学的应用研究还属起步阶段,少有研究基于大数据对区域多层级空间结构进行系统甄别分析。本文在采集互联网大数据的基础上,结合统计数据、交通路网等传统数据评价城市综合实力、城际联系强度,并基于此构建区域空间结构计算机算法分析区域多层级空间结构。京津冀案例应用揭示了京津冀多层级体系结构,确定了各城市辐射范围、城际相互作用关系。本文初步探索使用互联网大数据甄别区域空间结构,希望能为人文-经济地理领域开展大数据应用研究提供参考。%With the development of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), big data is now becoming an important tool to carry on researches in many fields. In the domain of human geography, big data technology has gained more and more atten-tion, and there are extensive studies carried out which could be categorized into three groups of research hotspots:the residential be-havioral spatial pattern, the urban space and the regional structure. But few researches have explored the regional hierarchical spa-tial structure systematically based on the big data, and the relevant researches are primarily based on the survey data, which has a bottleneck towards the volume and the detailed micro-data acquisition. This study combined the internet big data mined from inter-net with the GDP and the spatial traffic network data, etc. to identify the regional spatial structure. The gathered data was catego-rized into three categories:the point data, the line data and the polygon data. They are used to specify the urban overall capacity and the intensity of interactions

  8. Hierarchical self-organization of tectonic plates

    CERN Document Server

    Morra, Gabriele; Müller, R Dietmar

    2010-01-01

    The Earth's surface is subdivided into eight large tectonic plates and many smaller ones. We reconstruct the plate tessellation history and demonstrate that both large and small plates display two distinct hierarchical patterns, described by different power-law size-relationships. While small plates display little organisational change through time, the structure of the large plates oscillate between minimum and maximum hierarchical tessellations. The organization of large plates rapidly changes from a weak hierarchy at 120-100 million years ago (Ma) towards a strong hierarchy, which peaked at 65-50, Ma subsequently relaxing back towards a minimum hierarchical structure. We suggest that this fluctuation reflects an alternation between top and bottom driven plate tectonics, revealing a previously undiscovered tectonic cyclicity at a timescale of 100 million years.

  9. Den kommunikerende organisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tække, Jesper

    2006-01-01

    samtidig tilbydes optimale muligheder for at få opfyldt individuelle behov og karrieremuligheder. For at en organisation skal kunne korrigere sig i forhold til de krav den konfronteres med, må der kunne fremstilles et adækvat billede af den. Det vil sige at dens faktiske kommunikationsprocesser må kunne...... drages frem i lyset på en måde så hensigtsmæssigheder og uhensigtsmæssigheder kan iagttages og selv blive objekt for reflekteret organisationskommunikation. Dette paper giver et udkast til en analysestrategi, hvormed der kan tegnes et billede af den enkelte organisation ud fra hvordan dens enkelte og...

  10. Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchical Process and Spatially Explicit Uncertainty Analysis Approach for Multiple Forest Fire Risk Mapping. GI_Forum|GI_Forum 2015 – Geospatial Minds for Society|

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Uncertainty is associated with GIS- Multi Criteria Decision Analysis (GIS-MCDA) when applied to disaster modeling. Technically speaking, GIS-MCDA model outcomes are prone to multiple types of uncertainty and error. In order to minimize the inherent uncertainty, within this research we introduced a novel approach of spatial explicit uncertainty and sensitivity analysis for GIS-MCDA models. This novel approach is developed based on early works published by FEZIZADEH et al. 2014a, 2014b and make...

  11. A Spatial Hierarchical Analysis of the Temporal Influences of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation and Weather on Dengue in Kalutara District, Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad Liyanage

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Dengue is the major public health burden in Sri Lanka. Kalutara is one of the highly affected districts. Understanding the drivers of dengue is vital in controlling and preventing the disease spread. This study focuses on quantifying the influence of weather variability on dengue incidence over 10 Medical Officer of Health (MOH divisions of Kalutara district. Weekly weather variables and data on dengue notifications, measured at 10 MOH divisions in Kalutara from 2009 to 2013, were retrieved and analysed. Distributed lag non-linear model and hierarchical-analysis was used to estimate division specific and overall relationships between weather and dengue. We incorporated lag times up to 12 weeks and evaluated models based on the Akaike Information Criterion. Consistent exposure-response patterns between different geographical locations were observed for rainfall, showing increasing relative risk of dengue with increasing rainfall from 50 mm per week. The strongest association with dengue risk centred around 6 to 10 weeks following rainfalls of more than 300 mm per week. With increasing temperature, the overall relative risk of dengue increased steadily starting from a lag of 4 weeks. We found similarly a strong link between the Oceanic Niño Index to weather patterns in the district in Sri Lanka and to dengue at a longer latency time confirming these relationships. Part of the influences of rainfall and temperature can be seen as mediator in the causal pathway of the Ocean Niño Index, which may allow a longer lead time for early warning signals. Our findings describe a strong association between weather, El Niño-Southern Oscillation and dengue in Sri Lanka.

  12. Organisational culture: variation across hospitals and connection to patient safety climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speroff, T; Nwosu, S; Greevy, R; Weinger, M B; Talbot, T R; Wall, R J; Deshpande, J K; France, D J; Ely, E W; Burgess, H; Englebright, J; Williams, M V; Dittus, R S

    2010-12-01

    Bureaucratic organisational culture is less favourable to quality improvement, whereas organisations with group (teamwork) culture are better aligned for quality improvement. To determine if an organisational group culture shows better alignment with patient safety climate. Cross-sectional administration of questionnaires. Setting 40 Hospital Corporation of America hospitals. 1406 nurses, ancillary staff, allied staff and physicians. Competing Values Measure of Organisational Culture, Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQ), Safety Climate Survey (SCSc) and Information and Analysis (IA). The Cronbach alpha was 0.81 for the group culture scale and 0.72 for the hierarchical culture scale. Group culture was positively correlated with SAQ and its subscales (from correlation coefficient r = 0.44 to 0.55, except situational recognition), ScSc (r = 0.47) and IA (r = 0.33). Hierarchical culture was negatively correlated with the SAQ scales, SCSc and IA. Among the 40 hospitals, 37.5% had a hierarchical dominant culture, 37.5% a dominant group culture and 25% a balanced culture. Group culture hospitals had significantly higher safety climate scores than hierarchical culture hospitals. The magnitude of these relationships was not affected after adjusting for provider job type and hospital characteristics. Hospitals vary in organisational culture, and the type of culture relates to the safety climate within the hospital. In combination with prior studies, these results suggest that a healthcare organisation's culture is a critical factor in the development of its patient safety climate and in the successful implementation of quality improvement initiatives.

  13. Agency in Organisational Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaler, Michaela; And Others

    This paper reports on research conducted in Scotland as part of a 2-year European Union project, Management for Organisational and Human Development (MOHD), through which seven research centers in five countries examined strategies for whole organizational development. Work within the Scottish network of MOHD focused on the understanding of…

  14. Cultures et organisations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, G.; Hofstede, G.J.; Minkov, M.

    2010-01-01

    La coopération interculturelle, une question de survie Véritable atlas des valeurs culturelles, paru en 18 langues, Cultures et organisations est le fruit de plus de 40 ans de recherches menées dans plus de 100 pays. Il est aujourd'hui le livre de référence des chercheurs, universitaires et

  15. Cultures et organisations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, G.; Hofstede, G.J.; Minkov, M.

    2010-01-01

    La coopération interculturelle, une question de survie Véritable atlas des valeurs culturelles, paru en 18 langues, Cultures et organisations est le fruit de plus de 40 ans de recherches menées dans plus de 100 pays. Il est aujourd'hui le livre de référence des chercheurs, universitaires et professi

  16. Strategising through organising

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mette Vinther

    of and operationalise a strategy, maybe actors do not follow a pre-defined map, but instead figure out the way as they go? Maybe actors go in ways that they relationally believe are the ‘right ones’ and in ways that make sense to them? There are, however, many actors in an organisation and, therefore, also many ways...

  17. Den Legende Organisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsted, Ann Charlotte

    Bogen beskriver, hvordan to vidt forskellige organisationer - den store internationale virksomhed LEGO og den mindre nonprofit organisation SUS - har bragt legen i spil. Ann Charlotte Thorsted viser i bogen, hvordan leg kan understøtte innovation, læring, kommunikation, samarbejde og det gode arb...

  18. Luhmann og Organisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Michael

    LUHMANN OG ORGANISATION Organisationsstudier spiller en særlig rolle for den tyske sociolog Niklas Luhmann (1927-1998) idet han begriber organisationer som det mest afgørende socialsystem i det moderne samfund. Kun organisati-oner kan træffe samfundsmæssige afgørelser. Faktisk begyndte Luhmann som...... organisationsteoretiker, og flere af hans tidlige værker regnes nu som milepæle indenfor organisations-studier. I 2000 udkom post humt hans sidste store organisationsteoretiske værk Organisation und Entscheidung. I Luhmanns almene systemteori trækker han kraftigt på sit kendskab til organisationer. Begribelsen af...... samtidig med, at de kan skabe en kobling mellem det moderne samfunds interaktioner og funktionssystemer. Luhmanns konstante ledetråd har været, at organisationer er det, som får samfun-det til at fungere. Uden organisationer intet moderne samfund. Luhmann og organisation henvender sig til studerende...

  19. Hierarchical Network Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomadsen, Tommy

    2005-01-01

    of different types of hierarchical networks. This is supplemented by a review of ring network design problems and a presentation of a model allowing for modeling most hierarchical networks. We use methods based on linear programming to design the hierarchical networks. Thus, a brief introduction to the various....... The thesis investigates models for hierarchical network design and methods used to design such networks. In addition, ring network design is considered, since ring networks commonly appear in the design of hierarchical networks. The thesis introduces hierarchical networks, including a classification scheme...... linear programming based methods is included. The thesis is thus suitable as a foundation for study of design of hierarchical networks. The major contribution of the thesis consists of seven papers which are included in the appendix. The papers address hierarchical network design and/or ring network...

  20. Hierarchical networks of scientific journals

    CERN Document Server

    Palla, Gergely; Mones, Enys; Pollner, Péter; Vicsek, Tamás

    2015-01-01

    Scientific journals are the repositories of the gradually accumulating knowledge of mankind about the world surrounding us. Just as our knowledge is organised into classes ranging from major disciplines, subjects and fields to increasingly specific topics, journals can also be categorised into groups using various metrics. In addition to the set of topics characteristic for a journal, they can also be ranked regarding their relevance from the point of overall influence. One widespread measure is impact factor, but in the present paper we intend to reconstruct a much more detailed description by studying the hierarchical relations between the journals based on citation data. We use a measure related to the notion of m-reaching centrality and find a network which shows the level of influence of a journal from the point of the direction and efficiency with which information spreads through the network. We can also obtain an alternative network using a suitably modified nested hierarchy extraction method applied ...

  1. Transformation of an organisation into a team-oriented organisational approach and efficient use of teamwork in the context of environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željko Turkalj

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Social changes dictating business dynamics in the new century, a growing complexity of business processes as well as job complexity nowadays demands networking of human resources in order to achieve organisational goals. Synergy and cohesion created by teamwork are the key to the success of any organisation. Team organisation represents organisational structure that can be embedded in the existing organisational form in a very simple way. This results in a productive and flexible environment coordinated by efficient teams. Since the beginning of time, human beings have not functioned as se- parate individuals. Modern times provide the best account of the time where complicated hierarchical organisations are simplified in a very plain way and they ensure their work efficiency by reorganizing jobs and networking human resources. Complex and difficult tasks are solved by sharing responsibili- ties in a simple way; therefore, teamwork and team-oriented organisational structure offer numerous advantages. In addition to the theoretical overview, research was conducted on a selected economic operator in one of its business units. The obtained results point to a high level of teamwork and satisfaction in carrying out the work. The research results confirmed the fact that teamwork is nowadays increasingly present in organisations. Efficient teams representing intellectual capital of any organisation create a more productive and a more innovative organisation with all its special features. Thus, survival condi- tions are created and competitive advantages are achieved in a very demanding and turbulent market.

  2. Hierarchical Multiagent Reinforcement Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-25

    In this paper, we investigate the use of hierarchical reinforcement learning (HRL) to speed up the acquisition of cooperative multiagent tasks. We...introduce a hierarchical multiagent reinforcement learning (RL) framework and propose a hierarchical multiagent RL algorithm called Cooperative HRL. In

  3. Learning and change in organisations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chemi, Tatiana

    2013-01-01

    Review of: Ian W. King & Jonathan Vickery (Eds.), Experiencing Organisations. New Aesthetic perspectives, Faringdon, Libri Publishing, 2013.......Review of: Ian W. King & Jonathan Vickery (Eds.), Experiencing Organisations. New Aesthetic perspectives, Faringdon, Libri Publishing, 2013....

  4. Learning and change in organisations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chemi, Tatiana

    2013-01-01

    Review of: Ian W. King & Jonathan Vickery (Eds.), Experiencing Organisations. New Aesthetic perspectives, Faringdon, Libri Publishing, 2013.......Review of: Ian W. King & Jonathan Vickery (Eds.), Experiencing Organisations. New Aesthetic perspectives, Faringdon, Libri Publishing, 2013....

  5. EVALUATION OF THE PROJECT MANAGEMENT ORGANISATIONAL ABILITY OF PUBLIC ORGANISATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florescu Margareta

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The quality of the results of a project or a public programme, as well as the quality of project management consist in management process performance.This analysis tool promotes the idea of initiating a new organisational/functional policy – organisational tools regarding project management, a new standard concerning the complexity of the project and the associated risk, as well as a new standard concerning the project management organisational/functional ability. Political decision makers, public organisation managers, but project managers as well are the main people in charge of elaborating and taking responsibility for these standards and policies within the organisations they manage and represent.

  6. Organising aspects of the Levels Added Organisation (LAO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duško Uršič

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available How to achieve a more efficient, more successful, and above all more competitive organisation in the given environment and equal spare time in everything? One of responses is evidently hidden in the levels added organisation concept, which has already proved its advantages in some domains practice, and now we also try to define and explain them from the organisational and scientific aspect. As briefly presented in this paper, the nucleus is hidden in the evolutionary development of the organisation that adopts innovations, then tests and evaluates them, combines and upgrades them, and consequently it efficiently resolves difficulties of existent organisational concepts.

  7. Virtual Organisation Document Management System

    OpenAIRE

    Sturis, Ričardas

    2004-01-01

    The main goal of Masters final work is to analize basics of virtual organization and its needs for document management system. Virtual organisation is a one of organisations methods to colaborate. Virtual organisation require the system, who will guarantee document managent and control.

  8. Virtualness : a new organisational dimension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch-Sijtsema, P.M.

    2003-01-01

    In current literature a new organisational form is presented, the virtual organisation (VO). ms organisational form is a co-operation between a number of companies who combine their strengths to develop a new service or product. The current VO literature is ambiguous about the definition and

  9. Virtualness : a new organisational dimension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch-Sijtsema, P.M.

    2003-01-01

    In current literature a new organisational form is presented, the virtual organisation (VO). ms organisational form is a co-operation between a number of companies who combine their strengths to develop a new service or product. The current VO literature is ambiguous about the definition and charact

  10. Droit des organisations internationales

    CERN Document Server

    Sorel, Jean-Marc; Ndior, Valère

    2013-01-01

    Cet ouvrage collectif offre aux enseignants et chercheurs en droit international, aux praticiens et aux étudiants, une analyse actualisée du droit des organisations internationales. Il dresse en cinq parties un tableau, illustré par des exemples variés, des problématiques que soulève le phénomène polymorphe d institutionnalisation de la société internationale. La première partie est consacrée au phénomène des « organisations internationales », sous l angle à la fois de l institutionnalisation progressive des relations internationales et de la difficulté à cerner une catégorie unifiée. La deuxième partie rend compte de la création, de la disparition et des mutations des organisations internationales, ici envisagées comme systèmes institutionnels et ordres juridiques dérivés. La troisième partie analyse l autonomie que l acquisition de la personnalité juridique et de privilèges et immunités, un organe administratif intégré, un personnel ou un budget propres confèrent aux organi...

  11. Hierarchical Network Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomadsen, Tommy

    2005-01-01

    Communication networks are immensely important today, since both companies and individuals use numerous services that rely on them. This thesis considers the design of hierarchical (communication) networks. Hierarchical networks consist of layers of networks and are well-suited for coping...... the clusters. The design of hierarchical networks involves clustering of nodes, hub selection, and network design, i.e. selection of links and routing of ows. Hierarchical networks have been in use for decades, but integrated design of these networks has only been considered for very special types of networks....... The thesis investigates models for hierarchical network design and methods used to design such networks. In addition, ring network design is considered, since ring networks commonly appear in the design of hierarchical networks. The thesis introduces hierarchical networks, including a classification scheme...

  12. Advanced hierarchical distance sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royle, Andy

    2016-01-01

    In this chapter, we cover a number of important extensions of the basic hierarchical distance-sampling (HDS) framework from Chapter 8. First, we discuss the inclusion of “individual covariates,” such as group size, in the HDS model. This is important in many surveys where animals form natural groups that are the primary observation unit, with the size of the group expected to have some influence on detectability. We also discuss HDS integrated with time-removal and double-observer or capture-recapture sampling. These “combined protocols” can be formulated as HDS models with individual covariates, and thus they have a commonality with HDS models involving group structure (group size being just another individual covariate). We cover several varieties of open-population HDS models that accommodate population dynamics. On one end of the spectrum, we cover models that allow replicate distance sampling surveys within a year, which estimate abundance relative to availability and temporary emigration through time. We consider a robust design version of that model. We then consider models with explicit dynamics based on the Dail and Madsen (2011) model and the work of Sollmann et al. (2015). The final major theme of this chapter is relatively newly developed spatial distance sampling models that accommodate explicit models describing the spatial distribution of individuals known as Point Process models. We provide novel formulations of spatial DS and HDS models in this chapter, including implementations of those models in the unmarked package using a hack of the pcount function for N-mixture models.

  13. Virtual corporations, enterprise and organisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen RÃDUT

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Virtual organisation is a strategic paradigm that is centred on the use of information and ICT to create value. Virtual organisation is presented as a metamanagement strategy that has application in all value oriented organisations. Within the concept of Virtual organisation, the business model is an ICT based construct that bridges and integrates enterprise strategic and operational concerns. Firms try to ameliorate the impacts of risk and product complexity by forming alliances and partnerships with others to spread the risk of new products and new ventures and to increase organisational competence. The result is a networked virtual organization.

  14. TEDx Organisers meet at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Abha Eli Phoboo

    2013-01-01

    CERN hosted the second TEDx European Organisers meeting last week with around 80 organisers attending from all over Europe. They were given an introduction to CERN and a tour of the LHC experiments.   The participants of the TEDx European Organisers meeting held at CERN last week. Among the attendees was Bruno Giussani, European director of TED, who delivered the welcome address. The TEDx European organisers shared their experiences in workshops and brainstormed about how to work on different aspects of organising a TEDx event, and about improving the relationship between TEDx and TED. “The goal of this meeting was for veteran TEDx organisers to help younger ones, help each other, bring the community together and have better quality events,” said Claudia Marcelloni, head of TEDxCERN. TEDx is an independently organised TED (Technology, Entertainment, Design) talk event, which has grown exponentially all over the world. There are hundreds of TEDx events every day and it n...

  15. Organisational commitment and responses to planned ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    12Key words: organisational change, organisational commitment, personal valence, organisational .... and acceptance of the goals and values of the organisation, a willingness to put in ...... Cognitive Therapy and Research, 1(4): 287–310.

  16. Organising Baltic Jazz festival

    OpenAIRE

    Väärä, Emmi

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to clarify how Baltic Jazz festival is organised in a matter of project based thesis, where the main product was the festival held in 2016. The festival is located on Kemiönsaari in Turku Archipelago and it has been up and running for 30 years next year. The paper includes seven key concepts that are important for understanding the field of event management as well as the main operations according to the literature found about special events and festivals. ...

  17. Organisational Learning with Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hundebøl, Jesper

    2008-01-01

    , and on the other hand, how the program is challenged by a number of unforeseen translations - Digital Construction manifests itself in ways not anticipated in the original program. In continuation hereof follows a couple of analytical descriptions that illustrate in detail how 3D object-based modelling is enacted...... in practice. I will discuss these cases with a view to understand the implications for organising, learning and knowing in the design phases of a construction projects. Before this, however, I will present in detail the research question and how I intend to deal with it methodologically. I will outline...

  18. Organisational Learning with Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hundebøl, Jesper

    2008-01-01

    Based on multi-site ethno-methodological field studies in the Danish construction industry this paper examines the relational effects of 3D object-based modelling. In describing how that technology is being introduced, shaped and enacted, how it associates with, mediates and translates existing...... practices, I discuss how it has effects for work methods and routines in an (inter-)organisational setting, namely that of architects and consulting engineers. The technology is introduced in the practices in question, in part because of a program referred to as Det Digitale Byggeri (Digital Construction...

  19. Organisational aspects of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, Jacqueline; Pegram, Anne

    2015-03-04

    Organisational aspects of care, the second essential skills cluster, identifies the need for registered nurses to systematically assess, plan and provide holistic patient care in accordance with individual needs. Safeguarding, supporting and protecting adults and children in vulnerable situations; leading, co-ordinating and managing care; functioning as an effective and confident member of the multidisciplinary team; and managing risk while maintaining a safe environment for patients and colleagues, are vital aspects of this cluster. This article discusses the roles and responsibilities of the newly registered graduate nurse. Throughout their education, nursing students work towards attaining this knowledge and these skills in preparation for their future roles as nurses.

  20. Breaking through the Glass Ceiling: Consumers in Mental Health Organisations' Hierarchies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Brett; Bocking, Julia; Happell, Brenda

    2017-05-01

    Contemporary mental health policies call for consumers to be engaged in all levels of mental health service planning, implementation, and delivery. Critical approaches to traditional healthcare hierarchies can effectively challenge barriers to better engagement with consumers in mental health organisations. This qualitative exploratory study analyses how particular strategies for consumer leadership facilitate or hinder relationships between consumers and mental health services, and how these strategies influence hierarchical structures. Fourteen participants from a range of mental health organisations were interviewed. These interviews were analysed using thematic analytic and discursive psychological techniques. The findings highlight several benefits of having consumers within mental health organisational hierarchies, and elaborate on ways that employees within mental health services can support integration of consumers into existing hierarchies. Specific barriers to consumers in hierarchies are discussed, including a lack of clarity of structures and roles within hierarchies, and resistance to consumers reaching the highest levels of leadership within organisations. Alternative hierarchical models which privilege consumers' control over resources and power are also discussed. Mental health organisations are encouraged to integrate consumer leaders into their hierarchical structures to improve their organisational offerings, their reputation, and their service innovation.

  1. Hierarchical fringe tracking

    CERN Document Server

    Petrov, Romain G; Boskri, Abdelkarim; Folcher, Jean-Pierre; Lagarde, Stephane; Bresson, Yves; Benkhaldoum, Zouhair; Lazrek, Mohamed; Rakshit, Suvendu

    2014-01-01

    The limiting magnitude is a key issue for optical interferometry. Pairwise fringe trackers based on the integrated optics concepts used for example in GRAVITY seem limited to about K=10.5 with the 8m Unit Telescopes of the VLTI, and there is a general "common sense" statement that the efficiency of fringe tracking, and hence the sensitivity of optical interferometry, must decrease as the number of apertures increases, at least in the near infrared where we are still limited by detector readout noise. Here we present a Hierarchical Fringe Tracking (HFT) concept with sensitivity at least equal to this of a two apertures fringe trackers. HFT is based of the combination of the apertures in pairs, then in pairs of pairs then in pairs of groups. The key HFT module is a device that behaves like a spatial filter for two telescopes (2TSF) and transmits all or most of the flux of a cophased pair in a single mode beam. We give an example of such an achromatic 2TSF, based on very broadband dispersed fringes analyzed by g...

  2. Feminine leadership and organisational culture

    OpenAIRE

    Andreea-Simona Saseanu; Sorin-George Toma; Paul Marinescu

    2014-01-01

    People in general, leaders especially, are influenced by the organisational culture and the other way around. Organisational culture represents a determining factor regarding the display of leadership, since these two processes create each other, adding value and consistency to one another. Moreover, organisational culture can be created and developed in a fluctuant business environment, in which the external factors influence its progress. The development of society has incessantly been emph...

  3. Celebrity-led Development Organisations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budabin, Alexandra Cosima; Rasmussen, Louise Mubanda; Richey, Lisa Ann

    2017-01-01

    The past decade has seen a frontier open up in international development engagement with the entrance of new actors such as celebrity-led organisations. We explore how such organisations earn legitimacy with a focus on Madonna’s Raising Malawi and Ben Affleck’s Eastern Congo Initiative. The study...... for funding, endorsements, and expertise. We argue that the ways in which celebrity-led organisations establish themselves as legitimate development actors illustrate broader dynamics of the machinery of development....

  4. Organisation identity : an exploratory study.

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    D.Litt. et Phil. Recent studies have found that the life expectancy of organisations is rapidly declining (currently between 40 and 50 years) and that organisational decline and bankruptcy were increasing at disturbing rates. Equally recent contributions in the popular and business press have suggested that the expensive path to corporate failure could be linked to the "identity" or "corporate identity" of the organisation (more specifically the absence thereof). With the exception of the ...

  5. Youth organisations as learning organisations: Exploring special contributions and challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Felice, M.C. del; Solheim, L.

    2011-01-01

    Youth and youth organisations are becoming valuable development partners, but little knowledge about their characteristics as learning organisations exists. This article presents perceptions of youth workers on this topic. These were gathered via an online survey and through research done by a youth

  6. Organisational Learning and Organisational Memory for SMS and FRMS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koornneef, F.; Stewart, S.; Akselsson, R.; Ward, M.

    2009-01-01

    Chapter 1: Organisational Learning and Organisational Memory for SMS and FRMS The European Commission HILAS project (Human Integration into theLifecycle of Aviation Systems - a project supported by the European Commission’s 6th Framework between 2005-2009) was focused on using human factors knowled

  7. Organisational commitment and turnover intentions in humanitarian organisations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnmaalen, Julia; Heyse, Liesbet; Voordijk, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Unwanted staff turnover is a prominent HRM problem in humanitarian organisations. In the profit sector, HRM tools such as pay, benefits, socialisation and training have proven to be effective in increasing organisational commitment and decreasing staff turnover. This study explores whether such tool

  8. Organisational Learning and Organisational Memory for SMS and FRMS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koornneef, F.; Stewart, S.; Akselsson, R.; Ward, M.

    2009-01-01

    Chapter 1: Organisational Learning and Organisational Memory for SMS and FRMS The European Commission HILAS project (Human Integration into theLifecycle of Aviation Systems - a project supported by the European Commission’s 6th Framework between 2005-2009) was focused on using human factors knowled

  9. Organisational commitment and turnover intentions in humanitarian organisations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnmaalen, Julia; Heyse, Liesbet; Voordijk, Johannes T.

    2016-01-01

    Unwanted staff turnover is a prominent HRM problem in humanitarian organisations. In the profit sector, HRM tools such as pay, benefits, socialisation and training have proven to be effective in increasing organisational commitment and decreasing staff turnover. This study explores whether such

  10. Organising, Educating... Changing the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grayson, John

    2005-01-01

    Over the past few years a constellation of social movements and organisations concerned with issues of globalisation and world poverty have exploded onto the world stage. They have mobilised demonstrations, organised mass gatherings and conferences, created e-networks and websites and become major players in international political lobbying and…

  11. Innovating the Product Development Organisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Mogens Myrup; Hein, Lars

    1997-01-01

    The organisational innovation of the product development function is a doubtful affair since we can hardly describe why a specific organisation works. In this article two comprehensive innovation campaigns in Danish industry are described with reference to the nature, content and results...

  12. Organisational innovations in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, F. den; Verbruggen, V.

    2000-01-01

    The Netherlands have shown some major technological and economical changes in the field of new production forms and organisation and labour-related innovations. As in other European countries, some autonomous developments like economic developments partly determine the work organisation and the type

  13. Boundary organisations and their strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Enst, van Wynanda I.; Runhaar, Hens A.C.; Driessen, P.P.J.

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses three empirical cases of boundary organisations, within the context of the Wadden Sea: the Wadden Academy, IMSA Amsterdam and the NCEA. The research aims to provide further insights into how boundary organisations work in practice. The research shows that the role of a boun

  14. Performance-oriented Organisation Modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popova, V.; Sharpanskykh, A.

    2006-01-01

    Each organisation exists or is created for the achievement of one or more goals. To ensure continued success, the organisation should monitor its performance with respect to the formulated goals. In practice the performance of an organization is often evaluated by estimating its performance indicato

  15. Organisational communication and supportive employees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ridder, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    The importance of the social dimension of organisations is currently a strong focus of emphasis in the literature. From a managerial perspective, however, it is important that the community spirit within an organisation falls in line with its strategic direction. The study discussed in this article

  16. Building Organisational Capability the Private Provider Way

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, Hugh

    2008-01-01

    Organisational capability is recognised as a key to organisational success. The combination of human capital (peoples' skills and knowledge), social capital (relationships between people) and organisational capital (the organisation's processes), is central to building an organisation's capability. This paper, presented at the 2008 annual…

  17. The Impact of Organisational Learning on Organisational Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Zgrzywa-Ziemak

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this article is to analyse the theoretical views and results of empirical research concerning the relation between organisational learning (OL and organisational performance (OP. Methodology: The study was carried out through extensive literature research, including relevant literature review from databases such as ProQuest, Elsevier, Emerald and EBSCO (the phrases: “organisational learning”, “learning organisation” and “organisational performance” were searched in the keywords, titles or abstracts. Findings: From a theoretical point of view, the relation between OL and OP is neither obvious nor clear, but the analysis of the empirical studies allows one to assume that OL has an essential impact on OP. However, differences in the strength of the relation were shown and some contradictions related to the presence of the relation between OL and selected (mostly financial performance aspects identified. Furthermore, the article discusses the significant differences and inconsistencies in the methods of measuring OL, measuring OP, selecting contextual factors and adopted methods of data analysis. Implications: Inconsistencies and gaps found in the studies of the relationship between OL and OP made it possible to designate the direction for promising further research. Value: The article presents valuable insight through its in-depth, critical analysis of the organisational learning and organisational outcomes. First and foremost, this indicates that the formula of the previous empirical studies does not allow for the development of precise solutions pertaining to organisational learning management for the benefit of OP improvement.

  18. Luhmann og Organisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tække, Jesper; Paulsen, Michael

    2008-01-01

      Synopsis - Vi vil i denne artikel udlægge Luhmanns organisationsteori i et fugleperspektiv. Ud fra en videnskabsteoretisk og metametodologisk vinkel henvender vi os især til interesserede i organisationsteori og organisationskommunikation, som gerne vil tilegne sig Luhmanns organisationsteori i...... bevæger sig videre til systembegrebet, forskellige systemtyper, kommunikationsbegrebet og til sidst organisations- og beslutningsbegrebet. Alt i alt er det artiklens ærinde at blotlægge de begrebslige præmisser for Luhmanns organisationsteori.......  Synopsis - Vi vil i denne artikel udlægge Luhmanns organisationsteori i et fugleperspektiv. Ud fra en videnskabsteoretisk og metametodologisk vinkel henvender vi os især til interesserede i organisationsteori og organisationskommunikation, som gerne vil tilegne sig Luhmanns organisationsteori i...... forhold til hans overordnede teoriramme. Formålet med artiklen er at fremstille, hvorledes man i det hele taget med Luhmanns teoriapparat kan iagttage organisatoriske fænomener. Vi vil indfri dette formål ved at formidle en række grundbegreber i en sammenhæng, der begynder med iagttagelsesbegrebet og...

  19. Strategising through organising

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mette Vinther

    This thesis is about strategy. It is about what happens after the strategy leaves the drawing board and actors try to make sense of it and figure out how to act. There are many perspectives on strategy. This is another one. A perspective that tries to work with strategy from an everyday, relational...... of and operationalise a strategy, maybe actors do not follow a pre-defined map, but instead figure out the way as they go? Maybe actors go in ways that they relationally believe are the ‘right ones’ and in ways that make sense to them? There are, however, many actors in an organisation and, therefore, also many ways...... to make sense of a strategy. This means that strategising can go in many and sometimes opposing, but equally meaningful ways. In this case, they did. This thesis aims to present, in just ways, the different and opposing ways actors make sense and strategise every day. Maybe this is what strategy is about?...

  20. Using organisational memory in evaluations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madri S. Jansen van Rensburg

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article uses the case of a regional intermediary organisation to investigate organisational memory (OM and its contribution to knowledge management and activities in evaluations. Understanding of, and accessing OM is critical for participatory evaluations. The aim of the article is to reflect on the OM of a non-governmental organisation (NGO and what implicationsthe structural changes in OM over the organisation’s life cycle have for evaluators. It further aims to advocate an awareness of OM and explains how evaluators can access and utilise it more effectively. Evaluators need to have an understanding of OM, and to take more responsibility for disseminating results to enhance it. This case study reflects on a retrospective case example of a regional NGO. The report reflects the development and structure of the life cycle of the organisation. The data collection included in-depth interviews with staff members and other key stakeholders, engagement with beneficiary organisations and donors, and analyses of documents, electronic files and audio-visual material. Since OM survives after the demise of an organisation, and is accessible through directories, it is important for the evaluator to include historical information. Specific implications for evaluators include the ability to access OM through directories and networks of the organisation. As evaluators hold OM of all the organisations they have engaged with, they also have a responsibility to share knowledge. The key findings of this study illustrate the importance of accessing the memory and historical information of the organisation. Understanding OM enhances the in-depth comprehension of the activity, project or programme under investigation, and the collective knowledge generated as a result of it.

  1. Micromechanics of hierarchical materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mishnaevsky, Leon, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    A short overview of micromechanical models of hierarchical materials (hybrid composites, biomaterials, fractal materials, etc.) is given. Several examples of the modeling of strength and damage in hierarchical materials are summarized, among them, 3D FE model of hybrid composites...... with nanoengineered matrix, fiber bundle model of UD composites with hierarchically clustered fibers and 3D multilevel model of wood considered as a gradient, cellular material with layered composite cell walls. The main areas of research in micromechanics of hierarchical materials are identified, among them......, the investigations of the effects of load redistribution between reinforcing elements at different scale levels, of the possibilities to control different material properties and to ensure synergy of strengthening effects at different scale levels and using the nanoreinforcement effects. The main future directions...

  2. Hierarchical auxetic mechanical metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatt, Ruben; Mizzi, Luke; Azzopardi, Joseph I; Azzopardi, Keith M; Attard, Daphne; Casha, Aaron; Briffa, Joseph; Grima, Joseph N

    2015-02-11

    Auxetic mechanical metamaterials are engineered systems that exhibit the unusual macroscopic property of a negative Poisson's ratio due to sub-unit structure rather than chemical composition. Although their unique behaviour makes them superior to conventional materials in many practical applications, they are limited in availability. Here, we propose a new class of hierarchical auxetics based on the rotating rigid units mechanism. These systems retain the enhanced properties from having a negative Poisson's ratio with the added benefits of being a hierarchical system. Using simulations on typical hierarchical multi-level rotating squares, we show that, through design, one can control the extent of auxeticity, degree of aperture and size of the different pores in the system. This makes the system more versatile than similar non-hierarchical ones, making them promising candidates for industrial and biomedical applications, such as stents and skin grafts.

  3. Introduction into Hierarchical Matrices

    KAUST Repository

    Litvinenko, Alexander

    2013-12-05

    Hierarchical matrices allow us to reduce computational storage and cost from cubic to almost linear. This technique can be applied for solving PDEs, integral equations, matrix equations and approximation of large covariance and precision matrices.

  4. Hierarchical Auxetic Mechanical Metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatt, Ruben; Mizzi, Luke; Azzopardi, Joseph I.; Azzopardi, Keith M.; Attard, Daphne; Casha, Aaron; Briffa, Joseph; Grima, Joseph N.

    2015-02-01

    Auxetic mechanical metamaterials are engineered systems that exhibit the unusual macroscopic property of a negative Poisson's ratio due to sub-unit structure rather than chemical composition. Although their unique behaviour makes them superior to conventional materials in many practical applications, they are limited in availability. Here, we propose a new class of hierarchical auxetics based on the rotating rigid units mechanism. These systems retain the enhanced properties from having a negative Poisson's ratio with the added benefits of being a hierarchical system. Using simulations on typical hierarchical multi-level rotating squares, we show that, through design, one can control the extent of auxeticity, degree of aperture and size of the different pores in the system. This makes the system more versatile than similar non-hierarchical ones, making them promising candidates for industrial and biomedical applications, such as stents and skin grafts.

  5. Applied Bayesian Hierarchical Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Congdon, Peter D

    2010-01-01

    Bayesian methods facilitate the analysis of complex models and data structures. Emphasizing data applications, alternative modeling specifications, and computer implementation, this book provides a practical overview of methods for Bayesian analysis of hierarchical models.

  6. Programming with Hierarchical Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørbæk, Peter

    This report desribes the hierarchical maps used as a central data structure in the Corundum framework. We describe its most prominent features, ague for its usefulness and briefly describe some of the software prototypes implemented using the technology....

  7. Catalysis with hierarchical zeolites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Martin Spangsberg; Taarning, Esben; Egeblad, Kresten

    2011-01-01

    Hierarchical (or mesoporous) zeolites have attracted significant attention during the first decade of the 21st century, and so far this interest continues to increase. There have already been several reviews giving detailed accounts of the developments emphasizing different aspects of this research...... topic. Until now, the main reason for developing hierarchical zeolites has been to achieve heterogeneous catalysts with improved performance but this particular facet has not yet been reviewed in detail. Thus, the present paper summaries and categorizes the catalytic studies utilizing hierarchical...... zeolites that have been reported hitherto. Prototypical examples from some of the different categories of catalytic reactions that have been studied using hierarchical zeolite catalysts are highlighted. This clearly illustrates the different ways that improved performance can be achieved with this family...

  8. Entrepreneuring as Organisation-Creation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This chapter aims at making a contribution to the study of entrepreneurship and creativity by developing a processual conceptualisation of a form of entrepreneurial creativity called entrepreneuring or organisation-creation. Such a processual conceptualisation of entrepreneuring will answer...... the long-standing call in entrepreneurship research for an enhanced capacity to study organisation-in-creation. I believe recent advances in process thinking, in organisation studies have provided us, finally, with such 'changes in our perceptions and methodologies', meaning we have now a capacity to step...

  9. Identity In and Around Organisations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Majken; Maguire, Steve

    2013-01-01

    At the heart of any successful organisation lies a powerful conception of identity: the coherent way in which it presents itself to its stakeholders and employees, containing its purpose, goals and key characteristics. However, the traditional idea of identity as a stable, solid and reliable...... concept may not be the best way of approaching and managing your organisation. Rather, Majken Schultz and Steve Maguire argue that organisations would benefit from adopting a process-based view of identity, which integrates history, ongoing change and market instability into its definition....

  10. Learning robot actions based on self-organising language memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wermter, Stefan; Elshaw, Mark

    2003-01-01

    In the MirrorBot project we examine perceptual processes using models of cortical assemblies and mirror neurons to explore the emergence of semantic representations of actions, percepts and concepts in a neural robot. The hypothesis under investigation is whether a neural model will produce a life-like perception system for actions. In this context we focus in this paper on how instructions for actions can be modeled in a self-organising memory. Current approaches for robot control often do not use language and ignore neural learning. However, our approach uses language instruction and draws from the concepts of regional distributed modularity, self-organisation and neural assemblies. We describe a self-organising model that clusters actions into different locations depending on the body part they are associated with. In particular, we use actual sensor readings from the MIRA robot to represent semantic features of the action verbs. Furthermore, we outline a hierarchical computational model for a self-organising robot action control system using language for instruction.

  11. Perceived external prestige as a mediator between quality of work life and organisational commitment of public sector employees in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluyinka Ojedokun

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Research efforts have been directed at understanding the relationship between quality of work life and organisational commitment, but these studies have not elucidated the mediating role of perceived external prestige in this relationship.Research purpose: This research seeks to close a research gap by determining the role of perceived external prestige in the relationship between quality of work life and organisational commitment amongst public sector employees in Ghana.Research approach, design and method: Theoretically guided hypotheses and models were formulated and tested with hierarchical multiple regression statistics using data from a sample of 137 employees from two public sector organisations in Ghana.Main findings: The results support the hypothesis that quality of work life is positively related to both perceived external prestige and organisational commitment. Also, perceived external prestige was found to predict organisational commitment and partially mediate the relationship between quality of work life and organisational commitment.Practical/managerial implications: The findings imply that one sure way to enhance organisational commitment of employees is by improving their quality of work life and boosting their perceptions of external prestige of the organisation. These results will be of particular interest to policymakers, public organisations and stakeholders interested in increasing organisational commitment of their employees.Contribution/value-add: The findings extend previous research by establishing the mediating role of perceived external prestige in the relationship between quality of work life and organisational commitment. If managers of organisations wish to improve organisational commitment, it is wise to institutionalise an organisational culture that promotes good quality of work life and boost the external prestige of the organisation in the employees’ mind.

  12. news interview talk: Organisational properties

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    language practices that govern the organisation of news interview talk ..... second principle - that of recipient design - stipulates that a descriptive item must be ..... design language activities for South African business-news interviewer trainees.

  13. In Pursuit of Organisational Renewal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Brian Vejrum

    that we need to see change as an ongoing phenomenon, which organisations must embrace, rather than a one-off initia-tive, which they hold at arm’s length. Overall our understanding of organisations has arguably suffered under a preoccupation with either micro-level behaviour of individuals or macro......Every time we open a newspaper we are confirmed in the belief that organisations are faced by increas-ingly knowledge intensive realities. More often than not, these reports tell us how companies are strug-gling with issues related to operating on an competitive stage, which is characterised...... by increasing de-mands for flexibility, innovation and constant improvement, and at the same time by diminishing cost and response time. The response has come in many forms related to management style, organisational form, outsourcing, competence, and work itself. How to act within these contingencies...

  14. The Strategic Process in Organisations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lene; Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui

    1999-01-01

    Organisational strategy development is often conceptualised through methodological frameworks. In this paper strategy development is seen as a strategic process characterised by inherent contradictions between actors, OR methods and the problem situation. The paper presents the dimensions...

  15. Fractal image perception provides novel insights into hierarchical cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, M J; Fischmeister, F P; Puig-Waldmüller, E; Oh, J; Geissler, A; Robinson, S; Fitch, W T; Beisteiner, R

    2014-08-01

    Hierarchical structures play a central role in many aspects of human cognition, prominently including both language and music. In this study we addressed hierarchy in the visual domain, using a novel paradigm based on fractal images. Fractals are self-similar patterns generated by repeating the same simple rule at multiple hierarchical levels. Our hypothesis was that the brain uses different resources for processing hierarchies depending on whether it applies a "fractal" or a "non-fractal" cognitive strategy. We analyzed the neural circuits activated by these complex hierarchical patterns in an event-related fMRI study of 40 healthy subjects. Brain activation was compared across three different tasks: a similarity task, and two hierarchical tasks in which subjects were asked to recognize the repetition of a rule operating transformations either within an existing hierarchical level, or generating new hierarchical levels. Similar hierarchical images were generated by both rules and target images were identical. We found that when processing visual hierarchies, engagement in both hierarchical tasks activated the visual dorsal stream (occipito-parietal cortex, intraparietal sulcus and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex). In addition, the level-generating task specifically activated circuits related to the integration of spatial and categorical information, and with the integration of items in contexts (posterior cingulate cortex, retrosplenial cortex, and medial, ventral and anterior regions of temporal cortex). These findings provide interesting new clues about the cognitive mechanisms involved in the generation of new hierarchical levels as required for fractals.

  16. Cemeteries - organisation, management and innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjøller, Christian Philip

    and due to frequent ad hoc approaches. The new tool represents a divergent change of current practices, and implementation is subsequently ambiguous, with adaptations of both tool and organisations. The tool is however addressing aspects of emerging challenges in the field of cemetery administrations...... and thus likely to be part of future innovation and learning processes. Study findings contribute to the field of Danish cemeteries, as well as the knowledge base on cemeteries, public green spaces and of organisational change....

  17. Voluntary organisation and adult education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konrad Elsdon

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The author starts by offering a definition of voluntary organisations. He then discusses their importance and role, focusing on the issue of adult education wi­ thin these organisations. He also wells upon learning and change of voluntary organisation members, making use of the results of a study he conducted together with his collaborators. One of their fin­dings has been that voluntary organisati­ons, due to their organisational targets li­ke painting, singing or caring for people in need, lead their members to learning, i.e. essentially content learning. Moreo­ver, voluntary organisations offer a fair number of opportunities for social lear­ning and change. ln spite of the fact that the respondents were mostly not aware of the outcomes of their learning and change, careful listeners conducting the interview made them understand the im­portance of the learning they had gone through. The author concludes by poin­ ting out that formal education of adults can get its inspiration in learning in voluntary organisations. On the other hand, such learning would benefit greatly from findings and methods of formal education of adults.

  18. On the geostatistical characterization of hierarchical media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuman, Shlomo P.; Riva, Monica; Guadagnini, Alberto

    2008-02-01

    The subsurface consists of porous and fractured materials exhibiting a hierarchical geologic structure, which gives rise to systematic and random spatial and directional variations in hydraulic and transport properties on a multiplicity of scales. Traditional geostatistical moment analysis allows one to infer the spatial covariance structure of such hierarchical, multiscale geologic materials on the basis of numerous measurements on a given support scale across a domain or "window" of a given length scale. The resultant sample variogram often appears to fit a stationary variogram model with constant variance (sill) and integral (spatial correlation) scale. In fact, some authors, who recognize that hierarchical sedimentary architecture and associated log hydraulic conductivity fields tend to be nonstationary, nevertheless associate them with stationary "exponential-like" transition probabilities and variograms, respectively, the latter being a consequence of the former. We propose that (1) the apparent ability of stationary spatial statistics to characterize the covariance structure of nonstationary hierarchical media is an artifact stemming from the finite size of the windows within which geologic and hydrologic variables are ubiquitously sampled, and (2) the artifact is eliminated upon characterizing the covariance structure of such media with the aid of truncated power variograms, which represent stationary random fields obtained upon sampling a nonstationary fractal over finite windows. To support our opinion, we note that truncated power variograms arise formally when a hierarchical medium is sampled jointly across all geologic categories and scales within a window; cite direct evidence that geostatistical parameters (variance and integral scale) inferred on the basis of traditional variograms vary systematically with support and window scales; demonstrate the ability of truncated power models to capture these variations in terms of a few scaling parameters

  19. A hierarchical approach to forest landscape pattern characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jialing; Yang, Xiaojun

    2012-01-01

    Landscape spatial patterns have increasingly been considered to be essential for environmental planning and resources management. In this study, we proposed a hierarchical approach for landscape classification and evaluation by characterizing landscape spatial patterns across different hierarchical levels. The case study site is the Red Hills region of northern Florida and southwestern Georgia, well known for its biodiversity, historic resources, and scenic beauty. We used one Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper image to extract land-use/-cover information. Then, we employed principal-component analysis to help identify key class-level landscape metrics for forests at different hierarchical levels, namely, open pine, upland pine, and forest as a whole. We found that the key class-level landscape metrics varied across different hierarchical levels. Compared with forest as a whole, open pine forest is much more fragmented. The landscape metric, such as CONTIG_MN, which measures whether pine patches are contiguous or not, is more important to characterize the spatial pattern of pine forest than to forest as a whole. This suggests that different metric sets should be used to characterize landscape patterns at different hierarchical levels. We further used these key metrics, along with the total class area, to classify and evaluate subwatersheds through cluster analysis. This study demonstrates a promising approach that can be used to integrate spatial patterns and processes for hierarchical forest landscape planning and management.

  20. Towards a hierarchical optimization modeling framework for the evaluation and construction of spatially targeted incentive policies to promote green infrastructure (GI) amidst budgetary, compliance and GI-effectiveness uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background:Bilevel optimization has been recognized as a 2-player Stackelberg game where players are represented as leaders and followers and each pursue their own set of objectives. Hierarchical optimization problems, which are a generalization of bilevel, are especially difficu...

  1. Parallel hierarchical radiosity rendering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, M.

    1993-07-01

    In this dissertation, the step-by-step development of a scalable parallel hierarchical radiosity renderer is documented. First, a new look is taken at the traditional radiosity equation, and a new form is presented in which the matrix of linear system coefficients is transformed into a symmetric matrix, thereby simplifying the problem and enabling a new solution technique to be applied. Next, the state-of-the-art hierarchical radiosity methods are examined for their suitability to parallel implementation, and scalability. Significant enhancements are also discovered which both improve their theoretical foundations and improve the images they generate. The resultant hierarchical radiosity algorithm is then examined for sources of parallelism, and for an architectural mapping. Several architectural mappings are discussed. A few key algorithmic changes are suggested during the process of making the algorithm parallel. Next, the performance, efficiency, and scalability of the algorithm are analyzed. The dissertation closes with a discussion of several ideas which have the potential to further enhance the hierarchical radiosity method, or provide an entirely new forum for the application of hierarchical methods.

  2. From Digital Administration to Organisational Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkjaer, Bente

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To explore whether deliberate organisational change of a public sector organisation (a local municipality) would create an avenue for organisational learning. Design/methodology/approach: A case study was set up to study the means by which the organisational change towards a digital administration was to come about. The organisational…

  3. Joining Forces: Working with Spirituality in Organisations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Robin; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Includes "Joining Forces" (Lindamood); "Spiritual Dimension of the Learning Organisation" (Hawkins); "Management--A 'Spiritual' Foundation?" (Nevard); "Hermit in Organisations" (Murray); "Towards a Spiritual Perspective on Behavior at Work" (Henson); "On Uncertainty" (Adlam); "Spirituality in Organisations" (Lee); "Ecological Organisation" (Conn);…

  4. Neutrosophic Hierarchical Clustering Algoritms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rıdvan Şahin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Interval neutrosophic set (INS is a generalization of interval valued intuitionistic fuzzy set (IVIFS, whose the membership and non-membership values of elements consist of fuzzy range, while single valued neutrosophic set (SVNS is regarded as extension of intuitionistic fuzzy set (IFS. In this paper, we extend the hierarchical clustering techniques proposed for IFSs and IVIFSs to SVNSs and INSs respectively. Based on the traditional hierarchical clustering procedure, the single valued neutrosophic aggregation operator, and the basic distance measures between SVNSs, we define a single valued neutrosophic hierarchical clustering algorithm for clustering SVNSs. Then we extend the algorithm to classify an interval neutrosophic data. Finally, we present some numerical examples in order to show the effectiveness and availability of the developed clustering algorithms.

  5. The effect of organisational context on organisational development (OD interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjana Brijball Parumasur

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Systematic and congruent organisational structures, systems, strategies and designs are necessary for the successful implementation of organisational development (OD interventions.Research purpose: This article examines national and international OD practices. It assesses the effect of diverse cultures and cultural values for determining the effectiveness of OD interventions.Motivation for the study: Most organisational change and development programmes fail and only a few result in increased competitiveness, improvements and profitability. This emphasises the need for change interventions to give sufficient attention to leadership, cultures, managing change and adopting context-based OD interventions.Research design, approach and method: This article is a literature review of the current trends and research in the area of OD interventions. It synthesises the influence that cultures and cultural orientations have on determining which OD intervention strategies organisations should adopt in different cultures.Main findings: The analysis emphasises how important it is to achieve congruence between the OD interventions organisations select and their local cultures.Practical/managerial implications: It is important to note the evolving nature of the political and economic climates that influence national cultures and that they emphasise that interventions that reflect OD values, which are tailor-made and shaped to the needs of local cultures, are necessary.Contribution/value-add: This study links various OD interventions to Hofstede’s dimensions for differentiating national cultures. It provides guidelines for aligning the practices and techniques of OD to the values and cultures of the organisations and societies in which they are to be implemented.

  6. Hierarchical modelling of small area and hospital variation in short-term prognosis after acute myocardial infarction. A longitudinal study of 35- to 74-year-old men in Denmark between 1978 and 1997

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Søren

    2004-01-01

    acute myocardial infarction; covariance pattern; deviance information criterion; hierarchical modelling; Markov chain Monte Carlo methods; spatial models......acute myocardial infarction; covariance pattern; deviance information criterion; hierarchical modelling; Markov chain Monte Carlo methods; spatial models...

  7. Constructing professional and organisational fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurney, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to fill an apparent gap in the literature addressing issues of leadership and change - the development and activities of constructing and leading sports sciences and medicine professions, and similarly, the construction and leadership of multidisciplinary/inter-disciplinary organisations that practice sports sciences and medicine. Design/methodology/approach - This study incorporated explorations through conducting both interviews and survey questionnaires with members of Sports Medicine Australia (SMA). The interviews (qualitative) were semi-structured and asked questions addressing what changed, why change and how change was implemented. Findings - The health sciences and medicine professions moving to specialised sports sciences and medicine disciplines and SMA, evolved through forces driving the need for change (legitimacy, resource dependency, positioning and core competencies). Practical implications - The knowledge developed from understanding activities of change that traditional professions conducted to become specialised Disciplines and parallel changes in a single Discipline organisation evolving to an umbrella organisation (SMA), comprised a membership of specialised Disciplines, can act as a catalyst for inquiry by other professional and organisational groups. Originality/value - The findings of this study contributes to the literature investigating change in professional and organisations fields. More specifically, this study promotes inquiry into leadership practices of sports sciences and medicine, as contributors to the field of health services.

  8. Hospital transformation and organisational learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, W

    1999-12-01

    Kwong Wah Hospital was founded by the charity organisation Tung Wah Group of Hospitals some 88 years ago, with management transfer to the Hong Kong Hospital Authority in 1991. Capitalizing both from the traditional caring culture of its founder, as well as opportunities in the new management environment, the hospital has scored remarkable successes in service quality, community partnership, organisational effectiveness, and staff development. Underpinning these transformations were Structure, Process, People, and Culture strategies. The learning imperative is heavily mandated or the success of each of these strands of development. Indeed, the embodiment of a learning organisation culture provides the impetus in sustaining the change momentum, towards achieving the Vision of becoming a 'Most Preferred Hospital' in Hong Kong.

  9. Hierarchical Porous Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grote, Christopher John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-07

    Materials Design is often at the forefront of technological innovation. While there has always been a push to generate increasingly low density materials, such as aero or hydrogels, more recently the idea of bicontinuous structures has gone more into play. This review will cover some of the methods and applications for generating both porous, and hierarchically porous structures.

  10. PREFACE: Scientific Organising Committee Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Edited by: Oliver Roberts Lorraine Hanlon Sheila McBreen Local Organising Committee: Oliver Roberts (Chair) Antonio Martin-Carrillo Lorraine Hanlon Sheila McBreen Alexey Uliyanov David Murphy Sinéad Hales Scientific Organising Committee:: Sheila McBreen, (UCD, Ireland) (Chair) Franco Camera (INFN-Milano, Italy) Nerine Cherepy (LLNL, USA) Jarek Glodo (RMD, USA) Lorraine Hanlon (UCD, Ireland) Paul Lecoq (CERN, Switzerland) Julie McEnery (NASA, USA) Oliver Roberts (UCD, Ireland) Anant Setlur, (GE, USA) Brian Shortt, (ESA, the Netherlands) Kenneth Stanton (UCD, Ireland)

  11. Organisational Diversity and Knowledge Sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauring, Jakob; Jonasson, Charlotte

    segments. But a substantial critique has recently been launched at the arguments for the business case for diversity, especially in the employment of knowledge synergies. Most studies that support or reject the business case argument have limited their research to establish a link between organisational...... productivity and diversity management - that is not engaging in a discussion of how and why there could be potential benefits or difficulties. In this paper we will describe and analyse some of the complications multicultural organisations can experience in regard to knowledge sharing...

  12. Environmental health organisations against tobacco.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mulcahy, Maurice

    2009-04-01

    Implementing the World Health Organisation (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) relies heavily on enforcement. Little is known of the way different enforcement agencies operate, prioritise or network. A questionnaire was sent to representatives of the International Federation of Environmental Health (IFEH) in 36 countries. Tobacco control was given low priority. Almost two thirds did not have any tobacco control policy. A third reported their organisation had worked with other agencies on tobacco control. Obstacles to addressing tobacco control included a lack of resources (61%) and absence of a coherent strategy (39%).

  13. L’organisation sociale et spatiale des minorités sexuelles à Mexico. Construction d’une économie culturelle au cours du XXème siècle

    OpenAIRE

    Boivin, Renaud René

    2014-01-01

    Au travers d’œuvres littéraires, mémoires, biographies, documents d’archives et d’entretiens d’hommes homosexuels, l’article expose les changements historiques survenus dans la distribution géographique et sociale des espaces de socialisation et de rencontre entre hommes au cours du XXème siècle dans la ville de Mexico. Il dépeint le processus de spécialisation identitaire des établissements commerciaux, fruit d’un double déplacement, à la fois spatial et symbolique, qui va transformer les mo...

  14. Stupid Organisation - How will you ever learn?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elkjær, Bente

    2005-01-01

     The question derives from a research project in which I explored whether a deliberate change process in an organisation would lead to organisational learning. The idea was to see whether it was possible to depict the unfolding of organisational learning processes in the turmoil of change...... in an organisation. If this is the case we may be able to provide clues as to how to deliberately support organisational processes of learning. The study was a case study of a local municipality in Denmark that was pursuing a change from a conventional to a digitalised organisation. The theoretical approach...... was to see whether a pragmatic understanding of learning and organising could open up the organisational learning process. The work took me to a conclusion in which I point to the value of tensions in organisations. It also made me stress the necessity of an awareness of tensions being bridgeable...

  15. Positioning intermediary organisations in innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lente, van H.; Boon, W.P.C.; Klerkx, L.W.A.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: Intermediary organisations are important in innovation systems and their contributions seem to increase. The central ambition of this paper is to understand and analyse the position of intermediaries within innovation networks. We use so-called positioning theory, where roles are outcomes

  16. Organisational change. Grace under fire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Helen; Parker, Helen

    2006-12-14

    The success of organisational change is often thwarted by leaders' failure to consider staff feelings. Managers must communicate a clear vision for the future, even though they may be facing great professional uncertainty themselves. It is important to deal with post-merger issues such as helping staff to new roles and 'unlearning' old ways.

  17. The Organisation as Artist's Palette

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnugg, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    The article considers the many possibilities of bringing the arts into organisations to keep up with the demands of an uncertain and fast-changing environment. It discusses cases of arts-based interventions in companies that reflect the different kinds of arts-based interventions that can be found...

  18. Collaborative Hierarchical Sparse Modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Sprechmann, Pablo; Sapiro, Guillermo; Eldar, Yonina C

    2010-01-01

    Sparse modeling is a powerful framework for data analysis and processing. Traditionally, encoding in this framework is done by solving an l_1-regularized linear regression problem, usually called Lasso. In this work we first combine the sparsity-inducing property of the Lasso model, at the individual feature level, with the block-sparsity property of the group Lasso model, where sparse groups of features are jointly encoded, obtaining a sparsity pattern hierarchically structured. This results in the hierarchical Lasso, which shows important practical modeling advantages. We then extend this approach to the collaborative case, where a set of simultaneously coded signals share the same sparsity pattern at the higher (group) level but not necessarily at the lower one. Signals then share the same active groups, or classes, but not necessarily the same active set. This is very well suited for applications such as source separation. An efficient optimization procedure, which guarantees convergence to the global opt...

  19. Hierarchical manifold learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Kanwal K; Rao, Anil; Price, Anthony N; Wolz, Robin; Hajnal, Jo; Rueckert, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    We present a novel method of hierarchical manifold learning which aims to automatically discover regional variations within images. This involves constructing manifolds in a hierarchy of image patches of increasing granularity, while ensuring consistency between hierarchy levels. We demonstrate its utility in two very different settings: (1) to learn the regional correlations in motion within a sequence of time-resolved images of the thoracic cavity; (2) to find discriminative regions of 3D brain images in the classification of neurodegenerative disease,

  20. Hierarchically Structured Electrospun Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole E. Zander

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional electrospun nanofibers have a myriad of applications ranging from scaffolds for tissue engineering to components of biosensors and energy harvesting devices. The generally smooth one-dimensional structure of the fibers has stood as a limitation to several interesting novel applications. Control of fiber diameter, porosity and collector geometry will be briefly discussed, as will more traditional methods for controlling fiber morphology and fiber mat architecture. The remainder of the review will focus on new techniques to prepare hierarchically structured fibers. Fibers with hierarchical primary structures—including helical, buckled, and beads-on-a-string fibers, as well as fibers with secondary structures, such as nanopores, nanopillars, nanorods, and internally structured fibers and their applications—will be discussed. These new materials with helical/buckled morphology are expected to possess unique optical and mechanical properties with possible applications for negative refractive index materials, highly stretchable/high-tensile-strength materials, and components in microelectromechanical devices. Core-shell type fibers enable a much wider variety of materials to be electrospun and are expected to be widely applied in the sensing, drug delivery/controlled release fields, and in the encapsulation of live cells for biological applications. Materials with a hierarchical secondary structure are expected to provide new superhydrophobic and self-cleaning materials.

  1. HDS: Hierarchical Data System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Dave; Walter, Anton; Lupton, W. F.; Warren-Smith, Rodney F.; Lawden, Mike; McIlwrath, Brian; Peden, J. C. M.; Jenness, Tim; Draper, Peter W.

    2015-02-01

    The Hierarchical Data System (HDS) is a file-based hierarchical data system designed for the storage of a wide variety of information. It is particularly suited to the storage of large multi-dimensional arrays (with their ancillary data) where efficient access is needed. It is a key component of the Starlink software collection (ascl:1110.012) and is used by the Starlink N-Dimensional Data Format (NDF) library (ascl:1411.023). HDS organizes data into hierarchies, broadly similar to the directory structure of a hierarchical filing system, but contained within a single HDS container file. The structures stored in these files are self-describing and flexible; HDS supports modification and extension of structures previously created, as well as functions such as deletion, copying, and renaming. All information stored in HDS files is portable between the machines on which HDS is implemented. Thus, there are no format conversion problems when moving between machines. HDS can write files in a private binary format (version 4), or be layered on top of HDF5 (version 5).

  2. Hierarchical video summarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratakonda, Krishna; Sezan, M. Ibrahim; Crinon, Regis J.

    1998-12-01

    We address the problem of key-frame summarization of vide in the absence of any a priori information about its content. This is a common problem that is encountered in home videos. We propose a hierarchical key-frame summarization algorithm where a coarse-to-fine key-frame summary is generated. A hierarchical key-frame summary facilitates multi-level browsing where the user can quickly discover the content of the video by accessing its coarsest but most compact summary and then view a desired segment of the video with increasingly more detail. At the finest level, the summary is generated on the basis of color features of video frames, using an extension of a recently proposed key-frame extraction algorithm. The finest level key-frames are recursively clustered using a novel pairwise K-means clustering approach with temporal consecutiveness constraint. We also address summarization of MPEG-2 compressed video without fully decoding the bitstream. We also propose efficient mechanisms that facilitate decoding the video when the hierarchical summary is utilized in browsing and playback of video segments starting at selected key-frames.

  3. Relating structure and dynamics in organisation models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonkers, C.M.; Treur, J.

    To understand how an organisational structure relates to dynamics is an interesting fundamental challenge in the area of social modelling. Specifications of organisational structure usually have a diagrammatic form that abstracts from more detailed dynamics. Dynamic properties of agent systems,

  4. Organisational change management and workers' behaviour: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Organisational change management and workers' behaviour: A critical review. ... Employees' resistance to change has been identified as a critical contributor to ... behaviour within the workplace and how organisations can manage change

  5. Organisation of high-energy physics

    CERN Document Server

    Kluyver, J C

    1981-01-01

    Tabulates details of major accelerator laboratories in western Europe, USA, and USSR, and describes the various organisations concerned with high-energy physics. The Dutch organisation uses the NIKHEF laboratory in Amsterdam and cooperates with CERN. (0 refs).

  6. Organisational learning as movements in practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elkjær, Bente

    2013-01-01

    In the paper, I take the readers through a tour de force of the past, present and future of the field of organisational learning. This is structured around three concepts that stand out as important, namely organisational learning as changed behaviour, as changed theories of actions and as part...... of practice. I also point to the future of organisational learning as inspired by the work of pragmatist philosophy and as affected by the call for more concreteness in organisation studies as a whole....

  7. Toward a systemic theory of organisational change

    OpenAIRE

    Ellis, R. K.

    2002-01-01

    Change is the subject matter for this thesis which reports on a research programme that has investigated the issue of effective and sustainable organisational change. Organisational change possesses an almost obsessive interest for many organisational and behavioural scholars. Nevertheless, it has been observed that a majority of organisational change initiatives fail, or fail to realise the promise intended by the managers who institute such programmes. This research programme, and the assoc...

  8. Effective Diagnosis in Organisation Change Management

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed Hassin

    2014-01-01

    Organisations are part of interactive and dynamic environments and modern organisations face considerable pressure to meet or exceed customer/ beneficiary’s and stakeholders’ expectations. The key to establishing effective change and transformation in organisations lies in the early stages of assessment and diagnosis: if diagnosis is wrong, treatment will be ineffective. An organisation development programme should be based on a sound analysis of relevant data about the problem situation, and...

  9. Public concern about serious organised crime

    OpenAIRE

    Bullock, K.; Leeney, D

    2012-01-01

    The 2011 cross-government Organised Crime Strategy (Home Office, 2011) emphasises the need for community safety practitioners to provide information to help citizens recognise when they may be vulnerable to serious organised crime so that they might take steps to prevent victimisation and the need for the state response to serious organised crime to be supported by local communities. Drawing on focus group data, this article examines the nature of public concern about serious organised crime;...

  10. Organisational learning as movements in practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elkjær, Bente

    2013-01-01

    In the paper, I take the readers through a tour de force of the past, present and future of the field of organisational learning. This is structured around three concepts that stand out as important, namely organisational learning as changed behaviour, as changed theories of actions and as part...... of practice. I also point to the future of organisational learning as inspired by the work of pragmatist philosophy and as affected by the call for more concreteness in organisation studies as a whole....

  11. Seeing Like an International Organisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broome, André; Seabrooke, Leonard

    2012-01-01

    International organisations (IOs) often serve as the ‘engine room’ of ideas for structural reforms at the national level, but how do IOs construct cognitive authority over the forms, processes and prescriptions for institutional change in their member states? Exploring the analytic institutions...... created by IOs provides insights into how they make their member states ‘legible’ and how greater legibility enables them to construct cognitive authority in specific policy areas, which, in turn, enhances their capacity to influence changes in national frameworks for economic and social governance...... and organisational environment that guides an IO's actions and informs its policy advice to states, which enables a more comprehensive picture of how the everyday business of global governance works in practice. Instead of ‘black boxing’ IOs, the contributors to this special issue demonstrate how studying IOs from...

  12. Coordination Processes in International Organisations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedergaard, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The EU is not a member of the International Labour Organisation (ILO), but relatively elaborate EU coordination takes place anyway. This paper addresses two research questions: 1) How is it possible to evaluate the coordination of the EU in its specific observable configuration in the ILO?, and 2......) To what outcome does this coordination lead and why? Based on an analysis of EU coordination before and during the International Labour Conference in 2005, and on a comparison with coordination processes of the IMEC group, it is found that the Commission and the Presidency act as twin-agents vis...... by the principals. On the other hand, both before and during the Conference, the Member States accept the so-called discursive coordination of the Commission, which seems to be of great (but often neglected) importance. Owing to the organisational set-up in which coordination takes place, the EU is able...

  13. Cryogenic safety organisation at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    With Safety being a top priority of CERN’s general policy, the Organisation defines and implements a Policy that sets out the general principles governing Safety at CERN. To the end of the attainment of said Safety objectives, the organic units (owners/users of the equipment) are assigned the responsibility for the implementation of the CERN Safety Policy at all levels of the organization, whereas the Health and Safety and Environmental Protection Unit (HSE) has the role of providing assistance for the implementation of the Safety Policy, and a monitoring role related to the implementation of continuous improvement of Safety, compliance with the Safety Rules and the handling of emergency situations. This talk will elaborate on the roles, responsibilities and organisational structure of the different stakeholders within the Organization with regards to Safety, and in particular to cryogenic safety. The roles of actors of particular importance such as the Cryogenic Safety Officers (CSOs) and the Cryogenic Sa...

  14. Organising purchasing and (strategic) sourcing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidegaard, Nina; Boer, Harry; Munkgaard Møller, Morten

    2015-01-01

    mature role in corporate strategy. These changes have serious implications for the purchasing process, its characteristics and organisation. Previous research indicates that none of the prevailing solutions, functional departments and cross-functional teams, embedded in a centralised, decentralised......The role of purchasing has changed over the past two to three decades. The focus is no longer limited to purchasing manufacturing inputs, but also includes sourcing of innovations from, and even co-developing technologies together with, suppliers. Furthermore, purchasing has obtained a much more...... or hybrid overall structure, deliver the expected results. Contingency theory predicts that the success of a firm depends on the fit among characteristics of, amongst others, the firm’s processes and organisational structure. The objective of this paper is to propose and illustrate a processbased...

  15. LES APPROCHES PSYCHOSOCIOLOGIQUES DES ORGANISATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deaconu Alecxandrina

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Les préoccupations pour bien comprendre la complexité des organisations sont bien connues dans la théorie et la pratique du management. La motivation la plus fréquente pour toutes les recherches et les investigationes faites a été fondée sur le besoin de savoir gérer les situations diverses en vue de maximiser la performance organisationnelle. En ce qui nous concerne, pour enrichir les informations disponibles, nous voulons élargir, dans notre communication, les approches traditionelles, focaliser l’attention sur la dimension psychologiques des organisations et présenter les mécanismes qui favorisent l’implication des salariés.

  16. Understanding bullying in healthcare organisations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Belinda

    2015-12-02

    Bullying is a pervasive problem in healthcare organisations. Inquiries and reports on patient care and poor practice in the NHS have emphasised the substantial negative effects this behaviour may have on patient care. If bullying is to be addressed, it is crucial we develop clarity about what behaviours constitute bullying and how these behaviours differ from other negative behaviours in the workplace. It is important that we recognise the extent of the problem; statistics on the prevalence of bullying are likely to be an underestimate because of under-reporting of bullying. Effective interventions may only be designed and implemented if there is knowledge about what precipitates bullying and the magnitude of the changes required in organisations to tackle bullying. Individuals should also be aware of the options that are available to them should they be the target of bullying behaviour and what they should do if they witness bullying in their workplace.

  17. Spreadsheet Risk Management in Organisations

    CERN Document Server

    Rittweger, Ben G

    2010-01-01

    The paper examines in the context of financial reporting, the controls that organisations have in place to manage spreadsheet risk and errors. There has been widespread research conducted in this area, both in Ireland and internationally. This paper describes a study involving 19 participants (2 case studies and 17 by survey) from Ireland. Three areas are examined; firstly, the extent of spreadsheet usage, secondly, the level of complexity employed in spreadsheets, and finally, the controls in place regarding spreadsheets. The findings support previous findings of Panko (1998), that errors occur frequently in spreadsheets and that there is little or unenforced controls employed, however this research finds that attitudes are changing with regard to spreadsheet risk and that one organisation is implementing a comprehensive project regarding policies on the development and control of spreadsheets. Further research could be undertaken in the future to examine the development of a "best practice model" both for t...

  18. Cemeteries - organisation, management and innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjøller, Christian Philip

    Through the use of qualitative methods and various theoretical perspectives the implementation of maintenance specifications for Danish cemeteries is analysed and in parallel the cemeteries are described and characterised. Cemeteries and their management is complex due to the duality of the servi...... and thus likely to be part of future innovation and learning processes. Study findings contribute to the field of Danish cemeteries, as well as the knowledge base on cemeteries, public green spaces and of organisational change....... and due to frequent ad hoc approaches. The new tool represents a divergent change of current practices, and implementation is subsequently ambiguous, with adaptations of both tool and organisations. The tool is however addressing aspects of emerging challenges in the field of cemetery administrations...

  19. Fractal Analysis Based on Hierarchical Scaling in Complex Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Yanguang

    2016-01-01

    A fractal is in essence a hierarchy with cascade structure, which can be described with a set of exponential functions. From these exponential functions, a set of power laws indicative of scaling can be derived. Hierarchy structure and spatial network proved to be associated with one another. This paper is devoted to exploring the theory of fractal analysis of complex systems by means of hierarchical scaling. Two research methods are utilized to make this study, including logic analysis method and empirical analysis method. The main results are as follows. First, a fractal system such as Cantor set is described from the hierarchical angle of view; based on hierarchical structure, three approaches are proposed to estimate fractal dimension. Second, the hierarchical scaling can be generalized to describe multifractals, fractal complementary sets, and self-similar curve such as logarithmic spiral. Third, complex systems such as urban system are demonstrated to be a self-similar hierarchy. The human settlements i...

  20. Feminine leadership and organisational culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea-Simona Saseanu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available People in general, leaders especially, are influenced by the organisational culture and the other way around. Organisational culture represents a determining factor regarding the display of leadership, since these two processes create each other, adding value and consistency to one another. Moreover, organisational culture can be created and developed in a fluctuant business environment, in which the external factors influence its progress. The development of society has incessantly been emphasized by the relationship between the sexes, by their individual evolution, but also by the interdependency between them. Although there is increasingly more talk about gender equality, in many countries, the social as well as economical chances and opportunities are not equal for women and men. Gradually, women have been through a series of changes related to education, rights and obligations. However, the number of women leaders has always been much lower than the number of men leaders. The personality traits of leaders significantly influence the leadership style and the way in which they are perceived by their subordinates, all this having a major impact on the overall performances of the organisation. In this manner, depending on the gender (masculine/feminine, we can state that one could observe certain personality traits that are characteristic to women and others specific to men, leaving their mark on the leadership method and on the leadership style adopted of each of them. Considering the fact that, in the current turbulent economic environment, certain qualities such as flexibility, intuition, development of communication networks and motivating the employees represent values that are considered to be “feminine”, one can assert that, in this case, gender is an opportunity. However, if we should take into consideration the impact of culture, of certain mentalities and misconceptions that are still present, regarding the woman’s standing in

  1. Spatial aggregations for spatial based decision making in spatial data warehouses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ByeongSeob You; DongWook Lee; SangHun Eo; SookKyung Cho; HaeYoung Bae

    2007-01-01

    For spatial based decision making such as choice of best place to construct a new department store, spatial data warehousing system is required more and more previous spatial data warehousing systems; however, provided decision making of non-spatial data on a map and so those cannot support enough spatial based decision making. The spatial aggregations are proposed for spatial based decision making in spatial data warehouses. The meaning of aggregation operators for applying spatial data was modified and new spatial aggregations were defined. These aggregations can support hierarchical concept of spatial measure. Using these aggregations, the spatial analysis classified by non-spatial data is provided. In case study, how to use these aggregations and how to support spatial based decision making are shown.

  2. Communication in third sector organisations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Durán-Bravo, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Third sector organisations favour the social development due to their capacity to produce human and social capital in society (Putman, 2001. In order to achieve social welfare third sector organisations need to produce a positive change in the relations among individuals, groups and institutions in a society. The expectations about the third sector organisations’ transparency and capacity to tackle social problems are increasing worldwide. In Mexico, this problematic is more complex because there is a low level of professionalism, transparency, accountability and participation culture in the organized civil society (ITAM, 2010. The development of the organized civil society in Mexico will depend to a great extent on its capacity to communicate its values to society and achieve a cultural and social change. Therefore, the third sector organisations must adopt strategic initiatives to reinforce their credibility and reputation, because the public and private donors are increasingly more demanding in their criteria to grant resources to social projects; and because the Mexican society has a low participation level and faces increasingly more complex social problems.

  3. Undertaking industrial land spatial suitability evaluation based on hierarchical fuzzy matter element model%基于层次模糊物元模型的承接产业用地空间适宜评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范树平; 刘友兆; 张红梅; 侯长莉; 常冬寅

    2015-01-01

    It is of vital importance for the central and western regions to distinguish the undertaken industrial types as well as land space layout on the basis of transferring industry, ecological environment and land development strategy. In this paper, Chizhou City, the typical representative of undertaking industrial types, from the perspectives of location quotient and comparative labor productivity, constructs industrial transfer identification model and identifies regional undertaken industrial type. From four criterion layers of natural environment, infrastructure, development degree and development benefit, construct the identification model and the evaluation index system and its city domain and the classical domain;using analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and fuzzy matter element analysis method and mathematical software such as Matlab7.0, Arcgis and Excel, identify the regional industrial types undertaken and evaluate the industrial land development suitability. Research shows that Chizhou City industry location quotient varies from the maximum value of 10.5421 to the minimum value of 0.0315, which demonstrates that the degree of industrial agglomeration is relatively high while the comparative labor productivity is low overall, only 5 types of industry more than 1. Industry location quotient and comparative labor productivity are low, which shows that industrial development difference is small and without obvious hierarchical gradient. According to industry transfer identification model, the Chizhou industry is classified into 4 types, of which the numbers of competitive advantage industry and weak industry respectively reach 12 and 15, and stay out industry and undertaken industry account for only 5 and 2. Based on the advantages of the three core resources, i.e. mineral resource, ecological resource and tourism resource, five categories of industry including mineral mining industry, textile and garment industry, equipment manufacturing industry, wood furniture

  4. Organisering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Poul Bitsch

    2013-01-01

    Organiseringsanalyse er den væsentligste af samtidens analysemetode for ledere og alle der er engagerede i organisationer og erhvervsaktivitet. Her fremlægges organiseringsanalysens baggrund i den amerikanske pragmatisme, og hvorledes den netop udfylder en plads i den mikrosociologiske tradition ...

  5. Roles of perceived exchange quality and organisational identification in predicting turnover intention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Kumar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores whether the perceived quality of the leader–member exchange and the general environment of exchange could predict turnover intention. It further examines the role of organisational identification as an explanatory variable mediating between exchange relationships and turnover intention. The authors used three-step hierarchical linear regressions on a data set collected in two time waves. The results supported the mediating role of organisational identification for the leader–member exchange and turnover intention relationship as well as the general environment of exchange and turnover intention relationship. Moreover, as was expected, the general exchange quality had a greater impact on organisational identification compared to the leader–member exchange quality. However, the findings did not confirm the expected trend in the case of two exchange variables predicting turnover intention.

  6. Data Organisation in Construction – As an Aid to the User

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Nils Lykke; Vogelius, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The basic assumption in this paper is, that it will be possible to organise data in construction in a non-hierarchical way, following the lines of facet-based classification. This involves tagging data in a horizontal rather than a vertical order We have experienced a long and intense discussion...... of how to organise data. At a glance the discussion can seem to be merely technical but indeed it involves a broader perspective regarding different understandings of how to perceive, present and organise knowledge. Actors (consultants – contractors) present solutions that are appropriate in relation...... of powerful computer hardware. Today it seems obvious to take the facet-based approach into consideration, making it possible to specify ordering of data to the users' practice and frame of reference, rather than fixing the structure of data already when they are saved to the system. KEYWORDS: Data...

  7. Detecting Hierarchical Structure in Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herlau, Tue; Mørup, Morten; Schmidt, Mikkel Nørgaard;

    2012-01-01

    a generative Bayesian model that is able to infer whether hierarchies are present or not from a hypothesis space encompassing all types of hierarchical tree structures. For efficient inference we propose a collapsed Gibbs sampling procedure that jointly infers a partition and its hierarchical structure......Many real-world networks exhibit hierarchical organization. Previous models of hierarchies within relational data has focused on binary trees; however, for many networks it is unknown whether there is hierarchical structure, and if there is, a binary tree might not account well for it. We propose....... On synthetic and real data we demonstrate that our model can detect hierarchical structure leading to better link-prediction than competing models. Our model can be used to detect if a network exhibits hierarchical structure, thereby leading to a better comprehension and statistical account the network....

  8. The institutional dynamics of voluntary organisations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Peter

    this theoretical frame to analyse case studies of three voluntary organisations.  As a part of the analysis I describe four sets of institutional settings that can influence voluntary organisations ability to create institutional dynamic: institutionalization, moderation, self-organisation and loose-coupling....... organisations. I establish a theoretical frame of institutional dynamic, build primarily on J.G. March's theory on exploration and exploitation. I focus on two organisational arrangements drawn from the theory: The degree of strategic decision-making and the degree of diversity among the volunteers. I use...

  9. Context updates are hierarchical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Karl Ingason

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This squib studies the order in which elements are added to the shared context of interlocutors in a conversation. It focuses on context updates within one hierarchical structure and argues that structurally higher elements are entered into the context before lower elements, even if the structurally higher elements are pronounced after the lower elements. The crucial data are drawn from a comparison of relative clauses in two head-initial languages, English and Icelandic, and two head-final languages, Korean and Japanese. The findings have consequences for any theory of a dynamic semantics.

  10. An organisational perspective on professionals' learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elkjær, Bente; Brandi, Ulrik

    2014-01-01

    by some of the founding fathers of the field of organisational learning, Chris Argyris and Donald Schön (Argyris & Schön, 1978; 1996: 3), we ask: “what is an organisation that professionals may learn?” We answer this question by introducing three understandings of organisations and the learning theories...... that they are connected with. These are a behavioural, a cognitive and a practice-based perspective on organisational learning respectively. We propose that these lenses on organisations and learning may help us see professionals’ learning as contextualised in both their work practices and their places of work, i......The purpose and contribution of our chapter is to provide a vision for professionals’ learning in the light of the field of organisational learning, and through this lens to incorporate various understandings of the organisational dynamics that professionals work and learn in and through. Inspired...

  11. Hierarchical Bayes Ensemble Kalman Filtering

    CERN Document Server

    Tsyrulnikov, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Ensemble Kalman filtering (EnKF), when applied to high-dimensional systems, suffers from an inevitably small affordable ensemble size, which results in poor estimates of the background error covariance matrix ${\\bf B}$. The common remedy is a kind of regularization, usually an ad-hoc spatial covariance localization (tapering) combined with artificial covariance inflation. Instead of using an ad-hoc regularization, we adopt the idea by Myrseth and Omre (2010) and explicitly admit that the ${\\bf B}$ matrix is unknown and random and estimate it along with the state (${\\bf x}$) in an optimal hierarchical Bayes analysis scheme. We separate forecast errors into predictability errors (i.e. forecast errors due to uncertainties in the initial data) and model errors (forecast errors due to imperfections in the forecast model) and include the two respective components ${\\bf P}$ and ${\\bf Q}$ of the ${\\bf B}$ matrix into the extended control vector $({\\bf x},{\\bf P},{\\bf Q})$. Similarly, we break the traditional backgrou...

  12. Effect of workplace innovation on organisational performance and sickness absence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oeij, P.R.A.; Vaas, F.

    2016-01-01

    Workplace innovation is an organisational capability, defined as a strategic renewal in organising and organisational behaviour. This capability may consist of four resources: strategic orientation, product-market improvement, flexible work and organising smarter. Workplace innovation is

  13. Effect of workplace innovation on organisational performance and sickness absence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oeij, P.R.A.; Vaas, F.

    2016-01-01

    Workplace innovation is an organisational capability, defined as a strategic renewal in organising and organisational behaviour. This capability may consist of four resources: strategic orientation, product-market improvement, flexible work and organising smarter. Workplace innovation is theoretical

  14. Analysis and Optimisation of Hierarchically Scheduled Multiprocessor Embedded Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pop, Traian; Pop, Paul; Eles, Petru;

    2008-01-01

    , they are organised in a hierarchy. In this paper, we first develop a holistic scheduling and schedulability analysis that determines the timing properties of a hierarchically scheduled system. Second, we address design problems that are characteristic to such hierarchically scheduled systems: assignment......We present an approach to the analysis and optimisation of heterogeneous multiprocessor embedded systems. The systems are heterogeneous not only in terms of hardware components, but also in terms of communication protocols and scheduling policies. When several scheduling policies share a resource...... of scheduling policies to tasks, mapping of tasks to hardware components, and the scheduling of the activities. We also present several algorithms for solving these problems. Our heuristics are able to find schedulable implementations under limited resources, achieving an efficient utilisation of the system...

  15. Leadership capacity in two Brazilian regional tourism organisations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valente, Flavio Jose; Dredge, Dianne; Lohmann, Gui

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – This paper examines the leadership practices of two Brazilian regional tourism organisations (RTOs) using an exploratory case study. Design/methodology/approach – The research adopts an embedded case study approach, permitting the comparison of the leadership phenomenon in the ‘‘Instituto....... Findings – Four leadership themes emerged: capacity to produce results, capacity to mobilise followers, articulation and communication of goals and actions, and articulation of roles and responsibilities. The findings are discussed in regards to the hierarchical and market governance structures of the two...... at the speed required by the private sector. The IER is a market-led governance structure and its leadership practices effectively mobilised the private sector. However, it was found to operate in isolation from government and other key tourism stakeholders. Originality/value – This paper draws together...

  16. In Pursuit of Organisational Renewal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Brian Vejrum

    employs three longitudinal case studies, which follow three companies going through deep change, which challenged their capacities to act and learn. This prompted the companies to work with knowledge and learning in several dimensions, related to reflective inquiry, sensing opportunities, and development...... and macro-level outcomes in order to learn about the things that impede or drive the organisation forward. Secondly, a key challenge is related to the linking of distributed knowledge domains, something which demands ef-fective boundary management beyond transactional coordination. Thirdly, it is argued...

  17. Adjacency-preserving spatial treemaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Buchin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Rectangular layouts, subdivisions of an outer rectangle into smaller rectangles, have many applications in visualizing spatial information, for instance in rectangular cartograms in which the rectangles represent geographic or political regions. A spatial treemap is a rectangular layout with a hierarchical structure: the outer rectangle is subdivided into rectangles that are in turn subdivided into smaller rectangles. We describe algorithms for transforming a rectangular layout that does not have this hierarchical structure, together with a clustering of the rectangles of the layout, into a spatial treemap that respects the clustering and also respects to the extent possible the adjacencies of the input layout.

  18. Hierarchical partial order ranking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsen, Lars

    2008-09-01

    Assessing the potential impact on environmental and human health from the production and use of chemicals or from polluted sites involves a multi-criteria evaluation scheme. A priori several parameters are to address, e.g., production tonnage, specific release scenarios, geographical and site-specific factors in addition to various substance dependent parameters. Further socio-economic factors may be taken into consideration. The number of parameters to be included may well appear to be prohibitive for developing a sensible model. The study introduces hierarchical partial order ranking (HPOR) that remedies this problem. By HPOR the original parameters are initially grouped based on their mutual connection and a set of meta-descriptors is derived representing the ranking corresponding to the single groups of descriptors, respectively. A second partial order ranking is carried out based on the meta-descriptors, the final ranking being disclosed though average ranks. An illustrative example on the prioritization of polluted sites is given.

  19. Trees and Hierarchical Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Haeseler, Arndt

    1990-01-01

    The "raison d'etre" of hierarchical dustering theory stems from one basic phe­ nomenon: This is the notorious non-transitivity of similarity relations. In spite of the fact that very often two objects may be quite similar to a third without being that similar to each other, one still wants to dassify objects according to their similarity. This should be achieved by grouping them into a hierarchy of non-overlapping dusters such that any two objects in ~ne duster appear to be more related to each other than they are to objects outside this duster. In everyday life, as well as in essentially every field of scientific investigation, there is an urge to reduce complexity by recognizing and establishing reasonable das­ sification schemes. Unfortunately, this is counterbalanced by the experience of seemingly unavoidable deadlocks caused by the existence of sequences of objects, each comparatively similar to the next, but the last rather different from the first.

  20. Hierarchical Affinity Propagation

    CERN Document Server

    Givoni, Inmar; Frey, Brendan J

    2012-01-01

    Affinity propagation is an exemplar-based clustering algorithm that finds a set of data-points that best exemplify the data, and associates each datapoint with one exemplar. We extend affinity propagation in a principled way to solve the hierarchical clustering problem, which arises in a variety of domains including biology, sensor networks and decision making in operational research. We derive an inference algorithm that operates by propagating information up and down the hierarchy, and is efficient despite the high-order potentials required for the graphical model formulation. We demonstrate that our method outperforms greedy techniques that cluster one layer at a time. We show that on an artificial dataset designed to mimic the HIV-strain mutation dynamics, our method outperforms related methods. For real HIV sequences, where the ground truth is not available, we show our method achieves better results, in terms of the underlying objective function, and show the results correspond meaningfully to geographi...

  1. Optimisation by hierarchical search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zintchenko, Ilia; Hastings, Matthew; Troyer, Matthias

    2015-03-01

    Finding optimal values for a set of variables relative to a cost function gives rise to some of the hardest problems in physics, computer science and applied mathematics. Although often very simple in their formulation, these problems have a complex cost function landscape which prevents currently known algorithms from efficiently finding the global optimum. Countless techniques have been proposed to partially circumvent this problem, but an efficient method is yet to be found. We present a heuristic, general purpose approach to potentially improve the performance of conventional algorithms or special purpose hardware devices by optimising groups of variables in a hierarchical way. We apply this approach to problems in combinatorial optimisation, machine learning and other fields.

  2. Road network safety evaluation using Bayesian hierarchical joint model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Huang, Helai

    2016-05-01

    Safety and efficiency are commonly regarded as two significant performance indicators of transportation systems. In practice, road network planning has focused on road capacity and transport efficiency whereas the safety level of a road network has received little attention in the planning stage. This study develops a Bayesian hierarchical joint model for road network safety evaluation to help planners take traffic safety into account when planning a road network. The proposed model establishes relationships between road network risk and micro-level variables related to road entities and traffic volume, as well as socioeconomic, trip generation and network density variables at macro level which are generally used for long term transportation plans. In addition, network spatial correlation between intersections and their connected road segments is also considered in the model. A road network is elaborately selected in order to compare the proposed hierarchical joint model with a previous joint model and a negative binomial model. According to the results of the model comparison, the hierarchical joint model outperforms the joint model and negative binomial model in terms of the goodness-of-fit and predictive performance, which indicates the reasonableness of considering the hierarchical data structure in crash prediction and analysis. Moreover, both random effects at the TAZ level and the spatial correlation between intersections and their adjacent segments are found to be significant, supporting the employment of the hierarchical joint model as an alternative in road-network-level safety modeling as well.

  3. How hierarchical is language use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Stefan L.; Bod, Rens; Christiansen, Morten H.

    2012-01-01

    It is generally assumed that hierarchical phrase structure plays a central role in human language. However, considerations of simplicity and evolutionary continuity suggest that hierarchical structure should not be invoked too hastily. Indeed, recent neurophysiological, behavioural and computational studies show that sequential sentence structure has considerable explanatory power and that hierarchical processing is often not involved. In this paper, we review evidence from the recent literature supporting the hypothesis that sequential structure may be fundamental to the comprehension, production and acquisition of human language. Moreover, we provide a preliminary sketch outlining a non-hierarchical model of language use and discuss its implications and testable predictions. If linguistic phenomena can be explained by sequential rather than hierarchical structure, this will have considerable impact in a wide range of fields, such as linguistics, ethology, cognitive neuroscience, psychology and computer science. PMID:22977157

  4. How hierarchical is language use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Stefan L; Bod, Rens; Christiansen, Morten H

    2012-11-22

    It is generally assumed that hierarchical phrase structure plays a central role in human language. However, considerations of simplicity and evolutionary continuity suggest that hierarchical structure should not be invoked too hastily. Indeed, recent neurophysiological, behavioural and computational studies show that sequential sentence structure has considerable explanatory power and that hierarchical processing is often not involved. In this paper, we review evidence from the recent literature supporting the hypothesis that sequential structure may be fundamental to the comprehension, production and acquisition of human language. Moreover, we provide a preliminary sketch outlining a non-hierarchical model of language use and discuss its implications and testable predictions. If linguistic phenomena can be explained by sequential rather than hierarchical structure, this will have considerable impact in a wide range of fields, such as linguistics, ethology, cognitive neuroscience, psychology and computer science.

  5. Associative Hierarchical Random Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladický, L'ubor; Russell, Chris; Kohli, Pushmeet; Torr, Philip H S

    2014-06-01

    This paper makes two contributions: the first is the proposal of a new model-The associative hierarchical random field (AHRF), and a novel algorithm for its optimization; the second is the application of this model to the problem of semantic segmentation. Most methods for semantic segmentation are formulated as a labeling problem for variables that might correspond to either pixels or segments such as super-pixels. It is well known that the generation of super pixel segmentations is not unique. This has motivated many researchers to use multiple super pixel segmentations for problems such as semantic segmentation or single view reconstruction. These super-pixels have not yet been combined in a principled manner, this is a difficult problem, as they may overlap, or be nested in such a way that the segmentations form a segmentation tree. Our new hierarchical random field model allows information from all of the multiple segmentations to contribute to a global energy. MAP inference in this model can be performed efficiently using powerful graph cut based move making algorithms. Our framework generalizes much of the previous work based on pixels or segments, and the resulting labelings can be viewed both as a detailed segmentation at the pixel level, or at the other extreme, as a segment selector that pieces together a solution like a jigsaw, selecting the best segments from different segmentations as pieces. We evaluate its performance on some of the most challenging data sets for object class segmentation, and show that this ability to perform inference using multiple overlapping segmentations leads to state-of-the-art results.

  6. Patterns in Biodiversity: Spatial organisation of biodiversity in the Netherland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    A better understanding of biodiversity and its current threats is urgently needed, especially in the Netherlands where high population density, industrialisation, and intensive land-use have radically altered the natural landscape. Often, biodiversity research is seriously hampered by a lack of

  7. Spatial organisation of cell expansion by the cytoskeleton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketelaar, T.

    2002-01-01

    The shape of plants is determined by the sum of cell division and cell growth. The cytoskeleton plays an important role in both processes. This thesis presents research that pinpoints how the cytoskeleton controls plant cell growth. Root hairs of the model plant Arabidopsis have been used as a model

  8. Patterns in Biodiversity: Spatial organisation of biodiversity in the Netherland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    A better understanding of biodiversity and its current threats is urgently needed, especially in the Netherlands where high population density, industrialisation, and intensive land-use have radically altered the natural landscape. Often, biodiversity research is seriously hampered by a lack of data

  9. Internal corporate venturing during organisational change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Annemette L.

    2004-01-01

    Organisations have to deal with increasingly complex and turbulent environments, which demand that they continuously change and adapt to new circumstances or challenges. One way for organisations to cope with these challenges is to manage the strategy-making process in order to ensure...... (Burgelman, 1983b, 2002) and is still a central issue in the strategic management discourse. It is generally acknowledged that continuous change is important for organisations' survival in a changing world. On the other hand the need for stability and continuity in form of a clear and strong corporate...... the question of how organisational actors' perception of organisational identity influences the strategy-making process during organisational change. The study adopts an evolutionary approach to the unfolding of the strategy-making process, using the variation-selection-retention framework of cultural...

  10. Organisational Change, Health and the Labour Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhatti, Yosef; Gørtz, Mette; Holm Pedersen, Lene

    This research examines the effects of organisational change on employee health and labour market outcomes. Previous studies looking into organisational change in the private sector indicate that the larger the size and depth of organisational change, the larger the detrimental consequences...... to the employees. This study contributes to the literature on four main dimensions. First, we extend the analysis of organisational change to a public sector setting. Second, while previous findings remain inconclusive regarding causal effects due to problems of endogeneity, our analysis contributes to research...... of causal effects of organisational change by exploiting a large scale public sector reform which can be considered as a quasi-experiment. Third, given that the reform was exogenous and implemented simultaneously in a number of Danish municipalities, we also have an objective measure of organisational...

  11. Organisational Change, Health and the Labour Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhatti, Yosef; Gørtz, Mette; Holm Pedersen, Lene

    This research examines the effects of organisational change on employee health and labour market outcomes. Previous studies looking into organisational change in the private sector indicate that the larger the size and depth of organisational change, the larger the detrimental consequences...... of causal effects of organisational change by exploiting a large scale public sector reform which can be considered as a quasi-experiment. Third, given that the reform was exogenous and implemented simultaneously in a number of Danish municipalities, we also have an objective measure of organisational...... change. And fourth, we have access to objective measures of health outcomes from register data. The results show that the effects of organisational change on health outcomes are limited and heterogeneous. Change per se does not necessarily lead to worsened employee outcomes. However, the degree...

  12. Business continuity management in international organisations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamou, Christel

    2014-01-01

    In the area of business continuity management, a preliminary review of the literature reveals extensive knowledge, expertise and experience concerning organisations in the private and public sectors. It is interesting to note, however, that there is little literature about business continuity management in international organisations, although these entities are complex and particularly prone to threats. This apparent absence of literature suggests that business continuity management has not yet hit the agenda of international organisations. In recent years, member states have encouraged senior management to design and implement business continuity strategies to minimise the mishandling of an internal crisis and build organisational resilience, but very few of them have actually been able to design and implement comprehensive business continuity programmes. Based on actual experience working in international organisations, this paper outlines some of the challenges faced by international organisations in developing and implementing business continuity activities and attempts to make suggestions for further improvement.

  13. The environmental dimension in the organisational sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Pontes, Vera; Fonseca,Ana

    2008-01-01

    The concept of Sustainable Development in organisational context implies the integration of environmental and social concerns in company’s business operations. The main purpose of this work was to analyse published Sustainability Reports to evaluate the importance of the environmental dimension on the global sustainability strategy of Portuguese organisations. As main conclusions, the environmental dimension was found to be relevant in the management of Organisational Sustainabili...

  14. Reducing workplace bullying in healthcare organisations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randle, Jacqueline; Stevenson, Keith; Grayling, Ian

    Workplace bullying in the NHS is an important issue that is growing in significance as it becomes clear that bullying is not just a personal matter but also an organisational one. It may be that healthcare organisations, such as the NHS, foster or sustain workplace bullying. This article provides an overview of the key issues in workplace bullying and suggests individual, team and organisational solutions to reduce its incidence.

  15. The role of emotional intelligence and organisational support on work stress of nurses in Ibadan, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abiodun M. Lawal

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Universally, nurses have been reported to be a group at high risk of workplace stress. However, nurses’ responses to stressful situations at work could be the outcomes of individual differences and organisational factors.Objectives: We examined the independent and joint contributions of four dimensions of emotional intelligence and perceived organisational support in work stress of nurses in a teaching hospital in Nigeria.Methods: The study was a cross-sectional survey research design, which selected 228 (41 male and 187 female nurses nurses through the use of convenience sampling. Questionnaires comprising demographics with work stress, organisational support and emotional intelligence scales were administered to the sampled 228 nurses in the study. Data were analysed with the use of correlational matrix and hierarchical multiple regression.Results: Self-emotion appraisal, others’ emotion appraisal, use of emotion, regulation of emotion and perceived organisational support were found to have joint contributions to explaining work stress among nurses. Others’ emotion appraisal, use of emotion and perceived organisational support were found to have independent relationships with work stress.Conclusion: Our findings stress that judgement of others’ emotions, accurate use of emotion by nurses and support from management of the hospital are most important in explaining their reactions towards work-related stress.

  16. The role of emotional intelligence and organisational support on work stress of nurses in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawal, Abiodun M; Idemudia, Erhabor S

    2017-05-23

    Universally, nurses have been reported to be a group at high risk of workplace stress. However, nurses' responses to stressful situations at work could be the outcomes of individual differences and organisational factors. We examined the independent and joint contributions of four dimensions of emotional intelligence and perceived organisational support in work stress of nurses in a teaching hospital in Nigeria. The study was a cross-sectional survey research design, which selected 228 (41 male and 187 female nurses) nurses through the use of convenience sampling. Questionnaires comprising demographics with work stress, organisational support and emotional intelligence scales were administered to the sampled 228 nurses in the study. Data were analysed with the use of correlational matrix and hierarchical multiple regression. Self-emotion appraisal, others' emotion appraisal, use of emotion, regulation of emotion and perceived organisational support were found to have joint contributions to explaining work stress among nurses. Others' emotion appraisal, use of emotion and perceived organisational support were found to have independent relationships with work stress. Our findings stress that judgement of others' emotions, accurate use of emotion by nurses and support from management of the hospital are most important in explaining their reactions towards work-related stress.

  17. Modeling hierarchical structures - Hierarchical Linear Modeling using MPlus

    CERN Document Server

    Jelonek, M

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the technique (and its linkage with physics) of overcoming problems connected to modeling social structures, which are typically hierarchical. Hierarchical Linear Models provide a conceptual and statistical mechanism for drawing conclusions regarding the influence of phenomena at different levels of analysis. In the social sciences it is used to analyze many problems such as educational, organizational or market dilemma. This paper introduces the logic of modeling hierarchical linear equations and estimation based on MPlus software. I present my own model to illustrate the impact of different factors on school acceptation level.

  18. Organisational Learning: Theoretical Shortcomings and Practical Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Aarum Andersen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses two problems related to learning and the use of knowledge at work. The first problem is the theoretical shortcomings stemming from the controversy between three different concepts of ‘organisational learning.’ In order to enhance scholarship in this field the notion that organisations - as organisations - can learn need to be rejected for theoretical and empirical reasons. The metaphorical use of ‘organisational learning’ creates only confusion. Learning is a process and knowledge is the outcome of that process. It is argued that learning and knowledge is only related to individuals. Knowledge is thus the individual capability to draw distinctions, within a domain of action, based on an appreciation of context or theory. Consequently, knowledge becomes organisational when it is created, developed and transmitted to other individuals in the organisation. In a strict sense knowledge becomes organisational when employees use it and act based on generalisations due to the rules and procedures found in their organisation. The gravest problem is practical challenges due to the fact that the emphasis on learning, knowledge and competence of the working force do not materialize in the application of the knowledge acquired. It is evident that employees do not use their increased knowledge. However, we do not know why they do not use it. An enormous waste of money is spent on learning and knowledge in organisations which does not yield what is expected. How can managers act in order to enhance the application of increased knowledge possessed by the workforce?

  19. Action research in inter-organisational networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goduscheit, René Chester; Rasmussen, Erik Stavnsager; Jørgensen, Jacob Høj

    2007-01-01

    -organisational network, this article discusses potential pitfalls in the legitimiser role. Lack of clarity in defining the researcher role and project ownership in relation to the funding organisation and the rest of the network can jeopardise the project and potentially the credibility of the researchers. The article......Traditionally, the literature on action research has been aimed at intra-organisational issues. These studies have distinguished between two researcher roles: The problem-solver and the observer. This article addresses the distinct challenges of action research in inter-organisational projects...

  20. Rheumatoid arthritis and cryptogenic organising pneumonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, J H; Woodhead, M A; Sheppard, M N; du Bois, R M

    1991-05-01

    We describe three patients with rheumatoid arthritis who presented with non-specific pulmonary symptoms, a restrictive defect in lung function and bilateral changes on chest radiograph. Lung histology showed characteristic features of cryptogenic organising pneumonitis and treatment with steroids produced significant improvement. The clinical and laboratory features of cryptogenic organising pneumonitis (otherwise known as bronchiolitis obliterans organising pneumonia, 'BOOP') are discussed and compared with those of bronchiolitis obliterans with which the condition should not be confused. Cryptogenic organising pneumonitis should be considered as one of the pulmonary manifestations of rheumatoid arthritis, but lung biopsy is essential to make the diagnosis.

  1. Impact of organisational change on mental health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bamberger, Simon Grandjean; Vinding, Anker Lund; Larsen, Anelia

    2012-01-01

    Although limited evidence is available, organisational change is often cited as the cause of mental health problems. This paper provides an overview of the current literature regarding the impact of organisational change on mental health. A systematic search in PUBMED, PsychInfo and Web of Knowle......Although limited evidence is available, organisational change is often cited as the cause of mental health problems. This paper provides an overview of the current literature regarding the impact of organisational change on mental health. A systematic search in PUBMED, PsychInfo and Web...

  2. Evaluation of organisational culture and nurse burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Jenny; Robertson, Noelle; Winter, Rachel; Leeson, David

    2013-10-01

    A survey of nurses working with older adults across three NHS trusts was conducted to explore how perceptions of the workplace affect nurse wellbeing. Standardised validated measures were used to assess burnout, perceived organisational support and organisational culture. Significant associations were found between innovative organisational culture and nurses' sense of personal accomplishment, which reduce the likelihood of burnout. Multiple regression showed experience of burnout to be predicted by the nature of organisational culture. It seems therefore that nurses' wellbeing may be affected by their perceptions of the working environment. Applications of this knowledge and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  3. Hierarchy concepts: classification and preparation strategies for zeolite containing materials with hierarchical porosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwieger, Wilhelm; Machoke, Albert Gonche; Weissenberger, Tobias; Inayat, Amer; Selvam, Thangaraj; Klumpp, Michael; Inayat, Alexandra

    2016-06-13

    'Hierarchy' is a property which can be attributed to a manifold of different immaterial systems, such as ideas, items and organisations or material ones like biological systems within living organisms or artificial, man-made constructions. The property 'hierarchy' is mainly characterised by a certain ordering of individual elements relative to each other, often in combination with a certain degree of branching. Especially mass-flow related systems in the natural environment feature special hierarchically branched patterns. This review is a survey into the world of hierarchical systems with special focus on hierarchically porous zeolite materials. A classification of hierarchical porosity is proposed based on the flow distribution pattern within the respective pore systems. In addition, this review might serve as a toolbox providing several synthetic and post-synthetic strategies to prepare zeolitic or zeolite containing material with tailored hierarchical porosity. Very often, such strategies with their underlying principles were developed for improving the performance of the final materials in different technical applications like adsorptive or catalytic processes. In the present review, besides on the hierarchically porous all-zeolite material, special focus is laid on the preparation of zeolitic composite materials with hierarchical porosity capable to face the demands of industrial application.

  4. Protein domain organisation: adding order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kummerfeld Sarah K

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Domains are the building blocks of proteins. During evolution, they have been duplicated, fused and recombined, to produce proteins with novel structures and functions. Structural and genome-scale studies have shown that pairs or groups of domains observed together in a protein are almost always found in only one N to C terminal order and are the result of a single recombination event that has been propagated by duplication of the multi-domain unit. Previous studies of domain organisation have used graph theory to represent the co-occurrence of domains within proteins. We build on this approach by adding directionality to the graphs and connecting nodes based on their relative order in the protein. Most of the time, the linear order of domains is conserved. However, using the directed graph representation we have identified non-linear features of domain organization that are over-represented in genomes. Recognising these patterns and unravelling how they have arisen may allow us to understand the functional relationships between domains and understand how the protein repertoire has evolved. Results We identify groups of domains that are not linearly conserved, but instead have been shuffled during evolution so that they occur in multiple different orders. We consider 192 genomes across all three kingdoms of life and use domain and protein annotation to understand their functional significance. To identify these features and assess their statistical significance, we represent the linear order of domains in proteins as a directed graph and apply graph theoretical methods. We describe two higher-order patterns of domain organisation: clusters and bi-directionally associated domain pairs and explore their functional importance and phylogenetic conservation. Conclusion Taking into account the order of domains, we have derived a novel picture of global protein organization. We found that all genomes have a higher than expected

  5. Cultural Diversity and Organisational Effiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauring, Jakob

    2004-01-01

    The expected positive link between diversity management and organisational efficiency is often used as a reason for pursuing diversity management and equal employment opportunity programmes. However, this positive link is only supported to a limited degree by in-depth empirical research...... and therefore it is often based on normative expectations. Recent research has further indicated that the link between diversity and efficiency may be more complex and cannot a priori be taken for granted. This article argues that some theoretical rethinking of the issues is necessary and suggests...... that the combination of more theoretical cross fertilisation and in-depth research may be the way forward. Based on our own empirical research, barriers preventing a positive link between diversity and efficiency can come in different forms and our case studies illustrate situations where both containing...

  6. Organisation of subunits in chromatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, B G; Baldwin, J P; Bradbury, E M; Ibel, K

    1976-07-01

    There is considerable current interest in the organisation of nucleosomes in chromatin. A strong X-ray and neutron semi-meridional diffraction peak at approximately 10 nm had previously been attributed to the interparticle specing of a linear array of nucleosomes. This diffraction peak could also result from a close packed helical array of nucleosomes. A direct test of these proposals is whether the 10 nm peak is truly meridional as would be expected for a linear array of nucleosomes or is slightly off the meridian as expected for a helical array. Neutron diffraction studies of H1-depleted chromatin support the latter alternative. The 10 nm peak has maxima which form a cross-pattern with semi-meridional angle of 8 to 9 degrees. This is consistent with a coil of nucleosomes of pitch 10 nm and outer diameter of approximately 30 nm. These dimensions correspond to about six nucleosomes per turn of the coli.

  7. Cultural Diversity and Organisational Effiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauring, Jakob

    2004-01-01

    The expected positive link between diversity management and organisational efficiency is often used as a reason for pursuing diversity management and equal employment opportunity programmes. However, this positive link is only supported to a limited degree by in-depth empirical research...... and therefore it is often based on normative expectations. Recent research has further indicated that the link between diversity and efficiency may be more complex and cannot a priori be taken for granted. This article argues that some theoretical rethinking of the issues is necessary and suggests...... that the combination of more theoretical cross fertilisation and in-depth research may be the way forward. Based on our own empirical research, barriers preventing a positive link between diversity and efficiency can come in different forms and our case studies illustrate situations where both containing...

  8. IAU Public Astronomical Organisations Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canas, Lina; Cheung, Sze Leung

    2015-08-01

    The Office for Astronomy Outreach has devoted intensive means to create and support a global network of public astronomical organisations around the world. Focused on bringing established and newly formed amateur astronomy organizations together, providing communications channels and platforms for disseminating news to the global community and the sharing of best practices and resources among these associations around the world. In establishing the importance that these organizations have for the dissemination of activities globally and acting as key participants in IAU various campaigns social media has played a key role in keeping this network engaged and connected. Here we discuss the implementation process of maintaining this extensive network, the processing and gathering of information and the interactions between local active members at a national and international level.

  9. HIERARCHICAL OPTIMIZATION MODEL ON GEONETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Zha

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In existing construction experience of Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI, GeoNetwork, as the geographical information integrated solution, is an effective way of building SDI. During GeoNetwork serving as an internet application, several shortcomings are exposed. The first one is that the time consuming of data loading has been considerately increasing with the growth of metadata count. Consequently, the efficiency of query and search service becomes lower. Another problem is that stability and robustness are both ruined since huge amount of metadata. The final flaw is that the requirements of multi-user concurrent accessing based on massive data are not effectively satisfied on the internet. A novel approach, Hierarchical Optimization Model (HOM, is presented to solve the incapability of GeoNetwork working with massive data in this paper. HOM optimizes the GeoNetwork from these aspects: internal procedure, external deployment strategies, etc. This model builds an efficient index for accessing huge metadata and supporting concurrent processes. In this way, the services based on GeoNetwork can maintain stable while running massive metadata. As an experiment, we deployed more than 30 GeoNetwork nodes, and harvest nearly 1.1 million metadata. From the contrast between the HOM-improved software and the original one, the model makes indexing and retrieval processes more quickly and keeps the speed stable on metadata amount increasing. It also shows stable on multi-user concurrent accessing to system services, the experiment achieved good results and proved that our optimization model is efficient and reliable.

  10. Effects of Organisational Characteristics on Contractors’ Construction Cash Flow Forecasting Capabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Abdullahi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Inadequate cash resources resulting from poor cash flows have been among the fundamental causes of construction project failures. Despite the panoply of cash flow forecasting (CFF tools, the cash flow performance of many construction firms have been reported to be poor due weak Cash flow forecasting (CFF process capabilities influenced by a couple of organisational characteristics. Although these organisational characteristics have been reported to significantly influence firms’ CFF process capabilities, the underlying mechanisms of how these organisational features and characteristics exhibit their specific influences on the cash flow forecasting capabilities of construction firms still remains underexplored. Therefore, this study aims at empirically exploring the influence of some organisation characteristics on the CFF process capabilities of construction firms. Best practices in CFF identified from the Royal Institute of Chartered Surveyors (RICS Cash Flow Forecasting (CFF guide were used to develop an assessment criteria used to assess the CFF capabilities of construction firms. The assessment was conducted through a questionnaire survey involving contracting organisations involved in both building and civil engineering works in Nigeria. The key best practices in CFF were ranked based on arithmetic mean value scores and averages were also determined for each of the four CFF components assessed (Knowledge and understanding CFF concepts and principles, Practical application, Practical considerations, and other Managerial issues. Hierarchical regression analysis was then used to examine the relationships between contractors’’ CFF process capabilities and some organisational characteristics. Results of the study reveals that organisational characteristics are strongly associated to firms’ abilities to prudently manage cash flows. The results of this study could serve as a basis for the strategic planning and improvement of Cash Flow

  11. The Immigrant Organising Process : Turkish Organisations in Amsterdam and Berlin and Surinamese Organisations in Amsterdam, 1960-2000

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, Floris

    2006-01-01

    This study focuses on the emergence and persistence of immigrant organisations in host societies. The relevance of immigrant organisations for both the host society and the immigrants themselves has been effectively demonstrated in many different studies. However, the question why immigrant

  12. The Immigrant Organising Process : Turkish Organisations in Amsterdam and Berlin and Surinamese Organisations in Amsterdam, 1960-2000

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, Floris

    2006-01-01

    This study focuses on the emergence and persistence of immigrant organisations in host societies. The relevance of immigrant organisations for both the host society and the immigrants themselves has been effectively demonstrated in many different studies. However, the question why immigrant organisa

  13. Organisational culture, organisational learning and total quality management: a literature review and synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloor, G

    1999-01-01

    As health services face increasing pressure to meet the expectations of different stakeholders, they must continuously improve and learn from their experience. Many fail in attempts at continuous improvement programs because managers have not understood the complexity of making changes in organisations with multiple subcultures and interests. This article examines the related concepts of organisational culture, organisational learning and total quality management and shows how a synthesis of this knowledge can assist in developing continuous organisational learning and improvement.

  14. Stress and organisational citizenship behaviours in Indian business process outsourcing organisations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay K. Jain

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the direct effect of organisational stress (as measured through ASSET on organisational citizenship behaviours (OCBs. A sample of 402 operators was taken from business process outsourcing (BPO organisations located in northern India. The authors hypothesised that there is a negative relationship between organisational stress and OCBs. Results of multiple regression analysis showed that stress had significant negative impact on OCBs. The implications for managers are discussed.

  15. Modeling hierarchical structures - Hierarchical Linear Modeling using MPlus

    OpenAIRE

    Jelonek, Magdalena

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the technique (and its linkage with physics) of overcoming problems connected to modeling social structures, which are typically hierarchical. Hierarchical Linear Models provide a conceptual and statistical mechanism for drawing conclusions regarding the influence of phenomena at different levels of analysis. In the social sciences it is used to analyze many problems such as educational, organizational or market dilemma. This paper introduces the logic of m...

  16. Review: Karin Reiber (2005. Organisation im Spiegel der Regula Benedicti [Organisation in Reflection of Regula Benedicti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Rausch

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available For 1500 years, the monastic life of the Benedictines has been defined by rules dating from the time of the first foundation of the order, suggesting an organizational structure that has outlasted historical upheavals and changes. Starting from a new understanding of organisational development as organisational learning, Karin REIBER has looked for clues to organisational formation and learning through a hermeneutic textual analysis of the Regula Benedicti of the 6th Century. Within a theoretical framework, REIBER develops three dimensions of organisational formation and three stages of organisational learning. In a historical reconstruction, the author analyses the text of the Regula Benedicti. In a second section, REIBER adapts and interprets the results of the hermeneutic analysis through a double three-stage theoretical model. She works out interesting aspects for organisational learning, which relate individual learning to organisational learning in favour of members of the organisation, for which consideration for individuality forms a part of the leadership concept and as a framework for social relationships, establishing an informal organisational structure beside the formal one. This illuminating work leads to an integrated concept of organisational learning, which extends the notion of tradition as a characteristic feature of an innovative organisation and which, through continuity and topicality, can hence guarantee the continued existence of modern organisations in the future. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs070174

  17. The Army Learning Organisation Questionnaire: Developing a Valid and Reliable Measure of Learning Organisation Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    report describes the development and psychometric evaluation of the Army Learning Organisation Questionnaire (ALOQ). Following a review of social sciences...Officers OLS Organisational Learning Survey OR Other Ranks PC Principle Component Extraction Method SPSS Statistical Package for the Social Sciences WO1...report describes the application of social sciences principles. The report then briefly reviews the literature on organisational learning . The

  18. Exploring the Interconnectedness among Strategy Development, Shared Mental Models, Organisational Learning and Organisational Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malan, Renee

    2011-01-01

    The cognitive psychological processes related to learning and change behaviour are factors that impact on organisational strategy development. Strategy development is dependent on strategic thinking that is reciprocally influenced by shared mental models, organisational learning and organisational change. Although strategy development, shared…

  19. The impact of organisational change and fiscal restraint on organisational culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dark, Frances; Whiteford, Harvey; Ashkanasy, Neal M; Harvey, Carol; Harris, Meredith; Crompton, David; Newman, Ellie

    2017-01-01

    Strategies to implement evidence-based practice have highlighted the bidirectional relationship of organisational change on organisational culture. The present study examined changes in perceptions of organisational culture in two community mental health services implementing cognitive therapies into routine psychosis care over 3 years. During the time of the study there were a number of shared planned and unplanned changes that the mental health services had to accommodate. One service, Metro South, had the additional challenge of embarking on a major organisational restructure. A survey of organisational culture was administered to clinical staff of each service at yearly intervals over the 3 years. At baseline assessment there was no significant difference between the two services in organisational culture. At the midpoint assessment, which was conducted at the time the Metro South restructure was operationalized, there were less positive ratings of organisational culture recorded in Metro South compared to the other service. Organisational culture returned to near-baseline levels at endpoint assessment. These findings are consistent with the literature that organisational culture is relatively robust and resilient. It is also consistent with the literature that, at any one time, a service or organisation may have a finite capacity to absorb change. Consequently this limitation needs to be taken into account in the timing and planning of major service reform where possible. The results also extend the literature, insofar as external factors with a high impact on the operation of an organisation may impact upon organisational culture albeit temporarily.

  20. Exploring the Interconnectedness among Strategy Development, Shared Mental Models, Organisational Learning and Organisational Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malan, Renee

    2011-01-01

    The cognitive psychological processes related to learning and change behaviour are factors that impact on organisational strategy development. Strategy development is dependent on strategic thinking that is reciprocally influenced by shared mental models, organisational learning and organisational change. Although strategy development, shared…

  1. Managing intangible assets: An essay on organising contemporary organisations based upon identity, competencies and networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoemaker, M.J.R.; Jonker, J.

    2005-01-01

    - Purpose – To develop a concept of managing intangible assets in contemporary organisations. Insight is given into the rise of the network organisation and the importance of talent, social capital and identity in this kind of organisation. - Design/methodology/approach – This paper develops a conce

  2. Onboard hierarchical network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunesi, Luca; Armbruster, Philippe

    2004-02-01

    The objective of this paper is to demonstrate a suitable hierarchical networking solution to improve capabilities and performances of space systems, with significant recurrent costs saving and more efficient design & manufacturing flows. Classically, a satellite can be split in two functional sub-systems: the platform and the payload complement. The platform is in charge of providing power, attitude & orbit control and up/down-link services, whereas the payload represents the scientific and/or operational instruments/transponders and embodies the objectives of the mission. One major possibility to improve the performance of payloads, by limiting the data return to pertinent information, is to process data on board thanks to a proper implementation of the payload data system. In this way, it is possible to share non-recurring development costs by exploiting a system that can be adopted by the majority of space missions. It is believed that the Modular and Scalable Payload Data System, under development by ESA, provides a suitable solution to fulfil a large range of future mission requirements. The backbone of the system is the standardised high data rate SpaceWire network http://www.ecss.nl/. As complement, a lower speed command and control bus connecting peripherals is required. For instance, at instrument level, there is a need for a "local" low complexity bus, which gives the possibility to command and control sensors and actuators. Moreover, most of the connections at sub-system level are related to discrete signals management or simple telemetry acquisitions, which can easily and efficiently be handled by a local bus. An on-board hierarchical network can therefore be defined by interconnecting high-speed links and local buses. Additionally, it is worth stressing another important aspect of the design process: Agencies and ESA in particular are frequently confronted with a big consortium of geographically spread companies located in different countries, each one

  3. Hierarchical Reverberation Mapping

    CERN Document Server

    Brewer, Brendon J

    2013-01-01

    Reverberation mapping (RM) is an important technique in studies of active galactic nuclei (AGN). The key idea of RM is to measure the time lag $\\tau$ between variations in the continuum emission from the accretion disc and subsequent response of the broad line region (BLR). The measurement of $\\tau$ is typically used to estimate the physical size of the BLR and is combined with other measurements to estimate the black hole mass $M_{\\rm BH}$. A major difficulty with RM campaigns is the large amount of data needed to measure $\\tau$. Recently, Fine et al (2012) introduced a new approach to RM where the BLR light curve is sparsely sampled, but this is counteracted by observing a large sample of AGN, rather than a single system. The results are combined to infer properties of the sample of AGN. In this letter we implement this method using a hierarchical Bayesian model and contrast this with the results from the previous stacked cross-correlation technique. We find that our inferences are more precise and allow fo...

  4. Hierarchical processing in the prefrontal cortex in a variety of cognitive domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeon-Ae eJeon

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This review scrutinizes several findings on human hierarchical processing within the prefrontal cortex (PFC in diverse cognitive domains. Converging evidence from previous studies has shown that the PFC, specifically Brodmann area (BA 44, may function as the essential region for hierarchical processing across the domains. In language fMRI studies, BA 44 was significantly activated for the hierarchical processing of center-embedded sentences and this pattern of activations was also observed in artificial grammar. The same pattern was observed in the visuo-spatial domain where BA44 was actively involved in the processing of hierarchy for the visual symbol. Musical syntax, which is the rule-based arrangement of musical sets, has also been construed as hierarchical processing as in the language domain such that the activation in BA44 was observed in a chord sequence paradigm. P600 ERP was also engendered during the processing of musical hierarchy. Along with a longstanding idea that a human’s number faculty is developed as a by-product of language faculty, BA44 was closely involved in hierarchical processing in mental arithmetic. This review extended its discussion of hierarchical processing to hierarchical behavior, that is, human action which has been referred to as being hierarchically composed. Several lesion and TMS studies supported the involvement of BA44 for hierarchical processing in the action domain. Lastly, the hierarchical organization of cognitive controls was discussed within the PFC, forming a cascade of top-down hierarchical processes operating along a posterior-to-anterior axis of the lateral PFC including BA44 within the network. It is proposed that PFC is actively involved in different forms of hierarchical processing and specifically BA44 may play an integral role in the process. Taking levels of proficiency and subcortical areas into consideration may provide further insight into the functional role of BA44 for hierarchical

  5. Hierarchical progressive surveys. Multi-resolution HEALPix data structures for astronomical images, catalogues, and 3-dimensional data cubes

    CERN Document Server

    Fernique, P; Boch, T; Oberto, A; Pineau, F-X; Durand, D; Bot, C; Cambresy, L; Derriere, S; Genova, F; Bonnarel, F

    2015-01-01

    Scientific exploitation of the ever increasing volumes of astronomical data requires efficient and practical methods for data access, visualisation, and analysis. Hierarchical sky tessellation techniques enable a multi-resolution approach to organising data on angular scales from the full sky down to the individual image pixels. Aims. We aim to show that the Hierarchical progressive survey (HiPS) scheme for describing astronomical images, source catalogues, and three-dimensional data cubes is a practical solution to managing large volumes of heterogeneous data and that it enables a new level of scientific interoperability across large collections of data of these different data types. Methods. HiPS uses the HEALPix tessellation of the sphere to define a hierarchical tile and pixel structure to describe and organise astronomical data. HiPS is designed to conserve the scientific properties of the data alongside both visualisation considerations and emphasis on the ease of implementation. We describe the develop...

  6. The "State of Art" of Organisational Blogging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Gavin J.; Connolly, Thomas M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the "state of art" of organisational blogging. It also aims to provide a critical review of the literature on organisational blogging and propose recommendations on how to advance the subject area in terms of academic research. Design/methodology/approach: A systematic literature review…

  7. Facilitating "Organisational Learning" in a "Learning Institution"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, Alan; Sillitoe, James

    2013-01-01

    The term "organisational learning" was popularised by Peter Senge in "The Fifth Discipline", his seminal book from 1990. Since then, the term has become widely accepted among those interested in organisational learning and change management. However, partly due to the somewhat ambiguous situation which arises in a university…

  8. A Model of Project and Organisational Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Leonard

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The strategic, transformational nature of many information systems projects is now widely understood. Large-scale implementations of systems are known to require significant management of organisational change in order to be successful. Moreover, projects are rarely executed in isolation – most organisations have a large programme of projects being implemented at any one time. However, project and value management methodologies provide ad hoc definitions of the relationship between a project and its environment. This limits the ability of an organisation to manage the larger dynamics between projects and organisations, over time, and between projects. The contribution of this paper, therefore, is to use literature on organisational theory to provide a more systematic understanding of this area. The organisational facilitators required to obtain value from a project are categorised, and the processes required to develop those facilitators are defined. This formalisation facilitates generalisation between projects and highlights any time and path dependencies required in developing organisational facilitators. The model therefore has the potential to contribute to the development of IS project management theory within dynamic organisational contexts. Six cases illustrate how this model could be used.

  9. Organisational Change: A Solution-Focused Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Gavin

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the effectiveness of a solution-focused approach to organisational change. Planning Alternative Tomorrows with Hope (PATH) is an intervention more commonly applied to individuals. In this study the intervention is used with groups of people working in educational organisations to help manage the change process. The approach…

  10. The organisational aspect of faculty development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolmos, Anette; Gynnild, Vidar; Roxå, Torgny

    2004-01-01

    The article points out the faculty centres ought to be more conscious in their organisational strategies and get to managements support when working on pedagogical changes.......The article points out the faculty centres ought to be more conscious in their organisational strategies and get to managements support when working on pedagogical changes....

  11. Achieving Organisational Change through Values Alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branson, Christopher M.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to, first, establish the interdependency between the successful achievement of organisational change and the attainment of values alignment within an organisation's culture and then, second, to describe an effective means for attaining such values alignment. Design/methodology/approach: Literature from the…

  12. Facilitating "Organisational Learning" in a "Learning Institution"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, Alan; Sillitoe, James

    2013-01-01

    The term "organisational learning" was popularised by Peter Senge in "The Fifth Discipline", his seminal book from 1990. Since then, the term has become widely accepted among those interested in organisational learning and change management. However, partly due to the somewhat ambiguous situation which arises in a university…

  13. Meaningful work, work engagement and organisational commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madelyn Geldenhuys

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Meaningful work can yield benefits for organisations and lead to positive work outcomes such as satisfied, engaged and committed employees, individual and organisational fulfilment, productivity, retention and loyalty.Research purpose: The aim of the study was to investigate the relationships amongst psychological meaningfulness, work engagement and organisational commitment and to test for a possible mediation effect of work engagement on the relationship between psychological meaningfulness and organisational commitment.Motivation for the study: Managers have to rethink ways of improving productivity and performance at work, due to the diverse, and in some instances escalating, needs of employees (e.g. financial support to uphold their interest in and enjoyment of working.Research approach, design and method: A quantitative approach was employed to gather the data for the study, utilising a cross-sectional survey design. The sample (n = 415 consisted of working employees from various companies and positions in Gauteng, South Africa.Main findings: The results confirmed a positive relationship between psychological meaningfulness, work engagement and organisational commitment. Further, psychological meaningfulness predicts work engagement, whilst psychological meaningfulness and work engagement predict organisational commitment.Practical/managerial implications: Employers identifying their employees’ commitment patterns and mapping out strategies for enhancing those that are relevant to organisational goals will yield positive work outcomes (e.g. employees who are creative, seek growth or challenges for themselves.Contribution/value-add: This study contributes to the literature through highlighting the impact that meaningful work has on sustaining employee commitment to the organisation.

  14. International Organisations and Transnational Education Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutsios, Stavros

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on the World Bank/IMF (International Monetary Fund), the OECD (Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development) and the WTO (World Trade Organisation) as institutions of transnational policy making. They are all at present making education policies which are decisively shaping current directions and developments in…

  15. International Organisations and Transnational Education Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutsios, Stavros

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on the World Bank/IMF (International Monetary Fund), the OECD (Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development) and the WTO (World Trade Organisation) as institutions of transnational policy making. They are all at present making education policies which are decisively shaping current directions and developments in…

  16. New challenges for the internal safety organisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasle, Peter; Jensen, Per Langå

    2003-01-01

    Research from several countries indicates that the internal health and safety organisation in most companies is placed in an appendix position. Introduc-tion of learning is a possibility for the development of a stronger and more ef-fective health and safety organisation. This approach has been...

  17. The Self-Organising Fuzzy Controller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jantzen, Jan

    1998-01-01

    A marginally stable test system, with a large dead time and an integrator, is stabilised by a self-organising fuzzy controller in a simulation study. It acts as a case study, to explain the self-organising controller to engineering students. The paper is one of a series of tutorial papers...... for a course in fuzzy control....

  18. Relating structure and dynamics in organisation models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonkers, C.M.; Treur, J.

    2008-01-01

    To understand how an organisational structure relates to dynamics is an interesting fundamental challenge in the area of social modelling. Specifications of organisational structure usually have a diagrammatic form that abstracts from more detailed dynamics. Dynamic properties of agent systems, on t

  19. Impacts of IST on firms and organisations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ulrik

    2003-01-01

    A review of socio-economic research on the impact and role of IST in firms and organisations. The study is carried out in ESTO for IPTS.......A review of socio-economic research on the impact and role of IST in firms and organisations. The study is carried out in ESTO for IPTS....

  20. Organisational IT Strategy Development using GDSS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lene

    1999-01-01

    IT strategy development in organisations is a complex task for which there is an immediate need for methodological support to be able to make satisfying decisions. Group Decision Support Systems (GDSS) is one line of supporting the process of group decision making and supporting IT strategy...... to support development of organisational IT strategies....

  1. A Sociocultural Analysis of Organisational Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boreham, Nick; Morgan, Colin

    2004-01-01

    The concept of organisational learning has been widely debated and frequently contested by educationalists, but the specific processes and actions which constitute this form of learning have received relatively little research attention. This paper reports a three-year empirical investigation into organisational learning in a large industrial…

  2. Agreeing on role adoption in open organisations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aldewereld, H.; Dignum, V.; Jonker, C.M.; Van Riemsdijk, M.B.

    2012-01-01

    The organisational specification of a multi-agent system supports agents’ effectiveness in attaining their purpose, or prevent certain undesired behaviour from occurring. This requires that agents are able to find out about the organisational purpose and description and decide on its appropriateness

  3. The organisational structure of urban environmental stewardship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dana R. Fisher; Lindsay Campbell; Erika S. Svendsen

    2012-01-01

    How is the organisational structure of urban environmental stewardship groups related to the diverse ways that civic stewardship is taking place in urban settings? The findings of the limited number of studies that have explored the organisational structure of civic environmentalism are combined with the research on civic stewardship to answer this question. By...

  4. Organising European technical documentation to avoid duplication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donawa, Maria

    2006-04-01

    The development of comprehensive accurate and well-organised technical documentation that demonstrates compliance with regulatory requirements is a resource-intensive, but critically important activity for medical device manufacturers. This article discusses guidance documents and method of organising technical documentation that may help avoid costly and time-consuming duplication.

  5. The Self-Organising Fuzzy Controller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jantzen, Jan

    1998-01-01

    A marginally stable test system, with a large dead time and an integrator, is stabilised by a self-organising fuzzy controller in a simulation study. It acts as a case study, to explain the self-organising controller to engineering students. The paper is one of a series of tutorial papers...... for a course in fuzzy control....

  6. European Perspectives on the Learning Organisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyhan, Barry; Cressey, Peter; Tomassini, Massimo; Kelleher, Michael; Poell, Rob

    2004-01-01

    This paper, based on a publication entitled "Facing up to the Learning Organisation Challenge," published in April 2003, provides an overview of the main questions emerging from recent European research projects related to the topic of the learning organisation. The rationale for focusing on this topic is the belief that the European Union goals…

  7. Constraint-based Modelling of Organisations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viara, Popova; Alexei, Sharpanskykh

    2008-01-01

    Modern organisations are characterised by a great variety of forms and often involve many actors with diverse goals, performing a wide range of tasks in changing environmental conditions. Due to high complexity, mistakes and inconsistencies are not rare in organisations. To provide better insights i

  8. Transformation, diversity and organisational change within ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lynette

    ment of diversity, and organisational changes within our institutions of higher ... This definition is supported by Fuhr (1994), who defines affir- mative action as .... ture, but by ensuring that the climate of the organisation is not a hostile place for ...

  9. E-Learning in Small Organisations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambrook, Sally

    2003-01-01

    This paper focuses on the existing and potential role of electronic learning in small and medium-sized organisations (SMEs). Innovations in information and communication technologies (ICTs) could create new forms of learning, particularly appealing to small organisations, to overcome traditional barriers such as lack of financial resources, time,…

  10. Organisational Blogs: Benefits and Challenges of Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Gavin J.; Connolly, Thomas M.; Stansfield, Mark H.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify the theoretical link between blogs and organisational learning. It aims to provide a set of practical guidelines on how to overcome the challenges of implementing an organisational blog. Design/methodology/approach: A literature review will be used to examine blogs and their association towards…

  11. Organisational Learning and Employees' Intrinsic Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remedios, Richard; Boreham, Nick

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the effects of organisational learning initiatives on employee motivation. Four initiatives consistent with theories of organisational learning were a priori ranked in terms of concepts that underpin intrinsic-motivation theory. Eighteen employees in a UK petrochemical company were interviewed to ascertain their experiences of…

  12. Achieving Organisational Change through Values Alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branson, Christopher M.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to, first, establish the interdependency between the successful achievement of organisational change and the attainment of values alignment within an organisation's culture and then, second, to describe an effective means for attaining such values alignment. Design/methodology/approach: Literature from the…

  13. Leadership, organisational citizenship and innovative work ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Frederick Iraki

    Although organisational citizenship behaviour (OCB) and innovative work behaviour ... group or organisation, in order to benefit role performance, the group, or the ... includes voluntary acts of creativity and innovation designed to improve one's task or .... Thus transactional leadership emphasises extrinsic motivation,.

  14. Organising Quality Function in Research and Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra Prasad

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Quality function may be summarised as quality generation, quality control, and qualityassurance. The quality generation and quality control, because of their fuactional nature, arecomparatively easy to organise, however, the challenge is to organise quality assurance in theorganisation. It is the challenge because quality assurance should seamlessly merge with theR&D process. In future, the organisations, whether real or virtual, are going to bepredominantly, research and development (R&D oriented rather than pure manufacturing orservice providers. However, the nature and intensity of the R&D may differ. It could be fromsimple improvement to innovation, to exploitation of inventions.Organising quality function in R&D means organising its various dimensions against thestipulated criteria such as the realisation of the quality system; realisation of quality duringproduct development, including system engineering; staffing of quality generation, quality control,and quality assurance; balancing of the quality function; harnessing of project quality, functionalquality, staff quality and line quality; application of the RHR principle; exploitation of the toolsof organising, democratic organisation; and so on. The basic purpose of organising the qualityfunction is to inculcate the sense of pride in quality among the scientists so that they feelpassionate about it. It is the passion and love for quality that generates, sustains, and maintainsquality.

  15. The Shanghai Co-operation Organisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Flemming Splidsboel

    New regional organisations are always interesting to follow as they will tell us more about the things that make or break this type of co-operation. Originally established as “The Shanghai Five” in 1996, The Shanghai Co-operation Organisation (SCO) has been successful at reducing tension between ...

  16. Building Innovative Vocational Education and Training Organisations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callan, Victor

    2004-01-01

    Highly innovative organisations demonstrate six key characteristics. They create learning cultures which promote innovation as a core organisational capability; employ leaders who are "failure-tolerant"; identify innovators; reward people who propose innovative ideas; use partnerships; and, promote innovation through teams. This report analyses…

  17. Hierarchical materials: Background and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    Hierarchical design draws inspiration from analysis of biological materials and has opened new possibilities for enhancing performance and enabling new functionalities and extraordinary properties. With the development of nanotechnology, the necessary technological requirements for the manufactur...

  18. Hierarchical clustering for graph visualization

    CERN Document Server

    Clémençon, Stéphan; Rossi, Fabrice; Tran, Viet Chi

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a graph visualization methodology based on hierarchical maximal modularity clustering, with interactive and significant coarsening and refining possibilities. An application of this method to HIV epidemic analysis in Cuba is outlined.

  19. Direct hierarchical assembly of nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ting; Zhao, Yue; Thorkelsson, Kari

    2014-07-22

    The present invention provides hierarchical assemblies of a block copolymer, a bifunctional linking compound and a nanoparticle. The block copolymers form one micro-domain and the nanoparticles another micro-domain.

  20. Fractal multi-level organisation of human groups in a virtual world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Benedikt; Sornette, Didier; Thurner, Stefan

    2014-10-01

    Humans are fundamentally social. They form societies which consist of hierarchically layered nested groups of various quality, size, and structure. The anthropologic literature has classified these groups as support cliques, sympathy groups, bands, cognitive groups, tribes, linguistic groups, and so on. Anthropologic data show that, on average, each group consists of approximately three subgroups. However, a general understanding of the structural dependence of groups at different layers is largely missing. We extend these early findings to a very large high-precision large-scale internet-based social network data. We analyse the organisational structure of a complete, multi-relational, large social multiplex network of a human society consisting of about 400,000 odd players of an open-ended massive multiplayer online game for which we know all about their various group memberships at different layers. Remarkably, the online players' society exhibits the same type of structured hierarchical layers as found in hunter-gatherer societies. Our findings suggest that the hierarchical organisation of human society is deeply nested in human psychology.

  1. Fractal multi-level organisation of human groups in a virtual world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Benedikt; Sornette, Didier; Thurner, Stefan

    2014-10-06

    Humans are fundamentally social. They form societies which consist of hierarchically layered nested groups of various quality, size, and structure. The anthropologic literature has classified these groups as support cliques, sympathy groups, bands, cognitive groups, tribes, linguistic groups, and so on. Anthropologic data show that, on average, each group consists of approximately three subgroups. However, a general understanding of the structural dependence of groups at different layers is largely missing. We extend these early findings to a very large high-precision large-scale internet-based social network data. We analyse the organisational structure of a complete, multi-relational, large social multiplex network of a human society consisting of about 400,000 odd players of an open-ended massive multiplayer online game for which we know all about their various group memberships at different layers. Remarkably, the online players' society exhibits the same type of structured hierarchical layers as found in hunter-gatherer societies. Our findings suggest that the hierarchical organisation of human society is deeply nested in human psychology.

  2. Functional annotation of hierarchical modularity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanchana Padmanabhan

    Full Text Available In biological networks of molecular interactions in a cell, network motifs that are biologically relevant are also functionally coherent, or form functional modules. These functionally coherent modules combine in a hierarchical manner into larger, less cohesive subsystems, thus revealing one of the essential design principles of system-level cellular organization and function-hierarchical modularity. Arguably, hierarchical modularity has not been explicitly taken into consideration by most, if not all, functional annotation systems. As a result, the existing methods would often fail to assign a statistically significant functional coherence score to biologically relevant molecular machines. We developed a methodology for hierarchical functional annotation. Given the hierarchical taxonomy of functional concepts (e.g., Gene Ontology and the association of individual genes or proteins with these concepts (e.g., GO terms, our method will assign a Hierarchical Modularity Score (HMS to each node in the hierarchy of functional modules; the HMS score and its p-value measure functional coherence of each module in the hierarchy. While existing methods annotate each module with a set of "enriched" functional terms in a bag of genes, our complementary method provides the hierarchical functional annotation of the modules and their hierarchically organized components. A hierarchical organization of functional modules often comes as a bi-product of cluster analysis of gene expression data or protein interaction data. Otherwise, our method will automatically build such a hierarchy by directly incorporating the functional taxonomy information into the hierarchy search process and by allowing multi-functional genes to be part of more than one component in the hierarchy. In addition, its underlying HMS scoring metric ensures that functional specificity of the terms across different levels of the hierarchical taxonomy is properly treated. We have evaluated our

  3. The architecture of information in organisations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiko Iyamu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the last two decades competition amongst organisations including financial institutions has increased tremendously. The value of information is critical to competition in different organisations. In addition, the management of cost of delivery and cohesiveness of information flow and use in the organisations continue a challenge to information technology (IT. In an attempt to address these challenges, many organisations sought various solutions, including enterprise information architecture (EIA. The EIA is intended to address the needs of the organisation for competitive advantage.This research article focused on the role of principles in the development and implementation of EIA. The article aimed to investigate how EIA could be best leveraged, exploited, or otherwise used to provide business value. The research brings about a fresh perspective and new methodological principles required in architecting the enterprise information.

  4. The Dynamics of Organisation and Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter

    The Dynamics of Organisation and Work - Measurement framework of the Meadow survey by Peter Nielsen for the MEADOW Consortium Organisational changes and the upcoming of new adaptable work organisations are common in most developed countries regardless of culture and industrial traditions. The main...... of globalisation in combination with technology developments mean that instability and changing conditions are more the rule than the exception and management are forced to find new ways to cope with this instability. Generally it has meant that knowledge and innovation has become more important for firms...... and this influences the new ways of configuring the work organisations. However, there is a great diversity in the ways firm develop their organisations and restructure work and not least in the resulting economic and social performance. This diversity means that there is a considerable and urgent need to produce...

  5. Hierarchical architecture of active knits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Julianna; Luntz, Jonathan; Brei, Diann

    2013-12-01

    Nature eloquently utilizes hierarchical structures to form the world around us. Applying the hierarchical architecture paradigm to smart materials can provide a basis for a new genre of actuators which produce complex actuation motions. One promising example of cellular architecture—active knits—provides complex three-dimensional distributed actuation motions with expanded operational performance through a hierarchically organized structure. The hierarchical structure arranges a single fiber of active material, such as shape memory alloys (SMAs), into a cellular network of interlacing adjacent loops according to a knitting grid. This paper defines a four-level hierarchical classification of knit structures: the basic knit loop, knit patterns, grid patterns, and restructured grids. Each level of the hierarchy provides increased architectural complexity, resulting in expanded kinematic actuation motions of active knits. The range of kinematic actuation motions are displayed through experimental examples of different SMA active knits. The results from this paper illustrate and classify the ways in which each level of the hierarchical knit architecture leverages the performance of the base smart material to generate unique actuation motions, providing necessary insight to best exploit this new actuation paradigm.

  6. Organisational Socialisation Facilitates Overseas Assignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Chen (Chiu-Yi/Joy Lee

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cross-cultural adjustment is the biggest challenge that derails expatriate success. In responding to the importance of Taiwanese expatriates’ adjustment in Mainland China, this study tests, as a critical factor, Socialisation affecting the adjustment of Taiwanese expatriates in Mainland China. As a result, this study critically reviews previous studies on expatriate success, shedding light on key factors in the area of expatriate adjustment and providing multiple guidelines for human resource supervisors and senior executives hoping to ensure expatriate success. The definitions of success and methodological approaches are discussed, and suggestions for improving empirical research in this area are presented. Academic researchers and international enterprises can perhaps clarify whether all international expatriates are affected by the factor as organisational socialisation, and also whether the proposed model can be utilised in studying expatriates in different professional areas from those of this study. Finally, the results and their implications for research and the business world are discussed. This may assist not only Taiwanese MNCs but also global enterprises to perform their international business more efficiently in Mainland China.

  7. RDMO - Research Data Management Organiser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klar, Jochen; Engelhardt, Claudia; Neuroth, Heike; Enke, Harry; Ludwig, Jens

    2017-04-01

    The Research Data Management Organiser (RDMO) is a new tool to support the structured planning and implementation of the research data management in a scientific project and, in addition, provide the scientist with a textual Data Management Plan (DMP). While DMP are in principle a great tool to optimise the data management during all stages of a research project and to serve as a roadmap for the various data management tasks, their current usage is strongly focused on the requirements of funding agencies. Existing software tools for DMP creation and editing are useful in that respect, but do not sufficiently support the full data life cycle of a project. The RDMO is meant to be a companion for data management issues during and after the whole project. Starting from a structured interview about the project and the data involved, it organizes the data management along tasks and comprises all relevant stakeholders, i.e. researchers, PIs, institutional data managers, IT departments. Adaptations to discipline-specific or institutional needs are supported. The installation of the tool into local environments and its integration into existing administrative IT infrastructure and work flows is given special consideration. The tool is multilingual (at first German and English). In my talk, I will present the different features of the software, show its current stage of development, and how RDMO can be deployed for your institution.

  8. The relationship between organisational climate and employee satisfaction in a South African information and technology organisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monia L. Castro

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Organisational climate and job satisfaction are distinct but related constructs, and both appear to influence employees’ understanding of the work environment and their level of job satisfaction.Research purpose: The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between organisational climate and job satisfaction to determine whether employees’ perceptions of the work environment influence their level of job satisfaction.Motivation for the study: Organisations are facing more challenges than ever before. These challenges are not unique to any specific organisation or industry, but affect all organisations.Organisational climate in particular is constantly challenged by changes impacting organisations today.Research design, approach and method: An organisational climate questionnaire was administered to a convenience sample of 696 employees from a population of 1453 employees working in three regions in which the organisation was operational. Confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses were used to investigate the structure of the climate model.Main findings: The revised 12-factor model (after the confirmatory factor analysis fitted the data best and the researchers therefore decided to proceed with the revised 12-factor model (11 dimensions for further analysis. A stepwise regression was conducted and nine dimensions of organisational climate were found to predict job satisfaction. The results indicated a strong positive correlation (r = 0.813, p< 0.01 between organisational climate and the dependent variable of job satisfaction.Practical implications: This study provided support for the view that line managers and human resource practitioners should be aware that different biographical groups have different needs that can influence their job satisfaction levels and different perceptions of the climate within the organisation and that this impacts on their behaviour.Contribution: The findings of this study indicated a

  9. The learning organisation and health care education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Abri, Rashid K; Al-Hashmi, Intisar S

    2007-12-01

    The 'Learning Organisation' is a concept first described by Peter Senge as an organisation where people continuously learn and enhance their capabilities to create. It consists of five main disciplines: team learning, shared vision, mental models, personal mastery and systems thinking. These disciplines are dynamic and interact with each other. System thinking is the cornerstone of a true learning organisation and is described as the discipline used to implement the disciplines. In a learning organisation, health care education aims to educate its members with up to date knowledge to produce competent and safe personnel, who can promote quality in health care services. In addition, there are some educational concepts and theoretical models, which are of relevance to the learning organisation, and can provide a framework for managerial decisions. The stages required to achieve the principles of a learning organisation will be described in detail. Moreover, in a proper culture which supports the learning organisation, members continuously learn to improve the environment and never remain passive recipients.

  10. Improving care coordination using organisational routines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prætorius, Thim

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to systematically apply theory of organisational routines to standardised care pathways. The explanatory power of routines is used to address open questions in the care pathway literature about their coordinating and organising role, the way they change and can be replicated, the way they are influenced by the organisation and the way they influence health care professionals. Theory of routines is systematically applied to care pathways in order to develop theoretically derived propositions. Care pathways mirror routines by being recurrent, collective and embedded and specific to an organisation. In particular, care pathways resemble standard operating procedures that can give rise to recurrent collective action patterns. In all, 11 propositions related to five categories are proposed by building on these insights: care pathways and coordination, change, replication, the organisation and health care professionals. Research limitations/implications - The paper is conceptual and uses care pathways as illustrative instances of hospital routines. The propositions provide a starting point for empirical research. The analysis highlights implications that health care professionals and managers have to consider in relation to coordination, change, replication, the way the organisation influences care pathways and the way care pathways influence health care professionals. Originality/value - Theory on organisational routines offers fundamental, yet unexplored, insights into hospital processes, including in particular care coordination.

  11. Crisis management teams in health organisations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canyon, Deon V

    2012-01-01

    Crisis management teams (CMT) are necessary to ensure adequate and appropriate crisis management planning and response to unforeseen, adverse events. This study investigated the existence of CMTs, the membership of CMTs, and the degree of training received by CMTs in Australian health and allied health organisations. This cross-sectional study draws on data provided by executive decision makers in a broad selection of health and allied health organisations. Crisis management teams were found in 44.2 per cent of the health-related organisations surveyed, which is ten per cent lower than the figure for business organisations. Membership of these CMTs was not ideal and did not conform to standard CMT membership profiles. Similarly, the extent of crisis management training in health-related organisations is 20 per cent lower than the figure for business organisations. If organisations do not become pro-active in their crisis management practices, the onus is on government to improve the situation through regulation and the provision of more physical, monetary and skill resources to ensure that the health services of Australia are sufficiently prepared to respond to adverse events.

  12. Benefits of team sport for organisations | Joubert | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Benefits of team sport for organisations. ... respect, commitment, friendships and communication between employees. The contributions that organisational team sport makes to an organisation are all requirements for an effective workforce ...

  13. Hierarchical video summarization for medical data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xingquan; Fan, Jianping; Elmagarmid, Ahmed K.; Aref, Walid G.

    2001-12-01

    To provide users with an overview of medical video content at various levels of abstraction which can be used for more efficient database browsing and access, a hierarchical video summarization strategy has been developed and is presented in this paper. To generate an overview, the key frames of a video are preprocessed to extract special frames (black frames, slides, clip art, sketch drawings) and special regions (faces, skin or blood-red areas). A shot grouping method is then applied to merge the spatially or temporally related shots into groups. The visual features and knowledge from the video shots are integrated to assign the groups into predefined semantic categories. Based on the video groups and their semantic categories, video summaries for different levels are constructed by group merging, hierarchical group clustering and semantic category selection. Based on this strategy, a user can select the layer of the summary to access. The higher the layer, the more concise the video summary; the lower the layer, the greater the detail contained in the summary.

  14. Learning technology and organisations: transformational impact?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Hall

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This collection of papers contributes to a wide and ongoing strand of interest in alternative learning technologies: how are digitally-enabled ways of working transforming organisations? In ‘transformation' we look for radical change, rather than just doing the same at a different scale. And in organisations we centre on educational institutions – across the full range of schooling, training, further and higher education – while recognising that conventional boundaries are increasingly broken as different kinds of organisations invest in digitally-enabled learning.

  15. Organisational IT managed from the shop floor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolmsten, Johan; Dittrich, Yvonne

    2015-01-01

    Modern organisations need to be able to adjust to changes in the environment, changes which are ever more rapid, and in doing so capitalise on the creativity and innovations of their employees. As suggested by Boulus-Rødje and Bjørn (Chap. 14), information technology (IT) applications today...... are likely to take the form of complex, integrated infrastructures, supporting collaboration within and across organisations. This places requirements on the IT infrastructure. As the work practices within an organisation change, the supporting infrastructure also needs to evolve....

  16. Key variables of organisation design in servitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreye, Melanie; Jensen, Per Langaa

    2014-01-01

    Manufacturing companies offering additional service with their products need to change their organisation design to accommodate for the service business. Using the star model, this paper investigates organisation design in terms of strategy, structure, processes, rewards and people as a response...... to external environment to ensure performance. We present a case in the European renewable energy sector. The findings show three key variables: (i) processes need to enable information flow between business departments; (ii) servitization strategy needs to be translated into service-centred activities......, and (iii) the parts of organisation design need to be aligned to prevent inconsistencies in service provision....

  17. Retour sur les images d’organisations

    OpenAIRE

    Audigier, Nathalie; Boutin, Éric; Bryon-Portet, Céline; Buisson, Lysiane; Cousineau, Marie-Marthe; Cousserand, Isabelle; Dilliere-Brooks, Stéphanie; Hamel, Sylvie; Hardy, Mylène; Heller, Thomas; Laborde, Aurélie; Lagacé, Martine; Lenay Blason, Alexandra; Le Moënne, Christian; Liu, Pei

    2011-01-01

    Ce numéro 34 de Communication & Organisation est consacré aux approches communicationnelles de l’image des organisations. Les contributions portent sur des aspects théoriques de définition de l’image, sur son application aux organisations, sur des aspects plus méthodologiques, et enfin sur les enjeux critiques qui entourent les pratiques organisationnelles centrées sur l’image. Depuis les années 1970, ce sont surtout les sciences de gestion et la littérature managériale qui ont produit plusie...

  18. Hierarchical topic modeling with nested hierarchical Dirichlet process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-qun DING; Shan-ping LI; Zhen ZHANG; Bin SHEN

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with the statistical modeling of latent topic hierarchies in text corpora. The height of the topic tree is assumed as fixed, while the number of topics on each level as unknown a priori and to be inferred from data. Taking a nonparametric Bayesian approach to this problem, we propose a new probabilistic generative model based on the nested hierarchical Dirichlet process (nHDP) and present a Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling algorithm for the inference of the topic tree structure as welt as the word distribution of each topic and topic distribution of each document. Our theoretical analysis and experiment results show that this model can produce a more compact hierarchical topic structure and captures more free-grained topic relationships compared to the hierarchical latent Dirichlet allocation model.

  19. Realising new organisational forms. Integrating design and development in the change process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Limburg, D.O.; Jackson, P.; Suomi, R.

    2002-01-01

    As the growth in teleworking, 'virtual teams', and 'virtual enterprises' has shown, the economic landscape is increasingly characterised by an ability to work across spatial and organisational boundaries. Only with this redesign of working methods and business processes can the promise of the

  20. System Constellations as a Tool Supporting Organisational Learning and Change Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkenkrahe, Marcus

    2008-01-01

    Originally developed in the context of family therapy, system constellations are introduced using an organisational learning and system theoretical framework. Constellations are systemic group interventions using a spatial representation of the system elements. They correspond to deutero-learning processes and use higher-order systemic thinking.…

  1. Application of growing hierarchical SOM for visualisation of network forensics traffic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomo, E J; North, J; Elizondo, D; Luque, R M; Watson, T

    2012-08-01

    Digital investigation methods are becoming more and more important due to the proliferation of digital crimes and crimes involving digital evidence. Network forensics is a research area that gathers evidence by collecting and analysing network traffic data logs. This analysis can be a difficult process, especially because of the high variability of these attacks and large amount of data. Therefore, software tools that can help with these digital investigations are in great demand. In this paper, a novel approach to analysing and visualising network traffic data based on growing hierarchical self-organising maps (GHSOM) is presented. The self-organising map (SOM) has been shown to be successful for the analysis of highly-dimensional input data in data mining applications as well as for data visualisation in a more intuitive and understandable manner. However, the SOM has some problems related to its static topology and its inability to represent hierarchical relationships in the input data. The GHSOM tries to overcome these limitations by generating a hierarchical architecture that is automatically determined according to the input data and reflects the inherent hierarchical relationships among them. Moreover, the proposed GHSOM has been modified to correctly treat the qualitative features that are present in the traffic data in addition to the quantitative features. Experimental results show that this approach can be very useful for a better understanding of network traffic data, making it easier to search for evidence of attacks or anomalous behaviour in a network environment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Attitudes Toward Workplace Mobbing in Slovenian Research Organisations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brigita Horvat; Milan Pagon

    2012-01-01

    .... Low willingness to report the violator, lenient discipline sanctions and the absence of proper organisational rules create favourable conditions for workplace mobbing in Slovenian public research organisations...

  3. Hierarchical manifold learning for regional image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Kanwal K; Rao, Anil; Price, Anthony N; Wolz, Robin; Hajnal, Joseph V; Rueckert, Daniel

    2014-02-01

    We present a novel method of hierarchical manifold learning which aims to automatically discover regional properties of image datasets. While traditional manifold learning methods have become widely used for dimensionality reduction in medical imaging, they suffer from only being able to consider whole images as single data points. We extend conventional techniques by additionally examining local variations, in order to produce spatially-varying manifold embeddings that characterize a given dataset. This involves constructing manifolds in a hierarchy of image patches of increasing granularity, while ensuring consistency between hierarchy levels. We demonstrate the utility of our method in two very different settings: 1) to learn the regional correlations in motion within a sequence of time-resolved MR images of the thoracic cavity; 2) to find discriminative regions of 3-D brain MR images associated with neurodegenerative disease.

  4. Improving care coordination using organisational routines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prætorius, Thim

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This conceptual article systematically applies theory of organisational routines to standardised care pathways. The explanatory power of routines is used to address open questions in the care pathway literature about their coordinating and organising role, the way they change and can......: care pathways and (a) coordination, (b) change, (c) replication, (d) the organisation and (e) health care professionals. Research limitations/implications: The article is conceptual and uses care pathways as illustrative instances of hospital routines. The propositions provide a starting point...... for empirical research. Practical implications: The analysis highlights implications that health care professionals and managers have to consider in relation to coordination, change, replication, the way the organisation influences care pathways and the way care pathways influence health care professionals...

  5. Economic Agents, Ethics and International Economic Organisations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno S. Sergi

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The last sixty years have seen international economic organisations maintain a position at the forefront of promoting economic growth and socioeconomic development. These organisations have not achieved as much against certain benchmarks, and several observers have accused them of being unqualified to meet the needs of the poor, and even found them guilty of something worse, such as famine and disease. Although these organisations have organisational behaviour and skills, many of their funded projects lack forcefulness to such an extent that they should only be answerable through achieving certain economic facts by way of ethics and morals. We design ethics and morals as two interconnected concepts, and the rationale that binds all economic agents to their respective obligations must be interpreted by effective courses of action dictated by economic realities.

  6. Participatory Management And Organisational Effectiveness Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Participatory Management And Organisational Effectiveness Of Secondary School System In Rivers State Of Nigeria. ... Journal of Research in National Development ... The study investigated Participatory Management and Organizational ...

  7. CERN’s new organisational structure

    CERN Document Server

    2009-01-01

    CERN’s new organisational structure was made public on 1st December 2008. All the changes are explained in detail on a new web portal. As you learned on 1st December last year, CERN’s new organisational structure took effect on 1st January, under the leadership of new Director-General, Rolf Heuer. To explain the new structure, the Human Resources (HR) Department set up a Web portal in December. This portal (NICE user name and password required) displays the new organisation chart and explains the differences between the old and new structures. A "Frequently Asked Questions" page provides additional information. If you don’t find the answer to your specific question, a discussion forum is also available. You can obtain the contact details of your Human Resources Advisor by clicking on a link that takes you to a dedicated web page. Finally, all documents pertaining to the new organisational structure, including powerpoint pres...

  8. Social Effects of Organisational Restructuring on Employee ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    First Lady

    the retailing industry found that older employees were more likely to experience ..... goes without much saying that research study on organisational restructuring ... Dzwanda, B. (2007). The Restructuring and Privatization Process. Paper.

  9. Hierarchical imaging of the human knee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Georg; Götz, Christian; Deyhle, Hans; Müller-Gerbl, Magdalena; Zanette, Irene; Zdora, Marie-Christine; Khimchenko, Anna; Thalmann, Peter; Rack, Alexander; Müller, Bert

    2016-10-01

    Among the clinically relevant imaging techniques, computed tomography (CT) reaches the best spatial resolution. Sub-millimeter voxel sizes are regularly obtained. For investigations on true micrometer level lab-based μCT has become gold standard. The aim of the present study is the hierarchical investigation of a human knee post mortem using hard X-ray μCT. After the visualization of the entire knee using a clinical CT with a spatial resolution on the sub-millimeter range, a hierarchical imaging study was performed using a laboratory μCT system nanotom m. Due to the size of the whole knee the pixel length could not be reduced below 65 μm. These first two data sets were directly compared after a rigid registration using a cross-correlation algorithm. The μCT data set allowed an investigation of the trabecular structures of the bones. The further reduction of the pixel length down to 25 μm could be achieved by removing the skin and soft tissues and measuring the tibia and the femur separately. True micrometer resolution could be achieved after extracting cylinders of several millimeters diameters from the two bones. The high resolution scans revealed the mineralized cartilage zone including the tide mark line as well as individual calcified chondrocytes. The visualization of soft tissues including cartilage, was arranged by X-ray grating interferometry (XGI) at ESRF and Diamond Light Source. Whereas the high-energy measurements at ESRF allowed the simultaneous visualization of soft and hard tissues, the low-energy results from Diamond Light Source made individual chondrocytes within the cartilage visual.

  10. Static Correctness of Hierarchical Procedures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff

    1990-01-01

    A system of hierarchical, fully recursive types in a truly imperative language allows program fragments written for small types to be reused for all larger types. To exploit this property to enable type-safe hierarchical procedures, it is necessary to impose a static requirement on procedure calls....... We introduce an example language and prove the existence of a sound requirement which preserves static correctness while allowing hierarchical procedures. This requirement is further shown to be optimal, in the sense that it imposes as few restrictions as possible. This establishes the theoretical...... basis for a general type hierarchy with static type checking, which enables first-order polymorphism combined with multiple inheritance and specialization in a language with assignments. We extend the results to include opaque types. An opaque version of a type is different from the original but has...

  11. A Multiple Source Approach to Organisational Justice: The Role of the Organisation, Supervisors, Coworkers, and Customers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustin Molina

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The vast research on organisational justice has focused on the organisation and the supervisor. This study aims to further this line of research by integrating two trends within organisational justice research: the overall approach to justice perceptions and the multifoci perspective of justice judgments. Specifically, this study aims to explore the effects of two additional sources of justice, coworker-focused justice and customer-focused justice, on relevant employees’ outcomes—burnout, turnover intentions, job satisfaction, and workplace deviance— while controlling the effect of organisation-focused justice and supervisor-focused justice. Given the increased importance attributed to coworkers and customers, we expect coworker-focused justice and customer-focused justice to explain incremental variance in the measured outcomes, above and beyond the effects of organisation-focused justice and supervisor-focused justice. Participants will be university students from Austria and Germany employed by service organisations. Data analysis will be conducted using structural equation modeling.

  12. Intra-organisational accounting during negotiation processes for inter-organisational control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Morten

    To date the literature on management and management accounting within inter-organisational relationships has mainly focussed on managing the interface between the supplier and the buyer. In contrast to most previous research, this study examines the internal practices of a company engaged in inter-organisational...... relationships. It addresses the question of how intra-organisational management accounting practices affect the ability to conduct inter-organisational relationships. A qualitative case study is used to gather information from an electronics company. The company enters its inter-organisational relationships....... The study concludes that an important role of management accounting is to reveal the intra-organisational cost consequences of proposals made by suppliers during negotiation processes. Thereby cost information becomes an integrated part of the counter-proposals generated and actively used during...

  13. Norsk Hydro's R&D organisation

    OpenAIRE

    Mossige, Eldri Coll

    2011-01-01

    The problem definition for this master thesis is formulated in collaboration with Hydro representatives, and is related to Hydro’s CROC project. The thesis aims to critically review Hydro’s R&D organisation, and reveal factors which hinder synergies from being realised, and innovation to take place. A proposal for improvement has also been prepared.A broad literature study on the topic “Radical innovation in mature organisations” provides the theoretical foundation for...

  14. Identity Building in Organisations: Proactive Capability Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard

    2002-01-01

    Identity building in organisations is often viewed as legitimacy of value systems of the organisation. Based on empirical studies the task of this article is to argue that such a legitimacy approach risks failing in the longer perspective, if the proactive capability development is neglected....... The participatory scenario method presented in this article is one of the possible methods to enhance identity building based on proactive capability development....

  15. The relationship between organisational communication and perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marynissen, H M F

    2011-01-01

    Both researchers and managers search for the most appropriate form of organisational communication. The aim of such an organisational communication is to influence the receivers' perception to confirm, adapt or change behaviour according to the sender's intention. This paper argues that to influence the receivers' perception, a specific form of communication that is embedded in a specific organisational culture is required. It also demands prior knowledge of the existing organisational schemata and the current perception concerning the topic that has to be communicated. The rationale is that three obstacles hinder the objectives of traditional communication strategies to influence perception according to the sender's objectives. The first challenge is that a receiver of a certain message never garners one single, clearly pronounced message conveyed by one single person. Yet, few studies are based on multiple messages from various sources. This makes most of the communication strategies in use obsolete. The second strain is the dual mode of thinking that forms organisational members' perceptions: the heuristic and the cogitative (Taleb, 2010). Most organisational communication theories are based on the paradigm in which receivers of information process this information in a rational way, while research in the field of neurobiology (Lehrer, 2009) indicates that rationality is dominated by emotions. The third difficulty is that organisational members constrain to well-established, ingrained schemas (Labianca et al., 2000; Balogun and Johnson, 2004). Based on these existing schemas, the scattered information from multiple sources, and the inability to process that information through cognitive reasoning, organisational members construct perceptions that are not in line with the objectives of the sender's communication. This article reviews different communication theories, points out key concepts in the literature on individual and collective perceptions, and suggests

  16. Organisational and strategic communication research: european perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, Gisela Marques Pereira; Somerville, Ian; Melo, Ana

    2013-01-01

    Série: Pesquisas em comunicação (Excerto) Created in 2006, the Organisational and Strategic Communication Section of the European Communication Research and Education Association (ECREA) aims to promote an active and critical dialogue among scholars involved in the study of Organisational and Strategic Communication (OSC) and to propose new research topics and debate concepts relevant to the interdisciplinary growth of this field of studies. At the 4th international ECREA Co...

  17. Using Intelligent Agents to understand organisational behaviour

    CERN Document Server

    Celia, Helen; Robinson, Mark; Siebers, Peer-Olaf; Aickelin, Uwe; Sprigg, Christine

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces two ongoing research projects which seek to apply computer modelling techniques in order to simulate human behaviour within organisations. Previous research in other disciplines has suggested that complex social behaviours are governed by relatively simple rules which, when identified, can be used to accurately model such processes using computer technology. The broad objective of our research is to develop a similar capability within organisational psychology.

  18. Organisational learning is crystallised into artefacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Olav Wedege

    1996-01-01

    In this note I understand organisational learning in terms of manifest crystallisation of collective experience into artefacts, and I attempt to integrate an engineering and an emancipatory perspective. A Danish music festival serves as an example.......In this note I understand organisational learning in terms of manifest crystallisation of collective experience into artefacts, and I attempt to integrate an engineering and an emancipatory perspective. A Danish music festival serves as an example....

  19. Learning Organisations: A Literature Review and Critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Eylon and Bramberger, 2000; Greasely, Bryman, Dainty, Price , Naismith and Soetento, 2008). Similarly, the learning-through-empowerment literature...Critical Essay, 3rd ed. Random House , New York. Bierly, P., Kessler, E. and Christensen, E.W. (2000) ‘Organisational Learning’ in Journal of...373. Field, L. and Ford, B. (1995) Managing Organisational Learning: From Rhetoric to Reality, Longman Australia, Melbourne . Filion, N. and

  20. Leading organisational learning in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, J S; Edmondson, A C

    2002-03-01

    As healthcare organisations seek to enhance safety and quality in a changing environment, organisational learning practices can help to improve existing skills and knowledge and provide opportunities to discover better ways of working together. Leadership at executive, middle management, and local levels is needed to create a sense of shared purpose. This shared vision should help to build effective relationships, facilitate connections between action and reflection, and strengthen the desirable elements of the healthcare culture while modifying outdated assumptions, procedures, and structures.

  1. Economic and Organisational Wisdom for Asian Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arup BARMAN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Asian Century is rich and already 14 years old. Today, Asia is in the middle of a historic transformation which has brought both challenges and opportunities. To meet these challenges, Asian leaders need to devise bold and innovative national policies for pursuing avenues for regional and global cooperation. In the similar way organisation and business in Asia will transform. This transformative whirlpool calls the Asian private sector and public sector organisations for absorption of new wisdom, values and principles in place of 20th century’s management. Overall, the capacity to respond to the changing global economic landscape through flexibility and adaptivness will carry a high premium. This paper delve the issues how Asian Organisations have already been used the wisdom during the global chaos. Deriving from the examples of Asia in the midst of global chaos in many points of time, this present paper attempts to re-focus on organisational wisdom of commitment and ability for Asian organisation, modernization, governance and helping to retool institutions, for enhancing transparency, and finally to develop accountability for organisational resilience and survival.

  2. Exploring inertia in a typical state organisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. J. Louw

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Those organisations which do not change according to environmental pressures, suffer from organisational inertia. The purpose of this study is to explore the manifestation of organisational inertia in the target organisation. The target population for this study was a group of trainees, representing the geographic and demographic levels of a particular state department. In South Africa, surveys of this nature were only executed in the corporate sector. The results indicate that organisational inertia is a phenomenon that affects both corporate and governmental organisations. Opsomming Organisasies wat nie ooreenkomstig omgewingsdruk verander nie, ly aan organisasietraagheid. Die doel van die studie is om organisasietraagheid te konseptualiseer en die manifestasie daarvan in die teikenorganisasie te ondersoek. Die teikenpopulasie bestaan uit ’n groep kursusgangers wat die demografiese en geografiese samestelling van ‘n tipiese staatsdepartement verteenwoordig. In Suid -Afrika is navorsing van hierdie aard nog net in die korporatiewe sektor uitgevoer. Die resultate toon aan dat organisasietraagheid ‘n faktor is wat beide die korporatiewe omgewing en staatsorganisasies beïnvloed.

  3. Innovation and organisational performance: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tebogo Gilbert Sethibe

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an attempt to consolidate the published scientific knowledge about the impact of leadership styles on the relationship between innovation and organisational performance. Concepts, statements and conceptual frameworks were used as structure to analyse the body of scientific knowledge. After consulting 31 major research databases using the systematic literature review methodology, only seven journals articles that examined the link between leadership, innovation and organisational performance were identified. The synthesis of the journal articles revealed (a that consensus exists among researchers as far as the relevant concepts are concerned; (b that most agree on the definition of leadership and innovation but that a uniform understanding of what constitutes organisational performance is lacking; and (c that conceptual models are too simplistic and do not consider mediator variables or multiple financial criteria measures. The findings further reveal that innovation is significantly and positively related to superior organisational performance, and that, although transformational leadership style is significantly and positively related to innovation, transactional leadership style is more appropriate when the aim is to instil a culture of innovation. Transformational leadership style, by contrast, is mostly associated with organisational performance. In addition, the findings further reveal that none of the studies investigate the mediating effect of the nature of innovation (incremental and radical on the relationship between leadership and organisational performance, and that none of the studies use the objective measures of financial performance such as ROA, ROE, price/earnings (P/E and Tobin’s Q calculated from annual financial reports.

  4. Organisational Social Capital through Corporate Social Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.H. Niţu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to identify the correlation between the corporate social responsibility performance and the Organisational Social Capital. Inductively, through grounded theory, this paper uses secondary data to develop a theoretical model which presents the relationship between the following concepts: business codes, stakeholders, Corporate Social Performance (CSP and Organisational Social Capital (OSC. This study brings together two main areas of research, namely: Organisational Social Capital and business ethics. This represents a gap in the literature, to which this research will address. Three propositions are put forward and discussed using secondary data collection methods. The findings suggest that there is a strong correlation between the characteristics which improve the quality of organisation-stakeholders relationship and the effectiveness of implementing business codes and, therefore, the increasing Corporate Social Performance. The proposed ethical framework has, at the same time, a similar effect by incrementing Organisational Social Capital, because it shares similar features with the relation between organisation-stakeholders, business codes and CSP.

  5. The relationship between organisational climate and employee satisfaction in a South African information and technology organisation

    OpenAIRE

    Monia L. Castro; Nico Martins

    2010-01-01

    Orientation: Organisational climate and job satisfaction are distinct but related constructs, and both appear to influence employees’ understanding of the work environment and their level of job satisfaction.Research purpose: The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between organisational climate and job satisfaction to determine whether employees’ perceptions of the work environment influence their level of job satisfaction.Motivation for the study: Organisations are facin...

  6. Structural integrity of hierarchical composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Paggi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Interface mechanical problems are of paramount importance in engineering and materials science. Traditionally, due to the complexity of modelling their mechanical behaviour, interfaces are often treated as defects and their features are not explored. In this study, a different approach is illustrated, where the interfaces play an active role in the design of innovative hierarchical composites and are fundamental for their structural integrity. Numerical examples regarding cutting tools made of hierarchical cellular polycrystalline materials are proposed, showing that tailoring of interface properties at the different scales is the way to achieve superior mechanical responses that cannot be obtained using standard materials

  7. [The current and future organisational structure of the OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo León, F; Ruiz Mercader, J; Sabater Sánchez, R; Rodríguez Ferri, E F; Crespo Azofra, L

    2003-12-01

    The authors analyse the organisational structure of the OIE (World organisation for animal health), highlighting the roles of the Central Bureau, the Specialist Commissions, Regional Commissions, working groups and ad hoc groups, Regional Representations, Reference Laboratories and Collaborating Centres. The paper also includes some suggestions as to how the OIE could work more closely with its 'customers', that is, the Member Countries. These suggestions are based on current theories of organisational flexibility, and take into account not only the current organisational structure of the OIE, but also the Strategic Plan and the Working Plan, which were adopted at the 69th General Session of the OIE International Committee in 2001.

  8. Hierarchic Theory of Complex Systems (biosystems, colloids) self-organization and osmosis

    CERN Document Server

    Kaivarainen, A

    2000-01-01

    Summary of 'Hierarchic theory of condensed matter' Introduction 1. Protein domain mesoscopic organization 2. Quantum background of lipid domain organization in biomembranes 3. Hierarchic approach to theory of solutions and colloid systems 4. Distant solvent-mediated interaction between macromolecules 5. Spatial self-organization in the water-macromolecular systems 6. Properties of [bisolvent - polymer system] 7. Osmosis and solvent activity. Traditional and mesoscopic approach

  9. A Multilevel Secure Relation-Hierarchical Data Model for a Secure DBMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A multilevel secure relation-hierarchical data model formultilevel secure database is extended from the relation-hierarchical data model in single level environment in this paper. Based on the model, an upper-lower layer relational integrity is presented after we analyze and eliminate the covert channels caused by the database integrity. Two SQL statements are extended to process polyinstantiation in the multilevel secure environment. The system based on the multilevel secure relation-hierarchical data model is capable of integratively storing and manipulating complicated objects (e.g., multilevel spatial data) and conventional data (e.g., integer, real number and character string) in multilevel secure database.

  10. Using hierarchical linear models to test differences in Swedish results from OECD’s PISA 2003: Integrated and subject-specific science education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Åström

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The possible effects of different organisations of the science curriculum in schools participating in PISA 2003 are tested with a hierarchical linear model (HLM of two levels. The analysis is based on science results. Swedish schools are free to choose how they organise the science curriculum. They may choose to work subject-specifically (with Biology, Chemistry and Physics, integrated (with Science or to mix these two. In this study, all three ways of organising science classes in compulsory school are present to some degree. None of the different ways of organising science education displayed statistically significant better student results in scientific literacy as measured in PISA 2003. The HLM model used variables of gender, country of birth, home language, preschool attendance, an economic, social and cultural index as well as the teaching organisation.

  11. Sensory Hierarchical Organization and Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skapof, Jerome

    The purpose of this study was to judge the viability of an operational approach aimed at assessing response styles in reading using the hypothesis of sensory hierarchical organization. A sample of 103 middle-class children from a New York City public school, between the ages of five and seven, took part in a three phase experiment. Phase one…

  12. Memory Stacking in Hierarchical Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westö, Johan; May, Patrick J C; Tiitinen, Hannu

    2016-02-01

    Robust representations of sounds with a complex spectrotemporal structure are thought to emerge in hierarchically organized auditory cortex, but the computational advantage of this hierarchy remains unknown. Here, we used computational models to study how such hierarchical structures affect temporal binding in neural networks. We equipped individual units in different types of feedforward networks with local memory mechanisms storing recent inputs and observed how this affected the ability of the networks to process stimuli context dependently. Our findings illustrate that these local memories stack up in hierarchical structures and hence allow network units to exhibit selectivity to spectral sequences longer than the time spans of the local memories. We also illustrate that short-term synaptic plasticity is a potential local memory mechanism within the auditory cortex, and we show that it can bring robustness to context dependence against variation in the temporal rate of stimuli, while introducing nonlinearities to response profiles that are not well captured by standard linear spectrotemporal receptive field models. The results therefore indicate that short-term synaptic plasticity might provide hierarchically structured auditory cortex with computational capabilities important for robust representations of spectrotemporal patterns.

  13. Palliative care. Some organisational considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welshman, A

    2005-01-01

    consideration. Another important issue faced daily by palliative care physicians is the broad number of chronic conditions which could make use of opioids. Severe cancer pain is the most obvious example of an appropriate use of opioids, but hardly the only one. The North American Chronic Pain Association of Canada (NACPAC) advocates the use of opioids for a wide range of conditions causing severe chronic pain, including lower back pain, inflammatory bowel disease, migraines, AIDS, multiple sclerosis and arthritis. Concerns regarding under treatment of chronic pain have captured the attention of patient advocacy groups, policy makers and scientific organisations. Misconceptions of opioid laws, negative social stigma and lack of valid prescribing alternatives to overcome this, together with paucity of formal provider education confound the issue. Much education needs to be done before opioids will be seen as a safe and reasonable treatment for chronic pain here in Italy.

  14. Vietnamese Civic Organisations: Supporters of or Obstacles to Further Democratisation? Results from an Empirical Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Wischermann

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In political science and in development cooperation, civic organisations (COs under authoritarian rule are usually seen as supporters of processes that move towards democratisation. However, these organisations are sometimes criticised for their support of those in power. Within this context, critics refer to the fact that many COs have, for example, authoritarian intra-organisational structures. This characteristic clearly limits their potential to be supporters of democratisation processes. In this paper, we proceed from the assumption that Vietnamese COs can be both supporters of democracy and organisations that help to maintain authoritarian rule; they can sometimes even be both at the same time. COs are “polyvalent” (Kößler. More concretely, what COs are and which role(s they play in the political system is mainly but not exclusively dependent on the impact the state has on them, and is at the same time dependent on the effects that those organisations have on the state.The results from an empirical survey, supported by the German Research Council (2013–2016 and carried out as a co-operation between the Institute of Asian Studies/GIGA Hamburg and the Vietnam Academy of Social Sciences, suggest the following:- Most Vietnamese COs are hierarchically structured, if not organised in an authoritarian way. They are not “schools of democracy”, in the sense of Tocqueville.- Most Vietnamese COs that have engaged in the welfare provision sector, either willingly or unwillingly, have helped to foster the foundations of authoritarianism.-In the field of economic policies, the COs invited by the state to participate in and contribute to the formulation of policies do help, overall, to secure existing power structures, even though these organisations also help change various economic policies and even though their activities produce some democracy-promoting effects.- In the policy field of gender equality, women’s rights, and rights of

  15. Organisational innovation and how it challenges management theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerding, Allan Næs; Rasmussen, Jørgen Gulddahl

    2007-01-01

    The present paper is a contribution to the part of the MEADOW project that deals with dynamics at the level of organisations. The paper suggests that dynamics at the level of organisations can be analysed in terms of organisational innovation as something more than mere organisational change....... Developing a concept of organisational innovation, the paper suggests that organisational innovation can be analysed in terms of how individual and organisational learning combine with the reorientation of management perceptions, and it suggests that organisational innovation is about redirecting, speeding...... up and slowing down new forms of organisational activities. Subsequently, the paper provides an overview of management theory, proposing that the present state of management theory is one where the traditional dichotomy between a rational and a natural approach to organisations has been bridged...

  16. Responses to Climate Change: Exploring Organisational Learning across Internationally Networked Organisations for Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Emily; Osbahr, Henny

    2010-01-01

    Drawing from the organisational learning and governance literature, this paper assesses four internationally networked governmental and non-governmental organisations in the UK addressing climate change. We analyse how those concerned understand the climate change crisis, what mechanisms are put in place to address information flows, and what…

  17. Organisational Learning and the Organisational Life Cycle: The Differential Aspects of an Integrated Relationship in SMEs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Steven; Gray, David E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to relate the practice of organisational learning in small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) to the organisational life cycle (OLC), contextualising the differential aspects of an integrated relationship between them. Design/methodology/approach: It is a mixed-method study with two consecutive phases. In…

  18. Responses to Climate Change: Exploring Organisational Learning across Internationally Networked Organisations for Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Emily; Osbahr, Henny

    2010-01-01

    Drawing from the organisational learning and governance literature, this paper assesses four internationally networked governmental and non-governmental organisations in the UK addressing climate change. We analyse how those concerned understand the climate change crisis, what mechanisms are put in place to address information flows, and what…

  19. Strategic Orientation and Organisational Culture in Polish Public Organisations: Insights from the Miles and Snow Typology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wronka-Pośpiech Martyna

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Polish public organisations are often perceived as having strong bureaucratic orientation, avoiding both change and risk. However, in the last decade a distinct change in the management model of public organisations can be noticed. Public sector becomes an open ground for mergers and partnerships, entrepreneurial leadership, diversified services and commercialization (Golensky and DeRuiter 1999; Zimmerman and Dart, 1998; Pollitt and Bouckaert, 2004; Walker, 2013]. Public organisations embrace these strategies from the for-profit sector in order to manage change and to be effective. Most importantly, public organisations are adopting these frameworks in order to survive the changing operating environment, including changes in the level of government funding. Our paper draws on the Miles and Snow (1978 typology of generic strategies - prospectors, defenders, analysers, and reactors - to identify different organisational strategies within public organisations providing social services in Poland. In order to assess organisational culture we used the most widespread and used in many empirical studies Cameron and Quinn’s model (2003, the Competing Values Framework (CVF, from which four cultures - adhocracy, clan, market and hierarchy - emerge. The choice of these two providers of social services was dictated by our conviction, that these organisations are critical both for the national economy and for mitigating, counteracting and preventing social exclusion.

  20. The Strength of Organisational Culture: Organisational Performance in South African Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bipath, Keshni; Adeyemo, Kolawole Samuel

    2014-01-01

    One of the more frequently cited cultural dimensions within the field of cultural research is that of cultural strength (Cameron & Ettington, 1998). Early published works on organisational culture argue that there is an absolute need for a "strong" culture for organisations to be effective. This study has examined the contradiction…

  1. Action Research and Organisational Learning: A Norwegian Approach to Doing Action Research in Complex Organisations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eikeland, Olav

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present a specific approach to the practice of action research "in complex organisations". Clearly, there are many approaches to the challenge of doing action research in organisations; approaches that are, and also must be, quite context dependent and specific. But my purpose is neither to give an overview nor a…

  2. Human Resource Development in Construction Organisations: An Example of a "Chaordic" Learning Organisation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiden, Ani B.; Dainty, Andrew R. J.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The concept of the learning organisation (LO) is associated with an advanced approach to human resource development (HRD) characterised by an ethos of self-responsibility and self-development. The learning climate that this engenders is supported by temporary organisational structures responsive to environmental change. The purpose of his…

  3. Inter-organisational response to disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paturas, James L; Smith, Stewart R; Albanese, Joseph; Waite, Geraldine

    2016-01-01

    Inter-organisational communication failures during times of real-world disasters impede the collaborative response of agencies responsible for ensuring the public's health and safety. In the best of circumstances, communications across jurisdictional boundaries are ineffective. In times of crisis, when communities are grappling with the impact of a disaster, communications become critically important and more complex. Important factors for improving inter-organisational communications are critical thinking and problem-solving skills; inter-organisational relationships; as well as strategic, tactical and operational communications. Improving communication, critical thinking, problem-solving and decision-making requires a review of leadership skills. This discussion begins with an analysis of the existing disaster management research and moves to an examination of the importance of inter-organisational working relationships. Before a successful resolution of a disaster by multiple levels of first responders, the group of organisations must have a foundation of trust, collegiality, flexibility, expertise, openness, relational networking and effective communications. Leaders must also be prepared to improve leadership skills through continual development in each of these foundational areas.

  4. Hierarchical production planning model in flexible job shop including a preemption and sequence-dependent setup times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Osorio Gómez

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Production planning and control are complex problems for manufacturing organisations. Hierarchical production planning and control is one way to address the problem as it can reduce its complexity and reach good solutions in reasonable computational time. This paper presents a hierarchical approach to resolving production programming in a flexible job shop configuration; this problem includes pre-emption and sequence-dependent setup times. Al-though non-optimal (as expected, good solutions were obtained as shown in the validation of the method.

  5. Organisational Communication, The Panacea For Improved Labour Relations

    OpenAIRE

    Dupe Adesubomi Abolade

    2015-01-01

    This paper examined the importance of organisational communication to overall effective labour relations. It looked at organisational communication and its role in labour relations between the parties involved in Labour relations for better business procedures and relationships. It explained the importance of organisational communication in enhancing better labour relations within the organisation and with people outside the organisation. It enumerated the various groups that are involved in ...

  6. GAMES OF INNOVATION: THE ROLES OF NONPROFIT ORGANISATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    MARGARET DALZIEL

    2007-01-01

    Games of innovation involve four types of organisational players: firms, governments, universities, and nonprofit organisations. Of the four, nonprofit organisations are the least well understood. To capture the contributions of all types of organisational players, I adopt the perspective of a focal firm and consider the roles that other organisations play with respect to its ability to innovate. I introduce the roles of institutional enabler and institutional balancer, in which another organ...

  7. Work-family conflict and enrichment in nurses: between job demands, perceived organisational support and work-family backlash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghislieri, Chiara; Gatti, Paola; Molino, Monica; Cortese, Claudio G

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated how work relationships (perceived organisational support, supervisor and co-worker work-family backlash) and job demands (workload, emotional dissonance) can interact with work-family conflict and work-family enrichment. Despite the extensive literature on the work-family interface, few studies on the nursing profession have considered the role of job demands and work relationships, focusing on both the positive and negative side of the work-family interface. The study involved a sample of 500 nurses working in an Italian hospital. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were used to test hypotheses. Analyses showed that work-family conflict has a positive relationship with job demands and supervisor backlash, and a negative relationship with perceived organisational support. Work-family enrichment was found to have a negative relationship with job demands and a positive relationship with perceived organisational support. No significant relationships were found between work-family enrichment and both backlash dimensions. The study confirmed the importance of promoting a balance between job demands and resources in order to create favourable conditions for work-family enrichment and to prevent work-family conflict. The findings suggest that it may be advisable for health-care organisations to invest in measures at individual, team and organisational levels, specifically in training and counselling for nurses and supervisors. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Hierarchical Prisoner's Dilemma in Hierarchical Public-Goods Game

    CERN Document Server

    Fujimoto, Yuma; Kaneko, Kunihiko

    2016-01-01

    The dilemma in cooperation is one of the major concerns in game theory. In a public-goods game, each individual pays a cost for cooperation, or to prevent defection, and receives a reward from the collected cost in a group. Thus, defection is beneficial for each individual, while cooperation is beneficial for the group. Now, groups (say, countries) consisting of individual players also play games. To study such a multi-level game, we introduce a hierarchical public-goods (HPG) game in which two groups compete for finite resources by utilizing costs collected from individuals in each group. Analyzing this HPG game, we found a hierarchical prisoner's dilemma, in which groups choose the defection policy (say, armaments) as a Nash strategy to optimize each group's benefit, while cooperation optimizes the total benefit. On the other hand, for each individual within a group, refusing to pay the cost (say, tax) is a Nash strategy, which turns to be a cooperation policy for the group, thus leading to a hierarchical d...

  9. The Organisation of Innovative Activities Across Industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drejer, Ina; Leiponen, Aija

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the organisation of innovation across sectors in Denmark and Finland. First, patterns of innovative activity within manufacturing and services are identified though applying factor analysis on firm-level innovation survey data from the two countries. The analysis......, the relation between innovation modes and innovation outcome are investigated through regression analysis. The analysis confirms that the way innovation is organised matters for outcome, in terms of type of innovation, as well as in terms of share of sales stemming from innovation. Finally, we explore whether...... innovation modes are aligned with industry classifications, as it is assumed in the original work on technological regimes. Contrary to these assumptions we find that industries by no means are uniform in terms of organisation of innovation; in most cases two or three regimes are represented in a single...

  10. Organisational Learning: Positioning Selves and Creating Meaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elkjær, Bente

    In this paper, I report from a study of an organisation in the midst of a major restructuring from being a family oriented business to becoming a global player.      This seemed an excellent site to explore how practices may change in organisations. At first I was only able to hear two well...... that change of practices may unfold as creation and re-creation of meaning and as such as organisational learning.......-known stories about changes - a ‘for' and an ‘against' changes. A closer look at the data, however, also made it possible to detect a third story, a ‘yes, but' story. In this latter story, it was possible to be both ‘for' changes and to question (be ‘against') how these were being carried out. All three stories...

  11. Preparedness organisations at Nordic nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Droeivoldsmo, A.; Porsmyr, J.; Nystad, E. (Institute for Energy Technology (IFE), Halden (Norway))

    2011-08-15

    The report presents an overview of Emergency Preparedness Organisations (EPO) in Sweden, Finland and Norway and presentations of insights from a study of the staff positions' work instructions in the command centre in an emergency situation. The results indicate potential for improvement in several areas. A number of the improvements are related to introduction of new technology and they should be seen in connection with ensuring safe and reliable communication lines and power supply. Analysis of the data identified four main categories where further studies could contribute to improvement: 1) Communication and exchange of information. 2) Tools and technology. 3) Staffing and organisation. 4) Procedures. The usefulness of the Man Technology and Organisation method in analysing the emergency management decision-making process within the authorities was considered as an interesting issue for continuation of the project. The interface between utility and authorities was pointed out as an important area for continuation. (Author)

  12. Information in organisations: directions for information management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Kirk

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The work of managers in small and medium-sized enterprises is very information-intensive and the environment in which it is done is very information rich. But are managers able to exploit the wealth of information which surrounds them? And how can information be managed in organisations so that its potential for improving business performance and enhancing the competitiveness of these enterprises can be realised? Answers to these questions lie in clarifying the context of the practice of information management by exploring aspects of organisations and managerial work and in exploring the nature of information at the level of the organisation and the individual manager. From these answers it is possible to suggest some guidelines for managing the integration of business strategy and information, the adoption of a broadly-based definition of information and the development of information capabilities.

  13. Varying flexibilities in systems of organised decentralisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilsøe, Anna; Andersen, Søren Kaj

    information, collective agreements and interviews with representatives from tradeunions and employers' associations in Germany and Denmark. Based on our preliminary findings three explanatory theses for further research are developed in the article: 1) The level of specification, i.e. the level where...... response to this pressure from the company level can be described as a form of organised decentralisation in both countries, the response within the Danish collective bargaining system can be characterised as a proactive organised decentralisation while the response of the German system should rather...... be while the response of the German system should rather be interpreted as a reactive organised decentralisation. 3) The varying regulation of working time flexibility in Germany and Denmark implies varying risks in the regulation. In Germany lacking competencies in small or medium-sized companies lead...

  14. European Science Research Organisations forge closer ties

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Effective collaboration has always been one of the foundations of CERN's success. An essential ingredient for collaboration is communication and a new body EIROFORUM has just held its first meeting in Brussels with the aim of developing greater cross fertilization of ideas and projects. Seven organisations, CERN, EMBL (molecular biology), ESA (space activities), ESO (astronomy and astrophysics), ESRF (synchrotron radiation), ILL (neutron source) and EFDA (fusion) are currently members of EIROFORUM. Common interest between the organisations in computational grid development, materials science, instrumentation, public outreach and technology transfer has made EIROFRUM an essential group for maximising these European research organisations' resources. Increasing involvement in the Sixth Framework Programme, Europe's research guidelines for the next four years, is also one of the goals of the group. CERN takes over the chair of EIROFORUM in July 2001 and the next meeting will be held on site on 24 October .

  15. Varying flexibilities in systems of organised decentralisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilsøe, Anna; Andersen, Søren Kaj

    information, collective agreements and interviews with representatives from tradeunions and employers' associations in Germany and Denmark. Based on our preliminary findings three explanatory theses for further research are developed in the article: 1) The level of specification, i.e. the level where...... response to this pressure from the company level can be described as a form of organised decentralisation in both countries, the response within the Danish collective bargaining system can be characterised as a proactive organised decentralisation while the response of the German system should rather...... be while the response of the German system should rather be interpreted as a reactive organised decentralisation. 3) The varying regulation of working time flexibility in Germany and Denmark implies varying risks in the regulation. In Germany lacking competencies in small or medium-sized companies lead...

  16. Organisational socialisation in a crisis context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalonde, Carole

    2010-04-01

    The objective of this paper is to highlight the dimensions characterising the socialisation process in a crisis context. Based on the definition of organisational socialisation advanced by Van Maanen and Schein (1979) and employed later by Jones (1986), a crisis is presented as a passage from a 'normal' situation to an 'exceptional' situation. A crisis represents a socialisation context in the sense that it is a novel state in which actors must develop a different way of mobilising their knowledge, utilising their skills, and practicing their trade or profession. The paper discusses certain findings that have emerged from the literature on organisational socialisation, as well as from the testimony of actors who participated in efforts to manage the Quebec ice-storm crisis of early 1998. It is hoped that this exploratory study's data will give rise to fruitful interaction between the field of organisational socialisation and that of crisis management.

  17. Developing organisational ethics in palliative care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandman, Lars; Molander, Ulla; Benkel, Inger

    2017-03-01

    Palliative carers constantly face ethical problems. There is lack of organised support for the carers to handle these ethical problems in a consistent way. Within organisational ethics, we find models for moral deliberation and for developing organisational culture; however, they are not combined in a structured way to support carers' everyday work. The aim of this study was to describe ethical problems faced by palliative carers and develop an adapted organisational set of values to support the handling of these problems. Ethical problems were mapped out using focus groups and content analysis. The organisational culture were developed using normative analysis and focus group methodology within a participatory action research approach. Main participants and research context: A total of 15 registered nurses and 10 assistant nurses at a palliative unit (with 19 patient beds) at a major University Hospital in Sweden. Ethical considerations: The study followed standard ethics guidelines concerning informed consent and confidentiality. We found six categories of ethical problems (with the main focus on problems relating to the patient's loved ones) and five categories of organisational obstacles. Based on these findings, we developed a set of values in three levels: a general level, an explanatory level and a level of action strategies. The ethical problems found corresponded to problems in other studies with a notable exception, the large focus on patient loved ones. The three-level set of values is a way to handle risks of formulating abstract values not providing guidance in concrete care voiced in other studies. Developing a three-level set of values adapted to the specific ethical problems in a concrete care setting is a first step towards a better handling of ethical problems.

  18. Organisational IT Strategy Development using GDSS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lene

    1999-01-01

    IT strategy development in organisations is a complex task for which there is an immediate need for methodological support to be able to make satisfying decisions. Group Decision Support Systems (GDSS) is one line of supporting the process of group decision making and supporting IT strategy...... development. This paper discusses the features of GDSSs in terms of a broad definition, and a focus on how it supports and makes impact on group decision making. For illustrating reasons, an existing GDSS is presented: the Strategic ADvisor, STRAD. STRAD is presented and it is showed how this GDSs can be used...... to support development of organisational IT strategies....

  19. Influencing organisational culture: a leadership challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muls, Ann; Dougherty, Lisa; Doyle, Natalie; Shaw, Clare; Soanes, Louise; Stevens, Anna-Marie

    In the wake of the Francis report, the need for NHS trusts and hospitals to adopt a culture of learning, safety and transparency has been highlighted. This article considers different aspects of culture in health care, and hones in on the link between culture and safety for patients in putting the patient first, embedding the 6Cs and considering the options to measure and influence organisational culture. The article reflects more deeply on how leadership across all levels can influence and inspire change in organisational culture, ensuring that the patient remains the focus of any changes in care delivery.

  20. International Organisations and Transnational Education Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moutsios, Stavros

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on the World Bank/IMF (International Monetary Fund), the OECD (Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development) and the WTO (World Trade Organisation) as institutions of transnational policy making. They are all at present making education policies which are decisively...... shaping current directions and developments in national education systems. The paper reviews the enhanced role of these institutions in producing education policies and investigates the ideological basis as well as the processes through which these policies are made. It is argued that decisions are taken...

  1. Measuring business continuity programmes in large organisations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    In the field of business continuity management, organisations commit sums of money (often very large sums) to develop and maintain their continuity capability. Despite this, there is almost no measurement of whether this expense offers value for money, or whether it is targeted in the right areas. This paper will explain some methods of measuring components of a business continuity programme. The important outputs from this measurement activity are to demonstrate that an organisation's continuity capability is improving over time, and to identify areas of weakness that should be targeted during future work.

  2. Learning Styles and Organisational Development in Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Jacob; Lauridsen, Karen M.

    2012-01-01

    Issues of innovation and knowledge management are often treated from an organisational learning perspective. As a complement to this, there is a vast potential in the strategic enhancement of individual learning by implementing learning styles profiles and creating personal learning strategies...... for management and employees in a knowledge based organisation. Based on an action-research case study, we offer an example of how learning styles affects individual learning and thus personal knowledge creation in practice. The paper argues that innovation and knowledge management is enhanced and facilitated...... in practice by working with the learning styles of individuals and groups/teams....

  3. Maintenance planning and organisation at Appin Colliery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawkins, G.; O`Brien, B. [Appin Colliery, Appin, NSW (Australia)

    1994-12-31

    At the modern Appin Colliery 2.5 million tonnes are produced per year by 390 employees from one longwall and four development units. The maintenance organisation has both mechanical and electrical departments. Recent BHP Collieries improvement initiatives have benefitted the maintenance organisation at Appin in many ways, particularly with senior management support, an effective maintenance business plan and documented programme. With accent on skills and teamwork, maintenance times, and therefore costs have been reduced. Heightened communication has led to more acute condition monitoring.

  4. A Wicked Problem? Whistleblowing in Healthcare Organisations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Paula

    2016-01-01

    Mannion and Davies’ article recognises whistleblowing as an important means of identifying quality and safety issues in healthcare organisations. While ‘voice’ is a useful lens through which to examine whistleblowing, it also obscures a shifting pattern of uncertain ‘truths.’ By contextualising cultures which support or impede whislteblowing at an organisational level, two issues are overlooked; the power of wider institutional interests to silence those who might raise the alarm and changing ideas about what constitutes adequate care. A broader contextualisation of whistleblowing might illuminate further facets of this multi-dimensional problem. PMID:27239870

  5. A hierarchical view of grounded, embodied, and situated numerical cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Martin H

    2012-08-01

    There is much recent interest in the idea that we represent our knowledge together with the sensory and motor features that were activated during its acquisition. This paper reviews the evidence for such "embodiment" in the domain of numerical cognition, a traditional stronghold of abstract theories of knowledge representation. The focus is on spatial-numerical associations, such as the SNARC effect (small numbers are associated with left space, larger numbers with right space). Using empirical evidence from behavioral research, I first describe sensory and motor biases induced by SNARC, thus identifying numbers as embodied concepts. Next, I propose a hierarchical relationship between grounded, embodied, and situated aspects of number knowledge. This hierarchical conceptualization helps to understand the variety of SNARC-related findings and yields testable predictions about numerical cognition. I report several such tests, ranging from cross-cultural comparisons of horizontal and vertical SNARC effects (Shaki and Fischer in J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform 38(3):804-809, 2012) to motor cortical activation studies in adults with left- and right-hand counting preferences (Tschentscher et al. in NeuroImage 59:3139-3148, 2012). It is concluded that the diagnostic features for each level of the proposed hierarchical knowledge representation, together with the spatial associations of numbers, make the domain of numerical knowledge an ideal testing ground for embodied cognition research.

  6. Hierarchical structure of biological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcocer-Cuarón, Carlos; Rivera, Ana L; Castaño, Victor M

    2014-01-01

    A general theory of biological systems, based on few fundamental propositions, allows a generalization of both Wierner and Berthalanffy approaches to theoretical biology. Here, a biological system is defined as a set of self-organized, differentiated elements that interact pair-wise through various networks and media, isolated from other sets by boundaries. Their relation to other systems can be described as a closed loop in a steady-state, which leads to a hierarchical structure and functioning of the biological system. Our thermodynamical approach of hierarchical character can be applied to biological systems of varying sizes through some general principles, based on the exchange of energy information and/or mass from and within the systems. PMID:24145961

  7. Automatic Hierarchical Color Image Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Huang

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Organizing images into semantic categories can be extremely useful for content-based image retrieval and image annotation. Grouping images into semantic classes is a difficult problem, however. Image classification attempts to solve this hard problem by using low-level image features. In this paper, we propose a method for hierarchical classification of images via supervised learning. This scheme relies on using a good low-level feature and subsequently performing feature-space reconfiguration using singular value decomposition to reduce noise and dimensionality. We use the training data to obtain a hierarchical classification tree that can be used to categorize new images. Our experimental results suggest that this scheme not only performs better than standard nearest-neighbor techniques, but also has both storage and computational advantages.

  8. Intuitionistic fuzzy hierarchical clustering algorithms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Zeshui

    2009-01-01

    Intuitionistic fuzzy set (IFS) is a set of 2-tuple arguments, each of which is characterized by a mem-bership degree and a nonmembership degree. The generalized form of IFS is interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy set (IVIFS), whose components are intervals rather than exact numbers. IFSs and IVIFSs have been found to be very useful to describe vagueness and uncertainty. However, it seems that little attention has been focused on the clus-tering analysis of IFSs and IVIFSs. An intuitionistic fuzzy hierarchical algorithm is introduced for clustering IFSs, which is based on the traditional hierarchical clustering procedure, the intuitionistic fuzzy aggregation operator, and the basic distance measures between IFSs: the Hamming distance, normalized Hamming, weighted Hamming, the Euclidean distance, the normalized Euclidean distance, and the weighted Euclidean distance. Subsequently, the algorithm is extended for clustering IVIFSs. Finally the algorithm and its extended form are applied to the classifications of building materials and enterprises respectively.

  9. Hierarchical Formation of Galactic Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Elmegreen, B G

    2006-01-01

    Young stellar groupings and clusters have hierarchical patterns ranging from flocculent spiral arms and star complexes on the largest scale to OB associations, OB subgroups, small loose groups, clusters and cluster subclumps on the smallest scales. There is no obvious transition in morphology at the cluster boundary, suggesting that clusters are only the inner parts of the hierarchy where stars have had enough time to mix. The power-law cluster mass function follows from this hierarchical structure: n(M_cl) M_cl^-b for b~2. This value of b is independently required by the observation that the summed IMFs from many clusters in a galaxy equals approximately the IMF of each cluster.

  10. Hierarchical matrices algorithms and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Hackbusch, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    This self-contained monograph presents matrix algorithms and their analysis. The new technique enables not only the solution of linear systems but also the approximation of matrix functions, e.g., the matrix exponential. Other applications include the solution of matrix equations, e.g., the Lyapunov or Riccati equation. The required mathematical background can be found in the appendix. The numerical treatment of fully populated large-scale matrices is usually rather costly. However, the technique of hierarchical matrices makes it possible to store matrices and to perform matrix operations approximately with almost linear cost and a controllable degree of approximation error. For important classes of matrices, the computational cost increases only logarithmically with the approximation error. The operations provided include the matrix inversion and LU decomposition. Since large-scale linear algebra problems are standard in scientific computing, the subject of hierarchical matrices is of interest to scientists ...

  11. Hierarchical Cont-Bouchaud model

    CERN Document Server

    Paluch, Robert; Holyst, Janusz A

    2015-01-01

    We extend the well-known Cont-Bouchaud model to include a hierarchical topology of agent's interactions. The influence of hierarchy on system dynamics is investigated by two models. The first one is based on a multi-level, nested Erdos-Renyi random graph and individual decisions by agents according to Potts dynamics. This approach does not lead to a broad return distribution outside a parameter regime close to the original Cont-Bouchaud model. In the second model we introduce a limited hierarchical Erdos-Renyi graph, where merging of clusters at a level h+1 involves only clusters that have merged at the previous level h and we use the original Cont-Bouchaud agent dynamics on resulting clusters. The second model leads to a heavy-tail distribution of cluster sizes and relative price changes in a wide range of connection densities, not only close to the percolation threshold.

  12. Relationship between organisational commitment and burnout syndrome: a canonical correlation approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enginyurt, Ozgur; Cankaya, Soner; Aksay, Kadir; Tunc, Taner; Koc, Bozkurt; Bas, Orhan; Ozer, Erdal

    2016-04-01

    between two variable sets simultaneously to produce both structural and spatial meaning. What does this paper add? To our knowledge, CCA has not been used to determine the relationships between burnout and organisational commitment of physicians and other healthcare staff. Accordingly, the present study adds information regarding the relationship between burnout and organisational commitment variables determined using CCA. This analysis is used to describe the relationship between two variable sets simultaneously and allows for an easy method of interpretation. What are the implications for practitioners? Burnout syndrome is a major threat to both the health workforce and its organisations. In addition, it affects the quality and effectiveness of health care. Thus, the findings of the present study offer a solid foundation from which actions to decrease burnout levels in healthcare professionals can be implemented by successfully increasing levels of organisational commitment.

  13. Hierarchical Clustering and Active Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Hatziminaoglou, E; Manrique, A

    2000-01-01

    The growth of Super Massive Black Holes and the parallel development of activity in galactic nuclei are implemented in an analytic code of hierarchical clustering. The evolution of the luminosity function of quasars and AGN will be computed with special attention paid to the connection between quasars and Seyfert galaxies. One of the major interests of the model is the parallel study of quasar formation and evolution and the History of Star Formation.

  14. Hybrid and hierarchical composite materials

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Chang-Soo; Sano, Tomoko

    2015-01-01

    This book addresses a broad spectrum of areas in both hybrid materials and hierarchical composites, including recent development of processing technologies, structural designs, modern computer simulation techniques, and the relationships between the processing-structure-property-performance. Each topic is introduced at length with numerous  and detailed examples and over 150 illustrations.   In addition, the authors present a method of categorizing these materials, so that representative examples of all material classes are discussed.

  15. Treatment Protocols as Hierarchical Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Bassat, Moshe; Carlson, Richard W.; Puri, Vinod K.; Weil, Max Harry

    1978-01-01

    We view a treatment protocol as a hierarchical structure of therapeutic modules. The lowest level of this structure consists of individual therapeutic actions. Combinations of individual actions define higher level modules, which we call routines. Routines are designed to manage limited clinical problems, such as the routine for fluid loading to correct hypovolemia. Combinations of routines and additional actions, together with comments, questions, or precautions organized in a branching logic, in turn, define the treatment protocol for a given disorder. Adoption of this modular approach may facilitate the formulation of treatment protocols, since the physician is not required to prepare complex flowcharts. This hierarchical approach also allows protocols to be updated and modified in a flexible manner. By use of such a standard format, individual components may be fitted together to create protocols for multiple disorders. The technique is suited for computer implementation. We believe that this hierarchical approach may facilitate standarization of patient care as well as aid in clinical teaching. A protocol for acute pancreatitis is used to illustrate this technique.

  16. Organisational learning won't be turned off

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elkjær, Bente

    2012-01-01

    in the literature on organisational learning with the focus upon what is learning, and how are organisations to be understood. The account reflects what may be termed “cognitive” versions of organisational learning as well as the “practice turn” within the social sciences and the humanities. Finally, to complete......Enterprises have always been learning organisations in much the same way as it is hard for people to avoid learning. A sign of learning organisations are the many successful enterprises, and the abundance of new products and services that keeps emerging. The question about organisational learning...... is how it is possible to ‘see’ and to analyse learning when learning is not connected to individuals but to organisations and organising? In a normative sense, however, “organisational learning” is often used as our answer to the difficulties in enterprises of how most efficiently to channel knowledge...

  17. Nonclassical properties and quantum resources of hierarchical photonic superposition states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkoff, T. J., E-mail: adidasty@gmail.com [University of California, Department of Chemistry (United States)

    2015-11-15

    We motivate and introduce a class of “hierarchical” quantum superposition states of N coupled quantum oscillators. Unlike other well-known multimode photonic Schrödinger-cat states such as entangled coherent states, the hierarchical superposition states are characterized as two-branch superpositions of tensor products of single-mode Schrödinger-cat states. In addition to analyzing the photon statistics and quasiprobability distributions of prominent examples of these nonclassical states, we consider their usefulness for highprecision quantum metrology of nonlinear optical Hamiltonians and quantify their mode entanglement. We propose two methods for generating hierarchical superpositions in N = 2 coupled microwave cavities, exploiting currently existing quantum optical technology for generating entanglement between spatially separated electromagnetic field modes.

  18. Hierarchical Modelling of Flood Risk for Engineering Decision Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Custer, Rocco

    Societies around the world are faced with flood risk, prompting authorities and decision makers to manage risk to protect population and assets. With climate change, urbanisation and population growth, flood risk changes constantly, requiring flood risk management strategies that are flexible...... and robust. Traditional risk management solutions, e.g. dike construction, are not particularly flexible, as they are difficult to adapt to changing risk. Conversely, the recent concept of integrated flood risk management, entailing a combination of several structural and non-structural risk management...... measures, allows identifying flexible and robust flood risk management strategies. Based on it, this thesis investigates hierarchical flood protection systems, which encompass two, or more, hierarchically integrated flood protection structures on different spatial scales (e.g. dikes, local flood barriers...

  19. Information Systems in Organisations --organisational culture affects information systems in organizations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张娟

    2013-01-01

    In today’s information age, the application and construction of information systems became the central element of organizational development. Except the influence of information technology, the organisational culture plays a most important role in the implementation of information systems. This paper aimed at information producers, information users, information content and the information channels four parts of information elements to analysis the affects of organisational culture on information system in organisations. In particular, power distance, individualism and collectivism and uncertainty avoidance as three main theory models of Hofstede’s culture theory were be applied in this paper.

  20. Diversification of an organisational field: how Europe promotes and hampers domestic change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boasson, Elin Lerum

    2008-11-15

    Better understanding of Europeanization requires research on national, societal change. This paper presents a theoretical framework that enables assessment of Europeanised change processes within national industries. Empirically it explores how European Union (EU) state aid regulations and European renewable energy trends in conjunction led to diversification among Norwegian stationary energy producers. Key theoretical implications are as follows: (1) The pattern of interaction between change impulses from the European environment, governmental hierarchical steering and institutional logics within the national organisational field was crucial to the output of the change process. (2) Misfit between institutional logics at the European level and the organisational field hampers change, rather than promoting it. (3) The carriers / the actors that bring the European impulses into the organisational field / matter because they translate change impulses in line with their institutional logic. (4) National politicians are unable to control the process of translating these impulses, and that reduces their political clout. (5) Europeanization brings greater challenges to national democratic governance of liberalised industries. (author). refs., tabs

  1. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Schools as Learning Organisations: Assessing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    describe the perceptions of respondents on the organisational learning ... the school did not play any significant role in supporting collaboration, ... Globally, since the 1980's, many change .... specific meaning of the school's mission in ... and the “small picture” simultaneously. A ... the organizations relationship to the larger.

  2. Labour organisation on robotic milking dairy farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonck, B.R.

    1996-01-01

    1. Research issues

    The research described in this dissertation is focused on the effects of the integration of the milking robot in a dairy farm on the labour organisation at operational and tactical level. Attention was paid

  3. Organisational Path-Dependence and Institutional Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Carney (Michael); E.R. Gedajlovic (Eric)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractThrough a case study of Chinese Family Business Groups (FBGs) in East Asia, this paper examines the relationship between the strategic behaviour exhibited by an organisational form and it's administrative heritage. To do so, we trace the origins of the strategic behaviour which scholars

  4. Ising, Schelling and Self-Organising Segregation

    CERN Document Server

    Stauffer, D

    2007-01-01

    The similarities between phase separation in physics and residential segregation by preference in the Schelling model of 1971 are reviewed. Also, new computer simulations of asymmetric interactions different from the usual Ising model are presented, showing spontaneous magnetisation (= self-organising segregation) and in one case a sharp phase transition.

  5. Ising, Schelling and self-organising segregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauffer, D.; Solomon, S.

    2007-06-01

    The similarities between phase separation in physics and residential segregation by preference in the Schelling model of 1971 are reviewed. Also, new computer simulations of asymmetric interactions different from the usual Ising model are presented, showing spontaneous magnetisation (=self-organising segregation) and in one case a sharp phase transition.

  6. Defining, Measuring, and Comparing Organisational Cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Peter T.; Wilderom, Celeste P.M.

    2004-01-01

    La littérature portant sur la culture des organisations souffre d’un manque manifeste d’enquêtes extensives débouchant sur des études comparatives. Afin de rendre plus comparables les cultures organisationnelles, nous proposons une définition et une série de dimensions. La culture organisationnelle

  7. Resilience Safety Culture in Aviation Organisations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akselsson, R.; Koornneef, F.; Stewart, S.; Ward, M.

    2009-01-01

    Chapter 2: Resilience Safety Culture in Aviation Organisations The European Commission HILAS project (Human Integration into the Lifecycle of Aviation Systems - a project supported by the European Commission’s 6th Framework between 2005-2009) was focused on using human factors knowledge and

  8. Resilience Safety Culture in Aviation Organisations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akselsson, R.; Koornneef, F.; Stewart, S.; Ward, M.

    2009-01-01

    Chapter 2: Resilience Safety Culture in Aviation Organisations The European Commission HILAS project (Human Integration into the Lifecycle of Aviation Systems - a project supported by the European Commission’s 6th Framework between 2005-2009) was focused on using human factors knowledge and methodo

  9. Labour organisation on robotic milking dairy farms.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonck, B.R.

    1996-01-01

    1. Research issuesThe research described in this dissertation is focused on the effects of the integration of the milking robot in a dairy farm on the labour organisation at operational and tactical level. Attention was paid to the future requirements concerning hum

  10. Organisational dynamics, social norms and information systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stamper, Ronald; Liu, Kecheng

    1994-01-01

    An organisation is defined as a system of social norms. The concept of a norm is the social analogue of the concept of an affordance which Gibson (1968) introduced to account for perception of the physical world. Their conjunction is a logic of Norms and Affordances, Norma, which serves as a meta-mo

  11. Organisational IT managed from the shop floor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolmsten, Johan; Dittrich, Yvonne

    2015-01-01

    Modern organisations need to be able to adjust to changes in the environment, changes which are ever more rapid, and in doing so capitalise on the creativity and innovations of their employees. As suggested by Boulus-Rødje and Bjørn (Chap. 14), information technology (IT) applications today...

  12. Organisational Path-Dependence and Institutional Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Carney; E.R. Gedajlovic

    2001-01-01

    textabstractThrough a case study of Chinese Family Business Groups (FBGs) in East Asia, this paper examines the relationship between the strategic behaviour exhibited by an organisational form and it's administrative heritage. To do so, we trace the origins of the strategic behaviour which scholars

  13. POT: Planning, Organisation and Tele-Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui

    1996-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to introduce the framwork of a research project carried out at the Technical University of Denmark dealing with 'holistic' and interdisciplinary (systems oriented)methods for strategic planning and organisational re-design in connection with the introduction...

  14. Institutional Level Student Engagement and Organisational Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Velden, Gwen

    2012-01-01

    Driven by the growing presence of market forces within higher education worldwide, universities are changing the way they engage with students. This article explores how a university's internal culture relates to engagement with students and their views. It builds on wider research into student engagement and organisational cultures. The…

  15. Action research in inter-organisational networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goduscheit, René Chester; Rasmussen, Erik Stavnsager; Jørgensen, Jacob Høj;

    2007-01-01

    . In addition to the problem-solver and observer roles, the researcher in an inter-organisational setting can serve as a legitimiser of the project and manage to involve partners that in an ordinary business-to-business setting would not have participated. Based on an action research project in a Danish inter...

  16. Learning, Learning Organisations and the Global Enterprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikutty, Sankaran

    2009-01-01

    The steadily increasing degree of globalisation of enterprises implies development of many skills, among which the skills to learn are among the most important. Learning takes place at the individual level, but collective learning and organisational learning are also important. Learning styles of individuals are different and learning styles are…

  17. Management of Adult Education Organisations in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafukho, Fredrick Muyia; Wawire, Nelson H. W.; Lam, Penina Mungania

    2011-01-01

    Adult education is now considered a mainstream academic discipline in several African countries, and its importance in today's knowledge and "ideas" economies is growing steadily. It is provided by organisations such as public universities, training colleges, corporate universities and employers. The successful operation of educational…

  18. VIRTUAL ORGANISATIONS: EMPLOYEE COMPETENCY AND MANAGERIAL ISSUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIRJANA RADOVIC-MARKOVIC

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available New technologies have led to a new information and knowledge based economy. In this context, technology has changed the work environment, where organisations have become increasingly complex and competitive. Namely, the technologically induced a “virtual” environment has resulted in the adoption of new organisational structures and work skills and practices. On the one hand, the workplace increasingly requires employee to work in teams,collaborating across companies, communities, and continents. These changes and the new organisational structures have also made an impact on role of managers and their management styles, on the other hand. In line with this, there a very rich collection of thinking and empirical research findings on the subject. The goal of our research was to recognize the importance of certain factors in motivating employees in organisations by managers . The other purpose was to investigate the job related motivation factors among senior and junior employees as well as explore issues in the workplace that may affect work demoralization. Furthemore, we explored the relationship between employees motivation and their competences.We also contributed to the topic in our research project-book with the new model of competency. Furthemore, we expect that our methodology will be implemented in practice. However, it should be also a good basis for further improvements in this area.

  19. Organisering af projektudvikling - KulturarvNord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, Stine

    Organisering af projektudvikling - KulturarvNord er udarbejdet af forskningscenteret INCEVIDA, Aalborg Universitet 2012, og gennemført i et samarbejde mellem INCEVIDA og museumsnetværket KulturarvNord. I rapporten tages der udgangspunkt i empirisk materiale indhentet via interviews med nøgleperso...

  20. Management of Adult Education Organisations in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafukho, Fredrick Muyia; Wawire, Nelson H. W.; Lam, Penina Mungania

    2011-01-01

    Adult education is now considered a mainstream academic discipline in several African countries, and its importance in today's knowledge and "ideas" economies is growing steadily. It is provided by organisations such as public universities, training colleges, corporate universities and employers. The successful operation of educational…

  1. Institutional Level Student Engagement and Organisational Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Velden, Gwen

    2012-01-01

    Driven by the growing presence of market forces within higher education worldwide, universities are changing the way they engage with students. This article explores how a university's internal culture relates to engagement with students and their views. It builds on wider research into student engagement and organisational cultures. The…

  2. Organisation of Xenopus oocyte and egg cortices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, P; Pérez-Mongiovi, D; Houliston, E

    1999-03-15

    The division of the Xenopus oocyte cortex into structurally and functionally distinct "animal" and "vegetal" regions during oogenesis provides the basis of the organisation of the early embryo. The vegetal region of the cortex accumulates specific maternal mRNAs that specify the development of the endoderm and mesoderm, as well as functionally-defined "determinants" of dorso-anterior development, and recognisable "germ plasm" determinants that segregate into primary germ cells. These localised elements on the vegetal cortex underlie both the primary animal-vegetal polarity of the egg and the organisation of the developing embryo. The animal cortex meanwhile becomes specialised for the events associated with fertilisation: sperm entry, calcium release into the cytoplasm, cortical granule exocytosis, and polarised cortical contraction. Cortical and subcortical reorganisations associated with meiotic maturation, fertilisation, cortical rotation, and the first mitotic cleavage divisions redistribute the vegetal cortical determinants, contributing to the specification of dorso-anterior axis and segregation of the germ line. In this article we consider what is known about the changing organisation of the oocyte and egg cortex in relation to the mechanisms of determinant localisation, anchorage, and redistribution, and show novel ultrastructural views of cortices isolated at different stages and processed by the rapid-freeze deep-etch method. Cortical organisation involves interactions between the different cytoskeletal filament systems and internal membranes. Associated proteins and cytoplasmic signals probably modulate these interactions in stage-specific ways, leaving much to be understood.

  3. Defining, Measuring, and Comparing Organisational Cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den Peter T.; Wilderom, Celeste P.M.

    2004-01-01

    La littérature portant sur la culture des organisations souffre d’un manque manifeste d’enquêtes extensives débouchant sur des études comparatives. Afin de rendre plus comparables les cultures organisationnelles, nous proposons une définition et une série de dimensions. La culture organisationnelle

  4. Resilience Safety Culture in Aviation Organisations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akselsson, R.; Koornneef, F.; Stewart, S.; Ward, M.

    2009-01-01

    Chapter 2: Resilience Safety Culture in Aviation Organisations The European Commission HILAS project (Human Integration into the Lifecycle of Aviation Systems - a project supported by the European Commission’s 6th Framework between 2005-2009) was focused on using human factors knowledge and methodo

  5. Why Youth Workers Need to Collectively Organise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corney, Tim; Broadbent, Robyn; Darmanin, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    Recent attempts at professionalising the youth sector have focused on "codes of ethics" and left pay and conditions issues to community sector unions. The authors suggest that the history of nursing in Victoria provides a case example of the benefits of combining professional aspirations with industrial organisation.

  6. Agricultural Productivity, Co-Operatives and Organisational ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agricultural Productivity, Co-Operatives and Organisational Innovations: A Case of ... productivity and increase farmers' income by bringing financial services closer. ... of Kimuli Agricultural Marketing Co-operative Society (AMCOS) and Muungano ... Also, coffee farmers were able to innovate a new structure for harmonising ...

  7. Qualifications and Skills: The Organisational Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dafou, Efthimia

    2009-01-01

    This paper portrays the inferences that employers in Greece draw from particular aspects of study programmes, as recorded on educational qualifications. Based on semi-structured interviews with human resource managers in 37 industrial and service organisations and general directors of careers offices in eight higher education institutions, and…

  8. Learning Contextual Dependence With Convolutional Hierarchical Recurrent Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Zhen; Shuai, Bing; Wang, Gang; Liu, Xiao; Wang, Xingxing; Wang, Bing; Chen, Yushi

    2016-07-01

    Existing deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs) have shown their great success on image classification. CNNs mainly consist of convolutional and pooling layers, both of which are performed on local image areas without considering the dependencies among different image regions. However, such dependencies are very important for generating explicit image representation. In contrast, recurrent neural networks (RNNs) are well known for their ability of encoding contextual information among sequential data, and they only require a limited number of network parameters. General RNNs can hardly be directly applied on non-sequential data. Thus, we proposed the hierarchical RNNs (HRNNs). In HRNNs, each RNN layer focuses on modeling spatial dependencies among image regions from the same scale but different locations. While the cross RNN scale connections target on modeling scale dependencies among regions from the same location but different scales. Specifically, we propose two recurrent neural network models: 1) hierarchical simple recurrent network (HSRN), which is fast and has low computational cost; and 2) hierarchical long-short term memory recurrent network (HLSTM), which performs better than HSRN with the price of more computational cost. In this manuscript, we integrate CNNs with HRNNs, and develop end-to-end convolutional hierarchical recurrent neural networks (C-HRNNs). C-HRNNs not only make use of the representation power of CNNs, but also efficiently encodes spatial and scale dependencies among different image regions. On four of the most challenging object/scene image classification benchmarks, our C-HRNNs achieve state-of-the-art results on Places 205, SUN 397, MIT indoor, and competitive results on ILSVRC 2012.

  9. Antecedents of Organisational Creativity: A Multi-Level Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritu Gupta

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this literature review is to provide a better understanding of the antecedents of organisational creativity with a multi-level approach. Organisational creativity is a sum total of the creativity accounted for by the individual employees of the organisation, the cumulative creativity of a team or group and creativity arising out of different structural components of an organisation. Some of the antecedents identified from the literature include personality, intrinsic motivation, group cohesion, social inhibition, cognitive interference, leader member exchange, organisational culture and climate, amongst others at individual, group and organisational level. Based on the literature review, suggestions for future research and research propositions have been proposed.

  10. Promoting institutional and organisational development in surveying and land administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig; Greenway, Iain

    2006-01-01

    A key component of capacity building is ensuring that a country’s organisations are sufficiently robust to develop, enable and ensure the effective operation of surveying and land administration activities. The relevant organisations include the professional surveying associations (the FIG member...... associations), the private surveying companies, as well as the government agencies such as the mapping organisations and the organisations with land registration and land administration responsibilities. This paper provides a conceptual understanding covering the area of institutional and organisational...... and organisations attempting to develop the necessary capabilities and capacity. This would include: assessing needs, producing guidance material; facilitating direct support mechanisms; running workshops; and advising the FIG Council on necessary actions....

  11. The emergence of user organisation of homeless persons in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anker, Jørgen

    persons emerges in these years. The second part of the paper provides a more detailed description of the organisation, its aims, strategies and organisational structure. Some of the dilemmas and difficulties of the user organisation are finally mentioned at the end of the paper.......This paper provides an overview of the history of the user organisation of homeless persons in Denmark. The first part of the paper seeks to identify some of the processes and actors who facilitated the formation of the organisation, and it seeks to discuss why a user organisation of homeless...

  12. HIERARCHICAL FRAGMENTATION OF THE ORION MOLECULAR FILAMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Satoko; Ho, Paul T. P.; Su, Yu-Nung [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Teixeira, Paula S. [Institut fuer Astrophysik, Universitaet Wien, Tuerkenschanzstrasse 17, A-1180, Wien (Austria); Zapata, Luis A., E-mail: satoko_t@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw [Centro de Radioastronomia y Astrofisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Morelia, Michoacan 58090 (Mexico)

    2013-01-20

    We present a high angular resolution map of the 850 {mu}m continuum emission of the Orion Molecular Cloud-3 (OMC 3) obtained with the Submillimeter Array (SMA); the map is a mosaic of 85 pointings covering an approximate area of 6.'5 Multiplication-Sign 2.'0 (0.88 Multiplication-Sign 0.27 pc). We detect 12 spatially resolved continuum sources, each with an H{sub 2} mass between 0.3-5.7 M {sub Sun} and a projected source size between 1400-8200 AU. All the detected sources are on the filamentary main ridge (n{sub H{sub 2}}{>=}10{sup 6} cm{sup -3}), and analysis based on the Jeans theorem suggests that they are most likely gravitationally unstable. Comparison of multi-wavelength data sets indicates that of the continuum sources, 6/12 (50%) are associated with molecular outflows, 8/12 (67%) are associated with infrared sources, and 3/12 (25%) are associated with ionized jets. The evolutionary status of these sources ranges from prestellar cores to protostar phase, confirming that OMC-3 is an active region with ongoing embedded star formation. We detect quasi-periodical separations between the OMC-3 sources of Almost-Equal-To 17''/0.035 pc. This spatial distribution is part of a large hierarchical structure that also includes fragmentation scales of giant molecular cloud ( Almost-Equal-To 35 pc), large-scale clumps ( Almost-Equal-To 1.3 pc), and small-scale clumps ( Almost-Equal-To 0.3 pc), suggesting that hierarchical fragmentation operates within the Orion A molecular cloud. The fragmentation spacings are roughly consistent with the thermal fragmentation length in large-scale clumps, while for small-scale cores it is smaller than the local fragmentation length. These smaller spacings observed with the SMA can be explained by either a helical magnetic field, cloud rotation, or/and global filament collapse. Finally, possible evidence for sequential fragmentation is suggested in the northern part of the OMC-3 filament.

  13. Multiple dynamical time-scales in networks with hierarchically nested modular organization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sitabhra Sinha; Swarup Poria

    2011-11-01

    Many natural and engineered complex networks have intricate mesoscopic organization, e.g., the clustering of the constituent nodes into several communities or modules. Often, such modularity is manifested at several different hierarchical levels, where the clusters defined at one level appear as elementary entities at the next higher level. Using a simple model of a hierarchical modular network, we show that such a topological structure gives rise to characteristic time-scale separation between dynamics occurring at different levels of the hierarchy. This generalizes our earlier result for simple modular networks, where fast intramodular and slow intermodular processes were clearly distinguished. Investigating the process of synchronization of oscillators in a hierarchical modular network, we show the existence of as many distinct time-scales as there are hierarchical levels in the system. This suggests a possible functional role of such mesoscopic organization principle in natural systems, viz., in the dynamical separation of events occurring at different spatial scales.

  14. ISO 9000 IMPLEMENTATION AND PERCEIVED ORGANISATIONAL OUTCOME: THE CASE OF A SERVICE ORGANISATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasni Abdul Latif

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The study examines the relationship between the perceptions of the employees about ISO 9000 implementation and perceived organisational outcomes. A conceptual framework linking the level of employee influence and involvement, their perception of ISO 9000 and the perceived impact on their work and the organisational outcomes is posited. Data was collected from a random sample of 64 employees of a service organisation. Contrary to expectations, the work impact of ISO 9000 was not correlated with the efficiency and market outcomes of ISO 9000 certification but the employee involvement, influence and perception of ISO 9000 were. The conceptualization of the influence path of ISO 9000 implementation on the organisational outcomes may require rethinking as perception may have a direct effect on the outcomes without the mediation of the impact on work. In short, employees may report benefits or positive outcomes even though no change is reported in their work.

  15. ORGANISATIONAL JUSTICE AND AFFECTIVE COMMITMENT: THE MEDIATING ROLE OF PERCEIVED ORGANISATIONAL SUPPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Purang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Perception of fairness among employees is a guiding force that influences employee attitude and behaviour. However, the mechanisms associated with justice need to be studied further. This study hypothesises that perceived organisational support (POS mediates the relationship between organisational justice perceptions and affective commitment of employees. The study was conducted in a multi-national organisation operating in India in the service sector; the sample size was 71 employees. Baron and Kenny's model of studying the mediating relationship was used. The findings showed that POS fully mediates the relationship between distributive justice and affective commitment as well as partially mediates the relationship between procedural justice and affective commitment. This study highlights the importance of fairness and justice in organisations and identifies the mechanism by which employee perceptions of justice influence their loyalty and involvement.

  16. Strategic Orientation and Organisational Culture in Polish Public Organisations: Insights from the Miles and Snow Typology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martyna Wronka-Pośpiech; Aldona Frączkiewicz-Wronka

    2016-01-01

    ... (Golensky and DeRuiter 1999; Zimmerman and Dart, 1998; Pollitt and Bouckaert, 2004; Walker, 2013]. Public organisations embrace these strategies from the for-profit sector in order to manage change and to be...

  17. The Hierarchical Distribution of Young Stellar Clusters in Nearby Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasha, Kathryn; Calzetti, Daniela

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the spatial distributions of young stellar clusters in six nearby galaxies to trace the large scale hierarchical star-forming structures. The six galaxies are drawn from the Legacy ExtraGalactic UV Survey (LEGUS). We quantify the strength of the clustering among stellar clusters as a function of spatial scale and age to establish the survival timescale of the substructures. We separate the clusters into different classes, compact (bound) clusters and associations (unbound), and compare the clustering among them. We find that younger star clusters are more strongly clustered over small spatial scales and that the clustering disappears rapidly for ages as young as a few tens of Myr, consistent with clusters slowly losing the fractal dimension inherited at birth from their natal molecular clouds.

  18. Organisational merger and psychiatric morbidity: a prospective study in a changing work organisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Väänänen, Ari; Ahola, Kirsi; Koskinen, Aki; Pahkin, Krista; Kouvonen, Anne

    2011-08-01

    Prospective studies on the relationship between organisational merger and mental health have been conducted using subjective health indicators. The objective of this prospective occupational cohort study was to examine whether a negative change during an organisational merger is an independent predictive factor of psychiatric morbidity. Survey data on organisational characteristics, health and other factors were collected prior to (1996) and after the merger (2000); register data on psychiatric morbidity were collected at baseline (1/1/1994-30/9/2000) and during the follow-up (1/10/2000-31/12/2005). Participants were 6511 (77% men) industrial employees aged 21-65 years with no register-based diagnosed psychiatric events prior to the follow-up (the Still Working Study). During the follow-up, 252 participants were admitted to the hospital due to psychiatric disorders, were prescribed a psychotropic drug or attempted or committed suicide. A negative self-reported change in the work organisation during the merger was associated with increased risk of postmerger psychiatric event (HR 1.60, 95% CI 1.19 to 2.14). This association was independent of mental health-related factors measured before the merger announcement, such as demographic characteristics, occupational status, personal orientation to life, self-rated health, self-reported psychiatric morbidity or chronic disease. A negative change in work organisation during an organisational merger may elevate the risk for postmerger psychiatric morbidity.

  19. Becoming organisms: the organisation of development and the development of organisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Rosa, Laura Nuño

    2010-01-01

    Despite the radical importance of embryology in the development of organicism, developmental biology remains philosophically underexplored as a theoretical and empirical resource to clarify the nature of organisms. This paper discusses how embryology can help develop the organisational definition of the organism as a differentiated, functionally integrated, and autonomous system. I distinguish two conceptions of development in the organisational tradition that yield two different conceptions of the organism: the life-history view claims that organisms can be considered as such during their whole ontogeny; the constitutive view distinguishes two periods in the life history, a period of generation and a period of self-maintenance of a constitutive organisation. Arguing in favour of the constitutive view, it will be claimed that the organisational criteria for the definition of organism (i.e., differentiation, functional integration, and autonomy) can only be applied to the developmental system when it has entered the period of self-maintenance of a constitutive organisation. Under the light of current research in developmental biology, it is possible to make explicit how organisms come to be as organisms. To this end, I explore key ontogenetic events that help us clarify the core aspects of animal organisation and allow us to identify the developmental stage that marks the ontological transition between an organism in potency and an organism in actuality. The structure of this ontogenetic unfolding parallels the conceptual structure of the very notion of organism; the generation of the being of a particular organism parallels its definition.

  20. Relevance of the law of international organisations in resolving ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    identify the extent to which they were empowered to make the decisions that resulted ..... classified as international organisations within the remits of the definitions in ... by applying the general principles common to international organisations.