WorldWideScience

Sample records for hierarchical social organization

  1. Discrete hierarchical organization of social group sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, W-X; Sornette, D; Hill, R A; Dunbar, R I M

    2005-02-22

    The 'social brain hypothesis' for the evolution of large brains in primates has led to evidence for the coevolution of neocortical size and social group sizes, suggesting that there is a cognitive constraint on group size that depends, in some way, on the volume of neural material available for processing and synthesizing information on social relationships. More recently, work on both human and non-human primates has suggested that social groups are often hierarchically structured. We combine data on human grouping patterns in a comprehensive and systematic study. Using fractal analysis, we identify, with high statistical confidence, a discrete hierarchy of group sizes with a preferred scaling ratio close to three: rather than a single or a continuous spectrum of group sizes, humans spontaneously form groups of preferred sizes organized in a geometrical series approximating 3-5, 9-15, 30-45, etc. Such discrete scale invariance could be related to that identified in signatures of herding behaviour in financial markets and might reflect a hierarchical processing of social nearness by human brains.

  2. Where sociality and relatedness diverge: the genetic basis for hierarchical social organization in African elephants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittemyer, George; Okello, John B. A.; Rasmussen, Henrik B.

    2009-01-01

    Hierarchical properties characterize elephant fission-fusion social organization whereby stable groups of individuals coalesce into higher order groups or split in a predictable manner. This hierarchical complexity is rare among animals and, as such, an examination of the factors driving its......-tier level bonds, indicating the importance of direct benefits in the emergence of complex, hierarchical social relations among elephants. Future directions and conservation implications are discussed....

  3. Hierarchical organization versus self-organization

    OpenAIRE

    Busseniers, Evo

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we try to define the difference between hierarchical organization and self-organization. Organization is defined as a structure with a function. So we can define the difference between hierarchical organization and self-organization both on the structure as on the function. In the next two chapters these two definitions are given. For the structure we will use some existing definitions in graph theory, for the function we will use existing theory on (self-)organization. In the t...

  4. Adaptive hierarchical multi-agent organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghijsen, M.; Jansweijer, W.N.H.; Wielinga, B.J.; Babuška, R.; Groen, F.C.A.

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter, we discuss the design of adaptive hierarchical organizations for multi-agent systems (MAS). Hierarchical organizations have a number of advantages such as their ability to handle complex problems and their scalability to large organizations. By introducing adaptivity in the

  5. Modular networks with hierarchical organization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Several networks occurring in real life have modular structures that are arranged in a hierarchical fashion. In this paper, we have proposed a model for such networks, using a stochastic generation method. Using this model we show that, the scaling relation between the clustering and degree of the nodes is not a necessary ...

  6. HIERARCHICAL ORGANIZATION OF INFORMATION, IN RELATIONAL DATABASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demian Horia

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I will present different types of representation, of hierarchical information inside a relational database. I also will compare them to find the best organization for specific scenarios.

  7. Growing hierarchical probabilistic self-organizing graphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Rubio, Ezequiel; Palomo, Esteban José

    2011-07-01

    Since the introduction of the growing hierarchical self-organizing map, much work has been done on self-organizing neural models with a dynamic structure. These models allow adjusting the layers of the model to the features of the input dataset. Here we propose a new self-organizing model which is based on a probabilistic mixture of multivariate Gaussian components. The learning rule is derived from the stochastic approximation framework, and a probabilistic criterion is used to control the growth of the model. Moreover, the model is able to adapt to the topology of each layer, so that a hierarchy of dynamic graphs is built. This overcomes the limitations of the self-organizing maps with a fixed topology, and gives rise to a faithful visualization method for high-dimensional data.

  8. Epidemic spreading in a hierarchical social network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, A; Kosiński, R A

    2004-09-01

    A model of epidemic spreading in a population with a hierarchical structure of interpersonal interactions is described and investigated numerically. The structure of interpersonal connections is based on a scale-free network. Spatial localization of individuals belonging to different social groups, and the mobility of a contemporary community, as well as the effectiveness of different interpersonal interactions, are taken into account. Typical relations characterizing the spreading process, like a range of epidemic and epidemic curves, are discussed. The influence of preventive vaccinations on the spreading process is investigated. The critical value of preventively vaccinated individuals that is sufficient for the suppression of an epidemic is calculated. Our results are compared with solutions of the master equation for the spreading process and good agreement of the character of this process is found.

  9. Hierarchical self-organization of non-cooperating individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamás Nepusz

    Full Text Available Hierarchy is one of the most conspicuous features of numerous natural, technological and social systems. The underlying structures are typically complex and their most relevant organizational principle is the ordering of the ties among the units they are made of according to a network displaying hierarchical features. In spite of the abundant presence of hierarchy no quantitative theoretical interpretation of the origins of a multi-level, knowledge-based social network exists. Here we introduce an approach which is capable of reproducing the emergence of a multi-levelled network structure based on the plausible assumption that the individuals (representing the nodes of the network can make the right estimate about the state of their changing environment to a varying degree. Our model accounts for a fundamental feature of knowledge-based organizations: the less capable individuals tend to follow those who are better at solving the problems they all face. We find that relatively simple rules lead to hierarchical self-organization and the specific structures we obtain possess the two, perhaps most important features of complex systems: a simultaneous presence of adaptability and stability. In addition, the performance (success score of the emerging networks is significantly higher than the average expected score of the individuals without letting them copy the decisions of the others. The results of our calculations are in agreement with a related experiment and can be useful from the point of designing the optimal conditions for constructing a given complex social structure as well as understanding the hierarchical organization of such biological structures of major importance as the regulatory pathways or the dynamics of neural networks.

  10. Hierarchically organized layout for visualization of biochemical pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsay, Jyh-Jong; Wu, Bo-Liang; Jeng, Yu-Sen

    2010-01-01

    Many complex pathways are described as hierarchical structures in which a pathway is recursively partitioned into several sub-pathways, and organized hierarchically as a tree. The hierarchical structure provides a natural way to visualize the global structure of a complex pathway. However, none of the previous research on pathway visualization explores the hierarchical structures provided by many complex pathways. In this paper, we aim to develop algorithms that can take advantages of hierarchical structures, and give layouts that explore the global structures as well as local structures of pathways. We present a new hierarchically organized layout algorithm to produce layouts for hierarchically organized pathways. Our algorithm first decomposes a complex pathway into sub-pathway groups along the hierarchical organization, and then partition each sub-pathway group into basic components. It then applies conventional layout algorithms, such as hierarchical layout and force-directed layout, to compute the layout of each basic component. Finally, component layouts are joined to form a final layout of the pathway. Our main contribution is the development of algorithms for decomposing pathways and joining layouts. Experiment shows that our algorithm is able to give comprehensible visualization for pathways with hierarchies, cycles as well as complex structures. It clearly renders the global component structures as well as the local structure in each component. In addition, it runs very fast, and gives better visualization for many examples from previous related research. 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Modular networks with hierarchical organization: The dynamical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Most of the complex systems seen in real life also have associated dynamics [10], and the ... another example, this time a hierarchical structure, viz., the Cayley tree with b ..... natural constraints operating on networks in real life, such as the ...

  12. Hierarchical spatial organization of geographical networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travencolo, Bruno A N; Costa, Luciano da F

    2008-01-01

    In this work, we propose a hierarchical extension of the polygonality index as the means to characterize geographical planar networks. By considering successive neighborhoods around each node, it is possible to obtain more complete information about the spatial order of the network at progressive spatial scales. The potential of the methodology is illustrated with respect to synthetic and real geographical networks

  13. Translating Management Practices in Hierarchical Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wæraas, Arild; Nielsen, Jeppe Agger

    structures affect translators’ approaches taken towards management ideas. This paper reports the findings from a longitudinal case study of the translation of Leadership Pipeline in a Danish fire department and how the translators’ approach changed over time from a modifying to a reproducing mode. The study......This study examines how translators in a hierarchical context approach the translation of management practices. Although current translation theory and research emphasize the importance of contextual factors in translation processes, little research has investigated how strongly hierarchical...... finds that translation does not necessarily imply transformation of the management idea, pointing instead to aspects of exact imitation and copying of an ”original” idea. It also highlights how translation is likely to involve multiple and successive translation modes and, furthermore, that strongly...

  14. Organization of excitable dynamics in hierarchical biological networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Müller-Linow

    Full Text Available This study investigates the contributions of network topology features to the dynamic behavior of hierarchically organized excitable networks. Representatives of different types of hierarchical networks as well as two biological neural networks are explored with a three-state model of node activation for systematically varying levels of random background network stimulation. The results demonstrate that two principal topological aspects of hierarchical networks, node centrality and network modularity, correlate with the network activity patterns at different levels of spontaneous network activation. The approach also shows that the dynamic behavior of the cerebral cortical systems network in the cat is dominated by the network's modular organization, while the activation behavior of the cellular neuronal network of Caenorhabditis elegans is strongly influenced by hub nodes. These findings indicate the interaction of multiple topological features and dynamic states in the function of complex biological networks.

  15. Hierarchical organization of the circadian timing system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steensel, Mariska van

    2006-01-01

    In order to cope with and to predict 24-hour rhythms in the environment, most, if not all, organisms have a circadian timing system. The most important mammalian circadian pacemaker is located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus at the base of the hypothalamus in the brain. Over the years, it has become

  16. Multilevel compression of random walks on networks reveals hierarchical organization in large integrated systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Rosvall

    Full Text Available To comprehend the hierarchical organization of large integrated systems, we introduce the hierarchical map equation, which reveals multilevel structures in networks. In this information-theoretic approach, we exploit the duality between compression and pattern detection; by compressing a description of a random walker as a proxy for real flow on a network, we find regularities in the network that induce this system-wide flow. Finding the shortest multilevel description of the random walker therefore gives us the best hierarchical clustering of the network--the optimal number of levels and modular partition at each level--with respect to the dynamics on the network. With a novel search algorithm, we extract and illustrate the rich multilevel organization of several large social and biological networks. For example, from the global air traffic network we uncover countries and continents, and from the pattern of scientific communication we reveal more than 100 scientific fields organized in four major disciplines: life sciences, physical sciences, ecology and earth sciences, and social sciences. In general, we find shallow hierarchical structures in globally interconnected systems, such as neural networks, and rich multilevel organizations in systems with highly separated regions, such as road networks.

  17. Conceptual hierarchical modeling to describe wetland plant community organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, A.M.; Guntenspergen, G.R.; Allen, T.F.H.

    2010-01-01

    Using multivariate analysis, we created a hierarchical modeling process that describes how differently-scaled environmental factors interact to affect wetland-scale plant community organization in a system of small, isolated wetlands on Mount Desert Island, Maine. We followed the procedure: 1) delineate wetland groups using cluster analysis, 2) identify differently scaled environmental gradients using non-metric multidimensional scaling, 3) order gradient hierarchical levels according to spatiotem-poral scale of fluctuation, and 4) assemble hierarchical model using group relationships with ordination axes and post-hoc tests of environmental differences. Using this process, we determined 1) large wetland size and poor surface water chemistry led to the development of shrub fen wetland vegetation, 2) Sphagnum and water chemistry differences affected fen vs. marsh / sedge meadows status within small wetlands, and 3) small-scale hydrologic differences explained transitions between forested vs. non-forested and marsh vs. sedge meadow vegetation. This hierarchical modeling process can help explain how upper level contextual processes constrain biotic community response to lower-level environmental changes. It creates models with more nuanced spatiotemporal complexity than classification and regression tree procedures. Using this process, wetland scientists will be able to generate more generalizable theories of plant community organization, and useful management models. ?? Society of Wetland Scientists 2009.

  18. Psychological autonomy and hierarchical relatedness as organizers of developmental pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Heidi

    2016-01-19

    The definition of self and others can be regarded as embodying the two dimensions of autonomy and relatedness. Autonomy and relatedness are two basic human needs and cultural constructs at the same time. This implies that they may be differently defined yet remain equally important. The respective understanding of autonomy and relatedness is socialized during the everyday experiences of daily life routines from birth on. In this paper, two developmental pathways are portrayed that emphasize different conceptions of autonomy and relatedness that are adaptive in two different environmental contexts with very different affordances and constraints. Western middle-class children are socialized towards psychological autonomy, i.e. the primacy of own intentions, wishes, individual preferences and emotions affording a definition of relatedness as psychological negotiable construct. Non-Western subsistence farmer children are socialized towards hierarchical relatedness, i.e. positioning oneself into the hierarchical structure of a communal system affording a definition of autonomy as action oriented, based on responsibility and obligations. Infancy can be regarded as a cultural lens through which to study the different socialization agendas. Parenting strategies that aim at supporting these different socialization goals in German and Euro-American parents on the one hand and Nso farmers from North Western Cameroon on the other hand are described. It is concluded that different pathways need to be considered in order to understand human psychology from a global perspective. © 2015 The Author(s).

  19. Hierarchical prediction errors in midbrain and septum during social learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaconescu, Andreea O; Mathys, Christoph; Weber, Lilian A E; Kasper, Lars; Mauer, Jan; Stephan, Klaas E

    2017-04-01

    Social learning is fundamental to human interactions, yet its computational and physiological mechanisms are not well understood. One prominent open question concerns the role of neuromodulatory transmitters. We combined fMRI, computational modelling and genetics to address this question in two separate samples (N = 35, N = 47). Participants played a game requiring inference on an adviser's intentions whose motivation to help or mislead changed over time. Our analyses suggest that hierarchically structured belief updates about current advice validity and the adviser's trustworthiness, respectively, depend on different neuromodulatory systems. Low-level prediction errors (PEs) about advice accuracy not only activated regions known to support 'theory of mind', but also the dopaminergic midbrain. Furthermore, PE responses in ventral striatum were influenced by the Met/Val polymorphism of the Catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT) gene. By contrast, high-level PEs ('expected uncertainty') about the adviser's fidelity activated the cholinergic septum. These findings, replicated in both samples, have important implications: They suggest that social learning rests on hierarchically related PEs encoded by midbrain and septum activity, respectively, in the same manner as other forms of learning under volatility. Furthermore, these hierarchical PEs may be broadcast by dopaminergic and cholinergic projections to induce plasticity specifically in cortical areas known to represent beliefs about others. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.

  20. Hierarchical organization of brain functional networks during visual tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, Zhao; Cai, Shi-Min; Fu, Zhong-Qian; Zhang, Jie

    2011-09-01

    The functional network of the brain is known to demonstrate modular structure over different hierarchical scales. In this paper, we systematically investigated the hierarchical modular organizations of the brain functional networks that are derived from the extent of phase synchronization among high-resolution EEG time series during a visual task. In particular, we compare the modular structure of the functional network from EEG channels with that of the anatomical parcellation of the brain cortex. Our results show that the modular architectures of brain functional networks correspond well to those from the anatomical structures over different levels of hierarchy. Most importantly, we find that the consistency between the modular structures of the functional network and the anatomical network becomes more pronounced in terms of vision, sensory, vision-temporal, motor cortices during the visual task, which implies that the strong modularity in these areas forms the functional basis for the visual task. The structure-function relationship further reveals that the phase synchronization of EEG time series in the same anatomical group is much stronger than that of EEG time series from different anatomical groups during the task and that the hierarchical organization of functional brain network may be a consequence of functional segmentation of the brain cortex.

  1. Category theoretic analysis of hierarchical protein materials and social networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David I Spivak

    Full Text Available Materials in biology span all the scales from Angstroms to meters and typically consist of complex hierarchical assemblies of simple building blocks. Here we describe an application of category theory to describe structural and resulting functional properties of biological protein materials by developing so-called ologs. An olog is like a "concept web" or "semantic network" except that it follows a rigorous mathematical formulation based on category theory. This key difference ensures that an olog is unambiguous, highly adaptable to evolution and change, and suitable for sharing concepts with other olog. We consider simple cases of beta-helical and amyloid-like protein filaments subjected to axial extension and develop an olog representation of their structural and resulting mechanical properties. We also construct a representation of a social network in which people send text-messages to their nearest neighbors and act as a team to perform a task. We show that the olog for the protein and the olog for the social network feature identical category-theoretic representations, and we proceed to precisely explicate the analogy or isomorphism between them. The examples presented here demonstrate that the intrinsic nature of a complex system, which in particular includes a precise relationship between structure and function at different hierarchical levels, can be effectively represented by an olog. This, in turn, allows for comparative studies between disparate materials or fields of application, and results in novel approaches to derive functionality in the design of de novo hierarchical systems. We discuss opportunities and challenges associated with the description of complex biological materials by using ologs as a powerful tool for analysis and design in the context of materiomics, and we present the potential impact of this approach for engineering, life sciences, and medicine.

  2. Modeling evolutionary dynamics of epigenetic mutations in hierarchically organized tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Sottoriva

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The cancer stem cell (CSC concept is a highly debated topic in cancer research. While experimental evidence in favor of the cancer stem cell theory is apparently abundant, the results are often criticized as being difficult to interpret. An important reason for this is that most experimental data that support this model rely on transplantation studies. In this study we use a novel cellular Potts model to elucidate the dynamics of established malignancies that are driven by a small subset of CSCs. Our results demonstrate that epigenetic mutations that occur during mitosis display highly altered dynamics in CSC-driven malignancies compared to a classical, non-hierarchical model of growth. In particular, the heterogeneity observed in CSC-driven tumors is considerably higher. We speculate that this feature could be used in combination with epigenetic (methylation sequencing studies of human malignancies to prove or refute the CSC hypothesis in established tumors without the need for transplantation. Moreover our tumor growth simulations indicate that CSC-driven tumors display evolutionary features that can be considered beneficial during tumor progression. Besides an increased heterogeneity they also exhibit properties that allow the escape of clones from local fitness peaks. This leads to more aggressive phenotypes in the long run and makes the neoplasm more adaptable to stringent selective forces such as cancer treatment. Indeed when therapy is applied the clone landscape of the regrown tumor is more aggressive with respect to the primary tumor, whereas the classical model demonstrated similar patterns before and after therapy. Understanding these often counter-intuitive fundamental properties of (non-hierarchically organized malignancies is a crucial step in validating the CSC concept as well as providing insight into the therapeutical consequences of this model.

  3. Social Capital in Organizations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Oteman

    2008-01-01

    In my belief the effectiveness of organizations has more to do with managing people in a more ethical, sustainable and effective way than what is common these days. For example employees values like trust, respect and commitment are rarely considered as values that can contribute to social capital

  4. An Evolutionary Approach for Optimizing Hierarchical Multi-Agent System Organization

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Zhiqi; Yu, Ling; Yu, Han

    2014-01-01

    It has been widely recognized that the performance of a multi-agent system is highly affected by its organization. A large scale system may have billions of possible ways of organization, which makes it impractical to find an optimal choice of organization using exhaustive search methods. In this paper, we propose a genetic algorithm aided optimization scheme for designing hierarchical structures of multi-agent systems. We introduce a novel algorithm, called the hierarchical genetic algorithm...

  5. Creating Hierarchical Pores by Controlled Linker Thermolysis in Multivariate Metal-Organic Frameworks

    KAUST Repository

    Feng, Liang; Yuan, Shuai; Zhang, Liang-Liang; Tan, Kui; Li, Jia-Luo; Kirchon, Angelo; Liu, Ling-Mei; Zhang, Peng; Han, Yu; Chabal, Yves J.; Zhou, Hong-Cai

    2018-01-01

    strate-gy, linker thermolysis, to construct ultra-stable hierarchically porous metal−organic frameworks (HP-MOFs) with tunable pore size distribution. Linker instability, usually an undesirable trait of MOFs, was exploited to create mesopores

  6. Dynamics and thermodynamics in hierarchically organized systems applications in physics, biology and economics

    CERN Document Server

    Auger, P

    2013-01-01

    One of the most fundamental and efficient ways of conceptualizing complex systems is to organize them hierarchically. A hierarchically organized system is represented by a network of interconnected subsystems, each of which has its own network of subsystems, and so on, until some elementary subsystems are reached that are not further decomposed. This original and important book proposes a general mathematical theory of a hierarchical system and shows how it can be applied to very different topics such as physics (Hamiltonian systems), biology (coupling the molecular and the cellular levels), e

  7. Hierarchical responses to organic contaminants in aquatic ecotoxicological bioassays: from microcystins to biodegradation

    OpenAIRE

    Montenegro, Katia

    2008-01-01

    In this thesis I explore the ecotoxicological responses of aquatic organisms at different hierarchical levels to organic contaminants by means of bioassays. The bioassays use novel endpoints or approaches to elucidate the effects of exposure to contaminants and attempt to give mechanistic explanations that could be used to interpret effects at higher hierarchical scales. The sensitivity of population growth rate in the cyanobacteria species Microcystis aeruginosa to the herbicide glyp...

  8. Social identity process within organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Bazarov, Takhir; Kuzmina, Maria

    2005-01-01

    Expanding and complex social realities cause new types of identity. Variety in organizations and workgroups (where people are involved), implies a special kind of social identity which can be defined as professional, organizational or managerial. The study of the social identity processes in organizations is a new interdisciplinary sphere that is presented especially commonly in European Social Psychology. The result of its theoretical comprehension is Social Identity Theory. In the article l...

  9. Numerical analysis of a neural network with hierarchically organized patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacci, Silvia; Wiecko, Cristina; Parga, Nestor

    1988-01-01

    A numerical analysis of the retrieval behaviour of an associative memory model where the memorized patterns are stored hierarchically is performed. It is found that the model is able to categorize errors. For a finite number of categories, these are retrieved correctly even when the stored patterns are not. Instead, when they are allowed to increase with the number of neurons, their retrieval quality deteriorates above a critical category capacity. (Author)

  10. The fluency of social hierarchy: the ease with which hierarchical relationships are seen, remembered, learned, and liked.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zitek, Emily M; Tiedens, Larissa Z

    2012-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that social hierarchies are fluent social stimuli; that is, they are processed more easily and therefore liked better than less hierarchical stimuli. In Study 1, pairs of people in a hierarchy based on facial dominance were identified faster than pairs of people equal in their facial dominance. In Study 2, a diagram representing hierarchy was memorized more quickly than a diagram representing equality or a comparison diagram. This faster processing led the hierarchy diagram to be liked more than the equality diagram. In Study 3, participants were best able to learn a set of relationships that represented hierarchy (asymmetry of power)--compared to relationships in which there was asymmetry of friendliness, or compared to relationships in which there was symmetry--and this processing ease led them to like the hierarchy the most. In Study 4, participants found it easier to make decisions about a company that was more hierarchical and thus thought the hierarchical organization had more positive qualities. In Study 5, familiarity as a basis for the fluency of hierarchy was demonstrated by showing greater fluency for male than female hierarchies. This study also showed that when social relationships are difficult to learn, people's preference for hierarchy increases. Taken together, these results suggest one reason people might like hierarchies--hierarchies are easy to process. This fluency for social hierarchies might contribute to the construction and maintenance of hierarchies.

  11. Electric double layer capacitance on hierarchical porous carbons in an organic electrolyte

    OpenAIRE

    Yamada, Hirotoshi; Moriguchi, Isamu; Kudo, Tetsuichi

    2008-01-01

    Nanoporous carbons were prepared by using colloidal crystal as a template. Nitrogen adsorption/desorption isotherms and transmission electron microscope images revealed that the porous carbons exhibit hierarchical porous structures with meso/macropores and micropores. Electric double layer capacitor performance of the porous carbons was investigated in an organic electrolyte of 1 M LiClO4 in propylene carbonate and dimethoxy ethane. The hierarchical porous carbons exhibited large specific dou...

  12. Social Media in Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Razmerita, Liana; Kirchner, Kathrin; Nabeth, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    By using social media, many companies try to exploit new forms of interaction, collaboration, and knowledge sharing through leveraging the social, collaborative dimension of social software. The traditional collective knowledge management model based on a top-down approach is now opening up new...... avenues for a bottom-up approach incorporating a more personal knowledge management dimension, which could be synergized into collective knowledge using the social-collaborative dimension of social media. This article addresses the following questions: (1) How can social media support the management...... of personal and collective knowledge using a synergetic approach? (2) Do the personal and collective dimensions compete with each other or can they reinforce each other in a more effective manner using social media? Our findings indicate that social media supports both the personal and collective dimensions...

  13. Organ trade using social networks

    OpenAIRE

    Waleed Alrogy; Dunia Jawdat; Muhannad Alsemari; Abdulrahman Alharbi; Abdullah Alasaad; Ali H Hajeer

    2016-01-01

    Organ transplantation is recognized worldwide as an effective treatment for organ failure. However, due to the increase in the number of patients requiring a transplant, a shortage of suitable organs for transplantation has become a global problem. Human organ trade is an illegal practice of buying or selling organs and is universally sentenced. The aim of this study was to search social network for organ trade and offerings in Saudi Arabia. The study was conducted from June 22, 2015 to Febru...

  14. The Hierarchical Cortical Organization of Human Speech Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Heer, Wendy A; Huth, Alexander G; Griffiths, Thomas L; Gallant, Jack L; Theunissen, Frédéric E

    2017-07-05

    Speech comprehension requires that the brain extract semantic meaning from the spectral features represented at the cochlea. To investigate this process, we performed an fMRI experiment in which five men and two women passively listened to several hours of natural narrative speech. We then used voxelwise modeling to predict BOLD responses based on three different feature spaces that represent the spectral, articulatory, and semantic properties of speech. The amount of variance explained by each feature space was then assessed using a separate validation dataset. Because some responses might be explained equally well by more than one feature space, we used a variance partitioning analysis to determine the fraction of the variance that was uniquely explained by each feature space. Consistent with previous studies, we found that speech comprehension involves hierarchical representations starting in primary auditory areas and moving laterally on the temporal lobe: spectral features are found in the core of A1, mixtures of spectral and articulatory in STG, mixtures of articulatory and semantic in STS, and semantic in STS and beyond. Our data also show that both hemispheres are equally and actively involved in speech perception and interpretation. Further, responses as early in the auditory hierarchy as in STS are more correlated with semantic than spectral representations. These results illustrate the importance of using natural speech in neurolinguistic research. Our methodology also provides an efficient way to simultaneously test multiple specific hypotheses about the representations of speech without using block designs and segmented or synthetic speech. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT To investigate the processing steps performed by the human brain to transform natural speech sound into meaningful language, we used models based on a hierarchical set of speech features to predict BOLD responses of individual voxels recorded in an fMRI experiment while subjects listened to

  15. Social Media Across the Organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampf, Constance Elizabeth; Mohammadreza, Marjan

    2016-01-01

    Social Media studies tend to focus on either internal (Friedl & Verčič, 2011; Huang et al, 2013) or external communication (Briones et al, 2011; Hanna et al, 2011; Saschi, 2012; Byrd, 2012; Kilgour et al, 2015) , rather than addressing social media across the organization. This is problematic...... because of the diversity in perspectives about how social media should be deployed among competing department perspectives in an organization are generally not explicitly considered when internal and external communication are dealt with separately. These diverse perspectives lead to tensions between...... differing needs and practices across the organization that affect the understanding of social media value and use, as well as how social media fits with overall communication strategy planning. To address this issue, we have conceptualized the “Online Reputation Chain” as a metaphor for understanding social...

  16. Sustained activity in hierarchical modular neural networks: self-organized criticality and oscillations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Jun Wang

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral cortical brain networks possess a number of conspicuous features of structure and dynamics. First, these networks have an intricate, non-random organization. They are structured in a hierarchical modular fashion, from large-scale regions of the whole brain, via cortical areas and area subcompartments organized as structural and functional maps to cortical columns, and finally circuits made up of individual neurons. Second, the networks display self-organized sustained activity, which is persistent in the absence of external stimuli. At the systems level, such activity is characterized by complex rhythmical oscillations over a broadband background, while at the cellular level, neuronal discharges have been observed to display avalanches, indicating that cortical networks are at the state of self-organized criticality. We explored the relationship between hierarchical neural network organization and sustained dynamics using large-scale network modeling. It was shown that sparse random networks with balanced excitation and inhibition can sustain neural activity without external stimulation. We find that a hierarchical modular architecture can generate sustained activity better than random networks. Moreover, the system can simultaneously support rhythmical oscillations and self-organized criticality, which are not present in the respective random networks. The underlying mechanism is that each dense module cannot sustain activity on its own, but displays self-organized criticality in the presence of weak perturbations. The hierarchical modular networks provide the coupling among subsystems with self-organized criticality. These results imply that the hierarchical modular architecture of cortical networks plays an important role in shaping the ongoing spontaneous activity of the brain, potentially allowing the system to take advantage of both the sensitivityof critical state and predictability and timing of oscillations for efficient

  17. Hierarchical Recursive Organization and the Free Energy Principle: From Biological Self-Organization to the Psychoanalytic Mind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Connolly

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The present paper argues that a systems theory epistemology (and particularly the notion of hierarchical recursive organization provides the critical theoretical context within which the significance of Friston's (2010a Free Energy Principle (FEP for both evolution and psychoanalysis is best understood. Within this perspective, the FEP occupies a particular level of the hierarchical organization of the organism, which is the level of biological self-organization. This form of biological self-organization is in turn understood as foundational and pervasive to the higher levels of organization of the human organism that are of interest to both neuroscience as well as psychoanalysis. Consequently, central psychoanalytic claims should be restated, in order to be located in their proper place within a hierarchical recursive organization of the (situated organism. In light of the FEP the realization of the psychoanalytic mind by the brain should be seen in terms of the evolution of different levels of systematic organization where the concepts of psychoanalysis describe a level of hierarchical recursive organization superordinate to that of biological self-organization and the FEP. The implication of this formulation is that while “psychoanalytic” mental processes are fundamentally subject to the FEP, they nonetheless also add their own principles of process over and above that of the FEP. A model found in Grobbelaar (1989 offers a recursive bottom-up description of the self-organization of the psychoanalytic ego as dependent on the organization of language (and affect, which is itself founded upon the tendency toward autopoiesis (self-making within the organism, which is in turn described as formally similar to the FEP. Meaningful consilience between Grobbelaar's model and the hierarchical recursive description available in Friston's (2010a theory is described. The paper concludes that the valuable contribution of the FEP to psychoanalysis

  18. Psychological autonomy and hierarchical relatedness as organizers of developmental pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Keller, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    The definition of self and others can be regarded as embodying the two dimensions of autonomy and relatedness. Autonomy and relatedness are two basic human needs and cultural constructs at the same time. This implies that they may be differently defined yet remain equally important. The respective understanding of autonomy and relatedness is socialized during the everyday experiences of daily life routines from birth on. In this paper, two developmental pathways are portrayed that emphasize d...

  19. The Social Organization of Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedges, Larry V., Ed.; Schneider, Barbara, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    Schools are complex social settings where students, teachers, administrators, and parents interact to shape a child's educational experience. Any effort to improve educational outcomes for America's children requires a dynamic understanding of the environments in which children learn. In "The Social Organization of Schooling", editors Larry Hedges…

  20. Towards a Hierarchical Definition of Life, the Organism, and Death

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jagers Op Akkerhuis, G.A.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Despite hundreds of definitions, no consensus exists on a definition of life or on the closely related and problematic definitions of the organism and death. These problems retard practical and theoretical development in, for example, exobiology, artificial life, biology and evolution. This paper

  1. Predicting Hierarchical Structure in Small World Social Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, Dil Muhammad Akbar

    2009-01-01

    Typisk analytisk foranstaltninger i grafteori gerne grad centralitet, betweenness og nærhed centralities er meget almindelige og har lang tradition for deres vellykkede brug. Men modellering af skjult, terrorister eller kriminelle netværk gennem sociale grafer ikke rigtig give den hierarkiske str...

  2. Reconciling Hierarchical and Edge Organizations: 9-11 Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Few Many Planning & control Management of output Action planning Performance control Despite all the advantages claimed for network-centric...allowed to use them. offered by the edge organization. Despite all the advantages claimed for network-centric operations over the past 15 years...C2: • 2 PhD students (cultural influences; eCommerce to support CMI) – Offensive cyber operations: • Integrating kinetic & cyber ops

  3. Sustained Activity in Hierarchical Modular Neural Networks: Self-Organized Criticality and Oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sheng-Jun; Hilgetag, Claus C.; Zhou, Changsong

    2010-01-01

    Cerebral cortical brain networks possess a number of conspicuous features of structure and dynamics. First, these networks have an intricate, non-random organization. In particular, they are structured in a hierarchical modular fashion, from large-scale regions of the whole brain, via cortical areas and area subcompartments organized as structural and functional maps to cortical columns, and finally circuits made up of individual neurons. Second, the networks display self-organized sustained activity, which is persistent in the absence of external stimuli. At the systems level, such activity is characterized by complex rhythmical oscillations over a broadband background, while at the cellular level, neuronal discharges have been observed to display avalanches, indicating that cortical networks are at the state of self-organized criticality (SOC). We explored the relationship between hierarchical neural network organization and sustained dynamics using large-scale network modeling. Previously, it was shown that sparse random networks with balanced excitation and inhibition can sustain neural activity without external stimulation. We found that a hierarchical modular architecture can generate sustained activity better than random networks. Moreover, the system can simultaneously support rhythmical oscillations and SOC, which are not present in the respective random networks. The mechanism underlying the sustained activity is that each dense module cannot sustain activity on its own, but displays SOC in the presence of weak perturbations. Therefore, the hierarchical modular networks provide the coupling among subsystems with SOC. These results imply that the hierarchical modular architecture of cortical networks plays an important role in shaping the ongoing spontaneous activity of the brain, potentially allowing the system to take advantage of both the sensitivity of critical states and the predictability and timing of oscillations for efficient information

  4. Hierarchical Markov Model in Life Insurance and Social Benefit Schemes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiwook Jang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available We explored the effect of the jump-diffusion process on a social benefit scheme consisting of life insurance, unemployment/disability benefits, and retirement benefits. To do so, we used a four-state Markov chain with multiple decrements. Assuming independent state-wise intensities taking the form of a jump-diffusion process and deterministic interest rates, we evaluated the prospective reserves for this scheme in which the individual is employed at inception. We then numerically demonstrated the state of the reserves for the scheme under jump-diffusion and non-jump-diffusion settings. By decomposing the reserve equation into five components, our numerical illustration indicated that an extension of the retirement age has a spillover effect that would increase government expenses for other social insurance programs. We also conducted sensitivity analyses and examined the total-reserves components by changing the relevant parameters of the transition intensities, which are the average jump-size parameter, average jump frequency, and diffusion parameters of the chosen states, with figures provided. Our computation revealed that the total reserve is most sensitive to changes in average jump frequency.

  5. Human capital, social capital and scientific research in Europe: an application of linear hierarchical models

    OpenAIRE

    Mathieu Goudard; Michel Lubrano

    2011-01-01

    The theory of human capital is one way to explain individual decisions to produce scientific research. However, this theory, even if it reckons the importance of time in science, is too short for explaining the existing diversity of scientific output. The present paper introduces the social capital of Bourdieu (1980), Coleman (1988) and Putnam (1995) as a necessary complement to explain the creation of scientific human capital. This paper connects these two concepts by means of a hierarchical...

  6. Attentional selection of levels within hierarchically organized figures is mediated by object-files

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell Joseph Valdes-Sosa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objects frequently have a hierarchical organization (tree-branch-leaf. How do we select the level to be attended? This has been explored with compound letters: a global letter built from local letters. One explanation, backed by much empirical support, is that attentional competition is biased towards certain spatial frequency (SF bands across all locations and objects (a SF filter. This view assumes that the global and local letters are carried respectively by low and high SF bands, and that the bias can persist over time. Here we advocate a complementary view in which perception of hierarchical level is determined by how we represent each object-file. Although many properties bound to an object-file (i.e. position, color, even shape can mutate without affecting its persistence over time, we posit that same object-file cannot be used to store information from different hierarchical levels. Thus selection of level would be independent from locations but not from the way objects are represented at each moment. These views were contrasted via an attentional blink paradigm that presented letters within compound figures, but only one level at a time. Attending to two letters in rapid succession was easier if they were at the same- compared to different-levels, as predicted by both accounts. However, only the object-file account was able to explain why it was easier to report two targets on the same moving object compared to the same targets on distinct objects. The interference of different masks on target recognition was also easier to predict by the object-file account than by the SF filter. The methods introduced here allowed us to investigate attention to hierarchical levels and to objects within the same empirical framework. The data suggests that SF information is used to structure the internal organization of object representations, a process understood best by integrating object-file theory with previous models of hierarchical perception.

  7. Organ trade using social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alrogy, Waleed; Jawdat, Dunia; Alsemari, Muhannad; Alharbi, Abdulrahman; Alasaad, Abdullah; Hajeer, Ali H

    2016-01-01

    Organ transplantation is recognized worldwide as an effective treatment for organ failure. However, due to the increase in the number of patients requiring a transplant, a shortage of suitable organs for transplantation has become a global problem. Human organ trade is an illegal practice of buying or selling organs and is universally sentenced. The aim of this study was to search social network for organ trade and offerings in Saudi Arabia. The study was conducted from June 22, 2015 to February 19, 2016. The search was conducted on Twitter, Google answers, and Facebook using the following terms: kidney for sale, kidneys for sale, liver for sale, kidney wanted, liver wanted, kidney donor, and liver donor. We found a total of 557 adverts on organ trade, 165 (30%) from donors or sellers, and 392 (70%) from recipients or buyers. On Twitter, we found 472 (85%) adverts, on Google answers 61 (11%), and on Facebook 24 (4%). Organ trade is a global problem, and yet it is increasingly seen in many countries. Although the Saudi Center for Organ Transplantation by-laws specifically prohibits and monitors any form of commercial transplantation, it is still essential to enforce guidelines for medical professionals to detect and prevent such criminal acts.

  8. Organ trade using social networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleed Alrogy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Organ transplantation is recognized worldwide as an effective treatment for organ failure. However, due to the increase in the number of patients requiring a transplant, a shortage of suitable organs for transplantation has become a global problem. Human organ trade is an illegal practice of buying or selling organs and is universally sentenced. The aim of this study was to search social network for organ trade and offerings in Saudi Arabia. The study was conducted from June 22, 2015 to February 19, 2016. The search was conducted on Twitter, Google answers, and Facebook using the following terms: kidney for sale, kidneys for sale, liver for sale, kidney wanted, liver wanted, kidney donor, and liver donor. We found a total of 557 adverts on organ trade, 165 (30% from donors or sellers, and 392 (70% from recipients or buyers. On Twitter, we found 472 (85% adverts, on Google answers 61 (11%, and on Facebook 24 (4%. Organ trade is a global problem, and yet it is increasingly seen in many countries. Although the Saudi Center for Organ Transplantation by-laws specifically prohibits and monitors any form of commercial transplantation, it is still essential to enforce guidelines for medical professionals to detect and prevent such criminal acts.

  9. Creating Hierarchical Pores by Controlled Linker Thermolysis in Multivariate Metal-Organic Frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Liang; Yuan, Shuai; Zhang, Liang-Liang; Tan, Kui; Li, Jia-Luo; Kirchon, Angelo; Liu, Ling-Mei; Zhang, Peng; Han, Yu; Chabal, Yves J; Zhou, Hong-Cai

    2018-02-14

    Sufficient pore size, appropriate stability, and hierarchical porosity are three prerequisites for open frameworks designed for drug delivery, enzyme immobilization, and catalysis involving large molecules. Herein, we report a powerful and general strategy, linker thermolysis, to construct ultrastable hierarchically porous metal-organic frameworks (HP-MOFs) with tunable pore size distribution. Linker instability, usually an undesirable trait of MOFs, was exploited to create mesopores by generating crystal defects throughout a microporous MOF crystal via thermolysis. The crystallinity and stability of HP-MOFs remain after thermolabile linkers are selectively removed from multivariate metal-organic frameworks (MTV-MOFs) through a decarboxylation process. A domain-based linker spatial distribution was found to be critical for creating hierarchical pores inside MTV-MOFs. Furthermore, linker thermolysis promotes the formation of ultrasmall metal oxide nanoparticles immobilized in an open framework that exhibits high catalytic activity for Lewis acid-catalyzed reactions. Most importantly, this work provides fresh insights into the connection between linker apportionment and vacancy distribution, which may shed light on probing the disordered linker apportionment in multivariate systems, a long-standing challenge in the study of MTV-MOFs.

  10. Creating Hierarchical Pores by Controlled Linker Thermolysis in Multivariate Metal-Organic Frameworks

    KAUST Repository

    Feng, Liang

    2018-01-18

    Sufficient pore size, appropriate stability and hierarchical porosity are three prerequisites for open frameworks designed for drug delivery, enzyme immobilization and catalysis involving large molecules. Herein, we report a powerful and general strate-gy, linker thermolysis, to construct ultra-stable hierarchically porous metal−organic frameworks (HP-MOFs) with tunable pore size distribution. Linker instability, usually an undesirable trait of MOFs, was exploited to create mesopores by generating crystal defects throughout a microporous MOF crystal via thermolysis. The crystallinity and stability of HP-MOFs remain after thermolabile linkers are selectively removed from multivariate metal-organic frameworks (MTV-MOFs) through a decarboxyla-tion process. A domain-based linker spatial distribution was found to be critical for creating hierarchical pores inside MTV-MOFs. Furthermore, linker thermolysis promotes the formation of ultra-small metal oxide (MO) nanoparticles immobilized in an open framework that exhibits high catalytic activity for Lewis acid catalyzed reactions. Most importantly, this work pro-vides fresh insights into the connection between linker apportionment and vacancy distribution, which may shed light on prob-ing the disordered linker apportionment in multivariate systems, a long-standing challenge in the study of MTV-MOFs.

  11. Construction of hierarchically porous metal-organic frameworks through linker labilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Shuai; Zou, Lanfang; Qin, Jun-Sheng; Li, Jialuo; Huang, Lan; Feng, Liang; Wang, Xuan; Bosch, Mathieu; Alsalme, Ali; Cagin, Tahir; Zhou, Hong-Cai

    2017-05-01

    A major goal of metal-organic framework (MOF) research is the expansion of pore size and volume. Although many approaches have been attempted to increase the pore size of MOF materials, it is still a challenge to construct MOFs with precisely customized pore apertures for specific applications. Herein, we present a new method, namely linker labilization, to increase the MOF porosity and pore size, giving rise to hierarchical-pore architectures. Microporous MOFs with robust metal nodes and pro-labile linkers were initially synthesized. The mesopores were subsequently created as crystal defects through the splitting of a pro-labile-linker and the removal of the linker fragments by acid treatment. We demonstrate that linker labilization method can create controllable hierarchical porous structures in stable MOFs, which facilitates the diffusion and adsorption process of guest molecules to improve the performances of MOFs in adsorption and catalysis.

  12. Titanium-Phosphonate-Based Metal-Organic Frameworks with Hierarchical Porosity for Enhanced Photocatalytic Hydrogen Evolution

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Hui

    2018-02-01

    Photocatalytic hydrogen production is crucial for solar-to-chemical conversion process, wherein high-efficiency photocatalysts lie in the heart of this area. Herein a new photocatalyst of hierarchically mesoporous titanium-phosphonate-based metal-organic frameworks, featuring well-structured spheres, periodic mesostructure and large secondary mesoporosity, are rationally designed with the complex of polyelectrolyte and cathodic surfactant serving as the template. The well-structured hierarchical porosity and homogeneously incorporated phosphonate groups can favor the mass transfer and strong optical absorption during the photocatalytic reactions. Correspondingly, the titanium phosphonates exhibit significantly improved photocatalytic hydrogen evolution rate along with impressive stability. This work can provide more insights into designing advanced photocatalysts for energy conversion and render a tunable platform in photoelectrochemical field.

  13. Titanium-Phosphonate-Based Metal-Organic Frameworks with Hierarchical Porosity for Enhanced Photocatalytic Hydrogen Evolution

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Hui; Sun, Ying; Yuan, Zhong-Yong; Zhu, Yun-Pei; Ma, Tianyi

    2018-01-01

    Photocatalytic hydrogen production is crucial for solar-to-chemical conversion process, wherein high-efficiency photocatalysts lie in the heart of this area. Herein a new photocatalyst of hierarchically mesoporous titanium-phosphonate-based metal-organic frameworks, featuring well-structured spheres, periodic mesostructure and large secondary mesoporosity, are rationally designed with the complex of polyelectrolyte and cathodic surfactant serving as the template. The well-structured hierarchical porosity and homogeneously incorporated phosphonate groups can favor the mass transfer and strong optical absorption during the photocatalytic reactions. Correspondingly, the titanium phosphonates exhibit significantly improved photocatalytic hydrogen evolution rate along with impressive stability. This work can provide more insights into designing advanced photocatalysts for energy conversion and render a tunable platform in photoelectrochemical field.

  14. Hierarchically organized architecture of potassium hydrogen phthalate and poly(acrylic acid): toward a general strategy for biomimetic crystal design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oaki, Yuya; Imai, Hiroaki

    2005-12-28

    A hierarchically organized architecture in multiple scales was generated from potassium hydrogen phthalate crystals and poly(acrylic acid) based on our novel biomimetic approach with an exquisite association of polymers on crystallization.

  15. Hierarchical organization of functional connectivity in the mouse brain: a complex network approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardella, Giampiero; Bifone, Angelo; Gabrielli, Andrea; Gozzi, Alessandro; Squartini, Tiziano

    2016-08-18

    This paper represents a contribution to the study of the brain functional connectivity from the perspective of complex networks theory. More specifically, we apply graph theoretical analyses to provide evidence of the modular structure of the mouse brain and to shed light on its hierarchical organization. We propose a novel percolation analysis and we apply our approach to the analysis of a resting-state functional MRI data set from 41 mice. This approach reveals a robust hierarchical structure of modules persistent across different subjects. Importantly, we test this approach against a statistical benchmark (or null model) which constrains only the distributions of empirical correlations. Our results unambiguously show that the hierarchical character of the mouse brain modular structure is not trivially encoded into this lower-order constraint. Finally, we investigate the modular structure of the mouse brain by computing the Minimal Spanning Forest, a technique that identifies subnetworks characterized by the strongest internal correlations. This approach represents a faster alternative to other community detection methods and provides a means to rank modules on the basis of the strength of their internal edges.

  16. Heads First: Visual Aftereffects Reveal Hierarchical Integration of Cues to Social Attention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Cooney

    Full Text Available Determining where another person is attending is an important skill for social interaction that relies on various visual cues, including the turning direction of the head and body. This study reports a novel high-level visual aftereffect that addresses the important question of how these sources of information are combined in gauging social attention. We show that adapting to images of heads turned 25° to the right or left produces a perceptual bias in judging the turning direction of subsequently presented bodies. In contrast, little to no change in the judgment of head orientation occurs after adapting to extremely oriented bodies. The unidirectional nature of the aftereffect suggests that cues from the human body signaling social attention are combined in a hierarchical fashion and is consistent with evidence from single-cell recording studies in nonhuman primates showing that information about head orientation can override information about body posture when both are visible.

  17. Hierarchical Self Organizing Map for Novelty Detection using Mobile Robot with Robust Sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sha'abani, M N A H; Miskon, M F; Sakidin, H

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novelty detection method based on Self Organizing Map neural network using a mobile robot. Based on hierarchical neural network, the network is divided into three networks; position, orientation and sensor measurement network. A simulation was done to demonstrate and validate the proposed method using MobileSim. Three cases of abnormal events; new, missing and shifted objects are employed for performance evaluation. The result of detection was then filtered for false positive detection. The result shows that the inspection produced less than 2% false positive detection at high sensitivity settings

  18. Cardiovascular functioning, personality, and the social world: the domain of hierarchical power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Tamara L

    2009-02-01

    The present paper considers connections between cardiovascular functioning (i.e., disease status and acute stress responses) and social dominance, and its counterpart, social submissiveness, both of which are part of the broader domain of "hierarchical power" [Bugental, D.B., 2000. Acquisition of the algorithms of social life: a domain-based approach. Psychological Bulletin 126, 187-219]. Empirical research on connections between dominance/submissiveness and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in humans is reviewed, as is research on dominance/submissiveness and cardiovascular reactivity to, and recovery from, acute stressors. Three general conclusions are established. First, in both cross-sectional and longitudinal investigations, trait and behavioral indicators of dominance have been positively associated with cardiovascular disease severity, incidence, and progression, whereas preliminary evidence from two studies suggests that trait submissiveness may protect against poorer disease outcomes. Second, among men and women, trait dominance is associated with reactivity to and recovery from acute stressors, particularly social challenges. Third, linkages between dominance/submissiveness and cardiovascular functioning, especially cardiovascular reactivity, are characterized by gender-specific patterning, and this patterning emerges as a function of social context. Implications for the next generation of research concerning social dominance, gender, and cardiovascular functioning are discussed.

  19. Construction of a Hierarchical Architecture of Covalent Organic Frameworks via a Postsynthetic Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gen; Tsujimoto, Masahiko; Packwood, Daniel; Duong, Nghia Tuan; Nishiyama, Yusuke; Kadota, Kentaro; Kitagawa, Susumu; Horike, Satoshi

    2018-02-21

    Covalent organic frameworks (COFs) represent an emerging class of crystalline porous materials that are constructed by the assembly of organic building blocks linked via covalent bonds. Several strategies have been developed for the construction of new COF structures; however, a facile approach to fabricate hierarchical COF architectures with controlled domain structures remains a significant challenge, and has not yet been achieved. In this study, a dynamic covalent chemistry (DCC)-based postsynthetic approach was employed at the solid-liquid interface to construct such structures. Two-dimensional imine-bonded COFs having different aromatic groups were prepared, and a homogeneously mixed-linker structure and a heterogeneously core-shell hollow structure were fabricated by controlling the reactivity of the postsynthetic reactions. Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) confirmed the structures. COFs prepared by a postsynthetic approach exhibit several functional advantages compared with their parent phases. Their Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface areas are 2-fold greater than those of their parent phases because of the higher crystallinity. In addition, the hydrophilicity of the material and the stepwise adsorption isotherms of H 2 O vapor in the hierarchical frameworks were precisely controlled, which was feasible because of the distribution of various domains of the two COFs by controlling the postsynthetic reaction. The approach opens new routes for constructing COF architectures with functionalities that are not possible in a single phase.

  20. INFLUENCE OF THE SKELETON HIERARCHICAL ORGANIZATION ON ELECTRONIC STATE OF IONS IN BONE MATRIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Avrunin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors suggested the 3D-superlattice (3DSL model to describe the effect of coplanar assembly of the hydroxyapatite (HA nanocrystallites on local electronic state of ions in mineralized bone. This model is based on the main structural and functional relationships between adjacent levels of the hierarchical organization of bone tissue. In the framework of the 3DSL model the authors predicted the distinct assembly-to-crystal red shift of the unoccupied electronic states located near the bottom of the conduction band in HA and dependence of this shift on the ratio of the thickness of the hydrated layer to the crystallite size. To check these predictions the experimental X-ray absorption studies of native bone are performed near the Ca2р1/2,3/2-, P2р1/2,3/2- и O1s edges. Comparison of the measured spectra with the known spectra of the reference compounds has confirmed appearance of the distinct assembly-to-crystal red shift. The observed effect is the ground for development of new diagnostic methods for bone status and imaging changes in the local electronic structure of bone tissue by using ultrasoft X-ray absorption spectroscopy and measuring the assembly-tocrystal shifts. The experimental data analysis proved the applicability of the 3DSL model for better understanding of the hierarchical organization of bone at nanolevel.

  1. Microscopy of hierarchically organized TiO{sub 2} photoelectrode for dye solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eskandar, A., E-mail: aeska07@gmail.com [Department of Electrical and Electronics, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia); Mohamed, N. M., E-mail: noranimuti-mohamed@petronas.com.my [Centre of Innovative Nanostructures and Nanodevices, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2015-07-22

    Research on improving the performance of dye solar cells has various aspects of the device being investigated. This paper analyzes the deliberately hierarchized photoelectrode configuration for DSC applications to improve the performance of DSCs. Multiple layers of differently composed TiO{sub 2} particle types namely aggregates and nanoparticles were deposited to form a photoelectrode with thickness of about 12 µm. The photoelectrodes were assembled into working DSCs with an active area of 1 cm{sup 2}. Measurement for solar power conversion performance was measured under 1 sun at AM1.5 spectrum simulated sunlight. Electron microscopy for photoelectrode analysis was conducted using Field Emission Scattering Electron Microscopy with enhanced resolution. External Quantum Efficiency was measured using a purpose built instrument. Kinetics were investigated using the Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) measurement with a potentiostat. The best performing DSC is of the hierarchically organized photoelectrode with a photoconversion efficiency of 4.58%, an increase of 14% in comparison to the reference samples with fully aggregates configuration. Short circuit current density, Jsc increases by about 2.223 mA cm{sup −2} relative to the blanks. The electron microscopy confirmed expected thickness at around 10 µm and layers forming the photoelectrode being hierarchically deposited with ∼20 nm TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles and 450 nm TiO{sub 2} aggregates mixture composition. EQE improved especially for visible region of 500-550 nm light wavelengths with 12 % increase in the response of in that region. Improvement to the diffusion coefficient as measured by the EIS contributed to the performance increase of the photoelectrode configuration under investigation.

  2. Hierarchical Organization of Auditory and Motor Representations in Speech Perception: Evidence from Searchlight Similarity Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Samuel; Davis, Matthew H

    2015-12-01

    How humans extract the identity of speech sounds from highly variable acoustic signals remains unclear. Here, we use searchlight representational similarity analysis (RSA) to localize and characterize neural representations of syllables at different levels of the hierarchically organized temporo-frontal pathways for speech perception. We asked participants to listen to spoken syllables that differed considerably in their surface acoustic form by changing speaker and degrading surface acoustics using noise-vocoding and sine wave synthesis while we recorded neural responses with functional magnetic resonance imaging. We found evidence for a graded hierarchy of abstraction across the brain. At the peak of the hierarchy, neural representations in somatomotor cortex encoded syllable identity but not surface acoustic form, at the base of the hierarchy, primary auditory cortex showed the reverse. In contrast, bilateral temporal cortex exhibited an intermediate response, encoding both syllable identity and the surface acoustic form of speech. Regions of somatomotor cortex associated with encoding syllable identity in perception were also engaged when producing the same syllables in a separate session. These findings are consistent with a hierarchical account of how variable acoustic signals are transformed into abstract representations of the identity of speech sounds. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  3. Hierarchical thermoplastic rippled nanostructures regulate Schwann cell adhesion, morphology and spatial organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masciullo, Cecilia; Dell'Anna, Rossana; Tonazzini, Ilaria; Böettger, Roman; Pepponi, Giancarlo; Cecchini, Marco

    2017-10-12

    Periodic ripples are a variety of anisotropic nanostructures that can be realized by ion beam irradiation on a wide range of solid surfaces. Only a few authors have investigated these surfaces for tuning the response of biological systems, probably because it is challenging to directly produce them in materials that well sustain long-term cellular cultures. Here, hierarchical rippled nanotopographies with a lateral periodicity of ∼300 nm are produced from a gold-irradiated germanium mold in polyethylene terephthalate (PET), a biocompatible polymer approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for clinical applications, by a novel three-step embossing process. The effects of nano-ripples on Schwann Cells (SCs) are studied in view of their possible use for nerve-repair applications. The data demonstrate that nano-ripples can enhance short-term SC adhesion and proliferation (3-24 h after seeding), drive their actin cytoskeleton spatial organization and sustain long-term cell growth. Notably, SCs are oriented perpendicularly with respect to the nanopattern lines. These results provide information about the possible use of hierarchical nano-rippled elements for nerve-regeneration protocols.

  4. Hierarchical compression of Caenorhabditis elegans locomotion reveals phenotypic differences in the organization of behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Marin, Alex; Stephens, Greg J; Brown, André E X

    2016-08-01

    Regularities in animal behaviour offer insights into the underlying organizational and functional principles of nervous systems and automated tracking provides the opportunity to extract features of behaviour directly from large-scale video data. Yet how to effectively analyse such behavioural data remains an open question. Here, we explore whether a minimum description length principle can be exploited to identify meaningful behaviours and phenotypes. We apply a dictionary compression algorithm to behavioural sequences from the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans freely crawling on an agar plate both with and without food and during chemotaxis. We find that the motifs identified by the compression algorithm are rare but relevant for comparisons between worms in different environments, suggesting that hierarchical compression can be a useful step in behaviour analysis. We also use compressibility as a new quantitative phenotype and find that the behaviour of wild-isolated strains of C. elegans is more compressible than that of the laboratory strain N2 as well as the majority of mutant strains examined. Importantly, in distinction to more conventional phenotypes such as overall motor activity or aggregation behaviour, the increased compressibility of wild isolates is not explained by the loss of function of the gene npr-1, which suggests that erratic locomotion is a laboratory-derived trait with a novel genetic basis. Because hierarchical compression can be applied to any sequence, we anticipate that compressibility can offer insights into the organization of behaviour in other animals including humans. © 2016 The Authors.

  5. Immunophenotype Discovery, Hierarchical Organization, and Template-based Classification of Flow Cytometry Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariful Azad

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We describe algorithms for discovering immunophenotypes from large collections of flow cytometry (FC samples, and using them to organize the samples into a hierarchy based on phenotypic similarity. The hierarchical organization is helpful for effective and robust cytometry data mining, including the creation of collections of cell populations characteristic of different classes of samples, robust classification, and anomaly detection. We summarize a set of samples belonging to a biological class or category with a statistically derived template for the class. Whereas individual samples are represented in terms of their cell populations (clusters, a template consists of generic meta-populations (a group of homogeneous cell populations obtained from the samples in a class that describe key phenotypes shared among all those samples. We organize an FC data collection in a hierarchical data structure that supports the identification of immunophenotypes relevant to clinical diagnosis. A robust template-based classification scheme is also developed, but our primary focus is in the discovery of phenotypic signatures and inter-sample relationships in an FC data collection. This collective analysis approach is more efficient and robust since templates describe phenotypic signatures common to cell populations in several samples, while ignoring noise and small sample-specific variations.We have applied the template-base scheme to analyze several data setsincluding one representing a healthy immune system, and one of Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AMLsamples. The last task is challenging due to the phenotypic heterogeneity of the severalsubtypes of AML. However, we identified thirteen immunophenotypes corresponding to subtypes of AML, and were able to distinguish Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia from other subtypes of AML.

  6. Graded effects in hierarchical figure-ground organization: reply to Peterson (1999).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecera, S P; O'Reilly, R C

    2000-06-01

    An important issue in vision research concerns the order of visual processing. S. P. Vecera and R. C. O'Reilly (1998) presented an interactive, hierarchical model that placed figure-ground segregation prior to object recognition. M. A. Peterson (1999) critiqued this model, arguing that because it used ambiguous stimulus displays, figure-ground processing did not precede object processing. In the current article, the authors respond to Peterson's (1999) interpretation of ambiguity in the model and her interpretation of what it means for figure-ground processing to come before object recognition. The authors argue that complete stimulus ambiguity is not critical to the model and that figure-ground precedes object recognition architecturally in the model. The arguments are supported with additional simulation results and an experiment, demonstrating that top-down inputs can influence figure-ground organization in displays that contain stimulus cues.

  7. Social Influence on Information Technology Adoption and Sustained Use in Healthcare: A Hierarchical Bayesian Learning Method Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Haijing

    2013-01-01

    Information technology adoption and diffusion is currently a significant challenge in the healthcare delivery setting. This thesis includes three papers that explore social influence on information technology adoption and sustained use in the healthcare delivery environment using conventional regression models and novel hierarchical Bayesian…

  8. Hierarchical Status Predicts Behavioral Vulnerability and Nucleus Accumbens Metabolic Profile Following Chronic Social Defeat Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrieu, Thomas; Cherix, Antoine; Duque, Aranzazu; Rodrigues, João; Lei, Hongxia; Gruetter, Rolf; Sandi, Carmen

    2017-07-24

    Extensive data highlight the existence of major differences in individuals' susceptibility to stress [1-4]. While genetic factors [5, 6] and exposure to early life stress [7, 8] are key components for such neurobehavioral diversity, intriguing observations revealed individual differences in response to stress in inbred mice [9-12]. This raised the possibility that other factors might be critical in stress vulnerability. A key challenge in the field is to identify non-invasively risk factors for vulnerability to stress. Here, we investigated whether behavioral factors, emerging from preexisting dominance hierarchies, could predict vulnerability to chronic stress [9, 13-16]. We applied a chronic social defeat stress (CSDS) model of depression in C57BL/6J mice to investigate the predictive power of hierarchical status to pinpoint which individuals will exhibit susceptibility to CSDS. Given that the high social status of dominant mice would be the one particularly challenged by CSDS, we predicted and found that dominant individuals were the ones showing a strong susceptibility profile as indicated by strong social avoidance following CSDS, while subordinate mice were not affected. Data from 1 H-NMR spectroscopy revealed that the metabolic profile in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) relates to social status and vulnerability to stress. Under basal conditions, subordinates show lower levels of energy-related metabolites compared to dominants. In subordinates, but not dominants, levels of these metabolites were increased after exposure to CSDS. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that identifies non-invasively the origin of behavioral risk factors predictive of stress-induced depression-like behaviors associated with metabolic changes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The SIS Model of Epidemic Spreading in a Hierarchical Social Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabowski, A.; Kosinski, R.A.

    2005-01-01

    The phenomenon of epidemic spreading in a population with a hierarchical structure of interpersonal interactions is described and investigated numerically. The SIS model with temporal immunity to a disease and a time of incubation is used. In our model spatial localization of individuals belonging to different social groups, effectiveness of different interpersonal interactions and the mobility of a contemporary community are taken into account. The structure of interpersonal connections is based on a scale-free network. The influence of the structure of the social network on typical relations characterizing the spreading process, like a range of epidemic and epidemic curves, is discussed. The probability that endemic state occurs is also calculated. Surprisingly it occurs, that less contagious diseases has greater chance to survive. The influence of preventive vaccinations on the spreading process is investigated and critical range of vaccinations that is sufficient for the suppression of an epidemic is calculated. Our results of numerical calculations are compared with the solutions of the master equation for the spreading process, and good agreement is found. (author)

  10. Self-assembly of monodisperse starburst carbon spheres into hierarchically organized nanostructured supercapacitor electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Kon; Jung, Euiyeon; Goodman, Matthew D; Schweizer, Kenneth S; Tatsuda, Narihito; Yano, Kazuhisa; Braun, Paul V

    2015-05-06

    We report a three-dimensional (3D) porous carbon electrode containing both nanoscale and microscale porosity, which has been hierarchically organized to provide efficient ion and electron transport. The electrode organization is provided via the colloidal self-assembly of monodisperse starburst carbon spheres (MSCSs). The periodic close-packing of the MSCSs provides continuous pores inside the 3D structure that facilitate ion and electron transport (electrode electrical conductivity ∼0.35 S m(-1)), and the internal meso- and micropores of the MSCS provide a good specific capacitance. The capacitance of the 3D-ordered porous MSCS electrode is ∼58 F g(-1) at 0.58 A g(-1), 48% larger than that of disordered MSCS electrode at the same rate. At 1 A g(-1) the capacitance of the ordered electrode is 57 F g(-1) (95% of the 0.24 A g(-1) value), which is 64% greater than the capacitance of the disordered electrode at the same rate. The ordered electrode preserves 95% of its initial capacitance after 4000 charging/discharging cycles.

  11. Hierarchically Organized Behavior and Its Neural Foundations: A Reinforcement Learning Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botvinick, Matthew M.; Niv, Yael; Barto, Andrew C.

    2009-01-01

    Research on human and animal behavior has long emphasized its hierarchical structure--the divisibility of ongoing behavior into discrete tasks, which are comprised of subtask sequences, which in turn are built of simple actions. The hierarchical structure of behavior has also been of enduring interest within neuroscience, where it has been widely…

  12. Social Innovation Policies with the Involvement of Social Economy Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bassi, Andrea; Ecchia, Giulio; Guerra, Alice

    In this paper, we investigate significant social innovation policies (related to the concept of social investment) involving the role of Social Economy organizations, and we discuss some relevant national and regional social innovation experiences by relying upon the current national...... and international literature, reports and website information. During the 1990s and the first half of the 2000s, the concept of “social economy” has evolved from one where the emphasis was on the social (social outcomes and collective action) to a neo-liberal one with more emphasis on the economic and individual...... actors (social entrepreneurs). Nowadays we are facing a transition period nevertheless in the recent developments of the policy orientation at European level, there are some slight but significant clues of a move back towards a more ‘social’ concept. We will assume as operating definition of Social...

  13. Organic consumption behavior : A social identification perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Du, Shuili; Bartels, Jos; Reinders, Machiel; Sen, Sankar

    2017-01-01

    Consumer demand for organic food and non-food products has been growing dramatically. This study examines organic consumption behavior from a social identification perspective. Focusing on the central role of organic consumer identification (OCI), or the extent to which individuals categorize

  14. Multifaceted Modularity: A Key for Stepwise Building of Hierarchical Complexity in Actinide Metal–Organic Frameworks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolgopolova, Ekaterina A. [Department; Ejegbavwo, Otega A. [Department; Martin, Corey R. [Department; Smith, Mark D. [Department; Setyawan, Wahyu [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352, United States; Karakalos, Stavros G. [College; Henager, Charles H. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352, United States; zur Loye, Hans-Conrad [Department; Shustova, Natalia B. [Department

    2017-11-07

    Growing necessity for efficient nuclear waste management is a driving force for development of alternative architectures towards fundamental understanding of mechanisms involved in actinide integration inside extended structures. In this manuscript, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) were investigated as a model system for engineering radionuclide containing materials through utilization of unprecedented MOF modularity, which cannot be replicated in any other type of materials. Through the implementation of recent synthetic advances in the MOF field, hierarchical complexity of An-materials were built stepwise, which was only feasible due to preparation of the first examples of actinide-based frameworks with “unsaturated” metal nodes. The first successful attempts of solid-state metathesis and metal node extension in An-MOFs are reported, and the results of the former approach revealed drastic differences in chemical behavior of extended structures versus molecular species. Successful utilization of MOF modularity also allowed us to structurally characterize the first example of bimetallic An-An nodes. To the best of our knowledge, through combination of solid-state metathesis, guest incorporation, and capping linker installation, we were able to achieve the highest Th wt% in mono- and bi-actinide frameworks with minimal structural density. Overall, combination of a multistep synthetic approach with homogeneous actinide distribution and moderate solvothermal conditions could make MOFs an exceptionally powerful tool to address fundamental questions responsible for chemical behavior of An-based extended structures, and therefore, shed light on possible optimization of nuclear waste administration.

  15. Feature-Based Visual Short-Term Memory Is Widely Distributed and Hierarchically Organized.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotson, Nicholas M; Hoffman, Steven J; Goodell, Baldwin; Gray, Charles M

    2018-06-15

    Feature-based visual short-term memory is known to engage both sensory and association cortices. However, the extent of the participating circuit and the neural mechanisms underlying memory maintenance is still a matter of vigorous debate. To address these questions, we recorded neuronal activity from 42 cortical areas in monkeys performing a feature-based visual short-term memory task and an interleaved fixation task. We find that task-dependent differences in firing rates are widely distributed throughout the cortex, while stimulus-specific changes in firing rates are more restricted and hierarchically organized. We also show that microsaccades during the memory delay encode the stimuli held in memory and that units modulated by microsaccades are more likely to exhibit stimulus specificity, suggesting that eye movements contribute to visual short-term memory processes. These results support a framework in which most cortical areas, within a modality, contribute to mnemonic representations at timescales that increase along the cortical hierarchy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The hierarchically organized splitting of chromosome bands into sub-bands analyzed by multicolor banding (MCB).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehrer, H; Weise, A; Michel, S; Starke, H; Mrasek, K; Heller, A; Kuechler, A; Claussen, U; Liehr, T

    2004-01-01

    To clarify the nature of chromosome sub-bands in more detail, the multicolor banding (MCB) probe-set for chromosome 5 was hybridized to normal metaphase spreads of GTG band levels at approximately 850, approximately 550, approximately 400 and approximately 300. It could be observed that as the chromosomes became shorter, more of the initial 39 MCB pseudo-colors disappeared, ending with 18 MCB pseudo-colored bands at the approximately 300-band level. The hierarchically organized splitting of bands into sub-bands was analyzed by comparing the disappearance or appearance of pseudo-color bands of the four different band levels. The regions to split first are telomere-near, centromere-near and in 5q23-->q31, followed by 5p15, 5p14, and all GTG dark bands in 5q apart from 5q12 and 5q32 and finalized by sub-band building in 5p15.2, 5q21.2-->q21.3, 5q23.1 and 5q34. The direction of band splitting towards the centromere or the telomere could be assigned to each band separately. Pseudo-colors assigned to GTG-light bands were resistant to band splitting. These observations are in concordance with the recently proposed concept of chromosome region-specific protein swelling. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

  17. Social Organization, Population, and Land Use*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axinn, William G.; Ghimire, Dirgha J.

    2011-01-01

    We present a new approach to the investigation of human influences on environmental change that explicitly adds consideration of social organization. This approach identifies social organization as an influence on the environment that is independent of population size, affluence, and technology. The framework we present also identifies population events, such as births, that are likely to influence environmental outcomes beyond the consequences of population size. The theoretical framework we construct explains that explicit attention to social organization is necessary for micro-level investigation of the population-environment relationship because social organization influences both. We use newly available longitudinal, multilevel, mixed-method measures of local land use changes, local population dynamics, and social organization from the Nepalese Himalayas to provide empirical tests of this new framework. These tests reveal that measures of change in social organization are strongly associated with measures of change in land use, and that the association is independent of common measures of population size, affluence, and technology. Also, local birth events shape local land use changes and key proximate determinants of land use change. Together the empirical results demonstrate key new scientific opportunities arising from the approach we present. PMID:21876607

  18. Leading processes of patient care and treatment in hierarchical healthcare organizations in Sweden--process managers' experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Kerstin; Sandoff, Mette

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to gain better understanding of the roles and functions of process managers by describing Swedish process managers' experiences of leading processes involving patient care and treatment when working in a hierarchical health-care organization. This study is based on an explorative design. The data were gathered from interviews with 12 process managers at three Swedish hospitals. These data underwent qualitative and interpretative analysis with a modified editing style. The process managers' experiences of leading processes in a hierarchical health-care organization are described under three themes: having or not having a mandate, exposure to conflict situations and leading process development. The results indicate a need for clarity regarding process manager's responsibility and work content, which need to be communicated to all managers and staff involved in the patient care and treatment process, irrespective of department. There also needs to be an emphasis on realistic expectations and orientation of the goals that are an intrinsic part of the task of being a process manager. Generalizations from the results of the qualitative interview studies are limited, but a deeper understanding of the phenomenon was reached, which, in turn, can be transferred to similar settings. This study contributes qualitative descriptions of leading care and treatment processes in a functional, hierarchical health-care organization from process managers' experiences, a subject that has not been investigated earlier.

  19. Hierarchical modular structure enhances the robustness of self-organized criticality in neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shengjun; Zhou Changsong

    2012-01-01

    One of the most prominent architecture properties of neural networks in the brain is the hierarchical modular structure. How does the structure property constrain or improve brain function? It is thought that operating near criticality can be beneficial for brain function. Here, we find that networks with modular structure can extend the parameter region of coupling strength over which critical states are reached compared to non-modular networks. Moreover, we find that one aspect of network function—dynamical range—is highest for the same parameter region. Thus, hierarchical modularity enhances robustness of criticality as well as function. However, too much modularity constrains function by preventing the neural networks from reaching critical states, because the modular structure limits the spreading of avalanches. Our results suggest that the brain may take advantage of the hierarchical modular structure to attain criticality and enhanced function. (paper)

  20. A Social Potential Fields Approach for Self-Deployment and Self-Healing in Hierarchical Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva González-Parada

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous mobile nodes in mobile wireless sensor networks (MWSN allow self-deployment and self-healing. In both cases, the goals are: (i to achieve adequate coverage; and (ii to extend network life. In dynamic environments, nodes may use reactive algorithms so that each node locally decides when and where to move. This paper presents a behavior-based deployment and self-healing algorithm based on the social potential fields algorithm. In the proposed algorithm, nodes are attached to low cost robots to autonomously navigate in the coverage area. The proposed algorithm has been tested in environments with and without obstacles. Our study also analyzes the differences between non-hierarchical and hierarchical routing configurations in terms of network life and coverage.

  1. A Social Potential Fields Approach for Self-Deployment and Self-Healing in Hierarchical Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Parada, Eva; Cano-García, Jose; Aguilera, Francisco; Sandoval, Francisco; Urdiales, Cristina

    2017-01-09

    Autonomous mobile nodes in mobile wireless sensor networks (MWSN) allow self-deployment and self-healing. In both cases, the goals are: (i) to achieve adequate coverage; and (ii) to extend network life. In dynamic environments, nodes may use reactive algorithms so that each node locally decides when and where to move. This paper presents a behavior-based deployment and self-healing algorithm based on the social potential fields algorithm. In the proposed algorithm, nodes are attached to low cost robots to autonomously navigate in the coverage area. The proposed algorithm has been tested in environments with and without obstacles. Our study also analyzes the differences between non-hierarchical and hierarchical routing configurations in terms of network life and coverage.

  2. Resolving the Framework Position of Organic Structure-Directing Agents in Hierarchical Zeolites via Polarized Stimulated Raman Scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, Guillaume; Steele, Julian A; Gerber, Iann C; Jolibois, F; Puech, P; Muraoka, Koki; Keoh, Sye Hoe; Chaikittisilp, Watcharop; Okubo, Tatsuya; Roeffaers, Maarten B J

    2018-04-05

    The direct synthesis of hierarchically intergrown silicalite-1 can be achieved using a specific diquaternary ammonium agent. However, the location of these molecules in the zeolite framework, which is critical to understand the formation of the material, remains unclear. Where traditional characterization tools have previously failed, herein we use polarized stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy to resolve molecular organization inside few-micron-sized crystals. Through a combination of experiment and first-principles calculations, our investigation reveals the preferential location of the templating agent inside the linear pores of the MFI framework. Besides illustrating the attractiveness of SRS microscopy in the field of material science to study and spatially resolve local molecular distribution as well as orientation, these results can be exploited in the design of new templating agents for the preparation of hierarchical zeolites.

  3. Demoralization in mental health organizations: leadership and social support help.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabel, Stewart

    2012-12-01

    Demoralization is a commonly observed feeling state that is characterized by a sense of loss of or threat to one's personal values or goals and a perceived inability to overcome obstacles toward achieving these goals. Demoralization has features in common with burnout and may precede or accompany it. Psychiatrists working in many mental health care organizational settings, be they in the public or private sectors, may be at particular risk for demoralization. This is due partly to stressors that threaten their own professional values because of factors such as programmatic cut backs, budgetary reductions and changing social emphases on the value of mental health treatments. They also may be at risk for demoralization because of the effects on them of the governance styles of the agencies in which they are employed. The leadership or governance style in large organizational settings often is authoritarian, hierarchical and bureaucratic, approaches that are antithetical to the more participative leadership styles favored by many mental health professionals in their clinical activities. Clinical leaders in mental health organizations must exhibit various competencies to successfully address demoralization in clinical staff and to provide a counterbalance to the effects of the governance style of many agencies in which they are employed. Appropriate leadership skills, sometimes too simplistically termed "social support", have been found to reduce burnout in various populations and are likely to lessen demoralization as well. This paper reviews these important leadership issues and the relationship of social support to recognized leadership competencies.

  4. The role of supramolecular chemistry in stimuli responsive and hierarchically structured functional organic materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schenning, A.P.H.J.; Bastiaansen, C.W.M.; Broer, D.J.; Debije, M.G.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT: In this review, we show the important role of supramolecular chemistry in the fabrication of stimuli responsive and hierarchically structured liquid crystalline polymer networks. Supramolecular interactions can be used to create three dimensional order or as molecular triggers in materials

  5. Corporate Social Responsability and Organization Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta CRISTACHE

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available At a time when the world is interested in phenomena such as, ecology, environment, food safety, ozone layer depletion, famine and their effects on social responsibility initiatives are becoming increasingly well received. Even if you can not give a real dimension of the concept of social responsibility-taking as any guarantee of success, an organization must be aware that there is only a tool for maximizing the value of image design, but an essential element of long-term success in direct connection with social and environmental performance of the community. To work is to highlight the link between corporate social responsibility strategies and success in solving organizational policies company issues under restrictive conditions imposed by nouile economic, social and political.

  6. The conceptual model of organization social responsibility

    OpenAIRE

    LUO, Lan; WEI, Jingfu

    2014-01-01

    With the developing of the research of CSR, people more and more deeply noticethat the corporate should take responsibility. Whether other organizations besides corporatesshould not take responsibilities beyond their field? This paper puts forward theconcept of organization social responsibility on the basis of the concept of corporate socialresponsibility and other theories. And the conceptual models are built based on theconception, introducing the OSR from three angles: the types of organi...

  7. Socially sustainable work organizations and systems thinking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kira, M.; Eijnatten, van F.M.

    2010-01-01

    This Research Note seeks to add to the body of knowledge concerning social sustainability in work organizations, especially within the context of new challenges and threats in contemporary, post-industrial working life. Moreover, the intention is to explore the added value of the complexity lens in

  8. Aisyiyah Organization and Social Change for Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qodariah, Lelly

    2016-01-01

    The rise of Indonesian women cannot be separated from the role of Aisyiyah organization since it was established in 1917. The examples are in education, social, religious, charity and society for more than four thousands of Aisyiyah Bustanul Afthal Kindergarten, big hospitals, health business such as mother children health, economic activities,…

  9. Helical self-organization and hierarchical self-assembly of an oligoheterocyclic pyridine-pyridazine strand into extended supramolecular fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuccia, Louis A; Ruiz, Eliseo; Lehn, Jean-Marie; Homo, Jean-Claude; Schmutz, Marc

    2002-08-02

    The synthesis and characterization of an alternating pyridine-pyridazine strand comprising thirteen heterocycles are described. Spontaneous folding into a helical secondary structure is based on a general molecular self-organization process enforced by the conformational information encoded within the primary structure of the molecular strand itself. Conformational control based on heterocyclic "helicity codons" illustrates a strategy for designing folding properties into synthetic oligomers (foldamers). Strong intermolecular interactions of the highly ordered lock-washer subunits of compound 3 results in hierarchical supramolecular self-assembly into protofibrils and fibrils. Compound 3 also forms mechanically stable two-dimensional Langmuir-Blodgett and cast thin films.

  10. Free-standing hierarchical α-MnO2@CuO membrane for catalytic filtration degradation of organic pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xinsheng; Liang, Heng; Qu, Fangshu; Ding, An; Cheng, Xiaoxiang; Tang, Chuyang Y; Li, Guibai

    2018-06-01

    Catalytic membrane, due to its compact reactor assembling, high catalytic performance as well as low energy consumption, has proved to be more attractive for wastewater treatment. In this work, a free-standing α-MnO 2 @CuO membrane with hierarchical nanostructures was prepared and evaluated as the catalytic membrane to generate radicals from peroxymonosulfate (PMS) for the oxidative degradation of organic dyes in aqueous solution. Benefiting from the high mass transport efficiency and the hierarchical nanostructures, a superior catalytic activity of the membrane was observed for organic dyes degradation. As a typical organic dye, more than 99% of methylene blue (MB) was degraded within 0.23 s using dead-end filtration cell. The effects of flow rate, PMS concentration and buffer solution on MB degradation were further investigated. Besides MB, the catalytic membrane also showed excellent performance for the removal of other dyes, such as congo red, methyl orange, rhodamine B, acid chrome blue K and malachite green. Moreover, the mechanism study indicated that OH and SO 4 - generated from the interaction between PMS and Mn/Cu species with different oxidation states mainly accounted for the dyes degradation. The catalytic filtration process using α-MnO 2 @CuO catalytic membrane could provide a novel method for wastewater purification with high efficiency and low energy consumption. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Organic agriculture as socially responsible business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božić Mitar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For decades, the modern world is faced with the need for global, shared responsibility for development, which is in accordance with the needs of people and nature. Every day, the business community is challenged to be more responsible and sustainable. There is a need for continuous work on the integration of economic, social and environmental aspects. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR is not an additional element of business activity, but it's essential and inseparable component, which will be shown in this paper. Organic agriculture in the world is seen as a good tool for the preservation of the environment, and the concept is coherent with CSR. The system of production of organic food must be in sync with the numerous qualitative and quantitative requirements of environmental protection. Organic agriculture can represent a decisive factor in the development of Serbia, but in this area, there is a necessity for more investment, especially in education and the development of existing capacities. Game theory with its models and conclusions ought to provide sustenance to this topic in business and academic research. In this paper, game theory and its models show that investment in organic production as a socially responsible business generates value. By combining producers and processors in the group, additional economic benefits can be achieved, not only for the group, but also for the entire business in which the group operates. The paper is based on the models of Arya and Mittendorf (2006 and Goering (2012, so it represents their combination and therefore the extended version.

  12. A multidimensional approach to employee participation and the association with social identification in organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jønsson, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Purpose – Employee participation is often suggested to improve employees' relations to the organization. A multidimensional perspective on employee participation may heighten its specificity. The purpose of the present paper is to investigate the relationships between multiple dimensions of emplo...... identity at different social foci, and the application of social identity as a theoretically well-grounded concept of employees' relations to their organization.......Purpose – Employee participation is often suggested to improve employees' relations to the organization. A multidimensional perspective on employee participation may heighten its specificity. The purpose of the present paper is to investigate the relationships between multiple dimensions...... of employee participation and social identification. Design/methodology/approach – The study applies questionnaire data from 166 hospital employees, i.e. nurses, physicians and medical secretaries, in a cross-sectional design. Hierarchical regression analyses were applied to investigate the hypothesized...

  13. Broca’s area processes the hierarchical organization of observed action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masumi eWakita

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Broca’s area has been suggested as the area responsible for the domain-general hierarchical processing of language and music. Although meaningful action shares a common hierarchical structure with language and music, the role of Broca’s area in this domain remains controversial. To address the involvement of Broca’s area in the processing action hierarchy, the activation of Broca’s area was measured using near-infrared spectroscopy. Measurements were taken while participants watched silent movies that featured hand movements playing familiar and unfamiliar melodies. The unfamiliar melodies were reversed versions of the familiar melodies. Additionally, to investigate the effect of a motor experience on the activation of Broca’s area, the participants were divided into well-trained and less-trained groups. The results showed that Broca’s area in the well-trained participants demonstrated a significantly larger activation in response to the hand motion when an unfamiliar melody was played than when a familiar melody was played. However, Broca’s area in the less-trained participants did not show a contrast between conditions despite identical abilities of the two participant groups to identify the melodies by watching key pressing actions. These results are consistent with previous findings that Broca’s area exhibits increased activation in response to grammatically violated sentences and musically deviated chord progressions as well as the finding that this region does not represent the processing of grammatical structure in less-proficient foreign language speakers. Thus, the current study suggests that Broca’s area represents action hierarchy and that sufficiently long motor training is necessary for it to become sensitive to motor syntax. Therefore, the notion that hierarchical processing in Broca’s area is a common function shared between language and music may help to explain the role of Broca’s area in action perception.

  14. Automation of control and analysis of execution of official duties and instructions in the hierarchical organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demchenko A.I.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the problem of monitoring over execution of official duties of employees. This problem is characteristic of the enterprises having a hierarchical management structure. The functions and the modes of monitoring are defined, the types of analysis of the staff activities are provided. The description of the program complex allowing distributing functions and instructions for between the employees is given. The developed computer program allows tracking the performance, creating reports. The computer program has a demarcation of access rights and provides the can be operated in both local, and a large-scale network.

  15. Hierarchically porous silicon–carbon–nitrogen hybrid materials towards highly efficient and selective adsorption of organic dyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Lala; Zhang, Xiaofei; Tang, Yusheng; Su, Kehe; Kong, Jie

    2015-01-01

    The hierarchically macro/micro-porous silicon–carbon–nitrogen (Si–C–N) hybrid material was presented with novel functionalities of totally selective and highly efficient adsorption for organic dyes. The hybrid material was conveniently generated by the pyrolysis of commercial polysilazane precursors using polydivinylbenzene microspheres as sacrificial templates. Owing to the Van der Waals force between sp2-hybridized carbon domains and triphenyl structure of dyes, and electrostatic interaction between dyes and Si-C-N matrix, it exhibites high adsorption capacity and good regeneration and recycling ability for the dyes with triphenyl structure, such as methyl blue (MB), acid fuchsin (AF), basic fuchsin and malachite green. The adsorption process is determined by both surface adsorption and intraparticle diffusion. According to the Langmuir model, the adsorption capacity is 1327.7 mg·g−1 and 1084.5 mg·g−1 for MB and AF, respectively, which is much higher than that of many other adsorbents. On the contrary, the hybrid materials do not adsorb the dyes with azo benzene structures, such as methyl orange, methyl red and congro red. Thus, the hierarchically porous Si–C–N hybrid material from a facile and low cost polymer-derived strategy provides a new perspective and possesses a significant potential in the treatment of wastewater with complex organic pollutants. PMID:25604334

  16. Hierarchical organization in the temporal structure of infant-direct speech and song.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Simone; Kello, Christopher T

    2017-06-01

    Caregivers alter the temporal structure of their utterances when talking and singing to infants compared with adult communication. The present study tested whether temporal variability in infant-directed registers serves to emphasize the hierarchical temporal structure of speech. Fifteen German-speaking mothers sang a play song and told a story to their 6-months-old infants, or to an adult. Recordings were analyzed using a recently developed method that determines the degree of nested clustering of temporal events in speech. Events were defined as peaks in the amplitude envelope, and clusters of various sizes related to periods of acoustic speech energy at varying timescales. Infant-directed speech and song clearly showed greater event clustering compared with adult-directed registers, at multiple timescales of hundreds of milliseconds to tens of seconds. We discuss the relation of this newly discovered acoustic property to temporal variability in linguistic units and its potential implications for parent-infant communication and infants learning the hierarchical structures of speech and language. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Chitin/clay microspheres with hierarchical architecture for highly efficient removal of organic dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Rui; Mao, Jie; Peng, Na; Luo, Xiaogang; Chang, Chunyu

    2018-05-15

    Numerous adsorbents have been reported for efficient removal of dye from water, but the high cost raw materials and complicated fabrication process limit their practical applications. Herein, novel nanocomposite microspheres were fabricated from chitin and clay by a simple thermally induced sol-gel transition. Clay nanosheets were uniformly embedded in a nanofiber weaved chitin microsphere matrix, leading to their hierarchical architecture. Benefiting from this unique structure, microspheres could efficiently remove methylene blue (MB) through a spontaneous physic-sorption process which fit well with pseudo-second-order and Langmuir isotherm models. The maximal values of adsorption capability obtained by calculation and experiment were 152.2 and 156.7 mg g -1 , respectively. Chitin/clay microspheres (CCM2) could remove 99.99% MB from its aqueous solution (10 mg g -1 ) within 20 min. These findings provide insight into a new strategy for fabrication of dye adsorbents with hierarchical structure from low cost raw materials. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The dynamic nature of social hierarchies : The role of norm violations and hierarchical concerns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stamkou, E.

    2018-01-01

    Social hierarchy is a fundamental feature of social relations. Hierarchies are appealing psychologically because they facilitate group functioning, which explains why they tend to be reinforced and perpetuated. Hierarchies, however, can also become unstable and eventually undergo change because

  19. Clustering, Hierarchical Organization, and the Topography of Abstract and Concrete Nouns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua eTroche

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The empirical study of language has historically relied heavily upon concrete word stimuli. By definition, concrete words evoke salient perceptual associations that fit well within feature-based, sensorimotor models of word meaning. In contrast, many theorists argue that abstract words are disembodied in that their meaning is mediated through language. We investigated word meaning as distributed in multidimensional space using hierarchical cluster analysis. Participants (N=365 rated target words (n=400 English nouns across 12 cognitive dimensions (e.g., polarity, ease of teaching, emotional valence. Factor reduction revealed three latent factors, corresponding roughly to perceptual salience, affective association, and magnitude. We plotted the original 400 words for the three latent factors. Abstract and concrete words showed overlap in their topography but also differentiated themselves in semantic space. This topographic approach to word meaning offers a unique perspective to word concreteness.

  20. Clustering, hierarchical organization, and the topography of abstract and concrete nouns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troche, Joshua; Crutch, Sebastian; Reilly, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    The empirical study of language has historically relied heavily upon concrete word stimuli. By definition, concrete words evoke salient perceptual associations that fit well within feature-based, sensorimotor models of word meaning. In contrast, many theorists argue that abstract words are "disembodied" in that their meaning is mediated through language. We investigated word meaning as distributed in multidimensional space using hierarchical cluster analysis. Participants (N = 365) rated target words (n = 400 English nouns) across 12 cognitive dimensions (e.g., polarity, ease of teaching, emotional valence). Factor reduction revealed three latent factors, corresponding roughly to perceptual salience, affective association, and magnitude. We plotted the original 400 words for the three latent factors. Abstract and concrete words showed overlap in their topography but also differentiated themselves in semantic space. This topographic approach to word meaning offers a unique perspective to word concreteness.

  1. Seeking and Sharing Knowledge Using Social Media in an Organization: The Impact of Social Influence, Organization Structure and Social Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutz, Douglas M.

    2013-01-01

    The prolific use of social media tools such as blogs and wikis is leading several organizations to adopt these tools. However, success of social media depends on its use by employees to share and seek knowledge. Based on a unique data set obtained from a large multi-national corporation, I examined three different aspects of knowledge seeking and…

  2. Neighborhood social capital and crime victimization: comparison of spatial regression analysis and hierarchical regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Daisuke; Ikeda, Ken'ichi; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2012-11-01

    Crime is an important determinant of public health outcomes, including quality of life, mental well-being, and health behavior. A body of research has documented the association between community social capital and crime victimization. The association between social capital and crime victimization has been examined at multiple levels of spatial aggregation, ranging from entire countries, to states, metropolitan areas, counties, and neighborhoods. In multilevel analysis, the spatial boundaries at level 2 are most often drawn from administrative boundaries (e.g., Census tracts in the U.S.). One problem with adopting administrative definitions of neighborhoods is that it ignores spatial spillover. We conducted a study of social capital and crime victimization in one ward of Tokyo city, using a spatial Durbin model with an inverse-distance weighting matrix that assigned each respondent a unique level of "exposure" to social capital based on all other residents' perceptions. The study is based on a postal questionnaire sent to 20-69 years old residents of Arakawa Ward, Tokyo. The response rate was 43.7%. We examined the contextual influence of generalized trust, perceptions of reciprocity, two types of social network variables, as well as two principal components of social capital (constructed from the above four variables). Our outcome measure was self-reported crime victimization in the last five years. In the spatial Durbin model, we found that neighborhood generalized trust, reciprocity, supportive networks and two principal components of social capital were each inversely associated with crime victimization. By contrast, a multilevel regression performed with the same data (using administrative neighborhood boundaries) found generally null associations between neighborhood social capital and crime. Spatial regression methods may be more appropriate for investigating the contextual influence of social capital in homogeneous cultural settings such as Japan. Copyright

  3. Principal Covariates Clusterwise Regression (PCCR): Accounting for Multicollinearity and Population Heterogeneity in Hierarchically Organized Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilderjans, Tom Frans; Vande Gaer, Eva; Kiers, Henk A L; Van Mechelen, Iven; Ceulemans, Eva

    2017-03-01

    In the behavioral sciences, many research questions pertain to a regression problem in that one wants to predict a criterion on the basis of a number of predictors. Although in many cases, ordinary least squares regression will suffice, sometimes the prediction problem is more challenging, for three reasons: first, multiple highly collinear predictors can be available, making it difficult to grasp their mutual relations as well as their relations to the criterion. In that case, it may be very useful to reduce the predictors to a few summary variables, on which one regresses the criterion and which at the same time yields insight into the predictor structure. Second, the population under study may consist of a few unknown subgroups that are characterized by different regression models. Third, the obtained data are often hierarchically structured, with for instance, observations being nested into persons or participants within groups or countries. Although some methods have been developed that partially meet these challenges (i.e., principal covariates regression (PCovR), clusterwise regression (CR), and structural equation models), none of these methods adequately deals with all of them simultaneously. To fill this gap, we propose the principal covariates clusterwise regression (PCCR) method, which combines the key idea's behind PCovR (de Jong & Kiers in Chemom Intell Lab Syst 14(1-3):155-164, 1992) and CR (Späth in Computing 22(4):367-373, 1979). The PCCR method is validated by means of a simulation study and by applying it to cross-cultural data regarding satisfaction with life.

  4. Enforcing access control in virtual organizations using hierarchical attribute-based encryption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asim, M.; Ignatenko, T.; Petkovic, M.; Trivellato, D.; Zannone, N.

    2012-01-01

    Virtual organizations are dynamic, interorganizational collaborations that involve systems and services belonging to different security domains. Several solutions have been proposed to guarantee the enforcement of the access control policies protecting the information exchanged in a distributed

  5. Enforcing access control in virtual organizations using hierarchical attribute-based encryption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asim, M.; Ignatenko, T.; Petkovic, M.; Trivellato, D.; Zannone, N.

    2012-01-01

    Virtual organizations are dynamic, inter-organizational collaborations that involve systems and services belonging to different security domains. Several solutions have been proposed to guarantee the enforcement of the access control policies protecting the information exchanged in a distributed

  6. Hierarchically sinergistical integration of Social Media Analytics/Social CRM with Business Intelligence and with the Geographic Information System

    OpenAIRE

    Круковський, Ігор Анатолійович; Хомів, Богдан Арсенович; Гаврилюк, Всеволод Леонідович

    2014-01-01

    The actuality of integration of Social Media Analytics/Social CRM with Decision Support Systems on the basis of Business Intelligence 2.0 (DSS/BI 2.0) and with the Geographic Information System is presented. On the basis of their integration a new type of DSS is offered - Social Media Spatial DSS/BI. The variant is shown of this system realization on the programmatic platform of Social Media Analytics of the SemanticForce Company, which has its own semantic analyzer Blueberry. The suitability...

  7. Social capital of organizations : from social structure to the management of corporate social capital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gabbay, Shaul M.; Leenders, Roger Th.A.J.

    2002-01-01

    Social capital in general and the study of social capital in the context of organizations has gained considerable attention in recent years. Despite the promise in the potency of the concept, its useful application suffers from the plethora of different definitions and approaches—both theoretical

  8. Hierarchical Winner-Take-All Particle Swarm Optimization Social Network for Neural Model Fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coventry, Brandon S.; Parthasarathy, Aravindakshan; Sommer, Alexandra L.; Bartlett, Edward L.

    2016-01-01

    Particle swarm optimization (PSO) has gained widespread use as a general mathematical programming paradigm and seen use in a wide variety of optimization and machine learning problems. In this work, we introduce a new variant on the PSO social network and apply this method to the inverse problem of input parameter selection from recorded auditory neuron tuning curves. The topology of a PSO social network is a major contributor to optimization success. Here we propose a new social network which draws influence from winner-take-all coding found in visual cortical neurons. We show that the winner-take-all network performs exceptionally well on optimization problems with greater than 5 dimensions and runs at a lower iteration count as compared to other PSO topologies. Finally we show that this variant of PSO is able to recreate auditory frequency tuning curves and modulation transfer functions, making it a potentially useful tool for computational neuroscience models. PMID:27726048

  9. Hierarchical winner-take-all particle swarm optimization social network for neural model fitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coventry, Brandon S; Parthasarathy, Aravindakshan; Sommer, Alexandra L; Bartlett, Edward L

    2017-02-01

    Particle swarm optimization (PSO) has gained widespread use as a general mathematical programming paradigm and seen use in a wide variety of optimization and machine learning problems. In this work, we introduce a new variant on the PSO social network and apply this method to the inverse problem of input parameter selection from recorded auditory neuron tuning curves. The topology of a PSO social network is a major contributor to optimization success. Here we propose a new social network which draws influence from winner-take-all coding found in visual cortical neurons. We show that the winner-take-all network performs exceptionally well on optimization problems with greater than 5 dimensions and runs at a lower iteration count as compared to other PSO topologies. Finally we show that this variant of PSO is able to recreate auditory frequency tuning curves and modulation transfer functions, making it a potentially useful tool for computational neuroscience models.

  10. Metal organic framework synthesis in the presence of surfactants : Towards hierarchical MOFs?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seoane, B.; Dikhtiarenko, A.; Mayoral, A.; Tellez, C.; Coronas, J.; Kapteijn, F.; Gascon, J.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of synthesis pH and H2O/EtOH molar ratio on the textural properties of different aluminium trimesate metal organic frameworks (MOFs) prepared in the presence of the well-known cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) at 120 °C was studied with the purpose of obtaining a

  11. How Organizations Adapt Social Media Capabilities as a Competitive Advantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornhofen, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper is a systematic review of scholarly studies that examines how organizations enhance their ability to generate value through social media. It explores why some organizations are able to adopt and benefit from social media while others cannot. Specifically, it examines: (i) how "people" and social networks are essential to…

  12. Immobilization of Bacillus subtilis lipase on a Cu-BTC based hierarchically porous metal-organic framework material: a biocatalyst for esterification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yu; Wu, Zhuofu; Wang, Tao; Xiao, Yu; Huo, Qisheng; Liu, Yunling

    2016-04-28

    Bacillus subtilis lipase (BSL2) has been successfully immobilized into a Cu-BTC based hierarchically porous metal-organic framework material for the first time. The Cu-BTC hierarchically porous MOF material with large mesopore apertures is prepared conveniently by using a template-free strategy under mild conditions. The immobilized BSL2 presents high enzymatic activity and perfect reusability during the esterification reaction. After 10 cycles, the immobilized BSL2 still exhibits 90.7% of its initial enzymatic activity and 99.6% of its initial conversion.

  13. Social media for non-profit organizations in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Thy

    2016-01-01

    The thesis presents about social media in general and social media for non-profit organizations in Vietnam in particular. The writer wanted to explore the disadvantages that non-profits in Vietnam face when using social media and search for recommendations which helps them to use it more efficiently. In the theoretic part, core concepts related to social media were introduced, namely, definition of social media, its types, the popular platforms, situation of social media in Vietnam, pros...

  14. The Combination of Nomadic and Hierarchic Principles within the State Organization in the Golden Horde »

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.S. Khakimov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available On the one hand, the state system of the Golden Horde inherits a number of features from the former political culture of the Turkic states. On the other hand, it brings fundamental changes that determine the characteristics of the Eurasian empire. We introduce the concept of zero-point of history to explain periodization of Tatar history. In the history, the smooth flow of events breaks near the bifurcation point, when society enters into an unstable phase and a radical dismantling of social structures begins. Elements of the past remain as invariants. But they find themselves in the new assembly, which cannot be reduced to the same combinations of social elements. This is essentially new historical phase, in which one coordinate system of space-time is replaced by another and history launches a new countdown. The Golden Horde is the pinnacle of a nomadic civilization. Its prosperity was based on metallurgy, agriculture, and trade. Moreover, its main export was corn. Hundreds of cities and seaports were built in the Golden Horde, which distinguishes it from the Great Steppe. At the same time, despite the increase in sedentary population, the Golden Horde civilization retained its nomadic mentality. Chinese or European models of governance were basically impossible due to the presence of nomadic economy: it was necessary to control precisely the clans occupying certain territories. Clans were able to ensure both the collection of taxes from the mobile population and training of soldiers for the army. The clan system gave stability in the conditions of semi-nomadic life, while also allowing to control the sedentary population. The Golden Horde was a highly developed State with a strong financial system, with the state apparatus divided into two parts, one of which was associated with control of the nomadic population, and the other with the sedentary one. Territory, state structures, traditions, and political culture of the Golden Horde became the

  15. Modularity and hierarchical organization of action programs in children's acquisition of graphic skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoel, Edison de J; Dantas, Luiz; Gimenez, Roberto; de Oliveira, Dalton Lustosa

    2011-10-01

    The organization of actions is based on modules in memory as a result of practice, easing the demand of performing more complex actions. If this modularization occurs, the elements of the module must remain invariant in new tasks. To test this hypothesis, 35 children, age 10 yr., practiced a graphic criterion task on a digital tablet and completed a complex graphic task enclosing the previous one. Total movement and pause times to draw the figure indicated skill acquisition. A module was identified by the variability of relative timing, pause time, and sequencing. Total movement to perform the criterion task did not increase significantly when it was embedded in the more complex task. Modularity was evidenced by the stability of relative timing and pause time and sequencing. The spatial position of new elements did not perturb the module, so the grammar of action may still have been forming.

  16. Shape-tailored polymer colloids on the road to become structural motifs for hierarchically organized materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plüisch, Claudia Simone; Wittemann, Alexander

    2013-12-01

    Anisometric polymer colloids are likely to behave differently when compared with centrosymmetric particles. Their study may not only shine new light on the organization of matter; they may also serve as building units with specific symmetries and complexity to build new materials from them. Polymer colloids of well-defined complex geometries can be obtained by packing a limited number of spherical polymer particles into clusters with defined configurations. Such supracolloidal architectures can be fabricated at larger scales using narrowly dispersed emulsion droplets as templates. Assemblies built from at least two different types of particles as elementary building units open perspectives in selective targeting of colloids with specific properties, aiming for mesoscale building blocks with tailor-made morphologies and multifunctionality. Polymer colloids with defined geometries are also ideal to study shape-dependent properties such as the diffusion of complex particles. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. K -shell decomposition reveals hierarchical cortical organization of the human brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahav, Nir; Ksherim, Baruch; Havlin, Shlomo; Ben-Simon, Eti; Maron-Katz, Adi; Cohen, Reuven

    2016-01-01

    In recent years numerous attempts to understand the human brain were undertaken from a network point of view. A network framework takes into account the relationships between the different parts of the system and enables to examine how global and complex functions might emerge from network topology. Previous work revealed that the human brain features ‘small world’ characteristics and that cortical hubs tend to interconnect among themselves. However, in order to fully understand the topological structure of hubs, and how their profile reflect the brain’s global functional organization, one needs to go beyond the properties of a specific hub and examine the various structural layers that make up the network. To address this topic further, we applied an analysis known in statistical physics and network theory as k-shell decomposition analysis. The analysis was applied on a human cortical network, derived from MRI/DSI data of six participants. Such analysis enables us to portray a detailed account of cortical connectivity focusing on different neighborhoods of inter-connected layers across the cortex. Our findings reveal that the human cortex is highly connected and efficient, and unlike the internet network contains no isolated nodes. The cortical network is comprised of a nucleus alongside shells of increasing connectivity that formed one connected giant component, revealing the human brain’s global functional organization. All these components were further categorized into three hierarchies in accordance with their connectivity profile, with each hierarchy reflecting different functional roles. Such a model may explain an efficient flow of information from the lowest hierarchy to the highest one, with each step enabling increased data integration. At the top, the highest hierarchy (the nucleus) serves as a global interconnected collective and demonstrates high correlation with consciousness related regions, suggesting that the nucleus might serve as a

  18. Four levels of hierarchical organization, including noncovalent chainmail, brace the mature tumor herpesvirus capsid against pressurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Z Hong; Hui, Wong Hoi; Shah, Sanket; Jih, Jonathan; O'Connor, Christine M; Sherman, Michael B; Kedes, Dean H; Schein, Stan

    2014-10-07

    Like many double-stranded DNA viruses, tumor gammaherpesviruses Epstein-Barr virus and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus withstand high internal pressure. Bacteriophage HK97 uses covalent chainmail for this purpose, but how this is achieved noncovalently in the much larger gammaherpesvirus capsid is unknown. Our cryoelectron microscopy structure of a gammaherpesvirus capsid reveals a hierarchy of four levels of organization: (1) Within a hexon capsomer, each monomer of the major capsid protein (MCP), 1,378 amino acids and six domains, interacts with its neighboring MCPs at four sites. (2) Neighboring capsomers are linked in pairs by MCP dimerization domains and in groups of three by heterotrimeric triplex proteins. (3) Small (∼280 amino acids) HK97-like domains in MCP monomers alternate with triplex heterotrimers to form a belt that encircles each capsomer. (4) One hundred sixty-two belts concatenate to form noncovalent chainmail. The triplex heterotrimer orchestrates all four levels and likely drives maturation to an angular capsid that can withstand pressurization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Inter-subject Functional Correlation Reveal a Hierarchical Organization of Extrinsic and Intrinsic Systems in the Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yudan; Nguyen, Vinh Thai; Guo, Lei; Guo, Christine Cong

    2017-09-07

    The brain is constantly monitoring and integrating both cues from the external world and signals generated intrinsically. These extrinsically and intrinsically-driven neural processes are thought to engage anatomically distinct regions, which are thought to constitute the extrinsic and intrinsic systems of the brain. While the specialization of extrinsic and intrinsic system is evident in primary and secondary sensory cortices, a systematic mapping of the whole brain remains elusive. Here, we characterized the extrinsic and intrinsic functional activities in the brain during naturalistic movie-viewing. Using a novel inter-subject functional correlation (ISFC) analysis, we found that the strength of ISFC shifts along the hierarchical organization of the brain. Primary sensory cortices appear to have strong inter-subject functional correlation, consistent with their role in processing exogenous information, while heteromodal regions that attend to endogenous processes have low inter-subject functional correlation. Those brain systems with higher intrinsic tendency show greater inter-individual variability, likely reflecting the aspects of brain connectivity architecture unique to individuals. Our study presents a novel framework for dissecting extrinsically- and intrinsically-driven processes, as well as examining individual differences in brain function during naturalistic stimulation.

  20. Hierarchical Micro/Nano Structures by Combined Self-Organized Dewetting and Photopatterning of Photoresist Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachan, Priyanka; Kulkarni, Manish; Sharma, Ashutosh

    2015-11-17

    Photoresists are the materials of choice for micro/nanopatterning and device fabrication but are rarely used as a self-assembly material. We report for the first time a novel interplay of self-assembly and photolithography for fabrication of hierarchical and ordered micro/nano structures. We create self-organized structures by the intensified dewetting of unstable thin (∼10 nm to 1 μm) photoresist films by annealing them in an optimal solvent and nonsolvent liquid mixture that allows spontaneous dewetting to form micro/nano smooth dome-like structures. The density, size (∼100 nm to millimeters), and curvature/contact angle of the dome/droplet structures are controlled by the film thickness, composition of the dewetting liquid, and time of annealing. Ordered dewetted structures are obtained simply by creating spatial variation of viscosity by ultraviolet exposure or by photopatterning before dewetting. Further, the structures thus fabricated are readily photopatterned again on the finer length scales after dewetting. We illustrate the approach by fabricating several three-dimensional structures of varying complexity with secondary and tertiary features.

  1. Social network analysis of sustainable transportation organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Studying how organizations communicate with each other can provide important insights into the influence, and policy success of different types of organizations. This study examines the communication networks of 121 organizations promoting sustainabl...

  2. Complete and Partial Organizing for Corporate Social Responsibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rasche, A.; de Bakker, F.G.A.; Moon, J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates different modes of organizing for corporate social responsibility (CSR). Based on insights from organization theory, we theorize two ways to organize for CSR. "Complete" organization for CSR happens within businesses and depends on the availability of certain organizational

  3. Complete and Partial Organizing for Corporate Social Responsibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasche, Andreas; de Bakker, Frank; Moon, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates different modes of organizing for corporate social responsibility (CSR). Based on insights from organization theory, we theorize two ways to organize for CSR. 'Complete' organization for CSR happens within businesses and depends on the availability of certain organizationa...

  4. Nonprofit Organizations Use of Social Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagerstrøm, Asle; Sørum, Hanne; Vatrapu, Ravi

    2014-01-01

    media survey1 within European Foundation of Drug Helplines members resulted in 16 responses (approximately 38 percentage response rate), representing 10 different European countries. Findings indicated that most drug helplines in the survey have some experience with social media. However, few...... of the drug helpline use social media based on purposeful planning and clear distribution of responsibility. Social media can be used for promoting an event or a sensitizing campaign to create positive value. Facebook is the social media that in general are most frequently used for purposes such as reaching...... a specific audience and promotion. Additionally, findings of the survey show that few drug helplines in the survey monitor social media frequently....

  5. Voice lessons : local government organizations, social organizations, and the quality of local governance

    OpenAIRE

    Alatas, Vivi; Pritchett, Lant; Wetterberg, Anna

    2003-01-01

    As part the Local Level Institutions study of local life in villages in rural Indonesia information was gathered on sampled household's participation in social activities. We classified the reported activities into four distinct types of social activity: sociability, networks, social organizations, and village government organizations. Respondents were also asked about questions about thei...

  6. Social Capital in Organizations - Perspectives and Unresolved Issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waldstrøm, Christian

    a consistent, bridging theory. Finally, there is a lack of understanding on how social capital develops over time and the potential benefits of taking a life-cycle view of social capital. In conclusion, the field of social capital in organizations still needs a consistent and coordinated research effort......The importance and usefulness of social capital as a concept in the study of organizations have been established by a large body of research. The aim of this paper is to review the concept of social capital in an organizational context, and identifying five main issues that need to be addressed....... Secondly, it is necessary to determine whether social capital can or should be measured. Thirdly, the negative aspects of social capital should be explored and integrated into the existing research. Fourthly, the field between social capital of the individual and organizational social capital lacks...

  7. Social Organization, Physical Environment, and Infant-Caretaker Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodson, R. H.; da Costa-Woodson, E. M.

    1984-01-01

    Relationships of infant/caretaker interaction with the social organization and the physical environment of the home were examined in rural Malay and Chinese families living in Malaysia. Findings are discussed in terms of the integration of behavioral characteristics, patterns of social organization, and arrangements of the physical environment…

  8. Socially Responsive Organizations and the Challenge of Poverty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blasco, Maribel

    2015-01-01

    Review of: Socially Responsive Organizations and the Challenge of Poverty, edited by Milenko Gudíc, Al Rosenbloom, and Carole Parkes. Sheffield: Greenleaf Publishing Limited, 2014. 287 pages, hard cover.......Review of: Socially Responsive Organizations and the Challenge of Poverty, edited by Milenko Gudíc, Al Rosenbloom, and Carole Parkes. Sheffield: Greenleaf Publishing Limited, 2014. 287 pages, hard cover....

  9. Social Technologies and Informal Knowledge Sharing within and across Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrahi, Mohammad Hosein

    2013-01-01

    This doctoral dissertation is focused on both empirical and conceptual contributions relative to the roles social technologies play in informal knowledge sharing practices, both within and across organizations. Social technologies include (a) traditional social technologies (e.g., email, phone and instant messengers), (b) emerging social…

  10. Comparative, Population-Level Analysis of Social Networks in Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Abigail Z.

    2017-01-01

    As social behavior moves increasingly online, the study of social behavior has followed. Online traces of social systems, whether to study online behavior directly or the online traces of offline activity, have made possible previously unavailable empirical analyses of people, groups and organizations. However, practically observing any social…

  11. Secondary Professional Socialization through Professional Organizations: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, K. Andrew; Eberline, Andrew D.; Templin, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    Secondary professional socialization is a phase of occupational socialization theory that focuses on graduate education in preparation for a career in academia. Due to the need to present and publish research and make professional contacts, professional organizations likely serve an important socializing function during graduate education. The…

  12. Social Organization and Leadership in Cross-Cultural Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemers, Martin M.

    There is little research by social psychologists in the areas of leadership and social organization, especially from a cross-cultural perspective, though such research offers an understanding of both leadership and culture. Existing cross-cultural management studies suffer from a lack of understanding of important social and cross-cultural…

  13. Global Value Chains, Labor Organization and Private Social Standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgaard, Lone

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the opportunities and challenges that private social standards pose for labor organizations. It explores different labor responses to private social standards in East African cut flower industries. The analysis incorporates the concept of labor agency in global value chain a...... at production sites. However, labor organizations' ability to seriously challenge the prevailing governance structure of the cut flower value chain appears extremely limited.......This article examines the opportunities and challenges that private social standards pose for labor organizations. It explores different labor responses to private social standards in East African cut flower industries. The analysis incorporates the concept of labor agency in global value chain...... analysis and reveals how retailer-driven chains offer more room for labor organizations to exercise their agency than the traditional cut flower value chains. Labor organizations have been able to influence social standard setting and implementation, and to use standards to further labor representation...

  14. EXPLORING THE ROLE OF BUSINESS SOCIAL NETWORKING FOR ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damjana Jerman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the relationship between communication, with the emphasis on public relations, and social network perspectives. What, then, does social networking for business mean in communication, particularly in public relations? This paper argues that business social networking play an important role in improving organizations communications. The goal of our paper is to identify the basic characteristics of social networks and its role for public relations for the effective implementation of social networking initiatives and tools in the workplace. Business social networking tools such as Facebook and LinkedIn are being used by organizations to reach the corporate objectives and to create a positive company image. Specific social networks, such the personalised networks of influence, are perceived to be one of the main strategic resources for organizations.

  15. Hierarchical Co(OH)_2 nanostructures/glassy carbon electrode derived from Co(BTC) metal–organic frameworks for glucose sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Juan; Lu, Xingping; Yu, Jie; Wang, Li; Song, Yonghai

    2016-01-01

    A novel Co(OH)_2/glassy carbon electrode (GCE) has been fabricated via metal–organic framework (MOF)-directed method. In the strategy, the Co(BTC, 1,3,5-benzentricarboxylic acid) MOFs/GCE was firstly prepared by alternately immersing GCE in Co"2"+ and BTC solution based on a layer-by-layer method. And then, the Co(OH)_2 with hierarchical flake nanostructure/GCE was constructed by immersing Co(BTC) MOFs/GCE into 0.1 M NaOH solution at room temperature. Such strategy improves the distribution of hierarchical Co(OH)_2 nanostructures on electrode surface greatly, enhances the stability of nanomaterials on the electrode surface, and increases the use efficiency of the Co(OH)_2 nanostructures. Scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, energy dispersive spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and Raman spectra were used to characterize the Co(BTC) MOFs/GCE and Co(OH)_2/GCE. Based on the hierarchical Co(OH)_2 nanostructures/GCE, a novel and sensitive nonenzymatic glucose sensor was developed. The good performance of the resulted sensor toward the detection of glucose was ascribed to hierarchical flake nanostructures, good mechanical stability, excellent distribution, and large specific surface area of Co(OH)_2 nanostructures. The proposed preparation method is simple, efficient, and cheap .Graphical Abstract.

  16. Hierarchical Co(OH){sub 2} nanostructures/glassy carbon electrode derived from Co(BTC) metal–organic frameworks for glucose sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Juan; Lu, Xingping; Yu, Jie; Wang, Li; Song, Yonghai, E-mail: yhsonggroup@hotmail.com [Jiangxi Normal University, Key Laboratory of Functional Small Organic Molecule, Ministry of Education, Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering (China)

    2016-07-15

    A novel Co(OH){sub 2}/glassy carbon electrode (GCE) has been fabricated via metal–organic framework (MOF)-directed method. In the strategy, the Co(BTC, 1,3,5-benzentricarboxylic acid) MOFs/GCE was firstly prepared by alternately immersing GCE in Co{sup 2+} and BTC solution based on a layer-by-layer method. And then, the Co(OH){sub 2} with hierarchical flake nanostructure/GCE was constructed by immersing Co(BTC) MOFs/GCE into 0.1 M NaOH solution at room temperature. Such strategy improves the distribution of hierarchical Co(OH){sub 2} nanostructures on electrode surface greatly, enhances the stability of nanomaterials on the electrode surface, and increases the use efficiency of the Co(OH){sub 2} nanostructures. Scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, energy dispersive spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and Raman spectra were used to characterize the Co(BTC) MOFs/GCE and Co(OH){sub 2}/GCE. Based on the hierarchical Co(OH){sub 2} nanostructures/GCE, a novel and sensitive nonenzymatic glucose sensor was developed. The good performance of the resulted sensor toward the detection of glucose was ascribed to hierarchical flake nanostructures, good mechanical stability, excellent distribution, and large specific surface area of Co(OH){sub 2} nanostructures. The proposed preparation method is simple, efficient, and cheap .Graphical Abstract.

  17. The Socialization of Newcomers into Organizations: Integrating Learning and Social Exchange Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korte, Russell F.

    2007-01-01

    Traditional views of socialization focus primarily on the passive learning by the newcomer of the expectations of the organization. Theorizing and research on cognitive learning and social exchange indicate that the socialization process is vastly more complex. This paper views socialization through the lenses of cognitive learning and social…

  18. Social Capital in Organizations - Beyond Structure and Metaphor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waldstrøm, Christian

    2003-01-01

    a consistent, bridging theory. Finally, there is a lack of understanding on how social capital develops over time and the potential benefits of taking a life-cycle view of social capital. In conclusion, the field of social capital in organizations still needs a consistent and coordinated research effort......The importance and usefulness of social capital as a concept in the study of organizations have been established by a large body of research. The aim of this paper is to review the concept of social capital in an organizational context, and it identifies five main issues that need to be addressed...... in future research before social capital can move definitively beyond being merely a metaphor for advantage. First, the unresolved issue of causality is a barrier in the study of social structure and social capital alike, and hampers both measuring scales and implications drawn from empirical research...

  19. The Bureaucracy of Social Media : An Empirical Account in Organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Mansour, Osama

    2013-01-01

    This thesis examines organizational use of social media. It focuses on developing an understanding of the ways by which social media are used within formal organizational settings. From the vantage point of this thesis such an understanding can be achieved by looking at tensions and incompatibilities that might potentially exist between social media and organization because of their distinct characteristics. It is argued that the distinct characteristics of social media (e.g. openness, transp...

  20. Internationalization of the Entrepreneurial Activity of Social Purpose Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusa Rafał

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to analyse and identify patterns of international entrepreneurial activity of social purpose organizations. The article utilizes international social entrepreneurship literature to develop an understanding of the international activity of social entrepreneurs and to identify factors that differentiate their activity. A cluster analysis was conducted to identify patterns of international social entrepreneurial activity, which included: the subject of activity, the types of beneficiaries, the scope of activity, and the legal type of organization. As a result, a survey sample of 55 international social ventures was divided into 3 homogeneous groups. The groups were (1 solution providers, (2 entrepreneurial charities, and (3 intermediaries. The results of the analysis show the diversity of the international activities of social entrepreneurs, although only a portion of them operate internationally. These findings contribute to a greater understanding of social entrepreneurs’ motivation and the paths of their internationalization activity.

  1. Social networks of professionals in health care organizations: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasselli, Stefano

    2014-12-01

    In this article, we provide an overview of social network research in health care, with a focus on social interactions between professionals in organizations. We begin by introducing key concepts defining the social network approach, including network density, centrality, and brokerage. We then review past and current research on the antecedents of health care professionals' social networks-including demographic attributes, professional groups, and organizational arrangements-and their consequences-including satisfaction at work, leadership, behaviors, knowledge transfer, diffusion of innovation, and performance. Finally, we examine future directions for social network research in health care, focusing on micro-macro linkages and network dynamics. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. Communities of clinical practice: the social organization of clinical learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Tony; Jaye, Chrystal

    2009-01-01

    The social organization of clinical learning is under-theorized in the sociological literature on the social organization of health care. Professional scopes of practice and jurisdictions are formally defined by professional principles and standards and reflected in legislation; however, these are mediated through the day-to-day clinical activities of social groupings of clinical teams. The activities of health service providers typically occur within communities of clinical practice. These are also major sites for clinical curriculum delivery, where clinical students learn not only clinical skills but also how to be health professionals. In this article, we apply Wenger's model of social learning within organizations to curriculum delivery within a health service setting. Here, social participation is the basis of learning. We suggest that it offers a powerful framework for recognizing and explaining paradox and incongruence in clinical teaching and learning, and also for recognizing opportunities, and devising means, to add value to students' learning experiences.

  3. Hierarchical 3C-SiC nanowires as stable photocatalyst for organic dye degradation under visible light irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Judong; Chen, Jianjun; Xin, Lipeng; Wang, Mingming

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The photocatalytic performance was enhanced by hierarchical nanostructural SiC nanowires due to the increased specific surface areas and efficient incident light scattering. The positive effect of SiO 2 layer growth on the surface of nanowires during the catalytic process on the high decolorization efficiency of SiC nanowires was attributed to SiO 2 surface oxygen vacancies. -- Highlights: • High decolorization rate of methylene blue using hierarchical 3C-SiC nanowires was obtained. • The effect of methylene blue with different concentration to catalytic result was investigated. • The photocatalytic reaction mechanism of degrading methylene blue was explained. • The SiO 2 layer generating on nanowire surface in the catalytic process was analyzed. -- Abstract: 3C-SiC nanowires with hierarchical structure were synthesized by sol–gel carbothermal reduction method. The photocatalytic property of SiC nanowires was investigated. 3C-SiC hierarchical nanowires exhibited an enhanced photocatalytic activity by accelerating the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue solution under visible light irradiation. Methylene blue was degraded efficiently after 5 h irradiation over the photocatalyst. The photocatalytic activity was affected by the initial concentration of the methylene blue solution. Silicon dioxide layer was observed on the surface of nanowires after the catalytic process. The positive effect of SiO 2 surface oxygen vacancies and 3C-SiC hierarchical nanostructures on the high decolorization efficiency of SiC nanowires was discussed. The detailed photocatalytic redox processes were also explained

  4. Emergent patterns of social organization in captive Cercocebus ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-07-18

    Jul 18, 2012 ... 1Department of Behavioral Sciences Methods, 2Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behavior (IR3C), ... Social organization in primates is based on the interaction of ..... random correlation coefficients to investigate its statistical.

  5. Activism or "Slacktivism?": Digital Media and Organizing for Social Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Cerise L.

    2015-01-01

    The influence of social media and technological developments has changed how groups and organizations advocating for social change generate awareness and participation in their causes. In this single class activity students will (a) analyze notions of activism and "slacktivism" from scholarly and popular sources to apply these concepts…

  6. Teaching about Faith-Based Organizations in the Social Work Curriculum: Perspectives of Social Work Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, Samta P.

    2016-01-01

    Faith-based organizations (FBOs) have an important presence in contemporary civil society and have gained further prominence through their repertoire of social welfare and services. This study engaged social work educators (n = 316) across nine countries to examine their perceptions of including discourses on faith and FBOs in the social work…

  7. The social organization of agricultural biogas production and use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bluemling, Bettina; Mol, Arthur P.J.; Tu, Qin

    2013-01-01

    While for wind, solar energy or hydropower, energy supply happens directly from the source to the wind wheels, hydropower turbines or solar panels, in the case of biogas, energy production cannot directly take from the energy source, organic matter, but depends on the institutional structures and farmers′ practices involved for making energy available. With the production of bioenergy in rural areas, practices within agriculture are transformed, requiring new ways of organizing production processes. Research has left the question largely unanswered of how agricultural biogas production and use are – and can best be – organized within rural society. Which kinds of social organization exist, how are these embedded in existing agricultural institutions and practices, and how do these systems function? Under which conditions may the different kinds of social organization of biogas production and use work sustainably? This introduction article to the Special Issue “The social organization of agricultural biogas production and use” presents a framework for analysing the different kinds of social organization of biogas production and use presented hereafter. Analysis parameters are the supply network, distribution network, distribution of benefits, social boundaries of the system (accessibility) and scale. Using these parameters, the Special Issue articles are outlined. - Highlights: • Through agricultural institutions and farmers′ practices, biogas is made available. • Scale, supply and delivery network distinguish biogas infrastructural systems. • Access and benefit distribution are key for a biogas system′s sustainability

  8. A decaying factor accounts for contained activity in neuronal networks with no need of hierarchical or modular organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amancio, Diego R; Oliveira Jr, Osvaldo N; Costa, Luciano da F

    2012-01-01

    The mechanisms responsible for containing activity in systems represented by networks are crucial in various phenomena, for example, in diseases such as epilepsy that affect the neuronal networks and for information dissemination in social networks. The first models to account for contained activity included triggering and inhibition processes, but they cannot be applied to social networks where inhibition is clearly absent. A recent model showed that contained activity can be achieved with no need of inhibition processes provided that the network is subdivided into modules (communities). In this paper, we introduce a new concept inspired in the Hebbian theory, through which containment of activity is achieved by incorporating a dynamics based on a decaying activity in a random walk mechanism preferential to the node activity. Upon selecting the decay coefficient within a proper range, we observed sustained activity in all the networks tested, namely, random, Barabási–Albert and geographical networks. The generality of this finding was confirmed by showing that modularity is no longer needed if the dynamics based on the integrate-and-fire dynamics incorporated the decay factor. Taken together, these results provide a proof of principle that persistent, restrained network activation might occur in the absence of any particular topological structure. This may be the reason why neuronal activity does not spread out to the entire neuronal network, even when no special topological organization exists. (paper)

  9. Organizing socially constructed internal and external resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sorge, A

    The analysis of economic institutions stands to gain from a consideration of the interactionist theory of institutions, a resource-based view of organizations to develop business and economic perspectives, and a linkage between the two and any theory of economic institutions. A resource-based view

  10. Detecting Hierarchical Structure in Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herlau, Tue; Mørup, Morten; Schmidt, Mikkel Nørgaard

    2012-01-01

    Many real-world networks exhibit hierarchical organization. Previous models of hierarchies within relational data has focused on binary trees; however, for many networks it is unknown whether there is hierarchical structure, and if there is, a binary tree might not account well for it. We propose...... a generative Bayesian model that is able to infer whether hierarchies are present or not from a hypothesis space encompassing all types of hierarchical tree structures. For efficient inference we propose a collapsed Gibbs sampling procedure that jointly infers a partition and its hierarchical structure....... On synthetic and real data we demonstrate that our model can detect hierarchical structure leading to better link-prediction than competing models. Our model can be used to detect if a network exhibits hierarchical structure, thereby leading to a better comprehension and statistical account the network....

  11. Inappropriate Lessons: Elementary Schools and the Social Organization of Sexuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boas, Erica Misako

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation responds to the question: How is sexuality organized in elementary schools? I argue that despite the absence of overt discussions on sexuality in elementary schools, sexuality is "organized" through social processes that are recursively linked to ideology. Due to the widely held belief that "children" and…

  12. Fostering Rural Social Organizations: A Bottom-Up Paradigm In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rural and agricultural transformation has remained one of the main policy thrusts of successive governments in Nigeria for over the last three decades. Among the organizations and agencies serving as anchors to this drive, rural social organizations occupy the driver's seat in rural and agricultural transformation in Nigeria.

  13. A metal-organic framework derived hierarchical nickel-cobalt sulfide nanosheet array on Ni foam with enhanced electrochemical performance for supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Kai; Han, Xue; Ma, Qingxiang; Han, Lei

    2018-03-06

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have emerged as a new platform for the construction of various functional materials for energy related applications. Here, a facile MOF templating method is developed to fabricate a hierarchical nickel-cobalt sulfide nanosheet array on conductive Ni foam (Ni-Co-S/NF) as a binder-free electrode for supercapacitors. A uniform 2D Co-MOF nanowall array is first grown in situ on Ni foam in aqueous solution at room temperature, and then the Co-MOF nanowalls are converted into hierarchical Ni-Co-S nanoarchitectures via an etching and ion-exchange reaction with Ni(NO 3 ) 2 , and a subsequent solvothermal sulfurization. Taking advantage of the compositional and structural merits of the hierarchical Ni-Co-S nanosheet array and conductive Ni foam, such as fast electron transportation, short ion diffusion path, abundant active sites and rich redox reactions, the obtained Ni-Co-S/NF electrode exhibits excellent electrochemical capacitive performance (1406.9 F g -1 at 0.5 A g -1 , 53.9% retention at 10 A g -1 and 88.6% retention over 1000 cycles), which is superior to control CoS/NF. An asymmetric supercapacitor (ASC) assembled by using the as-fabricated Ni-Co-S/NF as the positive electrode and activated carbon (AC) as the negative electrode delivers a high energy density of 24.8 W h kg -1 at a high power density of 849.5 W kg -1 . Even when the power density is as high as 8.5 kW kg -1 , the ASC still exhibits a high energy density of 12.5 W h kg -1 . This facile synthetic strategy can also be extended to fabricate other hierarchical integrated electrodes for high-efficiency electrochemical energy conversion and storage devices.

  14. Social media and organ donation: Ethically navigating the next frontier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, M L; Clayville, K A; Fisher, J S; Kuntz, K K; Mysel, H; Purnell, T S; Schaffer, R L; Sherman, L A; Willock, E P; Gordon, E J

    2017-11-01

    As the organ shortage continues to grow, the creation of social media communities by transplant hospitals and the public is rapidly expanding to increase the number of living donors. Social media communities are arranged in myriad ways and without standardization, raising concerns about transplant candidates' and potential donors' autonomy and quality of care. Social media communities magnify and modify extant ethical issues in deceased and living donation related to privacy, confidentiality, professionalism, and informed consent, and increase the potential for undue influence and coercion for potential donors and transplant candidates. Currently, no national ethical guidelines have been developed in the United States regarding the use of social media to foster organ transplantation. We provide an ethical framework to guide transplant stakeholders in using social media for public and patient communication about transplantation and living donation, and offer recommendations for transplant clinical practice and future research. © 2017 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  15. Resource-Based View (RBV of Unincorporated Social Economy Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunle Akingbola

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This article examines three related questions about unincorporated social economy organizations (USEOs: What are the characteristics of these social economy organizations? What is the unique bundle of resources that gives rise to and sustains their operations? Is there evidence of bricolage in these organizations? The findings suggest that USEOs are driven foremost by a social mission. USEOs provide diverse services and products including economic and specialized social activities, which are integral to the social fabric of society. The results also show that they combine and leverage two core resources – social capital and human capital – to support the operations of their organizations. Moreover they appear to draw on whatever resources are at their disposal to support the activities of the organization. This suggests that USEOs are involved in bricolage activities, which could explain the longevity of many of the organizations.RÉSUMÉCet article répond à trois questions étroitement liées sur les organismes d’économie sociale non constitués en société : Quelles sont les caractéristiques de ces organismes? Quelles sont les ressources particulières qui leur permettent de fonctionner? Ces organismes ont-ils recours au bricolage (dans le sens que Claude Lévi-Strauss prête à ce mot? Les résultats indiquent qu’une mission sociale est ce qui motive les organismes d’économie sociale non enregistrés. Ces derniers fournissent une diversité de produits et services, y compris des activités économiques et sociales spécialisées qui sont essentielles pour la solidarité sociale. Les résultats montrent aussi que ces organismes combinent deux ressources clés – le capital social et le capital humain – afin d’appuyer le bon fonctionnement de leurs organisations. En outre, pour ce faire, ils ont apparemment recours à toute ressource qui soit à leur portée. Cette dernière pratique indique que les organismes d

  16. Health and social organization: towards a health policy for the twenty-first century

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blane, David; Brunner, Eric

    1996-01-01

    ...: economic growth, income distribution, consumption, work organization, unemployment and job insecurity, social and family structure, education and deprivation, and they are all aspects of 'social organization...

  17. Social Constructionism in the Context of Organization Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celiane Camargo-Borges

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The world faces rapid changes that call for new epistemologies and methodologies that can generate innovative forms of “being” and “doing” within organizations. This article investigates conceptual and practical resources from the social constructionist perspective that can be useful in realizing the transformation of organizations. Initially, a global context of the world in change is described, explaining the consequences for organizations; then social constructionism is introduced as a postmodern epistemology and offered as a potential approach to the organizational development field in supporting research and intervention. Some perspectives for action and knowledge production are offered in the context of an organization. Finally, some resources with examples will be articulated; these new frameworks for action can be effective for organizations coping in times of change.

  18. [The development of organization of medical social care of adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicherin, L P; Nagaev, R Ia

    2014-01-01

    The model of the subject of the Russian Federation is used to consider means of development of health protection and health promotion in adolescents including implementation of the National strategy of activities in interest of children for 2012-2017 approved by decree No761 of the President of Russia in June 1 2012. The analysis is carried out concerning organization of medical social care to this group of population in medical institutions and organizations of different type in the Republic of Bashkortostan. Nowadays, in 29 territories medical social departments and rooms, 5 specialized health centers for children, 6 clinics friendly to youth are organized. The analysis of manpower support demonstrates that in spite of increasing of number of rooms and departments of medical social care for children and adolescents decreasing of staff jobs both of medical personnel and psychologists and social workers occurs. The differences in priorities of functioning of departments and rooms of medical social care under children polyclinics, health centers for children and clinics friendly to youth are established. The questionnaire survey of pediatricians and adolescents concerning perspectives of development of adolescent service established significant need in development of specialized complex center. At the basis of such center problems of medical, pedagogical, social, psychological, legal profile related to specific characteristics of development and medical social needs of adolescents can be resolved. The article demonstrates organizational form of unification on the functional basis of the department of medical social care of children polyclinic and clinic friendly to youth. During three years, number of visits of adolescents to specialists of the center increases and this testifies awareness of adolescents and youth about activities of department of medical social care. The most percentage of visits of adolescents to specialists was made with prevention purpose. Among

  19. Intraspecific variation in social organization by genetic variation, developmental plasticity, social flexibility or entirely extrinsic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schradin, Carsten

    2013-05-19

    Previously, it was widely believed that each species has a specific social organization, but we know now that many species show intraspecific variation in their social organization. Four different processes can lead to intraspecific variation in social organization: (i) genetic variation between individuals owing to local adaptation (between populations) or evolutionarily stable strategies within populations; (ii) developmental plasticity evolved in long-term (more than one generation) unpredictable and short-term (one generation) predictable environments, which is mediated by organizational physiological effects during early ontogeny; (iii) social flexibility evolved in highly unpredictable environments, which is mediated by activational physiological effects in adults; (iv) entirely extrinsic factors such as the death of a dominant breeder. Variation in social behaviour occurs between individuals in the case of genetic variation and developmental plasticity, but within individuals in the case of social flexibility. It is important to study intraspecific variation in social organization to understand the social systems of species because it reveals the mechanisms by which species can adapt to changing environments, offers a useful tool to study the ultimate and proximate causes of sociality, and is an interesting phenomenon by itself that needs scientific explanation.

  20. Problem of two-level hierarchical minimax program control the final state of regional social and economic system in the presence of risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shorikov, A. F.

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses a discrete-time dynamical system consisting of a set a controllable objects (region and forming it municipalities). The dynamics each of these is described by the corresponding vector nonlinear discrete-time recurrent vector equations and its control system consist from two levels: basic (control level I) that is dominating and subordinate level (control level II). Both levels have different criterions of functioning and united a priori by determined informational and control connections defined in advance. In this paper we study the problem of optimization of guaranteed result for program control by the final state of regional social and economic system in the presence of risks. For this problem we proposed in this work an economical and mathematical model of two-level hierarchical minimax program control the final state of regional social and economic system in the presence of risks and the general scheme for its solving

  1. Problem of two-level hierarchical minimax program control the final state of regional social and economic system in the presence of risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shorikov, A. F., E-mail: afshorikov@mail.ru [Ural Federal University, 19 S. Mira, Ekaterinburg, 620002, Russia Institute of Mathematics and Mechanics, Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, 16 S. Kovalevskaya, Ekaterinburg, 620990 (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-30

    This article discusses a discrete-time dynamical system consisting of a set a controllable objects (region and forming it municipalities). The dynamics each of these is described by the corresponding vector nonlinear discrete-time recurrent vector equations and its control system consist from two levels: basic (control level I) that is dominating and subordinate level (control level II). Both levels have different criterions of functioning and united a priori by determined informational and control connections defined in advance. In this paper we study the problem of optimization of guaranteed result for program control by the final state of regional social and economic system in the presence of risks. For this problem we proposed in this work an economical and mathematical model of two-level hierarchical minimax program control the final state of regional social and economic system in the presence of risks and the general scheme for its solving.

  2. SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY OF ORGANIZATION. AN EXTENDED LITERATURE REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saveanu Tomina Gabriela

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In our paper we review the general topic of social involvement of organizations, in the light of business-society relationship. For this aim we analyze the extensive international literature of corporate social responsibility, corporate citizenship, social philanthropy, sustainable corporation and other related concepts. In this endeavor we categorize the main body of knowledge in three broad areas: (1 papers investigating the definitions and measures of these concepts, including practitioners’ opinions, (2 predictors of such involvement and actions, (3 effects of social responsibility manifested by organizations. The second section of our paper focuses on the Romanian literature on this topic, as it is less systematized so far. In this section we focus on the main findings of studies conducted on Romanian companies regarding CSR or related concepts. In the final, concluding section we propose a research methodology for CSR in Romania meant to clarify the impact of the most frequently considered predictors.

  3. Corticosterone manipulation reveals differences in hierarchical organization of multidimensional reproductive trade-offs in r-strategist and K-strategist females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, L T; Hazard, L C; Clobert, J; Sinervo, B R

    2008-03-01

    Life history trade-offs are often hierarchical with decisions at one level affecting lower level trade-offs. We investigated trade-off structure in female side-blotched lizards (Uta stansburiana), which exhibit two evolved strategies: yellow-throated females are K-strategists and orange-throated are r-strategists. Corticosterone treatment was predicted to differentially organize these females' reproductive decisions. Corticosterone-treated yellow females suppressed reproduction but survived well, and augmented egg mass without decreasing clutch size. Conversely, corticosterone enhanced mortality and reproductive rates in orange females, and increased egg mass only after lengthy exposure. Corticosterone did not affect post-laying condition, suggesting that corticosterone increased egg mass through enhanced energy acquisition (income breeding). Corticosterone enhanced survival of lightweight females, but decreased survival of heavy females, introducing a foraging vs. predation trade-off. We conclude that rather than being a direct, functional relationship, observed trade-offs between offspring size and number represent evolved differences in hierarchical organization of multidimensional trade-offs, particularly in response to stress.

  4. Implementation of Learning Organization Components in Ardabil Social Security Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Azadeh Zirak

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the implementation of learning organization characteristics based on Marquardt systematic model in Ardabil Social Security Hospital. The statistical population of this research was 234 male and female employees of Ardabil Social Security Hospital. For data collection, Marquardt questionnaire was used in the present study which its validity and reliability had been confirmed. Statistical analysis of hypotheses based on independent samples t-test showed that lear...

  5. Environmental Aspects of Social Responsibility of Public Sector Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Hawrysz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In addition to determining social responsibility policies that affect the market and social actors, certain governments also set objectives related to their internal activity. For example, one of the activities of the German government is to implement the concept of social responsibility into public institutions. In the Netherlands, one of the government tasks is to set an example for responsible practices (government as a role model. The aim of this paper is to examine firstly whether public sector entities set an example for responsible practices, especially with regard to respect for the environment, and secondly, whether public sector organizations in Poland significantly differ from organizations abroad in terms of their practices in the field of environmental protection. A questionnaire was a basis for data collection. The questionnaires were distributed to representatives of deliberately selected public sector organizations located primarily in Europe. The study was conducted in 2012–2013 on a group of 220 public sector organizations (102 Polish and 118 other European. The paper presents only the selected part of research. Public sector organizations in Poland do not have internal mechanisms of environmental responsibility. There is a significant discrepancy between the state of the environmental responsibility of organizations located in Poland and abroad. Obtained results show that public sector organizations, those in Poland in particular, are making their first steps in developing internal environmental responsibility.

  6. CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY: COMMUNICATING IN PUBLIC SECTOR ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Йолита Ричардовна Вайнхардт

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to examine the details of declared activities of social responsibility in the public sector. To achieve the objective the following tasks are formulated: (1 to review the CSR research carried out inLithuania; (2 to analyse the communicative actions of public sector organizations concerning socially responsible activities. Method of work: the article is written using the methods of content analysis, analogy and reflection.  Results: Corporate social responsibility (CSR activities focused on external interest groups and their representation are analysed in the article. The survey covers state capital enterprises or enterprises, in which a larger part of the portfolio of shares is owned by the public sector, and educational organizations, the founder of which is the state. The research of CSR carried out in Lithuania in recent years is overviewed and analysis of the way the public sector organizations, which belong to United Nations Global Compact (hereafter GC network communicate their socially responsible activities is provided. It has been found that the membership of the majority of public sector organizations in the GC is rather formal, and insufficient attention is given for communicating socially responsible activities in information carriers, most easily accessible to the user.  Application of results: management in the public sector.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-10-32

  7. News values on social media: News organizations' Facebook use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rawi, Ahmed

    2017-08-01

    This study examines the news selection practices followed by news organizations through investigating the news posted on social networking sites and, in particular, the Facebook pages of four foreign Arabic language TV stations: The Iranian Al-Alam TV, Russia Today, Deutsche Welle, and BBC. A total of 15,589 news stories are analyzed in order to examine the prominence of references to countries and political actors. The study reveals that social significance and proximity as well as the news organizations' ideological agenda are the most important elements that dictate the news selection process.

  8. Implementation of Learning Organization Components in Ardabil Social Security Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Zirak

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the implementation of learning organization characteristics based on Marquardt systematic model in Ardabil Social Security Hospital. The statistical population of this research was 234 male and female employees of Ardabil Social Security Hospital. For data collection, Marquardt questionnaire was used in the present study which its validity and reliability had been confirmed. Statistical analysis of hypotheses based on independent samples t-test showed that learning organization characteristics were used more than average level in some subsystems of Marquardt model and there was a significant difference between current position and excellent position based on learning organization characteristic application. According to the research findings, more attention should be paid to the subsystems of learning organization establishment and balanced development of these subsystems.

  9. Internal Communication and Social Dialogue in Knowledge-Based Organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Diana-Maria CISMARU; Cristina LEOVARIDIS

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge-based organizations are constructed on intangible assets, such as the expertise and the values of the employees. As a consequence, motivation and professional excellence of employees are the main objectives of management teams. For this type of organizations, considered as true “knowledge systems”, the employees represent the most valuable resource that is not motivated only through financial means, but also through internal communication, autonomy or social rewards. The research of...

  10. The Security of Organizations and Individuals in Online Social Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Elyashar, Aviad

    2016-01-01

    The serious privacy and security problems related to online social networks (OSNs) are what fueled two complementary studies as part of this thesis. In the first study, we developed a general algorithm for the mining of data of targeted organizations by using Facebook (currently the most popular OSN) and socialbots. By friending employees in a targeted organization, our active socialbots were able to find new employees and informal organizational links that we could not find by crawling with ...

  11. A new application of hierarchical cluster analysis to investigate organic peaks in bulk mass spectra obtained with an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middlebrook, A. M.; Marcolli, C.; Canagaratna, M. R.; Worsnop, D. R.; Bahreini, R.; de Gouw, J. A.; Warneke, C.; Goldan, P. D.; Kuster, W. C.; Williams, E. J.; Lerner, B. M.; Roberts, J. M.; Meagher, J. F.; Fehsenfeld, F. C.; Marchewka, M. L.; Bertman, S. B.

    2006-12-01

    We applied hierarchical cluster analysis to an Aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) bulk mass spectral dataset collected aboard the NOAA research vessel Ronald H. Brown during the 2002 New England Air Quality Study off the east coast of the United States. Emphasizing the organic peaks, the cluster analysis yielded a series of categories that are distinguishable with respect to their mass spectra and their occurrence as a function of time. The differences between the categories mainly arise from relative intensity changes rather than from the presence or absence of specific peaks. The most frequent category exhibits a strong signal at m/z 44 and represents oxidized organic matter probably originating from both anthropogenic as well as biogenic sources. On the basis of spectral and trace gas correlations, the second most common category with strong signals at m/z 29, 43, and 44 contains contributions from isoprene oxidation products. The third through the fifth most common categories have peak patterns characteristic of monoterpene oxidation products and were most frequently observed when air masses from monoterpene rich regions were sampled. Taken together, the second through the fifth most common categories represent on average 17% of the total organic mass that stems likely from biogenic sources during the ship's cruise. These numbers have to be viewed as lower limits since the most common category was attributed to anthropogenic sources for this calculation. The cluster analysis was also very effective in identifying a few contaminated mass spectra that were not removed during pre-processing. This study demonstrates that hierarchical clustering is a useful tool to analyze the complex patterns of the organic peaks in bulk aerosol mass spectra from a field study.

  12. The ethics of pharmaceutical research funding: a social organization approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Garry C

    2013-01-01

    This paper advances a social organization approach to examining unethical behavior. While unethical behaviors may stem in part from failures in individual morality or psychological blind spots, they are both generated and performed through social interactions among individuals and groups. To illustrate the value of a social organization approach, a case study of a medical school professor's first experience with pharmaceutical-company-sponsored research is provided in order to examine how funding arrangements can constrain research integrity. The case illustrates three significant ways that institutional corruption can occur in the research process. First, conflicts of norms between pharmaceutical companies, universities, and affiliated teaching hospitals can result in compromises and self-censorship. Second, normal behavior is shaped through routine interactions. Unethical behaviors can be (or can become) normal behaviors when they are produced and reproduced through a network of social interactions. Third, funding arrangements can create networks of dependency that structurally distort the independence of the academic researcher in favor of the funder's interests. More broadly, the case study demonstrates how the social organization approach deepens our understanding of the practice of ethics. © 2013 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  13. Organic Delights: Examining the Challenges of Corporate Social Responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bear, Stephen E.

    2017-01-01

    Organic Delights is an experiential exercise designed to help undergraduate business students learn about corporate social responsibility (CSR). In this exercise, students assume the role of a senior manager of a fictional restaurant and caterer. The challenge for the managers is to evaluate and choose among six proposals to promote the company's…

  14. Knowledge Sharing via Social Networking Platforms in Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettles, Degan

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge Management Systems have been actively promoted for decades within organizations but have frequently failed to be used. Recently, deployments of enterprise social networking platforms used for knowledge management have become commonplace. These platforms help harness the knowledge of workers by serving as repositories of knowledge as well…

  15. Building Community: The Neighborhood Context of Social Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaroop, Sapna; Morenoff, Jeffrey D.

    2006-01-01

    This study explores how neighborhood context influences participation in local social organization through a multilevel-spatial analysis of residents in Chicago neighborhoods. We construct a typology of community participation based on two dimensions: instrumental vs. expressive motivations for participation and formal vs. informal modes of…

  16. Social-Identity Functions of Attraction to Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Highhouse, Scott; Thornbury, Erin E.; Little, Ian S.

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the self-presentation goals that underlie attraction to organizations. Expanding on Lievens and Highhouse's (2003) instrumental vs. symbolic classification of corporate attributes, a theory of symbolic attraction is presented that posits social-identity consciousness as a moderator of the relation between symbolic inferences…

  17. Interracial Friendliness and the Social Organization of Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stearns, Elizabeth

    2004-01-01

    How does the social organization of American public high schools influence opportunities for interracial contact and friendship among their students? The author examines the influence of tracking differentiation, the extent to which students are separated into different academic tracks, on the degree of interracial friendliness in public high…

  18. Organizations as Socially Constructed Agents in the Agent Oriented Paradigm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Boella (Guido); L.W.N. van der Torre (Leon)

    2005-01-01

    htmlabstractIn this paper we propose a new role for the agent metaphor in the definition of the organizational structure of multiagent systems. The agent metaphor is extended to consider as agents also social entities like organizations, groups and normative systems, so that mental attitudes can

  19. Interdisciplinarity, Transdisciplinarity, and beyond: The Brain, Story Sharing, and Social Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grobstein, Paul

    2007-01-01

    An apparent conflict between preferences for hierarchical as opposed to distributed organizations is evident in arguments about disciplinary and interdisciplinary organization. It characterizes as well a wide array of other arenas ranging from the biological to the political. In this article, parallels between biological, neurobiological, and…

  20. Organization-level predictors of sustained social movement participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesdahl, Eric A; Speer, Paul W

    2015-03-01

    Long-term sustained participation represents one of the most important resources available to community organizations and social movement organizations (SMOs). The participatory literature on community and SMOs has identified a host of individual-level factors that influence participation beyond initial engagement, and has more recently identified contextual factors that influence participation. This study builds upon current understandings of participation in SMOs by examining how sustained participation in movement activities is affected by two qualities of SMO settings: repertoire of organizational activity, and equality of staff contact with organization members to cultivate and facilitate individual participation. To this end, we employ multi-level regression techniques to examine longitudinal data on participation within 50 local chapters of a national congregation-based community organizing federation. We find that the conduct of organizational activities previously shown to increase levels of participation among individual persons does not necessarily lead to increases in aggregate or organization-level participation. Further, we find that conditions of unequal staff contact among organization members represent a notable drag on organization-level participation over time. Our findings suggest that organizers and organizational leaders may well see greater levels of participation in their organizations by simply re-distributing resources and opportunities more equitably within their organizations.

  1. Helping organizations help others: organization development as a facilitator of social change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Neil M

    2011-01-01

    This article explores organization development (OD) interventions and their likelihood of increasing social change outcomes in public agencies. The central argument of this work is that public and nonprofit organizations can deliver better social outcomes by systematically engaging in OD interventions. An in-depth survey was conducted in 3 agencies of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania at the end of the gubernatorial administration of Tom Ridge (1995-2002). During his administration, Governor Ridge led the agencies of Pennsylvania government through a large-scale change effort to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of service delivery to the citizens of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. The change effort was a remarkable event for the Commonwealth because no other governor in the history of the state had attempted to conceptualize and deliver a comprehensive large-scale change management initiative. The successes and setbacks served as a fertile context to shed light on the following research question: Do OD interventions increase the likelihood that public organizations will deliver better social outcomes? This question is important in that public organizations may need to engage in organization development activities to improve their internal operations, which in turn may help them provide exemplary social outcomes to those whom they serve. In short, organization development interventions might allow public organizations to help themselves to help others.

  2. Using a social entrepreneurial approach to enhance the financial and social value of health care organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sandra S; Lu, Jui-Fen Rachel; Guo, Kristina L

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a conceptual framework was developed to show that social entrepreneurial practices can be effectively translated to meet the social needs in health care. We used a theory-in-use case study approach that encompasses postulation of a working taxonomy from literature scanning and a deliberation of the taxonomy through triangulation of multilevel data of a case study conducted in a Taiwan-based hospital system. Specifically, we demonstrated that a nonprofit organization can adopt business principles that emphasize both financial and social value. We tested our model and found comprehensive accountability across departments throughout the case hospital system, and this led to sustainable and continual growth of the organization. Through social entrepreneurial practices, we established that both financial value creation and fulfilling the social mission for the case hospital system can be achieved.

  3. Social world of organ transplantation, trafficking, and policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousaf, Farhan Navid; Purkayastha, Bandana

    2016-05-01

    Although success of organ transplants reflects advances in medical procedures, the success has generated debates about the ethical standards and policies that govern transplants, especially the acquisition of organs for transplants. We focus on laws, policies, and organ trafficking to highlight the interdisciplinary perspectives that can shape our understanding of transplantation as a social phenomenon. We discuss international policies and country-specific legislation from Pakistan to point to gaps and their implications for protecting vulnerable people who are exploited for organ removal. International collaboration and the legal framework need to be strengthened to fight the menace globally and to deal with the cases of organ trafficking within the legal ambit of human trafficking so that the rights of victims are upheld by states, justice systems, and ultimately medical establishments and practitioners.

  4. Corporate Social Responsibility And Islamic Business Organizations: A Proposed Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusnah Muhamad

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The issue of corporate social responsibility (CSR has been of growing concern among business communities in recent years. Various corporate leaders maintain that business is considered to contribute fully to the society if it is effi cient, profi table and socially responsible. Islam is considered as addin (a way of life, thus, providing comprehensive guidelines in every aspects of the believers’ life. It is the aim of this paper to propose an Islamic model of corporate social responsibility based on human relationships with the God (hablun min’Allah; with other fellow human being (hablun min’an-nas and with the environment.Keywords : Corporate Social Responsibility, Islamic Business Organization

  5. Systems approach to studying animal sociality: individual position versus group organization in dynamic social network models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlo Hock

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Social networks can be used to represent group structure as a network of interacting components, and also to quantify both the position of each individual and the global properties of a group. In a series of simulation experiments based on dynamic social networks, we test the prediction that social behaviors that help individuals reach prominence within their social group may conflict with their potential to benefit from their social environment. In addition to cases where individuals were able to benefit from improving both their personal relative importance and group organization, using only simple rules of social affiliation we were able to obtain results in which individuals would face a trade-off between these factors. While selection would favor (or work against social behaviors that concordantly increase (or decrease, respectively fitness at both individual and group level, when these factors conflict with each other the eventual selective pressure would depend on the relative returns individuals get from their social environment and their position within it. The presented results highlight the importance of a systems approach to studying animal sociality, in which the effects of social behaviors should be viewed not only through the benefits that those provide to individuals, but also in terms of how they affect broader social environment and how in turn this is reflected back on an individual's fitness.

  6. Sharing the Proceeds from a Hierarchical Venture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Moreno-Ternero, Juan D.; Tvede, Mich

    2017-01-01

    We consider the problem of distributing the proceeds generated from a joint venture in which the participating agents are hierarchically organized. We introduce and characterize a family of allocation rules where revenue ‘bubbles up’ in the hierarchy. The family is flexible enough to accommodate...... the no-transfer rule (where no revenue bubbles up) and the full-transfer rule (where all the revenues bubble up to the top of the hierarchy). Intermediate rules within the family are reminiscent of popular incentive mechanisms for social mobilization or multi-level marketing....

  7. Seeking structure in social organization: compensatory control and the psychological advantages of hierarchy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Justin P; Kay, Aaron C; Eibach, Richard P; Galinsky, Adam D

    2014-04-01

    Hierarchies are a ubiquitous form of human social organization. We hypothesized that 1 reason for the prevalence of hierarchies is that they offer structure and therefore satisfy the core motivational needs for order and control relative to less structured forms of social organization. This hypothesis is rooted in compensatory control theory, which posits that (a) individuals have a basic need to perceive the world as orderly and structured, and (b) personal and external sources of control are capable of satisfying this need because both serve the comforting belief that the world operates in an orderly fashion. Our first 2 studies confirmed that hierarchies were perceived as more structured and orderly relative to egalitarian arrangements (Study 1) and that working in a hierarchical workplace promotes a feeling of self-efficacy (Study 2). We threatened participants' sense of personal control and measured perceptions of and preferences for hierarchy in 5 subsequent experiments. Participants who lacked control perceived more hierarchy occurring in ambiguous social situations (Study 3) and preferred hierarchy more strongly in workplace contexts (Studies 4-5). We also provide evidence that hierarchies are indeed appealing because of their structure: Preference for hierarchy was higher among individuals high in Personal Need for Structure and a control threat increased preference for hierarchy even among participants low in Personal Need for Structure (Study 5). Framing a hierarchy as unstructured reversed the effect of control threat on hierarchy (Study 6). Finally, hierarchy-enhancing jobs were more appealing after control threat, even when they were low in power and status (Study 7). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Surprising transformation of a block copolymer into a high performance polystyrene ultrafiltration membrane with a hierarchically organized pore structure

    KAUST Repository

    Shevate, Rahul

    2018-02-08

    We describe the preparation of hierarchical polystyrene nanoporous membranes with a very narrow pore size distribution and an extremely high porosity. The nanoporous structure is formed as a result of unusual degradation of the poly(4-vinyl pyridine) block from self-assembled poly(styrene)-b-poly(4-vinyl pyridine) (PS-b-P4VP) membranes through the formation of an unstable pyridinium intermediate in an alkaline medium. During this process, the confined swelling and controlled degradation produced a tunable pore size. We unequivocally confirmed the successful elimination of the P4VP block from a PS-b-P4VPVP membrane using 1D/2D NMR spectroscopy and other characterization techniques. Surprisingly, the long range ordered surface porosity was preserved even after degradation of the P4VP block from the main chain of the diblock copolymer, as revealed by SEM. Aside from a drastically improved water flux (∼67% increase) compared to the PS-b-P4VP membrane, the hydraulic permeability measurements validated pH independent behaviour of the isoporous PS membrane over a wide pH range from 3 to 10. The effect of the pore size on protein transport rate and selectivity (a) was investigated for lysozyme (Lys), bovine serum albumin (BSA) and globulin-γ (IgG). A high selectivity of 42 (Lys/IgG) and 30 (BSA/IgG) was attained, making the membranes attractive for size selective separation of biomolecules from their synthetic model mixture solutions.

  9. Hierarchical (Ni,Co)Se 2 /Carbon Hollow Rhombic Dodecahedra Derived from Metal-Organic Frameworks for Efficient Water-Splitting Electrocatalysis

    KAUST Repository

    Ming, Fangwang; Liang, Hanfeng; Shi, Huanhuan; Mei, Gui; Xu, Xun; Wang, Zhoucheng

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we demonstrate that the electrocatalytic activity of transition metal chalcogenides can be greatly enhanced by simultaneously engineering the active sites, surface area, and conductivity. Using metal-organic frameworks-derived (Ni,Co)Se2/C hollow rhombic dodecahedra (HRD) as a demonstration, we show that the incorporation of Ni into CoSe2 could generates additional active sites, the hierarchical hollow structure promotes the electrolyte diffusion, the in-situ hybridization with C improves the conductivity. As a result, the (Ni,Co)Se2/C HRD exhibit superior performance toward the overall water-splitting electrocatalysis in 1M KOH with a cell voltage as low as 1.58V at the current density of 10mAcm−2, making the (Ni,Co)Se2/C HRD as a promising alternative to noble metal catalysts for water splitting.

  10. Hierarchical (Ni,Co)Se 2 /Carbon Hollow Rhombic Dodecahedra Derived from Metal-Organic Frameworks for Efficient Water-Splitting Electrocatalysis

    KAUST Repository

    Ming, Fangwang

    2017-08-12

    In this work, we demonstrate that the electrocatalytic activity of transition metal chalcogenides can be greatly enhanced by simultaneously engineering the active sites, surface area, and conductivity. Using metal-organic frameworks-derived (Ni,Co)Se2/C hollow rhombic dodecahedra (HRD) as a demonstration, we show that the incorporation of Ni into CoSe2 could generates additional active sites, the hierarchical hollow structure promotes the electrolyte diffusion, the in-situ hybridization with C improves the conductivity. As a result, the (Ni,Co)Se2/C HRD exhibit superior performance toward the overall water-splitting electrocatalysis in 1M KOH with a cell voltage as low as 1.58V at the current density of 10mAcm−2, making the (Ni,Co)Se2/C HRD as a promising alternative to noble metal catalysts for water splitting.

  11. Frailty and Organization of Health and Social Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clegg, Andrew; Young, John

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter, we consider how health and social care can best be organized for older people with frailty. We will consider the merits of routine frailty identification, including risk stratification methods, to inform the provision of evidence-based treatment and holistic, goal-oriented care. We will also consider how best to place older people with frailty at the heart of health and social care systems so that the complex challenges associated with this vulnerable group are addressed. 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Hierarchical Bayesian analysis of outcome- and process-based social preferences and beliefs in Dictator Games and sequential Prisoner's Dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksoy, Ozan; Weesie, Jeroen

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, using a within-subjects design, we estimate the utility weights that subjects attach to the outcome of their interaction partners in four decision situations: (1) binary Dictator Games (DG), second player's role in the sequential Prisoner's Dilemma (PD) after the first player (2) cooperated and (3) defected, and (4) first player's role in the sequential Prisoner's Dilemma game. We find that the average weights in these four decision situations have the following order: (1)>(2)>(4)>(3). Moreover, the average weight is positive in (1) but negative in (2), (3), and (4). Our findings indicate the existence of strong negative and small positive reciprocity for the average subject, but there is also high interpersonal variation in the weights in these four nodes. We conclude that the PD frame makes subjects more competitive than the DG frame. Using hierarchical Bayesian modeling, we simultaneously analyze beliefs of subjects about others' utility weights in the same four decision situations. We compare several alternative theoretical models on beliefs, e.g., rational beliefs (Bayesian-Nash equilibrium) and a consensus model. Our results on beliefs strongly support the consensus effect and refute rational beliefs: there is a strong relationship between own preferences and beliefs and this relationship is relatively stable across the four decision situations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The intellectual and social organization of the sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Whitley, Richard

    2000-01-01

    In a rapidly changing and inter-disciplinary world it is important to understand the nature and generation of knowledge, and its social organization. Increasing attention is paid in the social sciences and management studies to the constitution and claims of different theories, perspectives, and 'paradigms'. This book is one of the most respected and robust analyses of these issues. For this new paperback edition Richard Whitley - a leading figure in European business education - has written a new introduction which addresses the particular epistemological issues presented by management and business studies. He approaches the sciences as differently organized systems for the production and validation of knowledge - systems which become established in particular contexts and which generate different sorts of knowledge. He identifies seven major types of scientific field and discusses the establishment and growth of these sciences, including the major consequences of the nineteenth-century expansion of employme...

  14. The Social Organization of Nurses' Pain Management Work in Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassin, Khadra; Rankin, Janet; Al-Tawafsheh, Atef

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the social organization of nurses' pain management work in Qatar. The research data drew our attention to unacceptable delays in intervening with patients in pain. We describe and analyze delays in opioid administration. Institutional ethnography was the method of inquiry used to guide the study. The main findings of the study reveal that there is a socially organized system of delays built into nurses' work to manage pain. Nurses are subject to time-consuming processes of securing, handling, and administering opioids. This study's innovative approach introduces a promising "alternate" analysis to prior work investigating hospital nurses' pain management practices. Both the method of inquiry and the findings have international relevance for researchers interested in undertreated pain. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Do metaphors evolve? The case of the social organism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouton, Nicolaas T.O.

    2013-01-01

    A long line of philosophers and social scientists have defended and extended the curious idea that collective entities – states and societies, cities and corporations – are biological organisms. In this article, I study a few short but spectacular episodes from the history of that metaphor......, juxtapose mappings made in one era with correspondences conjured in other epochs, and reflect upon the reasons why they differ. By adopting a historical perspective on the process whereby the notion of a “social organism” evolved from its relatively simple beginnings in ancient philosophy to its rather...... complex manifestations in the modern social sciences, I hope to show that there are good reasons to reconsider both Lakoff’s decree that metaphors “should not be thought of as processes”, and his declaration that they should instead be seen as consisting of “a fixed pattern of ontological correspondences...

  16. Selecting Large Portfolios of Social Projects in Public Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Litvinchev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We address the portfolio selection of social projects in public organizations considering interdependencies (synergies affecting project funds requirements and tasks. A mixed integer linear programming model is proposed incorporating the most relevant aspects of the problem found in the literature. The model supports both complete (all or nothing and partial (a certain amount from a given interval of funding resource allocation policies. Numerical results for large-scale problem instances are presented.

  17. Relatedness and social organization of coypus in the Argentinean pampas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunez, J.I.; Guichon, M.L.; Centron, D.; Henderson, A.P.; Callahan, C.; Cassini, M.H.

    2009-01-01

    Behavioural and trapping studies of the social organization of coypus have suggested the occurrence of kin groups and a polygynous mating system. We used 16 microsatellite markers to analyse parentage and relatedness relationships in two populations (J??uregui and Villa Ruiz) in the Argentinean Pampas. At J??uregui, a dominant male monopolized most paternities, leading to a high variance in reproductive success between males and a high level of polygyny. At Villa Ruiz, variance in reproductive success was low among resident males and males were the fathers of zero to four offspring each. For females, no significant differences were found. Two different social groups in each study site were used to assess genetic relatedness within and between groups. These groups were neighbouring at J??uregui but not at Villa Ruiz. At Villa Ruiz, coypus were significantly more related within than between groups, suggesting that behavioural groups were also genetic ones, and adult females were more related within than between groups, as should be expected for kin groups. This relationship was not found at J??uregui. Our results provide support to previous studies based on behavioural and trapping data, which indicate that coypus form social groups and have a polygynous mating system. However, we found differences in social organization between the two populations. This is the first study to determine parentage and/or relatedness in coypus. ?? 2008 The Authors.

  18. Empathy, social media, and directed altruistic living organ donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorlock, Greg; Draper, Heather

    2018-06-01

    In this article we explore some of the ethical dimensions of using social media to increase the number of living kidney donors. Social media provides a platform for changing non-identifiable 'statistical victims' into 'real people' with whom we can identify and feel empathy: the so-called 'identifiable victim effect', which prompts charitable action. We examine three approaches to promoting kidney donation using social media which could take advantages of the identifiable victim effect: (a) institutionally organized campaigns based on historical cases aimed at promoting non-directed altruistic donation; (b) personal case-based campaigns organized by individuals aimed at promoting themselves/or someone with whom they are in a relationship as a recipient of directed donation; (c) institutionally organized personal case-based campaigns aimed at promoting specific recipients for directed donation. We will highlight the key ethical issues raised by these approaches, and will argue that the third option, despite raising ethical concerns, is preferable to the other two. © 2018 The Authors Bioethics Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. The Science and Social Necessity of Deceased Organ Donation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis L. Delmonico

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Successful deceased organ donation requires a reproducible – consistent (scientific system that evaluates the potential for organ donation and determines objectively whether the national system is achieving its goals. The science of organ donation also pertains to the determination of death. We are a common humanity that dies similarly – a humanity whose ultimate criterion of life resides in the function of the human brain. The recent brain death law of Israel encouragingly enables a determination of death by the loss of neurologic function, but it has become complicated by a practice that may perpetuate societal misperceptions. As a result opportunities for deceased organ donation – to provide for Israelis in need of organ transplants – are being lost. A statured task force of society could be assembled to convey its support for deceased donation to influence society and resolve these misperceptions. The World Health Organization is now calling for each member state to achieve a self-sufficiency in organ donation and transplantation “equitably meeting the transplantation needs of a given population using resources from within that population”. Patients should not be compelled to go to foreign countries for their organs. Israel has been a leader in the development of a model program intended to address transplant tourism. Insurance companies are no longer permitted to provide resources for Israelis to undergo illegal transplants in foreign destinations. The social necessity of a scientifically and medically applied system of deceased organ donation is now evident so that a sufficient number of organs can be available for patients from within the country where they reside.

  20. Sustainable Organic Farming For Environmental Health A Social Development Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ijun Rijwan Susanto

    2015-05-01

    consider the loss that may be experienced by others as the principles for profit has become very prominent. As a result the development of organic agriculture simply stuck into a commercial activity which would be a criticism of the founders One of the factors that led to the involvement of the government regulated organic farming is because of the bickering about what is called organic agricultural products and because many nonorganic products sold as organic products Organic farmers have difficulty in finding locally based seed for organic farming certification of organic farming has changed it is not just the assurance processes into a tradable commodity 3 The Benefits of Organic Farming in Support for Environmental Health organic farming gives a positive impact on public health because it does not cause environmental pollution water air soil by the residues of chemical fertilizers and synthetic chemical pesticides. Besides organic farming also healthy communities through the provision of agricultural products that are free of pesticides and chemical fertilizer residues 4 The Social Development Model of Sustainable Organic Farming Sustainable agriculture organic farming seeks acre balance of three long-term goals namely a Social-cultural to create quality of life to satisfy personal and community needs for health food safety and happines b Environment to Enhance utilization of soil water air and other resourches limited c Economics to be profitable market forces. These objectives can be achieved if supported by organizational-oriented good governance principles of sustainable agriculture. Sustainable agriculture is the implementation of the principles of sustainable development. Sustainable development will be achieved if conducted prior social development within the broad scope of stakeholders 5 The Policy Recomendation for Organic Farming a National Strategic Agenda The Program Go Organic must be forwarded with the 2010 program Go Organic 2020 where the formulation of

  1. Citation analysis: A social and dynamic approach to knowledge organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge organization (KO) and bibliometrics have traditionally been seen as separate subfields of library and information science, but bibliometric techniques make it possible to identify candidate terms for thesauri and to organize knowledge by relating scientific papers and authors to each...... be considered superior for all purposes. The main difference between traditional knowledge organization systems (KOSs) and maps based on citation analysis is that the first group represents intellectual KOSs, whereas the second represents social KOSs. For this reason bibliometric maps cannot be expected ever...... other and thereby indicating kinds of relatedness and semantic distance. It is therefore important to view bibliometric techniques as a family of approaches to KO in order to illustrate their relative strengths and weaknesses. The subfield of bibliometrics concerned with citation analysis forms...

  2. Enterprise Social Media: Definition, History, and Prospects for the Study of Social Technologies in Organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leonardi, P.M.; Huysman, M.H.; Steinfield, C.

    2013-01-01

    Social media are increasingly implemented in work organizations as tools for communication among employees. It is important that we develop an understanding of how they enable and constrain the communicative activities through which work is accomplished because it is these very dynamics that

  3. Functional annotation of hierarchical modularity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanchana Padmanabhan

    Full Text Available In biological networks of molecular interactions in a cell, network motifs that are biologically relevant are also functionally coherent, or form functional modules. These functionally coherent modules combine in a hierarchical manner into larger, less cohesive subsystems, thus revealing one of the essential design principles of system-level cellular organization and function-hierarchical modularity. Arguably, hierarchical modularity has not been explicitly taken into consideration by most, if not all, functional annotation systems. As a result, the existing methods would often fail to assign a statistically significant functional coherence score to biologically relevant molecular machines. We developed a methodology for hierarchical functional annotation. Given the hierarchical taxonomy of functional concepts (e.g., Gene Ontology and the association of individual genes or proteins with these concepts (e.g., GO terms, our method will assign a Hierarchical Modularity Score (HMS to each node in the hierarchy of functional modules; the HMS score and its p-value measure functional coherence of each module in the hierarchy. While existing methods annotate each module with a set of "enriched" functional terms in a bag of genes, our complementary method provides the hierarchical functional annotation of the modules and their hierarchically organized components. A hierarchical organization of functional modules often comes as a bi-product of cluster analysis of gene expression data or protein interaction data. Otherwise, our method will automatically build such a hierarchy by directly incorporating the functional taxonomy information into the hierarchy search process and by allowing multi-functional genes to be part of more than one component in the hierarchy. In addition, its underlying HMS scoring metric ensures that functional specificity of the terms across different levels of the hierarchical taxonomy is properly treated. We have evaluated our

  4. Nitrogen-doped graphitic hierarchically porous carbon nanofibers obtained via bimetallic-coordination organic framework modification and their application in supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yuechao; Liu, Peng; Li, Xiaoyan; Zeng, Shaozhong; Lan, Tongbin; Huang, Haitao; Zeng, Xierong; Zou, Jizhao

    2018-05-17

    Herein, N-doped graphitic hierarchically porous carbon nanofibers (NGHPCF) were prepared by electrospinning the composite of bimetallic-coordination metal-organic frameworks and polyacrylonitrile, followed by a pyrolysis and acid wash process. Control over the N content, specific surface area, and degree of graphitization of NGHPCF materials has been realized by adjusting the Co/Zn metal coordination content as well as the pyrolysis temperature. The obtained NGHPCF with a high specific surface area (623 m2 g-1) and nitrogen content (13.83 wt%) exhibit a high capacitance of 326 F g-1 at 0.5 A g-1. In addition, the capacitance of 170 F g-1 is still maintained at a high current density (40 A g-1); this indicates a high capacitance retention capability. Furthermore, a superb energy density (9.61 W h kg-1) is obtained with a high power density (62.4 W kg-1) using an organic electrolyte. These results fully illustrate that the prepared NGHPCF binder-free electrodes are promising candidates for high-performance supercapacitors.

  5. Cross-Sector Social Partnerships for Social Change: The Roles of Non-Governmental Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinya Yan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Complex social and environmental issues call for broader collaboration across different sectors so as to instigate transformative social change. While previous scholars have emphasized the role of non-governmental organizations (NGOs in facilitating social change, they have not provided a nuanced assessment of NGOs’ different roles. We use the Poverty and Employment Precarity in Southern Ontario (PEPSO research partnership as a study case and explore NGO partners’ different roles in a large cross-sector social partnership (CSSP. By interviewing 12 NGO partners and 4 non-NGO partners involved in the PEPSO research partnership, our research results show that NGOs primarily have 10 roles in a CSSP. They include enabling roles such as consultant, capacity builder, analyst, and funder; coordinating roles such as broker and communicator; and facilitating roles such as initiator, leader, advocate, and monitor. These roles allow NGOs to fulfil their duties to make substantial contributions to a CSSP.

  6. A Hierarchically Porous Hypercrosslinked and Novel Quinone based Stable Organic Polymer Electrode for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, Aziz; Meng, Qinghai; Melhi, Saad; Mao, Lijuan; Zhang, Miao; Han, Bao-Hang; Lu, Kun; Wei, Zhixiang

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •A novel hypercrosslinked Poly-Pillar[5]quinone (Poly-P5Q) polymer has been prepared and applied as electrode material in Li-ion batteries. •The novel synthetic route of Poly-P5Q was introduced by the oxidation of Poly-Dimethoxypillar[5]arene. •A Friedel-Crafts reaction was employed to prepare a novel Poly-P5Q as organic cathode material for lithium-ion batteries. -- Abstract: In the recent years, organic electrode materials have attracted tremendous attention and becoming promising electrode candidates for the green and sustainable lithium-ion batteries. A novel hypercrosslinked Poly-Pillar[5]quinone (Poly-P5Q) polymer was prepared and applied as electrode material in Li-ion batteries. Poly-P5Q is the oxidized form of Poly-Dimethoxypillar[5]arene (Poly-DMP5A) which was obtained from the condensation of dimethoxypillar[5]arene and formaldehyde dimethyl acetal using Friedel-Crafts reaction. The prepared materials were characterized by 13 C solid state NMR, FTIR, SEM, EDX and TGA analysis. The Poly-P5Q cathode showed an initial discharge capacity up to 105 mAh g −1 whereas it retained 82.3% of its initial discharge capacity after 100 charge-discharge cycles at a current speed of 100 mA g −1 in the potential window between 1.75 to 3.25 V. In future, research in this direction will provide great insight for the development of novel polymers from various small organic molecules as a stable and high performance electrode materials for green lithium-ion batteries.

  7. Bureaucracy friend or foe? - organizing for social capital in hospitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prætorius, Thim; Hasle, Peter; Nielsen, Anders Paarup

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: A strong criticism of bureaucracy in hospitals has emerged during the last years. It is related to standard procedures, quality control systems, patient safety and performance management. The critique claims that professional judgement is getting jeopardized, limited resources...... how people interact and managers have the ability to change it. This knowledge is important to hospitals as social capital is associated with, for instance, organizational performance and employee wellbeing. THEORY: Organizational social capital is the collective resource that enables employees...... management and hierarchy structures. (2) Collective incentive structures. (3) Develop role structures with a focus on coordination and transparency. (4) Team organization grouped by product (e.g., care pathways) and/or shared multidisciplinary tasks (the day’s surgery). (5) Collective competences, focusing...

  8. Biased trapping issue on weighted hierarchical networks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    archical networks which are based on the classic scale-free hierarchical networks. ... Weighted hierarchical networks; weight-dependent walks; mean first passage ..... The weighted networks can mimic some real-world natural and social systems to ... the Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education ...

  9. Flower-like hierarchical structures consisting of porous single-crystalline ZnO nanosheets and their gas sensing properties to volatile organic compounds (VOCs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Fanli, E-mail: flmeng@iim.ac.cn [Research Center for Biomimetic Functional Materials and Sensing Devices, Institute of Intelligent Machines, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Hou, Nannan [Research Center for Biomimetic Functional Materials and Sensing Devices, Institute of Intelligent Machines, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Department of Chemistry, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Ge, Sheng [Department of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, Anhui Polytechnic University, Wuhu 241000 (China); Sun, Bai [Research Center for Biomimetic Functional Materials and Sensing Devices, Institute of Intelligent Machines, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Jin, Zhen, E-mail: zjin@iim.ac.cn [Research Center for Biomimetic Functional Materials and Sensing Devices, Institute of Intelligent Machines, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Shen, Wei; Kong, Lingtao; Guo, Zheng [Research Center for Biomimetic Functional Materials and Sensing Devices, Institute of Intelligent Machines, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Sun, Yufeng, E-mail: sunyufeng118@126.com [Department of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, Anhui Polytechnic University, Wuhu 241000 (China); Wu, Hao; Wang, Chen [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Li, Minqiang [Research Center for Biomimetic Functional Materials and Sensing Devices, Institute of Intelligent Machines, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2015-03-25

    Highlights: • Flower-like hierarchical structures consisting of porous single-crystalline ZnO nanosheets were synthesized. • The flower-like hierarchical structured ZnO exhibited higher response and shorter response and recovery times. • The sensing mechanism of the flower-like hierarchical has been systematically analyzed. - Abstract: Flower-like hierarchical structures consisting of porous single-crystalline ZnO nanosheets (FHPSCZNs) were synthesized by a one-pot wet-chemical method followed by an annealing treatment, which combined the advantages between flower-like hierarchical structure and porous single-crystalline structure. XRD, SEM and HRTEM were used to characterize the synthesized FHPSCZN samples. The sensing properties of the FHPSCZN sensor were also investigated by comparing with ZnO powder sensor, which exhibited higher response and shorter response and recovery times. The sensing mechanism of the FHPSCZN sensor has been further analyzed from the aspects of electronic transport and gas diffusion.

  10. Flower-like hierarchical structures consisting of porous single-crystalline ZnO nanosheets and their gas sensing properties to volatile organic compounds (VOCs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, Fanli; Hou, Nannan; Ge, Sheng; Sun, Bai; Jin, Zhen; Shen, Wei; Kong, Lingtao; Guo, Zheng; Sun, Yufeng; Wu, Hao; Wang, Chen; Li, Minqiang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Flower-like hierarchical structures consisting of porous single-crystalline ZnO nanosheets were synthesized. • The flower-like hierarchical structured ZnO exhibited higher response and shorter response and recovery times. • The sensing mechanism of the flower-like hierarchical has been systematically analyzed. - Abstract: Flower-like hierarchical structures consisting of porous single-crystalline ZnO nanosheets (FHPSCZNs) were synthesized by a one-pot wet-chemical method followed by an annealing treatment, which combined the advantages between flower-like hierarchical structure and porous single-crystalline structure. XRD, SEM and HRTEM were used to characterize the synthesized FHPSCZN samples. The sensing properties of the FHPSCZN sensor were also investigated by comparing with ZnO powder sensor, which exhibited higher response and shorter response and recovery times. The sensing mechanism of the FHPSCZN sensor has been further analyzed from the aspects of electronic transport and gas diffusion

  11. History of Family Psychiatry: From the Social Reform Era to the Primate Social Organ System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Douglas A

    2015-07-01

    From early twentieth century social reform movements emerged the ingredients for both child and family psychiatry. Both psychiatries that involve children, parents, and families began in child guidance clinics. Post-World War II intellectual creativity provided the epistemological framework for treating families. Eleven founders (1950-1969) led the development of family psychiatry. Child and family psychiatrists disagreed over the issues of individual and family group dynamics. Over the past 25 years the emerging sciences of interaction, in the context of the Primate Social Organ System (PSOS), have produced the evidence for the family being the entity of treatment in psychiatry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. ZnO nanowires coated stainless steel meshes as hierarchical photocatalysts for catalytic photodegradation of four kinds of organic pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Fu-Hsiang; Lo, Wei-Ju [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, 30010, Taiwan (China); Chang, Yu-Cheng, E-mail: ychang0127@gmail.com [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Feng Chia University, Taichung, 40724, Taiwan (China); Guo, Jin-You; Chen, Chien-Ming [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Feng Chia University, Taichung, 40724, Taiwan (China)

    2016-09-05

    ZnO nanostructures were grown on the stainless steel mesh substrates using an aqueous chemical growth method. The different additives (such as 1,3-diaminopropane and polyethyleneimine) can be used to control the morphology of ZnO nanostructures. ZnO nanowires exhibit very prominent green emission and week UV emission from defect and band gap in the cathodoluminescence spectrum, respectively. The different morphology of ZnO nanostructures on the stainless steel mesh substrates can be used to irradiate UV light for the photocatalytic degradation of four kinds of organic pollutants, such as methylene blue, rhodamine 6G, methyl orange, and 4-nitrophenol. The ZnO nanowires can provide a higher surface-to-volume ratio and stronger defect emission, resulting in their highest photocatalytic performance in 10 W UV light irradiation. The ZnO nanowire arrays on the stainless steel mesh substrates provide a large-scale, facile, low-cost, high surface area, and high photocatalytic efficiency, which shall be of significant value for practical applications of the decomposition of environment pollutants and reusing of wastewater treatment. - Highlights: • ZnO NWs were grown on the stainless steel mesh by aqueous chemical growth method. • Longer ZnO NW arrays have been grown at short reaction time (2 h). • ZnO NWs revealed green emission from surface defect in the CL spectrum. • The different morphologies of ZnO were evaluated organic pollutant degradation. • ZnO NWs were also exhibited great photocatalytic activity and reusability.

  13. Hierarchical architecture of active knits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abel, Julianna; Luntz, Jonathan; Brei, Diann

    2013-01-01

    Nature eloquently utilizes hierarchical structures to form the world around us. Applying the hierarchical architecture paradigm to smart materials can provide a basis for a new genre of actuators which produce complex actuation motions. One promising example of cellular architecture—active knits—provides complex three-dimensional distributed actuation motions with expanded operational performance through a hierarchically organized structure. The hierarchical structure arranges a single fiber of active material, such as shape memory alloys (SMAs), into a cellular network of interlacing adjacent loops according to a knitting grid. This paper defines a four-level hierarchical classification of knit structures: the basic knit loop, knit patterns, grid patterns, and restructured grids. Each level of the hierarchy provides increased architectural complexity, resulting in expanded kinematic actuation motions of active knits. The range of kinematic actuation motions are displayed through experimental examples of different SMA active knits. The results from this paper illustrate and classify the ways in which each level of the hierarchical knit architecture leverages the performance of the base smart material to generate unique actuation motions, providing necessary insight to best exploit this new actuation paradigm. (paper)

  14. The influence of gender, age, matriline and hierarchical rank on individual social position, role and interactional patterns in Macaca sylvanus at ‘La Forêt des singes’: A multilevel social network approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian OROZCO SOSA

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A society is a complex system composed of individuals that can be characterized by their own attributes that influence their behaviors. In this study, a specific analytical protocol based on social network analysis was adopted to investigate the influence of four attributes (gender, age, matriline, and hierarchical rank on affiliative (allogrooming and agonistic networks in a non-human primate species, Macaca sylvanus, at the park La Forêt des Singes in France. The results show significant differences with respect to the position (i.e. centric, peripheral and role (i.e. implication in the network cohesiveness of an individual within a social network and hence interactional patterns. Females are more central, more active, and have a denser ego network in the affiliative social network tan males; thus, they contribute in a greater way to the cohesive structure of the network. High-ranking individuals are likely to receive fewer agonistic behaviors than low-ranking individuals, and high-ranking females receive more allogrooming. I also observe homophily for affiliative interactions regarding all attributes and homophily for agonistic interactions regarding gender and age. Revealing the positions, the roles, and the interactional behavioral patterns of individuals can help understand the mechanisms that shape the overall structure of a social network.

  15. The Influence of Gender, Age, Matriline and Hierarchical Rank on Individual Social Position, Role and Interactional Patterns in Macaca sylvanus at 'La Forêt des Singes': A Multilevel Social Network Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    A society is a complex system composed of individuals that can be characterized by their own attributes that influence their behaviors. In this study, a specific analytical protocol based on social network analysis was adopted to investigate the influence of four attributes (gender, age, matriline, and hierarchical rank) on affiliative (allogrooming) and agonistic networks in a non-human primate species, Macaca sylvanus, at the park La Forêt des Singes in France. The results show significant differences with respect to the position (i.e., centric, peripheral) and role (i.e., implication in the network cohesiveness) of an individual within a social network and hence interactional patterns. Females are more central, more active, and have a denser ego network in the affiliative social network tan males; thus, they contribute in a greater way to the cohesive structure of the network. High-ranking individuals are likely to receive fewer agonistic behaviors than low-ranking individuals, and high-ranking females receive more allogrooming. I also observe homophily for affiliative interactions regarding all attributes and homophily for agonistic interactions regarding gender and age. Revealing the positions, the roles, and the interactional behavioral patterns of individuals can help understand the mechanisms that shape the overall structure of a social network.

  16. Social organization and social ties: their effects on sexual harassment victimization in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Jamie A; Scherer, Heidi L; Fisher, Bonnie S

    2012-01-01

    Despite work organizations' attempts to reduce sexual harassment, it continues to be a salient issue for employers across all occupations. Extending social disorganization theory to the work environment, this study examines the relationship between workplace organization, social ties, and sexual harassment victimization. Survey responses to the 2002 and 2006 Quality of Working Life module from the General Social Survey by a sample of 3,530 adult men and women employees in the United States were used. Logistic regression models were estimated for men and women separately to estimate the effect of workplace characteristics on the risk of sexual harassment victimization. Employees who reported poor workplace relations between management and employees and lower coworker social ties were more likely to experience sexual harassment in their work environments. Specific workplace characteristics such as low productivity, poor time management, and inadequate administrative support were significantly related to increased sexual harassment risk. No significant gender differences were found across models suggesting that the predictors of sexual harassment are similar for men and women. This study demonstrates that workplace characteristics are related to sexual harassment risk in the workplace. Suggestions for sexual harassment prevention, including management and organizational strategies, are discussed.

  17. Internal Communication and Social Dialogue in Knowledge-Based Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana-Maria CISMARU

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge-based organizations are constructed on intangible assets, such as the expertise and the values of the employees. As a consequence, motivation and professional excellence of employees are the main objectives of management teams. For this type of organizations, considered as true “knowledge systems”, the employees represent the most valuable resource that is not motivated only through financial means, but also through internal communication, autonomy or social rewards. The research of Eurofound shows that knowledge-based organizations have a low number of trade unions, while professional associations are more relevant for them. There is no tradition to defend through negotiation the working conditions of employees, thus it is important for managers to use the best practices, in order to increase the employees’ loyalty. We conducted a qualitative research concerning the quality of professional life of employees in five sectors of knowledge-based services: advertising-marketing, IT, banking and finance, research and development, and higher education; 15-20 employees from each sector were interviewed. Some of the questions referred directly to trade unions and affiliation, and also to internal communication. Although the results showed a different situation in each of the five sectors, there are few common characteristics: descendant communication is more frequent than ascendant communication, trade unions were reported as missing, unrepresentative or not very active, and the greatest part of employees in this sector are not affiliated, facts that limits the possibility of maintaining employees’ motivation on long term.

  18. Social and cultural aspects of organ donation in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, K T

    1992-05-01

    In Asian countries, it is more difficult to obtain cadaver kidneys for renal transplantation because of certain socio-cultural beliefs and customs. The issues affecting living related kidney donation are more social than cultural. This is due to the web of family pressures and personal conflicts for both donor and recipient surrounding the donation. Important misconceptions and fears are: fear of death, the belief that removal of organ violates sanctity of decreased, concern about being cut up after death, desire to be buried whole, dislike of idea of kidneys inside another person, wrong concept of brain death, and the idea of donation being against religious conviction. In Singapore, with the introduction of the Human Organ Transplant Act (HOTA) in 1988, the number of cadaveric transplants have increased, including those from the Medical Therapy Act (MTA). HOTA and education have played pivotal roles in bringing about an increased yield of cadaveric kidneys. With the availability of living unrelated donor (LUD) transplants in India, our living related donor (LRD) transplant programme has suffered, because patients would rather buy a kidney from overseas than get a relative to donate one. Patients are also going to China for overseas cadaveric transplants where the kidneys come from executed convicts. People in countries like Hong Kong, Japan and the Philippines share the same Asian tradition of not parting with their organs after death. Muslim countries like Malaysia require the deceased to have earlier pledged his kidneys for donation prior to death before they can be harvested for transplantation at death.

  19. Three-dimensional structure of human lamellar bone: the presence of two different materials and new insights into the hierarchical organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reznikov, Natalie; Shahar, Ron; Weiner, Steve

    2014-02-01

    Lamellar bone is the most common bone type in humans. The predominant components of individual lamellae are plywood-like arrays of mineralized collagen fibrils aligned in different directions. Using a dual-beam electron microscope and the Serial Surface View (SSV) method we previously identified a small, but significantly different layer in rat lamellar bone, namely a disordered layer with collagen fibrils showing little or no preferred orientation. Here we present a 3D structural analysis of 12 SSV volumes (25 complete lamellae) from femora of 3 differently aged human individuals. We identify the ordered and disordered motifs in human bone as in the rat, with several significant differences. The ordered motif shows two major preferred orientations, perpendicular to the long axis of the bone, and aligned within 10-20° of the long axis, as well as fanning arrays. At a higher organizational level, arrays of ordered collagen fibrils are organized into 'rods' around 2 to 3μm in diameter, and the long axes of these 'rods' are parallel to the lamellar boundaries. Human bone also contains a disordered component that envelopes the rods and fills in the spaces between them. The disordered motif is especially well-defined between adjacent layers of rods. The disordered motif and its interfibrillar substance stain heavily with osmium tetroxide and Alcian blue indicating the presence of another organic component in addition to collagen. The canalicular network is confined to the disordered material, along with voids and individual collagen fibrils, some of which are also aligned more or less perpendicular to the lamellar boundaries. The organization of the ordered fibril arrays into rods enveloped in the continuous disordered structure was not observed in rat lamellar bone. We thus conclude that human lamellar bone is comprised of two distinct materials, an ordered material and a disordered material, and contains an additional hierarchical level of organization composed of

  20. Social Media and Organizing – An Empirical Analysis of the Role of Wiki Affordances in Organizing Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansour, Osama; Askenäs, Linda; Ghazawneh, Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    The evolution of social media has introduced novel possibilities for work and interaction in organizations. The wiki technology is one important kind of social media technologies that is increasingly used to facilitate the creation and sharing of organizational knowledge within communities. Given...... in that they extend the notion of affordance by theorizing new concepts that describe relational dynamics, situated and contextual conditions, and social factors involved in enacting, perceiving, and exploiting affordances.......The evolution of social media has introduced novel possibilities for work and interaction in organizations. The wiki technology is one important kind of social media technologies that is increasingly used to facilitate the creation and sharing of organizational knowledge within communities. Given...... the increasing use of social media in organizations and the lack of knowledge on their consequences for organizing, we use an affordance lens to explore the enactment of organizational wiki affordances. Using qualitative data obtained through interviews, field visits, and documents from two multinational...

  1. The social media cocktail party : A qualitative study of how companies and organizations communicate online

    OpenAIRE

    Ryrhagen, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Due to the development of, and the opportunities that social media provides for different groups in society, companies and organizations are encouraged to be present on, and be a part of the new social media landscape. This research examines how five companies and five organizations use social media as a tool to create relationships with individuals, and what role social media plays in the daily communication work. The social media platforms discussed in this research companies and organizati...

  2. Use of social media and college student organizations to increase support for organ donation and advocacy: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessandro, Anthony M; Peltier, James W; Dahl, Andrew J

    2012-12-01

    This report focuses on the University of Wisconsin Hospital and Clinics organ procurement organization's efforts to increase deceased organ and tissue donation by using social media and personalized messages targeting members of university student organizations, their families, and their friends. A grant from the US Department of Health and Human Services funded a 2-year study to (1) identify barriers/opportunities for increasing awareness, attitudes, and behaviors related to organ and tissue donation; (2) implement an intervention using social media and personalized message to increase knowledge, support, and donor registrations; (3) measure impact on awareness and attitudinal and behavioral changes within the organization; and (4) assess behavioral measures across a host of social media analytics and organ donor registrations. The results show increases in knowledge about and support for organ donation, including a 20% increase in donor registration. As a result, funding was secured to continue the project for an additional 2 years.

  3. Transmutations across hierarchical levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neill, R.V.

    1977-01-01

    The development of large-scale ecological models depends implicitly on a concept known as hierarchy theory which views biological systems in a series of hierarchical levels (i.e., organism, population, trophic level, ecosystem). The theory states that an explanation of a biological phenomenon is provided when it is shown to be the consequence of the activities of the system's components, which are themselves systems in the next lower level of the hierarchy. Thus, the behavior of a population is explained by the behavior of the organisms in the population. The initial step in any modeling project is, therefore, to identify the system components and the interactions between them. A series of examples of transmutations in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems are presented to show how and why changes occur. The types of changes are summarized and possible implications of transmutation for hierarchy theory, for the modeler, and for the ecological theoretician are discussed

  4. Health organizations providing and seeking social support: a Twitter-based content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, Jian Raymond; Chen, Yixin; Damiano, Amanda

    2013-09-01

    Providing and seeking social support are important aspects of social exchange. New communication technologies, especially social network sites (SNSs), facilitate the process of support exchange. An increasing number of health organizations are using SNSs. However, how they provide and seek social support via SNSs has yet to garner academic attention. This study examined the types of social support provided and sought by health organizations on Twitter. A content analysis was conducted on 1,500 tweets sent by a random sample of 58 health organizations within 2 months. Findings indicate that providing informational and emotional support, as well as seeking instrumental support, were the main types of social support exchanged by health organizations through Twitter. This study provides a typology for studying social support exchanges by health organizations, and recommends strategies for health organizations regarding the effective use of Twitter.

  5. Social isolation, survey nonresponse, and nonresponse bias: An empirical evaluation using social network data within an organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Megumi; Olson, Kristen; Falci, Christina

    2017-03-01

    Survey researchers have long hypothesized that social isolation negatively affects the probability of survey participation and biases survey estimates. Previous research, however, has relied on proxy measures of isolation, such as being a marginalized group member within a population. We re-examine the relationship between social isolation and survey participation using direct measures of social isolation derived from social network data; specifically, instrumental research and expressive friendship connections among faculty within academic departments. Using a reconceptualization of social isolation, we find that social network isolation is negatively associated with unit response. Among women (a numerical minority group within the organization), we further find that social group isolation (i.e., lacking instrumental network connections to men, the majority group in the organization) is negatively associated with survey participation. Finally, we show that some survey estimates are systematically biased due to nonparticipation from socially isolated people. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Infants Hierarchically Organize Memory Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Rebecca D.; Feigenson, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Throughout development, working memory is subject to capacity limits that severely constrain short-term storage. However, adults can massively expand the total amount of remembered information by grouping items into "chunks". Although infants also have been shown to chunk objects in memory, little is known regarding the limits of this…

  7. Synthesis of Hierarchically Structured Hybrid Materials by Controlled Self-Assembly of Metal-Organic Framework with Mesoporous Silica for CO2 Adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chong; Li, Bingxue; Zhou, Lijin; Xia, Zefeng; Feng, Nengjie; Ding, Jing; Wang, Lei; Wan, Hui; Guan, Guofeng

    2017-07-12

    The HKUST-1@SBA-15 composites with hierarchical pore structure were constructed by in situ self-assembly of metal-organic framework (MOF) with mesoporous silica. The structure directing role of SBA-15 had an obvious impact on the growth of MOF crystals, which in turn affected the morphologies and structural properties of the composites. The pristine HKUST-1 and the composites with different content of SBA-15 were characterized by XRD, N 2 adsorption-desorption, SEM, TEM, FT-IR, TG, XPS, and CO 2 -TPD techniques. It was found that the composites were assembled by oriented growth of MOF nanocrystals on the surfaces of SBA-15 matrix. The interactions between surface silanol groups and metal centers induced structural changes and resulted in the increases in surface areas as well as micropore volumes of hybrid materials. Besides, the additional constraints from SBA-15 also restrained the expansion of HKUST-1, contributing to their smaller crystal sizes in the composites. The adsorption isotherms of CO 2 on the materials were measured and applied to calculate the isosteric heats of adsorption. The HS-1 composite exhibited an increase of 15.9% in CO 2 uptake capacity compared with that of HKUST-1. Moreover, its higher isosteric heats of CO 2 adsorption indicated the stronger interactions between the surfaces and CO 2 molecules. The adsorption rate of the composite was also improved due to the introduction of mesopores. Ten cycles of CO 2 adsorption-desorption experiments implied that the HS-1 had excellent reversibility of CO 2 adsorption. This study was intended to provide the possibility of assembling new composites with tailored properties based on MOF and mesoporous silica to satisfy the requirements of various applications.

  8. Hierarchical Self-Organization of AB n Dendron-like Molecules into a Supramolecular Lattice Sequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Xueyan [Department; Zhang, Ruimeng [Department; Li, Yiwen [College; Hong, You-lee [RIKEN CLST-JEOL; JEOL RESONANCE; Guo, Dong [Department; Lang, Kening [Department; Wu, Kuan-Yi [Department; Huang, Mingjun [Department; Mao, Jialin [Department; Wesdemiotis, Chrys [Department; Nishiyama, Yusuke [RIKEN CLST-JEOL; JEOL RESONANCE; Zhang, Wei [Department; Zhang, Wei [South; Miyoshi, Toshikazu [Department; Li, Tao [X-ray; Cheng, Stephen Z. D. [Department

    2017-08-07

    To understand the hierarchical self-organization behaviors of soft materials as well as their dependence on molecular geometry, a series of ABn dendron-type giant molecules based on polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) nanoparticles were designed and synthesized. The apex of these molecules is a hydrophilic POSS cage with fourteen hydroxyl groups (denoted DPOSS). At its periphery, there are different numbers (n = 1–8) of hydrophobic POSS cages with seven isobutyl groups (denoted BPOSS), connected to the apical DPOSS via flexible dendron type linker(s). With varying the BPOSS number from one to seven, a supramolecular lattice formation sequence ranging from lamella (DPOSS-BPOSS), double gyroid (space group of Ia3d, DPOSS-BPOSS2), hexagonal cylinder (space group of P6mm, DPOSS-BPOSS3), Frank-Kasper A15 (space group of Pm3n, DPOSS-BPOSS4, DPOSS-BPOSS5, and DPOSS-BPOSS6), to Frank-Kasper sigma (space group of P42/mnm, DPOSS-BPOSS7) phases can be observed. The nanostructure formations in this series of ABn dendron-type giant molecules are mainly directed by the macromolecular geometric shapes. Furthermore, within each spherical motif, the soft spherical core is consisted of hydrophilic DPOSS cages with flexible linkages, while the hydrophobic BPOSS cages form the relative rigid shell and contact with neighbors to provide decreased interfaces among the spherical motifs for constructing final polyhedral motifs in these Frank-Kasper lattices. This study provides the design principle of macromolecules with specific geometric shapes and functional groups to achieve anticipated structures and macroscopic properties.

  9. Metal-organic framework derived Fe/Fe3C@N-doped-carbon porous hierarchical polyhedrons as bifunctional electrocatalysts for hydrogen evolution and oxygen-reduction reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chunsen; Wu, Shikui; Shen, Xiaoping; Miao, Xuli; Ji, Zhenyuan; Yuan, Aihua; Xu, Keqiang; Liu, Miaomiao; Xie, Xulan; Kong, Lirong; Zhu, Guoxing; Ali Shah, Sayyar

    2018-08-15

    The development of simple and cost-effective synthesis methods for electrocatalysts of hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is critical to renewable energy technologies. Herein, we report an interesting bifunctional HER and ORR electrocatalyst of Fe/Fe 3 C@N-doped-carbon porous hierarchical polyhedrons (Fe/Fe 3 C@N-C) by a simple metal-organic framework precursor route. The Fe/Fe 3 C@N-C polyhedrons consisting of Fe and Fe 3 C nanocrystals enveloped by N-doped carbon shells and accompanying with some carbon nanotubes on the surface were prepared by thermal annealing of Zn 3 [Fe(CN) 6 ] 2 ·xH 2 O polyhedral particles in nitrogen atmosphere. This material exhibits a large specific surface area of 182.5 m 2  g -1 and excellent ferromagnetic property. Electrochemical tests indicate that the Fe/Fe 3 C@N-C hybrid has apparent HER activity with a relatively low overpotential of 236 mV at the current density of 10 mA cm -2 and a small Tafel slope of 59.6 mV decade -1 . Meanwhile, this material exhibits excellent catalytic activity toward ORR with an onset potential (0.936 V vs. RHE) and half-wave potential (0.804 V vs. RHE) in 0.1 M KOH, which is comparable to commercial 20 wt% Pt/C (0.975 V and 0.820 V), and shows even better stability than the Pt/C. This work provides a new insight to developing multi-functional materials for renewable energy application. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Inferior or superior : socials comparison in Dutch and Spanish organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carmona Rodriguez, Carmen

    2006-01-01

    SUMMARY Social comparison is an automatic and daily process through which individuals acquire information about themselves. Since Festinger (1954) postulated his assumptions on social comparison, extensive research has focused on understanding and explaining the social comparison process. In

  11. Hierarchical analysis of urban space

    OpenAIRE

    Kataeva, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Multi-level structure of urban space, multitude of subjects of its transformation, which follow asymmetric interests, multilevel system of institutions which regulate interaction in the "population business government -public organizations" system, determine the use of hierarchic approach to the analysis of urban space. The article observes theoretical justification of using this approach to study correlations and peculiarities of interaction in urban space as in an intricately organized syst...

  12. Social behavior of bacteria: from physics to complex organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Jacob, E.

    2008-10-01

    I describe how bacteria develop complex colonial patterns by utilizing intricate communication capabilities, such as quorum sensing, chemotactic signaling and exchange of genetic information (plasmids) Bacteria do not store genetically all the information required for generating the patterns for all possible environments. Instead, additional information is cooperatively generated as required for the colonial organization to proceed. Each bacterium is, by itself, a biotic autonomous system with its own internal cellular informatics capabilities (storage, processing and assessments of information). These afford the cell certain plasticity to select its response to biochemical messages it receives, including self-alteration and broadcasting messages to initiate alterations in other bacteria. Hence, new features can collectively emerge during self-organization from the intra-cellular level to the whole colony. Collectively bacteria store information, perform decision make decisions (e.g. to sporulate) and even learn from past experience (e.g. exposure to antibiotics)-features we begin to associate with bacterial social behavior and even rudimentary intelligence. I also take Schrdinger’s’ “feeding on negative entropy” criteria further and propose that, in addition organisms have to extract latent information embedded in the environment. By latent information we refer to the non-arbitrary spatio-temporal patterns of regularities and variations that characterize the environmental dynamics. In other words, bacteria must be able to sense the environment and perform internal information processing for thriving on latent information embedded in the complexity of their environment. I then propose that by acting together, bacteria can perform this most elementary cognitive function more efficiently as can be illustrated by their cooperative behavior.

  13. Mars attacks! About the introduction of social media in large organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Voort, H.G.; De Bruijn, J.A.; Sidorova, Y.; Arnaboldi, M.

    2014-01-01

    One major strategy to incorporate social media in the organizational structure is erecting a ‘social media hub’, a relatively independent organization within a standing organization. The standing organization with its divisions do not change, but the hub has considerable possibilities to operate

  14. Desigualdades sociais nas complicações da cesariana: uma análise hierarquizada Social inequalities in post-cesarean complication rates: a hierarchical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Fontoura Freitas

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Com objetivo de investigar associações entre fatores socioeconômicos e complicações da cesariana, uma amostra de 604 puérperas cujos partos ocorreram em duas maternidades no Sul do Brasil foi entrevistada 24 horas pós-parto e na segunda semana do puerpério, por meio de entrevistas hospitalares e domicilio. Regressão de Cox foi aplicada ao modelo hierárquico dos fatores associados ao tipo de parto e às complicações no pós-parto. Complicações foram duas vezes mais frequentes após cesariana, independentemente das condições socioeconômicas. Contudo, a maneira como o parto cesáreo se associou ao risco de complicações mostrou-se mediada pelas circunstâncias socioeconômicas representadas pela categoria do pré-natal e parto, ter ou não o mesmo profissional no pré-natal e parto e ter sua cesariana decidida intraparto. Resultados do estudo evidenciam que complicações pós-cirúrgicas da cesariana têm impacto adverso, principalmente, entre aquelas mulheres vivendo em condições sociais e de saúde menos privilegiadas, as quais, após o parto, retornam para um ambiente de menor suporte, com uma cicatriz abdominal.This study focused on the association between social factors and complications following cesarean sections. A sample of 604 women delivering in the two main maternity hospitals in a city in southern Brazil were interviewed 24 hours after delivery and two weeks postpartum, using in-hospital and home interviews. Cox regression was applied, using a hierarchical framework of factors associated with post-cesarean complications. Post-partum complications were twice as frequent after cesareans as compared to vaginal delivery, independently of socioeconomic conditions. However, the increased the risk of complications associated with cesarean section proved to be mediated by socioeconomic circumstances, as represented by prenatal and childbirth care in the public health system, not having the same physician throughout

  15. Social Media Mashups: The Ordering and Disordering Role of Social Media Technologies in Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albu, Oana Brindusa; Etter, Michael

    This study explores how mashups (disconnected and mutable interactions from multiple locales to merge into communicative events) and social media (SM) exhibit interdependent agency across technologies, spaces and times. This study draws on communication constitutes organization (CCO), affordances...... and ethnographic perspectives to investigate the hybrid use of multiple SM in two organizations. The contributions of the study are twofold: Firstly, the findings detect practices of cross-association (‘exporting’ data across platforms) and cross-integration (‘importing’ content across technologies......) that are specific to hybrid SM use. Secondly, the findings indicate how the uses across, and communication through, SM enable forms of agency that could not or would not otherwise exist. This study advances organizational research by providing analytical insights concerning how SM introduce interconnected...

  16. You Can't Help But Get Stoned: Notes on the Social Organization of Marijuana Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Don H.; Wieder, D. Lawrence

    1977-01-01

    Examines a set of features intimately involved with marihuana use, e.g., the organization of marihuana distribution at the street level and the etiquette of social expectations regulating the use of marihuana on social occasions. (Author/AM)

  17. Being female in a health care hierarchy. On the social construction of gender and leader identity in a work organization having a predominance of women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebrant, U

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to illuminate the situation of women working in hierarchical organizations--patriarchal systems where male values and characteristics are normative--especially when the majority of employees in the organization are female. Do organizations where women make up the majority of the work force offer specific opportunities for women? How does the predominance of women affect the social construction of gender and leader identity? These questions are examined from a feminist perspective. Two concepts, gender system and the logic of personal relationships, provide the point of departure. Empirical support is drawn from studies, primarily of health care institutions, one of them an ongoing study by the author. The conclusion is that the hierarchical system seems to be self-generating among both women and men. A more flexible and anti-authoritarian work organization gives greater opportunities for women to develop in their work and to accept leading positions. The benefits of certain female characteristics, summarized in the concept of responsible rationality, in organizational life are discussed.

  18. Hierarchical analysis of acceptable use policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Laughton

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Acceptable use policies (AUPs are vital tools for organizations to protect themselves and their employees from misuse of computer facilities provided. A well structured, thorough AUP is essential for any organization. It is impossible for an effective AUP to deal with every clause and remain readable. For this reason, some sections of an AUP carry more weight than others, denoting importance. The methodology used to develop the hierarchical analysis is a literature review, where various sources were consulted. This hierarchical approach to AUP analysis attempts to highlight important sections and clauses dealt with in an AUP. The emphasis of the hierarchal analysis is to prioritize the objectives of an AUP.

  19. Conceptions of authority within contemporary social work practice in managed mental health care organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bransford, Cassandra L

    2005-07-01

    This article examines how social workers may use their authority to create managed mental health care organizations that support the principles and values of professional social work practice. By exploring research and theoretical contributions from a multidisciplinary perspective, the author suggests ways that social workers may incorporate empowerment strategies into their organizational practices to create more socially responsible and humane mental health organizations. (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. N-REL: A comprehensive framework of social media marketing strategic actions for marketing organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artha Sejati Ananda

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite the increasing and ubiquitous use of social media for business activities, scholar research on social media marketing strategy is scant and companies deploy their social media marketing strategies guided by intuition or trial and error. This study proposes a comprehensive framework that identifies and classifies social media marketing strategic actions. The conceptual framework covers actions that support both transactional and relationship marketing. This research also positions social media marketing strategy and strategic actions in the context of the marketing organization theory, and discusses the impact of the incorporation of social media on the concept of marketing organization. The study offers valuable theoretical insight on social media marketing actions and the deployment of social media marketing strategies in companies. The investigation also provides hints about how to maximize the benefits from social media marketing for customer-oriented, market-driven organizations.

  1. Apoc Social: A Mobile Interactive and Social Learning Platform for Collaborative Solving of Advanced Problems in Organic Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sievertsen, Niels; Carreira, Erick M

    2018-02-01

    Mobile devices such as smartphones are carried in the pockets of university students around the globe and are increasingly cheap to come by. These portable devices have evolved into powerful and interconnected handheld computers, which, among other applications, can be used as advanced learning tools and providers of targeted, curated content. Herein, we describe Apoc Social (Advanced Problems in Organic Chemistry Social), a mobile application that assists both learning and teaching college-level organic chemistry both in the classroom and on the go. With more than 750 chemistry exercises available, Apoc Social facilitates collaborative learning through discussion boards and fosters enthusiasm for complex organic chemistry.

  2. Rethinking the Harmonious Family: Processes of social organization in a Korean Corporation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonasson, Charlotte; Lauring, Jakob

    2006-01-01

    harmony as a stabile entity in East Asian organizations is too static for analyzing the social organization. Rather, the dynamics of the continuous production and reproduction of social structures have to be taken into account in order to understand working life in Korean organizations.......  Social harmony and stability have been described as almost inborn aspects of Korean corporations dating far back in history. After the East Asian economic crisis in 1997 most Korean organizations, however faced new demands for productivity and competitiveness. The fragile balance between social...

  3. A Case Study of Knowledge Exchange in a Hierarchical Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indria Handoko

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates knowledge exchange in an organization applying hierarchical mechanisms, and the influence of social interactions on knowledge flow across different levels of analysis. The research uses a qualitative case study method of an Indonesian automotive component-making company, applying semi-structured interviews, observations, and focus groups at interorganizational, internal company, and shop floor levels. The research main finding is that in an organization applying hierarchical mechanisms, social interactions that exist at one level are able to influence interactions at other levels, and that the interactions can both facilitate and inhibit knowledge exchange across levels and boundaries. The application of any formal mechanism at interorganizational level needs to consider both the dynamics operating at social level and the potentially disparate and contradictory effects it may have if its aim is to promote knowledge flow across levels. The application of in-depth exploratory case study research contributes to the conceptualization of relationships between knowledge exchange, social interactions, and governance mechanism.

  4. Self-organization of social hierarchy on interaction networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujie, Ryo; Odagaki, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    In order to examine the effects of interaction network structures on the self-organization of social hierarchy, we introduce the agent-based model: each individual as on a node of a network has its own power and its internal state changes by fighting with its neighbors and relaxation. We adopt three different networks: regular lattice, small-world network and scale-free network. For the regular lattice, we find the emergence of classes distinguished by the internal state. The transition points where each class emerges are determined analytically, and we show that each class is characterized by the local ranking relative to their neighbors. We also find that the antiferromagnetic-like configuration emerges just above the critical point. For the heterogeneous networks, individuals become winners (or losers) in descending order of the number of their links. By using mean-field analysis, we reveal that the transition point is determined by the maximum degree and the degree distribution in its neighbors

  5. LANDMARKS IN THE EVOLUTION OF THE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY OF ORGANIZATIONS IN THE TWENTIETH CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SORIN-GEORGE TOMA

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The social responsibility of organizations concept has become the subject of considerable researches, debates and commentaries especially in the second half of the last century. According to ethical principles organizations and individuals have the obligation to act in the benefit of society at large. Consequently, the social responsibility of a business is related to its duties and obligations directed towards the social welfare. The role of corporations in society and the issue of corporate social responsibility have been increasingly debated in the last century. Based on a literature review our paper seeks to describe and summarize some of the main contributions to the development of the social responsibility of organizations. The aims of our paper are to explore the evolution of the social responsibility of organization concept in the last century and to emphasize its various approaches, mostly in the business field. This historical trace identifies both similarities and differences related to social responsibility themes.

  6. Price promotions on healthier compared with less healthy foods: a hierarchical regression analysis of the impact on sales and social patterning of responses to promotions in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Ryota; Suhrcke, Marc; Jebb, Susan A; Pechey, Rachel; Almiron-Roig, Eva; Marteau, Theresa M

    2015-04-01

    There is a growing concern, but limited evidence, that price promotions contribute to a poor diet and the social patterning of diet-related disease. We examined the following questions: 1) Are less-healthy foods more likely to be promoted than healthier foods? 2) Are consumers more responsive to promotions on less-healthy products? 3) Are there socioeconomic differences in food purchases in response to price promotions? With the use of hierarchical regression, we analyzed data on purchases of 11,323 products within 135 food and beverage categories from 26,986 households in Great Britain during 2010. Major supermarkets operated the same price promotions in all branches. The number of stores that offered price promotions on each product for each week was used to measure the frequency of price promotions. We assessed the healthiness of each product by using a nutrient profiling (NP) model. A total of 6788 products (60%) were in healthier categories and 4535 products (40%) were in less-healthy categories. There was no significant gap in the frequency of promotion by the healthiness of products neither within nor between categories. However, after we controlled for the reference price, price discount rate, and brand-specific effects, the sales uplift arising from price promotions was larger in less-healthy than in healthier categories; a 1-SD point increase in the category mean NP score, implying the category becomes less healthy, was associated with an additional 7.7-percentage point increase in sales (from 27.3% to 35.0%; P sales uplift from promotions was larger for higher-socioeconomic status (SES) groups than for lower ones (34.6% for the high-SES group, 28.1% for the middle-SES group, and 23.1% for the low-SES group). Finally, there was no significant SES gap in the absolute volume of purchases of less-healthy foods made on promotion. Attempts to limit promotions on less-healthy foods could improve the population diet but would be unlikely to reduce health

  7. Hierarchical ordering with partial pairwise hierarchical relationships on the macaque brain data sets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woosang Lim

    Full Text Available Hierarchical organizations of information processing in the brain networks have been known to exist and widely studied. To find proper hierarchical structures in the macaque brain, the traditional methods need the entire pairwise hierarchical relationships between cortical areas. In this paper, we present a new method that discovers hierarchical structures of macaque brain networks by using partial information of pairwise hierarchical relationships. Our method uses a graph-based manifold learning to exploit inherent relationship, and computes pseudo distances of hierarchical levels for every pair of cortical areas. Then, we compute hierarchy levels of all cortical areas by minimizing the sum of squared hierarchical distance errors with the hierarchical information of few cortical areas. We evaluate our method on the macaque brain data sets whose true hierarchical levels are known as the FV91 model. The experimental results show that hierarchy levels computed by our method are similar to the FV91 model, and its errors are much smaller than the errors of hierarchical clustering approaches.

  8. Processing of hierarchical syntactic structure in music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelsch, Stefan; Rohrmeier, Martin; Torrecuso, Renzo; Jentschke, Sebastian

    2013-09-17

    Hierarchical structure with nested nonlocal dependencies is a key feature of human language and can be identified theoretically in most pieces of tonal music. However, previous studies have argued against the perception of such structures in music. Here, we show processing of nonlocal dependencies in music. We presented chorales by J. S. Bach and modified versions in which the hierarchical structure was rendered irregular whereas the local structure was kept intact. Brain electric responses differed between regular and irregular hierarchical structures, in both musicians and nonmusicians. This finding indicates that, when listening to music, humans apply cognitive processes that are capable of dealing with long-distance dependencies resulting from hierarchically organized syntactic structures. Our results reveal that a brain mechanism fundamental for syntactic processing is engaged during the perception of music, indicating that processing of hierarchical structure with nested nonlocal dependencies is not just a key component of human language, but a multidomain capacity of human cognition.

  9. #RecruitmentSocialMedia : How Swedish organizations can utilize the beneficial outcomes of using social media in the recruitment process

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Eddie; Kjellberg, Annie

    2017-01-01

    Due to changes in the labour market, organizations need to adjust and change their attitude towards the recruitment process. The traditional way of recruiting will eventually disappear and the use of social media will play an important part in recruiting. The recruitment process is a set of actions created by the organization and consists of: Recruitment Objectives, Strategy Development, Recruitment Activities, Intervening Job Applicant Variables and Recruitment Results. The use of social med...

  10. Social Health Maintenance Organizations: assessing their initial experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomer, R; Harrington, C; Friedlob, A

    1990-08-01

    The Social/Health Maintenance Organization (S/HMO) is a four-site national demonstration. This program combines Medicare Part A and B coverage, with various extended and chronic care benefits, into an integrated health plan. The provision of these services extends both the traditional roles of HMOs and that of long-term care community-service case management systems. During the initial 30 months of operation the four S/HMOs shared financial risk with the Health Care Financing Administration. This article reports on this developmental period. During this phase the S/HMOs had lower-than-expected enrollment levels due in part to market competition, underfunding of marketing efforts, the limited geographic area served, and an inability to differentiate the S/HMO product from that of other Medicare HMOs. The S/HMOs were allowed to conduct health screening of applicants prior to enrolling them. The number of nursing home-certifiable enrollees was controlled through this mechanism, but waiting lists were never very long. Persons joining S/HMOs and other Medicare HMOs during this period were generally aware of the alternatives available. S/HMO enrollees favored the more extensive benefits; HMO enrollees considerations of cost. The S/HMOs compare both newly formed HMOs and established HMOs. On the basis of administrator cost, it is more efficient to add chronic care benefits to an HMO than to add an HMO component to a community care provider. All plans had expenses greater than their revenues during the start-up period, but they were generally able to keep service expenditures within planned levels.

  11. Cultural carrying capacity: Organ donation advocacy, discursive framing, and social media engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bail, Christopher A

    2016-09-01

    Social media sites such as Facebook have become a powerful tool for public health outreach because they enable advocacy organizations to influence the rapidly increasing number of people who frequent these forums. Yet the very open-ness of social media sites creates fierce competition for public attention. The vast majority of social media messages provoke little or no reaction because of the sheer volume of information that confronts the typical social media user each day. In this article, I present a theory of the "cultural carrying capacity" of social media messaging campaigns. I argue that advocacy organizations inspire more endorsements, comments, and shares by social media users if they diversify the discursive content of their messages. Yet too much diversification creates large, disconnected audiences that lack the sense of shared purpose necessary to sustain an online movement. To evaluate this theory, I created a Facebook application that collects social media posts produced by forty-two organ donation advocacy organizations over 1.5 years, as well as supplemental information about the organization, its audience, and the broader social context in which they interact. Time series models provide strong evidence for my theory net of demographic characteristics of social media users, the resources and tactics of each organization, and broader external factors. I conclude by discussing the implications of these findings for public health, cultural sociology, and the nascent field of computational social science. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Practicing Professional Values: Factors Influencing Involvement in Social Work Student Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martindale, Dorothy; Olate, René; Anderson, Keith A.

    2017-01-01

    One of the most promising avenues for the development of professional values is involvement in professional student organizations. A convenience sample of baccalaureate social work students (n = 482) was drawn from 15 institutions. Regression analyses revealed several predictors of involvement in social work student organizations, including…

  13. Using social science to understand and improve wildland fire organizations: an annotated reading list

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory Larson; Vita Wright; Cade Spaulding; Kelly Rossetto; Georgi Rausch; Andrea Richards; Stephanie Durnford

    2007-01-01

    The wildland fire community has spent the past decade trying to understand and account for the role of human factors in wildland fire organizations. Social research that is relevant to managing fire organizations can be found in disciplines such as social psychology, management, and communication. However, such research has been published primarily for scientific and...

  14. Expatriate support and success : A systematic review of organization-based sources of social support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Laken, P.A.; van Engen, M.L.; van Veldhoven, M.J.P.M.; Paauwe, J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to review empirical research on the relationship between organization-based social support and the success of international assignments (IAs). Design/methodology/approach Four search engines were used to obtain empirical studies relating organization-based social

  15. Looking at the Others : Studies on (un)ethical behavior and social relationships in organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.B. Zuber (Franziska)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractThis dissertation asks how social relationships matter for a person’s ethical or unethical behavior in an organization. Two observations motivate this question. First, in organizations, the network of formally prescribed and informally emerging social relationships with others

  16. How to Maintain Creativity in Social Studies: Challenges for the Professional Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Carole L.

    Social studies educators must marshal all creative resources to meet the global, national, and personal challenges that face them as members of the major social studies professional organization, the National Council for the Social Studies (NCSS). Based on a continuation of current policies and lifestyles, dramatic global changes such as…

  17. Innovative Approach to the Organization of Future Social Workers' Practical Training: Foreign Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polishchuk, Vira; Slozanska, Hanna

    2014-01-01

    Innovative approaches to practical training of future social workers in higher educational establishments have been defined. Peculiarities of foreign experience of social workers' practical training in higher educational establishments have been analyzed. Experience of organizing practice for bachelor students studying at "Social Work"…

  18. The Design Dimensions of the Just Organization: An Empirical Test of the Relation Between Organization Design and Corporate Social Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Gerde, Virginia Woods

    1998-01-01

    Although organization design to bring about corporate social performance (CSP) is a critical issue in the business and society field, little research has been conducted. This study is an empirical test of the general model of the just organization presented by Stephens and colleagues (1991; Stephens, et al., 1997). The theoretical development describes organizational design principles from John Rawls' (1971) Theory of Justice, chosen for its emphasis on economic organizations and structure, i...

  19. Insights from event-related potentials into the temporal and hierarchical organization of the ventral and dorsal streams of the visual system in selective attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Loeches, M; Hinojosa, J A; Rubia, F J

    1999-11-01

    The temporal and hierarchical relationships between the dorsal and the ventral streams in selective attention are known only in relation to the use of spatial location as the attentional cue mediated by the dorsal stream. To improve this state of affairs, event-related brain potentials were recorded while subjects attended simultaneously to motion direction (mediated by the dorsal stream) and to a property mediated by the ventral stream (color or shape). At about the same time, a selection positivity (SP) started for attention mediated by both streams. However, the SP for color and shape peaked about 60 ms later than motion SP. Subsequently, a selection negativity (SN) followed by a late positive component (LPC) were found simultaneously for attention mediated by both streams. A hierarchical relationship between the two streams was not observed, but neither SN nor LPC for one property was completely insensitive to the values of the other property.

  20. Implications of Graphic Organizers in an Age of Social Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Record, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The term graphic organizer has become so commonplace in teaching that the meaning of the term, as well as the rationale for why the strategy works, has become lost. Revisiting the general concept of an advance organizer is an opportunity to consider the essential teaching act. There is a difference between "using a graphic organizer" in…

  1. A Social Information Processing Model of Media Use in Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulk, Janet; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Presents a model to examine how social influence processes affect individuals' attitudes toward communication media and media use behavior, integrating two research areas: media use patterns as the outcome of objectively rational choices and social information processing theory. Asserts (in a synthesis) that media characteristics and attitudes are…

  2. Research on Corporate Social Responsibility of Supply Chain System Based on the Self-organization Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Baoying Wang

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the characteristics of supply chain system are analyzed based on the Self-organization theory from the angle of view of supply chain system. The mathematical models when the system fulfilling social responsibility including self-organization evolution model and self-organization function model are developed to discuss the formation and function of self-organization in supply chain system and coordination. Some basic conditions and tactics about self-organization establishment a...

  3. Weather regimes over Senegal during the summer monsoon season using self-organizing maps and hierarchical ascendant classification. Part II: interannual time scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gueye, A.K. [ESP, UCAD, Dakar (Senegal); Janicot, Serge; Sultan, Benjamin [LOCEAN/IPSL, IRD, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris cedex 05 (France); Niang, A. [LTI, ESP/UCAD, Dakar (Senegal); Sawadogo, S. [LTI, EPT, Thies (Senegal); Diongue-Niang, A. [ANACIM, Dakar (Senegal); Thiria, S. [LOCEAN/IPSL, UPMC, Paris (France)

    2012-11-15

    The aim of this work is to define over the period 1979-2002 the main synoptic weather regimes relevant for understanding the daily variability of rainfall during the summer monsoon season over Senegal. ''Interannual'' synoptic weather regimes are defined by removing the influence of the mean 1979-2002 seasonal cycle. This is different from Part I where the seasonal evolution of each year was removed, then removing also the contribution of interannual variability. As in Part I, the self-organizing maps approach, a clustering methodology based on non-linear artificial neural network, is combined with a hierarchical ascendant classification to compute these regimes. Nine weather regimes are identified using the mean sea level pressure and 850 hPa wind field as variables. The composite circulation patterns of all these nine weather regimes are very consistent with the associated anomaly patterns of precipitable water, mid-troposphere vertical velocity and rainfall. They are also consistent with the distribution of rainfall extremes. These regimes have been then gathered into different groups. A first group of four regimes is included in an inner circuit and is characterized by a modulation of the semi-permanent trough located along the western coast of West Africa and an opposite modulation on the east. This circuit is important because it associates the two wettest and highly persistent weather regimes over Senegal with the driest and the most persistent one. One derivation of this circuit is highlighted, including the two driest regimes and the most persistent one, what can provide important dry sequences occurrence. An exit of this circuit is characterised by a filling of the Saharan heat low. An entry into the main circuit includes a southward location of the Saharan heat low followed by its deepening. The last weather regime is isolated from the other ones and it has no significant impact on Senegal. It is present in June and September, and

  4. [Organization of socially acceptable working hours in nursing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büssing, A; Glaser, J

    1994-05-01

    Three dimensions in the structure of the working hour system of nurses, rendering them socially acceptable, are becoming important: duration of the working day, the time of day which is being worked and the distribution of working hours. The latter two are of particular importance because flexible shift is becoming the dominant pattern in nursing. Six indicators are discussed as criteria for social acceptability: security of employment which includes access to the labour-market, level of income, health, opportunity for social relationships, social participation, and autonomy. Responses of 297 nurses in one General Hospital taking part in a study, were analysed to examine empirically the concept of 'socially acceptable structure of the working hours'. Ideal and factual patterns are considered first. Secondly aspects of autonomy are considered and the way this depends on time, thirdly the criteria used to define 'social acceptability' are examined for validity. Results show firstly the cross contrast between the hospital's expectation and the nurses' wishes with regard to working hours. Furthermore, inspite of the demand for flexibility, staff have very little choice and there is little sign of joint decision making. Thirdly results show that health, interpersonal and social aspects are of special importance and that, correspondingly, in the view of nurses, financial and practical problems are of lesser importance in their every day life.

  5. Schizotypy as An Organizing Framework for Social and Affective Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Alex S.; Mohr, Christine; Ettinger, Ulrich; Chan, Raymond C. K.; Park, Sohee

    2015-01-01

    Schizotypy, defined in terms of commonly occurring personality traits related to the schizophrenia spectrum, has been an important construct for understanding the neurodevelopment and stress-diathesis of schizophrenia. However, as schizotypy nears its sixth decade of application, it is important to acknowledge its impressively rich literature accumulating outside of schizophrenia research. In this article, we make the case that schizotypy has considerable potential as a conceptual framework for understanding individual differences in affective and social functions beyond those directly involved in schizophrenia spectrum pathology. This case is predicated on (a) a burgeoning literature noting anomalies in a wide range of social functioning, affiliative, positive and negative emotional, expressive, and social cognitive systems, (b) practical and methodological features associated with schizotypy research that help facilitate empirical investigation, and (c) close ties to theoretical constructs of central importance to affective and social science (eg, stress diathesis, neural compensation). We highlight recent schizotypy research, ie providing insight into the nature of affective and social systems more generally. This includes current efforts to clarify the neurodevelopmental, neurobiological, and psychological underpinnings of affiliative drives, hedonic capacity, social cognition, and stress responsivity systems. Additionally, we discuss neural compensatory and resilience factors that may mitigate the expression of stress-diathesis and functional outcome, and highlight schizotypy’s potential role for understanding cultural determinants of social and affective functions. PMID:25810057

  6. The role of gender in social network organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Psylla, Ioanna; Sapiezynski, Piotr; Mones, Enys

    2017-01-01

    interactions among them expressed via person-to-person contacts, interactions on online social networks, and telecommunication. Thus, we are able to study the differences between male and female behavior captured through a multitude of channels for a single cohort. We find that while the two genders...... are similar in a number of aspects, there are robust deviations that include multiple facets of social interactions, suggesting the existence of inherent behavioral differences. Finally, we quantify how aspects of an individual's characteristics and social behavior reveals their gender by posing...

  7. Motivation and Knowledge Sharing through Social Media within Danish Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Pia; Razmerita, Liana

    2014-01-01

    Based on an empirical quantitative study, this article investigates employee motivation in Danish companies and aims at determining which factors affect employees’ knowledge sharing through social media in a working environment. Our findings pinpoint towards the potential social media have......, but it is the influence from the combination of individual and organizational factors, which affect the adoption of the platforms. A key finding in the study is that knowledge sharing is not a ‘social dilemma’ as previous studies have found. The study shows a positive development in employees’ willingness to share...

  8. Social media and the networked organization, Twitter and intra-police communications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Albert; Torenvlied, René; Fictorie, Danielle

    2013-01-01

    Do social media in the transform government organizations into post-bureaucratic organizations? Key features of post-bureaucratic organizations (1) horizontal coordination (with a focus on informal interaction patterns) and (2) fluid and permeable borders with its environment. To explore whether the

  9. Intra-specific variation in social organization of gorillas: implications for their social evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagiwa, Juichi; Kahekwa, John; Basabose, Augustin Kanyunyi

    2003-10-01

    We analysed intra-specific variation in the social organization of gorillas and ecological and social factors influencing them, based on recent data on diet, day journey length, home range size, group size and proportion of multi-male groups in three subspecies [western lowland gorillas (WLG); eastern lowland gorillas (ELG); mountain gorillas (MG)]. Median group size was similar across subspecies and across habitats, but the extraordinarily large group including >30 gorillas was only found in habitat with dense terrestrial herbaceous vegetation. Within-group competition may determine the upper limit of group size in frugivorous WLGs and ELGs in lowland habitats with scarce undergrowth. A frugivorous diet may be a causal factor of subgrouping in multi-male groups of WLGs and ELGs, while a folivorous diet may prevent subgrouping in multi-male groups of MGs. Social factors, rather than ecological factors, may play an important role in the formation of multi-male groups and their cohesiveness in MGs. High gregariousness of female gorillas and their prolonged association with a protector male are explained by their vulnerability to both infanticide (MGs) and predators (ELGs). Comparison of long-term changes in group composition and individual movements between ELGs in Kahuzi and MGs in the Virungas suggest that the occurrence of infanticide may promote kin-male association within a group. Threat of infanticide may stimulate MG females to transfer into multi-male groups to seek reliable protection and maturing MG males to stay in their natal groups after maturity. By contrast, the absence of infanticide may facilitate ELG females to associate with infants and other females at transfer and ELG males to establish large groups in a short period by taking females from their natal groups, by luring females from neighbouring groups, or by takeover of a widow group after the death of its leading male. These conditions may prevent ELG and WLG maturing males from remaining to

  10. Social and cultural issues in organ transplantation in Islamic countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaheen, Faissal A M; Al-Jondeby, Mohammad; Kurpad, Ramprasad; Al-Khader, Abdullah A

    2004-01-01

    The importance of religion In Islamic countries is undoubted. Fatwas (opinion from religious scholars) have been passed in most Islamic countries approving the concepts of brain death and organ transplantation. There are some specific points that have be considered while talking of organ transplantation in Islamic countries. They include public attitude, taking organ(s) from donors who have committed suicide, the influence of local Imams as well as feeding breast milk, concept of spousal donation, timing of death as well as soul departure and extended families that exist in these countries. Sound knowledge of these factors is mandatory to any transplant coordinator and lack of sensitivity to these issues could be disastrous.

  11. Effect of Leadership Styles, Social Capital, and Social Entrepreneurship on Organizational Effectiveness of Social Welfare Organization in Malaysia: Data Screening and Preliminary Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Won, Ng Chun; Wan, Chong Yen; Sharif, Mohmad Yazam

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the process of screening, editing and preparation of initial data before any further multivariate analysis of the study concerning effect of leadership styles, social capital and social entrepreneurship on organizational effectiveness of social welfare organization in Malaysia. It is vital to conduct data screening to identify any potential violation of the basic assumptions related to the application of multivariate techniques. Moreover, initial data e...

  12. A widening gap? The political and social organization of childcare in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faur, Eleonor

    2011-01-01

    This article examines how social policies and programmes implemented in Argentina shape the political and social organization of childcare. The author seeks to analyse how welfare institutions are currently responding to emerging needs, and to what extent they facilitate the defamilialization of childcare for different social classes. Because Argentina lacks a truly unified ‘care policy’, four different kinds of facilities and programmes are examined: employment-based childcare services; pre-school schemes; social assistance care services; and poverty reduction strategies. It is argued that far from offering equal rights and services with a universalist cast, these ‘caring’ institutions reflect the ethos of the current welfare model in Argentina: a fragmented set of social policies based on different assumptions for different social groups, which in turn filter down to the social organization of childcare.

  13. Automatic Hierarchical Color Image Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Huang

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Organizing images into semantic categories can be extremely useful for content-based image retrieval and image annotation. Grouping images into semantic classes is a difficult problem, however. Image classification attempts to solve this hard problem by using low-level image features. In this paper, we propose a method for hierarchical classification of images via supervised learning. This scheme relies on using a good low-level feature and subsequently performing feature-space reconfiguration using singular value decomposition to reduce noise and dimensionality. We use the training data to obtain a hierarchical classification tree that can be used to categorize new images. Our experimental results suggest that this scheme not only performs better than standard nearest-neighbor techniques, but also has both storage and computational advantages.

  14. Identifying Opinion Leaders to Promote Organ Donation on Social Media: Network Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Charles T

    2018-01-01

    Background In the recent years, social networking sites (SNSs, also called social media) have been adopted in organ donation campaigns, and recruiting opinion leaders for such campaigns has been found effective in promoting behavioral changes. Objective The aim of this paper was to focus on the dissemination of organ donation tweets on Weibo, the Chinese equivalent of Twitter, and to examine the opinion leadership in the retweet network of popular organ donation messages using social network analysis. It also aimed to investigate how personal and social attributes contribute to a user’s opinion leadership on the topic of organ donation. Methods All messages about organ donation posted on Weibo from January 1, 2015 to December 31, 2015 were extracted using Python Web crawler. A retweet network with 505,047 nodes and 545,312 edges of the popular messages (n=206) was constructed and analyzed. The local and global opinion leaderships were measured using network metrics, and the roles of personal attributes, professional knowledge, and social positions in obtaining the opinion leadership were examined using general linear model. Results The findings revealed that personal attributes, professional knowledge, and social positions predicted individual’s local opinion leadership in the retweet network of popular organ donation messages. Alternatively, personal attributes and social positions, but not professional knowledge, were significantly associated with global opinion leadership. Conclusions The findings of this study indicate that health campaign designers may recruit peer leaders in SNS organ donation promotions to facilitate information sharing among the target audience. Users who are unverified, active, well connected, and experienced with information and communications technology (ICT) will accelerate the sharing of organ donation messages in the global environment. Medical professionals such as organ transplant surgeons who can wield a great amount of

  15. Identifying Opinion Leaders to Promote Organ Donation on Social Media: Network Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jingyuan; Salmon, Charles T

    2018-01-09

    In the recent years, social networking sites (SNSs, also called social media) have been adopted in organ donation campaigns, and recruiting opinion leaders for such campaigns has been found effective in promoting behavioral changes. The aim of this paper was to focus on the dissemination of organ donation tweets on Weibo, the Chinese equivalent of Twitter, and to examine the opinion leadership in the retweet network of popular organ donation messages using social network analysis. It also aimed to investigate how personal and social attributes contribute to a user's opinion leadership on the topic of organ donation. All messages about organ donation posted on Weibo from January 1, 2015 to December 31, 2015 were extracted using Python Web crawler. A retweet network with 505,047 nodes and 545,312 edges of the popular messages (n=206) was constructed and analyzed. The local and global opinion leaderships were measured using network metrics, and the roles of personal attributes, professional knowledge, and social positions in obtaining the opinion leadership were examined using general linear model. The findings revealed that personal attributes, professional knowledge, and social positions predicted individual's local opinion leadership in the retweet network of popular organ donation messages. Alternatively, personal attributes and social positions, but not professional knowledge, were significantly associated with global opinion leadership. The findings of this study indicate that health campaign designers may recruit peer leaders in SNS organ donation promotions to facilitate information sharing among the target audience. Users who are unverified, active, well connected, and experienced with information and communications technology (ICT) will accelerate the sharing of organ donation messages in the global environment. Medical professionals such as organ transplant surgeons who can wield a great amount of influence on their direct connections could also effectively

  16. The impact of social, cognitive and attitudinal dimensions on college students' support for organ donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessandro, A M; Peltier, J W; Dahl, A J

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates how college students can be social support catalysts for organ donation and how social, cognitive and attitudinal dimensions impact organ donor registration. A total of 317 people participated in the exploratory portion of the project and a total of 1800 responses were obtained from an online survey to members of a national student organization. The findings show that perceptions of the benefits of organ donation and altruistic motives had the greatest impact on the support for organ donation while respondents' knowledge about how to register to be an organ donor was the dominant dimension for donor registration status. Social-based communications had the next greatest impact for both support and donor registration. Based on the findings, an 18-month social media campaign was launched with the student organization that had 20 421 website visitors, 4473 Facebook members, 1189 YouTube video submissions with 164 000 views, motivated 19 623 people to go to a state's organ donor registration page, and had 9000 documented organ donor registrations. Within the student organization, organ donor registration increased by 28%. On the basis of these project results, Donate Life America and other sponsors have provided funding for two additional years. ©Copyright 2011 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  17. An updated assessment of social media usage by dermatology journals and organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Ravi R; Hill, Mary K; Smith, Mallory K; Seeker, Paige; Dellavalle, Robert P

    2018-02-15

    Despite the increasing prevalence of social media usage, the activity of dermatology journals and professional and patient-centered organizations on top social media platforms has not been investigated since 2012. We investigated a total of 124 dermatology journals, 242 professional organizations, and 78 patient-centered organizations to assess their presence and popularity on social media. Searches were conducted to identify journals and organizations on Facebook and Twitter. Similar searches were done for organizations on LinkedIn. The number of Facebook likes, Twitter followers, and LinkedIn followers of the dermatological entities were quantified. There were 22 (17.7%) dermatology journals active on Facebook and 21 (16.9%) on Twitter. Amongst the professional organizations, 114 (47.1%) were on Facebook, 69 (28.5%) on Twitter, and 50 (20.7%) on LinkedIn. In comparison, 68 (87.2%) patient-centered organizations were on Facebook, 56 (71.8%) on Twitter, and 56 (71.8%) on LinkedIn. Our results demonstrate that the popularity of dermatology journals and professional and patient-centered organizations on top social networking sites has grown markedly since 2012. Although the number of dermatology journals on social media has increased since 2012, their presence continues to trail behind professional and patient-centered dermatological organizations, suggesting underutilization of a valuable resource.

  18. Functional interactivity in social media: an examination of Chinese health care organizations' microblog profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shaohai

    2017-09-08

    Social media hold enormous potentials as a communication tool for health care due to its interactive nature. However, prior research mainly focused on contingency interactivity of social media, by examining messages sent from health care organizations to audiences, while little is known about functional interactivity, which refers to social media's presence of functions for facilitating communication between users and its interface. That is, how health care organizations use interactive features on social media to communicate with the public. Thus, with a general basis of the functional interactivity framework proposed by Waters et al. (Engaging stakeholders through social networking: how nonprofit organizations are using Facebook. Pub Relat Rev 2009;35:102-106), the current study investigated three aspects of functional interactivity in microblogging, and its subsequent effects. Specifically, this study analyzed 500 Chinese hospitals' profiles on Sina Weibo, the most popular microblogging platform in China. The results showed that the most common functional interactivity feature was organization disclosure, followed by information dissemination, and audience involvement. These interactive features all positively predicted the number of followers. Also, Chinese private hospitals scored significantly higher than public hospitals to use interactive features offered by social media. The findings of this study provide important implications for health care organizations to understand new communicative functions available on social media, incorporate more functions into their profiles and thus provide audiences with greater opportunity to interact with them via social media. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. The role of gender in social network organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Psylla, Ioanna; Sapiezynski, Piotr; Mones, Enys

    2017-01-01

    in isolation. Here we use a dataset of high resolution data collected using mobile phones, as well as detailed questionnaires, to study gender differences in a large cohort. We consider mobility behavior and individual personality traits among a group of more than 800 university students. We also investigate...... interactions among them expressed via person-to-person contacts, interactions on online social networks, and telecommunication. Thus, we are able to study the differences between male and female behavior captured through a multitude of channels for a single cohort. We find that while the two genders...... are similar in a number of aspects, there are robust deviations that include multiple facets of social interactions, suggesting the existence of inherent behavioral differences. Finally, we quantify how aspects of an individual's characteristics and social behavior reveals their gender by posing...

  20. Hierarchical Linked Views

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erbacher, Robert; Frincke, Deb

    2007-07-02

    Coordinated views have proven critical to the development of effective visualization environments. This results from the fact that a single view or representation of the data cannot show all of the intricacies of a given data set. Additionally, users will often need to correlate more data parameters than can effectively be integrated into a single visual display. Typically, development of multiple-linked views results in an adhoc configuration of views and associated interactions. The hierarchical model we are proposing is geared towards more effective organization of such environments and the views they encompass. At the same time, this model can effectively integrate much of the prior work on interactive and visual frameworks. Additionally, we expand the concept of views to incorporate perceptual views. This is related to the fact that visual displays can have information encoded at various levels of focus. Thus, a global view of the display provides overall trends of the data while focusing in on individual elements provides detailed specifics. By integrating interaction and perception into a single model, we show how one impacts the other. Typically, interaction and perception are considered separately, however, when interaction is being considered at a fundamental level and allowed to direct/modify the visualization directly we must consider them simultaneously and how they impact one another.

  1. The Adoption of Social Media in Nonprofit Organizations : The Case Study of the United Nations Country Team in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Panyam, Sinta

    2014-01-01

    The study examines the role of social media in non-profit organizations using the case study from the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) in Thailand Country office. As Social media become a significant channel to raise the visibility and promote the work of the organization. The focus of this research examines what drives organizations adopting social media through a model built round four key factors, 1.) The importance of social media, 2.) The impact to image of the organization, 3...

  2. Social Stratification, Power, and Educational Organization: The Peruvian Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulston, Rolland G.

    This report of a field study, conducted from 1966 to 1968, discusses the functional relationships between the class structure of Peruvian society and the structure and content of the country's educational system. Four educational subsystems are closely tied to each of the four main social groups: Blancos (upper class, comprising 0.1% of the total…

  3. Good Communication: The Other Social Network for Successful IT Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trubitt, Lisa; Overholtzer, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    Social networks of the electronic variety have become thoroughly embedded in contemporary culture. People have woven these networks into their daily routines, using Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, online gaming environments, and other tools to build and maintain complex webs of professional and personal relationships. Chief Information Officers…

  4. Does Social Capital Explain Community-Level Differences in Organ Donor Designation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladin, Keren; Wang, Rui; Fleishman, Aaron; Boger, Matthew; Rodrigue, James R

    2015-09-01

    The growing shortage of life-saving organs has reached unprecedented levels, with more than 120,000 Americans waiting for them. Despite national attempts to increase organ donation and federal laws mandating the equitable allocation of organs, geographic disparities remain. A better understanding of the contextual determinants of organ donor designation, including social capital, may enhance efforts to increase organ donation by raising the probability of collective action and fostering norms of reciprocity and cooperation while increasing costs to defectors. Because community-level factors, including social capital, predict more than half the variation in donor designation, future interventions should tailor strategies to specific communities as the unit of intervention. The growing shortage of organs has reached unprecedented levels. Despite national attempts to increase donation and federal laws mandating the equitable allocation of organs, their availability and waiting times vary significantly nationwide. Organ donor designation is a collective action problem in public health, in which the regional organ supply and average waiting times are determined by the willingness of individuals to be listed as organ donors. Social capital increases the probability of collective action by fostering norms of reciprocity and cooperation while increasing costs to defectors. We examine whether social capital and other community-level factors explain geographic variation in organ donor designation rates in Massachusetts. We obtained a sample of 3,281,532 registered drivers in 2010 from the Massachusetts Department of Transportation Registry of Motor Vehicles (MassDOT RMV). We then geocoded the registry data, matched them to 4,466 census blocks, and linked them to the 2010 US Census, the American Community Survey (ACS), and other sources to obtain community-level sociodemographic, social capital (residential segregation, voter registration and participation, residential

  5. The socialization of students in the process of art activity in a mixed-age organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khomenko N.Yu.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available the article analyzes the experience of pedagogical research of students’ socialization in the process of their art activity in a mixed-age organization. It also provides the characteristic of some results, obtained in the research.

  6. Goffman's Dramaturgical Sociology: Developing a Meaningful Theoretical Context and Exercise Involving "Embarrassment and Social Organization."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, David K.

    2003-01-01

    Depicts a useful participatory exercise in teaching Erving Goffman's dramaturgical sociology by drawing upon his essay about embarrassment and social organization. Argues the need to devise new ways to involve students in sociological theorists' insights. (Author/KDR)

  7. Integrating Corporate Social Responsability Programs into the Ethical Dimension of the Organization

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrian CARAMIDARU; Sabina IRIMIE

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to indicate the need to integrate corporate social responsibility programs into the global ethical vision of organizations. Such an approach requires the definition of the corporation in relation to the moral values it assumes and the ways in which moral values occur within the organization. On this foundation, the authors examined the various implications that moral values have on the initiation and conduct of corporate social responsibility programs.

  8. Multiple dynamical time-scales in networks with hierarchically

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Modular networks; hierarchical organization; synchronization. ... we show that such a topological structure gives rise to characteristic time-scale separation ... This suggests a possible functional role of such mesoscopic organization principle in ...

  9. Review paper: Organ transplants: ethical, social, and religious issues in a multicultural society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Noor Zurani Md Haris; Razack, Azad Hassan; Dublin, Norman

    2010-07-01

    Recent advances in the fields of organ donation and organ transplant have introduced new hope for the treatment of serious diseases. However, this promise has been accompanied by several issues. The most common issue raised is ethical implications, but in a multicultural society like Malaysia, additional concerns arise pertaining to social and religious issues. These concerns needs to be addressed as attitudes toward and acceptability of organ donation varies according to social, culture, and religion. The diverse cultural, religious, and traditional concepts pertaining to organ donation may hamper its acceptability and cause a lack of willingness to donate organs. The purpose of this article is to briefly explore the ethical issues involved in organ transplant and the various religious opinions on organ donation. It is hoped that this knowledge and understanding may benefit both health care providers and patients in a multicultural society like Malaysia.

  10. Social Capital and Educational Organizing in Low Income, Minority, and New Immigrant Communities: Can the University Strengthen Community Organizations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasner, Michael Alan; Pierre-Louis, Francois

    2009-01-01

    A college-based program that combines training, direct support, and technical assistance was found to produce significant gains in bonding and bridging social capital and key political attributes among low-income, minority, and immigrant groups organizing to enhance their power to influence public school politics and policies in New York City.…

  11. A Y-like social chromosome causes alternative colony organization in fire ants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intraspecific variability in social organization is common, yet the underlying causes are rarely known1-3. In the fire ant Solenopsis invicta, the existence of two divergent forms of social organisation is under the control of a single Mendelian genomic element marked by two variants of an odorant b...

  12. Adolescent tobacco use in the Netherlands: social background, education and school organization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, C.; van de Werfhorst, H.G.; Monshouwer, K.

    2012-01-01

    This article empirically examines the effect of social background, education, and school organization on adolescent tobacco use in the Netherlands. We test theories of norm enforcing and horizon expanding social networks and distinction by examining the relationship between daily smoking behavior

  13. Chinese and Taiwanese International College Students' Participation in Social Organizations: Implications for College Counseling Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Pei-Chun; Wong, Y. Joel

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative focus group study explored the meaning of Chinese and Taiwanese international students' lived experiences in social organizations. Participants were 9 Chinese and Taiwanese international college students in a midwestern U.S. university. The analyses uncovered 7 themes: social support, recreation, emotional support, practical…

  14. How women organize social networks different from men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szell, Michael; Thurner, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Superpositions of social networks, such as communication, friendship, or trade networks, are called multiplex networks, forming the structural backbone of human societies. Novel datasets now allow quantification and exploration of multiplex networks. Here we study gender-specific differences of a multiplex network from a complete behavioral dataset of an online-game society of about 300,000 players. On the individual level females perform better economically and are less risk-taking than males. Males reciprocate friendship requests from females faster than vice versa and hesitate to reciprocate hostile actions of females. On the network level females have more communication partners, who are less connected than partners of males. We find a strong homophily effect for females and higher clustering coefficients of females in trade and attack networks. Cooperative links between males are under-represented, reflecting competition for resources among males. These results confirm quantitatively that females and males manage their social networks in substantially different ways.

  15. Team-based global organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zander, Lena; Butler, Christina; Mockaitis, Audra

    2015-01-01

    diversity in enhancing team creativity and performance, and 2) the sharing of knowledge in team-based organizations, while the other two themes address global team leadership: 3) the unprecedented significance of social capital for the success of global team leader roles; and 4) the link between shared......This chapter draws on a panel discussion of the future of global organizing as a team-based organization at EIBA 2014 in Uppsala, Sweden. We began by discussing contemporary developments of hybrid forms of hierarchy and teams-based organizing, but we venture to propose that as organizations become...... characterized by decreased importance of hierarchal structures, more fluidity across borders, even a possible dissolution of firm boundaries, we move towards team-based organizing as an alternative to more traditional forms of hierarchical-based organizing in global firms. To provide input for a discussion...

  16. Corporate Social Responsibility Activities Of Business Organizations In Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Kiril Dimitrov

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the results of a survey of corporate social responsibility activities, under-taken by a group of business entities in Bulgaria in the context of great political, economical and cultural changes that the country has been passing through from 1990 up to date, and that affected the organizational behaviour of locally operating companies, as well as the beliefs, values and underlying assumptions of the individuals, working there. Environmental factors, influencing the initia...

  17. [Competency requirements for executives in healthcare and social services organizations: Results of a Delphi study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pielach, Martin; Schubert, Hans-Joachim

    2018-02-07

    Leadership in social services and healthcare organizations is marked by high levels of complexity and contradiction, which cannot be fully explained by politically, economically, and socially induced changes. Rather, it is the particularities of service provision in healthcare and social services that confront executives with specific demands. This study aimed to capture and prioritize required leadership competencies in healthcare and social services organizations. A three-step Delphi study was conducted with executives and managerial staff, who are job holders and thus experts on their occupation. For the first step, an explorative qualitative approach was chosen to record general opinion without prior assumptions. The following two steps weighted and selected the competency requirements in step one using rating- and ranking procedures. Results of the Delphi inquiry imply high relevance of social and personal competencies. Approximately 66 % of the competencies assessed in round three were social and personal competencies. 12 out of the 15 highest rated competencies in Delphi step three can be assigned to these two competency categories. In contrast, the importance of professional as well as methodical competencies was rated as less important. Only two methodical competencies and one professional competency were rated as very important by the panel. Nevertheless, the importance of executive professional and methodical competencies in healthcare and social services organizations is emphasized by high ratings of the competencies "Sector-specific expertise" and "Analytical skills". The methodical competency "Analytical skills" was identified by the Delphi respondents as the most important competency requirement. Social and personal requirements are of primary importance for leadership in healthcare and social services organizations. These results mostly correspond to leadership requirements posited in the literature on leadership skills. Emphasis should be on the

  18. Hydroxyapatite hierarchically nanostructured porous hollow microspheres: rapid, sustainable microwave-hydrothermal synthesis by using creatine phosphate as an organic phosphorus source and application in drug delivery and protein adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Chao; Zhu, Ying-Jie; Lu, Bing-Qiang; Zhao, Xin-Yu; Zhao, Jing; Chen, Feng; Wu, Jin

    2013-04-22

    Hierarchically nanostructured porous hollow microspheres of hydroxyapatite (HAP) are a promising biomaterial, owing to their excellent biocompatibility and porous hollow structure. Traditionally, synthetic hydroxyapatite is prepared by using an inorganic phosphorus source. Herein, we report a new strategy for the rapid, sustainable synthesis of HAP hierarchically nanostructured porous hollow microspheres by using creatine phosphate disodium salt as an organic phosphorus source in aqueous solution through a microwave-assisted hydrothermal method. The as-obtained products are characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform IR (FTIR) spectroscopy, SEM, TEM, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) nitrogen sorptometry, dynamic light scattering (DLS), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). SEM and TEM micrographs show that HAP hierarchically nanostructured porous hollow microspheres consist of HAP nanosheets or nanorods as the building blocks and DLS measurements show that the diameters of HAP hollow microspheres are within the range 0.8-1.5 μm. The specific surface area and average pore size of the HAP porous hollow microspheres are 87.3 m(2) g(-1) and 20.6 nm, respectively. The important role of creatine phosphate disodium salt and the influence of the experimental conditions on the products were systematically investigated. This method is facile, rapid, surfactant-free and environmentally friendly. The as-prepared HAP porous hollow microspheres show a relatively high drug-loading capacity and protein-adsorption ability, as well as sustained drug and protein release, by using ibuprofen as a model drug and hemoglobin (Hb) as a model protein, respectively. These experiments indicate that the as-prepared HAP porous hollow microspheres are promising for applications in biomedical fields, such as drug delivery and protein adsorption. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Hierarchical screening for multiple mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batterham, Philip J; Calear, Alison L; Sunderland, Matthew; Carragher, Natacha; Christensen, Helen; Mackinnon, Andrew J

    2013-10-01

    There is a need for brief, accurate screening when assessing multiple mental disorders. Two-stage hierarchical screening, consisting of brief pre-screening followed by a battery of disorder-specific scales for those who meet diagnostic criteria, may increase the efficiency of screening without sacrificing precision. This study tested whether more efficient screening could be gained using two-stage hierarchical screening than by administering multiple separate tests. Two Australian adult samples (N=1990) with high rates of psychopathology were recruited using Facebook advertising to examine four methods of hierarchical screening for four mental disorders: major depressive disorder, generalised anxiety disorder, panic disorder and social phobia. Using K6 scores to determine whether full screening was required did not increase screening efficiency. However, pre-screening based on two decision tree approaches or item gating led to considerable reductions in the mean number of items presented per disorder screened, with estimated item reductions of up to 54%. The sensitivity of these hierarchical methods approached 100% relative to the full screening battery. Further testing of the hierarchical screening approach based on clinical criteria and in other samples is warranted. The results demonstrate that a two-phase hierarchical approach to screening multiple mental disorders leads to considerable increases efficiency gains without reducing accuracy. Screening programs should take advantage of prescreeners based on gating items or decision trees to reduce the burden on respondents. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Catalysis with hierarchical zeolites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Martin Spangsberg; Taarning, Esben; Egeblad, Kresten

    2011-01-01

    Hierarchical (or mesoporous) zeolites have attracted significant attention during the first decade of the 21st century, and so far this interest continues to increase. There have already been several reviews giving detailed accounts of the developments emphasizing different aspects of this research...... topic. Until now, the main reason for developing hierarchical zeolites has been to achieve heterogeneous catalysts with improved performance but this particular facet has not yet been reviewed in detail. Thus, the present paper summaries and categorizes the catalytic studies utilizing hierarchical...... zeolites that have been reported hitherto. Prototypical examples from some of the different categories of catalytic reactions that have been studied using hierarchical zeolite catalysts are highlighted. This clearly illustrates the different ways that improved performance can be achieved with this family...

  1. Hierarchical Network Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomadsen, Tommy

    2005-01-01

    Communication networks are immensely important today, since both companies and individuals use numerous services that rely on them. This thesis considers the design of hierarchical (communication) networks. Hierarchical networks consist of layers of networks and are well-suited for coping...... with changing and increasing demands. Two-layer networks consist of one backbone network, which interconnects cluster networks. The clusters consist of nodes and links, which connect the nodes. One node in each cluster is a hub node, and the backbone interconnects the hub nodes of each cluster and thus...... the clusters. The design of hierarchical networks involves clustering of nodes, hub selection, and network design, i.e. selection of links and routing of ows. Hierarchical networks have been in use for decades, but integrated design of these networks has only been considered for very special types of networks...

  2. Micromechanics of hierarchical materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mishnaevsky, Leon, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    A short overview of micromechanical models of hierarchical materials (hybrid composites, biomaterials, fractal materials, etc.) is given. Several examples of the modeling of strength and damage in hierarchical materials are summarized, among them, 3D FE model of hybrid composites...... with nanoengineered matrix, fiber bundle model of UD composites with hierarchically clustered fibers and 3D multilevel model of wood considered as a gradient, cellular material with layered composite cell walls. The main areas of research in micromechanics of hierarchical materials are identified, among them......, the investigations of the effects of load redistribution between reinforcing elements at different scale levels, of the possibilities to control different material properties and to ensure synergy of strengthening effects at different scale levels and using the nanoreinforcement effects. The main future directions...

  3. Programming with Hierarchical Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørbæk, Peter

    This report desribes the hierarchical maps used as a central data structure in the Corundum framework. We describe its most prominent features, ague for its usefulness and briefly describe some of the software prototypes implemented using the technology....

  4. Introduction into Hierarchical Matrices

    KAUST Repository

    Litvinenko, Alexander

    2013-12-05

    Hierarchical matrices allow us to reduce computational storage and cost from cubic to almost linear. This technique can be applied for solving PDEs, integral equations, matrix equations and approximation of large covariance and precision matrices.

  5. Introduction into Hierarchical Matrices

    KAUST Repository

    Litvinenko, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Hierarchical matrices allow us to reduce computational storage and cost from cubic to almost linear. This technique can be applied for solving PDEs, integral equations, matrix equations and approximation of large covariance and precision matrices.

  6. The draft genome of a termite illuminates alternative social organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Termites have substantial economic and ecological impact worldwide. They are also the oldest organisms living in complex societies, having evolved a caste system independent of that of eusocial Hymenoptera (ants, bees and wasps). Here we provide the first genome sequence for a termite, Zootermopsis ...

  7. Social capital in water user organizations of the Ecuadorian Highlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogesteger van Dijk, J.D.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, I explore how new water user organizations have developed in formerly state managed irrigation systems in the Ecuadorian highlands since the 1990s. The article is based on an in-depth case study of the Pillaro irrigation system and illustrations of other cases. These water user

  8. The social organization of agricultural biogas production and use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bluemling, B.; Mol, A.P.J.; Tu, Q.

    2013-01-01

    While for wind, solar energy or hydropower, energy supply happens directly from the source to the wind wheels, hydropower turbines or solar panels, in the case of biogas, energy production cannot directly take from the energy source, organic matter, but depends on the institutional structures and

  9. REBUILDING THE SOCIAL DIALOGUE AND PROMOTING INCLUSIVE ORGANIZATIONS. A TOOL FOR SOCIAL INNOVATION IN TIMES OF CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Munduate

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the developing research agenda in the context of the difficulties of the socio-economic environment and its impact on equality policies in the employment context. We present four studies developed in the framework of improving the social dialogue and the promotion of inclusive organizations, highlighting the status of the issue in Spain and its meaning for professional practice. The studies focus on a the need to train and empower social actors - especially workers’ representatives - to lead social innovation and promote inclusive organizations, b proceedings for the current manifestations of what is known as “modern discrimination” in the work context, c labor integration of persons with disabilities, and d supporting policies to balance work and personal life.

  10. Social media use by community-based organizations conducting health promotion: a content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanadhan, Shoba; Mendez, Samuel R; Rao, Megan; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula

    2013-12-05

    Community-based organizations (CBOs) are critical channels for the delivery of health promotion programs. Much of their influence comes from the relationships they have with community members and other key stakeholders and they may be able to harness the power of social media tools to develop and maintain these relationships. There are limited data describing if and how CBOs are using social media. This study assesses the extent to which CBOs engaged in health promotion use popular social media channels, the types of content typically shared, and the extent to which the interactive aspects of social media tools are utilized. We assessed the social media presence and patterns of usage of CBOs engaged in health promotion in Boston, Lawrence, and Worcester, Massachusetts. We coded content on three popular channels: Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube. We used content analysis techniques to quantitatively summarize posts, tweets, and videos on these channels, respectively. For each organization, we coded all content put forth by the CBO on the three channels in a 30-day window. Two coders were trained and conducted the coding. Data were collected between November 2011 and January 2012. A total of 166 organizations were included in our census. We found that 42% of organizations used at least one of the channels of interest. Across the three channels, organization promotion was the most common theme for content (66% of posts, 63% of tweets, and 93% of videos included this content). Most organizations updated Facebook and Twitter content at rates close to recommended frequencies. We found limited interaction/engagement with audience members. Much of the use of social media tools appeared to be uni-directional, a flow of information from the organization to the audience. By better leveraging opportunities for interaction and user engagement, these organizations can reap greater benefits from the non-trivial investment required to use social media well. Future research should

  11. Developing a new service for organizing social events in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Mohanty, Titikshya

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to develop a new service concept for people living in Finland by using service design methods. In this busy world, people frequently have no time to organize events on their own. Therefore, service design tools and methodology will be used as foundational pillars for the case company in this thesis in developing solutions for this issue, as well as bringing customer satisfaction from service delivery. This service concept is designed to save time and simplify the...

  12. Loops in hierarchical channel networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katifori, Eleni; Magnasco, Marcelo

    2012-02-01

    Nature provides us with many examples of planar distribution and structural networks having dense sets of closed loops. An archetype of this form of network organization is the vasculature of dicotyledonous leaves, which showcases a hierarchically-nested architecture. Although a number of methods have been proposed to measure aspects of the structure of such networks, a robust metric to quantify their hierarchical organization is still lacking. We present an algorithmic framework that allows mapping loopy networks to binary trees, preserving in the connectivity of the trees the architecture of the original graph. We apply this framework to investigate computer generated and natural graphs extracted from digitized images of dicotyledonous leaves and animal vasculature. We calculate various metrics on the corresponding trees and discuss the relationship of these quantities to the architectural organization of the original graphs. This algorithmic framework decouples the geometric information from the metric topology (connectivity and edge weight) and it ultimately allows us to perform a quantitative statistical comparison between predictions of theoretical models and naturally occurring loopy graphs.

  13. Social organization of sea otters in Prince William Sound, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garshelis, David L.; Johnson, Ancel M.; Garshelis, Judith A.

    1984-01-01

    Sea otters in Prince William Sound. Alaska, were spatially segregated into predominantly (97%) male areas at the front of the expanding population and breeding areas with fewer (up to 33%) males. From 1975 to 1984 we captured and marked 267 otters with tags and (or) radio transmitters and investigated their reproductive strategies, social relationships, and patterns of sexual segregation. Mating occurred year-round, but peaked in September and October. Females first bred at 4 years of age and were capable of pupping annually; they generally separated from their pup before mating. Males established breeding territories that enabled prolonged precopulatory interactions that may have prompted female–pup separation and post-copulatory interactions that precluded females from mating with other males. Male mating success was related to age, weight, territory quality, and the length of time they maintained their territory. After the breeding season, territorial males returned to male areas where food was more abundant. Young, dispersing males also entered male areas and remained there until attaining breeding age. In male areas, otters commonly rested in groups of >50 individuals. Gregariousness promoted social interactions and likely enhanced food finding and (historically) predator protection. As food diminished, males moved into adjacent, unoccupied regions; females then occupied former male areas.

  14. How women organize social networks different from men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szell, Michael; Thurner, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Superpositions of social networks, such as communication, friendship, or trade networks, are called multiplex networks, forming the structural backbone of human societies. Novel datasets now allow quantification and exploration of multiplex networks. Here we study gender-specific differences of a multiplex network from a complete behavioral dataset of an online-game society of about 300,000 players. On the individual level females perform better economically and are less risk-taking than males. Males reciprocate friendship requests from females faster than vice versa and hesitate to reciprocate hostile actions of females. On the network level females have more communication partners, who are less connected than partners of males. We find a strong homophily effect for females and higher clustering coefficients of females in trade and attack networks. Cooperative links between males are under-represented, reflecting competition for resources among males. These results confirm quantitatively that females and males manage their social networks in substantially different ways. PMID:23393616

  15. Associations between the social organization of communities and psychiatric disorders in rural Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axinn, William G; Ghimire, Dirgha J; Williams, Nathalie E; Scott, Kate M

    2015-10-01

    We provide rare evidence of factors producing psychiatric variation in a general population sample from rural South Asia. The setting is particularly useful for demonstrating that variations in the social organization of communities, often difficult to observe in rich countries, are associated with important variations in mental health. Clinically validated survey measures are used to document variation in psychiatric disorders among 401 adults. This sample is chosen from a systematic sample of the general population of rural Nepal, in a community-level-controlled comparison design. Multilevel logistic regression is used to estimate multivariate models of the association between community-level nonfamily social organization and individual-level psychiatric disorders. Schools, markets, health services and social support groups each substantially reduce the odds of depression, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), intermittent explosive disorder and anxiety disorders. Associations between schools, health services and social support groups and depression are statistically significant and independent of each other. The association between access to markets and PTSD is statistically significant and independent of other social organization and support groups. Community integration of some nonfamily social organizations promotes mental health in ways that may go unobserved in settings with many such organizations. More research on the mechanisms producing these associations is likely to reveal potential avenues for public policy and programs to improve mental health in the general population.

  16. Factors associated with involvement in nonmetropolitan LGBTQ organizations: Proximity? Generativity? Minority stress? Social location?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paceley, Megan S; Oswald, Ramona Faith; Hardesty, Jennifer L

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about involvement in LGBTQ organizations. Factors associated with involvement in nonmetropolitan LGBTQ organizations were examined using logistic regression and survey data from 426 LGBTQ individuals residing in a nonmetropolitan region. Involvement was examined in five types of organizations (professional, social/recreational, religious, political, and community center/charity). The same model testing proximity, generativity, minority stress, and social location hypotheses was repeated for each organization type. Results demonstrate that the generativity hypothesis is most strongly supported. Indeed, emotional attachment to the LGBTQ community significantly increased the odds of involvement in every type of organization. However, the factors associated with involvement otherwise differed by organization type. Implications for organizational leaders are discussed.

  17. Shifting Stakes: Understanding the Dynamic Roles of Individuals and Organizations in Social Media Protests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiro, Emma S; Monroy-Hernández, Andrés

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we examine two protests characterized by substantial social media presence and distributed participation frameworks via two core questions: what roles did organizations and individuals play, and how did participants' social interactions change over the course of the protests? To answer these questions, we analyzed a large Twitter activity dataset for the #YoSoy132 student uprising in Mexico and Brazil's "bus rebellion." Results indicate that individuals initially took prominence at the protests but faded in importance as the movements dwindled and organizations took over. Regarding the dynamics and structure of the interactions, we found that key time points with unique social structures often map to exogenous events such as coordinated protests in physical locations. Our results have important consequences for the visibility of such social movements and their ability to attract continued participation by individuals and organizations.

  18. Considerations for Public Health Organizations Attempting to Implement a Social Media Presence: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Mark; Stetten, Nichole; Castaneda, Gail

    2016-01-01

    In the past decade, social media has become an integral part of our everyday lives, but research on how this tool is used by public health workers and organizations is still developing. Budget cuts and staff reduction in county departments have required employees to take on more responsibilities. These reductions have caused a reduction in the time for training or collaborating with others in the field. To make up for the loss, many employees are seeking collaboration through social media sites but are unable to do so because state departments block these Internet sites. This study sought to highlight the key considerations and decision-making process for a public health organization deciding whether to implement a social media presence for their organization. Using 3 structured interviews, 15 stakeholders were questioned on their personal experience with social media, experience within the context of public health, and their thoughts on implementation for their center. Interviews were coded using constant comparative qualitative methods. The following themes emerged from the interviews: (1) personal experience with technology and social networking sites, (2) use of social networking sites in public health, (3) use of social networking sites in work environments, (4) social networking sites access, (5) ways the Rural South Public Health Training Center could use social networking sites, and (6) perceived outcomes of social networking site usage for the Rural South Public Health Training Center (positive and negative). The collective voice of the center showed a positive perceived perception of social media implementation, with the benefits outweighing the risks. Despite the benefits, there is a cautious skepticism of the importance of social networking site use.

  19. Social media as a tool for positioning of youth non-governmental organizations activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Shvab

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the social media analysis, as an important tool of the mass media in the youth non-governmental organizations activity. The article is about special popularity of social media among youth because of the rapid information technologies development. The author emphasizes that social media is a main online channel of communication among young generation, that should be taken into the consideration during the external communication creation. Youth organizations often use social media for target audience involvement, information dissimilation and exchange, service promotion and online dialogue. The author analyses different social media tools, such as: blogs, microblogs (Twitter, social networking sites (Facebook, VKontakte, video-sharing websites (YouTube and others. All these tools are easy in use, do not need any special skills and resources, they are low-cost as well. The author considers that it would be useful to include the organization’s Internet addresses on all social media websites and in traditional media publications, to make it as easy as possible for customers to find the youth non-governmental organizations they are looking for among the broad range of social media communities and services.

  20. The Influence of Social Factors on Customer Purchase Intention in Using Wedding Organizer in Manado

    OpenAIRE

    Pandowo, Merinda; Tuwo, Hillary Julia

    2015-01-01

    Trends in wedding business is being exported globally. There is market opportunity to make the proliferation of event organizer business to become wedding organizer. The Wedding organizer business is needed at this time for the success of wedding preparation and ceremony. Now social influences are not new to the wedding industry because most of the time couples, especially brides-to-be, are consulting to external parties in order to acquire ideas and suggestions on how to enrich the context a...

  1. Individual psychological and social risk factors for violent criminal behavior in adolescents with organic mental disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubkova A.A.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the risk factors for criminal aggression in adolescents with an organic mental disorder depending on the level of social deviations or severity of pathopsychological factor. The study involved 113 male adolescents aged 15 to 17 years. The main group consisted of juvenile offenders with organic mental disorder. We used the methods of investigation to determine the individual psychological characteristics, we also used structured risk assessment methods. It is shown that risk factors for criminal aggressive behavior in adolescents with organic mental disorder are a high level of proactive and reactive aggression, combined with underdeveloped mechanisms deter aggressive intentions. With the increase of organic disease, these features become more stable. An important role in shaping the aggressive criminal behavior plays an unsuccessful social environment. Interfamily problems, social deprivation, learning difficulties, communication in antisocial groups and substance abuse - all this increases the risk of aggressive illegal actions.

  2. Genetical pressures and social organization in small mammal populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, R.J.

    1978-01-01

    Inherited variation is often useful for detecting and measuring ecological pressures in natural populations. For example, changes in allele and genotypic frequencies at the gene locus controlling the haemoglobin β chain in Mus musculus samples trapped on an isolated Welsh island have provided information about different mechanisms of death at different times of year and about the influence of social structure on genetical constitution. Notwithstanding, considerable caution has to be exercised in interpreting genetical changes, since detectable varients are often no more than linked markers of physiologically important gene loci, while habitat, deme, or ageing differences may be obscured in pooled data, such as are represented by concepts like overall allozymic heterozygosity. For these reasons, genetical studies on wild populations are likely to be most profitable when the contribution of individual genes to physiological or behavioral traits can be analyzed; it is at this level that genetics and ecology properly complement each other

  3. The challenges of social marketing of organ donation: news and entertainment coverage of donation and transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Tyler R; Morgan, Susan E; Chewning, Lisa V

    2008-01-01

    While great strides have been made in persuading the public to become potential organ donors, actual behavior has not yet caught up with the nearly universally favorable attitudes the public expresses toward donation. This paper explores the issue by situating the social marketing of organ donation against a broader backdrop of entertainment and news media coverage of organ donation. Organ donation storylines are featured on broadcast television in medical and legal dramas, soap operas, and other television serials approximately four times per month (not including most cable networks), and feature storylines that promote myths and fears of the organ donation process. National news and other non-fictionalized coverage of organ donation are even more common, with stories appearing over twenty times a month on average. These stories tend to be one-dimensional and highly sensationalized in their coverage. The marketing of organ donation for entertainment essentially creates a counter-campaign to organ donation, with greater resources and reach than social marketers have access to. Understanding the broader environmental context of organ donation messages highlights the issues faced by social marketing campaigns in persuading the public to become potential donors.

  4. Mass media, online social network, and organ donation: old mistakes and new perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aykas, A; Uslu, A; Şimşek, C

    2015-05-01

    Contrary to TV programs projecting awareness about organ donation in society, concrete evidence exists about adverse influence of negative broadcasts on organ donation rates. We sought to determine the effect of mass media on public opinion toward organ donation and the efficacy of public campaigns and novel social media attempts on donation rates. We conducted a systematic review of relevant literature and national campaign results. Hoaxes about brain death and organ transplantation adversely affect organ donation rates in both Western and Eastern societies. Scientifically controversial and exaggerated press conferences and institutional advertisements create mistrust in doctors, thus reducing organ donation. The overall effect of public education campaigns in promoting organ donation is a temporary 5% gain. Increments in organ donation rates is expected with novel applications of social media (Facebook effect). Communication, based on mutual trust, must be established between medicine and the media. Continuing education programs with regard to public awareness on organ donation should be conducted over social media. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. PROFILE SOCIAL CLASS OF INDIVIDUALS ASSISTED IN A SOCIAL ORGANIZATION IN THE CAMAÇARI-BA CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milene de Andrade Carvalho

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The city of Camaçari-Ba in the Bahia is considered the biggest territory of the region metropolitan area of Salvador-B. This population has presented considerable growth in the Human Development Index (HDI, with magnifying of the life expectancy and industrial cycle. The biggest social organization situated in the city and considered satate reference of social inclusion are develops entailed diverse actions to the participation of the city departments, except on actions to the healt secretariat. This study one is about a research of transverse whose objective was to identify the profile of 227 individuals assisted by social organization Prof. Raimundo Pinheiro, located in the mentioned city. The results had indicated the presence of a predominant age range next to 60 years, the relation between income and scholarity, the high frequency of chronic pain and relation enters the chronic use of drugs, activities of daily life and occupational activities. It is necessary that the activities of the social organization contemplate the logic of the intersectoral and include secretariat of health in its organizational politics.

  6. Social media as an instrument for organizing mass riots in the United Kingdom in August 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A N Katkina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Social networks such as Facebook and Twitter have recently become very popular and turned to be an effective instrument for achieving political goals. However, the social networks’ impact is rather ambivalent: on the one hand, social media form specific political actors and support self-organization and civil movements; on the other hand, social media reinforce destructive and aggressive manifestations with the pronounced criminal purposes, e.g. social media ability to disseminate information among large groups is used to organize mass riots. The article analyzes one of the recent and significant events largely provoked by the social networks - mass riots in the United Kingdom in August 2011 that were originally a reaction to the murder of M. Diggan by a police officer who tried to arrest him as a suspect in drug trafficking and possession of weapons. The way events developed into mass riots was the result of discussions in social media and use of social networks to coordinate joint actions of mass riots participants. The article provides a detailed description of the events and authorities’ actions to overcome the crisis and prevent such riots in the future, thus making some conclusions about the nature of social media impact on the politics.

  7. The Power of Associations Social Media and Social Movements: Facebook in the Interactions of Social Movement Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Luis Fernando

    2013-01-01

    There are many indications that social mobilization and political participation have been transformed by Information Communication Technologies (ICT), and, more recently, by Social Media. In spite of many studies which have attempted to grapple with their interrelationship, we still know little about the degree and complexity of those…

  8. Standards of socially responsible management – Impact on sustainable development of the organization, the social and natural environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Peršič

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to outline the results of a study on the importance of the introduction/implementation of standards of socially responsible management and their impact on the business performance of organizations as well as to confirm the correlations with the sustainable development of the broader social and natural environment. The research included a population of medium-sized and large organizations (over 50 employees in the fields of marketing services in the Republic of Slovenia. Research results confirmed a direct link of understanding the management standards in organizations with a larger number of employees and the achieved higher income from operations. Research participants are familiar with the requirements of the Quality Management System Standard ISO 9001 and the Environmental Management System Standard ISO 14001, which is particularly significant for older business executives with many years of work experience in the company they run. The hypothesis that the implementation of the principles of social responsibility has a positive impact on sustainable development and the financial indicators of the organization – higher profits, business growth, productivity and cost-effectiveness in operations – has been confirmed.

  9. Hierarchical representations of the five-factor model of personality in predicting job performance: integrating three organizing frameworks with two theoretical perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, Timothy A; Rodell, Jessica B; Klinger, Ryan L; Simon, Lauren S; Crawford, Eean R

    2013-11-01

    Integrating 2 theoretical perspectives on predictor-criterion relationships, the present study developed and tested a hierarchical framework in which each five-factor model (FFM) personality trait comprises 2 DeYoung, Quilty, and Peterson (2007) facets, which in turn comprise 6 Costa and McCrae (1992) NEO facets. Both theoretical perspectives-the bandwidth-fidelity dilemma and construct correspondence-suggest that lower order traits would better predict facets of job performance (task performance and contextual performance). They differ, however, as to the relative merits of broad and narrow traits in predicting a broad criterion (overall job performance). We first meta-analyzed the relationship of the 30 NEO facets to overall job performance and its facets. Overall, 1,176 correlations from 410 independent samples (combined N = 406,029) were coded and meta-analyzed. We then formed the 10 DeYoung et al. facets from the NEO facets, and 5 broad traits from those facets. Overall, results provided support for the 6-2-1 framework in general and the importance of the NEO facets in particular. (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. Parallel hierarchical radiosity rendering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, Michael [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1993-07-01

    In this dissertation, the step-by-step development of a scalable parallel hierarchical radiosity renderer is documented. First, a new look is taken at the traditional radiosity equation, and a new form is presented in which the matrix of linear system coefficients is transformed into a symmetric matrix, thereby simplifying the problem and enabling a new solution technique to be applied. Next, the state-of-the-art hierarchical radiosity methods are examined for their suitability to parallel implementation, and scalability. Significant enhancements are also discovered which both improve their theoretical foundations and improve the images they generate. The resultant hierarchical radiosity algorithm is then examined for sources of parallelism, and for an architectural mapping. Several architectural mappings are discussed. A few key algorithmic changes are suggested during the process of making the algorithm parallel. Next, the performance, efficiency, and scalability of the algorithm are analyzed. The dissertation closes with a discussion of several ideas which have the potential to further enhance the hierarchical radiosity method, or provide an entirely new forum for the application of hierarchical methods.

  11. Working Children as Social Subjects: The Contribution of Working Children's Organizations to Social Transformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebel, Manfred

    2003-01-01

    Focuses on the significance of organizations of working children for processes of transformation in their societies. Argues that while structural causes of exploitation and poverty account for persistence of child labor, organizations of working children are of growing importance in efforts to improve their life conditions, noting that many…

  12. Citizens’ Perceptions on Social Responsibility in Public Administration Organizations: A Case Study on Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis VÁZQUEZ

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes citizens’ expectations on social responsibility of public administration organizations in comparison to other public and private organizations, and argues that the mission attributed to different institutions in society might guide citizens’ perceptions and thresholds of satisfaction with sustainability standards. Three different survey studies were carried out to analyze citizens’ expectations of social responsibility of public administration organizations, private companies and a public university in the same Spanish region. A list of indicators defining internal and external social responsibility practices was developed to compare expectations in the three institutional contexts, and MANOVA was used to test differences between participants in the three surveys. Results support the notion that citizens’ expectations of social responsibility are related to perceived organizational goals in private and public contexts and the specific dimension of responsibility considered. Particularly, participants displayed higher expectations of external social responsibility in public administration organizations than in private companies and the public university analyzed, whereas citizens’ expectations of internal social responsibility were more homogeneous in public and private contexts. Implications of the study and suggestions for further research are discussed.

  13. Design in nature how the constructal law governs evolution in biology, physics, technology, and social organization

    CERN Document Server

    Bejan, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    In this groundbreaking book, Adrian Bejan takes the recurring patterns in nature—trees, tributaries, air passages, neural networks, and lightning bolts—and reveals how a single principle of physics, the constructal law, accounts for the evolution of these and many other designs in our world. Everything—from biological life to inanimate systems—generates shape and structure and evolves in a sequence of ever-improving designs in order to facilitate flow. River basins, cardiovascular systems, and bolts of lightning are very efficient flow systems to move a current—of water, blood, or electricity. Likewise, the more complex architecture of animals evolve to cover greater distance per unit of useful energy, or increase their flow across the land. Such designs also appear in human organizations, like the hierarchical “flowcharts” or reporting structures in corporations and political bodies. All are governed by the same principle, known as the constructal law, and configure and reconfigure themselves...

  14. SIMILAR ASPECTS OF KAINGANG, XAVANTE AND BORORO SOCIAL ORGANIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Soares

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Durante o desenvolvimento do Projeto Taió (Arqueologia do Planalto Catarinense, foram realizadas pesquisas etno-históricas a respeito dos Jê Meridionais - Tradição Taquara/Itararé e seus descendentes Kaingang. Os resultados desses estudos levaram a necessidade de obter dados que permitam discutir como se constituiu a identidade étnica do grupo, percebendo de que maneira o processo migratório para a Região Sul influenciou sua especificidade cultural. A estratégia utilizada para abordar a questão foi perceber o Kaingang dentro do contexto dos Povos Jê, confrontando-o, através de analise comparativa, com as sociedades Xavante e Bororo a fim de mapear elementos distintos e comuns de suas estruturas de organização social. Os resultados obtidos vêm auxiliar os estudos culturais Kaingang e a interpretação de dados arqueológicos.

  15. Biominerals- hierarchical nanocomposites: the example of bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beniash, Elia

    2010-01-01

    Many organisms incorporate inorganic solids in their tissues to enhance their functional, primarily mechanical, properties. These mineralized tissues, also called biominerals, are unique organo-mineral nanocomposites, organized at several hierarchical levels, from nano- to macroscale. Unlike man made composite materials, which often are simple physical blends of their components, the organic and inorganic phases in biominerals interface at the molecular level. Although these tissues are made of relatively weak components at ambient conditions, their hierarchical structural organization and intimate interactions between different elements lead to superior mechanical properties. Understanding basic principles of formation, structure and functional properties of these tissues might lead to novel bioinspired strategies for material design and better treatments for diseases of the mineralized tissues. This review focuses on general principles of structural organization, formation and functional properties of biominerals on the example the bone tissues. PMID:20827739

  16. Double coupling: modeling subjectivity and asymmetric organization in social-ecological systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Manuel-Navarrete

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Social-ecological organization is a multidimensional phenomenon that combines material and symbolic processes. However, the coupling between social and ecological subsystem is often conceptualized as purely material, thus reducing the symbolic dimension to its behavioral and actionable expressions. In this paper I conceptualize social-ecological systems as doubly coupled. On the one hand, material expressions of socio-cultural processes affect and are affected by ecological dynamics. On the other hand, coupled social-ecological material dynamics are concurrently coupled with subjective dynamics via coding, decoding, personal experience, and human agency. This second coupling operates across two organizationally heterogeneous dimensions: material and symbolic. Although resilience thinking builds on the recognition of organizational asymmetry between living and nonliving systems, it has overlooked the equivalent asymmetry between ecological and socio-cultural subsystems. Three guiding concepts are proposed to formalize double coupling. The first one, social-ecological asymmetry, expands on past seminal work on ecological self-organization to incorporate reflexivity and subjectivity in social-ecological modeling. Organizational asymmetry is based in the distinction between social rules, which are symbolically produced and changed through human agents' reflexivity and purpose, and biophysical rules, which are determined by functional relations between ecological components. The second guiding concept, conscious power, brings to the fore human agents' distinctive capacity to produce our own subjective identity and the consequences of this capacity for social-ecological organization. The third concept, congruence between subjective and objective dynamics, redefines sustainability as contingent on congruent relations between material and symbolic processes. Social-ecological theories and analyses based on these three guiding concepts would support the

  17. Social self-organization agent-based simulations and experiments to study emergent social behavior

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    What are the principles that keep our society together? This question is even more difficult to answer than the long-standing question, what are the forces that keep our world together. However, the social challenges of humanity in the 21st century ranging from the financial crises to the impacts of globalization, require us to make fast progress in our understanding of how society works, and how our future can be managed in a resilient and sustainable way. This book can present only a few very first steps towards this ambitious goal. However, based on simple models of social interactions, one can already gain some surprising insights into the social, ``macro-level'' outcomes and dynamics that is implied by individual, ``micro-level'' interactions. Depending on the nature of these interactions, they may imply the spontaneous formation of social conventions or the birth of social cooperation, but also their sudden breakdown. This can end in deadly crowd disasters or tragedies of the commons (such as financial ...

  18. Economic, ecological, and social performance of conventional and organic broiler production in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokkers, E A M; de Boer, I J M

    2009-09-01

    1. In this study, we compared a conventional broiler production system keeping fast growing broilers with an organic broiler production system keeping slow growing broilers in the Netherlands, both managed by one person working a full time year (Full Time Equivalent, FTE). This comparison was based on a quantification of economic, ecological and social indicators. Indicators were quantified using scientific literature and national data sets. 2. The organic system performed better for the economic indicator net farm income per FTE than the conventional system. 3. Regarding ecological indicators, calculations showed a higher on-farm emission of ammonia per kg live weight for the organic system. Moreover, an organic system includes a higher risk for eutrophication per ha due to outdoor access. Emission of green house gasses, use of fossil fuels and use of land required for the production of one kg of live weight is higher for an organic than for a conventional system. This is mainly due to a lower feed conversion in organic production and use of organic feed. 4. The organic system performed better than the conventional system for the social indicators related to animal welfare time spent on walking, footpad lesions, mortality, and sound legs. Regarding the social indicator food safety was found that meat from an organic system contained less antibiotic residues and Salmonella contaminations but more Campylobacter contaminations than meat from a conventional system. 5. Changing from a conventional to an organic broiler production system, therefore, not only affects animal welfare, but also affects economic, ecological and other social issues. In this study, we ran into the situation that some information needed was lacking in literature and quantifications had to be based upon several sources. Therefore, an integrated on-farm assessment is needed, which can be used to develop a broiler production system that is economically profitable, ecologically sound, and

  19. Neutrosophic Hierarchical Clustering Algoritms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rıdvan Şahin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Interval neutrosophic set (INS is a generalization of interval valued intuitionistic fuzzy set (IVIFS, whose the membership and non-membership values of elements consist of fuzzy range, while single valued neutrosophic set (SVNS is regarded as extension of intuitionistic fuzzy set (IFS. In this paper, we extend the hierarchical clustering techniques proposed for IFSs and IVIFSs to SVNSs and INSs respectively. Based on the traditional hierarchical clustering procedure, the single valued neutrosophic aggregation operator, and the basic distance measures between SVNSs, we define a single valued neutrosophic hierarchical clustering algorithm for clustering SVNSs. Then we extend the algorithm to classify an interval neutrosophic data. Finally, we present some numerical examples in order to show the effectiveness and availability of the developed clustering algorithms.

  20. Organizing for Social Justice: Rank-and-File Teachers' Activism and Social Unionism in California, 1948-1978

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Sara R.

    2014-01-01

    From the 1940s to the late 1970s, rank-and-file teachers and elected leaders in California engaged in dynamic efforts to shape the American Federation of Teachers' political approach to unionism. This study considers organizing by rank-and-file teachers in this period, both inside the American Federation of Teachers and independently, to promote left-led social unionism. In contrast to a more politically moderate and narrow version of unionism (often referred to as business unionism), advocat...

  1. Roosting, social organization and the annual cycle in a Kenya population of the bat Pipistrellus nanus

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, Thomas J.

    1980-01-01

    The tiny (3.1–3.8 g) vespcrtilionid bat Pipistrellus nanus was studied in Kenya palm-thatched roofs from May 1973 to July 1974. Roosting social organization and related activities and behavior are described. ♂♂ held diurnal roosting territories where ♀♀ gathered in small and compositionally labile groups, attracted to the most vocal ♂♂. Annual variation in population-wide aspects of social organization follows predictable seasonal changes in climate and predator abundance. Variability between individuals follows a common mammalian pattern: high male competition for ♀, variance in presumed male reproductive success, and a mating system resembling one based on resource defense polygyny. Social organization in this population contrasts with that known from studies of other P. nanus populations.

  2. Operator's and insurer's relationship with social security organizations in the course of individual damage compensation procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deprimoz, Jacques.

    1995-01-01

    The Paris and Vienna Conventions internationally agreeded that health care and hospitalization guarantee and disability pension or death due to victim's outside the nuclear installations, as well as the organization funds contributions should be fixed by the internal rights of each Signatory Part. The present study, applicable to nine countries (Germany, Belgium, Brazil, France, Italy, Low Countries, United Kingdom, Sweden and Switzerland) sets up that the social security levels are more or less high and that the charges contributions could be important in countries under subrogation, even reduced or null in countries under imputation. In cases of transfrontier accidents, the contributions extension relies on harmonized rights with the social security organizations of victim's countries. Each indenominity victim's dossier could take a long time. The study concludes that the regulatory services of the social security organizations and their responsible operators or substitutes insurers should coordinate their interventions by using the information system

  3. ORGANIC PRODUCTION IN UKRAINE: PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS IN CONTEXT OF SOCIAL ORIENTED ENTEPRENEURSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Chornous

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Practical realization of sustainable development general conception is passing to the organic production, that allows to satisfy society problems, not putting health and future generations' existence under a threat. At this entrepreneurs, which work in the consumer products' field, must displace accents from economic oriented to social oriented entrepreneurship. The article is dedicated to research negative and positive factors that influence on social oriented Ukrainian enterprises in the sphere of organic goods production. The special attention is attended to the analysis of foodstuffs producers' activity, the results of which have considerable direct influence on consumers' health. The value of informative influences on consumers and producers is analyzed. State support directions of organic goods production, creation of internal market ecologically safe products infrastructure are defined. Recommendations are given according to research results in relation to stimulation social responsibility of businessmen and model forming, which combines interests of consumers and producers, environmental preservation, population health refinement and ecological situation improvement.

  4. Action Categories in Lateral Occipitotemporal Cortex Are Organized Along Sociality and Transitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurm, Moritz F; Caramazza, Alfonso; Lingnau, Angelika

    2017-01-18

    How neural specificity for distinct conceptual knowledge categories arises is central for understanding the organization of semantic memory in the human brain. Although there is a large body of research on the neural processing of distinct object categories, the organization of action categories remains largely unknown. In particular, it is unknown whether different action categories follow a specific topographical organization on the cortical surface analogously to the category-specific organization of object knowledge. Here, we tested whether the neural representation of action knowledge is organized in terms of nonsocial versus social and object-unrelated versus object-related actions (sociality and transitivity, respectively, hereafter). We hypothesized a major distinction of sociality and transitivity along dorsal and ventral lateral occipitotemporal cortex (LOTC), respectively. Using fMRI-based multivoxel pattern analysis, we identified neural representations of action information associated with sociality and transitivity in bilateral LOTC. Representational similarity analysis revealed a dissociation between dorsal and ventral LOTC. We found that action representations in dorsal LOTC are segregated along features of sociality, whereas action representations in ventral LOTC are segregated along features of transitivity. In addition, representations of sociality and transitivity features were found more anteriorly in LOTC than representations of specific subtypes of actions, suggesting a posterior-anterior gradient from concrete to abstract action features. These findings elucidate how the neural representations of perceptually and conceptually diverse actions are organized in distinct subsystems in the LOTC. The lateral occipitotemporal cortex (LOTC) is critically involved in the recognition of objects and actions, but our knowledge about the underlying organizing principles is limited. Here, we discovered a dorsal-ventral distinction of actions in LOTC

  5. The impact of social organizations on HIV/AIDS prevention knowledge among migrants in Hefei, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenting; Chen, Ren; Ma, Ying; Sun, Xuehui; Qin, Xia; Hu, Zhi

    2018-04-25

    There is a growing recognition of the need to provide HIV/AIDS prevention and care to migrant workers. Social involvement, a type of social capital, is considered a 'critical enabler' of effective HIV/AIDS prevention. Designated participation in formal community groups by the government (e.g., political parties) and informal, voluntary local networks by NGOs (e.g., alumni association, cultural & sports club) play different roles in HIV prevention. The objective of this study is to assess the impact of different types of social organizations on HIV/AIDS prevention knowledge among migrant workers. A cross-sectional study of 758 migrants was conducted in Hefei, Anhui Province, China. Data were collected through a self-reported questionnaire. Logistic regression was used to assess associations between different social organizations and HIV/AIDS prevention. Migrants who participated in social organizations had a higher awareness of HIV/AIDS knowledge than migrants who do not participate in social organizations. Higher levels of HIV/AIDS knowledge is associated with positive HIV/AIDS behaviors for people who attended political parties (odds ratio [OR] = 3.49, 95% CI: 1.22-9.99). This effect is not significant for alumni association. For both political parties and alumni association members (OR = 0.19, 95% CI: 0.06-0.66, OR = 0.20, 95% CI: 0.08-0.61, respectively), people who exhibited higher levels of HIV/AIDS knowledge had more negative attitudes than those with less knowledge. Social organizations play an important role in improving HIV/AIDS knowledge and behavior in migrants, providing a great opportunity for HIV/AIDS prevention.

  6. Proposing a Model for Successful Application of Knowledge Sharing II (Social Knowledge Sharing) within Organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Mehdi Shamizanjani; Seyed Mohammad Ghasemtabar Shahri

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of this research is the development of a success model of Knowledge Sharing 2.0 (social knowledge sharing) through organizations. A three-step strategy is used in this research as stated below: In the first step, identification of social software and extraction of factors effective on success of each for knowledge sharing were obtained from literature review. Execution of Delphi method and identification of critical factors were done in the second step. At l...

  7. Ethics and corporate social responsibility - a strategic approach within the organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmina Simion Simescu Martinho Nunes

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Today, all organizations in the world should recognize the importance and need to take into account concepts such as: ethical, moral, ethical programs, ethical behavior, social responsibility, equity and also try to implement in their organizational culture. So tackling business ethics and social responsibility is an issue today, not only theoretically but also in that of practice. This article explains how several important dimensions of organizational culture may influence the effectiveness and ethics initiatives in the corporate responsibility shock.

  8. Ethics and corporate social responsibility - a strategic approach within the organization

    OpenAIRE

    Carmina Simion Simescu Martinho Nunes; Alexandra Simion Simescu

    2010-01-01

    Today, all organizations in the world should recognize the importance and need to take into account concepts such as: ethical, moral, ethical programs, ethical behavior, social responsibility, equity and also try to implement in their organizational culture. So tackling business ethics and social responsibility is an issue today, not only theoretically but also in that of practice. This article explains how several important dimensions of organizational culture may influence the effectiveness...

  9. Social Media Analysis For Organizations: Us Northeastern Public And State Libraries Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Collins, Matthew; Karami, Amir

    2018-01-01

    Social networking sites such as Twitter have provided a great opportunity for organizations such as public libraries to disseminate information for public relations purposes. However, there is a need to analyze vast amounts of social media data. This study presents a computational approach to explore the content of tweets posted by nine public libraries in the northeastern United States of America. In December 2017, this study extracted more than 19,000 tweets from the Twitter accounts of sev...

  10. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Beliefs Toward Organ Donation Among Social Media Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajjar, W M; Bin Abdulqader, S A; Aldayel, S S; Alfardan, A W; Alzaidy, N I

    2016-09-01

    Organ transplantation is the optimal treatment for end-stage organ diseases. The demand for organs has exceeded the available supply, which becomes a major obstacle worldwide. Identifying the factors affecting this gap will help in overcoming this obstacle. The purpose of the work was to study the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of organ donation and to determine the knowledge of brain death among social media users. A cross-sectional study was conducted among social media users living in Saudi Arabia. A pre-designed self-administrated questionnaire was distributed online randomly on social media networks in 2015. Of the total 1368 participants, only 913 met the criteria. Most respondents were between 18 and 29 years of age (61.2%) and living in the central region of Saudi Arabia (64.5%). The majority of respondents received their information from television (57%) and social media (50%) networks; 46.4% of respondents knew that the religious fatwa allowed organ donation; 51% of respondents were willing to donate their organs; 46.5% considered the brain-dead to be deceased, whereas 37.7% considered it a coma; 33.3% did not know if someone who was brain-dead would ever wake up; on the other hand, 323 (35.4%) said yes. Our study showed that the vast majority of our sample had enough information about organ donation. On the contrary, they had minimal knowledge about brain death. Moreover, a fair percentage of the participants had positive attitudes toward organ donation. Also, the media had a significant effect on the information about organ donation and brain death. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Organ Donation in Brazil: Analysis of Governmental Campaigns Under the Perspective of Social Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Benedito Oliveira Rezende

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Focus on Social Marketing: An analysis of the governmental campaigns about donation of organs in Brazil. Currently in Brazil the demand of organ donation is higher than the offer of them. Although the relevant legislation, which is identified in the country is a high demand of people waiting for a compatible organ donor and , on the other hand, a low supply of possible potential donors. Before this situation, the following research has as an objective to analyze the perspective of donors and potential organ donors in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil concerning social marketing strategies used by the government. To do so, a research in quantitative and qualitative approach was done. The data in the quantitative part was collected directly through a survey done with 412 individuals and for the qualitative part, 23 semi-structured interviews with people directly involved in the process of organ donation were held. The results indicate that one of the main factors which interfere negatively in the intention of donating organs is related to safety matters. It emphasizes, still, a low perception concerning the efficiency of social marketing campaigns towards organ donation. Yet, according to the interviewees , such campaigns should merge calls negative and positive in order to provide individuals in addition to the emotional awareness , emotional or cognitive imbalances.

  12. Students' use of social software in self-organized learning environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiasen, Helle; Dalsgaard, Christian

    2006-01-01

    The paper will argue that new possibilities of digital media, especially social software, have a potential regarding development of self-organized learning environments and facilitating self-governed activities. Based on a sociological perspective, the paper will clarify the concepts of informal...... and formal learning used in this paper. It is argued that formal and informal conditions of learning can supplement each other within an educational setting. A formal setting of project work forms the basis of informal, selfgoverned activities of students. The paper will argue that social software tools can...... support students' self-governed activities and their development of self-organized learning environments....

  13. A question of fit: reflections on boundaries, organizations and social-ecological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternlieb, Faith; Bixler, R Patrick; Huber-Stearns, Heidi; Huayhuaca, Ch'aska

    2013-11-30

    Although there is acknowledgment that the complexity of social-ecological systems governance demands representation from diverse perspectives, there is little agreement in the literature on how to cross both fiat (human-demarcated) and bona fide (physical) boundaries to address such complexities. As a cohort of interdisciplinary scholars, we navigate the boundary between science and practice to address the question of fit regarding the role of organizations in transcending boundaries. We found there is a need to rectify discrepancies between theories about boundaries and theories about organizations. To this end, we propose a conceptual framework to analyze transboundary organizations, an umbrella term to group the literature on boundary organizations, intermediaries and bridging organizations; we introduce this term to illustrate they are not mutually exclusive and to facilitate interdisciplinary research. We first examine social-ecological systems (SES), a framework intended to improve understandings of boundaries and governance. We then continue to unpack the complexity of boundaries and organizations, specifically through important transboundary concepts such as scale and organizational learning. This helps frame our examination of the literature on: 1) boundary organizations; 2) bridging organizations (third-party entities); and 3) intermediaries (distinguished by their position between other actors). Our review identifies a number of discrepancies that pertain to the types of boundaries discussed and the roles assigned to organizations governing SES. Important characteristics have emerged from our review of transboundary organizations including legitimacy, saliency, urgency, and credibility. In developing a conceptual framework, we argue that transboundary organizations: 1) expand upon the boundary spectrum, 2) incorporate transboundary concepts, and 3) hybridize characteristics of boundary, bridging, and intermediary organizations. We conclude with a number

  14. The organization of Romanian social memory after the December 1989 events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin-Ovidiu Craiu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The social memory phenomenon causes debates nowadays, puts in opposition methodological schools, generates a series of incompatible theoretical positions. Proof that the concept of “social memory” “lived” its first age are the numerous research which regards the phenomenon, studies which led either to new theories of social memory (the theory of the organization of memory according to culture and interests is one of the acknowledged theories from which it starts in the development of the subject, or they certified the ones established until then. The present paper proposes as its objective to evaluate the factors which led to the readjustment of the social memory of the Romanian people after the events from 1989. I consider that the social memory can be organized under the influence of factors which acts unitary. As a result, I will analyze the connection between the political factor (decision – maker agents that can influence some contents of the collective memory and the social one (the public opinion of the group that undergoes major alterations regarding the contents of memory. I initiated the investigation approach from the observation that certain contents of the social memory resignify themselves through the direct influence of the social group, the power structure having the role of putting into practice the community’s “desire”. The necessity of a unitary co-operation between the community and the decision factor for the achievement of a new mnezic construction is imperative. For that purpose, I will analyze the effects of the non-unitary actions of these factors against the social memory, being known that not always the decision factor and the social factor (the community have the same attitudes towards certain mnesic contents. One can observe certain patterns concerning the organization of social memory in relation to these two factors, being analyzed the intentionality (what the two parts desire and the purpose (the

  15. Examining social work with children and youth in welfare service organizations observed as hybrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montes de Oca, Lis Klovning Hansen

    This paper seeks to explore social work as it can be observed in the welfare service organizations of Danish municipalities, specifically within the context of social work concerned with the protection of the child at risk. The paper uses the systems theory of Niklas Luh-mann to elaborate...... within the welfare system of child protection can be said to emerge into a different form than (maybe) other welfare services. The explorative curiosity rises from recognition of the economic systems expansion and dominant semantics within social services, specifically child protection and how social...... workers may and may not refer to this as potential conflict using semantics of conflict. Welfare technologies as for instance the law stipulated “child conversation”, budget control and action plans form the preliminary basis of the decision-making process of a social intervention regarding a child...

  16. Hierarchical wave functions revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Dingping.

    1997-11-01

    We study the hierarchical wave functions on a sphere and on a torus. We simplify some wave functions on a sphere or a torus using the analytic properties of wave functions. The open question, the construction of the wave function for quasi electron excitation on a torus, is also solved in this paper. (author)

  17. Hierarchical Porous Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grote, Christopher John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-07

    Materials Design is often at the forefront of technological innovation. While there has always been a push to generate increasingly low density materials, such as aero or hydrogels, more recently the idea of bicontinuous structures has gone more into play. This review will cover some of the methods and applications for generating both porous, and hierarchically porous structures.

  18. The Hierarchical Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Sofron

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on the hierarchical perspective, one of the methods for representing space that was used before the discovery of the Renaissance linear perspective. The hierarchical perspective has a more or less pronounced scientific character and its study offers us a clear image of the way the representatives of the cultures that developed it used to perceive the sensitive reality. This type of perspective is an original method of representing three-dimensional space on a flat surface, which characterises the art of Ancient Egypt and much of the art of the Middle Ages, being identified in the Eastern European Byzantine art, as well as in the Western European Pre-Romanesque and Romanesque art. At the same time, the hierarchical perspective is also present in naive painting and infantile drawing. Reminiscences of this method can be recognised also in the works of some precursors of the Italian Renaissance. The hierarchical perspective can be viewed as a subjective ranking criterion, according to which the elements are visually represented by taking into account their relevance within the image while perception is ignored. This paper aims to show how the main objective of the artists of those times was not to faithfully represent the objective reality, but rather to emphasize the essence of the world and its perennial aspects. This may represent a possible explanation for the refusal of perspective in the Egyptian, Romanesque and Byzantine painting, characterised by a marked two-dimensionality.

  19. Individual psychological and social risk factors for violent criminal behavior in adolescents with organic mental disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Zubkova A.A.; Oshevsky D.S.

    2016-01-01

    The article describes the risk factors for criminal aggression in adolescents with an organic mental disorder depending on the level of social deviations or severity of pathopsychological factor. The study involved 113 male adolescents aged 15 to 17 years. The main group consisted of juvenile offenders with organic mental disorder. We used the methods of investigation to determine the individual psychological characteristics, we also used structured risk assessment methods. It is shown that r...

  20. Stress and turnover intent in international organizations: social support and work life balance as resources

    OpenAIRE

    Giauque, David; Anderfuhren-Biget, Simon; Varone, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates whether work opportunities have an impact on stress and the related turnover intentions of employees working in intergovernmental international organizations. It contextualizes the job resources and demands model within international organizations’ specific work conditions. The empirical test is based on original data from a survey administered in four major organizations of the United Nations system. Results demonstrate that social work opportunities and work-life bal...

  1. [The concept of the organ, as a hierarchal unit of human body, and its place in teaching histology at the medical university and medical college].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miadelets, O D; Miadelets, N Ia; Miadelets, V O

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with the methodological aspects of teaching histology at the medical university and medical college. The authors raise the issue of the necessity of teaching of the topic "Introduction to Special Histology" and the inclusion of the appropriate chapter into the textbooks. This is important for the students, as the formation of the general concepts of organ structure and function, components, and classification will aid in the further study of specific organs during the course of Special Histology. The authors describe their own experience in teaching of the section, dedicated to the general regularities of organ structure, present some definitions and classifications that are used by them for a number of years.

  2. The role of non-governmental organizations in the social and the health system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowicz, Maria; Cianciara, Dorota

    2013-01-01

    The article presents the definitions, objectives, fields and tasks of non-governmental organizations in social life, health system and health policy. In addition, the article addresses the issue of effectiveness and quality of NGOs' activity. The term "NGOs" (Non-governmental Organizations) includes different categories of entities that operate not to obtain financial gain, and also do not belong to the government sector. Non-governmental Organizations' fields of activity were described in the International Classification of Non-Profit Organizations (ICNPO). NGOs are an integral part of a democratic society. Sociological sciences emphasize their importance in enhancing social integration, implementation of the principle of subsidiarity, building civil society, social dialogue and participatory democracy. The main tasks of NGOs in the health system are providing services and health advocacy. Provision of services includes medical, social and psychological services as well as, integration activities, care and nursing, material and financial support, educational and information services and training. Health advocacy is a combination of individual and social actions designed to gain political commitment, policy support, social acceptance and systems support for a particular health goal or program. An important task carried out by NGOs is participation in the formation of health policy. The increasing role of NGOs in providing social services and the participation in political processes, result in the need to confirm the validity and credibility of their operation. One of the ways could be to introduce the mechanisms to assess quality and efficiency, such as registration as a part of a legal system, self-regulatory activities (card rules, codes of ethics), certification, participation in networks, monitoring and audit.

  3. The contribution of genetics and early rearing experiences to hierarchical personality dimensions in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latzman, Robert D.; Freeman, Hani D.; Schapiro, Steven J.; Hopkins, William D.

    2015-01-01

    A reliable literature finds that traits are related to each other in an organized hierarchy encompassing various conceptualizations of personality (e.g., Big Three, Five Factor Model). Recent work suggests the potential of a similar organization among our closest nonhuman relative, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), with significant links to neurobiology suggesting an evolutionarily- and neurobiologically-based hierarchical structure of personality. The current study investigated this hierarchical structure, the heritability of the various personality dimensions across levels of the hierarchy, and associations with early social rearing experience in a large sample (N = 238) of socially-housed, captive chimpanzees residing in two independent colonies of apes. Results provide support for a hierarchical structure of personality in chimpanzees with significant associations with early rearing experiences. Further, heritabilities of the various dimensions varied by early rearing, with affective dimensions found to be significantly heritable among mother-reared apes, while personality dimensions were largely independent of relatedness among the nursery-reared apes. Taken together, these findings provide evidence for the influence of both genetic and environmental factors on personality profiles across levels of the hierarchy, supporting the importance of considering environmental variation in models of quantitative trait evolution. PMID:25915132

  4. A Response to Anastas and Coffey: The Science of Social Work and Its Relationship to Social Work Education and Professional Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voisin, Dexter R.; Wong, Marleen; Samuels, Gina Miranda

    2014-01-01

    Relationships are central to the profession of social work; relationships with allied disciplines, among professional social work organizations, and between classroom and field education. However, embedded within these relationships are historical tensions, and contemporary opportunities that can advance both the science of social work and the…

  5. Multicollinearity in hierarchical linear models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Han; Jiang, Shanhe; Land, Kenneth C

    2015-09-01

    This study investigates an ill-posed problem (multicollinearity) in Hierarchical Linear Models from both the data and the model perspectives. We propose an intuitive, effective approach to diagnosing the presence of multicollinearity and its remedies in this class of models. A simulation study demonstrates the impacts of multicollinearity on coefficient estimates, associated standard errors, and variance components at various levels of multicollinearity for finite sample sizes typical in social science studies. We further investigate the role multicollinearity plays at each level for estimation of coefficient parameters in terms of shrinkage. Based on these analyses, we recommend a top-down method for assessing multicollinearity in HLMs that first examines the contextual predictors (Level-2 in a two-level model) and then the individual predictors (Level-1) and uses the results for data collection, research problem redefinition, model re-specification, variable selection and estimation of a final model. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Hierarchically nested river landform sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasternack, G. B.; Weber, M. D.; Brown, R. A.; Baig, D.

    2017-12-01

    River corridors exhibit landforms nested within landforms repeatedly down spatial scales. In this study we developed, tested, and implemented a new way to create river classifications by mapping domains of fluvial processes with respect to the hierarchical organization of topographic complexity that drives fluvial dynamism. We tested this approach on flow convergence routing, a morphodynamic mechanism with different states depending on the structure of nondimensional topographic variability. Five nondimensional landform types with unique functionality (nozzle, wide bar, normal channel, constricted pool, and oversized) represent this process at any flow. When this typology is nested at base flow, bankfull, and floodprone scales it creates a system with up to 125 functional types. This shows how a single mechanism produces complex dynamism via nesting. Given the classification, we answered nine specific scientific questions to investigate the abundance, sequencing, and hierarchical nesting of these new landform types using a 35-km gravel/cobble river segment of the Yuba River in California. The nested structure of flow convergence routing landforms found in this study revealed that bankfull landforms are nested within specific floodprone valley landform types, and these types control bankfull morphodynamics during moderate to large floods. As a result, this study calls into question the prevailing theory that the bankfull channel of a gravel/cobble river is controlled by in-channel, bankfull, and/or small flood flows. Such flows are too small to initiate widespread sediment transport in a gravel/cobble river with topographic complexity.

  7. Stability of glassy hierarchical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, M.; Camargo-Forero, L.; Vicsek, T.

    2018-02-01

    The structure of interactions in most animal and human societies can be best represented by complex hierarchical networks. In order to maintain close-to-optimal function both stability and adaptability are necessary. Here we investigate the stability of hierarchical networks that emerge from the simulations of an organization type with an efficiency function reminiscent of the Hamiltonian of spin glasses. Using this quantitative approach we find a number of expected (from everyday observations) and highly non-trivial results for the obtained locally optimal networks, including, for example: (i) stability increases with growing efficiency and level of hierarchy; (ii) the same perturbation results in a larger change for more efficient states; (iii) networks with a lower level of hierarchy become more efficient after perturbation; (iv) due to the huge number of possible optimal states only a small fraction of them exhibit resilience and, finally, (v) ‘attacks’ targeting the nodes selectively (regarding their position in the hierarchy) can result in paradoxical outcomes.

  8. Hierarchical organisation of causal graphs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dziopa, P.

    1993-01-01

    This paper deals with the design of a supervision system using a hierarchy of models formed by graphs, in which the variables are the nodes and the causal relations between the variables of the arcs. To obtain a representation of the variables evolutions which contains only the relevant features of their real evolutions, the causal relations are completed with qualitative transfer functions (QTFs) which produce roughly the behaviour of the classical transfer functions. Major improvements have been made in the building of the hierarchical organization. First, the basic variables of the uppermost level and the causal relations between them are chosen. The next graph is built by adding intermediary variables to the upper graph. When the undermost graph has been built, the transfer functions parameters corresponding to its causal relations are identified. The second task consists in the upwelling of the information from the undermost graph to the uppermost one. A fusion procedure of the causal relations has been designed to compute the QFTs relevant for each level. This procedure aims to reduce the number of parameters needed to represent an evolution at a high level of abstraction. These techniques have been applied to the hierarchical modelling of nuclear process. (authors). 8 refs., 12 figs

  9. Vomeronasal organ lesion disrupts social odor recognition, behaviors and fitness in golden hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yingjuan; Zhang, Jinhua; Liu, Dingzhen; Zhang, Jianxu

    2014-06-01

    Most studies support the viewpoint that the vomeronasal organ has a profound effect on conspecific odor recognition, scent marking and mating behavior in the golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus). However, the role of the vomeronasal organ in social odor recognition, social interaction and fitness is not well understood. Therefore, we conducted a series of behavioral and physiological tests to examine the referred points in golden hamster. We found that male hamsters with vomeronasal organ lesion showed no preference between a predator odor (the anal gland secretion of the Siberian weasels (Mustela sibirica) and putative female pheromone components (myristic acid and palmitic acid), but were still able to discriminate between these 2 kinds of odors. In behavioral tests of anxiety, we found that vomeronasal organ removal causes female hamsters to spend much less time in center grids and to cross fewer center grids and males to make fewer crossings between light and dark boxes than sham-operated controls. This indicates that a chronic vomeronasal organ lesion induced anxious responses in females. In aggressive behavioral tests, we found that a chronic vomeronasal organ lesion decreased agonistic behavior in female hamsters but not in males. The pup growth and litter size show no differences between the 2 groups. All together, our data suggested that vomeronasal organ ablation disrupted the olfactory recognition of social chemosignals in males, and induced anxiety-like and aggressive behavior changes in females. However, a vomeronasal organ lesion did not affect the reproductive capacity and fitness of hamsters. Our studies may have important implications concerning the role of the vomeronasal organ in golden hamsters and also in rodents. © 2013 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  10. Social Organization of Classes and Schools. Issue Paper 89-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florio-Ruane, Susan

    This paper describes the importance of knowledge about the social organization of schools and classrooms for beginning teachers. The paper begins with a consideration of schools and classrooms as cultural settings and examines the beginning teacher's role within them. The remaining sections of the paper examine the interweaving of school social…

  11. Building Social Change Oriented Leadership Capacity Among Student Organizations: Developing Students and Campuses Simultaneously.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kezar, Adrianna; Acuña Avilez, Arely; Drivalas, Yianna; Wheaton, Marissiko M

    2017-09-01

    This chapter highlights nontraditional forms of leadership development in student organizations. Using the social change model for leadership as a framework, the authors discuss the ways in which collectivist and activist approaches can result in similar skills obtained through traditional forms of leadership development. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  12. Community Social Organization: A Conceptual Linchpin in Examining Families in the Context of Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Jay A.; Bowen, Gary L.; Martin, James A.

    2005-01-01

    The concept of social organization provides an important framework for understanding families in the context of communities and focuses our attention on norms, networks, and associated processes that typify community life. We discuss the significance of community for understanding family outcomes, discuss challenges in defining community context,…

  13. Practicing Social Innovation: Enactment of the Employee–Organization Relationship by Employees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijerink, Jeroen Gerard; Bondarouk, Tanya; Olivas-Lujan, Miguel R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this conceptual study is to explain the way in which employees influence social innovation in the employee–organization relationship, such as job crafting, i-deals, New World of Work, talent management, or high performance work practices. Methodology/Approach This study

  14. Creating sustainability : the social construction of the market for organic products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miele, M.

    2001-01-01

    Creating Sustainability: The Social Construction of the Market for Organic Products

    Chapter N. 1: Reflections on globalisation

    This chapter starts with some reflection on the concept of globalisation and reviews the literature

  15. Compromising social justice in fairtrade? : Case study of a fairtrade organization in India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Das (Ranjana)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThe study investigates whether Fair Trade Organizations (FTOs) are able to adhere to their principles of social justice and development goals as they enter mainstream markets which are dominated by neo-liberalism, unequal terms of trade and propagation of the "free market" principle.

  16. Participation in Organized Activities and Conduct Problems in Elementary School: The Mediating Effect of Social Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denault, Anne-Sophie; Déry, Michèle

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to test a mediation model in which social skills mediate the relationship between participation in organized activities and conduct problems among elementary school children. Two moderators of these associations were also examined, namely, gender and reception of special education services. A total of 563 children (45%…

  17. Positive Deviance during Organization Change: Researchers' Social Construction of Expanded University Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Claire Euline

    2013-01-01

    Many universities have expanded from teaching only to include research goals, requiring shifts in organization behavior. An exploratory case study method was used to examine these dynamics among positive deviant researchers at the University of Technology, Jamaica (UTech), the single case examined, from a social construction perspective. As a…

  18. Organizing Corporate Social Responsibility in Small and Large Firms: Size Matters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baumann-Pauly, D.; Wickert, C.M.J.; Spence, L.; Scherer, A.G.

    2013-01-01

    Based on the findings of a qualitative empirical study of corporate social responsibility (CSR) in Swiss MNCs and SMEs, we suggest that smaller firms are not necessarily less advanced in organizing CSR than large firms. Results according to theoretically derived assessment frameworks illustrate the

  19. Effectiveness of physical, social and digital mechanisms against laptop theft in open organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dimkov, T.; Pieters, Wolter; Hartel, Pieter H.

    2010-01-01

    Organizations rely on physical, digital and social mechanisms to protect their IT systems. Of all IT systems, laptops are probably the most troublesome to protect, since they are easy to remove and conceal. When the thief has physical possession of the laptop, it is also difficult to protect the

  20. Actively Closing the Gap? Social Class, Organized Activities, and Academic Achievement in High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Participation in Organized Activities (OA) is associated with positive behavioral and developmental outcomes in children. However, less is known about how particular aspects of participation affect the academic achievement of high school students from different social class positions. Using the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002, this study…

  1. Challenges to the Learning Organization in the Context of Generational Diversity and Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminska, Renata; Borzillo, Stefano

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to gain a better understanding of the challenges to the emergence of a learning organization (LO) posed by a context of generational diversity and an enterprise social networking system (ESNS). Design/methodology/approach: This study uses a qualitative methodology based on an analysis of 20 semi-structured…

  2. Full Access Unidirectionality in the Phylogeny of Social Organization, With Special Reference To Birds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rhijn, J.G.

    1990-01-01

    Ecological explanations for the diversity in parental care patterns and social organization in certain taxonomic groups of birds are not fully satisfactory. They need to be supplemented by phylogenetic explanations. In this article I discussed some aspects of the latter type of explanations,

  3. Tools Beyond Control: Social Media and the Work of Advocacy Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis E. Hestres

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Advocacy organizations rely on social media services, such as Facebook and Twitter, to engage their supporters. These services increasingly influence how citizens and advocacy organizations engage politically online through the technical features and policies they choose to implement—a phenomenon that can sometimes disrupt the work of advocates. Interviews with digital strategists at several US advocacy organizations revealed low levels of awareness of this phenomenon, despite its potential impact on their work; substantial dependence on these services for advocacy work; and a shared sense of necessity to embrace these tools, despite their potential downsides. Implications for the scholarship and practice of Internet governance and digitally mediated advocacy are discussed.

  4. [The social hygienic model of organization of preventive activities concerning rural population of the Omskaia oblast].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berehnoii, V G

    2016-01-01

    The study was carried out concerning environmental factors and social hygienic portrait of rural residents. The analysis determined environmental, social and behavioral risk factors of health. The pathologies of risk for rural residents were substantiated. In conditions of degradation of accessibility of medical care to inhabitants residing outside of district centers specified by decreasing of capacity of hospital medical care and decreasing of accessibility of out-patient services, the visiting trips of physicians ’ teams and activities concerning development of hygienic literacy were organized in 2012-2014. This approach permitted ameliorating health indices and organization of medical care for the given category of citizen, including positive results in decreasing of mortality, timely diagnostic of diseases, reduction of number of emergency operations in central district hospitals and attenuation of intensity of impact of regulative risk factors. All this determined in the upshot social and economic effectiveness of advanced model of prevention of health disorders of rural residents.

  5. Socio-Educational Work in Social Service in Gramscian thinking: the Organic Intellectual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Giaqueto Jacinto

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This essay addresses the contribution of Gramscian thinking to social service using as a reference the apprehension of the relations between politics and culture, with an emphasis on the educational dimension of the work of social assistants. The central questioning is: can social assistants, as professionals who work with the class that has been expropriated of its basic rights, assume the role of organic intellectuals, in the Gramscian concept? It uses the history of the life and work of Gramsci to situate the concept of the organic intellectual and his relationship with other contents imbricated in the theme of politics and culture, reflecting on the expansion of the understanding of pedagogical practice, grasping it in the broad process of the class struggles, linked to the issue of hegemony.

  6. Social organization influences the exchange and species richness of medicinal plants in Amazonian homegardens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Medicinal plants provide indigenous and peasant communities worldwide with means to meet their healthcare needs. Homegardens often act as medicine cabinets, providing easily accessible medicinal plants for household needs. Social structure and social exchanges have been proposed as factors influencing the species diversity that people maintain in their homegardens. Here, we assess the association between the exchange of medicinal knowledge and plant material and medicinal plant richness in homegardens. Using Tsimane' Amazonian homegardens as a case study, we explore whether social organization shapes exchanges of medicinal plant knowledge and medicinal plant material. We also use network centrality measures to evaluate people's location and performance in medicinal plant knowledge and plant material exchange networks. Our results suggest that social organization, specifically kinship and gender relations, influences medicinal plant exchange patterns significantly. Homegardens total and medicinal plant species richness are related to gardeners' centrality in the networks, whereby people with greater centrality maintain greater plant richness. Thus, together with agroecological conditions, social relations among gardeners and the culturally specific social structure seem to be important determinants of plant richness in homegardens. Understanding which factors pattern general species diversity in tropical homegardens, and medicinal plant diversity in particular, can help policy makers, health providers, and local communities to understand better how to promote and preserve medicinal plants in situ. Biocultural approaches that are also gender sensitive offer a culturally appropriate means to reduce the global and local loss of both biological and cultural diversity.

  7. Network communities as a new form of social organization in conditions of postmodern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Burmaha

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the approach to interpretation of essence of the network community concept in which we propose to consider it as a new form of social organization that is substantiated by the specificity of how our society is functioning in conditions of Postmodern. There were explored two main approaches to network communities studying: the first approach considers social networks in a classic, traditional interpretation of modernity as a special kind of social structure, and the second one represents social networks as a specific virtual formation, a social structure of virtual Internet reality. There were revealed some common features of a social organization and a network community: presence of permanent communication between members of the group, united by certain common interests and goals, as well as presence of the certain hierarchy among all members of the community, and the rules of conduct, implementation of communication. Distinctive features: network community is more informal, offers its members considerable leeway in the implementation of their own goals and satisfying the needs, full virtualization of communication absence of direct interaction during communication, under conditions where the main resource for the interchange in network communities is information. It was shown that in the process of emergence, development and distribution of network communities, the fundamental role is played by modern communications - namely, unification them in a stable set of interconnected networks and, in particular network communities.

  8. An empirical investigation on how social responsibility changes between public and private organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Rashidpour

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Organization theory often focuses on stakeholders’ interests as well as the organization's social responsibility and while the focus is normally more on private organizations, but these issues must be considered in public organizations as well. People expect the public organizations to think and to act more generally. The purpose of this study is to compare the tendencies of private and public organizations in the field of social responsibility. This is an applied research and is a descriptive-survey study in terms of research method. The statistical population of this study covers all 670 managers of private and public organizations of city of Tehran, Iran. Using Morgan table and by conducing stratified sampling, a sample size of 140 was selected. Data gathering tool was a questionnaire consisted of 18 items. To confirm the questionnaire validity, we obtained the experts’ opinions on acceptable face validity and content validity. To evaluate the questionnaire reliability, the Cronbach's alpha was used (alpha coefficient = .88. Research hypotheses were tested using independent t-test and all of them were confirmed.

  9. Gaps in Perception on Social Media Use in Crisis Communication Between Vietnamese Organizations and Stakeholders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuong-Minh Ly-Le

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite the emergence of social media in many aspects of Vietnamese lives, including marketing and promotional activities, Vietnamese organizations have used little social media in their crisis communication efforts. The organizations are hesitant to adopt social media in crisis communication and prefer to use traditional media because of its controllability and professionalism. However, with the increasing number of organizational crises that started on social media in the past years, it is arguably that Vietnamese stakeholders use social media as one of their main communication channels during crises. Should the organizations use social media in response? Through a series of interviews to PR practitioners and stakeholders in Vietnam, this research aims to find out the similarities and gaps in the perception of social media use for crisis communication between these two groups, and to guide a crisis communication practice that is appreciated by stakeholders.   Bahasa Indonesia Abstrak: Meskipun munculnya media sosial dalam banyak aspek kehidupan Vietnam, termasuk kegiatan pemasaran dan promosi, organisasi Vietnam telah menggunakan sedikit media sosial dalam upaya komunikasi krisis mereka. Organisasi ragu-ragu untuk mengadopsi media sosial dalam komunikasi krisis dan lebih suka menggunakan media tradisional karena pengendalian dan profesionalisme. Namun, dengan meningkatnya jumlah krisis organisasi yang dimulai di media sosial dalam beberapa tahun terakhir, dapat dibilang bahwa pemangku kepentingan Vietnam menggunakan media sosial sebagai salah satu saluran komunikasi utama mereka selama krisis. Haruskah organisasi menggunakan media sosial sebagai jawaban? Melalui serangkaian wawancara kepada praktisi PR dan pemangku kepentingan di Vietnam, penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui persamaan dan kesenjangan dalam persepsi penggunaan media sosial untuk komunikasi krisis antara kedua kelompok ini, dan untuk memandu praktik komunikasi krisis yang

  10. Corporate social responsibility as a competitive differential for the organizations success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Valdeci Primolan

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The success of a company isn’t entailed just to the success of its products or ser­vices. It is the result of a small successes series in a complex of articulations chain, people’s relationships and the way they lead their process inside and outside the company. Everyone, indiscriminately – employees, suppliers, customers, commu­nity and environment – they form an interdependence network which is the sup­port basis for a successful organization. In this context, this study aims a discussion concerning the importance of the corporative social responsibility as a competitive differential for the organizations success, taking it as an item of their strategy. The result of this bibliographically based piece of research show that the organizations that develops social responsibility actions differ from their competitors and arevalued by their clients.

  11. Organic Production Business Model and the Concept of Corporate Social Responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina ARABSKA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The concept of corporate social responsibility (CSR considering competitiveness and sustainability issues in contemporary globalizing world is closely linked to organic production being a production system applying holistic approaches in the overall management and production activities and assurance of the highest degree of conformability to sustainable use and preservation of resources. The paper examines the organic production as a business model corresponding to the spheres of CSR regarding society, environment, human capital and work conditions, knowledge and education. The focus in on sustainable business practices in organic production assessed in the study from the point of view of management, environment, human resources, public relations and business environment considered in five dimensions: economic, social, environmental, cultural and accountability.

  12. Hierarchical species distribution models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefley, Trevor J.; Hooten, Mevin B.

    2016-01-01

    Determining the distribution pattern of a species is important to increase scientific knowledge, inform management decisions, and conserve biodiversity. To infer spatial and temporal patterns, species distribution models have been developed for use with many sampling designs and types of data. Recently, it has been shown that count, presence-absence, and presence-only data can be conceptualized as arising from a point process distribution. Therefore, it is important to understand properties of the point process distribution. We examine how the hierarchical species distribution modeling framework has been used to incorporate a wide array of regression and theory-based components while accounting for the data collection process and making use of auxiliary information. The hierarchical modeling framework allows us to demonstrate how several commonly used species distribution models can be derived from the point process distribution, highlight areas of potential overlap between different models, and suggest areas where further research is needed.

  13. Bayesian nonparametric hierarchical modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunson, David B

    2009-04-01

    In biomedical research, hierarchical models are very widely used to accommodate dependence in multivariate and longitudinal data and for borrowing of information across data from different sources. A primary concern in hierarchical modeling is sensitivity to parametric assumptions, such as linearity and normality of the random effects. Parametric assumptions on latent variable distributions can be challenging to check and are typically unwarranted, given available prior knowledge. This article reviews some recent developments in Bayesian nonparametric methods motivated by complex, multivariate and functional data collected in biomedical studies. The author provides a brief review of flexible parametric approaches relying on finite mixtures and latent class modeling. Dirichlet process mixture models are motivated by the need to generalize these approaches to avoid assuming a fixed finite number of classes. Focusing on an epidemiology application, the author illustrates the practical utility and potential of nonparametric Bayes methods.

  14. The Socially Engaged Corporation - Attitudes and Knowledge Related to Collaboration with Non-Governmental Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karwacka Marta

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Collaboration between business and non-governmental organizations (NGOs is a relatively new phenomenon in the Polish market. It appears, however, that corporations recognized as socially responsible in Poland are starting to see greater benefits than before in collaboration with the third sector. More and more often, the collaboration involves an exchange of different resources and not merely sponsorship of specific events or social campaigns. The present study stresses the developmental aspect of the business-NGO collaboration. The collaboration by entities has been analyzed on the basis of recent literature dealing with sustainability management, Corporate Social Responsibility and business- NGO relations, and also on own research. The study discusses the conceptions of socially responsible corporations reaching new markets and customers on the basis of collaboration with NGOs.

  15. Hierarchically Structured Electrospun Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-07

    in the natural lotus and silver ragwort leaves. Figure 4. Examples of electrospun bio-mimics of natural hierarchical structures. (A) Lotus leaf...B) pillared poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) electrospun fiber mimic; (C) silver ragwort leaf; (D) electrospun fiber mimic made from nylon 6 and...domains containing the protein in the surrounding EVA fibers [115]. A wide variety of core-shell fibers have been generated, including PCL/ gelatin

  16. Flexible social organization and high incidence of drifting in the sweat bee, Halictus scabiosae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Yuko; Perrin, Nicolas; Chapuisat, Michel

    2009-04-01

    The very diverse social systems of sweat bees make them interesting models to study social evolution. Here we focus on the dispersal behaviour and social organization of Halictus scabiosae, a common yet poorly known species of Europe. By combining field observations and genetic data, we show that females have multiple reproductive strategies, which generates a large diversity in the social structure of nests. A detailed microsatellite analysis of 60 nests revealed that 55% of the nests contained the offspring of a single female, whereas the rest had more complex social structures, with three clear cases of multiple females reproducing in the same nest and frequent occurrence of unrelated individuals. Drifting among nests was surprisingly common, as 16% of the 122 nests in the overall sample and 44% of the nests with complex social structure contained females that had genotypes consistent with being full-sisters of females sampled in other nests of the population. Drifters originated from nests with an above-average productivity and were unrelated to their nestmates, suggesting that drifting might be a strategy to avoid competition among related females. The sex-specific comparison of genetic differentiation indicated that dispersal was male-biased, which would reinforce local resource competition among females. The pattern of genetic differentiation among populations was consistent with a dynamic process of patch colonization and extinction, as expected from the unstable, anthropogenic habitat of this species. Overall, our data show that H. scabiosae varies greatly in dispersal behaviour and social organization. The surprisingly high frequency of drifters echoes recent findings in wasps and bees, calling for further investigation of the adaptive basis of drifting in the social insects.

  17. Hierarchical video summarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratakonda, Krishna; Sezan, M. Ibrahim; Crinon, Regis J.

    1998-12-01

    We address the problem of key-frame summarization of vide in the absence of any a priori information about its content. This is a common problem that is encountered in home videos. We propose a hierarchical key-frame summarization algorithm where a coarse-to-fine key-frame summary is generated. A hierarchical key-frame summary facilitates multi-level browsing where the user can quickly discover the content of the video by accessing its coarsest but most compact summary and then view a desired segment of the video with increasingly more detail. At the finest level, the summary is generated on the basis of color features of video frames, using an extension of a recently proposed key-frame extraction algorithm. The finest level key-frames are recursively clustered using a novel pairwise K-means clustering approach with temporal consecutiveness constraint. We also address summarization of MPEG-2 compressed video without fully decoding the bitstream. We also propose efficient mechanisms that facilitate decoding the video when the hierarchical summary is utilized in browsing and playback of video segments starting at selected key-frames.

  18. Hierarchically Structured Electrospun Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole E. Zander

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional electrospun nanofibers have a myriad of applications ranging from scaffolds for tissue engineering to components of biosensors and energy harvesting devices. The generally smooth one-dimensional structure of the fibers has stood as a limitation to several interesting novel applications. Control of fiber diameter, porosity and collector geometry will be briefly discussed, as will more traditional methods for controlling fiber morphology and fiber mat architecture. The remainder of the review will focus on new techniques to prepare hierarchically structured fibers. Fibers with hierarchical primary structures—including helical, buckled, and beads-on-a-string fibers, as well as fibers with secondary structures, such as nanopores, nanopillars, nanorods, and internally structured fibers and their applications—will be discussed. These new materials with helical/buckled morphology are expected to possess unique optical and mechanical properties with possible applications for negative refractive index materials, highly stretchable/high-tensile-strength materials, and components in microelectromechanical devices. Core-shell type fibers enable a much wider variety of materials to be electrospun and are expected to be widely applied in the sensing, drug delivery/controlled release fields, and in the encapsulation of live cells for biological applications. Materials with a hierarchical secondary structure are expected to provide new superhydrophobic and self-cleaning materials.

  19. Hierarchical modularity in human brain functional networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Meunier

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The idea that complex systems have a hierarchical modular organization originates in the early 1960s and has recently attracted fresh support from quantitative studies of large scale, real-life networks. Here we investigate the hierarchical modular (or “modules-within-modules” decomposition of human brain functional networks, measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI in 18 healthy volunteers under no-task or resting conditions. We used a customized template to extract networks with more than 1800 regional nodes, and we applied a fast algorithm to identify nested modular structure at several hierarchical levels. We used mutual information, 0 < I < 1, to estimate the similarity of community structure of networks in different subjects, and to identify the individual network that is most representative of the group. Results show that human brain functional networks have a hierarchical modular organization with a fair degree of similarity between subjects, I=0.63. The largest 5 modules at the highest level of the hierarchy were medial occipital, lateral occipital, central, parieto-frontal and fronto-temporal systems; occipital modules demonstrated less sub-modular organization than modules comprising regions of multimodal association cortex. Connector nodes and hubs, with a key role in inter-modular connectivity, were also concentrated in association cortical areas. We conclude that methods are available for hierarchical modular decomposition of large numbers of high resolution brain functional networks using computationally expedient algorithms. This could enable future investigations of Simon's original hypothesis that hierarchy or near-decomposability of physical symbol systems is a critical design feature for their fast adaptivity to changing environmental conditions.

  20. Social organization of Shortridge's capped langur (Trachypithecus shortridgei) at the Dulongjiang Valley in Yunnan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying-Chun; Liu, Feng; He, Xiao-Yang; Ma, Chi; Sun, Jun; Li, Dong-Hui; Xiao, Wen; Cui, Liang-Wei

    2015-05-18

    Non-human primates often live in socially stable groups characterized by bonded relationships among individuals. Social organization can be used to evaluate living conditions and expansion potential. Bisexual group size, ratio of males to females and group composition are essential elements determining the type of social organization. Although the first report on Shortridge's capped langurs (Trachypithecus shortridgei) was in the 1970s, until now, the species only inhabits forests of the Dulongjiang valley in northwest Yunnan, China, with c. 250-370 individuals in 19 populations. To understand its social organization, we collected data from five groups of Shortridge's langurs at Silaluo in the Dulongjiang valley during August 2012-October 2013. Family groups consist of one adult male, 2-3 adult females and up to five young. Group size averaged 8 (7-9) individuals. The ratio of adult males to females (M/F) was 1:2.9, infants to adult females was (I/F) 1:2.2; and ratio of adults to immatures was 1:1.2, indicating the potential of a population increasing. Birth season was during March-July and the inter-birth interval was two years.

  1. Social inequalities in the organization of pregnancy care in a universally funded public health care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Georgina; Yelland, Jane; Brown, Stephanie

    2012-02-01

    To examine the social organization of pregnancy care and the extent to which socioeconomic factors affect women's experience of care. We consider these data in the global discussion on taking action to reduce health inequalities. This study draws on cross-sectional data from a large population-based survey of Australian women 6 months after giving birth. Only those women reporting to attend publically-funded models of antenatal care (i.e., public clinic, midwife clinic, shared care, primary medical care, primary midwife care) were included in analyses. Results showed a social patterning in the organization and experience of care with clear links between model of care attended in pregnancy and a number of individual-level indicators of social disadvantage. Our findings show model of care is a salient feature in how women view their care. How women from socially disadvantaged backgrounds navigate available care options are important considerations. Pregnancy care is recognized as an opportunity to intervene to give children 'the best start in life.' Our data show the current system of universally accessible pregnancy care in Australia is failing to support the most vulnerable women and families. This information can inform actions to reduce social disparities during this critical period.

  2. Attitudes towards poverty, organizations, ethics and morals: Israeli social workers' shared decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Lia; Schwartz-Tayri, Talia

    2017-06-01

    Partnerships between service users and social workers are complex in nature and can be driven by both personal and contextual circumstances. This study sought to explore the relationship between social workers' involvement in shared decision making with service users, their attitudes towards service users in poverty, moral standards and health and social care organizations' policies towards shared decision making. Based on the responses of 225 licensed social workers from health and social care agencies in the public, private and third sectors in Israel, path analysis was used to test a hypothesized model. Structural attributions for poverty contributed to attitudes towards people who live in poverty, which led to shared decision making. Also, organizational support in shared decision making, and professional moral identity, contributed to ethical behaviour which led to shared decision making. The results of this analysis revealed that shared decision making may be a scion of branched roots planted in the relationship between ethics, organizations and Stigma. © 2016 The Authors. Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Spiking neurons in a hierarchical self-organizing map model can learn to develop spatial and temporal properties of entorhinal grid cells and hippocampal place cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen K Pilly

    Full Text Available Medial entorhinal grid cells and hippocampal place cells provide neural correlates of spatial representation in the brain. A place cell typically fires whenever an animal is present in one or more spatial regions, or places, of an environment. A grid cell typically fires in multiple spatial regions that form a regular hexagonal grid structure extending throughout the environment. Different grid and place cells prefer spatially offset regions, with their firing fields increasing in size along the dorsoventral axes of the medial entorhinal cortex and hippocampus. The spacing between neighboring fields for a grid cell also increases along the dorsoventral axis. This article presents a neural model whose spiking neurons operate in a hierarchy of self-organizing maps, each obeying the same laws. This spiking GridPlaceMap model simulates how grid cells and place cells may develop. It responds to realistic rat navigational trajectories by learning grid cells with hexagonal grid firing fields of multiple spatial scales and place cells with one or more firing fields that match neurophysiological data about these cells and their development in juvenile rats. The place cells represent much larger spaces than the grid cells, which enable them to support navigational behaviors. Both self-organizing maps amplify and learn to categorize the most frequent and energetic co-occurrences of their inputs. The current results build upon a previous rate-based model of grid and place cell learning, and thus illustrate a general method for converting rate-based adaptive neural models, without the loss of any of their analog properties, into models whose cells obey spiking dynamics. New properties of the spiking GridPlaceMap model include the appearance of theta band modulation. The spiking model also opens a path for implementation in brain-emulating nanochips comprised of networks of noisy spiking neurons with multiple-level adaptive weights for controlling autonomous

  4. Temporal, spatial and social patterens of self-organization within street sport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sand, Anne-Lene

    Due to an increased urbanization and digitalization self-organized practices are becoming a central way of doing sports among contemporary young people and adults in urban contexts. The aim of this presentation is to contribute with knowledge about what it means to be self-organized within street...... young people can re-define urban space themselves (Skelton and Valentine 2007). During a multi-sited fieldwork (Marcus 1995) I followed people in Denmark that value to be able to improvise in the way they organize their own street-sport practices through temporal, spatial and social practices. Street...... among young people and adults, in order to redefine and reconstruct future leisure organizations (Rojek 1995) and understand contemporary forms of street sport....

  5. Hierarchical Cobalt Hydroxide and B/N Co-Doped Graphene Nanohybrids Derived from Metal-Organic Frameworks for High Energy Density Asymmetric Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabassum, Hassina; Mahmood, Asif; Wang, Qingfei; Xia, Wei; Liang, Zibin; Qiu, Bin; Zhao, Ruo; Zou, Ruqiang

    2017-02-27

    To cater for the demands of electrochemical energy storage system, the development of cost effective, durable and highly efficient electrode materials is desired. Here, a novel electrode material based on redox active β-Co(OH) 2 and B, N co-doped graphene nanohybrid is presented for electrochemical supercapacitor by employing a facile metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) route through pyrolysis and hydrothermal treatment. The Co(OH) 2 could be firmly stabilized by dual protection of N-doped carbon polyhedron (CP) and B/N co-doped graphene (BCN) nanosheets. Interestingly, the porous carbon and BCN nanosheets greatly improve the charge storage, wettability, and redox activity of electrodes. Thus the hybrid delivers specific capacitance of 1263 F g -1 at a current density of 1A g -1 with 90% capacitance retention over 5000 cycles. Furthermore, the new aqueous asymmetric supercapacitor (ASC) was also designed by using Co(OH) 2 @CP@BCN nanohybrid and BCN nanosheets as positive and negative electrodes respectively, which leads to high energy density of 20.25 Whkg -1 . This device also exhibits excellent rate capability with energy density of 15.55 Whkg -1 at power density of 9331 Wkg -1 coupled long termed stability up to 6000 cycles.

  6. Multirelational organization of large-scale social networks in an online world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szell, Michael; Lambiotte, Renaud; Thurner, Stefan

    2010-08-03

    The capacity to collect fingerprints of individuals in online media has revolutionized the way researchers explore human society. Social systems can be seen as a nonlinear superposition of a multitude of complex social networks, where nodes represent individuals and links capture a variety of different social relations. Much emphasis has been put on the network topology of social interactions, however, the multidimensional nature of these interactions has largely been ignored, mostly because of lack of data. Here, for the first time, we analyze a complete, multirelational, large social network of a society consisting of the 300,000 odd players of a massive multiplayer online game. We extract networks of six different types of one-to-one interactions between the players. Three of them carry a positive connotation (friendship, communication, trade), three a negative (enmity, armed aggression, punishment). We first analyze these types of networks as separate entities and find that negative interactions differ from positive interactions by their lower reciprocity, weaker clustering, and fatter-tail degree distribution. We then explore how the interdependence of different network types determines the organization of the social system. In particular, we study correlations and overlap between different types of links and demonstrate the tendency of individuals to play different roles in different networks. As a demonstration of the power of the approach, we present the first empirical large-scale verification of the long-standing structural balance theory, by focusing on the specific multiplex network of friendship and enmity relations.

  7. Corporate culture and employment of people with disabilities: role of social workers and service provider organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samant, Deepti; Soffer, Michal; Hernandez, Brigida; Adya, Meera; Akinpelu, Omolara; Levy, Joel M; Repoli, Elizabeth; Kramer, Michael; Blanck, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Corporate culture reflects an organization's value system and impacts the recruitment, retention, and promotion of employees. Individuals with disabilities are positively impacted by a corporate culture that espouses and establishes a diverse workforce as a priority. This article provides an overview of corporate culture and the employment of individuals with disabilities, and presents a case example of the corporate culture of a large not-for-profit disability service organization. With an in-depth understanding of corporate culture and disability issues, social workers can be particularly helpful to applicants and employees with disabilities as well as employers.

  8. Commercialization of human organs for transplantation intervivos under the perspective of the social bioethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Hellmann

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Buying and selling human organs for transplants from living donors has been discussed worldwide in the bioethical debate and it is becoming a public health problem. This essay discusses, in light of the Social Bioethics, arguments used to justify such practices, which are related to the common good, moral plurality, autonomy and individual freedom. Such justificatory aspects assume liberal and utilitarian characteristics. They present the possibility of double standard, do not consider social vulnerability, and harm dignity and human rights by evidencing an apology to the market laws. Thus, the justifications for buying and selling human organs for transplantations intervivos eventually turn the body, or part of it, into a commodity.

  9. Neoliberal drivers in hybrid civil society organizations: Critical readings of civicness and social entrepreneurism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Linda Lundgaard

    2018-01-01

    Civil society organizations (CSOs) and social entrepreneurship take up a significant position in a welfare system in transformation. Voluntarism and civil society have played an important role in the development of the welfare state and its services in Denmark, as in the rest of Scandinavia......, for at least a century. Recently, however, the positioning and context for civic society organiza-tions has changed quite profoundly, due to neoliberal welfare policies and steering regimes. In this chapter, I point to neoliberalism as both a political discourse about the nature of rule, but also a set...... into hybrid organisations rooted in civic society and social entrepreneur-ism: firstly, the human rights subject versus the entrepreneurial labour market subject and sec-ondly, the commodification and performativity of civil services and human growth....

  10. The Usaquén Cemetery – A Case Study about the Spacial Manifestations of Society’s Hierarchical Order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Camilo González Vargas

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Beginning with an analysis of the spatial organization of the Usaquén Cemetery in Bogotá, this text proposes that the space of the cemetery functions like a scenario in which the hierarchical order of society is represented and reinforced. This order, however, is not admitted and interiorized totally by cemetery users. Through practices like the Cult to the Holy Souls the hierarchical social order is denied, in a cycle that repeats itself every week when this ritual is carried out. With the exploration of this case study it is proposed that investigations concerning social practices related to death are very useful for understanding the societies that produce them.

  11. Context updates are hierarchical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Karl Ingason

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This squib studies the order in which elements are added to the shared context of interlocutors in a conversation. It focuses on context updates within one hierarchical structure and argues that structurally higher elements are entered into the context before lower elements, even if the structurally higher elements are pronounced after the lower elements. The crucial data are drawn from a comparison of relative clauses in two head-initial languages, English and Icelandic, and two head-final languages, Korean and Japanese. The findings have consequences for any theory of a dynamic semantics.

  12. Leadership in nonprofit organizations of Nicaragua and El Salvador: a study from the social identity theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriano León, Juan Antonio; Topa Cantisano, Gabriela; Lévy Mangin, Jean-Pierre

    2009-11-01

    This study follows the social identity model of leadership proposed by van Knippenberg and Hogg (2003), in order to examine empirically the mediator effect of leadership prototypicality between social identity, extra effort, and perceived effectiveness of group members. The sample consisted of 109 participants who worked in 22 different work-teams of non-profit organizations (NPO) from Nicaragua and El Salvador. The data analysis was performed through structural equation modeling (SEM). The results show that NPO membership is related to a high level of social identity. In addition, the results confirmed that leadership prototypicality has a significant and positive mediator effect in the relationship between the group identification and the group members' extra effort and the perceived effectiveness of leadership.

  13. Social Consequences of Nomadic Working: A Case Study in an Organization

    OpenAIRE

    Singh , Ramanjit; Wood-Harper , Trevor

    2010-01-01

    International audience; This research study identified social challenges that knowledge workers in the Swedish organization TeliaSonera (Telia) face when utilizing wireless technologies to conduct work on the move. Upon collecting the relevant research data, five problem areas were identified: work and life balance, addiction, organizational involvement, nomadic work and control, and individual productivity. Each problem area was examined with the philosophical underpinning of socio-technical...

  14. The ritual of coffee break inside organizations: toward social efficiency and/or performance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécilia BRASSIER-RODRIGUES

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This research examines a non-formal ritual practice – the coffee break – inside organizations. Based on a survey conducted on 12 marketing and commercial teams in France, we analyse if the coffee break has an objective of social efficiency or of performance. While solving this question, our results also reveal the importance of seniority in the observed behaviors, suggesting that it symbolizes an informal level of authority in front of the formal authority symbolized by the status.

  15. Measuring Performance for Accountability of a Small Social Economy Organization: The Case of an Independent School

    OpenAIRE

    Steven M. Smith; Sonja Novkovic; John Maddocks

    2011-01-01

    This article is a result of a joint project in social economy research between a community partner-an independent school-and academic partners. The school is a democratic organization, run by teachers and parents. The goal of the project was to find ways to improve communication and reporting about general performance of the school as part of the school's accountability to its members. Starting from lessons of the balanced scorecard approach for non-profits, we describe the process of develop...

  16. Consideration of social values in the establishment of accountable care organizations in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keren, Ron; Littlejohns, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce the new US health organizations called accountable care organizations (ACOs) which are expected to improve the quality and reduce the cost of healthcare for Medicare enrolees. It assesses the importance of ACOs, defining and articulating the values that will underpin their strategic and clinical decision making. This paper uses a social values framework developed by Clark and Weale to consider the values relevant to ACOs. It is likely that social values could be made more explicit in a US setting than they have ever been before, via the new ACOs. Social values could start to form part of a local health economy's marketing strategy. ACOs are very new. This paper identifies that they will need to be very explicit about the values relevant to them. The development of ACOs and the articulation of social values therein may even form the basis of a meaningful dialogue on the importance of assessing value for money or cost-effectiveness in the wider US health policy environment.

  17. Phenotypic variability in unicellular organisms: from calcium signalling to social behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, David; Nicolis, Stamatios C; Perez-Escudero, Alfonso; Nanjundiah, Vidyanand; Sumpter, David J T; Dussutour, Audrey

    2015-11-22

    Historically, research has focused on the mean and often neglected the variance. However, variability in nature is observable at all scales: among cells within an individual, among individuals within a population and among populations within a species. A fundamental quest in biology now is to find the mechanisms that underlie variability. Here, we investigated behavioural variability in a unique unicellular organism, Physarum polycephalum. We combined experiments and models to show that variability in cell signalling contributes to major differences in behaviour underpinning some aspects of social interactions. First, following thousands of cells under various contexts, we identified distinct behavioural phenotypes: 'slow-regular-social', 'fast-regular-social' and 'fast-irregular-asocial'. Second, coupling chemical analysis and behavioural assays we found that calcium signalling is responsible for these behavioural phenotypes. Finally, we show that differences in signalling and behaviour led to alternative social strategies. Our results have considerable implications for our understanding of the emergence of variability in living organisms. © 2015 The Author(s).

  18. Use of social media to engage membership of a state health-system pharmacy organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabato, Leah A; Barone, Caroline; McKinney, Kathryn

    2017-01-01

    The influence of targeted strategies implemented to increase member engagement on a social media page of a professional pharmacy organization was studied. The Ohio Society of Health-System Pharmacists (OSHP) implemented posting strategies to increase member engagement with its social media page in late 2013. Data were collected retrospectively for a nine-month period in 2013 (preimplementation) and a matching nine-month period in 2014 (postimplementation). The primary endpoint was reach (as provided by the social media website). Data regarding reach were reported to OSHP page administrators on a weekly basis. Posts during the study period were characterized by the day of week, time of day, type of post, and corresponding reach. Continuous variables were represented using means and standard deviations or medians and interquartile ranges (IQRs); categorical data were represented by percentages. The total reach of posts during the nine-month study period increased postimplementation, from 10,826 to 32,338. Further, the median reach per post on the OSHP Facebook page was higher postimplementation (214; IQR, 107-380) versus preimplementation (152; IQR, 89-224; p = 0.035). Evening posts had significantly greater reach compared with nonevening posts. The median reach for evening posts was 232 (IQR, 143-378) versus 131 (IQR, 77-200) for nonevening posts (p system pharmacy organization's social media page. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Integration of Social Responsibility in Business Strategies of the Romanian Organizations. A Study in the West Region

    OpenAIRE

    Valentin Munteanu; Ioan Marius Pantea; Petru Stefea

    2006-01-01

    Organizations Social Responsibility (or CSR - Corporate Social Responsibility) represents a new way "to make business" in the new European economic framework. An increasing number of contemporary companies decide, voluntarily, to contribute to a better society and a cleaner environment. Their strategies include social responsibility as an answer to a variety of social, economic and environmental pressures. These companies aim to transmit a signal towards all the stakeholders: employees, share...

  20. Multiplex Competition, Collaboration, and Funding Networks Among Health and Social Organizations: Toward Organization-based HIV Interventions for Young Men Who Have Sex With Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Kayo; Wang, Peng; Kuhns, Lisa M; Ross, Michael W; Williams, Mark L; Garofalo, Robert; Klovdahl, Alden S; Laumann, Edward O; Schneider, John A

    2017-02-01

    Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) have the highest rates of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in the United States. Decades into the HIV epidemic, the relationships that YMSM-serving health and social organizations have with one another has not been studied in depth. The aim of this study was to examine the competition, collaboration, and funding source structures of multiplex organization networks and the mechanisms that promote fruitful relationships among these organizations. The study data collection method was a survey of health and social organizations from 2013-2014 in 2 cities, Chicago, IL and Houston, TX. Study participants were representatives from 138 health and social organizations. Responses to survey questions were used to reconstruct competition, collaboration, and combined competition-collaboration networks. While taking into consideration the collaborative relationships among organizations, we provide statistical evidence that organizations of similar type, similar social media use patterns, comparable patterns of funding, and similar network contexts tended to compete with one another. This competition was less likely to be accompanied by any sort of collaboration if the organizations shared common funding sources. Competition that excludes potential collaboration may be detrimental to mobilizing the collective efforts that serve local YMSM communities. System-level interventions may provide promising approaches to scaling-up HIV prevention and treatment efforts so as to encourage organizations to form partnerships with otherwise competing providers.

  1. Multiplex competition, collaboration, and funding networks among health and social organizations: Towards organization-based HIV interventions for young men who have sex with men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Kayo; Wang, Peng; Kuhns, Lisa; Ross, Michael W; Williams, Mark L.; Garofalo, Robert; Klovdahl, Alden S.; Laumann, Edward O.; Schneider, John A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) have the highest rates of HIV infection in the United States. Decades into the HIV epidemic, the relationships that YMSM-serving health and social organizations have with one another has not been studied in depth. Objectives The aim of this study was to examine the competition, collaboration and funding source structures of multiplex organization networks and the mechanisms that promote fruitful relationships among these organizations. Research Design The study data collection method was a survey of health and social organizations from 2013–2014 in two cities, Chicago IL, and Houston TX. Subjects Study participants were representatives from 138 health and social organizations. Measures Responses to survey questions were used to reconstruct competition, collaboration and combined competition-collaboration networks. Results While taking into consideration the collaborative relationships among organizations, we provide solid statistical evidence that organizations of similar type, similar social media use patterns, comparable patterns of funding, and similar network contexts tended to compete with one another. This competition was less likely to be accompanied by any sort of collaboration if the organizations shared common funding sources. Conclusions Competition that excludes potential collaboration may be detrimental to mobilizing the collective efforts that serve local YMSM communities. System-level interventions may provide promising approaches to scaling-up HIV prevention and treatment efforts so as to encourage organizations to form partnerships with otherwise competing providers. PMID:27676400

  2. Hierarchical quark mass matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasin, A.

    1998-02-01

    I define a set of conditions that the most general hierarchical Yukawa mass matrices have to satisfy so that the leading rotations in the diagonalization matrix are a pair of (2,3) and (1,2) rotations. In addition to Fritzsch structures, examples of such hierarchical structures include also matrices with (1,3) elements of the same order or even much larger than the (1,2) elements. Such matrices can be obtained in the framework of a flavor theory. To leading order, the values of the angle in the (2,3) plane (s 23 ) and the angle in the (1,2) plane (s 12 ) do not depend on the order in which they are taken when diagonalizing. We find that any of the Cabbibo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix parametrizations that consist of at least one (1,2) and one (2,3) rotation may be suitable. In the particular case when the s 13 diagonalization angles are sufficiently small compared to the product s 12 s 23 , two special CKM parametrizations emerge: the R 12 R 23 R 12 parametrization follows with s 23 taken before the s 12 rotation, and vice versa for the R 23 R 12 R 23 parametrization. (author)

  3. Hierarchical partial order ranking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsen, Lars

    2008-01-01

    Assessing the potential impact on environmental and human health from the production and use of chemicals or from polluted sites involves a multi-criteria evaluation scheme. A priori several parameters are to address, e.g., production tonnage, specific release scenarios, geographical and site-specific factors in addition to various substance dependent parameters. Further socio-economic factors may be taken into consideration. The number of parameters to be included may well appear to be prohibitive for developing a sensible model. The study introduces hierarchical partial order ranking (HPOR) that remedies this problem. By HPOR the original parameters are initially grouped based on their mutual connection and a set of meta-descriptors is derived representing the ranking corresponding to the single groups of descriptors, respectively. A second partial order ranking is carried out based on the meta-descriptors, the final ranking being disclosed though average ranks. An illustrative example on the prioritisation of polluted sites is given. - Hierarchical partial order ranking of polluted sites has been developed for prioritization based on a large number of parameters

  4. Nested and Hierarchical Archimax copulas

    KAUST Repository

    Hofert, Marius; Huser, Raphaë l; Prasad, Avinash

    2017-01-01

    The class of Archimax copulas is generalized to nested and hierarchical Archimax copulas in several ways. First, nested extreme-value copulas or nested stable tail dependence functions are introduced to construct nested Archimax copulas based on a single frailty variable. Second, a hierarchical construction of d-norm generators is presented to construct hierarchical stable tail dependence functions and thus hierarchical extreme-value copulas. Moreover, one can, by itself or additionally, introduce nested frailties to extend Archimax copulas to nested Archimax copulas in a similar way as nested Archimedean copulas extend Archimedean copulas. Further results include a general formula for the density of Archimax copulas.

  5. Nested and Hierarchical Archimax copulas

    KAUST Repository

    Hofert, Marius

    2017-07-03

    The class of Archimax copulas is generalized to nested and hierarchical Archimax copulas in several ways. First, nested extreme-value copulas or nested stable tail dependence functions are introduced to construct nested Archimax copulas based on a single frailty variable. Second, a hierarchical construction of d-norm generators is presented to construct hierarchical stable tail dependence functions and thus hierarchical extreme-value copulas. Moreover, one can, by itself or additionally, introduce nested frailties to extend Archimax copulas to nested Archimax copulas in a similar way as nested Archimedean copulas extend Archimedean copulas. Further results include a general formula for the density of Archimax copulas.

  6. Formation in Citizen Culture, Space for the Social Responsibility of Business Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elita Marina Méndez Jiménez

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In Venezuela, we live together in a time of thirst for peace, commitment and social coexistence, social equality, every day we hear that there is a social crisis, a crisis of values. At this juncture, the education imparted is the central factor in reflecting, inculcating, strengthening and consolidating in the citizens, values, personal formation, ethical training and other binding issues, in short, citizen culture. It is the purpose of this essay to generate reflections around the citizen's culture, for it mentions some roles, that as managerial actions of social co-responsibility, can realize the private business organizations, to strengthen the social action of the individual in order to promote the necessary stimuli to reach the status of a good citizen, for whom the idea of ​​living in a prosperous and participatory community is represented in a space where education, good treatment, equality in opportunities and respect for their fellow human beings, habitat and life in any of its expressions are the norm.

  7. Comparisons of Flow Patterns over a Hierarchical and a Non-hierarchical Surface in Relation to Biofouling Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Ahmad Fawzan Mohammed Ridha

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Biofouling can be defined as unwanted deposition and development of organisms on submerged surfaces. It is a major problem as it causes water contamination, infrastructures damage and increase in maintenance and operational cost especially in the shipping industry. There are a few methods that can prevent this problem. One of the most effective methods which is using chemicals particularly Tributyltin has been banned due to adverse effects on the environment. One of the non-toxic methods found to be effective is surface modification which involves altering the surface topography so that it becomes a low-fouling or a non-stick surface to biofouling organisms. Current literature suggested that non-hierarchical topographies has lower antifouling performance compared to hierarchical topographies. It is still unclear if the effects of the flow on these topographies could have aided in their antifouling properties. This research will use Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD simulations to study the flow on these two topographies which also involves comparison study of the topographies used. According to the results obtained, it is shown that hierarchical topography has higher antifouling performance compared to non-hierarchical topography. This is because the fluid characteristics at the hierarchical topography is more favorable in controlling biofouling. In addition, hierarchical topography has higher wall shear stress distribution compared to non-hierarchical topography

  8. Commentary: what role should physician organizations play in addressing social justice issues?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Cedric M

    2012-06-01

    A study by Peek and colleagues in this issue reveals that although racial and ethnic health disparities are recognized as a major national challenge, few physician organizations with both the influence and ability to change practice standards and address disparities appear to be effectively directing their resources to mitigate health disparities. In this commentary, the author examines the history of U.S. health disparities through the lens of social justice. He argues that today, physician organizations have the opportunity to change the paradigm of medicine from being a reactive industry to becoming a proactive industry through collaborations such as the Commission to End Health Disparities, which brings together more than 60 organizations, and the National Medical Association's "We Stand With You" program to improve health and combat disparities. Physician organizations can also address health disparities through advocacy for fair reimbursement policies, funding for pipeline programs to increase the diversity of the workforce, diversity in clinical trials, and other issues. Health disparities present to us in organized medicine a challenge that is cleverly disguised as an immovable object but that is truly a great opportunity for innovation, improvement, and growth. Physician organizations have a unique opportunity to provide avenues of innovation and accomplishment.

  9. Genetic regulation of colony social organization in fire ants: an integrative overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotzek, Dietrich; Ross, Kenneth G

    2007-09-01

    Expression of colony social organization in fire ants appears to be under the control of a single Mendelian factor of large effect. Variation in colony queen number in Solenopsis invicta and its relatives is associated with allelic variation at the gene Gp-9, but not with variation at other unlinked genes; workers regulate queen identity and number on the basis of Gp-9 genotypic compatibility. Nongenetic factors, such as prior social experience, queen reproductive status, and local environment, have negligible effects on queen numbers which illustrates the nearly complete penetrance of Gp-9. As predicted, queen number can be manipulated experimentally by altering worker Gp-9 genotype frequencies. The Gp-9 allele lineage associated with polygyny in South American fire ants has been retained across multiple speciation events, which may signal the action of balancing selection to maintain social polymorphism in these species. Moreover, positive selection is implicated in driving the molecular evolution of Gp-9 in association with the origin of polygyny. The identity of the product of Gp-9 as an odorant-binding protein suggests plausible scenarios for its direct involvement in the regulation of queen number via a role in chemical communication. While these and other lines of evidence show that Gp-9 represents a legitimate candidate gene of major effect, studies aimed at determining (i) the biochemical pathways in which GP-9 functions; (ii) the phenotypic effects of molecular variation at Gp-9 and other pathway genes; and (iii) the potential involvement of genes in linkage disequilibrium with Gp-9 are needed to elucidate the genetic architecture underlying social organization in fire ants. Information that reveals the links between molecular variation, individual phenotype, and colony-level behaviors, combined with behavioral models that incorporate details of the chemical communication involved in regulating queen number, will yield a novel integrated view of the

  10. Trees and Hierarchical Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Haeseler, Arndt

    1990-01-01

    The "raison d'etre" of hierarchical dustering theory stems from one basic phe­ nomenon: This is the notorious non-transitivity of similarity relations. In spite of the fact that very often two objects may be quite similar to a third without being that similar to each other, one still wants to dassify objects according to their similarity. This should be achieved by grouping them into a hierarchy of non-overlapping dusters such that any two objects in ~ne duster appear to be more related to each other than they are to objects outside this duster. In everyday life, as well as in essentially every field of scientific investigation, there is an urge to reduce complexity by recognizing and establishing reasonable das­ sification schemes. Unfortunately, this is counterbalanced by the experience of seemingly unavoidable deadlocks caused by the existence of sequences of objects, each comparatively similar to the next, but the last rather different from the first.

  11. Optimisation by hierarchical search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zintchenko, Ilia; Hastings, Matthew; Troyer, Matthias

    2015-03-01

    Finding optimal values for a set of variables relative to a cost function gives rise to some of the hardest problems in physics, computer science and applied mathematics. Although often very simple in their formulation, these problems have a complex cost function landscape which prevents currently known algorithms from efficiently finding the global optimum. Countless techniques have been proposed to partially circumvent this problem, but an efficient method is yet to be found. We present a heuristic, general purpose approach to potentially improve the performance of conventional algorithms or special purpose hardware devices by optimising groups of variables in a hierarchical way. We apply this approach to problems in combinatorial optimisation, machine learning and other fields.

  12. Fat-tailed fluctuations in the size of organizations: the role of social influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondani, Hernan; Holme, Petter; Liljeros, Fredrik

    2014-01-01

    Organizational growth processes have consistently been shown to exhibit a fatter-than-Gaussian growth-rate distribution in a variety of settings. Long periods of relatively small changes are interrupted by sudden changes in all size scales. This kind of extreme events can have important consequences for the development of biological and socio-economic systems. Existing models do not derive this aggregated pattern from agent actions at the micro level. We develop an agent-based simulation model on a social network. We take our departure in a model by a Schwarzkopf et al. on a scale-free network. We reproduce the fat-tailed pattern out of internal dynamics alone, and also find that it is robust with respect to network topology. Thus, the social network and the local interactions are a prerequisite for generating the pattern, but not the network topology itself. We further extend the model with a parameter δ that weights the relative fraction of an individual's neighbours belonging to a given organization, representing a contextual aspect of social influence. In the lower limit of this parameter, the fraction is irrelevant and choice of organization is random. In the upper limit of the parameter, the largest fraction quickly dominates, leading to a winner-takes-all situation. We recover the real pattern as an intermediate case between these two extremes.

  13. Hierarchical organization in aggregates of protein molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Henrik; Kyhle, Anders; Sørensen, Alexis Hammer

    1997-01-01

    of the solution and the density of protein are varied shows the existence of specific growth processes resulting in different branch-like structures. The resulting structures are strongly influenced by the shape of each protein molecule. Lysozyme and ribonuclease are found to form spherical structures...

  14. Explicit and Latent Authority in Hierarchical Organizations

    OpenAIRE

    van den Brink, J.R.; Gilles, R.P.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we consider the problem of the control of access to a firm's productive asset, embedding the relevant decision makers into a general structure of formal authority relations. Within such an authority structure, each decision maker acts as a principal to some decision makers, while she acts as an agent in relation to certain other decision makers. We study under which conditions decision makers decide to exercise their own authority and to accept their superiors' authority. We dis...

  15. Explicit and Latent Authority in Hierarchical Organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Brink, J.R.; Gilles, R.P.

    2005-01-01

    We consider the problem of control of access to a firm's productive asset, embedding the decision makers into a structure of formal authority relationships.Within such a structure, decision makers act as principal to some decision makers, while they act as agent to other decision makers.We study

  16. Mechanisms of self-organized criticality in social processes of knowledge creation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadić, Bosiljka; Dankulov, Marija Mitrović; Melnik, Roderick

    2017-09-01

    In online social dynamics, a robust scale invariance appears as a key feature of collaborative efforts that lead to new social value. The underlying empirical data thus offers a unique opportunity to study the origin of self-organized criticality (SOC) in social systems. In contrast to physical systems in the laboratory, various human attributes of the actors play an essential role in the process along with the contents (cognitive, emotional) of the communicated artifacts. As a prototypical example, we consider the social endeavor of knowledge creation via Questions and Answers (Q&A). Using a large empirical data set from one of such Q&A sites and theoretical modeling, we reveal fundamental characteristics of SOC by investigating the temporal correlations at all scales and the role of cognitive contents to the avalanches of the knowledge-creation process. Our analysis shows that the universal social dynamics with power-law inhomogeneities of the actions and delay times provides the primary mechanism for self-tuning towards the critical state; it leads to the long-range correlations and the event clustering in response to the external driving by the arrival of new users. In addition, the involved cognitive contents (systematically annotated in the data and observed in the model) exert important constraints that identify unique classes of the knowledge-creation avalanches. Specifically, besides determining a fine structure of the developing knowledge networks, they affect the values of scaling exponents and the geometry of large avalanches and shape the multifractal spectrum. Furthermore, we find that the level of the activity of the communities that share the knowledge correlates with the fluctuations of the innovation rate, implying that the increase of innovation may serve as the active principle of self-organization. To identify relevant parameters and unravel the role of the network evolution underlying the process in the social system under consideration, we

  17. Mechanisms of self-organized criticality in social processes of knowledge creation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadić, Bosiljka; Dankulov, Marija Mitrović; Melnik, Roderick

    2017-09-01

    In online social dynamics, a robust scale invariance appears as a key feature of collaborative efforts that lead to new social value. The underlying empirical data thus offers a unique opportunity to study the origin of self-organized criticality (SOC) in social systems. In contrast to physical systems in the laboratory, various human attributes of the actors play an essential role in the process along with the contents (cognitive, emotional) of the communicated artifacts. As a prototypical example, we consider the social endeavor of knowledge creation via Questions and Answers (Q&A). Using a large empirical data set from one of such Q&A sites and theoretical modeling, we reveal fundamental characteristics of SOC by investigating the temporal correlations at all scales and the role of cognitive contents to the avalanches of the knowledge-creation process. Our analysis shows that the universal social dynamics with power-law inhomogeneities of the actions and delay times provides the primary mechanism for self-tuning towards the critical state; it leads to the long-range correlations and the event clustering in response to the external driving by the arrival of new users. In addition, the involved cognitive contents (systematically annotated in the data and observed in the model) exert important constraints that identify unique classes of the knowledge-creation avalanches. Specifically, besides determining a fine structure of the developing knowledge networks, they affect the values of scaling exponents and the geometry of large avalanches and shape the multifractal spectrum. Furthermore, we find that the level of the activity of the communities that share the knowledge correlates with the fluctuations of the innovation rate, implying that the increase of innovation may serve as the active principle of self-organization. To identify relevant parameters and unravel the role of the network evolution underlying the process in the social system under consideration, we

  18. Combining natural language processing and network analysis to examine how advocacy organizations stimulate conversation on social media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bail, Christopher Andrew

    2016-10-18

    Social media sites are rapidly becoming one of the most important forums for public deliberation about advocacy issues. However, social scientists have not explained why some advocacy organizations produce social media messages that inspire far-ranging conversation among social media users, whereas the vast majority of them receive little or no attention. I argue that advocacy organizations are more likely to inspire comments from new social media audiences if they create "cultural bridges," or produce messages that combine conversational themes within an advocacy field that are seldom discussed together. I use natural language processing, network analysis, and a social media application to analyze how cultural bridges shaped public discourse about autism spectrum disorders on Facebook over the course of 1.5 years, controlling for various characteristics of advocacy organizations, their social media audiences, and the broader social context in which they interact. I show that organizations that create substantial cultural bridges provoke 2.52 times more comments about their messages from new social media users than those that do not, controlling for these factors. This study thus offers a theory of cultural messaging and public deliberation and computational techniques for text analysis and application-based survey research.

  19. [Social Healthcare Organizations: a phenomenological expression of healthcare privatization in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, Heloisa Maria Mendonça de; Albuquerque, Maria do Socorro Veloso de; Oliveira, Raquel Santos de; Cazuzu, Ana Karina Interaminense; Silva, Nadine Anita Fonseca da

    2018-02-05

    The study analyzed the expansion of Social Healthcare Organizations (OSS in Portuguese) in Brazil from 2009 to 2014. The ten largest OSS were measured according to their budget funding and their qualifications as non-profit organizations were explored, considering evidence of their expansion and consolidation in the management and provision of health services via strategies proper to for-profit private enterprises. The study is descriptive and exploratory and was based on public-domain documents. In their relations with government, the OSS have benefited from legal loopholes and incentives and have expanded accordingly. There has been a recent trend for these organizations to simultaneously apply for status as charitable organizations, thereby ensuring multiple opportunities for fundraising and additional tax incentives, permission to invest financial surpluses in the capital market, and remunerate their boards of directors. These organizations tend to concentrate in technology-dense hospital services, with clauses concerning increasing financial transfers to the detriment of other regulatory clauses, and special contract modalities for enabling services that are absolutely strategic for the overall functioning of the Brazilian Unified National Health System. Thus, in this study, the OSS are one component of the Health Economic and Industrial Complex, acting in management, provision, and regulation of services in a scenario of intensive commodification of health and the transfer of public funds to the private sector.

  20. Small Faith-Related Organizations as Partners in Local Social Service Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Campbell

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Efforts to enlist small faith-related organizations as partners in public service delivery raise many questions. Using community social service networks as the unit of analysis, this paper asks one with broader relevance to nonprofit sector managers: What factors support and constrain effective integration of these organizations into a local service delivery network? The evidence and illustrations come from longitudinal case studies of five faith-related organizations who received their first government contract as part of a California faith-based initiative. By comparing the organizational development and network partnership trajectories of these organizations over more than a decade, the analysis identifies four key variables influencing partnership dynamics and outcomes: organizational niche within the local network; leadership connections and network legitimacy; faith-inspired commitments and persistence; and core organizational competencies and capacities. The evidence supports shifting the focus of faith-based initiatives to emphasize local planning and network development, taking into account how these four variables apply to specific organizations and their community context.

  1. Evolution of co-management: role of knowledge generation, bridging organizations and social learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkes, Fikret

    2009-04-01

    Over a period of some 20 years, different aspects of co-management (the sharing of power and responsibility between the government and local resource users) have come to the forefront. The paper focuses on a selection of these: knowledge generation, bridging organizations, social learning, and the emergence of adaptive co-management. Co-management can be considered a knowledge partnership. Different levels of organization, from local to international, have comparative advantages in the generation and mobilization of knowledge acquired at different scales. Bridging organizations provide a forum for the interaction of these different kinds of knowledge, and the coordination of other tasks that enable co-operation: accessing resources, bringing together different actors, building trust, resolving conflict, and networking. Social learning is one of these tasks, essential both for the co-operation of partners and an outcome of the co-operation of partners. It occurs most efficiently through joint problem solving and reflection within learning networks. Through successive rounds of learning and problem solving, learning networks can incorporate new knowledge to deal with problems at increasingly larger scales, with the result that maturing co-management arrangements become adaptive co-management in time.

  2. How hierarchical is language use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Stefan L.; Bod, Rens; Christiansen, Morten H.

    2012-01-01

    It is generally assumed that hierarchical phrase structure plays a central role in human language. However, considerations of simplicity and evolutionary continuity suggest that hierarchical structure should not be invoked too hastily. Indeed, recent neurophysiological, behavioural and computational studies show that sequential sentence structure has considerable explanatory power and that hierarchical processing is often not involved. In this paper, we review evidence from the recent literature supporting the hypothesis that sequential structure may be fundamental to the comprehension, production and acquisition of human language. Moreover, we provide a preliminary sketch outlining a non-hierarchical model of language use and discuss its implications and testable predictions. If linguistic phenomena can be explained by sequential rather than hierarchical structure, this will have considerable impact in a wide range of fields, such as linguistics, ethology, cognitive neuroscience, psychology and computer science. PMID:22977157

  3. Social Security Contribution to Productivity and Wages in Labour Organization Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supriadi, Y. N.

    2017-03-01

    This research is investigating the discrepancy fulfilment of the right to social security and decent wages to increase labour productivity in the perspective of labour organizations, in which the company provides social security, and wages have not been able to meet the needs of workers, on the other hand, the workers are always required to increase productivity. Therefore, this study aims to identify the social security and wages that affect labour productivity. So this research will provide input to the company to undertake effective measures and efficient for the company’s sustainability. This research was conducted using a survey method approach and quantitative data analysis techniques that are causal comparative sample of 223 respondents from 504 study population includes all labour organization’s District and municipal in Banten Province. The results showed the significant influence of social security and wages to increase labour productivity. Therefore, companies are required to act strategically in maintaining prohibitionists labour through re-design of the work environment, increase workers’ participation, intervention, and satisfy the needs of workers whose impact will be realized understanding between workers and companies in maintaining the company’s business.

  4. Social organization and control of tuberculosis: the experience of a Brazilian town

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Favero Bulgarelli

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: this study was aimed at analyzing the participation of a committee formed by representatives of the community in tuberculosis control based on a participatory management model. METHOD: this is a Case Study involving a tuberculosis committee with data collected through semi-structured interviews conducted with nine individuals. The data, organized through the Association of Ideas Map technique, were analyzed based on the Social Constructionism perspective. RESULTS: the participation of the Tuberculosis Committee studied was shown to be effective and associated with aspects articulated according to the measures taken by the social parties involved in the committee, culminating with assistances inserted into certain parts of the town's co-management. CONCLUSION: it was concluded that the reality of this case study shows that relationships among civil society can guide the management model in the search for effective processes of tuberculosis control.

  5. Social organization and control of tuberculosis: the experience of a Brazilian town.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulgarelli, Alexandre Favero; Villa, Tereza Cristina Scatena; Pinto, Ione Carvalho

    2013-01-01

    This study was aimed at analyzing the participation of a committee formed by representatives of the community in tuberculosis control based on a participatory management model. This is a Case Study involving a tuberculosis committee with data collected through semi-structured interviews conducted with nine individuals. The data, organized through the Association of Ideas Map technique, were analyzed based on the Social Constructionism perspective. The participation of the Tuberculosis Committee studied was shown to be effective and associated with aspects articulated according to the measures taken by the social parties involved in the committee, culminating with assistances inserted into certain parts of the town's co-management. It was concluded that the reality of this case study shows that relationships among civil society can guide the management model in the search for effective processes of tuberculosis control.

  6. Social media monitoring model to guide decision making of destination management organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Mendes Thomaz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The widespread adoption of social media by users and organizations has generated an exponential increase in data and content that offer opportunities to be processed into information and knowledge. However, dealing with such data is considered a challenge and requires the use of adequate resources. Considering this scenario, the aim of this study was to present a social media monitoring model to support decision making by DMOs. The model proposed has been tested before and during the 2014 FIFA World Cup, using Curitiba and Foz do Iguaçu (Paraná State as destinations, having a structured of seven stages. The results of the period were composed of about 50,000 messages, tours and associated ontology application. A large part of the frequency relations, between attractions or between host cities, have been com-patible with their reality in the tourist trade.

  7. Teleworking Technology Adoption in Organizations: Explaining the Role of Social Influence, Motivation and Facilitating Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alirezaei Alirezaei

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to investigate the structural relationship between social influence, motivation and facilitating conditions with the use behaviour of teleworking technology, considering the moderating effect of behavioural intention to utilize teleworking. The research is done according to descriptive method with correlational type. Statistical population is public organizations and the sample was selected using simple random sampling. Data collection tool was questionnaire and experts judged its validity. The reliability of the tool was evaluated using a pre-test of 30 people. The data gathered from a sample of 365 people used to test the hypothesis and conceptual model of the research. By exploratory factor analysis and structural equation model path analysis was done. The results show that social influence, motivation and facilitating conditions have a positive impact on behavioural intention to use teleworking systems and this behavioural intention cause an increase in using behaviour among employees.

  8. Social Determinants of HIV-Related Stigma in Faith-Based Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Jason D; Tate, Allan D; Gaddist, Bambi; White, Jacob

    2016-03-01

    To examine the association between social factors in faith-based settings (including religiosity and proximity to people living with HIV/AIDS) and HIV stigma. A total of 1747 congregants from primarily African American faith-based organizations of Project FAITH (Fostering AIDS Initiatives That Heal), a South Carolina statewide initiative to address HIV-related stigma, completed a survey. Female gender (P = .001), higher education (P stigma and with lower odds of stigmatizing attitudes (P stigma in African American communities.

  9. Involving immigrant religious organizations in HIV/AIDS prevention: The role of bonding and bridging social capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, ManChui R; Chin, John J; Petrescu-Prahova, Miruna

    2016-08-01

    Immigrant religious organizations in the United States are uniquely positioned to address critical issues beyond religion because of their moral, social and cultural prominence in community life. Increasingly, religious organizations have taken on a leadership role around health issues such as decreasing HIV/AIDS stigma and misinformation. However, there are barriers for some religious leaders and organizations in adopting new health programs, especially if the issue is seen as controversial. Our study examines how social network structures among religious members influence organizational acceptance of new information or controversial ideas, like HIV/AIDS. Using social network analysis methods on data from 2841 contacts in 20 immigrant Chinese Buddhist temples and Christian churches in New York City, we tested whether an immigrant religious organization's likelihood of being involved in HIV/AIDS activities was associated with the presence of bonding or bridging social capital. These two forms of social capital have been found to mediate the levels of exposure and openness to new ideas. We found HIV/AIDS-involved religious organizations were more likely to have lower levels of bonding social capital as indicated by members having fewer ties and fewer demographic attributes in common. We also found HIV/AIDS-involved religious organizations were more likely to have higher levels of bridging social capital as indicated by members having significantly more ties to people outside of their organization. Our study highlights the importance of looking beyond religion type and leadership attributes to social network structures among members in order to better explain organization-level receptiveness to HIV/AIDS involvement. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluasi Program Corporate Social Responsibility “Organic Integrated System” PT. Pembangkitan Jawa-Bali Unit Pembangkitan Paiton

    OpenAIRE

    Harianto, Ruth Carissa

    2016-01-01

    Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengevaluasi program Corporate Social Responsibility “Organic Integrated System” yang dijalankan oleh divisi umum dan CSR PT. Pembangkitan Jawa – Bali Unit Pembangkitan Paiton. Di dalam melaksanakan program Corporate Social Responsibility “Organic Integrated System” ini, PT. Pembangkitan Jawa – Bali Unit Pembangkitan Paiton bekerja sama dengan Lembaga Swadaya Masyarakat Sekola Konang dan Kelompok Suko Tani sebagai publik sasarannya. Penelitian ini menggunakan pe...

  11. USAGE OF SOCIAL SERVICES IN THE PROCESS OF ORGANIZATION OF COMMUNICATION FOR FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myloslava M. Chernii

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Today especially urgent problem is communication and the development of communication skills of future teachers as well as communicative culture is the main structural component of his professionalism. Schools and classes, both conventional and virtual, must have teachers, armed with technology resources and skills, and able to effectively teach the subject using information and communication technologies. It all comes down to the fact that the modern teacher has to be aware of the latest technologies that can help him to organize trainings and communication. Therefore, a special role is given to the training of future teachers and vector of application of social services in the organization of communication in the learning process.

  12. Women in Transnational Migrant Activism: Supporting Social Justice Claims of Homeland Political Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liza Mügge

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This article studies the conceptions of social justice of women active in transnational migrant politics over a period of roughly 20 years in the Netherlands. The novel focus on migrant women reveals that transnational politics is almost completely male-dominated and -directed. Two of the exceptions found in this article include a leftist and a Kurdish women organization supporting the communist cause in the 1980s and the Kurdish struggle in the 1990s in Turkey, respectively. In both organizations gender equality was subordinated to broader ideologies of political parties in their homeland. Leftist activists in the cold war era supported a narrow definition of the "politics of redistribution," while and Kurdish activists, combined classical features of the latter with those of traditional identity politics.

  13. The Socialization Process of Street Children in the Youth Gangs and Groups of Organized Crime in Local Community. Preliminary Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Michel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article includes the research report on the socialization process of children in the street, youth gangs, and organized criminal groups in local communities. The author has analysed the signs and communication codes located on walls in local communities. This is very important to the socialization process of the youth street gangs.

  14. Interactive communication with the public: qualitative exploration of the use of social media by food and health organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Liran Christine; Panagiotopoulos, Panagiotis; Regan, Áine; De Brún, Aoife; Barnett, Julie; Wall, Patrick; McConnon, Áine

    2015-01-01

    To examine the use and impact of social media on 2-way communication between consumers and public organizations in the food safety and nutrition area. In-depth qualitative study conducted between October, 2012 and January, 2013, using semi-structured interviews in the United Kingdom and Ireland. Sixteen professionals worked on the public interface within 5 national organizations with a role in communicating on food safety and nutrition issues in this thematic analysis. Five main themes were identified: gradual shift toward social media-based queries and complaints; challenges and limitations of social media to deal with queries and complaints; benefits of using social media in query and complaint services; content redesign driven by social media use; and using social media to learn more about consumers. Social media penetrated and brought new opportunities to food organizations' interactions with the public. Given the increasing use of social media by the public, food organizations need to explore such new opportunities for communication and research. Copyright © 2015 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Channeling Black Insurgency: Elite Patronage and Professional Social Movement Organizations in the Development of the Black Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, J. Craig; Eckert, Craig M.

    1986-01-01

    Critically evaluates the theory of patronage and professional social movement organizations (SMOs) in interpreting the development of black insurgency between 1953 and 1980. Findings support and contradict the social contract theory. Professionalization was only one of many reasons for the movement's decline. (Author/PS)

  16. Organization of intrinsic functional brain connectivity predicts decisions to reciprocate social behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cáceda, Ricardo; James, G Andrew; Gutman, David A; Kilts, Clinton D

    2015-10-01

    Reciprocation of trust exchanges is central to the development of interpersonal relationships and societal well-being. Understanding how humans make pro-social and self-centered decisions in dyadic interactions and how to predict these choices has been an area of great interest in social neuroscience. A functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) based technology with potential clinical application is the study of resting state brain connectivity. We tested if resting state connectivity may predict choice behavior in a social context. Twenty-nine healthy adults underwent resting state fMRI before performing the Trust Game, a two person monetary exchange game. We assessed the ability of patterns of resting-state functional brain organization, demographic characteristics and a measure of moral development, the Defining Issues Test (DIT-2), to predict individuals' decisions to reciprocate money during the Trust Game. Subjects reciprocated in 74.9% of the trials. Independent component analysis identified canonical resting-state networks. Increased functional connectivity between the salience (bilateral insula/anterior cingulate) and central executive (dorsolateral prefrontal cortex/ posterior parietal cortex) networks significantly predicted the choice to reciprocate pro-social behavior (R(2) = 0.20, p = 0.015). Stepwise linear regression analysis showed that functional connectivity between these two networks (p = 0.002), age (p = 0.007) and DIT-2 personal interest schema score (p = 0.032) significantly predicted reciprocity behavior (R(2) = 0.498, p = 0.001). Intrinsic functional connectivity between neural networks in conjunction with other individual characteristics may be a valuable tool for predicting performance during social interactions. Future replication and temporal extension of these findings may bolster the understanding of decision making in clinical, financial and marketing settings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Can government be self-organized? A mathematical model of the collective social organization of ancient Teotihuacan, central Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Froese

    Full Text Available Teotihuacan was the first urban civilization of Mesoamerica and one of the largest of the ancient world. Following a tradition in archaeology to equate social complexity with centralized hierarchy, it is widely believed that the city's origin and growth was controlled by a lineage of powerful individuals. However, much data is indicative of a government of co-rulers, and artistic traditions expressed an egalitarian ideology. Yet this alternative keeps being marginalized because the problems of collective action make it difficult to conceive how such a coalition could have functioned in principle. We therefore devised a mathematical model of the city's hypothetical network of representatives as a formal proof of concept that widespread cooperation was realizable in a fully distributed manner. In the model, decisions become self-organized into globally optimal configurations even though local representatives behave and modify their relations in a rational and selfish manner. This self-optimization crucially depends on occasional communal interruptions of normal activity, and it is impeded when sections of the network are too independent. We relate these insights to theories about community-wide rituals at Teotihuacan and the city's eventual disintegration.

  18. Can government be self-organized? A mathematical model of the collective social organization of ancient Teotihuacan, central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froese, Tom; Gershenson, Carlos; Manzanilla, Linda R

    2014-01-01

    Teotihuacan was the first urban civilization of Mesoamerica and one of the largest of the ancient world. Following a tradition in archaeology to equate social complexity with centralized hierarchy, it is widely believed that the city's origin and growth was controlled by a lineage of powerful individuals. However, much data is indicative of a government of co-rulers, and artistic traditions expressed an egalitarian ideology. Yet this alternative keeps being marginalized because the problems of collective action make it difficult to conceive how such a coalition could have functioned in principle. We therefore devised a mathematical model of the city's hypothetical network of representatives as a formal proof of concept that widespread cooperation was realizable in a fully distributed manner. In the model, decisions become self-organized into globally optimal configurations even though local representatives behave and modify their relations in a rational and selfish manner. This self-optimization crucially depends on occasional communal interruptions of normal activity, and it is impeded when sections of the network are too independent. We relate these insights to theories about community-wide rituals at Teotihuacan and the city's eventual disintegration.

  19. Hierarchical Discriminant Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Lu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Internet of Things (IoT generates lots of high-dimensional sensor intelligent data. The processing of high-dimensional data (e.g., data visualization and data classification is very difficult, so it requires excellent subspace learning algorithms to learn a latent subspace to preserve the intrinsic structure of the high-dimensional data, and abandon the least useful information in the subsequent processing. In this context, many subspace learning algorithms have been presented. However, in the process of transforming the high-dimensional data into the low-dimensional space, the huge difference between the sum of inter-class distance and the sum of intra-class distance for distinct data may cause a bias problem. That means that the impact of intra-class distance is overwhelmed. To address this problem, we propose a novel algorithm called Hierarchical Discriminant Analysis (HDA. It minimizes the sum of intra-class distance first, and then maximizes the sum of inter-class distance. This proposed method balances the bias from the inter-class and that from the intra-class to achieve better performance. Extensive experiments are conducted on several benchmark face datasets. The results reveal that HDA obtains better performance than other dimensionality reduction algorithms.

  20. Facial width-to-height ratio differs by social rank across organizations, countries, and value systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Tim; Winter, Nils R; Anderl, Christine; Notebaert, Karolien; Wuttke, Alina Marie; Clément, Celina Chantal; Windmann, Sabine

    2017-01-01

    Facial Width-to-Height Ratio (fWHR) has been linked with dominant and aggressive behavior in human males. We show here that on portrait photographs published online, chief executive officers (CEOs) of companies listed in the Dow Jones stock market index and the Deutscher Aktienindex have a higher-than-normal fWHR, which also correlates positively with their company's donations to charitable causes and environmental awareness. Furthermore, we show that leaders of the world's most influential non-governmental organizations and even the leaders of the Roman Catholic Church, the popes, have higher fWHR compared to controls on public portraits, suggesting that the relationship between displayed fWHR and leadership is not limited to profit-seeking organizations. The data speak against the simplistic view that wider-faced men achieve higher social status through antisocial tendencies and overt aggression, or the mere signaling of such dispositions. Instead they suggest that high fWHR is linked with high social rank in a more subtle fashion in both competitive as well as prosocially oriented settings.

  1. Specific features of the social innovations implementation in contemporary Russian organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A S Dudnik

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The scientific literature defines innovation as a novelty created with the latest scientific achievements and introduced to the market or implemented in practical activities, embodied in new goods (works, services or processes. Despite a variety of literature on innovation, unfortunately, there is no unambiguous definition of the term, and this generates different problems such as determining the scope of innovative activities or the focus of business processes while implementing innovations, etc. This fact leads to a decrease in the efficiency of innovations and to mismatches of various stakeholders’ actions. The author believes that one of the reasons is the difference in approaches to the implementation of innovations in the theory and practice of social management and legal regulation. Therefore, to increase the efficiency of social innovations implementation in Russian organizations we have to choose a relevant approach from both theoretical and practical points of view acceptable for all stakeholders. The article identifies theoretical aspects of innovations based not only on managerial interpretation of innovations, but also on legal regulations, and provides some practical recommendations for implementing innovations in Russian organizations.

  2. International Non-Governmental Organizations in Latin America and Social Capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayan K. Pillai

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available International Non-Governmental Organizations (INGOs in developing countries promote interests of the poor, provide social services, and stimulate community engagement. The exponential growth of INGOs during the last four decades was accompanied by major financial scandals and corruption charges leading to an increase in research on the impact of INGOs on community well-being in developing countries. Due to sparse empirical studies that evaluate the role and functions of INGOs, the question of the impact of INGOs on community well-being has remained largely rhetorical. Our study attempts to provide preliminary evidence on the impact of socio-economic programs carried out by an International Governmental Organization (INGO, Adventist Development and Relief Agency (ADRA, in four Latin American countries. Results from the quasi-experimental study suggest that communities with ADRA programs have a higher level of social capital than communities without them. While the results reported here may not be generalized to all INGOs, our study is unique in providing a valuable empirical approach toward examining the role of INGOs in developing countries.

  3. Detecting the overlapping and hierarchical community structure in complex networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lancichinetti, Andrea; Fortunato, Santo; Kertesz, Janos

    2009-01-01

    Many networks in nature, society and technology are characterized by a mesoscopic level of organization, with groups of nodes forming tightly connected units, called communities or modules, that are only weakly linked to each other. Uncovering this community structure is one of the most important problems in the field of complex networks. Networks often show a hierarchical organization, with communities embedded within other communities; moreover, nodes can be shared between different communities. Here, we present the first algorithm that finds both overlapping communities and the hierarchical structure. The method is based on the local optimization of a fitness function. Community structure is revealed by peaks in the fitness histogram. The resolution can be tuned by a parameter enabling different hierarchical levels of organization to be investigated. Tests on real and artificial networks give excellent results.

  4. Emergent inequality and self-organized social classes in a network of power and frustration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahault, Benoit; Saxena, Avadh; Nisoli, Cristiano

    2017-01-01

    We propose a simple agent-based model on a network to conceptualize the allocation of limited wealth among more abundant expectations at the interplay of power, frustration, and initiative. Concepts imported from the statistical physics of frustrated systems in and out of equilibrium allow us to compare subjective measures of frustration and satisfaction to collective measures of fairness in wealth distribution, such as the Lorenz curve and the Gini index. We find that a completely libertarian, law-of-the-jungle setting, where every agent can acquire wealth from or lose wealth to anybody else invariably leads to a complete polarization of the distribution of wealth vs. opportunity. This picture is however dramatically ameliorated when hard constraints are imposed over agents in the form of a limiting network of transactions. There, an out of equilibrium dynamics of the networks, based on a competition between power and frustration in the decision-making of agents, leads to network coevolution. The ratio of power and frustration controls different dynamical regimes separated by kinetic transitions and characterized by drastically different values of equality. It also leads, for proper values of social initiative, to the emergence of three self-organized social classes, lower, middle, and upper class. Their dynamics, which appears mostly controlled by the middle class, drives a cyclical regime of dramatic social changes.

  5. Social organization and space use of a wild mandrill (Mandrillus sphinx) group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockmeyer, Timo; Kappeler, Peter M; Willaume, Eric; Benoit, Laure; Mboumba, Sylvère; Charpentier, Marie J E

    2015-10-01

    Mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx) are enigmatic Old World primates whose social organization and ecology remain poorly known. Previous studies indicated, for example, that groups are composed of only adult females and their young or that several units composed of one adult male and several females make up larger permanent social units. Here, we present the first data on group composition and male ranging patterns from the only habituated wild mandrill group and examine how home range size and daily path length varied with environmental and demographic factors over a 15-month period. Our study site is located in southern Gabon where we followed the group on a daily basis, collecting data on presence, ranging, behavior, and parasite load of its individual members. Throughout the study, the group was made up of about 120 individuals, including several non-natal and natal adult and sub-adult males. One-male units were never observed. The mandrills traveled an estimated 0.44-6.50 km/day in a home range area of 866.7 ha. Exploratory analyses revealed that precipitation, the number of adult males present, and the richness of protozoan parasites were all positively correlated with daily path length. These results clarify the social system of mandrills and provide first insights into the factors that shape their ranging patterns. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Social Movements and New Forms of Political Organization: Podemos as a Hybrid Party

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Chironi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the restructuring of the party systems in several European countries was accompanied or preceded by massive waves of anti-austerity protests. Although the causal relation between these mobilizations and the rise of new parties has already been assessed, the organizational features remain understudied. To fill this gap, here we analyse the impact of the cycle of anti-austerity and pro-real democracy protests which emerged in 2011 with the birth and organizational development of the Spanish party Podemos. Bridging two subfields of social and political sciences—movement studies and party studies—we pay particular attention to the dichotomy between horizontality and verticality within Podemos' organization. In particular, we address the issues of social movement effects as well as party foundation and organizational development. Our main findings suggest that movement mobilization played a large role in shaping Podemos' foundational choices, particularly with reference to the fundamental principles of the party and its strategic positioning. Podemos is also experimenting new democratic methods internally. Nonetheless, empirical analysis shows that, overall, the influence of movements' organizational models on the organizational structure of the party has been limited. Yet, the result is a “hybrid” party that finds a balance between the horizontalism of social movements and the efficiency of parties.

  7. The Role of Community Organizations in the Transformation of the Social Development Model in Quebec

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Jette

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Community organizations have played a major role in the delivery of social services in Québec since the 1970s. Their activities aimed to provide an alternative to the heteronomous, bureaucratic practices of the public sector. But their desire to move away from the public sector did not prevent them from demanding financial support from the state. Historically, these associations' struggles have led to the establishment of an original partnership and a funding mode whereby they could retain their organizations' autonomy. This autonomy was the guarantee of both their specificity and their ability to innovate in terms of social practices. While this state recognition certainly remains in some respects ambivalent, it is nonetheless undeniable that these associations today constitute a significant component of the Québec model of social development. / Les organismes communautaires jouent un rôle important dans la prestation de services sociaux au Québec depuis les années 1970. Leurs activités se sont développées dans l'optique d'apporter une alternative aux pratiques hétéronomes et bureaucratiques du secteur public. Cette volonté de se distancier du secteur public ne les a toutefois pas empêchés de revendiquer le soutien financier de l'État. Historiquement, les luttes menées par ces associations se sont donc traduites par la mise en place d'un partenariat original et l'établissement d'une mode de financement qui leur permet de préserver l'autonomie de leur organisation. Cette autonomie est le gage de leur spécificité et de leur capacité d'innover sur le plan des pratiques sociales. Certes, cette reconnaissance étatique demeure à certains égards ambiguë. Néanmoins, il est indéniable que ces associations constituent aujourd'hui un élément important du modèle québécois du développement social.

  8. The Power of Graphic Organizers: Effects on Students' Word-Learning and Achievement Emotions in Social Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilter, Ilhan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of three graphic organizers for teaching vocabulary and the development of the emotions-related to achievement. The study focused on the effects of different types of graphic organizers on word-learning and various emotions in social studies. This study was designed as a…

  9. Are adaptations self-organized, autonomous, and harmonious? Assessing the social-ecological resilience literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Hahn

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes how adaptability (adaptive capacity and adaptations is constructed in the literature on resilience of social-ecological systems (SES. According to some critics, this literature views adaptability as the capacity of SES to self-organize in an autonomous harmonious consensus-building process, ignoring strategies, conflicting goals, and power issues. We assessed 183 papers, coding two dimensions of adaptability: autonomous vs. intentional and descriptive vs. normative. We found a plurality of framings, where 51% of the papers perceived adaptability as autonomous, but one-third constructed adaptability as intentional processes driven by stakeholders; where social learning and networking are often used as strategies for changing power structures and achieving sustainability transformations. For the other dimension, adaptability was used normatively in 59% of the assessed papers, but one-third used descriptive framings. We found no evidence that the SES literature in general assumes a priori that adaptations are harmonious consensus-building processes. It is, rather, conflicts that are assumed, not spelled out, and assertions of "desirable" that are often not clarified by reference to policy documents or explicit normative frameworks. We discuss alternative definitions of adaptability and transformability to clarify or avoid the notion of desirability. Complex adaptive systems framing often precludes analysis of agency, but lately self-organization and emergence have been used to study actors with intentions, strategies, and conflicting interests. Transformations and power structures are increasingly being addressed in the SES literature. We conclude that ontological clashes between social science and SES research have resulted in multiple constructive pathways.

  10. Exploratory study of the impacts of Mutual Health Organizations on social dynamics in Benin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridde, Valery; Haddad, Slim; Yacoubou, Moussa; Yacoubou, Ismaelou

    2010-08-01

    The primary aim of Mutual Health Organizations (MHOs) is the financial protection of their members. However, given their community-based, participative and voluntary nature, it is conceivable that MHOs, as social organizations, would affect social dynamics. In an exploratory study in Benin, we studied social dynamics related to mutual aid, relationships of trust, and empowerment. Four MHOs, as contrasted cases, were selected from among the 11 in the region. Focus groups (n = 20) and individual interviews (n = 29) were conducted with members, non-members, and elected leaders of the four MHOs, and with professionals from the health facilities concerned. We carried out a qualitative thematic analysis of the content. Mutual aid practices, which pre-date MHOs, can be mobilized to promote MHO membership. Mutual aid practices are based on relationships of trust. The primary reason for joining an MHO is to improve financial accessibility to health services. Non-members see that members have a strong sense of empowerment in this regard, based on a high level of trust in MHOs and their elected leaders, even if their trust in health professionals is not as strong. Non-members share these feelings of confidence in MHOs and their leadership, although they trust health professionals somewhat less than do the members. The MHOs' low penetration rate therefore cannot be explained by lack of trust, as this study shows that, even with some distrust of the professionals, the overall level of trust in MHOs is high and MHOs and their leaders function as intermediaries with health professionals. Other explanatory factors are the lack of information available to villagers and, most especially, the problems they face in being able to pay the MHO premiums. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The social responsibility as the basis for effective management and the condition for increasing the modern organization competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Gurina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the organization management based on the strategy of social responsibility implementation that supplies the conditions for a company's competitiveness development. The theoretical statements by the leading foreign researchers about the key role of social factors in an organization success and the main conditions of competitiveness such as human resources, staff competences, customers' pleasure, an organization's reputation, organizational and managing capacity, etc. The author discusses the idea of the new aim of the management paradigm is "social business" development in the economy. Despite the fact that entrepreneurship is still based on getting the economical benefit, the competitive area, the methods and the relationship between the profit and the competitiveness have changed in the post-industrial era. The change of the consuming society structure and the complication of the competitive area make us look for other sources of competitiveness, such as investments into the human resources. Such an approach to competitiveness is more and more spread among the foreign and national companies and allows to include social aspects management into the development strategy of a company. It is stated that a socially responsible company includes social goals in the production process, thus ensuring a competitive advantage in business. An important conclusion of the research is that socially responsible organizations create better conditions for the territories’ development where they provide the society with a generally higher welfare level.

  12. Price promotions on healthier compared with less healthy foods: a hierarchical regression analysis of the impact on sales and social patterning of responses to promotions in Great Britain12345

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Ryota; Suhrcke, Marc; Jebb, Susan A; Pechey, Rachel; Almiron-Roig, Eva; Marteau, Theresa M

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is a growing concern, but limited evidence, that price promotions contribute to a poor diet and the social patterning of diet-related disease. Objective: We examined the following questions: 1) Are less-healthy foods more likely to be promoted than healthier foods? 2) Are consumers more responsive to promotions on less-healthy products? 3) Are there socioeconomic differences in food purchases in response to price promotions? Design: With the use of hierarchical regression, we analyzed data on purchases of 11,323 products within 135 food and beverage categories from 26,986 households in Great Britain during 2010. Major supermarkets operated the same price promotions in all branches. The number of stores that offered price promotions on each product for each week was used to measure the frequency of price promotions. We assessed the healthiness of each product by using a nutrient profiling (NP) model. Results: A total of 6788 products (60%) were in healthier categories and 4535 products (40%) were in less-healthy categories. There was no significant gap in the frequency of promotion by the healthiness of products neither within nor between categories. However, after we controlled for the reference price, price discount rate, and brand-specific effects, the sales uplift arising from price promotions was larger in less-healthy than in healthier categories; a 1-SD point increase in the category mean NP score, implying the category becomes less healthy, was associated with an additional 7.7–percentage point increase in sales (from 27.3% to 35.0%; P sales uplift from promotions was larger for higher–socioeconomic status (SES) groups than for lower ones (34.6% for the high-SES group, 28.1% for the middle-SES group, and 23.1% for the low-SES group). Finally, there was no significant SES gap in the absolute volume of purchases of less-healthy foods made on promotion. Conclusion: Attempts to limit promotions on less-healthy foods could improve the

  13. Direct hierarchical assembly of nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ting; Zhao, Yue; Thorkelsson, Kari

    2014-07-22

    The present invention provides hierarchical assemblies of a block copolymer, a bifunctional linking compound and a nanoparticle. The block copolymers form one micro-domain and the nanoparticles another micro-domain.

  14. Hierarchical materials: Background and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    Hierarchical design draws inspiration from analysis of biological materials and has opened new possibilities for enhancing performance and enabling new functionalities and extraordinary properties. With the development of nanotechnology, the necessary technological requirements for the manufactur...

  15. In the Belly of the Beast: A Case Study of Social Work in a Managed Care Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa S. Patchner

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available The employment of social workers within managed care organizations is a new phenomenon. As such, this case study utilized an exploratory-descriptive design that assessed social workers as case managers within a Medicaid HMO. The semi-structured interviews, focus groups, and participant observation suggested that the use of case management services, delivered primarily by social workers,was effective in addressing the bio-psychosocial needs of Medicaid consumers within a provider-driven HMO. Study findings recommend specific knowledge and skills that social workers need in order to prepare for practice within managed care environments.

  16. Generally civilized context of governing the social organization of the world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Gaievska

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Analyzing the contemporary global mechanisms of governing relationships between peoples represented both in procedural and institutional aspects the author notes their fundamental and globally civilized meanings in the historical progress of mankind to a higher level of social system organization. Therefore, the actual European process and principles of creating the efficient ordering system, according to which certain international institutional structures function, should be considered in the context of today’s total sovereignty and at the same time ensuring the safety of international relations. This trend suggests that the presence of some basic concepts of self-governance aimed at creating mechanisms for intergovernmental governance in the global community should remove the possibility of destabilization of international cooperation. Thus, generally civilized pillars of social governance, including international relations, lie in the understanding that people have to base their relationships on principles of the highest administrative feasibility, which should embrace economic, political and spiritual energy of any nation. This interpretation of general issues of international relations seems quite logical and well grounded in the light of recent developments in Ukraine. Therefore, the expression “reason rules the world” should be viewed as an objective opportunity of any institution through the energy of its own organization and by management to achieve a holistic level of the system which is too important for humanity, which in its historical development has always longed for a high level of organization, and consequently reached in its civilization development a level where management has become the most productive type of production. In this view management as a science can be perceived as the most lucrative and prudent source of allocating capital. Biological organizational evolution appears to have been locked: in its highest

  17. ORGANIZATION OF LABORATORY REASERCHESIN THE DISCIPLINE “SOCIAL ASPECTS OF INFORMATIZATION OF EDUCATION”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А Е Павлова

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In article methodical aspects of the organization of laboratory researches for masters of higher educational organizations on discipline “Social aspects of informatization of education” are described. The author considers a question of why this discipline is actual for future teachers and what competences it helps them to develop. Laboratory researches on this rate are considered as the main form of work, and it is offered to organize them so that trainees independently got necessary theoretical knowledge and purchased practical skills within this discipline. In article the question of that, as well as what information and communication technologies is considered to use in training in order that undergraduates not only have gained an impression how to apply ICT in teaching and educational process, but also have gained practical experience in using these technologies.The author offers a certain sequence of training master undergraduates, where laboratory researches are grouped in several cycles and consider which knowledge and skills the students will gain at each stage.

  18. Visualization of Social Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boertjes, E.M.; Kotterink, B.; Jager, E.J.

    2011-01-01

    Current visualizations of social networks are mostly some form of node-link diagram. Depending on the type of social network, this can be some treevisualization with a strict hierarchical structure or a more generic network visualization.

  19. Social cognition and levels of personality organization in patients with somatoform disorders: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelen, Jurrijn A; Eurelings-Bontekoe, Elisabeth H M; van Broeckhuysen-Kloth, Saskia A M; Snellen, Wim M; Luyten, Patrick

    2014-03-01

    Social cognition and its association with level of personality organization (PO) were examined in 163 patients with severe somatoform disorders (SFDs) and 151 psychiatric (PSA) control patients. Social cognition was measured with the Social Cognition and Object Relations Scale, which assessed both affective and cognitive facets of social cognition. Levels of PO were assessed using theory-driven profiles of the Dutch Short Form of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI). The SFD patients exhibited impairments in the cognitive facets of social cognition but not more so than the PSA controls. The results for the affective aspects indicated that the SFD patients exhibited lower levels of emotional investment yet higher affect tone in interactions than the PSA controls. In contrast to the control group, level of PO was not associated with social cognition in SFD. Together, the results indicated that impairments in complexity of mental representations are not specific to SFD patients, yet impairments in emotional investment may be specific to SFD.

  20. Hierarchical Neural Regression Models for Customer Churn Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golshan Mohammadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available As customers are the main assets of each industry, customer churn prediction is becoming a major task for companies to remain in competition with competitors. In the literature, the better applicability and efficiency of hierarchical data mining techniques has been reported. This paper considers three hierarchical models by combining four different data mining techniques for churn prediction, which are backpropagation artificial neural networks (ANN, self-organizing maps (SOM, alpha-cut fuzzy c-means (α-FCM, and Cox proportional hazards regression model. The hierarchical models are ANN + ANN + Cox, SOM + ANN + Cox, and α-FCM + ANN + Cox. In particular, the first component of the models aims to cluster data in two churner and nonchurner groups and also filter out unrepresentative data or outliers. Then, the clustered data as the outputs are used to assign customers to churner and nonchurner groups by the second technique. Finally, the correctly classified data are used to create Cox proportional hazards model. To evaluate the performance of the hierarchical models, an Iranian mobile dataset is considered. The experimental results show that the hierarchical models outperform the single Cox regression baseline model in terms of prediction accuracy, Types I and II errors, RMSE, and MAD metrics. In addition, the α-FCM + ANN + Cox model significantly performs better than the two other hierarchical models.

  1. SOCIAL MEDIA RISK ANALYSIS: HOW TO USE ACCEPTED RISK ASSESSMENT TOOLS TO ANALYZE SOCIAL MEDIA RISKS IN MILITARY ORGANIZATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Commanders may see value in utilizing the schools of thought to understand how each one influences their judgment of social media risks. For instance...school may represent a view that employs social media to influence the decision-making and behavior of adversaries. Each school of thought differs...the risk further, or accept the risk and move on to the next threat event. Social Media Schools of Thought. Each school of thought may influence

  2. Tobacco Industry vs. the World Health Organization: a historical confrontation between social networks of stakeholders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Boeira

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to present an introduction to the history of the tobacco industry and the confrontation between its social network of stakeholders and the network led by the World Health Organization (WHO, with a focus on the Brazilian context and the role of the Alliance for the Control of Tobacco Use (ACT as the coordinator of multiple stakeholders opposing the tobacco industry strategies in Brazil. The article seeks to describe the problematic relationship between tobacco production and export on the one hand and tobacco control on the other, as exemplified by the approval, in February 2005, of the first international public health treaty (WHO Framework Convention for Tobacco Control. The text is based on research leading to a PhD thesis in 2000, which has been updated through articles and ongoing research since then, with the aim of monitoring the unfolding of this issue that is central to the public health policies

  3. The Impact of Corporate Social Responsibility on the Performance of Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta CRISTACHE

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study addresses some relevant aspects concerning the impact of CSR upon the performance of organizations. The MCDA-C model was used due to its capacity to encapsulate the perceptions of the company�s managers on the situation under scrutiny and also due to the possibility to provide conditions for assessing the specific elements of CSR management as well as suggestions for improving performance. Moreover, a set of performance indicators can be identified thanks to this model, which characterize the company�s sustainability and asses its commitment both at the individual and global level. The model also enables establishing the company�s strategy that should take into account the economic, social and environmental criteria, showing that stakeholders will advocate the company�s CSR profile under to circumstances of optimum communication.

  4. Social Consequences of Nomadic Working: A Case Study in an Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ramanjit; Wood-Harper, Trevor

    This research study identified social challenges that knowledge workers in the Swedish organization TeliaSonera (Telia) face when utilizing wireless technologies to conduct work on the move. Upon collecting the relevant research data, five problem areas were identified: work and life balance, addiction, organizational involvement, nomadic work and control, and individual productivity. Each problem area was examined with the philosophical underpinning of socio-technical design principles. The results confirm that better role boundary management, self-discipline, work negotiation, and e-mail communication skills may be required for the knowledge workers to manage the demands of nomadic working. Similarly, rewarding nomadic work performance, building employee supervisor trust relations, and designing jobs that enhance work and life balance can be imperative.

  5. A FUTURE APPROACHES, SOCIAL ORGANIZATION AND THEIR ECONOMIC CONSEQUENCES OF THE INFORMATIONAL SOCIETY – KNOWLEDGE SOCIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICULAE DAVIDESCU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper is the result of scientific study under doctoral thesis “Information Society and its Economic Effects” and contains seven sections: -section 1: “Globalization, Development and Information Society”; -section 2: “The Impact of the “Digital Divide” and “Digital Inequality” Phenomena” ; -section 3: “Information Society –Knowledge Society, Definition, Objectives and Strategies” ; -section 4: “Social Structures and New Life Patterns in Information Society” ; -section 5: “Virtual Organizations, Activities and Businesses” ; -section 6: “Strategies, Programmes and Courses of the Information Society Approach” ; -section 7: “The Economic Effects Foreseeable through the Implementation of Information Society–Knowledge Society”.

  6. Staff morale in the merger of mental health and social care organizations in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulliver, P; Towell, D; Peck, E

    2003-02-01

    Following the closure of the last Victorian asylum in Somerset, the health authority and county council undertook a review of mental health services. A major outcome of this review was the creation of an integrated mental health and social care provider. The current paper explores the impact of this integration on the morale of staff members involved, using a conceptual model derived from the literature on organizational behaviour. During the year immediately following integration, the average ratings on all measures of role clarity and job satisfaction reduced. For staff members involved in the integration, by far the largest group of whom were mental health nurses, job satisfaction was related to team role clarity, team identification, emotional exhaustion and gender. These effects of the integration on staff morale are discussed in light of the wider research into the determinants of job satisfaction and the conditions for success in merging organizations. The study has significant implications for managerial and professional leadership during organizational change.

  7. Exploring the onset of collective motion in self-organised trails of social organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigatti, E.; Hernández, A.

    2018-04-01

    We investigate the emergence of self-organised trails between two specific target areas in collective motion of social organisms by means of an agent-based model. We present numerical evidences that an increase in the efficiency of navigation, in dependence of the colony size, exists. Moreover, the shift, from the diffusive to the directed motion can be quantitatively characterised, identifying and measuring a well defined crossover point. This point corresponds to the minimal number of individuals necessary for the onset of collective cooperation. Finally, by means of a finite-size scaling analysis, we describe its scaling behaviour as a function of the environment size. This last result can be of particular interest for interpreting empirical observations or for the design of artificial swarms.

  8. From the Social to the Economic and Beyond? A Relational Approach to the Historical Development of Danish Organic Food Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Chris; Ingemann, Jan Holm

    2009-01-01

    The organic movement has its roots in a critical attitude towards the capitalist development of farming and food systems and constitutes in that sense an alternative to conventional food systems. The article aims at exploring which meaning the notions of ‘alternative’ and ‘conventional’ carry......, using the historical development of organic food in Denmark as an example. From the 1970s and onwards, organic food networks in Denmark have evolved from being primarily a marginal social movement to becoming included in the market mainstream. The social and spatial settings for organic food networks...... in Denmark have thus been significantly altered. Using debates on the conventionalisation of organic food systems as the starting point, it is argued in this article that this development in Denmark can be interpreted from a relational perspective as an ongoing process of establishing organizational...

  9. Entrepreneurial intention modeling using hierarchical multiple regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Jeger

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study is to identify the contribution of effectuation dimensions to the predictive power of the entrepreneurial intention model over and above that which can be accounted for by other predictors selected and confirmed in previous studies. As is often the case in social and behavioral studies, some variables are likely to be highly correlated with each other. Therefore, the relative amount of variance in the criterion variable explained by each of the predictors depends on several factors such as the order of variable entry and sample specifics. The results show the modest predictive power of two dimensions of effectuation prior to the introduction of the theory of planned behavior elements. The article highlights the main advantages of applying hierarchical regression in social sciences as well as in the specific context of entrepreneurial intention formation, and addresses some of the potential pitfalls that this type of analysis entails.

  10. Partnerships in Health Systems: Social Organization as limits and possibilities in the Family Health Strategy Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Vanessa Costa E; Barbosa, Pedro Ribeiro; Hortale, Virgínia Alonso

    2016-05-01

    This is a case study in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro about management in the Family Health Strategy based on the Social Organizations model. The aims were to characterize and analyze aspects of the governance system adopted by the Rio de Janeiro Municipal Health Department and identify limits and possibilities of this model as a management option in Brazil's Unified Health System. A qualitative study was performed based on a literature review, document analysisand interviews with key informants. This management model facilitated the expansion of access to primary healthcare through the Family Health Strategy in Rio - where the population covered increased from 7.2% of the population in 2008 to 45.5% in 2015. The results showthat some practices in the contractual logic need to be improved, including negotiation and accountability with autonomywith the service suppliers. Evaluation and control has focus on processes, not results, and there has not been an increase in transparency and social control. The system of performance incentives has been reported as inducing improvements in the work process of the health teams. It is concluded that the regulatory capacity of the municipal management would need to be improved. On the other hand, there is an important and significant process of learning in progress.

  11. How Newcomers Learn the Social Norms of an Organization: A Case Study of the Socialization of Newly Hired Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korte, Russell F.

    2009-01-01

    Current scholarship views organizational socialization as a learning process that is primarily the responsibility of the newcomer. Yet recent learning research recognizes the importance of the social interactions in the learning process. This study investigated how newly hired engineers at a large manufacturing company learned job-related tasks…

  12. We cannot staff for 'what ifs': the social organization of rural nurses' safeguarding work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKinnon, Karen

    2012-09-01

    Rural nurses play an important role in the provision of maternity care for Canadian women. This care is an important part of how rural nurses safeguard the patients who receive care in small rural hospitals. This study utilized institutional ethnography as an approach for describing rural nursing work and for exploring how nurses' work experiences are socially organized. Rural nurses advocated for safe healthcare environments by ensuring that skilled nurses were available for every shift, day and night, at their local hospital. Rural nurses noted that this work was particularly difficult for the provision of maternity care. This article explores two threads or cues to institutional organization that were identified in our interviews and observations; namely staffing and safety standards, and the need for flexibility in staffing in small rural hospitals. Rural nurses' concerns about ensuring that skilled nurses are available in small rural hospitals do not enter into current management discourses that focus on efficiency and cost savings or find a home within current discourses of patient safety 'competencies'. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. The social organization of violence toward hostages: does violence in captivity indicate which kidnappers will kill?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Everard M

    2013-04-01

    It is questionable whether violence toward a hostage varies according to criminal or radical orientation of their kidnappers who hold them for ransom. This notion is important because it relates to the assumption that how the hostage is treated may indicate whether the victim may survive the ordeal. To investigate, 181 kidnappings cases were cross-tabulated with four previously identified violent tactics (inflicting pain, terror, psychological torture, and reward tactics) and three distinctive type of kidnappers (common criminal, organized criminal, and radical/terrorist groups). The results indicated that criminal groups tended to use a range of violent tactics to coerce a hostage in captivity, while radical groups more often specialized in psychological torture. Regardless of these observations, specific forms of violence, for example inflicting pain, provided a better indication of whether the hostage would be killed by his or her kidnappers. This suggests that the intensity of violence and not the type of group conducting the kidnapping indicates whether the hostage will be killed. The implications to the social organization of kidnapping groups are discussed further.

  14. Measuring Performance for Accountability of a Small Social Economy Organization: The Case of an Independent School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven M. Smith

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is a result of a joint project in social economy research between a community partner-an independent school-and academic partners. The school is a democratic organization, run by teachers and parents. The goal of the project was to find ways to improve communication and reporting about general performance of the school as part of the school's accountability to its members. Starting from lessons of the balanced scorecard approach for non-profits, we describe the process of development of survey-based measures for the particular organization. The direction of the tool development and subsequent organizational changes were carried out in a participatory process between the school's staff, the parents, and the board. We identify the limitations and challenges of this process, and outline its successes to draw lessons for other similar democratic organizations. / Cet article est le produit d'un projet conjoint de recherche sur l'économie sociale entre un partenaire communautaire-une école privée-et des partenaires académiques. L'école est une organisation démocratique dirigée par des enseignants et des parents. Le but de ce projet était de trouver des façons d'améliorer la communication et la reddition de compte en ce qui a trait au rendement général de l'école comme faisant partie de la responsabilité de l'école envers ses membres. En commençant par des leçons sur l'approche de tableau de bord équilibré pour les organismes sans but lucratif, nous abordons le processus de l'élaboration de mesures fondées sur des enquêtes pour l'organisation particulière. L'orientation du développement d'outils et des changements organisationnels subséquents ont été déterminés lors d'un processus participatif entre le personnel de l'école, les parents et la direction. Nous établissons les limites et les défis de cette façon de procéder et en soulignons les réussites pour tirer des leçons qui serviront à d

  15. Why Did Austrian Business Oppose Welfare Cuts? How the Organization of Interests Shapes Business Attitudes Toward Social Partnership

    OpenAIRE

    Paster, T.

    2014-01-01

    In recent decades, business interests became protagonists of welfare retrenchment in many countries. In contrast, Austria’s national business organization, the WKÖ (Wirtschaftskammer Österreich), defended welfare programs and social partnership against government initiatives to dismantle them. Drawing on interviews and media reports, this article analyzes the reasons for this deviation, focusing on reforms in two fields: (a) public pensions and (b) social insurance administration. The article...

  16. In Search of Rationality: The Purposes behind the Use of Formal Analysis in Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langley, Ann

    1989-01-01

    Examines how formal analysis is actually practiced in 3 different organizations. Identifies 4 main groups of purposes for formal analysis and relates them to various hierarchical relationships. Formal analysis and social interaction seem inextricably linked in organizational decision-making. Different structural configurations may generate…

  17. Connecting Social Networks with Ecosystem Services for Watershed Governance: a Social-Ecological Network Perspective Highlights the Critical Role of Bridging Organizations

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    Kaitlyn J. Rathwell

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In many densely settled agricultural watersheds, water quality is a point of conflict between amenity and agricultural activities because of the varied demands and impacts on shared water resources. Successful governance of these watersheds requires coordination among different activities. Recent research has highlighted the role that social networks between management entities can play to facilitate cross-scale interaction in watershed governance. For example, bridging organizations can be positioned in social networks to bridge local initiatives done by single municipalities across whole watersheds. To better understand the role of social networks in social-ecological system dynamics, we combine a social network analysis of the water quality management networks held by local governments with a social-ecological analysis of variation in water management and ecosystem services across the Montérégie, an agricultural landscape near Montréal, Québec, Canada. We analyze municipal water management networks by using one-mode networks to represent direct collaboration between municipalities, and two-mode networks to capture how bridging organizations indirectly connect municipalities. We find that municipalities do not collaborate directly with one another but instead are connected via bridging organizations that span the water quality management network. We also discovered that more connected municipalities engaged in more water management activities. However, bridging organizations preferentially connected with municipalities that used more tourism related ecosystem services rather than those that used more agricultural ecosystem services. Many agricultural municipalities were relatively isolated, despite being the main producers of water quality problems. In combination, these findings suggest that further strengthening the water management network in the Montérégie will contribute to improving water quality in the region. However, such

  18. [Person-organization fit as a mediator of relationship between work environment and stress among social workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waszkowska, Małlgorzata; Andysz, Aleksandra; Merecz, Dorota

    2014-01-01

    Occupational stress of social workers is associated with various psychosocial hazards in the work environment. Some of them affect person-organization fit (P-O fit). The aim of the study was to verify a hypothesis on the mediating role of P-O fit in the relationship between work environment and stress. The research was based on a sample of 500 social workers directly involved in social work. The data were obtained using the Person-Organization Fit Questionnaire by Czarnota-Bojarska, the Work Environment Questionnaire developed by the Department of Occupational Psychology, Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Łódź, and the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10) by Cohen et al. As revealed by the regression analysis of the 4 analyzed work environment factors, only organizational politics was significantly related with perceived stress. Complementary and supplementary dimensions of P-O fit and identification with organization were the mediators of the relationship between organizational policies and stress, but only complementary fit proved to be a total mediator. The results of the study suggest that person-organization fit, especially its complementary aspect, is an essential determinant of accomplishing the core functions of social work and good practice among social workers.

  19. Person-organization fit as a mediator of relationship between work environment and stress among social workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Waszkowska

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Occupational stress of social workers is associated with various psychosocial hazards in the work environment. Some of them affect person-organization fit (P-O fit. The aim of the study was to verify a hypothesis on the mediating role of P-O fit in the relationship between work environment and stress. Material and Methods: The research was based on a sample of 500 social workers directly involved in social work. The data were obtained using the Person-Organization Fit Questionnaire by Czarnota-Bojarska, the Work Environment Questionnaire developed by the Department of Occupational Psychology, Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Łódź, and the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10 by Cohen et al. Results: As revealed by the regression analysis of the 4 analyzed work environment factors, only organizational politics was significantly related with perceived stress. Complementary and supplementary dimensions of P-O fit and identification with organization were the mediators of the relationship between organizational policies and stress, but only complementary fit proved to be a total mediator. Conclusions: The results of the study suggest that person-organization fit, especially its complementary aspect, is an essential determinant of accomplishing the core functions of social work and good practice among social workers. Med Pr 2014;65(2:219–228

  20. The case for the World Health Organization's Commission on Social Determinants of Health to address gender identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pega, Frank; Veale, Jaimie F

    2015-03-01

    We analyzed the case of the World Health Organization's Commission on Social Determinants of Health, which did not address gender identity in their final report. We argue that gender identity is increasingly being recognized as an important social determinant of health (SDH) that results in health inequities. We identify right to health mechanisms, such as established human rights instruments, as suitable policy tools for addressing gender identity as an SDH to improve health equity. We urge the World Health Organization to add gender identity as an SDH in its conceptual framework for action on the SDHs and to develop and implement specific recommendations for addressing gender identity as an SDH.