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Sample records for hierarchical regulatory system

  1. Genomic analysis of the hierarchical structure of regulatory networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haiyuan; Gerstein, Mark

    2006-01-01

    A fundamental question in biology is how the cell uses transcription factors (TFs) to coordinate the expression of thousands of genes in response to various stimuli. The relationships between TFs and their target genes can be modeled in terms of directed regulatory networks. These relationships, in turn, can be readily compared with commonplace “chain-of-command” structures in social networks, which have characteristic hierarchical layouts. Here, we develop algorithms for identifying generalized hierarchies (allowing for various loop structures) and use these approaches to illuminate extensive pyramid-shaped hierarchical structures existing in the regulatory networks of representative prokaryotes (Escherichia coli) and eukaryotes (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), with most TFs at the bottom levels and only a few master TFs on top. These masters are situated near the center of the protein–protein interaction network, a different type of network from the regulatory one, and they receive most of the input for the whole regulatory hierarchy through protein interactions. Moreover, they have maximal influence over other genes, in terms of affecting expression-level changes. Surprisingly, however, TFs at the bottom of the regulatory hierarchy are more essential to the viability of the cell. Finally, one might think master TFs achieve their wide influence through directly regulating many targets, but TFs with most direct targets are in the middle of the hierarchy. We find, in fact, that these midlevel TFs are “control bottlenecks” in the hierarchy, and this great degree of control for “middle managers” has parallels in efficient social structures in various corporate and governmental settings. PMID:17003135

  2. Distributed hierarchical radiation monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barak, D.

    1985-01-01

    A solution to the problem of monitoring the radiation levels in and around a nuclear facility is presented in this paper. This is a private case of a large scale general purpose data acqisition system with high reliability, availability and short maintenance time. The physical layout of the detectors in the plant, and the strict control demands dictated a distributed and hierarchical system. The system is comprised of three levels, each level contains modules. Level one contains the Control modules which collects data from groups of detectors and executes emergency local control tasks. In level two are the Group controllers which concentrate data from the Control modules, and enable local display and communication. The system computer is in level three, enabling the plant operator to receive information from the detectors and execute control tasks. The described system was built and is operating successfully for about two years. (author)

  3. Expert hierarchical selection of oil and gas distribution systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frankel, E.G.

    1991-01-01

    Selection and design of oil and gas distribution systems involves a large number of decision makers and interest groups, as well as many alternative technical, financial, network, operating, management and regulatory options. Their objectives and measures of performance are different. Decision models can be effectively represented by hierarchical structures. A simple deterministic analytic hierarchy process is presented with application to oil and gas distribution systems

  4. Analysis hierarchical model for discrete event systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciortea, E. M.

    2015-11-01

    The This paper presents the hierarchical model based on discrete event network for robotic systems. Based on the hierarchical approach, Petri network is analysed as a network of the highest conceptual level and the lowest level of local control. For modelling and control of complex robotic systems using extended Petri nets. Such a system is structured, controlled and analysed in this paper by using Visual Object Net ++ package that is relatively simple and easy to use, and the results are shown as representations easy to interpret. The hierarchical structure of the robotic system is implemented on computers analysed using specialized programs. Implementation of hierarchical model discrete event systems, as a real-time operating system on a computer network connected via a serial bus is possible, where each computer is dedicated to local and Petri model of a subsystem global robotic system. Since Petri models are simplified to apply general computers, analysis, modelling, complex manufacturing systems control can be achieved using Petri nets. Discrete event systems is a pragmatic tool for modelling industrial systems. For system modelling using Petri nets because we have our system where discrete event. To highlight the auxiliary time Petri model using transport stream divided into hierarchical levels and sections are analysed successively. Proposed robotic system simulation using timed Petri, offers the opportunity to view the robotic time. Application of goods or robotic and transmission times obtained by measuring spot is obtained graphics showing the average time for transport activity, using the parameters sets of finished products. individually.

  5. On Utmost Multiplicity of Hierarchical Stellar Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gebrehiwot Y. M.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available According to theoretical considerations, multiplicity of hierarchical stellar systems can reach, depending on masses and orbital parameters, several hundred, while observational data confirm the existence of at most septuple (seven-component systems. In this study, we cross-match the stellar systems of very high multiplicity (six and more components in modern catalogues of visual double and multiple stars to find among them the candidates to hierarchical systems. After cross-matching the catalogues of closer binaries (eclipsing, spectroscopic, etc., some of their components were found to be binary/multiple themselves, what increases the system's degree of multiplicity. Optical pairs, known from literature or filtered by the authors, were flagged and excluded from the statistics. We compiled a list of hierarchical systems with potentially very high multiplicity that contains ten objects. Their multiplicity does not exceed 12, and we discuss a number of ways to explain the lack of extremely high multiplicity systems.

  6. Identifying time-delayed gene regulatory networks via an evolvable hierarchical recurrent neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordmahalleh, Mina Moradi; Sefidmazgi, Mohammad Gorji; Harrison, Scott H; Homaifar, Abdollah

    2017-01-01

    The modeling of genetic interactions within a cell is crucial for a basic understanding of physiology and for applied areas such as drug design. Interactions in gene regulatory networks (GRNs) include effects of transcription factors, repressors, small metabolites, and microRNA species. In addition, the effects of regulatory interactions are not always simultaneous, but can occur after a finite time delay, or as a combined outcome of simultaneous and time delayed interactions. Powerful biotechnologies have been rapidly and successfully measuring levels of genetic expression to illuminate different states of biological systems. This has led to an ensuing challenge to improve the identification of specific regulatory mechanisms through regulatory network reconstructions. Solutions to this challenge will ultimately help to spur forward efforts based on the usage of regulatory network reconstructions in systems biology applications. We have developed a hierarchical recurrent neural network (HRNN) that identifies time-delayed gene interactions using time-course data. A customized genetic algorithm (GA) was used to optimize hierarchical connectivity of regulatory genes and a target gene. The proposed design provides a non-fully connected network with the flexibility of using recurrent connections inside the network. These features and the non-linearity of the HRNN facilitate the process of identifying temporal patterns of a GRN. Our HRNN method was implemented with the Python language. It was first evaluated on simulated data representing linear and nonlinear time-delayed gene-gene interaction models across a range of network sizes and variances of noise. We then further demonstrated the capability of our method in reconstructing GRNs of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae synthetic network for in vivo benchmarking of reverse-engineering and modeling approaches (IRMA). We compared the performance of our method to TD-ARACNE, HCC-CLINDE, TSNI and ebdbNet across different network

  7. Formalizing a hierarchical file system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, Wim H.; Lali, Muhammad Ikram

    An abstract file system is defined here as a partial function from (absolute) paths to data. Such a file system determines the set of valid paths. It allows the file system to be read and written at a valid path, and it allows the system to be modified by the Unix operations for creation, removal,

  8. Formalizing a Hierarchical File System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, Wim H.; Lali, M.I.

    2009-01-01

    In this note, we define an abstract file system as a partial function from (absolute) paths to data. Such a file system determines the set of valid paths. It allows the file system to be read and written at a valid path, and it allows the system to be modified by the Unix operations for removal

  9. Bottom-up GGM algorithm for constructing multiple layered hierarchical gene regulatory networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multilayered hierarchical gene regulatory networks (ML-hGRNs) are very important for understanding genetics regulation of biological pathways. However, there are currently no computational algorithms available for directly building ML-hGRNs that regulate biological pathways. A bottom-up graphic Gaus...

  10. Flow and transport in hierarchically fractured systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karasaki, K.

    1993-01-01

    Preliminary results indicate that flow in the saturated zone at Yucca Mountain is controlled by fractures. A current conceptual model assumes that the flow in the fracture system can be approximately by a three-dimensionally interconnected network of linear conduits. The overall flow system of rocks at Yucca Mountain is considered to consist of hierarchically structured heterogeneous fracture systems of multiple scales. A case study suggests that it is more appropriate to use the flow parameters of the large fracture system for predicting the first arrival time, rather than using the bulk average parameters of the total system

  11. Hierarchical control system of advanced robot manipulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oomichi, Takeo; Okino, Akihisa; Nishihara, Masatoshi; Sakamoto, Taizou; Matsuda, Koichi; Ohnishi, Ken

    1990-01-01

    We introduce a double arm with 4-finger's manipulator system which process the large volume of information at high speed. This is under research/development many type of works in the harsh condition. Namely, hierarchization of instruction unit in which motion control system as real time processing unit, and task planning unit as non-real time processing unit, interface with operation through the task planning unit has been made. Also, high speed processing of large volume information has been realized by decentralizing the motion control unit by function, hierarchizing the high speed processing unit, and developing high speed transmission, IC which does not depend on computer OS to avoid the delay in transmission. (author)

  12. Statistical dynamics of ultradiffusion in hierarchical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, S.

    1987-01-01

    In many types of disordered systems which exhibit frustration and competition, an ultrametric topology is found to exist in the space of allowable states. This ultrametric topology of states is associated with a hierarchical relaxation process called ultradiffusion. Ultradiffusion occurs in hierarchical non-linear (HNL) dynamical systems when constraints cause large scale, slow modes of motion to be subordinated to small scale, fast modes. Examples of ultradiffusion are found throughout condensed matter physics and critical phenomena (e.g. the states of spin glasses), in biophysics (e.g. the states of Hopfield networks) and in many other fields including layered computing based upon nonlinear dynamics. The statistical dynamics of ultradiffusion can be treated as a random walk on an ultrametric space. For reversible bifurcating ultrametric spaces the evolution equation governing the probability of a particle being found at site i at time t has a highly degenerate transition matrix. This transition matrix has a fractal geometry similar to the replica form proposed for spin glasses. The authors invert this fractal matrix using a recursive quad-tree (QT) method. Possible applications of hierarchical systems to communications and symbolic computing are discussed briefly

  13. Virtual timers in hierarchical real-time systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvel, van den M.M.H.P.; Holenderski, M.J.; Cools, W.A.; Bril, R.J.; Lukkien, J.J.; Zhu, D.

    2009-01-01

    Hierarchical scheduling frameworks (HSFs) provide means for composing complex real-time systems from welldefined subsystems. This paper describes an approach to provide hierarchically scheduled real-time applications with virtual event timers, motivated by the need for integrating priority

  14. Regulatory switches for hierarchical use of carbon sources in E. coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth S. Perez-Alfaro

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work we study the preferential use of carbon sources in the bacterium Escherichia coli. To that end we engineered transcriptional fusions of the reporter gene gfpmut2, downstream of transcription-factor promoters, and analyzed their activity under several conditions. The chosen transcription factors are known to regulate catabolic operons associated to the consumption of alternative sugars. The obtained results indicate the following hierarchical order of sugar preference in this bacterium: glucose > arabinose > sorbitol > galactose. Further dynamical results allowed us to conjecture that this hierarchical behavior might be operated by at least the following three regulatory strategies: 1 the coordinated activation of the corresponding operons by the global regulator catabolic repressor protein (CRP, 2 their asymmetrical responses to specific and unspecific sugars and, 3 the architecture of the associated gene regulatory networks.

  15. A self-defining hierarchical data system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, J.

    1992-01-01

    The Self-Defining Data System (SDS) is a system which allows the creation of self-defining hierarchical data structures in a form which allows the data to be moved between different machine architectures. Because the structures are self-defining they can be used for communication between independent modules in a distributed system. Unlike disk-based hierarchical data systems such as Starlink's HDS, SDS works entirely in memory and is very fast. Data structures are created and manipulated as internal dynamic structures in memory managed by SDS itself. A structure may then be exported into a caller supplied memory buffer in a defined external format. This structure can be written as a file or sent as a message to another machine. It remains static in structure until it is reimported into SDS. SDS is written in portable C and has been run on a number of different machine architectures. Structures are portable between machines with SDS looking after conversion of byte order, floating point format, and alignment. A Fortran callable version is also available for some machines.

  16. Optimization of Hierarchically Scheduled Heterogeneous Embedded Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pop, Traian; Pop, Paul; Eles, Petru

    2005-01-01

    We present an approach to the analysis and optimization of heterogeneous distributed embedded systems. The systems are heterogeneous not only in terms of hardware components, but also in terms of communication protocols and scheduling policies. When several scheduling policies share a resource......, they are organized in a hierarchy. In this paper, we address design problems that are characteristic to such hierarchically scheduled systems: assignment of scheduling policies to tasks, mapping of tasks to hardware components, and the scheduling of the activities. We present algorithms for solving these problems....... Our heuristics are able to find schedulable implementations under limited resources, achieving an efficient utilization of the system. The developed algorithms are evaluated using extensive experiments and a real-life example....

  17. Optimization of Hierarchical System for Data Acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Novotny

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Television broadcasting over IP networks (IPTV is one of a number of network applications that are except of media distribution also interested in data acquisition from group of information resources of variable size. IP-TV uses Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP protocol for media streaming and RTP Control Protocol (RTCP protocol for session quality feedback. Other applications, for example sensor networks, have data acquisition as the main task. Current solutions have mostly problem with scalability - how to collect and process information from large amount of end nodes quickly and effectively? The article deals with optimization of hierarchical system of data acquisition. Problem is mathematically described, delay minima are searched and results are proved by simulations.

  18. Management systems for regulatory authorities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mpandanyama, Rujeko Lynette

    2015-02-01

    For a regulatory body to fulfil its statutory obligations, there is need to develop and implement a regulatory management system that has the necessary arrangements for achieving and maintaining high quality performance in regulating the safety of nuclear and radiation facilities under its authority. Hence, the regulatory management system needs to fully integrate the human resources, processes and physical resources of the organization. This study sought to provide an understanding of the concept, principles, policies and fundamentals of management systems as they relate to regulatory systems in the field of radiation protection and to make appropriate recommendations to ensure that an effective management system exists for the control of ionizing radiation and radiation sources and addresses all relevant stakeholders in Zimbabwe. A comparative analysis was done on the current management status and the ideal management system, which led to the identification of the gaps existing. The main key that was found to be of significance was lack of linkages between processes and management tools within the institution. (au)

  19. SORM applied to hierarchical parallel system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager

    2006-01-01

    of a particular first order reliability method (FORM) was first described in a celebrated paper by Rackwitz and Fiessler more than a quarter of a century ago. The method has become known as the Rackwitz-Fiessler algorithm. The original RF-algorithm as applied to a hierarchical random variable model...... is recapitulated so that a simple but quite effective accuracy improving calculation can be explained. A limit state curvature correction factor on the probability approximation is obtained from the final stop results of the RF-algorithm. This correction factor is based on Breitung’s asymptotic formula for second...

  20. Regulatory authority information system RAIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz, P.; Mrabit, K.; Miaw, S.

    2000-01-01

    In this lecture the principles of the regulatory authority information system (RAIS) are presented. RAIS is a tool currently being developed by the IAEA for the Regulatory Authorities. It is a part of a set of supporting actions designed to assist member states in achieving the objectives of the Model project on radiation and waste safety infrastructure. RAIS is a tool that provides the management of the Regulatory Authority with the key information needed for the planning and implementation of activities and to ensure confidence that resources are optimally used. The RAIS contains five modules: Inventory of installations and radiation sources; Authorization process; Inspection and follow-up actions; Information on personal dosimetry; Assessment of effectiveness by means of performance indicators

  1. Hierarchical Discrete Event Supervisory Control of Aircraft Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasar, Murat; Tolani, Devendra; Ray, Asok; Shah, Neerav; Litt, Jonathan S.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a hierarchical application of Discrete Event Supervisory (DES) control theory for intelligent decision and control of a twin-engine aircraft propulsion system. A dual layer hierarchical DES controller is designed to supervise and coordinate the operation of two engines of the propulsion system. The two engines are individually controlled to achieve enhanced performance and reliability, necessary for fulfilling the mission objectives. Each engine is operated under a continuously varying control system that maintains the specified performance and a local discrete-event supervisor for condition monitoring and life extending control. A global upper level DES controller is designed for load balancing and overall health management of the propulsion system.

  2. MR-AFS: a global hierarchical file-system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuter, H.

    2000-01-01

    The next generation of fusion experiments will use object-oriented technology creating the need for world wide sharing of an underlying hierarchical file-system. The Andrew file system (AFS) is a well known and widely spread global distributed file-system. Multiple-resident-AFS (MR-AFS) combines the features of AFS with hierarchical storage management systems. Files in MR-AFS therefore may be migrated on secondary storage, such as roboted tape libraries. MR-AFS is in use at IPP for the current experiments and data originating from super-computer applications. Experiences and scalability issues are discussed

  3. Hierarchical structure and modules in the Escherichia coli transcriptional regulatory network revealed by a new top-down approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buer Jan

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cellular functions are coordinately carried out by groups of genes forming functional modules. Identifying such modules in the transcriptional regulatory network (TRN of organisms is important for understanding the structure and function of these fundamental cellular networks and essential for the emerging modular biology. So far, the global connectivity structure of TRN has not been well studied and consequently not applied for the identification of functional modules. Moreover, network motifs such as feed forward loop are recently proposed to be basic building blocks of TRN. However, their relationship to functional modules is not clear. Results In this work we proposed a top-down approach to identify modules in the TRN of E. coli. By studying the global connectivity structure of the regulatory network, we first revealed a five-layer hierarchical structure in which all the regulatory relationships are downward. Based on this regulatory hierarchy, we developed a new method to decompose the regulatory network into functional modules and to identify global regulators governing multiple modules. As a result, 10 global regulators and 39 modules were identified and shown to have well defined functions. We then investigated the distribution and composition of the two basic network motifs (feed forward loop and bi-fan motif in the hierarchical structure of TRN. We found that most of these network motifs include global regulators, indicating that these motifs are not basic building blocks of modules since modules should not contain global regulators. Conclusion The transcriptional regulatory network of E. coli possesses a multi-layer hierarchical modular structure without feedback regulation at transcription level. This hierarchical structure builds the basis for a new and simple decomposition method which is suitable for the identification of functional modules and global regulators in the transcriptional regulatory network of E

  4. Heavy Metals Induce Iron Deficiency Responses at Different Hierarchic and Regulatory Levels1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    In plants, the excess of several heavy metals mimics iron (Fe) deficiency-induced chlorosis, indicating a disturbance in Fe homeostasis. To examine the level at which heavy metals interfere with Fe deficiency responses, we carried out an in-depth characterization of Fe-related physiological, regulatory, and morphological responses in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) exposed to heavy metals. Enhanced zinc (Zn) uptake closely mimicked Fe deficiency by leading to low chlorophyll but high ferric-chelate reductase activity and coumarin release. These responses were not caused by Zn-inhibited Fe uptake via IRON-REGULATED TRANSPORTER (IRT1). Instead, Zn simulated the transcriptional response of typical Fe-regulated genes, indicating that Zn affects Fe homeostasis at the level of Fe sensing. Excess supplies of cobalt and nickel altered root traits in a different way from Fe deficiency, inducing only transient Fe deficiency responses, which were characterized by a lack of induction of the ethylene pathway. Cadmium showed a rather inconsistent influence on Fe deficiency responses at multiple levels. By contrast, manganese evoked weak Fe deficiency responses in wild-type plants but strongly exacerbated chlorosis in irt1 plants, indicating that manganese antagonized Fe mainly at the level of transport. These results show that the investigated heavy metals modulate Fe deficiency responses at different hierarchic and regulatory levels and that the interaction of metals with physiological and morphological Fe deficiency responses is uncoupled. Thus, this study not only emphasizes the importance of assessing heavy metal toxicities at multiple levels but also provides a new perspective on how Fe deficiency contributes to the toxic action of individual heavy metals. PMID:28500270

  5. Heavy Metals Induce Iron Deficiency Responses at Different Hierarchic and Regulatory Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lešková, Alexandra; Giehl, Ricardo F H; Hartmann, Anja; Fargašová, Agáta; von Wirén, Nicolaus

    2017-07-01

    In plants, the excess of several heavy metals mimics iron (Fe) deficiency-induced chlorosis, indicating a disturbance in Fe homeostasis. To examine the level at which heavy metals interfere with Fe deficiency responses, we carried out an in-depth characterization of Fe-related physiological, regulatory, and morphological responses in Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ) exposed to heavy metals. Enhanced zinc (Zn) uptake closely mimicked Fe deficiency by leading to low chlorophyll but high ferric-chelate reductase activity and coumarin release. These responses were not caused by Zn-inhibited Fe uptake via IRON-REGULATED TRANSPORTER (IRT1). Instead, Zn simulated the transcriptional response of typical Fe-regulated genes, indicating that Zn affects Fe homeostasis at the level of Fe sensing. Excess supplies of cobalt and nickel altered root traits in a different way from Fe deficiency, inducing only transient Fe deficiency responses, which were characterized by a lack of induction of the ethylene pathway. Cadmium showed a rather inconsistent influence on Fe deficiency responses at multiple levels. By contrast, manganese evoked weak Fe deficiency responses in wild-type plants but strongly exacerbated chlorosis in irt1 plants, indicating that manganese antagonized Fe mainly at the level of transport. These results show that the investigated heavy metals modulate Fe deficiency responses at different hierarchic and regulatory levels and that the interaction of metals with physiological and morphological Fe deficiency responses is uncoupled. Thus, this study not only emphasizes the importance of assessing heavy metal toxicities at multiple levels but also provides a new perspective on how Fe deficiency contributes to the toxic action of individual heavy metals. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  6. Generic Formal Framework for Compositional Analysis of Hierarchical Scheduling Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boudjadar, Jalil; Hyun Kim, Jin; Thi Xuan Phan, Linh

    We present a compositional framework for the specification and analysis of hierarchical scheduling systems (HSS). Firstly we provide a generic formal model, which can be used to describe any type of scheduling system. The concept of Job automata is introduced in order to model job instantiation...

  7. Agent-based distributed hierarchical control of dc microgrid systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meng, Lexuan; Vasquez, Juan Carlos; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2014-01-01

    In order to enable distributed control and management for microgrids, this paper explores the application of information consensus and local decisionmaking methods formulating an agent based distributed hierarchical control system. A droop controlled paralleled DC/DC converter system is taken as ....... Standard genetic algorithm is applied in each local control system in order to search for a global optimum. Hardware-in-Loop simulation results are shown to demonstrate the effectiveness of the method.......In order to enable distributed control and management for microgrids, this paper explores the application of information consensus and local decisionmaking methods formulating an agent based distributed hierarchical control system. A droop controlled paralleled DC/DC converter system is taken...... as a case study. The objective is to enhance the system efficiency by finding the optimal sharing ratio of load current. Virtual resistances in local control systems are taken as decision variables. Consensus algorithms are applied for global information discovery and local control systems coordination...

  8. Control of discrete event systems modeled as hierarchical state machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brave, Y.; Heymann, M.

    1991-01-01

    The authors examine a class of discrete event systems (DESs) modeled as asynchronous hierarchical state machines (AHSMs). For this class of DESs, they provide an efficient method for testing reachability, which is an essential step in many control synthesis procedures. This method utilizes the asynchronous nature and hierarchical structure of AHSMs, thereby illustrating the advantage of the AHSM representation as compared with its equivalent (flat) state machine representation. An application of the method is presented where an online minimally restrictive solution is proposed for the problem of maintaining a controlled AHSM within prescribed legal bounds.

  9. Hierarchical graphs for rule-based modeling of biochemical systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Bin

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In rule-based modeling, graphs are used to represent molecules: a colored vertex represents a component of a molecule, a vertex attribute represents the internal state of a component, and an edge represents a bond between components. Components of a molecule share the same color. Furthermore, graph-rewriting rules are used to represent molecular interactions. A rule that specifies addition (removal of an edge represents a class of association (dissociation reactions, and a rule that specifies a change of a vertex attribute represents a class of reactions that affect the internal state of a molecular component. A set of rules comprises an executable model that can be used to determine, through various means, the system-level dynamics of molecular interactions in a biochemical system. Results For purposes of model annotation, we propose the use of hierarchical graphs to represent structural relationships among components and subcomponents of molecules. We illustrate how hierarchical graphs can be used to naturally document the structural organization of the functional components and subcomponents of two proteins: the protein tyrosine kinase Lck and the T cell receptor (TCR complex. We also show that computational methods developed for regular graphs can be applied to hierarchical graphs. In particular, we describe a generalization of Nauty, a graph isomorphism and canonical labeling algorithm. The generalized version of the Nauty procedure, which we call HNauty, can be used to assign canonical labels to hierarchical graphs or more generally to graphs with multiple edge types. The difference between the Nauty and HNauty procedures is minor, but for completeness, we provide an explanation of the entire HNauty algorithm. Conclusions Hierarchical graphs provide more intuitive formal representations of proteins and other structured molecules with multiple functional components than do the regular graphs of current languages for

  10. Global Banking System Regulatory Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleh Mozhovyi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The international and domestic experience shows that the main factors of financial destabilization during the financial crises are in the banking sector. The article reveals that the vulnerability of the financial system is connected with functions, deposit and credit transactions, risks distribution and ensuring liquidity; banks act as a major factor in stabilisation measures in the current context of globalization processes, since the economic stability of banking activities relates directly to all the entities and only stable banking system can withstand the crisis phenomena. Therefore, as a result of the analysis, it is proved that not only reduction of risks of banks is needed, but also introduction of the effective supervision system over implementation of the requirements and standards to prevent these risks. According to modern international approaches, banks use the so-called prudential supervision, which is based on the risk management assessment policy on the part of the Bank’s management, and regulatory bodies contribute to implementation of such policy. The authors have concluded that not only modern specificity of banks, but also the impact of supervision systems and regulation of modern trends in development of the banking should be analysed. Application of the general regulatory principles and banking risks methodology is required. The task of supervision is distribution of reliable risk management practices in the banking system, taking into account national peculiarities of development.

  11. Nonlinear robust hierarchical control for nonlinear uncertain systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonessa Alexander

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A nonlinear robust control-system design framework predicated on a hierarchical switching controller architecture parameterized over a set of moving nominal system equilibria is developed. Specifically, using equilibria-dependent Lyapunov functions, a hierarchical nonlinear robust control strategy is developed that robustly stabilizes a given nonlinear system over a prescribed range of system uncertainty by robustly stabilizing a collection of nonlinear controlled uncertain subsystems. The robust switching nonlinear controller architecture is designed based on a generalized (lower semicontinuous Lyapunov function obtained by minimizing a potential function over a given switching set induced by the parameterized nominal system equilibria. The proposed framework robustly stabilizes a compact positively invariant set of a given nonlinear uncertain dynamical system with structured parametric uncertainty. Finally, the efficacy of the proposed approach is demonstrated on a jet engine propulsion control problem with uncertain pressure-flow map data.

  12. Hierarchical structure of biological systems: a bioengineering approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcocer-Cuarón, Carlos; Rivera, Ana L; Castaño, Victor M

    2014-01-01

    A general theory of biological systems, based on few fundamental propositions, allows a generalization of both Wierner and Berthalanffy approaches to theoretical biology. Here, a biological system is defined as a set of self-organized, differentiated elements that interact pair-wise through various networks and media, isolated from other sets by boundaries. Their relation to other systems can be described as a closed loop in a steady-state, which leads to a hierarchical structure and functioning of the biological system. Our thermodynamical approach of hierarchical character can be applied to biological systems of varying sizes through some general principles, based on the exchange of energy information and/or mass from and within the systems.

  13. Hierarchically Structured Recommender System for Improving NPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Jieyan

    2016-01-01

    Net Promoter System (NPS) is well known as an evaluation measure of the growth engine of big companies in the business area. The ultimate goal of my research is to build an action rules and meta-actions based recommender system for improving NPS scores of 34 companies (clients) dealing with similar businesses in the US and Canada. With the given…

  14. Review of regulatory requirements for digital I and C systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Kee Choon; Lee, Cheol Kwon; Lee, Jang Soo [and others

    2001-11-01

    This work analyzed and summarized systematically various regulatory requirements that are necessary to develop digital nuclear instrumentation and control (I and C) systems, especially safety systems. The requirements are categorized into system, hardware, software, and quality assurance aspects. This report provides the explanations of terms and abbreviations to help readers understand. Furthermore, appendices of this report summarize the code and standards corresponding to each principal regulatory requirement. The hierarchical structure of regulatory requirements has Nuclear Energy Laws, Enforcement Regulations of Nuclear Energy Laws, and Notifications of Ministry of Science and Technology as utmost level requirements [In case of the US, 10 CFR 50 Appendix A, 10 CFR 50 Appendix B, 10 CFR 50.55a(h), 10 CFR 50.49, etc.]. The requirements include the Draft Regulatory Guidelines for Digital I and C Systems [In case of the US, Standard Review Plan (NUREG-0800), Regulatory Guide, Branch Technical Position (BTP)], KEPIC as standards [In case of the US, IEEE Standards, IEC Standards, ISA, Military Standard, etc.], and various reports issued by Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety [In case of the US, NUREG reports, EPRI reports, etc.]. This report can be referred for the development of safety grade control equipment, plant protection system, and engineered safety feature actuation system.

  15. Review of regulatory requirements for digital I and C systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Kee Choon; Lee, Cheol Kwon; Lee, Jang Soo

    2001-11-01

    This work analyzed and summarized systematically various regulatory requirements that are necessary to develop digital nuclear instrumentation and control (I and C) systems, especially safety systems. The requirements are categorized into system, hardware, software, and quality assurance aspects. This report provides the explanations of terms and abbreviations to help readers understand. Furthermore, appendices of this report summarize the code and standards corresponding to each principal regulatory requirement. The hierarchical structure of regulatory requirements has Nuclear Energy Laws, Enforcement Regulations of Nuclear Energy Laws, and Notifications of Ministry of Science and Technology as utmost level requirements [In case of the US, 10 CFR 50 Appendix A, 10 CFR 50 Appendix B, 10 CFR 50.55a(h), 10 CFR 50.49, etc.]. The requirements include the Draft Regulatory Guidelines for Digital I and C Systems [In case of the US, Standard Review Plan (NUREG-0800), Regulatory Guide, Branch Technical Position (BTP)], KEPIC as standards [In case of the US, IEEE Standards, IEC Standards, ISA, Military Standard, etc.], and various reports issued by Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety [In case of the US, NUREG reports, EPRI reports, etc.]. This report can be referred for the development of safety grade control equipment, plant protection system, and engineered safety feature actuation system

  16. Analysis and Optimisation of Hierarchically Scheduled Multiprocessor Embedded Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pop, Traian; Pop, Paul; Eles, Petru

    2008-01-01

    We present an approach to the analysis and optimisation of heterogeneous multiprocessor embedded systems. The systems are heterogeneous not only in terms of hardware components, but also in terms of communication protocols and scheduling policies. When several scheduling policies share a resource......, they are organised in a hierarchy. In this paper, we first develop a holistic scheduling and schedulability analysis that determines the timing properties of a hierarchically scheduled system. Second, we address design problems that are characteristic to such hierarchically scheduled systems: assignment...... of scheduling policies to tasks, mapping of tasks to hardware components, and the scheduling of the activities. We also present several algorithms for solving these problems. Our heuristics are able to find schedulable implementations under limited resources, achieving an efficient utilisation of the system...

  17. An hierarchical approach to performance evaluation of expert systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Kavi, Srinu

    1985-01-01

    The number and size of expert systems is growing rapidly. Formal evaluation of these systems - which is not performed for many systems - increases the acceptability by the user community and hence their success. Hierarchical evaluation that had been conducted for computer systems is applied for expert system performance evaluation. Expert systems are also evaluated by treating them as software systems (or programs). This paper reports many of the basic concepts and ideas in the Performance Evaluation of Expert Systems Study being conducted at the University of Southwestern Louisiana.

  18. Hierarchical organization of the circadian timing system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steensel, Mariska van

    2006-01-01

    In order to cope with and to predict 24-hour rhythms in the environment, most, if not all, organisms have a circadian timing system. The most important mammalian circadian pacemaker is located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus at the base of the hypothalamus in the brain. Over the years, it has become

  19. COMPOSITE METHOD OF RELIABILITY RESEARCH FOR HIERARCHICAL MULTILAYER ROUTING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. B. Tregubov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the idea of a research method for hierarchical multilayer routing systems. The method represents a composition of methods of graph theories, reliability, probabilities, etc. These methods are applied to the solution of different private analysis and optimization tasks and are systemically connected and coordinated with each other through uniform set-theoretic representation of the object of research. The hierarchical multilayer routing systems are considered as infrastructure facilities (gas and oil pipelines, automobile and railway networks, systems of power supply and communication with distribution of material resources, energy or information with the use of hierarchically nested functions of routing. For descriptive reasons theoretical constructions are considered on the example of task solution of probability determination for up state of specific infocommunication system. The author showed the possibility of constructive combination of graph representation of structure of the object of research and a logic probable analysis method of its reliability indices through uniform set-theoretic representation of its elements and processes proceeding in them.

  20. Clinical time series prediction: Toward a hierarchical dynamical system framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zitao; Hauskrecht, Milos

    2015-09-01

    Developing machine learning and data mining algorithms for building temporal models of clinical time series is important for understanding of the patient condition, the dynamics of a disease, effect of various patient management interventions and clinical decision making. In this work, we propose and develop a novel hierarchical framework for modeling clinical time series data of varied length and with irregularly sampled observations. Our hierarchical dynamical system framework for modeling clinical time series combines advantages of the two temporal modeling approaches: the linear dynamical system and the Gaussian process. We model the irregularly sampled clinical time series by using multiple Gaussian process sequences in the lower level of our hierarchical framework and capture the transitions between Gaussian processes by utilizing the linear dynamical system. The experiments are conducted on the complete blood count (CBC) panel data of 1000 post-surgical cardiac patients during their hospitalization. Our framework is evaluated and compared to multiple baseline approaches in terms of the mean absolute prediction error and the absolute percentage error. We tested our framework by first learning the time series model from data for the patients in the training set, and then using it to predict future time series values for the patients in the test set. We show that our model outperforms multiple existing models in terms of its predictive accuracy. Our method achieved a 3.13% average prediction accuracy improvement on ten CBC lab time series when it was compared against the best performing baseline. A 5.25% average accuracy improvement was observed when only short-term predictions were considered. A new hierarchical dynamical system framework that lets us model irregularly sampled time series data is a promising new direction for modeling clinical time series and for improving their predictive performance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Clinical time series prediction: towards a hierarchical dynamical system framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zitao; Hauskrecht, Milos

    2014-01-01

    Objective Developing machine learning and data mining algorithms for building temporal models of clinical time series is important for understanding of the patient condition, the dynamics of a disease, effect of various patient management interventions and clinical decision making. In this work, we propose and develop a novel hierarchical framework for modeling clinical time series data of varied length and with irregularly sampled observations. Materials and methods Our hierarchical dynamical system framework for modeling clinical time series combines advantages of the two temporal modeling approaches: the linear dynamical system and the Gaussian process. We model the irregularly sampled clinical time series by using multiple Gaussian process sequences in the lower level of our hierarchical framework and capture the transitions between Gaussian processes by utilizing the linear dynamical system. The experiments are conducted on the complete blood count (CBC) panel data of 1000 post-surgical cardiac patients during their hospitalization. Our framework is evaluated and compared to multiple baseline approaches in terms of the mean absolute prediction error and the absolute percentage error. Results We tested our framework by first learning the time series model from data for the patient in the training set, and then applying the model in order to predict future time series values on the patients in the test set. We show that our model outperforms multiple existing models in terms of its predictive accuracy. Our method achieved a 3.13% average prediction accuracy improvement on ten CBC lab time series when it was compared against the best performing baseline. A 5.25% average accuracy improvement was observed when only short-term predictions were considered. Conclusion A new hierarchical dynamical system framework that lets us model irregularly sampled time series data is a promising new direction for modeling clinical time series and for improving their predictive

  2. Hierarchical fuzzy control of low-energy building systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Zhen; Dexter, Arthur [Department of Engineering Science, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PJ (United Kingdom)

    2010-04-15

    A hierarchical fuzzy supervisory controller is described that is capable of optimizing the operation of a low-energy building, which uses solar energy to heat and cool its interior spaces. The highest level fuzzy rules choose the most appropriate set of lower level rules according to the weather and occupancy information; the second level fuzzy rules determine an optimal energy profile and the overall modes of operation of the heating, ventilating and air-conditioning system (HVAC); the third level fuzzy rules select the mode of operation of specific equipment, and assign schedules to the local controllers so that the optimal energy profile can be achieved in the most efficient way. Computer simulation is used to compare the hierarchical fuzzy control scheme with a supervisory control scheme based on expert rules. The performance is evaluated by comparing the energy consumption and thermal comfort. (author)

  3. A Hierarchical Security Architecture for Cyber-Physical Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quanyan Zhu; Tamer Basar

    2011-08-01

    Security of control systems is becoming a pivotal concern in critical national infrastructures such as the power grid and nuclear plants. In this paper, we adopt a hierarchical viewpoint to these security issues, addressing security concerns at each level and emphasizing a holistic cross-layer philosophy for developing security solutions. We propose a bottom-up framework that establishes a model from the physical and control levels to the supervisory level, incorporating concerns from network and communication levels. We show that the game-theoretical approach can yield cross-layer security strategy solutions to the cyber-physical systems.

  4. Stress generation and hierarchical fracturing in reactive systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamtveit, B.; Iyer, K.; Royne, A.; Malthe-Sorenssen, A.; Mathiesen, J.; Feder, J.

    2007-12-01

    Hierarchical fracture patterns are the result of a slowly driven fracturing process that successively divides the rocks into smaller domains. In quasi-2D systems, such fracture patterns are characterized by four sided domains, and T-junctions where new fractures stop at right angles to pre-existing fractures. We describe fracturing of mm to dm thick enstatite layers in a dunite matrix from the Leka ophiolite complex in Norway. The fracturing process is driven by expansion of the dunite matrix during serpentinization. The cumulative distributions of fracture lengths show a scaling behavior that lies between a log - normal and power law (fractal) distribution. This is consistent with a simple fragmentation model in which domains are divided according to a 'top hat' distribution of new fracture positions within unfractured domains. Reaction-assisted hierarchical fracturing is also likely to be responsible for other (3-D) structures commonly observed in serpentinized ultramafic rocks, including the mesh-textures observed in individual olivine grains, and the high abundance of rectangular domains at a wide range of scales. Spectacular examples of 3-D hierarchical fracture patterns also form during the weathering of basaltic intrusions (dolerites). Incipient chemical weathering of dolerites in the Karoo Basin in South Africa occurs around water- filled fractures, originally produced by thermal contraction or by externally imposed stresses. This chemical weathering causes local expansion of the rock matrix and generates elastic stresses. On a mm to cm scale, these stresses lead to mechanical layer-by-layer spalling, producing the characteristic spheroidal weathering patterns. However, our field observations and computer simulations demonstrate that in confined environments, the spalling process alone is unable to relieve the elastic stresses. In such cases, chemical weathering drives a much larger scale hierarchical fracturing process in which fresh dolerite undergoes a

  5. Hierarchical Control for Optimal and Distributed Operation of Microgrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meng, Lexuan

    manages the power flow with external grids, while the economic and optimal operation of MGs is not guaranteed by applying the existing schemes. Accordingly, this project dedicates to the study of real-time optimization methods for MGs, including the review of optimization algorithms, system level...... mathematical modeling, and the implementation of real-time optimization into existing hierarchical control schemes. Efficiency enhancement in DC MGs and optimal unbalance compensation in AC MGs are taken as the optimization objectives in this project. Necessary system dynamic modeling and stability analysis......, a discrete-time domain modeling method is proposed to establish an accurate system level model. Taking into account the different sampling times of real world plant, digital controller and communication devices, the system is modeled with these three parts separately, and with full consideration...

  6. Inference of hierarchical regulatory network of estrogen-dependent breast cancer through ChIP-based data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvin Jeffrey

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Global profiling of in vivo protein-DNA interactions using ChIP-based technologies has evolved rapidly in recent years. Although many genome-wide studies have identified thousands of ERα binding sites and have revealed the associated transcription factor (TF partners, such as AP1, FOXA1 and CEBP, little is known about ERα associated hierarchical transcriptional regulatory networks. Results In this study, we applied computational approaches to analyze three public available ChIP-based datasets: ChIP-seq, ChIP-PET and ChIP-chip, and to investigate the hierarchical regulatory network for ERα and ERα partner TFs regulation in estrogen-dependent breast cancer MCF7 cells. 16 common TFs and two common new TF partners (RORA and PITX2 were found among ChIP-seq, ChIP-chip and ChIP-PET datasets. The regulatory networks were constructed by scanning the ChIP-peak region with TF specific position weight matrix (PWM. A permutation test was performed to test the reliability of each connection of the network. We then used DREM software to perform gene ontology function analysis on the common genes. We found that FOS, PITX2, RORA and FOXA1 were involved in the up-regulated genes. We also conducted the ERα and Pol-II ChIP-seq experiments in tamoxifen resistance MCF7 cells (denoted as MCF7-T in this study and compared the difference between MCF7 and MCF7-T cells. The result showed very little overlap between these two cells in terms of targeted genes (21.2% of common genes and targeted TFs (25% of common TFs. The significant dissimilarity may indicate totally different transcriptional regulatory mechanisms between these two cancer cells. Conclusions Our study uncovers new estrogen-mediated regulatory networks by mining three ChIP-based data in MCF7 cells and ChIP-seq data in MCF7-T cells. We compared the different ChIP-based technologies as well as different breast cancer cells. Our computational analytical approach may guide biologists to

  7. Pattern overlap implies runaway growth in hierarchical tile systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Doty

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We show that in the hierarchical tile assembly model, if there is a producible assembly that overlaps a nontrivial translation of itself consistently (i.e., the pattern of tile types in the overlap region is identical in both translations, then arbitrarily large assemblies are producible. The significance of this result is that tile systems intended to controllably produce finite structures must avoid pattern repetition in their producible assemblies that would lead to such overlap.This answers an open question of Chen and Doty (SODA 2012, who showed that so-called "partial-order" systems producing a unique finite assembly and avoiding such overlaps must require time linear in the assembly diameter. An application of our main result is that any system producing a unique finite assembly is automatically guaranteed to avoid such overlaps, simplifying the hypothesis of Chen and Doty's main theorem.

  8. Compiling software for a hierarchical distributed processing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Charles J; Blocksome, Michael A; Ratterman, Joseph D; Smith, Brian E

    2013-12-31

    Compiling software for a hierarchical distributed processing system including providing to one or more compiling nodes software to be compiled, wherein at least a portion of the software to be compiled is to be executed by one or more nodes; compiling, by the compiling node, the software; maintaining, by the compiling node, any compiled software to be executed on the compiling node; selecting, by the compiling node, one or more nodes in a next tier of the hierarchy of the distributed processing system in dependence upon whether any compiled software is for the selected node or the selected node's descendents; sending to the selected node only the compiled software to be executed by the selected node or selected node's descendent.

  9. Modernizing the Regulatory System for Biotechnology Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Web page describes the continuing effort to modernize the federal regulatory system for biotechnology products as well as clarify various roles of EPA, FDA and USDA in evaluating new biotechnology products.

  10. Systemic Risk and Optimal Regulatory Architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Espinosa-Vega, M.A.; Kahn, C.; Matta, R.; Sole, J.

    2011-01-01

    Until the recent financial crisis, the safety and soundness of financial institutions was assessed from the perspective of the individual institution. The financial crisis highlighted the need to take systemic externalities seriously when rethinking prudential oversight and the regulatory

  11. Dynamic Non-Hierarchical File Systems for Exascale Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Darrell E. [Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Miller, Ethan L [Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States)

    2015-02-24

    This constitutes the final report for “Dynamic Non-Hierarchical File Systems for Exascale Storage”. The ultimate goal of this project was to improve data management in scientific computing and high-end computing (HEC) applications, and to achieve this goal we proposed: to develop the first, HEC-targeted, file system featuring rich metadata and provenance collection, extreme scalability, and future storage hardware integration as core design goals, and to evaluate and develop a flexible non-hierarchical file system interface suitable for providing more powerful and intuitive data management interfaces to HEC and scientific computing users. Data management is swiftly becoming a serious problem in the scientific community – while copious amounts of data are good for obtaining results, finding the right data is often daunting and sometimes impossible. Scientists participating in a Department of Energy workshop noted that most of their time was spent “...finding, processing, organizing, and moving data and it’s going to get much worse”. Scientists should not be forced to become data mining experts in order to retrieve the data they want, nor should they be expected to remember the naming convention they used several years ago for a set of experiments they now wish to revisit. Ideally, locating the data you need would be as easy as browsing the web. Unfortunately, existing data management approaches are usually based on hierarchical naming, a 40 year-old technology designed to manage thousands of files, not exabytes of data. Today’s systems do not take advantage of the rich array of metadata that current high-end computing (HEC) file systems can gather, including content-based metadata and provenance1 information. As a result, current metadata search approaches are typically ad hoc and often work by providing a parallel management system to the “main” file system, as is done in Linux (the locate utility), personal computers, and enterprise search

  12. Preventing Distribution Grid Congestion by Integrating Indirect Control in a Hierarchical Electric Vehicles Management System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Junjie; Si, Chengyong; Lind, Morten

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a hierarchical management system is proposed to integrate electric vehicles (EVs) into a distribution grid. Three types of actors are included in the system: Distribution system operators (DSOs), Fleet operators (FOs) and EV owners. In contrast to a typical hierarchical control sys...

  13. Regulatory control of physical protection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajdeep; Mayya, Y.S.

    2017-01-01

    The safety of facilities in BARC is under the regulatory oversight of BSC. The security architecture for these facilities incorporates multiple layers of Physical Protection Systems. The demands of safety may sometimes conflict with the needs of security. Realizing the need to identify these interfaces and extend the regulatory coverage to Physical Protection Systems, a Standing Committee named Physical Protection System Review Committee (PPSRC) has been constituted as a 2"n"d tier entity of BSC. PPSRC includes experts from various domains concerned with nuclear security, viz. physical protection systems, cyber security, radiation safety, security operations, technical services and security administration

  14. Regulatory systems-based licensing guidance documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delligatti, M.S.

    1991-01-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has developed a series of licensing guidance documents based on the regulatory requirements in Part 60 of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR Part 60). This regulatory systems-based approach to licensing guidance documentation relies on the definition of the high-level waste repository in 10 CFR Part 60. A document which is important for the frame-work it gives to other programmatic licensing guidance is the Draft Regulatory Guide open-quotes Format and Content for the License Application for the High-Level Waste Repositoryclose quotes (FCRG). The FCRG describes a format and content acceptable to NRC for a high-level waste repository license application pursuant to the requirements of 10 CFR Part 60. Other licensing guidance documents will be compatible with the FCRG

  15. Tensegrity I. Cell structure and hierarchical systems biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingber, Donald E.

    2003-01-01

    In 1993, a Commentary in this journal described how a simple mechanical model of cell structure based on tensegrity architecture can help to explain how cell shape, movement and cytoskeletal mechanics are controlled, as well as how cells sense and respond to mechanical forces (J. Cell Sci. 104, 613-627). The cellular tensegrity model can now be revisited and placed in context of new advances in our understanding of cell structure, biological networks and mechanoregulation that have been made over the past decade. Recent work provides strong evidence to support the use of tensegrity by cells, and mathematical formulations of the model predict many aspects of cell behavior. In addition, development of the tensegrity theory and its translation into mathematical terms are beginning to allow us to define the relationship between mechanics and biochemistry at the molecular level and to attack the larger problem of biological complexity. Part I of this two-part article covers the evidence for cellular tensegrity at the molecular level and describes how this building system may provide a structural basis for the hierarchical organization of living systems--from molecule to organism. Part II, which focuses on how these structural networks influence information processing networks, appears in the next issue.

  16. Hierarchical Recognition Scheme for Human Facial Expression Recognition Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Hameed Siddiqi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, human facial expressions recognition (FER has emerged as an important research area. Several factors make FER a challenging research problem. These include varying light conditions in training and test images; need for automatic and accurate face detection before feature extraction; and high similarity among different expressions that makes it difficult to distinguish these expressions with a high accuracy. This work implements a hierarchical linear discriminant analysis-based facial expressions recognition (HL-FER system to tackle these problems. Unlike the previous systems, the HL-FER uses a pre-processing step to eliminate light effects, incorporates a new automatic face detection scheme, employs methods to extract both global and local features, and utilizes a HL-FER to overcome the problem of high similarity among different expressions. Unlike most of the previous works that were evaluated using a single dataset, the performance of the HL-FER is assessed using three publicly available datasets under three different experimental settings: n-fold cross validation based on subjects for each dataset separately; n-fold cross validation rule based on datasets; and, finally, a last set of experiments to assess the effectiveness of each module of the HL-FER separately. Weighted average recognition accuracy of 98.7% across three different datasets, using three classifiers, indicates the success of employing the HL-FER for human FER.

  17. Hierarchical Recognition Scheme for Human Facial Expression Recognition Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqi, Muhammad Hameed; Lee, Sungyoung; Lee, Young-Koo; Khan, Adil Mehmood; Truc, Phan Tran Ho

    2013-01-01

    Over the last decade, human facial expressions recognition (FER) has emerged as an important research area. Several factors make FER a challenging research problem. These include varying light conditions in training and test images; need for automatic and accurate face detection before feature extraction; and high similarity among different expressions that makes it difficult to distinguish these expressions with a high accuracy. This work implements a hierarchical linear discriminant analysis-based facial expressions recognition (HL-FER) system to tackle these problems. Unlike the previous systems, the HL-FER uses a pre-processing step to eliminate light effects, incorporates a new automatic face detection scheme, employs methods to extract both global and local features, and utilizes a HL-FER to overcome the problem of high similarity among different expressions. Unlike most of the previous works that were evaluated using a single dataset, the performance of the HL-FER is assessed using three publicly available datasets under three different experimental settings: n-fold cross validation based on subjects for each dataset separately; n-fold cross validation rule based on datasets; and, finally, a last set of experiments to assess the effectiveness of each module of the HL-FER separately. Weighted average recognition accuracy of 98.7% across three different datasets, using three classifiers, indicates the success of employing the HL-FER for human FER. PMID:24316568

  18. Regulatory networks, legal federalism, and multi-level regulatory systems

    OpenAIRE

    Kerber, Wolfgang; Wendel, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Transnational regulatory networks play important roles in multi-level regulatory regimes, as e.g, the European Union. In this paper we analyze the role of regulatory networks from the perspective of the economic theory of legal federalism. Often sophisticated intermediate institutional solutions between pure centralisation and pure decentralisation can help to solve complex tradeoff problems between the benefits and problems of centralised and decentralised solutions. Drawing upon the insight...

  19. Scale of association: hierarchical linear models and the measurement of ecological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sean M. McMahon; Jeffrey M. Diez

    2007-01-01

    A fundamental challenge to understanding patterns in ecological systems lies in employing methods that can analyse, test and draw inference from measured associations between variables across scales. Hierarchical linear models (HLM) use advanced estimation algorithms to measure regression relationships and variance-covariance parameters in hierarchically structured...

  20. 78 FR 38053 - Regulatory Systems Strengthening

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    ... current state of medical product regulation globally, including challenges, risks, and emerging trends... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2013-N-0010... product regulation; generation and analysis of evidence of regulatory systems performance; and provision...

  1. Dynamics and thermodynamics in hierarchically organized systems applications in physics, biology and economics

    CERN Document Server

    Auger, P

    2013-01-01

    One of the most fundamental and efficient ways of conceptualizing complex systems is to organize them hierarchically. A hierarchically organized system is represented by a network of interconnected subsystems, each of which has its own network of subsystems, and so on, until some elementary subsystems are reached that are not further decomposed. This original and important book proposes a general mathematical theory of a hierarchical system and shows how it can be applied to very different topics such as physics (Hamiltonian systems), biology (coupling the molecular and the cellular levels), e

  2. An Evolutionary Approach for Optimizing Hierarchical Multi-Agent System Organization

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Zhiqi; Yu, Ling; Yu, Han

    2014-01-01

    It has been widely recognized that the performance of a multi-agent system is highly affected by its organization. A large scale system may have billions of possible ways of organization, which makes it impractical to find an optimal choice of organization using exhaustive search methods. In this paper, we propose a genetic algorithm aided optimization scheme for designing hierarchical structures of multi-agent systems. We introduce a novel algorithm, called the hierarchical genetic algorithm...

  3. Regulatory system reform of occupational health and safety in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fenghong; Chi, Yan

    2015-01-01

    With the explosive economic growth and social development, China's regulatory system of occupational health and safety now faces more and more challenges. This article reviews the history of regulatory system of occupational health and safety in China, as well as the current reform of this regulatory system in the country. Comprehensive, a range of laws, regulations and standards that promulgated by Chinese government, duties and responsibilities of the regulatory departments are described. Problems of current regulatory system, the ongoing adjustments and changes for modifying and improving regulatory system are discussed. The aim of reform and the incentives to drive forward more health and safety conditions in workplaces are also outlined.

  4. National Strategy for Modernizing the Regulatory System for Biotechnology Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    This National Strategy for Modernizing the Regulatory System for Biotechnology Products sets forth a vision for ensuring that the federal regulatory system is prepared to efficiently assess the risks, if any, of the future products of biotechnology.

  5. Hydrogen mitigation systems - a Canadian regulatory perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khosla, J.K.; Rizk, M.

    1997-01-01

    This is a discussion paper to examine the regulatory requirements that may be necessary for the design, operation and maintenance of the hydrogen mitigation systems. These systems (if deemed necessary to maintain the containment function), may be considered to be a part of the containment systems. Therefore, these requirements are derived mostly from the AECB Regulatory Document R-7, which specifies the requirements for containment systems for CANDU nuclear power plants. Some additional requirements, which are specific to these systems have also been included. These requirements relate to a systematic examination of the hazards of hydrogen, the design basis for the mitigation systems, their functional and design requirements, analytical support to justify their selection, and operating and testing requirements. The requirements for severe accident have not yet been developed. It is, however, anticipated that the design of the hydrogen mitigation system would be such that future requirement can be accommodated. These requirements are intended for application to the new reactors in Canada. For the existing reactors, their application will be subjected to practicability. (author)

  6. Hierarchical fiber-optic-based sensing system: impact damage monitoring of large-scale CFRP structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minakuchi, Shu; Banshoya, Hidehiko; Takeda, Nobuo; Tsukamoto, Haruka

    2011-01-01

    This study proposes a novel fiber-optic-based hierarchical sensing concept for monitoring randomly induced damage in large-scale composite structures. In a hierarchical system, several kinds of specialized devices are hierarchically combined to form a sensing network. Specifically, numerous three-dimensionally structured sensor devices are distributed throughout the whole structural area and connected with an optical fiber network through transducing mechanisms. The distributed devices detect damage, and the fiber-optic network gathers the damage signals and transmits the information to a measuring instrument. This study began by discussing the basic concept of a hierarchical sensing system through comparison with existing fiber-optic-based systems, and an impact damage detection system was then proposed to validate the new concept. The sensor devices were developed based on comparative vacuum monitoring (CVM), and Brillouin-based distributed strain measurement was utilized to identify damaged areas. Verification tests were conducted step-by-step, beginning with a basic test using a single sensor unit, and, finally, the proposed monitoring system was successfully verified using a carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) fuselage demonstrator. It was clearly confirmed that the hierarchical system has better repairability, higher robustness, and a wider monitorable area compared to existing systems

  7. Genome-Wide Mapping of Collier In Vivo Binding Sites Highlights Its Hierarchical Position in Different Transcription Regulatory Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathilde de Taffin

    Full Text Available Collier, the single Drosophila COE (Collier/EBF/Olf-1 transcription factor, is required in several developmental processes, including head patterning and specification of muscle and neuron identity during embryogenesis. To identify direct Collier (Col targets in different cell types, we used ChIP-seq to map Col binding sites throughout the genome, at mid-embryogenesis. In vivo Col binding peaks were associated to 415 potential direct target genes. Gene Ontology analysis revealed a strong enrichment in proteins with DNA binding and/or transcription-regulatory properties. Characterization of a selection of candidates, using transgenic CRM-reporter assays, identified direct Col targets in dorso-lateral somatic muscles and specific neuron types in the central nervous system. These data brought new evidence that Col direct control of the expression of the transcription regulators apterous and eyes-absent (eya is critical to specifying neuronal identities. They also showed that cross-regulation between col and eya in muscle progenitor cells is required for specification of muscle identity, revealing a new parallel between the myogenic regulatory networks operating in Drosophila and vertebrates. Col regulation of eya, both in specific muscle and neuronal lineages, may illustrate one mechanism behind the evolutionary diversification of Col biological roles.

  8. Genome-Wide Mapping of Collier In Vivo Binding Sites Highlights Its Hierarchical Position in Different Transcription Regulatory Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Laurence; Bataillé, Laetitia; Painset, Anaïs; Le Gras, Stéphanie; Jost, Bernard; Crozatier, Michèle; Vincent, Alain

    2015-01-01

    Collier, the single Drosophila COE (Collier/EBF/Olf-1) transcription factor, is required in several developmental processes, including head patterning and specification of muscle and neuron identity during embryogenesis. To identify direct Collier (Col) targets in different cell types, we used ChIP-seq to map Col binding sites throughout the genome, at mid-embryogenesis. In vivo Col binding peaks were associated to 415 potential direct target genes. Gene Ontology analysis revealed a strong enrichment in proteins with DNA binding and/or transcription-regulatory properties. Characterization of a selection of candidates, using transgenic CRM-reporter assays, identified direct Col targets in dorso-lateral somatic muscles and specific neuron types in the central nervous system. These data brought new evidence that Col direct control of the expression of the transcription regulators apterous and eyes-absent (eya) is critical to specifying neuronal identities. They also showed that cross-regulation between col and eya in muscle progenitor cells is required for specification of muscle identity, revealing a new parallel between the myogenic regulatory networks operating in Drosophila and vertebrates. Col regulation of eya, both in specific muscle and neuronal lineages, may illustrate one mechanism behind the evolutionary diversification of Col biological roles. PMID:26204530

  9. Regulatory System of Radiation Protection in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, F. T.; Huang, C. C.

    2004-01-01

    After the radioactive contaminated buildings incident occurred in Taiwan in 1993, the competent authority for radiation protection the Atomic Energy Council (AEC) started to review the structured problem of radiation protection regulatory system. Through several years' investigation and study, the AEC has improved two important tools in radiation protection regulatory system, i.e., control regulations and actual practice, and made them more rigorous and efficient. This paper will make a brief introduction of the efforts that Taiwan has made in this respect. Taiwan's radiation protection control was based on the Atomic Energy Law promulgated in 1968, but the control idea and authorization scope were not sufficient to appropriately respond to the highly developed economy and democracy in Taiwan. After several years' legislative process, the Ionizing Radiation Protection Law (IRP Law) was promulgated and entered into force on February 1, 2003. This IRP Law specifically emphasizes categorized risk management of radiation sources, establishment of personnel licenses and training system, enhancement of public safety control, and implementation of quality assurance program for medical exposure. The Legislative Yuan (Congress) fully authorized the competent authority to establish various technological control regulations according to control necessity without prior review by the Legislative Yuan in advance. As to the penalties of the violations of the IRP Law, the AEC adopts high-rated administrative fines and applies the Criminal Law to those who seriously contaminate the environment. In actual practice, the AEC has constructed a Radiation Protection Control Information System compatible with the IRP Law that fully combines the functions of computers and Internet. The information of facility operators who own radiation sources, radiation protection specialists, and operating personnel are entered into this system, starting from the submission of application of the

  10. A Hierarchical Algorithm for Integrated Scheduling and Control With Applications to Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sokoler, Leo Emil; Dinesen, Peter Juhler; Jørgensen, John Bagterp

    2016-01-01

    The contribution of this paper is a hierarchical algorithm for integrated scheduling and control via model predictive control of hybrid systems. The controlled system is a linear system composed of continuous control, state, and output variables. Binary variables occur as scheduling decisions in ...

  11. Assessing the effectiveness of nuclear regulatory system in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gandhia, Sonal; Choi, Kwang Sik

    2012-01-01

    The Fukushima accident brought up the issue of regulatory effectiveness in the fore. One of the causes of the accident has been attributed to the problems in effectiveness of the Japanese regulatory system. Regulatory reform is underway in Japan and in other countries many efforts have also been made to improve the effectiveness and independence of the regulatory bodies. It is important that the regulatory bodies make self-assessment of their weaknesses and strengths, to achieve the ultimate regulatory goal of assuring acceptable level of nuclear safety. In this paper an assessment has been done for the effectiveness of Indian nuclear regulatory system as implemented by the Atomic Energy Regulatory board (AERB). A number of good practices of AERB have been found and some areas have been identified where improvements are necessary

  12. Cellular Decomposition Based Hybrid-Hierarchical Control Systems with Applications to Flight Management Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caines, P. E.

    1999-01-01

    The work in this research project has been focused on the construction of a hierarchical hybrid control theory which is applicable to flight management systems. The motivation and underlying philosophical position for this work has been that the scale, inherent complexity and the large number of agents (aircraft) involved in an air traffic system imply that a hierarchical modelling and control methodology is required for its management and real time control. In the current work the complex discrete or continuous state space of a system with a small number of agents is aggregated in such a way that discrete (finite state machine or supervisory automaton) controlled dynamics are abstracted from the system's behaviour. High level control may then be either directly applied at this abstracted level, or, if this is in itself of significant complexity, further layers of abstractions may be created to produce a system with an acceptable degree of complexity at each level. By the nature of this construction, high level commands are necessarily realizable at lower levels in the system.

  13. A Hierarchical Transactive Energy Management System for Energy Sharing in Residential Microgrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Most Nahida Akter

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analytical framework to develop a hierarchical energy management system (EMS for energy sharing among neighbouring households in residential microgrids. The houses in residential microgrids are categorized into three different types, traditional, proactive and enthusiastic, based on the inclusion of solar photovoltaic (PV systems and battery energy storage systems (BESSs. Each of these three houses has an individual EMS, which is defined as the primary EMS. Two other EMSs (secondary and tertiary are also considered in the proposed hierarchical energy management framework for the purpose of effective energy sharing. The intelligences of each EMS are presented in this paper for the purpose of energy sharing in a residential microgrid along with the priorities. The effectiveness of the proposed hierarchical framework is evaluated on a residential microgrid in Australia. The analytical results clearly reflect that the proposed scheme effectively and efficiently shares the energy among neighbouring houses in a residential microgrid.

  14. Hierarchic levels of a system classification of radiation-contaminated landscapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolyin, V.V.; Sushchik, Yu.Ya.; Bondarenko, G.M.; Shramenko, Yi.F.; Dudar, T.V.

    2001-01-01

    Five hierarchic levels of the systematic organization of natural landscapes are determined: substantial-phase, soil-profile, biogeocenotic, landscape, and geosystematic. Systems and subsystems of compounds of chemical elements and natural and man-caused factors that characterized properties and mechanisms of ecological self-organization of biogeocenoses are brought into accordance with each level. A scheme of hierarchic subordination of systems, subsystems, and processes is worked out. Leading links of transformation and migration of radionuclides that define the contamination of tropic chains are determined

  15. Regulatory system reform of occupational health and safety in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    WU, Fenghong; CHI, Yan

    2015-01-01

    With the explosive economic growth and social development, China’s regulatory system of occupational health and safety now faces more and more challenges. This article reviews the history of regulatory system of occupational health and safety in China, as well as the current reform of this regulatory system in the country. Comprehensive, a range of laws, regulations and standards that promulgated by Chinese government, duties and responsibilities of the regulatory departments are described. Problems of current regulatory system, the ongoing adjustments and changes for modifying and improving regulatory system are discussed. The aim of reform and the incentives to drive forward more health and safety conditions in workplaces are also outlined. PMID:25843565

  16. Regulatory issues associated with the Multi-Purpose (MPC) system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, J.P.; Desell, L.J.; Birch, M.L.; Morgan, R.G.

    1994-01-01

    The US Department of Energy Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management is developing a Multi-Purpose Canister system to promote compatibility between the waste program elements of storage, transportation, and disposal. The development of a Multi-Purpose Canister system requires meeting various regulatory requirements. These regulatory requirements are set forth in environmental and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations. This paper discusses the more significant regulatory issues that must be addressed in the development of a Multi-Purpose Canister system by the Department of Energy

  17. Extending an open-source real-time operating system with hierarchical scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holenderski, M.J.; Cools, W.A.; Bril, R.J.; Lukkien, J.J.

    2010-01-01

    Hierarchical scheduling frameworks (HSFs) have been devised to support the integration of independently developed and analyzed subsystems. This paper presents an efficient, modular and extendible design for enhancing a real-time operating system with periodic tasks, two-level fixed-priority HSF

  18. Energy Management Systems and tertiary regulation in hierarchical control architectures for islanded micro-grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanseverino, Eleonora Riva; Di Silvestre, Maria Luisa; Quang, Ninh Nguyen

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the structure of the highest level of a hierarchical control architecture for micro-grids is proposed. Such structure includes two sub-levels: the Energy Management System, EMS, and the tertiary regulation. The first devoted to energy resources allocation in each time slot based...

  19. Protocol-transparent resource sharing in hierarchically scheduled real-time systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvel, van den M.M.H.P.; Bril, R.J.; Lukkien, J.J.

    2010-01-01

    Hierarchical scheduling frameworks (HSFs) provide means for composing complex real-time systems from well-defined, independently analyzed subsystems. To support resource sharing within two-level HSFs, three synchronization protocols based on the stack resource policy (SRP) have recently been

  20. Improved SIRAP analysis for synchronization in hierarchical scheduled real-time systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Behnam, M.; Bril, R.J.; Nolte, T.

    2009-01-01

    We present our ongoing work on synchronization in hierarchical scheduled real-time systems, where tasks are scheduled using fixed-priority pre-emptive scheduling. In this paper, we show that the original local schedulability analysis of the synchronization protocol SIRAP [4] is very pessimistic when

  1. Flexible System Integration and Advanced Hierarchical Control Architectures in the Microgrid Research Laboratory of Aalborg University

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meng, Lexuan; Hernández, Adriana Carolina Luna; Diaz, Enrique Rodriguez

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the system integration and hierarchical control implementation in an inverter-based microgrid research laboratory (MGRL) in Aalborg University, Denmark. MGRL aims to provide a flexible experimental platform for comprehensive studies of microgrids. The structure of the laborato...

  2. A new approach for global synchronization in hierarchical scheduled real-time systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Behnam, M.; Nolte, T.; Bril, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    We present our ongoing work to improve an existing synchronization protocol SIRAP for hierarchically scheduled real-time systems. A less pessimistic schedulability analysis is presented which can make the SIRAP protocol more efficient in terms of calculated CPU resource needs. In addition and for

  3. Multilevel compression of random walks on networks reveals hierarchical organization in large integrated systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Rosvall

    Full Text Available To comprehend the hierarchical organization of large integrated systems, we introduce the hierarchical map equation, which reveals multilevel structures in networks. In this information-theoretic approach, we exploit the duality between compression and pattern detection; by compressing a description of a random walker as a proxy for real flow on a network, we find regularities in the network that induce this system-wide flow. Finding the shortest multilevel description of the random walker therefore gives us the best hierarchical clustering of the network--the optimal number of levels and modular partition at each level--with respect to the dynamics on the network. With a novel search algorithm, we extract and illustrate the rich multilevel organization of several large social and biological networks. For example, from the global air traffic network we uncover countries and continents, and from the pattern of scientific communication we reveal more than 100 scientific fields organized in four major disciplines: life sciences, physical sciences, ecology and earth sciences, and social sciences. In general, we find shallow hierarchical structures in globally interconnected systems, such as neural networks, and rich multilevel organizations in systems with highly separated regions, such as road networks.

  4. TOWARD HIGHLY SECURE AND AUTONOMIC COMPUTING SYSTEMS: A HIERARCHICAL APPROACH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hsien-Hsin S

    2010-05-11

    The overall objective of this research project is to develop novel architectural techniques as well as system software to achieve a highly secure and intrusion-tolerant computing system. Such system will be autonomous, self-adapting, introspective, with self-healing capability under the circumstances of improper operations, abnormal workloads, and malicious attacks. The scope of this research includes: (1) System-wide, unified introspection techniques for autonomic systems, (2) Secure information-flow microarchitecture, (3) Memory-centric security architecture, (4) Authentication control and its implication to security, (5) Digital right management, (5) Microarchitectural denial-of-service attacks on shared resources. During the period of the project, we developed several architectural techniques and system software for achieving a robust, secure, and reliable computing system toward our goal.

  5. Hierarchical models and iterative optimization of hybrid systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasina, Irina V. [Ailamazyan Program Systems Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Peter One str. 4a, Pereslavl-Zalessky, 152021 (Russian Federation); Baturina, Olga V. [Trapeznikov Control Sciences Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Profsoyuznaya str. 65, 117997, Moscow (Russian Federation); Nasatueva, Soelma N. [Buryat State University, Smolina str.24a, Ulan-Ude, 670000 (Russian Federation)

    2016-06-08

    A class of hybrid control systems on the base of two-level discrete-continuous model is considered. The concept of this model was proposed and developed in preceding works as a concretization of the general multi-step system with related optimality conditions. A new iterative optimization procedure for such systems is developed on the base of localization of the global optimality conditions via contraction the control set.

  6. SEGAMS: a tree-structured hierarchical dataprocessing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csirik, J.; Csernay, L.; Makay, A.; Mate, E.

    1980-01-01

    Small computer systems, previously serving primarily for research purposes, have in recent years become indispensable tools for the daily routine examinations in the nuclear medicine departments. The systems of the various manufacturers differ in the number of picture processing functions, and in the algoritms of these. It is a common feature that all nuclear medicine systems strive: a) to contain the processing possibilities (functions) necessary for solution of the tasks arising, b) to ensure the possibility of combining these functions into complex programmes performing complex evaluation procedures, c) to aid the evaluation of the examinations with the application of some ordering principle (the use of differently-coloured press-buttons, predefined macro-instructions, a problem-oriented language, etc...). For optimum utilization of the systems, basic training in computer techniques, a knowledge of the data-processing possibilities in the given system and a appropriate combination of these are indispensable. The evaluating physician in general rarely utilizes the processing possibilities provided by the systems, because of his insufficient knowledge in this respect. In an attempt to overcome the difficulties, the authors, who have been dealing with picture processing problems since 1969, have developed a software system, the SEGAMS (SzEged GAMmacamera Systems), based on principles differing from those used previously

  7. Strengthening the Canadian alcohol advertising regulatory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heung, Carly M; Rempel, Benjamin; Krank, Marvin

    2012-05-24

    Research evidence points to harmful effects from alcohol advertising among children and youth. In particular, exposure to alcohol advertising has been associated with adolescents drinking both earlier and heavier. Although current federal and provincial guidelines have addressed advertising practices to prevent underage drinking, practice has not been supported by existing policy. While protective measures such as social marketing campaigns have the potential for counteracting the effects from alcohol advertising, the effectiveness of such measures can be easily drowned out with increasing advertising activities from the alcohol industry, especially without effective regulation. Research reviewed by the European Focus on Alcohol Safe Environment (FASE) Project has identified a set of key elements that are necessary to make alcohol advertising policy measures effective at protecting children and youth from the harmful effects of alcohol marketing. Using these key elements as an evaluation framework, there are critical components in the Canadian alcohol advertising regulatory system that clearly require strengthening. To protect impressionable children and youth against the harmful effects of alcohol advertising, 13 recommendations to strengthen current alcohol advertising regulations in Canada are provided for Canadian policy-makers, advertising standard agencies, and public health groups.

  8. The Case for A Hierarchal System Model for Linux Clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seager, M; Gorda, B

    2009-06-05

    The computer industry today is no longer driven, as it was in the 40s, 50s and 60s, by High-performance computing requirements. Rather, HPC systems, especially Leadership class systems, sit on top of a pyramid investment mode. Figure 1 shows a representative pyramid investment model for systems hardware. At the base of the pyramid is the huge investment (order 10s of Billions of US Dollars per year) in semiconductor fabrication and process technologies. These costs, which are approximately doubling with every generation, are funded from investments multiple markets: enterprise, desktops, games, embedded and specialized devices. Over and above these base technology investments are investments for critical technology elements such as microprocessor, chipsets and memory ASIC components. Investments for these components are spread across the same markets as the base semiconductor processes investments. These second tier investments are approximately half the size of the lower level of the pyramid. The next technology investment layer up, tier 3, is more focused on scalable computing systems such as those needed for HPC and other markets. These tier 3 technology elements include networking (SAN, WAN and LAN), interconnects and large scalable SMP designs. Above these is tier 4 are relatively small investments necessary to build very large, scalable systems high-end or Leadership class systems. Primary among these are the specialized network designs of vertically integrated systems, etc.

  9. Exporting Variables in a Hierarchically Distributed Control System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamizo Llatas, M

    1995-07-01

    We describe the Remote Variable Access Service (RVAS), a network service developed and used in the distributed control and monitoring system of the TJ-II Heliac, which is under construction at CIEMAT (Madrid, Spain) and devoted to plasma studies in the nuclear fusion field. The architecture of the TJ-II control system consists of one central Sun workstation Sparc 10 and several autonomous subsystems based on VME crates with embedded processors running the OS-9 (V.24) real time operating system. The RVAS service allows state variables in local control processes running in subsystems to be exported to remote processes running in the central control workstation. Thus we extend the concept of exporting of file systems in UNIX machines to variables in processes running in different machines. (Author) 6 refs.

  10. Exporting Variables in a Hierarchically Distributed Control System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Martin; Martinez Laso, L.

    1995-01-01

    We describe the Remote Variable Access Service (RVAS), a network service developed and use in the distributed control and monitoring system of the TJ-II Heliac, which is under construction at CIEMAT (Madrid, Spain) and devoted to plasma studies in the nuclear fusion field. The architecture of the TJ-II control system consists of one central Sun workstation Sparc 10 and several autonomous subsystems based on VME crates with embedded processors running the os-9 (V.24) real time operating system. The RVAS service allows state variables in local control processes running in subsystems to be exported to remote processes running in the central control workstation. Thus we extend the concept of exporting of file systems in UNIX machines to variables in processes running in different machines. (Author)

  11. Exporting Variables in a Hierarchically Distributed Control System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamizo Llatas, M.

    1995-01-01

    We describe the Remote Variable Access Service (RVAS), a network service developed and used in the distributed control and monitoring system of the TJ-II Heliac, which is under construction at CIEMAT (Madrid, Spain) and devoted to plasma studies in the nuclear fusion field. The architecture of the TJ-II control system consists of one central Sun workstation Sparc 10 and several autonomous subsystems based on VME crates with embedded processors running the OS-9 (V.24) real time operating system. The RVAS service allows state variables in local control processes running in subsystems to be exported to remote processes running in the central control workstation. Thus we extend the concept of exporting of file systems in UNIX machines to variables in processes running in different machines. (Author) 6 refs

  12. INFOGRAPHIC MODELING OF THE HIERARCHICAL STRUCTURE OF THE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM EXPOSED TO AN INNOVATIVE CONFLICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chulkov Vitaliy Olegovich

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the infographic modeling of hierarchical management systems exposed to innovative conflicts. The authors analyze the facts that serve as conflict drivers in the construction management environment. The reasons for innovative conflicts include changes in hierarchical structures of management systems, adjustment of workers to new management conditions, changes in the ideology, etc. Conflicts under consideration may involve contradictions between requests placed by customers and the legislation, any risks that may originate from the above contradiction, conflicts arising from any failure to comply with any accepted standards of conduct, etc. One of the main objectives of the theory of hierarchical structures is to develop a model capable of projecting potential innovative conflicts. Models described in the paper reflect dynamic changes in patterns of external impacts within the conflict area. The simplest model element is a monad, or an indivisible set of characteristics of participants at the pre-set level. Interaction between two monads forms a diad. Modeling of situations that involve a different number of monads, diads, resources and impacts can improve methods used to control and manage hierarchical structures in the construction industry. However, in the absence of any mathematical models employed to simulate conflict-related events, processes and situations, any research into, projection and management of interpersonal and group-to-group conflicts are to be performed in the legal environment

  13. Hierarchical system for autonomous sensing-healing of delamination in large-scale composite structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minakuchi, Shu; Sun, Denghao; Takeda, Nobuo

    2014-01-01

    This study combines our hierarchical fiber-optic-based delamination detection system with a microvascular self-healing material to develop the first autonomous sensing-healing system applicable to large-scale composite structures. In this combined system, embedded vascular modules are connected through check valves to a surface-mounted supply tube of a pressurized healing agent while fiber-optic-based sensors monitor the internal pressure of these vascular modules. When delamination occurs, the healing agent flows into the vascular modules breached by the delamination and infiltrates the damage for healing. At the same time, the pressure sensors identify the damaged modules by detecting internal pressure changes. This paper begins by describing the basic concept of the combined system and by discussing the advantages that arise from its hierarchical nature. The feasibility of the system is then confirmed through delamination infiltration tests. Finally, the hierarchical system is validated in a plate specimen by focusing on the detection and infiltration of the damage. Its self-diagnostic function is also demonstrated. (paper)

  14. Information system fur the management of a regulatory programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz, P.; Mrabit, K.; Miaw, S.

    1998-01-01

    A Regulatory Programme to monitor safety of activities involving radiation sources, implies the existence of a Regulatory Authority empowered by legislation to issue radiation protection regulations and to monitor compliance with those regulations. The core element of the programme is a system of notification and authorization (registration and licensing), inspection and enforcement. The efficiency of this system is largely dependent on the availability of reliable information on the inventory of radiation sources and installations, the administrative status of the facilities (authorization), prompt processing of inspection reports and follow up of regulatory actions, including monitoring deadlines. Essential data relevant to safety, such as personal dosimetry for occupationally exposed individuals, inspection findings and incident reports would provide, in addition, an insight on the overall safety of the country. A simple but comprehensive Regulatory Authority Information System (RAIS) linked to the authorization and inspection process will largely facilitate regulatory decisions and actions. A readily available and reliable information from the various regulatory activities will facilitate planning, optimization of resources, monitoring safety related data, disseminating safety information, making decisions and follow up regulatory actions including monitoring dead lines. The implementation of the system in more than 50 countries will contribute to experience exchange and harmonization of regulatory activities. (author)

  15. HNBody: A Simulation Package for Hierarchical N-Body Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, Kevin P.

    2018-04-01

    HNBody (http://www.hnbody.org/) is an extensible software package forintegrating the dynamics of N-body systems. Although general purpose, itincorporates several features and algorithms particularly well-suited tosystems containing a hierarchy (wide dynamic range) of masses. HNBodyversion 1 focused heavily on symplectic integration of nearly-Kepleriansystems. Here I describe the capabilities of the redesigned and expandedpackage version 2, which includes: symplectic integrators up to eighth order(both leap frog and Wisdom-Holman type methods), with symplectic corrector andclose encounter support; variable-order, variable-timestep Bulirsch-Stoer andStörmer integrators; post-Newtonian and multipole physics options; advancedround-off control for improved long-term stability; multi-threading and SIMDvectorization enhancements; seamless availability of extended precisionarithmetic for all calculations; extremely flexible configuration andoutput. Tests of the physical correctness of the algorithms are presentedusing JPL Horizons ephemerides (https://ssd.jpl.nasa.gov/?horizons) andpreviously published results for reference. The features and performanceof HNBody are also compared to several other freely available N-body codes,including MERCURY (Chambers), SWIFT (Levison & Duncan) and WHFAST (Rein &Tamayo).

  16. Power and resistance within the hospital's hierarchical system: the experiences of chronically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griscti, Odette; Aston, Megan; Warner, Grace; Martin-Misener, Ruth; McLeod, Deborah

    2017-01-01

    To explore experiences of chronically ill patients and registered nurses when they negotiate patient care in hospital settings. Specifically, we explored how social and institutional discourses shape power relations during the negotiation process. The hospital system is embedded in a hierarchical structure where the voice of the healthcare provider as expert is often given more importance than the patient. This system has been criticised as being oppressive to patients who are perceived to be lower in the hierarchy. In this study, we illustrate how the hospital's hierarchical system is not always oppressing but can also create moments of empowerment for patients. A feminist poststructuralist approach informed by the teaching of Foucault was used to explore power relations between nurses and patients when negotiating patient care in hospital settings. Eight individuals who suffered from chronic illness shared their stories about how they negotiated their care with nurses in hospital settings. The interviews were tape-recorded. Discourse analysis was used to analyse the data. Patients recounted various experiences when their voices were not heard because the current hospital system privileged the healthcare provider experts' advice over the patients' voice. The hierarchical structure of hospital supported these dynamics by privileging nurses as gatekeepers of service, by excluding the patients' input in the nursing notes and through a process of self-regulation. However, patients in this study were not passive recipients of care and used their agency creatively to resist these discourses. Nurses need to be mindful of how the hospital's hierarchical system tends to place nurses in a position of power, and how their authoritative position may positively or adversely affect the negotiation of patient care. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Comparing genomes to computer operating systems in terms of the topology and evolution of their regulatory control networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Koon-Kiu; Fang, Gang; Bhardwaj, Nitin; Alexander, Roger P; Gerstein, Mark

    2010-05-18

    The genome has often been called the operating system (OS) for a living organism. A computer OS is described by a regulatory control network termed the call graph, which is analogous to the transcriptional regulatory network in a cell. To apply our firsthand knowledge of the architecture of software systems to understand cellular design principles, we present a comparison between the transcriptional regulatory network of a well-studied bacterium (Escherichia coli) and the call graph of a canonical OS (Linux) in terms of topology and evolution. We show that both networks have a fundamentally hierarchical layout, but there is a key difference: The transcriptional regulatory network possesses a few global regulators at the top and many targets at the bottom; conversely, the call graph has many regulators controlling a small set of generic functions. This top-heavy organization leads to highly overlapping functional modules in the call graph, in contrast to the relatively independent modules in the regulatory network. We further develop a way to measure evolutionary rates comparably between the two networks and explain this difference in terms of network evolution. The process of biological evolution via random mutation and subsequent selection tightly constrains the evolution of regulatory network hubs. The call graph, however, exhibits rapid evolution of its highly connected generic components, made possible by designers' continual fine-tuning. These findings stem from the design principles of the two systems: robustness for biological systems and cost effectiveness (reuse) for software systems.

  18. Steady-State-Preserving Simulation of Genetic Regulatory Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruqiang Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel family of exponential Runge-Kutta (expRK methods are designed incorporating the stable steady-state structure of genetic regulatory systems. A natural and convenient approach to constructing new expRK methods on the base of traditional RK methods is provided. In the numerical integration of the one-gene, two-gene, and p53-mdm2 regulatory systems, the new expRK methods are shown to be more accurate than their prototype RK methods. Moreover, for nonstiff genetic regulatory systems, the expRK methods are more efficient than some traditional exponential RK integrators in the scientific literature.

  19. Materials Knowledge Systems in Python - A Data Science Framework for Accelerated Development of Hierarchical Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brough, David B; Wheeler, Daniel; Kalidindi, Surya R

    2017-03-01

    There is a critical need for customized analytics that take into account the stochastic nature of the internal structure of materials at multiple length scales in order to extract relevant and transferable knowledge. Data driven Process-Structure-Property (PSP) linkages provide systemic, modular and hierarchical framework for community driven curation of materials knowledge, and its transference to design and manufacturing experts. The Materials Knowledge Systems in Python project (PyMKS) is the first open source materials data science framework that can be used to create high value PSP linkages for hierarchical materials that can be leveraged by experts in materials science and engineering, manufacturing, machine learning and data science communities. This paper describes the main functions available from this repository, along with illustrations of how these can be accessed, utilized, and potentially further refined by the broader community of researchers.

  20. A Multi-layer, Hierarchical Information Management System for the Smart Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Ning; Du, Pengwei; Paulson, Patrick R.; Greitzer, Frank L.; Guo, Xinxin; Hadley, Mark D.

    2011-10-10

    This paper presents the modeling approach, methodologies, and initial results of setting up a multi-layer, hierarchical information management system (IMS) for the smart grid. The IMS allows its users to analyze the data collected by multiple control and communication networks to characterize the states of the smart grid. Abnormal, corrupted, or erroneous measurement data and outliers are detected and analyzed to identify whether they are caused by random equipment failures, unintentional human errors, or deliberate tempering attempts. Data collected from different information networks are crosschecked for data integrity based on redundancy, dependency, correlation, or cross-correlations, which reveal the interdependency between data sets. A hierarchically structured reasoning mechanism is used to rank possible causes of an event to aid the system operators to proactively respond or provide mitigation recommendations to remove or neutralize the threats. The model provides satisfactory performance on identifying the cause of an event and significantly reduces the need of processing myriads of data collected.

  1. Hierarchical modeling and robust synthesis for the preliminary design of large scale complex systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Patrick Nathan

    Large-scale complex systems are characterized by multiple interacting subsystems and the analysis of multiple disciplines. The design and development of such systems inevitably requires the resolution of multiple conflicting objectives. The size of complex systems, however, prohibits the development of comprehensive system models, and thus these systems must be partitioned into their constituent parts. Because simultaneous solution of individual subsystem models is often not manageable iteration is inevitable and often excessive. In this dissertation these issues are addressed through the development of a method for hierarchical robust preliminary design exploration to facilitate concurrent system and subsystem design exploration, for the concurrent generation of robust system and subsystem specifications for the preliminary design of multi-level, multi-objective, large-scale complex systems. This method is developed through the integration and expansion of current design techniques: (1) Hierarchical partitioning and modeling techniques for partitioning large-scale complex systems into more tractable parts, and allowing integration of subproblems for system synthesis, (2) Statistical experimentation and approximation techniques for increasing both the efficiency and the comprehensiveness of preliminary design exploration, and (3) Noise modeling techniques for implementing robust preliminary design when approximate models are employed. The method developed and associated approaches are illustrated through their application to the preliminary design of a commercial turbofan turbine propulsion system; the turbofan system-level problem is partitioned into engine cycle and configuration design and a compressor module is integrated for more detailed subsystem-level design exploration, improving system evaluation.

  2. Hierarchical Control Strategy for the Cooperative Braking System of Electric Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Peng, Jiankun; He, Hongwen; Liu, Wei; Guo, Hongqiang

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a hierarchical control strategy for cooperative braking system of an electric vehicle with separated driven axles. Two layers are defined: the top layer is used to optimize the braking stability based on two sliding mode control strategies, namely, the interaxle control mode and signal-axle control strategies; the interaxle control strategy generates the ideal braking force distribution in general braking condition, and the single-axle control strategy can ensure braking s...

  3. Hierarchical modelling of line commutated power systems used in particle accelerators using Saber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reimund, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of hierarchical simulation models using the program Saber trademark for the prediction of magnet ripple currents generated by the power supply/output filter combination. Modeling of an entire power system connected to output filters and particle accelerator ring magnets will be presented. Special emphasis is made on the modeling of power source imbalances caused by transformer impedance imbalances and utility variances. The affect that these imbalances have on the harmonic content of ripple current is also investigated

  4. Hierarchical Control Strategy for the Cooperative Braking System of Electric Vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jiankun; He, Hongwen; Liu, Wei; Guo, Hongqiang

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a hierarchical control strategy for cooperative braking system of an electric vehicle with separated driven axles. Two layers are defined: the top layer is used to optimize the braking stability based on two sliding mode control strategies, namely, the interaxle control mode and signal-axle control strategies; the interaxle control strategy generates the ideal braking force distribution in general braking condition, and the single-axle control strategy can ensure braking safety in emergency braking condition; the bottom layer is used to maximize the regenerative braking energy recovery efficiency with a reallocated braking torque strategy; the reallocated braking torque strategy can recovery braking energy as much as possible in the premise of meeting battery charging power. The simulation results show that the proposed hierarchical control strategy is reasonable and can adapt to different typical road surfaces and load cases; the vehicle braking stability and safety can be guaranteed; furthermore, the regenerative braking energy recovery efficiency can be improved.

  5. A distributed-memory hierarchical solver for general sparse linear systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Chao [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Inst. for Computational and Mathematical Engineering; Pouransari, Hadi [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Rajamanickam, Sivasankaran [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Center for Computing Research; Boman, Erik G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Center for Computing Research; Darve, Eric [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Inst. for Computational and Mathematical Engineering and Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2017-12-20

    We present a parallel hierarchical solver for general sparse linear systems on distributed-memory machines. For large-scale problems, this fully algebraic algorithm is faster and more memory-efficient than sparse direct solvers because it exploits the low-rank structure of fill-in blocks. Depending on the accuracy of low-rank approximations, the hierarchical solver can be used either as a direct solver or as a preconditioner. The parallel algorithm is based on data decomposition and requires only local communication for updating boundary data on every processor. Moreover, the computation-to-communication ratio of the parallel algorithm is approximately the volume-to-surface-area ratio of the subdomain owned by every processor. We also provide various numerical results to demonstrate the versatility and scalability of the parallel algorithm.

  6. What is a comprehensive system of regulatory governance?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Real diaz, F. J.

    2011-01-01

    The progressive evolution and diversification of regulations concerning industrial safety has made their management increasingly complex, requiring more resources of organizations. Therefore, it is advisable that this management be made more efficient through systematization, specialization and the use of computing technologies. This is supported by the implementation of integrated regulatory management systems. This article explain the concept of integrated regulatory management systems, their structure and their advantages. It also includes a model for implementing them in an organization. (Author)

  7. Contribution of a fuzzy expert system to regulatory impact analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antônio da Cunha

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Regulatory Impact Analysis (RIA has been consolidating in Brazilian regulatory agencies throughout the last decades. The RIA methodology aims to examine the regulatory process, measure the costs and benefits generated, as well as other effects of social, political or economic nature caused by a new or an existing regulation. By analysing each regulatory option, the expert or regulator faces a myriad of variables, usually of qualitative nature, that are difficult to measure and with a high degree of uncertainty. This research complements the existing literature, given the scarcity of decision support models in RIA that – regardless of the problem treated – incorporate the tacit knowledge of the regulation expert. This paper proposes an exploratory approach using a Fuzzy Expert System, which therefore helps to enrich the decision process in the final stage of comparison of the regulatory options.

  8. Bounds for the time to failure of hierarchical systems of fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez, J.B.; Vázquez-Prada, M.; Moreno, Y.

    1999-01-01

    an exact algebraic iterative method to compute the successive time intervals for individual breaking in systems of height n in terms of the information calculated in the previous height n - 1. As a byproduct of this method, rigorous lower and higher bounds for the time to failure of very large systems......For years limited Monte Carlo simulations have led to the suspicion that the time to failure of hierarchically organized load-transfer models of fracture is nonzero for sets of infinite size. This fact could have profound significance in engineering practice and also in geophysics. Here, we develop...

  9. Hierarchical Downlink Resource Management Framework for OFDMA based WiMAX Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Hua; Iversen, Villy Bæk

    2008-01-01

    IEEE 802.16, known as WiMAX, has received much attention for its capability to support multiple types of applications with diverse QoS requirements. Beyond what the standard has defined, radio resource management (RRM) still remains an open issue. In this paper, we propose a hierarchical downlink...... belonging to different service classes with the objective of increasing the spectral efficiency while satisfying the diverse QoS requirements in each service class. CAC highlights how to limit the number of ongoing connections preventing the system capacity from being overused. Through system...

  10. USNRC regulatory guidance for engineered safety feature air cleaning systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellamy, R.R.

    1991-01-01

    The need for clear, technically appropriate, and easily implementable guidance for the design, testing, and maintenance of nuclear air cleaning systems has long been recognized. Numerous industry consensus standards have been issued and revised over the last 30 years. Guidance has also been published by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission in the form of regulations, regulatory guides, standard review plans, NUREG documents, and information notices. This paper will summarize the latest revisions to these documents and emphasize Regulatory Guide 1.52, Design, Testing, and Maintenance Criteria for Post-Accident Engineered-Safety-Feature Atmosphere Cleanup System Air Filtration and Adsorption Units of Light-Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Plants, which was last revised in 1978. The USNRC has undertaken a project to revise this regulatory guide, and the status of that revision is highlighted

  11. Risk Assessment for Mobile Systems Through a Multilayered Hierarchical Bayesian Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shancang; Tryfonas, Theo; Russell, Gordon; Andriotis, Panagiotis

    2016-08-01

    Mobile systems are facing a number of application vulnerabilities that can be combined together and utilized to penetrate systems with devastating impact. When assessing the overall security of a mobile system, it is important to assess the security risks posed by each mobile applications (apps), thus gaining a stronger understanding of any vulnerabilities present. This paper aims at developing a three-layer framework that assesses the potential risks which apps introduce within the Android mobile systems. A Bayesian risk graphical model is proposed to evaluate risk propagation in a layered risk architecture. By integrating static analysis, dynamic analysis, and behavior analysis in a hierarchical framework, the risks and their propagation through each layer are well modeled by the Bayesian risk graph, which can quantitatively analyze risks faced to both apps and mobile systems. The proposed hierarchical Bayesian risk graph model offers a novel way to investigate the security risks in mobile environment and enables users and administrators to evaluate the potential risks. This strategy allows to strengthen both app security as well as the security of the entire system.

  12. Bioattractors: dynamical systems theory and the evolution of regulatory processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Johannes; Monk, Nick

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we illustrate how dynamical systems theory can provide a unifying conceptual framework for evolution of biological regulatory systems. Our argument is that the genotype–phenotype map can be characterized by the phase portrait of the underlying regulatory process. The features of this portrait – such as attractors with associated basins and their bifurcations – define the regulatory and evolutionary potential of a system. We show how the geometric analysis of phase space connects Waddington's epigenetic landscape to recent computational approaches for the study of robustness and evolvability in network evolution. We discuss how the geometry of phase space determines the probability of possible phenotypic transitions. Finally, we demonstrate how the active, self-organizing role of the environment in phenotypic evolution can be understood in terms of dynamical systems concepts. This approach yields mechanistic explanations that go beyond insights based on the simulation of evolving regulatory networks alone. Its predictions can now be tested by studying specific, experimentally tractable regulatory systems using the tools of modern systems biology. A systematic exploration of such systems will enable us to understand better the nature and origin of the phenotypic variability, which provides the substrate for evolution by natural selection. PMID:24882812

  13. Requirements for implementing real-time control functional modules on a hierarchical parallel pipelined system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheatley, Thomas E.; Michaloski, John L.; Lumia, Ronald

    1989-01-01

    Analysis of a robot control system leads to a broad range of processing requirements. One fundamental requirement of a robot control system is the necessity of a microcomputer system in order to provide sufficient processing capability.The use of multiple processors in a parallel architecture is beneficial for a number of reasons, including better cost performance, modular growth, increased reliability through replication, and flexibility for testing alternate control strategies via different partitioning. A survey of the progression from low level control synchronizing primitives to higher level communication tools is presented. The system communication and control mechanisms of existing robot control systems are compared to the hierarchical control model. The impact of this design methodology on the current robot control systems is explored.

  14. Models and Methods of Aggregating Linguistic Information in Multi-criteria Hierarchical Quality Assessment Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarnova, T. V.; Titova, I. A.; Barkalov, S. A.

    2018-03-01

    The article presents an algorithm for obtaining an integral assessment of the quality of an organization from the perspective of customers, based on the method of aggregating linguistic information on a multilevel hierarchical system of quality assessment. The algorithm is of a constructive nature, it provides not only the possibility of obtaining an integral evaluation, but also the development of a quality improvement strategy based on the method of linguistic decomposition, which forms the minimum set of areas of work with clients whose quality change will allow obtaining the required level of integrated quality assessment.

  15. Hierarchical parameter estimation of DFIG and drive train system in a wind turbine generator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xueping PAN; Ping JU; Feng WU; Yuqing JIN

    2017-01-01

    A new hierarchical parameter estimation method for doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) and drive train system in a wind turbine generator (WTG) is proposed in this paper.Firstly,the parameters of the DFIG and the drive train are estimated locally under different types of disturbances.Secondly,a coordination estimation method is further applied to identify the parameters of the DFIG and the drive train simultaneously with the purpose of attaining the global optimal estimation results.The main benefit of the proposed scheme is the improved estimation accuracy.Estimation results confirm the applicability of the proposed estimation technique.

  16. The Stability of Tidal Equilibrium for Hierarchical Star-Planet-Moon Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Fred C.

    2018-04-01

    Motivated by the current search for exomoons, this talk considers the stability of tidal equilibrium for hierarchical three-body systems containing a star, a planet, and a moon. In this treatment, the energy and angular momentum budgets include contributions from the planetary orbit, lunar orbit, stellar spin, planetary spin, and lunar spin. The goal is to determine the optimized energy state of the system subject to the constraint of constant angular momentum. Due to the lack of a closed form solution for the full three-body problem, however, we must use use an approximate description of the orbits. We first consider the Keplerian limit and find that the critical energy states are saddle points, rather than minima, so that these hierarchical systems have no stable tidal equilibrium states. We then generalize the calculation so that the lunar orbit is described by a time-averaged version of the circular restricted three-body problem. In this latter case, the critical energy state is a shallow minimum, so that a tidal equilibrium state exists. In both cases, however, the lunar orbit for the critical point lies outside the boundary (roughly half the Hill radius) where (previous) numerical simulations indicate dynamical instability.

  17. Nuclear knowledge management system in the regulatory activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nosovskij, A.V.; Klevtsov, A.L.; Kravchenko, N.A.

    2010-01-01

    Important issues on collection, storage and spread of knowledge among organisation dealing with the use of nuclear technologies, role of close cooperation between enterprises and organizations in developing knowledge management, general requirements for creating a nuclear knowledge management system are considered. Recommendations and the main mechanisms are identified to create the knowledge management system in technical support organizations of the regulatory authority.

  18. Regulatory control analysis and design for sewer systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mollerup, Ane Loft; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen; Thornberg, Dines

    2015-01-01

    A systematic methodology for regulatory control analysis and design is adapted for sewer system operation and evaluated. The main challenge with adapting the methodology is the handling of the stochastic and transient nature of the rainfall disturbances, inherent to sewer system operation...

  19. Improvement of the regulatory system by implementation new safety demands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iglesias, R.; Alfonso, C.

    1996-01-01

    The work describes in broad terms, the analysis that is being performed aiming at the adoption of a regulatory system that could meet the current safety demands, but which, at the same time, could be a general system that might allow different safety assessments to be done by making use of more specific technical standards of the technology supplier

  20. Decision support in hierarchical planning systems: The case of procurement planning in oil refining industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallestrup, Kasper Bislev; Lynge, Lasse Hadberg; Akkerman, Renzo

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the development of decision support systems for hierarchically structured planning approaches, such as commercially available advanced planning systems. We develop a framework to show how such a decision support system can be designed with the existing organization in mind...... and from the perspective of the organizational aspects involved. To exemplify and develop our framework, we use a case study of crude oil procurement planning in the refining industry. The results of the case study indicate an improved organizational embedding of the DSS, leading to significant savings...... in terms of planning efforts and procurement costs. In general, our framework aims to support the continuous improvement of advanced planning systems, increasing planning quality in complex supply chain settings....

  1. A proof-of-concept implementation of persistence in a hierarchical storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossman, R.; Qin, Xiao; Lifka, D.

    1992-01-01

    The concept of providing transparent access to a collection of files in a mass storage system is a familiar one. The goal of this project was to investigate the feasibility of providing similar access to a collection of persistent, complex objects. We describe an architecture for interfacing a persistent store of complex objects to a hierarchical storage system. Persistent object stores support the uniform creation, storage, and access of complex objects, regardless of their lifetimes. In other words, a mechanism is provided so that persistent objects outlive the processes which create them and can be accessed in a uniform manner by other processes. We validated this architecture by implementing a proof-of-concept system and testing the system on two stores of data. These tests indicate that this architecture supports the creation. storage and access of very large persistent object stores

  2. An adaptive map-matching algorithm based on hierarchical fuzzy system from vehicular GPS data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinjun Tang

    Full Text Available An improved hierarchical fuzzy inference method based on C-measure map-matching algorithm is proposed in this paper, in which the C-measure represents the certainty or probability of the vehicle traveling on the actual road. A strategy is firstly introduced to use historical positioning information to employ curve-curve matching between vehicle trajectories and shapes of candidate roads. It improves matching performance by overcoming the disadvantage of traditional map-matching algorithm only considering current information. An average historical distance is used to measure similarity between vehicle trajectories and road shape. The input of system includes three variables: distance between position point and candidate roads, angle between driving heading and road direction, and average distance. As the number of fuzzy rules will increase exponentially when adding average distance as a variable, a hierarchical fuzzy inference system is then applied to reduce fuzzy rules and improve the calculation efficiency. Additionally, a learning process is updated to support the algorithm. Finally, a case study contains four different routes in Beijing city is used to validate the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed method.

  3. Non-Archimedean reaction-ultradiffusion equations and complex hierarchic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zúñiga-Galindo, W. A.

    2018-06-01

    We initiate the study of non-Archimedean reaction-ultradiffusion equations and their connections with models of complex hierarchic systems. From a mathematical perspective, the equations studied here are the p-adic counterpart of the integro-differential models for phase separation introduced by Bates and Chmaj. Our equations are also generalizations of the ultradiffusion equations on trees studied in the 1980s by Ogielski, Stein, Bachas, Huberman, among others, and also generalizations of the master equations of the Avetisov et al models, which describe certain complex hierarchic systems. From a physical perspective, our equations are gradient flows of non-Archimedean free energy functionals and their solutions describe the macroscopic density profile of a bistable material whose space of states has an ultrametric structure. Some of our results are p-adic analogs of some well-known results in the Archimedean setting, however, the mechanism of diffusion is completely different due to the fact that it occurs in an ultrametric space.

  4. Minimax terminal approach problem in two-level hierarchical nonlinear discrete-time dynamical system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shorikov, A. F., E-mail: afshorikov@mail.ru [Ural Federal University, 19 S. Mira, Ekaterinburg, 620002, Russia Institute of Mathematics and Mechanics, Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, 16 S. Kovalevskaya, Ekaterinburg, 620990 (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-30

    We consider a discrete–time dynamical system consisting of three controllable objects. The motions of all objects are given by the corresponding vector nonlinear or linear discrete–time recurrent vector relations, and control system for its has two levels: basic (first or I level) that is dominating and subordinate level (second or II level) and both have different criterions of functioning and united a priori by determined informational and control connections defined in advance. For the dynamical system in question, we propose a mathematical formalization in the form of solving a multistep problem of two-level hierarchical minimax program control over the terminal approach process with incomplete information and give a general scheme for its solving.

  5. Optimization of workflow scheduling in Utility Management System with hierarchical neural network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srdjan Vukmirovic

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Grid computing could be the future computing paradigm for enterprise applications, one of its benefits being that it can be used for executing large scale applications. Utility Management Systems execute very large numbers of workflows with very high resource requirements. This paper proposes architecture for a new scheduling mechanism that dynamically executes a scheduling algorithm using feedback about the current status Grid nodes. Two Artificial Neural Networks were created in order to solve the scheduling problem. A case study is created for the Meter Data Management system with measurements from the Smart Metering system for the city of Novi Sad, Serbia. Performance tests show that significant improvement of overall execution time can be achieved by Hierarchical Artificial Neural Networks.

  6. Hierarchical Control Design for Shipboard Power System with DC Distribution and Energy Storage aboard Future More-Electric Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jin, Zheming; Meng, Lexuan; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2018-01-01

    power system (SPS) with DC distribution and energy storage system (ESS) is picked as study case. To meet the requirement of control and management of such a large-scale mobile power system, a hierarchical control design is proposed in this paper. In order to fully exploit the benefit of ESS, as well...

  7. Distributed and hierarchical control techniques for large-scale power plant systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raju, G.V.S.; Kisner, R.A.

    1985-08-01

    In large-scale systems, integrated and coordinated control functions are required to maximize plant availability, to allow maneuverability through various power levels, and to meet externally imposed regulatory limitations. Nuclear power plants are large-scale systems. Prime subsystems are those that contribute directly to the behavior of the plant's ultimate output. The prime subsystems in a nuclear power plant include reactor, primary and intermediate heat transport, steam generator, turbine generator, and feedwater system. This paper describes and discusses the continuous-variable control system developed to supervise prime plant subsystems for optimal control and coordination

  8. Hierarchical Control Strategy for the Cooperative Braking System of Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiankun Peng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a hierarchical control strategy for cooperative braking system of an electric vehicle with separated driven axles. Two layers are defined: the top layer is used to optimize the braking stability based on two sliding mode control strategies, namely, the interaxle control mode and signal-axle control strategies; the interaxle control strategy generates the ideal braking force distribution in general braking condition, and the single-axle control strategy can ensure braking safety in emergency braking condition; the bottom layer is used to maximize the regenerative braking energy recovery efficiency with a reallocated braking torque strategy; the reallocated braking torque strategy can recovery braking energy as much as possible in the premise of meeting battery charging power. The simulation results show that the proposed hierarchical control strategy is reasonable and can adapt to different typical road surfaces and load cases; the vehicle braking stability and safety can be guaranteed; furthermore, the regenerative braking energy recovery efficiency can be improved.

  9. Hierarchical Control Strategy for the Cooperative Braking System of Electric Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jiankun; He, Hongwen; Guo, Hongqiang

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a hierarchical control strategy for cooperative braking system of an electric vehicle with separated driven axles. Two layers are defined: the top layer is used to optimize the braking stability based on two sliding mode control strategies, namely, the interaxle control mode and signal-axle control strategies; the interaxle control strategy generates the ideal braking force distribution in general braking condition, and the single-axle control strategy can ensure braking safety in emergency braking condition; the bottom layer is used to maximize the regenerative braking energy recovery efficiency with a reallocated braking torque strategy; the reallocated braking torque strategy can recovery braking energy as much as possible in the premise of meeting battery charging power. The simulation results show that the proposed hierarchical control strategy is reasonable and can adapt to different typical road surfaces and load cases; the vehicle braking stability and safety can be guaranteed; furthermore, the regenerative braking energy recovery efficiency can be improved. PMID:26236772

  10. Hierarchical neural network model of the visual system determining figure/ground relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Masayuki

    2017-07-01

    One of the most important functions of the visual perception in the brain is figure/ground interpretation from input images. Figural region in 2D image corresponding to object in 3D space are distinguished from background region extended behind the object. Previously the author proposed a neural network model of figure/ground separation constructed on the standpoint that local geometric features such as curvatures and outer angles at corners are extracted and propagated along input contour in a single layer network (Kikuchi & Akashi, 2001). However, such a processing principle has the defect that signal propagation requires manyiterations despite the fact that actual visual system determines figure/ground relation within the short period (Zhou et al., 2000). In order to attain speed-up for determining figure/ground, this study incorporates hierarchical architecture into the previous model. This study confirmed the effect of the hierarchization as for the computation time by simulation. As the number of layers increased, the required computation time reduced. However, such speed-up effect was saturatedas the layers increased to some extent. This study attempted to explain this saturation effect by the notion of average distance between vertices in the area of complex network, and succeeded to mimic the saturation effect by computer simulation.

  11. Power flow analysis for islanded microgrid in hierarchical structure of control system using optimal control theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thang Diep Thanh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In environmental uncertainties, the power flow problem in islanded microgrid (MG becomes complex and non-trivial. The optimal power flow (OPL problem is described in this paper by using the energy balance between the power generation and load demand. The paper also presents the hierarchical control structure which consists of primary, secondary, tertiary, and emergency controls. Clearly, optimal power flow (OPL which implements a distributed tertiary control in hierarchical control. MG consists of diesel engine generator (DEG, wind turbine generator (WTG, and photovoltaic (PV power. In the control system considered, operation planning is realized based on profiles such that the MG, load, wind and photovoltaic power must be forecasted in short-period, meanwhile the dispatch source (i.e., DEG needs to be scheduled. The aim of the control problem is to find the dispatch output power by minimizing the total cost of energy that leads to the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation. Experimental results are presented, showing the effectiveness of optimal control such that the generation allows demand profile.

  12. Optimizing Blocking and Nonblocking Reduction Operations for Multicore Systems: Hierarchical Design and Implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorentla Venkata, Manjunath [ORNL; Shamis, Pavel [ORNL; Graham, Richard L [ORNL; Ladd, Joshua S [ORNL; Sampath, Rahul S [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Many scientific simulations, using the Message Passing Interface (MPI) programming model, are sensitive to the performance and scalability of reduction collective operations such as MPI Allreduce and MPI Reduce. These operations are the most widely used abstractions to perform mathematical operations over all processes that are part of the simulation. In this work, we propose a hierarchical design to implement the reduction operations on multicore systems. This design aims to improve the efficiency of reductions by 1) tailoring the algorithms and customizing the implementations for various communication mechanisms in the system 2) providing the ability to configure the depth of hierarchy to match the system architecture, and 3) providing the ability to independently progress each of this hierarchy. Using this design, we implement MPI Allreduce and MPI Reduce operations (and its nonblocking variants MPI Iallreduce and MPI Ireduce) for all message sizes, and evaluate on multiple architectures including InfiniBand and Cray XT5. We leverage and enhance our existing infrastructure, Cheetah, which is a framework for implementing hierarchical collective operations to implement these reductions. The experimental results show that the Cheetah reduction operations outperform the production-grade MPI implementations such as Open MPI default, Cray MPI, and MVAPICH2, demonstrating its efficiency, flexibility and portability. On Infini- Band systems, with a microbenchmark, a 512-process Cheetah nonblocking Allreduce and Reduce achieves a speedup of 23x and 10x, respectively, compared to the default Open MPI reductions. The blocking variants of the reduction operations also show similar performance benefits. A 512-process nonblocking Cheetah Allreduce achieves a speedup of 3x, compared to the default MVAPICH2 Allreduce implementation. On a Cray XT5 system, a 6144-process Cheetah Allreduce outperforms the Cray MPI by 145%. The evaluation with an application kernel, Conjugate

  13. Advanced reactor systems: safety and regulatory aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopalakrishnan, A.

    1994-01-01

    Safety features which are desirable in futuristic reactor systems have been the subject of several studies over the past decade by different expert groups. When one discusses this subject, therefore, in a somewhat non-specific and qualitative manner, it is best to make use of the already available collective wisdom and literature on the matter. (author). 3 refs

  14. A Framework for a Decision Support System in a Hierarchical Extended Enterprise Decision Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boza, Andrés; Ortiz, Angel; Vicens, Eduardo; Poler, Raul

    Decision Support System (DSS) tools provide useful information to decision makers. In an Extended Enterprise, a new goal, changes in the current objectives or small changes in the extended enterprise configuration produce a necessary adjustment in its decision system. A DSS in this context must be flexible and agile to make suitable an easy and quickly adaptation to this new context. This paper proposes to extend the Hierarchical Production Planning (HPP) structure to an Extended Enterprise decision making context. In this way, a framework for DSS in Extended Enterprise context is defined using components of HPP. Interoperability details have been reviewed to identify the impact in this framework. The proposed framework allows overcoming some interoperability barriers, identifying and organizing components for a DSS in Extended Enterprise context, and working in the definition of an architecture to be used in the design process of a flexible DSS in Extended Enterprise context which can reuse components for futures Extended Enterprise configurations.

  15. Resilient control of cyber-physical systems against intelligent attacker: a hierarchal stackelberg game approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yuan; Sun, Fuchun; Liu, Huaping

    2016-07-01

    This paper is concerned with the resilient control under denial-of-service attack launched by the intelligent attacker. The resilient control system is modelled as a multi-stage hierarchical game with a corresponding hierarchy of decisions made at cyber and physical layer, respectively. Specifically, the interaction in the cyber layer between different security agents is modelled as a static infinite Stackelberg game, while in the underlying physical layer the full-information H∞ minimax control with package drops is modelled as a different Stackelberg game. Both games are solved sequentially, which is consistent with the actual situations. Finally, the proposed method is applied to the load frequency control of the power system, which demonstrates its effectiveness.

  16. Photo-driven autonomous hydrogen generation system based on hierarchically shelled ZnO nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Heejin; Yong, Kijung

    2013-01-01

    A quantum dot semiconductor sensitized hierarchically shelled one-dimensional ZnO nanostructure has been applied as a quasi-artificial leaf for hydrogen generation. The optimized ZnO nanostructure consists of one dimensional nanowire as a core and two-dimensional nanosheet on the nanowire surface. Furthermore, the quantum dot semiconductors deposited on the ZnO nanostructures provide visible light harvesting properties. To realize the artificial leaf, we applied the ZnO based nanostructure as a photoelectrode with non-wired Z-scheme system. The demonstrated un-assisted photoelectrochemical system showed the hydrogen generation properties under 1 sun condition irradiation. In addition, the quantum dot modified photoelectrode showed 2 mA/cm 2 current density at the un-assisted condition

  17. Maximum entropy approach to H-theory: Statistical mechanics of hierarchical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Giovani L; Salazar, Domingos S P; Macêdo, A M S

    2018-02-01

    A formalism, called H-theory, is applied to the problem of statistical equilibrium of a hierarchical complex system with multiple time and length scales. In this approach, the system is formally treated as being composed of a small subsystem-representing the region where the measurements are made-in contact with a set of "nested heat reservoirs" corresponding to the hierarchical structure of the system, where the temperatures of the reservoirs are allowed to fluctuate owing to the complex interactions between degrees of freedom at different scales. The probability distribution function (pdf) of the temperature of the reservoir at a given scale, conditioned on the temperature of the reservoir at the next largest scale in the hierarchy, is determined from a maximum entropy principle subject to appropriate constraints that describe the thermal equilibrium properties of the system. The marginal temperature distribution of the innermost reservoir is obtained by integrating over the conditional distributions of all larger scales, and the resulting pdf is written in analytical form in terms of certain special transcendental functions, known as the Fox H functions. The distribution of states of the small subsystem is then computed by averaging the quasiequilibrium Boltzmann distribution over the temperature of the innermost reservoir. This distribution can also be written in terms of H functions. The general family of distributions reported here recovers, as particular cases, the stationary distributions recently obtained by Macêdo et al. [Phys. Rev. E 95, 032315 (2017)10.1103/PhysRevE.95.032315] from a stochastic dynamical approach to the problem.

  18. Nearly Cyclic Pursuit and its Hierarchical variant for Multi-agent Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iqbal, Muhammad; Leth, John-Josef; Ngo, Trung Dung

    2015-01-01

    The rendezvous problem for multiple agents under nearly cyclic pursuit and hierarchical nearly cyclic pursuit is discussed in this paper. The control law designed under nearly cyclic pursuit strategy enables the agents to converge at a point dictated by a beacon. A hierarchical version of the nea......The rendezvous problem for multiple agents under nearly cyclic pursuit and hierarchical nearly cyclic pursuit is discussed in this paper. The control law designed under nearly cyclic pursuit strategy enables the agents to converge at a point dictated by a beacon. A hierarchical version...

  19. Selected legal and regulatory concerns affecting domestic energy transportation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuller, C.R.

    1979-07-01

    This report provides assessments of eight legal and regulatory concerns that may affect energy material transportation in the US during the rest of the century: state authority to regulate nuclear materials transport, divestiture of petroleum pipelines from major integrated oil companies, problems affecting the natural gas transportation system, capabilities of energy transportation systems during emergencies, Federal coal pipeline legislation, ability of Federal agencies to anticipate railroad difficulties, abandonment of uneconomic railroad lines, and impact of the Panama Canal treaty upon US energy transportation

  20. A distributed hierarchical architecture of expert systems for supervisory control of multimodular nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otaduy, P.J.; Brittain, C.R.; Rovere, L.A.; Gove, N.B.

    1991-01-01

    A hierarchical supervisory control architecture has being implemented at ORNL to coordinate the controllers of a multimodular nuclear plant. The supervisory controller form a network of distributed expert system interfaced with a real-time simulation of the plant, the plant's automatic controllers, and the human operator. The main goal of the supervisory controllers is to maintain the plant operating within safety envelopes while optimizing availability, minimizing stress to components and operators, and facilitating operations. Representative rules implementing strategies for situation dependent reassignment of process goals by embedding diagnostics into the control philosophy are discussed. It should noted that the control philosophies here described use the ALMR concept for illustration purposes and are not part of the official ALMR design at this time. 3 refs., 1 fig

  1. Stackelberg Interdependent Security Game in Distributed and Hierarchical Cyber-Physical Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiajun Shen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the integration of physical plant and network, cyber-physical systems (CPSs are increasingly vulnerable due to their distributed and hierarchical framework. Stackelberg interdependent security game (SISG is proposed for characterizing the interdependent security in CPSs, that is, the interactions between individual CPSs, which are selfish but nonmalicious with the payoff function being formulated from a cross-layer perspective. The pure-strategy equilibria for two-player symmetric SISG are firstly analyzed with the strategy gap between individual and social optimum being characterized, which is known as negative externalities. Then, the results are further extended to the asymmetric and m-player SISG. At last, a numerical case of practical experiment platform is analyzed for determining the comprehensively optimal security configuration for administrator.

  2. Managing the systems approach to training using a flexible Hierarchical data base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Housman, E.; Bush, E.R.

    1993-01-01

    Task analysis/curriculum design for a nuclear power station results in a massive amount of data, which must be sequenced and ordered to create an effective program design. This is an almost impossible task without the use of computerized data base. Beginning in 1989, San Onofre nuclear generating station (SONGS) undertook a task analysis/program design project to verify the structure and sequence (design) of all accredited training program. A flex hierarchical data-base management system was designed to store and manage the data collected during the project. For the Operations Training Programm alone ∼8000 tasks, 90,000 knowledges and abilities, and 10,000 learning objectives were entered into this data base

  3. A hierarchical updating method for finite element model of airbag buffer system under landing impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Huan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose an impact finite element (FE model for an airbag landing buffer system. First, an impact FE model has been formulated for a typical airbag landing buffer system. We use the independence of the structure FE model from the full impact FE model to develop a hierarchical updating scheme for the recovery module FE model and the airbag system FE model. Second, we define impact responses at key points to compare the computational and experimental results to resolve the inconsistency between the experimental data sampling frequency and experimental triggering. To determine the typical characteristics of the impact dynamics response of the airbag landing buffer system, we present the impact response confidence factors (IRCFs to evaluate how consistent the computational and experiment results are. An error function is defined between the experimental and computational results at key points of the impact response (KPIR to serve as a modified objective function. A radial basis function (RBF is introduced to construct updating variables for a surrogate model for updating the objective function, thereby converting the FE model updating problem to a soluble optimization problem. Finally, the developed method has been validated using an experimental and computational study on the impact dynamics of a classic airbag landing buffer system.

  4. Mastering algebra retrains the visual system to perceive hierarchical structure in equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marghetis, Tyler; Landy, David; Goldstone, Robert L

    2016-01-01

    Formal mathematics is a paragon of abstractness. It thus seems natural to assume that the mathematical expert should rely more on symbolic or conceptual processes, and less on perception and action. We argue instead that mathematical proficiency relies on perceptual systems that have been retrained to implement mathematical skills. Specifically, we investigated whether the visual system-in particular, object-based attention-is retrained so that parsing algebraic expressions and evaluating algebraic validity are accomplished by visual processing. Object-based attention occurs when the visual system organizes the world into discrete objects, which then guide the deployment of attention. One classic signature of object-based attention is better perceptual discrimination within, rather than between, visual objects. The current study reports that object-based attention occurs not only for simple shapes but also for symbolic mathematical elements within algebraic expressions-but only among individuals who have mastered the hierarchical syntax of algebra. Moreover, among these individuals, increased object-based attention within algebraic expressions is associated with a better ability to evaluate algebraic validity. These results suggest that, in mastering the rules of algebra, people retrain their visual system to represent and evaluate abstract mathematical structure. We thus argue that algebraic expertise involves the regimentation and reuse of evolutionarily ancient perceptual processes. Our findings implicate the visual system as central to learning and reasoning in mathematics, leading us to favor educational approaches to mathematics and related STEM fields that encourage students to adapt, not abandon, their use of perception.

  5. EMIR: a configurable hierarchical system for event monitoring and incident response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deich, William T. S.

    2014-07-01

    The Event Monitor and Incident Response system (emir) is a flexible, general-purpose system for monitoring and responding to all aspects of instrument, telescope, and general facility operations, and has been in use at the Automated Planet Finder telescope for two years. Responses to problems can include both passive actions (e.g. generating alerts) and active actions (e.g. modifying system settings). Emir includes a monitor-and-response daemon, plus graphical user interfaces and text-based clients that automatically configure themselves from data supplied at runtime by the daemon. The daemon is driven by a configuration file that describes each condition to be monitored, the actions to take when the condition is triggered, and how the conditions are aggregated into hierarchical groups of conditions. Emir has been implemented for the Keck Task Library (KTL) keyword-based systems used at Keck and Lick Observatories, but can be readily adapted to many event-driven architectures. This paper discusses the design and implementation of Emir , and the challenges in balancing the competing demands for simplicity, flexibility, power, and extensibility. Emir 's design lends itself well to multiple purposes, and in addition to its core monitor and response functions, it provides an effective framework for computing running statistics, aggregate values, and summary state values from the primitive state data generated by other subsystems, and even for creating quick-and-dirty control loops for simple systems.

  6. Secular dynamics of hierarchical multiple systems composed of nested binaries, with an arbitrary number of bodies and arbitrary hierarchical structure - II. External perturbations: flybys and supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamers, Adrian S.

    2018-05-01

    We extend the formalism of a previous paper to include the effects of flybys and instantaneous perturbations such as supernovae on the long-term secular evolution of hierarchical multiple systems with an arbitrary number of bodies and hierarchy, provided that the system is composed of nested binary orbits. To model secular encounters, we expand the Hamiltonian in terms of the ratio of the separation of the perturber with respect to the barycentre of the multiple system, to the separation of the widest orbit. Subsequently, we integrate over the perturber orbit numerically or analytically. We verify our method for secular encounters and illustrate it with an example. Furthermore, we describe a method to compute instantaneous orbital changes to multiple systems, such as asymmetric supernovae and impulsive encounters. The secular code, with implementation of the extensions described in this paper, is publicly available within AMUSE, and we provide a number of simple example scripts to illustrate its usage for secular and impulsive encounters and asymmetric supernovae. The extensions presented in this paper are a next step towards efficiently modelling the evolution of complex multiple systems embedded in star clusters.

  7. Adaptation of Regulatory Systems in Schoolchildren, Residing in Industrial Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiman E. Konkabaeva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of the study of heart rate variability (HRT in apparently healthy volunteers of both sexes without bad habits, aged 16-18, residing in industrial region (Temirtau and the ones, studying under innovative technologies. HRT was registered with the help of computer-controlled devices “Varikard” (Russia. The changes of HRT spectral indexes towards integral impact of vegetative regulation mechanisms and parasympathetic activity decrease and regulatory systems overexertion, demanding correction methods implementation

  8. Sociotechnical systems as a framework for regulatory system design and evaluation: Using Work Domain Analysis to examine a new regulatory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carden, Tony; Goode, Natassia; Read, Gemma J M; Salmon, Paul M

    2017-03-15

    Like most work systems, the domain of adventure activities has seen a series of serious incidents and subsequent calls to improve regulation. Safety regulation systems aim to promote safety and reduce accidents. However, there is scant evidence they have led to improved safety outcomes. In fact there is some evidence that the poor integration of regulatory system components has led to adverse safety outcomes in some contexts. Despite this, there is an absence of methods for evaluating regulatory and compliance systems. This article argues that sociotechnical systems theory and methods provide a suitable framework for evaluating regulatory systems. This is demonstrated through an analysis of a recently introduced set of adventure activity regulations. Work Domain Analysis (WDA) was used to describe the regulatory system in terms of its functional purposes, values and priority measures, purpose-related functions, object-related processes and cognitive objects. This allowed judgement to be made on the nature of the new regulatory system and on the constraints that may impact its efficacy following implementation. Importantly, the analysis suggests that the new system's functional purpose of ensuring safe activities is not fully supported in terms of the functions and objects available to fulfil them. Potential improvements to the design of the system are discussed along with the implications for regulatory system design and evaluation across the safety critical domains generally. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Transportation of radioactive materials: the legislative and regulatory information system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fore, C.S.

    1982-03-01

    The US Department of Energy is carrying out a national program to assure the safe shipment of radioactive materials. As part of this overall effort, the Hazardous Materials Information Center of Oak Ridge National Laboratory has developed the comprehensive Legislative and Regulatory Information System, which contains information on federal-, state-, and local-level legislative and regulatory actions pertaining primarily to the shipment of radioactive materials. Specific subject areas chosen to highlight particular transportation restrictions include: (1) identification of state agency responsible for regulating transportation, (2) type of escorts required, (3) areas requiring prior notification, (4) areas requiring permits or licenses, and (5) areas totally banning transportation of all radioactive materials. Other legislative information being categorized and of immediate relevance to the transportation issues is covered under the areas of disposal, storage, and management of radioactive materials; establishment of additional regulations; emergency response regulations; moratoriums on power plant construction and siting; radiation safety and control studies; and remedial action studies. The collected information is abstracted, indexed, and input into one of the two data bases developed under this information system - Current Legislation Data Base and Historical Legislation Data Base. An appendix is included which provides a summary of the state and local laws affecting the transportation of radioactive materials throughout the United States. The Legislative and Regulatory Information System is supported by the Transportation Technology Center located at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

  10. Transportation of radioactive materials: the legislative and regulatory information system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fore, C.S.

    1982-03-01

    The US Department of Energy is carrying out a national program to assure the safe shipment of radioactive materials. As part of this overall effort, the Hazardous Materials Information Center of Oak Ridge National Laboratory has developed the comprehensive Legislative and Regulatory Information System, which contains information on federal-, state-, and local-level legislative and regulatory actions pertaining primarily to the shipment of radioactive materials. Specific subject areas chosen to highlight particular transportation restrictions include: (1) identification of state agency responsible for regulating transportation, (2) type of escorts required, (3) areas requiring prior notification, (4) areas requiring permits or licenses, and (5) areas totally banning transportation of all radioactive materials. Other legislative information being categorized and of immediate relevance to the transportation issues is covered under the areas of disposal, storage, and management of radioactive materials; establishment of additional regulations; emergency response regulations; moratoriums on power plant construction and siting; radiation safety and control studies; and remedial action studies. The collected information is abstracted, indexed, and input into one of the two data bases developed under this information system - Current Legislation Data Base and Historical Legislation Data Base. An appendix is included which provides a summary of the state and local laws affecting the transportation of radioactive materials throughout the United States. The Legislative and Regulatory Information System is supported by the Transportation Technology Center located at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico.

  11. Hierarchical energy management system for stand-alone hybrid system based on generation costs and cascade control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torreglosa, J.P.; García, P.; Fernández, L.M.; Jurado, F.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We present an energy management system for a stand-alone WT/PV/hydrogen/battery hybrid system. • Hierarchical control composed by master and slave control strategies. • Control assures reliable electricity support for stand-alone applications subject to technical and economic criteria. - Abstract: This paper presents an energy management system (EMS) for stand-alone hybrid systems composed by photovoltaic (PV) solar panels and a wind turbine (WT) as primary energy sources and two energy storage systems, which are a hydrogen system and a battery. The hydrogen system is composed of fuel cell (FC), electrolyzer and hydrogen storage tank. The EMS is a hierarchical control composed by a master control strategy and a slave control strategy. On the one hand, the master control generates the reference powers to meet several premises (such as to satisfy the load power demand, and to maintain the hydrogen tank level and the state of charge (SOC) of the battery between their target margins), taking also into account economic aspects to discriminate between using the battery or hydrogen system. On the other hand, the slave control modifies the reference powers generated by the master control according to the energy sources dynamic limitations, and maintains the DC bus voltage at its reference value. The models, implemented in MATLAB-Simulink environment, have been developed from commercially available components. To check the viability of the proposed EMS, two kinds of simulations were carried out: (1) A long-term simulation of 25 years (expected lifetime of the system) with a sample time of one hour to validate the master control of the EMS; and (2) A short-term simulation with sudden net power variations to validate the slave control of the EMS

  12. Stickiness in Hamiltonian systems: From sharply divided to hierarchical phase space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmann, Eduardo G.; Motter, Adilson E.; Kantz, Holger

    2006-02-01

    We investigate the dynamics of chaotic trajectories in simple yet physically important Hamiltonian systems with nonhierarchical borders between regular and chaotic regions with positive measures. We show that the stickiness to the border of the regular regions in systems with such a sharply divided phase space occurs through one-parameter families of marginally unstable periodic orbits and is characterized by an exponent γ=2 for the asymptotic power-law decay of the distribution of recurrence times. Generic perturbations lead to systems with hierarchical phase space, where the stickiness is apparently enhanced due to the presence of infinitely many regular islands and Cantori. In this case, we show that the distribution of recurrence times can be composed of a sum of exponentials or a sum of power laws, depending on the relative contribution of the primary and secondary structures of the hierarchy. Numerical verification of our main results are provided for area-preserving maps, mushroom billiards, and the newly defined magnetic mushroom billiards.

  13. A Hierarchical structure of key performance indicators for operation management and continuous improvement in production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ningxuan; Zhao, Cong; Li, Jingshan; Horst, John A

    2016-01-01

    Key performance indicators (KPIs) are critical for manufacturing operation management and continuous improvement (CI). In modern manufacturing systems, KPIs are defined as a set of metrics to reflect operation performance, such as efficiency, throughput, availability, from productivity, quality and maintenance perspectives. Through continuous monitoring and measurement of KPIs, meaningful quantification and identification of different aspects of operation activities can be obtained, which enable and direct CI efforts. A set of 34 KPIs has been introduced in ISO 22400. However, the KPIs in a manufacturing system are not independent, and they may have intrinsic mutual relationships. The goal of this paper is to introduce a multi-level structure for identification and analysis of KPIs and their intrinsic relationships in production systems. Specifically, through such a hierarchical structure, we define and layer KPIs into levels of basic KPIs, comprehensive KPIs and their supporting metrics, and use it to investigate the relationships and dependencies between KPIs. Such a study can provide a useful tool for manufacturing engineers and managers to measure and utilize KPIs for CI.

  14. A Hierarchical Auction-Based Mechanism for Real-Time Resource Allocation in Cloud Robotic Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lujia; Liu, Ming; Meng, Max Q-H

    2017-02-01

    Cloud computing enables users to share computing resources on-demand. The cloud computing framework cannot be directly mapped to cloud robotic systems with ad hoc networks since cloud robotic systems have additional constraints such as limited bandwidth and dynamic structure. However, most multirobotic applications with cooperative control adopt this decentralized approach to avoid a single point of failure. Robots need to continuously update intensive data to execute tasks in a coordinated manner, which implies real-time requirements. Thus, a resource allocation strategy is required, especially in such resource-constrained environments. This paper proposes a hierarchical auction-based mechanism, namely link quality matrix (LQM) auction, which is suitable for ad hoc networks by introducing a link quality indicator. The proposed algorithm produces a fast and robust method that is accurate and scalable. It reduces both global communication and unnecessary repeated computation. The proposed method is designed for firm real-time resource retrieval for physical multirobot systems. A joint surveillance scenario empirically validates the proposed mechanism by assessing several practical metrics. The results show that the proposed LQM auction outperforms state-of-the-art algorithms for resource allocation.

  15. A high performance hierarchical storage management system for the Canadian tier-1 centre at TRIUMF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deatrich, D C; Liu, S X; Tafirout, R

    2010-01-01

    We describe in this paper the design and implementation of Tapeguy, a high performance non-proprietary Hierarchical Storage Management (HSM) system which is interfaced to dCache for efficient tertiary storage operations. The system has been successfully implemented at the Canadian Tier-1 Centre at TRIUMF. The ATLAS experiment will collect a large amount of data (approximately 3.5 Petabytes each year). An efficient HSM system will play a crucial role in the success of the ATLAS Computing Model which is driven by intensive large-scale data analysis activities that will be performed on the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid infrastructure continuously. Tapeguy is Perl-based. It controls and manages data and tape libraries. Its architecture is scalable and includes Dataset Writing control, a Read-back Queuing mechanism and I/O tape drive load balancing as well as on-demand allocation of resources. A central MySQL database records metadata information for every file and transaction (for audit and performance evaluation), as well as an inventory of library elements. Tapeguy Dataset Writing was implemented to group files which are close in time and of similar type. Optional dataset path control dynamically allocates tape families and assign tapes to it. Tape flushing is based on various strategies: time, threshold or external callbacks mechanisms. Tapeguy Read-back Queuing reorders all read requests by using an elevator algorithm, avoiding unnecessary tape loading and unloading. Implementation of priorities will guarantee file delivery to all clients in a timely manner.

  16. Pulp regeneration in a full-length human tooth root using a hierarchical nanofibrous microsphere system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiangwei; Ma, Chi; Xie, Xiaohua; Sun, Hongchen; Liu, Xiaohua

    2016-04-15

    While pulp regeneration using tissue engineering strategy has been explored for over a decade, successful regeneration of pulp tissues in a full-length human root with a one-end seal that truly simulates clinical endodontic treatment has not been achieved. To address this challenge, we designed and synthesized a unique hierarchical growth factor-loaded nanofibrous microsphere scaffolding system. In this system, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) binds with heparin and is encapsulated in heparin-conjugated gelatin nanospheres, which are further immobilized in the nanofibers of an injectable poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) microsphere. This hierarchical microsphere system not only protects the VEGF from denaturation and degradation, but also provides excellent control of its sustained release. In addition, the nanofibrous PLLA microsphere integrates the extracellular matrix-mimicking architecture with a highly porous injectable form, efficiently accommodating dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) and supporting their proliferation and pulp tissue formation. Our in vivo study showed the successful regeneration of pulp-like tissues that fulfilled the entire apical and middle thirds and reached the coronal third of the full-length root canal. In addition, a large number of blood vessels were regenerated throughout the canal. For the first time, our work demonstrates the success of pulp tissue regeneration in a full-length root canal, making it a significant step toward regenerative endodontics. The regeneration of pulp tissues in a full-length tooth root canal has been one of the greatest challenges in the field of regenerative endodontics, and one of the biggest barriers for its clinical application. In this study, we developed a unique approach to tackle this challenge, and for the first time, we successfully regenerated living pulp tissues in a full-length root canal, making it a significant step toward regenerative endodontics. This study will make positive scientific

  17. Regulatory T-Cell-Associated Cytokines in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiko Okamoto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is an autoimmune disease characterized by autoantibody production, complement activation, and immune complex deposition, resulting in tissue and organ damage. An understanding of the mechanisms responsible for homeostatic control of inflammation, which involve both innate and adoptive immune responses, will enable the development of novel therapies for SLE. Regulatory T cells (Treg play critical roles in the induction of peripheral tolerance to self- and foreign antigens. Naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ Treg, which characteristically express the transcription factor forkhead box protein P3 (Foxp3, have been intensively studied because their deficiency abrogates self-tolerance and causes autoimmune disease. Moreover, regulatory cytokines such as interleukin-10 (IL-10 also play a central role in controlling inflammatory processes. This paper focuses on Tregs and Treg-associated cytokines which might regulate the pathogenesis of SLE and, hence, have clinical applications.

  18. Computational Genetic Regulatory Networks Evolvable, Self-organizing Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Knabe, Johannes F

    2013-01-01

    Genetic Regulatory Networks (GRNs) in biological organisms are primary engines for cells to enact their engagements with environments, via incessant, continually active coupling. In differentiated multicellular organisms, tremendous complexity has arisen in the course of evolution of life on earth. Engineering and science have so far achieved no working system that can compare with this complexity, depth and scope of organization. Abstracting the dynamics of genetic regulatory control to a computational framework in which artificial GRNs in artificial simulated cells differentiate while connected in a changing topology, it is possible to apply Darwinian evolution in silico to study the capacity of such developmental/differentiated GRNs to evolve. In this volume an evolutionary GRN paradigm is investigated for its evolvability and robustness in models of biological clocks, in simple differentiated multicellularity, and in evolving artificial developing 'organisms' which grow and express an ontogeny starting fr...

  19. RESONANT POST-NEWTONIAN ECCENTRICITY EXCITATION IN HIERARCHICAL THREE-BODY SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naoz, Smadar; Kocsis, Bence; Loeb, Abraham [Institute for Theory and Computation, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Yunes, Nicolas, E-mail: snaoz@cfa.harvard.edu [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59718 (United States)

    2013-08-20

    We study the secular, hierarchical three-body problem to first-order in a post-Newtonian expansion of general relativity (GR). We expand the first-order post-Newtonian Hamiltonian to leading-order in the ratio of the semi-major axis of the two orbits. In addition to the well-known terms that correspond to the GR precession of the inner and outer orbits, we find a new secular post-Newtonian interaction term that can affect the long-term evolution of the triple. We explore the parameter space for highly inclined and eccentric systems, where the Kozai-Lidov mechanism can produce large-amplitude oscillations in the eccentricities. The standard lore, i.e., that GR effects suppress eccentricity, is only consistent with the parts of phase space where the GR timescales are several orders of magnitude shorter than the secular Newtonian one. In other parts of phase space, however, post-Newtonian corrections combined with the three-body ones can excite eccentricities. In particular, for systems where the GR timescale is comparable to the secular Newtonian timescales, the three-body interactions give rise to a resonant-like eccentricity excitation. Furthermore, for triples with a comparable-mass inner binary, where the eccentric Kozai-Lidov mechanism is suppressed, post-Newtonian corrections can further increase the eccentricity and lead to orbital flips even when the timescale of the former is much longer than the timescale of the secular Kozai-Lidov quadrupole perturbations.

  20. Food safety regulatory systems in Europe and China:A study of how co-regulation can improve regulatory effectiveness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kevin Chen; WANG Xin-xin; SONG Hai-ying

    2015-01-01

    Food safety has received a great deal of attention in both developed and developing countries in recent years. In China, the numerous food scandals and scares that have struck over the past decade have spurred signiifcant food safety regulatory reform, which has been increasingly oriented towards the public-private partnership model adopted by the Europe Union’s (EU) food safety regulatory system. This paper analyzes the development of both the EU’s and China’s food safety regu-latory systems, identiifes the current chalenges for China and additionaly considers the role of public-private partnership. The success of co-regulation in the food regulatory system would bring signiifcant beneifts and opportunities for China. Finaly, this paper recommends additional measures like training and grants to improve the private’s sector effectiveness in co-regulating China’s food safety issues.

  1. A Hierarchical Method for Transient Stability Prediction of Power Systems Using the Confidence of a SVM-Based Ensemble Classifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanzhen Zhou

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Machine learning techniques have been widely used in transient stability prediction of power systems. When using the post-fault dynamic responses, it is difficult to draw a definite conclusion about how long the duration of response data used should be in order to balance the accuracy and speed. Besides, previous studies have the problem of lacking consideration for the confidence level. To solve these problems, a hierarchical method for transient stability prediction based on the confidence of ensemble classifier using multiple support vector machines (SVMs is proposed. Firstly, multiple datasets are generated by bootstrap sampling, then features are randomly picked up to compress the datasets. Secondly, the confidence indices are defined and multiple SVMs are built based on these generated datasets. By synthesizing the probabilistic outputs of multiple SVMs, the prediction results and confidence of the ensemble classifier will be obtained. Finally, different ensemble classifiers with different response times are built to construct different layers of the proposed hierarchical scheme. The simulation results show that the proposed hierarchical method can balance the accuracy and rapidity of the transient stability prediction. Moreover, the hierarchical method can reduce the misjudgments of unstable instances and cooperate with the time domain simulation to insure the security and stability of power systems.

  2. FORMATION OF BLACK HOLE LOW-MASS X-RAY BINARIES IN HIERARCHICAL TRIPLE SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naoz, Smadar; Stephan, Alexander P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Fragos, Tassos [Geneva Observatory, University of Geneva, Chemin des Maillettes 51, 1290 Sauverny (Switzerland); Geller, Aaron; Rasio, Frederic A., E-mail: snaoz@astro.ucla.edu [Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics (CIERA), Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60201 (United States)

    2016-05-10

    The formation of black hole (BH) low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXB) poses a theoretical challenge, as low-mass companions are not expected to survive the common-envelope scenario with the BH progenitor. Here we propose a formation mechanism that skips the common-envelope scenario and relies on triple-body dynamics. We study the evolution of hierarchical triples following the secular dynamical evolution up to the octupole-level of approximation, including general relativity, tidal effects, and post-main-sequence evolution such as mass loss, changes to stellar radii, and supernovae. During the dynamical evolution of the triple system the “eccentric Kozai-Lidov” mechanism can cause large eccentricity excitations in the LMXB progenitor, resulting in three main BH-LMXB formation channels. Here we define BH-LMXB candidates as systems where the inner BH-companion star crosses its Roche limit. In the “eccentric” channel (∼81% of the LMXBs in our simulations) the donor star crosses its Roche limit during an extreme eccentricity excitation while still on a wide orbit. Second, we find a “giant” LMXB channel (∼11%), where a system undergoes only moderate eccentricity excitations but the donor star fills its Roche-lobe after evolving toward the giant branch. Third, we identify a “classical” channel (∼8%), where tidal forces and magnetic braking shrink and circularize the orbit to short periods, triggering mass-transfer. Finally, for the giant channel we predict an eccentric (∼0.3–0.6) preferably inclined (∼40°, ∼140°) tertiary, typically on a wide enough orbit (∼10{sup 4} au) to potentially become unbound later in the triple evolution. While this initial study considers only one representative system and neglects BH natal kicks, we expect our scenario to apply across a broad region of parameter space for triple-star systems.

  3. Hierarchical modeling of systems with similar components: A framework for adaptive monitoring and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Memarzadeh, Milad; Pozzi, Matteo; Kolter, J. Zico

    2016-01-01

    System management includes the selection of maintenance actions depending on the available observations: when a system is made up by components known to be similar, data collected on one is also relevant for the management of others. This is typically the case of wind farms, which are made up by similar turbines. Optimal management of wind farms is an important task due to high cost of turbines' operation and maintenance: in this context, we recently proposed a method for planning and learning at system-level, called PLUS, built upon the Partially Observable Markov Decision Process (POMDP) framework, which treats transition and emission probabilities as random variables, and is therefore suitable for including model uncertainty. PLUS models the components as independent or identical. In this paper, we extend that formulation, allowing for a weaker similarity among components. The proposed approach, called Multiple Uncertain POMDP (MU-POMDP), models the components as POMDPs, and assumes the corresponding parameters as dependent random variables. Through this framework, we can calibrate specific degradation and emission models for each component while, at the same time, process observations at system-level. We compare the performance of the proposed MU-POMDP with PLUS, and discuss its potential and computational complexity. - Highlights: • A computational framework is proposed for adaptive monitoring and control. • It adopts a scheme based on Markov Chain Monte Carlo for inference and learning. • Hierarchical Bayesian modeling is used to allow a system-level flow of information. • Results show potential of significant savings in management of wind farms.

  4. A system-level model for the microbial regulatory genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Aaron N; Reiss, David J; Allard, Antoine; Wu, Wei-Ju; Salvanha, Diego M; Plaisier, Christopher L; Chandrasekaran, Sriram; Pan, Min; Kaur, Amardeep; Baliga, Nitin S

    2014-07-15

    Microbes can tailor transcriptional responses to diverse environmental challenges despite having streamlined genomes and a limited number of regulators. Here, we present data-driven models that capture the dynamic interplay of the environment and genome-encoded regulatory programs of two types of prokaryotes: Escherichia coli (a bacterium) and Halobacterium salinarum (an archaeon). The models reveal how the genome-wide distributions of cis-acting gene regulatory elements and the conditional influences of transcription factors at each of those elements encode programs for eliciting a wide array of environment-specific responses. We demonstrate how these programs partition transcriptional regulation of genes within regulons and operons to re-organize gene-gene functional associations in each environment. The models capture fitness-relevant co-regulation by different transcriptional control mechanisms acting across the entire genome, to define a generalized, system-level organizing principle for prokaryotic gene regulatory networks that goes well beyond existing paradigms of gene regulation. An online resource (http://egrin2.systemsbiology.net) has been developed to facilitate multiscale exploration of conditional gene regulation in the two prokaryotes. © 2014 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  5. Regulatory requirements for replacement of analog systems with digital upgrades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loeser, P.J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reviews briefly the regulatory guidelines which must be met in order to replace analog systems in nuclear power plants with digital systems. There is a move to do such replacements for a number of reasons: analog systems are aging, and showing considerable drift; few vendors manufacture analog systems today; support and parts are hard to get; digital systems provide flexibility. There is a safety concern however about undesirable and unpredictable effects to digital safety equipment due to plant transients, accidents, post-accident condition, and EMI/RF environmental interferences. License holders must comply with the requirements of 10 C.F.R. 50.59, which deals with safety concerns with respect to any changes to operating plants which may have an impact on the safety of the plant. NRC staff is taking the position that all digital upgrades will require an evaluation under this regulation

  6. Synchronization of chaotic systems and identification of nonlinear systems by using recurrent hierarchical type-2 fuzzy neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadzadeh, Ardashir; Ghaemi, Sehraneh

    2015-09-01

    This paper proposes a novel approach for training of proposed recurrent hierarchical interval type-2 fuzzy neural networks (RHT2FNN) based on the square-root cubature Kalman filters (SCKF). The SCKF algorithm is used to adjust the premise part of the type-2 FNN and the weights of defuzzification and the feedback weights. The recurrence property in the proposed network is the output feeding of each membership function to itself. The proposed RHT2FNN is employed in the sliding mode control scheme for the synchronization of chaotic systems. Unknown functions in the sliding mode control approach are estimated by RHT2FNN. Another application of the proposed RHT2FNN is the identification of dynamic nonlinear systems. The effectiveness of the proposed network and its learning algorithm is verified by several simulation examples. Furthermore, the universal approximation of RHT2FNNs is also shown. Copyright © 2015 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Hierarchical Colored Petri Nets for Modeling and Analysis of Transit Signal Priority Control Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yisheng An

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider the problem of developing a model for traffic signal control with transit priority using Hierarchical Colored Petri nets (HCPN. Petri nets (PN are useful for state analysis of discrete event systems due to their powerful modeling capability and mathematical formalism. This paper focuses on their use to formalize the transit signal priority (TSP control model. In a four-phase traffic signal control model, the transit detection and two kinds of transit priority strategies are integrated to obtain the HCPN-based TSP control models. One of the advantages to use these models is the clear presentation of traffic light behaviors in terms of conditions and events that cause the detection of a priority request by a transit vehicle. Another advantage of the resulting models is that the correctness and reliability of the proposed strategies are easily analyzed. After their full reachable states are generated, the boundness, liveness, and fairness of the proposed models are verified. Experimental results show that the proposed control model provides transit vehicles with better effectiveness at intersections. This work helps advance the state of the art in the design of signal control models related to the intersection of roadways.

  8. An Integrated Model Based on a Hierarchical Indices System for Monitoring and Evaluating Urban Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xulin Guo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Over 50% of world’s population presently resides in cities, and this number is expected to rise to ~70% by 2050. Increasing urbanization problems including population growth, urban sprawl, land use change, unemployment, and environmental degradation, have markedly impacted urban residents’ Quality of Life (QOL. Therefore, urban sustainability and its measurement have gained increasing attention from administrators, urban planners, and scientific communities throughout the world with respect to improving urban development and human well-being. The widely accepted definition of urban sustainability emphasizes the balancing development of three primary domains (urban economy, society, and environment. This article attempts to improve the aforementioned definition of urban sustainability by incorporating a human well-being dimension. Major problems identified in existing urban sustainability indicator (USI models include a weak integration of potential indicators, poor measurement and quantification, and insufficient spatial-temporal analysis. To tackle these challenges an integrated USI model based on a hierarchical indices system was established for monitoring and evaluating urban sustainability. This model can be performed by quantifying indicators using both traditional statistical approaches and advanced geomatic techniques based on satellite imagery and census data, which aims to provide a theoretical basis for a comprehensive assessment of urban sustainability from a spatial-temporal perspective.

  9. Estimation of polarization distribution on gold nanorods system from hierarchical features of optical near-field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, Kazuharu; Nishikawa, Naoki; Nakagomi, Ryo; Kobayashi, Kiyoshi; Hori, Hirokazu

    2018-02-01

    To design optoelectronic functionalities in nanometer scale based on interactions of electronic system with optical near-fields, it is essential to evaluate the relationship between optical near-fields and their sources. Several theoretical studies have been performed, so far, to analyze such complex relationship to design the interaction fields of several specific scales. In this study, we have performed detailed and high-precision measurements of optical near-field structures woven by a large number of independent polarizations generated in the gold nanorods array under laser light irradiation at the resonant frequency. We have accumulated the multi-layered data of optical near-field imaging at different heights above the planar surface with the resolution of several nm by a STM-assisted scanning near-field optical microscope. Based on these data, we have performed an inverse calculation to estimate the position, direction, and strength of the local polarization buried under the flat surface of the sample. As a result of the inverse operation, we have confirmed that the complexities in the nanometer scale optical near-fields could be reconstructed by combinations of induced polarization in each gold nanorod. We have demonstrated the hierarchical properties of optical near-fields based on spatial frequency expansion and superposition of dipole fields to provide insightful information for applications such for secure multi-layered information storage.

  10. Orotidine-Containing RNA: Implications for the Hierarchical Selection (Systems Chemistry Emergence) of RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun-Kyong; Martin, Vincent; Krishnamurthy, Ramanarayanan

    2017-09-12

    The prebiotic synthesis of canonical nucleobases from HCN is a cornerstone for the RNA world hypothesis. However, their role in the primordial pathways to RNA is still debated. The very same process starting from HCN also gives rise to orotic acid, which (via orotidine) plays a crucial role in extant biology in the de novo synthesis of uridine and cytidine, the informational base-pairs in RNA. However, orotidine itself is absent in RNA. Given the prebiotic and biological relevance of orotic acid vis-à-vis uracil, we investigated orotidine-containing RNA oligonucleotides and show that they have severely compromised base-pairing properties. While not unexpected, these results suggest that the emergence of extant RNA cannot just be a consequence of the plausible prebiotic formation of its chemical constituents/building blocks. In combination with other investigations on alternative prebiotic nucleobases, sugars, and linkers, these findings imply that the selection of the components of extant RNA occurred at a higher hierarchical level of an oligomer/polymer based on its functional properties-pointing to a systems chemistry emergence of RNA from a library of precursors. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Hierarchical Velocity Control Based on Differential Flatness for a DC/DC Buck Converter-DC Motor System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Silva-Ortigoza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a hierarchical controller that carries out the angular velocity trajectory tracking task for a DC motor driven by a DC/DC Buck converter. The high level control is related to the DC motor and the low level control is dedicated to the DC/DC Buck converter; both controls are designed via differential flatness. The high level control provides a desired voltage profile for the DC motor to achieve the tracking of a desired angular velocity trajectory. Then, a low level control is designed to ensure that the output voltage of the DC/DC Buck converter tracks the voltage profile imposed by the high level control. In order to experimentally verify the hierarchical controller performance, a DS1104 electronic board from dSPACE and Matlab-Simulink are used. The switched implementation of the hierarchical average controller is accomplished by means of pulse width modulation. Experimental results of the hierarchical controller for the velocity trajectory tracking task show good performance and robustness against the uncertainties associated with different system parameters.

  12. Accurate crop classification using hierarchical genetic fuzzy rule-based systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topaloglou, Charalampos A.; Mylonas, Stelios K.; Stavrakoudis, Dimitris G.; Mastorocostas, Paris A.; Theocharis, John B.

    2014-10-01

    This paper investigates the effectiveness of an advanced classification system for accurate crop classification using very high resolution (VHR) satellite imagery. Specifically, a recently proposed genetic fuzzy rule-based classification system (GFRBCS) is employed, namely, the Hierarchical Rule-based Linguistic Classifier (HiRLiC). HiRLiC's model comprises a small set of simple IF-THEN fuzzy rules, easily interpretable by humans. One of its most important attributes is that its learning algorithm requires minimum user interaction, since the most important learning parameters affecting the classification accuracy are determined by the learning algorithm automatically. HiRLiC is applied in a challenging crop classification task, using a SPOT5 satellite image over an intensively cultivated area in a lake-wetland ecosystem in northern Greece. A rich set of higher-order spectral and textural features is derived from the initial bands of the (pan-sharpened) image, resulting in an input space comprising 119 features. The experimental analysis proves that HiRLiC compares favorably to other interpretable classifiers of the literature, both in terms of structural complexity and classification accuracy. Its testing accuracy was very close to that obtained by complex state-of-the-art classification systems, such as the support vector machines (SVM) and random forest (RF) classifiers. Nevertheless, visual inspection of the derived classification maps shows that HiRLiC is characterized by higher generalization properties, providing more homogeneous classifications that the competitors. Moreover, the runtime requirements for producing the thematic map was orders of magnitude lower than the respective for the competitors.

  13. About Hierarchical XML Structures, Replacement of Relational Data Structures in Construction and Implementation of ERP Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The projects essential objective is to develop a new ERP system, of homogeneous nature, based on XML structures, as a possible replacement for classic ERP systems. The criteria that guide the objective definition are modularity, portability and Web connectivity. This objective is connected to a series of secondary objectives, considering that the technological approach will be filtered through the economic, social and legislative environment for a validation-by-context study. Statistics and cybernetics are to be used for simulation purposes. The homogeneous approach is meant to provide strong modularity and portability, in relation with the n-tier principles, but the main advantage of the model is its opening to the semantic Web, based on a Small enterprise ontology defined with XML-driven languages. Shockwave solutions will be used for implementing client-oriented hypermedia elements and an XML Gate will be de-fined between black box modules, for a clear separation with obvious advantages. Security and the XMLTP project will be an important issue for XML transfers due to the conflict between the open architecture of the Web, the readability of XML data and the privacy elements which have to be preserved within a business environment. The projects finality is oriented on small business but the semantic Web perspective and the surprising new conflict between hierarchical/network data structures and relational ones will certainly widen its scope. The proposed model is meant to fulfill the IT compatibility requirements of the European environment, defined as a knowledge society. The paper is a brief of the contributions of the team re-search at the project type A applied to CNCSIS "Research on the Role of XML in Building Extensible and Homogeneous ERP Systems".

  14. Distributed Smart Decision-Making for a Multimicrogrid System Based on a Hierarchical Interactive Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marzband, Mousa; Parhizi, Narges; Savaghebi, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a comprehensive real-time interactive EMS framework for the utility and multiple electrically-coupled MGs is proposed. A hierarchical bi-level control scheme-BLCS with primary and secondary level controllers is applied in this regard. The proposed hierarchical architecture consists...... are treated as uncertainties in the proposed structure. In order to handle the uncertainties, Taguchi0s orthogonal array testing-TOAT approach is utilized. Then, the shortage or surplus of the MGs power should be submitted to a central EMS-CEMS in the secondary-level. In order to validate the proposed control...

  15. A GIS-Enabled, Michigan-Specific, Hierarchical Groundwater Modeling and Visualization System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Q.; Li, S.; Mandle, R.; Simard, A.; Fisher, B.; Brown, E.; Ross, S.

    2005-12-01

    Efficient management of groundwater resources relies on a comprehensive database that represents the characteristics of the natural groundwater system as well as analysis and modeling tools to describe the impacts of decision alternatives. Many agencies in Michigan have spent several years compiling expensive and comprehensive surface water and groundwater inventories and other related spatial data that describe their respective areas of responsibility. However, most often this wealth of descriptive data has only been utilized for basic mapping purposes. The benefits from analyzing these data, using GIS analysis functions or externally developed analysis models or programs, has yet to be systematically realized. In this talk, we present a comprehensive software environment that allows Michigan groundwater resources managers and frontline professionals to make more effective use of the available data and improve their ability to manage and protect groundwater resources, address potential conflicts, design cleanup schemes, and prioritize investigation activities. In particular, we take advantage of the Interactive Ground Water (IGW) modeling system and convert it to a customized software environment specifically for analyzing, modeling, and visualizing the Michigan statewide groundwater database. The resulting Michigan IGW modeling system (IGW-M) is completely window-based, fully interactive, and seamlessly integrated with a GIS mapping engine. The system operates in real-time (on the fly) providing dynamic, hierarchical mapping, modeling, spatial analysis, and visualization. Specifically, IGW-M allows water resources and environmental professionals in Michigan to: * Access and utilize the extensive data from the statewide groundwater database, interactively manipulate GIS objects, and display and query the associated data and attributes; * Analyze and model the statewide groundwater database, interactively convert GIS objects into numerical model features

  16. An evaluation model for the definition of regulatory requirements on spent fuel pool cooling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izquierdo, J.M.

    1979-01-01

    A calculation model is presented for establishing regulatory requirements in the SFPCS System. The major design factors, regulatory and design limits and key parameters are discussed. A regulatory position for internal use is proposed. Finally, associated problems and experience are presented. (author)

  17. HD 181068: A Red Giant in a Triply Eclipsing Compact Hierarchical Triple System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Derekas, A.; Kiss, Lazlo L.; Borkovits, T.

    2011-01-01

    by ground-based spectroscopy and interferometry, which show it to be a hierarchical triple with two types of mutual eclipses. The primary is a red giant that is in a 45-day orbit with a pair of red dwarfs in a close 0.9-day orbit. The red giant shows evidence for tidally induced oscillations that are driven...

  18. Forecasting building energy consumption with hybrid genetic algorithm-hierarchical adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Kangji [Institute of Cyber-Systems and Control, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); School of Electricity Information Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Su, Hongye [Institute of Cyber-Systems and Control, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2010-11-15

    There are several ways to forecast building energy consumption, varying from simple regression to models based on physical principles. In this paper, a new method, namely, the hybrid genetic algorithm-hierarchical adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system (GA-HANFIS) model is developed. In this model, hierarchical structure decreases the rule base dimension. Both clustering and rule base parameters are optimized by GAs and neural networks (NNs). The model is applied to predict a hotel's daily air conditioning consumption for a period over 3 months. The results obtained by the proposed model are presented and compared with regular method of NNs, which indicates that GA-HANFIS model possesses better performance than NNs in terms of their forecasting accuracy. (author)

  19. [On the principle of substance stability and thermodynamic feedback in hierarchic systems of the bio-world].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladyshev, G P

    2002-01-01

    The creation of structural hierarchies in open natural biosystems within the framework of quasi-closed systems is investigated by the methods of hierarchic thermodynamics (thermostatics). During the evolution of natural open systems, every higher hierarchic level j appears as a consequence of thermodynamic self-organization (self-assembly) of the structures of the lower (j-1)-th level. Such a self-assembly proceeds as a result of stabilization of the j-th level. This is related to the Gibbs' (Helmholtz') specific function of formation of the structure of the j-th level tending to a minimum. As a result of action of the principle of substance (matter) stability, the structures of the j-th level are enriched with less stable structures of the (j-1)-th level in the course of evolution. This provides a thermodynamic feedback between the structures of the higher j-th level and lower (j-1)-th level, thus preventing full structural stabilization of the j-th level and causing "thermodynamic rejuvenation" of biosystems. The latter enhances "thermodynamic" deceleration of evolution and practically unlimited maintenance of life. Examples of quantitative correlations are provided that call for further application of the substance stability principle to living and nonliving hierarchic structures.

  20. Implementation of a Quality Management System in regulatory inspection activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pires do Rio, Monica; Ferreira, Paulo Roberto; Cunha, Paulo G. da; Acar, Maria Elizabeth

    2005-01-01

    The Institute for Radioprotection and Dosimetry - IRD -, of the Brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission, CNEN, started in 2001, the implementation of a quality management system (SGQ), in the inspection, testing and calibration activities. The SGQ was an institutional guideline and is inserted in a larger system of management of the IRD started in 1999, with the adoption of the National Quality Award criteria - PNQ, within the Project for Excellence in Technological Research of Associacao Brasileira das Instituicoes de Pesquisas Tecnologicas - ABIPTI (Brazilian Association of Technological Research institutions). The proposed quality management system and adopted at the IRD was developed and implemented in accordance with the requirements of NBR ISO/IEC 17025 - General requirements for the competence of testing and calibration laboratories, and ISO/IEC 17020 - General criteria for operation of various types of bodies performing inspections. For regulatory inspection activities, the quality system was implemented on three program inspection services of radiological protection led, respectively, by clinics and hospitals that operate radiotherapy services; industries that use nuclear gauges in their control or productive processes and power reactor operators (CNAAA) - just the environmental part. It was formed a pioneering team of inspectors for standardizing the processes, procedures and starting the implementation of the system in the areas. This work describes the implementation process steps, including difficulties, learning and advantages of the adoption of a quality management system in inspection activities

  1. Safety system upgrades to a research reactor: A regulatory perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamarre, G.B.; Martin, W.G.

    2003-01-01

    The NRU (National Research Universal) reactor, located at the Chalk River Laboratories of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), first achieved criticality November 3, 1957. AECL continues to operate NRU for research to support safety and reliability studies for CANDU reactors and as a major supplier of medical radioisotopes. Following a detailed systematic review and assessment of NRU's design and the condition of its primary systems, AECL formally notified the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission's (CNSC) predecessor - the Atomic Energy Control Board - in 1992 of its intention to upgrade NRU's safety systems. AECL proposed seven major upgrades to provide improvements in shutdown capability, heat removal, confinement, and reactor monitoring, particularly during and after a seismic event. From a CNSC perspective, these upgrades were necessary to meet modern safety standards. From the start of the upgrades project, the CNSC provided regulatory oversight aimed at ensuring that AECL maintained a structured approach to the upgrades. The elements of the approach include, but are not limited to, the determination of project milestones and target dates; the formalization of the design process and project quality assurance requirements; the requirements for updated documentation, including safety reports, safety notes and commissioning reports; and the approval and authorization process. This paper details, from a regulatory perspective, the structured approach used in approving the design, construction, commissioning and subsequent operation of safety system upgrades for an existing and operating research reactor, including the many challenges faced when attempting to balance the requirements of the upgrades project with AECL's need to keep NRU operating to meet its important research and production objectives. (author)

  2. Establishing a regulatory value chain model: An innovative approach to strengthening medicines regulatory systems in resource-constrained settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahal, Harinder Singh; Kashfipour, Farrah; Susko, Matt; Feachem, Neelam Sekhri; Boyle, Colin

    2016-05-01

    Medicines Regulatory Authorities (MRAs) are an essential part of national health systems and are charged with protecting and promoting public health through regulation of medicines. However, MRAs in resource-constrained settings often struggle to provide effective oversight of market entry and use of health commodities. This paper proposes a regulatory value chain model (RVCM) that policymakers and regulators can use as a conceptual framework to guide investments aimed at strengthening regulatory systems. The RVCM incorporates nine core functions of MRAs into five modules: (i) clear guidelines and requirements; (ii) control of clinical trials; (iii) market authorization of medical products; (iv) pre-market quality control; and (v) post-market activities. Application of the RVCM allows national stakeholders to identify and prioritize investments according to where they can add the most value to the regulatory process. Depending on the economy, capacity, and needs of a country, some functions can be elevated to a regional or supranational level, while others can be maintained at the national level. In contrast to a "one size fits all" approach to regulation in which each country manages the full regulatory process at the national level, the RVCM encourages leveraging the expertise and capabilities of other MRAs where shared processes strengthen regulation. This value chain approach provides a framework for policymakers to maximize investment impact while striving to reach the goal of safe, affordable, and rapidly accessible medicines for all.

  3. A robust H∞ control-based hierarchical mode transition control system for plug-in hybrid electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao; Jiao, Xiaohong; Li, Liang; Zhang, Yuanbo; Chen, Zheng

    2018-01-01

    To realize a fast and smooth operating mode transition process from electric driving mode to engine-on driving mode, this paper presents a novel robust hierarchical mode transition control method for a plug-in hybrid electric bus (PHEB) with pre-transmission parallel hybrid powertrain. Firstly, the mode transition process is divided into five stages to clearly describe the powertrain dynamics. Based on the dynamics models of powertrain and clutch actuating mechanism, a hierarchical control structure including two robust H∞ controllers in both upper layer and lower layer is proposed. In upper layer, the demand clutch torque can be calculated by a robust H∞controller considering the clutch engaging time and the vehicle jerk. While in lower layer a robust tracking controller with L2-gain is designed to perform the accurate position tracking control, especially when the parameters uncertainties and external disturbance occur in the clutch actuating mechanism. Simulation and hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) test are carried out in a traditional driving condition of PHEB. Results show that the proposed hierarchical control approach can obtain the good control performance: mode transition time is greatly reduced with the acceptable jerk. Meanwhile, the designed control system shows the obvious robustness with the uncertain parameters and disturbance. Therefore, the proposed approach may offer a theoretical reference for the actual vehicle controller.

  4. Hazard ranking system: hierarchical system for polluted soils; El Hazard Ranking System. Un sistema para la jerarquizacion de actuaciones en terrenos contaminados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callaba de Roa, A

    1998-10-01

    To develop cost-effective risk minimization strategies, it is important to carefully select contaminated sites in which future tasks will take place (hierarchy of tasks). A hierarchy of sites must focus on those which really pose a significant environmental hazard. Hierarchical systems have demonstrated their performance as environmental management tools in some US programs facing risk management at contaminated sites. In this paper basic features of the hazard Ranking System, developed by US EPA for Superfund, are described. Advantages and disadvantages are discussed and, finally, the suitability of a system similar to this is considered as a management tool for the Spanish Plan Nacional de Recuperacion de Suelos Contaminados. (Author) 9 refs.

  5. The Tumorigenic Roles of the Cellular REDOX Regulatory Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie Anaís Castaldo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The cellular REDOX regulatory systems play a central role in maintaining REDOX homeostasis that is crucial for cell integrity, survival, and proliferation. To date, a substantial amount of data has demonstrated that cancer cells typically undergo increasing oxidative stress as the tumor develops, upregulating these important antioxidant systems in order to survive, proliferate, and metastasize under these extreme oxidative stress conditions. Since a large number of chemotherapeutic agents currently used in the clinic rely on the induction of ROS overload or change of ROS quality to kill the tumor, the cancer cell REDOX adaptation represents a significant obstacle to conventional chemotherapy. In this review we will first examine the different factors that contribute to the enhanced oxidative stress generally observed within the tumor microenvironment. We will then make a comprehensive assessment of the current literature regarding the main antioxidant proteins and systems that have been shown to be positively associated with tumor progression and chemoresistance. Finally we will make an analysis of commonly used chemotherapeutic drugs that induce ROS. The current knowledge of cancer cell REDOX adaptation raises the issue of developing novel and more effective therapies for these tumors that are usually resistant to conventional ROS inducing chemotherapy.

  6. Nuclear whistleblower protection system in U.S. and its implication to Japanese regulatory system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanabe, Tomoyuki; Suzuki, Tatsujiro

    2003-01-01

    The nuclear whistleblower protection system in U.S.A consists of two programs: 1) allegation program and 2) whistleblower protection system. The former is explained by basic act, definition of allegation, anonymous allegation, direct allegation to NRC (Nuclear Regulatory Commission), number of allegation from 1997 to 2001, procedure and period of investigation and notice of allegation to licensees. The latter is explained by basis act, outline of the system, enforcement by NRC and DOL (Department of Labor), number of discrimination compliant and anxiety of licensees. The system is good conditions in U.S.A depend on 1) prevent of illegal act and increase, 2) preparation of procedure and its transparency and 3) enforcement system. However, a hostile act to licensees is found in the whistleblower protection system. There are many problems in Japanese regulatory system. The improvement points of Japanese system are proposed. (S.Y.)

  7. Integrated systems approach identifies risk regulatory pathways and key regulators in coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Liu, Dianming; Wang, Lihong; Wang, Shuyuan; Yu, Xuexin; Dai, Enyu; Liu, Xinyi; Luo, Shanshun; Jiang, Wei

    2015-12-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the most common type of heart disease. However, the molecular mechanisms of CAD remain elusive. Regulatory pathways are known to play crucial roles in many pathogenic processes. Thus, inferring risk regulatory pathways is an important step toward elucidating the mechanisms underlying CAD. With advances in high-throughput data, we developed an integrated systems approach to identify CAD risk regulatory pathways and key regulators. Firstly, a CAD-related core subnetwork was identified from a curated transcription factor (TF) and microRNA (miRNA) regulatory network based on a random walk algorithm. Secondly, candidate risk regulatory pathways were extracted from the subnetwork by applying a breadth-first search (BFS) algorithm. Then, risk regulatory pathways were prioritized based on multiple CAD-associated data sources. Finally, we also proposed a new measure to prioritize upstream regulators. We inferred that phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) may be a key regulator in the dysregulation of risk regulatory pathways. This study takes a closer step than the identification of disease subnetworks or modules. From the risk regulatory pathways, we could understand the flow of regulatory information in the initiation and progression of the disease. Our approach helps to uncover its potential etiology. We developed an integrated systems approach to identify risk regulatory pathways. We proposed a new measure to prioritize the key regulators in CAD. PTEN may be a key regulator in dysregulation of the risk regulatory pathways.

  8. Challenges posed to the European pharmaceutical regulatory system by highly personalized medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, John D; Feldschreiber, Peter

    2014-03-01

    The European pharmaceutical regulatory system has not yet been challenged by issues related to highly personalized medicines such as those to be found with active substances that affect RNA biochemistry. We review the current status of RNA-based pharmacology and present three possible case histories. The implications for the European pharmaceutical regulatory system are discussed. © 2013 The British Pharmacological Society.

  9. Regulatory issues resolved through design certification on the System 80+trademark standard plant design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritterbusch, S.E.; Brinkman, C.B.

    1996-01-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has completed its review of the System 80+trademark Standard Plant Design, approving advanced design features and closing severe accident licensing issues. Final Design Approval was granted in July 1994. The NRC review was extensive, requiring written responses to over 4,950 questions and formal printing of over 50,000 Safety Analysis Report pages. New safety issues never before addressed in a regulatory atmosphere had to be resolved with detailed analysis and evaluation of design features. the System 80+ review demonstrated that regulatory issues can be firmly resolved only through presentation of a detailed design and completion of a comprehensive regulatory review

  10. Circuitry linking the Csr and stringent response global regulatory systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Adrianne N; Patterson-Fortin, Laura M; Vakulskas, Christopher A; Mercante, Jeffrey W; Potrykus, Katarzyna; Vinella, Daniel; Camacho, Martha I; Fields, Joshua A; Thompson, Stuart A; Georgellis, Dimitris; Cashel, Michael; Babitzke, Paul; Romeo, Tony

    2011-06-01

    CsrA protein regulates important cellular processes by binding to target mRNAs and altering their translation and/or stability. In Escherichia coli, CsrA binds to sRNAs, CsrB and CsrC, which sequester CsrA and antagonize its activity. Here, mRNAs for relA, spoT and dksA of the stringent response system were found among 721 different transcripts that copurified with CsrA. Many of the transcripts that copurified with CsrA were previously determined to respond to ppGpp and/or DksA. We examined multiple regulatory interactions between the Csr and stringent response systems. Most importantly, DksA and ppGpp robustly activated csrB/C transcription (10-fold), while they modestly activated csrA expression. We propose that CsrA-mediated regulation is relieved during the stringent response. Gel shift assays confirmed high affinity binding of CsrA to relA mRNA leader and weaker interactions with dksA and spoT. Reporter fusions, qRT-PCR and immunoblotting showed that CsrA repressed relA expression, and (p)ppGpp accumulation during stringent response was enhanced in a csrA mutant. CsrA had modest to negligible effects on dksA and spoT expression. Transcription of dksA was negatively autoregulated via a feedback loop that tended to mask CsrA effects. We propose that the Csr system fine-tunes the stringent response and discuss biological implications of the composite circuitry. © Published 2011. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  11. Toxin-antitoxin systems and regulatory mechanisms in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slayden, Richard A; Dawson, Clinton C; Cummings, Jason E

    2018-06-01

    There has been a significant reduction in annual tuberculosis incidence since the World Health Organization declared tuberculosis a global health threat. However, treatment of M. tuberculosis infections requires lengthy multidrug therapeutic regimens to achieve a durable cure. The development of new drugs that are active against resistant strains and phenotypically diverse organisms continues to present the greatest challenge in the future. Numerous phylogenomic analyses have revealed that the Mtb genome encodes a significantly expanded repertoire of toxin-antitoxin (TA) loci that makes up the Mtb TA system. A TA loci is a two-gene operon encoding a 'toxin' protein that inhibits bacterial growth and an interacting 'antitoxin' partner that neutralizes the inhibitory activity of the toxin. The presence of multiple chromosomally encoded TA loci in Mtb raises important questions in regard to expansion, regulation and function. Thus, the functional roles of TA loci in Mtb pathogenesis have received considerable attention over the last decade. The cumulative results indicate that they are involved in regulating adaptive responses to stresses associated with the host environment and drug treatment. Here we review the TA families encoded in Mtb, discuss the duplication of TA loci in Mtb, regulatory mechanism of TA loci, and phenotypic heterogeneity and pathogenesis.

  12. Regulatory system for control of nuclear facilities in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mollah, A.S.

    2005-01-01

    All human activities have associated risks. Nuclear programme is no exception. The Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission (BAEC), constituted in February 1973 through the promulgation of the Presidential order 15 of 1973. Functions of BAEC include research and development in peaceful application of atomic energy, generation of electricity and promotion of international relations congenial to implementation of its programmes and projects. In 1993 the Government of Bangladesh promulgated the law on Nuclear Safety and Radiation Control. Considering the human resources, expertise and facilities needed for implementation of the provisions of the NSRC law, BAEC was entrusted with the responsibility to enforce it. The responsibilities of the BAEC cover nuclear and radiological safety within the installations of BAEC and radiological safety in the manifold applications of radioisotopes and radiation sources within the country. An adequate and competent infrastructure has been built to cater to the diverse nuclear and radiation protection requirements of all nuclear facilities in Bangladesh, arising at different stages from site selection to day-to-day operation. In addition, periodic inspections of the nuclear facilities are carried out. The licensing and regulatory inspection systems for controlling of nuclear installations and radiation sources are established. The paper describes the legal provisions, responsibilities and organization of BAEC with special emphasis on nuclear safety and radiation protection of nuclear facilities in Bangladesh. (author)

  13. Strengthening the regulatory system through the implementation and use of a quality management system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinhold Eisner

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Quality management systems (QMS, based on ISO 9001 requirements, are applicable to government service organizations such as Health Canada’s Biologics and Genetic Therapies Directorate (BGTD. This communication presents the process that the BGTD followed since the early 2000s to implement a quality management system and describes how the regulatory system was improved as a result of this project. BGTD undertook the implementation of a quality management system based on ISO 9001 and containing aspects of ISO 17025 with the goal of strengthening the regulatory system through improvements in the people, processes, and services of the organization. We discuss the strategy used by BGTD to implement the QMS and the benefits that were realized from the various stages of implementation. The eight quality principals upon which the QMS standards of the ISO 9000 series are based were used by senior management as a framework to guide QMS implementation.

  14. Parallel hierarchical radiosity rendering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, Michael [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1993-07-01

    In this dissertation, the step-by-step development of a scalable parallel hierarchical radiosity renderer is documented. First, a new look is taken at the traditional radiosity equation, and a new form is presented in which the matrix of linear system coefficients is transformed into a symmetric matrix, thereby simplifying the problem and enabling a new solution technique to be applied. Next, the state-of-the-art hierarchical radiosity methods are examined for their suitability to parallel implementation, and scalability. Significant enhancements are also discovered which both improve their theoretical foundations and improve the images they generate. The resultant hierarchical radiosity algorithm is then examined for sources of parallelism, and for an architectural mapping. Several architectural mappings are discussed. A few key algorithmic changes are suggested during the process of making the algorithm parallel. Next, the performance, efficiency, and scalability of the algorithm are analyzed. The dissertation closes with a discussion of several ideas which have the potential to further enhance the hierarchical radiosity method, or provide an entirely new forum for the application of hierarchical methods.

  15. A genomic approach to identify regulatory nodes in the transcriptional network of systemic acquired resistance in plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Wang

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Many biological processes are controlled by intricate networks of transcriptional regulators. With the development of microarray technology, transcriptional changes can be examined at the whole-genome level. However, such analysis often lacks information on the hierarchical relationship between components of a given system. Systemic acquired resistance (SAR is an inducible plant defense response involving a cascade of transcriptional events induced by salicylic acid through the transcription cofactor NPR1. To identify additional regulatory nodes in the SAR network, we performed microarray analysis on Arabidopsis plants expressing the NPR1-GR (glucocorticoid receptor fusion protein. Since nuclear translocation of NPR1-GR requires dexamethasone, we were able to control NPR1-dependent transcription and identify direct transcriptional targets of NPR1. We show that NPR1 directly upregulates the expression of eight WRKY transcription factor genes. This large family of 74 transcription factors has been implicated in various defense responses, but no specific WRKY factor has been placed in the SAR network. Identification of NPR1-regulated WRKY factors allowed us to perform in-depth genetic analysis on a small number of WRKY factors and test well-defined phenotypes of single and double mutants associated with NPR1. Among these WRKY factors we found both positive and negative regulators of SAR. This genomics-directed approach unambiguously positioned five WRKY factors in the complex transcriptional regulatory network of SAR. Our work not only discovered new transcription regulatory components in the signaling network of SAR but also demonstrated that functional studies of large gene families have to take into consideration sequence similarity as well as the expression patterns of the candidates.

  16. Development of an air-operated actuator performance monitoring system for regulatory usage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, K. Y.; Kwon, S. J.

    2004-01-01

    The performance monitoring system of air-operated actuators for regulatory usage has been being developed. Essential elements and operating parameters affecting the actuator performance have been investigated to provide basic information for system development. The monitoring system including an air-operated actuator testing facility and analysis softwares for monitoring and evaluation are also introduced in this paper. As a result of simulated tests, it was known that the system could be a useful tool for the effective monitoring of actuator performance change and fault conditions. This system would be applied to regulatory inspection for utility's data validation and to the training of regulatory staff in future after some modification and expansion

  17. Defining regulatory requirements for water supply systems in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deryushev Leonid Georgiyevich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article the authors offer their suggestions for improving the reliability of the standardization requirements for water supply facilities in Vietnam, as an analog of building regulations of Russia 31.13330.2012. In Russia and other advanced countries the reliability of the designed water supply systems is usual to assess quantitatively. Guidelines on the reliability assessment of water supply systems and facilities have been offered by many researchers, but these proposals are not officially approved. Some methods for assessing the reliability of water supply facilities are informally used in practice when describing their quality. These evaluation methods are simple and useful. However, the given estimations defy common sense and regulatory requirements used by all the organizations, ministries and departments, for example, of Russia, in the process of allowances for restoration and repair of water supply facilities. Inadequacy of the water supply facilities assessment is shown on the example of assessing the reliability of pipeline system. If we take MTBF of specific length of the pipeline as reliability index for a pipeline system, for example, 5 km, a pipeline of the similar gauge, material and working conditions with the length of 5 m, according to the estimation on the basis of non-official approach, must have a value of MTBF 1000 times greater than with the length of 5 km. This conclusion runs counter to common sense, for the reason that all the pipes in the area of 5 km are identical, have the same load and rate of wear (corrosion, fouling, deformation, etc.. It was theoretically and practically proved that products of the same type in the same operating conditions (excluding determined impact of a person, work as an entity, which MTBF is equal to the average lifetime. It is proposed to take the average service life as a reliability indicator of a pipeline. Durability, but not failsafety of the pipe guarantees pipeline functioning

  18. A Decentralized Approach to the Formulation of Hypotheses: A Hierarchical Structural Model for a Prion Self-Assembled System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mingyang; Zhang, Feifei; Song, Chao; Shi, Pengfei; Zhu, Jin

    2016-07-01

    Innovation in hypotheses is a key transformative driver for scientific development. The conventional centralized hypothesis formulation approach, where a dominant hypothesis is typically derived from a primary phenomenon, can, inevitably, impose restriction on the range of conceivable experiments and legitimate hypotheses, and ultimately impede understanding of the system of interest. We report herein the proposal of a decentralized approach for the formulation of hypotheses, through initial preconception-free phenomenon accumulation and subsequent reticular logical reasoning processes. The two-step approach can provide an unbiased, panoramic view of the system and as such should enable the generation of a set of more coherent and therefore plausible hypotheses. As a proof-of-concept demonstration of the utility of this open-ended approach, a hierarchical model has been developed for a prion self-assembled system, allowing insight into hitherto elusive static and dynamic features associated with this intriguing structure.

  19. Master–Slave Based Hierarchical Control for a Small Power DC-Distributed Microgrid System with a Storage Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Woon Lee

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we analyze one of the main drawbacks of droop control-based DC microgrid systems, and propose a novel control method to overcome this problem. Typically, DC microgrid systems use droop control techniques to enable communication independency and expandability. However, as these advantages are based on bus quality and regulation abandonment, droop-based schemes have limitations in terms of high bus impedance and bus regulation. This paper proposes a novel master–slave based hierarchical control technique for a DC distribution system, in which a DC bus signaling method is used to overcome the communication dependency and the expandability limitations of conventional master–slave control methods. The concept and design considerations of the proposed control method are presented, and a 1 kW simulation under a Powersim (PSIM environment and hardware prototype—built to verify the system—is described.

  20. Minimax approach problem with incomplete information for the two-level hierarchical discrete-time dynamical system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shorikov, A. F. [Ural Federal University, 19 S. Mira, Ekaterinburg, 620002, Russia and Institute of Mathematics and Mechanics, Ural Division of Russian Academy of Sciences, 16 S. Kovalevskaya, Ekaterinburg, 620990 (Russian Federation)

    2014-11-18

    We consider a discrete-time dynamical system consisting of three controllable objects. The motions of all objects are given by the corresponding vector linear or convex discrete-time recurrent vector relations, and control system for its has two levels: basic (first or I level) that is dominating and subordinate level (second or II level) and both have different criterions of functioning and united a priori by determined informational and control connections defined in advance. For the dynamical system in question, we propose a mathematical formalization in the form of solving a multistep problem of two-level hierarchical minimax program control over the terminal approach process with incomplete information and give a general scheme for its solution.

  1. Hierarchical Modulation with Vector Rotation for E-MBMS Transmission in LTE Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Zhao

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Enhanced Multimedia Broadcast and Multicast Service (E-MBMS is considered of key importance for the proliferation of Long-Term Evolution (LTE network in mobile market. Hierarchical modulation (HM, which involves a “base-layer” (BL and an “enhancement-layer” (EL bit streams, is a simple technique for achieving tradeoff between service quality and radio coverage. Therefore, it is appealing for MBMS. Generally, HM suffers from the severe performance degradation of the less protected EL stream. In this paper, HM with vector rotation operation introduced to EL stream is proposed, in order to improve EL's performance. With the proper interleaving in frequency domain, this operation can exploit the inherent diversity gain from the multipath channel. In this way, HM with vector rotation can effectively enhance multimedia broadcasting on quality video and coverage. The simulation results with scalable video coding (SVC as source show the significant benefits in comparison with the conventional HM and alternative schemes.

  2. SMAD regulatory networks construct a balanced immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Nidhi; Kang, Joonsoo

    2013-05-01

    A balanced immune response requires combating infectious assaults while striving to maintain quiescence towards the self. One of the central players in this process is the pleiotropic cytokine transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), whose deficiency results in spontaneous systemic autoimmunity in mice. The dominant function of TGF-β is to regulate the peripheral immune homeostasis, particularly in the microbe-rich and antigen-rich environment of the gut. To maintain intestinal integrity, the epithelial cells, myeloid cells and lymphocytes that inhabit the gut secrete TGF-β, which acts in both paracrine and autocrine fashions to activate its signal transducers, the SMAD transcription factors. The SMAD pathway regulates the production of IgA by B cells, maintains the protective mucosal barrier and promotes the balanced differentiation of CD4(+) T cells into inflammatory T helper type 17 cells and suppressive FOXP3(+) T regulatory cells. While encounters with pathogenic microbes activate SMAD proteins to evoke a protective inflammatory immune response, SMAD activation and synergism with immunoregulatory factors such as the vitamin A metabolite retinoic acid enforce immunosuppression toward commensal microbes and innocuous food antigens. Such complementary context-dependent functions of TGF-β are achieved by the co-operation of SMAD proteins with distinct dominant transcription activators and accessory chromatin modifiers. This review highlights recent advances in unravelling the molecular basis for the multi-faceted functions of TGF-β in the gut that are dictacted by fluid orchestrations of SMADs and their myriad partners. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. An effective hierarchical model for the biomolecular covalent bond: an approach integrating artificial chemistry and an actual terrestrial life system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oohashi, Tsutomu; Ueno, Osamu; Maekawa, Tadao; Kawai, Norie; Nishina, Emi; Honda, Manabu

    2009-01-01

    Under the AChem paradigm and the programmed self-decomposition (PSD) model, we propose a hierarchical model for the biomolecular covalent bond (HBCB model). This model assumes that terrestrial organisms arrange their biomolecules in a hierarchical structure according to the energy strength of their covalent bonds. It also assumes that they have evolutionarily selected the PSD mechanism of turning biological polymers (BPs) into biological monomers (BMs) as an efficient biomolecular recycling strategy We have examined the validity and effectiveness of the HBCB model by coordinating two complementary approaches: biological experiments using existent terrestrial life, and simulation experiments using an AChem system. Biological experiments have shown that terrestrial life possesses a PSD mechanism as an endergonic, genetically regulated process and that hydrolysis, which decomposes a BP into BMs, is one of the main processes of such a mechanism. In simulation experiments, we compared different virtual self-decomposition processes. The virtual species in which the self-decomposition process mainly involved covalent bond cleavage from a BP to BMs showed evolutionary superiority over other species in which the self-decomposition process involved cleavage from BP to classes lower than BM. These converging findings strongly support the existence of PSD and the validity and effectiveness of the HBCB model.

  4. Inflammatory gene regulatory networks in amnion cells following cytokine stimulation: translational systems approach to modeling human parturition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Li

    Full Text Available A majority of the studies examining the molecular regulation of human labor have been conducted using single gene approaches. While the technology to produce multi-dimensional datasets is readily available, the means for facile analysis of such data are limited. The objective of this study was to develop a systems approach to infer regulatory mechanisms governing global gene expression in cytokine-challenged cells in vitro, and to apply these methods to predict gene regulatory networks (GRNs in intrauterine tissues during term parturition. To this end, microarray analysis was applied to human amnion mesenchymal cells (AMCs stimulated with interleukin-1β, and differentially expressed transcripts were subjected to hierarchical clustering, temporal expression profiling, and motif enrichment analysis, from which a GRN was constructed. These methods were then applied to fetal membrane specimens collected in the absence or presence of spontaneous term labor. Analysis of cytokine-responsive genes in AMCs revealed a sterile immune response signature, with promoters enriched in response elements for several inflammation-associated transcription factors. In comparison to the fetal membrane dataset, there were 34 genes commonly upregulated, many of which were part of an acute inflammation gene expression signature. Binding motifs for nuclear factor-κB were prominent in the gene interaction and regulatory networks for both datasets; however, we found little evidence to support the utilization of pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP signaling. The tissue specimens were also enriched for transcripts governed by hypoxia-inducible factor. The approach presented here provides an uncomplicated means to infer global relationships among gene clusters involved in cellular responses to labor-associated signals.

  5. Regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This publication, compiled in 8 chapters, presents the regulatory system developed by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (NRA) of the Argentine Republic. The following activities and developed topics in this document describe: the evolution of the nuclear regulatory activity in Argentina; the Argentine regulatory system; the nuclear regulatory laws and standards; the inspection and safeguards of nuclear facilities; the emergency systems; the environmental systems; the environmental monitoring; the analysis laboratories on physical and biological dosimetry, prenatal irradiation, internal irradiation, radiation measurements, detection techniques on nuclear testing, medical program on radiation protection; the institutional relations with national and international organization; the training courses and meeting; the technical information

  6. [Individual, community, regulatory, and systemic approaches to tobacco control interventions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorini, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    During the 60s and the 70s strategies for decreasing initiation or quitting have been developed, in order to find those with high success rates. Unfortunately, interventions with an individual approach involved few smokers, so their impact in decreasing smoking prevalence was limited. The socio-ecological model offers a theoretical framework to community interventions for smoking cessation developed during the 80s, in which smoking was considered not only an individual, but also a social problem. In the 80s and the 90s smoking cessation community trials were developed, such as the Community Intervention Trial for Smoking Cessation (COMMIT). Afterwards, policy interventions (price policy; smoking bans in public places; advertising bans; bans of sales to minors) were developed, such as the American Stop Smoking Intervention Study for Cancer Prevention (ASSIST). California has been the first State all over the world to develop a comprehensive Tobacco Control Program in 1988, becoming the place for an ever-conducted natural experiment. All policy interventions in tobacco control have been finally grouped together in the World Health Organization - Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO-FCTC), the first Public Health Treaty. Study designs have changed, according to the individual, community, or regulatory approaches: the classical randomized controlled trials (RCTs), in which the sampling unit is the individual, have been carried out for the evaluation of smoking cessation treatments, whereas cluster RCTs, in which the sampling unit is the community, have been conducted for evaluating community interventions, such as COMMIT. Finally, quasi-experimental studies (before/after study; prospective cohorts, both with a control group), in which the observational unit is a State, have been used for evaluating tobacco control policies, such as ASSIST and the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project. Although the successes of the last 20 years, tobacco

  7. Development Perspective of Regulatory Audit Code System for SFR Nuclear Safety Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Moo Hoon; Lee, Gil Soo; Shin, An Dong; Suh, Nam Duk [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    A sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) in Korea is based on the KALIMER-600 concept developed by KAERI. Based on 'Long-term R and D Plan for Future Reactor Systems' which was approved by the Korea Atomic Energy Commission in 2008, the KAERI designer is scheduled to apply the design certification of the prototype SFR in 2017. In order to establish regulatory infrastructure for the licensing of a prototype SFR, KINS has develop the regulatory requirements for the demonstration SFR since 2010, and are scheduled to develop the regulatory audit code systems in regard to core, fuel, and system, etc. since 2012. In this study, the domestic code systems used for core design and safety evaluation of PWRs and the nuclear physics and code system for SFRs were briefly reviewed, and the development perspective of regulatory audit code system for SFR nuclear safety evaluation were derived

  8. Development of digital library system on regulatory documents for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K. H.; Kim, K. J.; Yoon, Y. H.; Kim, M. W.; Lee, J. I.

    2001-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to establish nuclear regulatory document retrieval system based on internet. With the advancement of internet and information processing technology, information management patterns are going through a new paradigm. Getting along the current of the time, it is general tendency to transfer paper-type documents into electronic-type documents through document scanning and indexing. This system consists of nuclear regulatory documents, nuclear safety documents, digital library, and information system with index and full text

  9. Human factors in annunciation systems - Recommendations for a Canadian regulatory framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beattie, J D; Rochford, S; Vicente, K J [Humansystems Inc., ON (Canada)

    1997-09-01

    Under a contract with the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) of Canada, brief reviews were conducted of the annunciation systems in Canadian nuclear power plant control rooms; of regulatory practices in other countries and relevant international guidelines; and of the human factors literature related to annunciation systems. Based on these reviews, a framework is proposed for regulatory criteria which could be applied to new annunciation system designs. (author). 29 refs.

  10. Human factors in annunciation systems - Recommendations for a Canadian regulatory framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beattie, J.D.; Rochford, S.; Vicente, K.J.

    1997-01-01

    Under a contract with the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) of Canada, brief reviews were conducted of the annunciation systems in Canadian nuclear power plant control rooms; of regulatory practices in other countries and relevant international guidelines; and of the human factors literature related to annunciation systems. Based on these reviews, a framework is proposed for regulatory criteria which could be applied to new annunciation system designs. (author). 29 refs

  11. Hierarchical Stereo Matching in Two-Scale Space for Cyber-Physical System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunah Choi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Dense disparity map estimation from a high-resolution stereo image is a very difficult problem in terms of both matching accuracy and computation efficiency. Thus, an exhaustive disparity search at full resolution is required. In general, examining more pixels in the stereo view results in more ambiguous correspondences. When a high-resolution image is down-sampled, the high-frequency components of the fine-scaled image are at risk of disappearing in the coarse-resolution image. Furthermore, if erroneous disparity estimates caused by missing high-frequency components are propagated across scale space, ultimately, false disparity estimates are obtained. To solve these problems, we introduce an efficient hierarchical stereo matching method in two-scale space. This method applies disparity estimation to the reduced-resolution image, and the disparity result is then up-sampled to the original resolution. The disparity estimation values of the high-frequency (or edge component regions of the full-resolution image are combined with the up-sampled disparity results. In this study, we extracted the high-frequency areas from the scale-space representation by using difference of Gaussian (DoG or found edge components, using a Canny operator. Then, edge-aware disparity propagation was used to refine the disparity map. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm outperforms previous methods.

  12. Hierarchical Stereo Matching in Two-Scale Space for Cyber-Physical System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eunah; Lee, Sangyoon; Hong, Hyunki

    2017-07-21

    Dense disparity map estimation from a high-resolution stereo image is a very difficult problem in terms of both matching accuracy and computation efficiency. Thus, an exhaustive disparity search at full resolution is required. In general, examining more pixels in the stereo view results in more ambiguous correspondences. When a high-resolution image is down-sampled, the high-frequency components of the fine-scaled image are at risk of disappearing in the coarse-resolution image. Furthermore, if erroneous disparity estimates caused by missing high-frequency components are propagated across scale space, ultimately, false disparity estimates are obtained. To solve these problems, we introduce an efficient hierarchical stereo matching method in two-scale space. This method applies disparity estimation to the reduced-resolution image, and the disparity result is then up-sampled to the original resolution. The disparity estimation values of the high-frequency (or edge component) regions of the full-resolution image are combined with the up-sampled disparity results. In this study, we extracted the high-frequency areas from the scale-space representation by using difference of Gaussian (DoG) or found edge components, using a Canny operator. Then, edge-aware disparity propagation was used to refine the disparity map. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm outperforms previous methods.

  13. Evaluating a Bilingual Text-Mining System with a Taxonomy of Key Words and Hierarchical Visualization for Understanding Learner-Generated Text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Siu Cheung; Li, Ping; Song, Yanjie

    2018-01-01

    This study evaluated a bilingual text-mining system, which incorporated a bilingual taxonomy of key words and provided hierarchical visualization, for understanding learner-generated text in the learning management systems through automatic identification and counting of matching key words. A class of 27 in-service teachers studied a course…

  14. Research on a Hierarchical Dynamic Automatic Voltage Control System Based on the Discrete Event-Driven Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Min

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, concepts and methods of hybrid control systems are adopted to establish a hierarchical dynamic automatic voltage control (HD-AVC system, realizing the dynamic voltage stability of power grids. An HD-AVC system model consisting of three layers is built based on the hybrid control method and discrete event-driven mechanism. In the Top Layer, discrete events are designed to drive the corresponding control block so as to avoid solving complex multiple objective functions, the power system’s characteristic matrix is formed and the minimum amplitude eigenvalue (MAE is calculated through linearized differential-algebraic equations. MAE is applied to judge the system’s voltage stability and security and construct discrete events. The Middle Layer is responsible for management and operation, which is also driven by discrete events. Control values of the control buses are calculated based on the characteristics of power systems and the sensitivity method. Then control values generate control strategies through the interface block. In the Bottom Layer, various control devices receive and implement the control commands from the Middle Layer. In this way, a closed-loop power system voltage control is achieved. Computer simulations verify the validity and accuracy of the HD-AVC system, and verify that the proposed HD-AVC system is more effective than normal voltage control methods.

  15. Distributed mixed-integer fuzzy hierarchical programming for municipal solid waste management. Part I: System identification and methodology development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Guanhui; Huang, Guohe; Dong, Cong; Xu, Ye; Chen, Xiujuan; Chen, Jiapei

    2017-03-01

    Due to the existence of complexities of heterogeneities, hierarchy, discreteness, and interactions in municipal solid waste management (MSWM) systems such as Beijing, China, a series of socio-economic and eco-environmental problems may emerge or worsen and result in irredeemable damages in the following decades. Meanwhile, existing studies, especially ones focusing on MSWM in Beijing, could hardly reflect these complexities in system simulations and provide reliable decision support for management practices. Thus, a framework of distributed mixed-integer fuzzy hierarchical programming (DMIFHP) is developed in this study for MSWM under these complexities. Beijing is selected as a representative case. The Beijing MSWM system is comprehensively analyzed in many aspects such as socio-economic conditions, natural conditions, spatial heterogeneities, treatment facilities, and system complexities, building a solid foundation for system simulation and optimization. Correspondingly, the MSWM system in Beijing is discretized as 235 grids to reflect spatial heterogeneity. A DMIFHP model which is a nonlinear programming problem is constructed to parameterize the Beijing MSWM system. To enable scientific solving of it, a solution algorithm is proposed based on coupling of fuzzy programming and mixed-integer linear programming. Innovations and advantages of the DMIFHP framework are discussed. The optimal MSWM schemes and mechanism revelations will be discussed in another companion paper due to length limitation.

  16. A hierarchical 3D segmentation method and the definition of vertebral body coordinate systems for QCT of the lumbar spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastmeyer, André; Engelke, Klaus; Fuchs, Christina; Kalender, Willi A

    2006-08-01

    We have developed a new hierarchical 3D technique to segment the vertebral bodies in order to measure bone mineral density (BMD) with high trueness and precision in volumetric CT datasets. The hierarchical approach starts with a coarse separation of the individual vertebrae, applies a variety of techniques to segment the vertebral bodies with increasing detail and ends with the definition of an anatomic coordinate system for each vertebral body, relative to which up to 41 trabecular and cortical volumes of interest are positioned. In a pre-segmentation step constraints consisting of Boolean combinations of simple geometric shapes are determined that enclose each individual vertebral body. Bound by these constraints viscous deformable models are used to segment the main shape of the vertebral bodies. Volume growing and morphological operations then capture the fine details of the bone-soft tissue interface. In the volumes of interest bone mineral density and content are determined. In addition, in the segmented vertebral bodies geometric parameters such as volume or the length of the main axes of inertia can be measured. Intra- and inter-operator precision errors of the segmentation procedure were analyzed using existing clinical patient datasets. Results for segmented volume, BMD, and coordinate system position were below 2.0%, 0.6%, and 0.7%, respectively. Trueness was analyzed using phantom scans. The bias of the segmented volume was below 4%; for BMD it was below 1.5%. The long-term goal of this work is improved fracture prediction and patient monitoring in the field of osteoporosis. A true 3D segmentation also enables an accurate measurement of geometrical parameters that may augment the clinical value of a pure BMD analysis.

  17. Study on the correlation between the hierarchical urban system and high-speed railway network planning in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Sun

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the interrelatedness between the hierarchical structure of China׳s urban system and high-speed railway (HSR network planning at the national level. As a multi-layered system, the Chinese HSR can be categorized into three sub-networks, namely, the national HSR trunk network, the national HSR extensional network, and the intercity HSR network. By examining the direct HSR network connection, HSR nodal connection, and HSR operational frequency of 287 prefecture-level cities, this study demonstrates that the hierarchies of China׳s administrative, demographic, and economic urban systems strongly influence HSR network planning. The national HSR trunk network prioritizes the connection of top-level central cities, whereas the extensional network prioritizes cities at the lower level of the urban system. Moreover, the national HSR system forms the backbone of the HSR network structure based on a national scale, whereas the intercity HSR system satisfies the travel needs within urban agglomerations based on the regional level.

  18. Regulatory monitoring systems of fortified salt and wheat flour in selected ASEAN countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Wijngaart, Annoek; Bégin, France; Codling, Karen; Randall, Philip; Johnson, Quentin W

    2013-06-01

    Considerable efforts have been made over the past decade to address vitamin and mineral deficiencies. An increasing number of countries in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) are adopting mandatory food fortification as one of the primary strategies to overcome these deficiencies. Experience shows that fortified foods can reach large parts of the population, including the poor, if the fortification is done on a mandatory rather than a voluntary basis and if the food vehicle is widely consumed. To review the importance of regulatory monitoring as an essential component of food fortification efforts in selected ASEAN countries, with special focus on the available information on regulatory monitoring systems for iodized salt and fortified wheat flour. The role of regulatory monitoring in strengthening food fortification programs was discussed during a joint regional meeting of the World Health Organization, UNICEF, the Flour Fortification Initiative, the Global Alliance for Improved Nutrition, the Micronutrient Initiative, and the World Bank on regulatory monitoring of salt and wheat flour fortification programs in Asia, which took place in Manila, Philippines, on 27-29 September 2011. This paper reviews the regulatory monitoring systems of selected ASEAN countries that participated in this meeting. Problems and challenges in regulatory monitoring systems for iodized salt and fortified wheat flour in selected ASEAN countries are identified, and a description of the role of regulatory monitoring in strengthening food fortification initiatives, particularly of salt and flour, and highlights of areas for improvement are presented. Regulatory monitoring consists of monitoring activities conducted at the production level, at customs warehouses, and at retail stores by concerned regulatory authorities, and at the production level by producers themselves, as part of quality control and assurance efforts. Unless there are appropriate enforcement and quality

  19. An electronic regulatory document management system for a clinical trial network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wenle; Durkalski, Valerie; Pauls, Keith; Dillon, Catherine; Kim, Jaemyung; Kolk, Deneil; Silbergleit, Robert; Stevenson, Valerie; Palesch, Yuko

    2010-01-01

    A computerized regulatory document management system has been developed as a module in a comprehensive Clinical Trial Management System (CTMS) designed for an NIH-funded clinical trial network in order to more efficiently manage and track regulatory compliance. Within the network, several institutions and investigators are involved in multiple trials, and each trial has regulatory document requirements. Some of these documents are trial specific while others apply across multiple trials. The latter causes a possible redundancy in document collection and management. To address these and other related challenges, a central regulatory document management system was designed. This manuscript shares the design of the system as well as examples of it use in current studies. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Regulatory issues of digital instrumentation and control system in Lungmen project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuang, C.F.; Chou, H.P.

    2004-01-01

    The Lungmen Nuclear Power Station (LNPS) is currently under construction in Taiwan, which consists of 2 advanced boiling water reactor (ABWR) units. The instrumentation and control (IC) systems of the LNPS are based on the state-of-the-art modernized fully integrated digital design. These IC systems possess many advantages and distinguished features comparing to traditional analog IC systems, they enjoy set-point stability, self-diagnostic and automatic testing ability, fault tolerance and avoidance, low power requirements, data handling and storage capability, as well as enhanced human-machine interfaces. This paper presents regulatory overviews, regulatory requirements, current major regulatory issues, as well as the areas of regulatory concerns and the lessons learned on the digital IC systems in the Lungmen Project

  1. Development of the personnel training and qualification system of the Russian Federation Nuclear Regulatory Authority

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapralov, E.; Kapralov, Y.; Kozlov, V.

    2006-01-01

    The new personnel training and qualification system is being developed for russian regulatory body, having a very big number of employees and invited experts and widly territorially distributed structure. (author)

  2. Development of Regulatory Thermal-Hydraulic Analysis System (RETAS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Seung-Hoon; Kim, In-Goo; Kim, Hho-Jung; Cho, Yong Jin [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-10-15

    A review is provided of the reasons why the Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety needs improvement of the existing codes employed for a regulatory audit. The proposed new organization of the codes, developed or to be developed, is presented together with illustrative applications. Inspection of the quality assurance activities is planned to ensure the robustness of MARS (Multi-dimensional Analysis for Reactor Safety) code, served as a pivot of the organization.

  3. Development of Regulatory Thermal-Hydraulic Analysis System (RETAS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Seung-Hoon; Kim, In-Goo; Kim, Hho-Jung; Cho, Yong Jin

    2007-01-01

    A review is provided of the reasons why the Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety needs improvement of the existing codes employed for a regulatory audit. The proposed new organization of the codes, developed or to be developed, is presented together with illustrative applications. Inspection of the quality assurance activities is planned to ensure the robustness of MARS (Multi-dimensional Analysis for Reactor Safety) code, served as a pivot of the organization

  4. What is a comprehensive system of regulatory governance?; Que es un sistema Integral de Gestion Reglamentaria?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Real diaz, F. J.

    2011-07-01

    The progressive evolution and diversification of regulations concerning industrial safety has made their management increasingly complex, requiring more resources of organizations. Therefore, it is advisable that this management be made more efficient through systematization, specialization and the use of computing technologies. This is supported by the implementation of integrated regulatory management systems. This article explain the concept of integrated regulatory management systems, their structure and their advantages. It also includes a model for implementing them in an organization. (Author)

  5. Non-Markovianity in the optimal control of an open quantum system described by hierarchical equations of motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangaud, E.; Puthumpally-Joseph, R.; Sugny, D.; Meier, C.; Atabek, O.; Desouter-Lecomte, M.

    2018-04-01

    Optimal control theory is implemented with fully converged hierarchical equations of motion (HEOM) describing the time evolution of an open system density matrix strongly coupled to the bath in a spin-boson model. The populations of the two-level sub-system are taken as control objectives; namely, their revivals or exchange when switching off the field. We, in parallel, analyze how the optimal electric field consequently modifies the information back flow from the environment through different non-Markovian witnesses. Although the control field has a dipole interaction with the central sub-system only, its indirect influence on the bath collective mode dynamics is probed through HEOM auxiliary matrices, revealing a strong correlation between control and dissipation during a non-Markovian process. A heterojunction is taken as an illustrative example for modeling in a realistic way the two-level sub-system parameters and its spectral density function leading to a non-perturbative strong coupling regime with the bath. Although, due to strong system-bath couplings, control performances remain rather modest, the most important result is a noticeable increase of the non-Markovian bath response induced by the optimally driven processes.

  6. Exploring Neural Network Models with Hierarchical Memories and Their Use in Modeling Biological Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusuluri, Sai Teja

    Energy landscapes are often used as metaphors for phenomena in biology, social sciences and finance. Different methods have been implemented in the past for the construction of energy landscapes. Neural network models based on spin glass physics provide an excellent mathematical framework for the construction of energy landscapes. This framework uses a minimal number of parameters and constructs the landscape using data from the actual phenomena. In the past neural network models were used to mimic the storage and retrieval process of memories (patterns) in the brain. With advances in the field now, these models are being used in machine learning, deep learning and modeling of complex phenomena. Most of the past literature focuses on increasing the storage capacity and stability of stored patterns in the network but does not study these models from a modeling perspective or an energy landscape perspective. This dissertation focuses on neural network models both from a modeling perspective and from an energy landscape perspective. I firstly show how the cellular interconversion phenomenon can be modeled as a transition between attractor states on an epigenetic landscape constructed using neural network models. The model allows the identification of a reaction coordinate of cellular interconversion by analyzing experimental and simulation time course data. Monte Carlo simulations of the model show that the initial phase of cellular interconversion is a Poisson process and the later phase of cellular interconversion is a deterministic process. Secondly, I explore the static features of landscapes generated using neural network models, such as sizes of basins of attraction and densities of metastable states. The simulation results show that the static landscape features are strongly dependent on the correlation strength and correlation structure between patterns. Using different hierarchical structures of the correlation between patterns affects the landscape features

  7. System engineering in the Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensing process: Program architecture process and structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romine, D.T.

    1989-01-01

    In October 1987, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) established the Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses at Southwest Research Institute in San Antonio, Texas. The overall mission of the center is to provide a sustained level of high-quality research and technical assistance in support of NRC regulatory responsibilities under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA). A key part of that mission is to assist the NRC in the development of the program architecture - the systems approach to regulatory analysis for the NRC high-level waste repository licensing process - and the development and implementation of the computer-based Program Architecture Support System (PASS). This paper describes the concept of program architecture, summarizes the process and basic structure of the PASS relational data base, and describes the applications of the system

  8. 17 CFR 249.821 - Form PILOT, information required of self-regulatory organizations operating pilot trading systems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... required of self-regulatory organizations operating pilot trading systems pursuant to § 240.19b-5 of this... Associations § 249.821 Form PILOT, information required of self-regulatory organizations operating pilot trading systems pursuant to § 240.19b-5 of this chapter. This form shall be used by all self-regulatory...

  9. Distributed PACS using distributed file system with hierarchical meta data servers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiroyasu, Tomoyuki; Minamitani, Yoshiyuki; Miki, Mitsunori; Yokouchi, Hisatake; Yoshimi, Masato

    2012-01-01

    In this research, we propose a new distributed PACS (Picture Archiving and Communication Systems) which is available to integrate several PACSs that exist in each medical institution. The conventional PACS controls DICOM file into one data-base. On the other hand, in the proposed system, DICOM file is separated into meta data and image data and those are stored individually. Using this mechanism, since file is not always accessed the entire data, some operations such as finding files, changing titles, and so on can be performed in high-speed. At the same time, as distributed file system is utilized, accessing image files can also achieve high-speed access and high fault tolerant. The introduced system has a more significant point. That is the simplicity to integrate several PACSs. In the proposed system, only the meta data servers are integrated and integrated system can be constructed. This system also has the scalability of file access with along to the number of file numbers and file sizes. On the other hand, because meta-data server is integrated, the meta data server is the weakness of this system. To solve this defect, hieratical meta data servers are introduced. Because of this mechanism, not only fault--tolerant ability is increased but scalability of file access is also increased. To discuss the proposed system, the prototype system using Gfarm was implemented. For evaluating the implemented system, file search operating time of Gfarm and NFS were compared.

  10. Regulatory systems for the control of land remediation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowe, J.; Vijgen, J.; Summersgill, M.

    2003-07-01

    One of the recurring themes in looking at land remediation over the last decade has been identifying and overcoming barriers to the use of innovative, sustainable technologies, whilst still ensuring that there are no adverse environmental impacts from their use. In parallel with this, the regeneration of brownfield sites has increasingly needed effective and economic solutions that leave the site without the stigma of being associated with contamination and waste disposal. Regulatory controls are often identified as one of the main barriers to both of these objectives. Previously, the focus of attention in the study of regulatory controls relating to land contamination has largely been on regimes that trigger the need for clean-up. These may be pollution control legislation or land-use planning controls. However, the focus of this paper will be on the controls on the selection and implementation of the remediation technologies and processes themselves. It will look in particular at the European-wide controls on waste management, pollution prevention and environmental impact assessment. The UK work is being carried out by a working group involving: landowners; developers; public sector regeneration agencies; house-builders; industry; insurers; technology providers; professional advisers; local government authorities; and national government regulators and policy-makers. This multi-stakeholder approach has facilitated the identification of practical, legal, financial and administrative issues to assist in developing new solutions. (orig.)

  11. Hierarchical distance-based fuzzy approach to evaluate urban water supply systems in a semi-arid region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yekta, Tahereh Sadeghi; Khazaei, Mohammad; Nabizadeh, Ramin; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Nasseri, Simin; Yari, Ahmad Reza

    2015-01-01

    Hierarchical distance-based fuzzy multi-criteria group decision making was served as a tool to evaluate the drinking water supply systems of Qom, a semi-arid city located in central part of Iran. A list of aspects consisting of 6 criteria and 35 sub-criteria were evaluated based on a linguistic term set by five decision-makers. Four water supply alternatives including "Public desalinated distribution system", "PET Bottled Drinking Water", "Private desalinated water suppliers" and "Household desalinated water units" were assessed based on criteria and sub-criteria. Data were aggregated and normalized to apply Performance Ratings of Alternatives. Also, the Performance Ratings of Alternatives were aggregated again to achieve the Aggregate Performance Ratings. The weighted distances from ideal solution and anti-ideal solution were calculated after secondary normalization. The proximity of each alternative to the ideal solution was determined as the final step. The alternatives were ranked based on the magnitude of ideal solutions. Results showed that "Public desalinated distribution system" was the most appropriate alternative to supply the drinking needs of Qom population. Also, "PET Bottled Drinking Water" was the second acceptable option. A novel classification of alternatives to satisfy the drinking water requirements was proposed which is applicable for the other cities located in semi-arid regions of Iran. The health issues were considered as independent criterion, distinct from the environmental issues. The constraints of high-tech alternatives were also considered regarding to the level of dependency on overseas.

  12. Inter-subject Functional Correlation Reveal a Hierarchical Organization of Extrinsic and Intrinsic Systems in the Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yudan; Nguyen, Vinh Thai; Guo, Lei; Guo, Christine Cong

    2017-09-07

    The brain is constantly monitoring and integrating both cues from the external world and signals generated intrinsically. These extrinsically and intrinsically-driven neural processes are thought to engage anatomically distinct regions, which are thought to constitute the extrinsic and intrinsic systems of the brain. While the specialization of extrinsic and intrinsic system is evident in primary and secondary sensory cortices, a systematic mapping of the whole brain remains elusive. Here, we characterized the extrinsic and intrinsic functional activities in the brain during naturalistic movie-viewing. Using a novel inter-subject functional correlation (ISFC) analysis, we found that the strength of ISFC shifts along the hierarchical organization of the brain. Primary sensory cortices appear to have strong inter-subject functional correlation, consistent with their role in processing exogenous information, while heteromodal regions that attend to endogenous processes have low inter-subject functional correlation. Those brain systems with higher intrinsic tendency show greater inter-individual variability, likely reflecting the aspects of brain connectivity architecture unique to individuals. Our study presents a novel framework for dissecting extrinsically- and intrinsically-driven processes, as well as examining individual differences in brain function during naturalistic stimulation.

  13. Genetic control of mammalian T-cell proliferation with synthetic RNA regulatory systems

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yvonne Y.; Jensen, Michael C.; Smolke, Christina D.

    2010-01-01

    RNA molecules perform diverse regulatory functions in natural biological systems, and numerous synthetic RNA-based control devices that integrate sensing and gene-regulatory functions have been demonstrated, predominantly in bacteria and yeast. Despite potential advantages of RNA-based genetic control strategies in clinical applications, there has been limited success in extending engineered RNA devices to mammalian gene-expression control and no example of their application to functional res...

  14. Approach to constructing a model for evaluating the performance quality of a complex hierarchic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bykova, E V

    1982-01-01

    The author proposes an interactive method employing a semantic network representation of knowledge. Her model operates in 2 stages: intrinsic evaluation of the quality of the system; and analysis of the functioning of the system, which accumulates expert experience in an adaptive dialogue process. 6 references.

  15. Modeling a hierarchical structure of factors influencing exploitation policy for water distribution systems using ISM approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasiulewicz-Kaczmarek, Małgorzata; Wyczółkowski, Ryszard; Gładysiak, Violetta

    2017-12-01

    Water distribution systems are one of the basic elements of contemporary technical infrastructure of urban and rural areas. It is a complex engineering system composed of transmission networks and auxiliary equipment (e.g. controllers, checkouts etc.), scattered territorially over a large area. From the water distribution system operation point of view, its basic features are: functional variability, resulting from the need to adjust the system to temporary fluctuations in demand for water and territorial dispersion. The main research questions are: What external factors should be taken into account when developing an effective water distribution policy? Does the size and nature of the water distribution system significantly affect the exploitation policy implemented? These questions have shaped the objectives of research and the method of research implementation.

  16. Management and share of regulatory information through web; development of regulatory information management system for Korea next generation reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J. S.; Lee, J. H.; Jeong, Y. H.; Lee, S. H.; Yun, Y. C.; Park, M. I.

    2001-01-01

    The Regulatory Information Management System developed by the Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety supports researchers who are in charge of developing SRRG for the Korea Next Generation Reactors, manage the developed SRRG and development process, and make it possible to share the SRRG information and background knowledge through the internet with the nuclear-related personnel and the public. From the experience of the system operation, the search engine is repalced to manage the native SRRG files directly. This change eliminates the inconsistency between native files and database files and improve the search exactness by automatic indexing function. The user interface of the internet homepage (http://kngr.kins.re.kr) is completely rebuilded and allows SRRG developers to manage the search system and the atomic energy regulations database on the Web without the help of the client programs. General users are also able to utilize more convenient search function and additional information by the improved interface. The system is running under the backup system and firewall system for the data protection and security

  17. Management and share of regulatory information through web; development of regulatory information management system for Korea next generation reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J. S.; Lee, J. H.; Jeong, Y. H.; Lee, S. H. [KINS, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Y. C.; Park, M. I. [LG-EDS Systems, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-05-01

    The Regulatory Information Management System developed by the Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety supports researchers who are in charge of developing SRRG for the Korea Next Generation Reactors, manage the developed SRRG and development process, and make it possible to share the SRRG information and background knowledge through the internet with the nuclear-related personnel and the public. From the experience of the system operation, the search engine is repalced to manage the native SRRG files directly. This change eliminates the inconsistency between native files and database files and improve the search exactness by automatic indexing function. The user interface of the internet homepage (http://kngr.kins.re.kr) is completely rebuilded and allows SRRG developers to manage the search system and the atomic energy regulations database on the Web without the help of the client programs. General users are also able to utilize more convenient search function and additional information by the improved interface. The system is running under the backup system and firewall system for the data protection and security.

  18. National system for regulatory body in the developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, I.

    2001-01-01

    The status of radiation protection infrastructures varies from one region to another, and from one country to another in the same region. Some countries are very well advanced, others at an intermediate level, and others way behind. The Syrian Arab Republic is one of the countries using radiation generating machines, and sealed and unsealed radionuclide sources. The Atomic Energy Commission of Syria (AECS) has the direct responsibility of assuring proper safety for handling such sources on the basis of a solid regulatory infrastructure and conforming with the international standards. The AECS was approached by the IAEA to assist other countries in the area participating in the interregional Model Project on Upgrading Radiation Safety and Radiation Safety and Waste Management Infrastructure by providing them with the available facilities and experience in radiation safety. (author)

  19. International Conference on Effective Nuclear Regulatory Systems: Sustaining Improvements Globally. Book of Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this conference is to review and assess ways of further improving the effectiveness of regulatory systems for nuclear facilities and activities for both nuclear safety and nuclear security. The action items in the summary presented by the President of the conference held in 2013 in Ottawa, the lessons of the Fukushima Daiichi accident, the discussions at other international conferences and at international experts’ meetings conducted within the framework of the IAEA Action Plan on Nuclear Safety, as well as the CNS and the principles outlined in the Vienna Declaration on Nuclear Safety, will continue to have a significant impact on regulatory systems. All the aforementioned need to be taken into account to sustain improvements to regulatory systems. The expected outcomes of the conference are: - Enhanced safety and security of nuclear installations worldwide; - Challenges in regulating radiation sources and radioactive waste addressed; - Enhanced international cooperation for sustaining regulatory effectiveness; - Strengthened and sustained regulatory competence for nuclear safety and security; and - Strategies and actions for the future identified, as well as issues for consideration by governments, regulatory bodies and international organizations.

  20. Regulatory Concerns on the In-Containment Water Storage System of the Korean Next Generation Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Hyung-Joon; Lee, Jae-Hun; Bang, Young-Seok; Kim, Hho-Jung

    2002-01-01

    The in-containment water storage system (IWSS) is a newly adopted system in the design of the Korean Next Generation Reactor (KNGR). It consists of the in-containment refueling water storage tank, holdup volume tank, and cavity flooding system (CFS). The IWSS has the function of steam condensation and heat sink for the steam release from the pressurizer and provides cooling water to the safety injection system and containment spray system in an accident condition and to the CFS in a severe accident condition. With the progress of the KNGR design, the Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety has been developing Safety and Regulatory Requirements and Guidances for safety review of the KNGR. In this paper, regarding the IWSS of the KNGR, the major contents of the General Safety Criteria, Specific Safety Requirements, Safety Regulatory Guides, and Safety Review Procedures were introduced, and the safety review items that have to be reviewed in-depth from the regulatory viewpoint were also identified

  1. Continued Kinematic and Photometric Investigations of Hierarchical Solar-type Multiple Star Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Lewis C. Jr.; Marinan, Anne D. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena CA 91109 (United States); Tokovinin, Andrei [Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile); Mason, Brian D., E-mail: lewis.c.roberts@jpl.nasa.gov [U.S. Naval Observatory, 3450 Massachusetts Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20392-5420 (United States)

    2017-03-01

    We observed 15 of the solar-type binaries within 67 pc of the Sun previously observed by the Robo-AO system in the visible, with the PHARO near-infrared camera and the PALM-3000 adaptive optics system on the 5 m Hale telescope. The physical status of the binaries is confirmed through common proper motion and detection of orbital motion. In the process, we detected a new candidate companion to HIP 95309. We also resolved the primary of HIP 110626 into a close binary, making that system a triple. These detections increase the completeness of the multiplicity survey of the solar-type stars within 67 pc of the Sun. Combining our observations of HIP 103455 with archival astrometric measurements and RV measurements, we are able to compute the first orbit of HIP 103455, showing that the binary has a 68 year period. We place the components on a color–magnitude diagram and discuss each multiple system individually.

  2. A framework for hierarchical and recursive monitoring of service based systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Comuzzi, M.; Spanoudakis, G.

    2009-01-01

    Runtime monitoring of Service Based Systems (SBSs) usually relies on information derived from I/O messages exchanged within business processes implementing services. When service provisioning is regulated by complex Service Level Agreements (SLAs) between service requesters, (composed) services, and

  3. Hierarchical Intelligent Data Fusion Architecture for System Health Management, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The complexity of modern systems and the stringent performance requirements for operation and uptime suggest that optimum and robust means must be deployed to make...

  4. Application of Fuzzy Algorithm in Optimizing Hierarchical Sliding Mode Control for Pendubot System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Dung Huynh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Pendubot is a classical under-actuated SIMO model for control algorithm testing in laboratory of universities. In this paper, authors design a fuzzy-sliding control for this system. The controller is designed from a new idea of application of fuzzy algorithm for optioning control parameters. The response of system on TOP position under fuzzysliding control algorithm is proved to be better than under sliding controller through Matlab/Simulink simulation.

  5. Safety Justification of Software Systems. Software Based Safety Systems. Regulatory Inspection Handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahll, Gustav; Liwang, Bo; Wainwright, Norman

    2006-01-01

    The introduction of new software based technology in the safety systems in nuclear power plants also makes it necessary to develop new strategies for regulatory review and assessment of these new systems that is more focused on reviewing the processes at the different phases in design phases during the system life cycle. It is a general requirement that the licensee shall perform different kinds of reviews. From a regulatory point of view it is more cost effective to assess that the design activities at the suppliers and the review activities within the development project are performed with good quality. But the change from more technical reviews over to the development process oriented approach also cause problems. When reviewing development and quality aspects there are no 'hard facts' that can be judged against some specified criteria, the issues are more 'soft' and are more to build up structure of arguments and evidences that the requirements are met. The regulatory review strategy must therefore change to follow the development process over the whole life cycle from concept phase until installation and operation. Even if we know what factors that is of interest we need some guidance on how to interpret and judge the information.For that purpose SKl started research activities in this area at the end of the 1990s. In the first phase, in co-operation with Gustav Dahll at the Halden project, a life cycle model was selected. For the different phases a qualitative influence net was constructed of the type that is used in Bayesian Believe Network together with a discussion on different issues involved. In the second phase of the research work, in co-operation with Norman Wainwright, a former NII inspector, information from a selection of the most important sources as guidelines, IAEA and EC reports etc, was mapped into the influence net structure (the total list on used sources are in the report). The result is presented in the form of questions (Q) and a

  6. Safety Justification of Software Systems. Software Based Safety Systems. Regulatory Inspection Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahll, Gustav (OECD Halden Project, Halden (NO)); Liwaang, Bo (Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, Stockholm (Sweden)); Wainwright, Norman (Wainwright Safety Advice (GB))

    2006-07-01

    The introduction of new software based technology in the safety systems in nuclear power plants also makes it necessary to develop new strategies for regulatory review and assessment of these new systems that is more focused on reviewing the processes at the different phases in design phases during the system life cycle. It is a general requirement that the licensee shall perform different kinds of reviews. From a regulatory point of view it is more cost effective to assess that the design activities at the suppliers and the review activities within the development project are performed with good quality. But the change from more technical reviews over to the development process oriented approach also cause problems. When reviewing development and quality aspects there are no 'hard facts' that can be judged against some specified criteria, the issues are more 'soft' and are more to build up structure of arguments and evidences that the requirements are met. The regulatory review strategy must therefore change to follow the development process over the whole life cycle from concept phase until installation and operation. Even if we know what factors that is of interest we need some guidance on how to interpret and judge the information.For that purpose SKl started research activities in this area at the end of the 1990s. In the first phase, in co-operation with Gustav Dahll at the Halden project, a life cycle model was selected. For the different phases a qualitative influence net was constructed of the type that is used in Bayesian Believe Network together with a discussion on different issues involved. In the second phase of the research work, in co-operation with Norman Wainwright, a former NII inspector, information from a selection of the most important sources as guidelines, IAEA and EC reports etc, was mapped into the influence net structure (the total list on used sources are in the report). The result is presented in the form of

  7. A regulatory perspective on design and performance requirements for engineered systems in high-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernero, R.M.

    1992-01-01

    For engineered systems, this paper gives an overview of some of the current activities at the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), with the intent of elucidating how the regulatory process works in the management of high-level waste (HLW). Throughout the waste management cycle, starting with packaging and transportation, and continuing to final closure of a repository, these activities are directed at taking advantage of the prelicensing consultation period, a period in which the NRC, DOE and others can interact in ways that will reduce regulatory, technical and institutional uncertainties, and open the path to development and construction of a deep geologic repository for permanent disposal of HLW. Needed interactions in the HLW program are highlighted. Examples of HLW regulatory activities are given in discussions of a multipurpose-cask concept and of current NRC work on the meaning of the term substantially complete containment

  8. Adaptive Radio Resource Allocation in Hierarchical QoS Scheduling for IEEE 802.16 Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Hua; Dittmann, Lars

    2007-01-01

    Future mobile communication systems such as IEEE 802.16 are expected to deliver a variety of multimedia services with diverse QoS requirements. To guarantee the QoS provision, appropriate scheduler architecture and scheduling algorithms have to be carefully designed. In this paper, we propose...

  9. Hierarchical, decentralized control system for large-scale smart-structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Algermissen, Stephan; Fröhlich, Tim; Monner, Hans Peter

    2014-01-01

    Active control of sound and vibration has gained much attention in all kinds of industries in the past decade. Future prospects for maximizing airline passenger comfort are especially promising. The objectives of recent research projects in this area are the reduction of noise transmission through thin walled structures such as fuselages, linings or interior elements. Besides different external noise sources, such as the turbulent boundary layer, rotor or jet noise, the actuator and sensor placement as well as different control concepts are addressed. Mostly, the work is focused on a single panel or section of the fuselage, neglecting the fact that for effective noise reduction the entire fuselage has to be taken into account. Nevertheless, extending the scope of an active system from a single panel to the entire fuselage increases the effort for control hardware dramatically. This paper presents a control concept for large structures using distributed control nodes. Each node has the capability to execute a vibration or noise controller for a specific part or section of the fuselage. For maintenance, controller tuning or performance measurement, all nodes are connected to a host computer via Universal Serial Bus (USB). This topology allows a partitioning and distributing of tasks. The nodes execute the low-level control functions. High-level tasks like maintenance, system identification and control synthesis are operated by the host using streamed data from the nodes. By choosing low-price nodes, a very cost effective way of implementing an active system for large structures is realized. Besides the system identification and controller synthesis on the host computer, a detailed view on the hardware and software concept for the nodes is given. Finally, the results of an experimental test of a system running a robust vibration controller at an active panel demonstrator are shown. (paper)

  10. Hierarchical and Complex System Entropy Clustering Analysis Based Validation for Traditional Chinese Medicine Syndrome Patterns of Chronic Atrophic Gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yin; Liu, Yue; Li, Yannan; Zhao, Xia; Zhuo, Lin; Zhou, Ajian; Zhang, Li; Su, Zeqi; Chen, Cen; Du, Shiyu; Liu, Daming; Ding, Xia

    2018-03-22

    Chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG) is the precancerous stage of gastric carcinoma. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has been widely used in treating CAG. This study aimed to reveal core pathogenesis of CAG by validating the TCM syndrome patterns and provide evidence for optimization of treatment strategies. This is a cross-sectional study conducted in 4 hospitals in China. Hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) and complex system entropy clustering analysis (CSECA) were performed, respectively, to achieve syndrome pattern validation. Based on HCA, 15 common factors were assigned to 6 syndrome patterns: liver depression and spleen deficiency and blood stasis in the stomach collateral, internal harassment of phlegm-heat and blood stasis in the stomach collateral, phlegm-turbidity internal obstruction, spleen yang deficiency, internal harassment of phlegm-heat and spleen deficiency, and spleen qi deficiency. By CSECA, 22 common factors were assigned to 7 syndrome patterns: qi deficiency, qi stagnation, blood stasis, phlegm turbidity, heat, yang deficiency, and yin deficiency. Combination of qi deficiency, qi stagnation, blood stasis, phlegm turbidity, heat, yang deficiency, and yin deficiency may play a crucial role in CAG pathogenesis. In accord with this, treatment strategies by TCM herbal prescriptions should be targeted to regulating qi, activating blood, resolving turbidity, clearing heat, removing toxin, nourishing yin, and warming yang. Further explorations are needed to verify and expand the current conclusions.

  11. A Hierarchical Optimal Operation Strategy of Hybrid Energy Storage System in Distribution Networks with High Photovoltaic Penetration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Chen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a hierarchical optimal operation strategy for a hybrid energy storage system (HESS is proposed, which is suitable to be utilized in distribution networks (DNs with high photovoltaic (PV penetration to achieve PV power smoothing, voltage regulation and price arbitrage. Firstly, a fuzzy-logic based variable step-size control strategy for an ultracapacitor (UC with the improvement of the lifetime of UC and tracking performance is adopted to smooth PV power fluctuations. The impact of PV forecasting errors is eliminated by adjusting the UC power in real time. Secondly, a coordinated control strategy, which includes centralized and local controls, is proposed for lithium-ion batteries. The centralized control is structured to determine the optimal battery unit for voltage regulation or price arbitrage according to lithium-ion battery performance indices. A modified lithium-ion battery aging model with better accuracy is proposed and the coupling relationship between the lifetime and the effective capacity is also considered. Additionally, the local control of the selected lithium-ion battery unit determines the charging/discharging power. A case study is used to validate the operation strategy and the results show that the lifetime equilibrium among different lithium-ion battery units can be achieved using the proposed strategy.

  12. Stress reaction process-based hierarchical recognition algorithm for continuous intrusion events in optical fiber prewarning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Hongquan; Yuan, Shijiao; Wang, Yanping; Yang, Dan

    2018-04-01

    To improve the recognition performance of optical fiber prewarning system (OFPS), this study proposed a hierarchical recognition algorithm (HRA). Compared with traditional methods, which employ only a complex algorithm that includes multiple extracted features and complex classifiers to increase the recognition rate with a considerable decrease in recognition speed, HRA takes advantage of the continuity of intrusion events, thereby creating a staged recognition flow inspired by stress reaction. HRA is expected to achieve high-level recognition accuracy with less time consumption. First, this work analyzed the continuity of intrusion events and then presented the algorithm based on the mechanism of stress reaction. Finally, it verified the time consumption through theoretical analysis and experiments, and the recognition accuracy was obtained through experiments. Experiment results show that the processing speed of HRA is 3.3 times faster than that of a traditional complicated algorithm and has a similar recognition rate of 98%. The study is of great significance to fast intrusion event recognition in OFPS.

  13. Globally COnstrained Local Function Approximation via Hierarchical Modelling, a Framework for System Modelling under Partial Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øjelund, Henrik; Sadegh, Payman

    2000-01-01

    be obtained. This paper presents a new approach for system modelling under partial (global) information (or the so called Gray-box modelling) that seeks to perserve the benefits of the global as well as local methodologies sithin a unified framework. While the proposed technique relies on local approximations......Local function approximations concern fitting low order models to weighted data in neighbourhoods of the points where the approximations are desired. Despite their generality and convenience of use, local models typically suffer, among others, from difficulties arising in physical interpretation...... simultaneously with the (local estimates of) function values. The approach is applied to modelling of a linear time variant dynamic system under prior linear time invariant structure where local regression fails as a result of high dimensionality....

  14. The development of regulatory expectations for computer-based safety systems for the UK nuclear programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, P. J. [HM Nuclear Installations Inspectorate Marine Engineering Submarines Defence Nuclear Safety Regulator Serco Assurance Redgrave Court, Merton Road, Bootle L20 7HS (United Kingdom); Westwood, R.N; Mark, R. T. [FLEET HQ, Leach Building, Whale Island, Portsmouth, PO2 8BY (United Kingdom); Tapping, K. [Serco Assurance,Thomson House, Risley, Warrington, WA3 6GA (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-01

    The Nuclear Installations Inspectorate (NII) of the UK's Health and Safety Executive (HSE) has completed a review of their Safety Assessment Principles (SAPs) for Nuclear Installations recently. During the period of the SAPs review in 2004-2005 the designers of future UK naval reactor plant were optioneering the control and protection systems that might be implemented. Because there was insufficient regulatory guidance available in the naval sector to support this activity the Defence Nuclear Safety Regulator (DNSR) invited the NII to collaborate with the production of a guidance document that provides clarity of regulatory expectations for the production of safety cases for computer based safety systems. A key part of producing regulatory expectations was identifying the relevant extant standards and sector guidance that reflect good practice. The three principal sources of such good practice were: IAEA Safety Guide NS-G-1.1 (Software for Computer Based Systems Important to Safety in Nuclear Power Plants), European Commission consensus document (Common Position of European Nuclear Regulators for the Licensing of Safety Critical Software for Nuclear Reactors) and IEC nuclear sector standards such as IEC60880. A common understanding has been achieved between the NII and DNSR and regulatory guidance developed which will be used by both NII and DNSR in the assessment of computer-based safety systems and in the further development of more detailed joint technical assessment guidance for both regulatory organisations. (authors)

  15. Functional annotation of hierarchical modularity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanchana Padmanabhan

    Full Text Available In biological networks of molecular interactions in a cell, network motifs that are biologically relevant are also functionally coherent, or form functional modules. These functionally coherent modules combine in a hierarchical manner into larger, less cohesive subsystems, thus revealing one of the essential design principles of system-level cellular organization and function-hierarchical modularity. Arguably, hierarchical modularity has not been explicitly taken into consideration by most, if not all, functional annotation systems. As a result, the existing methods would often fail to assign a statistically significant functional coherence score to biologically relevant molecular machines. We developed a methodology for hierarchical functional annotation. Given the hierarchical taxonomy of functional concepts (e.g., Gene Ontology and the association of individual genes or proteins with these concepts (e.g., GO terms, our method will assign a Hierarchical Modularity Score (HMS to each node in the hierarchy of functional modules; the HMS score and its p-value measure functional coherence of each module in the hierarchy. While existing methods annotate each module with a set of "enriched" functional terms in a bag of genes, our complementary method provides the hierarchical functional annotation of the modules and their hierarchically organized components. A hierarchical organization of functional modules often comes as a bi-product of cluster analysis of gene expression data or protein interaction data. Otherwise, our method will automatically build such a hierarchy by directly incorporating the functional taxonomy information into the hierarchy search process and by allowing multi-functional genes to be part of more than one component in the hierarchy. In addition, its underlying HMS scoring metric ensures that functional specificity of the terms across different levels of the hierarchical taxonomy is properly treated. We have evaluated our

  16. Enhancing traffic performance in hierarchical DHT system by exploiting network proximity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Haifeng; Wu, Wei; Pei, Canhao; Zhang, Chengfeng

    2009-08-01

    Nowadays P2P systems have become increasingly popular for object distribution and file sharing, and the majority of Internet traffic is generated by P2P file sharing applications. However, those applications usually ignored the underlying proximity of physical nodes and regionalization of file accessing. As a result, they generate a large amount of unnecessary interdomain transit traffic and increase response latency. In this paper, we proposed a new traffic control approach to enhance p2p traffic locality and reduce the cross-group transfer. Using analysis, we show that the method substantially improves node transfer efficiency and significantly reduces file access latency compared with native P2P applications.

  17. Optimal coupling of heat and electricity systems: A stochastic hierarchical approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitridati, Lesia Marie-Jeanne Mariane; Pinson, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    modelled using a finite set of scenarios. This model takes advantage of existing market structures and provides a decision-making tool for heat system operators. The proposed model is implemented in a case study and results are discussed to show the benefits and applicability of this approach....... penetration of CHPs and wind. The objective of this optimization problem is to minimize the heat production cost, subject to constraints describing day-ahead electricity market clearing scenarios. Uncertainties concerning wind power production, electricity demand and rival participants offers are efficiently...

  18. A pollutant load hierarchical allocation method integrated in an environmental capacity management system for Zhushan Bay, Taihu Lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Shidong; Jia, Haifeng; Yang, Cong; Melching, Charles; Yuan, Yongping

    2015-11-15

    An environmental capacity management (ECM) system was developed to help practically implement a Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) for a key bay in a highly eutrophic lake in China. The ECM system consists of a simulation platform for pollutant load calculation and a pollutant load hierarchical allocation (PLHA) system. The simulation platform was developed by linking the Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC) and Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program (WASP). In the PLHA, pollutant loads were allocated top-down in several levels based on characteristics of the pollutant sources. Different allocation methods could be used for the different levels with the advantages of each method combined over the entire allocation. Zhushan Bay of Taihu Lake, one of the most eutrophic lakes in China, was selected as a case study. The allowable loads of total nitrogen, total phosphorus, ammonia, and chemical oxygen demand were found to be 2122.2, 94.9, 1230.4, and 5260.0 t·yr(-1), respectively. The PLHA for the case study consists of 5 levels. At level 0, loads are allocated to those from the lakeshore direct drainage, atmospheric deposition, internal release, and tributary inflows. At level 1 the loads allocated to tributary inflows are allocated to the 3 tributaries. At level 2, the loads allocated to one inflow tributary are allocated to upstream areas and local sources along the tributary. At level 3, the loads allocated to local sources are allocated to the point and non-point sources from different towns. At level 4, the loads allocated to non-point sources in each town are allocated to different villages. Compared with traditional forms of pollutant load allocation methods, PLHA can combine the advantages of different methods which put different priority weights on equity and efficiency, and the PLHA is easy to understand for stakeholders and more flexible to adjust when applied in practical cases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Unsolved problems in applying U.S. regulatory guides to control system equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stade, R.E.

    1978-01-01

    Two current problems encountered when designing control systems to the United States Regulatory Guide requirements are discussed. They are: 1) Level of surge voltages that should be specified when procuring solid state control and instrumentation systems and equipment. 2) The approach to be used qualifying equipment that must meet the aging requirements. (author)

  20. Regulatory Coordination between Two Major Intracellular Homeostatic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dokladny, Karol; Zuhl, Micah Nathaniel; Mandell, Michael

    2013-01-01

    whether there are interactions between these homeostatic systems, one universally operational in all prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, and the other one (autophagy) is limited to eukaryotes. We found that heat shock response regulates autophagy. The interaction between the two systems was demonstrated......The eukaryotic cell depends on multitiered homeostatic systems ensuring maintenance of proteostasis, organellar integrity, function and turnover, and overall cellular viability. At the two opposite ends of the homeostatic system spectrum are heat shock response and autophagy. Here, we tested...... of the homeostatic systems in the eukaryotic cell....

  1. Evolutionary Hierarchical Multi-Criteria Metaheuristics for Scheduling in Large-Scale Grid Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kołodziej, Joanna

    2012-01-01

    One of the most challenging issues in modelling today's large-scale computational systems is to effectively manage highly parametrised distributed environments such as computational grids, clouds, ad hoc networks and P2P networks. Next-generation computational grids must provide a wide range of services and high performance computing infrastructures. Various types of information and data processed in the large-scale dynamic grid environment may be incomplete, imprecise, and fragmented, which complicates the specification of proper evaluation criteria and which affects both the availability of resources and the final collective decisions of users. The complexity of grid architectures and grid management may also contribute towards higher energy consumption. All of these issues necessitate the development of intelligent resource management techniques, which are capable of capturing all of this complexity and optimising meaningful metrics for a wide range of grid applications.   This book covers hot topics in t...

  2. Hierarchical random cellular neural networks for system-level brain-like signal processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozma, Robert; Puljic, Marko

    2013-09-01

    Sensory information processing and cognition in brains are modeled using dynamic systems theory. The brain's dynamic state is described by a trajectory evolving in a high-dimensional state space. We introduce a hierarchy of random cellular automata as the mathematical tools to describe the spatio-temporal dynamics of the cortex. The corresponding brain model is called neuropercolation which has distinct advantages compared to traditional models using differential equations, especially in describing spatio-temporal discontinuities in the form of phase transitions. Phase transitions demarcate singularities in brain operations at critical conditions, which are viewed as hallmarks of higher cognition and awareness experience. The introduced Monte-Carlo simulations obtained by parallel computing point to the importance of computer implementations using very large-scale integration (VLSI) and analog platforms. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Transportation of radioactive materials: legislative and regulatory information system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fore, C.S.; Heiskell, M.M.

    1980-01-01

    The transportation of radioactive materials, as well as hazardous materials in general, has been an issue of ever-increasing concern and an object of numerous regulations and legislative actions worldwide. The Transportation Technology Center of the US Department of Energy's Sandia Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, is currently involved in developing a national program to assure the safe shipment of radioactive materials. At Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tennessee, this overall effort is being supported in a specialized manner. As part of the Logistics Modeling program at ORNL, the Ecological Sciences Information Center has developed comprehensive data bases containing legislative and regulatory actions relevant to the transportation of hazardous materials. The data bases are separated according to status level of the legislation. The Current Legislation Data Base includes all new legislative actions introduced during the present year (1980) or those bills carried over from the previous year's sessions. The second data file, Historical Legislation Data Base, consists of all legislative actions since 1976 that have passed and become public laws, as well as those actions that were unsuccessful and were classified as denied by law. Currently the data bases include state-, local-, and federal, level legislation, with emphasis on the transportation of radioactive materials. Because of their relevance to the transportation issues, actions involving related subject areas such as, disposal and storage of radioactive wastes, moratoriums on power plant construction, and remedial actions studies, special agencies to regulate shipment of radioactive materials, and requirements of advanced notification, permits and escorts are also included in the data bases

  4. Sharing regulatory data as tools for strengthening health systems in the Region of the Americas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varley Dias Sousa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Regulatory transparency is an imperative characteristic of a reliable National Regulatory Authority. In the region of the Americas, the process of building an open government is still fragile and fragmented across various Health Regulatory Agencies (HRAs and Regional Reference Authorities (RRAs. This study assessed the transparency status of RRAs, focusing on various medicine life-cycle documents (the Medicine Dossier, Clinical Trial Report, and Inspection Report as tools for strengthening health systems. Based on a narrative (nonsystematic review of RRA regulatory transparency, transparency status was classified as one of two types: public disclosure of information (intra-agency data and data- and work-sharing (inter-agency data. The risks/benefits of public disclosure of medicine-related information were assessed, taking into account 1 the involvement and roles of multiple stakeholders (health care professionals, regulators, industry, community, and academics and 2 the protection of commercial and personal confidential data. Inter-agency data- and work-sharing was evaluated in the context of harmonization and cooperation projects that focus on regulatory convergence. Technical and practical steps for establishing an openness directive for the pharmaceutical regulatory environment are proposed to improve and strengthen health systems in the Americas. Addressing these challenges requires leadership from entities such as the Pan American Health Organization to steer and support collaborative regional alliances that advance the development and establishment of a trustworthy regulatory environment and a sustainable public health system in the Americas, using international successful initiatives as reference and taking into account the domestic characteristics and experiences of each individual country.

  5. Sharing regulatory data as tools for strengthening health systems in the Region of the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Varley Dias; Ramalho, Pedro I; Silveira, Dâmaris

    2016-05-01

    Regulatory transparency is an imperative characteristic of a reliable National Regulatory Authority. In the region of the Americas, the process of building an open government is still fragile and fragmented across various Health Regulatory Agencies (HRAs) and Regional Reference Authorities (RRAs). This study assessed the transparency status of RRAs, focusing on various medicine life-cycle documents (the Medicine Dossier, Clinical Trial Report, and Inspection Report) as tools for strengthening health systems. Based on a narrative (nonsystematic) review of RRA regulatory transparency, transparency status was classified as one of two types: public disclosure of information (intra-agency data) and data- and work-sharing (inter-agency data). The risks/benefits of public disclosure of medicine-related information were assessed, taking into account 1) the involvement and roles of multiple stakeholders (health care professionals, regulators, industry, community, and academics) and 2) the protection of commercial and personal confidential data. Inter-agency data- and work-sharing was evaluated in the context of harmonization and cooperation projects that focus on regulatory convergence. Technical and practical steps for establishing an openness directive for the pharmaceutical regulatory environment are proposed to improve and strengthen health systems in the Americas. Addressing these challenges requires leadership from entities such as the Pan American Health Organization to steer and support collaborative regional alliances that advance the development and establishment of a trustworthy regulatory environment and a sustainable public health system in the Americas, using international successful initiatives as reference and taking into account the domestic characteristics and experiences of each individual country.

  6. Methodology For Evaluation Of Regulatory Effectiveness In Physical Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izmaylov, Alexander; Valente, John; Griggs, James R.; Rexroth, Paul; Piskarev, Alexander; Babkin, Vladimir; Sokolov, Egor; Melton, Ronald B.; Cunningham, Mitchel E.; Baker, Kathryn A.; Brothers, Alan J.

    2005-01-01

    Material protection, control, and accounting (MPC and A) regulatory documents play an important role in securing and protecting nuclear material by regulating a variety of activities at different hierarchical levels. The development, implementation, and practical application of these regulatory documents requires a significant investment of financial and material resources. Therefore, it is important to evaluate the effectiveness of the regulatory development process and the extent to which regulations improve the effectiveness of MPC and A at nuclear sites. The joint Russian and U.S. Regulatory Development Project has a goal of evaluating the effectiveness of regulatory documents developed for MPC and A. As part of this joint Project, a methodology for evaluating effectiveness has been developed. This methodology was developed around physical protection objectives. The developed methodology specifies physical protection objectives to be accomplished through the implementation of a regulatory system based on the physical protection goals at the nuclear sites. It includes approaches to assessing regulatory effectiveness, the hierarchical structure of physical protection objectives to be accomplished through implementing regulations, a 'mapping' of the physical protection objectives to the regulatory framework, a list of criteria for evaluating the effectiveness of physical protection regulations and effectiveness indicators, as well as means and methods for gathering information and implementation of this evaluation.

  7. AEC Regulatory view of the reliability of air cleaning systems in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellamy, R.R.; Zavadoski, R.W.

    1975-01-01

    Air cleaning systems in nuclear facilities can be divided into three categories: ventilation exhaust systems, containment atmosphere cleanup systems, and process offgas systems. These systems have been the subject of numerous reports, regulatory guides, discussions, and meetings. Some of the analyses have been critical of the operation and design of these air cleaning systems--in particular, the engineered safety features containment atmosphere cleanup systems. Although for the most part the criticism is applicable, and recognizing that there are a number of unresolved issues pertaining to gaseous waste management systems, there are data to show that air cleaning systems in use in nuclear facilities are performing their intended function. (U.S.)

  8. Study of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Appellate System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bickwit, L.; Malsch, M.; Ostrach, S.; Christenson, K.

    1979-12-01

    At the Chairman's request the Office of the General Counsel studied the Commission's appellate system. The study included examination of the development of the study, analysis of the current workload, investigation of the practices of other agencies, and consideration of alternatives to the present system. The study recommends retention of the present system with some limited modifications to enable the Commission to more effectively use its existing appellate powers

  9. The global regulatory system Csr senses glucose through the phosphoenolpyruvate: carbohydrate phosphotransferase system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Morales, Deyanira; Bustamante, Víctor H

    2016-02-01

    A novel connection between two regulatory systems controlling crucial biological processes in bacteria, the carbon storage regulator (Csr) system and the glucose-specific phosphotransferase system (PTS), is reported by Leng et al. in this issue. This involves the interaction of unphosphorylated EIIA(Glc), a component of the glucose-specific PTS, with the CsrD protein, which accelerates the decay of the CsrB and CsrC small RNAs via RNase E in Escherichia coli. As unphosphorylated EIIA(G) (lc) is generated in the presence of glucose, the PTS thus acts as a sensor of glucose for the Csr system. Interestingly, another pathway can operate for communication between the Csr system and the glucose-specific PTS. The absence of glucose generates phosphorylated EIIA(Glc) , which activates the enzyme adenylate cyclase to produce cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) that, in turn, binds to the regulator cAMP receptor protein (CRP). Leng et al. show that the complex cAMP-CRP modestly reduces CsrB decay independently of CsrD. On the other hand, a previous study indicates that the complex cAMP-CRP positively regulates the transcription of CsrB and CsrC in Salmonella enterica. Therefore, EIIA(G) (lc) could work as a molecular switch that regulates the activity of the Csr system, in response to its phosphorylation state determined by the presence or absence of glucose, in order to control gene expression. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Deliberations on nuclear safety regulatory system in a changing industrial environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H.J.

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear safety concern, which may accompany such external environmental factors as privatization and restructuring of the electric power industry, is emerging as an international issue. In order to cope with the concern about nuclear safety, it is important to feedback valuable experiences of advanced countries that restructured their electric power industries earlier and further to reflect the current safety issues, which are raised internationally, fully into the nuclear safety regulatory system. This paper is to review the safety issues that might take place in the process of increasing competition in the nuclear power industry, and further to present a basic direction and effective measures for ensuring nuclear safety in response thereto from the viewpoint of safety regulation. It includes a political direction for a regulatory body's efforts to rationalize and enforce efficiently its regulation. It proposes to ensure that regulatory specialty and regulatory cost are stably secured. Also, this paper proposes maintaining a sound nuclear safety regulatory system to monitor thoroughly the safety management activities of the industry, which might be neglected as a result of focusing on reduction of the cost for producing electric power. (author)

  11. The regulatory system of nuclear safety in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizoguchi, Shuhei

    2013-01-01

    This article explains what type of mechanism the nuclear system has and how nuclear safety is regulated in Russia. There are two main organizations in this system : ROSATOM and ROSTEKHADZOR. ROSATOM, which was founded in 2007, incorporates all the nuclear industries in Russia, including civil nuclear companies as well as nuclear weapons complex facilities. ROSTEKHNADZOR is the federal body that secures and supervises the safety in using atomic energy. This article also reviews three laws on regulating nuclear safety. (author)

  12. International Nuclear Safety Experts Conclude IAEA Peer Review of Korea's Regulatory System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Full text: An international team of senior nuclear safety experts concluded today a two-week mission to review the regulatory framework for nuclear safety in the Republic of Korea. The team identified good practices and gave advice on areas for future improvements. The IAEA has conveyed the team's main conclusions to the Government of Korea, while the final report will be submitted by the end of summer 2011. At the request of the Korean Government, the IAEA assembled a team of 16 senior regulatory experts from 14 nations to conduct the Integrated Regulatory Review Service (IRRS) mission involving the Korean Ministry for Education, Science and Technology (MEST) and the Korean Institute for Nuclear Safety (KINS). The mission is a peer-review based on the IAEA Safety Standards. ''This was the first IRRS mission organized after Japan's Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident and it included a review of the regulatory implications of that event,' explains Denis Flory, IAEA Deputy Director General and Head of the Department of Nuclear Safety and Security. William Borchardt, Executive Director of Operations from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Team Leader of this mission commended the Korean authorities for their openness and commitment to sharing their experience with the world's nuclear safety community. ''IRRS missions such as the one that was just concluded here in the Republic of Korea are crucial to the enhancement of nuclear safety worldwide,'' he said. The IRRS team reviewed Korea's current regulatory framework while acknowledging the fact that the country's Government has already decided to establish, as of October 2011, a new independent regulatory body to be called Nuclear Safety Commission (NSC). As a consequence, KINS role will be as a regulatory expert organization reporting to the NSC, while MEST's role will be restricted to promoting the utilization of nuclear energy. The IRRS team identified particular strengths in the Korean regulatory system

  13. Hebbian learning of hand-centred representations in a hierarchical neural network model of the primate visual system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Born, Jannis; Galeazzi, Juan M; Stringer, Simon M

    2017-01-01

    A subset of neurons in the posterior parietal and premotor areas of the primate brain respond to the locations of visual targets in a hand-centred frame of reference. Such hand-centred visual representations are thought to play an important role in visually-guided reaching to target locations in space. In this paper we show how a biologically plausible, Hebbian learning mechanism may account for the development of localized hand-centred representations in a hierarchical neural network model of the primate visual system, VisNet. The hand-centered neurons developed in the model use an invariance learning mechanism known as continuous transformation (CT) learning. In contrast to previous theoretical proposals for the development of hand-centered visual representations, CT learning does not need a memory trace of recent neuronal activity to be incorporated in the synaptic learning rule. Instead, CT learning relies solely on a Hebbian learning rule, which is able to exploit the spatial overlap that naturally occurs between successive images of a hand-object configuration as it is shifted across different retinal locations due to saccades. Our simulations show how individual neurons in the network model can learn to respond selectively to target objects in particular locations with respect to the hand, irrespective of where the hand-object configuration occurs on the retina. The response properties of these hand-centred neurons further generalise to localised receptive fields in the hand-centred space when tested on novel hand-object configurations that have not been explored during training. Indeed, even when the network is trained with target objects presented across a near continuum of locations around the hand during training, the model continues to develop hand-centred neurons with localised receptive fields in hand-centred space. With the help of principal component analysis, we provide the first theoretical framework that explains the behavior of Hebbian learning

  14. Hebbian learning of hand-centred representations in a hierarchical neural network model of the primate visual system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Born, Jannis; Stringer, Simon M.

    2017-01-01

    A subset of neurons in the posterior parietal and premotor areas of the primate brain respond to the locations of visual targets in a hand-centred frame of reference. Such hand-centred visual representations are thought to play an important role in visually-guided reaching to target locations in space. In this paper we show how a biologically plausible, Hebbian learning mechanism may account for the development of localized hand-centred representations in a hierarchical neural network model of the primate visual system, VisNet. The hand-centered neurons developed in the model use an invariance learning mechanism known as continuous transformation (CT) learning. In contrast to previous theoretical proposals for the development of hand-centered visual representations, CT learning does not need a memory trace of recent neuronal activity to be incorporated in the synaptic learning rule. Instead, CT learning relies solely on a Hebbian learning rule, which is able to exploit the spatial overlap that naturally occurs between successive images of a hand-object configuration as it is shifted across different retinal locations due to saccades. Our simulations show how individual neurons in the network model can learn to respond selectively to target objects in particular locations with respect to the hand, irrespective of where the hand-object configuration occurs on the retina. The response properties of these hand-centred neurons further generalise to localised receptive fields in the hand-centred space when tested on novel hand-object configurations that have not been explored during training. Indeed, even when the network is trained with target objects presented across a near continuum of locations around the hand during training, the model continues to develop hand-centred neurons with localised receptive fields in hand-centred space. With the help of principal component analysis, we provide the first theoretical framework that explains the behavior of Hebbian learning

  15. Hebbian learning of hand-centred representations in a hierarchical neural network model of the primate visual system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jannis Born

    Full Text Available A subset of neurons in the posterior parietal and premotor areas of the primate brain respond to the locations of visual targets in a hand-centred frame of reference. Such hand-centred visual representations are thought to play an important role in visually-guided reaching to target locations in space. In this paper we show how a biologically plausible, Hebbian learning mechanism may account for the development of localized hand-centred representations in a hierarchical neural network model of the primate visual system, VisNet. The hand-centered neurons developed in the model use an invariance learning mechanism known as continuous transformation (CT learning. In contrast to previous theoretical proposals for the development of hand-centered visual representations, CT learning does not need a memory trace of recent neuronal activity to be incorporated in the synaptic learning rule. Instead, CT learning relies solely on a Hebbian learning rule, which is able to exploit the spatial overlap that naturally occurs between successive images of a hand-object configuration as it is shifted across different retinal locations due to saccades. Our simulations show how individual neurons in the network model can learn to respond selectively to target objects in particular locations with respect to the hand, irrespective of where the hand-object configuration occurs on the retina. The response properties of these hand-centred neurons further generalise to localised receptive fields in the hand-centred space when tested on novel hand-object configurations that have not been explored during training. Indeed, even when the network is trained with target objects presented across a near continuum of locations around the hand during training, the model continues to develop hand-centred neurons with localised receptive fields in hand-centred space. With the help of principal component analysis, we provide the first theoretical framework that explains the behavior

  16. Objective of the regulatory system for the physical protection of facilities and nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polo, Rolando

    1996-01-01

    During the work that is developed in our country in order to have a regulatory system, recommendation on the issue have been considered. Such recommendation are gathered in the informative regulation 225 rev, 3 of the IAEA and the requirements are collected in the Informative Regulation 274 rev 1 of the IAEA, as well as the good national and international practices

  17. Organic Coasts? Regulatory Challenges of Certifying Integrated Shrimp-Mangrove Production Systems in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Tran Thi Thu; Bush, Simon R.; Mol, Arthur P. J.; van Dijk, Han

    2012-01-01

    The Vietnamese government aims to expand the scale of Naturland certified organic production in integrated shrimp-mangrove farming systems across the coast of Ca Mau province by 2015. In doing so the division between public and private regulation has become blurred. We analyze the government's goal by examining the regulatory challenges of using…

  18. Construction of an integrated gene regulatory network link to stress-related immune system in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behdani, Elham; Bakhtiarizadeh, Mohammad Reza

    2017-10-01

    The immune system is an important biological system that is negatively impacted by stress. This study constructed an integrated regulatory network to enhance our understanding of the regulatory gene network used in the stress-related immune system. Module inference was used to construct modules of co-expressed genes with bovine leukocyte RNA-Seq data. Transcription factors (TFs) were then assigned to these modules using Lemon-Tree algorithms. In addition, the TFs assigned to each module were confirmed using the promoter analysis and protein-protein interactions data. Therefore, our integrated method identified three TFs which include one TF that is previously known to be involved in immune response (MYBL2) and two TFs (E2F8 and FOXS1) that had not been recognized previously and were identified for the first time in this study as novel regulatory candidates in immune response. This study provides valuable insights on the regulatory programs of genes involved in the stress-related immune system.

  19. Legitimacy challenges of intermediary gatekeeping in the Chinese internet regulatory system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wei, Lulu

    2018-01-01

    Legitimacy Challenges of Intermediary Gatekeeping in the Chinese Internet Regulatory System In the Chinese legal and political framework, in order for the government to maintain control over information posted on social media platforms, commercial internet intermediaries are assigned the role of

  20. Transmutations across hierarchical levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neill, R.V.

    1977-01-01

    The development of large-scale ecological models depends implicitly on a concept known as hierarchy theory which views biological systems in a series of hierarchical levels (i.e., organism, population, trophic level, ecosystem). The theory states that an explanation of a biological phenomenon is provided when it is shown to be the consequence of the activities of the system's components, which are themselves systems in the next lower level of the hierarchy. Thus, the behavior of a population is explained by the behavior of the organisms in the population. The initial step in any modeling project is, therefore, to identify the system components and the interactions between them. A series of examples of transmutations in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems are presented to show how and why changes occur. The types of changes are summarized and possible implications of transmutation for hierarchy theory, for the modeler, and for the ecological theoretician are discussed

  1. The regulatory control of radiation sources in Australia -- The challenges of a federal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loy, J.; Colgan, P.

    2001-01-01

    The report refers to the challenges that Australia is facing, as a federal nation having a Commonwealth Government and six States and two territories, in establishing appropriate regulatory control of radiation sources. Information on the national inventory of radiation sources and existing regulatory infrastructure, including the system of notification, registration, licensing, inspection and enforcement, is explained in the report. The national provisions for the management of disused sources; the planning, preparedness and response to abnormal events and emergencies; the recovery of control over orphan sources; and education and training; are specifically emphasized. (author)

  2. Information system of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farber, G.

    1982-09-01

    On the basis of legal regulations the U.S. NRC maintain a far-reaching information system by means of which their documents are easily made available to the interested public. The essential parts of the information system are - the central Public Document Room in Washington, D.C., - the National Technical Information Center in the Department of Commerce, - the co-operation with the Government Printing Office, - the Nuclear Safety Information Center in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and - the National Energy Software Center in the Argonne National Laboratory. Via these facilities the NRC provide all interested institutions with information on the activities in connection with their statutory tasks. Accordingly numerous documents concerning of approval and monitoring of nuclear facilities as well as the use, transport and storage of fissionable material, are granted for perusion. (orig.) [de

  3. The Regulatory Review Process in South Africa: Challenges and Opportunities for a New Improved System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyter, Andrea; Gouws, Joey; Salek, Sam; Walker, Stuart

    2018-01-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the regulatory review process in South Africa from 2015 to 2017, identify the key milestones and timelines; evaluate the effectiveness of measures to ensure consistency, transparency, timeliness, and predictability in the review process; and to provide recommendations for enhanced regulatory practices. A questionnaire was completed by the Medicines Control Council (MCC) to describe the organization of the authority, record key milestones and timelines in the review process and to identify good review practices (GRevPs). Currently, the MCC conducts a full assessment of quality, efficacy, and safety data in the review of all applications. The overall regulatory median approval time decreased by 14% in 2017 (1411 calendar days) compared with that of 2016, despite the 27% increase in the number of applications. However, the MCC has no target for overall approval time of new active substance applications and no targets for key review milestones. Guidelines, standard operating procedures, and review templates are in place, while the formal implementation of GRevPs and the application of an electronic document management system are planned for the near future. As the MCC transitions to the newly established South Africa Health Products Regulatory Authority, it would be crucial for the authority to recognize the opportunities for an enhanced regulatory review and should consider models such as abridged assessment, which encompass elements of risk stratification and reliance. It is hoped that resource constraints may then be alleviated and capacity developed to meet target timelines.

  4. Biological data warehousing system for identifying transcriptional regulatory sites from gene expressions of microarray data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsou, Ann-Ping; Sun, Yi-Ming; Liu, Chia-Lin; Huang, Hsien-Da; Horng, Jorng-Tzong; Tsai, Meng-Feng; Liu, Baw-Juine

    2006-07-01

    Identification of transcriptional regulatory sites plays an important role in the investigation of gene regulation. For this propose, we designed and implemented a data warehouse to integrate multiple heterogeneous biological data sources with data types such as text-file, XML, image, MySQL database model, and Oracle database model. The utility of the biological data warehouse in predicting transcriptional regulatory sites of coregulated genes was explored using a synexpression group derived from a microarray study. Both of the binding sites of known transcription factors and predicted over-represented (OR) oligonucleotides were demonstrated for the gene group. The potential biological roles of both known nucleotides and one OR nucleotide were demonstrated using bioassays. Therefore, the results from the wet-lab experiments reinforce the power and utility of the data warehouse as an approach to the genome-wide search for important transcription regulatory elements that are the key to many complex biological systems.

  5. International nuclear safety experts complete IAEA peer review of German regulatory system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Full text: An international expert team has today completed a two-week IAEA review of Germany's nuclear regulatory system. The team identified good practices within the system and gave advice on some areas for further improvement. The IAEA has conveyed the initial findings to German authorities but the final report will be submitted within two months. At the request of the Government of the Federal Republic of Germany, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) assembled a team of 14 experts to conduct an Integrated Regulatory Review Service (IRRS) mission. This is a peer review based on IAEA Standards. It is not an inspection, nor an audit. The scope of the mission was limited to the safety regulation of nuclear power plants. Experts from Canada, the Czech Republic, Finland, France, Japan, the Netherlands, Republic of Korea, Spain, Switzerland, the UK, the US and from the IAEA took part in the mission, which was conducted from 7 to 19 September in Bonn, Stuttgart and Berlin. The main basis for the review was a well-prepared self-assessment made by the Federal Ministry of Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU) and the Ministry of Environment of the federal state of Baden-Wuerttemberg (UM BW). 'The team members were impressed by the extensive preparation and dedication of the staff both at BMU and UM BW to excellence in nuclear safety,' said Mike Weightman, IRRS Team Leader and Chief Inspector of the UK nuclear regulatory body, the Nuclear Directorate of the Health and Safety Executive. 'We hope the IRRS mission will facilitate further improvements in the safety regulation of nuclear power in Germany and throughout the world.' 'Germany's invitation to undergo such a detailed review is a clear demonstration of its openness and commitment to continuously improve nuclear safety regulation,' said Philippe Jamet, Director of the IAEA's Nuclear Installation Safety Division. Among the particular strengths of BMU and UM BW associated with their

  6. Credit networks and systemic risk of Chinese local financing platforms: Too central or too big to fail?. -based on different credit correlations using hierarchical methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Fang; Chen, Xi

    2016-11-01

    The accelerating accumulation and risk concentration of Chinese local financing platforms debts have attracted wide attention throughout the world. Due to the network of financial exposures among institutions, the failure of several platforms or regions of systemic importance will probably trigger systemic risk and destabilize the financial system. However, the complex network of credit relationships in Chinese local financing platforms at the state level remains unknown. To fill this gap, we presented the first complex networks and hierarchical cluster analysis of the credit market of Chinese local financing platforms using the ;bottom up; method from firm-level data. Based on balance-sheet channel, we analyzed the topology and taxonomy by applying the analysis paradigm of subdominant ultra-metric space to an empirical data in 2013. It is remarked that we chose to extract the network of co-financed financing platforms in order to evaluate the effect of risk contagion from platforms to bank system. We used the new credit similarity measure by combining the factor of connectivity and size, to extract minimal spanning trees (MSTs) and hierarchical trees (HTs). We found that: (1) the degree distributions of credit correlation backbone structure of Chinese local financing platforms are fat tailed, and the structure is unstable with respect to targeted failures; (2) the backbone is highly hierarchical, and largely explained by the geographic region; (3) the credit correlation backbone structure based on connectivity and size is significantly heterogeneous; (4) key platforms and regions of systemic importance, and contagion path of systemic risk are obtained, which are contributed to preventing systemic risk and regional risk of Chinese local financing platforms and preserving financial stability under the framework of macro prudential supervision. Our approach of credit similarity measure provides a means of recognizing ;systemically important; institutions and regions

  7. Development of regulatory guidance for risk-informing digital system reviews

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arndt, S. A.

    2006-01-01

    In 1995, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) issued the Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) Policy Statement, which encourages the increased use of PRA and associated analyses in all regulatory matters to the extent supported by the state-of-the-art in PRA and the data. This policy applies, in part, to the review of digital systems, which offer the potential to improve plant safety and reliability through such features as increased hardware reliability and stability and improved failure detection capability. However, there are presently no universally accepted methods for modeling digital systems in current-generation PRAs. Further, there are ongoing debates among the PRA technical community regarding the level of detail that any digital system reliability model must have to adequately model the complex system interactions that can contribute to digital system failure modes. Moreover, for PRA modeling of digital reactor protection and control systems, direct interactions between system components and indirect interactions through controlled/supervised plant processes may necessitate the use of dynamic PRA methodologies. This situation has led the NRC to consider developing performance based rather than prescriptive regulatory guidance in this area. This paper will discuss the development of this guidance and some preliminary concepts. (authors)

  8. Recent Status of Indonesian Nuclear Regulatory System Development in Responding the Results of IRRS Mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pramono, Y.

    2016-01-01

    BAPETEN as Nuclear Energy Regulatory Agency of Indonesia faces challenges in performing its tasks for assuring the safety, security, and safeguards in nuclear energy utilization through the regulatory system. Based on the recent IRRS mission to Indonesia, hosted by BAPETEN, several recommendations and suggestions shall require special attention to provide strategic action plans in following them up. Some of the recommendations include the necessity of the Government to develop and document a national policy and strategy for safety, to provide BAPETEN with human and financial resources to ensure adequate discharge of its statutory regulatory obligations, to ensure that prime responsibility of safety is assigned to the person or organization responsible for a facility or an activity through the legal framework, to ensure appropriate coordination and liaison between BAPETEN and other relevant authorities in the areas of medical application of radiation and transport of radioactive material. The suggestions cover, among others, the need of having a graded approach policy in implementing all regulatory functions, clarifying the responsibility of the individual reporting on the performance of the management system to senior management, establishing procedures for assessing the safety and appropriateness of the working environment and enhancing the implementation of self-assessments by including safety culture aspects. As part of the action plans, BAPETEN is currently drafting the national policy and strategy on nuclear and radiation safety. Furthermore, BAPETEN is revising the existing act on nuclear energy in order to assign the prime responsibility of safety to be borne by the licensees, to ensure the adequacy of its human and financial resources, and to provide clearer distinction of responsibilities between BAPETEN and other relevant authorities in the areas of medical application of radiation and transport of radioactive material. To counter the issue on

  9. Systemic Approach to Safety from a Regulatory Perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edland, A.

    2016-01-01

    In Sweden and especially in the Swedish oversight of nuclear power plants there has been a strong commitment to the interactions between Man-Technology-Organization (MTO) for many years. Safety issues and the importance of working with these issues have often been highlighted in specific oversight actions. Since 30 years there has been a tradition and a development of experience in Sweden taking a systemic MTO approach to safety. Inspection teams have been created with both psychologists and technical expertise in order to cover the whole MTO perspective during oversight inspections at the nuclear power plants. Safety is based on preventive actions where both technology and human behaviour are taken into account. To do this, it is important to have knowledge about the different factors that influence the performance of individuals, groups and organizations. However, it is also important to remember to not only discuss humans, management and organizations in terms of their limitations, errors and shortcomings but also in terms of their strengths in stopping a chain of events, in learning, inventing and improving. Having an integrated view of safety, focussing on the relations between human, technology and organization (MTO) refers to a systemic perspective on how radiation safety are affected by the relationship between: Human’s abilities and limitations; Technical equipment and the surrounding environment; The organization and the opportunities this provides. The Section of Man-Technology-Organization in the Swedish authority consist today of 12 Human factors specialists with behaviour science education. The section is responsible for the oversight at nuclear power plants in many areas; safety management, leadership and organization, safety culture, competence assurance, fitness for duty, suitability, education and staffing, knowledge management, working conditions, MTO perspective/ergonomics of control room work and plant modification, incident analysis and risk

  10. Distributed Solar PV for Electricity System Resiliency: Policy and Regulatory Considerations (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-11-01

    Distributed Solar PV systems have the potential of increasing the grid's resiliency to unforeseen events, such as extreme weather events and attacks. This paper presents the role that distributed PV can play in electric grid resiliency, introduces basic system design requirements and options, and discusses the regulatory and policy options for supporting the use of distributed PV for the purpose of increased electricity resiliency.

  11. Regulatory use the classification security systems of I and C in VVER type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilizastegui Perez, F.

    1998-01-01

    Presently work the author proposes a classification to the system I and C to the VVER 440 type reactor in categories the regulatory control with a view to establishing the degree to the attention that the regulator should pay to these systems, leaving the importance that have the same ones for the security the installation, during the execution the works that are carried out with this equipment in the stages construction, setting in service and exploitation

  12. Hierarchical high-pressure hydraulic system for a continuously variable transmission; Mudan hensokuki no kaisoshiki koyuatsu system no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tominaga, M; Wakahara, T; Hiraoka, Y; Ishimori, Y [Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    A belt CVT system requires a large oil flow during shifts compared with a conventional automatic transmission. And the hydraulic pressure is higher for high-powered engines. As a result the oil pump is bigger and efficiency is lower(fuel consumption is higher). This system develops high pressure in three stages first reducing the hydraulic control system so that a small oil pump is attained. 8 figs.

  13. The regulatory function of self-esteem: testing the epistemic and acceptance signaling systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinson, Danu Anthony; Logel, Christine; Holmes, John G; Wood, Joanne V; Forest, Amanda L; Gaucher, Danielle; Fitzsimons, Grainné M; Kath, Jennifer

    2010-12-01

    The authors draw on sociometer theory (e.g., Leary, 2004) and self-verification theory (e.g., Swann, 1997) to propose an expanded model of the regulatory function of self-esteem. The model suggests that people not only possess an acceptance signaling system that indicates whether relational value is high or low but also possess an epistemic signaling system that indicates whether social feedback is consistent or inconsistent with chronic perceived relational value (i.e., global self-esteem). One correlational study and 5 experiments, with diverse operationalizations of social feedback, demonstrated that the epistemic signaling system responds to self-esteem consistent or inconsistent relational-value feedback with increases or deceases in epistemic certainty. Moreover, Studies 3-6 demonstrated that the acceptance and epistemic signaling systems respond uniquely to social feedback. Finally, Studies 5 and 6 provide evidence that the epistemic signaling system is part of a broader self-regulatory system: Self-esteem inconsistent feedback caused cognitive efforts to decrease the discrepancy between self-views and feedback and caused depleted self-regulatory capacity on a subsequent self-control task. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. Adaptive hierarchical multi-agent organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghijsen, M.; Jansweijer, W.N.H.; Wielinga, B.J.; Babuška, R.; Groen, F.C.A.

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter, we discuss the design of adaptive hierarchical organizations for multi-agent systems (MAS). Hierarchical organizations have a number of advantages such as their ability to handle complex problems and their scalability to large organizations. By introducing adaptivity in the

  15. Biased trapping issue on weighted hierarchical networks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    archical networks which are based on the classic scale-free hierarchical networks. ... Weighted hierarchical networks; weight-dependent walks; mean first passage ..... The weighted networks can mimic some real-world natural and social systems to ... the Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education ...

  16. Studies on the formation of hierarchical zeolite T aggregates with well-defined morphology in different template systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xiaoyan; Chu, Naibo; Lu, Xuewei; Li, Zhongfang; Guo, Hong

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the disk-like and pumpkin-like hierarchical zeolite T aggregates consisted of primary nano-grains have been hydrothermally synthesized with and without the aid of the second template. The first template is used with tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAOH) and the second template is used with triethanolamine (TEA) or polyving akohol (PVA). A combination of characterization techniques, including XRD, SEM, TEM and N2 adsorption-desorption to examine the crystal crystallinity, morphology and surface properties of hierarchical zeolite T aggregates. In the single-template preparation process, the two-step varying-temperature treatment has been used to improve the meso-porosity of zeolite T aggregates. In the double-template preparation process, the amounts of PVA or TEA on the crystallinity, morphology and meso-porosity of zeolite T aggregates have been studied. It has been proved that the interstitial voids between the primary grains of aggregates are the origin of additional mesopores of samples. The micro- and meso-porosities of samples prepared with and without the second template have been contrasted in detail at last. In particular, the sample synthesized with the addition of PVA presents a hierarchical pore structure with the highest Sext value of 122 m2/g and Vmeso value of 0.255 cm3/g.

  17. International nuclear safety experts conclude IAEA peer review of China's regulatory system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Full text: An international team of senior experts on nuclear safety regulation today completed a two-week International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) review of the governmental and regulatory framework for nuclear safety in the People's Republic of China. The team identified good practices within the system and gave advice on areas for future improvements. The IAEA has conveyed the team's main conclusions to the Government of the People's Republic of China. The final report will be submitted to China by Autumn 2010. At the request of Chinese authorities, the IAEA assembled a team of 22 experts to conduct an Integrated Regulatory Review Service (IRRS) mission. This mission is a peer review based on the IAEA Safety Standards . It is not an inspection, nor an audit. The experts came from 15 different countries: Australia, Canada, the Czech Republic, Finland, France, Hungary, Japan, Pakistan, the Republic of Korea, Slovenia, South Africa, Sweden, the United Kingdom, Ukraine and the United States. Mike Weightman, the United Kingdom's Head of Nuclear Directorate, HSE and HM Chief Inspector of Nuclear Installations said: ''I was honoured and pleased to lead such a team of senior regulatory experts from around the world, and I was impressed by their commitment, experience and hard work to provide their best advice possible. We had very constructive interactions with the Chinese authority to maximize the beneficial impact of the mission.'' The scope of the mission included the regulation of nuclear and radiation safety of the facilities and activities regulated by the Ministry of Environmental Protection (MEP) National Nuclear Safety Administration (NNSA). The mission was conducted from 18 to 30 July, mainly in Beijing. To observe Chinese regulatory activities, the IRRS team visited several nuclear facilities, including a nuclear power plant, a manufacturer of safety components for nuclear power plants, a research reactor, a fuel cycle facility, a waste management facility

  18. Nuclear Experts Complete IAEA Follow-up Review of German Regulatory System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Nuclear safety experts concluded a seven-day mission to review the German Regulatory System, conducted from 4-10 September in Bonn, Stuttgart and Berlin. At the request of the Government of the Federal Republic of Germany, the International Atomic Energy Agency assembled a peer-review team of six high-level regulatory experts from six nations (Finland, France, the Netherlands, Switzerland, the UK, the US and three IAEA senior staff members) to conduct a follow-up assessment of an Integrated Regulatory Review Service (IRRS) mission conducted in 2008. This follow-up IRRS mission examined the progress in acting upon the recommendations and suggestions made during the 2008 IRRS mission and reviewed the areas of significant regulatory changes since that review at both the Federal Ministry of Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU) and the Ministry of Environment of the federal state of Baden-Wurttemberg (UM BW). The first mission reviewed Germany's regulatory framework against IAEA Safety Standards and fostered the exchange of information and experience on safety regulation. This is a peer review based on IAEA Standards. It is not an inspection, nor an audit. The scope of the mission was limited to the safety regulation of nuclear power plants. IRRS team leader, Mr. McCree, of the US Nuclear Safety Commission (USNRC), said, ''This was an important IRRS mission, particularly given the recent Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident and the related insights which underscore the importance of having an independent, credible nuclear safety regulator.'' ''The IRRS team identified several strengths of the German nuclear safety regulators, including the prompt and coordinated incident response activities of BMU and UM BW to the Fukushima accident. Some suggestions were also made to further strengthen nuclear safety regulations concerning the future work of BMU,'' he said. The review team found that important progress has been made toward

  19. Risk undermined in the bilateral pharmaceutical regulatory system in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui-Po; Wang, Chun-Li

    2018-04-01

    The concept of Pharmacovigilance Planning and Risk Minimization Planning (PVP/RMP), initiated by the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH), addressed an important conceptual change from monitoring the safety of individual medicine to proactively conducting risk prevention for the minimization of medication error. However, the implementation of PVP/RMP is a challenge in societies like Taiwan where irrational medication and co-medication is prevalent. It is even more difficult in Taiwan where two regulatory bodies are governing pharmaceutical affairs, namely Taiwan Food and Drug Administration (TFDA) in charge of Western Medicine (WM) and the Department of Chinese Medicine and Pharmacy (DCMP) in charge of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). There are thus dual-tract drug approval panels, two GMP controls and two independent adverse drug event reporting systems. This rendered irrational co-medication of WM and TCM undetectable and the standard tools for monitoring pharmacovigilance inapplicable. The bilateral regulatory system is conceptually unscientific in accordance with PVP/RMP and unethical from humanity point of view. The first part of this review delivers (1) social aspects of polypharmacy in Taiwan; (2) regulatory aspects of pharmaceutical administration; (3) risks undermined in the bilateral regulatory system and (4) pharmacoepidemiology in relation to the risk of polypharmacy. As evidence-based medicine (EBM) forms the fundamental risk-benefit assessment on medication, the second part of this review delivers (1) the scientific aspects of the beauty and the odds of biological system that governs host-xenobiotics interaction; (2) conceptual evolution from product management (pharmacovigilance) to risk management (PVP/RMP); (3) non-biased due process is essential for risk-benefit assessment on medicinal products and (4) the opinion of the authors on system building for safe medication. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Preparation of safety regulatory requirements for new technology like digital system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    The current regulatory requirements on digital instrumentation and control system have been reviewed by JNES, considering international trend discussed in DICWG of MDEP. MDEP DICWG held in OECD/NEA gives the opportunity to identify the convergence of applicable standards. The working group's activities include: identifying and prioritising the member countries' challenges, practices, and needs regarding standards and regulatory guidance on digital instrumentation and control; identifying areas of importance and needs for convergence of existing standards and guidance or development of new standards; sharing of information; and identifying common positions among the member countries for areas of particular importance and need. The DICWG drafted common positions on specific issues which are based on the existing standards, national regulatory guidance, best practices, and group inputs using an agreed process and framework. The following four general common positions have been discussed in this fiscal year. The Treatment of Common Cause Failure Resulting from Software within Digital Safety Systems, The Treatment of Hardware Description Language(HDL) Programmed Devices for Use in Nuclear Safety System, Factory Acceptance Test and Site Acceptance Test, The Use of Automatic Tests to Perform Surveilance for Digital Systems. (author)

  1. International Nuclear and Radiation Safety Experts Conclude IAEA Peer Review of Slovenia's Regulatory System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Full text: An international team of senior nuclear safety experts today concluded a 10-day mission to review the regulatory framework for nuclear and radiation safety in Slovenia. The team identified good practices and gave advice on areas for future improvements. The IAEA has conveyed the team's main conclusions to the Government of Slovenia and a final report will be submitted by the end of 2011. At the request of the Slovenian Government, the IAEA assembled a team of 10 senior regulatory experts from nine nations to conduct the Integrated Regulatory Review Service (IRRS) mission involving the Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration (SNSA). The mission is a peer review based on the IAEA Safety Standards. Andrej Stritar, Director of Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration, stressed ''how important it is for a small country like Slovenia to tightly follow international standards in the area of nuclear safety.'' He also expressed his gratitude to the IAEA, and the countries from which team members came, for their support and for their intensive work during the last ten days. Mission Team Leader Colin Patchett, Deputy Chief Inspector from the UK's Office for Nuclear Regulation commended ''the Slovenian authorities for their commitment to nuclear and radiation safety regulation and for sharing their experience.'' The IRRS team reviewed Slovenia's current regulatory framework and all SNSA-regulated facilities and activities, as well as the regulatory implications of the TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi accident. The IRRS team identified particular strengths in the Slovenian regulatory system, including: Through its legal framework, the Slovenian government has appointed SNSA to regulate its nuclear safety program and SNSA has in place an effective process for carrying out this responsibility; and Slovenia's response to the accident at the TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi power plant has been prompt and effective. Communications with the public, development of actions for improvement

  2. A balance of activity in brain control and reward systems predicts self-regulatory outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez, Richard B.; Chen, Pin-Hao A.; Huckins, Jeremy F.; Hofmann, Wilhelm; Kelley, William M.; Heatherton, Todd F.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Previous neuroimaging work has shown that increased reward-related activity following exposure to food cues is predictive of self-control failure. The balance model suggests that self-regulation failures result from an imbalance in reward and executive control mechanisms. However, an open question is whether the relative balance of activity in brain systems associated with executive control (vs reward) supports self-regulatory outcomes when people encounter tempting cues in daily lif...

  3. Multiple regulatory systems coordinate DNA replication with cell growth in Bacillus subtilis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heath Murray

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In many bacteria the rate of DNA replication is linked with cellular physiology to ensure that genome duplication is coordinated with growth. Nutrient-mediated growth rate control of DNA replication initiation has been appreciated for decades, however the mechanism(s that connects these cell cycle activities has eluded understanding. In order to help address this fundamental question we have investigated regulation of DNA replication in the model organism Bacillus subtilis. Contrary to the prevailing view we find that changes in DnaA protein level are not sufficient to account for nutrient-mediated growth rate control of DNA replication initiation, although this regulation does require both DnaA and the endogenous replication origin. We go on to report connections between DNA replication and several essential cellular activities required for rapid bacterial growth, including respiration, central carbon metabolism, fatty acid synthesis, phospholipid synthesis, and protein synthesis. Unexpectedly, the results indicate that multiple regulatory systems are involved in coordinating DNA replication with cell physiology, with some of the regulatory systems targeting oriC while others act in a oriC-independent manner. We propose that distinct regulatory systems are utilized to control DNA replication in response to diverse physiological and chemical changes.

  4. Preparation of safety regulatory requirements for new technology like digital system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Juichiro; Takita, Masami

    2011-01-01

    The current regulatory requirements on digital instrumentation and control system have been reviewed by JNES, considering international trend discussed in DICWG (Digital Instrumentation and Control Working Group) of MDEP (Multinational Design Evaluation Program). MDEP DICWG held in OECD/NEA (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development/Nuclear Energy Agency) gives the opportunity to identify the convergence of applicable standards. The working group's activities include: identifying and prioritising the member countries' challenges, practices, and needs regarding standards and regulatory guidance regarding digital instrumentation and control; identifying areas of importance and needs for convergence of existing standards and guidance or development of new standards; sharing of information; and identifying common positions among the member countries for areas of particular importance and need. The DICWG drafted common positions on specific issues which are based on the existing standards, national regulatory guidance, best practices, and group inputs using an agreed upon process and framework. Five general common positions are under discussion in this fiscal year. Simplicity in Design, Software Common Cause Failures, Software Tools, Data communication, Verification and Validation throughout the life cycle of safety systems using digital computers. In addition, the technical evaluation of standards of the Japan Electric Association about digital system for safety was made to support NISA (Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency). (author)

  5. Multiple regulatory systems coordinate DNA replication with cell growth in Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Heath; Koh, Alan

    2014-10-01

    In many bacteria the rate of DNA replication is linked with cellular physiology to ensure that genome duplication is coordinated with growth. Nutrient-mediated growth rate control of DNA replication initiation has been appreciated for decades, however the mechanism(s) that connects these cell cycle activities has eluded understanding. In order to help address this fundamental question we have investigated regulation of DNA replication in the model organism Bacillus subtilis. Contrary to the prevailing view we find that changes in DnaA protein level are not sufficient to account for nutrient-mediated growth rate control of DNA replication initiation, although this regulation does require both DnaA and the endogenous replication origin. We go on to report connections between DNA replication and several essential cellular activities required for rapid bacterial growth, including respiration, central carbon metabolism, fatty acid synthesis, phospholipid synthesis, and protein synthesis. Unexpectedly, the results indicate that multiple regulatory systems are involved in coordinating DNA replication with cell physiology, with some of the regulatory systems targeting oriC while others act in a oriC-independent manner. We propose that distinct regulatory systems are utilized to control DNA replication in response to diverse physiological and chemical changes.

  6. Multiple Regulatory Systems Coordinate DNA Replication with Cell Growth in Bacillus subtilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Heath; Koh, Alan

    2014-01-01

    In many bacteria the rate of DNA replication is linked with cellular physiology to ensure that genome duplication is coordinated with growth. Nutrient-mediated growth rate control of DNA replication initiation has been appreciated for decades, however the mechanism(s) that connects these cell cycle activities has eluded understanding. In order to help address this fundamental question we have investigated regulation of DNA replication in the model organism Bacillus subtilis. Contrary to the prevailing view we find that changes in DnaA protein level are not sufficient to account for nutrient-mediated growth rate control of DNA replication initiation, although this regulation does require both DnaA and the endogenous replication origin. We go on to report connections between DNA replication and several essential cellular activities required for rapid bacterial growth, including respiration, central carbon metabolism, fatty acid synthesis, phospholipid synthesis, and protein synthesis. Unexpectedly, the results indicate that multiple regulatory systems are involved in coordinating DNA replication with cell physiology, with some of the regulatory systems targeting oriC while others act in a oriC-independent manner. We propose that distinct regulatory systems are utilized to control DNA replication in response to diverse physiological and chemical changes. PMID:25340815

  7. Preparation of safety regulatory requirements for new technology like digital system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The current regulatory requirements on digital instrumentation and control system have been reviewed by JNES, considering international trend discussed in DICWG of MDEP. MDEP DICWG held in OECD/NEA gives the opportunity to identify the convergence of applicable standards. The working group's activities include: identifying and prioritising the member countries' challenges, practices, and needs regarding standards and regulatory guidance on digital instrumentation and control; identifying areas of importance and needs for convergence of existing standards and guidance or development of new standards; sharing of information; and identifying common positions among the member countries for areas of particular importance and need. The DICWG drafted common positions on specific issues which are based on the existing standards, national regulatory guidance, best practices, and group inputs using an agreed process and framework. The following two general common positions are discussed and to be issued in this fiscal year. Verification and Validation throughout the life cycle of safety systems using digital computers. The Impact of Cyber Security Features on Digital I and C Safety Systems. (author)

  8. Frequency-Division Power Sharing and Hierarchical Control Design for DC Shipboard Microgrids with Hybrid Energy Storage Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jin, Zheming; Meng, Lexuan; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez

    2017-01-01

    Due to the increasing need to reduce the cost and emission of ships, shipboard applications are calling advanced technologies to go onboard. Recently, cleaner power sources (i.e. gas turbines, fuel cell, solar and wind power), energy storage, advanced control and power/energy management......, the operation point of prime movers can be maintained at their optimal area, meanwhile, different energy storages will provide characteristic based response. On the basis of the proposed power sharing method, voltage restoration and power management-level control methods are also introduced to form hierarchical...

  9. Introduction of regulatory guide on cyber security of L and C systems in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Y.; Jeong, C. H.; Kim, D. I.

    2008-01-01

    In the case of unauthorized individuals, systems and entities or process threatening the instrumentation and control systems of nuclear facilities using the intrinsic vulnerabilities of digital based technologies, those systems may lose their own required functions. The loss of required functions of the systems can seriously affect the safety of nuclear facilities. Consequently, digital instrumentation and control systems, which perform functions important to safety, should be designed and operated to respond to cyber threats capitalizing on the vulnerabilities of digital based technologies. To make it possible, the developers and licensees of nuclear facilities should perform appropriate cyber security activities throughout the whole life cycle of digital instrumentation and control systems. Under the goal of securing the safety of nuclear facilities, this paper presents the regulatory on cyber security activities to remove the cyber threats that exploit the vulnerabilities of digital instrumentation and control systems and to mitigate the effect of such threats. Presented regulatory guide includes establishing the cyber security policy and plan, analyzing and classifying the cyber threats and cyber security assessment of digital instrumentation and control systems. (authors)

  10. A comparison of hierarchical cluster analysis and league table rankings as methods for analysis and presentation of district health system performance data in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashobya, Christine K; Dubourg, Dominique; Ssengooba, Freddie; Speybroeck, Niko; Macq, Jean; Criel, Bart

    2016-03-01

    In 2003, the Uganda Ministry of Health introduced the district league table for district health system performance assessment. The league table presents district performance against a number of input, process and output indicators and a composite index to rank districts. This study explores the use of hierarchical cluster analysis for analysing and presenting district health systems performance data and compares this approach with the use of the league table in Uganda. Ministry of Health and district plans and reports, and published documents were used to provide information on the development and utilization of the Uganda district league table. Quantitative data were accessed from the Ministry of Health databases. Statistical analysis using SPSS version 20 and hierarchical cluster analysis, utilizing Wards' method was used. The hierarchical cluster analysis was conducted on the basis of seven clusters determined for each year from 2003 to 2010, ranging from a cluster of good through moderate-to-poor performers. The characteristics and membership of clusters varied from year to year and were determined by the identity and magnitude of performance of the individual variables. Criticisms of the league table include: perceived unfairness, as it did not take into consideration district peculiarities; and being oversummarized and not adequately informative. Clustering organizes the many data points into clusters of similar entities according to an agreed set of indicators and can provide the beginning point for identifying factors behind the observed performance of districts. Although league table ranking emphasize summation and external control, clustering has the potential to encourage a formative, learning approach. More research is required to shed more light on factors behind observed performance of the different clusters. Other countries especially low-income countries that share many similarities with Uganda can learn from these experiences. © The Author 2015

  11. Regulatory Oversight of Safety Culture in Finland: A Systemic Approach to Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oedewald, P.; Väisäsvaara, J.

    2016-01-01

    In Finland the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority STUK specifies detailed regulatory requirements for good safety culture. Both the requirements and the practical safety culture oversight activities reflect a systemic approach to safety: the interconnections between the technical, human and organizational factors receive special attention. The conference paper aims to show how the oversight of safety culture can be integrated into everyday oversight activities. The paper also emphasises that the scope of the safety culture oversight is not specific safety culture activities of the licencees, but rather the overall functioning of the licence holder or the new build project organization from safety point of view. The regulatory approach towards human and organizational factors and safety culture has evolved throughout the years of nuclear energy production in Finland. Especially the recent new build projects have highlighted the need to systematically pay attention to the non-technical aspects of safety as it has become obvious how the HOF issues can affect the design processes and quality of construction work. Current regulatory guides include a set of safety culture related requirements. The requirements are binding to the licence holders and they set both generic and specific demands on the licencee to understand, monitor and to develop safety culture of their own organization but also that of their supplier network. The requirements set for the licence holders has facilitated the need to develop the regulator’s safety culture oversight practices towards a proactive and systemic approach.

  12. Regulatory review and barriers for the electricity supply system for distributed generation in EU-15

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ropenus, Stephanie; Skytte, Klaus

    2005-01-01

    When distributed electricity supply surpasses a particular level, it can no longer be ignored in planning and operation of the electricity networks. Therefore, improvements of the regulatory framework of the electricity networks are required along with the growth of the electricity supply from di...... distributed generation. This paper reviews the current regulation of the grids with respect to distributed generation in EU-15 Member States and compares the different systems. Several barriers are identified.......When distributed electricity supply surpasses a particular level, it can no longer be ignored in planning and operation of the electricity networks. Therefore, improvements of the regulatory framework of the electricity networks are required along with the growth of the electricity supply from...

  13. Problem of two-level hierarchical minimax program control the final state of regional social and economic system in the presence of risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shorikov, A. F.

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses a discrete-time dynamical system consisting of a set a controllable objects (region and forming it municipalities). The dynamics each of these is described by the corresponding vector nonlinear discrete-time recurrent vector equations and its control system consist from two levels: basic (control level I) that is dominating and subordinate level (control level II). Both levels have different criterions of functioning and united a priori by determined informational and control connections defined in advance. In this paper we study the problem of optimization of guaranteed result for program control by the final state of regional social and economic system in the presence of risks. For this problem we proposed in this work an economical and mathematical model of two-level hierarchical minimax program control the final state of regional social and economic system in the presence of risks and the general scheme for its solving

  14. Problem of two-level hierarchical minimax program control the final state of regional social and economic system in the presence of risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shorikov, A. F., E-mail: afshorikov@mail.ru [Ural Federal University, 19 S. Mira, Ekaterinburg, 620002, Russia Institute of Mathematics and Mechanics, Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, 16 S. Kovalevskaya, Ekaterinburg, 620990 (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-30

    This article discusses a discrete-time dynamical system consisting of a set a controllable objects (region and forming it municipalities). The dynamics each of these is described by the corresponding vector nonlinear discrete-time recurrent vector equations and its control system consist from two levels: basic (control level I) that is dominating and subordinate level (control level II). Both levels have different criterions of functioning and united a priori by determined informational and control connections defined in advance. In this paper we study the problem of optimization of guaranteed result for program control by the final state of regional social and economic system in the presence of risks. For this problem we proposed in this work an economical and mathematical model of two-level hierarchical minimax program control the final state of regional social and economic system in the presence of risks and the general scheme for its solving.

  15. Hierarchical analysis of urban space

    OpenAIRE

    Kataeva, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Multi-level structure of urban space, multitude of subjects of its transformation, which follow asymmetric interests, multilevel system of institutions which regulate interaction in the "population business government -public organizations" system, determine the use of hierarchic approach to the analysis of urban space. The article observes theoretical justification of using this approach to study correlations and peculiarities of interaction in urban space as in an intricately organized syst...

  16. Control technologies for soil vapor extraction at petroleum hydrocarbon impacted sites -- Regulatory challenges to system operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cacossa, K.F.; Campbell, G.E.; Devine, K.

    1995-01-01

    Soil vapor extraction (SVE) is frequently used to remediate soils impacted by petroleum hydrocarbons. Four technologies have proven to be viable methods to control the off-gas emissions from SVE systems, namely, internal combustion, thermal oxidation, catalytic oxidation, and granular activated carbon adsorption. The optimal range of influent vapor concentrations for system operation differs for each of the technologies. Over the past several years the authors have worked proactively with the state regulatory community to develop general, all inclusive air pollution control permits which allow for the potential use of all four technologies over the life of the permit. Private industry has similarly worked with the state regulators to develop a less labor intensive sampling/monitoring procedure. Actual system performances, which were monitored using summa canisters and field equipment, provided the basis for the new procedure. System performance data indicated that field sampling with portable hydrocarbon analyzers, such as flame ionization detectors (FID), was preferable over the use of summa canister sampling. In addition, to reduce the costs associated with the analysis of samples, the new SVE monitoring protocol also reduced the number of system monitoring visits. These reductions equated into a cost effective, yet environmentally sound SVE system monitoring programs. Finally, the authors have worked with the regulatory community to establish permit limitations which allow operational flexibility

  17. Waste management strategy for nuclear fusion power systems from a regulatory perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heckman, R.A.

    1977-12-06

    A waste management strategy for future nuclear fusion power systems is developed using existing regulatory methodology. The first step is the development of a reference fuel cycle. Next, the waste streams from such a facility are identified. Then a waste management system is defined to safely handle and dispose of these wastes. The future regulator must identify the decisions necessary to establish waste management performance criteria. The data base and methodologies necessary to make these decisions must then be developed. Safe management of nuclear fusion wastes is not only a technological challenge, but encompasses significant social, political, and ethical questions as well.

  18. Quality Management System Improves Effectiveness and Quality of Activities of Radiation Protection Regulatory Body in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mastauskas, A.

    2016-01-01

    Processes of creation of quality management system (QMS) in regulatory body in radiation protection field – Radiation Protection Centre (RPC) and the benefit of this system to ensure the quality of the performance of functions are described. RPC QMS compliant with ISO 9001:2008 standard and in line with the requirements of the IAEA GSR- 3 document. It allowed achieving a new quality of works carried out by RPC. Because creation and introduction of the QMS is a continuous process, the QMS of RPC is continually renewed and new procedures are developed.

  19. Waste management strategy for nuclear fusion power systems from a regulatory perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heckman, R.A.

    1977-01-01

    A waste management strategy for future nuclear fusion power systems is developed using existing regulatory methodology. The first step is the development of a reference fuel cycle. Next, the waste streams from such a facility are identified. Then a waste management system is defined to safely handle and dispose of these wastes. The future regulator must identify the decisions necessary to establish waste management performance criteria. The data base and methodologies necessary to make these decisions must then be developed. Safe management of nuclear fusion wastes is not only a technological challenge, but encompasses significant social, political, and ethical questions as well

  20. Post-Transcriptional Regulation by the Csr Global Regulatory System in Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    Suzuki, Kazushi; 鈴木, 一史

    2007-01-01

    In many species of bacteria, the Csr (carbon storage regulator) global regulatory system coordinates the expression of various genes. In Escherichia coli, the central component of this system, CsrA, is a RNA-binding protein. The CsrA is a homodimer and binds to leader segments of target mRNAs, affecting their translation and stability. CsrA activity is regulated by two small non-coding RNAs, CsrB and CsrC. These RNAs contain multiple CsrA-binding sequences and act by sequestering CsrA. In thi...

  1. A systems biology approach to construct the gene regulatory network of systemic inflammation via microarray and databases mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Chung-Yu

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inflammation is a hallmark of many human diseases. Elucidating the mechanisms underlying systemic inflammation has long been an important topic in basic and clinical research. When primary pathogenetic events remains unclear due to its immense complexity, construction and analysis of the gene regulatory network of inflammation at times becomes the best way to understand the detrimental effects of disease. However, it is difficult to recognize and evaluate relevant biological processes from the huge quantities of experimental data. It is hence appealing to find an algorithm which can generate a gene regulatory network of systemic inflammation from high-throughput genomic studies of human diseases. Such network will be essential for us to extract valuable information from the complex and chaotic network under diseased conditions. Results In this study, we construct a gene regulatory network of inflammation using data extracted from the Ensembl and JASPAR databases. We also integrate and apply a number of systematic algorithms like cross correlation threshold, maximum likelihood estimation method and Akaike Information Criterion (AIC on time-lapsed microarray data to refine the genome-wide transcriptional regulatory network in response to bacterial endotoxins in the context of dynamic activated genes, which are regulated by transcription factors (TFs such as NF-κB. This systematic approach is used to investigate the stochastic interaction represented by the dynamic leukocyte gene expression profiles of human subject exposed to an inflammatory stimulus (bacterial endotoxin. Based on the kinetic parameters of the dynamic gene regulatory network, we identify important properties (such as susceptibility to infection of the immune system, which may be useful for translational research. Finally, robustness of the inflammatory gene network is also inferred by analyzing the hubs and "weak ties" structures of the gene network

  2. Regulatory perspective on digital instrumentation and control systems for future advanced nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiramal, M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper deals with the question of using digital technology in instrumentation and control systems for modern nuclear power reactors. The general opinion in the industry and among NRC staff is that such technology provides the opportunity for enhanced safety and reliable reactor operations. The major concern is the safe application of this technology so as to avoid common mode or common cause failures in systems. There are great differences between digital and analog system components. SECY-91-292 identifies some general regulatory concerns with regard to digital systems. There is clearly a lack of adequate regulatory direction on the application of digital equipment at this time, but the issue is being addressed by the industry, outside experts, and NRC staff. NRC staff presents a position on the issue of defense-in-depth and diversity with regard to insuring plant safety. Independent manual controls and readouts must be available to allow safe shutdown and monitoring of the plant in the event of safety system failures

  3. Regulatory System for Stem/Progenitor Cell Niches in the Adult Rodent Pituitary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Saishu; Kato, Takako; Kato, Yukio

    2016-01-01

    The anterior lobe of the pituitary gland is a master endocrine tissue composed of five types of endocrine cells. Although the turnover rate of pituitary endocrine cells is as low as about 1.6% per day, recent studies have demonstrated that Sex-determining region Y-box 2 (SOX2)+-cells exist as pituitary stem/progenitor cells in the adult anterior lobe and contribute to cell regeneration. Notably, SOX2+-pituitary stem/progenitor cells form two types of niches in this tissue: the marginal cell layer (MCL-niche) and the dense cell clusters scattering in the parenchyma (parenchymal-niche). However, little is known about the mechanisms and factors for regulating the pituitary stem/progenitor cell niches, as well as the functional differences between the two types of niches. Elucidation of the regulatory mechanisms in the niches might enable us to understand the cell regeneration system that acts in accordance with physiological demands in the adult pituitary. In this review, so as to reveal the regulatory mechanisms of the two types of niche, we summarize the regulatory factors and their roles in the adult rodent pituitary niches by focusing on three components: soluble factors, cell surface proteins and extracellular matrixes. PMID:26761002

  4. Regulatory System for Stem/Progenitor Cell Niches in the Adult Rodent Pituitary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saishu Yoshida

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The anterior lobe of the pituitary gland is a master endocrine tissue composed of five types of endocrine cells. Although the turnover rate of pituitary endocrine cells is as low as about 1.6% per day, recent studies have demonstrated that Sex-determining region Y-box 2 (SOX2+-cells exist as pituitary stem/progenitor cells in the adult anterior lobe and contribute to cell regeneration. Notably, SOX2+-pituitary stem/progenitor cells form two types of niches in this tissue: the marginal cell layer (MCL-niche and the dense cell clusters scattering in the parenchyma (parenchymal-niche. However, little is known about the mechanisms and factors for regulating the pituitary stem/progenitor cell niches, as well as the functional differences between the two types of niches. Elucidation of the regulatory mechanisms in the niches might enable us to understand the cell regeneration system that acts in accordance with physiological demands in the adult pituitary. In this review, so as to reveal the regulatory mechanisms of the two types of niche, we summarize the regulatory factors and their roles in the adult rodent pituitary niches by focusing on three components: soluble factors, cell surface proteins and extracellular matrixes.

  5. Information management systems for integrating the technical data and regulatory requirements of environmental restoration activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geffen, C.A.; Garrett, B.A.; Walter, M.B.

    1990-03-01

    Current environmental regulations require that comprehensive planning be conducted before remediating a hazardous waste site to characterize the nature and extent of site contamination, calculate the risk to the public, and assess the effectiveness of various remediation technologies. Remediation of Department of Energy (DOE) sites contaminated with hazardous or mixed wastes will require the effective integration of scientific and engineering data with regulatory and institutional requirements. The information management challenge presented by waste site cleanup activities goes beyond merely dealing with the large quantity of data that will be generated. The information must be stored, managed, and presented in a way that provides some consistency in approach across sites, avoids duplication of effort, and facilitates responses to requests for information from the regulators and the public. This paper provides background information on the regulatory requirements for data gathering and analysis for environmental restoration activities, and outlines the data and information management requirements for completing the pre-remediation phases of an environmental restoration project. Information management systems for integrating the regulatory and institutional requirements of the environmental restoration process with the technical data and analysis requirements are also described. 7 refs

  6. Key Regulatory Issues for Digital Instrumentation and Control Systems at Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korsah, Kofi; Wood, Richard Thomas

    2008-01-01

    To help reduce the uncertainty associated with application of digital instrumentation and controls (I and C) technology in nuclear power plants, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has issued six Interim Staff Guidance (ISG) documents that address the current regulatory positions on what are considered the significant digital I and C issues. These six documents address the following topics: Cyber Security, Diversity and Defense-in-Depth, Risk Informed Digital I and C Regulation, Communication issues, Human Factors and the Digital I and C Licensing Process (currently issued as Draft). After allowing for further refinement based on additional technical insight gathered by NRC staff through near-term research and detailed review of relevant experience, it is expected that updated positions ultimately will be incorporated into regulatory guides and staff review procedures. This paper presents an overview of the guidance provided by the NRC-issued ISGs on key technology considerations (i.e., the first five documents above) for safety-related digital I and C systems.

  7. Experience and regulatory activities on advanced instrumentation and control systems applied to nuclear power plants in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, B.R.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the status for applying microprocessor-based systems to nuclear power plants in Korea and the regulatory activities performed by Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS). And this presents the development of safety and regulatory technology for advanced I and C systems that has been carried out as a part of the next generation reactor development program in Korea. (author). 3 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  8. Social insect colony as a biological regulatory system: modelling information flow in dominance networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, Anjan K; Sumana, Annagiri; Bhattacharya, Kunal

    2014-12-06

    Social insects provide an excellent platform to investigate flow of information in regulatory systems since their successful social organization is essentially achieved by effective information transfer through complex connectivity patterns among the colony members. Network representation of such behavioural interactions offers a powerful tool for structural as well as dynamical analysis of the underlying regulatory systems. In this paper, we focus on the dominance interaction networks in the tropical social wasp Ropalidia marginata-a species where behavioural observations indicate that such interactions are principally responsible for the transfer of information between individuals about their colony needs, resulting in a regulation of their own activities. Our research reveals that the dominance networks of R. marginata are structurally similar to a class of naturally evolved information processing networks, a fact confirmed also by the predominance of a specific substructure-the 'feed-forward loop'-a key functional component in many other information transfer networks. The dynamical analysis through Boolean modelling confirms that the networks are sufficiently stable under small fluctuations and yet capable of more efficient information transfer compared to their randomized counterparts. Our results suggest the involvement of a common structural design principle in different biological regulatory systems and a possible similarity with respect to the effect of selection on the organization levels of such systems. The findings are also consistent with the hypothesis that dominance behaviour has been shaped by natural selection to co-opt the information transfer process in such social insect species, in addition to its primal function of mediation of reproductive competition in the colony. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  9. Criteria adopted by the Argentine Nuclear Regulatory Authority for assessing digital systems related to safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terrado, Carlos A.; Chiossi, Carlos E.; Felizia, Eduardo R.; Roca, Jose L.; Sajaroff, Pedro M.

    2004-01-01

    Following the technological evolution in Instrumentation and Control (I and C) design, analog components are replaced by digital in almost every industry. Due to growing challenges of obsolescence and increasing maintenance costs, licensees of nuclear and radioactive installations are increasingly upgrading or replacing their existing I and C analog systems and components. In existing installations, this involves analog to digital replacements. In new installations design, the use of digital I and C systems is being considered from the very beginning, becoming a good alternative, even in safety applications. Up to now, in Argentina, there is no specific rules for safety-related digital systems, every safety system, analog or digital, must comply with the same generic regulations. The Nuclear Regulatory Authority is now developing criteria to assess digital systems related to safety in nuclear and radioactive installations. In this paper some of those criteria, based on local research and the recognized state of the art, are explained. From a regulatory point of view, the use of digital technology often raises new technical and licensing issues, particularly for safety-related applications. Examples include new failure modes, the potential for common-cause failure of redundant components, electromagnetic interference (EMI), software verification and validation, configuration management and a more exhaustive quality assurance system. The mentioned criteria comprehend the design, operation, maintenance and acquisition of digital systems and components important to safety. The main topics covered are: requirements specifications for digital systems, planning and documentation for digital system development, effectiveness of a digital system, commercial off the shelf (COTS) treatment and considerations involving tools for software development. (author)

  10. International nuclear safety experts conclude IAEA peer review of Canada's regulatory system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Full text: An international team of nuclear safety experts today completed a two-week IAEA review of the regulatory framework and effectiveness of the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC). The team identified good practices within the system and gave advice on some areas for improvement. The IAEA has conveyed initial findings to Canadian authorities; the final report will be submitted by autumn. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) assembled a team of nuclear, radiation, and waste safety experts at the request of the Government of Canada, to conduct an Integrated Regulatory Review Service (IRRS) mission. The mission from 31 May to 12 June was a peer review based on IAEA Standards, not an inspection, nor an audit. The scope of the mission included sources, facilities and activities regulated by the CNSC: the operation of nuclear power plants (NPPs), research reactors and fuel cycle facilities; the refurbishment or licensing of new NPPs; uranium mining; radiation protection and environmental protection programmes; and the implementation of IAEA Code of Conduct on Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources. The 21-member team from 13 IAEA States and from the IAEA itself reviewed CNSC's work in all relevant areas: legislative and governmental responsibilities; responsibilities and functions; organization; activities of the regulatory body, including the authorization process, review and assessment, inspection and enforcement, the development of regulations, as well as guides and its the management system of CNSC. The basis for the review was a well-prepared self-assessment by the CNSC, including an evolution of its strengths and proposed actions to improve its regulatory effectiveness. Mr. Shojiro Matsuura, IRRS Team Leader and President of the Japanese Nuclear Safety Research Association, said the team 'was impressed by the extensive preparation at all CNSC staff levels.' 'We identified a number of good practices and made recommendations and suggestions

  11. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and calcium-regulatory hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, A; Brown, J M; Williams, J S

    2015-09-01

    There is increasing evidence of a clinically relevant interplay between the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and calcium-regulatory systems. Classically, the former is considered a key regulator of sodium and volume homeostasis, while the latter is most often associated with skeletal health. However, emerging evidence suggests an overlap in regulatory control. Hyperaldosteronism and hyperparathyroidism represent pathophysiologic conditions that may contribute to or perpetuate each other; aldosterone regulates parathyroid hormone and associates with adverse skeletal complications, and parathyroid hormone regulates aldosterone and associates with adverse cardiovascular complications. As dysregulation in both systems is linked to poor cardiovascular and skeletal health, it is increasingly important to fully characterize how they interact to more precisely understand their impact on human health and potential therapies to modulate these interactions. This review describes the known clinical interactions between these two systems including observational and interventional studies. Specifically, we review studies describing the inhibition of renin activity by calcium and vitamin D, and a potentially bidirectional and stimulatory relationship between aldosterone and parathyroid hormone. Deciphering these relationships might clarify variability in outcomes research, inform the design of future intervention studies and provide insight into the results of prior and ongoing intervention studies. However, before these opportunities can be addressed, more effort must be placed on shifting observational data to the proof of concept phase. This will require reallocation of resources to conduct interventional studies and secure the necessary talent.

  12. State Electricity Regulatory Policy and Distributed Resources: Distributed Resources and Electric System Reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowart, R.; Harrington, C.; Moskovitz, D.; Shirley, W.; Weston, F.; Sedano, R.

    2002-10-01

    Designing and implementing credit-based pilot programs for distributed resources distribution is a low-cost, low-risk opportunity to find out how these resources can help defer or avoid costly electric power system (utility grid) distribution upgrades. This report describes implementation options for deaveraged distribution credits and distributed resource development zones. Developing workable programs implementing these policies can dramatically increase the deployment of distributed resources in ways that benefit distributed resource vendors, users, and distribution utilities. This report is one in the State Electricity Regulatory Policy and Distributed Resources series developed under contract to NREL (see Annual Technical Status Report of the Regulatory Assistance Project: September 2000-September 2001, NREL/SR-560-32733). Other titles in this series are: (1) Accommodating Distributed Resources in Wholesale Markets, NREL/SR-560-32497; (2) Distributed Resources and Electric System Re liability, NREL/SR-560-32498; (3) Distribution System Cost Methodologies for Distributed Generation, NREL/SR-560-32500; (4) Distribution System Cost Methodologies for Distributed Generation Appendices, NREL/SR-560-32501.

  13. Energy Projects, Social Licence, Public Acceptance and Regulatory Systems in Canada: A White Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Colton

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available It has become increasingly difficult in Canada to gain and sustain public acceptance of energy projects. Increased levels of protest, combined with traditional media and social media coverage of opposition, combine to suggest decreased public acceptance of energy projects. Decision-makers have responded accordingly, and a variety of energy projects have either been delayed or put on hold indefinitely. This is true for both conventional and renewable energy projects and in many different regions across the country. A number of proposed energy projects have recently faced opposition from various stakeholder groups. For instance, the decision of the Joint Review Panel for the Northern Gateway Pipeline is being challenged in Canada’s court system. First Nations groups have issued an ultimatum to the Federal Government that it must choose between Site C (a proposed hydro dam and liquefied natural gas development in B.C. Rapid expansion of wind energy projects in Ontario has engendered lengthy and costly appeals and the rise of an anti-wind social movement. In Nova Scotia, tidal energy development is being positioned as a new renewable energy option; gaining public acceptance is critical in light of recent opposition to wind energy development. As these experiences suggest, not only has the regulatory process become more contentious, but also an apparently new concept — social licence — has had popular appeal. This white paper reports on the results of a year-long interdisciplinary collaboration aimed at identifying and summarizing extant research regarding social licence and related concepts, with a particular emphasis on understanding its implications for public acceptance of energy projects in Canada, and their related regulatory processes. In particular, this research addressed the following questions: 1. What is the history and scope of the term ‘social licence’, both in the context of energy project development and more generally? What

  14. Construction and development of an auto-regulatory gene expression system in Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Chengran; Cui, Wenjing; Cheng, Jintao; Zhou, Li; Guo, Junling; Hu, Xu; Xiao, Guoping; Zhou, Zhemin

    2015-09-21

    Bacillus subtilis is an all-important Gram-positive bacterium of valuable biotechnological utility that has been widely used to over-produce industrially and pharmaceutically relevant proteins. There are a variety of expression systems in terms of types of transcriptional patterns, among which the auto-inducible and growth-phase-dependent promoters are gaining increasing favor due to their inducer-independent feature, allowing for the potential to industrially scale-up. To expand the applicability of the auto-inducible expression system, a novel auto-regulatory expression system coupled with cell density was constructed and developed in B. subtilis using the quorum-sensing related promoter srfA (PsrfA). The promoter of the srf operon was used to construct an expression plasmid with the green fluorescent protein (GFP) downstream of PsrfA. The expression displayed a cell-density-dependent pattern in that GFP had a fairly low expression level at the early exponential stage and was highly expressed at the late exponential as well as the stationary stages. Moreover, the recombinant system had a similar expression pattern in wild-type B. subtilis 168, WB600, and WB800, as well as in B. subtilis 168 derivative strain 1681, with the complete deletion of PsrfA, indicating the excellent compatibility of this system. Noticeably, the expression strength of PsrfA was enhanced by optimizing the -10 and -35 core sequence by substituting both sequences with consensus sequences. Importantly, the expression pattern was successfully developed in an auto-regulatory cell-density coupling system by the simple addition of glucose in which GFP could not be strongly expressed until glucose was depleted, resulting in a greater amount of the GFP product and increased cell density. The expression system was eventually tested by the successful over-production of aminopeptidase to a desired level. The auto-regulatory cell density coupling system that is mediated by PsrfA is a novel expression

  15. Modular and coordinated expression of immune system regulatory and signaling components in the developing and adult nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monzón-Sandoval, Jimena; Castillo-Morales, Atahualpa; Crampton, Sean; McKelvey, Laura; Nolan, Aoife; O'Keeffe, Gerard; Gutierrez, Humberto

    2015-01-01

    During development, the nervous system (NS) is assembled and sculpted through a concerted series of neurodevelopmental events orchestrated by a complex genetic programme. While neural-specific gene expression plays a critical part in this process, in recent years, a number of immune-related signaling and regulatory components have also been shown to play key physiological roles in the developing and adult NS. While the involvement of individual immune-related signaling components in neural functions may reflect their ubiquitous character, it may also reflect a much wider, as yet undescribed, genetic network of immune-related molecules acting as an intrinsic component of the neural-specific regulatory machinery that ultimately shapes the NS. In order to gain insights into the scale and wider functional organization of immune-related genetic networks in the NS, we examined the large scale pattern of expression of these genes in the brain. Our results show a highly significant correlated expression and transcriptional clustering among immune-related genes in the developing and adult brain, and this correlation was the highest in the brain when compared to muscle, liver, kidney and endothelial cells. We experimentally tested the regulatory clustering of immune system (IS) genes by using microarray expression profiling in cultures of dissociated neurons stimulated with the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-alpha, and found a highly significant enrichment of immune system-related genes among the resulting differentially expressed genes. Our findings strongly suggest a coherent recruitment of entire immune-related genetic regulatory modules by the neural-specific genetic programme that shapes the NS.

  16. Controllability analysis of transcriptional regulatory networks reveals circular control patterns among transcription factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Österlund, Tobias; Bordel, Sergio; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    % for the human network. The high controllability (low number of drivers needed to control the system) in yeast, mouse and human is due to the presence of internal loops in their regulatory networks where the TFs regulate each other in a circular fashion. We refer to these internal loops as circular control...... motifs (CCM). The E. coli transcriptional regulatory network, which does not have any CCMs, shows a hierarchical structure of the transcriptional regulatory network in contrast to the eukaryal networks. The presence of CCMs also has influence on the stability of these networks, as the presence of cycles...

  17. Synthetic Biology and the U.S. Biotechnology Regulatory System: Challenges and Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, Sarah R. [J. Craig Venter Inst., Rockville, MD (United States); Rodemeyer, Michael [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Garfinkel, Michele S. [EMBO, Heidelberg (Germany); Friedman, Robert M. [J. Craig Venter Inst., Rockville, MD (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Synthetic Biology and the U.S. Biotechnology Regulatory System: Challenges and Options Sarah R. Carter, Ph.D., J. Craig Venter Institute; Michael Rodemeyer, J.D., University of Virginia; Michele S. Garfinkel, Ph.D., EMBO; Robert M. Friedman, Ph.D., J. Craig Venter Institute In recent years, a range of genetic engineering techniques referred to as “synthetic biology” has significantly expanded the tool kit available to scientists and engineers, providing them with far greater capabilities to engineer organisms than previous techniques allowed. The field of synthetic biology includes the relatively new ability to synthesize long pieces of DNA from chemicals, as well as improved methods for genetic manipulation and design of genetic pathways to achieve more precise control of biological systems. These advances will help usher in a new generation of genetically engineered microbes, plants, and animals. The JCVI Policy Center team, along with researchers at the University of Virginia and EMBO, examined how well the current U.S. regulatory system for genetically engineered products will handle the near-term introduction of organisms engineered using synthetic biology. In particular, the focus was on those organisms intended to be used or grown directly in the environment, outside of a contained facility. The study concludes that the U.S. regulatory agencies have adequate legal authority to address most, but not all, potential environmental, health and safety concerns posed by these organisms. Such near-term products are likely to represent incremental changes rather than a marked departure from previous genetically engineered organisms. However, the study also identified two key challenges for the regulatory system, which are detailed in the report. First, USDA’s authority over genetically engineered plants depends on the use of an older engineering technique that is no longer necessary for many applications. The shift to synthetic biology and other newer genetic

  18. A Story of Three Bank-Regulatory Legal Systems: Contract, Financial Management Regulation and Fiduciary Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamar Frankel

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available How should banks be regulated to avoid their failure? Banks must control the risks they take with depositors' money. If depositors lose their trust in their banks, and demand their money, the banks will fail. This article describes three legal bank regulatory systems: Contract with depositors (U.S.; a mix of contract and trust law, but going towards trust (Japan and a full trust-fiduciary law regulating banks (Israel. The article concludes that bank regulation, which limits the banks' risks and conflicts of interest, helps create trustworthy banks that serve their country best.

  19. Development of Regulatory Documents for Creation (Upgrade) of Physical Protection Systems under the Russian/American MPC and A Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izmaylov, Alexandr V.; Babkin, Vladimir; Kurov, Valeriy; Piskarev, Alexander; O'Brien, Patricia E.; Wright, Troy L.; Schlegel, Stephen C.; Hazel, Michael J.; Miller, Daniel R.; Tuttle, John D.; Kovchegin, Dmitry

    2009-01-01

    The development of new or the upgrade of existing physical protection systems (PPS) for nuclear facilities involves a multi-step and multidimensional process. The process consists of conceptual design, design, and commissioning stages. The activities associated with each of these stages are governed by Russian government and agency regulations. To ensure a uniform approach to development or upgrading of PPS at Russian nuclear facilities, the development of a range of regulatory and methodological documents is necessary. Some issues of PPS development are covered by the regulatory documents developed by Rosatom, as well as other Russian agencies with nuclear facilities under their control. This regulatory development has been accomplished as part of the U.S.-Russian MPC and A cooperation or independently by the Russian Federation. While regulatory coverage is extensive, there are a number of issues such as vulnerability analysis, effectiveness assessment, upgrading PPS, and protection of information systems for PPS that require additional regulations be developed. This paper reports on the status of regulatory coverage for PPS development or upgrade, and outlines a new approach to regulatory document development. It describes the evolutionary process of regulatory development through experience gained in the design, development and implementation of PPS as well as experience gained through the cooperative efforts of Russian and U.S. experts involved the development of MPC and A regulations.

  20. Alternative approaches for identifying acute systemic toxicity: Moving from research to regulatory testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, Jon; Sullivan, Kristie; Clippinger, Amy J; Strickland, Judy; Bell, Shannon; Bhhatarai, Barun; Blaauboer, Bas; Casey, Warren; Dorman, David; Forsby, Anna; Garcia-Reyero, Natàlia; Gehen, Sean; Graepel, Rabea; Hotchkiss, Jon; Lowit, Anna; Matheson, Joanna; Reaves, Elissa; Scarano, Louis; Sprankle, Catherine; Tunkel, Jay; Wilson, Dan; Xia, Menghang; Zhu, Hao; Allen, David

    2017-06-01

    Acute systemic toxicity testing provides the basis for hazard labeling and risk management of chemicals. A number of international efforts have been directed at identifying non-animal alternatives for in vivo acute systemic toxicity tests. A September 2015 workshop, Alternative Approaches for Identifying Acute Systemic Toxicity: Moving from Research to Regulatory Testing, reviewed the state-of-the-science of non-animal alternatives for this testing and explored ways to facilitate implementation of alternatives. Workshop attendees included representatives from international regulatory agencies, academia, nongovernmental organizations, and industry. Resources identified as necessary for meaningful progress in implementing alternatives included compiling and making available high-quality reference data, training on use and interpretation of in vitro and in silico approaches, and global harmonization of testing requirements. Attendees particularly noted the need to characterize variability in reference data to evaluate new approaches. They also noted the importance of understanding the mechanisms of acute toxicity, which could be facilitated by the development of adverse outcome pathways. Workshop breakout groups explored different approaches to reducing or replacing animal use for acute toxicity testing, with each group crafting a roadmap and strategy to accomplish near-term progress. The workshop steering committee has organized efforts to implement the recommendations of the workshop participants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Information Management system of the safety regulatory requirements and guidance for the Korea next generation reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Y. C. [LG-EDS Systems, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, J. H.; Lee, H. C.; Lee, J. S. [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-05-01

    In order to achieve the safety of the Korea Next Generation Reactors (KNGR), the Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety has carried out the Safety and Regulatory Requirements and Guidance (SRRG) development program from 1992 such as establishment of the SRRG hierarchy, development of technical requirements and guidance, and consideration of new licensing system. The SRRG hierarchy for the KNGR was consisted of five tiers; Safety Objectives, Safety Principles, General Safety Criteria, Specific Safety Requirements and Safety Regulatory Guides. The developed SRRG have been compared the criteria in 10CFR and Reg. Guide in the U.S.A and the IAEA documents for assuring internationally acceptable level of the SRRG. To improve the efficiency and accuracy of SRRG development, the construction of database system was required in the course of development. Therefore, the Information Management System of SRRG for the KNGR has been developed which enables developers to quickly and accurately seek and systematically manage whole contexts of the SRRG, reference requirements, and current atomic energy regulation rules. Moreover, through homepage whose URL is 'http://kngr.kins.re.kr', the concerned persons and public can acquire the information related with SRRG and KNGR project, and post his/her thought to the opinion forum in the homepage.

  2. Information Management system of the safety regulatory requirements and guidance for the Korea next generation reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Y. C.; Lee, J. H.; Lee, H. C.; Lee, J. S.

    2000-01-01

    In order to achieve the safety of the Korea Next Generation Reactors (KNGR), the Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety has carried out the Safety and Regulatory Requirements and Guidance (SRRG) development program from 1992 such as establishment of the SRRG hierarchy, development of technical requirements and guidance, and consideration of new licensing system. The SRRG hierarchy for the KNGR was consisted of five tiers; Safety Objectives, Safety Principles, General Safety Criteria, Specific Safety Requirements and Safety Regulatory Guides. The developed SRRG have been compared the criteria in 10CFR and Reg. Guide in the U.S.A and the IAEA documents for assuring internationally acceptable level of the SRRG. To improve the efficiency and accuracy of SRRG development, the construction of database system was required in the course of development. Therefore, the Information Management System of SRRG for the KNGR has been developed which enables developers to quickly and accurately seek and systematically manage whole contexts of the SRRG, reference requirements, and current atomic energy regulation rules. Moreover, through homepage whose URL is 'http://kngr.kins.re.kr', the concerned persons and public can acquire the information related with SRRG and KNGR project, and post his/her thought to the opinion forum in the homepage

  3. Catalysis with hierarchical zeolites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Martin Spangsberg; Taarning, Esben; Egeblad, Kresten

    2011-01-01

    Hierarchical (or mesoporous) zeolites have attracted significant attention during the first decade of the 21st century, and so far this interest continues to increase. There have already been several reviews giving detailed accounts of the developments emphasizing different aspects of this research...... topic. Until now, the main reason for developing hierarchical zeolites has been to achieve heterogeneous catalysts with improved performance but this particular facet has not yet been reviewed in detail. Thus, the present paper summaries and categorizes the catalytic studies utilizing hierarchical...... zeolites that have been reported hitherto. Prototypical examples from some of the different categories of catalytic reactions that have been studied using hierarchical zeolite catalysts are highlighted. This clearly illustrates the different ways that improved performance can be achieved with this family...

  4. Hierarchical Network Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomadsen, Tommy

    2005-01-01

    Communication networks are immensely important today, since both companies and individuals use numerous services that rely on them. This thesis considers the design of hierarchical (communication) networks. Hierarchical networks consist of layers of networks and are well-suited for coping...... with changing and increasing demands. Two-layer networks consist of one backbone network, which interconnects cluster networks. The clusters consist of nodes and links, which connect the nodes. One node in each cluster is a hub node, and the backbone interconnects the hub nodes of each cluster and thus...... the clusters. The design of hierarchical networks involves clustering of nodes, hub selection, and network design, i.e. selection of links and routing of ows. Hierarchical networks have been in use for decades, but integrated design of these networks has only been considered for very special types of networks...

  5. Micromechanics of hierarchical materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mishnaevsky, Leon, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    A short overview of micromechanical models of hierarchical materials (hybrid composites, biomaterials, fractal materials, etc.) is given. Several examples of the modeling of strength and damage in hierarchical materials are summarized, among them, 3D FE model of hybrid composites...... with nanoengineered matrix, fiber bundle model of UD composites with hierarchically clustered fibers and 3D multilevel model of wood considered as a gradient, cellular material with layered composite cell walls. The main areas of research in micromechanics of hierarchical materials are identified, among them......, the investigations of the effects of load redistribution between reinforcing elements at different scale levels, of the possibilities to control different material properties and to ensure synergy of strengthening effects at different scale levels and using the nanoreinforcement effects. The main future directions...

  6. Programming with Hierarchical Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørbæk, Peter

    This report desribes the hierarchical maps used as a central data structure in the Corundum framework. We describe its most prominent features, ague for its usefulness and briefly describe some of the software prototypes implemented using the technology....

  7. Introduction into Hierarchical Matrices

    KAUST Repository

    Litvinenko, Alexander

    2013-12-05

    Hierarchical matrices allow us to reduce computational storage and cost from cubic to almost linear. This technique can be applied for solving PDEs, integral equations, matrix equations and approximation of large covariance and precision matrices.

  8. Introduction into Hierarchical Matrices

    KAUST Repository

    Litvinenko, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Hierarchical matrices allow us to reduce computational storage and cost from cubic to almost linear. This technique can be applied for solving PDEs, integral equations, matrix equations and approximation of large covariance and precision matrices.

  9. Energy reduction for a dual circuit cooling water system using advanced regulatory control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller, C.J.; Craig, I.K.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Potentially reduce energy required by a dual circuit cooling water system by 30%. • Accomplished using an advanced regulatory control and switching strategy. • No formal process model is required. • Can be implemented on control system hardware commonly used in industry. - Abstract: Various process utilities are used in the petrochemical industry as auxiliary variables to facilitate the addition/removal of energy to/from the process, power process equipment and inhibit unwanted reaction. Optimisation activities usually focus on the process itself or on the utility consumption though the generation and distribution of these utilities are often overlooked in this regard. Many utilities are prepared or generated far from the process plant and have to be transported or transmitted, giving rise to more losses and potential inefficiencies. To illustrate the potential benefit of utility optimisation, this paper explores the control of a dual circuit cooling water system with focus on energy reduction subject process constraints. This is accomplished through the development of an advanced regulatory control (ARC) and switching strategy which does not require the development of a system model, only rudimentary knowledge of the behaviour of the process and system constraints. The novelty of this manuscript lies in the fact that it demonstrates that significant energy savings can be obtained by applying ARC to a process utility containing both discrete and continuous dynamics. Furthermore, the proposed ARC strategy does not require a plant model, uses only existing plant equipment, and can be implemented on control system hardware commonly used in industry. The simulation results indicate energy saving potential in the region of 30% on the system under investigation.

  10. A developmental systems perspective on epistasis: computational exploration of mutational interactions in model developmental regulatory networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayson Gutiérrez

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The way in which the information contained in genotypes is translated into complex phenotypic traits (i.e. embryonic expression patterns depends on its decoding by a multilayered hierarchy of biomolecular systems (regulatory networks. Each layer of this hierarchy displays its own regulatory schemes (i.e. operational rules such as +/- feedback and associated control parameters, resulting in characteristic variational constraints. This process can be conceptualized as a mapping issue, and in the context of highly-dimensional genotype-phenotype mappings (GPMs epistatic events have been shown to be ubiquitous, manifested in non-linear correspondences between changes in the genotype and their phenotypic effects. In this study I concentrate on epistatic phenomena pervading levels of biological organization above the genetic material, more specifically the realm of molecular networks. At this level, systems approaches to studying GPMs are specially suitable to shed light on the mechanistic basis of epistatic phenomena. To this aim, I constructed and analyzed ensembles of highly-modular (fully interconnected networks with distinctive topologies, each displaying dynamic behaviors that were categorized as either arbitrary or functional according to early patterning processes in the Drosophila embryo. Spatio-temporal expression trajectories in virtual syncytial embryos were simulated via reaction-diffusion models. My in silico mutational experiments show that: 1 the average fitness decay tendency to successively accumulated mutations in ensembles of functional networks indicates the prevalence of positive epistasis, whereas in ensembles of arbitrary networks negative epistasis is the dominant tendency; and 2 the evaluation of epistatic coefficients of diverse interaction orders indicates that, both positive and negative epistasis are more prevalent in functional networks than in arbitrary ones. Overall, I conclude that the phenotypic and fitness effects of

  11. The use of information systems to transform utilities and regulatory commissions: The application of geographic information systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wirick, D.W.; Montgomery, G.E.; Wagman, D.C.; Spiers, J.

    1995-09-01

    One technology that can assist utilities remain financially viable in competitive markets and help utilities and regulators to better serve the public is information technology. Because geography is an important part of an electric, natural gas, telecommunications, or water utility, computer-based Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and related Automated Mapping/Facilities Management systems are emerging as core technologies for managing an ever-expanding variety of formerly manual or paper-based tasks. This report focuses on GIS as an example of the types of information systems that can be used by utilities and regulatory commissions. Chapter 2 provides general information about information systems and effects of information on organizations; Chapter 3 explores the conversion of an organization to an information-based one; Chapters 4 and 5 set out GIS as an example of the use of information technologies to transform the operations of utilities and commissions; Chapter 6 describes the use of GIS and other information systems for organizational reengineering efforts; and Chapter 7 examines the regulatory treatment of information systems.

  12. A cellular and regulatory map of the cholinergic nervous system of C. elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Laura; Kratsios, Paschalis; Serrano-Saiz, Esther; Sheftel, Hila; Mayo, Avi E; Hall, David H; White, John G; LeBoeuf, Brigitte; Garcia, L Rene; Alon, Uri; Hobert, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Nervous system maps are of critical importance for understanding how nervous systems develop and function. We systematically map here all cholinergic neuron types in the male and hermaphrodite C. elegans nervous system. We find that acetylcholine (ACh) is the most broadly used neurotransmitter and we analyze its usage relative to other neurotransmitters within the context of the entire connectome and within specific network motifs embedded in the connectome. We reveal several dynamic aspects of cholinergic neurotransmitter identity, including a sexually dimorphic glutamatergic to cholinergic neurotransmitter switch in a sex-shared interneuron. An expression pattern analysis of ACh-gated anion channels furthermore suggests that ACh may also operate very broadly as an inhibitory neurotransmitter. As a first application of this comprehensive neurotransmitter map, we identify transcriptional regulatory mechanisms that control cholinergic neurotransmitter identity and cholinergic circuit assembly. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12432.001 PMID:26705699

  13. Quality Management System at the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husarcek, J.; Novak, S.

    2008-01-01

    The process-oriented quality management system (QMS) implemented at the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (UJD SR) in compliance with the EN ISO 9001:2001 standard is described. The history of the establishment and development of the QMS is given. The main, managerial and supporting processes with respect to defined activities are specified, and a scheme of their interactions is presented. The contents of the Quality Manual content and the structure of the system documentation are briefly described. The responsibilities for the operation and improvements of the QMS are described along with the methods applied (internal and external audits, self-assessment - Common Assessment Framework (CAF)). Examples of established quality objectives and indicators for some processes are provided. A future development of the QMS is expected in accordance with the relevant ISO Standard and IAEA recommendations and based on evaluation of the effectiveness of the critical system. (orig.)

  14. Searching for gravitational waves from the inspiral of precessing binary systems: New hierarchical scheme using 'spiky' templates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grandclement, Philippe; Kalogera, Vassiliki

    2003-01-01

    In a recent investigation of the effects of precession on the anticipated detection of gravitational-wave inspiral signals from compact object binaries with moderate total masses · , we found that (i) if precession is ignored, the inspiral detection rate can decrease by almost a factor of 10, and (ii) previously proposed 'mimic' templates cannot improve the detection rate significantly (by more than a factor of 2). In this paper we propose a new family of templates that can improve the detection rate by a factor of 5 or 6 in cases where precession is most important. Our proposed method for these new 'mimic' templates involves a hierarchical scheme of efficient, two-parameter template searches that can account for a sequence of spikes that appear in the residual inspiral phase, after one corrects for any oscillatory modification in the phase. We present our results for two cases of compact object masses (10 and 1.4 M · and 7 and 3 M · ) as a function of spin properties. Although further work is needed to fully assess the computational efficiency of this newly proposed template family, we conclude that these 'spiky templates' are good candidates for a family of precession templates used in realistic searches that can improve detection rates of inspiral events

  15. Synthetic biology and regulatory networks: where metabolic systems biology meets control engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Fei; Murabito, Ettore; Westerhoff, Hans V

    2016-04-01

    Metabolic pathways can be engineered to maximize the synthesis of various products of interest. With the advent of computational systems biology, this endeavour is usually carried out through in silico theoretical studies with the aim to guide and complement further in vitro and in vivo experimental efforts. Clearly, what counts is the result in vivo, not only in terms of maximal productivity but also robustness against environmental perturbations. Engineering an organism towards an increased production flux, however, often compromises that robustness. In this contribution, we review and investigate how various analytical approaches used in metabolic engineering and synthetic biology are related to concepts developed by systems and control engineering. While trade-offs between production optimality and cellular robustness have already been studied diagnostically and statically, the dynamics also matter. Integration of the dynamic design aspects of control engineering with the more diagnostic aspects of metabolic, hierarchical control and regulation analysis is leading to the new, conceptual and operational framework required for the design of robust and productive dynamic pathways. © 2016 The Author(s).

  16. A balance of activity in brain control and reward systems predicts self-regulatory outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Richard B; Chen, Pin-Hao A; Huckins, Jeremy F; Hofmann, Wilhelm; Kelley, William M; Heatherton, Todd F

    2017-05-01

    Previous neuroimaging work has shown that increased reward-related activity following exposure to food cues is predictive of self-control failure. The balance model suggests that self-regulation failures result from an imbalance in reward and executive control mechanisms. However, an open question is whether the relative balance of activity in brain systems associated with executive control (vs reward) supports self-regulatory outcomes when people encounter tempting cues in daily life. Sixty-nine chronic dieters, a population known for frequent lapses in self-control, completed a food cue-reactivity task during an fMRI scanning session, followed by a weeklong sampling of daily eating behaviors via ecological momentary assessment. We related participants' food cue activity in brain systems associated with executive control and reward to real-world eating patterns. Specifically, a balance score representing the amount of activity in brain regions associated with self-regulatory control, relative to automatic reward-related activity, predicted dieters' control over their eating behavior during the following week. This balance measure may reflect individual self-control capacity and be useful for examining self-regulation success in other domains and populations. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.

  17. Hierarchical matrices algorithms and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Hackbusch, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    This self-contained monograph presents matrix algorithms and their analysis. The new technique enables not only the solution of linear systems but also the approximation of matrix functions, e.g., the matrix exponential. Other applications include the solution of matrix equations, e.g., the Lyapunov or Riccati equation. The required mathematical background can be found in the appendix. The numerical treatment of fully populated large-scale matrices is usually rather costly. However, the technique of hierarchical matrices makes it possible to store matrices and to perform matrix operations approximately with almost linear cost and a controllable degree of approximation error. For important classes of matrices, the computational cost increases only logarithmically with the approximation error. The operations provided include the matrix inversion and LU decomposition. Since large-scale linear algebra problems are standard in scientific computing, the subject of hierarchical matrices is of interest to scientists ...

  18. E3Net: a system for exploring E3-mediated regulatory networks of cellular functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Youngwoong; Lee, Hodong; Park, Jong C; Yi, Gwan-Su

    2012-04-01

    Ubiquitin-protein ligase (E3) is a key enzyme targeting specific substrates in diverse cellular processes for ubiquitination and degradation. The existing findings of substrate specificity of E3 are, however, scattered over a number of resources, making it difficult to study them together with an integrative view. Here we present E3Net, a web-based system that provides a comprehensive collection of available E3-substrate specificities and a systematic framework for the analysis of E3-mediated regulatory networks of diverse cellular functions. Currently, E3Net contains 2201 E3s and 4896 substrates in 427 organisms and 1671 E3-substrate specific relations between 493 E3s and 1277 substrates in 42 organisms, extracted mainly from MEDLINE abstracts and UniProt comments with an automatic text mining method and additional manual inspection and partly from high throughput experiment data and public ubiquitination databases. The significant functions and pathways of the extracted E3-specific substrate groups were identified from a functional enrichment analysis with 12 functional category resources for molecular functions, protein families, protein complexes, pathways, cellular processes, cellular localization, and diseases. E3Net includes interactive analysis and navigation tools that make it possible to build an integrative view of E3-substrate networks and their correlated functions with graphical illustrations and summarized descriptions. As a result, E3Net provides a comprehensive resource of E3s, substrates, and their functional implications summarized from the regulatory network structures of E3-specific substrate groups and their correlated functions. This resource will facilitate further in-depth investigation of ubiquitination-dependent regulatory mechanisms. E3Net is freely available online at http://pnet.kaist.ac.kr/e3net.

  19. Root Systems Biology: Integrative Modeling across Scales, from Gene Regulatory Networks to the Rhizosphere1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Kristine; Porco, Silvana; Lobet, Guillaume; Zappala, Susan; Mooney, Sacha; Draye, Xavier; Bennett, Malcolm J.

    2013-01-01

    Genetic and genomic approaches in model organisms have advanced our understanding of root biology over the last decade. Recently, however, systems biology and modeling have emerged as important approaches, as our understanding of root regulatory pathways has become more complex and interpreting pathway outputs has become less intuitive. To relate root genotype to phenotype, we must move beyond the examination of interactions at the genetic network scale and employ multiscale modeling approaches to predict emergent properties at the tissue, organ, organism, and rhizosphere scales. Understanding the underlying biological mechanisms and the complex interplay between systems at these different scales requires an integrative approach. Here, we describe examples of such approaches and discuss the merits of developing models to span multiple scales, from network to population levels, and to address dynamic interactions between plants and their environment. PMID:24143806

  20. The regulatory system of monitoring workers in Germany for intakes of radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalheimer, A.; Henrichs, K.

    1996-01-01

    In Germany, the working group 'Incorporation Monitoring' of the German-Swiss Radiation Protection Association defined a new standard for the monitoring of workers occupationally exposed to radioactive material. During the last two years this draft has been accepted by the German government in the form of three guidelines. The purpose of the approach was the installation of a consistent state-of-the-art system: defining clear criteria for the necessity of routine and special monitoring programs, giving guidelines for monitoring programs ensuring that dose assessments are as reliable as necessary with the lowest possible expenses, standardizing as far as possible the procedures of dose assessments, and guaranteeing the necessary quality standards. The scientific basis of this regulatory system are the publications 30 and 54 of lCRP. (author)

  1. Analysis of a Plant Transcriptional Regulatory Network Using Transient Expression Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Triviño, Sara; Long, Yuchen; Scheres, Ben; Blilou, Ikram

    2017-01-01

    In plant biology, transient expression systems have become valuable approaches used routinely to rapidly study protein expression, subcellular localization, protein-protein interactions, and transcriptional activity prior to in vivo studies. When studying transcriptional regulation, luciferase reporter assays offer a sensitive readout for assaying promoter behavior in response to different regulators or environmental contexts and to confirm and assess the functional relevance of predicted binding sites in target promoters. This chapter aims to provide detailed methods for using luciferase reporter system as a rapid, efficient, and versatile assay to analyze transcriptional regulation of target genes by transcriptional regulators. We describe a series of optimized transient expression systems consisting of Arabidopsis thaliana protoplasts, infiltrated Nicotiana benthamiana leaves, and human HeLa cells to study the transcriptional regulations of two well-characterized transcriptional regulators SCARECROW (SCR) and SHORT-ROOT (SHR) on one of their targets, CYCLIN D6 (CYCD6).Here, we illustrate similarities and differences in outcomes when using different systems. The plant-based systems revealed that the SCR-SHR complex enhances CYCD6 transcription, while analysis in HeLa cells showed that the complex is not sufficient to strongly induce CYCD6 transcription, suggesting that additional, plant-specific regulators are required for full activation. These results highlight the importance of the system and suggest that including heterologous systems, such as HeLa cells, can provide a more comprehensive analysis of a complex gene regulatory network.

  2. Hierarchical self-organization of non-cooperating individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamás Nepusz

    Full Text Available Hierarchy is one of the most conspicuous features of numerous natural, technological and social systems. The underlying structures are typically complex and their most relevant organizational principle is the ordering of the ties among the units they are made of according to a network displaying hierarchical features. In spite of the abundant presence of hierarchy no quantitative theoretical interpretation of the origins of a multi-level, knowledge-based social network exists. Here we introduce an approach which is capable of reproducing the emergence of a multi-levelled network structure based on the plausible assumption that the individuals (representing the nodes of the network can make the right estimate about the state of their changing environment to a varying degree. Our model accounts for a fundamental feature of knowledge-based organizations: the less capable individuals tend to follow those who are better at solving the problems they all face. We find that relatively simple rules lead to hierarchical self-organization and the specific structures we obtain possess the two, perhaps most important features of complex systems: a simultaneous presence of adaptability and stability. In addition, the performance (success score of the emerging networks is significantly higher than the average expected score of the individuals without letting them copy the decisions of the others. The results of our calculations are in agreement with a related experiment and can be useful from the point of designing the optimal conditions for constructing a given complex social structure as well as understanding the hierarchical organization of such biological structures of major importance as the regulatory pathways or the dynamics of neural networks.

  3. Antioxidant and Ex Vivo Immune System Regulatory Properties of Boswellia serrata Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Beghelli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Boswellia serrata (BS is an important traditional medicinal plant that currently represents an interesting topic for pharmaceutical research since it possesses several pharmacological properties (e.g., anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and antitumour. The safety and versatility of this dietary supplement should allow for its use in numerous pathological conditions; however the quality of the extracts needs to be standardized to increase the clinical success rate resulting from its use. In the present study, different commercially available B. serrata extracts were employed to compare their AKBA content and in vitro antioxidant power. Furthermore, their ability to modulate the immune system regulatory properties was investigated. Our results showed that the AKBA content varied from 3.83±0.10 to 0.03±0.004%, with one sample in which it was not detectable. The highest antioxidant power and phenolic content were shown by the same extract, which also exhibited the highest AKBA concentration. Finally, the BS extracts showed the ability to influence the regulatory and effector T-cell compartments. Our results suggest that frankincense should be further investigated for its promising potentiality to modulate not only inflammation/oxidative stress but also immune dysregulation, but attention should be paid to the composition of the commercial extracts.

  4. Regulatory activities; Actividades regulatorias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This publication, compiled in 8 chapters, presents the regulatory system developed by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (NRA) of the Argentine Republic. The following activities and developed topics in this document describe: the evolution of the nuclear regulatory activity in Argentina; the Argentine regulatory system; the nuclear regulatory laws and standards; the inspection and safeguards of nuclear facilities; the emergency systems; the environmental systems; the environmental monitoring; the analysis laboratories on physical and biological dosimetry, prenatal irradiation, internal irradiation, radiation measurements, detection techniques on nuclear testing, medical program on radiation protection; the institutional relations with national and international organization; the training courses and meeting; the technical information.

  5. Neutrosophic Hierarchical Clustering Algoritms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rıdvan Şahin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Interval neutrosophic set (INS is a generalization of interval valued intuitionistic fuzzy set (IVIFS, whose the membership and non-membership values of elements consist of fuzzy range, while single valued neutrosophic set (SVNS is regarded as extension of intuitionistic fuzzy set (IFS. In this paper, we extend the hierarchical clustering techniques proposed for IFSs and IVIFSs to SVNSs and INSs respectively. Based on the traditional hierarchical clustering procedure, the single valued neutrosophic aggregation operator, and the basic distance measures between SVNSs, we define a single valued neutrosophic hierarchical clustering algorithm for clustering SVNSs. Then we extend the algorithm to classify an interval neutrosophic data. Finally, we present some numerical examples in order to show the effectiveness and availability of the developed clustering algorithms.

  6. Transcriptome analysis of all two-component regulatory system mutants of Escherichia coli K-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshima, Taku; Aiba, Hirofumi; Masuda, Yasushi; Kanaya, Shigehiko; Sugiura, Masahito; Wanner, Barry L; Mori, Hirotada; Mizuno, Takeshi

    2002-10-01

    We have systematically examined the mRNA profiles of 36 two-component deletion mutants, which include all two-component regulatory systems of Escherichia coli, under a single growth condition. DNA microarray results revealed that the mutants belong to one of three groups based on their gene expression profiles in Luria-Bertani broth under aerobic conditions: (i) those with no or little change; (ii) those with significant changes; and (iii) those with drastic changes. Under these conditions, the anaeroresponsive ArcB/ArcA system, the osmoresponsive EnvZ/OmpR system and the response regulator UvrY showed the most drastic changes. Cellular functions such as flagellar synthesis and expression of the RpoS regulon were affected by multiple two-component systems. A high correlation coefficient of expression profile was found between several two-component mutants. Together, these results support the view that a network of functional interactions, such as cross-regulation, exists between different two-component systems. The compiled data are avail-able at our website (http://ecoli.aist-nara.ac.jp/xp_analysis/ 2_components).

  7. Leptin levels in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus inversely correlate with regulatory T cell frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X; Qiao, Y; Yang, L; Song, S; Han, Y; Tian, Y; Ding, M; Jin, H; Shao, F; Liu, A

    2017-11-01

    Leptin levels are increased in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) but little is known on how this correlates with several disease characteristics including the frequency of regulatory T cells (Tregs). Here we compared serum leptin levels with frequency of circulating Tregs in 47 lupus patients vs. 25 healthy matched controls. Correlations with lupus disease activity were also analyzed, as well as Treg proliferation potential. It was found that leptin was remarkably increased in SLE patients as compared to controls, particularly in SLE patients with moderate and severe active SLE, and the increase correlated with disease activity. Importantly, increased leptin in lupus patients inversely correlated with the frequency of Tregs but not in controls, and leptin neutralization resulted in the expansion of Tregs ex vivo. Thus, hyperleptinemia in lupus patients correlates directly with disease activity and inversely with Treg frequency. The finding that leptin inhibition expands Tregs in SLE suggests possible inhibition of this molecule for an enhanced Treg function in the disease.

  8. WhatsApp in Stroke Systems: Current Use and Regulatory Concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calleja-Castillo, Juan M; Gonzalez-Calderon, Gina

    2018-01-01

    Smartphone use is extremely common. Applications such as WhatsApp have billions of users and physicians are no exception. Stroke Medicine is a field where instant communication among fairly large groups is essential. In developing countries, economic limitations preclude the possibility of acquiring proper communication platforms. Thus, WhatsApp has been used as an organizational tool, for sharing clinical data, and for real time guidance of clinical care decisions. It has evolved into a cheap, accessible tool for telemedicine. Nevertheless, regulatory and privacy issues must be addressed. Some countries have implemented legislation to address this issue, while others lag behind. In this article, we present an overview on the different roles WhatsApp has acquired as a clinical tool in stroke systems and the potential privacy concerns of its use.

  9. WhatsApp in Stroke Systems: Current Use and Regulatory Concerns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan M. Calleja-Castillo

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Smartphone use is extremely common. Applications such as WhatsApp have billions of users and physicians are no exception. Stroke Medicine is a field where instant communication among fairly large groups is essential. In developing countries, economic limitations preclude the possibility of acquiring proper communication platforms. Thus, WhatsApp has been used as an organizational tool, for sharing clinical data, and for real time guidance of clinical care decisions. It has evolved into a cheap, accessible tool for telemedicine. Nevertheless, regulatory and privacy issues must be addressed. Some countries have implemented legislation to address this issue, while others lag behind. In this article, we present an overview on the different roles WhatsApp has acquired as a clinical tool in stroke systems and the potential privacy concerns of its use.

  10. GIS-assisted spatial analysis for urban regulatory detailed planning: designer's dimension in the Chinese code system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang; Zeng, Zheng

    2009-10-01

    By discussing the causes behind the high amendments ratio in the implementation of urban regulatory detailed plans in China despite its law-ensured status, the study aims to reconcile conflict between the legal authority of regulatory detailed planning and the insufficient scientific support in its decision-making and compilation by introducing into the process spatial analysis based on GIS technology and 3D modeling thus present a more scientific and flexible approach to regulatory detailed planning in China. The study first points out that the current compilation process of urban regulatory detailed plan in China employs mainly an empirical approach which renders it constantly subjected to amendments; the study then discusses the need and current utilization of GIS in the Chinese system and proposes the framework of a GIS-assisted 3D spatial analysis process from the designer's perspective which can be regarded as an alternating processes between the descriptive codes and physical design in the compilation of regulatory detailed planning. With a case study of the processes and results from the application of the framework, the paper concludes that the proposed framework can be an effective instrument which provides more rationality, flexibility and thus more efficiency to the compilation and decision-making process of urban regulatory detailed plan in China.

  11. Regulatory analysis for the resolution of Generic Issue 115, enhancement of the reliability of the Westinghouse Solid State Protection System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basdekas, D.L.

    1989-05-01

    Generic Issue 115 addresses a concern related to the reliability of the Westinghouse reactor protection system for plants using the Westinghouse Solid State Protection System (SSPS). Several options for improving the reliability of the Westinghouse reactor trip function for these plants and their effect on core damage frequency (CDF) and overall risk were evaluated. This regulatory analysis includes a quantitative assessment of the costs and benefits associated with the various options for enhancing the reliability of the Westinghouse SSPS and provides insights for consideration and industry initiatives. No new regulatory requirements are proposed. 25 refs., 11 tabs

  12. Smart grids and power systems efficiency: regulatory tools and demand-side management impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergaentzle, Claire

    2015-01-01

    The physical architecture of electricity grids and the organizational structure of power systems implemented after the reforms have traditionally be achieved according to the characteristics of the transmission infrastructures and power mixes. However, the new challenges related to energy transition favor a greater participation of decentralized generation and final consumers to system exploitation and competitive markets. This latter participation is made possible thanks to recent innovations in the fields of communication and remote control technologies. Significant evolutions are expected in power industries that share common characteristics. First, these evolutions suppose massive capital investments to modernize and adapt current power distribution grids. Second, it is expected the activation of distribution grids and final consumers will unleash substantial unexploited economic efficiency gains as well as impose new constraints. Taking these simple facts as a starting point, the objective of the thesis is twofold. In the first place, we provide a theoretical analysis of the regulatory instruments that monitor the system operators' expenses. Relying on the literature, we aim at characterizing what regulatory tools and incitation are suitable for investing in smart grids technologies. Since it is necessary to compare theoretical formulation to facts, we use an empirical approach that allows us to designate key benefits pursued by the development of smart grids and to compare our theoretical results with practical regulatory applications. Our findings eventually allow us to formulate recommendations. In the second place, the thesis focuses on the impacts of demand-side management during peak periods. We structure our approach around two general observations. Large benefits should be generated in lowering substantially peak demand. However, such situation also creates losses of profit for generators. We provide an estimation of efficiency gains and revenue losses

  13. A regulatory perspective on appropriate seismic loading stress criteria for advanced light water reactor piping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terao, D.

    1995-01-01

    In the foregoing sections, the author has discussed the NRC staff's perspective on the evolving seismic design criteria for piping systems. He also addressed the need for developing seismic loading stress criteria and provided several recommendations and considerations for ensuring piping functional capability, pressure integrity, and structural integrity. Overall, the general consensus in the NRC staff is that in the past several years, many initiatives have been developed and implemented by the industry and the NRC staff to reduce the excessive conservatisms that might have existed in nuclear piping system design criteria. The regulations, regulatory guides, and Standard Review Plan have been (or are currently in the process of being) revised to reflect these initiatives in an effort to produce requirements and guidelines that will continue to result in a safe and practical design of piping systems. However, further proposals to reduce margins are continually being submitted to the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code and the NRC for review and approval. Improvements to the piping seismic design criteria are always encouraged, but there is a point at which the benefits might be outweighed by drawbacks. Because of this rapidly evolving situation the need exists for the industry and the NRC staff to develop a course of action to ensure that piping seismic design criteria for future ALWR plants will result in piping system designs that provide adequate safety margins and practical designs at a reasonable cost

  14. Hierarchical wave functions revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Dingping.

    1997-11-01

    We study the hierarchical wave functions on a sphere and on a torus. We simplify some wave functions on a sphere or a torus using the analytic properties of wave functions. The open question, the construction of the wave function for quasi electron excitation on a torus, is also solved in this paper. (author)

  15. Hierarchical Porous Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grote, Christopher John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-07

    Materials Design is often at the forefront of technological innovation. While there has always been a push to generate increasingly low density materials, such as aero or hydrogels, more recently the idea of bicontinuous structures has gone more into play. This review will cover some of the methods and applications for generating both porous, and hierarchically porous structures.

  16. The Hierarchical Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Sofron

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on the hierarchical perspective, one of the methods for representing space that was used before the discovery of the Renaissance linear perspective. The hierarchical perspective has a more or less pronounced scientific character and its study offers us a clear image of the way the representatives of the cultures that developed it used to perceive the sensitive reality. This type of perspective is an original method of representing three-dimensional space on a flat surface, which characterises the art of Ancient Egypt and much of the art of the Middle Ages, being identified in the Eastern European Byzantine art, as well as in the Western European Pre-Romanesque and Romanesque art. At the same time, the hierarchical perspective is also present in naive painting and infantile drawing. Reminiscences of this method can be recognised also in the works of some precursors of the Italian Renaissance. The hierarchical perspective can be viewed as a subjective ranking criterion, according to which the elements are visually represented by taking into account their relevance within the image while perception is ignored. This paper aims to show how the main objective of the artists of those times was not to faithfully represent the objective reality, but rather to emphasize the essence of the world and its perennial aspects. This may represent a possible explanation for the refusal of perspective in the Egyptian, Romanesque and Byzantine painting, characterised by a marked two-dimensionality.

  17. Interferon regulatory factor 5 gene polymorphism in Egyptian children with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammad, A; Mossad, Y M; Nasef, N; Eid, R

    2017-07-01

    Background Increased expression of interferon-inducible genes is implicated in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF5) is one of the transcription factors regulating interferon and was proved to be implicated in the pathogenesis of SLE in different populations. Objectives The objective of this study was to investigate the correlation between polymorphisms of the IRF5 gene and SLE susceptibility in a cohort of Egyptian children and to investigate their association with clinico-pathological features, especially lupus nephritis. Subjects and methods Typing of interferon regulatory factor 5 rs10954213, rs2004640 and rs2280714 polymorphisms were done using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism for 100 children with SLE and 100 matched healthy controls. Results Children with SLE had more frequent T allele and TT genotype of rs2004640 ( P c  = 0.003 and 0.024, respectively) compared to controls. Patients with nephritis had more frequent T allele of rs2004640 compared to controls ( P c  = 0.003). However the allele and genotype frequencies of the three studied polymorphisms did not show any difference in patients with nephritis in comparison to those without nephritis. Haplotype GTA of rs10954213, rs2004640 and rs2280714, respectively, was more frequent in lupus patients in comparison to controls ( p = 0.01) while the haplotype GGG was more frequent in controls than lupus patients ( p = 0.011). Conclusion The rs2004640 T allele and TT genotype and GTA haplotype of rs rs10954213, rs2004640, and rs2280714, respectively, can be considered as risk factors for the development of SLE. The presence of the rs2004640 T allele increases the risk of nephritis development in Egyptian children with SLE.

  18. Jimena: efficient computing and system state identification for genetic regulatory networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, Stefan; Dandekar, Thomas

    2013-10-11

    Boolean networks capture switching behavior of many naturally occurring regulatory networks. For semi-quantitative modeling, interpolation between ON and OFF states is necessary. The high degree polynomial interpolation of Boolean genetic regulatory networks (GRNs) in cellular processes such as apoptosis or proliferation allows for the modeling of a wider range of node interactions than continuous activator-inhibitor models, but suffers from scaling problems for networks which contain nodes with more than ~10 inputs. Many GRNs from literature or new gene expression experiments exceed those limitations and a new approach was developed. (i) As a part of our new GRN simulation framework Jimena we introduce and setup Boolean-tree-based data structures; (ii) corresponding algorithms greatly expedite the calculation of the polynomial interpolation in almost all cases, thereby expanding the range of networks which can be simulated by this model in reasonable time. (iii) Stable states for discrete models are efficiently counted and identified using binary decision diagrams. As application example, we show how system states can now be sampled efficiently in small up to large scale hormone disease networks (Arabidopsis thaliana development and immunity, pathogen Pseudomonas syringae and modulation by cytokinins and plant hormones). Jimena simulates currently available GRNs about 10-100 times faster than the previous implementation of the polynomial interpolation model and even greater gains are achieved for large scale-free networks. This speed-up also facilitates a much more thorough sampling of continuous state spaces which may lead to the identification of new stable states. Mutants of large networks can be constructed and analyzed very quickly enabling new insights into network robustness and behavior.

  19. Changes to Regulatory Systems for more Efficient Nuclear Energy Deployment: An Industry Viewpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelin, H.

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear energy is required to play a much larger role in the energy mix in most credible energy scenarios that address climate change (680 GW additional capacity by 2050 according to IEA, 1000 GW according to World Nuclear Association). To reach these ambitious targets, a concerted effort will be required involving industry, governments and regulators. Changes to regulatory systems and processes – including licensing (design, site, operation), export control, security and waste - is one important area that can stimulate faster and more cost effective development of nuclear capacity. In the past, regulators were mainly concerned with authorizing a limited number of reactors from a limited number of designs under a national standard. Today regulators need resources to assess a wider range of designs, while each licensee needs to complete a thorough safety assessment even if the design has been assessed and approved elsewhere. These developments are the inevitable consequence of globalization and competition within the industry. This paper examines the current state of nuclear regulation in relation to the main attributes of good regulation as defined by the OECD. It further looks at ongoing efforts among regulators to share experience or harmonize requirements, such as within MDEP, or to agree common safety levels, such as in WENRA, in order to reach common positions and improve their regulatory approaches. Finally, it will assess the work of industry to demonstrate the benefits – both in terms of efficiency as well as safety – of harmonised regulations notably through the activities of the World Nuclear Association/CORDEL Working Group. (author)

  20. Design and development of an informatics management system as a support for the Regulatory Authority in the Republic of Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdes Ramos, Maryzury; Prendes Alonso, Miguel; Jova Sed, Luis

    2008-01-01

    The regulatory activity in the country is carried out by the National Center for Nuclear Safety (CNSN) according to the international recommendations. To develop this, CNSN is supported by the Center for Radiation Protection and Hygiene (CPHR) which it's in charged of guaranteeing the technical scientific support for this activity. These centers have been working in the last years in the design and development of a computing tool that allows the management of all important information, which should be controlled by the Regulatory Authority. The authorization processes of the practices and the inspection program require the use, register and evaluation of an important volume of information that grows as the number of practices and facilities are increases. Consequently the systematizing of this information needs an automated management system. The objective of this work is to show the level of automation reached by the National Regulatory Authority using RASSYN program. This program allows an efficient management of the information related to the radiation sources nationwide, the practices ascribed to these sources, the personnel involved in these practices and the dose received, the equipment measuring and detecting of radiations, the generated waste, the occurred radiological incidents, the conditions and requisites of the granted authorizations and the results of the inspection program, among others. The possibilities of RASSYN system to process the information given by the users and the ones produced by the regulatory authority are described. The automatic generation of the annual inspections plan, according to the previously defined criteria and the system of alerts on the state of fulfillment of radiological protection requirements make RASSYN a useful tool to optimize the functioning of the regulatory system. The versatility of the statistical reports allows to guarantees not only the requirements of the regulatory authority but also the expectations coming

  1. Adoptive regulatory T-cell therapy preserves systemic immune homeostasis after cerebral ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peiying; Mao, Leilei; Zhou, Guoqing; Leak, Rehana K; Sun, Bao-Liang; Chen, Jun; Hu, Xiaoming

    2013-12-01

    Cerebral ischemia has been shown to result in peripheral inflammatory responses followed by long-lasting immunosuppression. Our recent study demonstrated that intravenous delivery of regulatory T cells (Tregs) markedly protected against transient cerebral ischemia by suppressing neutrophil-derived matrix metallopeptidase 9 production in the periphery. However, the effect of Tregs on systemic inflammatory responses and immune status has not been fully characterized. Cerebral ischemia was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion for 60 minutes in mice or 120 minutes in rats. Tregs were isolated from donor animals by CD4 and CD25 double selection and transferred intravenously to ischemic recipients at 2 hours after middle cerebral artery occlusion. Animals were euthanized on different days after reperfusion. The effects of Tregs on systemic inflammation and immune status were evaluated using flow cytometry, ELISAs, and immunohistochemistry. Systemic administration of purified Tregs raises functional Tregs in the blood and peripheral organs, including spleen and lymph nodes. These exogenous Tregs remain in the blood and peripheral organs for ≥12 days. Functionally, Treg adoptive transfer markedly inhibits middle cerebral artery occlusion-induced elevation of inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor α) in the blood. Furthermore, Treg treatment corrects long-term lymphopenia and improves cellular immune functions after ischemic brain injury. As a result, Treg-treated animals exhibit decreased bacterial loads in the blood during recovery from cerebral ischemic attack. Treg treatment did not exacerbate poststroke immunosuppression. On the contrary, Treg-treated animals displayed improved immune status after focal cerebral ischemia.

  2. The regulatory system for diabetes mellitus: Modeling rates of glucose infusions and insulin injections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jin; Tang, Sanyi; Cheke, Robert A.

    2016-08-01

    Novel mathematical models with open and closed-loop control for type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus were developed to improve understanding of the glucose-insulin regulatory system. A hybrid impulsive glucose-insulin model with different frequencies of glucose infusions and insulin injections was analyzed, and the existence and uniqueness of the positive periodic solution for type 1 diabetes, which is globally asymptotically stable, was studied analytically. Moreover, permanence of the system for type 2 diabetes was demonstrated which showed that the glucose concentration level is uniformly bounded above and below. To investigate how to prevent hyperinsulinemia and hyperglycemia being caused by this system, we developed a model involving periodic intakes of glucose with insulin injections applied only when the blood glucose level reached a given critical glucose threshold. In addition, our numerical analysis revealed that the period, the frequency and the dose of glucose infusions and insulin injections are crucial for insulin therapies, and the results provide clinical strategies for insulin-administration practices.

  3. The Insulin Regulatory Network in Adult Hippocampus and Pancreatic Endocrine System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masanao Machida

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a very strong correlation between the insulin-mediated regulatory system of the central nervous system and the pancreatic endocrine system. There are many examples of the same transcriptional factors being expressed in both regions in their embryonic development stages. Hormonal signals from the pancreatic islets influence the regulation of energy homeostasis by the brain, and the brain in turn influences the secretions of the islets. Diabetes induces neuronal death in different regions of the brain especially hippocampus, causes alterations on the neuronal circuits and therefore impairs learning and memory, for which the hippocampus is responsible. The hippocampus is a region of the brain where steady neurogenesis continues throughout life. Adult neurogenesis from undifferentiated neural stem cells is greatly decreased in diabetic patients, and as a result their learning and memory functions decline. Might it be possible to reactivate stem cells whose functions have deteriorated and that are present in the tissues in which the lesions occur in diabetes, a lifestyle disease, which plagues modern humans and develops as a result of the behavior of insulin-related factor? In this paper we summarize research in regard to these matters based on examples in recent years.

  4. Predicting the performance uncertainty of a 1-MW pilot-scale carbon capture system after hierarchical laboratory-scale calibration and validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Zhijie; Lai, Canhai; Marcy, Peter William; Dietiker, Jean-François; Li, Tingwen; Sarkar, Avik; Sun, Xin

    2017-05-01

    A challenging problem in designing pilot-scale carbon capture systems is to predict, with uncertainty, the adsorber performance and capture efficiency under various operating conditions where no direct experimental data exist. Motivated by this challenge, we previously proposed a hierarchical framework in which relevant parameters of physical models were sequentially calibrated from different laboratory-scale carbon capture unit (C2U) experiments. Specifically, three models of increasing complexity were identified based on the fundamental physical and chemical processes of the sorbent-based carbon capture technology. Results from the corresponding laboratory experiments were used to statistically calibrate the physical model parameters while quantifying some of their inherent uncertainty. The parameter distributions obtained from laboratory-scale C2U calibration runs are used in this study to facilitate prediction at a larger scale where no corresponding experimental results are available. In this paper, we first describe the multiphase reactive flow model for a sorbent-based 1-MW carbon capture system then analyze results from an ensemble of simulations with the upscaled model. The simulation results are used to quantify uncertainty regarding the design’s predicted efficiency in carbon capture. In particular, we determine the minimum gas flow rate necessary to achieve 90% capture efficiency with 95% confidence.

  5. Hierarchically sinergistical integration of Social Media Analytics/Social CRM with Business Intelligence and with the Geographic Information System

    OpenAIRE

    Круковський, Ігор Анатолійович; Хомів, Богдан Арсенович; Гаврилюк, Всеволод Леонідович

    2014-01-01

    The actuality of integration of Social Media Analytics/Social CRM with Decision Support Systems on the basis of Business Intelligence 2.0 (DSS/BI 2.0) and with the Geographic Information System is presented. On the basis of their integration a new type of DSS is offered - Social Media Spatial DSS/BI. The variant is shown of this system realization on the programmatic platform of Social Media Analytics of the SemanticForce Company, which has its own semantic analyzer Blueberry. The suitability...

  6. Investigation of dielectric relaxation in systems with hierarchical organization: From time to frequency domain and back again

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoi, Koki [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Raicu, Valerică, E-mail: vraicu@uwm.edu [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Department of Biological Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI (United States)

    2017-06-28

    Relaxation in fractal structures was investigated theoretically starting from a simple model of a Cantorian tree and kinetic equations linking the change in the number of particles (e.g., electrical charges) populating each branch of the tree and their transfer to other branches or to the ground state. We numerically solved the system of differential equations obtained and determined the so-called cumulative distribution function of particles, which, in dielectric or mechanical relaxation parlance, is the same as the relaxation function of the system. As a physical application, we studied the relationship between the dielectric relaxation in time-domain and the dielectric dispersion in the frequency-domain. Upon choosing appropriate rate constants, our model described accurately well-known non-exponential and non-Debye time- and frequency-domain functions, such as stretched exponentials, Havrilliak–Negami, and frequency power law. Our approach opens the door to applying kinetic models to describe a wide array of relaxation processes, which traditionally have posed great challenges to theoretical modeling based on first principles. - Highlights: • Relaxation was investigated for a system of particles flowing through a Cantorian tree. • A set of kinetic equations was formulated and used to compute the relaxation function of the system. • The dispersion function of the system was computed from the relaxation function. • An analytical method was used to recover the original relaxation function from the dispersion function. • This formalism was used to study dielectric relaxation and dispersion in fractal structures.

  7. Hierarchical Robot Control System and Method for Controlling Select Degrees of Freedom of an Object Using Multiple Manipulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdallah, Muhammad E. (Inventor); Platt, Robert (Inventor); Wampler, II, Charles W. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A robotic system includes a robot having manipulators for grasping an object using one of a plurality of grasp types during a primary task, and a controller. The controller controls the manipulators during the primary task using a multiple-task control hierarchy, and automatically parameterizes the internal forces of the system for each grasp type in response to an input signal. The primary task is defined at an object-level of control, e.g., using a closed-chain transformation, such that only select degrees of freedom are commanded for the object. A control system for the robotic system has a host machine and algorithm for controlling the manipulators using the above hierarchy. A method for controlling the system includes receiving and processing the input signal using the host machine, including defining the primary task at the object-level of control, e.g., using a closed-chain definition, and parameterizing the internal forces for each of grasp type.

  8. Investigating relationship between self- and co-regulatory learning processes in a workplace e-learning system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahimi, E.; Tampinongkol, S.; Sedighi, M.; Van den Berg, J.; Veen, W.

    2014-01-01

    While supporting regulatory learning processes in work environments is increasingly becoming important, there is not a clear picture of the interaction between self- and coregulatory processes performed by learners in workplace e-learning systems. In this paper, by following a design-based research

  9. Application of hierarchical dissociated neural network in closed-loop hybrid system integrating biological and mechanical intelligence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongcheng Li

    Full Text Available Neural networks are considered the origin of intelligence in organisms. In this paper, a new design of an intelligent system merging biological intelligence with artificial intelligence was created. It was based on a neural controller bidirectionally connected to an actual mobile robot to implement a novel vehicle. Two types of experimental preparations were utilized as the neural controller including 'random' and '4Q' (cultured neurons artificially divided into four interconnected parts neural network. Compared to the random cultures, the '4Q' cultures presented absolutely different activities, and the robot controlled by the '4Q' network presented better capabilities in search tasks. Our results showed that neural cultures could be successfully employed to control an artificial agent; the robot performed better and better with the stimulus because of the short-term plasticity. A new framework is provided to investigate the bidirectional biological-artificial interface and develop new strategies for a future intelligent system using these simplified model systems.

  10. Application of hierarchical dissociated neural network in closed-loop hybrid system integrating biological and mechanical intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongcheng; Sun, Rong; Zhang, Bin; Wang, Yuechao; Li, Hongyi

    2015-01-01

    Neural networks are considered the origin of intelligence in organisms. In this paper, a new design of an intelligent system merging biological intelligence with artificial intelligence was created. It was based on a neural controller bidirectionally connected to an actual mobile robot to implement a novel vehicle. Two types of experimental preparations were utilized as the neural controller including 'random' and '4Q' (cultured neurons artificially divided into four interconnected parts) neural network. Compared to the random cultures, the '4Q' cultures presented absolutely different activities, and the robot controlled by the '4Q' network presented better capabilities in search tasks. Our results showed that neural cultures could be successfully employed to control an artificial agent; the robot performed better and better with the stimulus because of the short-term plasticity. A new framework is provided to investigate the bidirectional biological-artificial interface and develop new strategies for a future intelligent system using these simplified model systems.

  11. Modelling the regulatory system for diabetes mellitus with a threshold window

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jin; Tang, Sanyi; Cheke, Robert A.

    2015-05-01

    Piecewise (or non-smooth) glucose-insulin models with threshold windows for type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus are proposed and analyzed with a view to improving understanding of the glucose-insulin regulatory system. For glucose-insulin models with a single threshold, the existence and stability of regular, virtual, pseudo-equilibria and tangent points are addressed. Then the relations between regular equilibria and a pseudo-equilibrium are studied. Furthermore, the sufficient and necessary conditions for the global stability of regular equilibria and the pseudo-equilibrium are provided by using qualitative analysis techniques of non-smooth Filippov dynamic systems. Sliding bifurcations related to boundary node bifurcations were investigated with theoretical and numerical techniques, and insulin clinical therapies are discussed. For glucose-insulin models with a threshold window, the effects of glucose thresholds or the widths of threshold windows on the durations of insulin therapy and glucose infusion were addressed. The duration of the effects of an insulin injection is sensitive to the variation of thresholds. Our results indicate that blood glucose level can be maintained within a normal range using piecewise glucose-insulin models with a single threshold or a threshold window. Moreover, our findings suggest that it is critical to individualise insulin therapy for each patient separately, based on initial blood glucose levels.

  12. The regulatory regime for gas: a system in danger of coming off the rails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nangle, B.

    2000-01-01

    The Australian Gas Association (AGA) and its members are getting restless as it becomes more apparent the promised benefits of deregulation are imposing more costs and controls on an industry that owns and operates infrastructure valued at $15bn in heavily regulated markets. AGA Chief Executive Bill Nable used the Northern Territory Electricity and Gas Review in Darwin to examine the state of the gas regulatory regime. The pure reform model envisaged: 1. Multiple producers dealing often directly with large customers and retailers; 2. Open and transparent third party access to transmission (high pressure pipelines) and distribution (local low pressure pipeline networks) systems; and 3. A greater number of energy retailers competing for customers who are free to choose who they purchase their gas from. Energy sector reforms were generally pursued in a coordinated fashion through Commonwealth and State leaders forum - COAG. For gas, as with electricity, this meant separating out (unbundling) previously integrated gas utilities to engender competition and to lower prices - initially for major export and import competing sectors and eventually residential and small business customers. Although the reforms are laudable and have industry support, senior gas industry executives spoke about their concerns and caution about the negative impact the 'Third Party Access Code for Natural Gas and Pipeline Systems' may have for the gas supply industry

  13. Two negative regulatory systems of root nodule symbiosis - how are symbiotic benefits and costs balanced?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Hanna; Suzaki, Takuya

    2018-05-30

    Root nodule symbiosis is one of the best-characterized mutualistic relationships between plants-microbes symbiosis, where mainly leguminous species can obtain nitrogen sources fixed by nitrogen-fixing rhizobia through the formation of symbiotic organs root nodules. In order to drive this symbiotic process, plants need to provide carbon sources that should be used for their growth. Therefore, a balance between the benefits of obtaining nitrogen sources and the costs of losing carbon sources needs to be maintained during root nodule symbiosis. Plants have developed at least two negative regulatory systems of root nodule symbiosis. One strategy involves the regulation of nodule number in response to rhizobial infection. For this regulation, a systemic long-range signaling between roots and shoots called autoregulation of nodulation has a pivotal role. Another strategy involves the regulation of root nodule symbiosis in response to nitrate, the most abundant form of nitrogen nutrients in the soil. Recent studies indicate that a long-distance signaling is shared between the two strategies, where NIN and NRSYM1, two paralogous RWP-RK transcription factors, can activate the production of nodulation-related CLE peptides in response to different inputs. Here, we give an overview of such progress in our understanding of molecular mechanisms relevant to the control of the symbiotic balance, including their biological significance.

  14. The effect of reward system on job satisfaction in an organizational chart of four hierarchical levels: A qualitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galanou, E.; Georgakopoulos, G.; Sotiropoulos, I.; Vasilopoulos, D.

    2010-01-01

    Rewards systems are one of the most significant issues of the human resource management. Throughout the literature, it is obvious that theorists and academics, as well as practitioners and managers emphasize the important factor of rewards. Additionally, job satisfaction is another crucial term

  15. Analyzing the Factorial Structure of the Classroom Assessment Scoring System-Secondary Using a Bayesian Hierarchical Multivariate Ordinal Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Kun; McCaffrey, Daniel F.; Savitsky, Terrance D.

    2013-01-01

    Standardized teaching observation protocols have become increasingly popular in evaluating teaching in recent years. One of such protocols that has gained substantial interest from researchers and practitioners is the Classroom Assessment Scoring System-Secondary (CLASSS). According to the developer, CLASS-S has three domains of teacher-student…

  16. From trial to triumph: How Canada’s past financial crises helped shape a superior regulatory system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrie Savage

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available As anyone paying attention during the 2008–2009 financial crisis is aware, the Canadian financial system weathered the storm uniquely well. Exactly why Canada’s system remained so comparatively stable, while so many other foreign systems broke down, is a question that remains largely unsettled. One explanation may be that the regulatory system that emerged from a very specific history of prior crises had both prepared Canada well for such a crisis, and responded effectively as the crisis unfolded. But the very regulatory system that provided stability in recent years may also be at risk of becoming warped by its own success, with regulators so emboldened by the acclaim for their recent achievements that they overreach to ensure their track record remains unblemished in the future. The stunning collapse of a pair of western Canadian banks, a number of major Canadian trust companies and several insurance companies, as well as some other precarious near misses in the 1980s and 1990s, were a shock to the financial regulatory system, highlighting deficiencies that would be addressed with new regulations and, most notably, the creation of the Office of the Superintendent of Financial Institutions (OSFI. Canada’s centralized regulatory approach, through the OSFI and just four other major regulatory bodies, has proved both more elegant and effective than, for instance, the more complicated, more convoluted and more decentralized American financial-oversight system. But some regulated companies, insurers in particular, have long maintained that the concentration of power in Canada’s large banks has resulted in a one-size-fits-all regulatory approach that does not offer a relatively lighter burden for smaller institutions, potentially stifling growth. In other words, an over-emphasis on stability may be hampering market efficiency. Nor is there any economic evidence to shed light on whether those and other costs of regulating stability are

  17. From Trial to Triumph: How Canada’s Past Financial Crises Helped Shape a Superior Regulatory System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrie Savage

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available As anyone paying attention during the 2008–2009 financial crisis is aware, the Canadian financial system weathered the storm uniquely well. Exactly why Canada’s system remained so comparatively stable, while so many other foreign systems broke down, is a question that remains largely unsettled. One explanation may be that the regulatory system that emerged from a very specific history of prior crises had both prepared Canada well for such a crisis, and responded effectively as the crisis unfolded. But the very regulatory system that provided stability in recent years may also be at risk of becoming warped by its own success, with regulators so emboldened by the acclaim for their recent achievements that they overreach to ensure their track record remains unblemished in the future. The stunning collapse of a pair of western Canadian banks, a number of major Canadian trust companies and several insurance companies, as well as some other precarious near misses in the 1980s and 1990s, were a shock to the financial regulatory system, highlighting deficiencies that would be addressed with new regulations and, most notably, the creation of the Office of the Superintendent of Financial Institutions (OSFI. Canada’s centralized regulatory approach, through the OSFI and just four other major regulatory bodies, has proved both more elegant and effective than, for instance, the more complicated, more convoluted and more decentralized American financial-oversight system. But some regulated companies, insurers in particular, have long maintained that the concentration of power in Canada’s large banks has resulted in a one-size-fits-all regulatory approach that does not offer a relatively lighter burden for smaller institutions, potentially stifling growth. In other words, an over-emphasis on stability may be hampering market efficiency. Nor is there any economic evidence to shed light on whether those and other costs of regulating stability are

  18. Hierarchical capillary adhesion of microcantilevers or hairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jianlin; Feng Xiqiao; Xia Re; Zhao Hongping

    2007-01-01

    As a result of capillary forces, animal hairs, carbon nanotubes or nanowires of a periodically or randomly distributed array often assemble into hierarchical structures. In this paper, the energy method is adopted to analyse the capillary adhesion of microsized hairs, which are modelled as clamped microcantilevers wetted by liquids. The critical conditions for capillary adhesion of two hairs, three hairs or two bundles of hairs are derived in terms of Young's contact angle, elastic modulus and geometric sizes of the beams. Then, the hierarchical capillary adhesion of hairs is addressed. It is found that for multiple hairs or microcantilevers, the system tends to take a hierarchical structure as a result of the minimization of the total potential energy of the system. The level number of structural hierarchy increases with the increase in the number of hairs if they are sufficiently long. Additionally, we performed experiments to verify our theoretical solutions for the adhesion of microbeams

  19. Hierarchical species distribution models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefley, Trevor J.; Hooten, Mevin B.

    2016-01-01

    Determining the distribution pattern of a species is important to increase scientific knowledge, inform management decisions, and conserve biodiversity. To infer spatial and temporal patterns, species distribution models have been developed for use with many sampling designs and types of data. Recently, it has been shown that count, presence-absence, and presence-only data can be conceptualized as arising from a point process distribution. Therefore, it is important to understand properties of the point process distribution. We examine how the hierarchical species distribution modeling framework has been used to incorporate a wide array of regression and theory-based components while accounting for the data collection process and making use of auxiliary information. The hierarchical modeling framework allows us to demonstrate how several commonly used species distribution models can be derived from the point process distribution, highlight areas of potential overlap between different models, and suggest areas where further research is needed.

  20. Bayesian nonparametric hierarchical modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunson, David B

    2009-04-01

    In biomedical research, hierarchical models are very widely used to accommodate dependence in multivariate and longitudinal data and for borrowing of information across data from different sources. A primary concern in hierarchical modeling is sensitivity to parametric assumptions, such as linearity and normality of the random effects. Parametric assumptions on latent variable distributions can be challenging to check and are typically unwarranted, given available prior knowledge. This article reviews some recent developments in Bayesian nonparametric methods motivated by complex, multivariate and functional data collected in biomedical studies. The author provides a brief review of flexible parametric approaches relying on finite mixtures and latent class modeling. Dirichlet process mixture models are motivated by the need to generalize these approaches to avoid assuming a fixed finite number of classes. Focusing on an epidemiology application, the author illustrates the practical utility and potential of nonparametric Bayes methods.

  1. Microstructure Hierarchical Model of Competitive e+-Ps Trapping in Nanostructurized Substances: from Nanoparticle-Uniform to Nanoparticle-Biased Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shpotyuk, Oleh; Ingram, Adam; Bujňáková, Zdenka; Baláž, Peter

    2017-12-01

    Microstructure hierarchical model considering the free-volume elements at the level of interacting crystallites (non-spherical approximation) and the agglomerates of these crystallites (spherical approximation) was developed to describe free-volume evolution in mechanochemically milled As 4 S 4 /ZnS composites employing positron annihilation spectroscopy in a lifetime measuring mode. Positron lifetime spectra were reconstructed from unconstrained three-term decomposition procedure and further subjected to parameterization using x3-x2-coupling decomposition algorithm. Intrinsic inhomogeneities due to coarse-grained As 4 S 4 and fine-grained ZnS nanoparticles were adequately described in terms of substitution trapping in positron and positronium (Ps) (bound positron-electron) states due to interfacial triple junctions between contacting particles and own free-volume defects in boundary compounds. Compositionally dependent nanostructurization in As 4 S 4 /ZnS nanocomposite system was imagined as conversion from o-Ps trapping sites to positron traps. The calculated trapping parameters that were shown could be useful to characterize adequately the nanospace filling in As 4 S 4 /ZnS composites.

  2. Assessment of Heavy Metal Pollution in Macrophytes, Water and Sediment of a Tropical Wetland System Using Hierarchical Cluster Analysis Technique

    OpenAIRE

    , N. Kumar J.I.; , M. Das; , R. Mukherji; , R.N. Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Heavy metal pollution in aquatic ecosystems is becoming a global phenomenon because these metals are indestructible and most of them have toxic effects on living organisms. Most of the fresh water bodies all over the world are getting contaminated thus declining their suitability. Therefore, monitoring and assessment of such freshwater systems has become an environmental concern. This study aims to elucidate the useful role of the cluster analysis to assess the relationship and interdependenc...

  3. Application of Hierarchical Dissociated Neural Network in Closed-Loop Hybrid System Integrating Biological and Mechanical Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Wang, Yuechao; Li, Hongyi

    2015-01-01

    Neural networks are considered the origin of intelligence in organisms. In this paper, a new design of an intelligent system merging biological intelligence with artificial intelligence was created. It was based on a neural controller bidirectionally connected to an actual mobile robot to implement a novel vehicle. Two types of experimental preparations were utilized as the neural controller including ‘random’ and ‘4Q’ (cultured neurons artificially divided into four interconnected parts) neural network. Compared to the random cultures, the ‘4Q’ cultures presented absolutely different activities, and the robot controlled by the ‘4Q’ network presented better capabilities in search tasks. Our results showed that neural cultures could be successfully employed to control an artificial agent; the robot performed better and better with the stimulus because of the short-term plasticity. A new framework is provided to investigate the bidirectional biological-artificial interface and develop new strategies for a future intelligent system using these simplified model systems. PMID:25992579

  4. Hierarchically Structured Electrospun Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-07

    in the natural lotus and silver ragwort leaves. Figure 4. Examples of electrospun bio-mimics of natural hierarchical structures. (A) Lotus leaf...B) pillared poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) electrospun fiber mimic; (C) silver ragwort leaf; (D) electrospun fiber mimic made from nylon 6 and...domains containing the protein in the surrounding EVA fibers [115]. A wide variety of core-shell fibers have been generated, including PCL/ gelatin

  5. Hierarchical video summarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratakonda, Krishna; Sezan, M. Ibrahim; Crinon, Regis J.

    1998-12-01

    We address the problem of key-frame summarization of vide in the absence of any a priori information about its content. This is a common problem that is encountered in home videos. We propose a hierarchical key-frame summarization algorithm where a coarse-to-fine key-frame summary is generated. A hierarchical key-frame summary facilitates multi-level browsing where the user can quickly discover the content of the video by accessing its coarsest but most compact summary and then view a desired segment of the video with increasingly more detail. At the finest level, the summary is generated on the basis of color features of video frames, using an extension of a recently proposed key-frame extraction algorithm. The finest level key-frames are recursively clustered using a novel pairwise K-means clustering approach with temporal consecutiveness constraint. We also address summarization of MPEG-2 compressed video without fully decoding the bitstream. We also propose efficient mechanisms that facilitate decoding the video when the hierarchical summary is utilized in browsing and playback of video segments starting at selected key-frames.

  6. Hierarchically Structured Electrospun Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole E. Zander

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional electrospun nanofibers have a myriad of applications ranging from scaffolds for tissue engineering to components of biosensors and energy harvesting devices. The generally smooth one-dimensional structure of the fibers has stood as a limitation to several interesting novel applications. Control of fiber diameter, porosity and collector geometry will be briefly discussed, as will more traditional methods for controlling fiber morphology and fiber mat architecture. The remainder of the review will focus on new techniques to prepare hierarchically structured fibers. Fibers with hierarchical primary structures—including helical, buckled, and beads-on-a-string fibers, as well as fibers with secondary structures, such as nanopores, nanopillars, nanorods, and internally structured fibers and their applications—will be discussed. These new materials with helical/buckled morphology are expected to possess unique optical and mechanical properties with possible applications for negative refractive index materials, highly stretchable/high-tensile-strength materials, and components in microelectromechanical devices. Core-shell type fibers enable a much wider variety of materials to be electrospun and are expected to be widely applied in the sensing, drug delivery/controlled release fields, and in the encapsulation of live cells for biological applications. Materials with a hierarchical secondary structure are expected to provide new superhydrophobic and self-cleaning materials.

  7. Optimal control of greenhouse gas emissions and system cost for integrated municipal solid waste management with considering a hierarchical structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; He, Li; Fan, Xing; Chen, Yizhong; Lu, Hongwei

    2017-08-01

    This study presents a synergic optimization of control for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and system cost in integrated municipal solid waste (MSW) management on a basis of bi-level programming. The bi-level programming is formulated by integrating minimizations of GHG emissions at the leader level and system cost at the follower level into a general MSW framework. Different from traditional single- or multi-objective approaches, the proposed bi-level programming is capable of not only addressing the tradeoffs but also dealing with the leader-follower relationship between different decision makers, who have dissimilar perspectives interests. GHG emission control is placed at the leader level could emphasize the significant environmental concern in MSW management. A bi-level decision-making process based on satisfactory degree is then suitable for solving highly nonlinear problems with computationally effectiveness. The capabilities and effectiveness of the proposed bi-level programming are illustrated by an application of a MSW management problem in Canada. Results show that the obtained optimal management strategy can bring considerable revenues, approximately from 76 to 97 million dollars. Considering control of GHG emissions, it would give priority to the development of the recycling facility throughout the whole period, especially in latter periods. In terms of capacity, the existing landfill is enough in the future 30 years without development of new landfills, while expansion to the composting and recycling facilities should be paid more attention.

  8. Meta-hierarchical-heuristic-mathematical- model of loading problems in flexible manufacturing system for development of an intelligent approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranbir Singh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Flexible manufacturing system (FMS promises a wide range of manufacturing benefits in terms of flexibility and productivity. These benefits are targeted by efficient production planning. Part type selection, machine grouping, deciding production ratio, resource allocation and machine loading are five identified production planning problems. Machine loading is the most identified complex problem solved with aid of computers. System up gradation and newer technology adoption are the primary needs of efficient FMS generating new scopes of research in the field. The literature review is carried and the critical analysis is being executed in the present work. This paper presents the outcomes of the mathematical modelling techniques for loading of machines in FMS’s. It was also analysed that the mathematical modelling is necessary for accurate and reliable analysis for practical applications. However, excessive computations need to be avoided and heuristics have to be used for real-world problems. This paper presents the heuristics-mathematical modelling of loading problem with machine processing time as primary input. The aim of the present work is to solve a real-world machine loading problem with an objective of balancing the workload of the FMS with decreased computational time. A Matlab code is developed for the solution and the results are found most accurate and reliable as presented in the paper.

  9. Reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide in plant mitochondria: origin and redundant regulatory systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blokhina, Olga; Fagerstedt, Kurt V

    2010-04-01

    ions or through interaction with non-symbiotic hemoglobins or glutathione. Mitochondrial ROS and NO production is tightly controlled by multiple redundant systems providing the regulatory mechanism for redox homeostasis and specific ROS/NO signaling.

  10. Ranking system for national regulatory jurisdictions based on pesticide standard values in major exposures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zijian Li

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available To control the risk of human exposure to pesticides, about 50 nations have promulgated pesticide soil regulatory guidance values (RGVs, and 104 nations have provided pesticide drinking water maximum concentration levels (MCLs. In addition, 90 nations have regulated pesticide agricultural commodity maximum residue limits (MRLs. Pesticide standard values (PSVs for one single pesticide varied in a range of six, seven, or even eight orders of magnitude. Some PSVs are too large to prevent the impact of pesticides on human health. Many nations have not provided PSVs for some commonly used pesticides until now. This research has introduced several completeness values and numerical values methods to evaluate the national jurisdiction’s performance on PSVs on a nation base. The national jurisdiction ranking system developed by these methods will be beneficial to the environmental regulation makers in the management of PSVs. Results also indicate that European countries perform better in the regulation of pesticide soil RGVs, drinking water MCLs, and agricultural commodity MRLs.

  11. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance structural studies of peptides and proteins from the vaso-regulatory System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sizun, Philippe

    1991-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to show how Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) allows to determine the 3D structure of peptides and proteins in solution. A comparative study of peptides involved in the vaso-regulatory System (form small hormonal peptide to the 65 amido-acid protein hirudin) has allowed to design most efficient NMR 1D and 2D strategies. It rapidly appeared that the size of the peptide plays a key role in the structuration of the molecule, smallest peptides being weakly structured owing to the lack of cooperative effects. As the molecular size increases or if conformational locks are present (disulfide bridges) the probability of stable secondary structure increases. For the protein hirudin, a combination of ail available NMR parameters deduced form dedicated experiments (chemical shifts, coupling constants, overhauser effects, accessibility of amide protons) and molecular modelling under constraints allows a clear 3D structure to be proposed for this protein in solution. Finally, a comparative study of the experimental structures and of those deduced form prediction rules has shed light on the concept of structural predisposition, the latter being of high value for a better understanding of structure-activity relationships. (author) [fr

  12. A two-component regulatory system controls autoregulated serpin expression in Bifidobacterium breve UCC2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Martin, Pablo; O'Connell Motherway, Mary; Turroni, Francesca; Foroni, Elena; Ventura, Marco; van Sinderen, Douwe

    2012-10-01

    This work reports on the identification and molecular characterization of a two-component regulatory system (2CRS), encoded by serRK, which is believed to control the expression of the ser(2003) locus in Bifidobacterium breve UCC2003. The ser(2003) locus consists of two genes, Bbr_1319 (sagA) and Bbr_1320 (serU), which are predicted to encode a hypothetical membrane-associated protein and a serpin-like protein, respectively. The response regulator SerR was shown to bind to the promoter region of ser(2003), and the probable recognition sequence of SerR was determined by a combinatorial approach of in vitro site-directed mutagenesis coupled to transcriptional fusion and electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs). The importance of the serRK 2CRS in the response of B. breve to protease-mediated induction was confirmed by generating a B. breve serR insertion mutant, which was shown to exhibit altered ser(2003) transcriptional induction patterns compared to the parent strain, UCC2003. Interestingly, the analysis of a B. breve serU mutant revealed that the SerRK signaling pathway appears to include a SerU-dependent autoregulatory loop.

  13. How do stakeholders from multiple hierarchical levels of a large provincial health system define engagement? A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Jill M; White, Deborah E; Nowell, Lorelli; Mrklas, Kelly; Stelfox, Henry T

    2017-08-01

    Engaging stakeholders from varied organizational levels is essential to successful healthcare quality improvement. However, engagement has been hard to achieve and to measure across diverse stakeholders. Further, current implementation science models provide little clarity about what engagement means, despite its importance. The aim of this study was to understand how stakeholders of healthcare improvement initiatives defined engagement. Participants (n = 86) in this qualitative thematic study were purposively sampled for individual interviews. Participants included leaders, core members, frontline clinicians, support personnel, and other stakeholders of Strategic Clinical Networks in Alberta Health Services, a Canadian provincial health system with over 108,000 employees. We used an iterative thematic approach to analyze participants' responses to the question, "How do you define engagement?" Regardless of their organizational role, participants defined engagement through three interrelated themes. First, engagement was active participation from willing and committed stakeholders, with levels that ranged from information sharing to full decision-making. Second, engagement centered on a shared decision-making process about meaningful change for everyone "around the table," those who are most impacted. Third, engagement was two-way interactions that began early in the change process, where exchanges were respectful and all stakeholders felt heard and understood. This study highlights the commonalities of how stakeholders in a large healthcare system defined engagement-a shared understanding and terminology-to guide and improve stakeholder engagement. Overall, engagement was an active and committed decision-making about a meaningful problem through respectful interactions and dialog where everyone's voice is considered. Our results may be used in conjunction with current implementation models to provide clarity about what engagement means and how to engage various

  14. Strategic Regulatory Evaluation and Endorsement of the Hollow Fiber Tuberculosis System as a Novel Drug Development Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Klaus; Clay, Robert; Hanna, Debra

    2015-08-15

    The first nonclinical drug development tool (DDT) advanced by the Critical Path to TB Drug Regimens (CPTR) Initiative through a regulatory review process has been endorsed by leading global regulatory authorities. DDTs with demonstrated predictive accuracy for clinical and microbiological outcomes are needed to support decision making. Regulatory endorsement of these DDTs is critical for drug developers, as it promotes confidence in their use in Investigational New Drug and New Drug Application filings. The in vitro hollow fiber system model of tuberculosis (HFS-TB) is able to recapitulate concentration-time profiles (exposure) observed in patients for single drugs and combinations, by evaluating exposure measures for the ability to kill tuberculosis in different physiologic conditions. Monte Carlo simulations make this quantitative output useful to inform susceptibility breakpoints, dosage, and optimal combination regimens in patients, and to design nonclinical experiments in animal models. The Pre-Clinical and Clinical Sciences Working Group within CPTR executed an evidence-based evaluation of the HFS-TB for predictive accuracy. This extensive effort was enabled through the collaboration of subject matter experts representing the pharmaceutical industry, academia, product development partnerships, and regulatory authorities including the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the European Medicines Agency (EMA). A comprehensive analysis plan following the regulatory guidance documents for DDT qualification was developed, followed by individual discussions with the FDA and the EMA. The results from the quantitative analyses were submitted to both agencies, pursuing regulatory DDT endorsement. The EMA Qualification Opinion for the HFS-TB DDT was published 26 January 2015 (available at: http://www.ema.europa.eu/ema/index.jsp?curl=pages/regulation/document_listing/document_listing_000319.jsp). © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the

  15. Constitutive, Institutive and Up-Regulation of Carotenogenesis Regulatory Mechanism via In Vitro Culture Model System and Elicitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashidi Othman; Fatimah Azzahra Mohd Zaifuddin; Norazian Mohd Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Phyto hormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays a regulatory role in many physiological processes in plants and is regulated and controlled by specific key factors or genes. Different environmental stress conditions such as water, drought, cold, light, and temperature result in increased amounts of ABA. The action of ABA involves modification of gene expression and analysis of in vitro callus model system cultures revealed several potential of constitutive, institutive and up-regulation acting regulatory mechanisms. Therefore, this study was aimed at establishing in vitro cultures as potential research tools to study the regulatory mechanisms of the carotenoid biosynthesis in selected plant species through a controlled environment. The presence and absence of zeaxanthin and neoxanthin in callus cultures and intact plants could be explained by changes in gene expression in response to stress. Abiotic stress can alter gene expression and trigger cellular metabolism in plants. This study suggested that the key factors which involved in regulatory mechanisms of individual carotenoid biosynthesis in a particular biology system of plants can be either be silenced or activated. Therefore, based on the results in this study environmental stress is made possible for enhancement or enrichment of certain carotenoid of interest in food crops without altering the genes. (author)

  16. Regulatory agencies and regulatory risk

    OpenAIRE

    Knieps, Günter; Weiß, Hans-Jörg

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to show that regulatory risk is due to the discretionary behaviour of regulatory agencies, caused by a too extensive regulatory mandate provided by the legislator. The normative point of reference and a behavioural model of regulatory agencies based on the positive theory of regulation are presented. Regulatory risk with regard to the future behaviour of regulatory agencies is modelled as the consequence of the ex ante uncertainty about the relative influence of inter...

  17. Leaf-architectured 3D Hierarchical Artificial Photosynthetic System of Perovskite Titanates Towards CO2 Photoreduction Into Hydrocarbon Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Han; Guo, Jianjun; Li, Peng; Fan, Tongxiang; Zhang, Di; Ye, Jinhua

    2013-01-01

    The development of an “artificial photosynthetic system” (APS) having both the analogous important structural elements and reaction features of photosynthesis to achieve solar-driven water splitting and CO2 reduction is highly challenging. Here, we demonstrate a design strategy for a promising 3D APS architecture as an efficient mass flow/light harvesting network relying on the morphological replacement of a concept prototype-leaf's 3D architecture into perovskite titanates for CO2 photoreduction into hydrocarbon fuels (CO and CH4). The process uses artificial sunlight as the energy source, water as an electron donor and CO2 as the carbon source, mimicking what real leaves do. To our knowledge this is the first example utilizing biological systems as “architecture-directing agents” for APS towards CO2 photoreduction, which hints at a more general principle for APS architectures with a great variety of optimized biological geometries. This research would have great significance for the potential realization of global carbon neutral cycle. PMID:23588925

  18. BioCichlid: central dogma-based 3D visualization system of time-course microarray data on a hierarchical biological network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiwata, Ryosuke R; Morioka, Masaki S; Ogishima, Soichi; Tanaka, Hiroshi

    2009-02-15

    BioCichlid is a 3D visualization system of time-course microarray data on molecular networks, aiming at interpretation of gene expression data by transcriptional relationships based on the central dogma with physical and genetic interactions. BioCichlid visualizes both physical (protein) and genetic (regulatory) network layers, and provides animation of time-course gene expression data on the genetic network layer. Transcriptional regulations are represented to bridge the physical network (transcription factors) and genetic network (regulated genes) layers, thus integrating promoter analysis into the pathway mapping. BioCichlid enhances the interpretation of microarray data and allows for revealing the underlying mechanisms causing differential gene expressions. BioCichlid is freely available and can be accessed at http://newton.tmd.ac.jp/. Source codes for both biocichlid server and client are also available.

  19. Hierarchically nested river landform sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasternack, G. B.; Weber, M. D.; Brown, R. A.; Baig, D.

    2017-12-01

    River corridors exhibit landforms nested within landforms repeatedly down spatial scales. In this study we developed, tested, and implemented a new way to create river classifications by mapping domains of fluvial processes with respect to the hierarchical organization of topographic complexity that drives fluvial dynamism. We tested this approach on flow convergence routing, a morphodynamic mechanism with different states depending on the structure of nondimensional topographic variability. Five nondimensional landform types with unique functionality (nozzle, wide bar, normal channel, constricted pool, and oversized) represent this process at any flow. When this typology is nested at base flow, bankfull, and floodprone scales it creates a system with up to 125 functional types. This shows how a single mechanism produces complex dynamism via nesting. Given the classification, we answered nine specific scientific questions to investigate the abundance, sequencing, and hierarchical nesting of these new landform types using a 35-km gravel/cobble river segment of the Yuba River in California. The nested structure of flow convergence routing landforms found in this study revealed that bankfull landforms are nested within specific floodprone valley landform types, and these types control bankfull morphodynamics during moderate to large floods. As a result, this study calls into question the prevailing theory that the bankfull channel of a gravel/cobble river is controlled by in-channel, bankfull, and/or small flood flows. Such flows are too small to initiate widespread sediment transport in a gravel/cobble river with topographic complexity.

  20. Hierarchical modeling of active materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taya, Minoru

    2003-01-01

    Intelligent (or smart) materials are increasingly becoming key materials for use in actuators and sensors. If an intelligent material is used as a sensor, it can be embedded in a variety of structure functioning as a health monitoring system to make their life longer with high reliability. If an intelligent material is used as an active material in an actuator, it plays a key role of making dynamic movement of the actuator under a set of stimuli. This talk intends to cover two different active materials in actuators, (1) piezoelectric laminate with FGM microstructure, (2) ferromagnetic shape memory alloy (FSMA). The advantage of using the FGM piezo laminate is to enhance its fatigue life while maintaining large bending displacement, while that of use in FSMA is its fast actuation while providing a large force and stroke capability. Use of hierarchical modeling of the above active materials is a key design step in optimizing its microstructure for enhancement of their performance. I will discuss briefly hierarchical modeling of the above two active materials. For FGM piezo laminate, we will use both micromechanical model and laminate theory, while for FSMA, the modeling interfacing nano-structure, microstructure and macro-behavior is discussed. (author)

  1. Hierarchical organisation of causal graphs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dziopa, P.

    1993-01-01

    This paper deals with the design of a supervision system using a hierarchy of models formed by graphs, in which the variables are the nodes and the causal relations between the variables of the arcs. To obtain a representation of the variables evolutions which contains only the relevant features of their real evolutions, the causal relations are completed with qualitative transfer functions (QTFs) which produce roughly the behaviour of the classical transfer functions. Major improvements have been made in the building of the hierarchical organization. First, the basic variables of the uppermost level and the causal relations between them are chosen. The next graph is built by adding intermediary variables to the upper graph. When the undermost graph has been built, the transfer functions parameters corresponding to its causal relations are identified. The second task consists in the upwelling of the information from the undermost graph to the uppermost one. A fusion procedure of the causal relations has been designed to compute the QFTs relevant for each level. This procedure aims to reduce the number of parameters needed to represent an evolution at a high level of abstraction. These techniques have been applied to the hierarchical modelling of nuclear process. (authors). 8 refs., 12 figs

  2. Analyzing security protocols in hierarchical networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Ye; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2006-01-01

    Validating security protocols is a well-known hard problem even in a simple setting of a single global network. But a real network often consists of, besides the public-accessed part, several sub-networks and thereby forms a hierarchical structure. In this paper we first present a process calculus...... capturing the characteristics of hierarchical networks and describe the behavior of protocols on such networks. We then develop a static analysis to automate the validation. Finally we demonstrate how the technique can benefit the protocol development and the design of network systems by presenting a series...

  3. Hierarchical MAS based control strategy for microgrid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Z.; Li, T.; Huang, M.; Shi, J.; Yang, J.; Yu, J. [School of Information Science and Engineering, Yunnan University, Kunming 650091 (China); Xiao, Z. [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Western Catchment Area, 639798 (Singapore); Wu, W. [Communication Branch of Yunnan Power Grid Corporation, Kunming, Yunnan 650217 (China)

    2010-09-15

    Microgrids have become a hot topic driven by the dual pressures of environmental protection concerns and the energy crisis. In this paper, a challenge for the distributed control of a modern electric grid incorporating clusters of residential microgrids is elaborated and a hierarchical multi-agent system (MAS) is proposed as a solution. The issues of how to realize the hierarchical MAS and how to improve coordination and control strategies are discussed. Based on MATLAB and ZEUS platforms, bilateral switching between grid-connected mode and island mode is performed under control of the proposed MAS to enhance and support its effectiveness. (authors)

  4. Regulatory action of catalpol from radix rehmanniae on β-adrenoceptor-cyclic AMP system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Qingfeng; Sun Qixiang; Hu Yaer; Xia Zongqin

    2004-01-01

    Objective: It has been proved in previous works from this laboratory that the Yin tonic effect of water extract of Radix Rehmanniae is closely related to its down-regulation effect on β adrenoceptor-cyclic AMP system. The purpose of this work is to investigate whether catalpol from Radix Rehmanniae is the effective active component of this plant drug. Methods: Catalpol was extracted from fresh Radix Rehmanniae by organic solvents and purified by low pressure silica gel column and recrystallization. Experimental mice were divided into 4 groups. Three groups of hyperthyroid mouse models were prepared with subcutaneous injection of T 3 and two of them were additionally fed oral catalpol at low and high dose respectively. One group receiving neither T 3 nor catalpol served as controls. Plasma cAMP levels in these mice were measured with RIA 10 min after subcutaneous injection of a single dose of isoproterenol. Results: After injection of catalpol, the plasma cAMP content rose markedly to above 700 pmol/ml in control mice while that of the hyperthyroid mice rose to a even higher levels. Simultaneous additional oral administration of catalpol with purity >97% for 6 days significantly lowered the cAMP level in hyperthyroid mice. With catalpol dose of 1.56 mg/mouse/d and 6.0 mg/mouse/d, the plasma cAMP levels were 978 ± 283 pmol/ml and 1070 ± 394 pmol/ml respectively, the values in the group without catalpol being 1408 ± 568 pmol/ml and 1491 ± 486 pmol/ml, both P<0.05. Conclusion: Catalpol can repeat the regulatory effect of water extract of Radix Rehmanniae on β adrenoceptor-cyclic AMP system, that is, down regulate the response of hyperthyroid mice to isoproterenol. This result suggests that catalpol is an effective active component of the Yin tonic effect of Radix Rehmanniae. (authors)

  5. Static and dynamic friction of hierarchical surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costagliola, Gianluca; Bosia, Federico; Pugno, Nicola M

    2016-12-01

    Hierarchical structures are very common in nature, but only recently have they been systematically studied in materials science, in order to understand the specific effects they can have on the mechanical properties of various systems. Structural hierarchy provides a way to tune and optimize macroscopic mechanical properties starting from simple base constituents and new materials are nowadays designed exploiting this possibility. This can be true also in the field of tribology. In this paper we study the effect of hierarchical patterned surfaces on the static and dynamic friction coefficients of an elastic material. Our results are obtained by means of numerical simulations using a one-dimensional spring-block model, which has previously been used to investigate various aspects of friction. Despite the simplicity of the model, we highlight some possible mechanisms that explain how hierarchical structures can significantly modify the friction coefficients of a material, providing a means to achieve tunability.

  6. Hierarchical silica particles by dynamic multicomponent assembly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Z. W.; Hu, Q. Y.; Pang, J. B.

    2005-01-01

    Abstract: Aerosol-assisted assembly of mesoporous silica particles with hierarchically controllable pore structure has been prepared using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and poly(propylene oxide) (PPO, H[OCH(CH3)CH2],OH) as co-templates. Addition of the hydrophobic PPO significantly...... influences the delicate hydrophilic-hydrophobic balance in the well-studied CTAB-silicate co-assembling system, resulting in various mesostructures (such as hexagonal, lamellar, and hierarchical structure). The co-assembly of CTAB, silicate clusters, and a low-molecular-weight PPO (average M-n 425) results...... in a uniform lamellar structure, while the use of a high-molecular-weight PPO (average M-n 2000), which is more hydrophobic, leads to the formation of hierarchical pore structure that contains meso-meso or meso-macro pore structure. The role of PPO additives on the mesostructure evolution in the CTAB...

  7. Hierarchical Control for Smart Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trangbæk, K; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    of autonomous consumers. The control system is tasked with balancing electric power production and consumption within the smart grid, and makes active use of the flexibility of a large number of power producing and/or power consuming units. The objective is to accommodate the load variation on the grid, arising......This paper deals with hierarchical model predictive control (MPC) of smart grid systems. The design consists of a high level MPC controller, a second level of so-called aggregators, which reduces the computational and communication-related load on the high-level control, and a lower level...... on one hand from varying consumption, and on the other hand by natural variations in power production e.g. from wind turbines. The high-level MPC problem is solved using quadratic optimisation, while the aggregator level can either involve quadratic optimisation or simple sorting-based min-max solutions...

  8. Modular networks with hierarchical organization: The dynamical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Most of the complex systems seen in real life also have associated dynamics [10], and the ... another example, this time a hierarchical structure, viz., the Cayley tree with b ..... natural constraints operating on networks in real life, such as the ...

  9. Context updates are hierarchical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Karl Ingason

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This squib studies the order in which elements are added to the shared context of interlocutors in a conversation. It focuses on context updates within one hierarchical structure and argues that structurally higher elements are entered into the context before lower elements, even if the structurally higher elements are pronounced after the lower elements. The crucial data are drawn from a comparison of relative clauses in two head-initial languages, English and Icelandic, and two head-final languages, Korean and Japanese. The findings have consequences for any theory of a dynamic semantics.

  10. Regulatory Considerations for the Long Term Cooling Safe Shutdown Requirements of the Passive Residual Heat Removal Systems in Advanced Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sim, S. K.; Bae, S. H.; Kim, Y. S.; Hwang, Min Jeong; Bang, Young Seok; Hwang, Taesuk

    2016-01-01

    USNRC approved safe shutdown at 215.6 .deg. C for a safe and long term cooling state for the redundant passive RHRSs by SECY-94-084. USNRC issued COLA(Combined Construction and Operating License) for the Levy County NP Unit-1/2 for the AP1000 passive RHRSs in 2014. Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power(KHNP) is developing APR+ and adopted Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System(PAFS) as a new passive RHRS design. Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety(KINS) has been developing regulatory guides for the advanced safety design features of the advanced ALWRs which has plan to construct in near future in Korea[5]. Safety and regulatory issues as well as the safe shut down requirements of the passive RHRS are discussed and considerations in developing regulatory guides for the passive RHRS are presented herein. Passive RHRSs have been introduced as new safety design features for the advanced reactors under development in Korea. These passive RHRSs have potential advantages over existing active RHRS, however, their functions are limited due to inherent ability of passive heat removal processes. It is high time to evaluate the performance of the passive PRHRs and develop regulatory guides for the safety as well as the performance analyses of the passive RHRS

  11. Regulatory Experience of the Embedded Digital Devices for Safety I and C Systems on Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Y. M.; Lee, H. K.; Park, H. S. [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Conventional I and C(Instrumentation and Control) systems are tend to becoming unavailable and being replaced by smart equipment. These smart equipment is usually called embedded digital devices (EDDs) or industrial digital devices of limited functionality. Usually, some of these devices are found embedded in plant equipment such as sensing instrumentation, motors, pumps, actuators and breakers. They typically have a micro-processor, RAM, communication interface, a power source, etc. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (US NRC) is concerning that these EDDs might exist in procured equipment used in safety systems without the devices having been explicitly identified in procurement documentation. This paper addresses the regulatory experiences of KINS of the EDDs for safety I and C systems and the future works for them. In this paper, we showed regulatory experiences of EDDs which used for safety grade equipment. EDDs might exist in safety grade procured equipment without explicit identification. Undetected defects of EDDs might be the potential safety concerns. EDDs should meet certain specific requirements in order to be selected and used in safety I and C system. We have plan to develop technical positions for identification and qualifying them. The technical position will address, but may not be limited to, quality and reliability, CCFs via software errors, EMC, and CGID for EDDs.

  12. Circuitry Linking the Catabolite Repression and Csr Global Regulatory Systems of Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannuri, Archana; Vakulskas, Christopher A; Zere, Tesfalem; McGibbon, Louise C; Edwards, Adrianne N; Georgellis, Dimitris; Babitzke, Paul; Romeo, Tony

    2016-11-01

    Cyclic AMP (cAMP) and the cAMP receptor protein (cAMP-CRP) and CsrA are the principal regulators of the catabolite repression and carbon storage global regulatory systems, respectively. cAMP-CRP controls the transcription of genes for carbohydrate metabolism and other processes in response to carbon nutritional status, while CsrA binds to diverse mRNAs and regulates translation, RNA stability, and/or transcription elongation. CsrA also binds to the regulatory small RNAs (sRNAs) CsrB and CsrC, which antagonize its activity. The BarA-UvrY two-component signal transduction system (TCS) directly activates csrB and csrC (csrB/C) transcription, while CsrA does so indirectly. We show that cAMP-CRP inhibits csrB/C transcription without negatively regulating phosphorylated UvrY (P-UvrY) or CsrA levels. A crp deletion caused an elevation in CsrB/C levels in the stationary phase of growth and increased the expression of csrB-lacZ and csrC-lacZ transcriptional fusions, although modest stimulation of CsrB/C turnover by the crp deletion partially masked the former effects. DNase I footprinting and other studies demonstrated that cAMP-CRP bound specifically to three sites located upstream from the csrC promoter, two of which overlapped the P-UvrY binding site. These two proteins competed for binding at the overlapping sites. In vitro transcription-translation experiments confirmed direct repression of csrC-lacZ expression by cAMP-CRP. In contrast, cAMP-CRP effects on csrB transcription may be mediated indirectly, as it bound nonspecifically to csrB DNA. In the reciprocal direction, CsrA bound to crp mRNA with high affinity and specificity and yet exhibited only modest, conditional effects on expression. Our findings are incorporated into an emerging model for the response of Csr circuitry to carbon nutritional status. Csr (Rsm) noncoding small RNAs (sRNAs) CsrB and CsrC of Escherichia coli use molecular mimicry to sequester the RNA binding protein CsrA (RsmA) away from lower

  13. Detecting Hierarchical Structure in Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herlau, Tue; Mørup, Morten; Schmidt, Mikkel Nørgaard

    2012-01-01

    Many real-world networks exhibit hierarchical organization. Previous models of hierarchies within relational data has focused on binary trees; however, for many networks it is unknown whether there is hierarchical structure, and if there is, a binary tree might not account well for it. We propose...... a generative Bayesian model that is able to infer whether hierarchies are present or not from a hypothesis space encompassing all types of hierarchical tree structures. For efficient inference we propose a collapsed Gibbs sampling procedure that jointly infers a partition and its hierarchical structure....... On synthetic and real data we demonstrate that our model can detect hierarchical structure leading to better link-prediction than competing models. Our model can be used to detect if a network exhibits hierarchical structure, thereby leading to a better comprehension and statistical account the network....

  14. Proteomic analysis reveals metabolic and regulatory systems involved the syntrophic and axenic lifestyle of Syntrophomonas wolfei.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Rhea Sieber

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Microbial syntrophy is a vital metabolic interaction necessary for the complete oxidation of organic biomass to methane in all-anaerobic ecosystems. However, this process is thermodynamically constrained and represents an ecosystem-level metabolic bottleneck. To gain insight into the physiology of this process, a shotgun proteomic approach was used to quantify the protein landscape of the model syntrophic metabolizer, Syntrophomonas wolfei, grown axenically and syntrophically with Methanospirillum hungatei. Remarkably, the abundance of most proteins as represented by normalized spectral abundance factor (NSAF value changed very little between the pure and coculture growth conditions. Among the most abundant proteins detected were GroEL and GroES chaperonins, a small heat shock protein, and proteins involved in electron transfer, beta-oxidation, and ATP synthesis. Several putative energy conservation enzyme systems that utilize NADH and ferredoxin were present. The abundance of an EtfAB2 and the membrane-bound iron-sulfur oxidoreductase (Swol_0698 gene product delineated a potential conduit for electron transfer between acyl-CoA dehydrogenases and membrane redox carriers. Proteins detected only when S. wolfei was grown with M. hungatei included a zinc-dependent dehydrogenase with a GroES domain, whose gene is present in genomes in many organisms capable of syntrophy, and transcriptional regulators responsive to environmental stimuli or the physiological status of the cell. The proteomic analysis revealed an emphasis macromolecular stability and energy metabolism to S. wolfei and presence of regulatory mechanisms responsive to external stimuli and cellular physiological status.

  15. Imbalanced expression of functional surface molecules in regulatory and effector T cells in systemic lupus erythematosus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesquita Júnior, D. [Disciplina de Reumatologia, Departamento de Medicina, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Cruvinel, W.M. [Disciplina de Reumatologia, Departamento de Medicina, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Departamento de Biomedicina, Universidade Católica de Goiás, Goiânia, GO (Brazil); Araujo, J.A.P. [Disciplina de Reumatologia, Departamento de Medicina, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Salmazi, K.C.; Kallas, E.G. [Disciplina de Imunologia Clínica e Alergia, Departamento de Clínica Médica, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Andrade, L.E.C. [Disciplina de Reumatologia, Departamento de Medicina, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-08-22

    Regulatory T (TREG) cells play an important role in maintaining immune tolerance and avoiding autoimmunity. We analyzed the expression of membrane molecules in TREG and effector T cells in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). TREG and effector T cells were analyzed for the expression of CTLA-4, PD1, CD28, CD95, GITR, HLA-DR, OX40, CD40L, and CD45RO in 26 patients with active disease, 31 with inactive disease, and 26 healthy controls. TREG cells were defined as CD25{sup +/high}CD127{sup Ø/low}FoxP3{sup +}, and effector T cells were defined as CD25{sup +}CD127{sup +}FoxP3{sup Ø}. The ratio of TREG to effector T cells expressing GITR, PD1, HLA-DR, OX40, CD40L, and CD45RO was determined in the three groups. The frequency of TREG cells was similar in patients with SLE and controls. However, SLE patients had a decreased frequency of CTLA-4{sup +}TREG and CD28{sup +}TREG cells and an increased frequency of CD40L{sup +}TREG cells. There was a decrease in the TREG/effector-T ratio for GITR{sup +}, HLA-DR{sup +}, OX40{sup +}, and CD45RO{sup +} cells, and an increased ratio of TREG/effector-T CD40L{sup +} cells in patients with SLE. In addition, CD40L{sup +}TREG cell frequency correlated with the SLE disease activity index (P=0.0163). In conclusion, our findings showed several abnormalities in the expression of functionally critical surface molecules in TREG and effector T cells in SLE that may be relevant to the pathogenesis of this disease.

  16. Imbalanced expression of functional surface molecules in regulatory and effector T cells in systemic lupus erythematosus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesquita Júnior, D.; Cruvinel, W.M.; Araujo, J.A.P.; Salmazi, K.C.; Kallas, E.G.; Andrade, L.E.C.

    2014-01-01

    Regulatory T (TREG) cells play an important role in maintaining immune tolerance and avoiding autoimmunity. We analyzed the expression of membrane molecules in TREG and effector T cells in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). TREG and effector T cells were analyzed for the expression of CTLA-4, PD1, CD28, CD95, GITR, HLA-DR, OX40, CD40L, and CD45RO in 26 patients with active disease, 31 with inactive disease, and 26 healthy controls. TREG cells were defined as CD25 +/high CD127 Ø/low FoxP3 + , and effector T cells were defined as CD25 + CD127 + FoxP3 Ø . The ratio of TREG to effector T cells expressing GITR, PD1, HLA-DR, OX40, CD40L, and CD45RO was determined in the three groups. The frequency of TREG cells was similar in patients with SLE and controls. However, SLE patients had a decreased frequency of CTLA-4 + TREG and CD28 + TREG cells and an increased frequency of CD40L + TREG cells. There was a decrease in the TREG/effector-T ratio for GITR + , HLA-DR + , OX40 + , and CD45RO + cells, and an increased ratio of TREG/effector-T CD40L + cells in patients with SLE. In addition, CD40L + TREG cell frequency correlated with the SLE disease activity index (P=0.0163). In conclusion, our findings showed several abnormalities in the expression of functionally critical surface molecules in TREG and effector T cells in SLE that may be relevant to the pathogenesis of this disease

  17. Specific central nervous system recruitment of HLA-G(+) regulatory T cells in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu-Hwa; Zozulya, Alla L; Weidenfeller, Christian; Metz, Imke; Buck, Dorothea; Toyka, Klaus V; Brück, Wolfgang; Wiendl, Heinz

    2009-08-01

    We have recently described a novel population of natural regulatory T cells (T(reg)) that are characterized by the expression of HLA-G and may be found at sites of tissue inflammation (HLA-G(pos) T(reg)). Here we studied the role of these cells in multiple sclerosis (MS), a prototypic autoimmune inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system (CNS). Sixty-four patients with different types of MS, 9 patients with other neurological diseases, and 20 healthy donors were included in this study. Inflamed brain lesions from 5 additional untreated MS patients were examined. HLA-G(pos) T(reg) were analyzed in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) by flow cytometry and in inflammatory demyelinating lesions of MS brain specimens by immunohistochemistry. Functional capacity was accessed and transmigration was determined using an in vitro model of the human blood-brain barrier (BBB). HLA-G(pos) T(reg) were found enriched in the inflamed CSF of MS patients and in inflammatory demyelinating lesions of MS brain specimens. HLA-G(pos) T(reg) showed a strong propensity to transmigrate across BBB, which was vigorously driven by inflammatory chemokines, and associated with a gain of suppressive capacity upon transmigration. CSF-derived HLA-G(pos) T(reg) of MS patients represented a population of activated central memory activated T cells with an upregulated expression of inflammatory chemokine receptors and exhibiting full suppressive capacity. Unlike natural FoxP3-expressing T(reg), HLA-G(pos) T(reg) derived from peripheral blood were functionally unimpaired in MS. In MS, HLA-G(pos) T(reg) may serve to control potentially destructive immune responses directly at the sites of CNS inflammation and to counterbalance inflammation once specifically recruited to the CNS.

  18. Bright luminescence of Vibrio fischeri aconitase mutants reveals a connection between citrate and the Gac/Csr regulatory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Septer, Alecia N; Bose, Jeffrey L; Lipzen, Anna; Martin, Joel; Whistler, Cheryl; Stabb, Eric V

    2015-01-01

    The Gac/Csr regulatory system is conserved throughout the γ-proteobacteria and controls key pathways in central carbon metabolism, quorum sensing, biofilm formation and virulence in important plant and animal pathogens. Here we show that elevated intracellular citrate levels in a Vibrio fischeri aconitase mutant correlate with activation of the Gac/Csr cascade and induction of bright luminescence. Spontaneous or directed mutations in the gene that encodes citrate synthase reversed the bright luminescence of aconitase mutants, eliminated their citrate accumulation and reversed their elevated expression of CsrB. Our data elucidate a correlative link between central metabolic and regulatory pathways, and they suggest that the Gac system senses a blockage at the aconitase step of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, either through elevated citrate levels or a secondary metabolic effect of citrate accumulation, and responds by modulating carbon flow and various functions associated with host colonization, including bioluminescence. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Hierarchical control of vehicular fuel cell / battery hybrid powertrain

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Liangfei; Ouyang, Minggao; Li, Jianqiu; Hua, Jianfeng

    2010-01-01

    In a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell/battery hybrid vehicle, a fuel cell system fulfills the stationary power demand, and a traction battery provides the accelerating power and recycles braking energy. The entire system is coordinated by a distributed control system, incorporating three key strategies: 1) vehicle control, 2) fuel cell control and 3) battery management. They make up a hierarchical control system. This paper introduces a hierarchical control strategy for a fuel cell / ...

  20. Hierarchical quark mass matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasin, A.

    1998-02-01

    I define a set of conditions that the most general hierarchical Yukawa mass matrices have to satisfy so that the leading rotations in the diagonalization matrix are a pair of (2,3) and (1,2) rotations. In addition to Fritzsch structures, examples of such hierarchical structures include also matrices with (1,3) elements of the same order or even much larger than the (1,2) elements. Such matrices can be obtained in the framework of a flavor theory. To leading order, the values of the angle in the (2,3) plane (s 23 ) and the angle in the (1,2) plane (s 12 ) do not depend on the order in which they are taken when diagonalizing. We find that any of the Cabbibo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix parametrizations that consist of at least one (1,2) and one (2,3) rotation may be suitable. In the particular case when the s 13 diagonalization angles are sufficiently small compared to the product s 12 s 23 , two special CKM parametrizations emerge: the R 12 R 23 R 12 parametrization follows with s 23 taken before the s 12 rotation, and vice versa for the R 23 R 12 R 23 parametrization. (author)

  1. Hierarchical partial order ranking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsen, Lars

    2008-01-01

    Assessing the potential impact on environmental and human health from the production and use of chemicals or from polluted sites involves a multi-criteria evaluation scheme. A priori several parameters are to address, e.g., production tonnage, specific release scenarios, geographical and site-specific factors in addition to various substance dependent parameters. Further socio-economic factors may be taken into consideration. The number of parameters to be included may well appear to be prohibitive for developing a sensible model. The study introduces hierarchical partial order ranking (HPOR) that remedies this problem. By HPOR the original parameters are initially grouped based on their mutual connection and a set of meta-descriptors is derived representing the ranking corresponding to the single groups of descriptors, respectively. A second partial order ranking is carried out based on the meta-descriptors, the final ranking being disclosed though average ranks. An illustrative example on the prioritisation of polluted sites is given. - Hierarchical partial order ranking of polluted sites has been developed for prioritization based on a large number of parameters

  2. Hierarchically structured distributed microprocessor network for control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenwood, J.R.; Holloway, F.W.; Rupert, P.R.; Ozarski, R.G.; Suski, G.J.

    1979-01-01

    To satisfy a broad range of control-analysis and data-acquisition requirements for Shiva, a hierarchical, computer-based, modular-distributed control system was designed. This system handles the more than 3000 control elements and 1000 data acquisition units in a severe high-voltage, high-current environment. The control system design gives one a flexible and reliable configuration to meet the development milestones for Shiva within critical time limits

  3. Nested and Hierarchical Archimax copulas

    KAUST Repository

    Hofert, Marius; Huser, Raphaë l; Prasad, Avinash

    2017-01-01

    The class of Archimax copulas is generalized to nested and hierarchical Archimax copulas in several ways. First, nested extreme-value copulas or nested stable tail dependence functions are introduced to construct nested Archimax copulas based on a single frailty variable. Second, a hierarchical construction of d-norm generators is presented to construct hierarchical stable tail dependence functions and thus hierarchical extreme-value copulas. Moreover, one can, by itself or additionally, introduce nested frailties to extend Archimax copulas to nested Archimax copulas in a similar way as nested Archimedean copulas extend Archimedean copulas. Further results include a general formula for the density of Archimax copulas.

  4. Nested and Hierarchical Archimax copulas

    KAUST Repository

    Hofert, Marius

    2017-07-03

    The class of Archimax copulas is generalized to nested and hierarchical Archimax copulas in several ways. First, nested extreme-value copulas or nested stable tail dependence functions are introduced to construct nested Archimax copulas based on a single frailty variable. Second, a hierarchical construction of d-norm generators is presented to construct hierarchical stable tail dependence functions and thus hierarchical extreme-value copulas. Moreover, one can, by itself or additionally, introduce nested frailties to extend Archimax copulas to nested Archimax copulas in a similar way as nested Archimedean copulas extend Archimedean copulas. Further results include a general formula for the density of Archimax copulas.

  5. Regulatory peptides in the upper respiratory system and oral cavity of man. An immunocytochemical and radioimmunological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauser-Kronberger, C.

    1992-01-01

    In the present study a dense network of peptide-immunoreactive nerve fibres in the upper respiratory system and the oral cavity of man was investigated. The occurrence, distribution and concentrations of regulatory peptide immunoreactivities in human nasal mucosa, soft palate, ventricular fold, vocal cord, epiglottis, subglottis, glandula submandibularis and glandula parotis were investigated using highly efficient immunocytochemical and radio-immunological methods. In the tissues investigated vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and other derivatives from the VIP-precursor (peptide histidine methionine = PHM), prepro VIP (111-122)), neuropeptide tyrosine (NPY) and its C-flanking peptide (CPON), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), substance P, neurokinin A, bombesin-flanking peptide and somatostatin were detected. The regulatory peptides demonstrated also included the recently isolated peptides helospectin and pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide (PACAP). Single endocrine-like cells were for the first time demonstrated within the respiratory epithelium and in the lamina propria of the nasal mucosa and soft palate and in groups within ducts. Ultrastructural immunelectronmicroscopy was performed using an ABC-pre-embedding method. In addition, semithin Epon resin sections were immunostained. The concentrations of VIP, NPY, CGRP, substance P and neurokinin A were measured using radioimmunological methods. The peptide immunoreactivities demonstrated in a dense network of neuronal structures and endocrine cells give indication for the presence of a complex regulatory system with potent physiological mechanisms in the upper respiratory system and allocated tissues of man

  6. Total System Performance Assessment Sensitivity Analyses for Final Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bechtel SAIC Company

    2001-01-01

    This Letter Report presents the results of supplemental evaluations and analyses designed to assess long-term performance of the potential repository at Yucca Mountain. The evaluations were developed in the context of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) final public regulation, or rule, 10 CFR Part 63 (66 FR 55732 [DIRS 156671]), which was issued on November 2, 2001. This Letter Report addresses the issues identified in the Department of Energy (DOE) technical direction letter dated October 2, 2001 (Adams 2001 [DIRS 156708]). The main objective of this Letter Report is to evaluate performance of the potential Yucca Mountain repository using assumptions consistent with performance-assessment-related provisions of 10 CFR Part 63. The incorporation of the final Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standard, 40 CFR Part 197 (66 FR 32074 [DIRS 155216]), and the analysis of the effect of the 40 CFR Part 197 EPA final rule on long-term repository performance are presented in the Total System Performance Assessment--Analyses for Disposal of Commercial and DOE Waste Inventories at Yucca Mountain--Input to Final Environmental Impact Statement and Site Suitability Evaluation (BSC 2001 [DIRS 156460]), referred to hereafter as the FEIS/SSE Letter Report. The Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) analyses conducted and documented prior to promulgation of the NRC final rule 10 CFR Part 63 (66 FR 55732 [DIRS 156671]), were based on the NRC proposed rule (64 FR 8640 [DIRS 101680]). Slight differences exist between the NRC's proposed and final rules which were not within the scope of the FEIS/SSE Letter Report (BSC 2001 [DIRS 156460]), the Preliminary Site Suitability Evaluation (PSSE) (DOE 2001 [DIRS 155743]), and supporting documents for these reports. These differences include (1) the possible treatment of ''unlikely'' features, events and processes (FEPs) in evaluation of both the groundwater protection standard and the human-intrusion scenario of the individual

  7. Systems Biology Approach to the Dissection of the Complexity of Regulatory Networks in the S. scrofa Cardiocirculatory System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Martini

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Genome-wide experiments are routinely used to increase the understanding of the biological processes involved in the development and maintenance of a variety of pathologies. Although the technical feasibility of this type of experiment has improved in recent years, data analysis remains challenging. In this context, gene set analysis has emerged as a fundamental tool for the interpretation of the results. Here, we review strategies used in the gene set approach, and using datasets for the pig cardiocirculatory system as a case study, we demonstrate how the use of a combination of these strategies can enhance the interpretation of results. Gene set analyses are able to distinguish vessels from the heart and arteries from veins in a manner that is consistent with the different cellular composition of smooth muscle cells. By integrating microRNA elements in the regulatory circuits identified, we find that vessel specificity is maintained through specific miRNAs, such as miR-133a and miR-143, which show anti-correlated expression with their mRNA targets.

  8. Implementation of in vitro replacement technologies in regulatory drug testing - An innovation systems perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooijman, M.; Van Meer, P.J.K.; Moors, E.H.M.; Hekkert, M.P.; Schellekens, H.

    2011-01-01

    The replacement of in vivo methods by in vitro methods in regulatory drug testing is rare. The aim of this research is to identify barriers and drivers of the replacement of in vivo methods by in vitro methods in Europe. We studied two cases. The first case is the Draize eye test. Since 2009, the in

  9. Small RNA target genes and regulatory connections in the Vibrio cholerae quorum sensing system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Brian K; Svenningsen, Sine Lo

    2011-01-01

    of extracellular autoinducers triggers a signaling cascade resulting in the transcription of four small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs). Our results support the model that the QS sRNAs bind to the 5' untranslated region of multiple mRNAs and alter the fate of one in a positive manner and several others in a negative...

  10. A model of gene expression based on random dynamical systems reveals modularity properties of gene regulatory networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoneli, Fernando; Ferreira, Renata C; Briones, Marcelo R S

    2016-06-01

    Here we propose a new approach to modeling gene expression based on the theory of random dynamical systems (RDS) that provides a general coupling prescription between the nodes of any given regulatory network given the dynamics of each node is modeled by a RDS. The main virtues of this approach are the following: (i) it provides a natural way to obtain arbitrarily large networks by coupling together simple basic pieces, thus revealing the modularity of regulatory networks; (ii) the assumptions about the stochastic processes used in the modeling are fairly general, in the sense that the only requirement is stationarity; (iii) there is a well developed mathematical theory, which is a blend of smooth dynamical systems theory, ergodic theory and stochastic analysis that allows one to extract relevant dynamical and statistical information without solving the system; (iv) one may obtain the classical rate equations form the corresponding stochastic version by averaging the dynamic random variables (small noise limit). It is important to emphasize that unlike the deterministic case, where coupling two equations is a trivial matter, coupling two RDS is non-trivial, specially in our case, where the coupling is performed between a state variable of one gene and the switching stochastic process of another gene and, hence, it is not a priori true that the resulting coupled system will satisfy the definition of a random dynamical system. We shall provide the necessary arguments that ensure that our coupling prescription does indeed furnish a coupled regulatory network of random dynamical systems. Finally, the fact that classical rate equations are the small noise limit of our stochastic model ensures that any validation or prediction made on the basis of the classical theory is also a validation or prediction of our model. We illustrate our framework with some simple examples of single-gene system and network motifs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Hierarchical modularity in human brain functional networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Meunier

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The idea that complex systems have a hierarchical modular organization originates in the early 1960s and has recently attracted fresh support from quantitative studies of large scale, real-life networks. Here we investigate the hierarchical modular (or “modules-within-modules” decomposition of human brain functional networks, measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI in 18 healthy volunteers under no-task or resting conditions. We used a customized template to extract networks with more than 1800 regional nodes, and we applied a fast algorithm to identify nested modular structure at several hierarchical levels. We used mutual information, 0 < I < 1, to estimate the similarity of community structure of networks in different subjects, and to identify the individual network that is most representative of the group. Results show that human brain functional networks have a hierarchical modular organization with a fair degree of similarity between subjects, I=0.63. The largest 5 modules at the highest level of the hierarchy were medial occipital, lateral occipital, central, parieto-frontal and fronto-temporal systems; occipital modules demonstrated less sub-modular organization than modules comprising regions of multimodal association cortex. Connector nodes and hubs, with a key role in inter-modular connectivity, were also concentrated in association cortical areas. We conclude that methods are available for hierarchical modular decomposition of large numbers of high resolution brain functional networks using computationally expedient algorithms. This could enable future investigations of Simon's original hypothesis that hierarchy or near-decomposability of physical symbol systems is a critical design feature for their fast adaptivity to changing environmental conditions.

  12. Trees and Hierarchical Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Haeseler, Arndt

    1990-01-01

    The "raison d'etre" of hierarchical dustering theory stems from one basic phe­ nomenon: This is the notorious non-transitivity of similarity relations. In spite of the fact that very often two objects may be quite similar to a third without being that similar to each other, one still wants to dassify objects according to their similarity. This should be achieved by grouping them into a hierarchy of non-overlapping dusters such that any two objects in ~ne duster appear to be more related to each other than they are to objects outside this duster. In everyday life, as well as in essentially every field of scientific investigation, there is an urge to reduce complexity by recognizing and establishing reasonable das­ sification schemes. Unfortunately, this is counterbalanced by the experience of seemingly unavoidable deadlocks caused by the existence of sequences of objects, each comparatively similar to the next, but the last rather different from the first.

  13. Optimisation by hierarchical search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zintchenko, Ilia; Hastings, Matthew; Troyer, Matthias

    2015-03-01

    Finding optimal values for a set of variables relative to a cost function gives rise to some of the hardest problems in physics, computer science and applied mathematics. Although often very simple in their formulation, these problems have a complex cost function landscape which prevents currently known algorithms from efficiently finding the global optimum. Countless techniques have been proposed to partially circumvent this problem, but an efficient method is yet to be found. We present a heuristic, general purpose approach to potentially improve the performance of conventional algorithms or special purpose hardware devices by optimising groups of variables in a hierarchical way. We apply this approach to problems in combinatorial optimisation, machine learning and other fields.

  14. Hierarchical State Machines as Modular Horn Clauses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Loïc Garoche

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In model based development, embedded systems are modeled using a mix of dataflow formalism, that capture the flow of computation, and hierarchical state machines, that capture the modal behavior of the system. For safety analysis, existing approaches rely on a compilation scheme that transform the original model (dataflow and state machines into a pure dataflow formalism. Such compilation often result in loss of important structural information that capture the modal behaviour of the system. In previous work we have developed a compilation technique from a dataflow formalism into modular Horn clauses. In this paper, we present a novel technique that faithfully compile hierarchical state machines into modular Horn clauses. Our compilation technique preserves the structural and modal behavior of the system, making the safety analysis of such models more tractable.

  15. Polymyxin resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa phoQ mutants is dependent on additional two-component regulatory systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gutu, Alina D; Sgambati, Nicole; Strasbourger, Pnina

    2013-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa can develop resistance to polymyxin as a consequence of mutations in the PhoPQ regulatory system, mediated by covalent lipid A modification. Transposon mutagenesis of a polymyxin-resistant phoQ mutant defined 41 novel loci required for resistance, including two regulatory s......, indicate that addition of 4-amino-L-arabinose to lipid A is not the only PhoPQ-regulated biochemical mechanism required for resistance, and demonstrate that colRS and cprS mutations can contribute to high-level clinical resistance....... with the known role of this modification in polymyxin resistance. Surprisingly, tandem deletion of colRS or cprRS in the ΔphoQ mutant or individual deletion of cprR or cprS failed to suppress 4-amino-L-arabinose addition to lipid A, indicating that this modification alone is not sufficient for Pho...

  16. How hierarchical is language use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Stefan L.; Bod, Rens; Christiansen, Morten H.

    2012-01-01

    It is generally assumed that hierarchical phrase structure plays a central role in human language. However, considerations of simplicity and evolutionary continuity suggest that hierarchical structure should not be invoked too hastily. Indeed, recent neurophysiological, behavioural and computational studies show that sequential sentence structure has considerable explanatory power and that hierarchical processing is often not involved. In this paper, we review evidence from the recent literature supporting the hypothesis that sequential structure may be fundamental to the comprehension, production and acquisition of human language. Moreover, we provide a preliminary sketch outlining a non-hierarchical model of language use and discuss its implications and testable predictions. If linguistic phenomena can be explained by sequential rather than hierarchical structure, this will have considerable impact in a wide range of fields, such as linguistics, ethology, cognitive neuroscience, psychology and computer science. PMID:22977157

  17. Insights from event-related potentials into the temporal and hierarchical organization of the ventral and dorsal streams of the visual system in selective attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Loeches, M; Hinojosa, J A; Rubia, F J

    1999-11-01

    The temporal and hierarchical relationships between the dorsal and the ventral streams in selective attention are known only in relation to the use of spatial location as the attentional cue mediated by the dorsal stream. To improve this state of affairs, event-related brain potentials were recorded while subjects attended simultaneously to motion direction (mediated by the dorsal stream) and to a property mediated by the ventral stream (color or shape). At about the same time, a selection positivity (SP) started for attention mediated by both streams. However, the SP for color and shape peaked about 60 ms later than motion SP. Subsequently, a selection negativity (SN) followed by a late positive component (LPC) were found simultaneously for attention mediated by both streams. A hierarchical relationship between the two streams was not observed, but neither SN nor LPC for one property was completely insensitive to the values of the other property.

  18. Regulatory Benchmarking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agrell, Per J.; Bogetoft, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Benchmarking methods, and in particular Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), have become well-established and informative tools for economic regulation. DEA is now routinely used by European regulators to set reasonable revenue caps for energy transmission and distribution system operators. The appli......Benchmarking methods, and in particular Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), have become well-established and informative tools for economic regulation. DEA is now routinely used by European regulators to set reasonable revenue caps for energy transmission and distribution system operators....... The application of bench-marking in regulation, however, requires specific steps in terms of data validation, model specification and outlier detection that are not systematically documented in open publications, leading to discussions about regulatory stability and economic feasibility of these techniques...

  19. Regulatory Benchmarking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agrell, Per J.; Bogetoft, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Benchmarking methods, and in particular Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), have become well-established and informative tools for economic regulation. DEA is now routinely used by European regulators to set reasonable revenue caps for energy transmission and distribution system operators. The appli......Benchmarking methods, and in particular Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), have become well-established and informative tools for economic regulation. DEA is now routinely used by European regulators to set reasonable revenue caps for energy transmission and distribution system operators....... The application of benchmarking in regulation, however, requires specific steps in terms of data validation, model specification and outlier detection that are not systematically documented in open publications, leading to discussions about regulatory stability and economic feasibility of these techniques...

  20. Review of light water reactor regulatory requirements: Assessment of selected regulatory requirements that may have marginal importance to risk: Postaccident sampling system, Turbine missiles, Combustible gas control, Charcoal filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, W.B.; Jamison, J.D.; Stoetzel, G.A.; Tabatabai, A.S.; Vo, T.V.

    1987-05-01

    In a study commissioned by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) evaluated the costs and benefits of modifying regulatory requirements in the areas of the postaccident sampling system, turbine rotor design reviews and inspections, combustible gas control for inerted Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) containments, and impregnated charcoal filters in certain plant ventilation systems. The basic framework for the analyses was that presented in the Regulatory Analysis Guidelines (NUREG/BR-0058) and in the Handbook for Value-Impact Assessment (NUREG/CR-3568). The effects of selected modifications to regulations were evaluated in terms of such factors as public risk and costs to industry and NRC. The results indicate that potential modifications of the regulatory requirements in three of the four areas would have little impact on public risk. In the fourth area, impregnated charcoal filters in building ventilation systems do appear to limit risks to the public and plant staff. Revisions in the severe accident source term assumptions, however, may reduce the theoretical value of charcoal filters. The cost analysis indicated that substantial savings in operating costs may be realized by changing the interval of turbine rotor inspections. Small to moderate operating cost savings may be realized through postulated modifications to the postaccident sampling system requirements and to the requirements for combustible gas control in inerted BWR containments. Finally, the use of impregnated charcoal filters in ventilation systems appears to be the most cost-effective method of reducing radioiodine concentrations

  1. Market power versus regulatory power in the Spanish electricity system, 1973-1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrues-Irurzun, Josean

    2010-01-01

    This study not only establishes that the institutional changes (the change of political regime) and economic changes (the energy crisis) that occurred during the 70s and 80s had an important effect on business strategies within the Spanish electricity sector, but, above all, it shows how the resulting regulatory model was not the product of any clearly defined plan on the part of the Spanish authorities (as the majority of authors seem to implicitly or explicitly maintain), but rather it arose from the dialectical interaction between companies which resisted losing the power of the market, and institutions which, in order to define any medium term energy policy in the future European domestic electricity market, required an increase in their regulatory power. (author)

  2. Establishing Policy Foundations and Regulatory Systems to Enhance Nursing Practice in the United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownie, Sharon M; Hunter, Lyndal H; Aqtash, Salah; Day, Gary E

    2015-01-01

    In 2009, the United Arab Emirates (UAE) established a Nursing and Midwifery Council with a mandate to develop standards for the registration and regulation of nursing and midwifery and to strengthen the nursing and midwifery workforce. Priorities included workforce Emiratization and the development of regulatory standards to support advanced and speciality nursing practice and new models of care-particularly for the management of noncommunicable diseases. This article provides background, context for, and best practice inputs to the effort to provide one unified framework of nursing regulation and licensure across the whole of the UAE. This article is intended for nurse leaders, policy makers, and regulators who are reviewing or developing nursing regulatory processes and advancing nursing workforce capacity building activities; and nurse educators and nurses wishing to work in the UAE. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. A systems level approach reveals new gene regulatory modules in the developing ear

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Jingchen; Tambalo, Monica; Barembaum, Meyer; Ranganathan, Ramya; Simões-Costa, Marcos; Bronner, Marianne E.; Streit, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    The inner ear is a complex vertebrate sense organ, yet it arises from a simple epithelium, the otic placode. Specification towards otic fate requires diverse signals and transcriptional inputs that act sequentially and/or in parallel. Using the chick embryo, we uncover novel genes in the gene regulatory network underlying otic commitment and reveal dynamic changes in gene expression. Functional analysis of selected transcription factors reveals the genetic hierarchy underlying the transition ...

  4. Quantum Ising model on hierarchical structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Zhifang; Tao Ruibao.

    1989-11-01

    A quantum Ising chain with both the exchange couplings and the transverse fields arranged in a hierarchical way is considered. Exact analytical results for the critical line and energy gap are obtained. It is shown that when R 1 not= R 2 , where R 1 and R 2 are the hierarchical parameters for the exchange couplings and the transverse fields, respectively, the system undergoes a phase transition in a different universality class from the pure quantum Ising chain with R 1 =R 2 =1. On the other hand, when R 1 =R 2 =R, there exists a critical value R c dependent on the furcating number of the hierarchy. In case of R > R c , the system is shown to exhibit as Ising-like critical point with the critical behaviour the same as in the pure case, while for R c the system belongs to another universality class. (author). 19 refs, 2 figs

  5. Scalable Hierarchical Algorithms for stochastic PDEs and UQ

    KAUST Repository

    Litvinenko, Alexander; Chá vez, Gustavo; Keyes,David; Ltaief, Hatem; Yokota, Rio

    2015-01-01

    number of degrees of freedom in the discretization. The storage is reduced to the log-linear as well. This hierarchical structure is a good starting point for parallel algorithms. Parallelization on shared and distributed memory systems was pioneered

  6. Inhibitors Alter the Stochasticity of Regulatory Proteins to Force Cells to Switch to the Other State in the Bistable System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhang, Wun-Sin; Lo, Shih-Chiang; Yeh, Chen-Chao; Shu, Che-Chi

    2017-06-30

    The cellular behaviors under the control of genetic circuits are subject to stochastic fluctuations, or noise. The stochasticity in gene regulation, far from a nuisance, has been gradually appreciated for its unusual function in cellular activities. In this work, with Chemical Master Equation (CME), we discovered that the addition of inhibitors altered the stochasticity of regulatory proteins. For a bistable system of a mutually inhibitory network, such a change of noise led to the migration of cells in the bimodal distribution. We proposed that the consumption of regulatory protein caused by the addition of inhibitor is not the only reason for pushing cells to the specific state; the change of the intracellular stochasticity is also the main cause for the redistribution. For the level of the inhibitor capable of driving 99% of cells, if there is no consumption of regulatory protein, 88% of cells were guided to the specific state. It implied that cells were pushed, by the inhibitor, to the specific state due to the change of stochasticity.

  7. Establishing neural crest identity: a gene regulatory recipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões-Costa, Marcos; Bronner, Marianne E.

    2015-01-01

    The neural crest is a stem/progenitor cell population that contributes to a wide variety of derivatives, including sensory and autonomic ganglia, cartilage and bone of the face and pigment cells of the skin. Unique to vertebrate embryos, it has served as an excellent model system for the study of cell behavior and identity owing to its multipotency, motility and ability to form a broad array of cell types. Neural crest development is thought to be controlled by a suite of transcriptional and epigenetic inputs arranged hierarchically in a gene regulatory network. Here, we examine neural crest development from a gene regulatory perspective and discuss how the underlying genetic circuitry results in the features that define this unique cell population. PMID:25564621

  8. Nuclear Regulatory Systems in Africa: Improving Safety and Security Culture Through Education and Training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazadi Kabuya, F.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to address the important issue of supporting safety and security culture through an educational and training course program designed both for regulatory staff and licensees. Enhancing the safety and security of nuclear facilities may involve assessing the overall effectiveness of the organization's safety culture. Safety Culture implies steps such as identifying and targeting areas requiring attention, putting emphasis on organizational strengths and weaknesses, human attitudes and behaviours that may positively impact an organization's safety culture, resulting in improving workplace safety and developing and maintaining a high level of awareness within these facilities. Following the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, international efforts were made towards achieving such goals. This was realized through meetings, summits and training courses events, with main aim to enhance security at facilities whose activities, if attacked, could impact public health and safety. During regulatory oversight inspections undertaken on some licensee's premises, violations of security requirements were identified. They mostly involved inadequate management oversight of security, lack of a questioning attitude, complacency and mostly inadequate training in both security and safety issues. Using training and education approach as a support to raise awareness on safety and security issues in the framework of improving safety and security culture, a tentative training program in nuclear and radiological safety was started in 2002 with the main aim of vulgarizing the regulatory framework. Real first needs for a training course program were identified among radiographers and radiologists with established working experience but with limited knowledge in radiation safety. In the field of industrial uses of radiation the triggering events for introducing and implementing a training program were: the loss of a radioactive source in a mining

  9. Hierarchical Discriminant Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Lu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Internet of Things (IoT generates lots of high-dimensional sensor intelligent data. The processing of high-dimensional data (e.g., data visualization and data classification is very difficult, so it requires excellent subspace learning algorithms to learn a latent subspace to preserve the intrinsic structure of the high-dimensional data, and abandon the least useful information in the subsequent processing. In this context, many subspace learning algorithms have been presented. However, in the process of transforming the high-dimensional data into the low-dimensional space, the huge difference between the sum of inter-class distance and the sum of intra-class distance for distinct data may cause a bias problem. That means that the impact of intra-class distance is overwhelmed. To address this problem, we propose a novel algorithm called Hierarchical Discriminant Analysis (HDA. It minimizes the sum of intra-class distance first, and then maximizes the sum of inter-class distance. This proposed method balances the bias from the inter-class and that from the intra-class to achieve better performance. Extensive experiments are conducted on several benchmark face datasets. The results reveal that HDA obtains better performance than other dimensionality reduction algorithms.

  10. Hierarchical Linked Views

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erbacher, Robert; Frincke, Deb

    2007-07-02

    Coordinated views have proven critical to the development of effective visualization environments. This results from the fact that a single view or representation of the data cannot show all of the intricacies of a given data set. Additionally, users will often need to correlate more data parameters than can effectively be integrated into a single visual display. Typically, development of multiple-linked views results in an adhoc configuration of views and associated interactions. The hierarchical model we are proposing is geared towards more effective organization of such environments and the views they encompass. At the same time, this model can effectively integrate much of the prior work on interactive and visual frameworks. Additionally, we expand the concept of views to incorporate perceptual views. This is related to the fact that visual displays can have information encoded at various levels of focus. Thus, a global view of the display provides overall trends of the data while focusing in on individual elements provides detailed specifics. By integrating interaction and perception into a single model, we show how one impacts the other. Typically, interaction and perception are considered separately, however, when interaction is being considered at a fundamental level and allowed to direct/modify the visualization directly we must consider them simultaneously and how they impact one another.

  11. ResDE Two-Component Regulatory System Mediates Oxygen Limitation-Induced Biofilm Formation by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SQR9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xuan; Zhang, Nan; Xia, Liming; Li, Qing; Shao, Jiahui; Shen, Qirong; Zhang, Ruifu

    2018-04-15

    Efficient biofilm formation and root colonization capabilities facilitate the ability of beneficial plant rhizobacteria to promote plant growth and antagonize soilborne pathogens. Biofilm formation by plant-beneficial Bacillus strains is triggered by environmental cues, including oxygen deficiency, but the pathways that sense these environmental signals and regulate biofilm formation have not been thoroughly elucidated. In this study, we showed that the ResDE two-component regulatory system in the plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain SQR9 senses the oxygen deficiency signal and regulates biofilm formation. ResE is activated by sensing the oxygen limitation-induced reduction of the NAD + /NADH pool through its PAS domain, stimulating its kinase activity, and resulting in the transfer of a phosphoryl group to ResD. The phosphorylated ResD directly binds to the promoter regions of the qoxABCD and ctaCDEF operons to improve the biosynthesis of terminal oxidases, which can interact with KinB to activate biofilm formation. These results not only revealed the novel regulatory function of the ResDE two-component system but also contributed to the understanding of the complicated regulatory network governing Bacillus biofilm formation. This research may help to enhance the root colonization and the plant-beneficial efficiency of SQR9 and other Bacillus rhizobacteria used in agriculture. IMPORTANCE Bacillus spp. are widely used as bioinoculants for plant growth promotion and disease suppression. The exertion of their plant-beneficial functions is largely dependent on their root colonization, which is closely related to their biofilm formation capabilities. On the other hand, Bacillus is the model bacterium for biofilm study, and the process and molecular network of biofilm formation are well characterized (B. Mielich-Süss and D. Lopez, Environ Microbiol 17:555-565, 2015, https://doi.org/10.1111/1462-2920.12527; L. S. Cairns, L. Hobley, and

  12. Medical loss ratio as a potential regulatory tool in the Israeli healthcare system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon-Tuval, Tzahit; Horev, Tuvia; Kaplan, Giora

    2015-01-01

    The growth of the private health insurance sector in Western countries, which is characterized by information deficiencies and limited competition, necessitates the implementation of effective regulatory tools. One measure which is widely used is the medical loss ratio (MLR). Our objective was to analyze how MLR is applied as a regulatory measure in the Israeli voluntary health insurance (VHI) market in order to promote the protection of beneficiaries. The study will examine MLR values and the use of this tool by regulators of VHI in Israel. Descriptive analysis using 2005-2012 data from public reports of the Ministry of Health and the Ministry of Finance on VHI plans in three market segments: nonprofit health plans, group (collective) policies offered by commercial insurance companies and individual policies offered by commercial insurance companies. In 2012, 74% of the Israeli population owned VHI provided by nonprofit health plans and 43% owned VHI offered by for-profit commercial companies. At that time the MLRs of three nonprofit health plans were significantly lower than 80%, mostly in the upper layers of coverage. The MLR in the individual commercial segment was consistently low (38% in 2012). The use of MLR as a regulation tool was, and continues to be, relatively limited in all segments. The VHI in Israel covers several essential services that are not covered by the statutory benefits package as a result of budget constraints. Thus, due to the high penetration rate of VHI in Israel compared to European countries and the lower levels of MLR, in order to assure the protection of beneficiaries it may be warranted to increase the extent of regulation and adjust it to the nature of the services covered. This may include distinguishing between essential and nonessential coverages and implementation of the most suitable regulatory measures (such as an MLR threshold, limitation of services covered and adjusting the actuarial models to the beneficiaries' behavior

  13. Technical and regulatory challenges for digital instrumentation and control and control room systems in nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torok, R.; Naser, J.; Harris, T.; Keithline, K.

    2006-01-01

    There are several unsettled technical and licensing issues in the areas of instrumentation and control (I and C), human factors, and updated control room designs that need coordinated, proactive industry attention. Some of these issues are already causing protracted regulatory reviews for existing plants, and left untreated, may cause substantial delays and increased costs for new plant combined construction and operating license approvals. Both industry and the NRC will have roles in resolving the key issues and addressing them in future design efforts and regulatory reviews. Where action is needed, the industry will want to minimize costs and risks by defining industry consensus solutions with corresponding technical bases. NEI has formed a working group to coordinate industry efforts and communications with NRC staff. The working group will also help determine priorities and coordinate both new and existing plant resources. EPRI will provide technical input and guidance for the working group. In order to be able to conduct reviews in a timely fashion, the NRC will likely need to enhance and expand staff resources as existing plants are upgraded and new plant reviews become more active. The industry initiative began with a workshop sponsored by EPRI and NEI on March 28-29, 2006, which led to the creation of the NEI working group. The working group has now identified and prioritized important generic issues, established resolution paths and schedules, and identified the roles of various stakeholders including utility companies, EPRI, NEI, vendors and the NRC. Through the course of this initiative I and C issues for both existing and new plants are being addressed. This paper describes the key I and C related technical and regulatory issues and their implications for new and operating plants, and provides a status report on the efforts to resolve them. (authors)

  14. Hazardous waste management system--Environmental Protection Agency. Notice of regulatory reform actions; request for comments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-12-13

    In response to Executive Order 12291 and the President's Task Force on Regulatory Relief, the Environmental Protection Agency is reviewing and reassessing the hazardous waste regulations developed under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). A variety of activities are underway that will simplify procedures and reduce paperwork, modify existing regulations to make them more workable and cost effective, and control new wastes and new processes. The purpose of this notice is to inform the public of these activities and invite comments on the general approaches being taken.

  15. Hierarchical control of a nuclear reactor using uncertain dynamics techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rovere, L.A.; Otaduy, P.J.; Brittain, C.R.; Perez, R.B.

    1988-01-01

    Recent advances in the nonlinear optimal control area are opening new possibilities towards its implementation in process control. Algorithms for multivariate control, hierarchical decomposition, parameter tracking, model uncertainties actuator saturation effects and physical limits to state variables can be implemented on the basis of a consistent mathematical formulation. In this paper, good agreement is shown between a centralized and a hierarchical implementation of a controller for a hypothetical nuclear power plant subject to multiple demands. The performance of the hierarchical distributed system in the presence of localized subsystem failures is analyzed. 4 refs., 13 figs

  16. Direct hierarchical assembly of nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ting; Zhao, Yue; Thorkelsson, Kari

    2014-07-22

    The present invention provides hierarchical assemblies of a block copolymer, a bifunctional linking compound and a nanoparticle. The block copolymers form one micro-domain and the nanoparticles another micro-domain.

  17. Hierarchical materials: Background and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    Hierarchical design draws inspiration from analysis of biological materials and has opened new possibilities for enhancing performance and enabling new functionalities and extraordinary properties. With the development of nanotechnology, the necessary technological requirements for the manufactur...

  18. Hierarchically structured materials for lithium batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, Jie; Zheng, Jianming; Li, Xiaolin; Shao, Yuyan; Zhang, Ji-Guang

    2013-01-01

    The lithium-ion battery (LIB) is one of the most promising power sources to be deployed in electric vehicles, including solely battery powered vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, and hybrid electric vehicles. With the increasing demand for devices of high-energy densities (>500 Wh kg −1 ), new energy storage systems, such as lithium–oxygen (Li–O 2 ) batteries and other emerging systems beyond the conventional LIB, have attracted worldwide interest for both transportation and grid energy storage applications in recent years. It is well known that the electrochemical performance of these energy storage systems depends not only on the composition of the materials, but also on the structure of the electrode materials used in the batteries. Although the desired performance characteristics of batteries often have conflicting requirements with the micro/nano-structure of electrodes, hierarchically designed electrodes can be tailored to satisfy these conflicting requirements. This work will review hierarchically structured materials that have been successfully used in LIB and Li–O 2 batteries. Our goal is to elucidate (1) how to realize the full potential of energy materials through the manipulation of morphologies, and (2) how the hierarchical structure benefits the charge transport, promotes the interfacial properties and prolongs the electrode stability and battery lifetime. (paper)

  19. Implementation of a laboratory information management system for environmental regulatory analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, W.A.; Aiken, H.B.; Spatz, T.L.; Miles, W.F.; Griffin, J.C.

    1993-09-07

    The Savannah River Technology Center created a second instance of its ORACLE based PEN LIMS to support site Environmental Restoration projects. The first instance of the database had been optimized for R&D support and did not implement rigorous sample tracking, verification, and holding times needed to support regulatory commitments. Much of the R&D instance was transferable such as the work control functions for backlog reports, work assignment sheets, and hazard communication support. A major enhancement of the regulatory LIMS was the addition of features to support a {open_quotes}standardized{close_quotes} electronic data format for environmental data reporting. The electronic format, called {open_quotes}AN92{close_quotes}, was developed by the site environmental monitoring organization and applies to both onsite and offsite environmental analytical contracts. This format incorporates EPA CLP data validation codes as well as details holding time and analytical result reporting requirements. The authors support this format by using special SQL queries to the database. The data is then automatically transferred to the environmental databases for trending and geological mapping.

  20. Assessment of the sealing system of an ilw transport container in a 9m regulatory impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sievwright, R.W.T.; Gray, I.L.S.; Bernasconi, D.J.; McGuinn, P.; Tso, C.F.

    1998-01-01

    UK Nirex Ltd is developing a range of reusable shielded transport containers (RSTCs) to ensure the safe transport of immobilised intermediate level waste to a future UK deep repository for disposal. The RSTCs use an inset lid for mechanical strength and radiation shielding, but the containment boundary is provided by a separate lid seal member (LSM). The LSM is a semi-flexible steel diaphragm surrounded by a rim which carries a double O-ring seal. The LSM rim is clamped to a flat mating surface on the container body. A finite element model has been developed for an RSTC with a wall thickness of 285 mm, in order to assess its containment performance in 9m regulatory drop tests (IAEA 1996). The challenge was to predict the size of small gaps that might appear between the LSM rim and the RSTC body seal face ; this level of detail would be 1-2 orders of magnitude smaller than the displacements experienced in the impact zone. The model was first validated against a series of one-third scale model drop tests of the RSTC. The validated model was then analysed for 9m regulatory impacts in the six worst impact attitudes. The behavior of the LSM was assessed for each attitude and the seal face (gaps) between the LSM and the body were determined. Although small gaps of about 0.5 mm are predicted, it is likely that containment would be preserved. (authors)

  1. As agências reguladoras e o modelo constitucional brasileiro / Regulatory Agencies and the Constitutional Brazilian System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Borges de Oliveira

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – This article tackles the role of the regulatory agencies and, therefore, verifies the separation of powers model adopted by the Brazilian Constitution, focused on how the constitutional Brazilian system adopted the liberal principle of the separation of powers. Methodology/approach/design – This research analyzes Montesquieu’s theory of separation of powers and its influence on the constitutional Brazilian system. It studies the model proposed by Jürgen Habermas, who proposes a discursive theory of law. Finally, it examines the regulatory phenomenon in Brazil, as well as the structure and the roles played by regulatory agencies in acts. Findings – It is concluded that the role of regulatory agencies in the constitutional Brazilian system can be framed as the new actor in the policy formation process that culminates in decisions about laws and policies. Resumo Propósito – O presente estudo pretende investigar o papel normativo das agências reguladoras e, por conseguinte, verificar se o modelo de separação de poderes adotado pela atual Constituição Federal estaria superado, ou seja, busca-se analisar se há uma incompatibilidade entre o modelo constitucional brasileiro e a atividade normativa desenvolvida pelas agências reguladoras no Brasil. Metodologia/abordagem/design – A presente pesquisa terá como pressupostos teóricos a teoria da separação de poderes desenvolvida por Montesquieu e sua influência nas ordens política e jurídica brasileiras. Adotará, também, como base teórica, o modelo proposto por Jürgen Habermas. Por fim, analisará o fenômeno regulatório no Brasil, bem como a estrutura e os papéis desempenhados pelas agências reguladoras no atual sistema; a fim de verificar se é possível defender que a teoria da separação dos poderes proposta pela Constituição Federal de 1988 está superada Resultados – Conclui-se que o papel desempenhado pelas agências reguladoras no contexto jur

  2. Barriers and drivers of new interconnections between EU and non-EU electricity systems. Economic and regulatory aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Werven, M.J.N.; Van Oostvoorn, F.

    2006-05-01

    Interconnection of different electricity systems offers several advantages and benefits. In the first place it provides reliability and increases the robustness of the system. Furthermore, it increases economic efficiency and reduces the possibility to abuse market power. Price differences are the signal that efficiency gains can be obtained. To make a sound decision whether to invest in new interconnection capacity, the causes behind the price differences should be well understood. Price differences must originate from structural, long-term causes. Differences in primary resources, fuel mix and load patterns are such causes. It is important to note that price differences that result from the difference between regulatory structures (lack of level playing field) may not be structural and therefore may not justify investment in interconnection capacity. Next to advantages and benefits, interconnection is faced with costs and barriers. Firstly, there are investment costs, which are high for building new interconnections, and there are energy losses that are caused by transporting electricity. A third possible barrier is congestion within the EU, which impedes the imported electricity to freely flow to demand areas (and hinders the export of electricity to neighbouring regions). Furthermore, interconnection may create loop flows. In addition, interconnection could lead to an increasing import dependency, which may create political resistance. And finally, there may be opposition from residents in the areas where the transmission and interconnection lines have to be built. Concerning regulatory issues, trade between markets is more likely to be impeded or distorted if market designs and rules between countries/regions differ substantially. Regulatory issues that are of relevance comprise rules concerning the timing of gate closure, imbalance arrangements, the firmness of transmission access rights, the type of tariff regulation, unbundling, the ownership of

  3. Hierarchical architecture of active knits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abel, Julianna; Luntz, Jonathan; Brei, Diann

    2013-01-01

    Nature eloquently utilizes hierarchical structures to form the world around us. Applying the hierarchical architecture paradigm to smart materials can provide a basis for a new genre of actuators which produce complex actuation motions. One promising example of cellular architecture—active knits—provides complex three-dimensional distributed actuation motions with expanded operational performance through a hierarchically organized structure. The hierarchical structure arranges a single fiber of active material, such as shape memory alloys (SMAs), into a cellular network of interlacing adjacent loops according to a knitting grid. This paper defines a four-level hierarchical classification of knit structures: the basic knit loop, knit patterns, grid patterns, and restructured grids. Each level of the hierarchy provides increased architectural complexity, resulting in expanded kinematic actuation motions of active knits. The range of kinematic actuation motions are displayed through experimental examples of different SMA active knits. The results from this paper illustrate and classify the ways in which each level of the hierarchical knit architecture leverages the performance of the base smart material to generate unique actuation motions, providing necessary insight to best exploit this new actuation paradigm. (paper)

  4. A novel processing system of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c regulated by polyunsaturated fatty acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakakuki, Masanori; Kawano, Hiroyuki; Notsu, Tatsuto; Imada, Kazunori; Mizuguchi, Kiyoshi; Shimano, Hitoshi

    2014-05-01

    The proteolytic cascade is the key step in transactivation of sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs), a transcriptional factor of lipid synthesis. Proteolysis of SREBP-2 is strictly regulated by sterols, but that of SREBP-1c was not strongly sterol-regulated, but inhibited by polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). In this study, the proteolytic processing of SREBP-1 and -2 was examined by transfection studies of cDNA-encoding mutants in which all the known cleavage sites were disrupted. In cultured cells, sterol-regulated SREBP-2 processing was completely eliminated by mutation of cleavage sites. In contrast, the corresponding SREBP-1c mutants as well as wild type exhibited large amounts of cleaved products in the nuclear extracts from culture cells and murine liver in vivo. The nuclear form of the mutant SREBP-1c was induced by delipidated condition and suppressed by eicosapentaenoic acid, an n-3 PUFA, but not by sterols. This novel processing mechanism was affected by neither SREBP cleavage-activating protein (SCAP) nor insulin-induced gene (Insig)-1, unlike SREBP-2, but abolished by a serine protease inhibitor. Through analysis of deletion mutant, a site-2 protease recognition sequence (DRSR) was identified to be involved in this novel processing. These findings suggest that SREBP-1c cleavage could be subjected to a novel PUFA-regulated cleavage system in addition to the sterol-regulatory SCAP/Insig system.

  5. Improving nuclear regulatory effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Ensuring that nuclear installations are operated and maintained in such a way that their impact on public health and safety is as low as reasonably practicable has been and will continue to be the cornerstone of nuclear regulation. In the past, nuclear incidents provided the main impetus for regulatory change. Today, economic factors, deregulation, technological advancements, government oversight and the general requirements for openness and accountability are leading regulatory bodies to review their effectiveness. In addition, seeking to enhance the present level of nuclear safety by continuously improving the effectiveness of regulatory bodies is seen as one of the ways to strengthen public confidence in the regulatory systems. This report covers the basic concepts underlying nuclear regulatory effectiveness, advances being made and future requirements. The intended audience is primarily nuclear safety regulators, but government authorities, nuclear power plant operators and the general public may also be interested. (author)

  6. Application of hierarchical matrices for partial inverse

    KAUST Repository

    Litvinenko, Alexander

    2013-11-26

    In this work we combine hierarchical matrix techniques (Hackbusch, 1999) and domain decomposition methods to obtain fast and efficient algorithms for the solution of multiscale problems. This combination results in the hierarchical domain decomposition (HDD) method, which can be applied for solution multi-scale problems. Multiscale problems are problems that require the use of different length scales. Using only the finest scale is very expensive, if not impossible, in computational time and memory. Domain decomposition methods decompose the complete problem into smaller systems of equations corresponding to boundary value problems in subdomains. Then fast solvers can be applied to each subdomain. Subproblems in subdomains are independent, much smaller and require less computational resources as the initial problem.

  7. Noise enhances information transfer in hierarchical networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaplicka, Agnieszka; Holyst, Janusz A; Sloot, Peter M A

    2013-01-01

    We study the influence of noise on information transmission in the form of packages shipped between nodes of hierarchical networks. Numerical simulations are performed for artificial tree networks, scale-free Ravasz-Barabási networks as well for a real network formed by email addresses of former Enron employees. Two types of noise are considered. One is related to packet dynamics and is responsible for a random part of packets paths. The second one originates from random changes in initial network topology. We find that the information transfer can be enhanced by the noise. The system possesses optimal performance when both kinds of noise are tuned to specific values, this corresponds to the Stochastic Resonance phenomenon. There is a non-trivial synergy present for both noisy components. We found also that hierarchical networks built of nodes of various degrees are more efficient in information transfer than trees with a fixed branching factor.

  8. Regulatory T cells (Treg and Their Roles in Immune System with Respect to Immunopathological Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateřina Kondělková

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Regulatory T cells (Tregs are a specialized subpopulation of T cells that act to suppress immune response, thereby maintaining homeostasis and self-tolerance. It has been shown that Tregs are able to inhibit T cell proliferation and cytokine production and play a critical role in preventing autoimmunity. Different subsets with various functions of Treg cells exist. Tregs can be usually identified by flow cytometry. The most specific marker for these cells is FoxP3, which is localized intracellulary. Selected surface markers such as CD25high (high molecular density and CD127low (low molecular density could serve as surrogate markers to detect Tregs in a routine clinical practice. Dysregulation in Treg cell frequency or functions may lead to the development of autoimmune disease. Therapeutical Treg modulation is considered to be a promising therapeutical approach to treat some selected disorders, such as allergies, and to prevent allograft rejection.

  9. The climate impacts of bioenergy systems depend on market and regulatory policy contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemoine, Derek M; Plevin, Richard J; Cohn, Avery S; Jones, Andrew D; Brandt, Adam R; Vergara, Sintana E; Kammen, Daniel M

    2010-10-01

    Biomass can help reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by displacing petroleum in the transportation sector, by displacing fossil-based electricity, and by sequestering atmospheric carbon. Which use mitigates the most emissions depends on market and regulatory contexts outside the scope of attributional life cycle assessments. We show that bioelectricity's advantage over liquid biofuels depends on the GHG intensity of the electricity displaced. Bioelectricity that displaces coal-fired electricity could reduce GHG emissions, but bioelectricity that displaces wind electricity could increase GHG emissions. The electricity displaced depends upon existing infrastructure and policies affecting the electric grid. These findings demonstrate how model assumptions about whether the vehicle fleet and bioenergy use are fixed or free parameters constrain the policy questions an analysis can inform. Our bioenergy life cycle assessment can inform questions about a bioenergy mandate's optimal allocation between liquid fuels and electricity generation, but questions about the optimal level of bioenergy use require analyses with different assumptions about fixed and free parameters.

  10. Hierarchical video summarization based on context clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Belle L.; Smith, John R.

    2003-11-01

    A personalized video summary is dynamically generated in our video personalization and summarization system based on user preference and usage environment. The three-tier personalization system adopts the server-middleware-client architecture in order to maintain, select, adapt, and deliver rich media content to the user. The server stores the content sources along with their corresponding MPEG-7 metadata descriptions. In this paper, the metadata includes visual semantic annotations and automatic speech transcriptions. Our personalization and summarization engine in the middleware selects the optimal set of desired video segments by matching shot annotations and sentence transcripts with user preferences. Besides finding the desired contents, the objective is to present a coherent summary. There are diverse methods for creating summaries, and we focus on the challenges of generating a hierarchical video summary based on context information. In our summarization algorithm, three inputs are used to generate the hierarchical video summary output. These inputs are (1) MPEG-7 metadata descriptions of the contents in the server, (2) user preference and usage environment declarations from the user client, and (3) context information including MPEG-7 controlled term list and classification scheme. In a video sequence, descriptions and relevance scores are assigned to each shot. Based on these shot descriptions, context clustering is performed to collect consecutively similar shots to correspond to hierarchical scene representations. The context clustering is based on the available context information, and may be derived from domain knowledge or rules engines. Finally, the selection of structured video segments to generate the hierarchical summary efficiently balances between scene representation and shot selection.

  11. Regulatory analysis for the resolution of Generic Issue 130: Essential service water system failures at multi-unit sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, V.; Basdekas, D.; Mazetis, G.

    1991-06-01

    The essential service water system (ESWS) is required to provide cooling in nuclear power plants during normal operation and accident conditions. The ESWS typically supports component cooling water heat exchangers, containment spray heat exchangers, high-pressure injection pump oil coolers, emergency diesel generators, and auxiliary building ventilation coolers. Failure of the ESWS function could lead to severe consequences. This report presents the regulatory analysis for GI-130, ''Essential Service Water System Failures at Multi-Unit Sites.'' The risk reduction estimates, cost/benefit analyses, and other insights gained during this effort have shown that implementation of the recommendations will significantly reduce risk and that these improvements are warranted in accordance with the backfit rule, 10 CFR 50.109(a)(3). 19 refs., 16 tabs

  12. Pollutant emissions from vehicles with regenerating after-treatment systems in regulatory and real-world driving cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Robert; Weilenmann, Martin; Novak, Philippe

    2008-07-15

    Regenerating exhaust after-treatment systems are increasingly employed in passenger cars in order to comply with regulatory emission standards. These systems include pollutant storage units that occasionally have to be regenerated. The regeneration strategy applied, the resultant emission levels and their share of the emission level during normal operation mode are key issues in determining realistic overall emission factors for these cars. In order to investigate these topics, test series with four cars featuring different types of such after-treatment systems were carried out. The emission performance in legislative and real-world cycles was monitored as well as at constant speeds. The extra emissions determined during regeneration stages are presented together with the methodology applied to calculate their impact on overall emissions. It can be concluded that exhaust after-treatment systems with storage units cause substantial overall extra emissions during regeneration mode and can appreciably affect the emission factors of cars equipped with such systems, depending on the frequency of regenerations. Considering that the fleet appearance of vehicles equipped with such after-treatment systems will increase due to the evolution of statutory pollutant emission levels, extra emissions originating from regenerations of pollutant storage units consequently need to be taken into account for fleet emission inventories. Accurately quantifying these extra emissions is achieved by either conducting sufficient repetitions of emission measurements with an individual car or by considerably increasing the size of the sample of cars with comparable after-treatment systems.

  13. Managing Regulatory Body Competence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    In 2001, the IAEA published TECDOC 1254, which examined the way in which the recognized functions of a regulatory body for nuclear facilities results in competence needs. Using the systematic approach to training (SAT), TECDOC 1254 provided a framework for regulatory bodies for managing training and developing and their maintaining their competence. It has been successfully used by many regulators. The IAEA has also introduced a methodology and an assessment tool - Guidelines for Systematic Assessment of Regulatory Competence Needs (SARCoN) - which provides practical guidance on analysing the training and development needs of a regulatory body and, through a gap analysis, guidance on establishing competence needs and how to meet them. In 2009, the IAEA established a steering committee (supported by a bureau) with the mission to advise the IAEA on how it could best assist Member States to develop suitable competence management systems for their regulatory bodies. The committee recommended the development of a safety report on managing staff competence as an integral part of a regulatory body's management system. This Safety Report was developed in response to this request. It supersedes TECDOC 1254, broadens its application to regulatory bodies for all facilities and activities, and builds upon the experience gained through the application of TECDOC 1254 and SARCoN and the feedback received from Member States. This Safety Report applies to the management of adequate competence as needs change, and as such is equally applicable to the needs of States 'embarking' on a nuclear power programme. It also deals with the special case of building up the competence of regulatory bodies as part of the overall process of establishing an 'embarking' State's regulatory system

  14. Hierarchical unilamellar vesicles of controlled compositional heterogeneity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maik Hadorn

    Full Text Available Eukaryotic life contains hierarchical vesicular architectures (i.e. organelles that are crucial for material production and trafficking, information storage and access, as well as energy production. In order to perform specific tasks, these compartments differ among each other in their membrane composition and their internal cargo and also differ from the cell membrane and the cytosol. Man-made structures that reproduce this nested architecture not only offer a deeper understanding of the functionalities and evolution of organelle-bearing eukaryotic life but also allow the engineering of novel biomimetic technologies. Here, we show the newly developed vesicle-in-water-in-oil emulsion transfer preparation technique to result in giant unilamellar vesicles internally compartmentalized by unilamellar vesicles of different membrane composition and internal cargo, i.e. hierarchical unilamellar vesicles of controlled compositional heterogeneity. The compartmentalized giant unilamellar vesicles were subsequently isolated by a separation step exploiting the heterogeneity of the membrane composition and the encapsulated cargo. Due to the controlled, efficient, and technically straightforward character of the new preparation technique, this study allows the hierarchical fabrication of compartmentalized giant unilamellar vesicles of controlled compositional heterogeneity and will ease the development of eukaryotic cell mimics that resemble their natural templates as well as the fabrication of novel multi-agent drug delivery systems for combination therapies and complex artificial microreactors.

  15. Anisotropic and Hierarchical Porosity in Multifunctional Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtner, Aaron Zev

    The performance of multifunctional porous ceramics is often hindered by the seemingly contradictory effects of porosity on both mechanical and non-structural properties and yet a sufficient body of knowledge linking microstructure to these properties does not exist. Using a combination of tailored anisotropic and hierarchical materials, these disparate effects may be reconciled. In this project, a systematic investigation of the processing, characterization and properties of anisotropic and isotropic hierarchically porous ceramics was conducted. The system chosen was a composite ceramic intended as the cathode for a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). Comprehensive processing investigations led to the development of approaches to make hierarchical, anisotropic porous microstructures using directional freeze-casting of well dispersed slurries. The effect of all the important processing parameters was investigated. This resulted in an ability to tailor and control the important microstructural features including the scale of the microstructure, the macropore size and total porosity. Comparable isotropic porous ceramics were also processed using fugitive pore formers. A suite of characterization techniques including x-ray tomography and 3-D sectional scanning electron micrographs (FIB-SEM) was used to characterize and quantify the green and partially sintered microstructures. The effect of sintering temperature on the microstructure was quantified and discrete element simulations (DEM) were used to explain the experimental observations. Finally, the comprehensive mechanical properties, at room temperature, were investigated, experimentally and using DEM, for the different microstructures.

  16. Zero harmful discharge, regulatory regime, follow-up and results. A proposal for a harmonized system.[Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, Hans Jacob; Teigen, Staale; Weltzien, Rune; Moss, Rigmor

    2006-03-15

    The operating companies on the Norwegian Continental Shelf (NCS) have worked according to principles in the zero harmful discharge concepts for more than 5 years. Ecotoxicological information on offshore chemicals is registered in the Chems-R database in the KPD-centre operated by Novatech AS on behalf of the operators on the NCS. The chemicals are classified according to intrinsic properties (acute toxicity, bioaccumulation, biodegradation and combination of these). The color codes/categories are green (PLONOR chemicals), yellow (acceptable), red (environmental harmful) and black (not allowed to use). The system is described in the Regulations, the Activities . The Norwegian Pollution Control Agency (SFT) submits discharge permits with quotas on chemicals of red/black category. These quotas are to be followed-up by the operating companies according to internal control principles. Environmental discharge accounting systems are used to register and report discharges according to the Regulations, the Information Duty. Together with exo toxicological data from Chems-R, a follow-up system is used to detect non-conformances from the allowed quotas. Key Performance Indicators are used as incentives to achieve internal targets. By combining the regulatory systems, the discharge accounting systems, Chems-R information and the follow-up systems it is fairly easy to put a driving force towards zero harmful discharge of chemicals. The discharges of chemicals of red and black category have been reduced by approx. 75 % and 95 % respectively from 1998 to 2003 on the NCS. (Author)

  17. Nuclear Security Systems and Measures for the Detection of Nuclear and Other Radioactive Material out of Regulatory Control. Implementing Guide (Arabic Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This publication provides guidance to Member States for the development, or improvement of nuclear security systems and measures for the detection of criminal or unauthorized acts with nuclear security implications involving nuclear and other radioactive material out of regulatory control. It describes the elements of an effective nuclear security detection architecture which is composed of an integrated set of nuclear security systems and measures, and is based on an appropriate legal and regulatory framework for the implementation of the national detection strategy. The publication is an implementing guide within the IAEA Nuclear Security Series and is intended for use by national policy makers, legislative bodies, competent authorities, institutions, and individuals involved in the establishment, implementation, maintenance or sustainability of nuclear security systems and measures for the detection of nuclear and other radioactive material out of regulatory control

  18. Deliberate change without hierarchical influence?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørskov, Sladjana; Kesting, Peter; Ulhøi, John Parm

    2017-01-01

    reveals that deliberate change is indeed achievable in a non-hierarchical collaborative OSS community context. However, it presupposes the presence and active involvement of informal change agents. The paper identifies and specifies four key drivers for change agents’ influence. Originality....../value The findings contribute to organisational analysis by providing a deeper understanding of the importance of leadership in making deliberate change possible in non-hierarchical settings. It points to the importance of “change-by-conviction”, essentially based on voluntary behaviour. This can open the door...

  19. Nuclear Security Systems and Measures for the Detection of Nuclear and Other Radioactive Material out of Regulatory Control. Implementing Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear terrorism and the illicit trafficking of nuclear and other radioactive material threaten the security of all States. There are large quantities of diverse radioactive material in existence, which are used in areas such as health, the environment, agriculture and industry. The possibility that nuclear and other radioactive material may be used for terrorist acts cannot be ruled out in the current global situation. States have responded to this risk by engaging in a collective commitment to strengthen the protection and control of such material, and to establish capabilities for detection and response to nuclear and other radioactive material out of regulatory control. Through its nuclear security programme, the IAEA supports States to establish, maintain and sustain an effective nuclear security regime. The IAEA has adopted a comprehensive approach to nuclear security. This approach recognizes that an effective national nuclear security regime builds on: the implementation of relevant international legal instruments; information protection; physical protection; material accounting and control; detection of and response to trafficking in nuclear and other radioactive material; national response plans; and contingency measures. Within its nuclear security programme, the IAEA aims to assist States in implementing and sustaining such a regime in a coherent and integrated manner. Each State carries the full responsibility for nuclear security, specifically: to provide for the security of nuclear and other radioactive material and associated facilities and activities; to ensure the security of such material in use, storage or in transport; to combat illicit trafficking; and to detect and respond to nuclear security events. This is an Implementing Guide on nuclear security systems and measures for the detection of nuclear and other radioactive material out of regulatory control. The objective of the publication is to provide guidance to Member States for the

  20. Drought response in wheat: key genes and regulatory mechanisms controlling root system architecture and transpiration efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Manoj; Soolanayakanahally, Raju; Ogawa, Satoshi; Uga, Yusaku; Selvaraj, Michael G.; Kagale, Sateesh

    2017-12-01

    sequence and advent genome editing technologies, are expected to aid in deciphering of the functional roles of genes and regulatory networks underlying adaptive phenological traits, and utilizing the outcomes of such studies in developing drought tolerance cultivars.