Feature Selection in Hierarchical Feature Spaces
Ristoski, Petar; Paulheim, Heiko
2014-01-01
Feature selection is an important preprocessing step in data mining, which has an impact on both the runtime and the result quality of the subsequent processing steps. While there are many cases where hierarchic relations between features exist, most existing feature selection approaches are not capable of exploiting those relations. In this paper, we introduce a method for feature selection in hierarchical feature spaces. The method first eliminates redundant features along paths in the hier...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chao, Alexander Wu; /SLAC
2012-03-01
As accelerator technology advances, the requirements on accelerator beam quality become increasingly demanding. Facing these new demands, the topic of phase space gymnastics is becoming a new focus of accelerator physics R&D. In a phase space gymnastics, the beam's phase space distribution is manipulated and precision tailored to meet the required beam qualities. On the other hand, all realization of such gymnastics will have to obey accelerator physics principles as well as technological limitations. Recent examples of phase space gymnastics include Emittance exchanges, Phase space exchanges, Emittance partitioning, Seeded FELs and Microbunched beams. The emittance related topics of this list are reviewed in this report. The accelerator physics basis, the optics design principles that provide these phase space manipulations, and the possible applications of these gymnastics, are discussed. This fascinating new field promises to be a powerful tool of the future.
Phase space and phase space transformations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alefeld, B.
1985-03-01
For neutron scattering instrumentation Liouville's theorem plays a similar role as the second law of thermodynamics at least in the sense that from time to time 'ingenious' devices are discussed seriously, which are meant to increase the phase space density, these devices are analogous to a perpetuum mobile of the second kind.
Griffiths phases and localization in hierarchical modular networks.
Ódor, Géza; Dickman, Ronald; Ódor, Gergely
2015-09-24
We study variants of hierarchical modular network models suggested by Kaiser and Hilgetag [ Front. in Neuroinform., 4 (2010) 8] to model functional brain connectivity, using extensive simulations and quenched mean-field theory (QMF), focusing on structures with a connection probability that decays exponentially with the level index. Such networks can be embedded in two-dimensional Euclidean space. We explore the dynamic behavior of the contact process (CP) and threshold models on networks of this kind, including hierarchical trees. While in the small-world networks originally proposed to model brain connectivity, the topological heterogeneities are not strong enough to induce deviations from mean-field behavior, we show that a Griffiths phase can emerge under reduced connection probabilities, approaching the percolation threshold. In this case the topological dimension of the networks is finite, and extended regions of bursty, power-law dynamics are observed. Localization in the steady state is also shown via QMF. We investigate the effects of link asymmetry and coupling disorder, and show that localization can occur even in small-world networks with high connectivity in case of link disorder.
Hierarchical Clustering and the Concept of Space Distortion.
Hubert, Lawrence; Schultz, James
An empirical assesssment of the space distortion properties of two prototypic hierarchical clustering procedures is given in terms of an occupancy model developed from combinatorics. Using one simple example, the single-link and complete-link clustering strategies now in common use in the behavioral sciences are empirically shown to be space…
Anti-hierarchical evolution of the active galactic nucleus space density in a hierarchical universe
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Enoki, Motohiro [Faculty of Business Administration, Tokyo Keizai University, Kokubunji, Tokyo 185-8502 (Japan); Ishiyama, Tomoaki [Center for Computational Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan); Kobayashi, Masakazu A. R. [Research Center for Space and Cosmic Evolution, Ehime University, Matsuyama, Ehime 790-8577 (Japan); Nagashima, Masahiro, E-mail: enokimt@tku.ac.jp [Faculty of Education, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki, Nagasaki 852-8521 (Japan)
2014-10-10
Recent observations show that the space density of luminous active galactic nuclei (AGNs) peaks at higher redshifts than that of faint AGNs. This downsizing trend in the AGN evolution seems to be contradictory to the hierarchical structure formation scenario. In this study, we present the AGN space density evolution predicted by a semi-analytic model of galaxy and AGN formation based on the hierarchical structure formation scenario. We demonstrate that our model can reproduce the downsizing trend of the AGN space density evolution. The reason for the downsizing trend in our model is a combination of the cold gas depletion as a consequence of star formation, the gas cooling suppression in massive halos, and the AGN lifetime scaling with the dynamical timescale. We assume that a major merger of galaxies causes a starburst, spheroid formation, and cold gas accretion onto a supermassive black hole (SMBH). We also assume that this cold gas accretion triggers AGN activity. Since the cold gas is mainly depleted by star formation and gas cooling is suppressed in massive dark halos, the amount of cold gas accreted onto SMBHs decreases with cosmic time. Moreover, AGN lifetime increases with cosmic time. Thus, at low redshifts, major mergers do not always lead to luminous AGNs. Because the luminosity of AGNs is correlated with the mass of accreted gas onto SMBHs, the space density of luminous AGNs decreases more quickly than that of faint AGNs. We conclude that the anti-hierarchical evolution of the AGN space density is not contradictory to the hierarchical structure formation scenario.
Schleich, W P; Mayr, E
1998-01-01
Quantum Optics in Phase Space provides a concise introduction to the rapidly moving field of quantum optics from the point of view of phase space. Modern in style and didactically skillful, Quantum Optics in Phase Space prepares students for their own research by presenting detailed derivations, many illustrations and a large set of workable problems at the end of each chapter. Often, the theoretical treatments are accompanied by the corresponding experiments. An exhaustive list of references provides a guide to the literature. Quantum Optics in Phase Space also serves advanced researchers as
Hierarchical state-space estimation of leatherback turtle navigation ability.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Joanna Mills Flemming
Full Text Available Remotely sensed tracking technology has revealed remarkable migration patterns that were previously unknown; however, models to optimally use such data have developed more slowly. Here, we present a hierarchical Bayes state-space framework that allows us to combine tracking data from a collection of animals and make inferences at both individual and broader levels. We formulate models that allow the navigation ability of animals to be estimated and demonstrate how information can be combined over many animals to allow improved estimation. We also show how formal hypothesis testing regarding navigation ability can easily be accomplished in this framework. Using Argos satellite tracking data from 14 leatherback turtles, 7 males and 7 females, during their southward migration from Nova Scotia, Canada, we find that the circle of confusion (the radius around an animal's location within which it is unable to determine its location precisely is approximately 96 km. This estimate suggests that the turtles' navigation does not need to be highly accurate, especially if they are able to use more reliable cues as they near their destination. Moreover, for the 14 turtles examined, there is little evidence to suggest that male and female navigation abilities differ. Because of the minimal assumptions made about the movement process, our approach can be used to estimate and compare navigation ability for many migratory species that are able to carry electronic tracking devices.
Longitudinal Phase Space Tomography with Space Charge
Hancock, S; Lindroos, M
2000-01-01
Tomography is now a very broad topic with a wealth of algorithms for the reconstruction of both qualitative and quantitative images. In an extension in the domain of particle accelerators, one of the simplest algorithms has been modified to take into account the non-linearity of large-amplitude synchrotron motion. This permits the accurate reconstruction of longitudinal phase space density from one-dimensional bunch profile data. The method is a hybrid one which incorporates particle tracking. Hitherto, a very simple tracking algorithm has been employed because only a brief span of measured profile data is required to build a snapshot of phase space. This is one of the strengths of the method, as tracking for relatively few turns relaxes the precision to which input machine parameters need to be known. The recent addition of longitudinal space charge considerations as an optional refinement of the code is described. Simplicity suggested an approach based on the derivative of bunch shape with the properties of...
Caticha, Nestor; Vicente, Renato
2016-01-01
Empirical evidence suggests that social structure may have changed from hierarchical to egalitarian and back along the evolutionary line of humans. We model a society subject to competing cognitive and social navigation constraints. The theory predicts that the degree of hierarchy decreases with encephalization and increases with group size. Hence hominin groups may have been driven from a phase with hierarchical order to a phase with egalitarian structures by the encephalization during the last two million years, and back to hierarchical due to fast demographical changes during the Neolithic. The dynamics in the perceived social network shows evidence in the egalitarian phase of the observed phenomenon of Reverse Dominance. The theory also predicts for modern hunter-gatherers in mild climates a trend towards an intermediate hierarchy degree and a phase transition for harder ecological conditions. In harsher climates societies would tend to bemore egalitarian if organized in small groups but more hierarchical...
Quantum mechanics in phase space
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Frank
1984-01-01
A reformulation of quantum mechanics for a finite system is given using twisted multiplication of functions on phase space and Tomita's theory of generalized Hilbert algebras. Quantization of a classical observable h is achieved when the twisted exponential Exp0(-h) is defined as a tempered...
Longitudinal phase space tomography with space charge
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Hancock
2000-12-01
Full Text Available Tomography is now a very broad topic with a wealth of algorithms for the reconstruction of both qualitative and quantitative images. In an extension in the domain of particle accelerators, one of the simplest algorithms has been modified to take into account the nonlinearity of large-amplitude synchrotron motion. This permits the accurate reconstruction of longitudinal phase space density from one-dimensional bunch profile data. The method is a hybrid one which incorporates particle tracking. Hitherto, a very simple tracking algorithm has been employed because only a brief span of measured profile data is required to build a snapshot of phase space. This is one of the strengths of the method, as tracking for relatively few turns relaxes the precision to which input machine parameters need to be known. The recent addition of longitudinal space charge considerations as an optional refinement of the code is described. Simplicity suggested an approach based on the derivative of bunch shape with the properties of the vacuum chamber parametrized by a single value of distributed reactive impedance and by a geometrical coupling coefficient. This is sufficient to model the dominant collective effects in machines of low to moderate energy. In contrast to simulation codes, binning is not an issue since the profiles to be differentiated are measured ones. The program is written in Fortran 90 with high-performance Fortran extensions for parallel processing. A major effort has been made to identify and remove execution bottlenecks, for example, by reducing floating-point calculations and recoding slow intrinsic functions. A pointerlike mechanism which avoids the problems associated with pointers and parallel processing has been implemented. This is required to handle the large, sparse matrices that the algorithm employs. Results obtained with and without the inclusion of space charge are presented and compared for proton beams in the CERN protron synchrotron
Liquid phase epitaxial growth of heterostructured hierarchical MOF thin films
Chernikova, Valeriya
2017-05-10
Precise control of epitaxial growth of MOF-on-MOF thin films, for ordered hierarchical tbo-type structures is demonstrated. The heterostructured MOF thin film was fabricated by successful sequential deposition of layers from two different MOFs. The 2-periodic layers, edge-transitive 4,4-square lattices regarded as supermolecular building layers, were commendably cross-linked using a combination of inorganic/organic and organic pillars.
Quantum Shuttle in Phase Space
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Novotny, Tomas; Donarini, Andrea; Jauho, Antti-Pekka
2003-01-01
Abstract: We present a quantum theory of the shuttle instability in electronic transport through a nanostructure with a mechanical degree of freedom. A phase space formulation in terms of the Wigner function allows us to identify a crossover from the tunneling to the shuttling regime, thus...... extending the previously found classical results to the quantum domain. Further, a new dynamical regime is discovered, where the shuttling is driven exclusively by the quantum noise....
Chaotic eigenfunctions in phase space
Nonnenmacher, S
1997-01-01
We study individual eigenstates of quantized area-preserving maps on the 2-torus which are classically chaotic. In order to analyze their semiclassical behavior, we use the Bargmann-Husimi representations for quantum states, as well as their stellar parametrization, which encodes states through a minimal set of points in phase space (the constellation of zeros of the Husimi density). We rigorously prove that a semiclassical uniform distribution of Husimi densities on the torus entails a similar equidistribution for the corresponding constellations. We deduce from this property a universal behavior for the phase patterns of chaotic Bargmann eigenfunctions, which reminds of the WKB approximation for eigenstates of integrable systems (though in a weaker sense). In order to obtain more precise information on ``chaotic eigenconstellations", we then model their properties by ensembles of random states, generalizing former results on the 2-sphere to the torus geometry. This approach yields statistical predictions fo...
Passive longitudinal phase space linearizer
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. Craievich
2010-03-01
Full Text Available We report on the possibility to passively linearize the bunch compression process in electron linacs for the next generation x-ray free electron lasers. This can be done by using the monopole wakefields in a dielectric-lined waveguide. The optimum longitudinal voltage loss over the length of the bunch is calculated in order to compensate both the second-order rf time curvature and the second-order momentum compaction terms. Thus, the longitudinal phase space after the compression process is linearized up to a fourth-order term introduced by the convolution between the bunch and the monopole wake function.
Jonsen, Ian D; Myers, Ransom A; James, Michael C
2006-09-01
1. Biological and statistical complexity are features common to most ecological data that hinder our ability to extract meaningful patterns using conventional tools. Recent work on implementing modern statistical methods for analysis of such ecological data has focused primarily on population dynamics but other types of data, such as animal movement pathways obtained from satellite telemetry, can also benefit from the application of modern statistical tools. 2. We develop a robust hierarchical state-space approach for analysis of multiple satellite telemetry pathways obtained via the Argos system. State-space models are time-series methods that allow unobserved states and biological parameters to be estimated from data observed with error. We show that the approach can reveal important patterns in complex, noisy data where conventional methods cannot. 3. Using the largest Atlantic satellite telemetry data set for critically endangered leatherback turtles, we show that the diel pattern in travel rates of these turtles changes over different phases of their migratory cycle. While foraging in northern waters the turtles show similar travel rates during day and night, but on their southward migration to tropical waters travel rates are markedly faster during the day. These patterns are generally consistent with diving data, and may be related to changes in foraging behaviour. Interestingly, individuals that migrate southward to breed generally show higher daytime travel rates than individuals that migrate southward in a non-breeding year. 4. Our approach is extremely flexible and can be applied to many ecological analyses that use complex, sequential data.
State Space Analysis of Hierarchical Coloured Petri Nets
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christensen, Søren; Kristensen, Lars Michael
2003-01-01
in which formal verification, partial state spaces, and analysis by means of graphical feedback and simulation are integrated entities. The focus of the paper is twofold: the support for graphical feedback and the way it has been integrated with simulation, and the underlying algorithms and data...
Osei, Frank B.; Osei, F.B.; Duker, Alfred A.; Stein, A.
2011-01-01
This study analyses the joint effects of the two transmission routes of cholera on the space-time diffusion dynamics. Statistical models are developed and presented to investigate the transmission network routes of cholera diffusion. A hierarchical Bayesian modelling approach is employed for a joint
The eigenvalue problem in phase space.
Cohen, Leon
2017-07-27
We formulate the standard quantum mechanical eigenvalue problem in quantum phase space. The equation obtained involves the c-function that corresponds to the quantum operator. We use the Wigner distribution for the phase space function. We argue that the phase space eigenvalue equation obtained has, in addition to the proper solutions, improper solutions. That is, solutions for which no wave function exists which could generate the distribution. We discuss the conditions for ascertaining whether a position momentum function is a proper phase space distribution. We call these conditions psi-representability conditions, and show that if these conditions are imposed, one extracts the correct phase space eigenfunctions. We also derive the phase space eigenvalue equation for arbitrary phase space distributions functions. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Noncommutative phase spaces on Aristotle group
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ancille Ngendakumana
2012-03-01
Full Text Available We realize noncommutative phase spaces as coadjoint orbits of extensions of the Aristotle group in a two dimensional space. Through these constructions the momenta of the phase spaces do not commute due to the presence of a naturally introduced magnetic eld. These cases correspond to the minimal coupling of the momentum with a magnetic potential.
Three-dimensional ZnO hierarchical nanostructures: Solution phase synthesis and applications
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wang, Xiaoliang; Ahmad, Mashkoor; Sun, Hongyu
2017-01-01
Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures have been studied extensively in the past 20 years due to their novel electronic, photonic, mechanical and electrochemical properties. Recently, more attention has been paid to assemble nanoscale building blocks into three-dimensional (3D) complex hierarchical...... structures, which not only inherit the excellent properties of the single building blocks but also provide potential applications in the bottom-up fabrication of functional devices. This review article focuses on 3D ZnO hierarchical nanostructures, and summarizes major advances in the solution phase...... synthesis, applications in environment, and electrical/electrochemical devices. We present the principles and growth mechanisms of ZnO nanostructures via different solution methods, with an emphasis on rational control of the morphology and assembly. We then discuss the applications of 3D ZnO hierarchical...
Hierarchical CaCO3 chromatography: a stationary phase based on biominerals.
Sato, Kosuke; Oaki, Yuya; Takahashi, Daisuke; Toshima, Kazunobu; Imai, Hiroaki
2015-03-23
In biomineralization, acidic macromolecules play important roles for the growth control of crystals through a specific interaction. Inspired by this interaction, we report on an application of the hierarchical structures in CaCO3 biominerals to a stationary phase of chromatography. The separation and purification of acidic small organic molecules are achieved by thin-layer chromatography and flash chromatography using the powder of biominerals as the stationary phase. The unit nanocrystals and their oriented assembly, the hierarchical structure, are suitable for the adsorption site of the target organic molecules and the flow path of the elution solvents, respectively. The separation mode is ascribed to the specific adsorption of the acidic molecules on the crystal face and the coordination of the functional groups to the calcium ions. The results imply that a new family of stationary phase of chromatography can be developed by the fine tuning of hierarchical structures in CaCO3 materials. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Three-Dimensional ZnO Hierarchical Nanostructures: Solution Phase Synthesis and Applications
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiaoliang Wang
2017-11-01
Full Text Available Zinc oxide (ZnO nanostructures have been studied extensively in the past 20 years due to their novel electronic, photonic, mechanical and electrochemical properties. Recently, more attention has been paid to assemble nanoscale building blocks into three-dimensional (3D complex hierarchical structures, which not only inherit the excellent properties of the single building blocks but also provide potential applications in the bottom-up fabrication of functional devices. This review article focuses on 3D ZnO hierarchical nanostructures, and summarizes major advances in the solution phase synthesis, applications in environment, and electrical/electrochemical devices. We present the principles and growth mechanisms of ZnO nanostructures via different solution methods, with an emphasis on rational control of the morphology and assembly. We then discuss the applications of 3D ZnO hierarchical nanostructures in photocatalysis, field emission, electrochemical sensor, and lithium ion batteries. Throughout the discussion, the relationship between the device performance and the microstructures of 3D ZnO hierarchical nanostructures will be highlighted. This review concludes with a personal perspective on the current challenges and future research.
Wong, Ling L C; Villafranca, Pedro M Baiz; Menner, Angelika; Bismarck, Alexander
2013-05-21
In building construction, structural elements, such as lattice girders, are positioned specifically to support the mainframe of a building. This arrangement provides additional structural hierarchy, facilitating the transfer of load to its foundation while keeping the building weight down. We applied the same concept when synthesizing hierarchical open-celled macroporous polymers from high internal phase emulsion (HIPE) templates stabilized by varying concentrations of a polymeric non-ionic surfactant from 0.75 to 20 w/vol %. These hierarchical poly(merized)HIPEs have multimodally distributed pores, which are efficiently arranged to enhance the load transfer mechanism in the polymer foam. As a result, hierarchical polyHIPEs produced from HIPEs stabilized by 5 vol % surfactant showed a 93% improvement in Young's moduli compared to conventional polyHIPEs produced from HIPEs stabilized by 20 vol % of surfactant with the same porosity of 84%. The finite element method (FEM) was used to determine the effect of pore hierarchy on the mechanical performance of porous polymers under small periodic compressions. Results from the FEM showed a clear improvement in Young's moduli for simulated hierarchical porous geometries. This methodology could be further adapted as a predictive tool to determine the influence of hierarchy on the mechanical properties of a range of porous materials.
Resonance controlled transport in phase space
Leoncini, Xavier; Vasiliev, Alexei; Artemyev, Anton
2018-02-01
We consider the mechanism of controlling particle transport in phase space by means of resonances in an adiabatic setting. Using a model problem describing nonlinear wave-particle interaction, we show that captures into resonances can be used to control transport in momentum space as well as in physical space. We design the model system to provide creation of a narrow peak in the distribution function, thus producing effective cooling of a sub-ensemble of the particles.
Hierarchical Dynamics of Ecological Communities: Do Scales of Space and Time Match?
Angeler, David G.; Göthe, Emma; Johnson, Richard K.
2013-01-01
Theory posits that community dynamics organize at distinct hierarchical scales of space and time, and that the spatial and temporal patterns at each scale are commensurate. Here we use time series modeling to investigate fluctuation frequencies of species groups within invertebrate metacommunities in 26 boreal lakes over a 20-year period, and variance partitioning analysis to study whether species groups with different fluctuation patterns show spatial signals that are commensurate with the scale-specific fluctuation patterns identified. We identified two groups of invertebrates representing hierarchically organized temporal dynamics: one species group showed temporal variability at decadal scales (slow patterns of change), whilst another group showed fluctuations at 3 to 5-year intervals (faster change). This pattern was consistently found across all lakes studied. A spatial signal was evident in the slow but not faster-changing species groups. As expected, the spatial signal for the slow-changing group coincided with broad-scale spatial patterns that could be explained with historical biogeography (ecoregion delineation, and dispersal limitation assessed through a dispersal trait analysis). In addition to spatial factors, the slow-changing groups correlated with environmental variables, supporting the conjecture that boreal lakes are undergoing environmental change. Taken together our results suggest that regionally distinct sets of taxa, separated by biogeographical boundaries, responded similarly to broad-scale environmental change. Not only does our approach allow testing theory about hierarchically structured space-time patterns; more generally, it allows assessing the relative role of the ability of communities to track environmental change and dispersal constraints limiting community structure and biodiversity at macroecological scales. PMID:23874905
Fesharaki, Nooshin Jafari; Pourghassem, Hossein
2013-07-01
Due to the daily mass production and the widespread variation of medical X-ray images, it is necessary to classify these for searching and retrieving proposes, especially for content-based medical image retrieval systems. In this paper, a medical X-ray image hierarchical classification structure based on a novel merging and splitting scheme and using shape and texture features is proposed. In the first level of the proposed structure, to improve the classification performance, similar classes with regard to shape contents are grouped based on merging measures and shape features into the general overlapped classes. In the next levels of this structure, the overlapped classes split in smaller classes based on the classification performance of combination of shape and texture features or texture features only. Ultimately, in the last levels, this procedure is also continued forming all the classes, separately. Moreover, to optimize the feature vector in the proposed structure, we use orthogonal forward selection algorithm according to Mahalanobis class separability measure as a feature selection and reduction algorithm. In other words, according to the complexity and inter-class distance of each class, a sub-space of the feature space is selected in each level and then a supervised merging and splitting scheme is applied to form the hierarchical classification. The proposed structure is evaluated on a database consisting of 2158 medical X-ray images of 18 classes (IMAGECLEF 2005 database) and accuracy rate of 93.6% in the last level of the hierarchical structure for an 18-class classification problem is obtained.
Dynamics of Hierarchical Urban Green Space Patches and Implications for Management Policy.
Yu, Zhoulu; Wang, Yaohui; Deng, Jinsong; Shen, Zhangquan; Wang, Ke; Zhu, Jinxia; Gan, Muye
2017-06-06
Accurately quantifying the variation of urban green space is the prerequisite for fully understanding its ecosystem services. However, knowledge about the spatiotemporal dynamics of urban green space is still insufficient due to multiple challenges that remain in mapping green spaces within heterogeneous urban environments. This paper uses the city of Hangzhou to demonstrate an analysis methodology that integrates sub-pixel mapping technology and landscape analysis to fully investigate the spatiotemporal pattern and variation of hierarchical urban green space patches. Firstly, multiple endmember spectral mixture analysis was applied to time series Landsat data to derive green space coverage at the sub-pixel level. Landscape metric analysis was then employed to characterize the variation pattern of urban green space patches. Results indicate that Hangzhou has experienced a significant loss of urban greenness, producing a more fragmented and isolated vegetation landscape. Additionally, a remarkable amelioration of urban greenness occurred in the city core from 2002 to 2013, characterized by the significant increase of small-sized green space patches. The green space network has been formed as a consequence of new urban greening strategies in Hangzhou. These strategies have greatly fragmented the built-up areas and enriched the diversity of the urban landscape. Gradient analysis further revealed a distinct pattern of urban green space landscape variation in the process of urbanization. By integrating both sub-pixel mapping technology and landscape analysis, our approach revealed the subtle variation of urban green space patches which are otherwise easy to overlook. Findings from this study will help us to refine our understanding of the evolution of heterogeneous urban environments.
Dynamics of Hierarchical Urban Green Space Patches and Implications for Management Policy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhoulu Yu
2017-06-01
Full Text Available Accurately quantifying the variation of urban green space is the prerequisite for fully understanding its ecosystem services. However, knowledge about the spatiotemporal dynamics of urban green space is still insufficient due to multiple challenges that remain in mapping green spaces within heterogeneous urban environments. This paper uses the city of Hangzhou to demonstrate an analysis methodology that integrates sub-pixel mapping technology and landscape analysis to fully investigate the spatiotemporal pattern and variation of hierarchical urban green space patches. Firstly, multiple endmember spectral mixture analysis was applied to time series Landsat data to derive green space coverage at the sub-pixel level. Landscape metric analysis was then employed to characterize the variation pattern of urban green space patches. Results indicate that Hangzhou has experienced a significant loss of urban greenness, producing a more fragmented and isolated vegetation landscape. Additionally, a remarkable amelioration of urban greenness occurred in the city core from 2002 to 2013, characterized by the significant increase of small-sized green space patches. The green space network has been formed as a consequence of new urban greening strategies in Hangzhou. These strategies have greatly fragmented the built-up areas and enriched the diversity of the urban landscape. Gradient analysis further revealed a distinct pattern of urban green space landscape variation in the process of urbanization. By integrating both sub-pixel mapping technology and landscape analysis, our approach revealed the subtle variation of urban green space patches which are otherwise easy to overlook. Findings from this study will help us to refine our understanding of the evolution of heterogeneous urban environments.
Dynamics of Hierarchical Urban Green Space Patches and Implications for Management Policy
Yu, Zhoulu; Wang, Yaohui; Deng, Jinsong; Shen, Zhangquan; Wang, Ke; Zhu, Jinxia; Gan, Muye
2017-01-01
Accurately quantifying the variation of urban green space is the prerequisite for fully understanding its ecosystem services. However, knowledge about the spatiotemporal dynamics of urban green space is still insufficient due to multiple challenges that remain in mapping green spaces within heterogeneous urban environments. This paper uses the city of Hangzhou to demonstrate an analysis methodology that integrates sub-pixel mapping technology and landscape analysis to fully investigate the spatiotemporal pattern and variation of hierarchical urban green space patches. Firstly, multiple endmember spectral mixture analysis was applied to time series Landsat data to derive green space coverage at the sub-pixel level. Landscape metric analysis was then employed to characterize the variation pattern of urban green space patches. Results indicate that Hangzhou has experienced a significant loss of urban greenness, producing a more fragmented and isolated vegetation landscape. Additionally, a remarkable amelioration of urban greenness occurred in the city core from 2002 to 2013, characterized by the significant increase of small-sized green space patches. The green space network has been formed as a consequence of new urban greening strategies in Hangzhou. These strategies have greatly fragmented the built-up areas and enriched the diversity of the urban landscape. Gradient analysis further revealed a distinct pattern of urban green space landscape variation in the process of urbanization. By integrating both sub-pixel mapping technology and landscape analysis, our approach revealed the subtle variation of urban green space patches which are otherwise easy to overlook. Findings from this study will help us to refine our understanding of the evolution of heterogeneous urban environments. PMID:28587309
Hierarchical elasticity of bimesogenic liquid crystals with twist-bend nematic phase
Yun, Chang-Jun; Vengatesan, M. R.; Vij, Jagdish K.; Song, Jang-Kun
2015-04-01
In 2001, Dozov predicted that twist-bend nematic phase can be spontaneously formed when K33 2, and this phase has recently been discovered in bimesogens. To verify Dozov's hypothesis, we have measured precisely the temperature dependence of the elastic constants of CB7CB in the entire temperature range of nematic phase and in twist-bend nematic phase close to the transition temperature by combing the Fréedericksz threshold methods for a twist nematic and an in-plane switching cells. Anomalous changes in K22 and K33 are observed across the phase transition. The elasticity estimated via extrapolation of the data in the high temperature region of the nematic phase seems to fully satisfy Dozov's hypothesis although the elasticity data in the vicinity of the phase transition exhibit opposite trends. This can be explained by the general nature of a hierarchical system where the macroscopic elasticity is governed mostly by the distortion of a higher level structure.
Phase space methods for degenerate quantum gases
Dalton, Bryan J; Barnett, Stephen M
2015-01-01
Recent experimental progress has enabled cold atomic gases to be studied at nano-kelvin temperatures, creating new states of matter where quantum degeneracy occurs - Bose-Einstein condensates and degenerate Fermi gases. Such quantum states are of macroscopic dimensions. This book presents the phase space theory approach for treating the physics of degenerate quantum gases, an approach already widely used in quantum optics. However, degenerate quantum gases involve massive bosonic and fermionic atoms, not massless photons. The book begins with a review of Fock states for systems of identical atoms, where large numbers of atoms occupy the various single particle states or modes. First, separate modes are considered, and here the quantum density operator is represented by a phase space distribution function of phase space variables which replace mode annihilation, creation operators, the dynamical equation for the density operator determines a Fokker-Planck equation for the distribution function, and measurable...
Using the Phase Space to Design Complexity
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Heinrich, Mary Katherine; Ayres, Phil
2016-01-01
Architecture that is responsive, adaptive, or interactive can contain active architectural elements or robotic sensor-actuator systems. The consideration of architectural robotic elements that utilize distributed control and distributed communication allows for self-organization, emergence...... it to the realm of computational design in architecture, specifically by considering the phase space and related concepts. We consider the scale and predictability of certain design characteristics, and originate the concept of a formation space extension to the phase space, for design to deal directly...... with materializations left by robot swarms or elements, rather than robots' internal states. We detail a case study examination of design methodology using the formation space concept for assessment and decision-making in the design of active architectural artifacts....
Grassmann phase space theory for fermions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dalton, Bryan J. [Centre for Quantum and Optical Science, Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne, Victoria, 3122 (Australia); Jeffers, John [Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, G4 ONG (United Kingdom); Barnett, Stephen M. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, G12 8QQ (United Kingdom)
2017-06-15
A phase space theory for fermions has been developed using Grassmann phase space variables which can be used in numerical calculations for cold Fermi gases and for large fermion numbers. Numerical calculations are feasible because Grassmann stochastic variables at later times are related linearly to such variables at earlier times via c-number stochastic quantities. A Grassmann field version has been developed making large fermion number applications possible. Applications are shown for few mode and field theory cases. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Identifying Phase Space Boundaries with Voronoi Tessellations
Debnath, Dipsikha; Kilic, Can; Kim, Doojin; Matchev, Konstantin T.; Yang, Yuan-Pao
2016-11-24
Determining the masses of new physics particles appearing in decay chains is an important and longstanding problem in high energy phenomenology. Recently it has been shown that these mass measurements can be improved by utilizing the boundary of the allowed region in the fully differentiable phase space in its full dimensionality. Here we show that the practical challenge of identifying this boundary can be solved using techniques based on the geometric properties of the cells resulting from Voronoi tessellations of the relevant data. The robust detection of such phase space boundaries in the data could also be used to corroborate a new physics discovery based on a cut-and-count analysis.
Quantum entropy production in phase space
Deffner, Sebastian
2014-03-01
A fluctuation theorem for the nonequilibrium entropy production in quantum phase space is derived, which enables the consistent thermodynamic description of arbitrary quantum systems, open and closed. The new treatment naturally generalizes classical results to the quantum domain. As an illustration the harmonic oscillator dragged through a thermal bath is solved numerically. Finally, the significance of the new approach is discussed in detail, and the phase space treatment is opposed to the two time energy measurement approach. We acknowledge financial support by a fellowship within the postdoc-program of the German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD, contract No D/11/40955) and from the National Science Foundation (USA) under grant DMR-1206971.
Noether symmetries in the phase space
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bogar Díaz
2014-09-01
Full Text Available The constants of motion of a mechanical system with a finite number of degrees of freedom are related to the variational symmetries of a Lagrangian constructed from the Hamiltonian of the original system. The configuration space for this Lagrangian is the phase space of the original system. The symmetries considered in this manner include transformations of the time and may not be canonical in the standard sense.
Di Fonzo, Fabio
2017-02-01
The assembly of nanoscale building blocks in engineered mesostructures is one of the fundamental goals of nanotechnology. Among the various processes developed to date, self-assembly emerges as one of the most promising, since it relays solely on basic physico-chemical forces. Our research is focused on a new type of self-assembly strategy from the gas-phase: Scattered Ballistic Deposition (SBD). SBD arises from the interaction of a supersonic molecular beam with a static gas and enables the growth of quasi-1D hierarchical mesostructures. Overall, they resemble a forest composed of individual, high aspect-ratio, tree-like structures, assembled from amorphous or crystalline nanoparticles. SBD is a general occurring phenomenon and can be obtained with different vapour or cluster sources. In particular, SBD by Pulsed Laser Deposition is a convenient physical vapor technique that allows the generation of supersonic plasma jets from any inorganic material irrespective of melting temperature, preserving even the most complex stoichiometries. One of the advantages of PLD over other vapour deposition techniques is extremely wide operational pressure range, from UHV to ambient pressure. These characteristics allowed us to develop quasi-1D hierarchical nanostructures from different transition metal oxides, semiconductors and metals. The precise control offered by the SBD-PLD technique over material properties at the nanoscale allowed us to fabricate ultra-thin, high efficiency hierarchical porous photonic crystals with Bragg reflectivity up to 85%. In this communication we will discuss the application of these materials to solar energy harvesting and storage, stimuli responsive photonic crystals and smart surfaces with digital control of their wettability behaviour.
Chaotic systems in complex phase space
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. This paper examines numerically the complex classical trajectories of the kicked rotor and the double pendulum. Both of these systems exhibit a transition to chaos, and this feature is studied in complex phase space. Additionally, it is shown that the short-time and long-time behaviours of these two PT -symmetric ...
Chaotic systems in complex phase space
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
This paper examines numerically the complex classical trajectories of the kicked rotor and the double pendulum. Both of these systems exhibit a transition to chaos, and this feature is studied in complex phase space. Additionally, it is shown that the short-time and long-time behaviours of these two P T -symmetric dynamical ...
Phase space diffusion in turbulent plasmas
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pécseli, Hans
1990-01-01
Turbulent diffusion of charged test particles in electrostatic plasma turbulence is reviewed. Two different types of test particles can be distinguished. First passive particles which are subject to the fluctuating electric fields without themselves contributing to the local space charge. The sec......Turbulent diffusion of charged test particles in electrostatic plasma turbulence is reviewed. Two different types of test particles can be distinguished. First passive particles which are subject to the fluctuating electric fields without themselves contributing to the local space charge....... The second type are particles introduced at a prescribed phase space position at a certain time and which then self-consistently participate in the phase space dynamics of the turbulence. The latter "active" type of particles can be subject to an effective frictional force due to radiation of plasma waves....... In terms of these test particle types, two basically different problems can be formulated. One deals with the diffusion of a particle with respect to its point of release in phase space. Alternatively the relative diffusion between many, or just two, particles can be analyzed. Analytical expressions...
Hierarchical Stereo Matching in Two-Scale Space for Cyber-Physical System.
Choi, Eunah; Lee, Sangyoon; Hong, Hyunki
2017-07-21
Dense disparity map estimation from a high-resolution stereo image is a very difficult problem in terms of both matching accuracy and computation efficiency. Thus, an exhaustive disparity search at full resolution is required. In general, examining more pixels in the stereo view results in more ambiguous correspondences. When a high-resolution image is down-sampled, the high-frequency components of the fine-scaled image are at risk of disappearing in the coarse-resolution image. Furthermore, if erroneous disparity estimates caused by missing high-frequency components are propagated across scale space, ultimately, false disparity estimates are obtained. To solve these problems, we introduce an efficient hierarchical stereo matching method in two-scale space. This method applies disparity estimation to the reduced-resolution image, and the disparity result is then up-sampled to the original resolution. The disparity estimation values of the high-frequency (or edge component) regions of the full-resolution image are combined with the up-sampled disparity results. In this study, we extracted the high-frequency areas from the scale-space representation by using difference of Gaussian (DoG) or found edge components, using a Canny operator. Then, edge-aware disparity propagation was used to refine the disparity map. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm outperforms previous methods.
Hierarchical Stereo Matching in Two-Scale Space for Cyber-Physical System
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eunah Choi
2017-07-01
Full Text Available Dense disparity map estimation from a high-resolution stereo image is a very difficult problem in terms of both matching accuracy and computation efficiency. Thus, an exhaustive disparity search at full resolution is required. In general, examining more pixels in the stereo view results in more ambiguous correspondences. When a high-resolution image is down-sampled, the high-frequency components of the fine-scaled image are at risk of disappearing in the coarse-resolution image. Furthermore, if erroneous disparity estimates caused by missing high-frequency components are propagated across scale space, ultimately, false disparity estimates are obtained. To solve these problems, we introduce an efficient hierarchical stereo matching method in two-scale space. This method applies disparity estimation to the reduced-resolution image, and the disparity result is then up-sampled to the original resolution. The disparity estimation values of the high-frequency (or edge component regions of the full-resolution image are combined with the up-sampled disparity results. In this study, we extracted the high-frequency areas from the scale-space representation by using difference of Gaussian (DoG or found edge components, using a Canny operator. Then, edge-aware disparity propagation was used to refine the disparity map. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm outperforms previous methods.
Thermodynamic Products in the Extended Phase Space
Pradhan, Parthapratim
2016-01-01
We have examined the thermodynamic properties of spherically symmetric charged-AdS black hole, charged AdS BH surrounded by quintessence and charged AdS BH in $f(R)$ gravity in the extended phase-space. Where the cosmological constant should be treated as thermodynamic pressure and its conjugate parameter as thermodynamic volume. Then they should behave as a analog of Van der Waal like systems. In the extended phase space we have calculated the \\emph{entropy product} and \\emph{thermodynamic volume product} of all horizons. The mass(or enthalpy) independent nature of the said products signals they are "universal" quantities. Various types of pictorial diagram of the specific heat is given. The divergence of the specific heat indicates that the second order phase transition occurs under certain condition.
The Quantum Space Phase Transitions for Particles and Force Fields
Chung D.-Y.; Krasnoholovets V.
2006-01-01
We introduce a phenomenological formalism in which the space structure is treated in terms of attachment space and detachment space. Attachment space attaches to an object, while detachment space detaches from the object. The combination of these spaces results in three quantum space phases: binary partition space, miscible space and binary lattice space. Binary lattice space consists of repetitive units of alternative attachment space and detachment spac...
Space market model development project, phase 3
Bishop, Peter C.; Hamel, Gary P.
1989-01-01
The results of a research project investigating information needs for space commercialization is described. The Space Market Model Development Project (SMMDP) was designed to help NASA identify the information needs of the business community and to explore means to meet those needs. The activity of the SMMDP is reviewed and a report of its operation via three sections is presented. The first part contains a brief historical review of the project since inception. The next part reports results of Phase 3, the most recent stage of activity. Finally, overall conclusions and observations based on the SMMDP research results are presented.
Phase transitions in de Sitter space
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alexander Vilenkin
1983-10-01
Full Text Available An effective potential in de Sitter space is calculated for a model of two interacting scalar fields in one-loop approximation and in a self-consistent approximation which takes into account an infinite set of diagrams. Various approaches to renormalization in de Sitter space are discussed. The results are applied to analyze the phase transition in the Hawking-Moss version of the inflationary universe scenario. Requiring that inflation is sufficiently large, we derive constraints on the parameters of the model.
Relativistic transformation of phase-space distributions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. A. Treumann
2011-07-01
Full Text Available We investigate the transformation of the distribution function in the relativistic case, a problem of interest in plasma when particles with high (relativistic velocities come into play as for instance in radiation belt physics, in the electron-cyclotron maser radiation theory, in the vicinity of high-Mach number shocks where particles are accelerated to high speeds, and generally in solar and astrophysical plasmas. We show that the phase-space volume element is a Lorentz constant and construct the general particle distribution function from first principles. Application to thermal equilibrium lets us derive a modified version of the isotropic relativistic thermal distribution, the modified Jüttner distribution corrected for the Lorentz-invariant phase-space volume element. Finally, we discuss the relativistic modification of a number of plasma parameters.
Phase Space Invertible Asynchronous Cellular Automata
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Simon Wacker
2012-08-01
Full Text Available While for synchronous deterministic cellular automata there is an accepted definition of reversibility, the situation is less clear for asynchronous cellular automata. We first discuss a few possibilities and then investigate what we call phase space invertible asynchronous cellular automata in more detail. We will show that for each Turing machine there is such a cellular automaton simulating it, and that it is decidable whether an asynchronous cellular automaton has this property or not, even in higher dimensions.
Entropy production in continuous phase space systems
Luposchainsky, David; Hinrichsen, Haye
2013-01-01
We propose an alternative method to compute the entropy production of a classical underdamped nonequilibrium system in a continuous phase space. This approach has the advantage that it is not necessary to distinguish between even and odd-parity variables. We show that the method leads to the same local entropy production as in previous studies while the differential entropy production along a stochastic trajectory turns out to be different. This demonstrates that the differential entropy prod...
Semiclassical TEM image formation in phase space.
Lubk, Axel; Röder, Falk
2015-04-01
Current developments in TEM such as high-resolution imaging at low acceleration voltages and large fields of view, the ever larger capabilities of hardware aberration correction and the systematic shaping of electron beams require accurate descriptions of TEM imaging in terms of wave optics. Since full quantum mechanic solutions have not yet been established for, e.g., the theory of aberrations, we are exploring semiclassical image formation in the TEM from the perspective of quantum mechanical phase space, here. Firstly, we use two well-known semiclassical approximations, Miller's semiclassical algebra and the frozen Gaussian method, for describing the wave optical generalization of arbitrary geometric aberrations, including nonisoplanatic and slope aberrations. Secondly, we demonstrate that the Wigner function representation of phase space is well suited to also describe incoherent aberrations as well as the ramifications of partial coherence due to the emission process at the electron source. We identify a close relationship between classical phase space and Wigner function distortions due to aberrations as well as classical brightness and quantum mechanical purity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Periodic orbits and TDHF phase space structure
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hashimoto, Yukio; Iwasawa, Kazuo [Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Inst. of Physics; Tsukuma, Hidehiko; Sakata, Fumihiko
1998-03-01
The collective motion of atomic nuclei is closely coupled with the motion of nucleons, therefore, it is nonlinear, and the contents of the motion change largely with the increase of its amplitude. As the framework which describes the collective motion accompanied by the change of internal structure, time-dependent Hurtley Fock (TDHF) method is suitable. At present, the authors try to make the method for studying the large region structure in quantum system by utilizing the features of the TDHF phase space. The studies made so far are briefed. In this report, the correspondence of the large region patterns appearing in the band structure chart of three-level model with the periodic orbit group in the TDHF phase space is described. The Husimi function is made, and it possesses the information on the form of respective corresponding intrinsic state. The method of making the band structure chart is explained. There are three kinds of the tendency in the intrinsic state group. The E-T charts are made for the band structure charts to quantitatively express the large region tendency. The E-T chart and the T{sub r}-T chart are drawn for a selected characteristic orbit group. It became to be known that the large region properties of the quantum intrinsic state group of three-level model can be forecast by examining the properties of the periodic orbit group in the TDHF phase space. (K.I.)
Dissipative fragmentation in a phase space approach
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Adorno, A.; Di Toro, M.; Bonasera, A.; Gregoire, C.; Gulminelli, F.
Semi-classical approaches have evidenced the role of one and two-body dissipation in nucleus-nucleus collisions. On the other hand, a substantial energy dissipation and some angular momentum transfer have been observed at moderate energy where a fragmentation process is the dominant reaction mechanism. In order to analyse main features of these reactions, we developed a phenomenological model taking into account phase space constraints. The transition between deep inelastic collisions and abrasion-like fragmentation is described and a general agreement with available data is found.
Optical image encryption in phase space
Liu, Jun; Xu, Xiaobin; Situ, Guohai; Wu, Quanying
2014-11-01
In the field of optical information security, the research of double random phase encoding is becoming deeper with each passing day, however the encryption system is linear, and the dependencies between plaintext and ciphertext is not complicated, with leaving a great hidden danger to the security of the encryption system. In this paper, we encrypted the higher dimensional Wigner distribution function of low dimensional plaintext by using the bilinear property of Wigner distribution function. Computer simulation results show that this method can not only enlarge the key space, but also break through the linear characteristic of the traditional optical encryption technology. So it can significantly improve the safety of the encryption system.
Phase space structures governing reaction dynamics in rotating molecules
Ciftci, Unver; Waalkens, Holger
Recently, the phase space structures governing reaction dynamics in Hamiltonian systems have been identified and algorithms for their explicit construction have been developed. These phase space structures are induced by saddle type equilibrium points which are characteristic for reaction type
On marginalization of phase-space distribution functions
Włodarz, Joachim J.
1999-12-01
We discuss marginalization procedures based on integration of quantum phase-space distribution functions over a family of phase-space manifolds. We show that under some conditions the resulting marginals are always nonnegative.
Space Transportation Engine Program (STEP), phase B
1990-01-01
The Space Transportation Engine Program (STEP) Phase 2 effort includes preliminary design and activities plan preparation that will allow smooth and time transition into a Prototype Phase and then into Phases 3, 4, and 5. A Concurrent Engineering approach using Total Quality Management (TQM) techniques, is being applied to define an oxygen-hydrogen engine. The baseline from Phase 1/1' studies was used as a point of departure for trade studies and analyses. Existing STME system models are being enhanced as more detailed module/component characteristics are determined. Preliminary designs for the open expander, closed expander, and gas generator cycles were prepared, and recommendations for cycle selection made at the Design Concept Review (DCR). As a result of July '90 DCR, and information subsequently supplied to the Technical Review Team, a gas generator cycle was selected. Results of the various Advanced Development Programs (ADP's) for the Advanced Launch Systems (ALS) were contributive to this effort. An active vehicle integration effort is supplying the NASA, Air Force, and vehicle contractors with engine parameters and data, and flowing down appropriate vehicle requirements. Engine design and analysis trade studies are being documented in a data base that was developed and is being used to organize information. To date, seventy four trade studies were input to the data base.
Hierarchical Mergence Approach to Cell Detection in Phase Contrast Microscopy Images
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lei Chen
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Phase contrast microscope is one of the most universally used instruments to observe long-term cell movements in different solutions. Most of classic segmentation methods consider a homogeneous patch as an object, while the recorded cell images have rich details and a lot of small inhomogeneous patches, as well as some artifacts, which can impede the applications. To tackle these challenges, this paper presents a hierarchical mergence approach (HMA to extract homogeneous patches out and heuristically add them up. Initially, the maximum region of interest (ROI, in which only cell events exist, is drawn by using gradient information as a mask. Then, different levels of blurring based on kernel or grayscale morphological operations are applied to the whole image to produce reference images. Next, each of unconnected regions in the mask is applied with Otsu method independently according to different reference images. Consequently, the segmentation result is generated by the combination of usable patches in all informative layers. The proposed approach is more than simply a fusion of the basic segmentation methods, but a well-organized strategy that integrates these basic methods. Experiments demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms previous methods within our datasets.
Experimental Observations of Ion Phase-Space Vortices
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pécseli, Hans; Armstrong, R. J.; Trulsen, J.
1981-01-01
Experimental observations of ion phase-space vortices are reported. The ion phase-space vortices form in the region of heated ions behind electrostatic ion acoustic shocks. The results are in qualitative agreement with numerical and analytic studies.......Experimental observations of ion phase-space vortices are reported. The ion phase-space vortices form in the region of heated ions behind electrostatic ion acoustic shocks. The results are in qualitative agreement with numerical and analytic studies....
Miyashita, Daisuke; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Deguchi, Jun; Kousai, Shouhei; Hamada, Mototsugu; Fujimoto, Ryuichi
This paper presents an ADPLL using a hierarchical TDC composed of a 4fLO DCO followed by a divide-by-4 circuit and three stages of known phase interpolators. We derived simple design requirements for ensuring precision of the phase interpolator. The proposed architecture provides immunity to PVT and local variations, which allows calibration-free operation, as well as sub-inverter delay resolution contributing to good in-band phase noise performance. Also the hierarchical TDC makes it possible to employ a selective activation scheme for power saving. Measured performances demonstrate the above advantages and the in-band phase noise reaches -104dBc/Hz. It is fabricated in a 65nm CMOS process and the active area is 0.18mm2.
Violent relaxation in phase-space
Bindoni, D.; Secco, L.
2008-05-01
The problem of violent relaxation mechanism in collisionless systems from the point of view of the distribution function (DF) in μ-space is reviewed. The literature run starts from the seminal paper of Lynden-Bell [Lynden-Bell, D., 1967. MNRAS 136, 101] and is closed by that of the same author [Arad, I., Lynden-Bell, D., 2005. MNRAS 361, 385]. After some introductive sections on the stellar dynamical equilibria and on the Shannon's information theory, the different approaches follow each accompanied with its criticism on the previous works. Different coarse-grained DFs proposed by different authors have been taken into account. It appears that for a collisionless gas of a unique mass specie there is not significant discrepancies among the different approaches which converge to the same DF at the end of relaxation process. The main problem is to avoid the non observed mass segregation in the case of multi-species composition, e.g., in a star-dominated galaxy component. On this topic the results are very different and are depending on the shape and size one chooses for μ-space tiles. A great effort has been spent into the visualization of the different partitions in phase-space in order to understand clearly from what the differences arise.
The Quantum Space Phase Transitions for Particles and Force Fields
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chung D.-Y.
2006-07-01
Full Text Available We introduce a phenomenological formalism in which the space structure is treated in terms of attachment space and detachment space. Attachment space attaches to an object, while detachment space detaches from the object. The combination of these spaces results in three quantum space phases: binary partition space, miscible space and binary lattice space. Binary lattice space consists of repetitive units of alternative attachment space and detachment space. In miscible space, attachment space is miscible to detachment space, and there is no separation between attachment space and detachment spaces. In binary partition space, detachment space and attachment space are in two separat continuous regions. The transition from wavefunction to the collapse of wavefuction under interference becomes the quantum space phase transition from binary lattice space to miscible space. At extremely conditions, the gauge boson force field undergoes a quantum space phase transition to a "hedge boson force field", consisting of a "vacuum" core surrounded by a hedge boson shell, like a bubble with boundary.
The Morse oscillator in position space, momentum space, and phase space
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dahl, Jens Peder; Springborg, Michael
1988-01-01
We present a unified description of the position-space wave functions, the momentum-space wave functions, and the phase-space Wigner functions for the bound states of a Morse oscillator. By comparing with the functions for the harmonic oscillator the effects of anharmonicity are visualized. Analy...... for the Morse oscillator. The Journal of Chemical Physics is copyrighted by The American Institute of Physics....
Yun, Sol; Lee, Young-Chul; Park, Ho Seok
2016-01-01
The phase control, hierarchical architecturing and hybridization of iron oxide is important for achieving multifunctional capability for many practical applications. Herein, hierarchically structured reduced graphene oxide (hrGO)/α-Fe2O3 and γ-Fe3O4 nanobox hybrids (hrGO/α-Fe and hrGO/γ-Fe NBhs) are synthesized via a one-pot, hydrothermal process and their functionality controlled by the crystalline phases is adapted for energy storage and photocatalysis. The three-dimensionally (3D) macroporous structure of hrGO/α-Fe NBhs is constructed, while α-Fe2O3 nanoboxes (NBs) in a proximate contact with the hrGO surface are simultaneously grown during a hydrothermal treatment. The discrete α-Fe2O3 NBs are uniformly distributed on the surface of the hrGO/α-Fe and confined in the 3D architecture, thereby inhibiting the restacking of rGO. After the subsequent phase transition into γ-Fe3O4, the hierarchical structure and the uniform distribution of NBs are preserved. Despite lower initial capacity, the hrGO/α-Fe NBhs show better rate and cyclic performances than those of commercial rGO/α-Fe due to the uniform distribution of discrete α-Fe2O3 NBs and electronic conductivity, macroporosity, and buffering effect of the hrGO for lithium ion battery anodes. Moreover, the catalytic activity and kinetics of hrGO/γ-Fe NBhs are enhanced for photo-Fenton reaction because of the uniform distribution of discrete γ-Fe3O4 NBs on the 3D hierarchical architecture.
Phase Space Reduction of Star Products on Cotangent Bundles.
Kowalzig, N.; Neumaier, N.; Pflaum, M.
2005-01-01
In this paper we construct star products on Marsden-Weinstein reduced spaces in case both the original phase space and the reduced phase space are (symplectomorphic to) cotangent bundles. Under the assumption that the original cotangent bundle $T^*Q$ carries a symplectic structure of form
Bertrand systems and their phase space
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
O. A. Zagryadskij
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Consider a pair (S, V , where S is a two-dimensional surface of revolution without equators, i.e. cylinder equipped Riemannian metric of revolution, V is a central potential on S such that it keeps constant when the group of rotation acts. Also consider central potentials acting on the surfaces equipped Pseudoriemannian metric of revolution. Lets select Bertrand pairs in the set of all considered pairs | the potential has to be locking, i.e. under the influence of it all bounded orbits must be closed. Such dynamical systems are Hamiltonian ones possessed four-dimensional phase space. And one could represent Bertand pairs as five-parametric set, three parameters define the inner product of the manifold, other two define potential. It is proved that only generalized law of universal gravitation and the generalized oscillator Hook law could be locking.It is well-known that in case of closed orbit the period of moving depends on the full energy, but not depends on angular momentum (classical Gordon's theorem; in this paper we established the explicit form of this relation for Bertrand systems. In case of nonbounded orbits we calculated full time of moving, noted the infinite cases, and derived the fullness of corresponding phase flows, i.e. whether time-parameter could be continued to infinitely on the integral curves of Hamiltonian vector field of energy.We show, thatBertrand systemsin pseudoriemannian case weren't integrable by the Liouville| Arnold theorem, however the connected components of regular Liouvill folia of two first integrals energy and angular momentum stayed either torii or cylinders. We proved any folia of the foliation could be either circle or torus or cylinder or pair of cylinders. Also we constructed bifurcation diagrams of momentum map, all the diagrams is divided into areas corresponding to different types of Liouville folii. Finally it was discovered whether flows were full or not.
Space storm as a phase transition
Wanliss, J. A.; Dobias, P.
2007-04-01
Fluctuations of the SYM-H index were analyzed for several space storms preceded by more than a week of extremely quiet conditions to establish that there was a rapid and unidirectional change in the Hurst scaling exponent at the time of storm onset. That is, the transition was accompanied by the specific signature of a rapid unidirectional change in the temporal fractal scaling of fluctuations in SYM-H, signaling the formation of a new dynamical phase (or mode) which was considerably more organized than the background state. We compare these results to a model of multifractional Brownian motion and suggest that the relatively sudden change from a less correlated to a more correlated pattern of multiscale fluctuations at storm onset can be characterized in terms of nonequilibrium dynamical phase transitions. The results show that a dynamical transition in solar wind VB is correlated with the storm onset for intense storms, suggesting that the dynamical transition observed in SYM-H is of external solar wind origin, rather than internal magnetospheric origin. However, some results showed a dynamical transition in solar wind scaling exponents not matched by similar transitions in SYM-H. In other instances, we observed some small storms where there was a strong dynamical transition in SYM-H without similar changes in the VB scaling statistics, suggesting that changes were due to internal magnetospheric processes. In summary, the results for intense storms points to the solar wind as being responsible for providing the scale free properties in the SYM-H fluctuations but the evidence for small storms clearly limit the importance of the solar wind fluctuations; their interaction is more complex than simple causality.
Phase Space Cell in Nonextensive Classical Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Piero Quarati
2003-06-01
Full Text Available Abstract: We calculate the phase space volume ÃŽÂ© occupied by a nonextensive system of N classical particles described by an equilibrium (or steady-state, or long-term stationary state of a nonequilibrium system distribution function, which slightly deviates from Maxwell-Boltzmann (MB distribution in the high energy tail. We explicitly require that the number of accessible microstates does not change respect to the extensive MB case. We also derive, within a classical scheme, an analytical expression of the elementary cell that can be seen as a macrocell, different from the third power of Planck constant. Thermodynamic quantities like entropy, chemical potential and free energy of a classical ideal gas, depending on elementary cell, are evaluated. Considering the fractional deviation from MB distribution we can deduce a physical meaning of the nonextensive parameter q of the Tsallis nonextensive thermostatistics in terms of particle correlation functions (valid at least in the case, discussed in this work, of small deviations from MB standard case.
Space market model development project, phase 2
Bishop, Peter C.
1988-01-01
The results of the prototype operations of the Space Business Information Center are presented. A clearinghouse for space business information for members of the U.S. space industry composed of public, private, and academic sectors was conducted. Behavioral and evaluation statistics were recorded from the clearinghouse and the conclusions from these statistics are presented. Business guidebooks on major markets in space business are discussed. Proprietary research and briefings for firms and agencies in the space industry are also discussed.
Overview of Phase Space Manipulations of Relativistic Electron Beams
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Xiang, Dao; /SLAC
2012-08-31
Phase space manipulation is a process to rearrange beam's distribution in 6-D phase space. In this paper, we give an overview of the techniques for tailoring beam distribution in 2D, 4D, and 6D phase space to meet the requirements of various applications. These techniques become a new focus of accelerator physics R&D and very likely these advanced concepts will open up new opportunities in advanced accelerators and the science enabled by them.
Phase-space topography characterization of nonlinear ultrasound waveforms.
Dehghan-Niri, Ehsan; Al-Beer, Helem
2018-03-01
Fundamental understanding of ultrasound interaction with material discontinuities having closed interfaces has many engineering applications such as nondestructive evaluation of defects like kissing bonds and cracks in critical structural and mechanical components. In this paper, to analyze the acoustic field nonlinearities due to defects with closed interfaces, the use of a common technique in nonlinear physics, based on a phase-space topography construction of ultrasound waveform, is proposed. The central idea is to complement the "time" and "frequency" domain analyses with the "phase-space" domain analysis of nonlinear ultrasound waveforms. A nonlinear time series method known as pseudo phase-space topography construction is used to construct equivalent phase-space portrait of measured ultrasound waveforms. Several nonlinear models are considered to numerically simulate nonlinear ultrasound waveforms. The phase-space response of the simulated waveforms is shown to provide different topographic information, while the frequency domain shows similar spectral behavior. Thus, model classification can be substantially enhanced in the phase-space domain. Experimental results on high strength aluminum samples show that the phase-space transformation provides a unique detection and classification capabilities. The Poincaré map of the phase-space domain is also used to better understand the nonlinear behavior of ultrasound waveforms. It is shown that the analysis of ultrasound nonlinearities is more convenient and informative in the phase-space domain than in the frequency domain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Cosmology with galaxy cluster phase spaces
Stark, Alejo; Miller, Christopher J.; Huterer, Dragan
2017-07-01
We present a novel approach to constrain accelerating cosmologies with galaxy cluster phase spaces. With the Fisher matrix formalism we forecast constraints on the cosmological parameters that describe the cosmological expansion history. We find that our probe has the potential of providing constraints comparable to, or even stronger than, those from other cosmological probes. More specifically, with 1000 (100) clusters uniformly distributed in the redshift range 0 ≤z ≤0.8 , after applying a conservative 80% mass scatter prior on each cluster and marginalizing over all other parameters, we forecast 1 σ constraints on the dark energy equation of state w and matter density parameter ΩM of σw=0.138 (0.431 ) and σΩM=0.007(0.025 ) in a flat universe. Assuming 40% mass scatter and adding a prior on the Hubble constant we can achieve a constraint on the Chevallier-Polarski-Linder parametrization of the dark energy equation of state parameters w0 and wa with 100 clusters in the same redshift range: σw 0=0.191 and σwa=2.712. Dropping the assumption of flatness and assuming w =-1 we also attain competitive constraints on the matter and dark energy density parameters: σΩ M=0.101 and σΩ Λ=0.197 for 100 clusters uniformly distributed in the range 0 ≤z ≤0.8 after applying a prior on the Hubble constant. We also discuss various observational strategies for tightening constraints in both the near and far future.
On quantum mechanical phase-space wave functions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wlodarz, Joachim J.
1994-01-01
An approach to quantum mechanics based on the notion of a phase-space wave function is proposed within the Weyl-Wigner-Moyal representation. It is shown that the Schrodinger equation for the phase-space wave function is equivalent to the quantum Liouville equation for the Wigner distribution...
Phase-space treatment of the driven quantum harmonic oscillator
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2017-02-22
Feb 22, 2017 ... Phase-space quantum mechanics; coherent states; harmonic oscillator; Husimi distribution; cross- ... is the Weyl operator assigned to the phase-space ...... formulae used in this work. The Hermite polynomials satisfy the following relations: 1. [19, Section 5.6.4],. Hη(y + σ) = η. ∑ k=0. ( η k. ) Hk(y)(2σ)η−k. = η.
On phase-space representations of quantum mechanics using ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
A phase-space formulation of quantum mechanics is proposed by constructing two representations (identified as p q and q p ) in terms of the Glauber coherent states, in which phase-space wave functions (probability amplitudes) play the central role, and position q and momentum p are treated on equal footing. After finding ...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rome Samanta
2016-03-01
Full Text Available We evaluate the Majorana phases for a general 3×3 complex symmetric neutrino mass matrix on the basis of Mohapatra–Rodejohann's phase convention using the three rephasing invariant quantities I12, I13 and I23 proposed by Sarkar and Singh. We find them interesting as they allow us to evaluate each Majorana phase in a model independent way even if one eigenvalue is zero. Utilizing the solution of a general complex symmetric mass matrix for eigenvalues and mixing angles we determine the Majorana phases for both the hierarchies, normal and inverted, taking into account the constraints from neutrino oscillation global fit data as well as bound on the sum of the three light neutrino masses (Σimi and the neutrinoless double beta decay (ββ0ν parameter |m11|. This methodology of finding the Majorana phases is applied thereafter in some predictive models for both the hierarchical cases (normal and inverted to evaluate the corresponding Majorana phases and it is shown that all the sub cases presented in inverted hierarchy section can be realized in a model with texture zeros and scaling ansatz within the framework of inverse seesaw although one of the sub cases following the normal hierarchy is yet to be established. Except the case of quasi degenerate neutrinos, the methodology obtained in this work is able to evaluate the corresponding Majorana phases, given any model of neutrino masses.
Real-space Berry phases: Skyrmion soccer (invited)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Everschor-Sitte, Karin, E-mail: karin@physics.utexas.edu; Sitte, Matthias [The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Physics, 2515 Speedway, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)
2014-05-07
Berry phases occur when a system adiabatically evolves along a closed curve in parameter space. This tutorial-like article focuses on Berry phases accumulated in real space. In particular, we consider the situation where an electron traverses a smooth magnetic structure, while its magnetic moment adjusts to the local magnetization direction. Mapping the adiabatic physics to an effective problem in terms of emergent fields reveals that certain magnetic textures, skyrmions, are tailormade to study these Berry phase effects.
Real-space Berry phases: Skyrmion soccer (invited)
Everschor-Sitte, Karin; Sitte, Matthias
2014-05-01
Berry phases occur when a system adiabatically evolves along a closed curve in parameter space. This tutorial-like article focuses on Berry phases accumulated in real space. In particular, we consider the situation where an electron traverses a smooth magnetic structure, while its magnetic moment adjusts to the local magnetization direction. Mapping the adiabatic physics to an effective problem in terms of emergent fields reveals that certain magnetic textures, skyrmions, are tailormade to study these Berry phase effects.
Schrodinger Equation and Phase Space in Quantum Mechanics
Kim, Kiyoung
1997-01-01
Using classical statistics, Schrodinger equation in quantum mechanics is derived from complex space model. Phase-space probability amplitude, that can be defined on classical point of view, has connections to probability amplitude in internal space and to wave function in quantum mechanics. In addition, the physical entity of wave function in quantum mechanics is confirmed once again.
A hierarchical two-phase framework for selecting genes in cancer datasets with a neuro-fuzzy system.
Lim, Jongwoo; Wang, Bohyun; Lim, Joon S
2016-04-29
Finding the minimum number of appropriate biomarkers for specific targets such as a lung cancer has been a challenging issue in bioinformatics. We propose a hierarchical two-phase framework for selecting appropriate biomarkers that extracts candidate biomarkers from the cancer microarray datasets and then selects the minimum number of appropriate biomarkers from the extracted candidate biomarkers datasets with a specific neuro-fuzzy algorithm, which is called a neural network with weighted fuzzy membership function (NEWFM). In this context, as the first phase, the proposed framework is to extract candidate biomarkers by using a Bhattacharyya distance method that measures the similarity of two discrete probability distributions. Finally, the proposed framework is able to reduce the cost of finding biomarkers by not receiving medical supplements and improve the accuracy of the biomarkers in specific cancer target datasets.
Phase space picture of quantum mechanics group theoretical approach
Kim, Y S
1991-01-01
This book covers the theory and applications of the Wigner phase space distribution function and its symmetry properties. The book explains why the phase space picture of quantum mechanics is needed, in addition to the conventional Schrödinger or Heisenberg picture. It is shown that the uncertainty relation can be represented more accurately in this picture. In addition, the phase space picture is shown to be the natural representation of quantum mechanics for modern optics and relativistic quantum mechanics of extended objects.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xin Gao
2016-01-01
Full Text Available In order to maintain and enhance the operational reliability of a robotic manipulator deployed in space, an operational reliability system control method is presented in this paper. First, a method to divide factors affecting the operational reliability is proposed, which divides the operational reliability factors into task-related factors and cost-related factors. Then the models describing the relationships between the two kinds of factors and control variables are established. Based on this, a multivariable and multiconstraint optimization model is constructed. Second, a hierarchical system control model which incorporates the operational reliability factors is constructed. The control process of the space manipulator is divided into three layers: task planning, path planning, and motion control. Operational reliability related performance parameters are measured and used as the system’s feedback. Taking the factors affecting the operational reliability into consideration, the system can autonomously decide which control layer of the system should be optimized and how to optimize it using a control level adjustment decision module. The operational reliability factors affect these three control levels in the form of control variable constraints. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed method can achieve a greater probability of meeting the task accuracy requirements, while extending the expected lifetime of the space manipulator.
Reading Neural Encodings using Phase Space Methods
Abarbanel, Henry D. I.; Tumer, Evren C.
2003-01-01
Environmental signals sensed by nervous systems are often represented in spike trains carried from sensory neurons to higher neural functions where decisions and functional actions occur. Information about the environmental stimulus is contained (encoded) in the train of spikes. We show how to "read" the encoding using state space methods of nonlinear dynamics. We create a mapping from spike signals which are output from the neural processing system back to an estimate of the analog input sig...
Explaining Gibbsean phase space to second year students
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vesely, Franz J [Institute of Experimental Physics, University of Vienna (Austria)
2005-03-01
A new approach to teaching introductory statistical physics is presented. We recommend making extensive use of the fact that even systems with a very few degrees of freedom may display chaotic behaviour. This permits a didactic 'bottom-up' approach, starting out with toy systems whose phase space may be depicted on a screen or blackboard, then proceeding to ever higher dimensions in Gibbsean phase space.
Group theoretical construction of planar noncommutative phase spaces
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ngendakumana, Ancille, E-mail: nancille@yahoo.fr; Todjihoundé, Leonard, E-mail: leonardt@imsp.uac.org [Institut de Mathématiques et des Sciences Physiques (IMSP), Porto-Novo (Benin); Nzotungicimpaye, Joachim, E-mail: kimpaye@kie.ac.rw [Kigali Institute of Education (KIE), Kigali (Rwanda)
2014-01-15
Noncommutative phase spaces are generated and classified in the framework of centrally extended anisotropic planar kinematical Lie groups as well as in the framework of noncentrally abelian extended planar absolute time Lie groups. Through these constructions the coordinates of the phase spaces do not commute due to the presence of naturally introduced fields giving rise to minimal couplings. By symplectic realizations methods, physical interpretations of generators coming from the obtained structures are given.
Generalized bracket formulation of constrained dynamics in phase space.
Sergi, Alessandro
2004-02-01
A generalized bracket formalism is used to define the phase space flow of constrained systems. The generalized bracket naturally subsumes the approach to constrained dynamics given by Dirac some time ago. The dynamical invariant measure and the linear response of systems subjected to holonomic constraints are explicitly derived. In light of previous results, it is shown that generalized brackets provide a simple and unified view of the statistical mechanics of non-Hamiltonian phase space flows with a conserved energy.
Evolution of classical projected phase space density in billiards
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. The classical phase space density projected on to the configuration space offers a means of comparing classical and quantum evolution. In this alternate approach that we adopt here, we show that for billiards, the eigenfunctions of the coarse-grained projected classical evolution operator are identical to a first ...
Para-Galilean versus Galilean Noncommutative Phase spaces
Ngendakumana, Ancille; Nzotungicimpaye, Joachim; Todjihounde, Leonard
2012-01-01
The present paper deals with the construction of noncommutative phase spaces as coadjoint orbits of noncentral extensions of Galilei and Para-Galilei groups in two-dimensional space. The noncommutativity is due to the presence of a dual magnetic field B* in the Galilei case and of a magnetic field B in the Para-Galilei case.
Elementary particles and emergent phase space
Zenczykowski, Piotr
2014-01-01
The Standard Model of elementary particles, although very successful, contains various elements that are put in by hand. Understanding their origin requires going beyond the model and searching for ""new physics"". The present book elaborates on one particular proposal concerning such physics. While the original conception is 50 years old, it has not lost its appeal over time. Its basic idea is that space - an arena of events treated in the Standard Model as a classical background - is a concept which emerges from a strictly discrete quantum layer in the limit of large quantum numbers. This bo
The diffusion of stars through phase space
Binney, James; Lacey, Cedric
1988-01-01
An orbit-averaged Fokker-Planck equation has been derived to study the secular evolution of stellar systems with regular orbits and the heating of stellar disks. It is shown that a population of stars with an initially Maxwellian peculiar-velocity distribution will remain Maxwellian as it diffuses through orbit space only if: (1) a second-order diffusion tensor is proportional to epicycle energy; and (2) the population's velocity dispersion grows as the square root of time. Scattering by ephemeral spiral waves is able to account for the observed kinematics of the solar neighborhood only if the waves have wavelengths in excess of 9 kpc and constantly drifting pattern speeds.
Sato, Naoyuki; Yamaguchi, Yoko
2009-06-01
The human cognitive map is known to be hierarchically organized consisting of a set of perceptually clustered landmarks. Patient studies have demonstrated that these cognitive maps are maintained by the hippocampus, while the neural dynamics are still poorly understood. The authors have shown that the neural dynamic "theta phase precession" observed in the rodent hippocampus may be capable of forming hierarchical cognitive maps in humans. In the model, a visual input sequence consisting of object and scene features in the central and peripheral visual fields, respectively, results in the formation of a hierarchical cognitive map for object-place associations. Surprisingly, it is possible for such a complex memory structure to be formed in a few seconds. In this paper, we evaluate the memory retrieval of object-place associations in the hierarchical network formed by theta phase precession. The results show that multiple object-place associations can be retrieved with the initial cue of a scene input. Importantly, according to the wide-to-narrow unidirectional connections among scene units, the spatial area for object-place retrieval can be controlled by the spatial area of the initial cue input. These results indicate that the hierarchical cognitive maps have computational advantages on a spatial-area selective retrieval of multiple object-place associations. Theta phase precession dynamics is suggested as a fundamental neural mechanism of the human cognitive map.
Hierarchical creep cavity formation in an ultramylonite and implications for phase mixing
Gilgannon, James; Fusseis, Florian; Menegon, Luca; Regenauer-Lieb, Klaus; Buckman, Jim
2017-12-01
Establishing models for the formation of well-mixed polyphase domains in ultramylonites is difficult because the effects of large strains and thermo-hydro-chemo-mechanical feedbacks can obscure the transient phenomena that may be responsible for domain production. We use scanning electron microscopy and nanotomography to offer critical insights into how the microstructure of a highly deformed quartzo-feldspathic ultramylonite evolved. The dispersal of monomineralic quartz domains in the ultramylonite is interpreted to be the result of the emergence of synkinematic pores, called creep cavities. The cavities can be considered the product of two distinct mechanisms that formed hierarchically: Zener-Stroh cracking and viscous grain-boundary sliding. In initially thick and coherent quartz ribbons deforming by grain-size-insensitive creep, cavities were generated by the Zener-Stroh mechanism on grain boundaries aligned with the YZ plane of finite strain. The opening of creep cavities promoted the ingress of fluids to sites of low stress. The local addition of a fluid lowered the adhesion and cohesion of grain boundaries and promoted viscous grain-boundary sliding. With the increased contribution of viscous grain-boundary sliding, a second population of cavities formed to accommodate strain incompatibilities. Ultimately, the emergence of creep cavities is interpreted to be responsible for the transition of quartz domains from a grain-size-insensitive to a grain-size-sensitive rheology.
Space Storm as a Dynamical Phase Transition
Wanliss, J. A.
2006-12-01
Fluctuations of the DST index were analyzed for several magnetic storms preceded by more than a week of extremely quiet conditions to establish that there is a rapid and unidirectional change in the Hurst scaling exponent at the time of storm onset. That is, the transition is accompanied by the specific signature of a rapid unidirectional change in the temporal fractal scaling of fluctuations in DST, signaling the formation of a new dynamical phase (or mode) which is considerably more organized than the background state. We compare these results to a model of multifractional Brownian motion and suggest that the relatively sudden change from a less correlated to a more correlated pattern of multiscale fluctuations at storm onset can be characterized in terms of nonequilibrium dynamical phase transitions. Initial results show that a dynamical transition in solar wind VBs is correlated with the storm onset for intense storms, suggesting that the transition observed in DST is of external solar wind origin, rather than internal magnetospheric origin. On the other hand, some results show a dynamical transition in solar wind scaling exponents not matched in DST. As well, we also present results for small storms where there is a strong dynamical transition in DST without a similar changes in the VBs scaling statistics. The results for small storms seem to reduce the importance of the solar wind fluctuations but the evidence for the intense storms seems to point to the solar wind as being responsible for providing the scale free properties in the DST fluctuations.
Controlling quantum interference in phase space with amplitude.
Xue, Yinghong; Li, Tingyu; Kasai, Katsuyuki; Okada-Shudo, Yoshiko; Watanabe, Masayoshi; Zhang, Yun
2017-05-23
We experimentally show a quantum interference in phase space by interrogating photon number probabilities (n = 2, 3, and 4) of a displaced squeezed state, which is generated by an optical parametric amplifier and whose displacement is controlled by amplitude of injected coherent light. It is found that the probabilities exhibit oscillations of interference effect depending upon the amplitude of the controlling light field. This phenomenon is attributed to quantum interference in phase space and indicates the capability of controlling quantum interference using amplitude. This remarkably contrasts with the oscillations of interference effects being usually controlled by relative phase in classical optics.
Kinematic variables in noncommutative phase space and parameters of noncommutativity
Gnatenko, Kh. P.
2017-10-01
We consider a space with noncommutativity of coordinates and noncommutativity of momenta. It is shown that coordinates in noncommutative phase space depend on mass therefore they cannot be considered as kinematic variables. Also, noncommutative momenta are not proportional to a mass as it has to be. We find conditions on the parameters of noncommutativity on which these problems are solved. It is important that on the same conditions the properties of kinetic energy are preserved, the motion of the center-of-mass of composite system and relative motion are independent, the trajectory of a particle (composite system) is independent of its mass and composition therefore the weak equivalence principle is recovered in four-dimensional (2D configurational space and 2D momentum space) noncommutative phase space.
Zeeman deceleration beyond periodic phase space stability
Toscano, Jutta; Tauschinsky, Atreju; Dulitz, Katrin; Rennick, Christopher J.; Heazlewood, Brianna R.; Softley, Timothy P.
2017-08-01
In Zeeman deceleration, time-varying spatially inhomogeneous magnetic fields are used to create packets of translationally cold, quantum-state-selected paramagnetic particles with a tuneable forward velocity, which are ideal for cold reaction dynamics studies. Here, the covariance matrix adaptation evolutionary strategy is adopted in order to optimise deceleration switching sequences for the operation of a Zeeman decelerator. Using the optimised sequences, a 40% increase in the number of decelerated particles is observed compared to standard sequences for the same final velocity, imposing the same experimental boundary conditions. Furthermore, we demonstrate that it is possible to remove up to 98% of the initial kinetic energy of particles in the incoming beam, compared to the removal of a maximum of 83% of kinetic energy with standard sequences. Three-dimensional particle trajectory simulations are employed to reproduce the experimental results and to investigate differences in the deceleration mechanism adopted by standard and optimised sequences. It is experimentally verified that the optimal solution uncovered by the evolutionary algorithm is not merely a local optimisation of the experimental parameters—it is a novel mode of operation that goes beyond the standard periodic phase stability approach typically adopted.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marco Scavini
2015-09-01
Full Text Available A new hierarchical approach is presented for elucidating the structural disorder in Ce1−xGdxO2−x/2 solid solutions on different scale lengths. The primary goal of this investigation is to shed light on the relations between the short-range and the average structure of these materials via an analysis of disorder on the mesocopic scale. Real-space (pair distribution function and reciprocal-space (Rietveld refinement and microstructure probing analysis of X-ray powder diffraction data and electron spin resonance (ESR investigations were carried out following this approach. On the local scale, Gd- and Ce-rich droplets (i.e. small regions a few ångströms wide form, exhibiting either a distorted fluorite (CeO2 or a C-type (Gd2O3 structure in the whole compositional range. These droplets can then form C-type nanodomains which, for Gd concentrations xGd ≤ 0.25, are embedded in the fluorite matrix. At the site percolation threshold pC for a cubic lattice (xGd = pC ≃ 0.311, C-type nanodomains percolate inside each crystallite and a structural phase transformation is observed. When this occurs, the peak-to-peak ESR line width ΔHpp shows a step-like behaviour, which can be associated with the increase in Gd–Gd dipolar interactions. A general crystallographic rationale is presented to explain the fluorite-to-C-type phase transformation. The approach shown here could be adopted more generally in the analysis of disorder in other highly doped materials.
Additive Manufacturing of Hierarchical Multi-Phase High-Entropy Alloys for Nuclear Component
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, Nan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2017-10-10
In recent years, high entropy alloys (HEAs), composed of four or more metallic elements mixed in equal or near equal atomic percent, have attracted significant attention due to their excellent mechanical properties and good corrosion resistance. They show significant promise as candidates for high temperature fission and fusion structural applications. However, the conventional synthesis methods are unlikely to present an industrially suitable route for the production and use of HEAs. Recognizing rapidly evolving additive manufacturing (AM) techniques, the goal of this proposal is to optimize the AM process to fabricate HEAs with predesigned chemical compositions and phase morphologies for nuclear components. For this project, two HEAs FeCrNiMn and FeCrNiMnAl have been successfully synthesized. Correlated mechanical response has been systematically characterized under a variety of laser processing and ion irradiations. Both high entropy alloys are found to present comparable swelling and extraordinary irradiation tolerance (limited voids and stabilized phase structure under high irradiation dose). In addition, the microstructure and radiation-induced hardening can be tailored by laser processing under additive manufacturing. And we have assembled at LANL a unique database of HEAs containing a total of 674 compositions with Phase Stability information. Based on this, the machine learning and Artificial Intelligence capability now are established to predict the microstructure of casted HEAs by given chemical compositions. This unique integration will lead to an optimal AM recipe for fabricating radiation tolerant HEAs. The development of both modeling models and experimental capability will also benefit other programs at LANL.
Phase-space evolution of x-ray coherence in phase-sensitive imaging.
Wu, Xizeng; Liu, Hong
2008-08-01
X-ray coherence evolution in the imaging process plays a key role for x-ray phase-sensitive imaging. In this work we present a phase-space formulation for the phase-sensitive imaging. The theory is reformulated in terms of the cross-spectral density and associated Wigner distribution. The phase-space formulation enables an explicit and quantitative account of partial coherence effects on phase-sensitive imaging. The presented formulas for x-ray spectral density at the detector can be used for performing accurate phase retrieval and optimizing the phase-contrast visibility. The concept of phase-space shearing length derived from this phase-space formulation clarifies the spatial coherence requirement for phase-sensitive imaging with incoherent sources. The theory has been applied to x-ray Talbot interferometric imaging as well. The peak coherence condition derived reveals new insights into three-grating-based Talbot-interferometric imaging and gratings-based x-ray dark-field imaging.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Qiu, Yong; Ouyang, Feng, E-mail: ouyangfh@hit.edu.cn
2017-05-01
Highlights: • H-titanate nanowires hierarchical architectures (TNH) were prepared by a hydrothermal method. • Calcinations of TNH leads to the formation of anatase/TiO{sub 2}(B) phase-junctions. • The hierarchical architecture offered enhanced light harvesting and large specific surface area. • The 1D nanowires and anatase/TiO{sub 2}(B) phase-junctions both can enhance the separation of photoinduced electron-hole. • The products calcined at the optimum conditions (450 °C) exhibited a maximum hydrogenproduction rate of 7808 μmol g{sup −1} h{sup −1}. - Abstract: TiO{sub 2} hierarchical architecture assembled by nanowires with anatase/TiO{sub 2}(B) phase-junctions was prepared by a hydrothermal process followed by calcinations. The optimum calcination treatment (450 °C) not only led to the formation of anatase/TiO{sub 2}(B) phase-junctions, but also kept the morphology of 1D nanowire and hierarchical architecture well. The T-450 load 0.5 wt% Pt cocatalysts showed the best photocatalytic hydrogen production activity, with a maximum hydrogen production rate of 7808 μmol g{sup −1} h{sup −1}. The high photocatalytic activity is ascribed to the combined effects of the following three factors: (1) the hierarchical architecture exhibits better light harvesting; (2) the larger specific surface area provides more surface active sites for the photocatalytic reaction; (3) the 1D nanowires and anatase/TiO{sub 2}(B) phase-junctions both can enhance the separation of photoinduced electron-hole pairs and inhibit their recombination.
The Phase Space Elementary Cell in Classical and Generalized Statistics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Piero Quarati
2013-10-01
Full Text Available In the past, the phase-space elementary cell of a non-quantized system was set equal to the third power of the Planck constant; in fact, it is not a necessary assumption. We discuss how the phase space volume, the number of states and the elementary-cell volume of a system of non-interacting N particles, changes when an interaction is switched on and the system becomes or evolves to a system of correlated non-Boltzmann particles and derives the appropriate expressions. Even if we assume that nowadays the volume of the elementary cell is equal to the cube of the Planck constant, h3, at least for quantum systems, we show that there is a correspondence between different values of h in the past, with important and, in principle, measurable cosmological and astrophysical consequences, and systems with an effective smaller (or even larger phase-space volume described by non-extensive generalized statistics.
Quantum mechanics on phase space and the Coulomb potential
Campos, P.; Martins, M. G. R.; Vianna, J. D. M.
2017-04-01
Symplectic quantum mechanics (SMQ) makes possible to derive the Wigner function without the use of the Liouville-von Neumann equation. In this formulation of the quantum theory the Galilei Lie algebra is constructed using the Weyl (or star) product with Q ˆ = q ⋆ = q +iħ/2∂p , P ˆ = p ⋆ = p -iħ/2∂q, and the Schrödinger equation is rewritten in phase space; in consequence physical applications involving the Coulomb potential present some specific difficulties. Within this context, in order to treat the Schrödinger equation in phase space, a procedure based on the Levi-Civita (or Bohlin) transformation is presented and applied to two-dimensional (2D) hydrogen atom. Amplitudes of probability in phase space and the correspondent Wigner quasi-distribution functions are derived and discussed.
Grassmann phase space methods for fermions. II. Field theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dalton, B.J., E-mail: bdalton@swin.edu.au [Centre for Quantum and Optical Science, Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne, Victoria 3122 (Australia); Jeffers, J. [Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4ONG (United Kingdom); Barnett, S.M. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom)
2017-02-15
In both quantum optics and cold atom physics, the behaviour of bosonic photons and atoms is often treated using phase space methods, where mode annihilation and creation operators are represented by c-number phase space variables, with the density operator equivalent to a distribution function of these variables. The anti-commutation rules for fermion annihilation, creation operators suggests the possibility of using anti-commuting Grassmann variables to represent these operators. However, in spite of the seminal work by Cahill and Glauber and a few applications, the use of Grassmann phase space methods in quantum-atom optics to treat fermionic systems is rather rare, though fermion coherent states using Grassmann variables are widely used in particle physics. This paper presents a phase space theory for fermion systems based on distribution functionals, which replace the density operator and involve Grassmann fields representing anti-commuting fermion field annihilation, creation operators. It is an extension of a previous phase space theory paper for fermions (Paper I) based on separate modes, in which the density operator is replaced by a distribution function depending on Grassmann phase space variables which represent the mode annihilation and creation operators. This further development of the theory is important for the situation when large numbers of fermions are involved, resulting in too many modes to treat separately. Here Grassmann fields, distribution functionals, functional Fokker–Planck equations and Ito stochastic field equations are involved. Typical applications to a trapped Fermi gas of interacting spin 1/2 fermionic atoms and to multi-component Fermi gases with non-zero range interactions are presented, showing that the Ito stochastic field equations are local in these cases. For the spin 1/2 case we also show how simple solutions can be obtained both for the untrapped case and for an optical lattice trapping potential.
Relativistic Hydrogen-Like Atom on a Noncommutative Phase Space
Masum, Huseyin; Dulat, Sayipjamal; Tohti, Mutallip
2017-09-01
The energy levels of hydrogen-like atom on a noncommutative phase space were studied in the framework of relativistic quantum mechanics. The leading order corrections to energy levels 2 S 1/2, 2 P 1/2 and 2 P 3/2 were obtained by using the 𝜃 and the \\bar θ modified Dirac Hamiltonian of hydrogen-like atom on a noncommutative phase space. The degeneracy of the energy levels 2 P 1/2 and 2 P 3/2 were removed completely by 𝜃-correction. And the \\bar θ -correction shifts these energy levels.
Phase space flows for non-Hamiltonian systems with constraints.
Sergi, Alessandro
2005-09-01
In this paper, non-Hamiltonian systems with holonomic constraints are treated by a generalization of Dirac's formalism. Non-Hamiltonian phase space flows can be described by generalized antisymmetric brackets or by general Liouville operators which cannot be derived from brackets. Both situations are treated. In the first case, a Nosé-Dirac bracket is introduced as an example. In the second one, Dirac's recipe for projecting out constrained variables from time translation operators is generalized and then applied to non-Hamiltonian linear response. Dirac's formalism avoids spurious terms in the response function of constrained systems. However, corrections coming from phase space measure must be considered for general perturbations.
Naval Space Surveillance Center uses of time, frequency, and phase
Hayden, Carroll C.; Knowles, Stephen H.
1992-01-01
The Naval Space Surveillance Center (NAVSPASUR) is an operational naval command that has the mission of determining the location of all manmade objects in space and transmitting information on objects of interest to the fleet. NAVSPASUR operates a 217 MHz radar fence that has 9 transmitting and receiving stations deployed in a line across southern Continental United States (CONUS). This surveillance fence provides unalerted detection of satellites overflying CONUS. NAVSPASUR also maintains a space catalog of all orbiting space objects. NAVSPASUR plays an important role as operational alternate to the primary national Space Surveillance Center (SSC) and Space Defence Operations Center (SPADOC). In executing these responsibilities, NAVSPASUR needs precise and/or standardized time and frequency in a number of applications. These include maintenance of the radar fence references to specification, and coordination with other commands and agencies for data receipt and dissemination. Precise time and frequency must be maintained within each site to enable proper operation of the interferometry phasing technique used. Precise time-of-day clocking must exist between sites for proper intersite coordination. Phase may be considered a derivative of time and frequency. Its control within each transmitter or receiver site is of great importance to NAVSPASUR because of the operation of the sensor as an interferometer system, with source direction angles as the primary observable. Determination of the angular position of a satellite is directly dependent on the accuracy with which the differential phase between spaced subarrays can be measured at each receiver site. Various aspects of the NAVSPASUR are discussed with respect to time, frequency, and phase.
An Asymmetrical Space Vector Method for Single Phase Induction Motor
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cui, Yuanhai; Blaabjerg, Frede; Andersen, Gert Karmisholt
2002-01-01
the motor torque performance is not good enough. This paper addresses a new control method, an asymmetrical space vector method with PWM modulation, also a three-phase inverter is used for the main winding and the auxiliary winding. This method with PWM modulation is implemented to control the motor speed...
Quantum Theory of Reactive Scattering in Phase Space
Goussev, A.; Schubert, R.; Waalkens, H.; Wiggins, S.; Nicolaides, CA; Brandas, E
2010-01-01
We review recent results on quantum reactive scattering from a phase space perspective. The approach uses classical and quantum versions of Poincare-Birkhoff normal form theory and the perspective of dynamical systems theory. Over the past 10 years the classical normal form theory has provided a
Geometrical Series and Phase Space in a Finite Oscillatory Motion
Mareco, H. R. Olmedo
2006-01-01
This article discusses some interesting physical properties of oscillatory motion of a particle on two joined inclined planes. The geometrical series demonstrates that the particle will oscillate during a finite time. Another detail is the converging path to the origin of the phase space. Due to its simplicity, this motion may be used as a…
Phase-space treatment of the driven quantum harmonic oscillator
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
A recent phase-space formulation of quantum mechanics in terms of the Glauber coherent states is applied to study the interaction of a one-dimensional harmonic oscillator with an arbitrary time-dependent force. Wave functions of the simultaneous values of position q and momentum p are deduced, which in turn give the ...
q-Path entropy phenomenology for phase-space curves
Zamora, D. J.; Rocca, M. C.; Plastino, A.; Ferri, G. L.
2018-01-01
We describe the phenomenology of the classical q-path entropy of a phase-space curve. This allows one to disclose an entropic force-like mechanism that is able to mimic some phenomenological aspects of the strong force, such as confinement, hard core, and asymptotic freedom.
Trigonometry of the quantum state space, geometric phases and relative phases
Ortega, R
2003-01-01
A complete set of invariants for three states in the quantum space of states P is obtained together with a complete set of relationships linking them. This is done in a way that preserves the self-duality of P and leads to a clear geometric description of invariants (distances, lateral phases; Hermitian angles, angular phases; and two purely triangular phases). Some of these invariants appear here for the first time. Symplectic area (and hence the triangle geometric phase) is proportional to a 'mixed phase excess', thus extending to P the relation 'area-angular excess' in the real sphere. The new triangle lateral phases provide a description, intrinsic to P, of relative phases in a superposition. This approach also provides closed expressions for the triangle holonomy associated with the usual Fubini-Study metric in P, as well as many other expressions for similar 'loop' operators along the triangle, including closed and exact expressions for the triangle Aharonov-Anandan geometric phase.
Quantum Potential and Symmetries in Extended Phase Space
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sadollah Nasiri
2006-06-01
Full Text Available The behavior of the quantum potential is studied for a particle in a linear and a harmonic potential by means of an extended phase space technique. This is done by obtaining an expression for the quantum potential in momentum space representation followed by the generalization of this concept to extended phase space. It is shown that there exists an extended canonical transformation that removes the expression for the quantum potential in the dynamical equation. The situation, mathematically, is similar to disappearance of the centrifugal potential in going from the spherical to the Cartesian coordinates that changes the physical potential to an effective one. The representation where the quantum potential disappears and the modified Hamilton-Jacobi equation reduces to the familiar classical form, is one in which the dynamical equation turns out to be the Wigner equation.
Driven phase space vortices in plasmas with nonextensive velocity distribution
Trivedi, Pallavi; Ganesh, Rajaraman
2017-03-01
The evolution of chirp-driven electrostatic waves in unmagnetized plasmas is numerically investigated by using a one-dimensional (1D) Vlasov-poisson solver with periodic boundary conditions. The initial velocity distribution of the 1D plasma is assumed to be governed by nonextensive q distribution [C. Tsallis, J. Stat. Phys. 52, 479 (1988)]. For an infinitesimal amplitude of an external drive, we investigate the effects of chirp driven dynamics that leads to the formation of giant phase space vortices (PSV) for both Maxwellian (q = 1) and non-Maxwellian ( q ≠ 1 ) plasmas. For non-Maxwellian plasmas, the formation of giant PSV with multiple extrema and phase velocities is shown to be dependent on the strength of "q". Novel features such as "shark"-like and transient "honeycomb"-like structures in phase space are discussed. Wherever relevant, we compare our results with previous work.
Emittance and Phase Space Tomography for the Fermilab Linac
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Garcia, F.G.G.; Johnstone, C.; Kobilarcik, T.; Koizumi, G.M.; Moore, C.D.; /Fermilab; Newhart, D.L.; /Fermilab
2012-05-01
The Fermilab Linac delivers a variable intensity, 400-MeV beam to the MuCool Test Area experimental hall via a beam line specifically designed to facilitate measurements of the Linac beam emittance and properties. A 10 m, dispersion-free and magnet-free straight utilizes an upstream quadrupole focusing triplet in combination with the necessary in-straight beam diagnostics to fully characterize the transverse beam properties. Since the Linac does not produce a strictly elliptical phase space, tomography must be performed on the profile data to retrieve the actual particle distribution in phase space. This is achieved by rotating the phase space distribution using different waist focusing conditions of the upstream triplet and performing a deconvolution of the profile data. Preliminary measurements using this diagnostic section are reported here. These data represent a first-pass measurement of the Linac emittance based on various techniques. It is clear that the most accurate representation of the emittance is given by the 3-profile approach. Future work will entail minimizing the beam spot size on MW5 to test and possibly improve the accuracy of the 2-profile approach. The 95% emittance is {approx} 18{pi} in the vertical and {approx} 13{pi} in the horizontal, which is especially larger than anticipated - 8-10{pi} was expected. One possible explanation is that the entire Linac pulse is extracted into the MTA beamline and during the first few microseconds, the feed forward and RF regulation are not stable. This may result in a larger net emittance observed versus beam injected into Booster, where the leading part of the Linac beam pulse is chopped. Future studies will clearly entail a measurement of the emittance vs. pulse length. One additional concern is that the Linac phase space is most likely aperture-defined and non-elliptical in nature. A non-elliptical phase-space determination would require a more elaborate analysis and provide another explanation of the
Phase-space Dynamics of Runaway Electrons In Tokamaks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Xiaoyin Guan, Hong Qin, and Nathaniel J. Fisch
2010-08-31
The phase-space dynamics of runaway electrons is studied, including the influence of loop voltage, radiation damping, and collisions. A theoretical model and a numerical algorithm for the runaway dynamics in phase space are developed. Instead of standard integrators, such as the Runge-Kutta method, a variational symplectic integrator is applied to simulate the long-term dynamics of a runaway electron. The variational symplectic integrator is able to globally bound the numerical error for arbitrary number of time-steps, and thus accurately track the runaway trajectory in phase space. Simulation results show that the circulating orbits of runaway electrons drift outward toward the wall, which is consistent with experimental observations. The physics of the outward drift is analyzed. It is found that the outward drift is caused by the imbalance between the increase of mechanical angular momentum and the input of toroidal angular momentum due to the parallel acceleration. An analytical expression of the outward drift velocity is derived. The knowledge of trajectory of runaway electrons in configuration space sheds light on how the electrons hit the first wall, and thus provides clues for possible remedies.
New science from the phase space of old stellar systems
Varri, Anna Lisa; Breen, Philip G.; Heggie, Douglas C.; Tiongco, Maria; Vesperini, Enrico
2017-06-01
Our traditional interpretative picture of the internal dynamics of globular clusters has been recently revolutionized by a series of discoveries about their chemical, structural, and kinematic properties. The empirical evidence that their velocity space is much more complex than usually expected encourages us to use them as refreshingly novel phase space laboratories for some long-forgotten aspects of collisional gravitational dynamics. Such a realization, coupled with the discovery that the stars in clusters were not all born at once in a single population, makes them new, challenging chemodynamical puzzles.Thanks to the proper motions of thousands of stars that will be available from the Gaia mission, we are about to enter a new ''golden age'' for the study of the dynamics of this class of stellar systems, as the full phase space of several Galactic globular clusters will be soon unlocked for the first time. In this context, I will present the highlights of a more realistic dynamical paradigm for these intriguing stellar systems, with emphasis on the role of angular momentum, velocity anisotropy and external tidal field. Such a fundamental understanding of the emerging phase space complexity of globulars will allow us to address many open questions about their rich dynamical evolution, their elusive stellar populations and putative black holes, and their role within the history of our Galaxy.
Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) Far Field Phase Pattern
Waluschka, Eugene
1999-01-01
The Laser Interferometry Space Antenna (LISA) for the detection of Gravitational Waves is a very long baseline interferometer that will measure the changes in the distance of a five million kilometer arm to pico meter accuracies. Knowledge of the phase deviations from a spherical wave and what causes these deviations are needed considerations in (as a minimum) the design of the telescope and in determining pointing requirements. Here we present the far field phase deviations from a spherical wave for given Zernike aberrations and obscurations of the exit pupil.
Ren, Xiao-Ning; Hu, Zhi-Yi; Jin, Jun; Wu, Liang; Wang, Chao; Liu, Jing; Liu, Fu; Wu, Min; Li, Yu; Tendeloo, Gustaaf Van; Su, Bao-Lian
2017-09-06
Phase-junctions between a cocatalyst and its semiconductor host are quite effective to enhance the photocatalytic activity and are widely studied, while reports on the phase-juncted cocatalyst are still rare. In this work, we report the deposition of the Pt/PtO phase-juncted nanodots as cocatalyst via NaOH modification of an interconnected meso-macroporous TiO 2 network with high surface area and inner-particle mesopores to enhance the performance of photocatalytic H 2 production. Our results show that NaOH modification can largely influence Pt/PtO phase-juncted nanodot formation and dispersity. Compared to the TiO 2 nanoparticles, the hierarchically meso-macroporous TiO 2 network containing 0.18 wt % Pt/PtO phase-juncted cocatalyst demonstrates a highest photocatalytic H 2 rate of 13 mmol g -1 h -1 under simulated solar light, and possesses a stable cycling activity without obvious decrease after five cycles. Such high H 2 production performance can be attributed to both the phase-juncted Pt/PtO providing more active sites while PtO suppresses the undesirable hydrogen back reaction, and the special hierarchically porous TiO 2 network with inner-particle mesopores presenting short diffusion path lengths for photogenerated electrons and enhanced light harvesting efficiency. This work suggests that Pt/PtO phase-juncted cocatalyst on hierarchically porous TiO 2 nanostructures is a promising strategy for advanced photocatalytic H 2 production.
Probabilistic phase space trajectory description for anomalous polymer dynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Panja, Debabrata [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Universiteit van Amsterdam, Science Park 904, Postbus 94485, 1090 GL Amsterdam (Netherlands)
2011-03-16
It has been recently shown that the phase space trajectories for the anomalous dynamics of a tagged monomer of a polymer-for single polymeric systems and phenomena such as phantom Rouse, self-avoiding Rouse, and Zimm ones, reptation, and translocation through a narrow pore in a membrane, as well as for many polymeric systems such as polymer melts in the entangled regime-are robustly described by the generalized Langevin equation. Here I show that the probability distribution of phase space trajectories for all of these classical anomalous dynamics for single polymers is that of a fractional Brownian motion (fBm), while the dynamics for polymer melts between the entangled regime and the eventual diffusive regime exhibits small but systematic deviations from that of a fBm.
Identifying phase-space boundaries with Voronoi tessellations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Debnath, Dipsikha; Matchev, Konstantin T. [University of Florida, Physics Department, Gainesville, FL (United States); Gainer, James S. [University of Hawaii, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Honolulu, HI (United States); Kilic, Can; Yang, Yuan-Pao [The University of Texas at Austin, Theory Group, Department of Physics and Texas Cosmology Center, Austin, TX (United States); Kim, Doojin [University of Florida, Physics Department, Gainesville, FL (United States); CERN, Theory Division, Geneva 23 (Switzerland)
2016-11-15
Determining the masses of new physics particles appearing in decay chains is an important and longstanding problem in high energy phenomenology. Recently it has been shown that these mass measurements can be improved by utilizing the boundary of the allowed region in the fully differentiable phase space in its full dimensionality. Here we show that the practical challenge of identifying this boundary can be solved using techniques based on the geometric properties of the cells resulting from Voronoi tessellations of the relevant data. The robust detection of such phase-space boundaries in the data could also be used to corroborate a new physics discovery based on a cut-and-count analysis. (orig.)
The Phase Space Formulation of Time-Symmetric Quantum Mechanics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Charlyne de Gosson
2015-11-01
Full Text Available Time-symmetric quantum mechanics can be described in the Weyl–Wigner–Moyal phase space formalism by using the properties of the cross-terms appearing in the Wigner distribution of a sum of states. These properties show the appearance of a strongly oscillating interference between the pre-selected and post-selected states. It is interesting to note that the knowledge of this interference term is sufficient to reconstruct both states. Quanta 2015; 4: 27–34.
On the calculation of soft phase space integral
Zhu, Hua
2014-01-01
The recent discovery of the Higgs boson at the LHC attracts much attention to the precise calculation of its production cross section in quantum chromodynamics. In this work, we discuss the calculation of soft triple-emission phase space integral, which is an essential ingredient in the recently calculated soft-virtual corrections to Higgs boson production at next-to-next-to-next-to-leading order. The main techniques used this calculation are method of differential equation for Feynman integr...
A simple algorithm for longitudinal phase space tomography
Hancock, S
1997-01-01
Tomography is now a very broad topic with a wealth of different algorithms for the reconstruction of both qualitative and quantitative images. One of the simplest algorithms has been modified to take into account the non-linearity of large-amplitude synchrotron motion. This permits the accurate reconstruction of longitudinal phase space density from one-dimensional bunch profile data. The method may be further extended to treat, for example, multi-harmonic systems and self-fields.
Torus as phase space: Weyl quantization, dequantization, and Wigner formalism
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ligabò, Marilena, E-mail: marilena.ligabo@uniba.it [Dipartimento di Matematica, Università di Bari, I-70125 Bari (Italy)
2016-08-15
The Weyl quantization of classical observables on the torus (as phase space) without regularity assumptions is explicitly computed. The equivalence class of symbols yielding the same Weyl operator is characterized. The Heisenberg equation for the dynamics of general quantum observables is written through the Moyal brackets on the torus and the support of the Wigner transform is characterized. Finally, a dequantization procedure is introduced that applies, for instance, to the Pauli matrices. As a result we obtain the corresponding classical symbols.
Zonal-flow dynamics from a phase-space perspective
Ruiz, D. E.; Parker, J. B.; Shi, E. L.; Dodin, I. Y.
2017-10-01
The wave kinetic equation (WKE) describing drift-wave (DW) turbulence is widely used in the studies of zonal flows (ZFs) emerging from DW turbulence. However, this formulation neglects the exchange of enstrophy between DWs and ZFs and also ignores effects beyond the geometrical-optics (GO) limit. Here we present a new theory that captures both of these effects, while still treating DW quanta (``driftons'') as particles in phase space. In this theory, the drifton dynamics is described by an equation of the Wigner-Moyal type, which is analogous to the phase-space formulation of quantum mechanics. The ``Hamiltonian'' and the ``dissipative'' parts of the DW-ZF interactions are clearly identified. Moreover, this theory can be interpreted as a phase-space representation of the second-order cumulant expansion (CE2). In the GO limit, this formulation features additional terms missing in the traditional WKE that ensure conservation of the total enstrophy of the system, in addition to the total energy, which is the only conserved invariant in previous theories based on the traditional WKE. Numerical simulations are presented to illustrate the importance of these additional terms. Supported by the U.S. DOE through Contract Nos. DE-AC02-09CH11466 and DE-AC52-07NA27344, by the NNSA SSAA Program through DOE Research Grant No. DE-NA0002948, and by the U.S. DOD NDSEG Fellowship through Contract No. 32-CFR-168a.
Prediction of Tropical Rainfall by Local Phase Space Reconstruction.
Waelbroeck, H.; López-Pea, R.; Morales, T.; Zertuche, F.
1994-11-01
The authors propose a weather prediction model based on a local reconstruction of the dynamics in phase space, using an 11-year dataset from Tlaxcala, Mexico. A vector in phase space corresponds to T consecutive days of data; the best predictions are found for T = 14. The prediction for the next day, x0 fL(x0), is based on a local reconstruction of the dynamical map f in an ball centered at x0. The high dimensionality of the phase space implies a large optimal value of , so that the number of points in an ball is sufficient to reconstruct the local map. The local approximation fL f is therefore not very good and the prediction skill drops off quickly at first, with a timescale of 2 days. On the other hand, the authors find useful skill in the prediction of 10-day rainfall accumulations, which reflects the persistence of weather patterns. The mean-squared error in the prediction of the rainfall anomaly for the year 1992 was 64% of the variance, and the early beginning of the rain season was correctly predicted.
Multifractal spectrum of phase space related to generalized thermostatistics
Olemskoi, A. I.; Kharchenko, V. O.; Borisyuk, V. N.
2008-03-01
We consider a self-similar phase space with specific fractal dimension d being distributed with spectrum function f(d) . Related thermostatistics is shown to be governed by the Tsallis formalism of the non-extensive statistics, where the non-additivity parameter equals to τ ¯ (q) ≡ 1 / τ(q) > 1, and the multifractal function τ(q) = qdq - f(dq) is the specific heat determined with multifractal parameter q ∈ [ 1 , ∞ ] . At that, the equipartition law is shown to take place. Optimization of the multifractal spectrum function f(d) arrives at the relation between the statistical weight and the system complexity. It is shown that the statistical weight exponent τ(q) can be modeled by hyperbolic tangent deformed in accordance with both Tsallis and Kaniadakis exponential functions to describe arbitrary multifractal phase space explicitly. The spectrum function f(d) is proved to increase monotonically from minimum value f = - 1 at d = 0 to maximum one f = 1 at d = 1. At the same time, the number of monofractals increases with the growth of the phase-space volume at small dimensions d and falls down in the limit d → 1.
Grassmann phase space methods for fermions. I. Mode theory
Dalton, B. J.; Jeffers, J.; Barnett, S. M.
2016-07-01
In both quantum optics and cold atom physics, the behaviour of bosonic photons and atoms is often treated using phase space methods, where mode annihilation and creation operators are represented by c-number phase space variables, with the density operator equivalent to a distribution function of these variables. The anti-commutation rules for fermion annihilation, creation operators suggest the possibility of using anti-commuting Grassmann variables to represent these operators. However, in spite of the seminal work by Cahill and Glauber and a few applications, the use of Grassmann phase space methods in quantum-atom optics to treat fermionic systems is rather rare, though fermion coherent states using Grassmann variables are widely used in particle physics. The theory of Grassmann phase space methods for fermions based on separate modes is developed, showing how the distribution function is defined and used to determine quantum correlation functions, Fock state populations and coherences via Grassmann phase space integrals, how the Fokker-Planck equations are obtained and then converted into equivalent Ito equations for stochastic Grassmann variables. The fermion distribution function is an even Grassmann function, and is unique. The number of c-number Wiener increments involved is 2n2, if there are n modes. The situation is somewhat different to the bosonic c-number case where only 2 n Wiener increments are involved, the sign of the drift term in the Ito equation is reversed and the diffusion matrix in the Fokker-Planck equation is anti-symmetric rather than symmetric. The un-normalised B distribution is of particular importance for determining Fock state populations and coherences, and as pointed out by Plimak, Collett and Olsen, the drift vector in its Fokker-Planck equation only depends linearly on the Grassmann variables. Using this key feature we show how the Ito stochastic equations can be solved numerically for finite times in terms of c-number stochastic
The ROCKSTAR Phase-space Temporal Halo Finder and the Velocity Offsets of Cluster Cores
Behroozi, Peter S.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Wu, Hao-Yi
2013-01-01
We present a new algorithm for identifying dark matter halos, substructure, and tidal features. The approach is based on adaptive hierarchical refinement of friends-of-friends groups in six phase-space dimensions and one time dimension, which allows for robust (grid-independent, shape-independent, and noise-resilient) tracking of substructure; as such, it is named ROCKSTAR (Robust Overdensity Calculation using K-Space Topologically Adaptive Refinement). Our method is massively parallel (up to 105 CPUs) and runs on the largest current simulations (>1010 particles) with high efficiency (10 CPU hours and 60 gigabytes of memory required per billion particles analyzed). A previous paper has shown ROCKSTAR to have excellent recovery of halo properties; we expand on these comparisons with more tests and higher-resolution simulations. We show a significant improvement in substructure recovery compared to several other halo finders and discuss the theoretical and practical limits of simulations in this regard. Finally, we present results that demonstrate conclusively that dark matter halo cores are not at rest relative to the halo bulk or substructure average velocities and have coherent velocity offsets across a wide range of halo masses and redshifts. For massive clusters, these offsets can be up to 350 km s-1 at z = 0 and even higher at high redshifts. Our implementation is publicly available at http://code.google.com/p/rockstar.
Momentum-space cigar geometry in topological phases
Palumbo, Giandomenico
2018-01-01
In this paper, we stress the importance of momentum-space geometry in the understanding of two-dimensional topological phases of matter. We focus, for simplicity, on the gapped boundary of three-dimensional topological insulators in class AII, which are described by a massive Dirac Hamiltonian and characterized by an half-integer Chern number. The gap is induced by introducing a magnetic perturbation, such as an external Zeeman field or a ferromagnet on the surface. The quantum Bures metric acquires a central role in our discussion and identifies a cigar geometry. We first derive the Chern number from the cigar geometry and we then show that the quantum metric can be seen as a solution of two-dimensional non-Abelian BF theory in momentum space. The gauge connection for this model is associated to the Maxwell algebra, which takes into account the Lorentz symmetries related to the Dirac theory and the momentum-space magnetic translations connected to the magnetic perturbation. The Witten black-hole metric is a solution of this gauge theory and coincides with the Bures metric. This allows us to calculate the corresponding momentum-space entanglement entropy that surprisingly carries information about the real-space conformal field theory describing the defect lines that can be created on the gapped boundary.
Hachay, Olga; Khachay, Andrey
2015-04-01
The last decades are characterized by active development of Earth's sciences. The modern research methods and technologies give the opportunity to obtain new data about the Earth's structure and processes, which occur in its interior. The conception development about the nonlinear geodynamics practically coincides with research of nonlinear processes in different parts of physics. In geology soliton and auto wave conceptions are developed, principles of synergetic and self organization become be used, in geodynamics the macro quantum behavior of large mass matter, which are in critical state, in geophysics the auto wave nature of geophysical fields is researched in a frame of a new structural model with hierarchical inclusions. It is very significant to define the time of reaction lagging, in spite of the influence on the massif can be assumed as elastic. The unique model which can explain that effect is a model of the massif with a hierarchic structure. We developed a mathematical algorithm using integral and integral-differential equations for 2-D model for two problems in a frequency domain: diffraction a sound wave and linear polarized transverse wave through a arbitrary hierarchy rank inclusion plunged in an N-layered medium. That algorithm differs from the fractal model approach by a freer selecting of heterogeneities position of each rank. And the second, the problem is solved in the dynamical approach. The higher the amount of the hierarchic ranks the more is the degree of nonlinearity of the massive response and the longer can be the time of massive reaction lag of the influence. For research of hierarchic medium we had developed an iterative algorithm for electromagnetic and seismic fields in the problem setting similar to analyze higher for layered-block models with homogeneous inclusions. We had developed an iterative algorithm of inverse problem solution for the same models, using the approach of three stage interpretation. For that we had developed a
Method of phase space beam dilution utilizing bounded chaos generated by rf phase modulation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alfonse N. Pham
2015-12-01
Full Text Available This paper explores the physics of chaos in a localized phase-space region produced by rf phase modulation applied to a double rf system. The study can be exploited to produce rapid particle bunch broadening exhibiting longitudinal particle distribution uniformity. Hamiltonian models and particle-tracking simulations are introduced to understand the mechanism and applicability of controlled particle diffusion. When phase modulation is applied to the double rf system, regions of localized chaos are produced through the disruption and overlapping of parametric resonant islands and configured to be bounded by well-behaved invariant tori to prevent particle loss. The condition of chaoticity and the degree of particle dilution can be controlled by the rf parameters. The method has applications in alleviating adverse space-charge effects in high-intensity beams, particle bunch distribution uniformization, and industrial radiation-effects experiments.
Linearization of the longitudinal phase space without higher harmonic field
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Benno Zeitler
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Accelerator applications like free-electron lasers, time-resolved electron diffraction, and advanced accelerator concepts like plasma acceleration desire bunches of ever shorter longitudinal extent. However, apart from space charge repulsion, the internal bunch structure and its development along the beam line can limit the achievable compression due to nonlinear phase space correlations. In order to improve such a limited longitudinal focus, a correction by properly linearizing the phase space is required. At large scale facilities like Flash at Desy or the European Xfel, a higher harmonic cavity is installed for this purpose. In this paper, another method is described and evaluated: Expanding the beam after the electron source enables a higher order correction of the longitudinal focus by a subsequent accelerating cavity which is operated at the same frequency as the electron gun. The elaboration of this idea presented here is based on a ballistic bunching scheme, but can be extended to bunch compression based on magnetic chicanes. The core of this article is an analytic model describing this approach, which is verified by simulations, predicting possible bunch length below 1 fs at low bunch charge. Minimizing the energy spread down to σ_{E}/E<10^{-5} while keeping the bunch long is another interesting possibility, which finds applications, e.g., in time resolved transmission electron microscopy concepts.
Tomographic measurement of the phase space distribution of a space-charge-dominated beam
Stratakis, Diktys
Many applications of accelerators, such as free electron lasers, pulsed neutron sources, and heavy ion fusion, require a good quality beam with high intensity. In practice, the achievable intensity is often limited by the dynamics at the low-energy, space-charge dominated end of the machine. Because low-energy beams can have complex distribution functions, a good understanding of their detailed evolution is needed. To address this issue, we have developed a simple and accurate tomographic method to map the beam phase using quadrupole magnets, which includes the effects from space charge. We extend this technique to use also solenoidal magnets which are commonly used at low energies, especially in photoinjectors, thus making the diagnostic applicable to most machines. We simulate our technique using a particle in cell code (PIC), to ascertain accuracy of the reconstruction. Using this diagnostic we report a number of experiments to study and optimize injection, transport and acceleration of intense space charge dominated beams. We examine phase mixing, by studying the phase-space evolution of an intense beam with a transversely nonuniform initial density distribution. Experimental measurements, theoretical predictions and PIC simulations are in good agreement each other. Finally, we generate a parabolic beam pulse to model those beams from photoinjectors, and combine tomography with fast imaging techniques to investigate the time-sliced parameters of beam current, size, energy spread and transverse emittance. We found significant differences between the slice emittance profiles and slice orientation as the beam propagates downstream. The combined effect of longitudinal nonuniform profiles and fast imaging of the transverse phase space provided us with information about correlations between longitudinal and transverse dynamics that we report within this dissertation.
Invulnerability, coping, salutogenesis, integration: four phases of space psychology.
Suedfeld, Peter
2005-06-01
The relationship between NASA and the psychological research community has progressed through a number of phases during the past four decades. This paper summarizes how the relationship has developed as data have accumulated and space missions and crews have changed. In the beginning, most NASA astronauts and staff considered possible psychological problems during space missions to be a non-issue. It was assumed that people with "the right stuff" would not experience any such problems. A more realistic recognition of stress and its consequences has led to a concern with prevention and countermeasures, a concern that has come to dominate NASA's involvement with psychology. Very recently, space psychologists have started to import the concepts of positive psychology, and consider the benefits of participation in the space program, including the self-enhancing aspects of stressful experiences (salutogenesis). Both the agency and psychologists now need to broaden their thinking and their research to cover the gamut of empirical data and theoretical concepts. These include human strengths as well as vulnerabilities, both negative and positive impacts of spaceflight, long- as well as short-term effects, and the reactions not only of the astronauts themselves but also of ground personnel and the families of both groups.
Discrete phase-space approach to mutually orthogonal Latin squares
Gaeta, Mario; Di Matteo, Olivia; Klimov, Andrei B.; de Guise, Hubert
2014-10-01
We show there is a natural connection between Latin squares and commutative sets of monomials defining geometric structures in finite phase-space of prime power dimensions. A complete set of such monomials defines a mutually unbiased basis (MUB) and may be associated with a complete set of mutually orthogonal Latin squares (MOLS). We translate some possible operations on the monomial sets into isomorphisms of Latin squares, and find a general form of permutations that map between Latin squares corresponding to unitarily equivalent mutually unbiased sets.
Dynamical tunneling in systems with a mixed phase space
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Loeck, Steffen
2010-04-22
Tunneling is one of the most prominent features of quantum mechanics. While the tunneling process in one-dimensional integrable systems is well understood, its quantitative prediction for systems with a mixed phase space is a long-standing open challenge. In such systems regions of regular and chaotic dynamics coexist in phase space, which are classically separated but quantum mechanically coupled by the process of dynamical tunneling. We derive a prediction of dynamical tunneling rates which describe the decay of states localized inside the regular region towards the so-called chaotic sea. This approach uses a fictitious integrable system which mimics the dynamics inside the regular domain and extends it into the chaotic region. Excellent agreement with numerical data is found for kicked systems, billiards, and optical microcavities, if nonlinear resonances are negligible. Semiclassically, however, such nonlinear resonance chains dominate the tunneling process. Hence, we combine our approach with an improved resonance-assisted tunneling theory and derive a unified prediction which is valid from the quantum to the semiclassical regime. We obtain results which show a drastically improved accuracy of several orders of magnitude compared to previous studies. (orig.)
What is the phase space of the last glacial inception?
Bahadory, Taimaz; Tarasov, Lev
2017-04-01
Would the ice and climate pattern of glacial inception changed much with small tweaks to the initial Eemian climate state? Given the very limited available geological constraints, what is the range of potential spatio-temporal patterns of ice sheet inception and associated climate? What positive and negative feedbacks between ice, atmospheric and ocean circulation, and vegetation dominate glacial inception? As a step towards answering these questions, we examine the phase space of glacial inception in response to a subset of uncertainties in a coupled 3D model through an ensemble of simulations. The coupled model consists of the GSM (Glacial Systems Model) and LOVECLIM earth systems model of intermediate complexity. The former includes a 3D ice sheet model, asynchronously coupled glacio isostatic adjustment, surface drainage solver, and permafrost resolving bed thermal model. The latter includes an ocean GCM, atmospheric component, dynamic/thermodynamic seaice, and simplified dynamical vegetation. Our phase space exploration probes uncertainties in: initial conditions, downscaling and upscaling, the radiative effect of clouds, snow and ice albedo, precipitation parameterization, and freshwater discharge. The probe is constrained by model fit to present day climate and LGM climate.
Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) Far Field Phase Patterns
Waluschka, Eugene; Obenschain, Arthur F. (Technical Monitor)
2000-01-01
The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) consists of three spacecraft in orbit about the sun. The orbits are chosen such that the three spacecraft are always at (roughly) the vertices of a equilateral triangle with 5 million kilometer leg lengths. Even though the distances between the three spacecraft are 5 million kilometers, the expected phase shifts between any two beams, due to a gravitational wave, only correspond to a distance change of about 10 pico meters, which is about 10(exp -5) waves for a laser wavelength of 1064 nm. To obtain the best signal-to-noise ratio, noise sources such as changes in the apparent distances due to pointing jitter must be controlled carefully. This is the main reason for determining the far-field phase patterns of a LISA type telescope. Because of torque on the LISA spacecraft and other disturbances, continuous adjustments to the pointing of the telescopes are required. These pointing adjustments will be a "jitter" source. If the transmitted wave is perfectly spherical then rotations (Jitter) about its geometric center will not produce any effect at the receiving spacecraft. However, if the outgoing wave is not perfectly spherical, then pointing jitter will produce a phase variation at the receiving spacecraft. The following sections describe the "brute force" computational approach used to determine the scalar wave front as a function of exit pupil (Zernike) aberrations and to show the results (mostly graphically) of the computations. This approach is straightforward and produces believable phase variations to sub-pico meter accuracy over distances on the order of 5 million kilometers. As such this analyzes the far field phase sensitivity to exit pupil aberrations.
Tomography of the electron beam transverse phase space at PITZ
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Asova, Galina
2013-09-15
The operation of a Free Elector Laser, FEL, requires high energy, high peak current electron beams with small transverse emittance. In the contemporary FELs, the electron beam is passed through a periodic magnetic structure - an undulator - which modifies the straight beam trajectory into a sinusoidal one, where FEL light is generated at each bend. According to the energy, the transverse emittance and the peak current of the beam and the parameters of the undulator, FEL radiation with wavelength in the range of nano- to micrometers can be generated. Studies and development of FELs are done all over the world. The Free electron LASer in Hamburg, FLASH, and the international European X-ray FEL, XFEL, in Hamburg, Germany, are two leading projects of the Deutsches Elektronen SYnchrotron, DESY. Part of the research program on FELs in DESY is realized in Zeuthen within the project Photo-Injector Test Facility at DESY in Zeuthen, PITZ. PITZ is an international collaboration including Germany, Russia, Italy, France, Bulgaria, Thailand, United Kingdom. The Institute of Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, INRNE, at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences participates from bulgarian side. PITZ studies and optimizes the photo-injectors for FLASH and the XFEL. The research program emphasizes on detailed measurements of the transverse phase-space density distribution. Until 2010 the single slit scan technique has been used to measure the beam transverse distributions. At the end of 2010 a module for tomographic diagnostics has been installed which extends the possibilities of PITZ to measure simultaneously the two transverse planes of a single micropulse with improved signal-to-noise ratio. The difficult conditions of low emittance for high bunch charge and low energy make the operation of the module challenging. This thesis presents the design considerations for the tomography module, a number of reconstruction algorithms and their applicability to limited data sets, the influence
Torre, Amalia
2005-01-01
Ray, wave and quantum concepts are central to diverse and seemingly incompatible models of light. Each model particularizes a specific ''manifestation'' of light, and then corresponds to adequate physical assumptions and formal approximations, whose domains of applicability are well-established. Accordingly each model comprises its own set of geometric and dynamic postulates with the pertinent mathematical means.At a basic level, the book is a complete introduction to the Wigner optics, which bridges between ray and wave optics, offering the optical phase space as the ambience and the Wigner f
Volumic omit maps in ab initio dual-space phasing.
Oszlányi, Gábor; Sütő, András
2016-07-01
Alternating-projection-type dual-space algorithms have a clear construction, but are susceptible to stagnation and, thus, inefficient for solving the phase problem ab initio. To improve this behaviour new omit maps are introduced, which are real-space perturbations applied periodically during the iteration process. The omit maps are called volumic, because they delete some predetermined subvolume of the unit cell without searching for atomic regions or analysing the electron density in any other way. The basic algorithms of positivity, histogram matching and low-density elimination are tested by their solution statistics. It is concluded that, while all these algorithms based on weak constraints are practically useless in their pure forms, appropriate volumic omit maps can transform them to practically useful methods. In addition, the efficiency of the already useful reflector-type charge-flipping algorithm can be further improved. It is important that these results are obtained by using non-sharpened structure factors and without any weighting scheme or reciprocal-space perturbation. The mathematical background of volumic omit maps and their expected applications are also discussed.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alireza Safdarinezhad
2016-06-01
Full Text Available The automatic registration of LiDAR data and optical images, which are heterogeneous data sources, has been a major research challenge in recent years. In this paper, a novel hierarchical method is proposed in which the least amount of interaction of a skilled operator is required. Thereby, two shadow extraction schemes, one from LiDAR and the other from high-resolution satellite images, were used, and the obtained 2D shadow maps were then considered as prospective matching entities. Taken as the base, the reconstructed LiDAR shadows were transformed to image shadows using a four-step hierarchical method starting from a coarse 2D registration model and leading to a fine 3D registration model. In the first step, a general matching was performed in the frequency domain that yielded a rough 2D similarity model that related the LiDAR and image shadow masks. This model was further improved by modeling and compensating for the local geometric distortions that existed between the two heterogeneous data sources. In the third step, shadow masks, which were organized as segmented matched patches, were the subjects of a coinciding procedure that resulted in a coarse 3D registration model. In the last hierarchical step, that model was ultimately reinforced via a precise matching between the LiDAR and image edges. The evaluation results, which were conducted on six datasets and from different relative and absolute aspects, demonstrated the efficiency of the proposed method, which had a very promising accuracy on the order of one pixel.
ORIGAMI: DELINEATING HALOS USING PHASE-SPACE FOLDS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Falck, Bridget L.; Neyrinck, Mark C.; Szalay, Alexander S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)
2012-08-01
We present the ORIGAMI method of identifying structures, particularly halos, in cosmological N-body simulations. Structure formation can be thought of as the folding of an initially flat three-dimensional manifold in six-dimensional phase space. ORIGAMI finds the outer folds that delineate these structures. Halo particles are identified as those that have undergone shell-crossing along three orthogonal axes, providing a dynamical definition of halo regions that is independent of density. ORIGAMI also identifies other morphological structures: particles that have undergone shell-crossing along 2, 1, or 0 orthogonal axes correspond to filaments, walls, and voids, respectively. We compare this method to a standard friends-of-friends halo-finding algorithm and find that ORIGAMI halos are somewhat larger, more diffuse, and less spherical, though the global properties of ORIGAMI halos are in good agreement with other modern halo-finding algorithms.
Aspects of phase-space noncommutative quantum mechanics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
O. Bertolami
2015-11-01
Full Text Available In this work some issues in the context of Noncommutative Quantum Mechanics (NCQM are addressed. The main focus is on finding whether symmetries present in Quantum Mechanics still hold in the phase-space noncommutative version. In particular, the issues related with gauge invariance of the electromagnetic field and the weak equivalence principle (WEP in the context of the gravitational quantum well (GQW are considered. The question of the Lorentz symmetry and the associated dispersion relation is also examined. Constraints are set on the relevant noncommutative parameters so that gauge invariance and Lorentz invariance holds. In opposition, the WEP is verified to hold in the noncommutative setup, and it is only possible to observe a violation through an anisotropy of the noncommutative parameters.
Analysis of PFG Anomalous Diffusion via Real-Space and Phase-Space Approaches
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Guoxing Lin
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Pulsed-field gradient (PFG diffusion experiments can be used to measure anomalous diffusion in many polymer or biological systems. However, it is still complicated to analyze PFG anomalous diffusion, particularly the finite gradient pulse width (FGPW effect. In practical applications, the FGPW effect may not be neglected, such as in clinical diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Here, two significantly different methods are proposed to analyze PFG anomalous diffusion: the effective phase-shift diffusion equation (EPSDE method and a method based on observing the signal intensity at the origin. The EPSDE method describes the phase evolution in virtual phase space, while the method to observe the signal intensity at the origin describes the magnetization evolution in real space. However, these two approaches give the same general PFG signal attenuation including the FGPW effect, which can be numerically evaluated by a direct integration method. The direct integration method is fast and without overflow. It is a convenient numerical evaluation method for Mittag-Leffler function-type PFG signal attenuation. The methods here provide a clear view of spin evolution under a field gradient, and their results will help the analysis of PFG anomalous diffusion.
Wigner phase space distribution via classical adiabatic switching
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bose, Amartya [Department of Chemistry, University of Illinois, 600 S. Goodwin Avenue, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Makri, Nancy [Department of Chemistry, University of Illinois, 600 S. Goodwin Avenue, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Illinois, 1110 W. Green Street, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)
2015-09-21
Evaluation of the Wigner phase space density for systems of many degrees of freedom presents an extremely demanding task because of the oscillatory nature of the Fourier-type integral. We propose a simple and efficient, approximate procedure for generating the Wigner distribution that avoids the computational difficulties associated with the Wigner transform. Starting from a suitable zeroth-order Hamiltonian, for which the Wigner density is available (either analytically or numerically), the phase space distribution is propagated in time via classical trajectories, while the perturbation is gradually switched on. According to the classical adiabatic theorem, each trajectory maintains a constant action if the perturbation is switched on infinitely slowly. We show that the adiabatic switching procedure produces the exact Wigner density for harmonic oscillator eigenstates and also for eigenstates of anharmonic Hamiltonians within the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (WKB) approximation. We generalize the approach to finite temperature by introducing a density rescaling factor that depends on the energy of each trajectory. Time-dependent properties are obtained simply by continuing the integration of each trajectory under the full target Hamiltonian. Further, by construction, the generated approximate Wigner distribution is invariant under classical propagation, and thus, thermodynamic properties are strictly preserved. Numerical tests on one-dimensional and dissipative systems indicate that the method produces results in very good agreement with those obtained by full quantum mechanical methods over a wide temperature range. The method is simple and efficient, as it requires no input besides the force fields required for classical trajectory integration, and is ideal for use in quasiclassical trajectory calculations.
Generalizing the Boltzmann equation in complex phase space
Zadehgol, Abed
2016-08-01
In this work, a generalized form of the BGK-Boltzmann equation is proposed, where the velocity, position, and time can be represented by real or complex variables. The real representation leads to the conventional BGK-Boltzmann equation, which can recover the continuity and Navier-Stokes equations. We show that the complex representation yields a different set of equations, and it can also recover the conservation and Navier-Stokes equations, at low Mach numbers, provided that the imaginary component of the macroscopic mass can be neglected. We briefly review the Constant Speed Kinetic Model (CSKM), which was introduced in Zadehgol and Ashrafizaadeh [J. Comp. Phys. 274, 803 (2014), 10.1016/j.jcp.2014.06.053] and Zadehgol [Phys. Rev. E 91, 063311 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevE.91.063311]. The CSKM is then used as a basis to show that the complex-valued equilibrium distribution function of the present model can be identified with a simple singularity in the complex phase space. The virtual particles, in the present work, are concentrated on virtual "branes" which surround the computational nodes. Employing the Cauchy integral formula, it is shown that certain variations of the "branes," in the complex phase space, do not affect the local kinetic states. This property of the new model, which is referred to as the "apparent jumps" in the present work, is used to construct new models. The theoretical findings have been tested by simulating three benchmark flows. The results of the present simulations are in excellent agreement with the previous results reported by others.
Sherkatghanad, Zeinab; Mirzaeyan, Zahra; Mansoori, Seyed Ali Hosseini
2014-01-01
We consider the critical behaviors and phase transitions of Gauss Bonnet-Born Infeld-AdS black holes (GB-BI-AdS) for $d=5,6$ and the extended phase space. We assume the cosmological constant, $\\Lambda$, the coupling coefficient $\\alpha$, and the BI parameter $\\beta$ to be thermodynamic pressures of the system. Having made these assumptions, the critical behaviors are then studied in the two canonical and grand canonical ensembles. We find "reentrant and triple point phase transitions" (RPT-TP) and "multiple reentrant phase transitions" (multiple RPT) with increasing pressure of the system for specific values of the coupling coefficient $\\alpha$ in the canonical ensemble. Also, we observe a reentrant phase transition (RPT) of GB-BI-AdS black holes in the grand canonical ensemble and for $d=6$. These calculations are then expanded to the critical behavior of Born-Infeld-AdS (BI-AdS) black holes in the third order of Lovelock gravity and in the grand canonical ensemble to find a Van der Waals behavior for $d=7$ ...
The phase-space structure of tidally stripped haloes
Drakos, Nicole E.; Taylor, James E.; Benson, Andrew J.
2017-06-01
We propose a new method for generating equilibrium models of spherical systems of collisionless particles that are finite in extent, but whose central regions resemble dark matter haloes from cosmological simulations. This method involves iteratively removing unbound particles from a Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) profile truncated sharply at some radius. The resulting models are extremely stable, and thus provide a good starting point for N-body simulations of isolated haloes. We provide a code to generate such models for NFW and a variety of other common density profiles. We then develop an analytic approximation to this truncated distribution function. Our method proceeds by analogy with the King model, truncating and shifting the original distribution function of an infinitely extended NFW profile in energy space. We show that the density profiles of our models closely resemble the tidally truncated density profiles seen previously in studies of satellite evolution. Pursuing this analogy further with a series of simulations of tidal mass-loss, we find that our models provide a good approximation to the full distribution function of tidally stripped systems, thus allowing theoretically motivated phase-space calculations for such systems.
On Quantum Mechanics on Noncommutative Quantum Phase Space
Djemaï, A. E. F.; Smail, H.
2004-06-01
In this work, we develop a general framework in which Noncommutative Quantum Mechanics (NCQM), characterized by a space noncommutativity matrix parameter θ=ɛ^kijθ_k and a momentum noncommutativity matrix parameter βij=ɛ^kijβ_k, is shown to be equivalent to Quantum Mechanics (QM) on a suitable transformed Quantum Phase Space (QPS). Imposing some constraints on this particular transformation, we firstly find that the product of the two parameters θ and β possesses a lower bound in direct relation with Heisenberg incertitude relations, and secondly that the two parameters are equivalent but with opposite sign, up to a dimension factor depending on the physical system under study. This means that noncommutativity is represented by a unique parameter which may play the role of a fundamental constant characterizing the whole NCQPS. Within our framework, we treat some physical systems on NCQPS : free particle, harmonic oscillator, system of two-charged particles, Hydrogen atom. Among the obtained results, we discover a new phenomenon which consists of a free particle on NCQPS viewed as equivalent to a harmonic oscillator with Larmor frequency depending on β, representing the same particle in presence of a magnetic field B=q-1β. For the other examples, additional correction terms depending on β appear in the expression of the energy spectrum. Finally, in the two-particle system case, we emphasize the fact that for two opposite charges noncommutativity is effectively feeled with opposite sign.
Nonlinear Landau-Zener tunneling in quantum phase space
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Trimborn, F [Institut fuer theoretische Physik, Leibniz Universitaet Hannover, D-30167 Hannover (Germany); Witthaut, D [QUANTOP, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Kegel, V; Korsch, H J, E-mail: friederike.trimborn@itp.uni-hannover.d [Fachbereich Physik, TU Kaiserslautern, D-67663 Kaiserslautern (Germany)
2010-05-15
We present a detailed analysis of the Landau-Zener problem for an interacting Bose-Einstein condensate in a time-varying double-well trap, especially focusing on the relation between the full many-particle problem and the mean-field approximation. Due to the nonlinear self-interaction a dynamical instability occurs, which leads to a breakdown of adiabaticity and thus fundamentally alters the dynamics. It is shown that essentially all the features of the Landau-Zener problem including the depletion of the condensate mode can be already understood within a semiclassical phase-space picture. In particular, this treatment resolves the formerly imputed incommutability of the adiabatic and semiclassical limits. The possibility of exploiting Landau-Zener sweeps to generate squeezed states for spectroscopic tasks is analyzed in detail. Moreover, we study the influence of phase noise and propose a Landau-Zener sweep as a sensitive yet readily implementable probe for decoherence, since the noise has significant effect on the transition rate for slow parameter variations.
Detecting Hierarchical Structure in Networks
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Herlau, Tue; Mørup, Morten; Schmidt, Mikkel Nørgaard
2012-01-01
a generative Bayesian model that is able to infer whether hierarchies are present or not from a hypothesis space encompassing all types of hierarchical tree structures. For efficient inference we propose a collapsed Gibbs sampling procedure that jointly infers a partition and its hierarchical structure......Many real-world networks exhibit hierarchical organization. Previous models of hierarchies within relational data has focused on binary trees; however, for many networks it is unknown whether there is hierarchical structure, and if there is, a binary tree might not account well for it. We propose....... On synthetic and real data we demonstrate that our model can detect hierarchical structure leading to better link-prediction than competing models. Our model can be used to detect if a network exhibits hierarchical structure, thereby leading to a better comprehension and statistical account the network....
Hybrid phase-space-Fock-space approach to evolution of a driven nonlinear resonator
Khezri, Mostafa; Korotkov, Alexander N.
2017-10-01
We analyze the quantum evolution of a weakly nonlinear resonator due to a classical near-resonant drive and damping. The resonator nonlinearity leads to squeezing and heating of the resonator state. Using a hybrid phase-space-Fock-space representation for the resonator state within the Gaussian approximation, we derive evolution equations for the four parameters characterizing the Gaussian state. Numerical solution of these four ordinary differential equations is much simpler and faster than simulation of the full density matrix evolution, while providing good accuracy for the system analysis during transients and in the steady state. We show that steady-state squeezing of the resonator state is limited by 3 dB; however, this limit can be exceeded during transients.
Li, Xin; Yu, Jiaguo; Jaroniec, Mietek
2016-05-07
As a green and sustainable technology, semiconductor-based heterogeneous photocatalysis has received much attention in the last few decades because it has potential to solve both energy and environmental problems. To achieve efficient photocatalysts, various hierarchical semiconductors have been designed and fabricated at the micro/nanometer scale in recent years. This review presents a critical appraisal of fabrication methods, growth mechanisms and applications of advanced hierarchical photocatalysts. Especially, the different synthesis strategies such as two-step templating, in situ template-sacrificial dissolution, self-templating method, in situ template-free assembly, chemically induced self-transformation and post-synthesis treatment are highlighted. Finally, some important applications including photocatalytic degradation of pollutants, photocatalytic H2 production and photocatalytic CO2 reduction are reviewed. A thorough assessment of the progress made in photocatalysis may open new opportunities in designing highly effective hierarchical photocatalysts for advanced applications ranging from thermal catalysis, separation and purification processes to solar cells.
Hachay, Olga; Khachay, Andrey; Khachay, Oleg
2016-04-01
The processes of oil extraction from deposit are linked with the movement of multi-phase multi-component media, which are characterized by non-equilibrium and non-linear rheological features. The real behavior of layered systems is defined by the complexity of the rheology of moving fluids and the morphology structure of the porous medium, and also by the great variety of interactions between the fluid and the porous medium [Hasanov and Bulgakova, 2003]. It is necessary to take into account these features in order to informatively describe the filtration processes due to the non-linearity, non-equilibrium and heterogeneity that are features of real systems. In this way, new synergetic events can be revealed (namely, a loss of stability when oscillations occur, and the formation of ordered structures). This allows us to suggest new methods for the control and management of complicated natural systems that are constructed on account of these phenomena. Thus the layered system, from which it is necessary to extract the oil, is a complicated dynamical hierarchical system. A comparison is provided of non-equilibrium effects of the influence of independent hydrodynamic and electromagnetic induction on an oil layer and the medium which it surrounds. It is known that by drainage and steeping the hysteresis effect on curves of the relative phase permeability in dependence on the porous medium's water saturation in some cycles of influence (drainage-steep-drainage) is observed. Using the earlier developed 3D method of induction electromagnetic frequency geometric monitoring, we showed the possibility of defining the physical and structural features of a hierarchical oil layer structure and estimating the water saturation from crack inclusions. This effect allows managing the process of drainage and steeping the oil out of the layer by water displacement. An algorithm was constructed for 2D modeling of sound diffraction on a porous fluid-saturated intrusion of a hierarchical
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Danlu Cai
2014-04-01
Full Text Available Research on global climate change requires plant functional type (PFT products. Although several PFT mapping procedures for remote sensing imagery are being used, none of them appears to be specifically designed to map and evaluate PFTs over broad mountainous areas which are highly relevant regions to identify and analyze the response of natural ecosystems. We present a methodology for generating soft classifications of PFTs from remotely sensed time series that are based on a hierarchical strategy by integrating time varying integrated NDVI and phenological information with topography: (i Temporal variability: a Fourier transform of a vegetation index (MODIS NDVI, 2006 to 2010. (ii Spatial partitioning: a primary image segmentation based on a small number of thresholds applied to the Fourier amplitude. (iii Classification by a supervised soft classification step is based on a normalized distance metric constructed from a subset of Fourier coefficients and complimentary altitude data from a digital elevation model. Applicability and effectiveness is tested for the eastern Tibetan Plateau. A classification nomenclature is determined from temporally stable pixels in the MCD12Q1 time series. Overall accuracy statistics of the resulting classification reveal a gain of about 7% from 64.4% compared to 57.7% by the MODIS PFT products.
Phase Space Dissimilarity Measures for Structural Health Monitoring
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bubacz, Jacob A [ORNL; Chmielewski, Hana T [ORNL; Pape, Alexander E [ORNL; Depersio, Andrew J [ORNL; Hively, Lee M [ORNL; Abercrombie, Robert K [ORNL; Boone, Shane [ORNL
2011-11-01
A novel method for structural health monitoring (SHM), known as the Phase Space Dissimilarity Measures (PSDM) approach, is proposed and developed. The patented PSDM approach has already been developed and demonstrated for a variety of equipment and biomedical applications. Here, we investigate SHM of bridges via analysis of time serial accelerometer measurements. This work has four aspects. The first is algorithm scalability, which was found to scale linearly from one processing core to four cores. Second, the same data are analyzed to determine how the use of the PSDM approach affects sensor placement. We found that a relatively low-density placement sufficiently captures the dynamics of the structure. Third, the same data are analyzed by unique combinations of accelerometer axes (vertical, longitudinal, and lateral with respect to the bridge) to determine how the choice of axes affects the analysis. The vertical axis is found to provide satisfactory SHM data. Fourth, statistical methods were investigated to validate the PSDM approach for this application, yielding statistically significant results.
Simple procedure for phase-space measurement and entanglement validation
Rundle, R. P.; Mills, P. W.; Tilma, Todd; Samson, J. H.; Everitt, M. J.
2017-08-01
It has recently been shown that it is possible to represent the complete quantum state of any system as a phase-space quasiprobability distribution (Wigner function) [Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 180401 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.117.180401]. Such functions take the form of expectation values of an observable that has a direct analogy to displaced parity operators. In this work we give a procedure for the measurement of the Wigner function that should be applicable to any quantum system. We have applied our procedure to IBM's Quantum Experience five-qubit quantum processor to demonstrate that we can measure and generate the Wigner functions of two different Bell states as well as the five-qubit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state. Because Wigner functions for spin systems are not unique, we define, compare, and contrast two distinct examples. We show how the use of these Wigner functions leads to an optimal method for quantum state analysis especially in the situation where specific characteristic features are of particular interest (such as for spin Schrödinger cat states). Furthermore we show that this analysis leads to straightforward, and potentially very efficient, entanglement test and state characterization methods.
Phase space of modified Gauss-Bonnet gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Carloni, Sante [Universidade de Lisboa-UL, Centro Multidisciplinar de Astrofisica-CENTRA, Instituto Superior Tecnico-IST, Lisbon (Portugal); Mimoso, Jose P. [Instituto de Astrofisica e Ciencias do Espaco, Universidade de Lisboa, Departamento de Fisica, Faculdade de Ciencias, Lisbon (Portugal)
2017-08-15
We investigate the evolution of non-vacuum Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) spacetimes with any spatial curvature in the context of Gauss-Bonnet gravity. The analysis employs a new method which enables us to explore the phase space of any specific theory of this class. We consider several examples, discussing the transition from a decelerating into an acceleration universe within these theories. We also deduce from the dynamical equations some general conditions on the form of the action which guarantee the presence of specific behaviours like the emergence of accelerated expansion. As in f(R) gravity, our analysis shows that there is a set of initial conditions for which these models have a finite time singularity which can be an attractor. The presence of this instability also in the Gauss-Bonnet gravity is to be ascribed to the fourth-order derivative in the field equations, i.e., is the direct consequence of the higher order of the equations. (orig.)
Phase space of modified Gauss-Bonnet gravity
Carloni, Sante; Mimoso, José P.
2017-08-01
We investigate the evolution of non-vacuum Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) spacetimes with any spatial curvature in the context of Gauss-Bonnet gravity. The analysis employs a new method which enables us to explore the phase space of any specific theory of this class. We consider several examples, discussing the transition from a decelerating into an acceleration universe within these theories. We also deduce from the dynamical equations some general conditions on the form of the action which guarantee the presence of specific behaviours like the emergence of accelerated expansion. As in f( R) gravity, our analysis shows that there is a set of initial conditions for which these models have a finite time singularity which can be an attractor. The presence of this instability also in the Gauss-Bonnet gravity is to be ascribed to the fourth-order derivative in the field equations, i.e., is the direct consequence of the higher order of the equations.
Covariant phase space, constraints, gauge and the Peierls formula
Khavkine, Igor
2014-02-01
It is well known that both the symplectic structure and the Poisson brackets of classical field theory can be constructed directly from the Lagrangian in a covariant way, without passing through the noncovariant canonical Hamiltonian formalism. This is true even in the presence of constraints and gauge symmetries. These constructions go under the names of the covariant phase space formalism and the Peierls bracket. We review both of them, paying more careful attention, than usual, to the precise mathematical hypotheses that they require, illustrating them in examples. Also an extensive historical overview of the development of these constructions is provided. The novel aspect of our presentation is a significant expansion and generalization of an elegant and quite recent argument by Forger and Romero showing the equivalence between the resulting symplectic and Poisson structures without passing through the canonical Hamiltonian formalism as an intermediary. We generalize it to cover theories with constraints and gauge symmetries and formulate precise sufficient conditions under which the argument holds. These conditions include a local condition on the equations of motion that we call hyperbolizability, and some global conditions of cohomological nature. The details of our presentation may shed some light on subtle questions related to the Poisson structure of gauge theories and their quantization.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this SBIR Phase 1 we propose to develop a novel microscope by integrating Fourier phase contrast microscopy (FPCM) and epi-fluorescence microscopy. In FPCM, the...
High Performance Ka-band Phase Shifters for Space Telecommunications Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a novel MEMS-based digital phase shifter targeted for Ka-band operation, but scalable down to X-band and up to W-band. This novel phase shifter will...
Generalised partition functions: inferences on phase space distributions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. A. Treumann
2016-06-01
Full Text Available It is demonstrated that the statistical mechanical partition function can be used to construct various different forms of phase space distributions. This indicates that its structure is not restricted to the Gibbs–Boltzmann factor prescription which is based on counting statistics. With the widely used replacement of the Boltzmann factor by a generalised Lorentzian (also known as the q-deformed exponential function, where κ = 1∕|q − 1|, with κ, q ∈ R both the kappa-Bose and kappa-Fermi partition functions are obtained in quite a straightforward way, from which the conventional Bose and Fermi distributions follow for κ → ∞. For κ ≠ ∞ these are subject to the restrictions that they can be used only at temperatures far from zero. They thus, as shown earlier, have little value for quantum physics. This is reasonable, because physical κ systems imply strong correlations which are absent at zero temperature where apart from stochastics all dynamical interactions are frozen. In the classical large temperature limit one obtains physically reasonable κ distributions which depend on energy respectively momentum as well as on chemical potential. Looking for other functional dependencies, we examine Bessel functions whether they can be used for obtaining valid distributions. Again and for the same reason, no Fermi and Bose distributions exist in the low temperature limit. However, a classical Bessel–Boltzmann distribution can be constructed which is a Bessel-modified Lorentzian distribution. Whether it makes any physical sense remains an open question. This is not investigated here. The choice of Bessel functions is motivated solely by their convergence properties and not by reference to any physical demands. This result suggests that the Gibbs–Boltzmann partition function is fundamental not only to Gibbs–Boltzmann but also to a large class of generalised Lorentzian distributions as well as to the
Jacobi, Carsten; Rumpe, Bernhard
2014-01-01
XP is a light-weight methodology suited particularly for small-sized teams that develop software which has only vague or rapidly changing requirements. The discipline of systems engineering knows it as approach of incremental system change or also of "muddling through". In this paper, we introduce three well known methods of reorganizing companies, namely, the holistic approach, the incremental approach, and the hierarchical approach. We show similarities between software engineering methods ...
Garcia-Gasco Trujillo, Javier; Noval Sánchez de Toca, Alvaro; Montesinos Ortego, Ignacio; Fernández González, José Manuel; Sierra Pérez, Manuel
2013-01-01
The Space Situational Awareness (SSA) program from the European Space Agency (ESA) protects Europe's citizens and their satellite-based services by detecting space hazards. ESA Ground Systems (GS) division is currently designing a phased array radar composed of thousands of radiating elements for future stages of the SSA program [1]. The radar shall guarantee the detection of most of the Low Earth Orbit (LEO) space debris, providing a general map of space junk. While range accuracy is mainly ...
Variational principle and phase space measure in non-canonical coordinates
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sergi, A
2005-11-01
Full Text Available Non-canonical equations of motion are derived from a variational principle written in symplectic form. The invariant measure of phase space and the covariant expression for the entropy are derived from non-canonical transformations of coordinates. This shows that the geometry of non-canonical phase space is non trivial even if dynamics has no compressibility.
Higher order point and continuum mechanics from phase-space action
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shamanna, J.; Talukdar, B.; Das, U
2002-12-02
It is pointed out that use of phase-space action provides an elegant method to study the canonical structure of problems in mechanics. Higher order Lagrangian systems are Hamiltonized by employing the variational principle in phase space. Studies are envisaged for both particle dynamics and field theory. Hamilton's equations are expressed in terms of appropriate Poisson brackets.
Tunneling of an energy eigenstate through a parabolic barrier viewed from Wigner phase space
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Heim, D.M.; Schleich, W.P.; Alsing, P.M.
2013-01-01
We analyze the tunneling of a particle through a repulsive potential resulting from an inverted harmonic oscillator in the quantum mechanical phase space described by the Wigner function. In particular, we solve the partial differential equations in phase space determining the Wigner function...
Efficient characterization of phase space mapping in axially symmetric optical systems
Barbero, Sergio; Portilla, Javier
2018-01-01
Phase space mapping, typically between an object and image plane, characterizes an optical system within a geometrical optics framework. We propose a novel conceptual frame to characterize the phase mapping in axially symmetric optical systems for arbitrary object locations, not restricted to a specific object plane. The idea is based on decomposing the phase mapping into a set of bivariate equations corresponding to different values of the radial coordinate on a specific object surface (most likely the entrance pupil). These equations are then approximated through bivariate Chebyshev interpolation at Chebyshev nodes, which guarantees uniform convergence. Additionally, we propose the use of a new concept (effective object phase space), defined as the set of points of the phase space at the first optical element (typically the entrance pupil) that are effectively mapped onto the image surface. The effective object phase space provides, by means of an inclusion test, a way to avoid tracing rays that do not reach the image surface.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ivan V. Bazarov
2008-10-01
Full Text Available We present a comparison between space charge calculations and direct measurements of the transverse phase space of space charge dominated electron bunches from a high voltage dc photoemission gun followed by an emittance compensation solenoid magnet. The measurements were performed using a double-slit emittance measurement system over a range of bunch charge and solenoid current values. The data are compared with detailed simulations using the 3D space charge codes GPT and Parmela3D. The initial particle distributions were generated from measured transverse and temporal laser beam profiles at the photocathode. The beam brightness as a function of beam fraction is calculated for the measured phase space maps and found to approach within a factor of 2 the theoretical maximum set by the thermal energy and the accelerating field at the photocathode.
Basu, Cynthia; Ahmed, Mariam A.; Kartha, Reena V.; Brundage, Richard C.; Raymond, Gerald V.; Cloyd, James C.; Carlin, Bradley P.
2017-01-01
X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is a rare, progressive and typically fatal neurodegenerative disease. Lorenzo’s Oil (LO) is one of the few X-ALD treatments available, but little has been done to establish its clinical efficacy or indications for its use. In this paper, we analyze data on 116 male asymptomatic pediatric patients who were administered LO. We offer a hierarchical Bayesian statistical approach to understanding LO pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) resulting from an accumulation of very long chain fatty acids. We experiment with individual- and observational-level errors, various choices of prior distributions, and deal with the limitation of having just one observation per administration of the drug, as opposed to the more usual multiple observations per administration. We link LO dose to the plasma erucic acid concentrations by PK modeling, and then link this concentration to a biomarker (C26, a very long chain fatty acid) by PD modeling. Next, we design a Bayesian Phase IIa study to estimate precisely what improvements in the biomarker can arise from various LO doses, while simultaneously modeling a binary toxicity endpoint. Our Bayesian adaptive algorithm emerges as reasonably robust and efficient while still retaining good classical (frequentist) operating characteristics. Future work looks toward using the results of this trial to design a Phase III study linking LO dose to actual improvements in health status, as measured by the appearance of brain lesions observed via magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:27547896
Basu, Cynthia; Ahmed, Mariam A; Kartha, Reena V; Brundage, Richard C; Raymond, Gerald V; Cloyd, James C; Carlin, Bradley P
2016-01-01
X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is a rare, progressive, and typically fatal neurodegenerative disease. Lorenzo's oil (LO) is one of the few X-ALD treatments available, but little has been done to establish its clinical efficacy or indications for its use. In this article, we analyze data on 116 male asymptomatic pediatric patients who were administered LO. We offer a hierarchical Bayesian statistical approach to understand LO pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) resulting from an accumulation of very long-chain fatty acids. We experiment with individual- and observational-level errors and various choices of prior distributions and deal with the limitation of having just one observation per administration of the drug, as opposed to the more usual multiple observations per administration. We link LO dose to the plasma erucic acid concentrations by PK modeling, and then link this concentration to a biomarker (C26, a very long-chain fatty acid) by PD modeling. Next, we design a Bayesian Phase IIa study to estimate precisely what improvements in the biomarker can arise from various LO doses while simultaneously modeling a binary toxicity endpoint. Our Bayesian adaptive algorithm emerges as reasonably robust and efficient while still retaining good classical (frequentist) operating characteristics. Future work looks toward using the results of this trial to design a Phase III study linking LO dose to actual improvements in health status, as measured by the appearance of brain lesions observed via magnetic resonance imaging.
Families of vector-like deformations of relativistic quantum phase spaces, twists and symmetries
Meljanac, Daniel; Meljanac, Stjepan; Pikutić, Danijel
2017-12-01
Families of vector-like deformed relativistic quantum phase spaces and corresponding realizations are analyzed. A method for a general construction of the star product is presented. The corresponding twist, expressed in terms of phase space coordinates, in the Hopf algebroid sense is presented. General linear realizations are considered and corresponding twists, in terms of momenta and Poincaré-Weyl generators or gl(n) generators are constructed and R-matrix is discussed. A classification of linear realizations leading to vector-like deformed phase spaces is given. There are three types of spaces: (i) commutative spaces, (ii) κ -Minkowski spaces and (iii) κ -Snyder spaces. The corresponding star products are (i) associative and commutative (but non-local), (ii) associative and non-commutative and (iii) non-associative and non-commutative, respectively. Twisted symmetry algebras are considered. Transposed twists and left-right dual algebras are presented. Finally, some physical applications are discussed.
Space Station Freedom - Approaching the critical design phase
Kohrs, Richard H.; Huckins, Earle, III
1992-01-01
The status and future developments of the Space Station Freedom are discussed. To date detailed design drawings are being produced to manufacture SSF hardware. A critical design review (CDR) for the man-tended capability configuration is planned to be performed in 1993 under the SSF program. The main objective of the CDR is to enable the program to make a full commitment to proceed to manufacture parts and assemblies. NASA recently signed a contract with the Russian space company, NPO Energia, to evaluate potential applications of various Russian space hardware for on-going NASA programs.
Multimegawatt space nuclear power supply: Phase 1, Final report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
1989-02-17
The Phase 2 program objectives are to (1) demonstrate concept feasibility, (2) develop a preliminary design, and (3) complete Phase 3 engineering development and ground test plans. The approach to accomplish these objectives is to prove technical feasibility of our baseline design early in the program while maintaining flexibility to easily respond to changing requirements and advances in technology. This approach recognizes that technology is advancing rapidly while the operational phase MSNPS is 15 to 20 years in the future. This plan further recognizes that the weapons platform and Advanced Launch System (ALS) are in very early program definition stages; consequently, their requirements, interfaces, and technological basis will evolve. This document outlines the Phase 2 plan along with task scheduling of the various program aspects.
Equilibrium Phase Behavior of a Continuous-Space Microphase Former.
Zhuang, Yuan; Zhang, Kai; Charbonneau, Patrick
2016-03-04
Periodic microphases universally emerge in systems for which short-range interparticle attraction is frustrated by long-range repulsion. The morphological richness of these phases makes them desirable material targets, but our relatively coarse understanding of even simple models hinders controlling their assembly. We report here the solution of the equilibrium phase behavior of a microscopic microphase former through specialized Monte Carlo simulations. The results for cluster crystal, cylindrical, double gyroid, and lamellar ordering qualitatively agree with a Landau-type free energy description and reveal the nontrivial interplay between cluster, gel, and microphase formation.
Transverse emittance and phase space program developed for use at the Fermilab A0 Photoinjector
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Thurman-Keup, R.; Johnson, A.S.; Lumpkin, A.H.; Ruan, J.; /Fermilab
2011-03-01
The Fermilab A0 Photoinjector is a 16 MeV high intensity, high brightness electron linac developed for advanced accelerator R&D. One of the key parameters for the electron beam is the transverse beam emittance. Here we report on a newly developed MATLAB based GUI program used for transverse emittance measurements using the multi-slit technique. This program combines the image acquisition and post-processing tools for determining the transverse phase space parameters with uncertainties. An integral part of accelerator research is a measurement of the beam phase space. Measurements of the transverse phase space can be accomplished by a variety of methods including multiple screens separated by drift spaces, or by sampling phase space via pepper pots or slits. In any case, the measurement of the phase space parameters, in particular the emittance, can be drastically simplified and sped up by automating the measurement in an intuitive fashion utilizing a graphical interface. At the A0 Photoinjector (A0PI), the control system is DOOCS, which originated at DESY. In addition, there is a library for interfacing to MATLAB, a graphically capable numerical analysis package sold by The Mathworks. It is this graphical package which was chosen as the basis for a graphical phase space measurement system due to its combination of analysis and display capabilities.
On phase-space representations of quantum mechanics using ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2016-07-16
-space wave functions using the Glauber coherent states [2,23–25] and the Husimi amplitude, 〈z | (t)〉. Thus, in order to put into con- text the present paper, some previous literature in this area of research (`a la Bargmann) will ...
Deep Space Habitat Concept of Operations for Transit Mission Phases
Hoffman, Stephen J.
2011-01-01
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has begun evaluating various mission and system components of possible implementations of what the U.S. Human Spaceflight Plans Committee (also known as the Augustine Committee) has named the flexible path (Anon., 2009). As human spaceflight missions expand further into deep space, the duration of these missions increases to the point where a dedicated crew habitat element appears necessary. There are several destinations included in this flexible path a near Earth asteroid (NEA) mission, a Phobos/Deimos (Ph/D) mission, and a Mars surface exploration mission that all include at least a portion of the total mission in which the crew spends significant periods of time (measured in months) in the deep space environment and are thus candidates for a dedicated habitat element. As one facet of a number of studies being conducted by the Human Spaceflight Architecture Team (HAT) a workshop was conducted to consider how best to define and quantify habitable volume for these future deep space missions. One conclusion reached during this workshop was the need for a description of the scope and scale of these missions and the intended uses of a habitat element. A group was set up to prepare a concept of operations document to address this need. This document describes a concept of operations for a habitat element used for these deep space missions. Although it may eventually be determined that there is significant overlap with this concept of operations and that of a habitat destined for use on planetary surfaces, such as the Moon and Mars, no such presumption is made in this document.
Study of a measurement of beam distribution on the phase space in the space charge dominant region
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nomura, Masahiro [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center
1998-06-01
Beam distribution on the phase space which is figured by the emittance and Twiss parameters is one of the most important parameters when applications and performance of accelerator are studied. In the high energy region where the space charge effect is week, the emittance is measured by a quadrupole magnet and in the space charge dominant region, the pepper-pot technique is used. I studied a method to measure the beam distribution on the phase space by magnetic lenses in the space charge dominant region. In this method, an initial beam distribution is figured by parameters such as a momentum spread, a waist position and a beam radius at the exit of gun instead of Twiss parameters. And the beam trajectory and radius are calculated by a new simulation code instead of transfer matrix because transfer matrix can not be used in the space charge dominant region. I developed a new one dimensional simulation code. In this code, when the space charge force is calculated, a mesh size is changed automatically according to the beam radius in order to reduce the calculation error. The relations between the beam radius and strength of the magnetic lenses were calculated by this simulation code. The results show that the waist position and the beam radius at the exit of gun can be estimated from those relations. (author)
Phase space investigation of the lithium amide halides
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Davies, Rosalind A. [Hydrogen Storage Chemistry Group, School of Chemistry, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Group, School of Chemical Engineering, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Hewett, David R.; Korkiakoski, Emma [Hydrogen Storage Chemistry Group, School of Chemistry, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Thompson, Stephen P. [Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Anderson, Paul A., E-mail: p.a.anderson@bham.ac.uk [Hydrogen Storage Chemistry Group, School of Chemistry, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom)
2015-10-05
Highlights: • The lower limits of halide incorporation in lithium amide have been investigated. • The only amide iodide stoichiometry observed was Li{sub 3}(NH{sub 2}){sub 2}I. • Solid solutions were observed in both the amide chloride and amide bromide systems. • A 46% reduction in chloride content resulted in a new phase: Li{sub 7}(NH{sub 2}){sub 6}Cl. • New low-chloride phase maintained improved H{sub 2} desorption properties of Li{sub 4}(NH{sub 2}){sub 3}Cl. - Abstract: An investigation has been carried out into the lower limits of halide incorporation in lithium amide (LiNH{sub 2}). It was found that the lithium amide iodide Li{sub 3}(NH{sub 2}){sub 2}I was unable to accommodate any variation in stoichiometry. In contrast, some variation in stoichiometry was accommodated in Li{sub 7}(NH{sub 2}){sub 6}Br, as shown by a decrease in unit cell volume when the bromide content was reduced. The amide chloride Li{sub 4}(NH{sub 2}){sub 3}Cl was found to adopt either a rhombohedral or a cubic structure depending on the reaction conditions. Reduction in chloride content generally resulted in a mixture of phases, but a new rhombohedral phase with the stoichiometry Li{sub 7}(NH{sub 2}){sub 6}Cl was observed. In comparison to LiNH{sub 2}, this new low-chloride phase exhibited similar improved hydrogen desorption properties as Li{sub 4}(NH{sub 2}){sub 3}Cl but with a much reduced weight penalty through addition of chloride. Attempts to dope lithium amide with fluoride ions have so far proved unsuccessful.
Selection of Phase Space Reconstruction Parameters for EMG Signals of the Uterus
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Brzozowska Ewelina
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Biological time series have a finite number of samples with noise included in them. Because of this fact, it is not possible to reconstruct phase space in an ideal manner. One kind of biomedical signals are electrohisterographical (EHG datasets, which represent uterine muscle contractile activity. In the process of phase space reconstruction, the most important thing is suitable choice of the method for calculating the time delay τ and embedding dimension d, which will reliably reconstruct the original signal. The parameters used in digital signal processing are key to arranging adequate parameters of the analysed attractor embedded in the phase space. The aim of this paper is to present a method employed for phase space reconstruction for EHG signals that will make it possible for their further analysis to be carried out.
Phase Space of Rolling Solutions of the Tippe Top
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S. Torkel Glad
2007-03-01
Full Text Available Equations of motion of an axially symmetric sphere rolling and sliding on a plane are usually taken as model of the tippe top. We study these equations in the nonsliding regime both in the vector notation and in the Euler angle variables when they admit three integrals of motion that are linear and quadratic in momenta. In the Euler angle variables (θ,φ,ψ these integrals give separation equations that have the same structure as the equations of the Lagrange top. It makes it possible to describe the whole space of solutions by representing them in the space of parameters (D,λ,E being constant values of the integrals of motion.
Phase-space dynamics of runaway electrons in magnetic fields
Guo, Zehua; McDevitt, Christopher J.; Tang, Xian-Zhu
2017-04-01
Dynamics of runaway electrons in magnetic fields are governed by the competition of three dominant physics: parallel electric field acceleration, Coulomb collision, and synchrotron radiation. Examination of the energy and pitch-angle flows reveals that the presence of local vortex structure and global circulation is crucial to the saturation of primary runaway electrons. Models for the vortex structure, which has an O-point to X-point connection, and the bump of runaway electron distribution in energy space have been developed and compared against the simulation data. Identification of these velocity-space structures opens a new venue to re-examine the conventional understanding of runaway electron dynamics in magnetic fields.
ACOSS FIVE (Active Control of Space Structures). Phase 1A
1982-03-01
Again, in this case the specimen had been perturbed by a four-second chirp and then allowed to settle. Once a filter design has been established , the...The control design MKUCTUKAL MOOC L PtRFOHMANCl MÜDtL DISTURBANCE MODEL I ’ II Q|S£) XM=) STATE SPACE MODEL KEDUCED MODELS (HAC... establishing robustness with respect to two "point- design " perturbations. Based on the above results, and in the context of the analysis defined by the
A simulation of weak-light phase-locking for space laser interferometer
Li, Y. Q.; Dong, Y. H.; Liu, H. S.; Luo, Z. R.; Jin, G.
2017-05-01
A simulation was investigated to better understand the impacts and effects of the additional technical noises on weak-light phase-locking for space laser interferometer. The result showed that the locking precision was limited by the phase readout noise when the laser frequency noise and clock jitter noise were removed, and this result was then confirmed by a benchtop experimental test. The required space laser interferometer noise floor was recovered from the simulation which proved the validity of the simulation program.
Phase-space Analysis in the Group and Cluster Environment: Introduction and Application
Rhee, Jinsu
2018-01-01
Using the latest cosmological hydrodynamic N-body simulations of groups and clusters, we study how location in phase-space coordinates at z = 0 can provide information on environmental effects acting in clusters. We confirm the results of previous authors showing that galaxies tend to follow a typical path in phase-space as they settle into the cluster potential. As such, different regions of phase-space can be associated with different times since first infalling into the cluster. However, in addition, we see a clear trend between total mass loss due to cluster tides and time since infall. Thus, we find location in phase-space provides information on both infall time and tidal mass loss. We find the predictive power of phase-space diagrams remains even when projected quantities are used (i.e., line of sight velocities, and projected distances from the cluster). We provide figures that can be directly compared with observed samples of cluster galaxies and we also provide the data used to make them as supplementary data to encourage the use of phase-space diagrams as a tool to understand cluster environmental effects. We find that our results depend very weakly on galaxy mass or host mass, so the predictions in our phase-space diagrams can be applied to groups or clusters alike, or to galaxy populations from dwarfs up to giants. Finally, we give some guiding examples how our phase-space diagrams can be used in real observation, inferring time evolution of galaxy properties under cluster environment.
Field diversity phase retrieval method for wavefront sensing in monolithic mirror space telescopes.
Ju, Guohao; Yan, Changxiang; Yue, Dan; Gu, Zhiyuan
2017-05-20
To guarantee the uniqueness of the solution for the wavefront phase, a series of intensity images with known phase diversities is usually needed in the current phase retrieval wavefront sensing methods. However, to obtain these intensity images with deliberately added diversity phases, some additional instruments (e.g., beam splitters) or operations (e.g., adjustment of the focus) are usually needed, which can pose a challenge for wavefront sensing in space telescopes. This paper proposes a new concept for retrieving the wavefront phase of monolithic mirror space telescopes with perturbations, where the intensity measurements with phase diversities are directly obtained from different field positions of one image, without the need for any additional instruments or operations. To realize this new concept, we present a modified phase diversity method to account for the unknown phase diversities between these intensity measurements based on an in-depth understanding of the net aberration fields induced by misalignments and figure errors. Relevant simulations for different cases are performed to demonstrate the feasibility and accuracy of the proposed method. Since in this method the phase diversities between different intensity measurements are mainly induced by the diversities in the field position, we call it the field diversity phase retrieval method. This work can present great facility for wavefront sensing in monolithic mirror space telescopes.
Critical phenomena experiments in space. [for fluid phase-equilibrium
Sengers, J. V.; Moldover, M. R.
1978-01-01
The paper analyzes several types of critical phenomena in fluids, shows how they are affected by the presence of gravity, and describes how experiments conducted in an orbiting laboratory under low gravity conditions could extend the range of measurements needed to study critical phenomena. Future experiments are proposed. One would be a careful measurement of the dielectric constant in a low gravity environment. Two basic problems that can benefit especially from space experiments are the specific heat near the critical point and the shear viscosity at the gas-liquid critical point.
Analysis of Scalar Field Cosmology with Phase Space Deformations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sinuhe Perez-Payan
2014-01-01
modifying the symplectic structure of the minisuperspace variables. The effects of the deformation are studied in the “C-frame” and the “NC-frame.” In order to remove the ambiguities of working on different frames, a new principle is introduced. When we impose that both frames should be physically equivalent, we conclude that the only possibility for this model, is to have an effective cosmological constant Λeff≥0. Finally we bound the parameter space for θ and β.
Space qualified Nd:YAG laser (phase 1 - design)
Foster, J. D.; Kirk, R. F.
1971-01-01
Results of a design study and preliminary design of a space qualified Nd:YAG laser are presented. A theoretical model of the laser was developed to allow the evaluation of the effects of various parameters on its performance. Various pump lamps were evaluated and sum pumping was considered. Cooling requirements were examined and cooling methods such as radiation, cryogenic and conductive were analysed. Power outputs and efficiences of various configurations and the pump and laser lifetime are discussed. Also considered were modulation and modulating methods.
On evolution of small spheres in the phase space of a dynamical system*
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Komech Sergei
2012-08-01
Full Text Available We study the connection between the entropy of a dynamical system and the boundary distortion rate of regions in the phase space of the system. Nous étudions la connexion entre l’entropie d’un système dynamique et le taux de distortion au bord dans l’espace des phases du système.
Phase 1 space fission propulsion system testing and development progress
van Dyke, Melissa; Houts, Mike; Pedersen, Kevin; Godfroy, Tom; Dickens, Ricky; Poston, David; Reid, Bob; Salvail, Pat; Ring, Peter
2001-02-01
Successful development of space fission systems will require an extensive program of affordable and realistic testing. In addition to tests related to design/development of the fission system, realistic testing of the actual flight unit must also be performed. Testing can be divided into two categories, non-nuclear tests and nuclear tests. Full power nuclear tests of space fission systems are expensive, time consuming, and of limited use, even in the best of programmatic environments. If the system is designed to operate within established radiation damage and fuel burn up limits while simultaneously being designed to allow close simulation of heat from fission using resistance heaters, high confidence in fission system performance and lifetime can be attained through a series of non-nuclear tests. Non-nuclear tests are affordable and timely, and the cause of component and system failures can be quickly and accurately identified, MSFC is leading a Safe Affordable Fission Engine (SAFE) test series whose ultimate goal is the demonstration of a 300 kW flight configuration system using non-nuclear testing. This test series is carried out in collaboration with other NASA centers, other government agencies, industry, and universities. If SAFE-related nuclear tests are desired, they will have a high probability of success and can be performed at existing nuclear facilities. The paper describes the SAFE non-nuclear test series, which includes test article descriptions, test results and conclusions, and future test plans. .
Proliferation of stability in phase and parameter spaces of nonlinear systems
Manchein, Cesar; da Silva, Rafael M.; Beims, Marcus W.
2017-08-01
In this work, we show how the composition of maps allows us to multiply, enlarge, and move stable domains in phase and parameter spaces of discrete nonlinear systems. Using Hénon maps with distinct parameters, we generate many identical copies of isoperiodic stable structures (ISSs) in the parameter space and attractors in phase space. The equivalence of the identical ISSs is checked by the largest Lyapunov exponent analysis, and the multiplied basins of attraction become riddled. Our proliferation procedure should be applicable to any two-dimensional nonlinear system.
Phase-space representation and polarization domains of random electromagnetic fields.
Castaneda, Roman; Betancur, Rafael; Herrera, Jorge; Carrasquilla, Juan
2008-08-01
The phase-space representation of stationary random electromagnetic fields is developed by using electromagnetic spatial coherence wavelets. The propagation of the field's power and states of spatial coherence and polarization results from correlations between the components of the field vectors at pairs of points in space. Polarization domains are theoretically predicted as the structure of the field polarization at the observation plane. In addition, the phase-space representation provides a generalization of the Poynting theorem. Theoretical predictions are examined by numerically simulating the Young experiment with electromagnetic waves. The experimental implementation of these results is a current subject of research.
New Space Vector Selection Scheme for VSI Supplied Dual Three-Phase Induction Machine
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
MILICEVIC, D.
2013-02-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a novel space vector selection scheme applicable for the control of dual three-phase induction motor drives supplied from a six-phase voltage source inverter (VSI. The vector selection method is based on the vector space decomposition technique (VSD. Unique vector selection pattern simplifies problems related to complicated implementation of standard VSD in commercially available digital signals processors (DSP. The proposed vector selection scheme is verified through a theoretical analysis, computer simulations and practical experimental results conducted on a dual three-phase test rig prototype with control algorithm implemented in Texas Instrument?s TMS320F2808 DSP.
Synthesis strategies in the search for hierarchical zeolites.
Serrano, D P; Escola, J M; Pizarro, P
2013-05-07
Great interest has arisen in the past years in the development of hierarchical zeolites, having at least two levels of porosities. Hierarchical zeolites show an enhanced accessibility, leading to improved catalytic activity in reactions suffering from steric and/or diffusional limitations. Moreover, the secondary porosity offers an ideal space for the deposition of additional active phases and for functionalization with organic moieties. However, the secondary surface represents a discontinuity of the crystalline framework, with a low connectivity and a high concentration of silanols. Consequently, hierarchical zeolites exhibit a less "zeolitic behaviour" than conventional ones in terms of acidity, hydrophobic/hydrophilic character, confinement effects, shape-selectivity and hydrothermal stability. Nevertheless, this secondary surface is far from being amorphous, which provides hierarchical zeolites with a set of novel features. A wide variety of innovative strategies have been developed for generating a secondary porosity in zeolites. In the present review, the different synthetic routes leading to hierarchical zeolites have been classified into five categories: removal of framework atoms, surfactant-assisted procedures, hard-templating, zeolitization of preformed solids and organosilane-based methods. Significant advances have been achieved recently in several of these alternatives. These include desilication, due to its versatility, dual templating with polyquaternary ammonium surfactants and framework reorganization by treatment with surfactant-containing basic solutions. In the last two cases, the materials so prepared show both mesoscopic ordering and zeolitic lattice planes. Likewise, interesting results have been obtained with the incorporation of different types of organosilanes into the zeolite crystallization gels, taking advantage of their high affinity for silicate and aluminosilicate species. Crystallization of organofunctionalized species favours the
Concurrent growth of two phases in 2D space
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A.A. Burbelko
2008-12-01
Full Text Available The kinetics of phase transformations has been studied within the framework of the Kolmogorov-Johnson-Mehl-Avrami (KJMA theory. This theory accurately describes only the parallel growth of anisotropic products with identical convex shape. The identical growth velocity distribution at an interface is the indispensable condition for the above restriction. The proposed earlier extension of KJMA theory (statistical theory of the screened growth enlarges the scope of its application and eliminates the above limitation. The results of the application of this extension were compared with the results obtained during modelling of the concurrent growth of the two types of circular particles on a plane, where the said particles were characterised by different growth rates and modelling was carried out by the method of cellular automata (CA.
Weak equivalence principle in noncommutative phase space and the parameters of noncommutativity
Gnatenko, Kh. P.; Tkachuk, V. M.
2017-08-01
The weak equivalence principle is studied in a space with noncommutativity of coordinates and noncommutativity of momenta. We find conditions on the parameters of noncommutativity which give the possibility to recover the equivalence principle in two-dimensional noncommutative phase space. It is also shown that in the case when these conditions are satisfied the motion of the center-of-mass of a composite system in noncommutative phase space and the relative motion are independent, the kinetic energy of composite system has additivity property and is independent on the systems composition. So, we propose conditions on the parameters of noncommutativity which give the possibility to solve the list of problems in noncommutative phase space.
Meierhenrich, Uwe J.; Cason, Julie R. L.; Szopa, Cyril; Sternberg, Robert; Raulin, François; Thiemann, Wolfram H.-P.; Goesmann, Fred
2013-12-01
The European Space Agency's Rosetta mission was launched in March 2004 in order to reach comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko by August 2014. The Cometary Sampling and Composition experiment (COSAC) onboard the Rosetta mission's lander "Philae" has been designed for the cometary in situ detection and quantification of organic molecules using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The GC unit of COSAC is equipped with eight capillary columns that will each provide a specific stationary phase for molecular separation. Three of these stationary phases will be used to chromatographically resolve enantiomers, as they are composed of liquid polymers of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) to which chiral valine or cyclodextrin units are attached. Throughout the ten years of Rosetta's journey through space to reach comet 67P, these liquid stationary phases have been exposed to space vacuum, as the capillary columns within the COSAC unit were not sealed or filled with carrier gas. Long term exposures to space vacuum can cause damage to such liquid stationary phases as key monomers, volatiles, and chiral selectors can be vaporized and lost in transit. We have therefore exposed identical spare units of COSAC's chiral stationary phases over eight years to vacuum conditions mimicking those experienced in space and we have now investigated their resolution capabilities towards different enantiomers both before and after exposure to space vacuum environments. We have observed that enantiomeric resolution capabilities of these chiral liquid enantioselective stationary phases has not been affected by exposure to space vacuum conditions. Thus we conclude that the three chiral stationary phases of the COSAC experiment onboard the Rosetta mission lander "Philae" can be considered to have maintained their resolution capacities throughout their journey prior to cometary landing in November 2014.
Phase and Pupil Amplitude Recovery for JWST Space-Optics Control
Dean, B. H.; Zielinski, T. P.; Smith, J. S.; Bolcar, M. R.; Aronstein, D. L.; Fienup, J. R.
2010-01-01
This slide presentation reviews the phase and pupil amplitude recovery for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Near Infrared Camera (NIRCam). It includes views of the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM), the NIRCam, examples of Phase Retrieval Data, Ghost Irradiance, Pupil Amplitude Estimation, Amplitude Retrieval, Initial Plate Scale Estimation using the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF), Pupil Amplitude Estimation vs lambda, Pupil Amplitude Estimation vs. number of Images, Pupil Amplitude Estimation vs Rotation (clocking), and Typical Phase Retrieval Results Also included is information about the phase retrieval approach, Non-Linear Optimization (NLO) Optimized Diversity Functions, and Least Square Error vs. Starting Pupil Amplitude.
Phase Space Exploration of Acetylene at Energies up to 13,000 Cm-1
Perry, David S.; Martens, Jonathan; Herman, Michel; Amyay, Badr
2011-06-01
The rotation-vibration Hamiltonian of acetylene is known in detail up to 13,000 Cm-1 in the electronic ground state, allows the calculation of time-dependent dynamics for postulated excitations of certain bright states. Three different measures of phase space exploration are examined including the participation number, Gruebele's dispersion, and the Shannon entropy. The time scales for phase space exploration span the range from 20 fs to 10 ps. The volume of phase space explored by the dynamics increases with energy and the rotational quantum number, J reaching about 90% of the (GOE) statistical limit at 12,000 Cm-1 and J = 100. At low and intermediate J, the extent of phase space exploration is reduced for the local bender and counter-rotator bright states as compared to their normal mode counterparts. However, the phase space exploration of the local mode CH stretch state is similar to that of the corresponding normal mode vibration. These calculations shed light on the applicability of the energy randomization assumption that is at the heart of the Rice-Rampsberger-Kassel-Marcus (RRKM) theory of unimolecular reactions.
Extremal rotating black holes in the near-horizon limit: Phase space and symmetry algebra
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G. Compère
2015-10-01
Full Text Available We construct the NHEG phase space, the classical phase space of Near-Horizon Extremal Geometries with fixed angular momenta and entropy, and with the largest symmetry algebra. We focus on vacuum solutions to d dimensional Einstein gravity. Each element in the phase space is a geometry with SL(2,R×U(1d−3 isometries which has vanishing SL(2,R and constant U(1 charges. We construct an on-shell vanishing symplectic structure, which leads to an infinite set of symplectic symmetries. In four spacetime dimensions, the phase space is unique and the symmetry algebra consists of the familiar Virasoro algebra, while in d>4 dimensions the symmetry algebra, the NHEG algebra, contains infinitely many Virasoro subalgebras. The nontrivial central term of the algebra is proportional to the black hole entropy. The conserved charges are given by the Fourier decomposition of a Liouville-type stress-tensor which depends upon a single periodic function of d−3 angular variables associated with the U(1 isometries. This phase space and in particular its symmetries can serve as a basis for a semiclassical description of extremal rotating black hole microstates.
Electron beam phase-space measurement using a high-precision tomography technique
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. Yakimenko
2003-12-01
Full Text Available We report a measurement of the multidimensional phase-space density distribution of an electron bunch. The measurement combines the techniques of picosecond slice-emittance measurement and high-resolution tomographic measurement of transverse phase space. This technique should have a significant impact on the development of low emittance beams and their many applications, such as short-wavelength free-electron lasers and laser accelerators. A diagnostic that provides detailed information on the density distribution of the electron bunch in multidimensional phase space is an essential tool for obtaining a small emittance at a reasonable charge and for understanding the physics of emittance growth. We previously reported a measurement of the slice emittance of a picosecond electron beam [J. S. Fraser, R. L. Sheffield, and E. R. Gray, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A 250, 71 (1986.]. The tomographic reconstruction of the phase space was suggested [X. Qiu, K. Batchelor, I. Ben-Zvi, and X. J. Wang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3723 (1996.] and implemented [C. B. McKee, P. G. O’Shea, and J. M. J. Madey, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A 358, 264 (1995; I. Ben-Zvi, J. X. Qiu, and X. J. Wang, in Proceedings of the Particle Accelerator Conference, Vancouver, 1997 (IEEE, Piscataway, NJ, 1997.] using a single quadrupole scan. In the present work we expand the tomographic reconstruction work and combine it with the slice-emittance method. Our present tomographic work pays special attention to the accuracy of the phase-space reconstruction. We use a transport line with nine focusing magnets, and present an analysis and technique aimed at the control of the optical functions and phases. This high-precision phase-space tomography together with the ability to modify the radial charge distribution of the electron beam presents an opportunity to improve the emittance and apply nonlinear radial emittance corrections. Combining the
Amateur Radio on the International Space Station - Phase 2 Hardware System
Bauer, F.; McFadin, L.; Bruninga, B.; Watarikawa, H.
2003-01-01
The International Space Station (ISS) ham radio system has been on-orbit for over 3 years. Since its first use in November 2000, the first seven expedition crews and three Soyuz taxi crews have utilized the amateur radio station in the Functional Cargo Block (also referred to as the FGB or Zarya module) to talk to thousands of students in schools, to their families on Earth, and to amateur radio operators around the world. Early on, the Amateur Radio on the International Space Station (ARISS) international team devised a multi-phased hardware development approach for the ISS ham radio station. Three internal development Phases. Initial Phase 1, Mobile Radio Phase 2 and Permanently Mounted Phase 3 plus an externally mounted system, were proposed and agreed to by the ARISS team. The Phase 1 system hardware development which was started in 1996 has since been delivered to ISS. It is currently operational on 2 meters. The 70 cm system is expected to be installed and operated later this year. Since 2001, the ARISS international team have worked to bring the second generation ham system, called Phase 2, to flight qualification status. At this time, major portions of the Phase 2 hardware system have been delivered to ISS and will soon be installed and checked out. This paper intends to provide an overview of the Phase 1 system for background and then describe the capabilities of the Phase 2 radio system. It will also describe the current plans to finalize the Phase 1 and Phase 2 testing in Russia and outlines the plans to bring the Phase 2 hardware system to full operation.
Hierarchical DSE for multi-ASIP platforms
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Micconi, Laura; Corvino, Rosilde; Gangadharan, Deepak
2013-01-01
This work proposes a hierarchical Design Space Exploration (DSE) for the design of multi-processor platforms targeted to specific applications with strict timing and area constraints. In particular, it considers platforms integrating multiple Application Specific Instruction Set Processors (ASIPs...
Tomographic reconstruction of transverse phase space from turn-by-turn profile data
Hancock, S; Lindroos, M
1999-01-01
Tomographic methods have the potential for useful application in beam diagnostics. The tomographic reconstruction of transverse phase space density from turn-by-turn profile data has been studied with particular attention to the effects of dispersion and chromaticity. It is shown that the modified Algebraic Reconstruction Technique (ART) that deals successfully with the problem of non-linear motion in the longitudinal plane cannot, in general, be extended to cover the transverse case. Instead, an approach is proposed in which the effect of dispersion is deconvoluted from the measured profiles before the phase space picture is reconstructed using either the modified ART algorithm or the inverse Radon Transform. This requires an accurate knowledge of the momentum distribution of the beam and the modified ART reconstruction of longitudinal phase space density yields just such information. The method has been tested extensively with simulated data.
Miksovsky, J.; Raidl, A.
Time delays phase space reconstruction represents one of useful tools of nonlinear time series analysis, enabling number of applications. Its utilization requires the value of time delay to be known, as well as the value of embedding dimension. There are sev- eral methods how to estimate both these parameters. Typically, time delay is computed first, followed by embedding dimension. Our presented approach is slightly different - we reconstructed phase space for various combinations of mentioned parameters and used it for prediction by means of the nearest neighbours in the phase space. Then some measure of prediction's success was computed (correlation or RMSE, e.g.). The position of its global maximum (minimum) should indicate the suitable combination of time delay and embedding dimension. Several meteorological (particularly clima- tological) time series were used for the computations. We have also created a MS- Windows based program in order to implement this approach - its basic features will be presented as well.
3D imaging in volumetric scattering media using phase-space measurements.
Liu, Hsiou-Yuan; Jonas, Eric; Tian, Lei; Zhong, Jingshan; Recht, Benjamin; Waller, Laura
2015-06-01
We demonstrate the use of phase-space imaging for 3D localization of multiple point sources inside scattering material. The effect of scattering is to spread angular (spatial frequency) information, which can be measured by phase space imaging. We derive a multi-slice forward model for homogenous volumetric scattering, then develop a reconstruction algorithm that exploits sparsity in order to further constrain the problem. By using 4D measurements for 3D reconstruction, the dimensionality mismatch provides significant robustness to multiple scattering, with either static or dynamic diffusers. Experimentally, our high-resolution 4D phase-space data is collected by a spectrogram setup, with results successfully recovering the 3D positions of multiple LEDs embedded in turbid scattering media.
Phase-space networks of the six-vertex model under different boundary conditions.
Han, Yilong
2010-04-01
The six-vertex model is mapped to three-dimensional sphere stacks and different boundary conditions corresponding to different containers. The shape of the container provides a qualitative visualization of the boundary effect. Based on the sphere-stacking picture, we map the phase spaces of the six-vertex models to discrete networks. A node in the network represents a state of the system, and an edge between two nodes represents a zero-energy spin flip, which corresponds to adding or removing a sphere. The network analysis shows that the phase spaces of systems with different boundary conditions share some common features. We derived a few formulas for the number and the sizes of the disconnected phase-space subnetworks under the periodic boundary conditions. The sphere stacking provides new challenges in combinatorics and may cast light on some two-dimensional models.
Formation and interaction of multiple coherent phase space structures in plasma
Kakad, Amar; Kakad, Bharati; Omura, Yoshiharu
2017-06-01
The head-on collision of multiple counter-propagating coherent phase space structures associated with the ion acoustic solitary waves (IASWs) in plasmas composed of hot electrons and cold ions is studied here by using one-dimensional Particle-in-Cell simulation. The chains of counter-propagating IASWs are generated in the plasma by injecting the Gaussian perturbations in the equilibrium electron and ion densities. The head-on collisions of the counter-propagating electron and ion phase space structures associated with IASWs are allowed by considering the periodic boundary condition in the simulation. Our simulation shows that the phase space structures are less significantly affected by their collision with each other. They emerge out from each other by retaining their characteristics, so that they follow soliton type behavior. We also find that the electrons trapped within these IASW potentials are accelerated, while the ions are decelerated during the course of their collisions.
Zhu, Qing; Qian, Jieshu; Pan, Hao; Tu, Luo; Zhou, Xingfu
2011-09-01
The construction of nanocrystals with controllable composition and desirable micro-nanostructures is a well-known challenge. A combination of favorable composition and optimized micro-nanostructures can enhance the performance of a material significantly. Using TiO2 as an example, we demonstrate here a facile approach to prepare anatase/rutile mixed-phase TiO2 hollow micro-nanospheres with hierarchical mesopores. Our strategy relies on polymer-assisted assembly of ~ 5 nm nano-building blocks into three-dimensional hierarchical hollow micro-nanospheres in a mixed alcohol-water solution. This superior micro-nanostructure endows the sample with hierarchical mesopores and a high surface area of 106 m2 g - 1. We also show that, due to the synergetic effects of the mixed-phase composition and the micro-nanostructures, the sample exhibited significantly improved photovoltaic performance and similar photocatalytic performance compared with the commercial Degussa P25. These results suggested that our sample has great potential for future photovoltaic and photocatalytic applications.
Phase space analysis for a scalar-tensor model with kinetic and Gauss-Bonnet couplings
Granda, L N
2016-01-01
We study the phase space for an scalar-tensor string inspired model of dark energy with non minimal kinetic and Gauss Bonnet couplings. The form of the scalar potential and of the coupling terms is of the exponential type, which give rise to appealing cosmological solutions. The critical points describe a variety of cosmological scenarios that go from matter or radiation dominated universe to dark energy dominated universe. There were found trajectories in the phase space departing from unstable or saddle fixed points and arriving to the stable scalar field dominated point corresponding to late-time accelerated expansion.
The application of the phase space time evolution method to electron shielding
Cordaro, M. C.; Zucker, M. S.
1972-01-01
A computer technique for treating the motion of charged and neutral particles and called the phase space time evolution method was developed. This technique employs the computer's bookkeeping capacity to keep track of the time development of a phase space distribution of particles. This method was applied to a study of the penetration of electrons. A 1 MeV beam of electrons normally incident on a semi-infinite slab of aluminum was used. Results of the calculation were compared with Monte Carlo calculations and experimental results. Time-dependent PSTE electron penetration results for the same problem are presented.
Testorf, Markus
2006-01-01
Phase-space optics is used to relate the problem of designing diffractive optical elements for any first-order optical system to the corresponding design problem in the Fraunhofer diffraction regime. This, in particular, provides a novel approach for the fractional Fourier transform domain. For fractional Fourier transforms of arbitrary order, the diffractive element is determined as the optimum design computed for a generic Fourier transform system, scaled and modulated with a parabolic lens function. The phase-space description also identifies critical system parameters that limit the performance and applicability of this method. Numerical simulations of paraxial wave propagation are used to validate the method.
Hamiltonian reductions of the one-dimensional Vlasov equation using phase-space moments
Chandre, C.; Perin, M.
2016-03-01
We consider Hamiltonian closures of the Vlasov equation using the phase-space moments of the distribution function. We provide some conditions on the closures imposed by the Jacobi identity. We completely solve some families of examples. As a result, we show that imposing that the resulting reduced system preserves the Hamiltonian character of the parent model shapes its phase space by creating a set of Casimir invariants as a direct consequence of the Jacobi identity. We exhibit three main families of Hamiltonian models with two, three, and four degrees of freedom aiming at modeling the complexity of the bunch of particles in the Vlasov dynamics.
Incorporating Usability Criteria into the Development of Animated Hierarchical Maps
Shih, Yu-Cheng; Huang, Pei-Ren; Chen, Sherry Y.
2013-01-01
Nowadays, Web-based learning systems have become popular because they can provide multiple tools, among which hierarchical maps are widely used to support teaching and learning. However, traditional hierarchical maps may let learners easily get lost within large information space. This study proposes an animated hierarchical map to address this…
Phase space interrogation of the empirical response modes for seismically excited structures
Paul, Bibhas; George, Riya C.; Mishra, Sudib K.
2017-07-01
Conventional Phase Space Interrogation (PSI) for structural damage assessment relies on exciting the structure with low dimensional chaotic waveform, thereby, significantly limiting their applicability to large structures. The PSI technique is presently extended for structure subjected to seismic excitations. The high dimensionality of the phase space for seismic response(s) are overcome by the Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD), decomposing the responses to a number of intrinsic low dimensional oscillatory modes, referred as Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMFs). Along with their low dimensionality, a few IMFs, retain sufficient information of the system dynamics to reflect the damage induced changes. The mutually conflicting nature of low-dimensionality and the sufficiency of dynamic information are taken care by the optimal choice of the IMF(s), which is shown to be the third/fourth IMFs. The optimal IMF(s) are employed for the reconstruction of the Phase space attractor following Taken's embedding theorem. The widely referred Changes in Phase Space Topology (CPST) feature is then employed on these Phase portrait(s) to derive the damage sensitive feature, referred as the CPST of the IMFs (CPST-IMF). The legitimacy of the CPST-IMF is established as a damage sensitive feature by assessing its variation with a number of damage scenarios benchmarked in the IASC-ASCE building. The damage localization capability, remarkable tolerance to noise contamination and the robustness under different seismic excitations of the feature are demonstrated.
Phased array ultrasonic examination of space shuttle main engine nozzle weld
James, S.; Engel, J.; Kimbrough, D.; Suits, M.
2002-05-01
This paper describes a Phased Array Ultrasonic Examination that was developed for the examination of a limited access circumferential Inconel 718 fusion weld of a Space Shuttle Main Engine Nozzle-Cone. The paper discusses the selection and formation criteria used for the phased array focal laws, the reference standard that simulated hardware conditions, the examination concept, and results. Several unique constraints present during this examination included limited probe movement to a single axis and one-sided access to the weld.
Kinetics for Reduction of Iron Ore Based on the Phase Space Reconstruction
Guo-Feng Fan; Li-Ling Peng; Wei-Chiang Hong; Fan Sun
2014-01-01
A series of smelting reduction experiments has been carried out with high-phosphorus iron ore of the different bases and heating rates by thermogravimetric analyzer. The derivative thermo gravimetric (DTG) data have been obtained from the experiments. After analyzing its phase space reconstruction, it is found that DTG phase portrait contains with a clear double “ $\\infty $ ” attractor characteristic by one-order delay. The statistical properties of the attractor inside and outside the double...
Simulations of minor mergers - II. The phase-space structure of thick discs
Villalobos, Alvaro; Helmi, Amina
2009-01-01
We analyse the phase-space structure of simulated thick discs that are the result of a 5:1 mass-ratio merger between a disc galaxy and a satellite. Our main goal is to establish what would be the imprints of a merger origin for the Galactic thick disc. We find that the spatial distribution predicted
Phase-space diffusion in turbulent plasmas: The random acceleration problem revisited
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pécseli, H.L.; Trulsen, J.
1991-01-01
Phase-space diffusion of test particles in turbulent plasmas is studied by an approach based on a conditional statistical analysis of fluctuating electrostatic fields. Analytical relations between relevant conditional averages and higher-order correlations,
On coherent-state representations of quantum mechanics: Wave mechanics in phase space
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Møller, Klaus Braagaard; Jørgensen, Thomas Godsk; Torres-Vega, Gabino
1997-01-01
In this article we argue that the state-vector phase-space representation recently proposed by Torres-Vega and co-workers [introduced in J. Chem. Phys. 98, 3103 (1993)] coincides with the totality of coherent-state representations for the Heisenberg-Weyl group. This fact leads to ambiguities when...
NOTE: A technique for generating phase-space-based Monte Carlo beamlets in radiotherapy applications
Bush, K.; Popescu, I. A.; Zavgorodni, S.
2008-09-01
As radiotherapy treatment planning moves toward Monte Carlo (MC) based dose calculation methods, the MC beamlet is becoming an increasingly common optimization entity. At present, methods used to produce MC beamlets have utilized a particle source model (PSM) approach. In this work we outline the implementation of a phase-space-based approach to MC beamlet generation that is expected to provide greater accuracy in beamlet dose distributions. In this approach a standard BEAMnrc phase space is sorted and divided into beamlets with particles labeled using the inheritable particle history variable. This is achieved with the use of an efficient sorting algorithm, capable of sorting a phase space of any size into the required number of beamlets in only two passes. Sorting a phase space of five million particles can be achieved in less than 8 s on a single-core 2.2 GHz CPU. The beamlets can then be transported separately into a patient CT dataset, producing separate dose distributions (doselets). Methods for doselet normalization and conversion of dose to absolute units of Gy for use in intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plan optimization are also described.
Numerical method for estimating the size of chaotic regions of phase space
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Henyey, F.S.; Pomphrey, N.
1987-10-01
A numerical method for estimating irregular volumes of phase space is derived. The estimate weights the irregular area on a surface of section with the average return time to the section. We illustrate the method by application to the stadium and oval billiard systems and also apply the method to the continuous Henon-Heiles system. 15 refs., 10 figs. (LSP)
Endeve, Eirik; Hauck, Cory D.; Xing, Yulong; Mezzacappa, Anthony
2015-04-01
We extend the positivity-preserving method of Zhang and Shu [49] to simulate the advection of neutral particles in phase space using curvilinear coordinates. The ability to utilize these coordinates is important for non-equilibrium transport problems in general relativity and also in science and engineering applications with specific geometries. The method achieves high-order accuracy using Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) discretization of phase space and strong stability-preserving, Runge-Kutta (SSP-RK) time integration. Special care is taken to ensure that the method preserves strict bounds for the phase space distribution function f; i.e., f ∈ [ 0 , 1 ]. The combination of suitable CFL conditions and the use of the high-order limiter proposed in [49] is sufficient to ensure positivity of the distribution function. However, to ensure that the distribution function satisfies the upper bound, the discretization must, in addition, preserve the divergence-free property of the phase space flow. Proofs that highlight the necessary conditions are presented for general curvilinear coordinates, and the details of these conditions are worked out for some commonly used coordinate systems (i.e., spherical polar spatial coordinates in spherical symmetry and cylindrical spatial coordinates in axial symmetry, both with spherical momentum coordinates). Results from numerical experiments - including one example in spherical symmetry adopting the Schwarzschild metric - demonstrate that the method achieves high-order accuracy and that the distribution function satisfies the maximum principle.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mezzacappa, Anthony [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Endeve, Eirik [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hauck, Cory D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Xing, Yulong [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
2015-02-01
We extend the positivity-preserving method of Zhang & Shu [49] to simulate the advection of neutral particles in phase space using curvilinear coordinates. The ability to utilize these coordinates is important for non-equilibrium transport problems in general relativity and also in science and engineering applications with specific geometries. The method achieves high-order accuracy using Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) discretization of phase space and strong stabilitypreserving, Runge-Kutta (SSP-RK) time integration. Special care in taken to ensure that the method preserves strict bounds for the phase space distribution function f; i.e., f ϵ [0, 1]. The combination of suitable CFL conditions and the use of the high-order limiter proposed in [49] is su cient to ensure positivity of the distribution function. However, to ensure that the distribution function satisfies the upper bound, the discretization must, in addition, preserve the divergencefree property of the phase space ow. Proofs that highlight the necessary conditions are presented for general curvilinear coordinates, and the details of these conditions are worked out for some commonly used coordinate systems (i.e., spherical polar spatial coordinates in spherical symmetry and cylindrical spatial coordinates in axial symmetry, both with spherical momentum coordinates). Results from numerical experiments - including one example in spherical symmetry adopting the Schwarzschild metric - demonstrate that the method achieves high-order accuracy and that the distribution function satisfies the maximum principle.
de Silva, Chamelle R.; Chigona, A.; Adendorff, S. A.
2016-01-01
Among its many affordances, the interactive whiteboard (IWB) as a digital space for children's dialogic engagement in the Foundation Phase classroom remains largely under-exploited. This paper emanates from a study which was undertaken in an attempt to understand how teachers acquire knowledge of emerging technologies and how this shapes their…
A High-Resolution Multi-Slit Phase Space Measurement Technique for Low-Emittance Beams
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Thangaraj, J. C.T. [Fermilab; Piot, P. [Northern Illinois U.
2012-07-25
Precise measurement of transverse phase space of a high-brightness electron beamis of fundamental importance in modern accelerators and free-electron lasers. Often, the transverse phase space of a high-brightness, space-charge-dominated electron beam is measured using a multi-slit method. In this method, a transverse mask (slit/pepperpot) samples the beaminto a set of beamlets, which are then analyzed on to a screen downstream. The resolution in this method is limited by the type of screen used which is typically around 20 mum for a high-sensitivity Yttrium Aluminum Garnet screen. Accurate measurement of sub-micron transverse emittance using this method would require a long drift space between the multi-slit mask and observation screen. In this paper, we explore a variation of the technique that incorporates quadrupole magnets between the multi-slit mask and the screen. It is shown that this arrangement can improve the resolution of the transverse-phase-space measurement with in a short footprint.
Phase space simulation of collisionless stellar systems on the massively parallel processor
White, Richard L.
1987-01-01
A numerical technique for solving the collisionless Boltzmann equation describing the time evolution of a self gravitating fluid in phase space was implemented on the Massively Parallel Processor (MPP). The code performs calculations for a two dimensional phase space grid (with one space and one velocity dimension). Some results from calculations are presented. The execution speed of the code is comparable to the speed of a single processor of a Cray-XMP. Advantages and disadvantages of the MPP architecture for this type of problem are discussed. The nearest neighbor connectivity of the MPP array does not pose a significant obstacle. Future MPP-like machines should have much more local memory and easier access to staging memory and disks in order to be effective for this type of problem.
Extending the possibilities in phase space analysis of synchrotron radiation x-ray optics.
Ferrero, Claudio; Smilgies, Detlef-Matthias; Riekel, Christian; Gatta, Gilles; Daly, Peter
2008-08-01
A simple analytical approach to phase space analysis of the performance of x-ray optical setups (beamlines) combining several elements in position-angle-wavelength space is presented. The mathematical description of a large class of optical elements commonly used on synchrotron beamlines has been reviewed and extended with respect to the existing literature and is reported in a revised form. Novel features are introduced, in particular, the possibility to account for imperfections on mirror surfaces and to incorporate nanofocusing devices like refractive lenses in advanced beamline setups using the same analytical framework. Phase space analysis results of the simulation of an undulator beamline with focusing optics at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility compare favorably with results obtained by geometric ray-tracing methods and, more importantly, with experimental measurements. This approach has been implemented into a simple and easy-to-use program toolkit for optical calculations based on the Mathematica software package.
Simulated response of top-hat electrostatic analysers - importance of phase-space resolution
De Marco, Rossana; Bruno, Roberto; D'Amicis, Raffaella; Federica Marcucci, Maria; Servidio, Sergio; Valentini, Francesco
2016-04-01
We use a numerical code able to reproduce the angular/energy response of a typical electrostatic analyzer of top-hat type starting from velocity distribution functions (VDFs) generated by numerical imulations.The simulations are based on the Hybrid Vlasov-Maxwell (HVM) numerical algorithm which integrates the Vlasov equation for the ion distribution function in multi-dimensional geometry in phase space, while the electrons are treated as a fluid. Virtual satellites launched through the simulation box measure the particle VDFs. Such VDFs are interpolated into a spacecraft reference frame and moved from the simulation Cartesian grid to energy-angular coordinates to mimic the response of a real electrostatic sensor in the solar wind and in the magnetosheath for different conditions. We discuss the results of this study with respect to the importance of phase-space resolution for a space plasma experiment meant to investigate kinetic plasma regime.
Ahn, Junyeong; Yang, Bohm-Jung
2017-04-14
We study a topological phase transition between a normal insulator and a quantum spin Hall insulator in two-dimensional (2D) systems with time-reversal and twofold rotation symmetries. Contrary to the case of ordinary time-reversal invariant systems, where a direct transition between two insulators is generally predicted, we find that the topological phase transition in systems with an additional twofold rotation symmetry is mediated by an emergent stable 2D Weyl semimetal phase between two insulators. Here the central role is played by the so-called space-time inversion symmetry, the combination of time-reversal and twofold rotation symmetries, which guarantees the quantization of the Berry phase around a 2D Weyl point even in the presence of strong spin-orbit coupling. Pair creation and pair annihilation of Weyl points accompanying partner exchange between different pairs induces a jump of a 2D Z_{2} topological invariant leading to a topological phase transition. According to our theory, the topological phase transition in HgTe/CdTe quantum well structure is mediated by a stable 2D Weyl semimetal phase because the quantum well, lacking inversion symmetry intrinsically, has twofold rotation about the growth direction. Namely, the HgTe/CdTe quantum well can show 2D Weyl semimetallic behavior within a small but finite interval in the thickness of HgTe layers between a normal insulator and a quantum spin Hall insulator. We also propose that few-layer black phosphorus under perpendicular electric field is another candidate system to observe the unconventional topological phase transition mechanism accompanied by the emerging 2D Weyl semimetal phase protected by space-time inversion symmetry.
Liu, Zhihe; Tan, Hua; Xin, Jianping; Duan, Jiazhi; Su, Xiaowen; Hao, Pin; Xie, Junfeng; Zhan, Jie; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Jian-Jun; Liu, Hong
2018-01-17
Transition-metal nitrides have attracted a great deal of interest as electrocatalysts for water splitting due to their super metallic performance, high efficiency, and good stability. Herein, we report a novel design of hierarchical electrocatalyst based on Ni3FeN, where the presence of carbon fiber cloth as a scaffold can effectively alleviate the aggregation of Ni3FeN nanostructure and form three-dimensional conducting networks to enlarge the surface area and simultaneously enhance the charge transfer. The composition and morphological variations of NiFe precursors during annealing in different atmospheres were investigated. Such Ni3FeN/CC hierarchical electrocatalyst shows much improved electrochemical properties for water splitting in terms of overpotentials (105 and 190 mV at 10 mA/cm2 for hydrogen evolution reaction and oxygen evolution reaction, respectively) and stability.
Phase-space structures - I. A comparison of 6D density estimators
Maciejewski, M.; Colombi, S.; Alard, C.; Bouchet, F.; Pichon, C.
2009-03-01
In the framework of particle-based Vlasov systems, this paper reviews and analyses different methods recently proposed in the literature to identify neighbours in 6D space and estimate the corresponding phase-space density. Specifically, it compares smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) methods based on tree partitioning to 6D Delaunay tessellation. This comparison is carried out on statistical and dynamical realizations of single halo profiles, paying particular attention to the unknown scaling, SG, used to relate the spatial dimensions to the velocity dimensions. It is found that, in practice, the methods with local adaptive metric provide the best phase-space estimators. They make use of a Shannon entropy criterion combined with a binary tree partitioning and with subsequent SPH interpolation using 10-40 nearest neighbours. We note that the local scaling SG implemented by such methods, which enforces local isotropy of the distribution function, can vary by about one order of magnitude in different regions within the system. It presents a bimodal distribution, in which one component is dominated by the main part of the halo and the other one is dominated by the substructures of the halo. While potentially better than SPH techniques, since it yields an optimal estimate of the local softening volume (and therefore the local number of neighbours required to perform the interpolation), the Delaunay tessellation in fact generally poorly estimates the phase-space distribution function. Indeed, it requires, prior to its implementation, the choice of a global scaling SG. We propose two simple but efficient methods to estimate SG that yield a good global compromise. However, the Delaunay interpolation still remains quite sensitive to local anisotropies in the distribution. To emphasize the advantages of 6D analysis versus traditional 3D analysis, we also compare realistic 6D phase-space density estimation with the proxy proposed earlier in the literature, Q = ρ/σ3
Parameter-Invariant Hierarchical Exclusive Alphabet Design for 2-WRC with HDF Strategy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
T. Uřičář
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Hierarchical eXclusive Code (HXC for the Hierarchical Decode and Forward (HDF strategy in the Wireless 2-Way Relay Channel (2-WRC has the achievable rate region extended beyond the classical MAC region. Although direct HXC design is in general highly complex, a layered approach to HXC design is a feasible solution. While the outer layer code of the layered HXC can be any state-of-the-art capacity approaching code, the inner layer must be designed in such a way that the exclusive property of hierarchical symbols (received at the relay will be provided. The simplest case of the inner HXC layer is a simple signal space channel symbol memoryless mapper called Hierarchical eXclusive Alphabet (HXA. The proper design of HXA is important, especially in the case of parametric channels, where channel parametrization (e.g. phase rotation can violate the exclusive property of hierarchical symbols (as seen by the relay, resulting in significant capacity degradation. In this paper we introduce an example of a geometrical approach to Parameter-Invariant HXA design, and we show that the corresponding hierarchical MAC capacity region extends beyond the classical MAC region, irrespective of the channel pametrization.
Quantum effects in nanosystems: Good reasons to use phase-space Weyl symbols
Vaia, Ruggero
2016-12-01
Bogoliubov transformations have been successfully applied in several condensed-matter contexts, e.g., in the theory of superconductors, superfluids, and antiferromagnets. These applications are based on bulk models where translation symmetry can be assumed, so that few degrees of freedom in Fourier space can be "diagonalized" separately, and in this way it is easy to find the approximate ground state and its excitations. As translation symmetry cannot be invoked when it comes to nanoscopic systems, the corresponding multidimensional Bogoliubov transformations are more complicated. For bosonic systems it is much simpler to proceed using phase-space variables, i.e., coordinates and momenta. Interactions can be accounted for by the self-consistent harmonic approximation, which is naturally developed using phase-space Weyl symbols. The spin-flop transition in a short antiferromagnetic chain is illustrated as an example. This approach, rarely used in the past, is expected to be generally useful to estimate quantum effects, e.g., on phase diagrams of ordered vs disordered phases.
Penco, G; Danailov, M; Demidovich, A; Allaria, E; De Ninno, G; Di Mitri, S; Fawley, W M; Ferrari, E; Giannessi, L; Trovó, M
2014-01-31
Control of the electron-beam longitudinal-phase-space distribution is of crucial importance in a number of accelerator applications, such as linac-driven free-electron lasers, colliders and energy recovery linacs. Some longitudinal-phase-space features produced by nonlinear electron beam self- fields, such as a quadratic energy chirp introduced by geometric longitudinal wakefields in radio-frequency (rf) accelerator structures, cannot be compensated by ordinary tuning of the linac rf phases nor corrected by a single high harmonic accelerating cavity. In this Letter we report an experimental demonstration of the removal of the quadratic energy chirp by properly shaping the electron beam current at the photoinjector. Specifically, a longitudinal ramp in the current distribution at the cathode linearizes the longitudinal wakefields in the downstream linac, resulting in a flat electron current and energy distribution. We present longitudinal-phase-space measurements in this novel configuration compared to those typically obtained without longitudinal current shaping at the FERMI linac.
Hierarchical multifunctional nanocomposites
Ghasemi-Nejhad, Mehrdad N.
2014-03-01
Nanocomposites; including nano-materials such as nano-particles, nanoclays, nanofibers, nanotubes, and nanosheets; are of significant importance in the rapidly developing field of nanotechnology. Due to the nanometer size of these inclusions, their physicochemical characteristics differ significantly from those of micron size and bulk materials. The field of nanocomposites involves the study of multiphase materials where at least one of the constituent phases has one dimension less than 100 nm. This is the range where the phenomena associated with the atomic and molecular interaction strongly influence the macroscopic properties of materials. Since the building blocks of nanocomposites are at nanoscale, they have an enormous surface area with numerous interfaces between the two intermix phases. The special properties of the nano-composite arise from the interaction of its phases at the interface and/or interphase regions. By contrast, in a conventional composite based on micrometer sized filler such as carbon fibers, the interfaces between the filler and matrix constitutes have a much smaller surface-to-volume fraction of the bulk materials, and hence influence the properties of the host structure to a much smaller extent. The optimum amount of nanomaterials in the nanocomposites depends on the filler size, shape, homogeneity of particles distribution, and the interfacial bonding properties between the fillers and matrix. The promise of nanocomposites lies in their multifunctionality, i.e., the possibility of realizing unique combination of properties unachievable with traditional materials. The challenges in reaching this promise are tremendous. They include control over the distribution in size and dispersion of the nanosize constituents, and tailoring and understanding the role of interfaces between structurally or chemically dissimilar phases on bulk properties. While the properties of the matrix can be improved by the inclusions of nanomaterials, the
Phase-space approach to lensless measurements of optical field correlations.
Sharma, Katelynn A; Brown, Thomas G; Alonso, Miguel A
2016-07-11
We analyze and test a general approach for efficiently measuring space-variant partially coherent quasi-monochromatic fields using only amplitude masks and free propagation. A phase-space description is presented to analyze approaches of this type and understand their limitations. Three variants of the method are discussed and compared, the first using an aperture mask, the second employing both an obstacle (the exact inverse of the aperture) and a clear mask, and the last combining the previous two. We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each option.
James Webb Space Telescope segment phasing using differential optical transfer functions.
Codona, Johanan L; Doble, Nathan
2015-03-01
Differential optical transfer function (dOTF) is an image-based, noniterative wavefront sensing method that uses two star images with a single small change in the pupil. We describe two possible methods for introducing the required pupil modification to the James Webb Space Telescope, one using a small (telescope can be measured simultaneously. Also, since dOTF gives the pupil field amplitude as well as the phase, it could provide a first approximation or constraint to the planned iterative phase retrieval algorithms.
Demonstration of extended capture range for James Webb Space Telescope phase retrieval.
Carlisle, R Elizabeth; Acton, D Scott
2015-07-20
A geometrical phase retrieval (GPR) algorithm is applied to the problem of image stacking in order to extend the capture range of normal phase retrieval (PR) on the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), and potentially eliminate a lengthy image-stacking process that is based on centroids. Computer simulations are used to establish the capture range of the existing PR algorithm for JWST and demonstrate that it is increased by more than a factor of 10 when combined with GPR, guaranteeing PR capture 95% of the time. An experiment using a scale optical model of JWST was conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of the GPR algorithm in both coherent and incoherent imaging.
Chaos control in delayed phase space constructed by the Takens embedding theory
Hajiloo, R.; Salarieh, H.; Alasty, A.
2018-01-01
In this paper, the problem of chaos control in discrete-time chaotic systems with unknown governing equations and limited measurable states is investigated. Using the time-series of only one measurable state, an algorithm is proposed to stabilize unstable fixed points. The approach consists of three steps: first, using Takens embedding theory, a delayed phase space preserving the topological characteristics of the unknown system is reconstructed. Second, a dynamic model is identified by recursive least squares method to estimate the time-series data in the delayed phase space. Finally, based on the reconstructed model, an appropriate linear delayed feedback controller is obtained for stabilizing unstable fixed points of the system. Controller gains are computed using a systematic approach. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is examined by applying it to the generalized hyperchaotic Henon system, prey-predator population map, and the discrete-time Lorenz system.
Nonclassical phase-space trajectories for the damped harmonic quantum oscillator
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pachon, L.A. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota D.C. (Colombia); Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Augsburg, Universitaetsstrasse 1, D-86135 Augsburg (Germany); CeiBA - Complejidad, Bogota D.C. (Colombia); Ingold, G.-L., E-mail: gert.ingold@physik.uni-augsburg.de [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Augsburg, Universitaetsstrasse 1, D-86135 Augsburg (Germany); Dittrich, T. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota D.C. (Colombia); CeiBA - Complejidad, Bogota D.C. (Colombia)
2010-10-05
Graphical abstract: The phase-space path-integral approach to the damped harmonic oscillator is analyzed beyond the Markovian approximation and the appearance of nonclassical trajectories is discussed. - Abstract: The phase-space path-integral approach to the damped harmonic oscillator is analyzed beyond the Markovian approximation. It is found that pairs of nonclassical trajectories contribute to the path-integral representation of the Wigner propagating function. Due to the linearity of the problem, the sum coordinate of a pair still satisfies the classical equation of motion. Furthermore, it is shown that the broadening of the Wigner propagating function of the damped oscillator arises due to the time-nonlocal interaction mediated by the heat bath.
New Thermodynamical Force in Plasma Phase Space that Controls Turbulence and Turbulent Transport
Itoh, Sanae-I.; Itoh, Kimitaka
2012-11-01
Physics of turbulence and turbulent transport has been developed on the central dogma that spatial gradients constitute the controlling parameters, such as Reynolds number and Rayleigh number. Recent experiments with the nonequilibrium plasmas in magnetic confinement devices, however, have shown that the turbulence and transport change much faster than global parameters, after an abrupt change of heating power. Here we propose a theory of turbulence in inhomogeneous magnetized plasmas, showing that the heating power directly influences the turbulence. New mechanism, that an external source couples with plasma fluctuations in phase space so as to affect turbulence, is investigated. A new thermodynamical force in phase-space, i.e., the derivative of heating power by plasma pressure, plays the role of new control parameter, in addition to spatial gradients. Following the change of turbulence, turbulent transport is modified accordingly. The condition under which this new effect can be observed is also evaluated.
Multiturn extraction and injection by means of adiabatic capture in stable islands of phase space
Cappi, R
2004-01-01
Recently a novel approach has been proposed for performing multiturn extraction from a circular machine. Such a technique consists of splitting the beam by means of stable islands created in transverse phase space by magnetic elements creating nonlinear fields, such as sextupoles and octupoles. Provided a slow time variation of the linear tune is applied, adiabatic with respect to the betatron motion, the islands can be moved in phase space and eventually charged particles may be trapped inside the stable structures. This generates a certain number of well-separated beamlets. Originally, this principle was successfully tested using a fourth-order resonance. In this paper the approach is generalized by considering other types of resonances as well as the possibility of performing multiple multiturn extractions. The results of numerical simulations are presented and described in detail. Of course, by time reversal, the proposed approach could be used also for multiturn injection.
Phase-space approach to solving the time-independent Schrödinger equation.
Shimshovitz, Asaf; Tannor, David J
2012-08-17
We propose a method for solving the time-independent Schrödinger equation based on the von Neumann (vN) lattice of phase space Gaussians. By incorporating periodic boundary conditions into the vN lattice [F. Dimler et al., New J. Phys. 11, 105052 (2009)], we solve a longstanding problem of convergence of the vN method. This opens the door to tailoring quantum calculations to the underlying classical phase space structure while retaining the accuracy of the Fourier grid basis. The method has the potential to provide enormous numerical savings as the dimensionality increases. In the classical limit, the method reaches the remarkable efficiency of one basis function per one eigenstate. We illustrate the method for a challenging two-dimensional potential where the Fourier grid method breaks down.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sadolah Nasiri
2008-02-01
Full Text Available In a previous work the concept of quantum potential is generalized into extended phase space (EPS for a particle in linear and harmonic potentials. It was shown there that in contrast to the Schrödinger quantum mechanics by an appropriate extended canonical transformation one can obtain the Wigner representation of phase space quantum mechanics in which the quantum potential is removed from dynamical equation. In other words, one still has the form invariance of the ordinary Hamilton-Jacobi equation in this representation. The situation, mathematically, is similar to the disappearance of the centrifugal potential in going from the spherical to the Cartesian coordinates. Here we show that the Husimi representation is another possible representation where the quantum potential for the harmonic potential disappears and the modified Hamilton-Jacobi equation reduces to the familiar classical form. This happens when the parameter in the Husimi transformation assumes a specific value corresponding to Q-function.
Pbar Beam Stacking in the Recycler by Longitudinal Phase-space Coating
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bhat, C. M. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)
2013-08-06
Barrier rf buckets have brought about new challenges in longitudinal beam dynamics of charged particle beams in synchrotrons and at the same time led to many new remarkable prospects in beam handling. In this paper, I describe a novel beam stacking scheme for synchrotrons using barrier buckets without any emittance dilution to the beam. First I discuss the general principle of the method, called longitudinal phase-space coating. Multi-particle beam dynamics simulations of the scheme applied to the Recycler, convincingly validates the concepts and feasibility of the method. Then I demonstrate the technique experimentally in the Recycler and also use it in operation. A spin-off of this scheme is its usefulness in mapping the incoherent synchrotron tune spectrum of the beam particles in barrier buckets and producing a clean hollow beam in longitudinal phase space. Both of which are described here in detail with illustrations. The beam stacking scheme presented here is the first of its kind.
Subcritical Growth of Electron Phase-space Holes in Planetary Radiation Belts
Osmane, Adnane; Turner, Drew L.; Wilson, Lynn B.; Dimmock, Andrew P.; Pulkkinen, Tuija I.
2017-09-01
The discovery of long-lived electrostatic coherent structures with large-amplitude electric fields (1≤slant E ≤slant 500 mV/m) by the Van Allen Probes has revealed alternative routes through which planetary radiation belts’ acceleration can take place. Following previous reports showing that small phase-space holes, with qφ /{T}ec≃ {10}-2{--}{10}-3, could result from electron interaction with large-amplitude whistlers, we demonstrate one possible mechanism through which holes can grow nonlinearly (I.e., γ \\propto \\sqrt{φ }) and subcritically as a result of momentum exchange between hot and cold electron populations. Our results provide an explanation for the common occurrence and fast growth of large-amplitude electron phase-space holes in the Earth’s radiation belts.
Recent progress on phase-space turbulence and dynamical response in collisionless plasmas
Lesur, Maxime
2013-01-01
In the presence of wave dissipation, phase-space structures emerge in nonlinear Vlasov dynamics. Their dynamics can lead to a nonlinear continuous shifting of the wave frequency (chirping). This report summarizes my personal contribution to these topics in the fiscal year 2012. The effects of collisions on chirping characteristics were investigated, with a one-dimensional beam-plasma kinetic model. The long-time nonlinear evolution was systematically categorized as damped, steady-state, periodic, chaotic and chirping. The chirping regime was sub-categorized as periodic, chaotic, bursty, and intermittent. Existing analytic theory was extended to account for Krook-like collisions. Relaxation oscillations, associated with chirping bursts, were investigated in the presence of dynamical friction and velocity-diffusion. The period increases with decreasing drag, and weakly increases with decreasing diffusion. A new theory gives a simple relation between the growth of phase-space structures and that of the wave ener...
Halftone information hiding technology based on phase feature of space filling curves
Hu, Jianhua; Cao, Peng; Dong, Zhihong; Cao, Xiaohe
2017-08-01
To solve the problems of the production of interference fringes (namely moiré in printing) and improve the image quality in printing process of halftone screening for information hiding, a halftone screening security technique based on the phase feature of space filling curves is studied in this paper. This method effectively solves the problem of moire and optimizes the quality of the screening, so that the images presented after screening have achieved good visual effect. The pseudo-random scrambling encryption of the plaintext information and the halftone screening technique based on the phase feature of the space filling curves are carried out when screening,which not only eliminates the common moire in the screening but also improves the image quality and the security of information.
End-fire silicon optical phased array with half-wavelength spacing
Kossey, Michael R.; Rizk, Charbel; Foster, Amy C.
2018-01-01
We demonstrate an optical phased array with emitting elements spaced at half the operational wavelength. The device is a one-dimensional array fabricated on an integrated silicon platform for operation at a wavelength of 1.55 μm. Light is emitted end-fire from the chip edge where the waveguides are terminated. The innovative design and high confinement afforded by the silicon waveguides enables λ/2 spacing (775-nm pitch) at the output thereby eliminating grating lobes and maximizing the power in the main lobe. Steering is achieved by inducing a phase shift between the waveguide feeds via integrated thermo-optic heaters. The device forms a beam with a full-width half-maximum angular width of 17°, and we demonstrate beam steering over a 64° range limited only by the element factor.
Phase-space quantum control; Quantenkontrolle im Zeit-Frequenz-Phasenraum
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fechner, Susanne
2008-08-06
The von Neumann-representation introduced in this thesis describes each laser pulse in a one-to-one manner as a sum of bandwidth-limited, Gaussian laser pulses centered around different points in phase space. These pulses can be regarded as elementary building blocks from which every single laser pulse can be constructed. The von Neumann-representation combines different useful properties for applications in quantum control. First, it is a one-to-one map between the degrees of freedom of the pulse shaper and the phase-space representation of the corresponding shaped laser pulse. In other words: Every possible choice of pulse shaper parameters corresponds to exactly one von Neumann-representation and vice versa. Moreover, since temporal and spectral structures become immediately sizable, the von Neumann-representation, as well as the Husimi- or the Wigner-representations, allows for an intuitive interpretation of the represented laser pulse. (orig.)
Learning Hierarchical Feature Extractors for Image Recognition
2012-09-01
Learning Hierarchical Feature Extractors For Image Recognition by Y-Lan Boureau A dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements...DATES COVERED 00-00-2012 to 00-00-2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Learning Hierarchical Feature Extractors For Image Recognition 5a. CONTRACT...pooling for all weighting schemes. With average pooling, weighting by the square root of the cluster weight performs best. P = 16 configuration space
Phase Space Analysis of a Gravitationally-Induced, Steady-State Nonequilibrium
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sheehan, D.P.; Tobe, R. [Univ. of San Diego, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Glick, J.; Langton, J.A.; Gagliardi, M. [Univ. of San Diego, CA (United States). Dept. of Mathematics and Computer Science; Duncan, T. [Portland State Univ., OR (United States). Center for Science Ed.
2002-04-01
Recently a new type of pressure gradient was introduced, a gravitationally-induced, dynamically-maintained, steady-state pressure gradient (GDSPG). In this paper, three dimensional numerical test particle simulations detail its phase space structure. These verify the underlying physical mechanism originally hypothesized for its operation and support key assumptions upon which it is based. The GDSPG appears to be a member of a more general class of steady-state nonequilibrium systems that arise under extreme thermodynamic conditions.
Generation of a novel phase-space-based cylindrical dose kernel for IMRT optimization.
Zhong, Hualiang; Chetty, Indrin J
2012-05-01
Improving dose calculation accuracy is crucial in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). We have developed a method for generating a phase-space-based dose kernel for IMRT planning of lung cancer patients. Particle transport in the linear accelerator treatment head of a 21EX, 6 MV photon beam (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) was simulated using the EGSnrc/BEAMnrc code system. The phase space information was recorded under the secondary jaws. Each particle in the phase space file was associated with a beamlet whose index was calculated and saved in the particle's LATCH variable. The DOSXYZnrc code was modified to accumulate the energy deposited by each particle based on its beamlet index. Furthermore, the central axis of each beamlet was calculated from the orientation of all the particles in this beamlet. A cylinder was then defined around the central axis so that only the energy deposited within the cylinder was counted. A look-up table was established for each cylinder during the tallying process. The efficiency and accuracy of the cylindrical beamlet energy deposition approach was evaluated using a treatment plan developed on a simulated lung phantom. Profile and percentage depth doses computed in a water phantom for an open, square field size were within 1.5% of measurements. Dose optimized with the cylindrical dose kernel was found to be within 0.6% of that computed with the nontruncated 3D kernel. The cylindrical truncation reduced optimization time by approximately 80%. A method for generating a phase-space-based dose kernel, using a truncated cylinder for scoring dose, in beamlet-based optimization of lung treatment planning was developed and found to be in good agreement with the standard, nontruncated scoring approach. Compared to previous techniques, our method significantly reduces computational time and memory requirements, which may be useful for Monte-Carlo-based 4D IMRT or IMAT treatment planning.
Gilardoni, S S; Martini, M; Métral, E; Steerenberg, R; Müller, A-S
2006-01-01
Recently, a novel technique to perform multi-turn extraction from a circular particle accelerator was proposed. It is based on beam splitting and trapping, induced by a slow crossing of a nonlinear resonance, inside stable islands of transverse phase space. Experiments at the CERN Proton Synchrotron started in 2002 and evidence of beam splitting was obtained by summer 2004. In this paper the measurement results achieved with both a low- and a high-intensity, single-bunch proton beam are presented.
Bopp operators and phase-space spin dynamics: application to rotational quantum Brownian motion
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zueco, D [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada e, Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragon, C.S.I.C.-Universidad de Zaragoza, E-50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Calvo, I [Laboratorio Nacional de Fusion, Asociacion EURATOM-CIEMAT, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)
2007-04-27
For non-relativistic spinless particles, Bopp operators give an elegant and simple way to compute the dynamics of quasiprobability distributions in the phase-space formulation of Quantum Mechanics. In this work, we present a generalization of Bopp operators for spins and apply our results to the case of open spin systems. This approach allows to take the classical limit in a transparent way, recovering the corresponding Fokker-Planck equation.
Collective motion in the frame of phase space moments (Nuclear scissors)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Balbutsev, E B, E-mail: balbuts@thsun1.jinr.r [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna, Moscow Region (Russian Federation)
2010-01-01
We consider the phase space moments (or Wigner Function Moments (WFM)) method, which is developed to describe the collective motion. The method is generalized to take into account pair correlations. Its connection with RPA and Green's function method is analyzed in the simple model, the Harmonic Oscillator with Quadrupole-Quadrupole (HO+QQ) interaction. Possibilities of WFM method are demonstrated on an example of the nuclear scissors mode.
Phase-space representation of non-classical behaviour of scalar wave-fields
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Canas-Cardona, Gustavo; Castaneda, Roman [Physics School, Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Medellin, A.A. 3840 Medellin (Colombia); Vinck-Posada, Herbert, E-mail: gcanas@unal.edu.co [Physics Department, Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Bogota, Bogota D.C (Colombia)
2011-01-01
The modelling of optical fields by using radiant and virtual point sources for the spatial coherence wavelets in the phase-space representation evidences some effects, conventionally attributed to non-classical correlations of light, although such type of correlations are not explicitly included in the model. Specifically, a light state is produced that has similar morphology to the Wigner Distribution Function of the well-known quantum Schroedinger cat and squeezed states.
Communication: phase space approach to laser-driven electronic wavepacket propagation.
Takemoto, Norio; Shimshovitz, Asaf; Tannor, David J
2012-07-07
We propose a phase space method to propagate a quantum wavepacket driven by a strong external field. The method employs the periodic von Neumann basis with biorthogonal exchange recently introduced for the calculation of the energy eigenstates of time-independent quantum systems [A. Shimshovitz and D. J. Tannor, Phys. Rev. Lett. (in press) [e-print arXiv:1201.2299v1
Defending against Internet worms using a phase space method from chaos theory
Hu, Jing; Gao, Jianbo; Rao, Nageswara S.
2007-04-01
Enterprise networks are facing ever-increasing security threats from Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks, worms, viruses, intrusions, Trojans, port scans, and network misuses, and thus effective monitoring approaches to quickly detect these activities are greatly needed. In this paper, we employ chaos theory and propose an interesting phase space method to detect Internet worms. An Internet worm is a self-propagating program that automatically replicates itself to vulnerable systems and spreads across the Internet. Most deployed worm-detection systems are signature-based. They look for specific byte sequences (called attack signatures) that are known to appear in the attack traffic. Conventionally, the signatures are manually identified by human experts through careful analysis of the byte sequence from captured attack traffic. We propose to embed the traffic sequence to a high-dimensional phase space using chaos theory. We have observed that the signature sequence of a specific worm will occupy specific regions in the phase space, which may be appropriately called the invariant subspace of the worm. The invariant subspace of the worm separates itself widely from the subspace of the normal traffic. This separation allows us to construct three simple metrics, each of which completely separates 100 normal traffic streams from 200 worm traffic streams, without training in the conventional sense. Therefore, the method is at least as accurate as any existing methods. More importantly, our method is much faster than existing methods, such as based on expectation maximization and hidden Markov models.
Phase-space dynamics of opposition control in wall-bounded turbulent flows
Hwang, Yongyun; Ibrahim, Joseph; Yang, Qiang; Doohan, Patrick
2017-11-01
The phase-space dynamics of wall-bounded shear flow in the presence of opposition control is explored by examining the behaviours of a pair of nonlinear equilibrium solutions (exact coherent structures), edge state and life time of turbulence at low Reynolds numbers. While the control modifies statistics and phase-space location of the edge state and the lower-branch equilibrium solution very little, it is also found to regularise the periodic orbit on the edge state by reverting a period-doubling bifurcation. Only the upper-branch equilibrium solution and mean turbulent state are significantly modified by the control, and, in phase space, they gradually approach the edge state on increasing the control gain. It is found that this behaviour results in a significant reduction of the life time of turbulence, indicating that the opposition control significantly increases the probability that the turbulent solution trajectory passes through the edge state. Finally, it is shown that the opposition control increases the critical Reynolds number of the onset of the equilibrium solutions, indicating its capability of transition delay. This work is sponsored by the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) in the UK (EP/N019342/1).
Subcritical Growth of Electron Phase-space Holes in Planetary Radiation Belts
Osmane, A.; Wilson, L. B., III; Turner, D. L.; Dimmock, A. P.; Pulkkinen, T. I.
2017-12-01
The discovery of self-sustained coherent structures with large-amplitude electric fields (E ˜ 10 - 100 mV/m) by the Van Allen Probes has revealed alternative routes through which energy-momentum exchange can take place in planetary radiation belts. When originating from energetic electrons in Landau resonance with large-amplitude whistlers, phase-space electron holes form with small amplitudes of the order of the hot to cold electron density, i.e., qφ/T_e≃ n_h/n_c ≃ 10^{-3}, and orders of magnitude smaller than observed values of the largest phase-space holes amplitude, i.e., qφ /T_e ≃ 1. In this report we present a mechanism through which electron holes can grow nonlinearly (i.e. γ ∝ √{φ}) and subcritically as a result of momentum exchange with passing (untrapped) electrons. Growth rates are computed analytically for plasma parameters consistent with those measured in the Earth's radiation belts under quiet and disturbed conditions. Our results provide an explanation for the fast growth of electron phase-space holes in the Earth's radiation belts from small initial values qφ/T_c ≃ 10^{-3}, to larger values of the order qφ /T_e ≃ 1.
Development of a coal fired pulse combustor for residential space heating. Phase I, Final report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1988-04-01
This report presents the results of the first phase of a program for the development of a coal-fired residential combustion system. This phase consisted of the design, fabrication, testing, and evaluation of an advanced pulse combustor sized for residential space heating requirements. The objective was to develop an advanced pulse coal combustor at the {approximately} 100,000 Btu/hr scale that can be integrated into a packaged space heating system for small residential applications. The strategy for the development effort included the scale down of the feasibility unit from 1-2 MMBtu/hr to 100,000 Btu/hr to establish a baseline for isolating the effect of scale-down and new chamber configurations separately. Initial focus at the residential scale was concentrated on methods of fuel injection and atomization in a bare metal unit. This was followed by incorporating changes to the advanced chamber designs and testing of refractory-lined units. Multi-fuel capability for firing oil or gas as a secondary fuel was also established. Upon completion of the configuration and component testing, an optimum configuration would be selected for integrated testing of the pulse combustor unit. The strategy also defined the use of Dry Ultrafine Coal (DUC) for Phases 1 and 2 of the development program with CWM firing to be a product improvement activity for a later phase of the program.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Milosic, Timo
2014-04-14
Accelerator facilities require access to many beam parameters during operation. The field of beam instrumentation serves this crucial role in commissioning, setup and optimisation of the facility. An important information is contained in the phase-space distribution of the accelerated particles. In case of GSI (Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung) those are ions from protons to uranium. If established methods to access certain beam parameters do not exist, new approaches have to emerge. This is the case for the presented measurement setup which has been designed and realised by Forck et al. to support commissioning of the GSI high-current injector. It is aiming at an experimental method to access the longitudinal phase-space distribution at low energies of 1.4 AMeV. Established methods for higher energies and based on the measurement of the electric field distribution are not feasible at non-relativistic velocities. The presented method is based on a time-of-flight (TOF) measurement between two particle detectors. A modification allows, alternatively, the direct measurement of the kinetic energy using a mono-crystalline (MC) diamond detector. Currently, besides others, the focus of the optimisation of the injector is put on the longitudinal phase-space distribution. It allows for a systematic optimisation of the matching into the accelerator cavities and, thus, an improved transmission as well as lower emittance values. The new accelerator facility FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research), a large-scale upgrade at GSI, requires an improved beam quality at the existing injector. In this work the experimental setup is investigated for its feasibility to measure the longitudinal phase-space distribution. To this end, the phase and momentum of the single ions along the beam axis have to be determined with high precision. Finally, the longitudinal phase-space distribution is identified with the measured ensemble. The setup is presented in detail
Vogman, Genia
Plasmas are made up of charged particles whose short-range and long-range interactions give rise to complex behavior that can be difficult to fully characterize experimentally. One of the most complete theoretical descriptions of a plasma is that of kinetic theory, which treats each particle species as a probability distribution function in a six-dimensional position-velocity phase space. Drawing on statistical mechanics, these distribution functions mathematically represent a system of interacting particles without tracking individual ions and electrons. The evolution of the distribution function(s) is governed by the Boltzmann equation coupled to Maxwell's equations, which together describe the dynamics of the plasma and the associated electromagnetic fields. When collisions can be neglected, the Boltzmann equation is reduced to the Vlasov equation. High-fidelity simulation of the rich physics in even a subset of the full six-dimensional phase space calls for low-noise high-accuracy numerical methods. To that end, this dissertation investigates a fourth-order finite-volume discretization of the Vlasov-Maxwell equation system, and addresses some of the fundamental challenges associated with applying these types of computationally intensive enhanced-accuracy numerical methods to phase space simulations. The governing equations of kinetic theory are described in detail, and their conservation-law weak form is derived for Cartesian and cylindrical phase space coordinates. This formulation is well known when it comes to Cartesian geometries, as it is used in finite-volume and finite-element discretizations to guarantee local conservation for numerical solutions. By contrast, the conservation-law weak form of the Vlasov equation in cylindrical phase space coordinates is largely unexplored, and to the author's knowledge has never previously been solved numerically. Thereby the methods described in this dissertation for simulating plasmas in cylindrical phase space
Synchronization in area-preserving maps: Effects of mixed phase space and coherent structures.
Mahata, Sasibhusan; Das, Swetamber; Gupte, Neelima
2016-06-01
The problem of synchronization of coupled Hamiltonian systems presents interesting features due to the mixed nature (regular and chaotic) of the phase space. We study these features by examining the synchronization of unidirectionally coupled area-preserving maps coupled by the Pecora-Caroll method. The master stability function approach is used to study the stability of the synchronous state and to identify the percentage of synchronizing initial conditions. The transient to synchronization shows intermittency with an associated power law. The mixed nature of the phase space of the studied map has notable effects on the synchronization times as is seen in the case of the standard map. Using finite-time Lyapunov exponent analysis, we show that the synchronization of the maps occurs in the neighborhood of invariant curves in the phase space. The phase differences of the coevolving trajectories show intermittency effects, due to the existence of stable periodic orbits contributing locally stable directions in the synchronizing neighborhoods. Furthermore, the value of the nonlinearity parameter, as well as the location of the initial conditions play an important role in the distribution of synchronization times. We examine drive response combinations which are chaotic-chaotic, chaotic-regular, regular-chaotic, and regular-regular. A range of scaling behavior is seen for these cases, including situations where the distributions show a power-law tail, indicating long synchronization times for at least some of the synchronizing trajectories. The introduction of coherent structures in the system changes the situation drastically. The distribution of synchronization times crosses over to exponential behavior, indicating shorter synchronization times, and the number of initial conditions which synchronize increases significantly, indicating an enhancement in the basin of synchronization. We discuss the implications of our results.
Automatic Hierarchical Color Image Classification
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jing Huang
2003-02-01
Full Text Available Organizing images into semantic categories can be extremely useful for content-based image retrieval and image annotation. Grouping images into semantic classes is a difficult problem, however. Image classification attempts to solve this hard problem by using low-level image features. In this paper, we propose a method for hierarchical classification of images via supervised learning. This scheme relies on using a good low-level feature and subsequently performing feature-space reconfiguration using singular value decomposition to reduce noise and dimensionality. We use the training data to obtain a hierarchical classification tree that can be used to categorize new images. Our experimental results suggest that this scheme not only performs better than standard nearest-neighbor techniques, but also has both storage and computational advantages.
Phase-space Analysis in the Group and Cluster Environment: Time Since Infall and Tidal Mass Loss
Rhee, Jinsu; Smith, Rory; Choi, Hoseung; Yi, Sukyoung K.; Jaffé, Yara; Candlish, Graeme; Sánchez-Jánssen, Ruben
2017-07-01
Using the latest cosmological hydrodynamic N-body simulations of groups and clusters, we study how location in phase-space coordinates at z = 0 can provide information on environmental effects acting in clusters. We confirm the results of previous authors showing that galaxies tend to follow a typical path in phase-space as they settle into the cluster potential. As such, different regions of phase-space can be associated with different times since first infalling into the cluster. However, in addition, we see a clear trend between total mass loss due to cluster tides and time since infall. Thus, we find location in phase-space provides information on both infall time and tidal mass loss. We find the predictive power of phase-space diagrams remains even when projected quantities are used (I.e., line of sight velocities, and projected distances from the cluster). We provide figures that can be directly compared with observed samples of cluster galaxies and we also provide the data used to make them as supplementary data to encourage the use of phase-space diagrams as a tool to understand cluster environmental effects. We find that our results depend very weakly on galaxy mass or host mass, so the predictions in our phase-space diagrams can be applied to groups or clusters alike, or to galaxy populations from dwarfs up to giants.
Rönsch, J R; Richter, R; Hartrott, M V; Abrahamyan, K; Asova, G; Bähr, J; Dimitrov, G; Grabosch, H J; Han, J H; Khodyachykh, S; Krasilnikov, M; Liu, S; Lüdecke, H L; Miltchev, V; Oppelt, A; Petrosian, B; Riemann, S; Staykov, L; Stephan, F
2005-01-01
PITZ generates electron bunches of about 5 MeV. To optimize the RF-gun and to fulfill the requirements of the bunch compressor for an efficient compression the longitudinal phase space behind the gun has to be studied. A measurement of the longitudinal phase space comprises a correlated measurement of momentum and temporal distribution. The momentum distribution is measured by deflecting the electron bunch using a spectrometer magnet. A subsequent Cherenkov radiator (silica aerogel) * transforms the electron bunch into a light pulse with equal temporal and spatial distribution, which is imaged onto a streak camera by an optical transmission line ** to measure the longitudinal distribution. The longitudinal phase space was measured for different temporal laser distributions, charges and phases between RF field and laser. Physical effects in the dipole, optical transmission line and streak camera, which influence the longitudinal phase space measurements are taken into account. The measurement results were comp...
Beisert, Susan; Rodriggs, Michael; Moreno, Francisco; Korth, David; Gibson, Stephen; Lee, Young H.; Eagles, Donald E.
2013-01-01
Now that major assembly of the International Space Station (ISS) is complete, NASA's focus has turned to using this high fidelity in-space research testbed to not only advance fundamental science research, but also demonstrate and mature technologies and develop operational concepts that will enable future human exploration missions beyond low Earth orbit. The ISS as a Testbed for Analog Research (ISTAR) project was established to reduce risks for manned missions to exploration destinations by utilizing ISS as a high fidelity micro-g laboratory to demonstrate technologies, operations concepts, and techniques associated with crew autonomous operations. One of these focus areas is the development and execution of ISS Testbed for Analog Research (ISTAR) autonomous flight crew procedures intended to increase crew autonomy that will be required for long duration human exploration missions. Due to increasing communications delays and reduced logistics resupply, autonomous procedures are expected to help reduce crew reliance on the ground flight control team, increase crew performance, and enable the crew to become more subject-matter experts on both the exploration space vehicle systems and the scientific investigation operations that will be conducted on a long duration human space exploration mission. These tests make use of previous or ongoing projects tested in ground analogs such as Research and Technology Studies (RATS) and NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO). Since the latter half of 2012, selected non-critical ISS systems crew procedures have been used to develop techniques for building ISTAR autonomous procedures, and ISS flight crews have successfully executed them without flight controller involvement. Although the main focus has been preparing for exploration, the ISS has been a beneficiary of this synergistic effort and is considering modifying additional standard ISS procedures that may increase crew efficiency, reduce operational costs, and
Solving the inverse Ising problem by mean-field methods in a clustered phase space with many states.
Decelle, Aurélien; Ricci-Tersenghi, Federico
2016-07-01
In this work we explain how to properly use mean-field methods to solve the inverse Ising problem when the phase space is clustered, that is, many states are present. The clustering of the phase space can occur for many reasons, e.g., when a system undergoes a phase transition, but also when data are collected in different regimes (e.g., quiescent and spiking regimes in neural networks). Mean-field methods for the inverse Ising problem are typically used without taking into account the eventual clustered structure of the input configurations and may lead to very poor inference (e.g., in the low-temperature phase of the Curie-Weiss model). In this work we explain how to modify mean-field approaches when the phase space is clustered and we illustrate the effectiveness of our method on different clustered structures (low-temperature phases of Curie-Weiss and Hopfield models).
Singh, Bhim S.
2003-01-01
NASA is preparing to undertake science-driven exploration missions. The NASA Exploration Team's vision is a cascade of stepping stones. The stepping-stone will build the technical capabilities needed for each step with multi-use technologies and capabilities. An Agency-wide technology investment and development program is necessary to implement the vision. The NASA Exploration Team has identified a number of areas where significant advances are needed to overcome all engineering and medical barriers to the expansion of human space exploration beyond low-Earth orbit. Closed-loop life support systems and advanced propulsion and power technologies are among the areas requiring significant advances from the current state-of-the-art. Studies conducted by the National Academy of Science's National Research Council and Workshops organized by NASA have shown that multiphase flow and phase change play a crucial role in many of these advanced technology concepts. Lack of understanding of multiphase flow, phase change, and interfacial phenomena in the microgravity environment has been a major hurdle. An understanding of multiphase flow and phase change in microgravity is, therefore, critical to advancing many technologies needed. Recognizing this, the Office of Biological and Physical Research (OBPR) has initiated a strategic research thrust to augment the ongoing fundamental research in fluid physics and transport phenomena discipline with research especially aimed at understanding key multiphase flow related issues in propulsion, power, thermal control, and closed-loop advanced life support systems. A plan for integrated theoretical and experimental research that has the highest probability of providing data, predictive tools, and models needed by the systems developers to incorporate highly promising multiphase-based technologies is currently in preparation. This plan is being developed with inputs from scientific community, NASA mission planners and industry personnel
Detecting kinematic boundary surfaces in phase space: particle mass measurements in SUSY-like events
Debnath, Dipsikha; Gainer, James S.; Kilic, Can; Kim, Doojin; Matchev, Konstantin T.; Yang, Yuan-Pao
2017-06-01
We critically examine the classic endpoint method for particle mass determination, focusing on difficult corners of parameter space, where some of the measurements are not independent, while others are adversely affected by the experimental resolution. In such scenarios, mass differences can be measured relatively well, but the overall mass scale remains poorly constrained. Using the example of the standard SUSY decay chain \\tilde{q}\\to {\\tilde{χ}}_2^0\\to \\tilde{ℓ}\\to {\\tilde{χ}}_1^0 , we demonstrate that sensitivity to the remaining mass scale parameter can be recovered by measuring the two-dimensional kinematical boundary in the relevant three-dimensional phase space of invariant masses squared. We develop an algorithm for detecting this boundary, which uses the geometric properties of the Voronoi tessellation of the data, and in particular, the relative standard deviation (RSD) of the volumes of the neighbors for each Voronoi cell in the tessellation. We propose a new observable, \\overline{Σ} , which is the average RSD per unit area, calculated over the hypothesized boundary. We show that the location of the \\overline{Σ} maximum correlates very well with the true values of the new particle masses. Our approach represents the natural extension of the one-dimensional kinematic endpoint method to the relevant three dimensions of invariant mass phase space.
James Webb Space Telescope Optical Simulation Testbed: Segmented Mirror Phase Retrieval Testing
Laginja, Iva; Egron, Sylvain; Brady, Greg; Soummer, Remi; Lajoie, Charles-Philippe; Bonnefois, Aurélie; Long, Joseph; Michau, Vincent; Choquet, Elodie; Ferrari, Marc; Leboulleux, Lucie; Mazoyer, Johan; N’Diaye, Mamadou; Perrin, Marshall; Petrone, Peter; Pueyo, Laurent; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand
2018-01-01
The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Optical Simulation Testbed (JOST) is a hardware simulator designed to produce JWST-like images. A model of the JWST three mirror anastigmat is realized with three lenses in form of a Cooke Triplet, which provides JWST-like optical quality over a field equivalent to a NIRCam module, and an Iris AO segmented mirror with hexagonal elements is standing in for the JWST segmented primary. This setup successfully produces images extremely similar to NIRCam images from cryotesting in terms of the PSF morphology and sampling relative to the diffraction limit.The testbed is used for staff training of the wavefront sensing and control (WFS&C) team and for independent analysis of WFS&C scenarios of the JWST. Algorithms like geometric phase retrieval (GPR) that may be used in flight and potential upgrades to JWST WFS&C will be explored. We report on the current status of the testbed after alignment, implementation of the segmented mirror, and testing of phase retrieval techniques.This optical bench complements other work at the Makidon laboratory at the Space Telescope Science Institute, including the investigation of coronagraphy for segmented aperture telescopes. Beyond JWST we intend to use JOST for WFS&C studies for future large segmented space telescopes such as LUVOIR.
Non-singular Brans–Dicke collapse in deformed phase space
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rasouli, S.M.M., E-mail: mrasouli@ubi.pt [Departamento de Física, Universidade da Beira Interior, Rua Marquês d’Avila e Bolama, 6200 Covilhã (Portugal); Centro de Matemática e Aplicações (CMA - UBI), Universidade da Beira Interior, Rua Marquês d’Avila e Bolama, 6200 Covilhã (Portugal); Physics Group, Qazvin Branch, Islamic Azad University, Qazvin (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ziaie, A.H., E-mail: ah_ziaie@sbu.ac.ir [Department of Physics, Shahid Beheshti University, G. C., Evin, 19839 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Physics, Shahid Bahonar University, PO Box 76175, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jalalzadeh, S., E-mail: shahram.jalalzadeh@unila.edu.br [Federal University of Latin-American Integration, Technological Park of Itaipu PO box 2123, Foz do Iguaçu-PR, 85867-670 (Brazil); Moniz, P.V., E-mail: pmoniz@ubi.pt [Departamento de Física, Universidade da Beira Interior, Rua Marquês d’Avila e Bolama, 6200 Covilhã (Portugal); Centro de Matemática e Aplicações (CMA - UBI), Universidade da Beira Interior, Rua Marquês d’Avila e Bolama, 6200 Covilhã (Portugal)
2016-12-15
We study the collapse process of a homogeneous perfect fluid (in FLRW background) with a barotropic equation of state in Brans–Dicke (BD) theory in the presence of phase space deformation effects. Such a deformation is introduced as a particular type of non-commutativity between phase space coordinates. For the commutative case, it has been shown in the literature (Scheel, 1995), that the dust collapse in BD theory leads to the formation of a spacetime singularity which is covered by an event horizon. In comparison to general relativity (GR), the authors concluded that the final state of black holes in BD theory is identical to the GR case but differs from GR during the dynamical evolution of the collapse process. However, the presence of non-commutative effects influences the dynamics of the collapse scenario and consequently a non-singular evolution is developed in the sense that a bounce emerges at a minimum radius, after which an expanding phase begins. Such a behavior is observed for positive values of the BD coupling parameter. For large positive values of the BD coupling parameter, when non-commutative effects are present, the dynamics of collapse process differs from the GR case. Finally, we show that for negative values of the BD coupling parameter, the singularity is replaced by an oscillatory bounce occurring at a finite time, with the frequency of oscillation and amplitude being damped at late times.
Interference effects in phased beam tracing using exact half-space solutions.
Boucher, Matthew A; Pluymers, Bert; Desmet, Wim
2016-12-01
Geometrical acoustics provides a correct solution to the wave equation for rectangular rooms with rigid boundaries and is an accurate approximation at high frequencies with nearly hard walls. When interference effects are important, phased geometrical acoustics is employed in order to account for phase shifts due to propagation and reflection. Error increases, however, with more absorption, complex impedance values, grazing incidence, smaller volumes and lower frequencies. Replacing the plane wave reflection coefficient with a spherical one reduces the error but results in slower convergence. Frequency-dependent stopping criteria are then applied to avoid calculating higher order reflections for frequencies that have already converged. Exact half-space solutions are used to derive two additional spherical wave reflection coefficients: (i) the Sommerfeld integral, consisting of a plane wave decomposition of a point source and (ii) a line of image sources located at complex coordinates. Phased beam tracing using exact half-space solutions agrees well with the finite element method for rectangular rooms with absorbing boundaries, at low frequencies and for rooms with different aspect ratios. Results are accurate even for long source-to-receiver distances. Finally, the crossover frequency between the plane and spherical wave reflection coefficients is discussed.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
F. Zhou
2006-11-01
Full Text Available Space charge and coherent synchrotron radiation may deteriorate electron beam quality when the beam passes through a magnetic bunch compressor. This paper presents the transverse phase-space tomographic measurements for a compressed beam at 60 MeV, around which energy the first stage of magnetic bunch compression takes place in most advanced linacs. Transverse phase-space bifurcation of a compressed beam is observed at that energy, but the degree of the space charge-induced bifurcation is appreciably lower than the one observed at 12 MeV.
Catalysis with hierarchical zeolites
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Holm, Martin Spangsberg; Taarning, Esben; Egeblad, Kresten
2011-01-01
topic. Until now, the main reason for developing hierarchical zeolites has been to achieve heterogeneous catalysts with improved performance but this particular facet has not yet been reviewed in detail. Thus, the present paper summaries and categorizes the catalytic studies utilizing hierarchical...
Hierarchical Discriminant Analysis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Di Lu
2018-01-01
Full Text Available The Internet of Things (IoT generates lots of high-dimensional sensor intelligent data. The processing of high-dimensional data (e.g., data visualization and data classification is very difficult, so it requires excellent subspace learning algorithms to learn a latent subspace to preserve the intrinsic structure of the high-dimensional data, and abandon the least useful information in the subsequent processing. In this context, many subspace learning algorithms have been presented. However, in the process of transforming the high-dimensional data into the low-dimensional space, the huge difference between the sum of inter-class distance and the sum of intra-class distance for distinct data may cause a bias problem. That means that the impact of intra-class distance is overwhelmed. To address this problem, we propose a novel algorithm called Hierarchical Discriminant Analysis (HDA. It minimizes the sum of intra-class distance first, and then maximizes the sum of inter-class distance. This proposed method balances the bias from the inter-class and that from the intra-class to achieve better performance. Extensive experiments are conducted on several benchmark face datasets. The results reveal that HDA obtains better performance than other dimensionality reduction algorithms.
Hierarchical Nanoceramics for Industrial Process Sensors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ruud, James, A.; Brosnan, Kristen, H.; Striker, Todd; Ramaswamy, Vidya; Aceto, Steven, C.; Gao, Yan; Willson, Patrick, D.; Manoharan, Mohan; Armstrong, Eric, N., Wachsman, Eric, D.; Kao, Chi-Chang
2011-07-15
This project developed a robust, tunable, hierarchical nanoceramics materials platform for industrial process sensors in harsh-environments. Control of material structure at multiple length scales from nano to macro increased the sensing response of the materials to combustion gases. These materials operated at relatively high temperatures, enabling detection close to the source of combustion. It is anticipated that these materials can form the basis for a new class of sensors enabling widespread use of efficient combustion processes with closed loop feedback control in the energy-intensive industries. The first phase of the project focused on materials selection and process development, leading to hierarchical nanoceramics that were evaluated for sensing performance. The second phase focused on optimizing the materials processes and microstructures, followed by validation of performance of a prototype sensor in a laboratory combustion environment. The objectives of this project were achieved by: (1) synthesizing and optimizing hierarchical nanostructures; (2) synthesizing and optimizing sensing nanomaterials; (3) integrating sensing functionality into hierarchical nanostructures; (4) demonstrating material performance in a sensing element; and (5) validating material performance in a simulated service environment. The project developed hierarchical nanoceramic electrodes for mixed potential zirconia gas sensors with increased surface area and demonstrated tailored electrocatalytic activity operable at high temperatures enabling detection of products of combustion such as NOx close to the source of combustion. Methods were developed for synthesis of hierarchical nanostructures with high, stable surface area, integrated catalytic functionality within the structures for gas sensing, and demonstrated materials performance in harsh lab and combustion gas environments.
Hierarchical Heteroclinics in Dynamical Model of Cognitive Processes: Chunking
Afraimovich, Valentin S.; Young, Todd R.; Rabinovich, Mikhail I.
Combining the results of brain imaging and nonlinear dynamics provides a new hierarchical vision of brain network functionality that is helpful in understanding the relationship of the network to different mental tasks. Using these ideas it is possible to build adequate models for the description and prediction of different cognitive activities in which the number of variables is usually small enough for analysis. The dynamical images of different mental processes depend on their temporal organization and, as a rule, cannot be just simple attractors since cognition is characterized by transient dynamics. The mathematical image for a robust transient is a stable heteroclinic channel consisting of a chain of saddles connected by unstable separatrices. We focus here on hierarchical chunking dynamics that can represent several cognitive activities. Chunking is the dynamical phenomenon that means dividing a long information chain into shorter items. Chunking is known to be important in many processes of perception, learning, memory and cognition. We prove that in the phase space of the model that describes chunking there exists a new mathematical object — heteroclinic sequence of heteroclinic cycles — using the technique of slow-fast approximations. This new object serves as a skeleton of motions reflecting sequential features of hierarchical chunking dynamics and is an adequate image of the chunking processing.
Dust environment of an airless object: A phase space study with kinetic models
Kallio, E.; Dyadechkin, S.; Fatemi, S.; Holmström, M.; Futaana, Y.; Wurz, P.; Fernandes, V. A.; Álvarez, F.; Heilimo, J.; Jarvinen, R.; Schmidt, W.; Harri, A.-M.; Barabash, S.; Mäkelä, J.; Porjo, N.; Alho, M.
2016-01-01
The study of dust above the lunar surface is important for both science and technology. Dust particles are electrically charged due to impact of the solar radiation and the solar wind plasma and, therefore, they affect the plasma above the lunar surface. Dust is also a health hazard for crewed missions because micron and sub-micron sized dust particles can be toxic and harmful to the human body. Dust also causes malfunctions in mechanical devices and is therefore a risk for spacecraft and instruments on the lunar surface. Properties of dust particles above the lunar surface are not fully known. However, it can be stated that their large surface area to volume ratio due to their irregular shape, broken chemical bonds on the surface of each dust particle, together with the reduced lunar environment cause the dust particles to be chemically very reactive. One critical unknown factor is the electric field and the electric potential near the lunar surface. We have developed a modelling suite, Dusty Plasma Environments: near-surface characterisation and Modelling (DPEM), to study globally and locally dust environments of the Moon and other airless bodies. The DPEM model combines three independent kinetic models: (1) a 3D hybrid model, where ions are modelled as particles and electrons are modelled as a charged neutralising fluid, (2) a 2D electrostatic Particle-in-Cell (PIC) model where both ions and electrons are treated as particles, and (3) a 3D Monte Carlo (MC) model where dust particles are modelled as test particles. The three models are linked to each other unidirectionally; the hybrid model provides upstream plasma parameters to be used as boundary conditions for the PIC model which generates the surface potential for the MC model. We have used the DPEM model to study properties of dust particles injected from the surface of airless objects such as the Moon, the Martian moon Phobos and the asteroid RQ36. We have performed a (v0, m/q)-phase space study where the
Mid- and long-term runoff predictions by an improved phase-space reconstruction model.
Hong, Mei; Wang, Dong; Wang, Yuankun; Zeng, Xiankui; Ge, Shanshan; Yan, Hengqian; Singh, Vijay P
2016-07-01
In recent years, the phase-space reconstruction method has usually been used for mid- and long-term runoff predictions. However, the traditional phase-space reconstruction method is still needs to be improved. Using the genetic algorithm to improve the phase-space reconstruction method, a new nonlinear model of monthly runoff is constructed. The new model does not rely heavily on embedding dimensions. Recognizing that the rainfall-runoff process is complex, affected by a number of factors, more variables (e.g. temperature and rainfall) are incorporated in the model. In order to detect the possible presence of chaos in the runoff dynamics, chaotic characteristics of the model are also analyzed, which shows the model can represent the nonlinear and chaotic characteristics of the runoff. The model is tested for its forecasting performance in four types of experiments using data from six hydrological stations on the Yellow River and the Yangtze River. Results show that the medium-and long-term runoff is satisfactorily forecasted at the hydrological stations. Not only is the forecasting trend accurate, but also the mean absolute percentage error is no more than 15%. Moreover, the forecast results of wet years and dry years are both good, which means that the improved model can overcome the traditional ''wet years and dry years predictability barrier,'' to some extent. The model forecasts for different regions are all good, showing the universality of the approach. Compared with selected conceptual and empirical methods, the model exhibits greater reliability and stability in the long-term runoff prediction. Our study provides a new thinking for research on the association between the monthly runoff and other hydrological factors, and also provides a new method for the prediction of the monthly runoff. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Nakhjiri, Navid
This research presents algorithms for the numerical phase space analysis of large sets of trajectories. These involve propagating sections of phase space and studying the evolution of orbital characteristics which can be viewed as mapping dynamical properties of the system. Generating these maps is tedious and computationally expensive. This research proposes using an efficient numerical integration method based on a modified Picard integration for generating these maps. This numerical integration method is selected based on its potential use for developing parallel integration algorithms for massively parallel hardware such as Graphic Processing Units (GPUs). A requirement for the modified Picard integration is a method to transform vector fields to polynomial form in astrodynamics problems. This thesis demonstrates the transformation to polynomial form for simple and complex vector fields encountered in astrodynamics. This research also discusses the improvements of using this method for both parallel and sequential integrations. The integration method additionally provides the possibility to study nonlinear uncertainty propagations for a system by offering an efficient method to calculate high order state transition tensors. In the case of uncertainty propagation for large sets of trajectories, unscented transformation can be used to enhance the grid generation for maps. Besides the difficulties involved in generating maps, they are not immediately usable in practice. This research proposes the use of image processing and clustering analysis algorithms to autonomously detect and extract dynamical features from these maps. To do so, image segmentation algorithms such as k-mean clustering, contrast segmentation, and texture segmentation have been used. Additionally, this thesis discuses representing these sections of phase space using sets of B-spline and Gaussian mixtures. Based on data clustering, an enhanced map generation method is also introduced, which
The phase-space structure of nearby dark matter as constrained by the SDSS
Leclercq, Florent; Jasche, Jens; Lavaux, Guilhem; Wandelt, Benjamin; Percival, Will
2017-06-01
Previous studies using numerical simulations have demonstrated that the shape of the cosmic web can be described by studying the Lagrangian displacement field. We extend these analyses, showing that it is now possible to perform a Lagrangian description of cosmic structure in the nearby Universe based on large-scale structure observations. Building upon recent Bayesian large-scale inference of initial conditions, we present a cosmographic analysis of the dark matter distribution and its evolution, referred to as the dark matter phase-space sheet, in the nearby universe as probed by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey main galaxy sample. We consider its stretchings and foldings using a tetrahedral tessellation of the Lagrangian lattice. The method provides extremely accurate estimates of nearby density and velocity fields, even in regions of low galaxy density. It also measures the number of matter streams, and the deformation and parity reversals of fluid elements, which were previously thought inaccessible using observations. We illustrate the approach by showing the phase-space structure of known objects of the nearby Universe such as the Sloan Great Wall, the Coma cluster and the Boötes void. We dissect cosmic structures into four distinct components (voids, sheets, filaments, and clusters), using the Lagrangian classifiers DIVA, ORIGAMI, and a new scheme which we introduce and call LICH. Because these classifiers use information other than the sheer local density, identified structures explicitly carry physical information about their formation history. Accessing the phase-space structure of dark matter in galaxy surveys opens the way for new confrontations of observational data and theoretical models. We have made our data products publicly available.
Exploring links between foundation phase teachers’ content knowledge and their example spaces
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Samantha Morrison
2013-12-01
Full Text Available This paper explores two foundation phase teachers’ example spaces (a space in the mind where examples exist when teaching number-related topics in relation to snapshots of their content knowledge (CK. Data was collected during a pilot primary maths for teaching course that included assessments of teacher content knowledge (CK. An analysis of a content-knowledge focused pre-test developed for the larger study indicated a relatively high score for one teacher and a low score for the other. Using Rowland’s (2008 framework, an analysis of classroom practice showed associations between a higher CK and the extent of a teacher’s example space and more coherent connections between different representational forms. Although no hard claims or generalisations of the link between teachers’ example spaces and their level of mathematics content knowledge can be made here, this study reinforces evidence of the need to increase teachers’ CK from a pedagogic perspective in order to raise the level of mathematics teaching and learning in the South African landscape.
Space charge and beam stability issues of the Fermilab proton driver in Phase I
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
K. Y. Ng
2001-08-24
Issues concerning beam stability of the proposed Fermilab Proton Driver are studied in its Phase I. Although the betatron tune shifts are dominated by space charge, these shifts are less than 0.25 and will therefore not drive the symmetric and antisymmetric modes of the beam envelope into instability. The longitudinal space charge force is large and inductive inserts may be needed to compensate for the distortion of the rf potential. Although the longitudinal impedance is space charge dominated, it will not drive any microwave instability, unless the real part of the impedance coming from the inductive inserts and wall resistivity of the beam tube are large enough. The design of the beam tube is therefore very important in order to limit the flow of eddy current and keep wall resistivity low. The transverse impedance is also space charge dominated. With the Proton Driver operated at an imaginary transition gamma, however, Landau damping will never be canceled and beam stability can be maintained with negative chromaticities.
Phase-locking to a free-space terahertz comb for metrological-grade terahertz lasers.
Consolino, L; Taschin, A; Bartolini, P; Bartalini, S; Cancio, P; Tredicucci, A; Beere, H E; Ritchie, D A; Torre, R; Vitiello, M S; De Natale, P
2012-01-01
Optical frequency comb synthesizers have represented a revolutionary approach to frequency metrology, providing a grid of frequency references for any laser emitting within their spectral coverage. Extending the metrological features of optical frequency comb synthesizers to the terahertz domain would be a major breakthrough, due to the widespread range of accessible strategic applications and the availability of stable, high-power and widely tunable sources such as quantum cascade lasers. Here we demonstrate phase-locking of a 2.5 THz quantum cascade laser to a free-space comb, generated in a LiNbO(3) waveguide and covering the 0.1-6 THz frequency range. We show that even a small fraction (laser is sufficient to generate a beat note suitable for phase-locking to the comb, paving the way to novel metrological-grade terahertz applications, including high-resolution spectroscopy, manipulation of cold molecules, astronomy and telecommunications.
Kinetics for Reduction of Iron Ore Based on the Phase Space Reconstruction
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Guo-Feng Fan
2014-01-01
Full Text Available A series of smelting reduction experiments has been carried out with high-phosphorus iron ore of the different bases and heating rates by thermogravimetric analyzer. The derivative thermo gravimetric (DTG data have been obtained from the experiments. After analyzing its phase space reconstruction, it is found that DTG phase portrait contains with a clear double “∞” attractor characteristic by one-order delay. The statistical properties of the attractor inside and outside the double “∞” structures are characterized with interface chemical reaction control and diffusion control stage in dynamic smelting process, respectively; the results are deserved to be a reference value on understanding of the mechanism and optimization and control of the process in smelting reduction of high-phosphorus iron ore.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dabrowska, A. [Henryk Niewodniczanski Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland); Freier, P.S. [Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis, MN (United States). School of Physics and Astronomy; Holynski, R. [Henryk Niewodniczanski Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland); Jones, W.V. [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Jurak, A. [Henryk Niewodniczanski Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland); Kudzia, D. [Henryk Niewodniczanski Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland); Olszewski, A. [Henryk Niewodniczanski Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland); Szarska, M. [Henryk Niewodniczanski Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland); Trzupek, A. [Henryk Niewodniczanski Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland); Waddington, C.J. [Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis, MN (United States). School of Physics and Astronomy; Wefel, J.P. [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Wilczynska, B. [Henryk Niewodniczanski Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland); Wilczynski, H. [Henryk Niewodniczanski Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland); Wolter, W. [Henryk Niewodniczanski Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland); Wosiek, B. [Henryk Niewodniczanski Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland); Wozniak, K. [Henryk Niewodniczanski Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland)
1995-08-01
The fluctuations of produced particles are investigated in central collisions of proton, oxygen and sulphur projectiles with (Ag,Br) target nuclei at 200 GeV per nucleon. The analysis is carried out in terms of factorial moments and correlation integrals in different pseudorapidity regions. Evidence is found for nonstatistical fluctuations. These fluctuations depend weakly on the phase space, although a slightly stronger effect is seen in the forward pseudorapidity region. The dependence of the observed effect on the mass of the projectile particle disagrees with the expectations of super-position models. The results of this analysis indicate that a self-similar cascade process is the origin of the fluctuations, even though the association of the observed effect with the occurrence of a second order phase transition cannot be definitely ruled out. (orig.)
Revealing and exploiting hierarchical material structure through complex atomic networks
Ahnert, Sebastian E.; Grant, William P.; Pickard, Chris J.
2017-08-01
One of the great challenges of modern science is to faithfully model, and understand, matter at a wide range of scales. Starting with atoms, the vastness of the space of possible configurations poses a formidable challenge to any simulation of complex atomic and molecular systems. We introduce a computational method to reduce the complexity of atomic configuration space by systematically recognising hierarchical levels of atomic structure, and identifying the individual components. Given a list of atomic coordinates, a network is generated based on the distances between the atoms. Using the technique of modularity optimisation, the network is decomposed into modules. This procedure can be performed at different resolution levels, leading to a decomposition of the system at different scales, from which hierarchical structure can be identified. By considering the amount of information required to represent a given modular decomposition we can furthermore find the most succinct descriptions of a given atomic ensemble. Our straightforward, automatic and general approach is applied to complex crystal structures. We show that modular decomposition of these structures considerably simplifies configuration space, which in turn can be used in discovery of novel crystal structures, and opens up a pathway towards accelerated molecular dynamics of complex atomic ensembles. The power of this approach is demonstrated by the identification of a possible allotrope of boron containing 56 atoms in the primitive unit cell, which we uncover using an accelerated structure search, based on a modular decomposition of a known dense phase of boron, γ-B28.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Gilardoni
2006-10-01
Full Text Available Recently, a novel technique to perform multiturn extraction from a circular particle accelerator was proposed. It is based on beam splitting and trapping, induced by a slow crossing of a nonlinear resonance, inside stable islands of transverse phase space. Experiments at the CERN Proton Synchrotron started in 2002 and evidence of beam splitting was obtained by summer 2004. In this paper, the measurement results achieved with both a low- and a high-intensity, single-bunch proton beam are presented.
The Impact of Early Design Phase Risk Identification Biases on Space System Project Performance
Reeves, John D., Jr.; Eveleigh, Tim; Holzer, Thomas; Sarkani, Shahryar
2012-01-01
Risk identification during the early design phases of complex systems is commonly implemented but often fails to result in the identification of events and circumstances that truly challenge project performance. Inefficiencies in cost and schedule estimation are usually held accountable for cost and schedule overruns, but the true root cause is often the realization of programmatic risks. A deeper understanding of frequent risk identification trends and biases pervasive during space system design and development is needed, for it would lead to improved execution of existing identification processes and methods.
Interpretation of bent-crystal rocking curves using phase-space diagrams
Ren, B; Chapman, L D; Wu, X Y; Zhong, Z; Ivanov, I; Huang, X
2000-01-01
In developing a double bent-Laue crystal monochromator for synchrotron-based monochromatic computed tomography system, we applied a special projection of the phase-space diagram to interpret the shape of bent crystal rocking curves. Unlike the rigorous approach of the ray-tracing method, this graphical method provides direct pictures that allow checks of the physical significance of the shapes of the rocking curves, thereby providing quick guidelines for matching two bent crystals. The method's usefulness is demonstrated with our crexperimental results, and its limitations are discussed.
Superradiant emission from a cascade atomic ensemble by positive-P phase space method simulation
Jen, Hsiang-Hua
2012-06-01
We numerically simulate the superradiant emission properties from an atomic ensemble with cascade level configuration. The correlated spontaneous emissions (signal then idler fields) are initiated by quantum fluctuations of the ensemble. We apply the positive-P phase space method to investigate the dynamics of the atoms and counter-propagating emissions in the four-wave mixing condition. The light field intensities are calculated, and the signal-idler correlation function is studied for different optical depths of the atomic ensemble. Shorter correlation time scale for a denser atomic ensemble implies a broader spectral window required to store or retrieve the idler pulse.
New features of electron phase space holes observed by the THEMIS mission.
Andersson, L; Ergun, R E; Tao, J; Roux, A; Lecontel, O; Angelopoulos, V; Bonnell, J; McFadden, J P; Larson, D E; Eriksson, S; Johansson, T; Cully, C M; Newman, D L; Newman, D N; Goldman, M V; Glassmeier, K-H; Baumjohann, W
2009-06-05
Observations of electron phase-space holes (EHs) in Earth's plasma sheet by the THEMIS satellites include the first detection of a magnetic perturbation (deltaB_{ parallel}) parallel to the ambient magnetic field (B0). EHs with a detectable deltaB_{ parallel} have several distinguishing features including large electric field amplitudes, a magnetic perturbation perpendicular to B0, high speeds ( approximately 0.3c) along B0, and sizes along B0 of tens of Debye lengths. These EHs have a significant center potential (Phi approximately k_{B}T_{e}/e), suggesting strongly nonlinear behavior nearby such as double layers or magnetic reconnection.
Particle Control in Phase Space by Global K-Means Clustering
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Frederiksen, Jacob Trier; Lapenta, G.; Pessah, M. E.
2015-01-01
decreasing or increasing the entire particle population, based on k-means clustering of the data. In essence the procedure amounts to merging or splitting particles by statistical means, throughout the entire simulation volume in question, while minimizing a 6-dimensional total distance measure to preserve...... --- \\emph{i.e.}, Nf≲0.33Ni. Interestingly, we find that an accurate particle splitting step can be performed using k-means as well; this from an argument of symmetry. The split solution, using k-means, places splitted particles optimally, to obtain maximal spanning on the phase space manifold...
Hubble Space Telescope cycle 5. Phase 1: Proposal instructions, version 4.0
Madau, Piero (Editor)
1994-01-01
This document has the following purposes: it describes the information that must be submitted to the Space Telescope Science Institute by Phase 1 proposers, both electronically and on paper, and describes how to submit it; it describes how to fill out the proposal LATEX templates; it describes how to estimate the number of spacecraft orbits that the proposed observations will require; it provides detailed information about the parameters that are used in the forms to describe the requested observations; and it provides information about the preparation and electronic submission of proposal files. Examples of completed proposal forms are included.
Koulaouzidis, George; Cappiello, Grazia; Mazomenos, Evangelos B; Maharatna, Koushik; Morgan, John
2014-01-01
Ventricular arrhythmias comprise a group of disorders which manifest clinically in a variety of ways from ventricular premature beats (VPB) and no sustained ventricular tachycardia (in healthy subjects) to sudden cardiac death due to ventricular tachyarrhythmia in patients with and/or without structural heart disease. Ventricular fibrillation (VF) and ventricular tachycardia (VT) are the most common electrical mechanisms for cardiac arrest. Accurate and automatic recognition of these arrhythmias from electrocardiography (ECG) is a crucial task for medical professionals. The purpose of this research is to develop a new index for the differential diagnosis of normal sinus rhythm (SR) and ventricular arrhythmias, based on phase space reconstruction (PSR).
Solid Phase Characterization of Tank 241-AY-102 Annulus Space Particulate
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cooke, G. A.
2013-01-30
The Special Analytical Studies Group at the 222-S Laboratory (222-S) examined the particulate recovered from a series of samples from the annular space of tank 241-AY-102 (AY-102) using solid phase characterization (SPC) methods. These include scanning electron microscopy (SEM) using the ASPEX®1 scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction (XRD) using the Rigaku®2 MiniFlex X-ray diffractometer, and polarized light microscopy (PLM) using the Nikon®3 Eclipse Pol optical microscope. The SEM is equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) to provide chemical information.
GeneLab Phase 2: Integrated Search Data Federation of Space Biology Experimental Data
Tran, P. B.; Berrios, D. C.; Gurram, M. M.; Hashim, J. C. M.; Raghunandan, S.; Lin, S. Y.; Le, T. Q.; Heher, D. M.; Thai, H. T.; Welch, J. D.;
2016-01-01
The GeneLab project is a science initiative to maximize the scientific return of omics data collected from spaceflight and from ground simulations of microgravity and radiation experiments, supported by a data system for a public bioinformatics repository and collaborative analysis tools for these data. The mission of GeneLab is to maximize the utilization of the valuable biological research resources aboard the ISS by collecting genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic and metabolomic (so-called omics) data to enable the exploration of the molecular network responses of terrestrial biology to space environments using a systems biology approach. All GeneLab data are made available to a worldwide network of researchers through its open-access data system. GeneLab is currently being developed by NASA to support Open Science biomedical research in order to enable the human exploration of space and improve life on earth. Open access to Phase 1 of the GeneLab Data Systems (GLDS) was implemented in April 2015. Download volumes have grown steadily, mirroring the growth in curated space biology research data sets (61 as of June 2016), now exceeding 10 TB/month, with over 10,000 file downloads since the start of Phase 1. For the period April 2015 to May 2016, most frequently downloaded were data from studies of Mus musculus (39) followed closely by Arabidopsis thaliana (30), with the remaining downloads roughly equally split across 12 other organisms (each 10 of total downloads). GLDS Phase 2 is focusing on interoperability, supporting data federation, including integrated search capabilities, of GLDS-housed data sets with external data sources, such as gene expression data from NIHNCBIs Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO), proteomic data from EBIs PRIDE system, and metagenomic data from Argonne National Laboratory's MG-RAST. GEO and MG-RAST employ specifications for investigation metadata that are different from those used by the GLDS and PRIDE (e.g., ISA-Tab). The GLDS Phase 2 system
A space-time fractional phase-field model with tunable sharpness and decay behavior and its efficient numerical simulation
Li, Zheng; Wang, Hong; Yang, Danping
2017-10-01
We present a space-time fractional Allen-Cahn phase-field model that describes the transport of the fluid mixture of two immiscible fluid phases. The space and time fractional order parameters control the sharpness and the decay behavior of the interface via a seamless transition of the parameters. Although they are shown to provide more accurate description of anomalous diffusion processes and sharper interfaces than traditional integer-order phase-field models do, fractional models yield numerical methods with dense stiffness matrices. Consequently, the resulting numerical schemes have significantly increased computational work and memory requirement. We develop a lossless fast numerical method for the accurate and efficient numerical simulation of the space-time fractional phase-field model. Numerical experiments shows the utility of the fractional phase-field model and the corresponding fast numerical method.
General phase spaces: from discrete variables to rotor and continuum limits
Albert, Victor V.; Pascazio, Saverio; Devoret, Michel H.
2017-12-01
We provide a basic introduction to discrete-variable, rotor, and continuous-variable quantum phase spaces, explaining how the latter two can be understood as limiting cases of the first. We extend the limit-taking procedures used to travel between phase spaces to a general class of Hamiltonians (including many local stabilizer codes) and provide six examples: the Harper equation, the Baxter parafermionic spin chain, the Rabi model, the Kitaev toric code, the Haah cubic code (which we generalize to qudits), and the Kitaev honeycomb model. We obtain continuous-variable generalizations of all models, some of which are novel. The Baxter model is mapped to a chain of coupled oscillators and the Rabi model to the optomechanical radiation pressure Hamiltonian. The procedures also yield rotor versions of all models, five of which are novel many-body extensions of the almost Mathieu equation. The toric and cubic codes are mapped to lattice models of rotors, with the toric code case related to U(1) lattice gauge theory.
Exploring the data constrained phase space of the last Antarctic glacial cycle
Lecavalier, Benoit; Tarasov, Lev
2017-04-01
The evolution of the Antarctic Ice Sheet over the last two glacial cycles is studied using the Glacial Systems Model (GSM). Glaciological modelling is an effective tool to generate continental-scale reconstructions over glacial cycles, but the models depend on parameterizations to account for the deficiencies (e.g., missing physics, unresolved sub-grid processes, uncertain boundary conditions) inherent in any numerical model. These parameters, considered together, form a parameter phase space from which sets of parameters can be sampled; each set corresponds to an ice sheet reconstruction. The GSM has been updated with a number of recent developments: hybrid SIA-SSA physics, Schoof grounding line parameterization, broadened degrees of freedom in the climate forcing, sub-shelf melt explicitly dependent on ocean temperatures, improved hydrofracturing, cliff failure at the margins, basal topographic uncertainties, impact of basal drag roughness and subgrid statistics, and first order geoidal corrections in the coupled glacial isostatic adjustment component. Parametric uncertainties are defined in the GSM using >36 ensemble parameters. Prior to conducting a full Bayesian calibration, one must first validate the ability of the GSM to simulate a broad range of responses. We attempt this by latin hypercube sampling of the parameter phase space and comparing the model predictions against our constraint database consisting of past elevation, extent and relative sea level observations and the present day geometry. We document the capability of the GSM to envelope the observational constraints given the parametric uncertainties and discuss the implications for the evolution of the Antarctic Ice Sheet.
Transverse phase space mapping of relativistic electron beams using optical transition radiation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G. P. Le Sage
1999-12-01
Full Text Available Optical transition radiation (OTR has proven to be a versatile and effective diagnostic for measuring the profile, divergence, and emittance of relativistic electron beams with a wide range of parameters. Diagnosis of the divergence of modern high brightness beams is especially well suited to OTR interference (OTRI techniques, where multiple dielectric or metal foils are used to generate a spatially coherent interference pattern. Theoretical analysis of measured OTR and OTRI patterns allows precise measurement of electron beam emittance characteristics. Here we describe an extension of this technique to allow mapping of divergence characteristics as a function of transverse coordinates within a measured beam. We present the first experimental analysis of the transverse phase space of an electron beam using all optical techniques. Comparing an optically masked portion of the beam to the entire beam, we measure different angular spread and average direction of the particles. Direct measurement of the phase-space ellipse tilt angle has been demonstrated using this optical masking technique.
Su, Zhi-Yuan; Wu, Tzuyin; Yang, Po-Hua; Wang, Yeng-Tseng
2008-04-01
The heartbeat rate signal provides an invaluable means of assessing the sympathetic-parasympathetic balance of the human autonomic nervous system and thus represents an ideal diagnostic mechanism for detecting a variety of disorders such as epilepsy, cardiac disease and so forth. The current study analyses the dynamics of the heartbeat rate signal of known epilepsy sufferers in order to obtain a detailed understanding of the heart rate pattern during a seizure event. In the proposed approach, the ECG signals are converted into heartbeat rate signals and the embedology theorem is then used to construct the corresponding multidimensional phase space. The dynamics of the heartbeat rate signal are then analyzed before, during and after an epileptic seizure by examining the maximum Lyapunov exponent and the correlation dimension of the attractors in the reconstructed phase space. In general, the results reveal that the heartbeat rate signal transits from an aperiodic, highly-complex behaviour before an epileptic seizure to a low dimensional chaotic motion during the seizure event. Following the seizure, the signal trajectories return to a highly-complex state, and the complex signal patterns associated with normal physiological conditions reappear.
Nonequilibrium dynamics of spin-boson models from phase-space methods
Piñeiro Orioli, Asier; Safavi-Naini, Arghavan; Wall, Michael L.; Rey, Ana Maria
2017-09-01
An accurate description of the nonequilibrium dynamics of systems with coupled spin and bosonic degrees of freedom remains theoretically challenging, especially for large system sizes and in higher than one dimension. Phase-space methods such as the truncated Wigner approximation (TWA) have the advantage of being easily scalable and applicable to arbitrary dimensions. In this work we adapt the TWA to generic spin-boson models by making use of recently developed algorithms for discrete phase spaces [J. Schachenmayer, A. Pikovski, and A. M. Rey, Phys. Rev. X 5, 011022 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevX.5.011022]. Furthermore we go beyond the standard TWA approximation by applying a scheme based on the Bogoliubov-Born-Green-Kirkwood-Yvon (BBGKY) hierarchy of equations to our coupled spin-boson model. This allows us, in principle, to study how systematically adding higher-order corrections improves the convergence of the method. To test various levels of approximation we study an exactly solvable spin-boson model, which is particularly relevant for trapped-ion arrays. Using TWA and its BBGKY extension we accurately reproduce the time evolution of a number of one- and two-point correlation functions in several dimensions and for an arbitrary number of bosonic modes.
Non-singular Brans-Dicke collapse in deformed phase space
Rasouli, S M M; Jalalzadeh, S; Moniz, P V
2016-01-01
We study the collapse process of a homogeneous perfect fluid (in FLRW background) with a barotropic equation of state in Brans-Dicke (BD) theory in the presence of phase space deformation effects. Such a deformation is introduced as a particular type of non-commutativity between phase space coordinates. For the commutative case, it has been shown in the literature [M.A. Scheel, S.L. Shapiro and S.A. Teukolsky, Phys. Rev. D. 51, 4236 (1995)], that the dust collapse in BD theory leads to the formation of a spacetime singularity which is covered by an event horizon. In comparison to general relativity (GR), the authors concluded that the final state of black holes in BD theory is identical to the GR case but differs from GR during the dynamical evolution of the collapse process. However, the presence of non-commutative effects influences the dynamics of the collapse scenario and consequently a non-singular evolution is developed in the sense that a bounce emerges at a minimum radius, after which an expanding pha...
Theory of Superthermal, Wide, Electron Phase-Space Holes and Bipolar Fields*
Goldman, M. V.; Newman, D. L.
2008-12-01
Laboratory reconnection experiments [1] and recent magnetospheric spacecraft observations [2] are beginning to find bipolar fields with a spatial half-width equal to many Debye lengths (10 or more) traveling at high speeds (faster than the thermal velocity of the bulk of electrons). Electron phase-space hole solutions of the nonlinear Poisson-Vlasov equations (stationary in a frame co-moving with the hole) are constructed analytically with these properties by assuming there is secondary component of the electron distribution. This component can be a tail on the electron distribution or a beam. The hole velocity will be close to the velocity at the end of the tail or the velocity of the beam, provided the ions are moving with sufficient velocity in the frame of the hole. Vlasov simulations are used to study accessibility and stability of these solutions. * Work supported by DOE, NASA, and NSF [1]W. Fox, M. Porkolab, J. Egedal, N. Katz, A. Le, and A. Vrublevskis, "Observation of electron phase-space holes during magnetic reconnection in the Versatile Toroidal Facility," Abstract GP6.00029, 50th Annual Meeting of the Division of Plasma Physics, American Physical Society (Dallas, Nov.~2008). [2] R. E. Ergun and J. Tao, private communication.
On Dual Phase-Space Relativity, the Machian Principle and Modified Newtonian Dynamics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Castro C.
2005-04-01
Full Text Available We investigate the consequences of the Mach’s principle of inertia within the context of the Dual Phase Space Relativity which is compatible with the Eddington-Dirac large numbers coincidences and may provide with a physical reason behind the observed anomalous Pioneer acceleration and a solution to the riddle of the cosmological constant problem. The cosmological implications of Non-Archimedean Geometry by assigning an upper impossible scale in Nature and the cosmological variations of the fundamental constants are also discussed. We study the corrections to Newtonian dynamics resulting from the Dual Phase Space Relativity by analyzing the behavior of a test particle in a modified Schwarzschild geometry (due to the the effects of the maximal acceleration that leads in the weak-field approximation to essential modifications of the Newtonian dynamics and to violations of the equivalence principle. Finally we follow another avenue and find modified Newtonian dynamics induced by the Yang’s Noncommutative Spacetime algebra involving a lower and upper scale in Nature.
Phase space mass bound for fermionic dark matter from dwarf spheroidal galaxies
Paolo, Chiara Di; Nesti, Fabrizio; Villante, Francesco L.
2018-01-01
We reconsider the lower bound on the mass of a fermionic dark matter (DM) candidate resulting from the existence of known small Dwarf Spheroidal galaxies, in the hypothesis that their DM halo is constituted by degenerate fermions, with phase-space density limited by the Pauli exclusion principle. By relaxing the common assumption that the DM halo scale radius is tied to that of the luminous stellar component and by marginalizing on the unknown stellar velocity dispersion anisotropy, we prove that observations lead to rather weak constraints on the DM mass, that could be as low as tens of eV. In this scenario, however, the DM halos would be quite large and massive, so that a bound stems from the requirement that the time of orbital decay due to dynamical friction in the hosting Milky Way DM halo is longer than their lifetime. The smallest and nearest satellites Segue I and Willman I lead to a final lower bound of m ≳ 100 eV, still weaker than previous estimates but robust and independent on the model of DM formation and decoupling. We thus show that phase space constraints do not rule out the possibility of sub-keV fermionic DM.
An equivalent ground thermal test method for single-phase fluid loop space radiator
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xianwen Ning
2015-02-01
Full Text Available Thermal vacuum test is widely used for the ground validation of spacecraft thermal control system. However, the conduction and convection can be simulated in normal ground pressure environment completely. By the employment of pumped fluid loops’ thermal control technology on spacecraft, conduction and convection become the main heat transfer behavior between radiator and inside cabin. As long as the heat transfer behavior between radiator and outer space can be equivalently simulated in normal pressure, the thermal vacuum test can be substituted by the normal ground pressure thermal test. In this paper, an equivalent normal pressure thermal test method for the spacecraft single-phase fluid loop radiator is proposed. The heat radiation between radiator and outer space has been equivalently simulated by combination of a group of refrigerators and thermal electrical cooler (TEC array. By adjusting the heat rejection of each device, the relationship between heat flux and surface temperature of the radiator can be maintained. To verify this method, a validating system has been built up and the experiments have been carried out. The results indicate that the proposed equivalent ground thermal test method can simulate the heat rejection performance of radiator correctly and the temperature error between in-orbit theory value and experiment result of the radiator is less than 0.5 °C, except for the equipment startup period. This provides a potential method for the thermal test of space systems especially for extra-large spacecraft which employs single-phase fluid loop radiator as thermal control approach.
Fedele, Micaela; Vernia, Cecilia
2017-10-01
In this paper we solve the inverse problem for the Curie-Weiss model and its multispecies version when multiple thermodynamic states are present as in the low temperature phase where the phase space is clustered. The inverse problem consists of reconstructing the model parameters starting from configuration data generated according to the distribution of the model. We demonstrate that, without taking into account the presence of many states, the application of the inversion procedure produces very poor inference results. To overcome this problem, we use the clustering algorithm. When the system has two symmetric states of positive and negative magnetizations, the parameter reconstruction can also be obtained with smaller computational effort simply by flipping the sign of the magnetizations from positive to negative (or vice versa). The parameter reconstruction fails when the system undergoes a phase transition: In that case we give the correct inversion formulas for the Curie-Weiss model and we show that they can be used to measure how close the system gets to being critical.
Yeh, Hsien-Chi; Yan, Qi-Zhong; Liang, Yu-Rong; Wang, Ying; Luo, Jun
2011-04-01
In this paper, we present the scheme and the preliminary results of an intersatellite laser ranging system that is designed for the Earth's gravity recovery mission proposed in China, called Space Advanced Gravity Measurements (SAGM). The proposed intersatellite distance is about 100 km and the precision of inter-satellite range monitoring is 10 nm/Hz(1/2) at 0.1 Hz. To meet the needs, we designed a transponder-type intersatellite laser ranging system by using a homodyne optical phase locking technique, which is different from the heterodyne optical phase-locked loop used in GRACE follow-on mission. Since an ultrastable oscillator is unnecessary in the homodyne phase-locked loop, the measurement error caused by the frequency instability of the ultrastable oscillator need not be taken into account. In the preliminary study, a heterodyne interferometer with 10-m baseline (measurement arm-length) was built up to demonstrate the validity of the measurement scheme. The measurement results show that a resolution of displacement measurement of about 3.2 nm had been achieved. © 2011 American Institute of Physics
PHASES: Opto-mechanical solutions to perform absolute spectrophotometry from space
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vather Dinesh
2013-04-01
Full Text Available This work provides an update of the current status of PHASES, which is a project aimed at developing a space-borne telescope to perform absolute flux calibrated spectroscopy of bright stars. PHASES will make it possible to measure micromagnitude photometric variations due to, e.g., exo-planet/moon transits. It is designed to obtain 1% RMS flux calibrated low resolution spectra in the wavelength range 370–960 nm with signal-to-noise ratios >100 for stars with V<10 in short integration times of ∼1 minute. The strategy to calibrate the system using A-type stars is outlined. PHASES will make possible a complete characterization of stars, some of them hosting planets. From the comparison of observed spectra with accurate model atmospheres stellar angular diameters will be determined with precisions of ∼0.5%. The light curves of transiting systems will be then used to extract the radius of the planet with similar precision. The demanding scientific requirements to be achieved under extreme observing conditions have shaped the optomechanical design. A computational model and a high-precision interferometric system have been developed to test the performance of the instrument.
The numerical solution of thawing process in phase change slab using variable space grid technique
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Serttikul, C.
2007-09-01
Full Text Available This paper focuses on the numerical analysis of melting process in phase change material which considers the moving boundary as the main parameter. In this study, pure ice slab and saturated porous packed bed are considered as the phase change material. The formulation of partial differential equations is performed consisting heat conduction equations in each phase and moving boundary equation (Stefan equation. The variable space grid method is then applied to these equations. The transient heat conduction equations and the Stefan condition are solved by using the finite difference method. A one-dimensional melting model is then validated against the available analytical solution. The effect of constant temperature heat source on melting rate and location of melting front at various times is studied in detail.It is found that the nonlinearity of melting rate occurs for a short time. The successful comparison with numerical solution and analytical solution should give confidence in the proposed mathematical treatment, and encourage the acceptance of this method as useful tool for exploring practical problems such as forming materials process, ice melting process, food preservation process and tissue preservation process.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Romero, Vicente Jose
2011-11-01
This report explores some important considerations in devising a practical and consistent framework and methodology for utilizing experiments and experimental data to support modeling and prediction. A pragmatic and versatile 'Real Space' approach is outlined for confronting experimental and modeling bias and uncertainty to mitigate risk in modeling and prediction. The elements of experiment design and data analysis, data conditioning, model conditioning, model validation, hierarchical modeling, and extrapolative prediction under uncertainty are examined. An appreciation can be gained for the constraints and difficulties at play in devising a viable end-to-end methodology. Rationale is given for the various choices underlying the Real Space end-to-end approach. The approach adopts and refines some elements and constructs from the literature and adds pivotal new elements and constructs. Crucially, the approach reflects a pragmatism and versatility derived from working many industrial-scale problems involving complex physics and constitutive models, steady-state and time-varying nonlinear behavior and boundary conditions, and various types of uncertainty in experiments and models. The framework benefits from a broad exposure to integrated experimental and modeling activities in the areas of heat transfer, solid and structural mechanics, irradiated electronics, and combustion in fluids and solids.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wenyan Li, Yang Zhu, Xingzhong Guo, Kazuki Nakanishi, Kazuyoshi Kanamori and Hui Yang
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Monolithic aluminum phosphate (AlPO4 with a macro–mesoporous structure has been successfully prepared via the sol–gel process accompanied by phase separation in the presence of poly(ethylene oxide (PEO. Gelation of the system has been mediated by propylene oxide (PO, while PEO induces a phase separation. The dried gel is amorphous, whereas the crystalline tridymite phase precipitates upon heating above 1000 °C. Heat treatment does not spoil the macroporous morphology of the AlPO4 monoliths. Nitrogen adsorption–desorption measurements revealed that the skeletons of the dried gels possess a mesostructure with a median pore size of about 30 nm and a surface area as high as 120 m2 g−1. Hydrothermal treatment before heat treatment can increase the surface area to 282 m2 g−1.
Introduction into Hierarchical Matrices
Litvinenko, Alexander
2013-12-05
Hierarchical matrices allow us to reduce computational storage and cost from cubic to almost linear. This technique can be applied for solving PDEs, integral equations, matrix equations and approximation of large covariance and precision matrices.
Programming with Hierarchical Maps
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ørbæk, Peter
This report desribes the hierarchical maps used as a central data structure in the Corundum framework. We describe its most prominent features, ague for its usefulness and briefly describe some of the software prototypes implemented using the technology....
Micromechanics of hierarchical materials
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mishnaevsky, Leon, Jr.
2012-01-01
A short overview of micromechanical models of hierarchical materials (hybrid composites, biomaterials, fractal materials, etc.) is given. Several examples of the modeling of strength and damage in hierarchical materials are summarized, among them, 3D FE model of hybrid composites...... with nanoengineered matrix, fiber bundle model of UD composites with hierarchically clustered fibers and 3D multilevel model of wood considered as a gradient, cellular material with layered composite cell walls. The main areas of research in micromechanics of hierarchical materials are identified, among them......, the investigations of the effects of load redistribution between reinforcing elements at different scale levels, of the possibilities to control different material properties and to ensure synergy of strengthening effects at different scale levels and using the nanoreinforcement effects. The main future directions...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Heiblum, Reuven H. [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot Israel; Altaratz, Orit [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot Israel; Koren, Ilan [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot Israel; Feingold, Graham [Chemical Sciences Division, NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory, Boulder Colorado USA; Kostinski, Alexander B. [Department of Physics, Michigan Technological University, Houghton Michigan USA; Khain, Alexander P. [The Institute of Earth Sciences, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem Israel; Ovchinnikov, Mikhail [Atmosphere Science and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Fredj, Erick [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot Israel; Dagan, Guy [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot Israel; Pinto, Lital [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot Israel; Yaish, Ricki [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot Israel; Chen, Qian [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot Israel
2016-06-07
We study the evolution of warm convective cloud fields using large eddy simulations of continental and trade cumulus. Individual clouds are tracked a posteriori from formation to dissipation using a 3D cloud tracking algorithm and results are presented in the phase- space of center of gravity altitude versus cloud liquid water mass (CvM space). The CvM space is shown to contain rich information on cloud field characteristics, cloud morphology, and common cloud development pathways, together facilitating a comprehensive understanding of the cloud field. In this part we show how the meteorological (thermodynamic) conditions that determine the cloud properties are projected on the CvM phase space and how changes in the initial conditions affect the clouds' trajectories in this space. This part sets the stage for a detailed microphysical analysis that will be shown in part II.
NIAC Phase II Orbiting Rainbows: Future Space Imaging with Granular Systems
Quadrelli, Marco B.; Basinger, Scott; Arumugam, Darmindra; Swartzlander, Grover
2017-01-01
allow for unprecedented high resolution to discern continents and important features of other planets, hyperspectral imaging, adaptive systems, spectroscopy imaging through limb, and stable optical systems from Lagrange-points. Furthermore, future micro-miniaturization might hold promise of a further extension of our dust aperture concept to other more exciting smart dust concepts with other associated capabilities. Our objective in Phase II was to experimentally and numerically investigate how to optically manipulate and maintain the shape of an orbiting cloud of dust-like matter so that it can function as an adaptable ultra-lightweight surface. Our solution is based on the aperture being an engineered granular medium, instead of a conventional monolithic aperture. This allows building of apertures at a reduced cost, enables extremely fault-tolerant apertures that cannot otherwise be made, and directly enables classes of missions for exoplanet detection based on Fourier spectroscopy with tight angular resolution and innovative radar systems for remote sensing. In this task, we have examined the advanced feasibility of a crosscutting concept that contributes new technological approaches for space imaging systems, autonomous systems, and space applications of optical manipulation. The proposed investigation has matured the concept that we started in Phase I to TRL 3, identifying technology gaps and candidate system architectures for the space-borne cloud as an aperture.
Hierarchical screening for multiple mental disorders.
Batterham, Philip J; Calear, Alison L; Sunderland, Matthew; Carragher, Natacha; Christensen, Helen; Mackinnon, Andrew J
2013-10-01
There is a need for brief, accurate screening when assessing multiple mental disorders. Two-stage hierarchical screening, consisting of brief pre-screening followed by a battery of disorder-specific scales for those who meet diagnostic criteria, may increase the efficiency of screening without sacrificing precision. This study tested whether more efficient screening could be gained using two-stage hierarchical screening than by administering multiple separate tests. Two Australian adult samples (N=1990) with high rates of psychopathology were recruited using Facebook advertising to examine four methods of hierarchical screening for four mental disorders: major depressive disorder, generalised anxiety disorder, panic disorder and social phobia. Using K6 scores to determine whether full screening was required did not increase screening efficiency. However, pre-screening based on two decision tree approaches or item gating led to considerable reductions in the mean number of items presented per disorder screened, with estimated item reductions of up to 54%. The sensitivity of these hierarchical methods approached 100% relative to the full screening battery. Further testing of the hierarchical screening approach based on clinical criteria and in other samples is warranted. The results demonstrate that a two-phase hierarchical approach to screening multiple mental disorders leads to considerable increases efficiency gains without reducing accuracy. Screening programs should take advantage of prescreeners based on gating items or decision trees to reduce the burden on respondents. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Wu, Jiandong; Huang, Ruodong; Wan, Jiadong; Chen, Yading; Yin, Yi; Chen, George
2016-04-01
Data processing (i.e. phase identification) using the instantaneous phase φ‧(t) defined by the Hilbert transform is discussed to confirm the detecting phase of the space charge observed by the pulsed electroacoustic method under the periodic wave V a (t). The discrete voltage V a (i) of the periodic wave at the detecting phase φ(i) is used for phase identification, and φ(i) is equally distributed to obtain N p divisions for the phase within one period. The accuracy of the discrete instantaneous phase φ‧(i) is significantly determined by the number of samples N for the discrete voltage V a (i). The instantaneous phase is consistent with the real phase of pure sine and cosine waves, and this phase linearly varies with time. However, the instantaneous phase non-linearly varies with time under the periodic stress of arbitrary waveforms. This limitation can be resolved using the base wave component, i.e. sine or cosine wave of V a (t), which is acquired by the Fourier transform. Finally, the space charge behaviour in low-density polyethylene under square and sine waves with offset is detected to verify the accuracy and effectiveness of the proposed method.
Akkelin, S V; 10.1103/PhysRevC.70.064901
2004-01-01
A method allowing analysis of the overpopulation of phase space in heavy ion collisions in a model-independent way is proposed within the hydrodynamic approach. It makes it possible to extract a chemical potential of thermal pions at freeze-out, irrespective of the form of freeze-out (isothermal) hypersurface in Minkowski space and transverse flows on it. The contributions of resonance (with masses up to 2 GeV) decays to spectra, interferometry volumes, and phase- space densities are calculated and discussed in detail. The estimates of average phase-space densities and chemical potentials of thermal pions are obtained for SPS and RHIC energies. They demonstrate that multibosonic phenomena at those energies might be considered as a correction factor rather than as a significant physical effect. The analysis of the evolution of the pion average phase-space density in chemically frozen hadron systems shows that it is almost constant or slightly increases with time while the particle density and phase- space dens...
Prajapati, N.; Ankit, K.; Selzer, M.; Nestler, B.; Schmidt, C.; Hilgers, C.
2016-12-01
Prediction of cement volumes is an integral part of reservoir modeling. Quantitative determination of petrophysical charateristics such as permeability and water saturation are essential in order to assess the sufficiency of hydrocarbons in pore space. Conventional techniques such as well-logging provide only a qualitative understanding of the cementation history and future pore evolution. Diffused modeling approach such as the phase-field method is a viable alternative that can be used to numerically simulate pore cementation under different boundary conditions in a thermodynamically-consistent manner. Here, we use a multiphase-field model to investigate the dynamics of polycrystalline quartz precipitation from supersaturated solution in porous rock. To begin with, we validate the faceted-type anisotropy formulations of the interfacial energy function that corresponds to monocrystalline quartz using the volume-preservation technique. Next, we numerically simulate the unitaxial evolution of quartz in a 2D open space and investigate the role of misorientations and c/a ratios in the formation of quartz cement that is extensively observed in nature. Based on this sensitivity analysis, we choose a realistic c/a ratio to computationally mimic the anisotropic sealing of pore space in sandstone. We observe a large deviation of 3D sealing kinetics as compared to 2D. The decrease in 3D pore space volume during cementation is found to be inversely dependent (non-linear) on the inter-nuclei distance. Using CFD analysis, we then derive the temporal evolution of permeability in partially sealed microstructures. Finally, we highlight the capabilities of the present numerical approaches in numerically simulating 3D reactive flow during progressive sealing in porous rocks based on innovative post-processing analyses and visualization techniques.
Phase-space geometry and reaction dynamics near index 2 saddles
Ezra, Gregory S.; Wiggins, Stephen
2009-05-01
We study the phase-space geometry associated with index 2 saddles of a potential energy surface and its influence on reaction dynamics for n degree-of-freedom (DoF) Hamiltonian systems. In recent years, similar studies have been carried out for index 1 saddles of potential energy surfaces, and the phase-space geometry associated with classical transition state theory has been elucidated. In this case, the existence of a normally hyperbolic invariant manifold (NHIM) of saddle stability type has been shown, where the NHIM serves as the 'anchor' for the construction of dividing surfaces having the no-recrossing property and minimal flux. For the index 1 saddle case, the stable and unstable manifolds of the NHIM are co-dimension 1 in the energy surface and have the structure of spherical cylinders, and thus act as the conduits for reacting trajectories in phase space. The situation for index 2 saddles is quite different, and their relevance for reaction dynamics has not previously been fully recognized. We show that NHIMs with their stable and unstable manifolds still exist, but that these manifolds by themselves lack sufficient dimension to act as barriers in the energy surface in order to constrain reactions. Rather, in the index 2 case there are different types of invariant manifolds, containing the NHIM and its stable and unstable manifolds, that act as co-dimension 1 barriers in the energy surface. These barriers divide the energy surface in the vicinity of the index 2 saddle into regions of qualitatively different trajectories exhibiting a wider variety of dynamical behavior than for the case of index 1 saddles. In particular, we can identify a class of trajectories, which we refer to as 'roaming trajectories', which are not associated with reaction along the classical minimum energy path (MEP). We illustrate the significance of our analysis of the index 2 saddle for reaction dynamics with two examples. The first involves isomerization on a potential energy
Dai, De-Chang; Stojkovic, Dejan
2012-10-01
We study a retarded potential solution of a massless scalar field in curved space-time. In a special ansatz for a particle at rest whose magnitude of the (scalar) charge is changing with time, we found an exact analytic solution. The solution indicates that the phase velocity of the retarded potential of a nonmoving scalar charge is position-dependent and may easily be greater than the speed of light at a given point. In the case of the Schwarzschild space-time, at the horizon, the phase velocity becomes infinitely faster than the coordinate speed of light at that point. Superluminal phase velocity is a relatively common phenomenon, with the phase velocity of the massive Klein-Gordon field as the best known example. We discuss why it is possible to have modes with superluminal phase velocity even for a massless field.
Critical phenomena in the extended phase space of Kerr-Newman-AdS black holes
Cheng, Peng; Liu, Yu-Xiao
2016-01-01
Treating the cosmological constant as a thermodynamic pressure, we investigate the critical behavior of a Kerr-Newman-AdS black hole system. The critical points for the van der Waals like phase transition are numerically solved. The highly accurate fitting formula for them is given and is found to be dependent of the charge $Q$ and angular momentum $J$. In the reduced parameter space, we find that the temperature, Gibbs free energy, and coexistence curve depend only on the dimensionless angular momentum-charge ratio $\\epsilon=J/Q^2$ rather than $Q$ and $J$. Moreover, when varying $\\epsilon$ from 0 to $\\infty$, the coexistence curve will continuously change from that of the Reissner-Nordstr\\"{o}m-AdS black hole to the Kerr-AdS black hole. These results may guide us to study the critical phenomena for other thermodynamic systems with two characteristic parameters.
Extended phase space analysis of interacting dark energy models in loop quantum cosmology
Zonunmawia, Hmar; Khyllep, Wompherdeiki; Roy, Nandan; Dutta, Jibitesh; Tamanini, Nicola
2017-10-01
The present work deals with the dynamical system investigation of interacting dark energy models (quintessence and phantom) in the framework of loop quantum cosmology by taking into account a broad class of self-interacting scalar field potentials. The main reason for studying potentials beyond the exponential type is to obtain additional critical points which can yield more interesting cosmological solutions. The stability of critical points and the asymptotic behavior of the phase space are analyzed using dynamical system tools and numerical techniques. We study two classes of interacting dark energy models and consider two specific potentials as examples: the hyperbolic potential and the inverse power-law potential. We find a rich and interesting phenomenology, including the avoidance of big rip singularities due to loop quantum effects, smooth and nonlinear transitions from matter domination to dark energy domination, and finite periods of phantom domination with dynamical crossing of the phantom barrier.
Longitudinal phase space manipulation in energy recovering linac-driven free-electron lasers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. Piot
2003-03-01
Full Text Available Energy recovering an electron beam after it has participated in a free-electron laser (FEL interaction can be quite challenging because of the substantial FEL-induced energy spread and the energy antidamping that occurs during deceleration. In the Jefferson Lab infrared FEL driver accelerator, such an energy recovery scheme was implemented by properly matching the longitudinal phase space throughout the recirculation transport by employing the so-called energy compression scheme. In the present paper, after presenting a single-particle dynamics approach of the method used to energy recover the electron beam, we report on experimental validation of the method obtained by measurements of the so-called “compression efficiency” and “momentum compaction” lattice transfer maps at different locations in the recirculation transport line. We also compare these measurements with numerical tracking simulations.
APPLICATION OF VORONOI DIAGRAM TO MASK-BASED INTERCEPTING PHASE-SPACE MEASUREMENTS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Halavanau, A. [Fermilab; Ha, G. [POSTECH
2017-05-19
Intercepting multi-aperture masks (e.g. pepper pot or multislit mask) combined with a downstream transversedensity diagnostics (e.g. based on optical transition radiation or employing scintillating media) are commonly used for characterizing the phase space of charged particle beams and the associated emittances. The required data analysis relies on precise calculation of the RMS sizes and positions of the beamlets originated from the mask which drifted up to the analyzing diagnostics. Voronoi diagram is an efficient method for splitting a plane into subsets according to the distances between given vortices. The application of the method to analyze data from pepper pot and multislit mask based measurement is validated via numerical simulation and applied to experimental data acquired at the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator (AWA) facility. We also discuss the application of the Voronoi diagrams to quantify transverselymodulated beams distortion.
Transport of phase space densities through tetrahedral meshes using discrete flow mapping
Bajars, Janis; Sondergaard, Niels; Tanner, Gregor
2016-01-01
Discrete flow mapping was recently introduced as an efficient ray based method determining wave energy distributions in complex built up structures. Wave energy densities are transported along ray trajectories through polygonal mesh elements using a finite dimensional approximation of a ray transfer operator. In this way the method can be viewed as a smoothed ray tracing method defined over meshed surfaces. Many applications require the resolution of wave energy distributions in three-dimensional domains, such as in room acoustics, underwater acoustics and for electromagnetic cavity problems. In this work we extend discrete flow mapping to three-dimensional domains by propagating wave energy densities through tetrahedral meshes. The geometric simplicity of the tetrahedral mesh elements is utilised to efficiently compute the ray transfer operator using a mixture of analytic and spectrally accurate numerical integration. The important issue of how to choose a suitable basis approximation in phase space whilst m...
A new approach to the analysis of the phase space of f(R)-gravity
Carloni, Sante
2015-01-01
We propose a new dynamical system formalism for the analysis of f(R) cosmologies. The new approach eliminates the need for cumbersome inversions to close the dynamical system and allows the analysis of the phase space of f(R)-gravity models which cannot be investigated using the standard technique. Differently form previously proposed similar techniques, the new method is constructed in such a way to associate to the fixed points scale factors, which contain four integration constants (i.e. solutions of fourth order differential equations). In this way a new light is shed on the physical meaning of the fixed points. We apply this technique to some f(R) Lagrangians relevant for inflationary and dark energy models.
Multidimensional phase space methods for mass measurements and decay topology determination
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Altunkaynak, Baris [Northeastern University, Department of Physics, Boston, MA (United States); Kilic, Can; Klimek, Matthew D. [The University of Texas at Austin, Theory Group, Department of Physics and Texas Cosmology Center, Austin, TX (United States)
2017-02-15
Collider events with multi-stage cascade decays fill out the kinematically allowed region in phase space with a density that is enhanced at the boundary. The boundary encodes all available information as regards the spectrum and is well populated even with moderate signal statistics due to this enhancement. In previous work, the improvement in the precision of mass measurements for cascade decays with three visible and one invisible particles was demonstrated when the full boundary information is used instead of endpoints of one-dimensional projections. We extend these results to cascade decays with four visible and one invisible particles. We also comment on how the topology of the cascade decay can be determined from the differential distribution of events in these scenarios. (orig.)
Phase space dynamics and control of the quantum particles associated to hypergraph states
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Berec Vesna
2015-01-01
Full Text Available As today’s nanotechnology focus becomes primarily oriented toward production and manipulation of materials at the subatomic level, allowing the performance and complexity of interconnects where the device density accepts more than hundreds devices on a single chip, the manipulation of semiconductor nanostructures at the subatomic level sets its prime tasks on preserving and adequate transmission of information encoded in specified (quantum states. The presented study employs the quantum communication protocol based on the hypergraph network model where the numerical solutions of equations of motion of quantum particles are associated to vertices (assembled with device chip, which follow specific controllable paths in the phase space. We address these findings towards ultimate quest for prediction and selective control of quantum particle trajectories. In addition, presented protocols could represent valuable tool for reducing background noise and uncertainty in low-dimensional and operationally meaningful, scalable complex systems.
Laboratory observation of electron phase-space holes during magnetic reconnection.
Fox, W; Porkolab, M; Egedal, J; Katz, N; Le, A
2008-12-19
We report the observation of large-amplitude, nonlinear electrostatic structures, identified as electron phase-space holes, during magnetic reconnection experiments on the Versatile Toroidal Facility at MIT. The holes are positive electric potential spikes, observed on high-bandwidth ( approximately 2 GHz) Langmuir probes. Investigations with multiple probes establish that the holes travel at or above the electron thermal speed and have a three-dimensional, approximately spherical shape, with a scale size approximately 2 mm. This corresponds to a few electron gyroradii, or many tens of Debye lengths, which is large compared to holes considered in simulations and observed by satellites, whose length scale is typically only a few Debye lengths. Finally, a statistical study over many discharges confirms that the holes appear in conjunction with the large inductive electric fields and the creation of energetic electrons associated with the magnetic energy release.
Adequate bases of phase space master integrals for gg → h at NNLO and beyond
Höschele, Maik; Hoff, Jens; Ueda, Takahiro
2014-09-01
We study master integrals needed to compute the Higgs boson production cross section via gluon fusion in the infinite top quark mass limit, using a canonical form of differential equations for master integrals, recently identified by Henn, which makes their solution possible in a straightforward algebraic way. We apply the known criteria to derive such a suitable basis for all the phase space master integrals in afore mentioned process at next-to-next-to-leading order in QCD and demonstrate that the method is applicable to next-to-next-to-next-to-leading order as well by solving a non-planar topology. Furthermore, we discuss in great detail how to find an adequate basis using practical examples. Special emphasis is devoted to master integrals which are coupled by their differential equations.
Villar, V. Ashley; Berger, Edo; Metzger, Brian D.; Guillochon, James
2017-11-01
The duration-luminosity phase space (DLPS) of optical transients is used, mostly heuristically, to compare various classes of transient events, to explore the origin of new transients, and to influence optical survey observing strategies. For example, several observational searches have been guided by intriguing voids and gaps in this phase space. However, we should ask, do we expect to find transients in these voids given our understanding of the various heating sources operating in astrophysical transients? In this work, we explore a broad range of theoretical models and empirical relations to generate optical light curves and to populate the DLPS. We explore transients powered by adiabatic expansion, radioactive decay, magnetar spin-down, and circumstellar interaction. For each heating source, we provide a concise summary of the basic physical processes, a physically motivated choice of model parameter ranges, an overall summary of the resulting light curves and their occupied range in the DLPS, and how the various model input parameters affect the light curves. We specifically explore the key voids discussed in the literature: the intermediate-luminosity gap between classical novae and supernovae, and short-duration transients (≲ 10 days). We find that few physical models lead to transients that occupy these voids. Moreover, we find that only relativistic expansion can produce fast and luminous transients, while for all other heating sources events with durations ≲ 10 days are dim ({M}{{R}}≳ -15 mag). Finally, we explore the detection potential of optical surveys (e.g., Large Synoptic Survey Telescope) in the DLPS and quantify the notion that short-duration and dim transients are exponentially more difficult to discover in untargeted surveys.
Dechant, Andreas; Shafier, Shalom Tzvi; Kessler, David A; Barkai, Eli
2016-08-01
The Boltzmann-Gibbs density, a central result of equilibrium statistical mechanics, relates the energy of a system in contact with a thermal bath to its equilibrium statistics. This relation is lost for nonthermal systems such as cold atoms in optical lattices, where the heat bath is replaced with the laser beams of the lattice. We investigate in detail the stationary phase-space probability for Sisyphus cooling under harmonic confinement. In particular, we elucidate whether the total energy of the system still describes its stationary state statistics. We find that this is true for the center part of the phase-space density for deep lattices, where the Boltzmann-Gibbs density provides an approximate description. The relation between energy and statistics also persists for strong confinement and in the limit of high energies, where the system becomes underdamped. However, the phase-space density now exhibits heavy power-law tails. In all three cases we find expressions for the leading-order phase-space density and corrections which break the equivalence of probability and energy and violate energy equipartition. The nonequilibrium nature of the steady state is corroborated by explicit violations of detailed balance. We complement these analytical results with numerical simulations to map out the intricate structure of the phase-space density.
2016-01-01
We critically examine the classic endpoint method for particle mass determination, focusing on difficult corners of parameter space, where some of the measurements are not independent, while others are adversely affected by the experimental resolution. In such scenarios, mass differences can be measured relatively well, but the overall mass scale remains poorly constrained. Using the example of the standard SUSY decay chain $\\tilde q\\to \\tilde\\chi^0_2\\to \\tilde \\ell \\to \\tilde \\chi^0_1$, we demonstrate that sensitivity to the remaining mass scale parameter can be recovered by measuring the two-dimensional kinematical boundary in the relevant three-dimensional phase space of invariant masses squared. We develop an algorithm for detecting this boundary, which uses the geometric properties of the Voronoi tessellation of the data, and in particular, the relative standard deviation (RSD) of the volumes of the neighbors for each Voronoi cell in the tessellation. We propose a new observable, $\\bar\\Sigma$, which is ...
Electron holes in phase space: What they are and why they matter
Hutchinson, I. H.
2017-05-01
This is a tutorial and selective review explaining the fundamental concepts and some currently open questions concerning the plasma phenomenon of the electron hole. The widespread occurrence of electron holes in numerical simulations, space-craft observations, and laboratory experiments is illustrated. The elementary underlying theory is developed of a one-dimensional electron hole as a localized potential maximum, self-consistently sustained by a deficit of trapped electron phase-space density. The spatial extent of a hole is typically a few Debye lengths; what determines the minimum and maximum possible lengths is explained, addressing the key aspects of the as yet unsettled dispute between the integral and differential approaches to hole structure. In multiple dimensions, holes tend to form less readily; they generally require a magnetic field and distribution-function anisotropy. The mechanisms by which they break up are explained, noting that this transverse instability is not fully understood. Examples are given of plasma circumstances where holes play an important role, and of recent progress on understanding their holistic kinematics and self-acceleration.
Kinetic theory of phase space plateaux in a non-thermal energetic particle distribution
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Eriksson, F., E-mail: frida.eriksson@chalmers.se; Nyqvist, R. M. [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, 41296 Göteborg (Sweden); Lilley, M. K. [Physics Department, Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)
2015-09-15
The transformation of kinetically unstable plasma eigenmodes into hole-clump pairs with temporally evolving carrier frequencies was recently attributed to the emergence of an intermediate stage in the mode evolution cycle, that of an unmodulated plateau in the phase space distribution of fast particles. The role of the plateau as the hole-clump breeding ground is further substantiated in this article via consideration of its linear and nonlinear stability in the presence of fast particle collisions and sources, which are known to affect the production rates and subsequent frequency sweeping of holes and clumps. In particular, collisional relaxation, as mediated by e.g. velocity space diffusion or even simple Krook-type collisions, is found to inhibit hole-clump generation and detachment from the plateau, as it should. On the other hand, slowing down of the fast particles turns out to have an asymmetrically destabilizing/stabilizing effect, which explains the well-known result that collisional drag enhances holes and their sweeping rates but suppresses clumps. It is further demonstrated that relaxation of the plateau edge gradients has only a minor quantitative effect and does not change the plateau stability qualitatively, unless the edge region extends far into the plateau shelf and the corresponding Landau pole needs to be taken into account.
Robustness of double random phase encoding spread-space spread-spectrum image watermarking technique
Liu, Shi; Hennelly, Bryan M.; Sheridan, John T.
2013-09-01
In this paper the robustness of a recently proposed image watermarking scheme is investigated, namely the Double Random Phase Encoding spread-space spread-spectrum watermarking (DRPE SS-SS) technique. In the DRPE SS-SS method, the watermark is in the form of a digital barcode image which is numerically encrypted using a simulation of the optical DRPE process. This produces a random complex image, which is then processed to form a real valued random image with a low number of quantization levels. This signal is added to the host image. Extraction of the barcode, involves applying an inverse DRPE process to the watermarked image followed by a low pass filter. This algorithm is designed to utilize the capability of the DRPE to reversibly spread the energy of the watermarking information in both the space and spatial frequency domains, and the energy of the watermark in any spatial or spatial frequency bin is very small. The common geometric transformations and signal processing operations are performed using both the informed and the blind detections for different barcode widths and different quantization levels. The results presented indicate that the DRPE SS-SS method is robust to scaling, JPEG compression distortion, cropping, low pass and high pass filtering. It is also demonstrated that the bigger the barcode width is, the lower the false positive rate will be.
Detecting kinematic boundary surfaces in phase space: particle mass measurements in SUSY-like events
Debnath, Dipsikha; Kilic, Can; Kim, Doojin; Matchev, Konstantin T.; Yang, Yuan-Pao
2017-06-19
We critically examine the classic endpoint method for particle mass determination, focusing on difficult corners of parameter space, where some of the measurements are not independent, while others are adversely affected by the experimental resolution. In such scenarios, mass differences can be measured relatively well, but the overall mass scale remains poorly constrained. Using the example of the standard SUSY decay chain $\\tilde q\\to \\tilde\\chi^0_2\\to \\tilde \\ell \\to \\tilde \\chi^0_1$, we demonstrate that sensitivity to the remaining mass scale parameter can be recovered by measuring the two-dimensional kinematical boundary in the relevant three-dimensional phase space of invariant masses squared. We develop an algorithm for detecting this boundary, which uses the geometric properties of the Voronoi tessellation of the data, and in particular, the relative standard deviation (RSD) of the volumes of the neighbors for each Voronoi cell in the tessellation. We propose a new observable, $\\bar\\Sigma$, which is t...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Plesko, Catherine S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Clement, R Ryan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Weaver, Robert P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bradley, Paul A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Huebner, Walter F [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2009-01-01
The mitigation of impact hazards resulting from Earth-approaching asteroids and comets has received much attention in the popular press. However, many questions remain about the near-term and long-term, feasibility and appropriate application of all proposed methods. Recent and ongoing ground- and space-based observations of small solar-system body composition and dynamics have revolutionized our understanding of these bodies (e.g., Ryan (2000), Fujiwara et al. (2006), and Jedicke et al. (2006)). Ongoing increases in computing power and algorithm sophistication make it possible to calculate the response of these inhomogeneous objects to proposed mitigation techniques. Here we present the first phase of a comprehensive hazard mitigation planning effort undertaken by Southwest Research Institute and Los Alamos National Laboratory. We begin by reviewing the parameter space of the object's physical and chemical composition and trajectory. We then use the radiation hydrocode RAGE (Gittings et al. 2008), Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) radiation transport (see Clement et al., this conference), and N-body dynamics codes to explore the effects these variations in object properties have on the coupling of energy into the object from a variety of mitigation techniques, including deflection and disruption by nuclear and conventional munitions, and a kinetic impactor.
Insights into Inverse Materials Design from Phase Transitions in Shape Space
Cersonsky, Rose; van Anders, Greg; Dodd, Paul M.; Glotzer, Sharon C.
In designing new materials for synthesis, the inverse materials design approach posits that, given a structure, we can predict a building block optimized for self- assembly. How does that building block change as pressure is varied to maintain the same crystal structure? We address this question for entropically stabilized colloidal crystals by working in a generalized statistical thermodynamic ensemble where an alchemical potential variable is fixed and its conjugate variable, particle shape, is allowed to fluctuate. We show that there are multiple regions of shape behavior and phase transitions in shape space between these regions. Furthermore, while past literature has looked towards packing arguments for proposing shape-filling candidate building blocks for structure formation, we show that even at very high pressures, a structure will attain lowest free energy by modifying these space-filling shapes. U.S. Army Research Office under Grant Award No. W911NF-10-1-0518, Emerging Frontiers in Research and Innovation Award EFRI-1240264, National Science Foundation Grant Number ACI- 1053575, XSEDE award DMR 140129, Rackham Merit Fellowship Program.
Galactic Halo Stars in Phase Space: A Hint of Satellite Accretion?
Brook, Chris B.; Kawata, Daisuke; Gibson, Brad K.; Flynn, Chris
2003-03-01
The present-day chemical and dynamical properties of the Milky Way bear the imprint of the Galaxy's formation and evolutionary history. One of the most enduring and critical debates surrounding Galactic evolution is that regarding the competition between ``satellite accretion'' and ``monolithic collapse'' the apparent strong correlation between orbital eccentricity and metallicity of halo stars was originally used as supporting evidence for the latter. While modern-day unbiased samples no longer support the claims for a significant correlation, recent evidence has been presented by Chiba & Beers for the existence of a minor population of high-eccentricity metal-deficient halo stars. It has been suggested that these stars represent the signature of a rapid (if minor) collapse phase in the Galaxy's history. Employing velocity and integrals of motion phase-space projections of these stars, coupled with a series of N-body/smoothed particle hydrodynamic chemodynamical simulations, we suggest that an alternative mechanism for creating such stars may be the recent accretion of a polar orbit dwarf galaxy.
Trugenberger, Carlo A
2015-12-01
Recently I proposed a simple dynamical network model for discrete space-time that self-organizes as a graph with Hausdorff dimension d(H)=4. The model has a geometric quantum phase transition with disorder parameter (d(H)-d(s)), where d(s) is the spectral dimension of the dynamical graph. Self-organization in this network model is based on a competition between a ferromagnetic Ising model for vertices and an antiferromagnetic Ising model for edges. In this paper I solve a toy version of this model defined on a bipartite graph in the mean-field approximation. I show that the geometric phase transition corresponds exactly to the antiferromagnetic transition for edges, the dimensional disorder parameter of the former being mapped to the staggered magnetization order parameter of the latter. The model has a critical point with long-range correlations between edges, where a continuum random geometry can be defined, exactly as in Kazakov's famed 2D random lattice Ising model but now in any number of dimensions.
Jupiter's auroras during the Juno approach phase as observed by the Hubble Space Telescope
Nichols, J. D.; Clarke, J. T.; Orton, G. S.; Cowley, S. W. H.; Bunce, E. J.; Stallard, T.; Badman, S. V.; Grodent, D. C.; Bonfond, B.; Radioti, K.; Gerard, J. C. M. C.; Gladstone, R.; Bagenal, F.; Connerney, J. E. P.; Valek, P. W.; Ebert, R. W.; McComas, D. J.; Mauk, B.; Clark, G. B.; Kurth, W. S.; Yoshikawa, I.; Kimura, T.; Fujimoto, M.; Tao, C.; Bolton, S. J.
2016-12-01
We present movies of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations of Jupiter's FUV auroras observed during the Juno approach phase and first capture orbit, and compare with Juno observations of the interplanetary medium near Jupiter and inside the magnetosphere. Jupiter's FUV auroras indicate the nature of the dynamic processes occurring in Jupiter's magnetosphere, and the approach phase provided a unique opportunity to obtain a full set of interplanetary data near to Jupiter at the time of a program of HST observations, along with the first simultaneous with Juno observations inside the magnetosphere. The overall goal was to determine the nature of the solar wind effect on Jupiter's magnetosphere. HST observations were obtained with typically 1 orbit per day over three intervals: 16 May - 7 June, 22-30 June and 11-18 July, i.e. while Juno was in the solar wind, around the bow shock and magnetosphere crossings, and in the mid-latitude middle-outer magnetospheres. We show that these intervals are characterised by particularly dynamic polar auroras, and significant variations in the auroral power output caused by e.g. dawn storms, intense main emission and poleward forms. We compare the variation of these features with Juno observations of interplanetary compression regions and the magnetospheric environment during the intervals of these observations.
Cancer as quasi-attractor in the gene expression phase space
Giuliani, A.
2017-09-01
It takes no more than 250 tissue types to build up a metazoan, and each tissue has a specific and largely invariant gene expression signature. This implies the `viable configurations' correspondent to a given activated/inactivated expression pattern over the entire genome are very few. This points to the presence of few `low energy deep valleys' correspondent to the allowed states of the system and is a direct consequence of the fact genes do not work by alone but embedded into genetic expression networks. Statistical thermodynamics formalism focusing on the changes in the degree of correlation of the studied systems allows to detect transition behavior in gene expression phase space resembling the phase transition of physical-chemistry studies. In this realm cancer can be intended as a sort of `parasite' sub-attractor of the corresponding healthy tissue that, in the case of disease, is `kinetically entrapped' into a sub-optimal solution. The consequences of such a state of affair for cancer therapies are potentially huge.
Phase space theory of evaporation in neon clusters: the role of quantum effects.
Calvo, F; Parneix, P
2009-12-31
Unimolecular evaporation of neon clusters containing between 14 and 148 atoms is theoretically investigated in the framework of phase space theory. Quantum effects are incorporated in the vibrational densities of states, which include both zero-point and anharmonic contributions, and in the possible tunneling through the centrifugal barrier. The evaporation rates, kinetic energy released, and product angular momentum are calculated as a function of excess energy or temperature in the parent cluster and compared to the classical results. Quantum fluctuations are found to generally increase both the kinetic energy released and the angular momentum of the product, but the effects on the rate constants depend nontrivially on the excess energy. These results are interpreted as due to the very few vibrational states available in the product cluster when described quantum mechanically. Because delocalization also leads to much narrower thermal energy distributions, the variations of evaporation observables as a function of canonical temperature appear much less marked than in the microcanonical ensemble. While quantum effects tend to smooth the caloric curve in the product cluster, the melting phase change clearly keeps a signature on these observables. The microcanonical temperature extracted from fitting the kinetic energy released distribution using an improved Arrhenius form further suggests a backbending in the quantum Ne(13) cluster that is absent in the classical system. Finally, in contrast to delocalization effects, quantum tunneling through the centrifugal barrier does not play any appreciable role on the evaporation kinetics of these rather heavy clusters.
Maximal vowel space method in analysis of vowels in prelingual speech phase
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vojnović Milan
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The main problems in the analysis of vowels which occur in prelingual speech phase are centralization of utterance and unknown dimension of vocal tract. Most researches in this field are based on the analysis of maximal vowel space (MVS because discrimination of vowels is very difficult in this early period. MVS analysis includes the estimation of vocal tract (VT physical dimensions. The aim of this research was to estimate and define changes in vowel pronunciation during prelingual speech phase. The analysis and voice recording were performed in a two month old child until he turned one. The recording was performed in 42 sessions, on average 4 sessions every month. Sound segments that look like vowel pronunciation were extracted from the recordings and were used for the formant frequencies estimation by PRAAT software. The Burg method was used for formant frequency estimation. Research results showed that MVS can be used in diagnostic procedure from a child's earliest age. MVS analysis is appropriate for a child's earliest age as a child needs to pronounce individual phonemes, and does not need to respond to speech stimuli. These results need to be confirmed on a larger sample when extended analysis should define criteria for discrimination of typical and atypical formant frequencies.
Longitudinal phase-space manipulation of ellipsoidal electron bunches in realistic fields
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. B. van der Geer
2006-04-01
Full Text Available Since the recent publication of a practical recipe to create “pancake” electron bunches which evolve into uniformly filled ellipsoids, a number of papers have addressed both an alternative method to create such ellipsoids as well as their behavior in realistic fields. So far, the focus has been on the possibilities to preserve the initial “thermal” transverse emittance. This paper addresses the linear longitudinal phase space of ellipsoidal bunches. It is shown that ellipsoidal bunches allow ballistic compression at subrelativistic energies, without the detrimental effects of nonlinear space-charge forces. This in turn eliminates the need for the large correlated energy spread normally required for longitudinal compression of relativistic particle beams, while simultaneously avoiding all problems related to magnetic compression. Furthermore, the linear space-charge forces of ellipsoidal bunches can be used to reduce the remaining energy spread even further, by carefully choosing the beam transverse size, in a process that is essentially the time-reversed process of the creation of an ellipsoid at the cathode. The feasibility of compression of ellipsoidal bunches is illustrated with a relatively simple setup, consisting of a half-cell S-band photogun and a two-cell booster compressor. Detailed GPT simulations in realistic fields predict that 100 pC ellipsoidal bunches can be ballistically compressed to 100 fs, at a transverse emittance of 0.7 μm, with a final energy of 3.7 MeV and an energy spread of only 50 keV.
Parallel hierarchical radiosity rendering
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Carter, Michael [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)
1993-07-01
In this dissertation, the step-by-step development of a scalable parallel hierarchical radiosity renderer is documented. First, a new look is taken at the traditional radiosity equation, and a new form is presented in which the matrix of linear system coefficients is transformed into a symmetric matrix, thereby simplifying the problem and enabling a new solution technique to be applied. Next, the state-of-the-art hierarchical radiosity methods are examined for their suitability to parallel implementation, and scalability. Significant enhancements are also discovered which both improve their theoretical foundations and improve the images they generate. The resultant hierarchical radiosity algorithm is then examined for sources of parallelism, and for an architectural mapping. Several architectural mappings are discussed. A few key algorithmic changes are suggested during the process of making the algorithm parallel. Next, the performance, efficiency, and scalability of the algorithm are analyzed. The dissertation closes with a discussion of several ideas which have the potential to further enhance the hierarchical radiosity method, or provide an entirely new forum for the application of hierarchical methods.
Translating Management Ideas in Hierarchical Organization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wæraas, Arild; Nielsen, Jeppe
of Leadership Pipeline in a Danish fire department and how the translators’ approach changed over time from a modifying to a reproducing mode. The study finds that translation does not necessarily imply transformation of the management idea at every phase of the process, pointing instead to efforts of exact...... imitation and copying of the ”original” idea. It also suggests that translation is likely to involve multiple and successive translation modes and, furthermore, that strongly hierarchical structures offer translators control over the translation process. This hierarchical control seems to reduce...
Star Cluster Structure from Hierarchical Star Formation
Grudic, Michael; Hopkins, Philip; Murray, Norman; Lamberts, Astrid; Guszejnov, David; Schmitz, Denise; Boylan-Kolchin, Michael
2018-01-01
Young massive star clusters (YMCs) spanning 104-108 M⊙ in mass generally have similar radial surface density profiles, with an outer power-law index typically between -2 and -3. This similarity suggests that they are shaped by scale-free physics at formation. Recent multi-physics MHD simulations of YMC formation have also produced populations of YMCs with this type of surface density profile, allowing us to narrow down the physics necessary to form a YMC with properties as observed. We show that the shallow density profiles of YMCs are a natural result of phase-space mixing that occurs as they assemble from the clumpy, hierarchically-clustered configuration imprinted by the star formation process. We develop physical intuition for this process via analytic arguments and collisionless N-body experiments, elucidating the connection between star formation physics and star cluster structure. This has implications for the early-time structure and evolution of proto-globular clusters, and prospects for simulating their formation in the FIRE cosmological zoom-in simulations.
A Duty Cycle Space Vector Modulation Strategy for a Three-to-Five Phase Direct Matrix Converter
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rutian Wang
2018-02-01
Full Text Available The duty cycle space vector (DCSV modulation strategy is of universal significance, and the method can be utilized for different modulation approaches. In this paper, the vectors of input voltages and currents are equivalently represented by a complex two-dimensional space vector, and the vectors of output voltages and currents are equivalently represented by two two-dimensional space vectors. Then, input–output relationships in both the d1-q1 space and the d3-q3 space are obtained. Because the desired output voltages are only mapped onto a reference voltage space vector in the d1-q1 space, the reference in the d3-q3 space is regarded as zero, in order to reduce harmonics of output voltages to the greatest extent. Then, the duty cycle space vector modulation strategy of the three-to-five phase direct matrix converter (DMC is deduced. Considering the influence of the zero vector on system performance, the duty cycles are decomposed and recomposed to obtain the space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM strategy based on the duty cycle space vector. Finally, the accuracy and feasibility of the theory are verified through experiments.
HIERARCHICAL FRAGMENTATION OF THE ORION MOLECULAR FILAMENTS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Takahashi, Satoko; Ho, Paul T. P.; Su, Yu-Nung [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Teixeira, Paula S. [Institut fuer Astrophysik, Universitaet Wien, Tuerkenschanzstrasse 17, A-1180, Wien (Austria); Zapata, Luis A., E-mail: satoko_t@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw [Centro de Radioastronomia y Astrofisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Morelia, Michoacan 58090 (Mexico)
2013-01-20
We present a high angular resolution map of the 850 {mu}m continuum emission of the Orion Molecular Cloud-3 (OMC 3) obtained with the Submillimeter Array (SMA); the map is a mosaic of 85 pointings covering an approximate area of 6.'5 Multiplication-Sign 2.'0 (0.88 Multiplication-Sign 0.27 pc). We detect 12 spatially resolved continuum sources, each with an H{sub 2} mass between 0.3-5.7 M {sub Sun} and a projected source size between 1400-8200 AU. All the detected sources are on the filamentary main ridge (n{sub H{sub 2}}{>=}10{sup 6} cm{sup -3}), and analysis based on the Jeans theorem suggests that they are most likely gravitationally unstable. Comparison of multi-wavelength data sets indicates that of the continuum sources, 6/12 (50%) are associated with molecular outflows, 8/12 (67%) are associated with infrared sources, and 3/12 (25%) are associated with ionized jets. The evolutionary status of these sources ranges from prestellar cores to protostar phase, confirming that OMC-3 is an active region with ongoing embedded star formation. We detect quasi-periodical separations between the OMC-3 sources of Almost-Equal-To 17''/0.035 pc. This spatial distribution is part of a large hierarchical structure that also includes fragmentation scales of giant molecular cloud ( Almost-Equal-To 35 pc), large-scale clumps ( Almost-Equal-To 1.3 pc), and small-scale clumps ( Almost-Equal-To 0.3 pc), suggesting that hierarchical fragmentation operates within the Orion A molecular cloud. The fragmentation spacings are roughly consistent with the thermal fragmentation length in large-scale clumps, while for small-scale cores it is smaller than the local fragmentation length. These smaller spacings observed with the SMA can be explained by either a helical magnetic field, cloud rotation, or/and global filament collapse. Finally, possible evidence for sequential fragmentation is suggested in the northern part of the OMC-3 filament.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Thomadsen, Tommy
2005-01-01
design. The papers have all been submitted for journals, and except for two papers, are awaiting review. The papers are mostly concerned with optimal methods and, in a few cases, heuristics for designing hierarchical and ring networks. All papers develop bounds which are used in the optimal methods...... danne grundlag for et studie af design af hierarkiske netværk. Afhandlings vigtigste bidrag best ar af syv artikler, der er inkluderet i appendiks. Artiklerne handler om design af hierarkisk netværk og ring netværk. Artiklerne er alle indsendt til videnskablige journaler og afventer bedømmelse, bortset......Communication networks are immensely important today, since both companies and individuals use numerous services that rely on them. This thesis considers the design of hierarchical (communication) networks. Hierarchical networks consist of layers of networks and are well-suited for coping...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lu, Yong; Xiao, Guochun; Wang, Xiongfei
2016-01-01
The unified power quality conditioner (UPQC) is known as an effective compensation device to improve PQ for sensitive end-users. This paper investigates the operation and control of a single-phase three-leg UPQC (TL-UPQC), where a novel space vector modulation method is proposed for naturally...... solving the coupling problem introduced by the common switching leg. The modulation method is similar to the well-known space vector modulation widely used with three-phase voltage source converters, which thus brings extra flexibility to the TL-UPQC system. Two optimized modulation modes with either...
Xu, Haitao; Zhang, Huijuan; Fang, Ling; Yang, Jiao; Wu, Kai; Wang, Yu
2015-07-28
Self-assembly, as one kind of general phenomenon, has often been reported in solution chemistry. However, in gas-solid phase, it seldom has been disclosed. The MoN nanochex exhibits unique geometrical shape. Its body segment is composed of textured single crystal MoN nanowires, while its edges parallel to [1̅22̅] direction are attached by nanowires whose crystal orientation is different from that of the body segment. In this paper, the structure of the MoN nanochex is studied, and accordingly, a possible growth mechanism is proposed. We expect to extend this method to designed synthesis of many other functional materials, such as nitrides, carbides, and borides, and thereby to significantly tailor their resulting properties. Meanwhile, as one promising electrode material for Li-ion batteries (LIBs), MoN nanochex on Ti foil has been applied in the electrochemical energy storage, and stably delivered a specific capacity of 720 mAh/g with a remarkable Coulombic efficiency up to 98.5%, implying an achieved synergic effect derived from both mesoporous structure and the direct contact with the conducting substrate.
An Intelligent Hierarchical Approach to Actuator Fault Diagnosis and Accommodation Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal presents a novel intelligent hierarchical approach to detection, isolation, and accommodation of primary aerodynamic actuator failures. The proposed...
Beyond the continuum: a multi-dimensional phase space for neutral-niche community assembly.
Latombe, Guillaume; Hui, Cang; McGeoch, Melodie A
2015-12-22
Neutral and niche processes are generally considered to interact in natural communities along a continuum, exhibiting community patterns bounded by pure neutral and pure niche processes. The continuum concept uses niche separation, an attribute of the community, to test the hypothesis that communities are bounded by pure niche or pure neutral conditions. It does not accommodate interactions via feedback between processes and the environment. By contrast, we introduce the Community Assembly Phase Space (CAPS), a multi-dimensional space that uses community processes (such as dispersal and niche selection) to define the limiting neutral and niche conditions and to test the continuum hypothesis. We compare the outputs of modelled communities in a heterogeneous landscape, assembled by pure neutral, pure niche and composite processes. Differences in patterns under different combinations of processes in CAPS reveal hidden complexity in neutral-niche community dynamics. The neutral-niche continuum only holds for strong dispersal limitation and niche separation. For weaker dispersal limitation and niche separation, neutral and niche processes amplify each other via feedback with the environment. This generates patterns that lie well beyond those predicted by a continuum. Inferences drawn from patterns about community assembly processes can therefore be misguided when based on the continuum perspective. CAPS also demonstrates the complementary information value of different patterns for inferring community processes and captures the complexity of community assembly. It provides a general tool for studying the processes structuring communities and can be applied to address a range of questions in community and metacommunity ecology. © 2015 The Author(s).
Hierarchical Porous Structures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Grote, Christopher John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2016-06-07
Materials Design is often at the forefront of technological innovation. While there has always been a push to generate increasingly low density materials, such as aero or hydrogels, more recently the idea of bicontinuous structures has gone more into play. This review will cover some of the methods and applications for generating both porous, and hierarchically porous structures.
Microparticles with hierarchical porosity
Petsev, Dimiter N; Atanassov, Plamen; Pylypenko, Svitlana; Carroll, Nick; Olson, Tim
2012-12-18
The present disclosure provides oxide microparticles with engineered hierarchical porosity and methods of manufacturing the same. Also described are structures that are formed by templating, impregnating, and/or precipitating the oxide microparticles and method for forming the same. Suitable applications include catalysts, electrocatalysts, electrocatalysts support materials, capacitors, drug delivery systems, sensors and chromatography.
Coupled bunch instability in Fermilab Booster: Longitudinal phase-space simulation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bogacz, S.A.; Stahl, S.
1988-06-09
The physical presence of vacuum structures can be expressed in terms of a coupling impedance experienced by the beam. The beam environment considered here consist of parasitic higher order modes of the r.f. cavities. These resonances may have high enough Q's to allow consecutive bunches to interact through mutually induced fields. The cumulative effect of such fields as the particles pass through the cavity may be to induce a coherent buildup in synchrotron motion of the bunches, i.e., a longitudinal coupled-bunch instability. The colliding mode operation of the present generation of high energy synchrotrons and the accompanying r.f. manipulations, make considerations of individual bunch area of paramount importance. Thus, a longitudinal instability in one of a chain of accelerators, while not leading to any immediate reduction in the intensity of the beam in that accelerator, may cause such a reduction of beam quality that later operations are inhibited (resulting in a degradation performance). In this paper we employ a longitudinal phase-space tracking code (ESME) as an effective tool to simulate specific coupled bunch modes arising in a circular accelerator. One of the obvious advantages of the simulation compared to existing analytic formalisms, e.g., based on the Vlasov equation, is that it allows consideration of the instability in a self-consistent manner with respect to the changing accelerating conditions. Furthermore this scheme allows to model nonlinearities of the longitudinal beam dynamics, which are usually not tractable analytically. 5 refs., 3 figs.
An Overview of SBIR Phase 2 Physical Sciences and Biomedical Technologies in Space
Nguyen, Hung D.; Steele, Gynelle C.
2015-01-01
Technological innovation is the overall focus of NASA's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program. The program invests in the development of innovative concepts and technologies to help NASA's mission directorates address critical research and development needs for agency projects. This report highlights innovative SBIR Phase II projects from 2007-2012 specifically addressing areas in physical sciences and biomedical technologies in space, which is one of six core competencies at NASA Glenn Research Center. There are twenty two technologies featured with emphasis on a wide spectrum of applications such as reusable handheld electrolyte, sensor for bone markers, wideband single crystal transducer, mini treadmill for musculoskeletal, and much more. Each article in this report describes an innovation, technical objective, and highlights NASA commercial and industrial applications. This report serves as an opportunity for NASA personnel including engineers, researchers, and program managers to learn of NASA SBIR's capabilities that might be crosscutting into this technology area. As the result, it would cause collaborations and partnerships between the small companies and NASA Programs and Projects resulting in benefit to both SBIR companies and NASA.
Zou, Longfang; Cryan, Martin; Klemm, Maciej
2014-10-06
The concept of phase change material (PCM) based optical antennas and antenna arrays is proposed for dynamic beam shaping and steering utilized in free-space optical inter/intra chip interconnects. The essence of this concept lies in the fact that the behaviour of PCM based optical antennas will change due to the different optical properties of the amorphous and crystalline state of the PCM. By engineering optical antennas or antenna arrays, it is feasible to design dynamic optical links in a desired manner. In order to illustrate this concept, a PCM based tunable reflectarray is proposed for a scenario of a dynamic optical link between a source and two receivers. The designed reflectarray is able to switch the optical link between two receivers by switching the two states of the PCM. Two types of antennas are employed in the proposed tunable reflectarray to achieve full control of the wavefront of the reflected beam. Numerical studies show the expected binary beam steering at the optical communication wavelength of 1.55 μm. This study suggests a new research area of PCM based optical antennas and antenna arrays for dynamic optical switching and routing.
Baker, D. N.; Jaynes, A. N.; Li, X.; Henderson, M. G.; Kanekal, S. G.; Reeves, G. D.; Spence, H. E.; Claudepierre, S. G.; Fennell, J. F.; Hudson, M. K.
2014-01-01
The dual-spacecraft Van Allen Probes mission has provided a new window into mega electron volt (MeV) particle dynamics in the Earth's radiation belts. Observations (up to E (is) approximately 10MeV) show clearly the behavior of the outer electron radiation belt at different timescales: months-long periods of gradual inward radial diffusive transport and weak loss being punctuated by dramatic flux changes driven by strong solar wind transient events. We present analysis of multi-MeV electron flux and phase space density (PSD) changes during March 2013 in the context of the first year of Van Allen Probes operation. This March period demonstrates the classic signatures both of inward radial diffusive energization and abrupt localized acceleration deep within the outer Van Allen zone (L (is) approximately 4.0 +/- 0.5). This reveals graphically that both 'competing' mechanisms of multi-MeV electron energization are at play in the radiation belts, often acting almost concurrently or at least in rapid succession.
Near equality of ion phase space densities at earth, Jupiter, and Saturn
Cheng, A. F.; Krimigis, S. M.; Armstrong, T. P.
1985-01-01
Energetic-ion phase-space density profiles are strikingly similar in the inner magnetospheres of earth, Jupiter, and Saturn for ions of first adiabatic invariant near 100 MeV/G and small mirror latitudes. Losses occur inside L approximately equal to 7 for Jupiter and Saturn and inside L approximately equal to 5 at earth. At these L values there exist steep plasma-density gradients at all three planets, associated with the Io plasma torus at Jupiter, the Rhea-Dione-Tethys torus at Saturn, and the plasmasphere at earth. Measurements of ion flux-tube contents at Jupiter and Saturn by the low-energy charged-particle experiment show that these are similar (for O ions at L = 5-9) to those at earth (for protons at L = 2-6). Furthermore, the thermal-ion flux-tube contents from Voyager plasma-science data at Jupiter and Saturn are also very nearly equal, and again similar to those at earth, differing by less than a factor of 3 at the respective L values. The near equality of energetic and thermal ion flux-tube contents at earth, Jupiter, and Saturn suggests the possibility of strong physical analogies in the interaction between plasma and energetic particles at the plasma tori/plasma sheets of Jupiter and Saturn and the plasmasphere of earth.
Qualitative phase space reconstruction analysis of supply-chain inventor time series
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jinliang Wu
2010-10-01
Full Text Available The economy systems are usually too complex to be analysed, but some advanced methods have been developed in order to do so, such as system dynamics modelling, multi-agent modelling, complex adaptive system modelling and qualitative modelling. In this paper, we considered a supply-chain (SC system including several kinds of products. Using historic suppliers’ demand data, we firstly applied the phase space analysis method and then used qualitative analysis to improve the complex system’s performance. Quantitative methods can forecast the quantitative SC demands, but they cannot indicate the qualitative aspects of SC, so when we apply quantitative methods to a SC system we get only numerous data of demand. By contrast, qualitative methods can show the qualitative change and trend of the SC demand. We therefore used qualitative methods to improve the quantitative forecasting results. Comparing the quantitative only method and the combined method used in this paper, we found that the combined method is far more accurate. Not only is the inventory cost lower, but the forecasting accuracy is also better.
Hierarchical models and functional traits
van Loon, E.E.; Shamoun-Baranes, J.; Sierdsema, H.; Bouten, W.; Cramer, W.; Badeck, F.; Krukenberg, B.; Klotz, S.; Kühn, I.; Schweiger, O.; Böhning-Gaese, K.; Schaefer, H.-C.; Kissling, D.; Brandl, R.; Brändle, M.; Fricke, R.; Leuschner, C.; Buschmann, H.; Köckermann, B.; Rose, L.
2006-01-01
Hierarchical models for animal abundance prediction are conceptually elegant. They are generally more parsimonous than non-hierarchical models derived from the same data, give relatively robust predictions and automatically provide consistent output at multiple (spatio-temporal) scales. Another
Wigner’s phase-space function and atomic structure: II. Ground states for closed-shell atoms
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Springborg, Michael; Dahl, Jens Peder
1987-01-01
display and analyze the function for the closed-shell atoms helium, beryllium, neon, argon, and zinc in the Hartree-Fock approximation. The quantum-mechanical exact results are compared with those obtained with the approximate Thomas-Fermi description of electron densities in phase space....
Bowyer, J. M.
1977-01-01
The principal chemical species emitted and/or entrained by the rocket motors of the space shuttle vehicle during the launch phase of its trajectory are considered. Results are presented for two extreme trajectories, both of which were calculated in 1976.
Roman, Monsi C.; Mittelman, Marc W.
2010-01-01
This slide presentation summarizes the studies performed to assess the bulk phase microbial community during the Space Station Water Recover Tests (WRT) from 1990-1998. These tests show that it is possible to recycle water from different sources including urine, and produce water that can exceed the quality of municpally produced tap water.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H. Panahi
2017-01-01
Full Text Available We study the (2 + 1-dimensional Dirac oscillator in the noncommutative phase space and the energy eigenvalues and the corresponding wave functions of the system are obtained through the sl(2 algebraization. It is shown that the results are in good agreement with those obtained previously via a different method.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, Tonny Wederberg
1999-01-01
The paper describes a full space vector control stradegy. The synchronisation used to improveboth the control speed of reactive power and reduce the sensitivity to large phase jumps in the grid caused by switching arge loads. The control stradegy is tested with a 5-level 10kvar laboratory model....
Yeh, Leehwa
1993-01-01
The phase-space-picture approach to quantum non-equilibrium statistical mechanics via the characteristic function of infinite-mode squeezed coherent states is introduced. We use quantum Brownian motion as an example to show how this approach provides an interesting geometrical interpretation of quantum non-equilibrium phenomena.
Pohner, John A.; Dempsey, Brian P.; Herold, Leroy M.
1990-01-01
Space Station elements and advanced military spacecraft will require rejection of tens of kilowatts of waste heat. Large space radiators and two-phase heat transport loops will be required. To minimize radiator size and weight, it is critical to minimize the temperature drop between the heat source and sink. Under an Air Force contract, a unique, high-performance heat exchanger is developed for coupling the radiator to the transport loop. Since fluid flow through the heat exchanger is driven by capillary forces which are easily dominated by gravity forces in ground testing, it is necessary to perform microgravity thermal testing to verify the design. This contract consists of an experiment definition phase leading to a preliminary design and cost estimate for a shuttle-based flight experiment of this heat exchanger design. This program will utilize modified hardware from a ground test program for the heat exchanger.
Wong, Sun; Del Genio, Anthony; Wang, Tao; Kahn, Brian; Fetzer, Eric J.; L'Ecuyer, Tristan S.
2015-01-01
Goals: Water budget-related dynamical phase space; Connect large-scale dynamical conditions to atmospheric water budget (including precipitation); Connect atmospheric water budget to cloud type distributions.
NIAC Phase I Study Final Report on Large Ultra-Lightweight Photonic Muscle Space Structures
Ritter, Joe
2016-01-01
The research goal is to develop new tools support NASA's mission of understanding of the Cosmos by developing cost effective solutions that yield a leap in performance and science data. 'Maikalani' in Hawaiian translates to, "knowledge we gain from the cosmos." Missions like Hubble have fundamentally changed humanity's view of the cosmos. Last year's Nobel prize in physics was a result of astronomical discoveries. $9B class JWST size (6.5 meter diameter) space telescopes, when launched are anticipated to rewrite our knowledge of physics. Here we report on a neoteric meta-material telescope mirror technology designed to enable a factor of 100 or more reduction in areal density, a factor of 100 reduction in telescope production and launch costs as well as other advantages; a leap to enable missions to image the cosmos in unprecedented detail, with the associated gain in knowledge. Whether terahertz, visible or X-ray, reflectors used for high quality electromagnetic imaging require shape accuracy (surface figure) to far better than 1 wavelength (lambda) of the incident photons, more typically lambda/10 or better. Imaging visible light therefore requires mirror surfaces that approximate a desired curve (e.g. a sphere or paraboloid) with smooth shape deviation of th less than approximately 1/1000 the diameter of a human hair. This requires either thick high modulus material like glass or metal, or actuators to control mirror shape. During Phase I our team studied a novel solution to this systems level design mass/shape tradespace requirement both to advance the innovative space technology concept and also to help NASA and other agencies meet current operational and future mission requirements. Extreme and revolutionary NASA imaging missions such as Terrestrial Planet Imager (TPI) require lightweight mirrors with minimum diameters of 20 to 40 meters. For reference, NASA's great achievement; the Hubble space telescope, is only 2.4 meters in diameter. What is required is a
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ronald C. Davidson
2002-08-01
Full Text Available The Vlasov-Maxwell equations are used to investigate the nonlinear evolution of an intense sheet beam with distribution function f_{b}\\(x,x^{′},s\\ propagating through a periodic focusing lattice κ_{x}\\(s+S\\=κ_{x}\\(s\\, where S=const is the lattice period. The analysis considers the special class of distribution functions with uniform phase-space density f_{b}\\(x,x^{′},s\\=A=const inside of the simply connected boundary curves, x_{+}^{′}\\(x,s\\ and x_{-}^{′}\\(x,s\\, in the two-dimensional phase space \\(x,x^{′}\\. Coupled nonlinear equations are derived describing the self-consistent evolution of the boundary curves, x_{+}^{′}\\(x,s\\ and x_{-}^{′}\\(x,s\\, and the self-field potential ψ\\(x,s\\=e_{b}φ\\(x,s\\/γ_{b}m_{b}β_{b}^{2}c^{2}. The resulting model is shown to be exactly equivalent to a (truncated warm-fluid description with zero heat flow and triple-adiabatic equation of state with scalar pressure P_{b}\\(x,s\\=const[n_{b}\\(x,s\\]^{3}. Such a fluid model is amenable to direct analysis by transforming to Lagrangian variables following the motion of a fluid element. Specific examples of periodically focused beam equilibria are presented, ranging from a finite-emittance beam in which the boundary curves in phase space \\(x,x^{′}\\ correspond to a pulsating parallelogram, to a cold beam in which the number density of beam particles, n_{b}\\(x,s\\, exhibits large-amplitude periodic oscillations. For the case of a sheet beam with uniform phase-space density, the present analysis clearly demonstrates the existence of periodically focused beam equilibria without the undesirable feature of an inverted population in phase space that is characteristic of the Kapchinskij-Vladimirskij beam distribution.
Renklioglu, B.; Yalabik, M. C.
2012-12-01
Phase transitions of the two-finite temperature Ising model on a square lattice are investigated by using a position space renormalization group (PSRG) transformation. Different finite temperatures, T x and T y , and also different time-scale constants, α x and α y for spin exchanges in the x and y directions define the dynamics of the non-equilibrium system. The critical surface of the system is determined by RG flows as a function of these exchange parameters. The Onsager critical point (when the two temperatures are equal) and the critical temperature for the limit when the other temperature is infinite, previously studied by the Monte Carlo method, are obtained. In addition, two steady-state fixed points which correspond to the non-equilibrium phase transition are presented. These fixed points yield the different universality class properties of the non-equilibrium phase transitions.
Hierarchical species distribution models
Hefley, Trevor J.; Hooten, Mevin B.
2016-01-01
Determining the distribution pattern of a species is important to increase scientific knowledge, inform management decisions, and conserve biodiversity. To infer spatial and temporal patterns, species distribution models have been developed for use with many sampling designs and types of data. Recently, it has been shown that count, presence-absence, and presence-only data can be conceptualized as arising from a point process distribution. Therefore, it is important to understand properties of the point process distribution. We examine how the hierarchical species distribution modeling framework has been used to incorporate a wide array of regression and theory-based components while accounting for the data collection process and making use of auxiliary information. The hierarchical modeling framework allows us to demonstrate how several commonly used species distribution models can be derived from the point process distribution, highlight areas of potential overlap between different models, and suggest areas where further research is needed.
Experimental measurement of the 4-d transverse phase space map of a heavy ion beam
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hopkins, H S
1997-12-01
The development and employment of a new diagnostic instrument for characterizing intense, heavy ion beams is reported on. This instrument, the ''Gated Beam Imager'' or ''GBI'' was designed for use on Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Heavy Ion Fusion Project's ''Small Recirculator'', an integrated, scaled physics experiment and engineering development project for studying the transport and control of intense heavy ion beams as inertial fusion drivers in the production of electric power. The GBI allows rapid measurement and calculation of a heavy ion beam's characteristics to include all the first and second moments of the transverse phase space distribution, transverse emittance, envelope parameters and beam centroid. The GBI, with appropriate gating produces a time history of the beam resulting in a 4-D phase-space and time ''map'' of the beam. A unique capability of the GBI over existing diagnostic instruments is its ability to measure the ''cross'' moments between the two transverse orthogonal directions. Non-zero ''cross'' moments in the alternating gradient lattice of the Small Recirculator are indicative of focusing element rotational misalignments contributing to beam emittance growth. This emittance growth, while having the same effect on the ability to focus a beam as emittance growth caused by non-linear effects, is in principle removable by an appropriate number of focusing elements. The instrument uses the pepperpot method of introducing a plate with many pinholes into the beam and observing the images of the resulting beamlets as they interact with a detector after an appropriate drift distance. In order to produce adequate optical signal and repeatability, the detector was chosen to be a microchannel plate (MCP) with a phosphor readout screen. The heavy ions in the pepperpot beamlets are stopped in the MCP's thin
On the identification of substructures in phase-space orbital frequencies
Gómez, Facundo A.; Helmi, Amina
2009-01-01
We study the evolution of satellite debris to establish the most suitable space to identify past merger events. We find that the space of orbital frequencies is very promising in this respect. In frequency space individual streams can be easily identified, and their separation provides a direct
On the identification of substructure in phase space using orbital frequencies
Gomez, Facundo A.; Helmi, Amina
2010-01-01
We study the evolution of satellite debris to establish the most suitable space to identify past merger events. We confirm that the space of orbital frequencies is very promising in this respect. In frequency space individual streams can be easily identified, and their separation provides a direct
On the apparent power law in CDM halo pseudo-phase space density profiles
Nadler, Ethan O.; Oh, S. Peng; Ji, Suoqing
2017-09-01
We investigate the apparent power-law scaling of the pseudo-phase space density (PPSD) in cold dark matter (CDM) haloes. We study fluid collapse, using the close analogy between the gas entropy and the PPSD in the fluid approximation. Our hydrodynamic calculations allow for a precise evaluation of logarithmic derivatives. For scale-free initial conditions, entropy is a power law in Lagrangian (mass) coordinates, but not in Eulerian (radial) coordinates. The deviation from a radial power law arises from incomplete hydrostatic equilibrium (HSE), linked to bulk inflow and mass accretion, and the convergence to the asymptotic central power-law slope is very slow. For more realistic collapse, entropy is not a power law with either radius or mass due to deviations from HSE and scale-dependent initial conditions. Instead, it is a slowly rolling power law that appears approximately linear on a log-log plot. Our fluid calculations recover PPSD power-law slopes and residual amplitudes similar to N-body simulations, indicating that deviations from a power law are not numerical artefacts. In addition, we find that realistic collapse is not self-similar; scalelengths such as the shock radius and the turnaround radius are not power-law functions of time. We therefore argue that the apparent power-law PPSD cannot be used to make detailed dynamical inferences or extrapolate halo profiles inwards, and that it does not indicate any hidden integrals of motion. We also suggest that the apparent agreement between the PPSD and the asymptotic Bertschinger slope is purely coincidental.
Chrysoulakis, Nektarios; Marconcini, Mattia; Gastellu-Etchegorry, Jean-Philippe; Grimmond, Sue; Feigenwinter, Christian; Lindberg, Fredrik; Del Frate, Fabio; Klostermann, Judith; Mitraka, Zina; Esch, Thomas; Landier, Lucas; Gabey, Andy; Parlow, Eberhard; Olofson, Frans
2017-04-01
The H2020-Space project URBANFLUXES (URBan ANthrpogenic heat FLUX from Earth observation Satellites) investigates the potential of Copernicus Sentinels to retrieve anthropogenic heat flux, as a key component of the Urban Energy Budget (UEB). URBANFLUXES advances the current knowledge of the impacts of UEB fluxes on urban heat island and consequently on energy consumption in cities. In URBANFLUXES, the anthropogenic heat flux is estimated as a residual of UEB. Therefore, the rest UEB components, namely, the net all-wave radiation, the net change in heat storage and the turbulent sensible and latent heat fluxes are independently estimated from Earth Observation (EO), whereas the advection term is included in the error of the anthropogenic heat flux estimation from the UEB closure. The Discrete Anisotropic Radiative Transfer (DART) model is employed to improve the estimation of the net all-wave radiation balance, whereas the Element Surface Temperature Method (ESTM), adjusted to satellite observations is used to improve the estimation the estimation of the net change in heat storage. Furthermore the estimation of the turbulent sensible and latent heat fluxes is based on the Aerodynamic Resistance Method (ARM). Based on these outcomes, QF is estimated by regressing the sum of the turbulent heat fluxes versus the available energy. In-situ flux measurements are used to evaluate URBANFLUXES outcomes, whereas uncertainties are specified and analyzed. URBANFLUXES is expected to prepare the ground for further innovative exploitation of EO in scientific activities (climate variability studies at local and regional scales) and future and emerging applications (sustainable urban planning, mitigation technologies) to benefit climate change mitigation/adaptation. This study presents the results of the second phase of the project and detailed information on URBANFLUXES is available at: http://urbanfluxes.eu
Quantum harmonic Brownian motion in a general environment: A modified phase-space approach
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yeh, Leehwa [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics
1993-06-23
After extensive investigations over three decades, the linear-coupling model and its equivalents have become the standard microscopic models for quantum harmonic Brownian motion, in which a harmonically bound Brownian particle is coupled to a quantum dissipative heat bath of general type modeled by infinitely many harmonic oscillators. The dynamics of these models have been studied by many authors using the quantum Langevin equation, the path-integral approach, quasi-probability distribution functions (e.g., the Wigner function), etc. However, the quantum Langevin equation is only applicable to some special problems, while other approaches all involve complicated calculations due to the inevitable reduction (i.e., contraction) operation for ignoring/eliminating the degrees of freedom of the heat bath. In this dissertation, the author proposes an improved methodology via a modified phase-space approach which employs the characteristic function (the symplectic Fourier transform of the Wigner function) as the representative of the density operator. This representative is claimed to be the most natural one for performing the reduction, not only because of its simplicity but also because of its manifestation of geometric meaning. Accordingly, it is particularly convenient for studying the time evolution of the Brownian particle with an arbitrary initial state. The power of this characteristic function is illuminated through a detailed study of several physically interesting problems, including the environment-induced damping of quantum interference, the exact quantum Fokker-Planck equations, and the relaxation of non-factorizable initial states. All derivations and calculations axe shown to be much simplified in comparison with other approaches. In addition to dynamical problems, a novel derivation of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem which is valid for all quantum linear systems is presented.
Magnetic field amplification in electron phase-space holes and related effects
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. A. Treumann
2012-04-01
Full Text Available Three-dimensional electron phase-space holes are shown to have positive charges on the plasma background, which produce a radial electric field and force the trapped electron component into an azimuthal drift. In this way electron holes generate magnetic fields in the hole. We solve the cylindrical hole model exactly for the hole charge, electric potential and magnetic field. In electron holes, the magnetic field is amplified on the flux tube of the hole; equivalently, in ion holes the field would be decreased. The flux tube adjacent to the electron hole is magnetically depleted by the external hole dipole field. This causes magnetic filamentation. It is also shown that holes are massive objects, each carrying a finite magnetic moment. Binary magnetic dipole interaction of these moments will cause alignment of the holes into chains along the magnetic field or, in the three-dimensional case, produce a magnetic fabric in the volume of hole formation. Since holes, in addition to being carriers of charges and magnetic moments, also have finite masses, they behave like quasi-particles, performing E × B, magnetic field, and diamagnetic drifts. In an inhomogeneous magnetic field, their magnetic moments experience torque, which causes nutation of the hole around the direction of the magnetic field, presumably giving rise to low frequency magnetic modulations like pulsations. A gas of many such holes may allow for a kinetic description, in which holes undergo binary dipole interactions. This resembles the polymeric behaviour. Both magnetic field generation and magnetic structure formation are of interest in auroral, solar coronal and shock physics, in particular in the problem of magnetic field filamentation in relativistic foreshocks and cosmic ray acceleration.
Hierarchically Structured Electrospun Fibers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nicole E. Zander
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Traditional electrospun nanofibers have a myriad of applications ranging from scaffolds for tissue engineering to components of biosensors and energy harvesting devices. The generally smooth one-dimensional structure of the fibers has stood as a limitation to several interesting novel applications. Control of fiber diameter, porosity and collector geometry will be briefly discussed, as will more traditional methods for controlling fiber morphology and fiber mat architecture. The remainder of the review will focus on new techniques to prepare hierarchically structured fibers. Fibers with hierarchical primary structures—including helical, buckled, and beads-on-a-string fibers, as well as fibers with secondary structures, such as nanopores, nanopillars, nanorods, and internally structured fibers and their applications—will be discussed. These new materials with helical/buckled morphology are expected to possess unique optical and mechanical properties with possible applications for negative refractive index materials, highly stretchable/high-tensile-strength materials, and components in microelectromechanical devices. Core-shell type fibers enable a much wider variety of materials to be electrospun and are expected to be widely applied in the sensing, drug delivery/controlled release fields, and in the encapsulation of live cells for biological applications. Materials with a hierarchical secondary structure are expected to provide new superhydrophobic and self-cleaning materials.
Using Pre-Melted Phase Change Material to Keep Payloads in Space Warm for Hours without Power
Choi, Michael
2013-01-01
Adding phase change material (PCM) to a mission payload can maintain its temperature above the cold survival limit, without power, for several hours in space. For the International Space Station, PCM is melted by heaters just prior to the payload translation to the worksite when power is available. When power is cut off during the six-hour translation, the PCM releases its latent heat to make up the heat loss from the radiator(s) to space. For the interplanetary Probe, PCM is melted by heaters just prior to separation from the orbiter when power is available from the orbiter power system. After the Probe separates from the orbiter, the PCM releases its latent heat to make up the heat loss from the Probe exterior to space. Paraffin wax is a good PCM candidate.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Padmanaban, Sanjeevi Kumar; Grandi, Gabriele; Ojo, Joseph Olorunfemi
2016-01-01
In this paper, a six-phase (asymmetrical) machine is investigated, 300 phase displacement is set between two three-phase stator windings keeping deliberately in open-end configuration. Power supply consists of four classical three-phase voltage inverters (VSIs), each one connected to the open......-winding terminals. An original synchronous field oriented control (FOC) algorithm with three variables as degree of freedom is proposed, allowing power sharing among the four VSIs in symmetric/asymmetric conditions. A standard three-level space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM) by nearest three vector (NTV......) approach was adopted for each couple of VSIs to operate as multilevel output voltage generators. The proposed power sharing algorithm is verified for the ac drive system by observing the dynamic behaviours in different set conditions by complete simulation modelling in software (Matlab...
Shao, Yun; Yuan, Zongqiang; Ye, Difa; Fu, Libin; Liu, Ming-Ming; Sun, Xufei; Wu, Chengyin; Liu, Jie; Gong, Qihuang; Liu, Yunquan
2017-12-01
We measure the wavelength-dependent correlated-electron momentum (CEM) spectra of strong-field double ionization of Xe atoms, and observe a significant change from a roughly nonstructured (uncorrelated) pattern at 795 nm to an elongated distribution with V-shaped structure (correlated) at higher wavelengths of 1320 and 1810 nm, pointing to the transition of the ionization dynamics imprinted in the momentum distributions. These observations are well reproduced by a semiclassical model using Green–Sellin–Zachor potential to take into account the screening effect. We show that the momentum distribution of Xe2+ undergoes a bifurcation structure emerging from single-hump to double-hump structure as the laser wavelength increases, which is dramatically different from that of He2+, indicating the complex multi-electron effect. By back analyzing the double ionization trajectories in the phase space (the initial transverse momentum and the laser phase at the tunneling exit) of the first tunneled electrons, we provide deep insight into the physical origin for electron correlation dynamics. We find that a random distribution in phase-space is responsible for a less distinct structured CEM spectrum at shorter wavelength. While increasing the laser wavelength, a topology-invariant pattern in phase-space appears, leading to the clearly visible V-shaped structures.
Hierarchically Structured Nanomaterials for Electrochemical Energy Conversion
Trogadas, P.; Ramani, V; Strasser, P.; T.F. Fuller; Coppens, M. O.
2016-01-01
© 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Hierarchical nanomaterials are highly suitable as electrocatalysts and electrocatalyst supports in electrochemical energy conversion devices. The intrinsic kinetics of an electrocatalyst are associated with the nanostructure of the active phase and the support, while the overall properties are also affected by the mesostructure. Therefore, both structures need to be controlled. A comparative state-of-the-art review of catalysts and supports i...
Application of radio phase modes to modification and remote sensing of the atmosphere and space
Isham, B.; Mohammadi, S.; Chau, J.; Hysell, D. L.; Daldorff, L. K.; Thide, B.; Bergman, J.
2009-12-01
Radio phase modes are a low-frequency electromagnetic wave (radio) manifestation of photon orbital angular momentum (OAM) modes. At optical (laser) wavelengths OAM is an active area of theoretical and experimental research. Theory and modelling of radio phase modes show they may also easily be generated and, under certain conditions, detected with modern radio antenna arrays. Transimission of radio phase modes has been attempted using the HAARP HF transmitter in Alaska and the Jicamarca VHF radar in Peru. The HAARP experiment was designed to search for ionospheric modification effects of phase modes, while the Jicamarca experiment explored the possibility of using phase modes for remote sensing. Further work at Jicamarca will be aimed at verifying phase mode transmission and detection capabilities by using the moon as a reflector. Other potential applications of phase modes include the detection of radio OAM generated by astrophysical sources and their use in communications as a way of transmitting multiple signals at a single frequency.
Eisner, M. (Editor)
1975-01-01
The importance of zero gravity environment in the development and production of new and improved materials is considered along with the gravitational effects on phase changes or critical behavior in a variety of materials. Specific experiments discussed include: fine scale phase separation in zero gravity; glass formation in zero gravity; effects of gravitational perturbations on determination of critical exponents; and light scattering from long wave fluctuations in liquids in zero gravity. It is concluded that the space shuttle/spacelab system is applicable to various fields of interest.
Ollendorf, S.; Fowle, A.; Almgren, D.
1981-01-01
A system utilizing a pumped, two-phase single component working fluid for heat exchange and transport services necessary to meet the temperature control requirements of typical orbiting instrument payloads on space platforms is described. The design characteristics of the system is presented, together with a presentation of a laboratory apparatus for demonstration of proof of concept. Results indicate that the pumped two-phase design concept can meet a wide range of thermal performance requirements with the only penalty being the requirement for a small liquid pump.
Real-space and reciprocal-space Berry phases in the Hall effect of Mn(1-x)Fe(x)Si.
Franz, C; Freimuth, F; Bauer, A; Ritz, R; Schnarr, C; Duvinage, C; Adams, T; Blügel, S; Rosch, A; Mokrousov, Y; Pfleiderer, C
2014-05-09
We report an experimental and computational study of the Hall effect in Mn(1-x)Fe(x)Si, as complemented by measurements in Mn(1-x)Co(x)Si, when helimagnetic order is suppressed under substitutional doping. For small x the anomalous Hall effect (AHE) and the topological Hall effect (THE) change sign. Under larger doping the AHE remains small and consistent with the magnetization, while the THE grows by over a factor of 10. Both the sign and the magnitude of the AHE and the THE are in excellent agreement with calculations based on density functional theory. Our study provides the long-sought material-specific microscopic justification that, while the AHE is due to the reciprocal-space Berry curvature, the THE originates in real-space Berry phases.
Analytical description of photon beam phase spaces in inverse Compton scattering sources
Curatolo, C.; Drebot, I.; Petrillo, V.; Serafini, L.
2017-08-01
We revisit the description of inverse Compton scattering sources and the photon beams generated therein, emphasizing the behavior of their phase space density distributions and how they depend upon those of the two colliding beams of electrons and photons. The main objective is to provide practical formulas for bandwidth, spectral density, brilliance, which are valid in general for any value of the recoil factor, i.e. both in the Thomson regime of negligible electron recoil, and in the deep Compton recoil dominated region, which is of interest for gamma-gamma colliders and Compton sources for the production of multi-GeV photon beams. We adopt a description based on the center of mass reference system of the electron-photon collision, in order to underline the role of the electron recoil and how it controls the relativistic Doppler/boost effect in various regimes. Using the center of mass reference frame greatly simplifies the treatment, allowing us to derive simple formulas expressed in terms of rms momenta of the two colliding beams (emittance, energy spread, etc.) and the collimation angle in the laboratory system. Comparisons with Monte Carlo simulations of inverse Compton scattering in various scenarios are presented, showing very good agreement with the analytical formulas: in particular we find that the bandwidth dependence on the electron beam emittance, of paramount importance in Thomson regime, as it limits the amount of focusing imparted to the electron beam, becomes much less sensitive in deep Compton regime, allowing a stronger focusing of the electron beam to enhance luminosity without loss of mono-chromaticity. A similar effect occurs concerning the bandwidth dependence on the frequency spread of the incident photons: in deep recoil regime the bandwidth comes out to be much less dependent on the frequency spread. The set of formulas here derived are very helpful in designing inverse Compton sources in diverse regimes, giving a quite accurate first
Analytical description of photon beam phase spaces in inverse Compton scattering sources
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. Curatolo
2017-08-01
Full Text Available We revisit the description of inverse Compton scattering sources and the photon beams generated therein, emphasizing the behavior of their phase space density distributions and how they depend upon those of the two colliding beams of electrons and photons. The main objective is to provide practical formulas for bandwidth, spectral density, brilliance, which are valid in general for any value of the recoil factor, i.e. both in the Thomson regime of negligible electron recoil, and in the deep Compton recoil dominated region, which is of interest for gamma-gamma colliders and Compton sources for the production of multi-GeV photon beams. We adopt a description based on the center of mass reference system of the electron-photon collision, in order to underline the role of the electron recoil and how it controls the relativistic Doppler/boost effect in various regimes. Using the center of mass reference frame greatly simplifies the treatment, allowing us to derive simple formulas expressed in terms of rms momenta of the two colliding beams (emittance, energy spread, etc. and the collimation angle in the laboratory system. Comparisons with Monte Carlo simulations of inverse Compton scattering in various scenarios are presented, showing very good agreement with the analytical formulas: in particular we find that the bandwidth dependence on the electron beam emittance, of paramount importance in Thomson regime, as it limits the amount of focusing imparted to the electron beam, becomes much less sensitive in deep Compton regime, allowing a stronger focusing of the electron beam to enhance luminosity without loss of mono-chromaticity. A similar effect occurs concerning the bandwidth dependence on the frequency spread of the incident photons: in deep recoil regime the bandwidth comes out to be much less dependent on the frequency spread. The set of formulas here derived are very helpful in designing inverse Compton sources in diverse regimes, giving a
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Qisheng Yan
2014-01-01
Full Text Available A hybrid forecasting approach combining empirical mode decomposition (EMD, phase space reconstruction (PSR, and extreme learning machine (ELM for international uranium resource prices is proposed. In the first stage, the original uranium resource price series are first decomposed into a finite number of independent intrinsic mode functions (IMFs, with different frequencies. In the second stage, the IMFs are composed into three subseries based on the fine-to-coarse reconstruction rule. In the third stage, based on phase space reconstruction, different ELM models are used to model and forecast the three subseries, respectively, according to the intrinsic characteristic time scales. Finally, in the foruth stage, these forecasting results are combined to output the ultimate forecasting result. Experimental results from real uranium resource price data demonstrate that the proposed hybrid forecasting method outperforms RBF neural network (RBFNN and single ELM in terms of RMSE, MAE, and DS.
Multi-turn extraction and injection by means of adiabatic capture in stable islands of phase space
Cappi, R
2003-01-01
Recently a novel approach has been proposed aimed at performing multi-turn extraction from a circular machine. Such a technique consists of splitting the beam by means of stable islands created in transverse phase space by magnetic elements creating nonlinear fields, such as sextupoles and octupoles. Provided a slow time-variation of the linear tune is applied, adiabatic with respect to the betatron motion, the islands can be moved in phase space and eventually charged particles may be trapped inside the stable structures. This generates a certain number of well-separated beamlets. Originally, this principle was successfully tested using a fourth-order resonance. In this paper the approach is generalised by considering other type of resonances as well as the possibility of performing multiple multi-turn extractions. The results of numerical simulations are presented and described in detail. Of course, by time-reversal, the proposed approach could be used also for multi-turn injection.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cleary, Liam; Coffey, William T; Dowling, William J [Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Trinity College, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Kalmykov, Yuri P [Laboratoire de Mathematiques et Physique, Universite de Perpignan Via Domitia, 52, Avenue de Paul Alduy, 66860 Perpignan Cedex (France); Titov, Serguey V, E-mail: kalmykov@univ-perp.fr [Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Vvedenskii Square 1, Fryazino, 141190 (Russian Federation)
2011-11-25
The dynamics of quantum Brownian particles in a cosine periodic potential are studied using the phase space formalism associated with the Wigner representation of quantum mechanics. Various kinetic phase space master equation models describing quantum Brownian motion in a potential are compared by evaluating the dynamic structure factor and escape rate from the differential recurrence relations generated by the models. The numerical solution is accomplished via matrix continued fractions in the manner customarily used for the classical Fokker-Planck equation. The results of numerical calculations of the escape rate from a well of the cosine potential are compared with those given analytically by the quantum-mechanical reaction rate theory solution of the Kramers turnover problem for a periodic potential, given by Georgievskii and Pollak (1994 Phys. Rev. E 49 5098), enabling one to appraise each model. (paper)
Measuring the W-Boson mass at a hadron collider: a study of phase-space singularity methods
De Rújula, A
2011-01-01
The traditional method to measure the W-Boson mass at a hadron collider (more precisely, its ratio to the Z-mass) utilizes the distributions of three variables in events where the W decays into an electron or a muon: the charged-lepton transverse momentum, the missing transverse energy and the transverse mass of the lepton pair. We study the putative advantages of the additional measurement of a fourth variable: an improved phase-space singularity mass. This variable is statistically optimal, and simultaneously exploits the longitudinal- and transverse-momentum distributions of the charged lepton. Though the process we discuss is one of the simplest realistic ones involving just one unobservable particle, it is fairly non-trivial and constitutes a good "training" example for the scrutiny of phenomena involving invisible objects. Our graphical analysis of the phase space is akin to that of a Dalitz plot, extended to such processes.
Phase-space holes due to electron and ion beams accelerated by a current-driven potential ramp
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. V. Goldman
2003-01-01
Full Text Available One-dimensional open-boundary simulations have been carried out in a current-carrying plasma seeded with a neutral density depression and with no initial electric field. These simulations show the development of a variety of nonlinear localized electric field structures: double layers (unipolar localized fields, fast electron phase-space holes (bipolar fields moving in the direction of electrons accelerated by the double layer and trains of slow alternating electron and ion phase-space holes (wave-like fields moving in the direction of ions accelerated by the double layer. The principal new result in this paper is to show by means of a linear stability analysis that the slow-moving trains of electron and ion holes are likely to be the result of saturation via trapping of a kinetic-Buneman instability driven by the interaction of accelerated ions with unaccelerated electrons.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jahnel, Benedikt, E-mail: Benedikt.Jahnel@ruhr-uni-bochum.de; Külske, Christof, E-mail: Christof.Kuelske@ruhr-uni-bochum.de [Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Fakultät für Mathematik (Germany); Botirov, Golibjon I., E-mail: botirovg@yandex.ru [Bukhara State University, Faculty of Physics and Mathematics (Uzbekistan)
2014-12-15
We consider a ferromagnetic nearest-neighbor model on a Cayley tree of degree k2 with uncountable local state space [0,1] where the energy function depends on a parameter θ ∊[0, 1). We show that for 0θ(5/(3k)) the model has a unique translation-invariant Gibbs measure. If 5/(3k) <θ < 1, there is a phase transition, in particular there are three translation-invariant Gibbs measures.
Townson, Reid W.; Zavgorodni, Sergei
2014-12-01
In GPU-based Monte Carlo simulations for radiotherapy dose calculation, source modelling from a phase-space source can be an efficiency bottleneck. Previously, this has been addressed using phase-space-let (PSL) sources, which provided significant efficiency enhancement. We propose that additional speed-up can be achieved through the use of a hybrid primary photon point source model combined with a secondary PSL source. A novel phase-space derived and histogram-based implementation of this model has been integrated into gDPM v3.0. Additionally, a simple method for approximately deriving target photon source characteristics from a phase-space that does not contain inheritable particle history variables (LATCH) has been demonstrated to succeed in selecting over 99% of the true target photons with only ~0.3% contamination (for a Varian 21EX 18 MV machine). The hybrid source model was tested using an array of open fields for various Varian 21EX and TrueBeam energies, and all cases achieved greater than 97% chi-test agreement (the mean was 99%) above the 2% isodose with 1% / 1 mm criteria. The root mean square deviations (RMSDs) were less than 1%, with a mean of 0.5%, and the source generation time was 4-5 times faster. A seven-field intensity modulated radiation therapy patient treatment achieved 95% chi-test agreement above the 10% isodose with 1% / 1 mm criteria, 99.8% for 2% / 2 mm, a RMSD of 0.8%, and source generation speed-up factor of 2.5. Presented as part of the International Workshop on Monte Carlo Techniques in Medical Physics
Safie, Fayssal M.
1992-01-01
This paper presents a reliability evaluation process designed to improve the reliability of advanced launch systems. The work performed includes the development of a reliability prediction methodology to be used in the design phase of the Space Transportation Main Engine (STME). This includes prediction techniques which use historical data bases as well as deterministic and probabilistic engineering models for predicting design reliability. In summary, this paper describes a probabilistic design approach for the next-generation liquid rocket engine, the STME.
Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation Strategy for Single-Phase Three-Level CIC T-source Inverter
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Shults, Tatiana E.; Husev, Oleksandr O.; Blaabjerg, Frede
2016-01-01
This paper presents a novel space vector pulse-width modulation strategy for a single-phase three-level buck-boost inverter based on an impedance-source network. The case study system is based on T-source inverter with continuous input current. To demonstrate the improved performance...... of the inverter, the strategy was compared the traditional pulse-width modulation. It is shown that the approach proposed has fewer switching states and does not suffer from neutral point misbalance....
Context updates are hierarchical
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anton Karl Ingason
2016-10-01
Full Text Available This squib studies the order in which elements are added to the shared context of interlocutors in a conversation. It focuses on context updates within one hierarchical structure and argues that structurally higher elements are entered into the context before lower elements, even if the structurally higher elements are pronounced after the lower elements. The crucial data are drawn from a comparison of relative clauses in two head-initial languages, English and Icelandic, and two head-final languages, Korean and Japanese. The findings have consequences for any theory of a dynamic semantics.
Gerber, C. R.
1972-01-01
The development of uniform computer program standards and conventions for the modular space station is discussed. The accomplishments analyzed are: (1) development of computer program specification hierarchy, (2) definition of computer program development plan, and (3) recommendations for utilization of all operating on-board space station related data processing facilities.
Wigner's quantum phase-space current in weakly-anharmonic weakly-excited two-state systems
Kakofengitis, Dimitris; Steuernagel, Ole
2017-09-01
There are no phase-space trajectories for anharmonic quantum systems, but Wigner's phase-space representation of quantum mechanics features Wigner current J . This current reveals fine details of quantum dynamics —finer than is ordinarily thought accessible according to quantum folklore invoking Heisenberg's uncertainty principle. Here, we focus on the simplest, most intuitive, and analytically accessible aspects of J. We investigate features of J for bound states of time-reversible, weakly-anharmonic one-dimensional quantum-mechanical systems which are weakly-excited. We establish that weakly-anharmonic potentials can be grouped into three distinct classes: hard, soft, and odd potentials. We stress connections between each other and the harmonic case. We show that their Wigner current fieldline patterns can be characterised by J's discrete stagnation points, how these arise and how a quantum system's dynamics is constrained by the stagnation points' topological charge conservation. We additionally show that quantum dynamics in phase space, in the case of vanishing Planck constant ℏ or vanishing anharmonicity, does not pointwise converge to classical dynamics.
PDE-Foam - a probability-density estimation method using self-adapting phase-space binning
Dannheim, Dominik; Voigt, Alexander; Grahn, Karl-Johan; Speckmayer, Peter
2009-01-01
Probability-Density Estimation (PDE) is a multivariate discrimination technique based on sampling signal and background densities defined by event samples from data or Monte-Carlo (MC) simulations in a multi-dimensional phase space. To efficiently use large event samples to estimate the probability density, a binary search tree (range searching) is used in the PDE-RS implementation. It is a generalisation of standard likelihood methods and a powerful classification tool for problems with highly non-linearly correlated observables. In this paper, we present an innovative improvement of the PDE method that uses a self-adapting binning method to divide the multi-dimensional phase space in a finite number of hyper-rectangles (cells). The binning algorithm adjusts the size and position of a predefined number of cells inside the multidimensional phase space, minimizing the variance of the signal and background densities inside the cells. The binned density information is stored in binary trees, allowing for a very ...
Groening, L
2003-01-01
The UNILAC is used as an injector for the synchrotron SIS. It is designed to fill the synchrotron up to its space charge limit. The upper limit for the useful beam emittance of the UNILAC is given by the finite acceptance of the SIS during the injection process. In order to remain within this acceptance the emittance growth during beam acceleration and transportation due to space charge effects must be minimized by applying an appropriate beam focusing. Therefore, the influence of the magnetic focusing strength on the beam emittance growth was investigated experimentally for different beam currents. Measurements of transverse phase space distributions were performed before and after the Alvarez accelerator with a periodic focusing channel, respectively. In order to perform such a wide parameter scan within a reasonable time with respect to machine stability, the pepper pot technique was applied. The pepper pot method allows for single-pulse measurements. For comparison several measurements using the slit-grid...
Moshinsky atom and density functional theory - A phase space view(1)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dahl, Jens Peder
2009-01-01
Le probleme de deux particules dans un potentiel d'oscillateur harmonique commun interagissant par le biais de forces d'oscillateur harmonique est discute dans la representation phase-espace de Weyl-Wigner. La fonction de Wigner du systeme est une fonction ordinaire des constantes phase-espace du...
Das, Alaka; Gupte, Neelima
2013-04-01
The phenomenon of crisis in systems evolving in high-dimensional phase space can show unexpected and interesting features. We study this phenomenon in the context of a system of coupled sine circle maps. We establish that the origins of this crisis lie in a tangent bifurcation in high dimensions, and identify the routes that lead to the crisis. Interestingly, multiple routes to crisis are seen depending on the initial conditions of the system, due to the high dimensionality of the space in which the system evolves. The statistical behavior seen in the phase diagram of the system is also seen to change due to the dynamical phenomenon of crisis, which leads to transitions from nonspreading to spreading behavior across an infection line in the phase diagram. Unstable dimension variability is seen in the neighborhood of the infection line. We characterize this crisis and unstable dimension variability using dynamical characterizers, such as finite-time Lyapunov exponents and their distributions. The phase diagram also contains regimes of spatiotemporal intermittency and spatial intermittency, where the statistical quantities scale as power laws. We discuss the signatures of these regimes in the dynamic characterizers, and correlate them with the statistical characterizers and bifurcation behavior. We find that it is necessary to look at both types of correlators together to build up an accurate picture of the behavior of the system.
Hattis, P. D.; Kubiak, E. T.; Penchuk, A. N.
1984-01-01
A describing function is used to model a phase plane controller which is part of the Space Shuttle on-orbit Reaction Control System autopilot. A frequency domain stability analysis of the closed-loop control system is applied to a study of potential flight control system interaction with the Orbiter and a class of payloads deployed from a tilt table. Phase-gain plot techniques are used to show that expansion of phase plane angular rate limits and stiffening of the tilt table pivot do not always enhance system stability. Instability region approximations are mapped as a function of rate limit, payload geometry, jet used, and natural frequency of the pivot. Comparison of the describing function analysis with simulation results shows excellent correlation.
Generic hierarchical engine for mask data preparation
Kalus, Christian K.; Roessl, Wolfgang; Schnitker, Uwe; Simecek, Michal
2002-07-01
Electronic layouts are usually flattened on their path from the hierarchical source downstream to the wafer. Mask data preparation has certainly been identified as a severe bottleneck since long. Data volumes are not only doubling every year along the ITRS roadmap. With the advent of optical proximity correction and phase-shifting masks data volumes are escalating up to non-manageable heights. Hierarchical treatment is one of the most powerful means to keep memory and CPU consumption in reasonable ranges. Only recently, however, has this technique acquired more public attention. Mask data preparation is the most critical area calling for a sound infrastructure to reduce the handling problem. Gaining more and more attention though, are other applications such as large area simulation and manufacturing rule checking (MRC). They all would profit from a generic engine capable to efficiently treat hierarchical data. In this paper we will present a generic engine for hierarchical treatment which solves the major problem, steady transitions along cell borders. Several alternatives exist how to walk through the hierarchy tree. They have, to date, not been thoroughly investigated. One is a bottom-up attempt to treat cells starting with the most elementary cells. The other one is a top-down approach which lends itself to creating a new hierarchy tree. In addition, since the variety, degree of hierarchy and quality of layouts extends over a wide range a generic engine has to take intelligent decisions when exploding the hierarchy tree. Several applications will be shown, in particular how far the limits can be pushed with the current hierarchical engine.
Nested and Hierarchical Archimax copulas
Hofert, Marius
2017-07-03
The class of Archimax copulas is generalized to nested and hierarchical Archimax copulas in several ways. First, nested extreme-value copulas or nested stable tail dependence functions are introduced to construct nested Archimax copulas based on a single frailty variable. Second, a hierarchical construction of d-norm generators is presented to construct hierarchical stable tail dependence functions and thus hierarchical extreme-value copulas. Moreover, one can, by itself or additionally, introduce nested frailties to extend Archimax copulas to nested Archimax copulas in a similar way as nested Archimedean copulas extend Archimedean copulas. Further results include a general formula for the density of Archimax copulas.
Trivailo, O.; Sippel, M.; Şekercioğlu, Y. A.
2012-08-01
The primary purpose of this paper is to review currently existing cost estimation methods, models, tools and resources applicable to the space sector. While key space sector methods are outlined, a specific focus is placed on hardware cost estimation on a system level, particularly for early mission phases during which specifications and requirements are not yet crystallised, and information is limited. For the space industry, cost engineering within the systems engineering framework is an integral discipline. The cost of any space program now constitutes a stringent design criterion, which must be considered and carefully controlled during the entire program life cycle. A first step to any program budget is a representative cost estimate which usually hinges on a particular estimation approach, or methodology. Therefore appropriate selection of specific cost models, methods and tools is paramount, a difficult task given the highly variable nature, scope as well as scientific and technical requirements applicable to each program. Numerous methods, models and tools exist. However new ways are needed to address very early, pre-Phase 0 cost estimation during the initial program research and establishment phase when system specifications are limited, but the available research budget needs to be established and defined. Due to their specificity, for vehicles such as reusable launchers with a manned capability, a lack of historical data implies that using either the classic heuristic approach such as parametric cost estimation based on underlying CERs, or the analogy approach, is therefore, by definition, limited. This review identifies prominent cost estimation models applied to the space sector, and their underlying cost driving parameters and factors. Strengths, weaknesses, and suitability to specific mission types and classes are also highlighted. Current approaches which strategically amalgamate various cost estimation strategies both for formulation and validation
Reconstruction of gyrotropic phase-space distributions from one-dimensional projections
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Egedal, J.; Bindslev, H.
2004-01-01
This paper describes mathematical tools applicable to the reconstruction of anisotropic velocity distributions through the unfolding of data coming from techniques like collective Thomson scattering or laser induced fluorescence, where one-dimensional projections of the velocity space along...
Phase I Advanced Battery Materials for Rechargeable Advanced Space-Rated Li-Ion Batteries Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries are attractive candidates for use as power sources in aerospace applications because they have high specific energy (up to 200 Wh/kg),...
Nano-Particle Scandate Cathode for Space Communications Phase 2 Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose an improved cathode based on our novel theory of the role of scandium oxide in enhancing emission in tungsten-impregnated cathodes. Recent results have...
Basicity of Systems of Sines with Linear Phase in Weighted Sobolev Spaces
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. F. Salmanov
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The perturbed systems of sines, which appear when solving some partial differential equations by the Fourier method, are considered in this paper. Basis properties of these systems in weighted Sobolev spaces of functions are studied.
Bjorn, L. C.; Martin, M. L.; Murphy, C. W.; Niebla, J. F., V
1971-01-01
This document defines the facilities, equipment, and operational plans required to support the MSS Program at KSC. Included is an analysis of KSC operations, a definition of flow plans, facility utilization and modifications, test plans and concepts, activation, and tradeoff studies. Existing GSE and facilities that have a potential utilization are identified, and new items are defined where possible. The study concludes that the existing facilities are suitable for use in the space station program without major modification from the Saturn-Apollo configuration.
High-contrast grating MEMS optical phase-shifters for two-dimensional free-space beam steering
Megens, Mischa; Yoo, Byung-Wook; Chan, Trevor; Yang, Weijian; Sun, Tianbo; Chang-Hasnain, Connie J.; Wu, Ming C.; Horsley, David A.
2014-02-01
We report an optical phased array (OPA) for two-dimensional free-space beam steering. The array is composed of tunable MEMS all-pass filters (APFs) based on polysilicon high contrast grating (HCG) mirrors. The cavity length of each APF is voltage controlled via an electrostatically-actuated HCG top mirror and a fixed DBR bottom mirror. The HCG mirrors are composed of only a single layer of polysilicon, achieving >99% reflectivity through the use of a subwavelength grating patterned into the polysilicon surface. Conventional metal-coated MEMS mirrors must be thick (1-50 μm) to prevent warpage arising from thermal and residual stress. The single material construction used here results in a high degree of flatness even in a thin 350 nm HCG mirror. Relative to beamsteering systems based on a single rotating MEMS mirror, which are typically limited to bandwidths below 50 kHz, the MEMS OPA described here has the advantage of greatly reduced mass and therefore achieves a bandwidth over 500 kHz. The APF structure affords large (~2π) phase shift at a small displacement (< 50 nm), an order-of-magnitude smaller than the displacement required in a single-mirror phase-shifter design. Precise control of each all-pass-filter is achieved through an interferometric phase measurement system, and beam steering is demonstrated using binary phase patterns.
Trees and Hierarchical Structures
Haeseler, Arndt
1990-01-01
The "raison d'etre" of hierarchical dustering theory stems from one basic phe nomenon: This is the notorious non-transitivity of similarity relations. In spite of the fact that very often two objects may be quite similar to a third without being that similar to each other, one still wants to dassify objects according to their similarity. This should be achieved by grouping them into a hierarchy of non-overlapping dusters such that any two objects in ~ne duster appear to be more related to each other than they are to objects outside this duster. In everyday life, as well as in essentially every field of scientific investigation, there is an urge to reduce complexity by recognizing and establishing reasonable das sification schemes. Unfortunately, this is counterbalanced by the experience of seemingly unavoidable deadlocks caused by the existence of sequences of objects, each comparatively similar to the next, but the last rather different from the first.
Co-phasing primary mirror segments of an optical space telescope using a long stroke Zernike WFS
Jackson, Kate; Wallace, J. K.; Pellegrino, Sergio
2016-07-01
Static Zernike phase-contrast plates have been used extensively in microscopy for half a century and, more recently, in optical telescopes for wavefront sensing. A dynamic Zernike wavefront sensor (WFS) with four phase shifts, for reducing error due to spurious light and eliminating other asynchronous noise, has been proposed for use in adaptive optics. Here, we propose adapting this method for co-phasing the primary mirror of a segmented space telescope. In order to extend the dynamic range of the WFS, which has a maximum range of +/ - λ/2, a phase- contrast plate with multiple steps, both positive and negative, has been developed such that errors as large as +/ - 10λ can be sensed. The manufacturing tolerances have been incorporated into simulations, which demonstrate that performance impacts are minimal. We show that the addition of this small optical plate along with a high precision linear translation stage at the prime focus of a telescope and pupil viewing capability can provide extremely accurate segment phasing with a simple white-light fringe fitting algorithm and a closed-loop controller. The original focal-plane geometry of a centro-symmetric phase shifting element is replaced with a much less constrained shape, such as a slot. Also, a dedicated pupil imager is not strictly required; an existing pupil sampler such as a Shack-Hartmann (SH) WFS can be used just as effectively, allowing simultaneous detection of wavefront errors using both intensity and spot positions on the SH-WFS. This could lead to an efficient synergy between Zernike and SH-WFS, enabling segment phasing in conjunction with high-dynamic range sensing.
Analysis of nuclear waste disposal in space, phase 3. Volume 2: Technical report
Rice, E. E.; Miller, N. E.; Yates, K. R.; Martin, W. E.; Friedlander, A. L.
1980-01-01
The options, reference definitions and/or requirements currently envisioned for the total nuclear waste disposal in space mission are summarized. The waste form evaluation and selection process is documented along with the physical characteristics of the iron nickel-base cermet matrix chosen for disposal of commercial and defense wastes. Safety aspects of radioisotope thermal generators, the general purpose heat source, and the Lewis Research Center concept for space disposal are assessed as well as the on-pad catastrophic accident environments for the uprated space shuttle and the heavy lift launch vehicle. The radionuclides that contribute most to long-term risk of terrestrial disposal were determined and the effects of resuspension of fallout particles from an accidental release of waste material were studied. Health effects are considered. Payload breakup and rescue technology are discussed as well as expected requirements for licensing, supporting research and technology, and safety testing.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ih, Jeong-Guon; Jeong, Cheol-Ho
2008-01-01
When the source is enclosed by room surfaces, it is not easy, though not totally impossible, to apply conventional modal methods for source identification. This is because there are too many complicated wave interferences and effects of wall impedance, in particular at medium frequencies....... The phased beam tracing method was suggested as a fast and efficient acoustic simulation tool at the medium frequencies in an enclosure, which overcomes the defects of geometrical acoustics techniques. In this study, the phased beam tracing method, implemented in its inverse form, was applied...
Crawford, Winifred C.
2010-01-01
The AMU created new logistic regression equations in an effort to increase the skill of the Objective Lightning Forecast Tool developed in Phase II (Lambert 2007). One equation was created for each of five sub-seasons based on the daily lightning climatology instead of by month as was done in Phase II. The assumption was that these equations would capture the physical attributes that contribute to thunderstorm formation more so than monthly equations. However, the SS values in Section 5.3.2 showed that the Phase III equations had worse skill than the Phase II equations and, therefore, will not be transitioned into operations. The current Objective Lightning Forecast Tool developed in Phase II will continue to be used operationally in MIDDS. Three warm seasons were added to the Phase II dataset to increase the POR from 17 to 20 years (1989-2008), and data for October were included since the daily climatology showed lightning occurrence extending into that month. None of the three methods tested to determine the start of the subseason in each individual year were able to discern the start dates with consistent accuracy. Therefore, the start dates were determined by the daily climatology shown in Figure 10 and were the same in every year. The procedures used to create the predictors and develop the equations were identical to those in Phase II. The equations were made up of one to three predictors. TI and the flow regime probabilities were the top predictors followed by 1-day persistence, then VT and Ll. Each equation outperformed four other forecast methods by 7-57% using the verification dataset, but the new equations were outperformed by the Phase II equations in every sub-season. The reason for the degradation may be due to the fact that the same sub-season start dates were used in every year. It is likely there was overlap of sub-season days at the beginning and end of each defined sub-season in each individual year, which could very well affect equation
Schilling, D. L.
1974-01-01
Digital multiplication of two waveforms using delta modulation (DM) is discussed. It is shown that while conventional multiplication of two N bit words requires N2 complexity, multiplication using DM requires complexity which increases linearly with N. Bounds on the signal-to-quantization noise ratio (SNR) resulting from this multiplication are determined and compared with the SNR obtained using standard multiplication techniques. The phase locked loop (PLL) system, consisting of a phase detector, voltage controlled oscillator, and a linear loop filter, is discussed in terms of its design and system advantages. Areas requiring further research are identified.
Rice, E. E.; Miller, N. E.; Yates, K. R.; Martin, W. E.; Friedlander, A. L.
1980-01-01
The objectives, approach, assumptions, and limitations of a study of nuclear waste disposal in space are discussed with emphasis on the following: (1) payload characterization; (2) safety assessment; (3) health effects assessment; (4) long-term risk assessment; and (5) program planning support to NASA and DOE. Conclusions are presented for each task.
Space telescope phase B definition study. Volume 2A: Science instruments, f24 field camera
Grosso, R. P.; Mccarthy, D. J.
1976-01-01
The analysis and design of the F/24 field camera for the space telescope are discussed. The camera was designed for application to the radial bay of the optical telescope assembly and has an on axis field of view of 3 arc-minutes by 3 arc-minutes.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Maziar Nekovee
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Cognitive radio is being intensively researched as the enabling technology for license-exempt access to the so-called TV White Spaces (TVWS, large portions of spectrum in the UHF/VHF bands which become available on a geographical basis after digital switchover. Both in the US, and more recently, in the UK the regulators have given conditional endorsement to this new mode of access. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art in technology, regulation, and standardisation of cognitive access to TVWS. It examines the spectrum opportunity and commercial use cases associated with this form of secondary access.
Space-time-dynamic model of passively-phased ring-geometry fiber laser array
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bochove, Erik J. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Kirtland Air Force Base, NM; Aceves, Alejandro B. [Southern Methodist University, Dallas; Deiterding, Ralf [ORNL; Crabtree, Lily I [ORNL; Braiman, Yehuda [ORNL; Jacobo, Adrian [University of the Balearic Islands, Palma de Mallorca, Spain; Colet, Pere R. [University of the Balearic Islands, Palma de Mallorca, Spain
2010-01-01
We performed a linearized stability analysis and preliminary simulations of passive phasing in a CW operating ring geometry fiber laser array coupled in an external cavity with a single-mode feedback fiber that functions as spatial filter. A two-element array with path length error is predicted to have a dynamically stable stationary operating state at the calculated operating wavelength.
Variable and space steps solution of a two phase moving boundary ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Equations of a two phase moving boundary problem in cylindrical coordinates are obtained from the formulation of a transient shrinking core model of whole tree combustion in a one dimensional steady state fixed-bed reactor. An hybrid Variable Grid Method is developed to solve the non linear equations and the results are ...
Hui, Xiaonan; Ye, Taihang; Zheng, Shilie; Zhou, Jinhai; Chi, Hao; Jin, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Xianmin
2014-10-01
For a phase-sensitive optical time-domain reflectometer (ϕ-OTDR) distributed sensor system, space-frequency analysis can reduce the false alarm by analyzing the frequency distribution compared with the traditional difference value method. We propose a graphics processing unit (GPU)-based parallel computing method to perform multichannel fast Fourier transform (FFT) and realize the real-time space-frequency analysis. The experiment results show that the time taken by the multichannel FFT decreased considerably based on this GPU parallel computing. The method can be completed with a sensing fiber up to 16 km long and an entry-level GPU. Meanwhile, the GPU can reduce the computing load of the central processing unit from 70% down to less than 20%. We carried out an experiment on a two-point space-frequency analysis, and the results clearly and simultaneously show the vibration point locations and frequency components. The sensor system outputs the real-time space-frequency spectra continuously with a spatial resolution of 16.3 m and frequency resolution of 2.25 Hz.
Hively, Lee M.
2014-09-16
Data collected from devices and human condition may be used to forewarn of critical events such as machine/structural failure or events from brain/heart wave data stroke. By monitoring the data, and determining what values are indicative of a failure forewarning, one can provide adequate notice of the impending failure in order to take preventive measures. This disclosure teaches a computer-based method to convert dynamical numeric data representing physical objects (unstructured data) into discrete-phase-space states, and hence into a graph (structured data) for extraction of condition change.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nilsson, Torben; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld; Montanarella, Luca
1996-01-01
Head-space solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) has been used to collect volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from fungi of the genus Penicillium. Gas chromatography combined with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was employed for the analysis of the profiles of volatile metabolites characteristic...... the fibre coating and air were determined for some typical fungal metabolites using polyacrylate and polydimethylsiloxane as fibre coatings. No significant differences in the results for the two fibre coatings were observed for non-polar to slightly polar compounds, whereas the more polar compounds were...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Weiland, M.; Bilato, R.; Geiger, B.
2017-01-01
Recent upgrades to the FIDA (fast-ion D-alpha) diagnostic at ASDEX Upgrade allow to reconstruct the fast-ion phase space at several radial positions with decent energy and pitch resolution. These new diagnostic capabilities are applied to study the physics of 2nd harmonic ion cyclotron heating......, which is a foreseen heating scenario for ITER. In particular, the acceleration of deuterium beam ions above the injection energy by absorption of ion cyclotron waves at the 2nd harmonic is investigated and compared to theoretical predictions by the TORIC-SSFPQL and TORIC-NUBEAM code packages...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Le Fevre, Arnaud; Leifels, Yvonne [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Aichelin, Joerg; Hartnack, Christoph [SUBATECH, UMR 6457, Ecole des Mines de Nantes - IN2P3/CNRS - Universite de Nantes (France); Bratkovskaya, Elena [FIAS, Frankfurt (Germany); Kyreyev, Victor [JINR, Dubna (Russian Federation)
2015-07-01
We developed an improved clusterisation algorithm which aims at predicting more realistically the yields of clusters in the framework of the Quantum Molecular Dynamics model. This new approach is able to predict isotope yields as well as hypernucleus production at relativistic energies. To illustrate its predicting power, we confront this new method to experimental data, with a close view on light hypernucleus yields and phase space distributions, and show the sensitivity on the parameters which govern the hypercluster formation, such as the hyperon-nucleon cross-section, the clusterisation time, the initial momentum distribution of nucleons and the asymmetry energy.
Alves Júnior, A. A.; Sokoloff, M. D.
2017-10-01
MCBooster is a header-only, C++11-compliant library that provides routines to generate and perform calculations on large samples of phase space Monte Carlo events. To achieve superior performance, MCBooster is capable to perform most of its calculations in parallel using CUDA- and OpenMP-enabled devices. MCBooster is built on top of the Thrust library and runs on Linux systems. This contribution summarizes the main features of MCBooster. A basic description of the user interface and some examples of applications are provided, along with measurements of performance in a variety of environments
Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory: Fast Response Space Missions for Early Time Phase of Gamma Ray Bursts
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Park, I.H.; Ahmad, S.; Barrillon, P.
2013-01-01
One of the unexplored domains in the study of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) is the early time phase of the optical light curve. We have proposed Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory (UFFO) to address this question through extraordinary opportunities presented by a series of small space missions. The UFFO...... the z > 10 universe. We describe the current limit in early photon measurements, the aspects of early photon physics, our soon-to-be-launched UFFO-pathfinder mission, and our next planned mission, the UFFO-100....
Kravets, Nina; Brasselet, Etienne
2018-01-01
We propose to couple the optical orientational nonlinearities of liquid crystals with their ability to self-organize to tailor them to control space-variant-polarized optical fields in a nonlinear manner. Experimental demonstration is made using a liquid crystal light valve that behaves like a light-driven geometric phase optical element. We also unveil two original nonlinear optical processes, namely self-induced separability and nonseparability. These results contribute to the advancement of nonlinear singular optics that is still in its infancy despite 25 years of effort, which may foster the development of nonlinear protocols to manipulate high-dimensional optical information both in the classical and quantum regimes.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Davidson, George S.; Brown, William Michael
2007-09-01
Techniques for high throughput determinations of interactomes, together with high resolution protein collocalizations maps within organelles and through membranes will soon create a vast resource. With these data, biological descriptions, akin to the high dimensional phase spaces familiar to physicists, will become possible. These descriptions will capture sufficient information to make possible realistic, system-level models of cells. The descriptions and the computational models they enable will require powerful computing techniques. This report is offered as a call to the computational biology community to begin thinking at this scale and as a challenge to develop the required algorithms and codes to make use of the new data.3
Monte Carlo validation of the TrueBeam 10XFFF phase-space files for applications in lung SABR.
Teke, Tony; Duzenli, Cheryl; Bergman, Alanah; Viel, Francis; Atwal, Parmveer; Gete, Ermias
2015-12-01
To establish the clinical acceptability of universal Monte Carlo phase-space data for the 10XFFF (flattening filter free) photon beam on the Varian TrueBeam Linac, including previously unreported data for small fields, output factors, and inhomogeneous media. The study was particularly aimed at confirming the suitability for use in simulations of lung stereotactic ablative radiotherapy treatment plans. Monte Carlo calculated percent depth doses (PDDs), transverse profiles, and output factors for the TrueBeam 10 MV FFF beam using generic phase-space data that have been released by the Varian MC research team were compared with in-house measurements and published data from multiple institutions (ten Linacs from eight different institutions). BEAMnrc was used to create field size specific phase-spaces located underneath the jaws. Doses were calculated with DOSXYZnrc in a water phantom for fields ranging from 1 × 1 to 40 × 40 cm(2). Particular attention was paid to small fields (down to 1 × 1 cm(2)) and dose per pulse effects on dosimeter response for high dose rate 10XFFF beams. Ion chamber measurements were corrected for changes in ion collection efficiency (P(ion)) with increasing dose per pulse. MC and ECLIPSE ANISOTROPIC ANALYTICAL ALGORITHM (AAA) calculated PDDs were compared to Gafchromic film measurement in inhomogeneous media (water, bone, lung). Measured data from all machines agreed with Monte Carlo simulations within 1.0% and 1.5% for PDDs and in-field transverse profiles, respectively, for field sizes >1 × 1 cm(2) in a homogeneous water phantom. Agreements in the 80%-20% penumbra widths were better than 2 mm for all the fields that were compared. For all the field sizes considered, the agreement between their measured and calculated output factors was within 1.1%. Monte Carlo results for dose to water at water/bone, bone/lung, and lung/water interfaces as well as within lung agree with film measurements to within 2.8% for 10 × 10 and 3 × 3 cm(2
Solid-phase synthesis and chemical space analysis of a 190-membered alkaloid/terpenoid-like library.
Moura-Letts, Gustavo; Diblasi, Christine M; Bauer, Renato A; Tan, Derek S
2011-04-26
Alkaloid and terpenoid natural products display an extensive array of chemical frameworks and biological activities. However such scaffolds remain underrepresented in current screening collections and are, thus, attractive targets for the synthesis of natural product-based libraries that access underexploited regions of chemical space. Recently, we reported a systematic approach to the stereoselective synthesis of multiple alkaloid/terpenoid-like scaffolds using transition metal-mediated cycloaddition and cyclization reactions of enyne and diyne substrates assembled on a tert-butylsulfinamide lynchpin. We report herein the synthesis of a 190-membered library of alkaloid/terpenoid-like molecules using this synthetic approach. Translation to solid-phase synthesis was facilitated by the use of a tert-butyldiarylsilyl (TBDAS) linker that closely mimics the tert-butyldiphenysilyl protecting group used in the original solution-phase route development work. Unexpected differences in stereoselectivity and regioselectivity were observed in some reactions when carried out on solid support. Further, the sulfinamide moiety could be hydrolyzed or oxidized efficiently without compromising the TBDAS linker to provide additional amine and sulfonamide functionalities. Principal component analysis of the structural and physicochemical properties of these molecules confirmed that they access regions of chemical space that overlap with bona fide natural products and are distinct from areas addressed by conventional synthetic drugs and drug-like molecules. The influences of scaffolds and substituents were also evaluated, with both found to have significant impacts on location in chemical space and three-dimensional shape. Broad biological evaluation of this library will provide valuable insights into the abilities of natural product-based libraries to access similarly underexploited regions of biological space.
$P-V$ Criticality In the Extended Phase Space of Charged Accelerating AdS Black Holes
Liu, Hang
2016-01-01
In this paper, we investigate the $P-V$ criticality and phase transition of charged accelerating AdS black holes in the extended thermodynamic phase space in analogy between black hole system and Van der Waals liquid-gas system, where the cosmological constant $\\Lambda$ is treated as a thermodynamical variable interpreted as dynamic pressure and its conjugate quantity is the thermodynamic volume of the black holes. When the electric charge vanishes, we find that no $P-V$ criticality will appear but the Hawking-Page like phase transition will be present, just as what Schwarzschild-AdS black holes behave like. For the charged case, the $P-V$ criticality appears and the accelerating black holes will undergo a small black hole/large phase transition under the condition that the acceleration parameter $A$ and the horizon radius $r_h$ meet a certain simple relation $A r_h=a$, where $a$ is a constant in our discussion. To make $P-V$ criticality appear, there exists an upper bounds for constant $a$. When $P-V$ critic...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
O. Baran
2010-12-01
Full Text Available Our work deals with studies of a noise behavior in space communication systems. Two most important noise types the additive thermal noise and the multiplicative phase noise, respectively, are included. A simple model of the narrowband communication system is created and simulated in the Ansoft Designer system simulator. The additive thermal noise is modeled as AWGN in a communication channel. The phase noise is produced in transmitter and receiver oscillators. The main intention is to investigate the receiver filter bandwidth decrease effect on powers of both noise types. Results proposed in this paper show that for defined system conditions and for a certain filter bandwidth value, the power of the multiplicative phase noise equals to the additive thermal noise power. Another decrease of the filter bandwidth causes the phase noise power exceeding. To demonstrate the noise behavior transparently, input system parameters are properly selected. All simulation results are documented by theoretical calculations. Simulation outcomes express a good coincidence with presumptions and calculations.
Gamez-Garcia, Victoria G; Galano, Annia
2017-10-05
A massive search for chemical routes leading to methanol formation in gas phase has been conducted using computational chemistry, at the CBS-QB3 level of theory. The calculations were performed at five different temperatures (100, 80, 50, 20, and 10 K) and at three pressures (0.1, 0.01, and 0.001 atm) for each temperature. The search was focused on identifying reactions with the necessary features to be viable in the interstellar medium (ISM). A searching strategy was applied to that purpose, which allowed to reduce an initial set of 678 possible reactions to a subset of 11 chemical routes that are recommended, for the first time, as potential candidates for contributing to methanol formation in the gas phase of the ISM. They are all barrier-less, and thus they are expected to take place at collision rates. Hopefully, including these reactions in the currently available models, for the gas-phase methanol formation in the ISM, would help improving the predicted fractional abundance of this molecule in dark clouds. Further investigations, especially those dealing with grain chemistry and electronic excited states, would be crucial to get a complete picture of the methanol formation in the ISM.
Wang, Jiang; Yang, Chen; Wang, Ruofan; Yu, Haitao; Cao, Yibin; Liu, Jing
2016-10-01
In this paper, EEG series are applied to construct functional connections with the correlation between different regions in order to investigate the nonlinear characteristic and the cognitive function of the brain with Alzheimer's disease (AD). First, limited penetrable visibility graph (LPVG) and phase space method map single EEG series into networks, and investigate the underlying chaotic system dynamics of AD brain. Topological properties of the networks are extracted, such as average path length and clustering coefficient. It is found that the network topology of AD in several local brain regions are different from that of the control group with no statistically significant difference existing all over the brain. Furthermore, in order to detect the abnormality of AD brain as a whole, functional connections among different brain regions are reconstructed based on similarity of clustering coefficient sequence (CCSS) of EEG series in the four frequency bands (delta, theta, alpha, and beta), which exhibit obvious small-world properties. Graph analysis demonstrates that for both methodologies, the functional connections between regions of AD brain decrease, particularly in the alpha frequency band. AD causes the graph index complexity of the functional network decreased, the small-world properties weakened, and the vulnerability increased. The obtained results show that the brain functional network constructed by LPVG and phase space method might be more effective to distinguish AD from the normal control than the analysis of single series, which is helpful for revealing the underlying pathological mechanism of the disease.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P.-N. Seo
2008-08-01
Full Text Available High precision fundamental neutron physics experiments have been proposed for the intense pulsed spallation neutron beams at JSNS, LANSCE, and SNS to test the standard model and search for new physics. Certain systematic effects in some of these experiments have to be controlled at the few ppb level. The NPDGamma experiment, a search for the small parity-violating γ-ray asymmetry A_{γ} in polarized cold neutron capture on parahydrogen, is one example. For the NPDGamma experiment we developed a radio-frequency resonant spin rotator to reverse the neutron polarization in a 9.5 cm×9.5 cm pulsed cold neutron beam with high efficiency over a broad cold neutron energy range. The effect of the spin reversal by the rotator on the neutron beam phase space is compared qualitatively to rf neutron spin flippers based on adiabatic fast passage. We discuss the design of the spin rotator and describe two types of transmission-based neutron spin-flip efficiency measurements where the neutron beam was both polarized and analyzed by optically polarized ^{3}He neutron spin filters. The efficiency of the spin rotator was measured at LANSCE to be 98.8±0.5% for neutron energies from 3 to 20 meV over the full phase space of the beam. Systematic effects that the rf spin rotator introduces to the NPDGamma experiment are considered.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Seo, P. -N. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Barron-Palos, L. [Arizona State University; Bowman, J. D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Chupp, T. E. [University of Michigan; Crawford, C. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Dabaghyan, M. [University of New Hampshire; Dawkins, M. [Indiana University; Freedman, S. J. [University of California; Gentile, T. R. [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST); Gericke, M. T. [University of Manitoba, Canada; Gillis, R. C. [University of Manitoba, Canada; Greene, G. L. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK) & Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Hersman, F. W. [University of New Hampshire; Jones, G. L. [Hamilton College, New York; Kandes, M. [University of Michigan; Lamoreaux, S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Lauss, B. [University of California, Berkeley; Leuschner, M. B. [Indiana University; Mahurin, R. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Mason, M. [University of New Hampshire; Mei, J. [Indiana University; Mitchell, G. S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Nann, H. [Indiana University; Page, S. A. [University of Manitoba, Canada; Penttila, S. I. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Ramsay, W. D. [University of Manitoba & TRIUMF, Canada; Salas Bacci, A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Santra, S. [Indiana University; Sharma, M. [University of Michigan; Smith, T. B. [University of Dayton, Ohio; Snow, W. [Indiana University; Wilburn, W. S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Zhu, H. [University of New Hampshire
2008-01-01
High precision fundamental neutron physics experiments have been proposed for the intense pulsed spallation neutron beams at JSNS, LANSCE, and SNS to test the standard model and search for new physics. Certain systematic effects in some of these experiments have to be controlled at the few ppb level. The NPD Gamma experiment, a search for the small parity-violating {gamma}-ray asymmetry A{sub Y} in polarized cold neutron capture on parahydrogen, is one example. For the NPD Gamma experiment we developed a radio-frequency resonant spin rotator to reverse the neutron polarization in a 9.5 cm x 9.5 cm pulsed cold neutron beam with high efficiency over a broad cold neutron energy range. The effect of the spin reversal by the rotator on the neutron beam phase space is compared qualitatively to rf neutron spin flippers based on adiabatic fast passage. We discuss the design of the spin rotator and describe two types of transmission-based neutron spin-flip efficiency measurements where the neutron beam was both polarized and analyzed by optically polarized {sup 3}He neutron spin filters. The efficiency of the spin rotator was measured at LANSCE to be 98.8 {+-} 0.5% for neutron energies from 3 to 20 meV over the full phase space of the beam. Systematic effects that the rf spin rotator introduces to the NPD Gamma experiment are considered.
Non-Intrusive Techniques of Inspections During the Pre-Launch Phase of Space Vehicle
Thirumalainambi, Rejkumar; Bardina, Jorge E.
2005-01-01
This paper addresses a method of non-intrusive local inspection of surface and sub-surface conditions, interfaces, laminations and seals in both space vehicle and ground operations with an integrated suite of imaging sensors during pre-launch operations. It employs an advanced Raman spectrophotometer with additional spectrophotometers and lidar mounted on a flying robot to constantly monitor the space hardware as well as inner surface of the vehicle and ground operations hardware. This paper addresses a team of micro flying robots with necessary sensors and photometers to monitor the entire space vehicle internally and externally. The micro flying robots can reach altitude with least amount of energy, where astronauts have difficulty in reaching and monitoring the materials and subsurface faults. The micro flying robot has an embedded fault detection system which acts as an advisory system and in many cases micro flying robots act as a Supervisor to fix the problems. As missions expand to a sustainable presence in the Moon, and extend for durations longer than one year in lunar outpost, the effectiveness of the instrumentation and hardware has to be revolutionized if NASA is to meet high levels of mission safety, reliability, and overall success. The micro flying robot uses contra-rotating propellers powered by an ultra-thin, ultrasonic motor with currently the world's highest power weight ratio, and is balanced in mid-air by means of the world's first stabilizing mechanism using a linear actuator. The essence of micromechatronics has been brought together in high-density mounting technology to minimize the size and weight. The robot can take suitable payloads of photometers, embedded chips for image analysis and micro pumps for sealing cracks or fixing other material problems. This paper also highlights advantages that this type of non-intrusive techniques offer over costly and monolithic traditional techniques.
Affordable In-Space Transportation. Phase 2; An Advanced Concepts Project
1996-01-01
The Affordable In-Space Transportation (AIST) program was established by the NASA Office of Space Access to improve transportation and lower the costs from Low Earth Orbit (LEO) to Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO) and beyond (to Lunar orbit, Mars orbit, inner solar system missions, and return to LEO). A goal was established to identify and develop radically innovative concepts for new upper stages for Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLV) and Highly Reusable Space Transportation (HRST) systems. New architectures and technologies are being identified which have the potential to meet a cost goal of $1,000 to $2,000 per pound for transportation to GEO and beyond for overall mission cost (including the cost to LEO). A Technical Interchange Meeting (ITM) was held on October 16 and 17, 1996 in Huntsville, Alabama to review previous studies, present advanced concepts and review technologies that could be used to meet the stated goals. The TIM was managed by NASA-Mar-shaU Space Flight Center (MSFC) Advanced Concepts Office with Mr. Alan Adams providing TIM coordination. Mr. John C. Manidns of NASA Headquarters provided overall sponsorship. The University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) Propulsion Research Center hosted the TM at the UAH Research Center. Dr. Clark Hawk, Center Director, was the principal investigator. Technical support was provided by Christensen Associates. Approximately 70 attendees were present at the meeting. This Executive Summary provides a record of the key discussions and results of the TIM in a summary format. It incorporates the response to the following basic issues of the TPA, which addressed the following questions: 1. What are the cost drivers and how can they be reduced? 2. What are the operational issues and their impact on cost? What is the current Technology Readiness Level (TRL) and what will it take to reach TRL 6? 4. What are the key enabling technologies and sequence for their accomplishment? 5. What is the proposed implementation time frame
Affordable In-Space Transportation Phase 2: An Advanced Concepts Project
1996-01-01
The Affordable In-Space Transportation (AIST) program was established by the NASA Office of Space Access to improve transportation and lower the costs from Low Earth Orbit (LEO) to Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO) and beyond (to Lunar orbit, Mars orbit, inner solar system missions, and return to LEO). A goal was established to identify and develop radically innovative concepts for new upper stages for Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLV) and Highly Reusable Space Transportation (HRST) systems. New architectures and technologies are being identified which have the potential to meet a cost goal of $1,000 to $2,000 per pound for transportation to GEO and beyond for overall mission cost (including the cost to LEO). A Technical Interchange Meeting (TTM) was held on October 16 and 17, 1996 in Huntsville, Alabama to review previous studies, present advanced concepts and review technologies that could be used to meet the stated goals. The TIN4 was managed by NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Advanced Concepts Office with Mr. Alan Adams providing TIM coordination. Mr. John C. Mankins of NASA Headquarters provided overall sponsorship. The University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) Propulsion Research Center hosted the TIM at the UAH Research Center. Dr. Clark Hawk, Center Director, was the principal investigator. Technical support was provided by Christensen Associates. Approximately 70 attendees were present at the meeting. This Executive Summary provides a record of the key discussions and results of the TIN4 in a summary for-mat. It incorporates the response to the following basic issues of the TDVL which addressed the following questions: 1. What are the cost drivers and how can they be reduced? 2. What are the operational issues and their impact on cost? 3. What is the current technology readiness level (TRL) and what will it take to reach TRL 6? 4. What are the key enabling technologies and sequence for their accomplishment? 5 . What is the proposed implementation time
Monthus, Cécile
2017-07-01
When random quantum spin chains are submitted to some periodic Floquet driving, the eigenstates of the time-evolution operator over one period can be localized in real space. For the case of periodic quenches between two Hamiltonians (or periodic kicks), where the time-evolution operator over one period reduces to the product of two simple transfer matrices, we propose a block-self-dual renormalization procedure to construct the localized eigenstates of the Floquet dynamics. We also discuss the corresponding strong disorder renormalization procedure, that generalizes the RSRG-X procedure to construct the localized eigenstates of time-independent Hamiltonians.
Physics of Hard Spheres Experiment (PhaSE) or "Making Jello in Space"
Ling, Jerri S.; Doherty, Michael P.
1998-01-01
The Physics of Hard Spheres Experiment (PHaSE) is a highly successful experiment that flew aboard two shuttle missions to study the transitions involved in the formation of jellolike colloidal crystals in a microgravity environment. A colloidal suspension, or colloid, consists of fine particles, often having complex interactions, suspended in a liquid. Paint, ink, and milk are examples of colloids found in everyday life. In low Earth orbit, the effective force of gravity is thousands of times less than at the Earth's surface. This provides researchers a way to conduct experiments that cannot be adequately performed in an Earth-gravity environment. In microgravity, colloidal particles freely interact without the complications of settling that occur in normal gravity on Earth. If the particle interactions within these colloidal suspensions could be predicted and accurately modeled, they could provide the key to understanding fundamental problems in condensed matter physics and could help make possible the development of wonderful new "designer" materials. Industries that make semiconductors, electro-optics, ceramics, and composites are just a few that may benefit from this knowledge. Atomic interactions determine the physical properties (e.g., weight, color, and hardness) of ordinary matter. PHaSE uses colloidal suspensions of microscopic solid plastic spheres to model the behavior of atomic interactions. When uniformly sized hard spheres suspended in a fluid reach a certain concentration (volume fraction), the particle-fluid mixture changes from a disordered fluid state, in which the spheres are randomly organized, to an ordered "crystalline" state, in which they are structured periodically. The thermal energy of the spheres causes them to form ordered arrays, analogous to crystals. Seven of the eight PHaSE samples ranged in volume fraction from 0.483 to 0.624 to cover the range of interest, while one sample, having a concentration of 0.019, was included for
Jia, Z.J.; Núñez, A.; Bautista, T.; Pimentel, A.D.
2014-01-01
In this paper, we present a two-phase design space exploration (DSE) approach to address the problem of real-time application mapping on a flexible MPSoC platform. Our approach is composed of two independent phases - analytical estimation/pruning and system simulation - communicating via a
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Staykov, Lazar
2012-10-15
High brightness electron beams with charge of 1 nC and low transverse emittance are necessary for the functioning of advanced light sources such as the Free-electron Laser in Hamburg (FLASH) and the European X-ray FEL (XFEL). The photo-injector test facility at DESY, Zeuthen site (PITZ) is dedicated to the optimization of such electron beams. At PITZ the electrons are produced using an RF gun cavity operated at accelerating gradients of up to 60 MV/m. The gun is equipped with a pair of solenoids for the compensation of the emittance growth due to linear space charge forces. This solenoid compensation scheme is enhanced with a properly matched TESLA type normal conducting booster cavity. The main tool for the characterization of the transverse phase space of the electron beam at PITZ is the emittance measurement system (EMSY). It employs the single slit method for the measurement of the transverse phase space distribution of the electron beam. In this thesis, the performance of the EMSY was optimized for measurement of low emittances in a wide range of photo-injector parameters including such that result in electron beams close to the XFEL specifications. First results on the characterization of the PITZ photo-injector with a gun operated at maximum accelerating gradient of 60 MV/m are presented. This includes scans of the solenoid focusing strength, the initial beam size and the booster gradient. A comparison between results obtained at lower accelerating gradients is made with emphasize on the benefit of higher accelerating gradient.
Hierarchical clustering for graph visualization
Clémençon, Stéphan; Rossi, Fabrice; Tran, Viet Chi
2012-01-01
This paper describes a graph visualization methodology based on hierarchical maximal modularity clustering, with interactive and significant coarsening and refining possibilities. An application of this method to HIV epidemic analysis in Cuba is outlined.
Direct hierarchical assembly of nanoparticles
Xu, Ting; Zhao, Yue; Thorkelsson, Kari
2014-07-22
The present invention provides hierarchical assemblies of a block copolymer, a bifunctional linking compound and a nanoparticle. The block copolymers form one micro-domain and the nanoparticles another micro-domain.
Hierarchical materials: Background and perspectives
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
2016-01-01
Hierarchical design draws inspiration from analysis of biological materials and has opened new possibilities for enhancing performance and enabling new functionalities and extraordinary properties. With the development of nanotechnology, the necessary technological requirements for the manufactur...
Hierarchical classification as relational framing.
Slattery, Brian; Stewart, Ian
2014-01-01
The purpose of this study was to model hierarchical classification as contextually controlled, generalized relational responding or relational framing. In Experiment 1, a training procedure involving nonarbitrarily related multidimensional stimuli was used to establish two arbitrary shapes as contextual cues for 'member of' and 'includes' relational responding, respectively. Subsequently those cues were used to establish a network of arbitrary stimuli in particular hierarchical relations with each other, and then test for derivation of further untrained hierarchical relations as well as for transformation of functions. Resultant patterns of relational framing showed properties of transitive class containment, asymmetrical class containment, and unilateral property induction, consistent with conceptions of hierarchical classification as described within the cognitive developmental literature. Experiment 2 extended the basic model by using "fuzzy category" stimuli and providing a better controlled test of transformation of functions. Limitations and future research directions are discussed. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.
Yang, Haijian
2016-07-26
Fully implicit methods are drawing more attention in scientific and engineering applications due to the allowance of large time steps in extreme-scale simulations. When using a fully implicit method to solve two-phase flow problems in porous media, one major challenge is the solution of the resultant nonlinear system at each time step. To solve such nonlinear systems, traditional nonlinear iterative methods, such as the class of the Newton methods, often fail to achieve the desired convergent rate due to the high nonlinearity of the system and/or the violation of the boundedness requirement of the saturation. In the paper, we reformulate the two-phase model as a variational inequality that naturally ensures the physical feasibility of the saturation variable. The variational inequality is then solved by an active-set reduced-space method with a nonlinear elimination preconditioner to remove the high nonlinear components that often causes the failure of the nonlinear iteration for convergence. To validate the effectiveness of the proposed method, we compare it with the classical implicit pressure-explicit saturation method for two-phase flow problems with strong heterogeneity. The numerical results show that our nonlinear solver overcomes the often severe limits on the time step associated with existing methods, results in superior convergence performance, and achieves reduction in the total computing time by more than one order of magnitude.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
ZHOU Huan
2015-06-01
Full Text Available To meet the needs of high accuracy relative position determination in deep space explorations, a new method is proposed based on the same beam phase-referencing imaging technique that originates from the radio astronomy. Firstly, the same beam phase-referencing imaging measurement model for spacecraft positioning is built. The very long baseline interferometry (VLBI imaging principle and the phase difference between two spacecrafts are derived. Then, two precision affecting factors are analyzed, including the signal bandwidth and the UV coverage. The dirty beams formed by different station numbers and different observation lengths with the Chinese interferometry network are simulated. Finally, with the same beam observation data of the Chang'E-3 lander and rover from the Chinese VLBI network (CVN on December 15, 20 and 21, 2013,the Yutu rover lunar surface positions are determined with accuracy of about 1 meter. The results show the feasibility and high accuracy of this method, which is well-adapted to the spacecraft signals without special beacons.
Akin, D. L.; Minsky, M. L.; Thiel, E. D.; Kurtzman, C. R.
1983-01-01
The field of telepresence is defined, and overviews of those capabilities that are now available, and those that will be required to support a NASA telepresence effort are provided. Investigation of NASA's plans and goals with regard to telepresence, extensive literature search for materials relating to relevant technologies, a description of these technologies and their state of the art, and projections for advances in these technologies are included. Several space projects are examined in detail to determine what capabilities are required of a telepresence system in order to accomplish various tasks, such as servicing and assembly. The key operational and technological areas are identified, conclusions and recommendations are made for further research, and an example developmental program leading to an operational telepresence servicer is presented.
Wortz, E. C.; Saur, A. J.; Nowlis, D. P.; Kendall, M. P.
1974-01-01
Results are presented of an initial experiment in a research program designed to develop objective techniques for psychological assessment of individuals and groups participating in long-duration space flights. Specifically examined is the rationale for utilizing measures of attention as an objective assessment technique. Subjects participating in the experiment performed various tasks (eg, playing matrix games which appeared on a display screen along with auditory stimuli). The psychophysiological reactions of the subjects were measured and are given. Previous research of various performance and psychophysiological methods of measuring attention is also discussed. The experiment design (independent and dependent variables) and apparatus (computers and display devices) are described and shown. Conclusions and recommendations are presented.
A Hierarchical Maze Navigation Algorithm with Reinforcement Learning and Mapping
Mannucci, T.; van Kampen, E.; Jin, Y; Kollias, S.
2016-01-01
Goal-finding in an unknown maze is a challenging problem for a Reinforcement Learning agent, because the corresponding state space can be large if not intractable, and the agent does not usually have a model of the environment. Hierarchical Reinforcement Learning has been shown in the past to
Codella, C.; Ceccarelli, C.; Caselli, P.; Balucani, N.; Barone, V.; Fontani, F.; Lefloch, B.; Podio, L.; Viti, S.; Feng, S.; Bachiller, R.; Bianchi, E.; Dulieu, F.; Jiménez-Serra, I.; Holdship, J.; Neri, R.; Pineda, J. E.; Pon, A.; Sims, I.; Spezzano, S.; Vasyunin, A. I.; Alves, F.; Bizzocchi, L.; Bottinelli, S.; Caux, E.; Chacón-Tanarro, A.; Choudhury, R.; Coutens, A.; Favre, C.; Hily-Blant, P.; Kahane, C.; Jaber Al-Edhari, A.; Laas, J.; López-Sepulcre, A.; Ospina, J.; Oya, Y.; Punanova, A.; Puzzarini, C.; Quenard, D.; Rimola, A.; Sakai, N.; Skouteris, D.; Taquet, V.; Testi, L.; Theulé, P.; Ugliengo, P.; Vastel, C.; Vazart, F.; Wiesenfeld, L.; Yamamoto, S.
2017-09-01
Context. Modern versions of the Miller-Urey experiment claim that formamide (NH2CHO) could be the starting point for the formation of metabolic and genetic macromolecules. Intriguingly, formamide is indeed observed in regions forming solar-type stars and in external galaxies. Aims: How NH2CHO is formed has been a puzzle for decades: our goal is to contribute to the hotly debated question of whether formamide is mostly formed via gas-phase or grain surface chemistry. Methods: We used the NOrthern Extended Millimeter Array (NOEMA) interferometer to image NH2CHO towards the L1157-B1 blue-shifted shock, a well-known interstellar laboratory, to study how the components of dust mantles and cores released into the gas phase triggers the formation of formamide. Results: We report the first spatially resolved image (size 9″, 2300 AU) of formamide emission in a shocked region around a Sun-like protostar: the line profiles are blueshifted and have a FWHM ≃ 5 km s-1. A column density of NNH2CHO = 8 × 1012 cm-1 and an abundance, with respect to H-nuclei, of 4 × 10-9 are derived. We show a spatial segregation of formamide with respect to other organic species. Our observations, coupled with a chemical modelling analysis, indicate that the formamide observed in L1157-B1 is formed by a gas-phase chemical process and not on grain surfaces as previously suggested. Conclusions: The Seeds of Life in Space (SOLIS) interferometric observations of formamide provide direct evidence that this potentially crucial brick of life is efficiently formed in the gas phase around Sun-like protostars. The reduced datacube is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/605/L3
Accelerated Hierarchical Collision Detection for Simulation using CUDA
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jørgensen, Jimmy Alison; Fugl, Andreas Rune; Petersen, Henrik Gordon
2010-01-01
In this article we present a GPU accelerated, hybrid, narrow phase collision detection algorithm for simulation purposes. The algorithm is based on hierarchical bounding volume tree structures of oriented bounding boxes (OBB) that in the past has shown to be efficient for collision detection. The...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Amin Dehyadegari
2017-05-01
Full Text Available It has been argued that charged Anti-de Sitter (AdS black holes have similar thermodynamic behavior as the Van der Waals fluid system, provided one treats the cosmological constant as a thermodynamic variable (pressure in an extended phase space. In this paper, we disclose the deep connection between charged AdS black holes and Van der Waals fluid system from an alternative point of view. We consider the mass of an AdS black hole as a function of square of the charge Q2 instead of the standard Q, i.e. M=M(S,Q2,P. We first justify such a change of view mathematically and then ask if a phase transition can occur as a function of Q2 for fixed P. Therefore, we write the equation of state as Q2=Q2(T,Ψ where Ψ (conjugate of Q2 is the inverse of the specific volume, Ψ=1/v. This allows us to complete the analogy of charged AdS black holes with Van der Waals fluid system and derive the phase transition as well as critical exponents of the system. We identify a thermodynamic instability in this new picture with real analogy to Van der Waals fluid with physically relevant Maxwell construction. We therefore study the critical behavior of isotherms in Q2–Ψ diagram and deduce all the critical exponents of the system and determine that the system exhibits a small–large black hole phase transition at the critical point (Tc,Qc2,Ψc. This alternative view is important as one can imagine such a change for a given single black hole i.e. acquiring charge which induces the phase transition. Finally, we disclose the microscopic properties of charged AdS black holes by using thermodynamic geometry. Interestingly, we find that scalar curvature has a gap between small and large black holes, and this gap becomes exceedingly large as one moves away from the critical point along the transition line. Therefore, we are able to attribute the sudden enlargement of the black hole to the strong repulsive nature of the internal constituents at the phase transition.
Dehyadegari, Amin; Sheykhi, Ahmad; Montakhab, Afshin
2017-05-01
It has been argued that charged Anti-de Sitter (AdS) black holes have similar thermodynamic behavior as the Van der Waals fluid system, provided one treats the cosmological constant as a thermodynamic variable (pressure) in an extended phase space. In this paper, we disclose the deep connection between charged AdS black holes and Van der Waals fluid system from an alternative point of view. We consider the mass of an AdS black hole as a function of square of the charge Q2 instead of the standard Q, i.e. M = M (S ,Q2 , P). We first justify such a change of view mathematically and then ask if a phase transition can occur as a function of Q2 for fixed P. Therefore, we write the equation of state as Q2 =Q2 (T , Ψ) where Ψ (conjugate of Q2) is the inverse of the specific volume, Ψ = 1 / v. This allows us to complete the analogy of charged AdS black holes with Van der Waals fluid system and derive the phase transition as well as critical exponents of the system. We identify a thermodynamic instability in this new picture with real analogy to Van der Waals fluid with physically relevant Maxwell construction. We therefore study the critical behavior of isotherms in Q2- Ψ diagram and deduce all the critical exponents of the system and determine that the system exhibits a small-large black hole phase transition at the critical point (Tc , Qc2 ,Ψc). This alternative view is important as one can imagine such a change for a given single black hole i.e. acquiring charge which induces the phase transition. Finally, we disclose the microscopic properties of charged AdS black holes by using thermodynamic geometry. Interestingly, we find that scalar curvature has a gap between small and large black holes, and this gap becomes exceedingly large as one moves away from the critical point along the transition line. Therefore, we are able to attribute the sudden enlargement of the black hole to the strong repulsive nature of the internal constituents at the phase transition.
The role of pore space morphology in multi-phase flow in porous media
Wildenschild, D.; Prodanovic, M.; Jansik, D. P.
2008-12-01
Porous medium morphology can play an important role when we use numerical models to predict subsurface flow and transport behavior at larger scales. Yet, understanding the role that pore structure plays at smaller scales is a necessary first step. Fluid-fluid configuration in particular is highly influenced by the surface characteristics of the porous medium. Fluid configurations vary significantly between drainage and imbibiton (due to spontaneous, irreversible changes of the interface between fluids). We specifically measure large differences in wetting-nonwetting interfacial area as a function of different pore space morphology: as observed for a crushed volcanic tuff with high surface area and affinity for fluid films, and for smooth glass beads. The observed imbibition process for the glass beads resembles a piston-flow situation, whereas imbibition into the tuff appears dominated by fluid film connectivity with growth from pendular rings in spatially distant locations of the imaged system. The latter process leads to a very different distribution of fluids and overall lower saturations and interfacial areas than in the glass bead system. Characteristics such as pore- scale Pc-S curves and related interfacial area per volume have been quantified using computed microtomography. In addition, we present pore network characterization (pore connectivity, pore throats to pore body aspect ratio, pore body volumes and throat areas) of the two porous media.
Pulsed Phase Lock Loop Device for Monitoring Intracranial Pressure During Space Flight
Ueno, Toshiaki; Macias, Brandon R.; Yost, William T.; Hargens, Alan R.
2003-01-01
We have developed an ultrasonic device to monitor ICP waveforms non-invasively from cranial diameter oscillations using a NASA-developed pulsed phase lock loop (PPLL) technique. The purpose of this study was to attempt to validate the PPLL device for reliable recordings of ICP waveforms and analysis of ICP dynamics in vivo. METHODS: PPLL outputs were recorded in patients during invasive ICP monitoring at UCSD Medical Center (n=10). RESULTS: An averaged linear regression coefficient between ICP and PPLL waveform data during one cardiac cycle in all patients is 0.88 +/- 0.02 (mean +/- SE). Coherence function analysis indicated that ICP and PPLL waveforms have high correlation in the lst, 2nd, and 3rd harmonic waves associated with a cardiac cycle. CONCLUSIONS: PPLL outputs represent ICP waveforms in both frequency and time domains. PPLL technology enables in vivo evaluation of ICP dynamics non-invasively, and can acquire continuous ICP waveforms during spaceflight because of compactness and non-invasive nature.
Many-Body Quantum Spin Dynamics with Monte Carlo Trajectories on a Discrete Phase Space
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. Schachenmayer
2015-02-01
Full Text Available Interacting spin systems are of fundamental relevance in different areas of physics, as well as in quantum information science and biology. These spin models represent the simplest, yet not fully understood, manifestation of quantum many-body systems. An important outstanding problem is the efficient numerical computation of dynamics in large spin systems. Here, we propose a new semiclassical method to study many-body spin dynamics in generic spin lattice models. The method is based on a discrete Monte Carlo sampling in phase space in the framework of the so-called truncated Wigner approximation. Comparisons with analytical and numerically exact calculations demonstrate the power of the technique. They show that it correctly reproduces the dynamics of one- and two-point correlations and spin squeezing at short times, thus capturing entanglement. Our results open the possibility to study the quantum dynamics accessible to recent experiments in regimes where other numerical methods are inapplicable.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dong-Hee Lee
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Whistler mode chorus wave is considered to play a critical role in accelerating and precipitating the electrons in the outer radiation belt. In this paper we test a conventional scenario of triggering chorus using THEMIS satellite observations of waves and particles. Specifically, we test if the chorus onset is consistent with development of anisotropy in the electron phase space density (PSD. After analyzing electron PSD for 73 chorus events, we find that, for ~80 % of them, their onsets are indeed associated with development of the positive anisotropy in PSD where the pitch angle distribution of electron velocity peaks at 90 degrees. This PSD anisotropy is prominent mainly at the electron energy range of ≤ ~20 keV. Interestingly, we further find that there is sometimes a time delay among energies in the increases of the anisotropy: A development of the positive anisotropy occurs earlier by several minutes for lower energy than for an adjacent higher energy.
Lee, Sang-Hong; Lim, Joon S; Kim, Jae-Kwon; Yang, Junggi; Lee, Youngho
2014-08-01
This paper proposes new combined methods to classify normal and epileptic seizure EEG signals using wavelet transform (WT), phase-space reconstruction (PSR), and Euclidean distance (ED) based on a neural network with weighted fuzzy membership functions (NEWFM). WT, PSR, ED, and statistical methods that include frequency distributions and variation, were implemented to extract 24 initial features to use as inputs. Of the 24 initial features, 4 minimum features with the highest accuracy were selected using a non-overlap area distribution measurement method supported by the NEWFM. These 4 minimum features were used as inputs for the NEWFM and this resulted in performance sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 96.33%, 100%, and 98.17%, respectively. In addition, the area under Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve was used to measure the performances of NEWFM both without and with feature selections. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rovibrational Phase-Space Surfaces for Analysis of ν_3/2ν_4 Polyad Band of CF_4
Mitchell, Justin; Harter, William; Boudon, Vincent
2009-06-01
Even after nearly a century of scientific effort, the spectra of spherical top molecules, such as methane, are notoriously problematic to evaluate both experimentally and theoretically. These are molecules that show complex interactions, strongly coupling rotations to vibrations, if not electronics. Theoretical and computational tools exist to predict these spectra, but they could be greatly aided by Rovibrational Phase-Space analysis, such as the Rotational Energy Surface (RES). Some such analysis exists in the literature, but advances in computing hardware and computational tools have made it much easier. This talk will show a more complicated RES analysis than has been done before, evaluating the ν_3 / 2 ν_4 polyad band of CF_4. Ch. Wenger, J.P. Champion, J. Quant. Spect. and Rad. Trans. 59, 471 (1998) W.G. Harter, C.W. Patterson and H.W. Gailbraith, J Chem Phys 69, 4896 (1978) Dhont et al, J Mol Spect, 201, 95 (2000)
Zhou, Zhongxing; Gao, Feng; Zhao, Huijuan; Zhang, Lixin
2012-11-21
New x-ray phase contrast imaging techniques without using synchrotron radiation confront a common problem from the negative effects of finite source size and limited spatial resolution. These negative effects swamp the fine phase contrast fringes and make them almost undetectable. In order to alleviate this problem, deconvolution procedures should be applied to the blurred x-ray phase contrast images. In this study, three different deconvolution techniques, including Wiener filtering, Tikhonov regularization and Fourier-wavelet regularized deconvolution (ForWaRD), were applied to the simulated and experimental free space propagation x-ray phase contrast images of simple geometric phantoms. These algorithms were evaluated in terms of phase contrast improvement and signal-to-noise ratio. The results demonstrate that the ForWaRD algorithm is most appropriate for phase contrast image restoration among above-mentioned methods; it can effectively restore the lost information of phase contrast fringes while reduce the amplified noise during Fourier regularization.
Kempf, Scott; Schäfer, Frank K.; Cardone, Tiziana; Ferreira, Ivo; Gerené, Sam; Destefanis, Roberto; Grassi, Lilith
2016-12-01
During recent years, the state-of-the-art risk assessment of the threat posed to spacecraft by micrometeoroids and space debris has been expanded to the analysis of failure modes of internal spacecraft components. This method can now be used to perform risk analyses for satellites to assess various failure levels - from failure of specific sub-systems to catastrophic break-up. This new assessment methodology is based on triple-wall ballistic limit equations (BLEs), specifically the Schäfer-Ryan-Lambert (SRL) BLE, which is applicable for describing failure threshold levels for satellite components following a hypervelocity impact. The methodology is implemented in the form of the software tool Particle Impact Risk and vulnerability Analysis Tool (PIRAT). During a recent European Space Agency (ESA) funded study, the PIRAT functionality was expanded in order to provide an interface to ESA's Concurrent Design Facility (CDF). The additions include a geometry importer and an OCDT (Open Concurrent Design Tool) interface. The new interface provides both the expanded geometrical flexibility, which is provided by external computer aided design (CAD) modelling, and an ease of import of existing data without the need for extensive preparation of the model. The reduced effort required to perform vulnerability analyses makes it feasible for application during early design phase, at which point modifications to satellite design can be undertaken with relatively little extra effort. The integration of PIRAT in the CDF represents the first time that vulnerability analyses can be performed in-session in ESA's CDF and the first time that comprehensive vulnerability studies can be applied cost-effectively in early design phase in general.
Urban pattern: Layout design by hierarchical domain splitting
Yang, Yongliang
2013-11-01
We present a framework for generating street networks and parcel layouts. Our goal is the generation of high-quality layouts that can be used for urban planning and virtual environments. We propose a solution based on hierarchical domain splitting using two splitting types: streamline-based splitting, which splits a region along one or multiple streamlines of a cross field, and template-based splitting, which warps pre-designed templates to a region and uses the interior geometry of the template as the splitting lines. We combine these two splitting approaches into a hierarchical framework, providing automatic and interactive tools to explore the design space.
Saleh, Kamel; Sumner, Mark
2016-01-01
This paper introduces a new method to track the saturation saliency for position measurement of a five-phase PMSM motor fed by a five-phase inverter through measuring the dynamic current response of the motor line currents due to the IGBT switching actions. The new method uses only the fundamental PWM waveform obtained using the multi-phase space vector pulse width modulation (i.e there is no modification to the operation of the five-phase inverter) similar to the fundamental PWM method propo...
STM Studies of Spin-Orbit Coupled Phases in Real- and Momentum-Space
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Madhavan, Vidya [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)
2016-10-17
The recently discovered class of spin-orbit coupled materials with interesting topological character are fascinating both from fundamental as well as application point of view. Two striking examples are 3D topological insulators (TIs) and topological crystalline insulators (TCIs). These materials host linearly dispersing (Dirac like) surface states with an odd number of Dirac nodes and are predicted to carry a quantized half-integer value of the axion field. The non-trivial topological properties of TIs and TCIs arise from strong spin-orbit coupling leading to an inverted band structure; which also leads to the chiral spin texture in momentum space. In this project we used low temperature scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and spectroscopy (STS) to study materials with topological phases in real- and momentum-space. We studied both single crystals and thin films of topological materials which are susceptible to being tuned by doping, strain or gating, allowing us to explore their physical properties in the most interesting regimes and set the stage for future technological applications. .
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Warnock, R.L.
2000-03-15
The authors propose and illustrate a general numerical method to follow the probability distribution in phase space as a function of time. It applies to any multiparticle system governed by Liouville, Vlasov or Vlasov-Fokker-Planck dynamics. The technique, based on discretization of the local Perron-Frobenius operator, is simple in concept, easy to implement, and numerically stable in examples studied to date. The authors illustrate by treating longitudinal dynamics in electron storage rings with realistic wake field. Applied to the SLC damping rings, the method gives the observed current threshold for bunch lengthening, and several aspects of observed behavior above threshold, including the presence of a bursting or sawtooth mode. In contrast to previous particle-in-cell simulations, the authors have very low numerical noise and the ability to follow the motion over several damping times. The method has also been applied to the coherent beam-beam interaction. It appears likely that this approach will be of interest for some of the central problems of this workshop, for instance matching of space-charge dominated beams to a focusing channel, and coherent synchrotron radiation with self-consistent charge/current density.
Using Pre-melted Phase Change Material to Keep Payload Warm without Power for Hours in Space
Choi, Michael K.
2012-01-01
During a payload transition from the transport vehicle to its worksite on the International Space Station (ISS), the payload is unpowered for up to 6 hours. Its radiator(s) will continue to radiate heat to space. It is necessary to make up the heat loss to maintain the payload temperature above the cold survival limit. Typically an interplanetary Probe has no power generation system. It relies on its battery to provide limited power for the Communication and Data Handling (C&DH) subsystem during cruise, and heater power is unavailable. It is necessary to maintain the C&DH temperature above the minimum operating limit. This paper presents a novel thermal design concept that utilizes phase change material (PCM) to store thermal energy by melting it before the payload or interplanetary Probe is unpowered. For the ISS, the PCM is melted by heaters just prior to the payload transition from the transport vehicle to its worksite. For an interplanetary Probe, the PCM is melted by heaters just prior to separation from the orbiter. The PCM releases thermal energy to keep the payload warm for several hours after power is cut off.
Goldman, M V; Newman, D L; Lapenta, G; Andersson, L; Gosling, J T; Eriksson, S; Markidis, S; Eastwood, J P; Ergun, R
2014-04-11
Kinetic simulations of magnetotail reconnection have revealed electromagnetic whistlers originating near the exhaust boundary and propagating into the inflow region. The whistler production mechanism is not a linear instability, but rather is Čerenkov emission of almost parallel whistlers from localized moving clumps of charge (finite-size quasiparticles) associated with nonlinear coherent electron phase space holes. Whistlers are strongly excited by holes without ever growing exponentially. In the simulation the whistlers are emitted in the source region from holes that accelerate down the magnetic separatrix towards the x line. The phase velocity of the whistlers vφ in the source region is everywhere well matched to the hole velocity vH as required by the Čerenkov condition. The simulation shows emission is most efficient near the theoretical maximum vφ=half the electron Alfven speed, consistent with the new theoretical prediction that faster holes radiate more efficiently. While transferring energy to whistlers the holes lose coherence and dissipate over a few local ion inertial lengths. The whistlers, however, propagate to the x line and out over many 10's of ion inertial lengths into the inflow region of reconnection. As the whistlers pass near the x line they modulate the rate at which magnetic field lines reconnect.
Pertschy, S; Meyer, G P; Waalkes, S; Doeker, R; Koshedub, R; Noeske, R; Galanski, M; Lotz, J
2006-07-01
To validate the technique of partial k-space sampling and zero filling with phase-contrast flow measurements as compared to measurements with full k-space sampling. In vitro: A laminar flow phantom was utilized to evaluate the effect of partial k-space sampling on the accuracy, precision and signal-to-noise ratio of phase-contrast flow measurements. In vivo: The effect of partial k-space sampling on the quantification of cardiac output (n = 40 patients) and the duration of the scan were evaluated in the ascending aorta (n = 37) and pulmonary trunk (n = 34) in a prospective study. Partial k-space sampling resulted in an increase in the SNR by 2 % in vitro. The precision was altered by less than 1 %. Flow volumes were systematically overestimated by 3.5 %. No significant differences were found in the in vivo measurements of cardiac output. The scan duration was reduced by 34 % by utilizing partial k-space sampling. Partial k-space sampling can be used to reduce scan time without a significant decrease in the accuracy or precision of phase-contrast flow measurements in large arteries.