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Sample records for hierarchical neural system

  1. A Tool for Fast Development of Modular and Hierarchic Neural Network-based Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Reinaldo

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents PyramidNet tool as a fast and easy way to develop Modular and Hierarchic Neural Network-based Systems. This tool facilitates the fast emergence of autonomous behaviors in agents because it uses a hierarchic and modular control methodology of heterogeneous learning modules: the pyramid. Using the graphical resources of PyramidNet the user is able to specify a behavior system even having little understanding of artificial neural networks. Experimental tests have shown that a very significant speedup is attained in the development of modular and hierarchic neural network-based systems by using this tool.

  2. A special hierarchical fuzzy neural-networks based reinforcement learning for multi-variables system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wen-zhi; LU Tian-sheng

    2005-01-01

    Proposes a reinforcement learning scheme based on a special Hierarchical Fuzzy Neural-Networks (HFNN) for solving complicated learning tasks in a continuous multi-variables environment. The output of the previous layer in the HFNN is no longer used as if-part of the next layer, but used only in then-part. Thus it can deal with the difficulty when the output of the previous layer is meaningless or its meaning is uncertain. The proposed HFNN has a minimal number of fuzzy rules and can successfully solve the problem of rules combination explosion and decrease the quantity of computation and memory requirement. In the learning process, two HFNN with the same structure perform fuzzy action composition and evaluation function approximation simultaneously where the parameters of neural-networks are tuned and updated on line by using gradient descent algorithm. The reinforcement learning method is proved to be correct and feasible by simulation of a double inverted pendulum system.

  3. Hierarchical neural network model of the visual system determining figure/ground relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Masayuki

    2017-07-01

    One of the most important functions of the visual perception in the brain is figure/ground interpretation from input images. Figural region in 2D image corresponding to object in 3D space are distinguished from background region extended behind the object. Previously the author proposed a neural network model of figure/ground separation constructed on the standpoint that local geometric features such as curvatures and outer angles at corners are extracted and propagated along input contour in a single layer network (Kikuchi & Akashi, 2001). However, such a processing principle has the defect that signal propagation requires manyiterations despite the fact that actual visual system determines figure/ground relation within the short period (Zhou et al., 2000). In order to attain speed-up for determining figure/ground, this study incorporates hierarchical architecture into the previous model. This study confirmed the effect of the hierarchization as for the computation time by simulation. As the number of layers increased, the required computation time reduced. However, such speed-up effect was saturatedas the layers increased to some extent. This study attempted to explain this saturation effect by the notion of average distance between vertices in the area of complex network, and succeeded to mimic the saturation effect by computer simulation.

  4. Hierarchical Neural Network Structures for Phoneme Recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Vasquez, Daniel; Minker, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    In this book, hierarchical structures based on neural networks are investigated for automatic speech recognition. These structures are evaluated on the phoneme recognition task where a  Hybrid Hidden Markov Model/Artificial Neural Network paradigm is used. The baseline hierarchical scheme consists of two levels each which is based on a Multilayered Perceptron. Additionally, the output of the first level serves as a second level input. The computational speed of the phoneme recognizer can be substantially increased by removing redundant information still contained at the first level output. Several techniques based on temporal and phonetic criteria have been investigated to remove this redundant information. The computational time could be reduced by 57% whilst keeping the system accuracy comparable to the baseline hierarchical approach.

  5. Synchronization of chaotic systems and identification of nonlinear systems by using recurrent hierarchical type-2 fuzzy neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadzadeh, Ardashir; Ghaemi, Sehraneh

    2015-09-01

    This paper proposes a novel approach for training of proposed recurrent hierarchical interval type-2 fuzzy neural networks (RHT2FNN) based on the square-root cubature Kalman filters (SCKF). The SCKF algorithm is used to adjust the premise part of the type-2 FNN and the weights of defuzzification and the feedback weights. The recurrence property in the proposed network is the output feeding of each membership function to itself. The proposed RHT2FNN is employed in the sliding mode control scheme for the synchronization of chaotic systems. Unknown functions in the sliding mode control approach are estimated by RHT2FNN. Another application of the proposed RHT2FNN is the identification of dynamic nonlinear systems. The effectiveness of the proposed network and its learning algorithm is verified by several simulation examples. Furthermore, the universal approximation of RHT2FNNs is also shown.

  6. Modular, Hierarchical Learning By Artificial Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldi, Pierre F.; Toomarian, Nikzad

    1996-01-01

    Modular and hierarchical approach to supervised learning by artificial neural networks leads to neural networks more structured than neural networks in which all neurons fully interconnected. These networks utilize general feedforward flow of information and sparse recurrent connections to achieve dynamical effects. The modular organization, sparsity of modular units and connections, and fact that learning is much more circumscribed are all attractive features for designing neural-network hardware. Learning streamlined by imitating some aspects of biological neural networks.

  7. A neural signature of hierarchical reinforcement learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribas-Fernandes, José J F; Solway, Alec; Diuk, Carlos; McGuire, Joseph T; Barto, Andrew G; Niv, Yael; Botvinick, Matthew M

    2011-07-28

    Human behavior displays hierarchical structure: simple actions cohere into subtask sequences, which work together to accomplish overall task goals. Although the neural substrates of such hierarchy have been the target of increasing research, they remain poorly understood. We propose that the computations supporting hierarchical behavior may relate to those in hierarchical reinforcement learning (HRL), a machine-learning framework that extends reinforcement-learning mechanisms into hierarchical domains. To test this, we leveraged a distinctive prediction arising from HRL. In ordinary reinforcement learning, reward prediction errors are computed when there is an unanticipated change in the prospects for accomplishing overall task goals. HRL entails that prediction errors should also occur in relation to task subgoals. In three neuroimaging studies we observed neural responses consistent with such subgoal-related reward prediction errors, within structures previously implicated in reinforcement learning. The results reported support the relevance of HRL to the neural processes underlying hierarchical behavior.

  8. A CAD System for Identification and Classification of Breast Cancer Tumors in DCE-MR Images Based on Hierarchical Convolutional Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Rastiboroujeni

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a computer aided diagnosis (CAD system based on hierarchical convolutional neural networks (HCNNs to discriminate between malignant and benign tumors in breast DCE-MRIs. A HCNN is a hierarchical neural network that operates on two-dimensional images. A HCNN integrates feature extraction and classification processes into one single and fully adaptive structure. It can extract two-dimensional key features automatically, and it is relatively tolerant to geometric and local distortions in input images. We evaluate CNN implementation learning and testing processes based on gradient descent (GD and resilient back-propagation (RPROP approaches. We show that, proposed HCNN with RPROP learning approach provide an effective and robust neural structure to design a CAD base system for breast MRI, and has potential as a mechanism for the evaluation of different types of abnormalities in medical images.

  9. Hebbian learning of hand-centred representations in a hierarchical neural network model of the primate visual system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Born, Jannis; Galeazzi, Juan M; Stringer, Simon M

    2017-01-01

    A subset of neurons in the posterior parietal and premotor areas of the primate brain respond to the locations of visual targets in a hand-centred frame of reference. Such hand-centred visual representations are thought to play an important role in visually-guided reaching to target locations in space. In this paper we show how a biologically plausible, Hebbian learning mechanism may account for the development of localized hand-centred representations in a hierarchical neural network model of the primate visual system, VisNet. The hand-centered neurons developed in the model use an invariance learning mechanism known as continuous transformation (CT) learning. In contrast to previous theoretical proposals for the development of hand-centered visual representations, CT learning does not need a memory trace of recent neuronal activity to be incorporated in the synaptic learning rule. Instead, CT learning relies solely on a Hebbian learning rule, which is able to exploit the spatial overlap that naturally occurs between successive images of a hand-object configuration as it is shifted across different retinal locations due to saccades. Our simulations show how individual neurons in the network model can learn to respond selectively to target objects in particular locations with respect to the hand, irrespective of where the hand-object configuration occurs on the retina. The response properties of these hand-centred neurons further generalise to localised receptive fields in the hand-centred space when tested on novel hand-object configurations that have not been explored during training. Indeed, even when the network is trained with target objects presented across a near continuum of locations around the hand during training, the model continues to develop hand-centred neurons with localised receptive fields in hand-centred space. With the help of principal component analysis, we provide the first theoretical framework that explains the behavior of Hebbian learning

  10. Application of hierarchical dissociated neural network in closed-loop hybrid system integrating biological and mechanical intelligence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongcheng Li

    Full Text Available Neural networks are considered the origin of intelligence in organisms. In this paper, a new design of an intelligent system merging biological intelligence with artificial intelligence was created. It was based on a neural controller bidirectionally connected to an actual mobile robot to implement a novel vehicle. Two types of experimental preparations were utilized as the neural controller including 'random' and '4Q' (cultured neurons artificially divided into four interconnected parts neural network. Compared to the random cultures, the '4Q' cultures presented absolutely different activities, and the robot controlled by the '4Q' network presented better capabilities in search tasks. Our results showed that neural cultures could be successfully employed to control an artificial agent; the robot performed better and better with the stimulus because of the short-term plasticity. A new framework is provided to investigate the bidirectional biological-artificial interface and develop new strategies for a future intelligent system using these simplified model systems.

  11. Application of hierarchical dissociated neural network in closed-loop hybrid system integrating biological and mechanical intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongcheng; Sun, Rong; Zhang, Bin; Wang, Yuechao; Li, Hongyi

    2015-01-01

    Neural networks are considered the origin of intelligence in organisms. In this paper, a new design of an intelligent system merging biological intelligence with artificial intelligence was created. It was based on a neural controller bidirectionally connected to an actual mobile robot to implement a novel vehicle. Two types of experimental preparations were utilized as the neural controller including 'random' and '4Q' (cultured neurons artificially divided into four interconnected parts) neural network. Compared to the random cultures, the '4Q' cultures presented absolutely different activities, and the robot controlled by the '4Q' network presented better capabilities in search tasks. Our results showed that neural cultures could be successfully employed to control an artificial agent; the robot performed better and better with the stimulus because of the short-term plasticity. A new framework is provided to investigate the bidirectional biological-artificial interface and develop new strategies for a future intelligent system using these simplified model systems.

  12. Hierarchical random cellular neural networks for system-level brain-like signal processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozma, Robert; Puljic, Marko

    2013-09-01

    Sensory information processing and cognition in brains are modeled using dynamic systems theory. The brain's dynamic state is described by a trajectory evolving in a high-dimensional state space. We introduce a hierarchy of random cellular automata as the mathematical tools to describe the spatio-temporal dynamics of the cortex. The corresponding brain model is called neuropercolation which has distinct advantages compared to traditional models using differential equations, especially in describing spatio-temporal discontinuities in the form of phase transitions. Phase transitions demarcate singularities in brain operations at critical conditions, which are viewed as hallmarks of higher cognition and awareness experience. The introduced Monte-Carlo simulations obtained by parallel computing point to the importance of computer implementations using very large-scale integration (VLSI) and analog platforms.

  13. HDS: Hierarchical Data System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Dave; Walter, Anton; Lupton, W. F.; Warren-Smith, Rodney F.; Lawden, Mike; McIlwrath, Brian; Peden, J. C. M.; Jenness, Tim; Draper, Peter W.

    2015-02-01

    The Hierarchical Data System (HDS) is a file-based hierarchical data system designed for the storage of a wide variety of information. It is particularly suited to the storage of large multi-dimensional arrays (with their ancillary data) where efficient access is needed. It is a key component of the Starlink software collection (ascl:1110.012) and is used by the Starlink N-Dimensional Data Format (NDF) library (ascl:1411.023). HDS organizes data into hierarchies, broadly similar to the directory structure of a hierarchical filing system, but contained within a single HDS container file. The structures stored in these files are self-describing and flexible; HDS supports modification and extension of structures previously created, as well as functions such as deletion, copying, and renaming. All information stored in HDS files is portable between the machines on which HDS is implemented. Thus, there are no format conversion problems when moving between machines. HDS can write files in a private binary format (version 4), or be layered on top of HDF5 (version 5).

  14. Hierarchical modular granular neural networks with fuzzy aggregation

    CERN Document Server

    Sanchez, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    In this book, a new method for hybrid intelligent systems is proposed. The proposed method is based on a granular computing approach applied in two levels. The techniques used and combined in the proposed method are modular neural networks (MNNs) with a Granular Computing (GrC) approach, thus resulting in a new concept of MNNs; modular granular neural networks (MGNNs). In addition fuzzy logic (FL) and hierarchical genetic algorithms (HGAs) are techniques used in this research work to improve results. These techniques are chosen because in other works have demonstrated to be a good option, and in the case of MNNs and HGAs, these techniques allow to improve the results obtained than with their conventional versions; respectively artificial neural networks and genetic algorithms.

  15. Evolvable Neural Software System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Steven A.

    2009-01-01

    The Evolvable Neural Software System (ENSS) is composed of sets of Neural Basis Functions (NBFs), which can be totally autonomously created and removed according to the changing needs and requirements of the software system. The resulting structure is both hierarchical and self-similar in that a given set of NBFs may have a ruler NBF, which in turn communicates with other sets of NBFs. These sets of NBFs may function as nodes to a ruler node, which are also NBF constructs. In this manner, the synthetic neural system can exhibit the complexity, three-dimensional connectivity, and adaptability of biological neural systems. An added advantage of ENSS over a natural neural system is its ability to modify its core genetic code in response to environmental changes as reflected in needs and requirements. The neural system is fully adaptive and evolvable and is trainable before release. It continues to rewire itself while on the job. The NBF is a unique, bilevel intelligence neural system composed of a higher-level heuristic neural system (HNS) and a lower-level, autonomic neural system (ANS). Taken together, the HNS and the ANS give each NBF the complete capabilities of a biological neural system to match sensory inputs to actions. Another feature of the NBF is the Evolvable Neural Interface (ENI), which links the HNS and ANS. The ENI solves the interface problem between these two systems by actively adapting and evolving from a primitive initial state (a Neural Thread) to a complicated, operational ENI and successfully adapting to a training sequence of sensory input. This simulates the adaptation of a biological neural system in a developmental phase. Within the greater multi-NBF and multi-node ENSS, self-similar ENI s provide the basis for inter-NBF and inter-node connectivity.

  16. Neural Mechanisms of Hierarchical Planning in a Virtual Subway Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaguer, Jan; Spiers, Hugo; Hassabis, Demis; Summerfield, Christopher

    2016-05-18

    Planning allows actions to be structured in pursuit of a future goal. However, in natural environments, planning over multiple possible future states incurs prohibitive computational costs. To represent plans efficiently, states can be clustered hierarchically into "contexts". For example, representing a journey through a subway network as a succession of individual states (stations) is more costly than encoding a sequence of contexts (lines) and context switches (line changes). Here, using functional brain imaging, we asked humans to perform a planning task in a virtual subway network. Behavioral analyses revealed that humans executed a hierarchically organized plan. Brain activity in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex and premotor cortex scaled with the cost of hierarchical plan representation and unique neural signals in these regions signaled contexts and context switches. These results suggest that humans represent hierarchical plans using a network of caudal prefrontal structures. VIDEO ABSTRACT.

  17. Hierarchical Neural Regression Models for Customer Churn Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golshan Mohammadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available As customers are the main assets of each industry, customer churn prediction is becoming a major task for companies to remain in competition with competitors. In the literature, the better applicability and efficiency of hierarchical data mining techniques has been reported. This paper considers three hierarchical models by combining four different data mining techniques for churn prediction, which are backpropagation artificial neural networks (ANN, self-organizing maps (SOM, alpha-cut fuzzy c-means (α-FCM, and Cox proportional hazards regression model. The hierarchical models are ANN + ANN + Cox, SOM + ANN + Cox, and α-FCM + ANN + Cox. In particular, the first component of the models aims to cluster data in two churner and nonchurner groups and also filter out unrepresentative data or outliers. Then, the clustered data as the outputs are used to assign customers to churner and nonchurner groups by the second technique. Finally, the correctly classified data are used to create Cox proportional hazards model. To evaluate the performance of the hierarchical models, an Iranian mobile dataset is considered. The experimental results show that the hierarchical models outperform the single Cox regression baseline model in terms of prediction accuracy, Types I and II errors, RMSE, and MAD metrics. In addition, the α-FCM + ANN + Cox model significantly performs better than the two other hierarchical models.

  18. Learning Contextual Dependence With Convolutional Hierarchical Recurrent Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Zhen; Shuai, Bing; Wang, Gang; Liu, Xiao; Wang, Xingxing; Wang, Bing; Chen, Yushi

    2016-07-01

    Existing deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs) have shown their great success on image classification. CNNs mainly consist of convolutional and pooling layers, both of which are performed on local image areas without considering the dependencies among different image regions. However, such dependencies are very important for generating explicit image representation. In contrast, recurrent neural networks (RNNs) are well known for their ability of encoding contextual information among sequential data, and they only require a limited number of network parameters. General RNNs can hardly be directly applied on non-sequential data. Thus, we proposed the hierarchical RNNs (HRNNs). In HRNNs, each RNN layer focuses on modeling spatial dependencies among image regions from the same scale but different locations. While the cross RNN scale connections target on modeling scale dependencies among regions from the same location but different scales. Specifically, we propose two recurrent neural network models: 1) hierarchical simple recurrent network (HSRN), which is fast and has low computational cost; and 2) hierarchical long-short term memory recurrent network (HLSTM), which performs better than HSRN with the price of more computational cost. In this manuscript, we integrate CNNs with HRNNs, and develop end-to-end convolutional hierarchical recurrent neural networks (C-HRNNs). C-HRNNs not only make use of the representation power of CNNs, but also efficiently encodes spatial and scale dependencies among different image regions. On four of the most challenging object/scene image classification benchmarks, our C-HRNNs achieve state-of-the-art results on Places 205, SUN 397, MIT indoor, and competitive results on ILSVRC 2012.

  19. Hierarchical structure of biological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcocer-Cuarón, Carlos; Rivera, Ana L; Castaño, Victor M

    2014-01-01

    A general theory of biological systems, based on few fundamental propositions, allows a generalization of both Wierner and Berthalanffy approaches to theoretical biology. Here, a biological system is defined as a set of self-organized, differentiated elements that interact pair-wise through various networks and media, isolated from other sets by boundaries. Their relation to other systems can be described as a closed loop in a steady-state, which leads to a hierarchical structure and functioning of the biological system. Our thermodynamical approach of hierarchical character can be applied to biological systems of varying sizes through some general principles, based on the exchange of energy information and/or mass from and within the systems. PMID:24145961

  20. Sustained Activity in Hierarchical Modular Neural Networks: Self-Organized Criticality and Oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sheng-Jun; Hilgetag, Claus C.; Zhou, Changsong

    2010-01-01

    Cerebral cortical brain networks possess a number of conspicuous features of structure and dynamics. First, these networks have an intricate, non-random organization. In particular, they are structured in a hierarchical modular fashion, from large-scale regions of the whole brain, via cortical areas and area subcompartments organized as structural and functional maps to cortical columns, and finally circuits made up of individual neurons. Second, the networks display self-organized sustained activity, which is persistent in the absence of external stimuli. At the systems level, such activity is characterized by complex rhythmical oscillations over a broadband background, while at the cellular level, neuronal discharges have been observed to display avalanches, indicating that cortical networks are at the state of self-organized criticality (SOC). We explored the relationship between hierarchical neural network organization and sustained dynamics using large-scale network modeling. Previously, it was shown that sparse random networks with balanced excitation and inhibition can sustain neural activity without external stimulation. We found that a hierarchical modular architecture can generate sustained activity better than random networks. Moreover, the system can simultaneously support rhythmical oscillations and SOC, which are not present in the respective random networks. The mechanism underlying the sustained activity is that each dense module cannot sustain activity on its own, but displays SOC in the presence of weak perturbations. Therefore, the hierarchical modular networks provide the coupling among subsystems with SOC. These results imply that the hierarchical modular architecture of cortical networks plays an important role in shaping the ongoing spontaneous activity of the brain, potentially allowing the system to take advantage of both the sensitivity of critical states and the predictability and timing of oscillations for efficient information

  1. Sustained activity in hierarchical modular neural networks: self-organized criticality and oscillations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Jun Wang

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral cortical brain networks possess a number of conspicuous features of structure and dynamics. First, these networks have an intricate, non-random organization. They are structured in a hierarchical modular fashion, from large-scale regions of the whole brain, via cortical areas and area subcompartments organized as structural and functional maps to cortical columns, and finally circuits made up of individual neurons. Second, the networks display self-organized sustained activity, which is persistent in the absence of external stimuli. At the systems level, such activity is characterized by complex rhythmical oscillations over a broadband background, while at the cellular level, neuronal discharges have been observed to display avalanches, indicating that cortical networks are at the state of self-organized criticality. We explored the relationship between hierarchical neural network organization and sustained dynamics using large-scale network modeling. It was shown that sparse random networks with balanced excitation and inhibition can sustain neural activity without external stimulation. We find that a hierarchical modular architecture can generate sustained activity better than random networks. Moreover, the system can simultaneously support rhythmical oscillations and self-organized criticality, which are not present in the respective random networks. The underlying mechanism is that each dense module cannot sustain activity on its own, but displays self-organized criticality in the presence of weak perturbations. The hierarchical modular networks provide the coupling among subsystems with self-organized criticality. These results imply that the hierarchical modular architecture of cortical networks plays an important role in shaping the ongoing spontaneous activity of the brain, potentially allowing the system to take advantage of both the sensitivityof critical state and predictability and timing of oscillations for efficient

  2. Sustained activity in hierarchical modular neural networks: self-organized criticality and oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sheng-Jun; Hilgetag, Claus C; Zhou, Changsong

    2011-01-01

    Cerebral cortical brain networks possess a number of conspicuous features of structure and dynamics. First, these networks have an intricate, non-random organization. In particular, they are structured in a hierarchical modular fashion, from large-scale regions of the whole brain, via cortical areas and area subcompartments organized as structural and functional maps to cortical columns, and finally circuits made up of individual neurons. Second, the networks display self-organized sustained activity, which is persistent in the absence of external stimuli. At the systems level, such activity is characterized by complex rhythmical oscillations over a broadband background, while at the cellular level, neuronal discharges have been observed to display avalanches, indicating that cortical networks are at the state of self-organized criticality (SOC). We explored the relationship between hierarchical neural network organization and sustained dynamics using large-scale network modeling. Previously, it was shown that sparse random networks with balanced excitation and inhibition can sustain neural activity without external stimulation. We found that a hierarchical modular architecture can generate sustained activity better than random networks. Moreover, the system can simultaneously support rhythmical oscillations and SOC, which are not present in the respective random networks. The mechanism underlying the sustained activity is that each dense module cannot sustain activity on its own, but displays SOC in the presence of weak perturbations. Therefore, the hierarchical modular networks provide the coupling among subsystems with SOC. These results imply that the hierarchical modular architecture of cortical networks plays an important role in shaping the ongoing spontaneous activity of the brain, potentially allowing the system to take advantage of both the sensitivity of critical states and the predictability and timing of oscillations for efficient information

  3. Resolution of Singularities Introduced by Hierarchical Structure in Deep Neural Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitta, Tohru

    2016-06-30

    We present a theoretical analysis of singular points of artificial deep neural networks, resulting in providing deep neural network models having no critical points introduced by a hierarchical structure. It is considered that such deep neural network models have good nature for gradient-based optimization. First, we show that there exist a large number of critical points introduced by a hierarchical structure in deep neural networks as straight lines, depending on the number of hidden layers and the number of hidden neurons. Second, we derive a sufficient condition for deep neural networks having no critical points introduced by a hierarchical structure, which can be applied to general deep neural networks. It is also shown that the existence of critical points introduced by a hierarchical structure is determined by the rank and the regularity of weight matrices for a specific class of deep neural networks. Finally, two kinds of implementation methods of the sufficient conditions to have no critical points are provided. One is a learning algorithm that can avoid critical points introduced by the hierarchical structure during learning (called avoidant learning algorithm). The other is a neural network that does not have some critical points introduced by the hierarchical structure as an inherent property (called avoidant neural network).

  4. Neural Systems Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — As part of the Electrical and Computer Engineering Department and The Institute for System Research, the Neural Systems Laboratory studies the functionality of the...

  5. APPLICATION OF NEURAL NETWORK WITH MULTI-HIERARCHIC STRUCTURE TO EVALUATE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF THE COAL MINES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李新春; 陶学禹

    2000-01-01

    The neural network with multi-hierarchic structure is provided in this paper to evaluate sustainable development of the coal mines based on analyzing its effect factors. The whole evaluating system is composed of 5 neural networks.The feasibility of this method has been proved by case study. This study will provide a scientfic and theoretic foundation for evaluating the sustainable development of coal mines.

  6. Analysis hierarchical model for discrete event systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciortea, E. M.

    2015-11-01

    The This paper presents the hierarchical model based on discrete event network for robotic systems. Based on the hierarchical approach, Petri network is analysed as a network of the highest conceptual level and the lowest level of local control. For modelling and control of complex robotic systems using extended Petri nets. Such a system is structured, controlled and analysed in this paper by using Visual Object Net ++ package that is relatively simple and easy to use, and the results are shown as representations easy to interpret. The hierarchical structure of the robotic system is implemented on computers analysed using specialized programs. Implementation of hierarchical model discrete event systems, as a real-time operating system on a computer network connected via a serial bus is possible, where each computer is dedicated to local and Petri model of a subsystem global robotic system. Since Petri models are simplified to apply general computers, analysis, modelling, complex manufacturing systems control can be achieved using Petri nets. Discrete event systems is a pragmatic tool for modelling industrial systems. For system modelling using Petri nets because we have our system where discrete event. To highlight the auxiliary time Petri model using transport stream divided into hierarchical levels and sections are analysed successively. Proposed robotic system simulation using timed Petri, offers the opportunity to view the robotic time. Application of goods or robotic and transmission times obtained by measuring spot is obtained graphics showing the average time for transport activity, using the parameters sets of finished products. individually.

  7. SOFM Neural Network Based Hierarchical Topology Control for Wireless Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Well-designed network topology provides vital support for routing, data fusion, and target tracking in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Self-organization feature map (SOFM) neural network is a major branch of artificial neural networks, which has self-organizing and self-learning features. In this paper, we propose a cluster-based topology control algorithm for WSNs, named SOFMHTC, which uses SOFM neural network to form a hierarchical network structure, completes cluster head selection by the...

  8. Complex Evaluation of Hierarchically-Network Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Polishchuk, Dmytro; Yadzhak, Mykhailo

    2016-01-01

    Methods of complex evaluation based on local, forecasting, aggregated, and interactive evaluation of the state, function quality, and interaction of complex system's objects on the all hierarchical levels is proposed. Examples of analysis of the structural elements of railway transport system are used for illustration of efficiency of proposed approach.

  9. DC Hierarchical Control System for Microgrid Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Xiaonan; Sun, Kai; Guerrero, Josep M.; Huang, Lipei

    2013-01-01

    In order to enhance the DC side performance of AC-DC hybrid microgrid,a DC hierarchical control system is proposed in this paper.To meet the requirement of DC load sharing between the parallel power interfaces,droop method is adopted.Meanwhile,DC voltage secondary control is employed to restore the deviation in the DC bus voltage.The hierarchical control system is composed of two levels.DC voltage and AC current controllers are achieved in the primary control level.

  10. Hierarchical Self-organization of Complex Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHAI Li-he; WEN Dong-sheng

    2004-01-01

    Researches on organization and structure in complex systems are academic and industrial fronts in modern sciences. Though many theories are tentatively proposed to analyze complex systems, we still lack a rigorous theory on them. Complex systems possess various degrees of freedom, which means that they should exhibit all kinds of structures. However, complex systems often show similar patterns and structures. Then the question arises why such similar structures appear in all kinds of complex systems. The paper outlines a theory on freedom degree compression and the existence of hierarchical self-organization for all complex systems is found. It is freedom degree compression and hierarchical self-organization that are responsible for the existence of these similar patterns or structures observed in the complex systems.

  11. Formalizing a Hierarchical File System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, Wim H.; Lali, M.I.

    2009-01-01

    In this note, we define an abstract file system as a partial function from (absolute) paths to data. Such a file system determines the set of valid paths. It allows the file system to be read and written at a valid path, and it allows the system to be modified by the Unix operations for removal (rm)

  12. Formalizing a hierarchical file system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, Wim H.; Lali, Muhammad Ikram

    2012-01-01

    An abstract file system is defined here as a partial function from (absolute) paths to data. Such a file system determines the set of valid paths. It allows the file system to be read and written at a valid path, and it allows the system to be modified by the Unix operations for creation, removal, a

  13. Natural forest conservation hierarchical program with neural network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Chuanwen; LI Jihong

    2006-01-01

    In this paper,the implementing steps of a natural forest protection program grading (NFPPG) with neural network (NN) were summarized and the concepts of program illustration,patch sign unification and regression,and inclining factor were set forth.Employing Arc/Info GIS,the tree species diversity and rarity,disturbance degree,protection of channel system,and classification management in the Maoershan National Forest Park were described,and used as the input factors of NN.The relationships between NFPPG and above factors were also analyzed.By artificially determining training samples,the NFPPG of Moershan National Forest Park was created.Tested with all patches in the park,the generalization of NFPPG was satisfied.NFPPG took both the classification management and the protection of forest community types into account,as well as the ecological environment.The excitation function of NFPPG was not seriously saturated,indicating the leading effect of the inclining factor on the network optimization.

  14. Hierarchical Scaling in Systems of Natural Cities

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Yanguang

    2016-01-01

    Hierarchies can be modeled by a set of exponential functions, from which we can derive a set of power laws indicative of scaling. These scaling laws are followed by many natural and social phenomena such as cities, earthquakes, and rivers. This paper is devoted to revealing the scaling patterns in systems of natural cities by reconstructing the hierarchy with cascade structure. The cities of America, Britain, France, and Germany are taken as examples to make empirical analyses. The hierarchical scaling relations can be well fitted to the data points within the scaling ranges of the size and area of the natural cities. The size-number and area-number scaling exponents are close to 1, and the allometric scaling exponent is slightly less than 1. The results suggest that natural cities follow hierarchical scaling laws and hierarchical conservation law. Zipf's law proved to be one of the indications of the hierarchical scaling, and the primate law of city-size distribution represents a local pattern and can be mer...

  15. Time-domain analysis of neural tracking of hierarchical linguistic structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen; Ding, Nai

    2017-02-01

    When listening to continuous speech, cortical activity measured by MEG concurrently follows the rhythms of multiple linguistic structures, e.g., syllables, phrases, and sentences. This phenomenon was previously characterized in the frequency domain. Here, we investigate the waveform of neural activity tracking linguistic structures in the time domain and quantify the coherence of neural response phases over subjects listening to the same stimulus. These analyses are achieved by decomposing the multi-channel MEG recordings into components that maximize the correlation between neural response waveforms across listeners. Each MEG component can be viewed as the recording from a virtual sensor that is spatially tuned to a cortical network showing coherent neural activity over subjects. This analysis reveals information not available from previous frequency-domain analysis of MEG global field power: First, concurrent neural tracking of hierarchical linguistic structures emerges at the beginning of the stimulus, rather than slowly building up after repetitions of the same sentential structure. Second, neural tracking of the sentential structure is reflected by slow neural fluctuations, rather than, e.g., a series of short-lasting transient responses at sentential boundaries. Lastly and most importantly, it shows that the MEG responses tracking the syllabic rhythm are spatially separable from the MEG responses tracking the sentential and phrasal rhythms.

  16. Secular Evolution of Hierarchical Triple Star Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ford, E B; Kozinsky, B

    1999-01-01

    We derive octupole-level secular perturbation equations for hierarchical triple systems, using classical Hamiltonian perturbation techniques. Our equations describe the secular evolution of the orbital eccentricities and inclinations over timescales long compared to the orbital periods. By extending previous work done to leading (quadrupole) order to octupole level (i.e., including terms of order $\\alpha^3$, where $\\alpha\\equiv a_1/a_2<1$ is the ratio of semimajor axes) we obtain expressions that are applicable to a much wider range of parameters. For triple systems containing a close inner binary, we also discuss the possible interaction between the classical Newtonian perturbations and the general relativistic precession of the inner orbit. In some cases we show that this interaction can lead to resonances and a significant increase in the maximum amplitude of eccentricity perturbations. We establish the validity of our analytic expressions by providing detailed comparisons with the results of direct num...

  17. Optimization of Hierarchical System for Data Acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Novotny

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Television broadcasting over IP networks (IPTV is one of a number of network applications that are except of media distribution also interested in data acquisition from group of information resources of variable size. IP-TV uses Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP protocol for media streaming and RTP Control Protocol (RTCP protocol for session quality feedback. Other applications, for example sensor networks, have data acquisition as the main task. Current solutions have mostly problem with scalability - how to collect and process information from large amount of end nodes quickly and effectively? The article deals with optimization of hierarchical system of data acquisition. Problem is mathematically described, delay minima are searched and results are proved by simulations.

  18. Identifying time-delayed gene regulatory networks via an evolvable hierarchical recurrent neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordmahalleh, Mina Moradi; Sefidmazgi, Mohammad Gorji; Harrison, Scott H; Homaifar, Abdollah

    2017-01-01

    The modeling of genetic interactions within a cell is crucial for a basic understanding of physiology and for applied areas such as drug design. Interactions in gene regulatory networks (GRNs) include effects of transcription factors, repressors, small metabolites, and microRNA species. In addition, the effects of regulatory interactions are not always simultaneous, but can occur after a finite time delay, or as a combined outcome of simultaneous and time delayed interactions. Powerful biotechnologies have been rapidly and successfully measuring levels of genetic expression to illuminate different states of biological systems. This has led to an ensuing challenge to improve the identification of specific regulatory mechanisms through regulatory network reconstructions. Solutions to this challenge will ultimately help to spur forward efforts based on the usage of regulatory network reconstructions in systems biology applications. We have developed a hierarchical recurrent neural network (HRNN) that identifies time-delayed gene interactions using time-course data. A customized genetic algorithm (GA) was used to optimize hierarchical connectivity of regulatory genes and a target gene. The proposed design provides a non-fully connected network with the flexibility of using recurrent connections inside the network. These features and the non-linearity of the HRNN facilitate the process of identifying temporal patterns of a GRN. Our HRNN method was implemented with the Python language. It was first evaluated on simulated data representing linear and nonlinear time-delayed gene-gene interaction models across a range of network sizes and variances of noise. We then further demonstrated the capability of our method in reconstructing GRNs of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae synthetic network for in vivo benchmarking of reverse-engineering and modeling approaches (IRMA). We compared the performance of our method to TD-ARACNE, HCC-CLINDE, TSNI and ebdbNet across different network

  19. Hierarchical Neural Networks Method for Fault Diagnosis of Large-Scale Analog Circuits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN Yanghong; HE Yigang; FANG Gefeng

    2007-01-01

    A novel hierarchical neural networks (HNNs) method for fault diagnosis of large-scale circuits is proposed. The presented techniques using neural networks(NNs) approaches require a large amount of computation for simulating various faulty component possibilities. For large scale circuits, the number of possible faults, and hence the simulations, grow rapidly and become tedious and sometimes even impractical. Some NNs are distributed to the torn sub-blocks according to the proposed torn principles of large scale circuits. And the NNs are trained in batches by different patterns in the light of the presented rules of various patterns when the DC, AC and transient responses of the circuit are available. The method is characterized by decreasing the over-lapped feasible domains of responses of circuits with tolerance and leads to better performance and higher correct classification. The methodology is illustrated by means of diagnosis examples.

  20. Secular Evolution of Hierarchical Triple Star Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Eric B.; Kozinsky, Boris; Rasio, Frederic A.

    2000-05-01

    We derive octupole-level secular perturbation equations for hierarchical triple systems, using classical Hamiltonian perturbation techniques. Our equations describe the secular evolution of the orbital eccentricities and inclinations over timescales that are long compared to the orbital periods. By extending previous work done to leading (quadrupole) order to octupole level (i.e., including terms of order α3, where α≡a1/a2quadrupole-level theory of Kozai gives a vanishing result in the limit of zero relative inclination. The classical planetary perturbation theory, while valid to all orders in α, applies only to orbits of low-mass objects orbiting a common central mass, with low eccentricities and low relative inclinations. For triple systems containing a close inner binary, we also discuss the possible interaction between the classical Newtonian perturbations and the general relativistic precession of the inner orbit. In some cases we show that this interaction can lead to resonances and a significant increase in the maximum amplitude of eccentricity perturbations. We establish the validity of our analytic expressions by providing detailed comparisons with the results of direct numerical integrations of the three-body problem obtained for a large number of representative cases. In addition, we show that our expressions reduce correctly to previously published analytic results obtained in various limiting regimes. We also discuss applications of the theory in the context of several observed triple systems of current interest, including the millisecond pulsar PSR B1620-26 in M4, the giant planet in 16 Cygni, and the protostellar binary TMR-1.

  1. Emergence of hierarchical structure mirroring linguistic composition in a recurrent neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinoshita, Wataru; Arie, Hiroaki; Tani, Jun; Okuno, Hiroshi G; Ogata, Tetsuya

    2011-05-01

    We show that a Multiple Timescale Recurrent Neural Network (MTRNN) can acquire the capabilities to recognize, generate, and correct sentences by self-organizing in a way that mirrors the hierarchical structure of sentences: characters grouped into words, and words into sentences. The model can control which sentence to generate depending on its initial states (generation phase) and the initial states can be calculated from the target sentence (recognition phase). In an experiment, we trained our model over a set of unannotated sentences from an artificial language, represented as sequences of characters. Once trained, the model could recognize and generate grammatical sentences, even if they were not learned. Moreover, we found that our model could correct a few substitution errors in a sentence, and the correction performance was improved by adding the errors to the training sentences in each training iteration with a certain probability. An analysis of the neural activations in our model revealed that the MTRNN had self-organized, reflecting the hierarchical linguistic structure by taking advantage of the differences in timescale among its neurons: in particular, neurons that change the fastest represented "characters", those that change more slowly, "words", and those that change the slowest, "sentences".

  2. Artificial Neural Network Analysis System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Contract No. DASG60-00-M-0201 Purchase request no.: Foot in the Door-01 Title Name: Artificial Neural Network Analysis System Company: Atlantic... Artificial Neural Network Analysis System 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Powell, Bruce C 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER...34) 27-02-2001 Report Type N/A Dates Covered (from... to) ("DD MON YYYY") 28-10-2000 27-02-2001 Title and Subtitle Artificial Neural Network Analysis

  3. Fractal Analysis Based on Hierarchical Scaling in Complex Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Yanguang

    2016-01-01

    A fractal is in essence a hierarchy with cascade structure, which can be described with a set of exponential functions. From these exponential functions, a set of power laws indicative of scaling can be derived. Hierarchy structure and spatial network proved to be associated with one another. This paper is devoted to exploring the theory of fractal analysis of complex systems by means of hierarchical scaling. Two research methods are utilized to make this study, including logic analysis method and empirical analysis method. The main results are as follows. First, a fractal system such as Cantor set is described from the hierarchical angle of view; based on hierarchical structure, three approaches are proposed to estimate fractal dimension. Second, the hierarchical scaling can be generalized to describe multifractals, fractal complementary sets, and self-similar curve such as logarithmic spiral. Third, complex systems such as urban system are demonstrated to be a self-similar hierarchy. The human settlements i...

  4. SORM applied to hierarchical parallel system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager

    2006-01-01

    The old hierarchical stochastic load combination model of Ferry Borges and Castanheta and the corresponding problem of determining the distribution of the extreme random load effect is the inspiration to this paper. The evaluation of the distribution function of the extreme value by use of a part......The old hierarchical stochastic load combination model of Ferry Borges and Castanheta and the corresponding problem of determining the distribution of the extreme random load effect is the inspiration to this paper. The evaluation of the distribution function of the extreme value by use...... of a particular first order reliability method (FORM) was first described in a celebrated paper by Rackwitz and Fiessler more than a quarter of a century ago. The method has become known as the Rackwitz-Fiessler algorithm. The original RF-algorithm as applied to a hierarchical random variable model...... is recapitulated so that a simple but quite effective accuracy improving calculation can be explained. A limit state curvature correction factor on the probability approximation is obtained from the final stop results of the RF-algorithm. This correction factor is based on Breitung’s asymptotic formula for second...

  5. Hierarchical robust nonlinear switching control design for propulsion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonessa, Alexander

    1999-09-01

    The desire for developing an integrated control system- design methodology for advanced propulsion systems has led to significant activity in modeling and control of flow compression systems in recent years. In this dissertation we develop a novel hierarchical switching control framework for addressing the compressor aerodynamic instabilities of rotating stall and surge. The proposed control framework accounts for the coupling between higher-order modes while explicitly addressing actuator rate saturation constraints and system modeling uncertainty. To develop a hierarchical nonlinear switching control framework, first we develop generalized Lyapunov and invariant set theorems for nonlinear dynamical systems wherein all regularity assumptions on the Lyapunov function and the system dynamics are removed. In particular, local and global stability theorems are given using lower semicontinuous Lyapunov functions. Furthermore, generalized invariant set theorems are derived wherein system trajectories converge to a union of largest invariant sets contained in intersections over finite intervals of the closure of generalized Lyapunov level surfaces. The proposed results provide transparent generalizations to standard Lyapunov and invariant set theorems. Using the generalized Lyapunov and invariant set theorems, a nonlinear control-system design framework predicated on a hierarchical switching controller architecture parameterized over a set of moving system equilibria is developed. Specifically, using equilibria- dependent Lyapunov functions, a hierarchical nonlinear control strategy is developed that stabilizes a given nonlinear system by stabilizing a collection of nonlinear controlled subsystems. The switching nonlinear controller architecture is designed based on a generalized lower semicontinuous Lyapunov function obtained by minimizing a potential function over a given switching set induced by the parameterized system equilibria. The proposed framework provides a

  6. Clustering-based classification of road traffic accidents using hierarchical clustering and artificial neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taamneh, Madhar; Taamneh, Salah; Alkheder, Sharaf

    2017-09-01

    Artificial neural networks (ANNs) have been widely used in predicting the severity of road traffic crashes. All available information about previously occurred accidents is typically used for building a single prediction model (i.e., classifier). Too little attention has been paid to the differences between these accidents, leading, in most cases, to build less accurate predictors. Hierarchical clustering is a well-known clustering method that seeks to group data by creating a hierarchy of clusters. Using hierarchical clustering and ANNs, a clustering-based classification approach for predicting the injury severity of road traffic accidents was proposed. About 6000 road accidents occurred over a six-year period from 2008 to 2013 in Abu Dhabi were used throughout this study. In order to reduce the amount of variation in data, hierarchical clustering was applied on the data set to organize it into six different forms, each with different number of clusters (i.e., clusters from 1 to 6). Two ANN models were subsequently built for each cluster of accidents in each generated form. The first model was built and validated using all accidents (training set), whereas only 66% of the accidents were used to build the second model, and the remaining 34% were used to test it (percentage split). Finally, the weighted average accuracy was computed for each type of models in each from of data. The results show that when testing the models using the training set, clustering prior to classification achieves (11%-16%) more accuracy than without using clustering, while the percentage split achieves (2%-5%) more accuracy. The results also suggest that partitioning the accidents into six clusters achieves the best accuracy if both types of models are taken into account.

  7. Neural mechanisms underlying the computation of hierarchical tree structures in mathematics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoya Nakai

    Full Text Available Whether mathematical and linguistic processes share the same neural mechanisms has been a matter of controversy. By examining various sentence structures, we recently demonstrated that activations in the left inferior frontal gyrus (L. IFG and left supramarginal gyrus (L. SMG were modulated by the Degree of Merger (DoM, a measure for the complexity of tree structures. In the present study, we hypothesize that the DoM is also critical in mathematical calculations, and clarify whether the DoM in the hierarchical tree structures modulates activations in these regions. We tested an arithmetic task that involved linear and quadratic sequences with recursive computation. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we found significant activation in the L. IFG, L. SMG, bilateral intraparietal sulcus (IPS, and precuneus selectively among the tested conditions. We also confirmed that activations in the L. IFG and L. SMG were free from memory-related factors, and that activations in the bilateral IPS and precuneus were independent from other possible factors. Moreover, by fitting parametric models of eight factors, we found that the model of DoM in the hierarchical tree structures was the best to explain the modulation of activations in these five regions. Using dynamic causal modeling, we showed that the model with a modulatory effect for the connection from the L. IPS to the L. IFG, and with driving inputs into the L. IFG, was highly probable. The intrinsic, i.e., task-independent, connection from the L. IFG to the L. IPS, as well as that from the L. IPS to the R. IPS, would provide a feedforward signal, together with negative feedback connections. We indicate that mathematics and language share the network of the L. IFG and L. IPS/SMG for the computation of hierarchical tree structures, and that mathematics recruits the additional network of the L. IPS and R. IPS.

  8. Neural mechanisms underlying the computation of hierarchical tree structures in mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakai, Tomoya; Sakai, Kuniyoshi L

    2014-01-01

    Whether mathematical and linguistic processes share the same neural mechanisms has been a matter of controversy. By examining various sentence structures, we recently demonstrated that activations in the left inferior frontal gyrus (L. IFG) and left supramarginal gyrus (L. SMG) were modulated by the Degree of Merger (DoM), a measure for the complexity of tree structures. In the present study, we hypothesize that the DoM is also critical in mathematical calculations, and clarify whether the DoM in the hierarchical tree structures modulates activations in these regions. We tested an arithmetic task that involved linear and quadratic sequences with recursive computation. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we found significant activation in the L. IFG, L. SMG, bilateral intraparietal sulcus (IPS), and precuneus selectively among the tested conditions. We also confirmed that activations in the L. IFG and L. SMG were free from memory-related factors, and that activations in the bilateral IPS and precuneus were independent from other possible factors. Moreover, by fitting parametric models of eight factors, we found that the model of DoM in the hierarchical tree structures was the best to explain the modulation of activations in these five regions. Using dynamic causal modeling, we showed that the model with a modulatory effect for the connection from the L. IPS to the L. IFG, and with driving inputs into the L. IFG, was highly probable. The intrinsic, i.e., task-independent, connection from the L. IFG to the L. IPS, as well as that from the L. IPS to the R. IPS, would provide a feedforward signal, together with negative feedback connections. We indicate that mathematics and language share the network of the L. IFG and L. IPS/SMG for the computation of hierarchical tree structures, and that mathematics recruits the additional network of the L. IPS and R. IPS.

  9. Neural Mechanisms Underlying the Computation of Hierarchical Tree Structures in Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakai, Tomoya; Sakai, Kuniyoshi L.

    2014-01-01

    Whether mathematical and linguistic processes share the same neural mechanisms has been a matter of controversy. By examining various sentence structures, we recently demonstrated that activations in the left inferior frontal gyrus (L. IFG) and left supramarginal gyrus (L. SMG) were modulated by the Degree of Merger (DoM), a measure for the complexity of tree structures. In the present study, we hypothesize that the DoM is also critical in mathematical calculations, and clarify whether the DoM in the hierarchical tree structures modulates activations in these regions. We tested an arithmetic task that involved linear and quadratic sequences with recursive computation. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we found significant activation in the L. IFG, L. SMG, bilateral intraparietal sulcus (IPS), and precuneus selectively among the tested conditions. We also confirmed that activations in the L. IFG and L. SMG were free from memory-related factors, and that activations in the bilateral IPS and precuneus were independent from other possible factors. Moreover, by fitting parametric models of eight factors, we found that the model of DoM in the hierarchical tree structures was the best to explain the modulation of activations in these five regions. Using dynamic causal modeling, we showed that the model with a modulatory effect for the connection from the L. IPS to the L. IFG, and with driving inputs into the L. IFG, was highly probable. The intrinsic, i.e., task-independent, connection from the L. IFG to the L. IPS, as well as that from the L. IPS to the R. IPS, would provide a feedforward signal, together with negative feedback connections. We indicate that mathematics and language share the network of the L. IFG and L. IPS/SMG for the computation of hierarchical tree structures, and that mathematics recruits the additional network of the L. IPS and R. IPS. PMID:25379713

  10. Multilevel compression of random walks on networks reveals hierarchical organization in large integrated systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Rosvall

    Full Text Available To comprehend the hierarchical organization of large integrated systems, we introduce the hierarchical map equation, which reveals multilevel structures in networks. In this information-theoretic approach, we exploit the duality between compression and pattern detection; by compressing a description of a random walker as a proxy for real flow on a network, we find regularities in the network that induce this system-wide flow. Finding the shortest multilevel description of the random walker therefore gives us the best hierarchical clustering of the network--the optimal number of levels and modular partition at each level--with respect to the dynamics on the network. With a novel search algorithm, we extract and illustrate the rich multilevel organization of several large social and biological networks. For example, from the global air traffic network we uncover countries and continents, and from the pattern of scientific communication we reveal more than 100 scientific fields organized in four major disciplines: life sciences, physical sciences, ecology and earth sciences, and social sciences. In general, we find shallow hierarchical structures in globally interconnected systems, such as neural networks, and rich multilevel organizations in systems with highly separated regions, such as road networks.

  11. Soft sensor of chemical processes with large numbers of input parameters using auto-associative hierarchical neural network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanlin He; Yuan Xu; Zhiqiang Geng; Qunxiong Zhu

    2015-01-01

    To explore the problems of monitoring chemical processes with large numbers of input parameters, a method based on Auto-associative Hierarchical Neural Network (AHNN) is proposed. AHNN focuses on dealing with datasets in high-dimension. AHNNs consist of two parts:groups of subnets based on well trained Auto-associative Neural Networks (AANNs) and a main net. The subnets play an important role on the performance of AHNN. A simple but effective method of designing the subnets is developed in this paper. In this method, the subnets are designed according to the classification of the data attributes. For getting the classification, an effective method called Extension Data Attributes Classification (EDAC) is adopted. Soft sensor using AHNN based on EDAC (EDAC-AHNN) is introduced. As a case study, the production data of Purified Terephthalic Acid (PTA) solvent system are selected to examine the proposed model. The results of the EDAC-AHNN model are compared with the experimental data extracted from the literature, which shows the efficiency of the proposed model.

  12. Big Data Processing in Complex Hierarchical Network Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Polishchuk, Olexandr; Tyutyunnyk, Maria; Yadzhak, Mykhailo

    2016-01-01

    This article covers the problem of processing of Big Data that describe process of complex networks and network systems operation. It also introduces the notion of hierarchical network systems combination into associations and conglomerates alongside with complex networks combination into multiplexes. The analysis is provided for methods of global network structures study depending on the purpose of the research. Also the main types of information flows in complex hierarchical network systems being the basic components of associations and conglomerates are covered. Approaches are proposed for creation of efficient computing environments, distributed computations organization and information processing methods parallelization at different levels of system hierarchy.

  13. Hierarchical Policy Model for Managing Heterogeneous Security Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Young; Kim, Minsoo

    2007-12-01

    The integrated security management becomes increasingly complex as security manager must take heterogeneous security systems, different networking technologies, and distributed applications into consideration. The task of managing these security systems and applications depends on various systems and vender specific issues. In this paper, we present a hierarchical policy model which are derived from the conceptual policy, and specify means to enforce this behavior. The hierarchical policy model consist of five levels which are conceptual policy level, goal-oriented policy level, target policy level, process policy level and low-level policy.

  14. A novel load balancing method for hierarchical federation simulation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin, Xiao; Xiao, Tian-yuan

    2013-07-01

    In contrast with single HLA federation framework, hierarchical federation framework can improve the performance of large-scale simulation system in a certain degree by distributing load on several RTI. However, in hierarchical federation framework, RTI is still the center of message exchange of federation, and it is still the bottleneck of performance of federation, the data explosion in a large-scale HLA federation may cause overload on RTI, It may suffer HLA federation performance reduction or even fatal error. Towards this problem, this paper proposes a load balancing method for hierarchical federation simulation system based on queuing theory, which is comprised of three main module: queue length predicting, load controlling policy, and controller. The method promotes the usage of resources of federate nodes, and improves the performance of HLA simulation system with balancing load on RTIG and federates. Finally, the experiment results are presented to demonstrate the efficient control of the method.

  15. Memory Storage and Neural Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkon, Daniel L.

    1989-01-01

    Investigates memory storage and molecular nature of associative-memory formation by analyzing Pavlovian conditioning in marine snails and rabbits. Presented is the design of a computer-based memory system (neural networks) using the rules acquired in the investigation. Reports that the artificial network recognized patterns well. (YP)

  16. DATA CLASSIFICATION WITH NEURAL CLASSIFIER USING RADIAL BASIS FUNCTION WITH DATA REDUCTION USING HIERARCHICAL CLUSTERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Safish Mary

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Classification of large amount of data is a time consuming process but crucial for analysis and decision making. Radial Basis Function networks are widely used for classification and regression analysis. In this paper, we have studied the performance of RBF neural networks to classify the sales of cars based on the demand, using kernel density estimation algorithm which produces classification accuracy comparable to data classification accuracy provided by support vector machines. In this paper, we have proposed a new instance based data selection method where redundant instances are removed with help of a threshold thus improving the time complexity with improved classification accuracy. The instance based selection of the data set will help reduce the number of clusters formed thereby reduces the number of centers considered for building the RBF network. Further the efficiency of the training is improved by applying a hierarchical clustering technique to reduce the number of clusters formed at every step. The paper explains the algorithm used for classification and for conditioning the data. It also explains the complexities involved in classification of sales data for analysis and decision-making.

  17. A hierarchical architecture for an energy management system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piotrowski, Krzysztof; Casaca, Augusto; Gerards, Marco E.T.; Jongerden, Marijn; Melo, Francisco; Garrido, Daniel; Geers, Marcel; Peralta, Jacoba

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces an innovative energy management system architecture for Smart Grids, designed in the European 7th framework program project e-balance. The architecture is hierarchical and fractal-like, which results in better scalability and reuse of algorithms and programming code for energy

  18. Nonlinear robust hierarchical control for nonlinear uncertain systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonessa Alexander

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A nonlinear robust control-system design framework predicated on a hierarchical switching controller architecture parameterized over a set of moving nominal system equilibria is developed. Specifically, using equilibria-dependent Lyapunov functions, a hierarchical nonlinear robust control strategy is developed that robustly stabilizes a given nonlinear system over a prescribed range of system uncertainty by robustly stabilizing a collection of nonlinear controlled uncertain subsystems. The robust switching nonlinear controller architecture is designed based on a generalized (lower semicontinuous Lyapunov function obtained by minimizing a potential function over a given switching set induced by the parameterized nominal system equilibria. The proposed framework robustly stabilizes a compact positively invariant set of a given nonlinear uncertain dynamical system with structured parametric uncertainty. Finally, the efficacy of the proposed approach is demonstrated on a jet engine propulsion control problem with uncertain pressure-flow map data.

  19. Hierarchical structure of biological systems: A bioengineering approach

    OpenAIRE

    Alcocer-Cuarón, Carlos; Rivera, Ana L; Castaño, Victor M.

    2013-01-01

    A general theory of biological systems, based on few fundamental propositions, allows a generalization of both Wierner and Berthalanffy approaches to theoretical biology. Here, a biological system is defined as a set of self-organized, differentiated elements that interact pair-wise through various networks and media, isolated from other sets by boundaries. Their relation to other systems can be described as a closed loop in a steady-state, which leads to a hierarchical structure and function...

  20. Automatic and Hierarchical Verification for Concurrent Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵旭东; 冯玉琳

    1990-01-01

    Proving correctness of concurrent systems is quite difficult because of the high level of nondeterminism,especially in large and complex ones.AMC is a model checking system for verifying asynchronous concurrent systems by using branching time temporal logic.This paper introduces the techniques of the modelling approach,especially how to construct models for large concurrent systems with the concept of hierarchy,which has been proved to be effective and practical in verifying large systems without a large growth of cost.

  1. Analysis and Optimisation of Hierarchically Scheduled Multiprocessor Embedded Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pop, Traian; Pop, Paul; Eles, Petru;

    2008-01-01

    , they are organised in a hierarchy. In this paper, we first develop a holistic scheduling and schedulability analysis that determines the timing properties of a hierarchically scheduled system. Second, we address design problems that are characteristic to such hierarchically scheduled systems: assignment......We present an approach to the analysis and optimisation of heterogeneous multiprocessor embedded systems. The systems are heterogeneous not only in terms of hardware components, but also in terms of communication protocols and scheduling policies. When several scheduling policies share a resource...... of scheduling policies to tasks, mapping of tasks to hardware components, and the scheduling of the activities. We also present several algorithms for solving these problems. Our heuristics are able to find schedulable implementations under limited resources, achieving an efficient utilisation of the system...

  2. Optimization of Hierarchically Scheduled Heterogeneous Embedded Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pop, Traian; Pop, Paul; Eles, Petru;

    2005-01-01

    We present an approach to the analysis and optimization of heterogeneous distributed embedded systems. The systems are heterogeneous not only in terms of hardware components, but also in terms of communication protocols and scheduling policies. When several scheduling policies share a resource...

  3. Cooperative mechanism of self-regulation in hierarchical living systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lubashevsky, I A

    1998-01-01

    We study the problem of how a ``living'' system complex in structure can respond perfectly to local changes in the environment. Such a system is assumed to consist of a distributed ``living'' medium and a hierarchical ``supplying'' network that provides this medium with ``nutritious'' products. Because of the hierarchical organization each element of the supplying network has to behave in a self-consistent way for the system can adapt to changes in the environment. We propose a cooperative mechanism of self-regulation by which the system as a whole can react perfectly. This mechanism is based on an individual response of each element to the corresponding small piece of the information on the state of the ``living'' medium. The conservation of flux through the supplying network gives rise to a certain processing of information and the self-consistent behavior of the elements, leading to the perfect self-regulation. The corresponding equations governing the ``living'' medium state are obtained.

  4. P2MP MPLS-Based Hierarchical Service Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaki, Kenji; Nakagawa, Ikuo; Nagami, Kenichi; Ogishi, Tomohiko; Ano, Shigehiro

    This paper proposes a point-to-multipoint (P2MP) Multi-Protocol Label Switching (MPLS) based hierarchical service management system. Traditionally, general management systems deployed in some service providers control MPLS Label Switched Paths (LSPs) (e.g., RSVP-TE and LDP) and services (e.g., L2VPN, L3VPN and IP) separately. In order for dedicated management systems for MPLS LSPs and services to cooperate with each other automatically, a hierarchical service management system has been proposed with the main focus on point-to-point (P2P) TE LSPs in MPLS path management. In the case where P2MP TE LSPs and services are deployed in MPLS networks, the dedicated management systems for P2MP TE LSPs and services must work together automatically. Therefore, this paper proposes a new algorithm that uses a correlation between P2MP TE LSPs and multicast VPN services based on a P2MP MPLS-based hierarchical service management architecture. Also, the capacity and performance of the proposed algorithm are evaluated by simulations, which are actually based on certain real MPLS production networks, and are compared to that of the algorithm for P2P TE LSPs. Results show this system is very scalable within real MPLS production networks. This system, with the automatic correlation, appears to be deployable in real MPLS production networks.

  5. A VV&A evaluation system based on hierarchical evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Ke; YANG Ming; WANG Zi-cai

    2005-01-01

    Evaluation is the major activity of performing Verification, Validation and Accreditation (VV&A) of a simulation system. Unfortunately, there is a lack of reasonable and operable evaluation methods. Moreover,there are other problems to address in VV&A evaluation, such as index definition, conclusion analysis, etc. In this paper, a VV&A evaluation system is introduced to try to resolve these problems. The system is based on a method called hierarchical evaluation, and it uses a good combination of evaluation processes and indexes.First, a thorough analysis of the VV&A evaluation' s essentials and principles are given, then the uncertainty of the evaluation results caused by various analysis of the evaluators is pointed out, then a hierarchical evaluation mechanism based on evaluator weight and evaluation hierarchy is brought forward, and finally a comprehensive VV&A evaluation system with evaluation flow processing, index management and hierarchical evaluation fulfillment is established. The system gives good consideration to ease of operation, reasonableness of evaluation conclusion, and the ability to comprehensively resolve VV&A problems. Since VV&A is attracting more and more recognition, it is meaningful to provide a good system for implementing credible simulation systems. It is hoped that this VV&A evaluation will provide a good way.

  6. Widening the Schedulability Hierarchical Scheduling Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boudjadar, Jalil; David, Alexandre; Kim, Jin Hyun

    2014-01-01

    the supply of resources in each component. We specifically investigate two different techniques to widen the set of provably schedulable systems: 1) a new supplier model; 2) restricting the potential task offsets. We also provide a way to estimate the minimum resource supply (budget) that a component...

  7. Coordinated Resource Management Models in Hierarchical Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabsi Mounir

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In response to the trend of efficient global economy, constructing a global logistic model has garnered much attention from the industry .Location selection is an important issue for those international companies that are interested in building a global logistics management system. Infrastructure in Developing Countries are based on the use of both classical and modern control technology, for which the most important components are professional levels of structure knowledge, dynamics and management processes, threats and interference and external and internal attacks. The problem of control flows of energy and materials resources in local and regional structures in normal and marginal, emergency operation provoked information attacks or threats on failure flows are further relevant especially when considering the low level of professional ,psychological and cognitive training of operational personnel manager. Logistics Strategies include the business goals requirements, allowable decisions tactics, and vision for designing and operating a logistics system .In this paper described the selection module coordinating flow management strategies based on the use of resources and logistics systems concepts.

  8. The LILARTI neural network system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, J.D. Jr.; Schell, F.M.; Dodd, C.V.

    1992-10-01

    The material of this Technical Memorandum is intended to provide the reader with conceptual and technical background information on the LILARTI neural network system of detail sufficient to confer an understanding of the LILARTI method as it is presently allied and to facilitate application of the method to problems beyond the scope of this document. Of particular importance in this regard are the descriptive sections and the Appendices which include operating instructions, partial listings of program output and data files, and network construction information.

  9. Clinical time series prediction: Toward a hierarchical dynamical system framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zitao; Hauskrecht, Milos

    2015-09-01

    Developing machine learning and data mining algorithms for building temporal models of clinical time series is important for understanding of the patient condition, the dynamics of a disease, effect of various patient management interventions and clinical decision making. In this work, we propose and develop a novel hierarchical framework for modeling clinical time series data of varied length and with irregularly sampled observations. Our hierarchical dynamical system framework for modeling clinical time series combines advantages of the two temporal modeling approaches: the linear dynamical system and the Gaussian process. We model the irregularly sampled clinical time series by using multiple Gaussian process sequences in the lower level of our hierarchical framework and capture the transitions between Gaussian processes by utilizing the linear dynamical system. The experiments are conducted on the complete blood count (CBC) panel data of 1000 post-surgical cardiac patients during their hospitalization. Our framework is evaluated and compared to multiple baseline approaches in terms of the mean absolute prediction error and the absolute percentage error. We tested our framework by first learning the time series model from data for the patients in the training set, and then using it to predict future time series values for the patients in the test set. We show that our model outperforms multiple existing models in terms of its predictive accuracy. Our method achieved a 3.13% average prediction accuracy improvement on ten CBC lab time series when it was compared against the best performing baseline. A 5.25% average accuracy improvement was observed when only short-term predictions were considered. A new hierarchical dynamical system framework that lets us model irregularly sampled time series data is a promising new direction for modeling clinical time series and for improving their predictive performance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Clinical time series prediction: towards a hierarchical dynamical system framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zitao; Hauskrecht, Milos

    2014-01-01

    Objective Developing machine learning and data mining algorithms for building temporal models of clinical time series is important for understanding of the patient condition, the dynamics of a disease, effect of various patient management interventions and clinical decision making. In this work, we propose and develop a novel hierarchical framework for modeling clinical time series data of varied length and with irregularly sampled observations. Materials and methods Our hierarchical dynamical system framework for modeling clinical time series combines advantages of the two temporal modeling approaches: the linear dynamical system and the Gaussian process. We model the irregularly sampled clinical time series by using multiple Gaussian process sequences in the lower level of our hierarchical framework and capture the transitions between Gaussian processes by utilizing the linear dynamical system. The experiments are conducted on the complete blood count (CBC) panel data of 1000 post-surgical cardiac patients during their hospitalization. Our framework is evaluated and compared to multiple baseline approaches in terms of the mean absolute prediction error and the absolute percentage error. Results We tested our framework by first learning the time series model from data for the patient in the training set, and then applying the model in order to predict future time series values on the patients in the test set. We show that our model outperforms multiple existing models in terms of its predictive accuracy. Our method achieved a 3.13% average prediction accuracy improvement on ten CBC lab time series when it was compared against the best performing baseline. A 5.25% average accuracy improvement was observed when only short-term predictions were considered. Conclusion A new hierarchical dynamical system framework that lets us model irregularly sampled time series data is a promising new direction for modeling clinical time series and for improving their predictive

  11. Modeling urban air pollution with optimized hierarchical fuzzy inference system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashayo, Behnam; Alimohammadi, Abbas

    2016-10-01

    Environmental exposure assessments (EEA) and epidemiological studies require urban air pollution models with appropriate spatial and temporal resolutions. Uncertain available data and inflexible models can limit air pollution modeling techniques, particularly in under developing countries. This paper develops a hierarchical fuzzy inference system (HFIS) to model air pollution under different land use, transportation, and meteorological conditions. To improve performance, the system treats the issue as a large-scale and high-dimensional problem and develops the proposed model using a three-step approach. In the first step, a geospatial information system (GIS) and probabilistic methods are used to preprocess the data. In the second step, a hierarchical structure is generated based on the problem. In the third step, the accuracy and complexity of the model are simultaneously optimized with a multiple objective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO) algorithm. We examine the capabilities of the proposed model for predicting daily and annual mean PM2.5 and NO2 and compare the accuracy of the results with representative models from existing literature. The benefits provided by the model features, including probabilistic preprocessing, multi-objective optimization, and hierarchical structure, are precisely evaluated by comparing five different consecutive models in terms of accuracy and complexity criteria. Fivefold cross validation is used to assess the performance of the generated models. The respective average RMSEs and coefficients of determination (R (2)) for the test datasets using proposed model are as follows: daily PM2.5 = (8.13, 0.78), annual mean PM2.5 = (4.96, 0.80), daily NO2 = (5.63, 0.79), and annual mean NO2 = (2.89, 0.83). The obtained results demonstrate that the developed hierarchical fuzzy inference system can be utilized for modeling air pollution in EEA and epidemiological studies.

  12. Learning of invariant object recognition in hierarchical neural networks using temporal continuity

    OpenAIRE

    Lessmann, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Advisor: Rolf P. Würtz, Institute for Neural Computation, Ruhr-University Bochum, Germany. Date and location of PhD thesis defense: 3 November 2014, Ruhr-University Bochum, Germany There has been a lot of progress in the field of invariant object recognition/categorization in the last decade with several methods trying to mimic functioning of the human visual system (e.g. Neocognitron, HMAX, VisNet). Examining those brain regions is a very difficult task with myriads of details to be consi...

  13. Hierarchically Organized Behavior and Its Neural Foundations: A Reinforcement Learning Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botvinick, Matthew M.; Niv, Yael; Barto, Andrew C.

    2009-01-01

    Research on human and animal behavior has long emphasized its hierarchical structure--the divisibility of ongoing behavior into discrete tasks, which are comprised of subtask sequences, which in turn are built of simple actions. The hierarchical structure of behavior has also been of enduring interest within neuroscience, where it has been widely…

  14. Hierarchically Organized Behavior and Its Neural Foundations: A Reinforcement Learning Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botvinick, Matthew M.; Niv, Yael; Barto, Andrew C.

    2009-01-01

    Research on human and animal behavior has long emphasized its hierarchical structure--the divisibility of ongoing behavior into discrete tasks, which are comprised of subtask sequences, which in turn are built of simple actions. The hierarchical structure of behavior has also been of enduring interest within neuroscience, where it has been widely…

  15. Reimplementing the Hierarchical Data System using HDF5

    CERN Document Server

    Jenness, Tim

    2015-01-01

    The Starlink Hierarchical Data System has been a very successful niche astronomy file format and library for over 30 years. Development of the library was frozen ten years ago when funding for Starlink was stopped and almost no-one remains who understands the implementation details. To ensure the long-term sustainability of the Starlink application software and to make the extensible N-Dimensional Data Format accessible to a broader range of users, we propose to re-implement the HDS library application interface as a layer on top of the Hierarchical Data Format version 5. We present an overview of the new implementation of version 5 of the HDS file format and describe differences between the expectations of the HDS and HDF5 library interfaces. We finish by comparing the old and new HDS implementations by looking at a comparison of file sizes and by comparing performance benchmarks.

  16. ECoS, a framework for modelling hierarchical spatial systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, John R W; Gorley, Ray N

    2003-10-01

    A general framework for modelling hierarchical spatial systems has been developed and implemented as the ECoS3 software package. The structure of this framework is described, and illustrated with representative examples. It allows the set-up and integration of sets of advection-diffusion equations representing multiple constituents interacting in a spatial context. Multiple spaces can be defined, with zero, one or two-dimensions and can be nested, and linked through constituent transfers. Model structure is generally object-oriented and hierarchical, reflecting the natural relations within its real-world analogue. Velocities, dispersions and inter-constituent transfers, together with additional functions, are defined as properties of constituents to which they apply. The resulting modular structure of ECoS models facilitates cut and paste model development, and template model components have been developed for the assembly of a range of estuarine water quality models. Published examples of applications to the geochemical dynamics of estuaries are listed.

  17. Recent results on the hierarchical triple system HD 150136

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosset, E.; Berger, J. P.; Absil, O.; Le Bouquin, J. B.; Sana, H.; Mahy, L.; De Becker, M.

    2013-06-01

    HD 150136 is a hierarchical triple system, non-thermal radio emitter, made of three O stars totalling some 130 solar masses. The 2.67-day inner orbit is rather well-known. Recent works derived a good approximation for the outer orbit with a period of 3000 days. We report here on interferometric observations that allow us to angularly resolve the outer orbit. First evidences for an astrometric displacement are given. The determination of the outer system orbit gives access to the inclinations of the systems and to the masses, including the one of the O3-O3.5 primary star.

  18. A Hierarchical Security Architecture for Cyber-Physical Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quanyan Zhu; Tamer Basar

    2011-08-01

    Security of control systems is becoming a pivotal concern in critical national infrastructures such as the power grid and nuclear plants. In this paper, we adopt a hierarchical viewpoint to these security issues, addressing security concerns at each level and emphasizing a holistic cross-layer philosophy for developing security solutions. We propose a bottom-up framework that establishes a model from the physical and control levels to the supervisory level, incorporating concerns from network and communication levels. We show that the game-theoretical approach can yield cross-layer security strategy solutions to the cyber-physical systems.

  19. Eccentricity evolution in hierarchical triple systems with eccentric outer binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Georgakarakos, Nikolaos

    2014-01-01

    We develop a technique for estimating the inner eccentricity in hierarchical triple systems, with the inner orbit being initially circular, while the outer one is eccentric. We consider coplanar systems with well separated components and comparable masses. The derivation of short period terms is based on an expansion of the rate of change of the Runge-Lenz vector. Then, the short period terms are combined with secular terms, obtained by means of canonical perturbation theory. The validity of the theoretical equations is tested by numerical integrations of the full equations of motion.

  20. Fuzzy logic systems are equivalent to feedforward neural networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李洪兴

    2000-01-01

    Fuzzy logic systems and feedforward neural networks are equivalent in essence. First, interpolation representations of fuzzy logic systems are introduced and several important conclusions are given. Then three important kinds of neural networks are defined, i.e. linear neural networks, rectangle wave neural networks and nonlinear neural networks. Then it is proved that nonlinear neural networks can be represented by rectangle wave neural networks. Based on the results mentioned above, the equivalence between fuzzy logic systems and feedforward neural networks is proved, which will be very useful for theoretical research or applications on fuzzy logic systems or neural networks by means of combining fuzzy logic systems with neural networks.

  1. Hierarchical control of procedural and declarative category-learning systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Benjamin O; Crossley, Matthew J; Ashby, F Gregory

    2017-02-16

    Substantial evidence suggests that human category learning is governed by the interaction of multiple qualitatively distinct neural systems. In this view, procedural memory is used to learn stimulus-response associations, and declarative memory is used to apply explicit rules and test hypotheses about category membership. However, much less is known about the interaction between these systems: how is control passed between systems as they interact to influence motor resources? Here, we used fMRI to elucidate the neural correlates of switching between procedural and declarative categorization systems. We identified a key region of the cerebellum (left Crus I) whose activity was bidirectionally modulated depending on switch direction. We also identified regions of the default mode network (DMN) that were selectively connected to left Crus I during switching. We propose that the cerebellum-in coordination with the DMN-serves a critical role in passing control between procedural and declarative memory systems.

  2. Assessing Short-Term Voltage Stability of Electric Power Systems by a Hierarchical Intelligent System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Zhang, Rui; Zhao, Junhua; Dong, Zhao Yang; Wang, Dianhui; Yang, Hongming; Wong, Kit Po

    2016-08-01

    In the smart grid paradigm, growing integration of large-scale intermittent renewable energies has introduced significant uncertainties to the operations of an electric power system. This makes real-time dynamic security assessment (DSA) a necessity to enable enhanced situational-awareness against the risk of blackouts. Conventional DSA methods are mainly based on the time-domain simulation, which are insufficiently fast and knowledge-poor. In recent years, the intelligent system (IS) strategy has been identified as a promising approach to facilitate real-time DSA. While previous works mainly concentrate on the rotor angle stability, this paper focuses on another yet increasingly important dynamic insecurity phenomenon-the short-term voltage instability, which involves fast and complex load dynamics. The problem is modeled as a classification subproblem for transient voltage collapse and a prediction subproblem for unacceptable dynamic voltage deviation. A hierarchical IS is developed to address the two subproblems sequentially. The IS is based on ensemble learning of random-weights neural networks and is implemented in an offline training, a real-time application, and an online updating pattern. The simulation results on the New England 39-bus system verify its superiority in both learning speed and accuracy over some state-of-the-art learning algorithms.

  3. Neural Control of the Immune System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundman, Eva; Olofsson, Peder S.

    2014-01-01

    Neural reflexes support homeostasis by modulating the function of organ systems. Recent advances in neuroscience and immunology have revealed that neural reflexes also regulate the immune system. Activation of the vagus nerve modulates leukocyte cytokine production and alleviates experimental shock and autoimmune disease, and recent data have…

  4. Neural Control of the Immune System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundman, Eva; Olofsson, Peder S.

    2014-01-01

    Neural reflexes support homeostasis by modulating the function of organ systems. Recent advances in neuroscience and immunology have revealed that neural reflexes also regulate the immune system. Activation of the vagus nerve modulates leukocyte cytokine production and alleviates experimental shock and autoimmune disease, and recent data have…

  5. Agent-based distributed hierarchical control of dc microgrid systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meng, Lexuan; Vasquez, Juan Carlos; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2014-01-01

    In order to enable distributed control and management for microgrids, this paper explores the application of information consensus and local decisionmaking methods formulating an agent based distributed hierarchical control system. A droop controlled paralleled DC/DC converter system is taken...... as a case study. The objective is to enhance the system efficiency by finding the optimal sharing ratio of load current. Virtual resistances in local control systems are taken as decision variables. Consensus algorithms are applied for global information discovery and local control systems coordination....... Standard genetic algorithm is applied in each local control system in order to search for a global optimum. Hardware-in-Loop simulation results are shown to demonstrate the effectiveness of the method....

  6. Stress generation and hierarchical fracturing in reactive systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamtveit, B.; Iyer, K.; Royne, A.; Malthe-Sorenssen, A.; Mathiesen, J.; Feder, J.

    2007-12-01

    Hierarchical fracture patterns are the result of a slowly driven fracturing process that successively divides the rocks into smaller domains. In quasi-2D systems, such fracture patterns are characterized by four sided domains, and T-junctions where new fractures stop at right angles to pre-existing fractures. We describe fracturing of mm to dm thick enstatite layers in a dunite matrix from the Leka ophiolite complex in Norway. The fracturing process is driven by expansion of the dunite matrix during serpentinization. The cumulative distributions of fracture lengths show a scaling behavior that lies between a log - normal and power law (fractal) distribution. This is consistent with a simple fragmentation model in which domains are divided according to a 'top hat' distribution of new fracture positions within unfractured domains. Reaction-assisted hierarchical fracturing is also likely to be responsible for other (3-D) structures commonly observed in serpentinized ultramafic rocks, including the mesh-textures observed in individual olivine grains, and the high abundance of rectangular domains at a wide range of scales. Spectacular examples of 3-D hierarchical fracture patterns also form during the weathering of basaltic intrusions (dolerites). Incipient chemical weathering of dolerites in the Karoo Basin in South Africa occurs around water- filled fractures, originally produced by thermal contraction or by externally imposed stresses. This chemical weathering causes local expansion of the rock matrix and generates elastic stresses. On a mm to cm scale, these stresses lead to mechanical layer-by-layer spalling, producing the characteristic spheroidal weathering patterns. However, our field observations and computer simulations demonstrate that in confined environments, the spalling process alone is unable to relieve the elastic stresses. In such cases, chemical weathering drives a much larger scale hierarchical fracturing process in which fresh dolerite undergoes a

  7. An algorithm for generating modular hierarchical neural network classifiers: a step toward larger scale applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roverso, Davide

    2003-08-01

    Many-class learning is the problem of training a classifier to discriminate among a large number of target classes. Together with the problem of dealing with high-dimensional patterns (i.e. a high-dimensional input space), the many class problem (i.e. a high-dimensional output space) is a major obstacle to be faced when scaling-up classifier systems and algorithms from small pilot applications to large full-scale applications. The Autonomous Recursive Task Decomposition (ARTD) algorithm is here proposed as a solution to the problem of many-class learning. Example applications of ARTD to neural classifier training are also presented. In these examples, improvements in training time are shown to range from 4-fold to more than 30-fold in pattern classification tasks of both static and dynamic character.

  8. OBSERVATIONS OF HIERARCHICAL SOLAR-TYPE MULTIPLE STAR SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Lewis C. Jr. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena CA 91109 (United States); Tokovinin, Andrei [Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile); Mason, Brian D.; Hartkopf, William I. [U.S. Naval Observatory, 3450 Massachusetts Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20392-5420 (United States); Riddle, Reed L., E-mail: lewis.c.roberts@jpl.nasa.gov [Division of Physics, Mathematics, and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2015-10-15

    Twenty multiple stellar systems with solar-type primaries were observed at high angular resolution using the PALM-3000 adaptive optics system at the 5 m Hale telescope. The goal was to complement the knowledge of hierarchical multiplicity in the solar neighborhood by confirming recent discoveries by the visible Robo-AO system with new near-infrared observations with PALM-3000. The physical status of most, but not all, of the new pairs is confirmed by photometry in the Ks band and new positional measurements. In addition, we resolved for the first time five close sub-systems: the known astrometric binary in HIP 17129AB, companions to the primaries of HIP 33555, and HIP 118213, and the companions to the secondaries in HIP 25300 and HIP 101430. We place the components on a color–magnitude diagram and discuss each multiple system individually.

  9. Observations of Hierarchical Solar-Type Multiple Star Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Roberts,, Lewis C; Mason, Brian D; Hartkopf, William I; Riddle, Reed L

    2015-01-01

    Twenty multiple stellar systems with solar-type primaries were observed at high angular resolution using the PALM-3000 adaptive optics system at the 5 m Hale telescope. The goal was to complement the knowledge of hierarchical multiplicity in the solar neighborhood by confirming recent discoveries by the visible Robo-AO system with new near-infrared observations with PALM-3000. The physical status of most, but not all, of the new pairs is confirmed by photometry in the Ks band and new positional measurements. In addition, we resolved for the first time five close sub-systems: the known astrometric binary in HIP 17129AB, companions to the primaries of HIP 33555, and HIP 118213, and the companions to the secondaries in HIP 25300 and HIP 101430. We place the components on a color-magnitude diagram and discuss each multiple system individually.

  10. Hierarchical Control for Optimal and Distributed Operation of Microgrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meng, Lexuan

    of the underlying communication features (sampling time, topology, parameters, etc.). System dynamics and sensitivity analysis are conducted based on the proposed model. A MG central controller is also developed based on the experimental system in the intelligent MG lab in Aalborg University for providing...... are also conducted in order to ensure safe operation during the optimization procedure. In addition, as the secondary and tertiary controls require global information to perform the functions, they are usually implemented in centralized fashion. In this sense the communication links are required from...... the central unit to each local unit, a single point of failure in the central controller may jerpodize the safety of the whole system, and the flexibility of the system is limited. Consequently, this project proposes the application of dynamic consensus algorithm (DCA) into existing hierarchical control...

  11. Bistability of mixed states in a neural network storing hierarchical patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toya, Kaname; Fukushima, Kunihiko; Kabashima, Yoshiyuki; Okada, Masato

    2000-04-01

    We discuss the properties of equilibrium states in an autoassociative memory model storing hierarchically correlated patterns (hereafter, hierarchical patterns). We will show that symmetric mixed states (hereafter, mixed states) are bistable on the associative memory model storing the hierarchical patterns in a region of the ferromagnetic phase. This means that the first-order transition occurs in this ferromagnetic phase. We treat these contents with a statistical mechanical method (SCSNA) and by computer simulation. Finally, we discuss a physiological implication of this model. Sugase et al (1999 Nature 400 869) analysed the time-course of the information carried by the firing of face-responsive neurons in the inferior temporal cortex. We also discuss the relation between the theoretical results and the physiological experiments of Sugase et al .

  12. Nonlinear System Control Using Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslava Žilková

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused especially on presenting possibilities of applying off-linetrained artificial neural networks at creating the system inverse models that are used atdesigning control algorithm for non-linear dynamic system. The ability of cascadefeedforward neural networks to model arbitrary non-linear functions and their inverses isexploited. This paper presents a quasi-inverse neural model, which works as a speedcontroller of an induction motor. The neural speed controller consists of two cascadefeedforward neural networks subsystems. The first subsystem provides desired statorcurrent components for control algorithm and the second subsystem providescorresponding voltage components for PWM converter. The availability of the proposedcontroller is verified through the MATLAB simulation. The effectiveness of the controller isdemonstrated for different operating conditions of the drive system.

  13. The evolution of hierarchical triple star-systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toonen, Silvia; Hamers, Adrian; Portegies Zwart, Simon

    2016-12-01

    Field stars are frequently formed in pairs, and many of these binaries are part of triples or even higher-order systems. Even though, the principles of single stellar evolution and binary evolution, have been accepted for a long time, the long-term evolution of stellar triples is poorly understood. The presence of a third star in an orbit around a binary system can significantly alter the evolution of those stars and the binary system. The rich dynamical behaviour in three-body systems can give rise to Lidov-Kozai cycles, in which the eccentricity of the inner orbit and the inclination between the inner and outer orbit vary periodically. In turn, this can lead to an enhancement of tidal effects (tidal friction), gravitational-wave emission and stellar interactions such as mass transfer and collisions. The lack of a self-consistent treatment of triple evolution, including both three-body dynamics as well as stellar evolution, hinders the systematic study and general understanding of the long-term evolution of triple systems. In this paper, we aim to address some of these hiatus, by discussing the dominant physical processes of hierarchical triple evolution, and presenting heuristic recipes for these processes. To improve our understanding on hierarchical stellar triples, these descriptions are implemented in a public source code TrES, which combines three-body dynamics (based on the secular approach) with stellar evolution and their mutual influences. Note that modelling through a phase of stable mass transfer in an eccentric orbit is currently not implemented in TrES, but can be implemented with the appropriate methodology at a later stage.

  14. Digital systems for artificial neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atlas, L.E. (Interactive Systems Design Lab., Univ. of Washington, WA (US)); Suzuki, Y. (NTT Human Interface Labs. (US))

    1989-11-01

    A tremendous flurry of research activity has developed around artificial neural systems. These systems have also been tested in many applications, often with positive results. Most of this work has taken place as digital simulations on general-purpose serial or parallel digital computers. Specialized neural network emulation systems have also been developed for more efficient learning and use. The authors discussed how dedicated digital VLSI integrated circuits offer the highest near-term future potential for this technology.

  15. Impact of hierarchical memory systems on linear algebra algorithm design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallivan, K.; Jalby, W.; Meier, U.; Sameh, A.H.

    1988-01-01

    Linear algebra algorithms based on the BLAS or extended BLAS do not achieve high performance on multivector processors with a hierarchical memory system because of a lack of data locality. For such machines, block linear algebra algorithms must be implemented in terms of matrix-matrix primitives (BLAS3). Designing efficient linear algebra algorithms for these architectures requires analysis of the behavior of the matrix-matrix primitives and the resulting block algorithms as a function of certain system parameters. The analysis must identify the limits of performance improvement possible via blocking and any contradictory trends that require trade-off consideration. The authors propose a methodology that facilitates such an analysis and use it to analyze the performance of the BLAS3 primitives used in block methods. A similar analysis of the block size-performance relationship is also performed at the algorithm level for block versions of the LU decomposition and the Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization procedures.

  16. Dynamic Non-Hierarchical File Systems for Exascale Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Darrell E. [PI; Miller, Ethan L [Co PI

    2015-02-24

    This constitutes the final report for “Dynamic Non-Hierarchical File Systems for Exascale Storage”. The ultimate goal of this project was to improve data management in scientific computing and high-end computing (HEC) applications, and to achieve this goal we proposed: to develop the first, HEC-targeted, file system featuring rich metadata and provenance collection, extreme scalability, and future storage hardware integration as core design goals, and to evaluate and develop a flexible non-hierarchical file system interface suitable for providing more powerful and intuitive data management interfaces to HEC and scientific computing users. Data management is swiftly becoming a serious problem in the scientific community – while copious amounts of data are good for obtaining results, finding the right data is often daunting and sometimes impossible. Scientists participating in a Department of Energy workshop noted that most of their time was spent “...finding, processing, organizing, and moving data and it’s going to get much worse”. Scientists should not be forced to become data mining experts in order to retrieve the data they want, nor should they be expected to remember the naming convention they used several years ago for a set of experiments they now wish to revisit. Ideally, locating the data you need would be as easy as browsing the web. Unfortunately, existing data management approaches are usually based on hierarchical naming, a 40 year-old technology designed to manage thousands of files, not exabytes of data. Today’s systems do not take advantage of the rich array of metadata that current high-end computing (HEC) file systems can gather, including content-based metadata and provenance1 information. As a result, current metadata search approaches are typically ad hoc and often work by providing a parallel management system to the “main” file system, as is done in Linux (the locate utility), personal computers, and enterprise search

  17. Teaching a machine to see: unsupervised image segmentation and categorisation using growing neural gas and hierarchical clustering

    CERN Document Server

    Hocking, Alex; Davey, Neil; Sun, Yi

    2015-01-01

    We present a novel unsupervised learning approach to automatically segment and label images in astronomical surveys. Automation of this procedure will be essential as next-generation surveys enter the petabyte scale: data volumes will exceed the capability of even large crowd-sourced analyses. We demonstrate how a growing neural gas (GNG) can be used to encode the feature space of imaging data. When coupled with a technique called hierarchical clustering, imaging data can be automatically segmented and labelled by organising nodes in the GNG. The key distinction of unsupervised learning is that these labels need not be known prior to training, rather they are determined by the algorithm itself. Importantly, after training a network can be be presented with images it has never 'seen' before and provide consistent categorisation of features. As a proof-of-concept we demonstrate application on data from the Hubble Space Telescope Frontier Fields: images of clusters of galaxies containing a mixture of galaxy type...

  18. A Hierarchical Statistic Methodology for Advanced Memory System Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, X.-J.; He, D.; Cameron, K.W.; Luo, Y.

    1999-04-12

    Advances in technology have resulted in a widening of the gap between computing speed and memory access time. Data access time has become increasingly important for computer system design. Various hierarchical memory architectures have been developed. The performance of these advanced memory systems, however, varies with applications and problem sizes. How to reach an optimal cost/performance design eludes researchers still. In this study, the authors introduce an evaluation methodology for advanced memory systems. This methodology is based on statistical factorial analysis and performance scalability analysis. It is two fold: it first determines the impact of memory systems and application programs toward overall performance; it also identifies the bottleneck in a memory hierarchy and provides cost/performance comparisons via scalability analysis. Different memory systems can be compared in terms of mean performance or scalability over a range of codes and problem sizes. Experimental testing has been performed extensively on the Department of Energy's Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI) machines and benchmarks available at the Los Alamos National Laboratory to validate this newly proposed methodology. Experimental and analytical results show this methodology is simple and effective. It is a practical tool for memory system evaluation and design. Its extension to general architectural evaluation and parallel computer systems are possible and should be further explored.

  19. Universality classes of fluctuation dynamics in hierarchical complex systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macêdo, A. M. S.; González, Iván R. Roa; Salazar, D. S. P.; Vasconcelos, G. L.

    2017-03-01

    A unified approach is proposed to describe the statistics of the short-time dynamics of multiscale complex systems. The probability density function of the relevant time series (signal) is represented as a statistical superposition of a large time-scale distribution weighted by the distribution of certain internal variables that characterize the slowly changing background. The dynamics of the background is formulated as a hierarchical stochastic model whose form is derived from simple physical constraints, which in turn restrict the dynamics to only two possible classes. The probability distributions of both the signal and the background have simple representations in terms of Meijer G functions. The two universality classes for the background dynamics manifest themselves in the signal distribution as two types of tails: power law and stretched exponential, respectively. A detailed analysis of empirical data from classical turbulence and financial markets shows excellent agreement with the theory.

  20. Hierarchical cooperative control for multiagent systems with switching directed topologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jianqiang; Cao, Jinde

    2015-10-01

    The hierarchical cooperative control problem is concerned for a two-layer networked multiagent system under switching directed topologies. The group cooperative objective is to achieve finite-time formation control for the upper layer of leaders and containment control for the lower layer of followers. Two kinds of cooperative strategies, including centralized-distributed control and distributed-distributed control, are proposed for two types of switching laws: 1) random switching law with the dwell time and 2) Markov switching law with stationary distribution. Utilizing the state transition matrix methods and matrix measure techniques, some sufficient conditions are derived for asymptotical containment control and exponential almost sure containment control, respectively. Finally, some numerical examples are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control schemes.

  1. Intrusion Detection System with Hierarchical Different Parallel Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrouz Safaiezadeh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Todays, lives integrated to networks and internet. The needed information is transmitted through networks. So, someone may attempt to abuse the information and attack and make changes by weakness of networks. Intrusion Detection System is a system capable to detect some attacks. The system detects attacks through classifier construction and considering IP in network. The recent researches showed that a fundamental classification cannot be effective lonely and due to its errors, but mixing some classifications provide better efficiency. So, the current study attempt to design three classes of support vector machine, the neural network of multilayer perceptron and parallel fuzzy system in which there are trained dataset and capability to detect two classes. Finally, decisions made by an intermediate network due to type of attack. In the present research, suggested system tested through dataset of KDD99 and results indicated appropriate efficiency 99.71% in average.

  2. Secular Orbital Dynamics of Hierarchical Two Planet Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Veras, Dimitri

    2010-01-01

    The discovery of multi-planet extrasolar systems has kindled interest in using their orbital evolution as a probe of planet formation. Accurate descriptions of planetary orbits identify systems which could hide additional planets or be in a special dynamical state, and inform targeted follow-up observations. We combine published radial velocity data with Markov Chain Monte Carlo analyses in order to obtain an ensemble of masses, semimajor axes, eccentricities and orbital angles for each of 5 dynamically active multi-planet systems: HD 11964, HD 38529, HD 108874, HD 168443, and HD 190360. We dynamically evolve these systems using 52,000 long-term N-body integrations that sample the full range of possible line-of-sight and relative inclinations, and we report on the system stability, secular evolution and the extent of the resonant interactions. We find that planetary orbits in hierarchical systems exhibit complex dynamics and can become highly eccentric and maybe significantly inclined. Additionally we incorpo...

  3. Hierarchical sparse coding in the sensory system of Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaslaver, Alon; Liani, Idan; Shtangel, Oshrat; Ginzburg, Shira; Yee, Lisa; Sternberg, Paul W

    2015-01-27

    Animals with compact sensory systems face an encoding problem where a small number of sensory neurons are required to encode information about its surrounding complex environment. Using Caenorhabditis elegans worms as a model, we ask how chemical stimuli are encoded by a small and highly connected sensory system. We first generated a comprehensive library of transgenic worms where each animal expresses a genetically encoded calcium indicator in individual sensory neurons. This library includes the vast majority of the sensory system in C. elegans. Imaging from individual sensory neurons while subjecting the worms to various stimuli allowed us to compile a comprehensive functional map of the sensory system at single neuron resolution. The functional map reveals that despite the dense wiring, chemosensory neurons represent the environment using sparse codes. Moreover, although anatomically closely connected, chemo- and mechano-sensory neurons are functionally segregated. In addition, the code is hierarchical, where few neurons participate in encoding multiple cues, whereas other sensory neurons are stimulus specific. This encoding strategy may have evolved to mitigate the constraints of a compact sensory system.

  4. Hierarchical, Three-Dimensional Measurement System for Crime Scene Scanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcin, Adamczyk; Maciej, Sieniło; Robert, Sitnik; Adam, Woźniak

    2017-02-02

    We present a new generation of three-dimensional (3D) measuring systems, developed for the process of crime scene documentation. This measuring system facilitates the preparation of more insightful, complete, and objective documentation for crime scenes. Our system reflects the actual requirements for hierarchical documentation, and it consists of three independent 3D scanners: a laser scanner for overall measurements, a situational structured light scanner for more minute measurements, and a detailed structured light scanner for the most detailed parts of tscene. Each scanner has its own spatial resolution, of 2.0, 0.3, and 0.05 mm, respectively. The results of interviews we have conducted with technicians indicate that our developed 3D measuring system has significant potential to become a useful tool for forensic technicians. To ensure the maximum compatibility of our measuring system with the standards that regulate the documentation process, we have also performed a metrological validation and designated the maximum permissible length measurement error EMPE for each structured light scanner. In this study, we present additional results regarding documentation processes conducted during crime scene inspections and a training session.

  5. QHNS: QoS-aware Hierarchical Name System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuhong Lin

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Naming and name resolution mapping are playing extremely important roles in Internet applications. Currently, naming is constructed by the combination of the location of host and the location of resource in the host, and name resolution mapping system is constructed by a tree-like domain name system (DNS. To overcome the shortcomings of DNS, such as not supporting data migration and replication, vulnerable to Denial of Service (DoS attacks and not supporting quality of service (QoS, researchers have proposed a DHT-based flat structure to achieve naming and name resolution mapping. This system deals with the shortcomings of DNS above very well except supporting QoS, but it introduces a new problem that the resolution time cost is so large that users often can not tolerate this long delay. In this paper, we present an improved structure called QoS-aware Hierarchical Name System (QHNS by combining the advantages of DNS and DHT. The architecture of QHNS is a two-layer’s structure, namely top-layer which maintains the global information and bottom-layer which maintains local information. Owning to the location information, the resolution delay is greatly reduced while the shortcomings of DNS have been eliminated. And this design can also can do well with the shortcomings of the above two approaches that they can not provide QoS. Finally, theoretical analysis and numerical experiments show that our system is feasible in the practical use.

  6. Hierarchical Recognition Scheme for Human Facial Expression Recognition Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Hameed Siddiqi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, human facial expressions recognition (FER has emerged as an important research area. Several factors make FER a challenging research problem. These include varying light conditions in training and test images; need for automatic and accurate face detection before feature extraction; and high similarity among different expressions that makes it difficult to distinguish these expressions with a high accuracy. This work implements a hierarchical linear discriminant analysis-based facial expressions recognition (HL-FER system to tackle these problems. Unlike the previous systems, the HL-FER uses a pre-processing step to eliminate light effects, incorporates a new automatic face detection scheme, employs methods to extract both global and local features, and utilizes a HL-FER to overcome the problem of high similarity among different expressions. Unlike most of the previous works that were evaluated using a single dataset, the performance of the HL-FER is assessed using three publicly available datasets under three different experimental settings: n-fold cross validation based on subjects for each dataset separately; n-fold cross validation rule based on datasets; and, finally, a last set of experiments to assess the effectiveness of each module of the HL-FER separately. Weighted average recognition accuracy of 98.7% across three different datasets, using three classifiers, indicates the success of employing the HL-FER for human FER.

  7. Tensegrity I. Cell structure and hierarchical systems biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingber, Donald E.

    2003-01-01

    In 1993, a Commentary in this journal described how a simple mechanical model of cell structure based on tensegrity architecture can help to explain how cell shape, movement and cytoskeletal mechanics are controlled, as well as how cells sense and respond to mechanical forces (J. Cell Sci. 104, 613-627). The cellular tensegrity model can now be revisited and placed in context of new advances in our understanding of cell structure, biological networks and mechanoregulation that have been made over the past decade. Recent work provides strong evidence to support the use of tensegrity by cells, and mathematical formulations of the model predict many aspects of cell behavior. In addition, development of the tensegrity theory and its translation into mathematical terms are beginning to allow us to define the relationship between mechanics and biochemistry at the molecular level and to attack the larger problem of biological complexity. Part I of this two-part article covers the evidence for cellular tensegrity at the molecular level and describes how this building system may provide a structural basis for the hierarchical organization of living systems--from molecule to organism. Part II, which focuses on how these structural networks influence information processing networks, appears in the next issue.

  8. A young hierarchical triple system harbouring a candidate debris disc

    CERN Document Server

    Deacon, N R; Olofsson, J; Johnston, K G; Henning, Th

    2013-01-01

    We report the detection of a wide young hierarchical triple system where the primary has a candidate debris disc. The primary, TYC 5241-986-1 A, is a known Tycho star which we classify as a late-K star with emission in the X-ray, near and far-UV and H\\alpha\\ suggestive of youth. Its proper motion, photometric distance (65-105 pc) and radial velocity lead us to associate the system with the broadly defined Local Association of young stars but not specifically with any young moving group. The presence of weak lithium absorption and X-ray and calcium H and K emission support an age in the 20 to ~125 Myr range. The secondary is a pair of M4.5+-0.5 dwarfs with near and far UV and H\\alpha\\ emission separated by approximately 1 arcsec (~65-105 AU projected separation) which lie 145 arcsec (9200-15200 AU) from the primary. The primary has a WISE 22 micron excess and follow-up Herschel observations also detect an excess at 70 micron. The excess emissions are indicative of a 100-175 K debris disc. We also explore the p...

  9. Tensegrity I. Cell structure and hierarchical systems biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingber, Donald E.

    2003-01-01

    In 1993, a Commentary in this journal described how a simple mechanical model of cell structure based on tensegrity architecture can help to explain how cell shape, movement and cytoskeletal mechanics are controlled, as well as how cells sense and respond to mechanical forces (J. Cell Sci. 104, 613-627). The cellular tensegrity model can now be revisited and placed in context of new advances in our understanding of cell structure, biological networks and mechanoregulation that have been made over the past decade. Recent work provides strong evidence to support the use of tensegrity by cells, and mathematical formulations of the model predict many aspects of cell behavior. In addition, development of the tensegrity theory and its translation into mathematical terms are beginning to allow us to define the relationship between mechanics and biochemistry at the molecular level and to attack the larger problem of biological complexity. Part I of this two-part article covers the evidence for cellular tensegrity at the molecular level and describes how this building system may provide a structural basis for the hierarchical organization of living systems--from molecule to organism. Part II, which focuses on how these structural networks influence information processing networks, appears in the next issue.

  10. Scale of association: hierarchical linear models and the measurement of ecological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sean M. McMahon; Jeffrey M. Diez

    2007-01-01

    A fundamental challenge to understanding patterns in ecological systems lies in employing methods that can analyse, test and draw inference from measured associations between variables across scales. Hierarchical linear models (HLM) use advanced estimation algorithms to measure regression relationships and variance-covariance parameters in hierarchically structured...

  11. The quantum human central neural system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexiou, Athanasios; Rekkas, John

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter we present Excess Entropy Production for human aging system as the sum of their respective subsystems and electrophysiological status. Additionally, we support the hypothesis of human brain and central neural system quantumness and we strongly suggest the theoretical and philosophical status of human brain as one of the unknown natural Dirac magnetic monopoles placed in the center of a Riemann sphere.

  12. Some Applications of Spiking Neural P Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Mihai Ionescu; Dragoş Sburlan

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we investigate some applications of spiking neural P systems regarding their capability to solve some classical computer science problems. In this respect versatility of such systems is studied to simulate a well known parallel computational model, namely the Boolean circuits. In addition, another notorious application -- sorting -- is considered within this framework.

  13. Rule weights in a neuro-fuzzy system with a hierarchical domain partition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Krzysztof Siminski

    2010-01-01

      Rule weights in a neuro-fuzzy system with a hierarchical domain partition The paper discusses the problem of rule weight tuning in neuro-fuzzy systems with parameterized consequences in which rule...

  14. Dynamics and thermodynamics in hierarchically organized systems applications in physics, biology and economics

    CERN Document Server

    Auger, P

    2013-01-01

    One of the most fundamental and efficient ways of conceptualizing complex systems is to organize them hierarchically. A hierarchically organized system is represented by a network of interconnected subsystems, each of which has its own network of subsystems, and so on, until some elementary subsystems are reached that are not further decomposed. This original and important book proposes a general mathematical theory of a hierarchical system and shows how it can be applied to very different topics such as physics (Hamiltonian systems), biology (coupling the molecular and the cellular levels), e

  15. Predictability of extremes in non-linear hierarchically organized systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossobokov, V. G.; Soloviev, A.

    2011-12-01

    Understanding the complexity of non-linear dynamics of hierarchically organized systems progresses to new approaches in assessing hazard and risk of the extreme catastrophic events. In particular, a series of interrelated step-by-step studies of seismic process along with its non-stationary though self-organized behaviors, has led already to reproducible intermediate-term middle-range earthquake forecast/prediction technique that has passed control in forward real-time applications during the last two decades. The observed seismic dynamics prior to and after many mega, great, major, and strong earthquakes demonstrate common features of predictability and diverse behavior in course durable phase transitions in complex hierarchical non-linear system of blocks-and-faults of the Earth lithosphere. The confirmed fractal nature of earthquakes and their distribution in space and time implies that many traditional estimations of seismic hazard (from term-less to short-term ones) are usually based on erroneous assumptions of easy tractable analytical models, which leads to widespread practice of their deceptive application. The consequences of underestimation of seismic hazard propagate non-linearly into inflicted underestimation of risk and, eventually, into unexpected societal losses due to earthquakes and associated phenomena (i.e., collapse of buildings, landslides, tsunamis, liquefaction, etc.). The studies aimed at forecast/prediction of extreme events (interpreted as critical transitions) in geophysical and socio-economical systems include: (i) large earthquakes in geophysical systems of the lithosphere blocks-and-faults, (ii) starts and ends of economic recessions, (iii) episodes of a sharp increase in the unemployment rate, (iv) surge of the homicides in socio-economic systems. These studies are based on a heuristic search of phenomena preceding critical transitions and application of methodologies of pattern recognition of infrequent events. Any study of rare

  16. A young hierarchical triple system harbouring a candidate debris disc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deacon, N. R.; Schlieder, J. E.; Olofsson, J.; Johnston, K. G.; Henning, Th.

    2013-09-01

    We report the detection of a wide young hierarchical triple system where the primary has a candidate debris disc. The primary, TYC 5241-986-1 A, is a known Tycho star which we classify as a late-K star with emission in the X-ray, near- and far-ultraviolet (UV) and Hα suggestive of youth. Its proper motion, photometric distance (65-105 pc) and radial velocity lead us to associate the system with the broadly defined Local Association of young stars but not specifically with any young moving group. The presence of weak lithium absorption and X-ray and calcium H and K emission support an age in the 20 to ˜125 Myr range. The secondary is a pair of M4.5 ± 0.5 dwarfs with near- and far-UV and Hα emission separated by approximately 1 arcsec (˜65-105 au projected separation) which lie of 145 arcsec (9200-15200 au) from the primary. The primary has a Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) 22 μm excess and follow-up Herschel observations also detect an excess at 70 μm. The excess emissions are indicative of a 100-175 K debris disc. We also explore the possibility that this excess could be due to a coincident background galaxy and conclude that this is unlikely. Debris discs are extremely rare around stars older than 15 Myr, hence if the excess is caused by a disc this is an extremely novel system.

  17. Spiking neural P systems with multiple channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hong; Yang, Jinyu; Wang, Jun; Wang, Tao; Sun, Zhang; Song, Xiaoxiao; Luo, Xiaohui; Huang, Xiangnian

    2017-11-01

    Spiking neural P systems (SNP systems, in short) are a class of distributed parallel computing systems inspired from the neurophysiological behavior of biological spiking neurons. In this paper, we investigate a new variant of SNP systems in which each neuron has one or more synaptic channels, called spiking neural P systems with multiple channels (SNP-MC systems, in short). The spiking rules with channel label are introduced to handle the firing mechanism of neurons, where the channel labels indicate synaptic channels of transmitting the generated spikes. The computation power of SNP-MC systems is investigated. Specifically, we prove that SNP-MC systems are Turing universal as both number generating and number accepting devices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Kannada character recognition system using neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Suresh D. S.; Kamalapuram, Srinivasa K.; Kumar, Ajay B. R.

    2013-03-01

    Handwriting recognition has been one of the active and challenging research areas in the field of pattern recognition. It has numerous applications which include, reading aid for blind, bank cheques and conversion of any hand written document into structural text form. As there is no sufficient number of works on Indian language character recognition especially Kannada script among 15 major scripts in India. In this paper an attempt is made to recognize handwritten Kannada characters using Feed Forward neural networks. A handwritten Kannada character is resized into 20x30 Pixel. The resized character is used for training the neural network. Once the training process is completed the same character is given as input to the neural network with different set of neurons in hidden layer and their recognition accuracy rate for different Kannada characters has been calculated and compared. The results show that the proposed system yields good recognition accuracy rates comparable to that of other handwritten character recognition systems.

  19. Integrated Neural Flight and Propulsion Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneshige, John; Gundy-Burlet, Karen; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes an integrated neural flight and propulsion control system. which uses a neural network based approach for applying alternate sources of control power in the presence of damage or failures. Under normal operating conditions, the system utilizes conventional flight control surfaces. Neural networks are used to provide consistent handling qualities across flight conditions and for different aircraft configurations. Under damage or failure conditions, the system may utilize unconventional flight control surface allocations, along with integrated propulsion control, when additional control power is necessary for achieving desired flight control performance. In this case, neural networks are used to adapt to changes in aircraft dynamics and control allocation schemes. Of significant importance here is the fact that this system can operate without emergency or backup flight control mode operations. An additional advantage is that this system can utilize, but does not require, fault detection and isolation information or explicit parameter identification. Piloted simulation studies were performed on a commercial transport aircraft simulator. Subjects included both NASA test pilots and commercial airline crews. Results demonstrate the potential for improving handing qualities and significantly increasing survivability rates under various simulated failure conditions.

  20. A Hierarchical Algorithm for Integrated Scheduling and Control With Applications to Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sokoler, Leo Emil; Dinesen, Peter Juhler; Jørgensen, John Bagterp

    2016-01-01

    The contribution of this paper is a hierarchical algorithm for integrated scheduling and control via model predictive control of hybrid systems. The controlled system is a linear system composed of continuous control, state, and output variables. Binary variables occur as scheduling decisions...... portfolio case study show that the hierarchical algorithm reduces the computation to solve the OCP by several orders of magnitude. The improvement in computation time is achieved without a significant increase in the overall cost of operation....

  1. Hierarchic Theory of Complex Systems (biosystems, colloids) self-organization and osmosis

    CERN Document Server

    Kaivarainen, A

    2000-01-01

    Summary of 'Hierarchic theory of condensed matter' Introduction 1. Protein domain mesoscopic organization 2. Quantum background of lipid domain organization in biomembranes 3. Hierarchic approach to theory of solutions and colloid systems 4. Distant solvent-mediated interaction between macromolecules 5. Spatial self-organization in the water-macromolecular systems 6. Properties of [bisolvent - polymer system] 7. Osmosis and solvent activity. Traditional and mesoscopic approach

  2. The neural processing of hierarchical structure in music and speech at different timescales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morwaread Mary Farbood

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Music, like speech, is a complex auditory signal that contains structures at multiple timescales, and as such a potentially powerful entry point into the question of how the brain integrates complex streams of information. Using an experimental design modeled after previous studies that used scrambled versions of a spoken story (Lerner, Honey, Silbert, & Hasson, 2011 and a silent movie (Hasson, Yang, Vallines, Heeger, & Rubin, 2008, we investigate whether listeners perceive hierarchical structure in music beyond short (~6 sec time windows and whether there is cortical overlap between music and language processing at multiple timescales. Experienced pianists were presented with an extended musical excerpt scrambled at multiple timescales––by measure, phrase, and section––while measuring brain activity with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. The reliability of evoked activity, as quantified by inter-subject correlation of the fMRI responses was measured. We found that response reliability depended systematically on musical structural coherence, revealing a topographically organized hierarchy of processing timescales. Early auditory areas (at the bottom of the hierarchy responded reliably in all conditions. For brain areas at the top of the hierarchy, the original (unscrambled excerpt evoked more reliable responses than any of the scrambled excerpts, indicating that these brain areas process long-timescale musical structures, on the order of minutes. The topography of processing timescales was analogous with that reported previously for speech, but the timescale gradients for music and speech overlapped with one another only partially, suggesting that temporally analogous structures––words/measures, sentences/musical phrases, paragraph/sections––are processed separately.

  3. The neural processing of hierarchical structure in music and speech at different timescales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farbood, Morwaread M.; Heeger, David J.; Marcus, Gary; Hasson, Uri; Lerner, Yulia

    2015-01-01

    Music, like speech, is a complex auditory signal that contains structures at multiple timescales, and as such is a potentially powerful entry point into the question of how the brain integrates complex streams of information. Using an experimental design modeled after previous studies that used scrambled versions of a spoken story (Lerner et al., 2011) and a silent movie (Hasson et al., 2008), we investigate whether listeners perceive hierarchical structure in music beyond short (~6 s) time windows and whether there is cortical overlap between music and language processing at multiple timescales. Experienced pianists were presented with an extended musical excerpt scrambled at multiple timescales—by measure, phrase, and section—while measuring brain activity with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The reliability of evoked activity, as quantified by inter-subject correlation of the fMRI responses, was measured. We found that response reliability depended systematically on musical structure coherence, revealing a topographically organized hierarchy of processing timescales. Early auditory areas (at the bottom of the hierarchy) responded reliably in all conditions. For brain areas at the top of the hierarchy, the original (unscrambled) excerpt evoked more reliable responses than any of the scrambled excerpts, indicating that these brain areas process long-timescale musical structures, on the order of minutes. The topography of processing timescales was analogous with that reported previously for speech, but the timescale gradients for music and speech overlapped with one another only partially, suggesting that temporally analogous structures—words/measures, sentences/musical phrases, paragraph/sections—are processed separately. PMID:26029037

  4. Neural circuits as computational dynamical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussillo, David

    2014-04-01

    Many recent studies of neurons recorded from cortex reveal complex temporal dynamics. How such dynamics embody the computations that ultimately lead to behavior remains a mystery. Approaching this issue requires developing plausible hypotheses couched in terms of neural dynamics. A tool ideally suited to aid in this question is the recurrent neural network (RNN). RNNs straddle the fields of nonlinear dynamical systems and machine learning and have recently seen great advances in both theory and application. I summarize recent theoretical and technological advances and highlight an example of how RNNs helped to explain perplexing high-dimensional neurophysiological data in the prefrontal cortex.

  5. Hierarchical fractal Weyl laws for chaotic resonance states in open mixed systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Körber, M J; Michler, M; Bäcker, A; Ketzmerick, R

    2013-09-13

    In open chaotic systems the number of long-lived resonance states obeys a fractal Weyl law, which depends on the fractal dimension of the chaotic saddle. We study the generic case of a mixed phase space with regular and chaotic dynamics. We find a hierarchy of fractal Weyl laws, one for each region of the hierarchical decomposition of the chaotic phase-space component. This is based on our observation of hierarchical resonance states localizing on these regions. Numerically this is verified for the standard map and a hierarchical model system.

  6. INFOGRAPHIC MODELING OF THE HIERARCHICAL STRUCTURE OF THE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM EXPOSED TO AN INNOVATIVE CONFLICT

    OpenAIRE

    Chulkov Vitaliy Olegovich; Rakhmonov Emomali Karimovich; Kas'yanov Vitaliy Fedorovich; Gusakova Elena Aleksandrovna

    2012-01-01

    This article deals with the infographic modeling of hierarchical management systems exposed to innovative conflicts. The authors analyze the facts that serve as conflict drivers in the construction management environment. The reasons for innovative conflicts include changes in hierarchical structures of management systems, adjustment of workers to new management conditions, changes in the ideology, etc. Conflicts under consideration may involve contradictions between requests placed by custom...

  7. Spiking neural P systems with weights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Hoogeboom, Hendrik Jan; Pan, Linqiang; Păun, Gheorghe; Pérez-Jiménez, Mario J

    2010-10-01

    A variant of spiking neural P systems with positive or negative weights on synapses is introduced, where the rules of a neuron fire when the potential of that neuron equals a given value. The involved values-weights, firing thresholds, potential consumed by each rule-can be real (computable) numbers, rational numbers, integers, and natural numbers. The power of the obtained systems is investigated. For instance, it is proved that integers (very restricted: 1, -1 for weights, 1 and 2 for firing thresholds, and as parameters in the rules) suffice for computing all Turing computable sets of numbers in both the generative and the accepting modes. When only natural numbers are used, a characterization of the family of semilinear sets of numbers is obtained. It is shown that spiking neural P systems with weights can efficiently solve computationally hard problems in a nondeterministic way. Some open problems and suggestions for further research are formulated.

  8. The labeled systems of multiple neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemissi, M; Seridi, H; Akdag, H

    2008-08-01

    This paper proposes an implementation scheme of K-class classification problem using systems of multiple neural networks. Usually, a multi-class problem is decomposed into simple sub-problems solved independently using similar single neural networks. For the reason that these sub-problems are not equivalent in their complexity, we propose a system that includes reinforced networks destined to solve complicated parts of the entire problem. Our approach is inspired from principles of the multi-classifiers systems and the labeled classification, which aims to improve performances of the networks trained by the Back-Propagation algorithm. We propose two implementation schemes based on both OAO (one-against-all) and OAA (one-against-one). The proposed models are evaluated using iris and human thigh databases.

  9. Hierarchical Cellular Structures in High-Capacity Cellular Communication Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, R K; Agrawal, N K

    2011-01-01

    In the prevailing cellular environment, it is important to provide the resources for the fluctuating traffic demand exactly in the place and at the time where and when they are needed. In this paper, we explored the ability of hierarchical cellular structures with inter layer reuse to increase the capacity of mobile communication network by applying total frequency hopping (T-FH) and adaptive frequency allocation (AFA) as a strategy to reuse the macro and micro cell resources without frequency planning in indoor pico cells [11]. The practical aspects for designing macro- micro cellular overlays in the existing big urban areas are also explained [4]. Femto cells are inducted in macro / micro / pico cells hierarchical structure to achieve the required QoS cost effectively.

  10. Bayesian Hierarchical Models to Augment the Mediterranean Forecast System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-07

    year. Our goal is to develop an ensemble ocean forecast methodology, using Bayesian Hierarchical Modelling (BHM) tools . The ocean ensemble forecast...from above); i.e. we assume Ut ~ Z Λt1/2. WORK COMPLETED The prototype MFS-Wind-BHM was designed and implemented based on stochastic...coding refinements we implemented on the prototype surface wind BHM. A DWF event in February 2005, in the Gulf of Lions, was identified for reforecast

  11. IMPLEMENTATION OF NEURAL - CRYPTOGRAPHIC SYSTEM USING FPGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KARAM M. Z. OTHMAN

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Modern cryptography techniques are virtually unbreakable. As the Internet and other forms of electronic communication become more prevalent, electronic security is becoming increasingly important. Cryptography is used to protect e-mail messages, credit card information, and corporate data. The design of the cryptography system is a conventional cryptography that uses one key for encryption and decryption process. The chosen cryptography algorithm is stream cipher algorithm that encrypt one bit at a time. The central problem in the stream-cipher cryptography is the difficulty of generating a long unpredictable sequence of binary signals from short and random key. Pseudo random number generators (PRNG have been widely used to construct this key sequence. The pseudo random number generator was designed using the Artificial Neural Networks (ANN. The Artificial Neural Networks (ANN providing the required nonlinearity properties that increases the randomness statistical properties of the pseudo random generator. The learning algorithm of this neural network is backpropagation learning algorithm. The learning process was done by software program in Matlab (software implementation to get the efficient weights. Then, the learned neural network was implemented using field programmable gate array (FPGA.

  12. Simulating neural systems with Xyce.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiek, Richard Louis; Thornquist, Heidi K.; Mei, Ting; Warrender, Christina E.; Aimone, James Bradley; Teeter, Corinne; Duda, Alex M.

    2012-12-01

    Sandias parallel circuit simulator, Xyce, can address large scale neuron simulations in a new way extending the range within which one can perform high-fidelity, multi-compartment neuron simulations. This report documents the implementation of neuron devices in Xyce, their use in simulation and analysis of neuron systems.

  13. Hopfield neural network based on ant system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪炳镕; 金飞虎; 郭琦

    2004-01-01

    Hopfield neural network is a single layer feedforward neural network. Hopfield network requires some control parameters to be carefully selected, else the network is apt to converge to local minimum. An ant system is a nature inspired meta heuristic algorithm. It has been applied to several combinatorial optimization problems such as Traveling Salesman Problem, Scheduling Problems, etc. This paper will show an ant system may be used in tuning the network control parameters by a group of cooperated ants. The major advantage of this network is to adjust the network parameters automatically, avoiding a blind search for the set of control parameters.This network was tested on two TSP problems, 5 cities and 10 cities. The results have shown an obvious improvement.

  14. Institute for Brain and Neural Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-06

    Cooper. A Probabilistic Model For Cursive Handwriting Recognition Using Spatial Context. ICASSP, Vol. 5, pp. 201-204, 2005. Technical Reports: 47 21...application to recognition of on-line cursive script. In Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems. Neskovic, P., Schuster, D., and Cooper, L. (2004...P., and Cooper, L. (2005c). A probabilistic model for cursive handwriting recognition using spatial context. In Proc. ICASSP. Wang, J., Neskovic, P

  15. The endocannabinoid system drives neural progenitor proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguado, Tania; Monory, Krisztina; Palazuelos, Javier; Stella, Nephi; Cravatt, Benjamin; Lutz, Beat; Marsicano, Giovanni; Kokaia, Zaal; Guzmán, Manuel; Galve-Roperh, Ismael

    2005-10-01

    The discovery of multipotent neural progenitor (NP) cells has provided strong support for the existence of neurogenesis in the adult brain. However, the signals controlling NP proliferation remain elusive. Endocannabinoids, the endogenous counterparts of marijuana-derived cannabinoids, act as neuromodulators via presynaptic CB1 receptors and also control neural cell death and survival. Here we show that progenitor cells express a functional endocannabinoid system that actively regulates cell proliferation both in vitro and in vivo. Specifically, NPs produce endocannabinoids and express the CB1 receptor and the endocannabinoid-inactivating enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). CB1 receptor activation promotes cell proliferation and neurosphere generation, an action that is abrogated in CB1-deficient NPs. Accordingly, proliferation of hippocampal NPs is increased in FAAH-deficient mice. Our results demonstrate that endocannabinoids constitute a new group of signaling cues that regulate NP proliferation and thus open novel therapeutic avenues for manipulation of NP cell fate in the adult brain.

  16. Dynamic artificial neural networks with affective systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuman, Catherine D; Birdwell, J Douglas

    2013-01-01

    Artificial neural networks (ANNs) are processors that are trained to perform particular tasks. We couple a computational ANN with a simulated affective system in order to explore the interaction between the two. In particular, we design a simple affective system that adjusts the threshold values in the neurons of our ANN. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate that this simple affective system can control the firing rate of the ensemble of neurons in the ANN, as well as to explore the coupling between the affective system and the processes of long term potentiation (LTP) and long term depression (LTD), and the effect of the parameters of the affective system on its performance. We apply our networks with affective systems to a simple pole balancing example and briefly discuss the effect of affective systems on network performance.

  17. Dynamic Organization of Hierarchical Memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurikawa, Tomoki; Kaneko, Kunihiko

    2016-01-01

    In the brain, external objects are categorized in a hierarchical way. Although it is widely accepted that objects are represented as static attractors in neural state space, this view does not take account interaction between intrinsic neural dynamics and external input, which is essential to understand how neural system responds to inputs. Indeed, structured spontaneous neural activity without external inputs is known to exist, and its relationship with evoked activities is discussed. Then, how categorical representation is embedded into the spontaneous and evoked activities has to be uncovered. To address this question, we studied bifurcation process with increasing input after hierarchically clustered associative memories are learned. We found a "dynamic categorization"; neural activity without input wanders globally over the state space including all memories. Then with the increase of input strength, diffuse representation of higher category exhibits transitions to focused ones specific to each object. The hierarchy of memories is embedded in the transition probability from one memory to another during the spontaneous dynamics. With increased input strength, neural activity wanders over a narrower state space including a smaller set of memories, showing more specific category or memory corresponding to the applied input. Moreover, such coarse-to-fine transitions are also observed temporally during transient process under constant input, which agrees with experimental findings in the temporal cortex. These results suggest the hierarchy emerging through interaction with an external input underlies hierarchy during transient process, as well as in the spontaneous activity.

  18. Preventing Distribution Grid Congestion by Integrating Indirect Control in a Hierarchical Electric Vehicles Management System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Junjie; Si, Chengyong; Lind, Morten

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a hierarchical management system is proposed to integrate electric vehicles (EVs) into a distribution grid. Three types of actors are included in the system: Distribution system operators (DSOs), Fleet operators (FOs) and EV owners. In contrast to a typical hierarchical control...... system where the upper level controller directly controls the lower level subordinated nodes, this study aims to integrate two common indirect control methods:market-based control and price-based control into the hierarchical electric vehicles management system. Specifically, on the lower level...... of the hierarchy, the FOs coordinate the charging behaviors of their EV users using a price-based control method. A parametric utility model is used on the lower level to characterize price elasticity of electric vehicles and thus used by the FO to coordinate the individual EV charging. On the upper level...

  19. Hierarchical Distributed Control Design for Multi-agent Systems Using Approximate Simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Yu-Tao; HONG Yi-Guang

    2013-01-01

    In this paper,we consider a hierarchical control design for multi-agent systems based on approximate simulation.To reduce complexity,we first construct a simple abstract system to guide the agents,then we discuss the simulation relations between the abstract system and multiple agents.With the help of this abstract system,distributed hierarchical control is proposed to complete a coordination task.By virtue of a common Lyapunov function,we analyze the collective behaviors with switching multi-agent topology in light of simulation functions.

  20. Dynamical systems, attractors, and neural circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Biology is the study of dynamical systems. Yet most of us working in biology have limited pedagogical training in the theory of dynamical systems, an unfortunate historical fact that can be remedied for future generations of life scientists. In my particular field of systems neuroscience, neural circuits are rife with nonlinearities at all levels of description, rendering simple methodologies and our own intuition unreliable. Therefore, our ideas are likely to be wrong unless informed by good models. These models should be based on the mathematical theories of dynamical systems since functioning neurons are dynamic-they change their membrane potential and firing rates with time. Thus, selecting the appropriate type of dynamical system upon which to base a model is an important first step in the modeling process. This step all too easily goes awry, in part because there are many frameworks to choose from, in part because the sparsely sampled data can be consistent with a variety of dynamical processes, and in part because each modeler has a preferred modeling approach that is difficult to move away from. This brief review summarizes some of the main dynamical paradigms that can arise in neural circuits, with comments on what they can achieve computationally and what signatures might reveal their presence within empirical data. I provide examples of different dynamical systems using simple circuits of two or three cells, emphasizing that any one connectivity pattern is compatible with multiple, diverse functions.

  1. Nonlinear system identification and control based on modular neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puscasu, Gheorghe; Codres, Bogdan

    2011-08-01

    A new approach for nonlinear system identification and control based on modular neural networks (MNN) is proposed in this paper. The computational complexity of neural identification can be greatly reduced if the whole system is decomposed into several subsystems. This is obtained using a partitioning algorithm. Each local nonlinear model is associated with a nonlinear controller. These are also implemented by neural networks. The switching between the neural controllers is done by a dynamical switcher, also implemented by neural networks, that tracks the different operating points. The proposed multiple modelling and control strategy has been successfully tested on simulated laboratory scale liquid-level system.

  2. Universal hierarchical symmetry for turbulence and general multi-scale fluctuation systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen-Su She; Zhi-Xiong Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Scaling is an important measure of multi-scale fluctuation systems. Turbulence as the most remarkable multi-scale system possesses scaling over a wide range of scales. She-Leveque (SL) hierarchical symmetry, since its publication in 1994, has received wide attention. A num-ber of experimental, numerical and theoretical work have been devoted to its verification, extension, and modification. Application to the understanding of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence, motions of cosmic baryon fluids, cosmological supersonic turbulence, natural image, spiral turbulent patterns, DNA anomalous composition, human heart vari-ability are just a few among the most successful examples. A number of modified scaling laws have been derived in the framework of the hierarchical symmetry, and the SL model parameters are found to reveal both the organizational order of the whole system and the properties of the most signif-icant fluctuation structures. A partial set of work related to these studies are reviewed. Particular emphasis is placed on the nature of the hierarchical symmetry. It is suggested that the SL hierarchical symmetry is a new form of the self-orga-nization principle for multi-scale fluctuation systems, and can be employed as a standard analysis tool in the general multi-scale methodology. It is further suggested that the SL hierarchical symmetry implies the existence of a turbulence ensemble. It is speculated that the search for defining the turbulence ensemble might open a new way for deriving sta-tistical closure equations for turbulence and other multi-scale fluctuation systems.

  3. Hierarchic Theory of Complex Systems (biosystems, colloids): self-organization & osmos

    OpenAIRE

    Kaivarainen, Alex

    2000-01-01

    1. Protein domain mesoscopic organization 2. Quantum background of lipid domain organization in biomembranes 3. Hierarchic approach to theory of solutions and colloid systems 4. Distant solvent-mediated interaction between macromolecules 5. Spatial self-organization in the water-macromolecular systems 6. Properties of [bisolvent - polymer system] 7. Osmosis and solvent activity. Traditional and mesoscopic approach

  4. Research and Design of a Fuzzy Neural Expert System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王仕军; 王树林

    1995-01-01

    We have developed a fuzzy neural expert system that has the precision and learning ability of a neural network.Knowledge is acquired from domain experts as fuzzy rules and membership functions.Then,they are converted into a neural network which implements fuzzy inference without rule matching.The neural network is applied to problem-solving and learns from the data obtained during operation to enhance the accuracy.The learning ability of the neural network makes it easy to modify the membership functions defined by domain experts.Also,by modifying the weights of neural networks adaptively,the problem of belief propagation in conventional expert systems can be solved easily.Converting the neural network back into fuzzy rules and membership functions helps explain the inner representation and operation of the neural network.

  5. A Novel Robot System Integrating Biological and Mechanical Intelligence Based on Dissociated Neural Network-Controlled Closed-Loop Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuechao; Li, Hongyi; Zheng, Xiongfei

    2016-01-01

    We propose the architecture of a novel robot system merging biological and artificial intelligence based on a neural controller connected to an external agent. We initially built a framework that connected the dissociated neural network to a mobile robot system to implement a realistic vehicle. The mobile robot system characterized by a camera and two-wheeled robot was designed to execute the target-searching task. We modified a software architecture and developed a home-made stimulation generator to build a bi-directional connection between the biological and the artificial components via simple binomial coding/decoding schemes. In this paper, we utilized a specific hierarchical dissociated neural network for the first time as the neural controller. Based on our work, neural cultures were successfully employed to control an artificial agent resulting in high performance. Surprisingly, under the tetanus stimulus training, the robot performed better and better with the increasement of training cycle because of the short-term plasticity of neural network (a kind of reinforced learning). Comparing to the work previously reported, we adopted an effective experimental proposal (i.e. increasing the training cycle) to make sure of the occurrence of the short-term plasticity, and preliminarily demonstrated that the improvement of the robot’s performance could be caused independently by the plasticity development of dissociated neural network. This new framework may provide some possible solutions for the learning abilities of intelligent robots by the engineering application of the plasticity processing of neural networks, also for the development of theoretical inspiration for the next generation neuro-prostheses on the basis of the bi-directional exchange of information within the hierarchical neural networks. PMID:27806074

  6. Peripheral neural activity recording and stimulation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loi, D; Carboni, C; Angius, G; Angotzi, G N; Barbaro, M; Raffo, L; Raspopovic, S; Navarro, X

    2011-08-01

    This paper presents a portable, embedded, microcontroller-based system for bidirectional communication (recording and stimulation) between an electrode, implanted in the peripheral nervous system, and a host computer. The device is able to record and digitize spontaneous and/or evoked neural activities and store them in data files on a PC. In addition, the system has the capability of providing electrical stimulation of peripheral nerves, injecting biphasic current pulses with programmable duration, intensity, and frequency. The recording system provides a highly selective band-pass filter from 800 Hz to 3 kHz, with a gain of 56 dB. The amplification range can be further extended to 96 dB with a variable gain amplifier. The proposed acquisition/stimulation circuitry has been successfully tested through in vivo measurements, implanting a tf-LIFE electrode in the sciatic nerve of a rat. Once implanted, the device showed an input referred noise of 0.83 μVrms, was capable of recording signals below 10 μ V, and generated muscle responses to injected stimuli. The results demonstrate the capability of processing and transmitting neural signals with very low distortion and with a power consumption lower than 1 W. A graphic, user-friendly interface has been developed to facilitate the configuration of the entire system, providing the possibility to activate stimulation and monitor recordings in real time.

  7. An Efficient OpenMP Runtime System for Hierarchical Arch

    CERN Document Server

    Thibault, Samuel; Goglin, Brice; Namyst, Raymond; Wacrenier, Pierre-André

    2007-01-01

    Exploiting the full computational power of always deeper hierarchical multiprocessor machines requires a very careful distribution of threads and data among the underlying non-uniform architecture. The emergence of multi-core chips and NUMA machines makes it important to minimize the number of remote memory accesses, to favor cache affinities, and to guarantee fast completion of synchronization steps. By using the BubbleSched platform as a threading backend for the GOMP OpenMP compiler, we are able to easily transpose affinities of thread teams into scheduling hints using abstractions called bubbles. We then propose a scheduling strategy suited to nested OpenMP parallelism. The resulting preliminary performance evaluations show an important improvement of the speedup on a typical NAS OpenMP benchmark application.

  8. Application of Parallel Tabu Search Based Hierarchical Optimization to Distribution System Service Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuta, Atsuhiro; Mori, Hiroyuki

    This paper proposes a hybrid method of hierarchical optimization and Parallel Tabu Search (PTS) for distribution system service restoration with distributed generators. The objective is to evaluate the optimal route to recover the service. The improvement of power quality makes the service restoration more important. Distribution system service restoration is one of complicated combinational optimization problems that are expressed as nonlinear mixed integer programming. In this paper, an efficient method is proposed to restore the service in a hierarchical optimization with Parallel Tabu Search. The proposed method is tested in a sample system.

  9. Hierarchical maximum entropy principle for generalized superstatistical systems and Bose-Einstein condensation of light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sob'yanin, Denis Nikolaevich

    2012-06-01

    A principle of hierarchical entropy maximization is proposed for generalized superstatistical systems, which are characterized by the existence of three levels of dynamics. If a generalized superstatistical system comprises a set of superstatistical subsystems, each made up of a set of cells, then the Boltzmann-Gibbs-Shannon entropy should be maximized first for each cell, second for each subsystem, and finally for the whole system. Hierarchical entropy maximization naturally reflects the sufficient time-scale separation between different dynamical levels and allows one to find the distribution of both the intensive parameter and the control parameter for the corresponding superstatistics. The hierarchical maximum entropy principle is applied to fluctuations of the photon Bose-Einstein condensate in a dye microcavity. This principle provides an alternative to the master equation approach recently applied to this problem. The possibility of constructing generalized superstatistics based on a statistics different from the Boltzmann-Gibbs statistics is pointed out.

  10. Neurale Netwerken en Radarsystemen (Neural Networks and Radar Systems)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-08-01

    34 on "godistribucord geheugon" (zie hoofdstuk 5). Neurologiach on psychologisch ondorzoek dienden bij doze vorm van onderzoek alechta ala...momenteel geen goede algoritmen bekend zijn. Een voorbeeld hiervan is het herkennen van typen objecten aon do hand van gebrekkige, onnauvkeurige of gestoorde...valt onder meer to denken aan do betrouwbaarheld van neurale netwerken. Hot is bekond dat sommige typen netwerken nog steeds redelijk good functioneren

  11. Coarse-Graining Parameterization and Multiscale Simulation of Hierarchical Systems. Part I: Theory and Model Formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    can also refer to hierarchical parameterization transcending any scale, such as mesoscopic to continuum levels. Such a multiscale modeling paradigm ...particularly suited for systems defined by long-chain polymers with relatively short persistence lengths, or systems that are entropically driven...mechanics. Thus, we introduce a universal framework through a finer-trains-coarser multiscale paradigm , which effectively defines coarse- grain

  12. Distributed Hierarchical Control of Multi-Area Power Systems with Improved Primary Frequency Regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lian, Jianming; Marinovici, Laurentiu D.; Kalsi, Karanjit; Du, Pengwei; Elizondo, Marcelo A.

    2012-12-12

    The conventional distributed hierarchical control architecture for multi-area power systems is revisited. In this paper, a new distributed hierarchical control architecture is proposed. In the proposed architecture, pilot generators are selected in each area to be equipped with decentralized robust control as a supplementary to the conventional droop speed control. With the improved primary frequency control, the system frequency can be restored to the nominal value without the help of secondary frequency control, which reduces the burden of the automatic generation control for frequency restoration. Moreover, the low frequency inter-area electromechanical oscillations can also be effectively damped. The effectiveness of the proposed distributed hierarchical control architecture is validated through detailed simulations.

  13. Multilevel compression of random walks on networks reveals hierarchical organization in large integrated systems

    CERN Document Server

    Rosvall, M

    2010-01-01

    To comprehend the hierarchical organization of large integrated systems, we introduce the hierarchical map equation that reveals multilevel structures in networks. In this information-theoretic approach, we exploit the duality between compression and pattern detection; by compressing a description of a random walker as a proxy for real flow on a network, we find regularities in the network that induce this system-wide flow. Finding the shortest multilevel description of the random walker therefore gives us the best hierarchical clustering of the network, the optimal number of levels and modular partition at each level, with respect to the dynamics on the network. With a novel search algorithm, we extract and illustrate the rich multilevel organization of several large social and biological networks. For example, from the global air traffic network we uncover countries and continents, and from the pattern of scientific communication we reveal more than 100 scientific fields organized in four major disciplines:...

  14. A Spiking Neural Learning Classifier System

    CERN Document Server

    Howard, Gerard; Lanzi, Pier-Luca

    2012-01-01

    Learning Classifier Systems (LCS) are population-based reinforcement learners used in a wide variety of applications. This paper presents a LCS where each traditional rule is represented by a spiking neural network, a type of network with dynamic internal state. We employ a constructivist model of growth of both neurons and dendrites that realise flexible learning by evolving structures of sufficient complexity to solve a well-known problem involving continuous, real-valued inputs. Additionally, we extend the system to enable temporal state decomposition. By allowing our LCS to chain together sequences of heterogeneous actions into macro-actions, it is shown to perform optimally in a problem where traditional methods can fail to find a solution in a reasonable amount of time. Our final system is tested on a simulated robotics platform.

  15. Convergent evolution of neural systems in ctenophores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroz, Leonid L

    2015-02-15

    Neurons are defined as polarized secretory cells specializing in directional propagation of electrical signals leading to the release of extracellular messengers - features that enable them to transmit information, primarily chemical in nature, beyond their immediate neighbors without affecting all intervening cells en route. Multiple origins of neurons and synapses from different classes of ancestral secretory cells might have occurred more than once during ~600 million years of animal evolution with independent events of nervous system centralization from a common bilaterian/cnidarian ancestor without the bona fide central nervous system. Ctenophores, or comb jellies, represent an example of extensive parallel evolution in neural systems. First, recent genome analyses place ctenophores as a sister group to other animals. Second, ctenophores have a smaller complement of pan-animal genes controlling canonical neurogenic, synaptic, muscle and immune systems, and developmental pathways than most other metazoans. However, comb jellies are carnivorous marine animals with a complex neuromuscular organization and sophisticated patterns of behavior. To sustain these functions, they have evolved a number of unique molecular innovations supporting the hypothesis of massive homoplasies in the organization of integrative and locomotory systems. Third, many bilaterian/cnidarian neuron-specific genes and 'classical' neurotransmitter pathways are either absent or, if present, not expressed in ctenophore neurons (e.g. the bilaterian/cnidarian neurotransmitter, γ-amino butyric acid or GABA, is localized in muscles and presumed bilaterian neuron-specific RNA-binding protein Elav is found in non-neuronal cells). Finally, metabolomic and pharmacological data failed to detect either the presence or any physiological action of serotonin, dopamine, noradrenaline, adrenaline, octopamine, acetylcholine or histamine - consistent with the hypothesis that ctenophore neural systems evolved

  16. Expert System Based on Data Mining and Neural Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NI Zhi-wei; JIA Rui-yu

    2001-01-01

    On the basis of data mining and neural network, this paper proposes a general framework of the neural network expert system and discusses the key techniques in this kind of system. We apply these ideas on agricultural expert system to find some unknown useful knowledge and get some satisfactory results.

  17. An Artificial Neural Network Control System for Spacecraft Attitude Stabilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, California ’-DTIC 0 ELECT f NMARO 5 191 N S, U, THESIS B . AN ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK CONTROL SYSTEM FOR...NO. NO. NO ACCESSION NO 11. TITLE (Include Security Classification) AN ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK CONTROL SYSTEM FOR SPACECRAFT ATTITUDE STABILIZATION...obsolete a U.S. G v pi.. iim n P.. oiice! toog-eo.5s43 i Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. AN ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK CONTROL

  18. Exact dynamics of dissipative electronic systems and quantum transport: Hierarchical equations of motion approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jinshuang; Zheng, Xiao; Yan, YiJing

    2008-06-21

    A generalized quantum master equation theory that governs the exact, nonperturbative quantum dissipation and quantum transport is formulated in terms of hierarchically coupled equations of motion for an arbitrary electronic system in contact with electrodes under either a stationary or a nonstationary electrochemical potential bias. The theoretical construction starts with the influence functional in path integral, in which the electron creation and annihilation operators are Grassmann variables. Time derivatives on the influence functionals are then performed in a hierarchical manner. Both the multiple-frequency dispersion and the non-Markovian reservoir parametrization schemes are considered for the desired hierarchy construction. The resulting hierarchical equations of motion formalism is in principle exact and applicable to arbitrary electronic systems, including Coulomb interactions, under the influence of arbitrary time-dependent applied bias voltage and external fields. Both the conventional quantum master equation and the real-time diagrammatic formalism of Schon and co-workers can be readily obtained at well defined limits of the present theory. We also show that for a noninteracting electron system, the present hierarchical equations of motion formalism terminates at the second tier exactly, and the Landuer-Buttiker transport current expression is recovered. The present theory renders an exact and numerically tractable tool to evaluate various transient and stationary quantum transport properties of many-electron systems, together with the involving nonperturbative dissipative dynamics.

  19. Optimal coupling of heat and electricity systems: A stochastic hierarchical approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitridati, Lesia Marie-Jeanne Mariane; Pinson, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    already exist due to the participation of CHPs in both markets. New market structures must be developed in order to exploit these synergies. Recognizing the above-mentioned challenges this paper proposes a stochastic hierarchical formulation of the heat economic dispatch problem in a system with high...

  20. Theory of Neural Information Processing Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galla, Tobias [Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics and INFM/CNR SISSA-Unit, Strada Costiera 11, I-34014 Trieste (Italy)

    2006-04-07

    It is difficult not to be amazed by the ability of the human brain to process, to structure and to memorize information. Even by the toughest standards the behaviour of this network of about 10{sup 11} neurons qualifies as complex, and both the scientific community and the public take great interest in the growing field of neuroscience. The scientific endeavour to learn more about the function of the brain as an information processing system is here a truly interdisciplinary one, with important contributions from biology, computer science, physics, engineering and mathematics as the authors quite rightly point out in the introduction of their book. The role of the theoretical disciplines here is to provide mathematical models of information processing systems and the tools to study them. These models and tools are at the centre of the material covered in the book by Coolen, Kuehn and Sollich. The book is divided into five parts, providing basic introductory material on neural network models as well as the details of advanced techniques to study them. A mathematical appendix complements the main text. The range of topics is extremely broad, still the presentation is concise and the book well arranged. To stress the breadth of the book let me just mention a few keywords here: the material ranges from the basics of perceptrons and recurrent network architectures to more advanced aspects such as Bayesian learning and support vector machines; Shannon's theory of information and the definition of entropy are discussed, and a chapter on Amari's information geometry is not missing either. Finally the statistical mechanics chapters cover Gardner theory and the replica analysis of the Hopfield model, not without being preceded by a brief introduction of the basic concepts of equilibrium statistical physics. The book also contains a part on effective theories of the macroscopic dynamics of neural networks. Many dynamical aspects of neural networks are usually hard

  1. Artificial Neural Network System for Thyroid Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazin Abdulrasool Hameed

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid disease is one of major causes of severe medical problems for human beings. Therefore, proper diagnosis of thyroid disease is considered as an important issue to determine treatment for patients. This paper focuses on using Artificial Neural Network (ANN as a significant technique of artificial intelligence to diagnose thyroid diseases. The continuous values of three laboratory blood tests are used as input signals to the proposed system of ANN. All types of thyroid diseases that may occur in patients are taken into account in design of system, as well as the high accuracy of the detection and categorization of thyroid diseases are considered in the system. A multilayer feedforward architecture of ANN is adopted in the proposed design, and the back propagation is selected as learning algorithm to accomplish the training process. The result of this research shows that the proposed ANN system is able to precisely diagnose thyroid disease, and can be exploited in practical uses. The system is simulated via MATLAB software to evaluate its performance

  2. Priming Effects Associated with the Hierarchical Levels of Classification Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loehrlein, Aaron J.

    2012-01-01

    The act of categorization produces conceptual representations in memory while knowledge organization (KO) systems provide conceptual representations that are used in information storage and retrieval systems. Previous research has explored how KO systems can be designed to resemble the user's internal conceptual structures. However, the more…

  3. Priming Effects Associated with the Hierarchical Levels of Classification Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loehrlein, Aaron J.

    2012-01-01

    The act of categorization produces conceptual representations in memory while knowledge organization (KO) systems provide conceptual representations that are used in information storage and retrieval systems. Previous research has explored how KO systems can be designed to resemble the user's internal conceptual structures. However, the more…

  4. Neural Network for Optimization of Existing Control Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Per Printz

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop methods to use Neural Network based Controllers (NNC) as an optimization tool for existing control systems.......The purpose of this paper is to develop methods to use Neural Network based Controllers (NNC) as an optimization tool for existing control systems....

  5. TOWARD HIGHLY SECURE AND AUTONOMIC COMPUTING SYSTEMS: A HIERARCHICAL APPROACH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hsien-Hsin S

    2010-05-11

    The overall objective of this research project is to develop novel architectural techniques as well as system software to achieve a highly secure and intrusion-tolerant computing system. Such system will be autonomous, self-adapting, introspective, with self-healing capability under the circumstances of improper operations, abnormal workloads, and malicious attacks. The scope of this research includes: (1) System-wide, unified introspection techniques for autonomic systems, (2) Secure information-flow microarchitecture, (3) Memory-centric security architecture, (4) Authentication control and its implication to security, (5) Digital right management, (5) Microarchitectural denial-of-service attacks on shared resources. During the period of the project, we developed several architectural techniques and system software for achieving a robust, secure, and reliable computing system toward our goal.

  6. Hierarchical Architecture for Enterprise Information System under Dynamic Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In a dynamic environment, it is vital for enterpris e to have flexible information system architecture to integrate ERP, Supply Chain Management (SCM) and E-Commerce (EC). The traditional systems are established o n the ERP-centered flat architecture. This architecture has some disadvantages in supporting the dynamics of enterprises. Firstly, ERP is already a very expens ive and complex system; the extension based on it can only increase the complexi ty and make the implementation more expensive and risk...

  7. INFOGRAPHIC MODELING OF THE HIERARCHICAL STRUCTURE OF THE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM EXPOSED TO AN INNOVATIVE CONFLICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chulkov Vitaliy Olegovich

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the infographic modeling of hierarchical management systems exposed to innovative conflicts. The authors analyze the facts that serve as conflict drivers in the construction management environment. The reasons for innovative conflicts include changes in hierarchical structures of management systems, adjustment of workers to new management conditions, changes in the ideology, etc. Conflicts under consideration may involve contradictions between requests placed by customers and the legislation, any risks that may originate from the above contradiction, conflicts arising from any failure to comply with any accepted standards of conduct, etc. One of the main objectives of the theory of hierarchical structures is to develop a model capable of projecting potential innovative conflicts. Models described in the paper reflect dynamic changes in patterns of external impacts within the conflict area. The simplest model element is a monad, or an indivisible set of characteristics of participants at the pre-set level. Interaction between two monads forms a diad. Modeling of situations that involve a different number of monads, diads, resources and impacts can improve methods used to control and manage hierarchical structures in the construction industry. However, in the absence of any mathematical models employed to simulate conflict-related events, processes and situations, any research into, projection and management of interpersonal and group-to-group conflicts are to be performed in the legal environment

  8. Combining Adaptive Coding and Modulation with Hierarchical Modulation in Satcom Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Meric, Hugo; Arnal, Fabrice; Lesthievent, Guy; Boucheret, Marie-Laure

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the design of a broadcast system in order to maximise the throughput. This task is usually challenging due to the channel variability. Forty years ago, Cover introduced and compared two schemes: time sharing and superposition coding. Even if the second scheme was proved to be optimal for some channels, modern satellite communications systems such as DVB-SH and DVB-S2 mainly rely on time sharing strategy to optimize the throughput. They consider hierarchical modulation, a practical implementation of superposition coding, but only for unequal error protection or backward compatibility purposes. We propose in this article to combine time sharing and hierarchical modulation together and show how this scheme can improve the performance in terms of available rate. We introduce the hierarchical 16-APSK to boost the performance of the DVB-S2 standard. We also evaluate various strategies to group the receivers in pairs when using hierarchical modulation. Finally, we show in a realistic use case based on...

  9. Determining the Bayesian optimal sampling strategy in a hierarchical system.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grace, Matthew D.; Ringland, James T.; Boggs, Paul T.; Pebay, Philippe Pierre

    2010-09-01

    Consider a classic hierarchy tree as a basic model of a 'system-of-systems' network, where each node represents a component system (which may itself consist of a set of sub-systems). For this general composite system, we present a technique for computing the optimal testing strategy, which is based on Bayesian decision analysis. In previous work, we developed a Bayesian approach for computing the distribution of the reliability of a system-of-systems structure that uses test data and prior information. This allows for the determination of both an estimate of the reliability and a quantification of confidence in the estimate. Improving the accuracy of the reliability estimate and increasing the corresponding confidence require the collection of additional data. However, testing all possible sub-systems may not be cost-effective, feasible, or even necessary to achieve an improvement in the reliability estimate. To address this sampling issue, we formulate a Bayesian methodology that systematically determines the optimal sampling strategy under specified constraints and costs that will maximally improve the reliability estimate of the composite system, e.g., by reducing the variance of the reliability distribution. This methodology involves calculating the 'Bayes risk of a decision rule' for each available sampling strategy, where risk quantifies the relative effect that each sampling strategy could have on the reliability estimate. A general numerical algorithm is developed and tested using an example multicomponent system. The results show that the procedure scales linearly with the number of components available for testing.

  10. Decision support in hierarchical planning systems: The case of procurement planning in oil refining industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallestrup, Kasper Bislev; Lynge, Lasse Hadberg; Akkerman, Renzo;

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the development of decision support systems for hierarchically structured planning approaches, such as commercially available advanced planning systems. We develop a framework to show how such a decision support system can be designed with the existing organization in mind......, and how a decision process and corresponding software can be developed from this basis. Building on well-known hierarchical planning concepts, we include the typical anticipation mechanisms used in such systems to be able to decompose planning problems, both from the perspective of the planning problem...... and from the perspective of the organizational aspects involved. To exemplify and develop our framework, we use a case study of crude oil procurement planning in the refining industry. The results of the case study indicate an improved organizational embedding of the DSS, leading to significant savings...

  11. The Case for A Hierarchal System Model for Linux Clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seager, M; Gorda, B

    2009-06-05

    The computer industry today is no longer driven, as it was in the 40s, 50s and 60s, by High-performance computing requirements. Rather, HPC systems, especially Leadership class systems, sit on top of a pyramid investment mode. Figure 1 shows a representative pyramid investment model for systems hardware. At the base of the pyramid is the huge investment (order 10s of Billions of US Dollars per year) in semiconductor fabrication and process technologies. These costs, which are approximately doubling with every generation, are funded from investments multiple markets: enterprise, desktops, games, embedded and specialized devices. Over and above these base technology investments are investments for critical technology elements such as microprocessor, chipsets and memory ASIC components. Investments for these components are spread across the same markets as the base semiconductor processes investments. These second tier investments are approximately half the size of the lower level of the pyramid. The next technology investment layer up, tier 3, is more focused on scalable computing systems such as those needed for HPC and other markets. These tier 3 technology elements include networking (SAN, WAN and LAN), interconnects and large scalable SMP designs. Above these is tier 4 are relatively small investments necessary to build very large, scalable systems high-end or Leadership class systems. Primary among these are the specialized network designs of vertically integrated systems, etc.

  12. Psychological Processing in Chronic Pain: A Neural Systems Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Laura; Elman, Igor; Borsook, David

    2014-01-01

    Our understanding of chronic pain involves complex brain circuits that include sensory, emotional, cognitive and interoceptive processing. The feed-forward interactions between physical (e.g., trauma) and emotional pain and the consequences of altered psychological status on the expression of pain have made the evaluation and treatment of chronic pain a challenge in the clinic. By understanding the neural circuits involved in psychological processes, a mechanistic approach to the implementation of psychology-based treatments may be better understood. In this review we evaluate some of the principle processes that may be altered as a consequence of chronic pain in the context of localized and integrated neural networks. These changes are ongoing, vary in their magnitude, and their hierarchical manifestations, and may be temporally and sequentially altered by treatments, and all contribute to an overall pain phenotype. Furthermore, we link altered psychological processes to specific evidence-based treatments to put forth a model of pain neuroscience psychology. PMID:24374383

  13. Exporting Variables in a Hierarchically Distributed Control System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamizo Llatas, M.

    1995-07-01

    We describe the Remote Variable Access Service (RVAS), a network service developed and used in the distributed control and monitoring system of the TJ-II Heliac, which is under construction at CIEMAT (Madrid, Spain) and devoted to plasma studies in the nuclear fusion field. The architecture of the TJ-II control system consists of one central Sun workstation Sparc 10 and several autonomous subsystems based on VME crates with embedded processors running the OS-9 (V.24) real time operating system. The RVAS service allows state variables in local control processes running in subsystems to be exported to remote processes running in the central control workstation. Thus we extend the concept of exporting of file systems in UNIX machines to variables in processes running in different machines. (Author) 6 refs.

  14. A Hierarchical Reputation Evidence Decision System in VANETs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yang, Yang; Gao, Zhipeng; Qiu, Xuesong; Liu, Qian; Hao, Yuwen; Zheng, Jingchen

    2015-01-01

    In VANETs, users are rational, independent, and selfish. Stimulation-based reputation management system is critical for them to avoid selfishness and promote network performance in large-scale VANETs...

  15. Hierarchical Intelligent Data Fusion Architecture for System Health Management Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The complexity of modern systems and the stringent performance requirements for operation and uptime suggest that optimum and robust means must be deployed to make...

  16. Flexible System Integration and Advanced Hierarchical Control Architectures in the Microgrid Research Laboratory of Aalborg University

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meng, Lexuan; Hernández, Adriana Carolina Luna; Diaz, Enrique Rodriguez

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the system integration and hierarchical control implementation in an inverter-based microgrid research laboratory (MGRL) in Aalborg University, Denmark. MGRL aims to provide a flexible experimental platform for comprehensive studies of microgrids. The structure of the laboratory...... system supervision, advanced secondary and tertiary management are realized in a microgrid central controller. The software and hardware schemes are described. Several example case studies are introduced and performed in order to achieve power quality regulation, energy management and flywheel energy...

  17. Hierarchical system for autonomous sensing-healing of delamination in large-scale composite structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minakuchi, Shu; Sun, Denghao; Takeda, Nobuo

    2014-10-01

    This study combines our hierarchical fiber-optic-based delamination detection system with a microvascular self-healing material to develop the first autonomous sensing-healing system applicable to large-scale composite structures. In this combined system, embedded vascular modules are connected through check valves to a surface-mounted supply tube of a pressurized healing agent while fiber-optic-based sensors monitor the internal pressure of these vascular modules. When delamination occurs, the healing agent flows into the vascular modules breached by the delamination and infiltrates the damage for healing. At the same time, the pressure sensors identify the damaged modules by detecting internal pressure changes. This paper begins by describing the basic concept of the combined system and by discussing the advantages that arise from its hierarchical nature. The feasibility of the system is then confirmed through delamination infiltration tests. Finally, the hierarchical system is validated in a plate specimen by focusing on the detection and infiltration of the damage. Its self-diagnostic function is also demonstrated.

  18. Hierarchical algorithms of functional modelling for solution of optimal operation problems in electrical power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makeechev, V.A. [Industrial Power Company, Krasnopresnenskaya Naberejnaya 12, 123610 Moscow (Russian Federation); Soukhanov, O.A. [Energy Systems Institute, 1 st Yamskogo Polya Street 15, 125040 Moscow (Russian Federation); Sharov, Y.V. [Moscow Power Engineering Institute, Krasnokazarmennaya Street 14, 111250 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2008-07-15

    This paper presents foundations of the optimization method intended for solution of power systems operation problems and based on the principles of functional modeling (FM). This paper also presents several types of hierarchical FM algorithms for economic dispatch in these systems derived from this method. According to the FM method a power system is represented by hierarchical model consisting of systems of equations of lower (subsystem) levels and higher level system of connection equations (SCE), in which only boundary variables of subsystems are present. Solution of optimization problem in accordance with the FM method consists of the following operations: (1) solution of optimization problem for each subsystem (values of boundary variables for subsystems should be determined on the higher level of model); (2) calculation of functional characteristic (FC) of each subsystem, pertaining to state of subsystem on current iteration (these two steps are carried out on the lower level of the model); (3) formation and solution of the higher level system of equations (SCE), which gives values of boundary and supplementary boundary variables on current iteration. The key elements in the general structure of the FM method are FCs of subsystems, which represent them on the higher level of the model as ''black boxes''. Important advantage of hierarchical FM algorithms is that results obtained with them on each iteration are identical to those of corresponding basic one level algorithms. (author)

  19. Coordinated planning of preventive maintenance in hierarchical production systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijkhuizen, G.C.; van Harten, Aart

    1997-01-01

    We consider a technical system consisting of multiple different components, which are all subject to failure. Creating an occasion for preventive maintenance on one of these components requires a collection of preparatory set-up activities to be carried out in advance, with corresponding set-up

  20. Hierarchical spin-orbital polarization of a giant Rashba system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawden, Lewis; Riley, Jonathan M; Kim, Choong H; Sankar, Raman; Monkman, Eric J; Shai, Daniel E; Wei, Haofei I; Lochocki, Edward B; Wells, Justin W; Meevasana, Worawat; Kim, Timur K; Hoesch, Moritz; Ohtsubo, Yoshiyuki; Le Fèvre, Patrick; Fennie, Craig J; Shen, Kyle M; Chou, Fangcheng; King, Phil D C

    2015-09-01

    The Rashba effect is one of the most striking manifestations of spin-orbit coupling in solids and provides a cornerstone for the burgeoning field of semiconductor spintronics. It is typically assumed to manifest as a momentum-dependent splitting of a single initially spin-degenerate band into two branches with opposite spin polarization. Combining polarization-dependent and resonant angle-resolved photoemission measurements with density functional theory calculations, we show that the two "spin-split" branches of the model giant Rashba system BiTeI additionally develop disparate orbital textures, each of which is coupled to a distinct spin configuration. This necessitates a reinterpretation of spin splitting in Rashba-like systems and opens new possibilities for controlling spin polarization through the orbital sector.

  1. Robust Hierarchical Control for Uncertain Multivariable Hexarotor Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Multirotor helicopter attracts more attention due to its increased load capacity and being highly maneuverable. However, these helicopters are uncertain multivariable systems, which pose a challenge for their robust controller design. In this paper, a robust two-loop control scheme is proposed for a hexarotor system. The resulted controller consists of a nominal controller and a robust compensator. The robust compensators are added to restrain the influences of uncertainties such as nonlinear dynamics, coupling, parametric uncertainties, and external disturbances. It is proven that the tracking errors are ultimately bounded with specified boundaries by choosing the parameters of the robust compensators. Simulation results on the hexarotor demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control method.

  2. Optimizing FORTRAN Programs for Hierarchical Memory Parallel Processing Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金国华; 陈福接

    1993-01-01

    Parallel loops account for the greatest amount of parallelism in numerical programs.Executing nested loops in parallel with low run-time overhead is thus very important for achieving high performance in parallel processing systems.However,in parallel processing systems with caches or local memories in memory hierarchies,“thrashing problemmay”may arise whenever data move back and forth between the caches or local memories in different processors.Previous techniques can only deal with the rather simple cases with one linear function in the perfactly nested loop.In this paper,we present a parallel program optimizing technique called hybri loop interchange(HLI)for the cases with multiple linear functions and loop-carried data dependences in the nested loop.With HLI we can easily eliminate or reduce the thrashing phenomena without reucing the program parallelism.

  3. Role of neural network models for developing speech systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K Sreenivasa Rao

    2011-10-01

    This paper discusses the application of neural networks for developing different speech systems. Prosodic parameters of speech at syllable level depend on positional, contextual and phonological features of the syllables. In this paper, neural networks are explored to model the prosodic parameters of the syllables from their positional, contextual and phonological features. The prosodic parameters considered in this work are duration and sequence of pitch $(F_0)$ values of the syllables. These prosody models are further examined for applications such as text to speech synthesis, speech recognition, speaker recognition and language identification. Neural network models in voice conversion system are explored for capturing the mapping functions between source and target speakers at source, system and prosodic levels. We have also used neural network models for characterizing the emotions present in speech. For identification of dialects in Hindi, neural network models are used to capture the dialect specific information from spectral and prosodic features of speech.

  4. An Isolation Intrusion Detection System for Hierarchical Wireless Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Rung-Ching Chen; Chia-Fen Hsieh; Yung-Fa Huang

    2010-01-01

    A wireless sensor network (WSN) is a wireless network consisting of spatially distributed autonomous devices using sensors to cooperatively monitor environmental conditions, such as battlefield data and personal health information, and some environment limited resources. To avoid malicious damage is important while information is transmitted in wireless network. Thus, Wireless Intrusion Detection Systems are crucial to safe operation in wireless sensor networks. Wireless networks are subject ...

  5. Intrusion Detection System Using Hierarchical GMM and Dimensionality Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Maria Michael

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this chapter is to provide the effective intrusion detection technique to protect Web server. The IDS protects an server from malicious attacks from the Internet if someone tries to break in through the firewall and tries to have access on any system in the trusted side and alerts the system administrator in case there is a breach in security. Gaussian Mixture Models (GMMs are among the most statistically mature methods for clustering the data. Intrusion detection can be divided into anomaly detection and misuse detection. Misuse detection model is to collect behavioral features of non-normal operation and establish related feature library. In the existing system of anomaly based Intrusion Detection System, the work is based on the number of attacks on the network and using decision tree analysis for rule matching and grading. We are proposing an IDS approach that will use signature based and anomaly based identification scheme. And we are also proposing the rule pruning scheme with GMM(Gaussian Mixture Model. It does facilitate efficient way of handling large amount of rules. And we are planned to compare the performance of the IDS on different models. The Dimension Reduction focuses on using information obtained KDD Cup 99 data set for the selection of attributes to identify the type of attacks. The dimensionality reduction is performed on 41 attributes to 14 and 7 attributes based on Best First Search method and then apply the two classifying Algorithms ID3 and J48 Keywords-Intrusion detection, reliable networks, malicious routers, internet dependability, tolerance.

  6. Neural Systems for Speech and Song in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Grace; Pantazatos, Spiro P.; Schneider, Harry; Hirsch, Joy

    2012-01-01

    Despite language disabilities in autism, music abilities are frequently preserved. Paradoxically, brain regions associated with these functions typically overlap, enabling investigation of neural organization supporting speech and song in autism. Neural systems sensitive to speech and song were compared in low-functioning autistic and age-matched…

  7. Formalism for the Neural Network of Visual Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stavenga, D.G.; Beersma, D.G.M.

    1975-01-01

    A formalism to describe neural interrelations is developed on the exemplary case of the fly visual system. Absolute and relative indices are employed to identify the position of neural elements within the lattices of the visual ganglia. Illustrative applications as the projection of fly retinula cel

  8. System Identification of X-33 Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Shiv

    2003-01-01

    present attempt, as a start, focuses only on the entry phase. Since the main engine remains cut off in this phase, there is no thrust acting on the system. This considerably simplifies the equations of motion. We introduce another simplification by assuming the system to be linear after some non-linearities are removed analytically from our consideration. Under these assumptions, the problem could be solved by Classical Statistics by employing the least sum of squares approach. Instead we chose to use the Neural Network method. This method has many advantages. It is modern, more efficient, can be adapted to work even when the assumptions are diluted. In fact, Neural Networks try to model the human brain and are capable of pattern recognition.

  9. Adaptive Neural Network Based Control of Noncanonical Nonlinear Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanjun; Tao, Gang; Chen, Mou

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents a new study on the adaptive neural network-based control of a class of noncanonical nonlinear systems with large parametric uncertainties. Unlike commonly studied canonical form nonlinear systems whose neural network approximation system models have explicit relative degree structures, which can directly be used to derive parameterized controllers for adaptation, noncanonical form nonlinear systems usually do not have explicit relative degrees, and thus their approximation system models are also in noncanonical forms. It is well-known that the adaptive control of noncanonical form nonlinear systems involves the parameterization of system dynamics. As demonstrated in this paper, it is also the case for noncanonical neural network approximation system models. Effective control of such systems is an open research problem, especially in the presence of uncertain parameters. This paper shows that it is necessary to reparameterize such neural network system models for adaptive control design, and that such reparameterization can be realized using a relative degree formulation, a concept yet to be studied for general neural network system models. This paper then derives the parameterized controllers that guarantee closed-loop stability and asymptotic output tracking for noncanonical form neural network system models. An illustrative example is presented with the simulation results to demonstrate the control design procedure, and to verify the effectiveness of such a new design method.

  10. Identification and estimation algorithm for stochastic neural system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakao, M; Hara, K; Kimura, M; Sato, R

    1984-01-01

    An algorithm for the estimation of stochastic processes in a neural system is presented. This process is defined here as the continuous stochastic process reflecting the dynamics of the neural system which has some inputs and generates output spike trains. The algorithm proposed here is to identify the system parameters and then estimate the stochastic process called neural system process here. These procedures carried out on the basis of the output spike trains which are supposed to be the data observed in the randomly missing way by the threshold time function in the neural system. The algorithm is constructed with the well-known Kalman filters and realizes the estimation of the neural system process by cooperating with the algorithm for the parameter estimation of the threshold time function presented previously (Nakao et al., 1983). The performance of the algorithm is examined by applying it to the various spike trains simulated by some artificial models and also to the neural spike trains recorded in cat's optic tract fibers. The results in these applications are thought to prove the effectiveness of the algorithm proposed here to some extent. Such attempts, we think, will serve to improve the characterizing and modelling techniques of the stochastic neural systems.

  11. Assessing the effect of quantitative and qualitative predictors on gastric cancer individuals survival using hierarchical artificial neural network models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Zohreh; Mohammad, Kazem; Mahmoudi, Mahmood; Parsaeian, Mahbubeh; Zeraati, Hojjat

    2013-01-01

    There are numerous unanswered questions in the application of artificial neural network models for analysis of survival data. In most studies, independent variables have been studied as qualitative dichotomous variables, and results of using discrete and continuous quantitative, ordinal, or multinomial categorical predictive variables in these models are not well understood in comparison to conventional models. This study was designed and conducted to examine the application of these models in order to determine the survival of gastric cancer patients, in comparison to the Cox proportional hazards model. We studied the postoperative survival of 330 gastric cancer patients who suffered surgery at a surgical unit of the Iran Cancer Institute over a five-year period. Covariates of age, gender, history of substance abuse, cancer site, type of pathology, presence of metastasis, stage, and number of complementary treatments were entered in the models, and survival probabilities were calculated at 6, 12, 18, 24, 36, 48, and 60 months using the Cox proportional hazards and neural network models. We estimated coefficients of the Cox model and the weights in the neural network (with 3, 5, and 7 nodes in the hidden layer) in the training group, and used them to derive predictions in the study group. Predictions with these two methods were compared with those of the Kaplan-Meier product limit estimator as the gold standard. Comparisons were performed with the Friedman and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Survival probabilities at different times were determined using the Cox proportional hazards and a neural network with three nodes in the hidden layer; the ratios of standard errors with these two methods to the Kaplan-Meier method were 1.1593 and 1.0071, respectively, revealed a significant difference between Cox and Kaplan-Meier (P neural network, and the neural network and the standard (Kaplan-Meier), as well as better accuracy for the neural network (with 3 nodes in the hidden layer

  12. Materials Knowledge Systems in Python - A Data Science Framework for Accelerated Development of Hierarchical Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brough, David B; Wheeler, Daniel; Kalidindi, Surya R

    2017-03-01

    There is a critical need for customized analytics that take into account the stochastic nature of the internal structure of materials at multiple length scales in order to extract relevant and transferable knowledge. Data driven Process-Structure-Property (PSP) linkages provide systemic, modular and hierarchical framework for community driven curation of materials knowledge, and its transference to design and manufacturing experts. The Materials Knowledge Systems in Python project (PyMKS) is the first open source materials data science framework that can be used to create high value PSP linkages for hierarchical materials that can be leveraged by experts in materials science and engineering, manufacturing, machine learning and data science communities. This paper describes the main functions available from this repository, along with illustrations of how these can be accessed, utilized, and potentially further refined by the broader community of researchers.

  13. A Multi-layer, Hierarchical Information Management System for the Smart Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Ning; Du, Pengwei; Paulson, Patrick R.; Greitzer, Frank L.; Guo, Xinxin; Hadley, Mark D.

    2011-10-10

    This paper presents the modeling approach, methodologies, and initial results of setting up a multi-layer, hierarchical information management system (IMS) for the smart grid. The IMS allows its users to analyze the data collected by multiple control and communication networks to characterize the states of the smart grid. Abnormal, corrupted, or erroneous measurement data and outliers are detected and analyzed to identify whether they are caused by random equipment failures, unintentional human errors, or deliberate tempering attempts. Data collected from different information networks are crosschecked for data integrity based on redundancy, dependency, correlation, or cross-correlations, which reveal the interdependency between data sets. A hierarchically structured reasoning mechanism is used to rank possible causes of an event to aid the system operators to proactively respond or provide mitigation recommendations to remove or neutralize the threats. The model provides satisfactory performance on identifying the cause of an event and significantly reduces the need of processing myriads of data collected.

  14. Resource discovery algorithm based on hierarchical model and Conscious search in Grid computing system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasim Nickbakhsh

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The distributed system of Grid subscribes the non-homogenous sources at a vast level in a dynamic manner. The resource discovery manner is very influential on the efficiency and of quality the system functionality. The “Bitmap” model is based on the hierarchical and conscious search model that allows for less traffic and low number of messages in relation to other methods in this respect. This proposed method is based on the hierarchical and conscious search model that enhances the Bitmap method with the objective to reduce traffic, reduce the load of resource management processing, reduce the number of emerged messages due to resource discovery and increase the resource according speed. The proposed method and the Bitmap method are simulated through Arena tool. This proposed model is abbreviated as RNTL.

  15. Conceptual framework for distributed expert-system use in time-sensitive hierarchical control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henningsen, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    There are many problems faced by decision makers involved in complex, time-sensitive hierarchical control systems. These may include maintaining knowledge of the functional status of the system components, forecasting the impact of past and future events, transferring information to a distant or poorly connected location, changing the requirements for an operation according to resources available, or creating an independent course of action when system connectivity falls. These problems are transdisciplinary in nature, so decision makers in a variety of organizations face them. This research develops a framework for the use of distributed expert systems in support of time-sensitive hierarchical control systems. Attention is focused on determining ways to enhance the likelihood that a system will remain functional during a crisis in which one or more of the system nodes fail. Options in the use of distributed expert systems for this purpose are developed following investigation of related research in the areas of cooperative and distributed systems. A prototype under development of a generic system model called DES (distributed expert systems) is described. DES is a trimular form of support structure, where a trimule is defined to be a combination of a human decision agent, a component system model and an expert system. This concept is an extension of the domular theory of Tenney and Sandell (1981).

  16. Hierarchical Control Strategy for the Cooperative Braking System of Electric Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Jiankun Peng; Hongwen He; Wei Liu; Hongqiang Guo

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a hierarchical control strategy for cooperative braking system of an electric vehicle with separated driven axles. Two layers are defined: the top layer is used to optimize the braking stability based on two sliding mode control strategies, namely, the interaxle control mode and signal-axle control strategies; the interaxle control strategy generates the ideal braking force distribution in general braking condition, and the single-axle control strategy can ensure braking s...

  17. Verification and Validation of Neural Networks for Aerospace Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackall, Dale; Nelson, Stacy; Schumann, Johann

    2002-01-01

    The Dryden Flight Research Center V&V working group and NASA Ames Research Center Automated Software Engineering (ASE) group collaborated to prepare this report. The purpose is to describe V&V processes and methods for certification of neural networks for aerospace applications, particularly adaptive flight control systems like Intelligent Flight Control Systems (IFCS) that use neural networks. This report is divided into the following two sections: Overview of Adaptive Systems and V&V Processes/Methods.

  18. Cortical tracking of hierarchical linguistic structures in connected speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Nai; Melloni, Lucia; Zhang, Hang; Tian, Xing; Poeppel, David

    2016-01-01

    The most critical attribute of human language is its unbounded combinatorial nature: smaller elements can be combined into larger structures on the basis of a grammatical system, resulting in a hierarchy of linguistic units, such as words, phrases and sentences. Mentally parsing and representing such structures, however, poses challenges for speech comprehension. In speech, hierarchical linguistic structures do not have boundaries that are clearly defined by acoustic cues and must therefore be internally and incrementally constructed during comprehension. We found that, during listening to connected speech, cortical activity of different timescales concurrently tracked the time course of abstract linguistic structures at different hierarchical levels, such as words, phrases and sentences. Notably, the neural tracking of hierarchical linguistic structures was dissociated from the encoding of acoustic cues and from the predictability of incoming words. Our results indicate that a hierarchy of neural processing timescales underlies grammar-based internal construction of hierarchical linguistic structure.

  19. Biologically inspired neural network controller for an infrared tracking system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frigo, Janette R.; Tilden, Mark W.

    1999-01-01

    Many biological system exhibit capable, adaptive behavior with a minimal nervous system such as those found in lower invertebrates. Scientists and engineers are studying biological system because these models may have real-world applications. the analog neural controller, herein, is loosely modeled after minimal biological nervous systems. The system consists of the controller and pair of sensor mounted on an actuator. It is implemented with an electrical oscillator network, two IR sensor and a dc motor, used as an actuator for the system. The system tracks an IR target source. The pointing accuracy of this neural network controller is estimated through experimental measurements and a numerical model of the system.

  20. Hierarchical Control Strategy for the Cooperative Braking System of Electric Vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jiankun; He, Hongwen; Liu, Wei; Guo, Hongqiang

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a hierarchical control strategy for cooperative braking system of an electric vehicle with separated driven axles. Two layers are defined: the top layer is used to optimize the braking stability based on two sliding mode control strategies, namely, the interaxle control mode and signal-axle control strategies; the interaxle control strategy generates the ideal braking force distribution in general braking condition, and the single-axle control strategy can ensure braking safety in emergency braking condition; the bottom layer is used to maximize the regenerative braking energy recovery efficiency with a reallocated braking torque strategy; the reallocated braking torque strategy can recovery braking energy as much as possible in the premise of meeting battery charging power. The simulation results show that the proposed hierarchical control strategy is reasonable and can adapt to different typical road surfaces and load cases; the vehicle braking stability and safety can be guaranteed; furthermore, the regenerative braking energy recovery efficiency can be improved.

  1. Scheduling method based on virtual flattened architecture for Hierarchical system-on-chip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Dong; ZHANG Jin-yi; YANG Xiao-dong; YANG Yi

    2009-01-01

    As the technology of IP-core-reused has been widely used, a lot of intellectual property (IP) cores have been embedded in different layers of system-on-chip (SOC). Although the cycles of development and overhead are reduced by this method, it is a challenge to the SOC test. This paper proposes a scheduling method based on the virtual flattened architecture for hierarchical SOC, which breaks the hierarchical architecture to the virtual flattened one. Moreover, this method has more advantages compared with the traditional one, which tests the parent cores and child cores separately. Finally, the method is verified by the ITC'02 benchmark, and gives good results that reduce the test time and overhead effectively.

  2. Interval standard neural network models for nonlinear systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A neural-network-based robust control design is suggested for control of a class of nonlinear systems. The design approach employs a neural network, whose activation functions satisfy the sector conditions, to approximate the nonlinear system. To improve the approximation performance and to account for the parameter perturbations during operation, a novel neural network model termed standard neural network model (SNNM) is proposed. If the uncertainty is bounded, the SNNM is called an interval SNNM (ISNNM). A state-feedback control law is designed for the nonlinear system modelled by an ISNNM such that the closed-loop system is globally, robustly, and asymptotically stable. The control design equations are shown to be a set of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs) that can be easily solved by available convex optimization algorithms. An example is given to illustrate the control design procedure, and the performance of the proposed approach is compared with that of a related method reported in literature.

  3. Dopamine system: Manager of neural pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon eHong

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available There are a growing number of roles that midbrain dopamine (DA neurons assume, such as, reward, aversion, alerting and vigor. Here I propose a theory that may be able to explain why the suggested functions of DA came about. It has been suggested that largely parallel cortico-basal ganglia-thalamo-cortico loops exist to control different aspects of behavior. I propose that (1 the midbrain DA system is organized in a similar manner, with different groups of DA neurons corresponding to these parallel neural pathways (NPs. The DA system can be viewed as the manager of these parallel NPs in that it recruits and activates only the task-relevant NPs when they are needed. It is likely that the functions of those NPs that have been consistently activated by the corresponding DA groups are facilitated. I also propose that (2 there are two levels of DA roles: the How and What roles. The How role is encoded in tonic and phasic DA neuron firing patterns and gives a directive to its target NP: how vigorously its function needs to be carried out. The tonic DA firing is to maintain a certain level of DA in the target NPs to support their expected behavioral and mental functions; it is only when a sudden unexpected boost or suppression of activity is required by the relevant target NP that DA neurons in the corresponding NP act in a phasic manner. The What role is the implementational aspect of the role of DA in the target NP, such as binding to D1 receptors to boost working memory. This What aspect of DA explains why DA seems to assume different functions depending on the region of the brain in which it is involved. In terms of the role of the lateral habenula (LHb, the LHb is expected to suppress maladaptive behaviors and mental processes by controlling the DA system. The demand-based smart management by the DA system may have given animals an edge in evolution with adaptive behaviors and a better survival rate in resource-scarce situations.

  4. Hierarchical graphs for better annotations of rule-based models of biochemical systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Bin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hlavacek, William [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    In the graph-based formalism of the BioNetGen language (BNGL), graphs are used to represent molecules, with a colored vertex representing a component of a molecule, a vertex label representing the internal state of a component, and an edge representing a bond between components. Components of a molecule share the same color. Furthermore, graph-rewriting rules are used to represent molecular interactions, with a rule that specifies addition (removal) of an edge representing a class of association (dissociation) reactions and with a rule that specifies a change of vertex label representing a class of reactions that affect the internal state of a molecular component. A set of rules comprises a mathematical/computational model that can be used to determine, through various means, the system-level dynamics of molecular interactions in a biochemical system. Here, for purposes of model annotation, we propose an extension of BNGL that involves the use of hierarchical graphs to represent (1) relationships among components and subcomponents of molecules and (2) relationships among classes of reactions defined by rules. We illustrate how hierarchical graphs can be used to naturally document the structural organization of the functional components and subcomponents of two proteins: the protein tyrosine kinase Lck and the T cell receptor (TCR)/CD3 complex. Likewise, we illustrate how hierarchical graphs can be used to document the similarity of two related rules for kinase-catalyzed phosphorylation of a protein substrate. We also demonstrate how a hierarchical graph representing a protein can be encoded in an XML-based format.

  5. Hierarchical Modeling and Robust Synthesis for the Preliminary Design of Large Scale Complex Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Patrick N.

    1997-01-01

    Large-scale complex systems are characterized by multiple interacting subsystems and the analysis of multiple disciplines. The design and development of such systems inevitably requires the resolution of multiple conflicting objectives. The size of complex systems, however, prohibits the development of comprehensive system models, and thus these systems must be partitioned into their constituent parts. Because simultaneous solution of individual subsystem models is often not manageable iteration is inevitable and often excessive. In this dissertation these issues are addressed through the development of a method for hierarchical robust preliminary design exploration to facilitate concurrent system and subsystem design exploration, for the concurrent generation of robust system and subsystem specifications for the preliminary design of multi-level, multi-objective, large-scale complex systems. This method is developed through the integration and expansion of current design techniques: Hierarchical partitioning and modeling techniques for partitioning large-scale complex systems into more tractable parts, and allowing integration of subproblems for system synthesis; Statistical experimentation and approximation techniques for increasing both the efficiency and the comprehensiveness of preliminary design exploration; and Noise modeling techniques for implementing robust preliminary design when approximate models are employed. Hierarchical partitioning and modeling techniques including intermediate responses, linking variables, and compatibility constraints are incorporated within a hierarchical compromise decision support problem formulation for synthesizing subproblem solutions for a partitioned system. Experimentation and approximation techniques are employed for concurrent investigations and modeling of partitioned subproblems. A modified composite experiment is introduced for fitting better predictive models across the ranges of the factors, and an approach for

  6. Vein matching using artificial neural network in vein authentication systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noori Hoshyar, Azadeh; Sulaiman, Riza

    2011-10-01

    Personal identification technology as security systems is developing rapidly. Traditional authentication modes like key; password; card are not safe enough because they could be stolen or easily forgotten. Biometric as developed technology has been applied to a wide range of systems. According to different researchers, vein biometric is a good candidate among other biometric traits such as fingerprint, hand geometry, voice, DNA and etc for authentication systems. Vein authentication systems can be designed by different methodologies. All the methodologies consist of matching stage which is too important for final verification of the system. Neural Network is an effective methodology for matching and recognizing individuals in authentication systems. Therefore, this paper explains and implements the Neural Network methodology for finger vein authentication system. Neural Network is trained in Matlab to match the vein features of authentication system. The Network simulation shows the quality of matching as 95% which is a good performance for authentication system matching.

  7. Spiking Neural P Systems with Neuron Division and Budding

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Linqiang; Paun, Gheorghe; Pérez Jiménez, Mario de Jesús

    2009-01-01

    In order to enhance the e±ciency of spiking neural P systems, we introduce the features of neuron division and neuron budding, which are processes inspired by neural stem cell division. As expected (as it is the case for P systems with active membranes), in this way we get the possibility to solve computationally hard problems in polynomial time. We illustrate this possibility with SAT problem.

  8. A debugging system for azimuthally acoustic logging tools based on modular and hierarchical design ideas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, K.; Ju, X. D.; Lu, J. Q.; Men, B. Y.

    2016-08-01

    On the basis of modular and hierarchical design ideas, this study presents a debugging system for an azimuthally sensitive acoustic bond tool (AABT). The debugging system includes three parts: a personal computer (PC), embedded front-end machine and function expansion boards. Modular and hierarchical design ideas are conducted in all design and debug processes. The PC communicates with the front-end machine via the Internet, and the front-end machine and function expansion boards connect each other by the extended parallel bus. In this method, the three parts of the debugging system form stable and high-speed data communication. This study not only introduces the system-level debugging and sub-system level debugging of the tool but also the debugging of the analogue signal processing board, which is important and greatly used in logging tools. Experiments illustrate that the debugging system can greatly improve AABT verification and calibration efficiency and that, board-level debugging can examine and improve analogue signal processing boards. The design thinking is clear and the design structure is reasonable, thus making it easy to extend and upgrade the debugging system.

  9. Indoor Positioning System Using Artificial Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Mehmood

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Location knowledge in indoor environment using Indoor Positioning Systems (IPS has become very useful and popular in recent years. A number of Location Based Services (LBS have been developed, which are based on IPS, these LBS include asset tracking, inventory management and security based applications. Many next-generation LBS applications such as social networking, local search, advertising and geo-tagging are expected to be used in urban and indoor environments where GNSS either underperforms in terms of fix times or accuracy, or fails altogether. To develop an IPS based on Wi-Fi Received Signal Strength (RSS using Artificial Neural Networks (ANN, which should use already available Wi-Fi infrastructure in a heterogeneous environment. Approach: This study discussed the use of ANN for IPS using RSS in an indoor wireless facility which has varying human activity, material of walls and type of Wireless Access Points (WAP, hence simulating a heterogeneous environment. The proposed system used backpropogation method with 4 input neurons, 2 output neurons and 4 hidden layers. The model was trained with three different types of training data. The accuracy assessment for each training data was performed by computing the distance error and average distance error. Results: The results of the experiments showed that using ANN with the proposed method of collecting training data, maximum accuracy of 0.7 m can be achieved, with 30% of the distance error less than 1 m and 60% of the distance error within the range of 1-2 m. Whereas maximum accuracy of 1.01 can be achieved with the commonly used method of collecting training data. The proposed model also showed 67% more accuracy as compared to a probabilistic model. Conclusion: The results indicated that ANN based IPS can provide accuracy and precision which is quite adequate for the development of indoor LBS while using the already available Wi-Fi infrastructure, also the proposed method

  10. Hierarchical analytical and simulation modelling of human-machine systems with interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braginsky, M. Ya; Tarakanov, D. V.; Tsapko, S. G.; Tsapko, I. V.; Baglaeva, E. A.

    2017-01-01

    The article considers the principles of building the analytical and simulation model of the human operator and the industrial control system hardware and software. E-networks as the extension of Petri nets are used as the mathematical apparatus. This approach allows simulating complex parallel distributed processes in human-machine systems. The structural and hierarchical approach is used as the building method for the mathematical model of the human operator. The upper level of the human operator is represented by the logical dynamic model of decision making based on E-networks. The lower level reflects psychophysiological characteristics of the human-operator.

  11. Hierarchical Least Squares Identification and Its Convergence for Large Scale Multivariable Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁锋; 丁韬

    2002-01-01

    The recursive least squares identification algorithm (RLS) for large scale multivariable systems requires a large amount of calculations, therefore, the RLS algorithm is difficult to implement on a computer. The computational load of estimation algorithms can be reduced using the hierarchical least squares identification algorithm (HLS) for large scale multivariable systems. The convergence analysis using the Martingale Convergence Theorem indicates that the parameter estimation error (PEE) given by the HLS algorithm is uniformly bounded without a persistent excitation signal and that the PEE consistently converges to zero for the persistent excitation condition. The HLS algorithm has a much lower computational load than the RLS algorithm.

  12. Eccentricity generation in hierarchical triple systems with coplanar and initially circular orbits

    CERN Document Server

    Georgakarakos, Nikolaos

    2014-01-01

    We develop a technique for estimating the inner eccentricity in hierarchical triple systems with well separated components. We investigate systems with initially circular and coplanar orbits and comparable masses. The technique is based on an expansion of the rate of change of the Runge-Lenz vector for calculating short period terms by using first order perturbation theory. The combination of the short period terms with terms arising from octupole level secular theory, results in the derivation of a rather simple formula for the eccentricity of the inner binary. The theoretical results are tested against numerical integrations of the full equations of motion. Comparison is also made with other results on the subject.

  13. Eccentricity generation in hierarchical triple systems with non-coplanar and initially circular orbits

    CERN Document Server

    Georgakarakos, Nikolaos

    2014-01-01

    In a previous paper, we developed a technique for estimating the inner eccentricity in coplanar hierarchical triple systems on initially circular orbits, with comparable masses and with well separated components, based on an expansion of the rate of change of the Runge-Lenz vector. Now, the same technique is extended to non-coplanar orbits. However, it can only be applied to systems with ${I_{0}140.77^{\\circ}}$, where ${I}$ is the inclination of the two orbits, because of complications arising from the so-called 'Kozai effect'. The theoretical model is tested against results from numerical integrations of the full equations of motion.

  14. Implementations of learning control systems using neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartori, Michael A.; Antsaklis, Panos J.

    1992-01-01

    The systematic storage in neural networks of prior information to be used in the design of various control subsystems is investigated. Assuming that the prior information is available in a certain form (namely, input/output data points and specifications between the data points), a particular neural network and a corresponding parameter design method are introduced. The proposed neural network addresses the issue of effectively using prior information in the areas of dynamical system (plant and controller) modeling, fault detection and identification, information extraction, and control law scheduling.

  15. HIERARCHICAL DESIGN BASED INTRUSION DETECTION SYSTEM FOR WIRELESS AD HOC SENSOR NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Saiful Islam Mamun

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, wireless ad hoc sensor network becomes popular both in civil and military jobs.However, security is one of the significant challenges for sensor network because of their deploymentin open and unprotected environment. As cryptographic mechanism is not enough to protect sensornetwork from external attacks, intrusion detection system needs to be introduced. Though intrusionprevention mechanism is one of the major and efficient methods against attacks, but there might besome attacks for which prevention method is not known. Besides preventing the system from someknown attacks, intrusion detection system gather necessary information related to attack technique andhelp in the development of intrusion prevention system. In addition to reviewing the present attacksavailable in wireless sensor network this paper examines the current efforts to intrusion detectionsystem against wireless sensor network. In this paper we propose a hierarchical architectural designbased intrusion detection system that fits the current demands and restrictions of wireless ad hocsensor network. In this proposed intrusion detection system architecture we followed clusteringmechanism to build a four level hierarchical network which enhances network scalability to largegeographical area and use both anomaly and misuse detection techniques for intrusion detection. Weintroduce policy based detection mechanism as well as intrusion response together with GSM cellconcept for intrusion detection architecture.

  16. Risk Assessment for Mobile Systems Through a Multilayered Hierarchical Bayesian Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shancang; Tryfonas, Theo; Russell, Gordon; Andriotis, Panagiotis

    2016-08-01

    Mobile systems are facing a number of application vulnerabilities that can be combined together and utilized to penetrate systems with devastating impact. When assessing the overall security of a mobile system, it is important to assess the security risks posed by each mobile applications (apps), thus gaining a stronger understanding of any vulnerabilities present. This paper aims at developing a three-layer framework that assesses the potential risks which apps introduce within the Android mobile systems. A Bayesian risk graphical model is proposed to evaluate risk propagation in a layered risk architecture. By integrating static analysis, dynamic analysis, and behavior analysis in a hierarchical framework, the risks and their propagation through each layer are well modeled by the Bayesian risk graph, which can quantitatively analyze risks faced to both apps and mobile systems. The proposed hierarchical Bayesian risk graph model offers a novel way to investigate the security risks in mobile environment and enables users and administrators to evaluate the potential risks. This strategy allows to strengthen both app security as well as the security of the entire system.

  17. Control of Unknown Chaotic Systems Based on Neural Predictive Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Dong-Mei; WANG Zheng-Ou

    2003-01-01

    We introduce the predictive control into the control of chaotic system and propose a neural networkcontrol algorithm based on predictive control. The proposed control system stabilizes the chaotic motion in an unknownchaotic system onto the desired target trajectory. The proposed algorithm is simple and its convergence speed is muchhigher than existing similar algorithms. The control system can control hyperchaos. We analyze the stability of thecontrol system and prove the convergence property of the neural controller. The theoretic derivation and simulationsdemonstrate the effectiveness of the algorithm.

  18. Control of Unknown Chaotic Systems Based on Neural Predictive Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIDong-Mei; WANGZheng-Ou

    2003-01-01

    We introduce the predictive control into the control of chaotic system and propose a neural network control algorithm based on predictive control. The proposed control system stabilizes the chaotic motion in an unknown chaotic system onto the desired target trajectory. The proposed algorithm is simple and its convergence speed is much higher than existing similar algorithms. The control system can control hyperchaos. We analyze the stability of the control system and prove the convergence property of the neural controller. The theoretic derivation and simulations demonstrate the effectiveness of the algorithm.

  19. A survey on RBF Neural Network for Intrusion Detection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henali Sheth

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Network security is a hot burning issue nowadays. With the help of technology advancement intruders or hackers are adopting new methods to create different attacks in order to harm network security. Intrusion detection system (IDS is a kind of security software which inspects all incoming and outgoing network traffic and it will generate alerts if any attack or unusual behavior is found in a network. Various approaches are used for IDS such as data mining, neural network, genetic and statistical approach. Among this Neural Network is more suitable approach for IDS. This paper describes RBF neural network approach for Intrusion detection system. RBF is a feed forward and supervise technique of neural network.RBF approach has good classification ability but its performance depends on its parameters. Based on survey we find that RBF approach has some short comings. In order to overcome this we need to do proper optimization of RBF parameters.

  20. The Criticality Hypothesis in Neural Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimipanah, Yahya

    There is mounting evidence that neural networks of the cerebral cortex exhibit scale invariant dynamics. At the larger scale, fMRI recordings have shown evidence for spatiotemporal long range correlations. On the other hand, at the smaller scales this scale invariance is marked by the power law distribution of the size and duration of spontaneous bursts of activity, which are referred as neuronal avalanches. The existence of such avalanches has been confirmed by several studies in vitro and in vivo, among different species and across multiple scales, from spatial scale of MEG and EEG down to single cell resolution. This prevalent scale free nature of cortical activity suggests the hypothesis that the cortex resides at a critical state between two phases of order (short-lasting activity) and disorder (long-lasting activity). In addition, it has been shown, both theoretically and experimentally, that being at criticality brings about certain functional advantages for information processing. However, despite the plenty of evidence and plausibility of the neural criticality hypothesis, still very little is known on how the brain may leverage such criticality to facilitate neural coding. Moreover, the emergent functions that may arise from critical dynamics is poorly understood. In the first part of this thesis, we review several pieces of evidence for the neural criticality hypothesis at different scales, as well as some of the most popular theories of self-organized criticality (SOC). Thereafter, we will focus on the most prominent evidence from small scales, namely neuronal avalanches. We will explore the effect of adaptation and how it can maintain scale free dynamics even at the presence of external stimuli. Using calcium imaging we also experimentally demonstrate the existence of scale free activity at the cellular resolution in vivo. Moreover, by exploring the subsampling issue in neural data, we will find some fundamental constraints of the conventional methods

  1. The stability of tidal equilibrium for hierarchical star-planet-moon systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Fred C.; Bloch, Anthony M.

    2016-11-01

    Motivated by the current search for exomoons, this paper considers the stability of tidal equilibrium for hierarchical three-body systems containing a star, a planet, and a moon. In this treatment, the energy and angular momentum budgets include contributions from the planetary orbit, lunar orbit, stellar spin, planetary spin, and lunar spin. The goal is to determine the optimized energy state of the system subject to the constraint of constant angular momentum. Because of the lack of a closed form solution for the full three-body problem, however, we must use an approximate description of the orbits. We first consider the Keplerian limit and find that the critical energy states are saddle points, rather than minima, so that these hierarchical systems have no stable tidal equilibrium states. We then generalize the calculation so that the lunar orbit is described by a time-averaged version of the circular restricted three-body problem. In this latter case, the critical energy state is a shallow minimum, so that a tidal equilibrium state exists. In both cases, however, the lunar orbit for the critical point lies outside the boundary (roughly half the Hill radius) where (previous) numerical simulations indicate dynamical instability. These results suggest that star-planet-moon systems have no viable long-term stable states analogous to those found for two-body systems.

  2. Generalized Hill-Stability Criteria for Hierarchical Three-Body Systems at Arbitrary Inclinations

    CERN Document Server

    Grishin, Evgeni; Zenati, Yossef; Michaely, Erez

    2016-01-01

    A fundamental aspect of the three-body problem is the stability of triple systems. Most stability studies have focused on the co-planar three-body problem, deriving analytic criteria for the dynamical stability of such pro/retrograde systems. Numerical studies of inclined systems phenomenologically mapped their stability regions, but neither explain their physical origin, nor provided satisfactory fit for the dependence of stability on the inclination. Here we present a novel approach to study the stability of hierarchical three-body systems at arbitrary inclinations. This approach accounts not only for the instantaneous stability of such systems, but also for the secular stability and evolution through Lidov-Kozai cycles and evection. Thereby we are able to generalize the Hill-stability criteria to arbitrarily inclined triple systems, and explain the existence of quasi-stable regimes and characterize the inclination dependence of their stability. We complement the analytic treatment with an extensive numeric...

  3. Data Process of Diagnose Expert System based on Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shupeng Zhao

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Engine fault has a high rate in the car. Considering about the distinguishing feature of the engine, Engine Diagnosis Expert System was investigated based on Diagnosis Tree module, Fuzzy Neural Network module, and commix reasoning module. It was researched including Knowledge base and Reasoning machine, and so on. In Diagnosis Tree module, the origin problem was searched in right method. In which module distinguishing rate and low error and least cost was the aim. By means of synthesize judge and fuzzy relation reasoning to get fault origin from symptom, fuzzy synthesize reasoning diagnosis module was researched. Expert knowledge included failure symptom, engine system failure and engine part failure. In the system, Self-diagnosis method and general instruments method worked together, complex failure diagnosis became efficient. The system was intelligent, which was combined by fuzzy logic reasoning and the traditional neural network system. And it became more convenience for failure origin searching, because of utilizing the three methods. The system fuzzy neural networks were combined with fuzzy reasoning and traditional neural networks. Fuzzy neural network failure diagnosis module of system, as a important model was applied to engine diagnosis, with more advantages such as higher efficiency of searching and higher self-learning ability, which was compared with the traditional BP network

  4. Nonlinear system identification based on internal recurrent neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puscasu, Gheorghe; Codres, Bogdan; Stancu, Alexandru; Murariu, Gabriel

    2009-04-01

    A novel approach for nonlinear complex system identification based on internal recurrent neural networks (IRNN) is proposed in this paper. The computational complexity of neural identification can be greatly reduced if the whole system is decomposed into several subsystems. This approach employs internal state estimation when no measurements coming from the sensors are available for the system states. A modified backpropagation algorithm is introduced in order to train the IRNN for nonlinear system identification. The performance of the proposed design approach is proven on a car simulator case study.

  5. Representation of neural networks as Lotka-Volterra systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Yves; Louiès, Stéphane; Vandewalle, Joos; Brenig, Léon

    1999-03-01

    We study changes of coordinates that allow the representation of the ordinary differential equations describing continuous-time recurrent neural networks into differential equations describing predator-prey models—also called Lotka-Volterra systems. We transform the equations for the neural network first into quasi-monomial form, where we express the vector field of the dynamical system as a linear combination of products of powers of the variables. In practice, this transformation is possible only if the activation function is the hyperbolic tangent or the logistic sigmoïd. From this quasi-monomial form, we can directly transform the system further into Lotka-Volterra equations. The resulting Lotka-Volterra system is of higher dimension than the original system, but the behavior of its first variables is equivalent to the behavior of the original neural network.

  6. An Integrated Metric Based Hierarchical Routing Algorithm in Broadband Communication System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Chengge; HU Jiajun; Milton Chang

    2001-01-01

    We give an integrated metric basedhierarchical routing algorithm - FMRSF (FunctionFi(.) minimum routing selected first) algorithm inbroadband communication system in this paper. Withthe authors' analysis strategy, this paper gives a rout-ing solution for hierarchical communication system,and the solution is suited to both ATM network andIP network. Due to the highMevel logic network map-ping in a hierarchical communication system, a largecommunication network can be described as a moresimple logic network on a high level. But, it is dif-ficult to evaluate the QoS parameters of the relativefactors of a logic network (For example: the time de-lay and the bandwidth of logic nodes or logic links).We develop our strategy with FMRSF - algorithm fordifferent routing path, and select the reasonable pathfor one communication session. After designing an in-tegrated metric function describing the QoS metrics ofthe relative factors of a logic network on the high lev-els in a broadband communication system, we provethat the new routing algorithm - FMRSF algorithm ismore simple and applicable, compared with the globaloptimum algorithm.

  7. Data Mining and Neural Network Techniques in Case Based System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This paper first puts forward a case-based system framework basedon data mining techniques. Then the paper examines the possibility of using neural n etworks as a method of retrieval in such a case-based system. In this system we propose data mining algorithms to discover case knowledge and other algorithms.

  8. Human performance in monitoring and controlling hierarchical large-scale systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henneman, R.L.; Rouse, W.B.

    1984-03-01

    Human performance in monitoring and controlling activities in a hierarchical large-scale network, such as a communications system, is considered. A scenario is described that is used in an experiment to examine three factors affecting humans functioning as network supervisor: cluster size (number of elements per display page), number of levels of pages in the hierarchy, and failure rate per element. It is indicated by the results that increasing cluster size improves performance, increasing number of levels degrades performance, and failure rate affects only subjects strategies.

  9. Hierarchical parameter estimation of DFIG and drive train system in a wind turbine generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xueping; Ju, Ping; Wu, Feng; Jin, Yuqing

    2017-09-01

    A new hierarchical parameter estimation method for doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) and drive train system in a wind turbine generator (WTG) is proposed in this paper. Firstly, the parameters of the DFIG and the drive train are estimated locally under different types of disturbances. Secondly, a coordination estimation method is further applied to identify the parameters of the DFIG and the drive train simultaneously with the purpose of attaining the global optimal estimation results. The main benefit of the proposed scheme is the improved estimation accuracy. Estimation results confirm the applicability of the proposed estimation technique.

  10. HIERARCHICAL METHODOLOGY FOR MODELING HYDROGEN STORAGE SYSTEMS PART II: DETAILED MODELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, B; Donald L. Anton, D

    2008-12-22

    There is significant interest in hydrogen storage systems that employ a media which either adsorbs, absorbs or reacts with hydrogen in a nearly reversible manner. In any media based storage system the rate of hydrogen uptake and the system capacity is governed by a number of complex, coupled physical processes. To design and evaluate such storage systems, a comprehensive methodology was developed, consisting of a hierarchical sequence of models that range from scoping calculations to numerical models that couple reaction kinetics with heat and mass transfer for both the hydrogen charging and discharging phases. The scoping models were presented in Part I [1] of this two part series of papers. This paper describes a detailed numerical model that integrates the phenomena occurring when hydrogen is charged and discharged. A specific application of the methodology is made to a system using NaAlH{sub 4} as the storage media.

  11. Thermal photovoltaic solar integrated system analysis using neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashhab, S. [Hashemite Univ., Zarqa (Jordan). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2007-07-01

    The energy demand in Jordan is primarily met by petroleum products. As such, the development of renewable energy systems is quite attractive. In particular, solar energy is a promising renewable energy source in Jordan and has been used for food canning, paper production, air-conditioning and sterilization. Artificial neural networks (ANNs) have received significant attention due to their capabilities in forecasting, modelling of complex nonlinear systems and control. ANNs have been used for forecasting solar energy. This paper presented a study that examined a thermal photovoltaic solar integrated system that was built in Jordan. Historical input-output system data that was collected experimentally was used to train an ANN that predicted the collector, PV module, pump and total efficiencies. The model predicted the efficiencies well and can therefore be utilized to find the operating conditions of the system that will produce the maximum system efficiencies. The paper provided a description of the photovoltaic solar system including equations for PV module efficiency; pump efficiency; and total efficiency. The paper also presented data relevant to the system performance and neural networks. The results of a neural net model were also presented based on the thermal PV solar integrated system data that was collected. It was concluded that the neural net model of the thermal photovoltaic solar integrated system set the background for achieving the best system performance. 10 refs., 6 figs.

  12. System Identification, Prediction, Simulation and Control with Neural Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, O.

    1997-01-01

    The intention of this paper is to make a systematic examination of the possibilities of applying neural networks in those technical areas, which are familiar to a control engineer. In other words, the potential of neural networks in control applications is given higher priority than a detailed...... study of the networks themselves. With this end in view the following restrictions have been made: 1) Amongst numerous neural network structures, only the Multi Layer Perceptron (a feed-forward network) is applied. 2) Amongst numerous training algorithms, only the Recursive Prediction Error Method using...... a Gauss-Newton search direction is applied. 3) Amongst numerous model types, often met in control applications, only the Non-linear ARMAX (NARMAX) model, representing input/output description, is examined. A simulated example confirms that a neural network has the potential to perform excellent System...

  13. OCT detection of neural activity in American cockroach nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorczyńska, Iwona; Wyszkowska, Joanna; Bukowska, Danuta; Ruminski, Daniel; Karnowski, Karol; Stankiewicz, Maria; Wojtkowski, Maciej

    2013-03-01

    We show results of a project which focuses on detection of activity in neural tissue with Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) methods. Experiments were performed in neural cords dissected from the American cockroach (Periplaneta americana L.). Functional OCT imaging was performed with ultrahigh resolution spectral / Fourier domain OCT system (axial resolution 2.5 μm). Electrical stimulation (voltage pulses) was applied to the sensory cercal nerve of the neural cord. Optical detection of functional activation of the sample was performed in the connective between the terminal abdominal ganglion and the fifth abdominal ganglion. Functional OCT data were collected over time with the OCT beam illuminating selected single point in the connectives (i.e. OCT M-scans were acquired). Phase changes of the OCT signal were analyzed to visualize occurrence of activation in the neural cord. Electrophysiology recordings (microelectrode method) were also performed as a reference method to demonstrate electrical response of the sample to stimulation.

  14. System partitioning on MCM using a new neural network model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡卫明; 徐俊华; 严晓浪; 何志钧

    1999-01-01

    A new self-organizing neural network model is presented, which can get rid of some fatal defects facing the Kohonen self-organizing neural network, known as the slow training speed, difficulty in designing neighboring zone, and disability to deal with area constraints directly. Based on the new neural network, a new approach for performance-driven system partitioning on MCM is presented. In the algorithm, the total routing cost between the chips and the circle time are both minimized, while satisfying area and timing constraints. The neural network has a reasonable structure and its training speed is high. The algorithm is able to deal with the large scale circuit partitioning, and has total optimization effect. The algorithm is programmed with Visual C + + language, and experimental result shows that it is an effective method.

  15. The Stability of Tidal Equilibrium for Hierarchical Star-Planet-Moon Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, Fred C

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by the current search for exomoons, this paper considers the stability of tidal equilibrium for hierarchical three-body systems containing a star, a planet, and a moon. In this treatment, the energy and angular momentum budgets include contributions from the planetary orbit, lunar orbit, stellar spin, planetary spin, and lunar spin. The goal is to determine the optimized energy state of the system subject to the constraint of constant angular momentum. Due to the lack of a closed form solution for the full three-body problem, however, we must use use an approximate description of the orbits. We first consider the Keplerian limit and find that the critical energy states are saddle points, rather than minima, so that these hierarchical systems have no stable tidal equilibrium states. We then generalize the calculation so that the lunar orbit is described by a time-averaged version of the circular restricted three-body problem. In this latter case, the critical energy state is a shallow minimum, so tha...

  16. The impact of hierarchical memory systems on linear algebra algorithm design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallivan, K.; Jalby, W.; Meier, U.; Sameh, A.

    1987-09-14

    Performing an extremely detailed performance optimization analysis is counterproductive when the concern is performance behavior on a class of architecture, since general trends are obscured by the overwhelming number of machine-specific considerations required. Instead, in this paper, a methodology is used which identifies the effects of a hierarchical memory system on the performance of linear algebra algorithms on multivector processors; provides a means of producing a set of algorithm parameters, i.e., blocksizes, as functions of system parameters which yield near-optimal performance; and provides guidelines for algorithm designers which reduce the influence of the hierarchical memory system on algorithm performance to negligible levels and thereby allow them to concentrate on machine-specific optimizations. The remainder of this paper comprises five major discussions. First, the methodology and the attendant architectural model are discussed. Next, an analysis of the basic BLAS3 matrix-matrix primitive is presented. This is followed by a discussion of three block algorithms: a block LU decomposition, a block LDL/sup T/ decomposition and a block Gram-Schmidt algorithm. 22 refs., 9 figs.

  17. Chirality as an Instrument of Stratification of Hierarchical Systems in Animate and Inanimate Nature

    CERN Document Server

    Tverdislov, Vsevolod A

    2012-01-01

    The article seeks to formulate a synergetic law that is posited to be of common physicochemical and biological nature: an evolving system, possessing free energy and elements with chiral asymmetry may change the type of symmetry inside one hierarchical level, thereby increasing its "complexity", but preserving the sign of predominant chirality ("right"-D or "left"-L twist). The same system has a tendency to spontaneous formation of a succession of hierarchical levels with alternating chirality sign of de-novo formed structures and with an increase of the structures' relative scale. In the living systems the hierarchy principle of conjugated levels of macromolecular structures, starting with the "lower" level of asymmetrical carbon, serves as an anti-entropic factor and also as the structural basis of the "selected mechanical degrees of freedom" in the molecular machines. Observations present evidence of regular alternations of the chirality sign D-L-D-L and L-D-L-D for DNA and protein structures, respectively...

  18. FPGA implementation of a pyramidal Weightless Neural Networks learning system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Alawi, Raida

    2003-08-01

    A hardware architecture of a Probabilistic Logic Neuron (PLN) is presented. The suggested model facilitates the on-chip learning of pyramidal Weightless Neural Networks using a modified probabilistic search reward/penalty training algorithm. The penalization strategy of the training algorithm depends on a predefined parameter called the probabilistic search interval. A complete Weightless Neural Network (WNN) learning system is modeled and implemented on Xilinx XC4005E Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), allowing its architecture to be configurable. Various experiments have been conducted to examine the feasibility and performance of the WNN learning system. Results show that the system has a fast convergence rate and good generalization ability.

  19. NNSYSID - toolbox for system identification with neural networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norgaard, M.; Ravn, Ole; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2002-01-01

    The NNSYSID toolset for System Identification has been developed as an add on to MATLAB(R). The NNSYSID toolbox has been designed to assist identification of nonlinear dynamic systems. It contains a number of nonlinear model structures based on neural networks, effective training algorithms...

  20. NNSYSID - toolbox for system identification with neural networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norgaard, M.; Ravn, Ole; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2002-01-01

    The NNSYSID toolset for System Identification has been developed as an add on to MATLAB(R). The NNSYSID toolbox has been designed to assist identification of nonlinear dynamic systems. It contains a number of nonlinear model structures based on neural networks, effective training algorithms...

  1. Evaluation of hierarchical structured representations for QSPR studies of small molecules and polymers by recursive neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertinetto, Carlo; Duce, Celia; Micheli, Alessio; Solaro, Roberto; Starita, Antonina; Tiné, Maria Rosaria

    2009-04-01

    This paper reports some recent results from the empirical evaluation of different types of structured molecular representations used in QSPR analysis through a recursive neural network (RNN) model, which allows for their direct use without the need for measuring or computing molecular descriptors. This RNN methodology has been applied to the prediction of the properties of small molecules and polymers. In particular, three different descriptions of cyclic moieties, namely group, template and cyclebreak have been proposed. The effectiveness of the proposed method in dealing with different representations of chemical structures, either specifically designed or of more general use, has been demonstrated by its application to data sets encompassing various types of cyclic structures. For each class of experiments a test set with data that were not used for the development of the model was used for validation, and the comparisons have been based on the test results. The reported results highlight the flexibility of the RNN in directly treating different classes of structured input data without using input descriptors.

  2. Social brains and divides: the interplay between social dominance orientation and the neural sensitivity to hierarchical ranks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligneul, Romain; Girard, Romuald; Dreher, Jean-Claude

    2017-01-01

    Ubiquitous in the animal kingdom, dominance hierarchies emerge through social competition and underlie the control of resources. Confronting the disruptive influence of socioeconomic inequalities, human populations tend to split into groups who legitimize existing dominance hierarchies and groups who condemn them. Here, we hypothesized that variations in the neural sensitivity to dominance ranks partly underpins this ideological split, as measured by the social dominance orientation scale (SDO). Following a competitive task used to induce dominance representations about three opponents (superior, equal and inferior), subjects were passively presented the faces of these opponents while undergoing fMRI. Analyses demonstrated that two key brain regions, the superior temporal sulcus (STS) and anterior dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (aDLPFC) were sensitive to social ranks. Confirming our hypothesis, the sensitivity of the right aDLPFC to social ranks correlated positively with the SDO scale, which is known to predict behaviors and political attitudes associated with the legitimization of dominance hierarchies. This study opens new perspectives for the neurosciences of political orientation and social dominance. PMID:28378784

  3. Design of Energy-efficient Hierarchical Scheduling for Integrated Modular Avionics Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Tianran; XIONG Huagang

    2012-01-01

    Recently the integrated modular avionics (IMA) architecture which introduces the concept of resource partitions becomes popular as an alternative to the traditional federated architecture.This study investigates the problem of designing hierarchical scheduling for IMA systems.The proposed scheduler model enables strong temporal partitioning,so that multiple hard real-time applications can be easily integrated into an uniprocessor platform.This paper derives the mathematic relationships among partition cycle,partition capacity and schedulability under the real-time condition,and then proposes an algorithm for optimizing partition parameters.Real-time tasks with arbitrary deadlines are considered for generality.To further improve the basic algorithm and reduce the energy consumption for embedded systems in aircraft,a power optimization approach is also proposed by exploiting the slack time.Experimental results show that the designed system can guarantee the hard real-time requirement and reduce the power consumption by at least 14%.

  4. Generic-type hierarchical multi digital signal processor system for hard-field tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Castillo, Sergio; Ozanyan, Krikor B

    2007-05-01

    This article introduces the design and implementation of a hierarchical multi digital signal processor system aimed to perform parallel multichannel measurements and data processing of the type widely used in hard-field tomography. Details are presented of a complete tomography system with modular and expandable architecture, capable of accommodating a variety of data processing modalities, configured by software. The configuration of the acquisition and processing circuits and the management of the data flow allow a data frame rate of up to 250 kHz. Results of a case study, guided path tomography for temperature mapping, are shown as a direct demonstration of the system's capabilities. Digital lock-in detection is employed for data processing to extract the information from ac measurements of the temperature-induced resistance changes in an array of 32 noninteracting transducers, which is further exported for visualization.

  5. Generic-type hierarchical multi digital signal processor system for hard-field tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Castillo, Sergio; Ozanyan, Krikor B.

    2007-05-01

    This article introduces the design and implementation of a hierarchical multi digital signal processor system aimed to perform parallel multichannel measurements and data processing of the type widely used in hard-field tomography. Details are presented of a complete tomography system with modular and expandable architecture, capable of accommodating a variety of data processing modalities, configured by software. The configuration of the acquisition and processing circuits and the management of the data flow allow a data frame rate of up to 250kHz. Results of a case study, guided path tomography for temperature mapping, are shown as a direct demonstration of the system's capabilities. Digital lock-in detection is employed for data processing to extract the information from ac measurements of the temperature-induced resistance changes in an array of 32 noninteracting transducers, which is further exported for visualization.

  6. Neural Network Predictive Control Based Power System Stabilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mohamed Yousef

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the power system stabilizer based on neural predictive control for improving power system dynamic performance over a wide range of operating conditions. In this study a design and application of the Neural Network Model Predictive Controller (NN-MPC on a simple power system composed of a synchronous generator connected to an infinite bus through a transmission line is proposed. The synchronous machine is represented in detail, taking into account the effect of the machine saliency and the damper winding. Neural network model predictive control combines reliable prediction of neural network model with excellent performance of model predictive control using nonlinear Levenberg-Marquardt optimization. This control system is used the rotor speed deviation as a feedback signal. Furthermore, the using performance system of the proposed controller is compared with the system performance using conventional one (PID controller through simulation studies. Digital simulation has been carried out in order to validate the effectiveness proposed NN-MPC power system stabilizer for achieving excellent performance. The results demonstrate that the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed controller in terms of fast response and small settling time.

  7. Classical Conditioning with Pulsed Integrated Neural Networks: Circuits and System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehmann, Torsten

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we investigate on-chip learning for pulsed, integrated neural networks. We discuss the implementational problems the technology imposes on learning systems and we find that abiologically inspired approach using simple circuit structures is most likely to bring success. We develop...... a suitable learning algorithm -- a continuous-time version of a temporal differential Hebbian learning algorithm for pulsed neural systems with non-linear synapses -- as well as circuits for the electronic implementation. Measurements from an experimental CMOS chip are presented. Finally, we use our test...

  8. FUZZY NEURAL NETWORK FOR MACHINE PARTS RECOGNITION SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luo Xiaobin; Yin Guofu; Chen Ke; Hu Xiaobing; Luo Yang

    2003-01-01

    The primary purpose is to develop a robust adaptive machine parts recognition system. A fuzzy neural network classifier is proposed for machine parts classifier. It is an efficient modeling method. Through learning, it can approach a random nonlinear function. A fuzzy neural network classifier is presented based on fuzzy mapping model. It is used for machine parts classification. The experimental system of machine parts classification is introduced. A robust least square back-propagation (RLSBP) training algorithm which combines robust least square (RLS) with back-propagation (BP) algorithm is put forward. Simulation and experimental results show that the learning property of RLSBP is superior to BP.

  9. Adaptive Synchronization of Memristor-based Chaotic Neural Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofang Hu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Chaotic neural networks consisting of a great number of chaotic neurons are able to reproduce the rich dynamics observed in biological nervous systems. In recent years, the memristor has attracted much interest in the efficient implementation of artificial synapses and neurons. This work addresses adaptive synchronization of a class of memristor-based neural chaotic systems using a novel adaptive backstepping approach. A systematic design procedure is presented. Simulation results have demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed adaptive synchronization method and its potential in practical application of memristive chaotic oscillators in secure communication.

  10. Reliability Modeling of Microelectromechanical Systems Using Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera. J. Sebastian

    2000-01-01

    Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) are a broad and rapidly expanding field that is currently receiving a great deal of attention because of the potential to significantly improve the ability to sense, analyze, and control a variety of processes, such as heating and ventilation systems, automobiles, medicine, aeronautical flight, military surveillance, weather forecasting, and space exploration. MEMS are very small and are a blend of electrical and mechanical components, with electrical and mechanical systems on one chip. This research establishes reliability estimation and prediction for MEMS devices at the conceptual design phase using neural networks. At the conceptual design phase, before devices are built and tested, traditional methods of quantifying reliability are inadequate because the device is not in existence and cannot be tested to establish the reliability distributions. A novel approach using neural networks is created to predict the overall reliability of a MEMS device based on its components and each component's attributes. The methodology begins with collecting attribute data (fabrication process, physical specifications, operating environment, property characteristics, packaging, etc.) and reliability data for many types of microengines. The data are partitioned into training data (the majority) and validation data (the remainder). A neural network is applied to the training data (both attribute and reliability); the attributes become the system inputs and reliability data (cycles to failure), the system output. After the neural network is trained with sufficient data. the validation data are used to verify the neural networks provided accurate reliability estimates. Now, the reliability of a new proposed MEMS device can be estimated by using the appropriate trained neural networks developed in this work.

  11. Optimizing Blocking and Nonblocking Reduction Operations for Multicore Systems: Hierarchical Design and Implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorentla Venkata, Manjunath [ORNL; Shamis, Pavel [ORNL; Graham, Richard L [ORNL; Ladd, Joshua S [ORNL; Sampath, Rahul S [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Many scientific simulations, using the Message Passing Interface (MPI) programming model, are sensitive to the performance and scalability of reduction collective operations such as MPI Allreduce and MPI Reduce. These operations are the most widely used abstractions to perform mathematical operations over all processes that are part of the simulation. In this work, we propose a hierarchical design to implement the reduction operations on multicore systems. This design aims to improve the efficiency of reductions by 1) tailoring the algorithms and customizing the implementations for various communication mechanisms in the system 2) providing the ability to configure the depth of hierarchy to match the system architecture, and 3) providing the ability to independently progress each of this hierarchy. Using this design, we implement MPI Allreduce and MPI Reduce operations (and its nonblocking variants MPI Iallreduce and MPI Ireduce) for all message sizes, and evaluate on multiple architectures including InfiniBand and Cray XT5. We leverage and enhance our existing infrastructure, Cheetah, which is a framework for implementing hierarchical collective operations to implement these reductions. The experimental results show that the Cheetah reduction operations outperform the production-grade MPI implementations such as Open MPI default, Cray MPI, and MVAPICH2, demonstrating its efficiency, flexibility and portability. On Infini- Band systems, with a microbenchmark, a 512-process Cheetah nonblocking Allreduce and Reduce achieves a speedup of 23x and 10x, respectively, compared to the default Open MPI reductions. The blocking variants of the reduction operations also show similar performance benefits. A 512-process nonblocking Cheetah Allreduce achieves a speedup of 3x, compared to the default MVAPICH2 Allreduce implementation. On a Cray XT5 system, a 6144-process Cheetah Allreduce outperforms the Cray MPI by 145%. The evaluation with an application kernel, Conjugate

  12. Self-assembly of hierarchically ordered structures in DNA nanotube systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Martin; Schnauß, Jörg; Tschirner, Teresa; Schmidt, B. U. Sebastian; Moebius-Winkler, Maximilian; Käs, Josef A.; Smith, David M.

    2016-05-01

    The self-assembly of molecular and macromolecular building blocks into organized patterns is a complex process found in diverse systems over a wide range of size and time scales. The formation of star- or aster-like configurations, for example, is a common characteristic in solutions of polymers or other molecules containing multi-scaled, hierarchical assembly processes. This is a recurring phenomenon in numerous pattern-forming systems ranging from cellular constructs to solutions of ferromagnetic colloids or synthetic plastics. To date, however, it has not been possible to systematically parameterize structural properties of the constituent components in order to study their influence on assembled states. Here, we circumvent this limitation by using DNA nanotubes with programmable mechanical properties as our basic building blocks. A small set of DNA oligonucleotides can be chosen to hybridize into micron-length DNA nanotubes with a well-defined circumference and stiffness. The self-assembly of these nanotubes to hierarchically ordered structures is driven by depletion forces caused by the presence of polyethylene glycol. This trait allowed us to investigate self-assembly effects while maintaining a complete decoupling of density, self-association or bundling strength, and stiffness of the nanotubes. Our findings show diverse ranges of emerging structures including heterogeneous networks, aster-like structures, and densely bundled needle-like structures, which compare to configurations found in many other systems. These show a strong dependence not only on concentration and bundling strength, but also on the underlying mechanical properties of the nanotubes. Similar network architectures to those caused by depletion forces in the low-density regime are obtained when an alternative hybridization-based bundling mechanism is employed to induce self-assembly in an isotropic network of pre-formed DNA nanotubes. This emphasizes the universal effect inevitable

  13. Hierarchical multilevel authentication system for multiple-image based on phase retrieval and basic vector operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xianye; Meng, Xiangfeng; Yin, Yongkai; Yang, Xiulun; Wang, Yurong; Peng, Xiang; He, Wenqi; Pan, Xuemei; Dong, Guoyan; Chen, Hongyi

    2017-02-01

    A hierarchical multilevel authentication system for multiple-image based on phase retrieval and basic vector operations in the Fresnel domain is proposed, by which more certification images are iteratively encoded into multiple cascaded phase masks according to different hierarchical levels. Based on the secret sharing algorithm by basic vector decomposition and composition operations, the iterated phase distributions are split into n pairs of shadow images keys (SIKs), and then distributed to n different participants (the authenticators). During each level in the high authentication process, any 2 or more participants can be gathered to reconstruct the original meaningful certification images. While in the case of each level in the low authentication process, only one authenticator who possesses a correct pair of SIKs, will gain no significant information of certification image; however, it can result in a remarkable peak output in the nonlinear correlation coefficient of the recovered image and the standard certification image, which can successfully provide an additional authentication layer for the high-level authentication. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulations both verify the feasibility of the proposed method.

  14. Hierarchical Control Strategy for the Cooperative Braking System of Electric Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jiankun; He, Hongwen; Guo, Hongqiang

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a hierarchical control strategy for cooperative braking system of an electric vehicle with separated driven axles. Two layers are defined: the top layer is used to optimize the braking stability based on two sliding mode control strategies, namely, the interaxle control mode and signal-axle control strategies; the interaxle control strategy generates the ideal braking force distribution in general braking condition, and the single-axle control strategy can ensure braking safety in emergency braking condition; the bottom layer is used to maximize the regenerative braking energy recovery efficiency with a reallocated braking torque strategy; the reallocated braking torque strategy can recovery braking energy as much as possible in the premise of meeting battery charging power. The simulation results show that the proposed hierarchical control strategy is reasonable and can adapt to different typical road surfaces and load cases; the vehicle braking stability and safety can be guaranteed; furthermore, the regenerative braking energy recovery efficiency can be improved. PMID:26236772

  15. Hierarchical Control Strategy for the Cooperative Braking System of Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiankun Peng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a hierarchical control strategy for cooperative braking system of an electric vehicle with separated driven axles. Two layers are defined: the top layer is used to optimize the braking stability based on two sliding mode control strategies, namely, the interaxle control mode and signal-axle control strategies; the interaxle control strategy generates the ideal braking force distribution in general braking condition, and the single-axle control strategy can ensure braking safety in emergency braking condition; the bottom layer is used to maximize the regenerative braking energy recovery efficiency with a reallocated braking torque strategy; the reallocated braking torque strategy can recovery braking energy as much as possible in the premise of meeting battery charging power. The simulation results show that the proposed hierarchical control strategy is reasonable and can adapt to different typical road surfaces and load cases; the vehicle braking stability and safety can be guaranteed; furthermore, the regenerative braking energy recovery efficiency can be improved.

  16. Identification and estimation algorithm for stochastic neural system. II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakao, M; Hara, K; Kimura, M; Sato, R

    1985-01-01

    The algorithm for identifying the stochastic neural system and estimating the system process which reflects the dynamics of the neural network are presented in this paper. The analogous algorithm has been proposed in our preceding paper (Nakao et al., 1984), which was based on the randomly missed observations of a system process only. Since the previous algorithm mentioned above was subject to an unfavorable effect of consecutively missed observations, to reduce such an effect the algorithm proposed here is designed additionally to observe an intensity process in a neural spike train as the information for the estimation. The algorithm is constructed with the extended Kalman filters because it is naturally expected that a nonlinear and time variant structure is necessary for the filters to realize the observation of an intensity process by means of mapping from a system process to an intensity process. The performance of the algorithm is examined by applying it to some artificial neural systems and also to cat's visual nervous systems. The results in these applications are thought to prove the effectiveness of the algorithm proposed here and its superiority to the algorithm proposed previously.

  17. Approximation Problems in System Identification With Neural Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈天平

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, the capability of neural networks and some approximation problens in system identification with neural networks are investigated. Some results are given: (i) For any function g ∈Llocp (R1) ∩S’ (R1) to be an Lp-Tauber-Wiener function, it is necessary and sufficient that g is not apolynomial; (ii) If g∈(Lp TW), then the set of is dense in Lp(K)’ (iii) It is proved that bycompositions of some functions of one variable, one can approximate continuous functional defined on compact Lp(K) and continuous operators from compact Lp1(K1) to LP2(K2). These results confirm the capability of neural networks in identifying dynamic systems.

  18. Application of dynamic recurrent neural networks in nonlinear system identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yun; Wu, Xueli; Sun, Huiqin; Zhang, Suying; Tian, Qiang

    2006-11-01

    An adaptive identification method of simple dynamic recurrent neural network (SRNN) for nonlinear dynamic systems is presented in this paper. This method based on the theory that by using the inner-states feed-back of dynamic network to describe the nonlinear kinetic characteristics of system can reflect the dynamic characteristics more directly, deduces the recursive prediction error (RPE) learning algorithm of SRNN, and improves the algorithm by studying topological structure on recursion layer without the weight values. The simulation results indicate that this kind of neural network can be used in real-time control, due to its less weight values, simpler learning algorithm, higher identification speed, and higher precision of model. It solves the problems of intricate in training algorithm and slow rate in convergence caused by the complicate topological structure in usual dynamic recurrent neural network.

  19. Resilient control of cyber-physical systems against intelligent attacker: a hierarchal stackelberg game approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yuan; Sun, Fuchun; Liu, Huaping

    2016-07-01

    This paper is concerned with the resilient control under denial-of-service attack launched by the intelligent attacker. The resilient control system is modelled as a multi-stage hierarchical game with a corresponding hierarchy of decisions made at cyber and physical layer, respectively. Specifically, the interaction in the cyber layer between different security agents is modelled as a static infinite Stackelberg game, while in the underlying physical layer the full-information H∞ minimax control with package drops is modelled as a different Stackelberg game. Both games are solved sequentially, which is consistent with the actual situations. Finally, the proposed method is applied to the load frequency control of the power system, which demonstrates its effectiveness.

  20. Controlling Hierarchically Self-Assembly in Supramolecular Tailed-Dendron Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlet-Lacroix, Nathalie; Rao, Jingui; Zhang, Afang; Schlüter, Dieter; Ruokolainen, Janne; Mezzenga, Raffaele

    2010-03-01

    We study the self-assembly of a dendritic macromolecular system formed by a second-generation dendron and a polymer chain emanating from its focal point. We use supramolecular ionic interactions to attach to the periphery of the dendrons sulphated alkyl tails. The resulting ``triblock copolymers'' have a molecular architecture similar to a four-arm pitchfork with varying arms and holder lengths. The bulk morphologies observed by SAXS and TEM show thermodynamically stable, hierarchical ``inverted'' hexagonal or lamellar structures. The structural models for the molecular packing emerging from experimental findings are benchmarked to available self-consistent field theories (SCFT) and experiments and theoretical predictions are found in perfect agreement. The present results show that supramolecular systems based on tailed dendrons and surfactants can be used to scale up of the structural organization from the liquid crystalline length scale to the block copolymer length scale, while preserving the inverted unconventional morphologies offering new possibilities in the design of nanostructured materials.

  1. A Framework for a Decision Support System in a Hierarchical Extended Enterprise Decision Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boza, Andrés; Ortiz, Angel; Vicens, Eduardo; Poler, Raul

    Decision Support System (DSS) tools provide useful information to decision makers. In an Extended Enterprise, a new goal, changes in the current objectives or small changes in the extended enterprise configuration produce a necessary adjustment in its decision system. A DSS in this context must be flexible and agile to make suitable an easy and quickly adaptation to this new context. This paper proposes to extend the Hierarchical Production Planning (HPP) structure to an Extended Enterprise decision making context. In this way, a framework for DSS in Extended Enterprise context is defined using components of HPP. Interoperability details have been reviewed to identify the impact in this framework. The proposed framework allows overcoming some interoperability barriers, identifying and organizing components for a DSS in Extended Enterprise context, and working in the definition of an architecture to be used in the design process of a flexible DSS in Extended Enterprise context which can reuse components for futures Extended Enterprise configurations.

  2. Energy Management Systems and tertiary regulation in hierarchical control architectures for islanded micro-grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanseverino, Eleonora Riva; Di Silvestre, Maria Luisa; Quang, Ninh Nguyen;

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the structure of the highest level of a hierarchical control architecture for micro-grids is proposed. Such structure includes two sub-levels: the Energy Management System, EMS, and the tertiary regulation. The first devoted to energy resources allocation in each time slot based...... on marginal production costs, the latter aiming at finding the match between production and consumption satisfying the constraints set by the EMS level about the energy production in each time slot. Neglecting the efficiency of the different energy generation systems as well as that of the infrastructure...... for electrical energy distribution, the problem dealt with by the EMS sub-level is linear and can be solved by well known Linear Programming optimization procedures. The tertiary sub-level, below the EMS, optimizes mainly technical objectives and requires the solution of the Optimal Power Flow problem. After...

  3. Distributed Hierarchical Control Architecture for Transient Dynamics Improvement in Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marinovici, Laurentiu D.; Lian, Jianming; Kalsi, Karanjit; Du, Pengwei; Elizondo, Marcelo A.

    2013-08-24

    In this paper, a novel distributed hierarchical coordinated control architecture is proposed for large scale power systems. The newly considered architecture facilitates frequency restoration and power balancing functions to be decoupled and implemented at different levels. At the local level, decentralized robust generator controllers are designed to quickly restore frequency after large faults and disturbances in the system. The controllers presented herein are shown to improve transient stability performance, as compared to conventional governor and excitation control. At the area level, Automatic Generation Control (AGC) is modified and coordinates with the decentralized robust controllers to reach the interchange schedule in the tie lines. The interaction of local and zonal controllers is validated through detailed simulations.

  4. Hierarchical flight control system synthesis for rotorcraft-based unmanned aerial vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Hyunchul

    The Berkeley Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) research aims to design, implement, and analyze a group of autonomous intelligent UAVs and UGVs (Unmanned Ground Vehicles). The goal of this dissertation is to provide a comprehensive procedural methodology to design, implement, and test rotorcraft-based unmanned aerial vehicles (RUAVs). We choose the rotorcraft as the base platform for our aerial agents because it offers ideal maneuverability for our target scenarios such as the pursuit-evasion game. Aided by many enabling technologies such as lightweight and powerful computers, high-accuracy navigation sensors and communication devices, it is now possible to construct RUAVs capable of precise navigation and intelligent behavior by the decentralized onboard control system. Building a fully functioning RUAV requires a deep understanding of aeronautics, control theory and computer science as well as a tremendous effort for implementation. These two aspects are often inseparable and therefore equally highlighted throughout this research. The problem of multiple vehicle coordination is approached through the notion of a hierarchical system. The idea behind the proposed architecture is to build a hierarchical multiple-layer system that gradually decomposes the abstract mission objectives into the physical quantities of control input. Each RUAV incorporated into this system performs the given tasks and reports the results through the hierarchical communication channel back to the higher-level coordinator. In our research, we provide a theoretical and practical approach to build a number of RUAVs based on commercially available navigation sensors, computer systems, and radio-controlled helicopters. For the controller design, the dynamic model of the helicopter is first built. The helicopter exhibits a very complicated multi-input multi-output, nonlinear, time-varying and coupled dynamics, which is exposed to severe exogenous disturbances. This poses considerable difficulties for

  5. Expert,Neural and Fuzzy Systems in Process Planning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Computer aided process planning (CAPP) aims at improving efficiency, quali t y, and productivity in a manufacturing concern through reducing lead-times and costs by utilizing better manufacturing practices thus improving competitiveness in the market. CAPP attempts to capture the thoughts and methods of the experie nced process planner. Variant systems are understandable, generative systems can plan new parts. Expert systems increase flexibility, fuzzy logic captures vague knowledge while neural networks learn. The combination of fuzzy, neural and exp ert system technologies is necessary to capture and utilize the process planning logic. A system that maintains the dependability and clarity of variant systems , is capable of planning new parts, and improves itself through learning is neede d by industry.

  6. Engineering neural systems for high-level problem solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvester, Jared; Reggia, James

    2016-07-01

    There is a long-standing, sometimes contentious debate in AI concerning the relative merits of a symbolic, top-down approach vs. a neural, bottom-up approach to engineering intelligent machine behaviors. While neurocomputational methods excel at lower-level cognitive tasks (incremental learning for pattern classification, low-level sensorimotor control, fault tolerance and processing of noisy data, etc.), they are largely non-competitive with top-down symbolic methods for tasks involving high-level cognitive problem solving (goal-directed reasoning, metacognition, planning, etc.). Here we take a step towards addressing this limitation by developing a purely neural framework named galis. Our goal in this work is to integrate top-down (non-symbolic) control of a neural network system with more traditional bottom-up neural computations. galis is based on attractor networks that can be "programmed" with temporal sequences of hand-crafted instructions that control problem solving by gating the activity retention of, communication between, and learning done by other neural networks. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach by showing that it can be applied successfully to solve sequential card matching problems, using both human performance and a top-down symbolic algorithm as experimental controls. Solving this kind of problem makes use of top-down attention control and the binding together of visual features in ways that are easy for symbolic AI systems but not for neural networks to achieve. Our model can not only be instructed on how to solve card matching problems successfully, but its performance also qualitatively (and sometimes quantitatively) matches the performance of both human subjects that we had perform the same task and the top-down symbolic algorithm that we used as an experimental control. We conclude that the core principles underlying the galis framework provide a promising approach to engineering purely neurocomputational systems for problem

  7. Using fuzzy logic to integrate neural networks and knowledge-based systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, John

    1991-01-01

    Outlined here is a novel hybrid architecture that uses fuzzy logic to integrate neural networks and knowledge-based systems. The author's approach offers important synergistic benefits to neural nets, approximate reasoning, and symbolic processing. Fuzzy inference rules extend symbolic systems with approximate reasoning capabilities, which are used for integrating and interpreting the outputs of neural networks. The symbolic system captures meta-level information about neural networks and defines its interaction with neural networks through a set of control tasks. Fuzzy action rules provide a robust mechanism for recognizing the situations in which neural networks require certain control actions. The neural nets, on the other hand, offer flexible classification and adaptive learning capabilities, which are crucial for dynamic and noisy environments. By combining neural nets and symbolic systems at their system levels through the use of fuzzy logic, the author's approach alleviates current difficulties in reconciling differences between low-level data processing mechanisms of neural nets and artificial intelligence systems.

  8. Structural system identification using degree of freedom-based reduction and hierarchical clustering algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Seongmin; Baek, Sungmin; Kim, Ki-Ook; Cho, Maenghyo

    2015-06-01

    A system identification method has been proposed to validate finite element models of complex structures using measured modal data. Finite element method is used for the system identification as well as the structural analysis. In perturbation methods, the perturbed system is expressed as a combination of the baseline structure and the related perturbations. The changes in dynamic responses are applied to determine the structural modifications so that the equilibrium may be satisfied in the perturbed system. In practical applications, the dynamic measurements are carried out on a limited number of accessible nodes and associated degrees of freedom. The equilibrium equation is, in principle, expressed in terms of the measured (master, primary) and unmeasured (slave, secondary) degrees of freedom. Only the specified degrees of freedom are included in the equation formulation for identification and the unspecified degrees of freedom are eliminated through the iterative improved reduction scheme. A large number of system parameters are included as the unknown variables in the system identification of large-scaled structures. The identification problem with large number of system parameters requires a large amount of computation time and resources. In the present study, a hierarchical clustering algorithm is applied to reduce the number of system parameters effectively. Numerical examples demonstrate that the proposed method greatly improves the accuracy and efficiency in the inverse problem of identification.

  9. A rule-based neural controller for inverted pendulum system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, J; Vandewalle, J; Tan, S

    1993-03-01

    This paper tries to demonstrate how a heuristic neural control approach can be used to solve a complex nonlinear control problem. The control task is to swing up a pendulum mounted on a cart from its stable position (vertically down) to the zero state (up right) and keep it there by applying a sequence of two opposing constant forces of equal magnitude to the mass center of the cart. In addition, the displacement of the cart itself is confined to within a preset limit during the swinging up action and it will eventually be brought to the origin of the track. This is truly a nontrivial nonlinear regulation problem and is considerably difficult compared to the pendulum balancing problem (and its variations) widely adopted as a benchmarking test system for neural controllers. Through the solution of this specific control problem, we try to illustrate a heuristic neural control approach with task decomposition, control rule extraction and neural net rule implementation as its basic elements. Specializing to the pendulum problem, the global control task is decomposed into subtasks namely pendulum positioning and cart positioning. Accordingly, three separate neural subcontrollers are designed to cater to the subtasks and their coordination, i.e., pendulum subcontroller (PSC), cart subcontroller (CSC) and the switching subcontroller (SSC). Each of the subcontrollers is designed based on the rules and guidelines obtained from the experiences of a human operator. The simulation result is included to show the actual performance of the controller.

  10. Nearly Cyclic Pursuit and its Hierarchical variant for Multi-agent Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iqbal, Muhammad; Leth, John-Josef; Ngo, Trung Dung

    2015-01-01

    The rendezvous problem for multiple agents under nearly cyclic pursuit and hierarchical nearly cyclic pursuit is discussed in this paper. The control law designed under nearly cyclic pursuit strategy enables the agents to converge at a point dictated by a beacon. A hierarchical version of the nea......The rendezvous problem for multiple agents under nearly cyclic pursuit and hierarchical nearly cyclic pursuit is discussed in this paper. The control law designed under nearly cyclic pursuit strategy enables the agents to converge at a point dictated by a beacon. A hierarchical version...

  11. The Neural/Immune Gene Ontology: clipping the Gene Ontology for neurological and immunological systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubin Eitan

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Gene Ontology (GO is used to describe genes and gene products from many organisms. When used for functional annotation of microarray data, GO is often slimmed by editing so that only higher level terms remain. This practice is designed to improve the summarizing of experimental results by grouping high level terms and the statistical power of GO term enrichment analysis. Here, we propose a new approach to editing the gene ontology, clipping, which is the editing of GO according to biological relevance. Creation of a GO subset by clipping is achieved by removing terms (from all hierarchal levels if they are not functionally relevant to a given domain of interest. Terms that are located in levels higher to relevant terms are kept, thus, biologically irrelevant terms are only removed if they are not parental to terms that are relevant. Results Using this approach, we have created the Neural-Immune Gene Ontology (NIGO subset of GO directed for neurological and immunological systems. We tested the performance of NIGO in extracting knowledge from microarray experiments by conducting functional analysis and comparing the results to those obtained using the full GO and a generic GO slim. NIGO not only improved the statistical scores given to relevant terms, but was also able to retrieve functionally relevant terms that did not pass statistical cutoffs when using the full GO or the slim subset. Conclusions Our results validate the pipeline used to generate NIGO, suggesting it is indeed enriched with terms that are specific to the neural/immune domains. The results suggest that NIGO can enhance the analysis of microarray experiments involving neural and/or immune related systems. They also directly demonstrate the potential such a domain-specific GO has in generating meaningful hypotheses.

  12. H-RBAC: A Hierarchical Access Control Model for SaaS Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dancheng Li

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available SaaS is a new way to deploy software as a hosted service and accessed over the Internet which means the customers don’t need to maintain the software code and data on their own servers. So it’s more important for SaaS systems to take security issues into account. Access control is a security mechanism that enables an authority to access to certain restricted areas and resources according to the permissions assigned to a user. Several access models have been proposed to realize the access control of single instance systems. However, most of the existing models couldn’t address the following SaaS system problems: (1 role name conflicts (2 cross-level management (3 the isomerism of tenants' access control (4 temporal delegation constraints. This paper describes a hierarchical RBAC model called H-RBAC solves all the four problems of SaaS systems mentioned above. This model addresses the SaaS system access control in both system level and tenant level. It combines the advantages of RBDM and ARBAC97 model and introduces temporal constraints to SaaS access control model. In addition, a practical approach to implement the access control module for SaaS systems based on H-RBAC model is also proposed in this paper.

  13. Critical slowing down of the Gaussian spin system on diamond—type hierarchical lattices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱建阳; 朱涵

    2003-01-01

    Based on the single-spin transition critical dynamics,we have investigated the critical slowing down of the Gaussian spin model situated on the fractal family of diamond-type hierarchical lattices.We calculate the dynamical critical exponent z and the correlation-length critical exponent v using the dynamical decimation renormalization-group technique.The result,together with some earlier ones,suggests us to conclude that on a wide range of geometries,zv=1 is the general relationship,while the two exponents depend on the specific structure,However,we have investigated for various lattices in an earlier paper,the system studied in this paper shows highly universal z=1/v=2 independent of the structure and the dimensionality.

  14. Critical slowing down of the Gaussian spin system on diamond-type hierarchical lattices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱建阳; 朱涵

    2003-01-01

    Based on the single-spin transition critical dynamics, we have investigated the critical slowing down of the Gaussian spin model situated on the fractal family of diamond-type hierarchical lattices. We calculate the dynamical critical exponent z and the correlation-length critical exponent v using the dynamical decimation renormalization-group technique. The result, together with some earlier ones, suggests us to conclude that on a wide range of geometries, zv = 1is the general relationship, while the two exponents depend on the specific structure. However, we have investigated for various lattices in an earlier paper, the system studied in this paper shows highly universal z = 1/v = 2 independent of the structure and the dimensionality.

  15. Biological Chitin-MOF Composites with Hierarchical Pore Systems for Air-Filtration Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisser, Dorothea; Wisser, Florian M; Raschke, Silvia; Klein, Nicole; Leistner, Matthias; Grothe, Julia; Brunner, Eike; Kaskel, Stefan

    2015-10-19

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are promising materials for gas-separation and air-filtration applications. However, for these applications, MOF crystallites need to be incorporated in robust and manageable support materials. We used chitin-based networks from a marine sponge as a non-toxic, biodegradable, and low-weight support material for MOF deposition. The structural properties of the material favor predominant nucleation of the MOF crystallites at the inside of the hollow fibers. This composite has a hierarchical pore system with surface areas up to 800 m(2)  g(-1) and pore volumes of 3.6 cm(3)  g(-1) , allowing good transport kinetics and a very high loading of the active material. Ammonia break-through experiments highlight the accessibility of the MOF crystallites and the adsorption potential of the composite indicating their high potential for filtration applications for toxic industrial gases.

  16. Globally COnstrained Local Function Approximation via Hierarchical Modelling, a Framework for System Modelling under Partial Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øjelund, Henrik; Sadegh, Payman

    2000-01-01

    , constraints are introduced to ensure the conformity of the estimates to a gien global structure. Hierarchical models are then utilized as a tool to ccomodate global model uncertainties via parametric variabilities within the structure. The global parameters and their associated uncertainties are estimated...... simultaneously with the (local estimates of) function values. The approach is applied to modelling of a linear time variant dynamic system under prior linear time invariant structure where local regression fails as a result of high dimensionality.......Local function approximations concern fitting low order models to weighted data in neighbourhoods of the points where the approximations are desired. Despite their generality and convenience of use, local models typically suffer, among others, from difficulties arising in physical interpretation...

  17. Using Hierarchical Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Systems And Design Two New Edge Detectors In Noisy Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Olyaee

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important topics in image processing is edge detection. Many methods have been proposed for this end but most of them have weak performance in noisy images because noise pixels are determined as edge. In this paper, two new methods are represented based on Hierarchical Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Systems (HANFIS. Each method consists of desired number of HANFIS operators that receive the value of some neighbouring pixels and decide central pixel is edge or not. Simple train images are used in order to set internal parameters of each HANFIS operator. The presented methods are evaluated by some test images and compared with several popular edge detectors. The experimental results show that these methods are robust against impulse noise and extract edge pixels exactly.

  18. Stackelberg Interdependent Security Game in Distributed and Hierarchical Cyber-Physical Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiajun Shen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the integration of physical plant and network, cyber-physical systems (CPSs are increasingly vulnerable due to their distributed and hierarchical framework. Stackelberg interdependent security game (SISG is proposed for characterizing the interdependent security in CPSs, that is, the interactions between individual CPSs, which are selfish but nonmalicious with the payoff function being formulated from a cross-layer perspective. The pure-strategy equilibria for two-player symmetric SISG are firstly analyzed with the strategy gap between individual and social optimum being characterized, which is known as negative externalities. Then, the results are further extended to the asymmetric and m-player SISG. At last, a numerical case of practical experiment platform is analyzed for determining the comprehensively optimal security configuration for administrator.

  19. Neural transduction in Xenopus laevis lateral line system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strelioff, D; Honrubia, V

    1978-03-01

    1. The process of neural excitation in hair cell systems was studied in an in vitro preparation of the Xenopus laevis (African clawed toad) lateral line organ. A specially designed stimulus chamber was used to apply accurately controlled pressure, water movement, or electrical stimuli, and to record the neural responses of the two afferent fibers innervating each organ or stitch. The objective of the study was to determine the characteristics of the neural responses to these stimuli, and thus gain insight into the transduction process. 2. A sustained deflection of the hair cell cilia due to a constant flow of water past the capula resulted in a maintained change in the mean firing rate (MFR) of the afferent fibers. The data also demonstrated that the neural response was proportional to the velocity of the water flow and indicated that both deflection and movement of the cilia were the effective physiological stimuli for this hair cell system. 3. The preparations responded to sinusoidal water movements (past the capula) over the entire frequency range of the stimulus chamber, 0.1-130 Hz, and were most sensitive between 10 and 40 Hz. The variation of the MFR and the percent modulation indicated that the average dynamic range of each organ was 23.5 dB. 4. The thresholds, if any, for sustained pressure changes and for sinusoidal pressure variations in the absence of water movements were very high. Due to the limitations of the stimulus chamber it was not possible to generate pressure stimuli of sufficient magnitude to elicit a neural response without also generating suprathreshold water-movement stimuli. Sustained pressures had no detectable effect on the neural response to water-movement stimuli. 5. The preparations were very sensitive to electrical potentials applied across the toad skin on which the hair cells were located. Potentials which made the ciliated surfaces of the hair cells positive with respect to their bases increased the MFR of the fibers, whereas

  20. Neural mechanisms of selective attention in the somatosensory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Ramirez, Manuel; Hysaj, Kristjana; Niebur, Ernst

    2016-09-01

    Selective attention allows organisms to extract behaviorally relevant information while ignoring distracting stimuli that compete for the limited resources of their central nervous systems. Attention is highly flexible, and it can be harnessed to select information based on sensory modality, within-modality feature(s), spatial location, object identity, and/or temporal properties. In this review, we discuss the body of work devoted to understanding mechanisms of selective attention in the somatosensory system. In particular, we describe the effects of attention on tactile behavior and corresponding neural activity in somatosensory cortex. Our focus is on neural mechanisms that select tactile stimuli based on their location on the body (somatotopic-based attention) or their sensory feature (feature-based attention). We highlight parallels between selection mechanisms in touch and other sensory systems and discuss several putative neural coding schemes employed by cortical populations to signal the behavioral relevance of sensory inputs. Specifically, we contrast the advantages and disadvantages of using a gain vs. spike-spike correlation code for representing attended sensory stimuli. We favor a neural network model of tactile attention that is composed of frontal, parietal, and subcortical areas that controls somatosensory cells encoding the relevant stimulus features to enable preferential processing throughout the somatosensory hierarchy. Our review is based on data from noninvasive electrophysiological and imaging data in humans as well as single-unit recordings in nonhuman primates.

  1. Frequency-difference-dependent stochastic resonance in neural systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Daqing; Perc, Matjaž; Zhang, Yangsong; Xu, Peng; Yao, Dezhong

    2017-08-01

    Biological neurons receive multiple noisy oscillatory signals, and their dynamical response to the superposition of these signals is of fundamental importance for information processing in the brain. Here we study the response of neural systems to the weak envelope modulation signal, which is superimposed by two periodic signals with different frequencies. We show that stochastic resonance occurs at the beat frequency in neural systems at the single-neuron as well as the population level. The performance of this frequency-difference-dependent stochastic resonance is influenced by both the beat frequency and the two forcing frequencies. Compared to a single neuron, a population of neurons is more efficient in detecting the information carried by the weak envelope modulation signal at the beat frequency. Furthermore, an appropriate fine-tuning of the excitation-inhibition balance can further optimize the response of a neural ensemble to the superimposed signal. Our results thus introduce and provide insights into the generation and modulation mechanism of the frequency-difference-dependent stochastic resonance in neural systems.

  2. Robust nonlinear system identification using neural-network models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, S; Basar, T

    1998-01-01

    We study the problem of identification for nonlinear systems in the presence of unknown driving noise, using both feedforward multilayer neural network and radial basis function network models. Our objective is to resolve the difficulty associated with the persistency of excitation condition inherent to the standard schemes in the neural identification literature. This difficulty is circumvented here by a novel formulation and by using a new class of identification algorithms recently obtained by Didinsky et al. We show how these algorithms can be exploited to successfully identify the nonlinearity in the system using neural-network models. By embedding the original problem in one with noise-perturbed state measurements, we present a class of identifiers (under L1 and L2 cost criteria) which secure a good approximant for the system nonlinearity provided that some global optimization technique is used. In this respect, many available learning algorithms in the current neural-network literature, e.g., the backpropagation scheme and the genetic algorithms-based scheme, with slight modifications, can ensure the identification of the system nonlinearity. Subsequently, we address the same problem under a third, worst case L(infinity) criterion for an RBF modeling. We present a neural-network version of an H(infinity)-based identification algorithm from Didinsky et al and show how, along with an appropriate choice of control input to enhance excitation, under both full-state-derivative information (FSDI) and noise-perturbed full-state-information (NPFSI), it leads to satisfaction of a relevant persistency of excitation condition, and thereby to robust identification of the nonlinearity. Results from several simulation studies have been included to demonstrate the effectiveness of these algorithms.

  3. Neural Network Control of a Magnetically Suspended Rotor System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Benjamin B.

    1998-01-01

    Magnetic bearings offer significant advantages because they do not come into contact with other parts during operation, which can reduce maintenance. Higher speeds, no friction, no lubrication, weight reduction, precise position control, and active damping make them far superior to conventional contact bearings. However, there are technical barriers that limit the application of this technology in industry. One of them is the need for a nonlinear controller that can overcome the system nonlinearity and uncertainty inherent in magnetic bearings. At the NASA Lewis Research Center, a neural network was selected as a nonlinear controller because it generates a neural model without any detailed information regarding the internal working of the magnetic bearing system. It can be used even for systems that are too complex for an accurate system model to be derived. A feed-forward architecture with a back-propagation learning algorithm was selected because of its proven performance, accuracy, and relatively easy implementation.

  4. A Miniaturized System for Neural Signal Acquiring and Processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Min; GAO Guang-hong; XIANG Dong-sheng; CAO Mao-yong; JIA Ai-bin; DING Lei; KONG Hui-min

    2008-01-01

    To collect neural activity data from awake, behaving freely animals, we develop miniaturized implantable recording system by the modern chip:Programmable System on Chip(PSoC) and through chronic electrodes in the cortex. With PSoC family member CY8C29466,the system completed operational and instrument amplifiers, filters, timers, AD convertors, and serial communication, etc. The signal processing was dealt with virtual instrument technology. All of these factors can significantly affect the price and development cycle of the project. The result showed that the system was able to record and analyze neural extrocellular discharge generated by neurons continuously for a week or more. This is very useful for the interdisciplinary research of neuroscience and information engineering technique.The circuits and architecture of the devices can be adapted for neurobiology and research with other small animals.

  5. Distributed Adaptive Neural Control for Stochastic Nonlinear Multiagent Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fang; Chen, Bing; Lin, Chong; Li, Xuehua

    2016-11-14

    In this paper, a consensus tracking problem of nonlinear multiagent systems is investigated under a directed communication topology. All the followers are modeled by stochastic nonlinear systems in nonstrict feedback form, where nonlinearities and stochastic disturbance terms are totally unknown. Based on the structural characteristic of neural networks (in Lemma 4), a novel distributed adaptive neural control scheme is put forward. The raised control method not only effectively handles unknown nonlinearities in nonstrict feedback systems, but also copes with the interactions among agents and coupling terms. Based on the stochastic Lyapunov functional method, it is indicated that all the signals of the closed-loop system are bounded in probability and all followers' outputs are convergent to a neighborhood of the output of leader. At last, the efficiency of the control method is testified by a numerical example.

  6. Synthesis of recurrent neural networks for dynamical system simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trischler, Adam P; D'Eleuterio, Gabriele M T

    2016-08-01

    We review several of the most widely used techniques for training recurrent neural networks to approximate dynamical systems, then describe a novel algorithm for this task. The algorithm is based on an earlier theoretical result that guarantees the quality of the network approximation. We show that a feedforward neural network can be trained on the vector-field representation of a given dynamical system using backpropagation, then recast it as a recurrent network that replicates the original system's dynamics. After detailing this algorithm and its relation to earlier approaches, we present numerical examples that demonstrate its capabilities. One of the distinguishing features of our approach is that both the original dynamical systems and the recurrent networks that simulate them operate in continuous time.

  7. Variable Neural Adaptive Robust Control: A Switched System Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lian, Jianming; Hu, Jianghai; Zak, Stanislaw H.

    2015-05-01

    Variable neural adaptive robust control strategies are proposed for the output tracking control of a class of multi-input multi-output uncertain systems. The controllers incorporate a variable-structure radial basis function (RBF) network as the self-organizing approximator for unknown system dynamics. The variable-structure RBF network solves the problem of structure determination associated with fixed-structure RBF networks. It can determine the network structure on-line dynamically by adding or removing radial basis functions according to the tracking performance. The structure variation is taken into account in the stability analysis of the closed-loop system using a switched system approach with the aid of the piecewise quadratic Lyapunov function. The performance of the proposed variable neural adaptive robust controllers is illustrated with simulations.

  8. A hierarchical updating method for finite element model of airbag buffer system under landing impact

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Huan; Chen Zhe; He Cheng; Ni Lei; Chen Guoping

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an impact finite element (FE) model for an airbag landing buf-fer system. First, an impact FE model has been formulated for a typical airbag landing buffer sys-tem. We use the independence of the structure FE model from the full impact FE model to develop a hierarchical updating scheme for the recovery module FE model and the airbag system FE model. Second, we define impact responses at key points to compare the computational and experimental results to resolve the inconsistency between the experimental data sampling frequency and experi-mental triggering. To determine the typical characteristics of the impact dynamics response of the airbag landing buffer system, we present the impact response confidence factors (IRCFs) to evalu-ate how consistent the computational and experiment results are. An error function is defined between the experimental and computational results at key points of the impact response (KPIR) to serve as a modified objective function. A radial basis function (RBF) is introduced to construct updating variables for a surrogate model for updating the objective function, thereby converting the FE model updating problem to a soluble optimization problem. Finally, the developed method has been validated using an experimental and computational study on the impact dynamics of a classic airbag landing buffer system.

  9. EMIR: a configurable hierarchical system for event monitoring and incident response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deich, William T. S.

    2014-07-01

    The Event Monitor and Incident Response system (emir) is a flexible, general-purpose system for monitoring and responding to all aspects of instrument, telescope, and general facility operations, and has been in use at the Automated Planet Finder telescope for two years. Responses to problems can include both passive actions (e.g. generating alerts) and active actions (e.g. modifying system settings). Emir includes a monitor-and-response daemon, plus graphical user interfaces and text-based clients that automatically configure themselves from data supplied at runtime by the daemon. The daemon is driven by a configuration file that describes each condition to be monitored, the actions to take when the condition is triggered, and how the conditions are aggregated into hierarchical groups of conditions. Emir has been implemented for the Keck Task Library (KTL) keyword-based systems used at Keck and Lick Observatories, but can be readily adapted to many event-driven architectures. This paper discusses the design and implementation of Emir , and the challenges in balancing the competing demands for simplicity, flexibility, power, and extensibility. Emir 's design lends itself well to multiple purposes, and in addition to its core monitor and response functions, it provides an effective framework for computing running statistics, aggregate values, and summary state values from the primitive state data generated by other subsystems, and even for creating quick-and-dirty control loops for simple systems.

  10. Mastering algebra retrains the visual system to perceive hierarchical structure in equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marghetis, Tyler; Landy, David; Goldstone, Robert L

    2016-01-01

    Formal mathematics is a paragon of abstractness. It thus seems natural to assume that the mathematical expert should rely more on symbolic or conceptual processes, and less on perception and action. We argue instead that mathematical proficiency relies on perceptual systems that have been retrained to implement mathematical skills. Specifically, we investigated whether the visual system-in particular, object-based attention-is retrained so that parsing algebraic expressions and evaluating algebraic validity are accomplished by visual processing. Object-based attention occurs when the visual system organizes the world into discrete objects, which then guide the deployment of attention. One classic signature of object-based attention is better perceptual discrimination within, rather than between, visual objects. The current study reports that object-based attention occurs not only for simple shapes but also for symbolic mathematical elements within algebraic expressions-but only among individuals who have mastered the hierarchical syntax of algebra. Moreover, among these individuals, increased object-based attention within algebraic expressions is associated with a better ability to evaluate algebraic validity. These results suggest that, in mastering the rules of algebra, people retrain their visual system to represent and evaluate abstract mathematical structure. We thus argue that algebraic expertise involves the regimentation and reuse of evolutionarily ancient perceptual processes. Our findings implicate the visual system as central to learning and reasoning in mathematics, leading us to favor educational approaches to mathematics and related STEM fields that encourage students to adapt, not abandon, their use of perception.

  11. A hierarchical updating method for finite element model of airbag buffer system under landing impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Huan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose an impact finite element (FE model for an airbag landing buffer system. First, an impact FE model has been formulated for a typical airbag landing buffer system. We use the independence of the structure FE model from the full impact FE model to develop a hierarchical updating scheme for the recovery module FE model and the airbag system FE model. Second, we define impact responses at key points to compare the computational and experimental results to resolve the inconsistency between the experimental data sampling frequency and experimental triggering. To determine the typical characteristics of the impact dynamics response of the airbag landing buffer system, we present the impact response confidence factors (IRCFs to evaluate how consistent the computational and experiment results are. An error function is defined between the experimental and computational results at key points of the impact response (KPIR to serve as a modified objective function. A radial basis function (RBF is introduced to construct updating variables for a surrogate model for updating the objective function, thereby converting the FE model updating problem to a soluble optimization problem. Finally, the developed method has been validated using an experimental and computational study on the impact dynamics of a classic airbag landing buffer system.

  12. Adaptive Neural Network Controller for Thermogenerator Angular Velocity Stabilization System

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents an analytical and simulation approach for the selection of activation functions for the class of neural network controllers for ship’s thermogenerator angular velocity stabilization system. Such systems can be found in many ships. A Lyapunov-like stability analysis is performed in order to obtain a weight update law. A number of simulations were performed to find the best activation function using integral error criteria and statistical T-tests.

  13. Risk transfer modeling among hierarchically associated stakeholders in development of space systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkle, Thomas Grove, III

    Research develops an empirically derived cardinal model that prescribes handling and transfer of risks between organizations with hierarchical relationships. Descriptions of mission risk events, risk attitudes, and conditions for risk transfer are determined for client and underwriting entities associated with acquisition, production, and deployment of space systems. The hypothesis anticipates that large client organizations should be able to assume larger dollar-value risks of a program in comparison to smaller organizations even though many current risk transfer arrangements via space insurance violate this hypothesis. A literature survey covers conventional and current risk assessment methods, current techniques used in the satellite industry for complex system development, cardinal risk modeling, and relevant aspects of utility theory. Data gathered from open literature on demonstrated launch vehicle and satellite in-orbit reliability, annual space insurance premiums and losses, and ground fatalities and range damage associated with satellite launch activities are presented. Empirically derived models are developed for risk attitudes of space system clients and third-party underwriters associated with satellite system development and deployment. Two application topics for risk transfer are examined: the client-underwriter relationship on assumption or transfer of risks associated with first-year mission success, and statutory risk transfer agreements between space insurance underwriters and the US government to promote growth in both commercial client and underwriting industries. Results indicate that client entities with wealth of at least an order of magnitude above satellite project costs should retain risks to first-year mission success despite present trends. Furthermore, large client entities such as the US government should never pursue risk transfer via insurance under previously demonstrated probabilities of mission success; potential savings may

  14. ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS BASED GEARS MATERIAL SELECTION HYBRID INTELLIGENT SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    X.C. Li; W.X. Zhu; G. Chen; D.S. Mei; J. Zhang; K.M. Chen

    2003-01-01

    An artificial neural networks(ANNs) based gear material selection hybrid intelligent system is established by analyzing the individual advantages and weakness of expert system (ES) and ANNs and the applications in material select of them. The system mainly consists of tow parts: ES and ANNs. By being trained with much data samples,the back propagation (BP) ANN gets the knowledge of gear materials selection, and is able to inference according to user input. The system realizes the complementing of ANNs and ES. Using this system, engineers without materials selection experience can conveniently deal with gear materials selection.

  15. Superparamagnetic segmentation by excitable neural systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neirotti, Juan P; Kurcbart, Samuel M; Caticha, Nestor

    2003-09-01

    Magnetic modeling for clustering or segmentation purposes can either associate the image data to external quenched fields or to the interactions among a set of auxiliary variables. The latter gives rise to superparamagnetic segmentation and is usually done with Potts systems. We have used the superparamagnetic clustering technique to segment images, with the aid of different associated systems. Results using Potts model are comparable to those obtained using excitable FitzHugh-Nagumo and Morris-Lecar model neurons. Interactions between the associated system components are a function of the difference of luminosity on a gray scale of neighbor pixels and the difference of membrane potential.

  16. Hierarchical statistical analysis of complex analog and mixed-signal systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Matthew; Tang, Hua

    2014-12-01

    With increasing process parameter variations in nanometre regime, circuits and systems encounter significant performance variations and therefore statistical analysis has become increasingly important. For complex analog and mixed-signal circuits and systems, efficient yet accurate statistical analysis has been a challenge mainly due to significant simulation and modelling time. In the past years, there have been various approaches proposed for statistical analysis of analog and mixed-signal circuits. A recent work is reported to address statistical analysis for continuous-time Delta-Sigma modulators. In this article, we generalise that method and present a hierarchical method for efficient statistical analysis of complex analog and mixed-signal circuits while maintaining reasonable accuracy. At circuit level, we use the response surface modelling method to extract quadratic models of circuit-level performance parameters in terms of process parameters. Then at system level, we use behavioural models and apply the Monte-Carlo method for statistical evaluation of system performance parameters. We illustrate and validate the method on a continuous-time Delta-Sigma modulator and an analog filter.

  17. Hierarchical fiber-optic delamination detection system for carbon fiber reinforced plastic structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minakuchi, Shu; Banshoya, Hidehiko; Shingo, Ii; Takeda, Nobuo

    2012-10-01

    This study develops a delamination detection system by extending our previous approach for monitoring surface cracks in a large-scale composite structure. In the new system, numerous thin glass capillaries are embedded into a composite structure, and internal pressure in the built-in capillary sensors, based on comparative vacuum monitoring (CVM), is maintained as a vacuum. When delamination is induced, the capillary sensors located within the delaminated area are breached, and atmospheric air flows into the capillaries. The consequent pressure change within the capillaries is then converted into axial strain in a surface-mounted optical fiber through a transducing mechanism, which is connected to the capillaries. By monitoring the strain distribution along the optical fiber, it is possible to identify a transducing mechanism in which the pressure change occurred and thus to specify the location of the delamination. This study begins by establishing a novel sensor embedding/extracting method. The airflow characteristic in the capillary sensors is then comprehensively evaluated, determining the basic performance of the new system. The proposed detection technique is validated by taking a step-by-step approach, and finally the hierarchical fiber-optic delamination detection system is demonstrated. A further advance to be combined with a self-healing concept is also discussed.

  18. Perception Neural Networks for Active Noise Control Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Xiaoli

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In a response to a growing demand for environments of 70dB or less noise levels, many industrial sectors have focused with some form of noise control system. Active noise control (ANC has proven to be the most effective technology. This paper mainly investigates application of neural network on self-adaptation system in active noise control (ANC. An active silencing control system is made which adopts a motional feedback loudspeaker as not a noise controlling source but a detecting sensor. The working fundamentals and the characteristics of the motional feedback loudspeaker are analyzed in detail. By analyzing each acoustical path, identification based adaptive linear neural network is built. This kind of identifying method can be achieved conveniently. The estimated result of each sound channel matches well with its real sound character, respectively.

  19. Parameter estimation in space systems using recurrent neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parlos, Alexander G.; Atiya, Amir F.; Sunkel, John W.

    1991-01-01

    The identification of time-varying parameters encountered in space systems is addressed, using artificial neural systems. A hybrid feedforward/feedback neural network, namely a recurrent multilayer perception, is used as the model structure in the nonlinear system identification. The feedforward portion of the network architecture provides its well-known interpolation property, while through recurrency and cross-talk, the local information feedback enables representation of temporal variations in the system nonlinearities. The standard back-propagation-learning algorithm is modified and it is used for both the off-line and on-line supervised training of the proposed hybrid network. The performance of recurrent multilayer perceptron networks in identifying parameters of nonlinear dynamic systems is investigated by estimating the mass properties of a representative large spacecraft. The changes in the spacecraft inertia are predicted using a trained neural network, during two configurations corresponding to the early and late stages of the spacecraft on-orbit assembly sequence. The proposed on-line mass properties estimation capability offers encouraging results, though, further research is warranted for training and testing the predictive capabilities of these networks beyond nominal spacecraft operations.

  20. Serotonin-immunoreactive neural system and contractile system in the hydroid Cladonema (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayorova, T D; Kosevich, I A

    2013-12-01

    Serotonin is a widespread neurotransmitter which is present in almost all animal phyla including lower metazoans such as Cnidaria. Serotonin detected in the polyps of several cnidarian species participates in the functioning of a neural system. It was suggested that serotonin coordinates polyp behavior. For example, serotonin may be involved in muscle contraction and/or cnidocyte discharge. However, the role of serotonin in cnidarians is not revealed completely yet. The aim of this study was to investigate the neural system of Cladonema radiatum polyps. We detected the net of serotonin-positive processes within the whole hydranth body using anti-serotonin antibodies. The hypostome and tentacles had denser neural net in comparison with the gastric region. Electron microscopy revealed muscle processes throughout the hydranth body. Neural processes with specific vesicles and neurotubules in their cytoplasm were also shown at an ultrastructural level. This work demonstrates the structure of serotonin-positive neural system and smooth muscle layer in C. radiatum hydranths.

  1. 论“神”的系统性%A Hierarchical System of Shen(神)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁彰炫

    2001-01-01

    《内经》建立了新的神系统:天神-人神-五脏神系统。它把人为小宇宙之天人相应思想延伸到五脏,又把各藏认为是另一个宇宙。《内经》的这种天神-人神-五藏神之系统认识就是《内经》精神观之另一个特征,它认为天、人、藏是一个整体即太极体。天神、人神、藏神是主宰各太极体的规律,而且自身亦以一个整体存在,同时它们之间又相互影响。%Hierarchically,“Shen(神)” in Neijing(内经) has threelevels;“Cosmos-Shen(天神)” and “Man-Shen(人神)” and “WuZang-Shen(五藏神)”.“Cosmos Shen(天神)”,which is the “Great Law” is the basis of creation,change,develpoment,extinction of all things in the universe including man.“Man-Shen” which represents “Shen(神)” at the mundane level is the “Basic Principle” of human life,speaking broadly and mental function in a narrow sense. “WuZang-Shen(五藏神)” is lower level than “Man-Shen”. “WuZang-Shen” constitutes “Man-Shen” and simultaneously controlled by “Man-Shen”,with the characteristics of self-independence. Nejing systemizes the new notion of “Shen” system;the relation of “Cosmos-Shen”,“Man-Shen” and “WuZang-Shen” system. In the view of traditional chinese medicine,it is often said that the close relationship between Man and Cosmos is deeply reflected on the notion of microcosm. Neijing not only connects this notion of Cosmos with WuZang,but also regards each Zang as another Cosmos. The hierarchical system of “Shen” in Neijing is one of the characteristics of the epistemology of Neijing. It recognizes Cosmos,Man and Zang as the Integrity;“Taiji-Integrity(太极体)”. “Cosmos-Shen”,“Man-Shen” and “WuZang-Shen” are the principles and rules of each “Taiji-Integrity” and they also exist as the Integrity by themselves,having mutual influences on each other.

  2. Analysis of the DWPF glass pouring system using neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calloway, T.B. Jr.; Jantzen, C.M. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Technology Center; Medich, L.; Spennato, N. [Pavillion Technologies, Inc., Austin, TX (United States)

    1997-08-05

    Neural networks were used to determine the sensitivity of 39 selected Melter/Melter Off Gas and Melter Feed System process parameters as related to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Melter Pour Spout Pressure during the overall analysis and resolution of the DWPF glass production and pouring issues. Two different commercial neural network software packages were used for this analysis. Models were developed and used to determine the critical parameters which accurately describe the DWPF Pour Spout Pressure. The model created using a low-end software package has a root mean square error of {+-} 0.35 inwc (< 2% of the instrument`s measured range, R{sup 2} = 0.77) with respect to the plant data used to validate and test the model. The model created using a high-end software package has a R{sub 2} = 0.97 with respect to the plant data used to validate and test the model. The models developed for this application identified the key process parameters which contribute to the control of the DWPF Melter Pour Spout pressure during glass pouring operations. The relative contribution and ranking of the selected parameters was determined using the modeling software. Neural network computing software was determined to be a cost-effective software tool for process engineers performing troubleshooting and system performance monitoring activities. In remote high-level waste processing environments, neural network software is especially useful as a replacement for sensors which have failed and are costly to replace. The software can be used to accurately model critical remotely installed plant instrumentation. When the instrumentation fails, the software can be used to provide a soft sensor to replace the actual sensor, thereby decreasing the overall operating cost. Additionally, neural network software tools require very little training and are especially useful in mining or selecting critical variables from the vast amounts of data collected from process computers.

  3. Statistical Physics of Neural Systems with Nonadditive Dendritic Coupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Breuer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available How neurons process their inputs crucially determines the dynamics of biological and artificial neural networks. In such neural and neural-like systems, synaptic input is typically considered to be merely transmitted linearly or sublinearly by the dendritic compartments. Yet, single-neuron experiments report pronounced supralinear dendritic summation of sufficiently synchronous and spatially close-by inputs. Here, we provide a statistical physics approach to study the impact of such nonadditive dendritic processing on single-neuron responses and the performance of associative-memory tasks in artificial neural networks. First, we compute the effect of random input to a neuron incorporating nonlinear dendrites. This approach is independent of the details of the neuronal dynamics. Second, we use those results to study the impact of dendritic nonlinearities on the network dynamics in a paradigmatic model for associative memory, both numerically and analytically. We find that dendritic nonlinearities maintain network convergence and increase the robustness of memory performance against noise. Interestingly, an intermediate number of dendritic branches is optimal for memory functionality.

  4. NNIC—neural network image compressor for satellite positioning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danchenko, Pavel; Lifshits, Feodor; Orion, Itzhak; Koren, Sion; Solomon, Alan D.; Mark, Shlomo

    2007-04-01

    We have developed an algorithm, based on novel techniques of data compression and neural networks for the optimal positioning of a satellite. The algorithm is described in detail, and examples of its application are given. The heart of this algorithm is the program NNIC—neural network image compressor. This program was developed for compression color and grayscale images with artificial neural networks (ANNs). NNIC applies three different methods for compression. Two of them are based on neural networks architectures—multilayer perceptron and kohonen network. The third is based on a widely used method of discrete cosine transform, the basis for the JPEG standard. The program also serves as a tool for determining numerical and visual quality parameters of compression and comparison between different methods. A number of advantages and disadvantages of the compression using ANNs were discovered in the course of the present research, some of them presented in this report. The thrust of the report is the discussion of ANNs implementation problems for modern platforms, such as a satellite positioning system that include intensive image flowing and processing.

  5. A Rapid Prototyping Tool for Embedded, Real-Time Hierarchical Control Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramamoorthy Subramanian

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Laboratory Virtual Instrumentation and Engineering Workbench (LabVIEW is a graphical programming tool based on the dataflow language G. Recently, runtime support for a hard real-time environment has become available for LabVIEW, which makes it an option for embedded systems prototyping. Due to its characteristics, the environment presents itself as an ideal tool for both the design and implementation of embedded software. In this paper, we study the design and implementation of embedded software by using G as the specification language and the LabVIEW RT real-time platform. One of the main advantages of this approach is that the environment leads itself to a very smooth transition from design to implementation, allowing for powerful cosimulation strategies (e.g., hardware in the loop, runtime modeling. We characterize the semantics and formal model of computation of G. We compare it to other models of computation and develop design rules and algorithms to propose sound embedded design in the language. We investigate the specification and mapping of hierarchical control systems in LabVIEW and G. Finally, we describe the development of a state-of-the-art embedded motion control system using LabVIEW as the specification, simulation and implementation tool, using the proposed design principles. The solution is state-of-the-art in terms of flexibility and control performance.

  6. Optimal Hierarchical Decision-Making for Heat Source Selection of District Heating Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Fang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of China’s urbanization, the proportion between the heating consumption and the energy consumption of the whole society keeps rising in recent years. For a district heating system, the selection of the heat source makes significant impact on the energy efficiency and the pollutant emissions. By integrating the methods of the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP and the Preference Ranking Organization Method for Enrichment Evaluation (PROMETHEE, a multiple-attribute decision-making scheme for the heat source selection of district heating systems is proposed in this paper. As a core part of this scheme, a comprehensive benefit index with hierarchical parallel structure is constructed. The economic benefit, environment benefit, and technical benefit can be reflected with a certain percentage in the comprehensive benefit index. To test the efficiency of the proposed scheme, a case study for a large-scale district heating system in Beijing is carried out, where five kinds of heat sources (water source heat pump, ground source heat pump, gas-fired boiler, coal-fired boiler, and oil-fired boiler are taken into account. The analysis and instructions for the final sorting result are also demonstrated.

  7. A Hierarchical Auction-Based Mechanism for Real-Time Resource Allocation in Cloud Robotic Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lujia; Liu, Ming; Meng, Max Q-H

    2017-02-01

    Cloud computing enables users to share computing resources on-demand. The cloud computing framework cannot be directly mapped to cloud robotic systems with ad hoc networks since cloud robotic systems have additional constraints such as limited bandwidth and dynamic structure. However, most multirobotic applications with cooperative control adopt this decentralized approach to avoid a single point of failure. Robots need to continuously update intensive data to execute tasks in a coordinated manner, which implies real-time requirements. Thus, a resource allocation strategy is required, especially in such resource-constrained environments. This paper proposes a hierarchical auction-based mechanism, namely link quality matrix (LQM) auction, which is suitable for ad hoc networks by introducing a link quality indicator. The proposed algorithm produces a fast and robust method that is accurate and scalable. It reduces both global communication and unnecessary repeated computation. The proposed method is designed for firm real-time resource retrieval for physical multirobot systems. A joint surveillance scenario empirically validates the proposed mechanism by assessing several practical metrics. The results show that the proposed LQM auction outperforms state-of-the-art algorithms for resource allocation.

  8. A Rapid Prototyping Tool for Embedded, Real-Time Hierarchical Control Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Andrade

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory Virtual Instrumentation and Engineering Workbench (LabVIEW is a graphical programming tool based on the dataflow language G. Recently, runtime support for a hard real-time environment has become available for LabVIEW, which makes it an option for embedded systems prototyping. Due to its characteristics, the environment presents itself as an ideal tool for both the design and implementation of embedded software. In this paper, we study the design and implementation of embedded software by using G as the specification language and the LabVIEW RT real-time platform. One of the main advantages of this approach is that the environment leads itself to a very smooth transition from design to implementation, allowing for powerful cosimulation strategies (e.g., hardware in the loop, runtime modeling. We characterize the semantics and formal model of computation of G. We compare it to other models of computation and develop design rules and algorithms to propose sound embedded design in the language. We investigate the specification and mapping of hierarchical control systems in LabVIEW and G. Finally, we describe the development of a state-of-the-art embedded motion control system using LabVIEW as the specification, simulation and implementation tool, using the proposed design principles. The solution is state-of-the-art in terms of flexibility and control performance.

  9. Neural-Fuzzy Approach for System Identification.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tien, B.T.

    1997-01-01

    Most real-world processes have nonlinear and complex dynamics. Conventional methods of constructing nonlinear models from first principles are time consuming and require a level of knowledge about the internal functioning of the system that is often not available. Consequently, in such cases a nonli

  10. Evolutionary Computation and Its Applications in Neural and Fuzzy Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biaobiao Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Neural networks and fuzzy systems are two soft-computing paradigms for system modelling. Adapting a neural or fuzzy system requires to solve two optimization problems: structural optimization and parametric optimization. Structural optimization is a discrete optimization problem which is very hard to solve using conventional optimization techniques. Parametric optimization can be solved using conventional optimization techniques, but the solution may be easily trapped at a bad local optimum. Evolutionary computation is a general-purpose stochastic global optimization approach under the universally accepted neo-Darwinian paradigm, which is a combination of the classical Darwinian evolutionary theory, the selectionism of Weismann, and the genetics of Mendel. Evolutionary algorithms are a major approach to adaptation and optimization. In this paper, we first introduce evolutionary algorithms with emphasis on genetic algorithms and evolutionary strategies. Other evolutionary algorithms such as genetic programming, evolutionary programming, particle swarm optimization, immune algorithm, and ant colony optimization are also described. Some topics pertaining to evolutionary algorithms are also discussed, and a comparison between evolutionary algorithms and simulated annealing is made. Finally, the application of EAs to the learning of neural networks as well as to the structural and parametric adaptations of fuzzy systems is also detailed.

  11. Pulp regeneration in a full-length human tooth root using a hierarchical nanofibrous microsphere system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiangwei; Ma, Chi; Xie, Xiaohua; Sun, Hongchen; Liu, Xiaohua

    2016-04-15

    While pulp regeneration using tissue engineering strategy has been explored for over a decade, successful regeneration of pulp tissues in a full-length human root with a one-end seal that truly simulates clinical endodontic treatment has not been achieved. To address this challenge, we designed and synthesized a unique hierarchical growth factor-loaded nanofibrous microsphere scaffolding system. In this system, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) binds with heparin and is encapsulated in heparin-conjugated gelatin nanospheres, which are further immobilized in the nanofibers of an injectable poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) microsphere. This hierarchical microsphere system not only protects the VEGF from denaturation and degradation, but also provides excellent control of its sustained release. In addition, the nanofibrous PLLA microsphere integrates the extracellular matrix-mimicking architecture with a highly porous injectable form, efficiently accommodating dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) and supporting their proliferation and pulp tissue formation. Our in vivo study showed the successful regeneration of pulp-like tissues that fulfilled the entire apical and middle thirds and reached the coronal third of the full-length root canal. In addition, a large number of blood vessels were regenerated throughout the canal. For the first time, our work demonstrates the success of pulp tissue regeneration in a full-length root canal, making it a significant step toward regenerative endodontics. The regeneration of pulp tissues in a full-length tooth root canal has been one of the greatest challenges in the field of regenerative endodontics, and one of the biggest barriers for its clinical application. In this study, we developed a unique approach to tackle this challenge, and for the first time, we successfully regenerated living pulp tissues in a full-length root canal, making it a significant step toward regenerative endodontics. This study will make positive scientific

  12. Exploring the function of neural oscillations in early sensory systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kilian Koepsell

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Neuronal oscillations appear throughout the nervous system, in structures as diverse as the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, subcortical nuclei and sense organs. Whether or not neural rhythms contribute to normal function, are merely epiphenomena, or even interfere with physiological processing are topics of vigorous debate. Sensory pathways are ideal for investigation of oscillatory activity because their inputs can be defined. Thus, we will focus on sensory systems as we ask how neural oscillations arise and how they might encode information about the stimulus. We will highlight recent work in the early visual pathway that shows how oscillations can multiplex different types of signals to increase the amount of information that spike trains encode and transmit. Last, we will describe oscillation-based models of visual processing and explore how they might guide further research.

  13. Using Neural Networks to improve classical Operating System Fingerprinting techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Sarraute, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    We present remote Operating System detection as an inference problem: given a set of observations (the target host responses to a set of tests), we want to infer the OS type which most probably generated these observations. Classical techniques used to perform this analysis present several limitations. To improve the analysis, we have developed tools using neural networks and Statistics tools. We present two working modules: one which uses DCE-RPC endpoints to distinguish Windows versions, and another which uses Nmap signatures to distinguish different version of Windows, Linux, Solaris, OpenBSD, FreeBSD and NetBSD systems. We explain the details of the topology and inner workings of the neural networks used, and the fine tuning of their parameters. Finally we show positive experimental results.

  14. Spiking Neural P Systems with Neuron Division and Dissolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiyu; Wang, Wenping

    2016-01-01

    Spiking neural P systems are a new candidate in spiking neural network models. By using neuron division and budding, such systems can generate/produce exponential working space in linear computational steps, thus provide a way to solve computational hard problems in feasible (linear or polynomial) time with a “time-space trade-off” strategy. In this work, a new mechanism called neuron dissolution is introduced, by which redundant neurons produced during the computation can be removed. As applications, uniform solutions to two NP-hard problems: SAT problem and Subset Sum problem are constructed in linear time, working in a deterministic way. The neuron dissolution strategy is used to eliminate invalid solutions, and all answers to these two problems are encoded as indices of output neurons. Our results improve the one obtained in Science China Information Sciences, 2011, 1596-1607 by Pan et al. PMID:27627104

  15. Hierarchical auxetic mechanical metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatt, Ruben; Mizzi, Luke; Azzopardi, Joseph I; Azzopardi, Keith M; Attard, Daphne; Casha, Aaron; Briffa, Joseph; Grima, Joseph N

    2015-02-11

    Auxetic mechanical metamaterials are engineered systems that exhibit the unusual macroscopic property of a negative Poisson's ratio due to sub-unit structure rather than chemical composition. Although their unique behaviour makes them superior to conventional materials in many practical applications, they are limited in availability. Here, we propose a new class of hierarchical auxetics based on the rotating rigid units mechanism. These systems retain the enhanced properties from having a negative Poisson's ratio with the added benefits of being a hierarchical system. Using simulations on typical hierarchical multi-level rotating squares, we show that, through design, one can control the extent of auxeticity, degree of aperture and size of the different pores in the system. This makes the system more versatile than similar non-hierarchical ones, making them promising candidates for industrial and biomedical applications, such as stents and skin grafts.

  16. Hierarchical Auxetic Mechanical Metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatt, Ruben; Mizzi, Luke; Azzopardi, Joseph I.; Azzopardi, Keith M.; Attard, Daphne; Casha, Aaron; Briffa, Joseph; Grima, Joseph N.

    2015-02-01

    Auxetic mechanical metamaterials are engineered systems that exhibit the unusual macroscopic property of a negative Poisson's ratio due to sub-unit structure rather than chemical composition. Although their unique behaviour makes them superior to conventional materials in many practical applications, they are limited in availability. Here, we propose a new class of hierarchical auxetics based on the rotating rigid units mechanism. These systems retain the enhanced properties from having a negative Poisson's ratio with the added benefits of being a hierarchical system. Using simulations on typical hierarchical multi-level rotating squares, we show that, through design, one can control the extent of auxeticity, degree of aperture and size of the different pores in the system. This makes the system more versatile than similar non-hierarchical ones, making them promising candidates for industrial and biomedical applications, such as stents and skin grafts.

  17. Neuroeconomics--from neural systems to economic behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braeutigam, Sven

    2005-11-15

    Neuroeconomics is a new and highly interdisciplinary field. Drawing from theories and methodologies employed in both economics and neuroscience, it aims at understanding the neural systems supporting and affecting economically relevant behaviour in real-life situations. Although incomplete, the evidence is beginning to clarify with the possibility that neuroeconomic methodology might eventually trace whole processes of economically relevant behaviour. This paper accompanies the author's ConNEcs 2004 keynote speech on applications of neuroeconomic research.

  18. Adaptive control of system with hysteresis using neural networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Chuntao; Tan Yonghong

    2006-01-01

    An adaptive control scheme is developed for a class of single-input nonlinear systems preceded by unknown hysteresis, which is a non-differentiable and multi-value mapping nonlinearity. The controller based on the three-layer neural network (NN), whose weights are derived from Lyapunov stability analysis, guarantees closed-loop semiglobal stability and convergence of the tracking errors to a small residual set. An example is used to confirm the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme.

  19. Hierarchical Novelty-Familiarity Representation in the Visual System by Modular Predictive Coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladimirskiy, Boris; Urbanczik, Robert; Senn, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Predictive coding has been previously introduced as a hierarchical coding framework for the visual system. At each level, activity predicted by the higher level is dynamically subtracted from the input, while the difference in activity continuously propagates further. Here we introduce modular predictive coding as a feedforward hierarchy of prediction modules without back-projections from higher to lower levels. Within each level, recurrent dynamics optimally segregates the input into novelty and familiarity components. Although the anatomical feedforward connectivity passes through the novelty-representing neurons, it is nevertheless the familiarity information which is propagated to higher levels. This modularity results in a twofold advantage compared to the original predictive coding scheme: the familiarity-novelty representation forms quickly, and at each level the full representational power is exploited for an optimized readout. As we show, natural images are successfully compressed and can be reconstructed by the familiarity neurons at each level. Missing information on different spatial scales is identified by novelty neurons and complements the familiarity representation. Furthermore, by virtue of the recurrent connectivity within each level, non-classical receptive field properties still emerge. Hence, modular predictive coding is a biologically realistic metaphor for the visual system that dynamically extracts novelty at various scales while propagating the familiarity information.

  20. Hierarchical Bayesian methods for estimation of parameters in a longitudinal HIV dynamic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yangxin; Liu, Dacheng; Wu, Hulin

    2006-06-01

    HIV dynamics studies have significantly contributed to the understanding of HIV infection and antiviral treatment strategies. But most studies are limited to short-term viral dynamics due to the difficulty of establishing a relationship of antiviral response with multiple treatment factors such as drug exposure and drug susceptibility during long-term treatment. In this article, a mechanism-based dynamic model is proposed for characterizing long-term viral dynamics with antiretroviral therapy, described by a set of nonlinear differential equations without closed-form solutions. In this model we directly incorporate drug concentration, adherence, and drug susceptibility into a function of treatment efficacy, defined as an inhibition rate of virus replication. We investigate a Bayesian approach under the framework of hierarchical Bayesian (mixed-effects) models for estimating unknown dynamic parameters. In particular, interest focuses on estimating individual dynamic parameters. The proposed methods not only help to alleviate the difficulty in parameter identifiability, but also flexibly deal with sparse and unbalanced longitudinal data from individual subjects. For illustration purposes, we present one simulation example to implement the proposed approach and apply the methodology to a data set from an AIDS clinical trial. The basic concept of the longitudinal HIV dynamic systems and the proposed methodologies are generally applicable to any other biomedical dynamic systems.

  1. A Hybrid System of Hierarchical Planning of Behaviour Selection Networks for Mobile Robot Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Seol Lee

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available An office delivery robot receives a large amount of sensory data and there is uncertainty in its action outcomes. The robot should not only accomplish its goals using environmental information, but also consider various exceptions simultaneously. In this paper, we propose a hybrid system using hierarchical planning of modular behaviour selection networks to generate autonomous behaviour in the office delivery robot. Behaviour selection networks, one of the well-known behaviour-based methods suitable for goal-oriented tasks, are made up of several smaller behaviour modules. Planning is attached to the construct and adjust sequences of the modules by considering the sub-goals, the priority in each task and the user feedback. This helps the robot to quickly react in dynamic situations as well as achieve global goals efficiently. The proposed system is verified with both the Webot simulator and a Khepera II robot that runs in a real office environment carrying out delivery tasks. Experimental results have shown that a robot can achieve goals and generate module sequences successfully even in unpredictable situations. Additionally, the proposed planning method reduced the elapsed time during tasks by 17.5% since it adjusts the behaviour module sequences more effectively.

  2. Hierarchical effector protein transport by the Salmonella Typhimurium SPI-1 type III secretion system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brit Winnen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Type III secretion systems (TTSS are employed by numerous pathogenic and symbiotic bacteria to inject a cocktail of different "effector proteins" into host cells. These effectors subvert host cell signaling to establish symbiosis or disease. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have studied the injection of SipA and SptP, two effector proteins of the invasion-associated Salmonella type III secretion system (TTSS-1. SipA and SptP trigger different host cell responses. SipA contributes to triggering actin rearrangements and invasion while SptP reverses the actin rearrangements after the invasion has been completed. Nevertheless, SipA and SptP were both pre-formed and stored in the bacterial cytosol before host cell encounter. By time lapse microscopy, we observed that SipA was injected earlier than SptP. Computer modeling revealed that two assumptions were sufficient to explain this injection hierarchy: a large number of SipA and SptP molecules compete for transport via a limiting number of TTSS; and the TTSS recognize SipA more efficiently than SptP. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This novel mechanism of hierarchical effector protein injection may serve to avoid functional interference between SipA and SptP. An injection hierarchy of this type may be of general importance, allowing bacteria to precisely time the host cell manipulation by type III effectors.

  3. Dynamics of triple black hole systems in hierarchically merging massive galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Hoffman, L; Hoffman, Loren; Loeb, Abraham

    2006-01-01

    Galaxies with stellar bulges are generically observed to host supermassive black holes (SMBHs). The hierarchical merging of galaxies should therefore lead to the formation of SMBH binaries. Merging of old massive galaxies with little gas promotes the formation of low-density nuclei where SMBH binaries are expected to survive over long times. If the binary lifetime exceeds the typical time between mergers, then triple-black-hole systems may form. Such systems can lead to the ejection of one of the black holes (BHs) at a speed exceeding 1000 km/s, far greater than attainable through gravitational radiation recoil. We study the statistics of close triple-SMBH encounters in galactic nuclei by computing a series of three-body orbits with physically-motivated initial conditions appropriate for giant elliptical galaxies. Our simulations include a smooth background potential consisting of a stellar bulge plus a dark matter halo, drag forces due to gravitational radiation and dynamical friction on the stars and dark m...

  4. HD 35502: a hierarchical triple system with a magnetic B5IVpe primary

    CERN Document Server

    Sikora, James; Bohlender, David; Shultz, Matt; Adelman, Saul; Alecian, Evelyne; Hanes, David; Monin, Dmitry; Neiner, Coralie; MiMeS, the

    2016-01-01

    We present our analysis of HD~35502 based on high- and medium-resolution spectropolarimetric observations. Our results indicate that the magnetic B5IVsnp star is the primary component of a spectroscopic triple system and that it has an effective temperature of $18.4\\pm0.6\\,{\\rm kK}$, a mass of $5.7\\pm0.6\\,M_\\odot$, and a polar radius of $3.0^{+1.1}_{-0.5}\\,R_\\odot$. The two secondary components are found to be essentially identical A-type stars for which we derive effective temperatures ($8.9\\pm0.3\\,{\\rm kK}$), masses ($2.1\\pm0.2\\,M_\\odot$), and radii ($2.1\\pm0.4\\,R_\\odot$). We infer a hierarchical orbital configuration for the system in which the secondary components form a tight binary with an orbital period of $5.66866(6)\\,{\\rm d}$ that orbits the primary component with a period of over $40\\,{\\rm yrs}$. Least-Squares Deconvolution (LSD) profiles reveal Zeeman signatures in Stokes $V$ indicative of a longitudinal magnetic field produced by the B star ranging from approximately $-4$ to $0\\,{\\rm kG}$ with a m...

  5. Neural systems supporting the control of affective and cognitive conflicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochsner, Kevin N; Hughes, Brent; Robertson, Elaine R; Cooper, Jeffrey C; Gabrieli, John D E

    2009-09-01

    Although many studies have examined the neural bases of controlling cognitive responses, the neural systems for controlling conflicts between competing affective responses remain unclear. To address the neural correlates of affective conflict and their relationship to cognitive conflict, the present study collected whole-brain fMRI data during two versions of the Eriksen flanker task. For these tasks, participants indicated either the valence (affective task) or the semantic category (cognitive task) of a central target word while ignoring flanking words that mapped onto either the same (congruent) or a different (incongruent) response as the target. Overall, contrasts of incongruent > congruent trials showed that bilateral dorsal ACC, posterior medial frontal cortex, and dorsolateral pFC were active during both kinds of conflict, whereas rostral medial pFC and left ventrolateral pFC were differentially active during affective or cognitive conflict, respectively. Individual difference analyses showed that separate regions of rostral cingulate/ventromedial pFC and left ventrolateral pFC were positively correlated with the magnitude of response time interference. Taken together, the findings that controlling affective and cognitive conflicts depends upon both common and distinct systems have important implications for understanding the organization of control systems in general and their potential dysfunction in clinical disorders.

  6. Neural feedback linearization adaptive control for affine nonlinear systems based on neural network estimator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahita Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we introduce an adaptive neural network controller for a class of nonlinear systems. The approach uses two Radial Basis Functions, RBF networks. The first RBF network is used to approximate the ideal control law which cannot be implemented since the dynamics of the system are unknown. The second RBF network is used for on-line estimating the control gain which is a nonlinear and unknown function of the states. The updating laws for the combined estimator and controller are derived through Lyapunov analysis. Asymptotic stability is established with the tracking errors converging to a neighborhood of the origin. Finally, the proposed method is applied to control and stabilize the inverted pendulum system.

  7. Numerical expression of general relationships in hierarchical data base management systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, R. C.

    1980-01-01

    The need for a means to express general relationships among entity occurrences in hierarchical data bases is addressed. Integer expression of general path segments is described as a means to meet this need. Operations on the expressions are also described. Two possible implementations are discussed. Both implementations are compatible with the hierarchical data model, and provide a logical extension that permits representation of many-to-many relationships. 4 figures.

  8. Fuzzy-Neural Automatic Daylight Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grif H. Şt.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the design and the tuning of a CMAC controller (Cerebellar Model Articulation Controller implemented in an automatic daylight control application. After the tuning process of the controller, the authors studied the behavior of the automatic lighting control system (ALCS in the presence of luminance disturbances. The luminance disturbances were produced by the authors in night conditions and day conditions as well. During the night conditions, the luminance disturbances were produced by turning on and off a halogen desk lamp. During the day conditions the luminance disturbances were produced in two ways: by daylight contributions changes achieved by covering and uncovering a part of the office window and by turning on and off a halogen desk lamp. During the day conditions the luminance disturbances, produced by turning on and off the halogen lamp, have a smaller amplitude than those produced during the night conditions. The luminance disturbance during the night conditions was a helpful tool to select the proper values of the learning rate for CMAC controller. The luminance disturbances during the day conditions were a helpful tool to demonstrate the right setting of the CMAC controller.

  9. Predictive and Neural Predictive Control of Uncertain Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelkar, Atul G.

    2000-01-01

    Accomplishments and future work are:(1) Stability analysis: the work completed includes characterization of stability of receding horizon-based MPC in the setting of LQ paradigm. The current work-in-progress includes analyzing local as well as global stability of the closed-loop system under various nonlinearities; for example, actuator nonlinearities; sensor nonlinearities, and other plant nonlinearities. Actuator nonlinearities include three major types of nonlineaxities: saturation, dead-zone, and (0, 00) sector. (2) Robustness analysis: It is shown that receding horizon parameters such as input and output horizon lengths have direct effect on the robustness of the system. (3) Code development: A matlab code has been developed which can simulate various MPC formulations. The current effort is to generalize the code to include ability to handle all plant types and all MPC types. (4) Improved predictor: It is shown that MPC design using better predictors that can minimize prediction errors. It is shown analytically and numerically that Smith predictor can provide closed-loop stability under GPC operation for plants with dead times where standard optimal predictor fails. (5) Neural network predictors: When neural network is used as predictor it can be shown that neural network predicts the plant output within some finite error bound under certain conditions. Our preliminary study shows that with proper choice of update laws and network architectures such bound can be obtained. However, much work needs to be done to obtain a similar result in general case.

  10. Motivation alters impression formation and related neural systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Brent L; Zaki, Jamil; Ambady, Nalini

    2017-01-01

    Observers frequently form impressions of other people based on complex or conflicting information. Rather than being objective, these impressions are often biased by observers' motives. For instance, observers often downplay negative information they learn about ingroup members. Here, we characterize the neural systems associated with biased impression formation. Participants learned positive and negative information about ingroup and outgroup social targets. Following this information, participants worsened their impressions of outgroup, but not ingroup, targets. This tendency was associated with a failure to engage neural structures including lateral prefrontal cortex, dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, temporoparietal junction, Insula and Precuneus when processing negative information about ingroup (but not outgroup) targets. To the extent that participants engaged these regions while learning negative information about ingroup members, they exhibited less ingroup bias in their impressions. These data are consistent with a model of 'effortless bias', under which perceivers fail to process goal-inconsistent information in order to maintain desired conclusions.

  11. Adult neural stem cells in the mammalian central nervous system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dengke K Ma; Michael A Bonaguidi; Guo-li Ming; Hongjun Song

    2009-01-01

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) are present not only during the embryonic development but also in the adult brain of all mammalian species, including humans. Stem cell niche architecture in vivo enables adult NSCs to continuously generate functional neurons in specific brain regions throughout life. The adult neurogenesis process is subject to dynamic regulation by various physiological, pathological and pharmacological stimuli. Multipotent adult NSCs also appear to be intrinsically plastic, amenable to genetic programing during normal differentiation, and to epigenetic reprograming during de-differentiation into pluripotency. Increasing evidence suggests that adult NSCs significantly contribute to specialized neural functions under physiological and pathological conditions. Fully understanding the biology of adult NSCs will provide crucial insights into both the etiology and potential therapeutic interventions of major brain disorders. Here, we review recent progress on adult NSCs of the mammalian central nervous system, in-cluding topics on their identity, niche, function, plasticity, and emerging roles in cancer and regenerative medicine.

  12. VLSI neural system architecture for finite ring recursive reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, D; Jullien, G A

    1996-12-01

    The use of neural-like networks to implement finite ring computations has been presented in a previous paper. This paper develops efficient VLSI neural system architecture for the finite ring recursive reduction (FRRR), including module reduction, MSB carry iteration and feedforward processing. These techniques deal with the basic principles involved in constructing a FRRR, and their implementations are efficiently matched to the VLSI medium. Compared with the other structure models for finite ring computation (e.g. modification of binary arithmetic logic and bit-steered ROM's), the FRRR structure has the lowest area complexity in silicon while maintaining a high throughput rate. Examples of several implementations are used to illustrate the effectiveness of the FRRR architecture.

  13. Intelligent systems II complete approximation by neural network operators

    CERN Document Server

    Anastassiou, George A

    2016-01-01

    This monograph is the continuation and completion of the monograph, “Intelligent Systems: Approximation by Artificial Neural Networks” written by the same author and published 2011 by Springer. The book you hold in hand presents the complete recent and original work of the author in approximation by neural networks. Chapters are written in a self-contained style and can be read independently. Advanced courses and seminars can be taught out of this brief book. All necessary background and motivations are given per chapter. A related list of references is given also per chapter. The book’s results are expected to find applications in many areas of applied mathematics, computer science and engineering. As such this monograph is suitable for researchers, graduate students, and seminars of the above subjects, also for all science and engineering libraries.  .

  14. Interplay between Network Topology and Dynamics in Neural Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Samuel

    2013-01-01

    This thesis is a compendium of research which brings together ideas from the fields of Complex Networks and Computational Neuroscience to address two questions regarding neural systems: 1) How the activity of neurons, via synaptic changes, can shape the topology of the network they form part of, and 2) How the resulting network structure, in its turn, might condition aspects of brain behaviour. Although the emphasis is on neural networks, several theoretical findings which are relevant for complex networks in general are presented -- such as a method for studying network evolution as a stochastic process, or a theory that allows for ensembles of correlated networks, and sets of dynamical elements thereon, to be treated mathematically and computationally in a model-independent manner. Some of the results are used to explain experimental data -- certain properties of brain tissue, the spontaneous emergence of correlations in all kinds of networks... -- and predictions regarding statistical aspects of the centra...

  15. Secular chaotic dynamics in hierarchical quadruple systems, with applications to hot Jupiters in stellar binaries and triples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamers, Adrian S.; Lai, Dong

    2017-09-01

    Hierarchical quadruple systems arise naturally in stellar binaries and triples that harbour planets. Examples are hot Jupiters (HJs) in stellar triple systems, and planetary companions to HJs in stellar binaries. The secular dynamical evolution of these systems is generally complex, with secular chaotic motion possible in certain parameter regimes. The latter can lead to extremely high eccentricities and, therefore, strong interactions such as efficient tidal evolution. These interactions are believed to play an important role in the formation of HJs through high-eccentricity migration. Nevertheless, a deeper understanding of the secular dynamics of these systems is still lacking. Here, we study in detail the secular dynamics of a special case of hierarchical quadruple systems in either the '2+2' or '3+1' configurations. We show how the equations of motion can be cast in a form representing a perturbed hierarchical three-body system, in which the outer orbital angular-momentum vector is precessing steadily around a fixed axis. In this case, we show that eccentricity excitation can be significantly enhanced when the precession period is comparable to the Lidov-Kozai oscillation time-scale of the inner orbit. This arises from an induced large mutual inclination between the inner and outer orbits driven by the precession of the outer orbit, even if the initial mutual inclination is small. We present a simplified semi-analytic model that describes the latter phenomenon.

  16. Modeling the Competitiveness of Indonesian Palm Oil Industry: A Conceptual Model Using Hierarchical Multi-Level System Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Y.H. Silitonga

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Indonesian Palm Oil Industry has the largest market share in the world, but still faces problems in order to strengthen the level of competitiveness. Those problems are in the industry chains, government regulation and policy as meso environment, and macro economic condition. Therefore these three elements should be considered when analyzing the improvement of competitiveness. Here, the governmental element is hoped to create a conducive environment. This paper presents the industry competitiveness conceptual model, using hierarchical multilevel system approach. The Hierarchical multilevel system approach is used to accommodate the complexity of the industrial relation and the government position as the meso environment. The step to develop the model firstly is to define the relevant system. Secondly, is to formulate the output of the model that is competitiveness in the form of indicator. Then, the relevant system with competitiveness as the output is built into a conceptual model using hierarchical multilevel system. The conceptual model is then discussed to see if it can explain the relevant system, and the potential of it to be developed into mathematical model.

  17. Hierarchical Velocity Control Based on Differential Flatness for a DC/DC Buck Converter-DC Motor System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Silva-Ortigoza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a hierarchical controller that carries out the angular velocity trajectory tracking task for a DC motor driven by a DC/DC Buck converter. The high level control is related to the DC motor and the low level control is dedicated to the DC/DC Buck converter; both controls are designed via differential flatness. The high level control provides a desired voltage profile for the DC motor to achieve the tracking of a desired angular velocity trajectory. Then, a low level control is designed to ensure that the output voltage of the DC/DC Buck converter tracks the voltage profile imposed by the high level control. In order to experimentally verify the hierarchical controller performance, a DS1104 electronic board from dSPACE and Matlab-Simulink are used. The switched implementation of the hierarchical average controller is accomplished by means of pulse width modulation. Experimental results of the hierarchical controller for the velocity trajectory tracking task show good performance and robustness against the uncertainties associated with different system parameters.

  18. An Integrated Model Based on a Hierarchical Indices System for Monitoring and Evaluating Urban Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xulin Guo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Over 50% of world’s population presently resides in cities, and this number is expected to rise to ~70% by 2050. Increasing urbanization problems including population growth, urban sprawl, land use change, unemployment, and environmental degradation, have markedly impacted urban residents’ Quality of Life (QOL. Therefore, urban sustainability and its measurement have gained increasing attention from administrators, urban planners, and scientific communities throughout the world with respect to improving urban development and human well-being. The widely accepted definition of urban sustainability emphasizes the balancing development of three primary domains (urban economy, society, and environment. This article attempts to improve the aforementioned definition of urban sustainability by incorporating a human well-being dimension. Major problems identified in existing urban sustainability indicator (USI models include a weak integration of potential indicators, poor measurement and quantification, and insufficient spatial-temporal analysis. To tackle these challenges an integrated USI model based on a hierarchical indices system was established for monitoring and evaluating urban sustainability. This model can be performed by quantifying indicators using both traditional statistical approaches and advanced geomatic techniques based on satellite imagery and census data, which aims to provide a theoretical basis for a comprehensive assessment of urban sustainability from a spatial-temporal perspective.

  19. Mobile Agent Based Hierarchical Intrusion Detection System in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surraya Khanum

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Security mechanism is a fundamental requirement of wireless networks in general and Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN in particular. Therefore, it is necessary that this security concern must be articulate right from the beginning of the network design and deployment. WSN needs strong security mechanism as it is usually deployed in a critical, hostile and sensitive environment where human labour is usually not involved. However, due to inbuilt resource and computing restriction, security in WSN needs a special consideration. Traditional security techniques such as encryption, VPN, authentication and firewalls cannot be directly applied to WSN as it provides defence only against external threats. The existing literature shows that there seems an inverse relationship between strong security mechanism and efficient network resource utilization. In this research article, we have proposed a Mobile Agent Based Hierarchical Intrusion Detection System (MABHIDS for WSN. The Proposed scheme performs two levels of intrusion detection by utilizing minimum possible network resources. Our proposed idea enhance network lifetime by reducing the work load on Cluster Head (CH and it also provide enhanced level of security in WSN.

  20. Simulating Spiking Neural P systems without delays using GPUs

    CERN Document Server

    Cabarle, Francis; Martinez-del-Amor, Miguel A

    2011-01-01

    We present in this paper our work regarding simulating a type of P system known as a spiking neural P system (SNP system) using graphics processing units (GPUs). GPUs, because of their architectural optimization for parallel computations, are well-suited for highly parallelizable problems. Due to the advent of general purpose GPU computing in recent years, GPUs are not limited to graphics and video processing alone, but include computationally intensive scientific and mathematical applications as well. Moreover P systems, including SNP systems, are inherently and maximally parallel computing models whose inspirations are taken from the functioning and dynamics of a living cell. In particular, SNP systems try to give a modest but formal representation of a special type of cell known as the neuron and their interactions with one another. The nature of SNP systems allowed their representation as matrices, which is a crucial step in simulating them on highly parallel devices such as GPUs. The highly parallel natu...

  1. A Neural Network Architecture For Rapid Model Indexing In Computer Vision Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlicki, Ted

    1988-03-01

    Models of objects stored in memory have been shown to be useful for guiding the processing of computer vision systems. A major consideration in such systems, however, is how stored models are initially accessed and indexed by the system. As the number of stored models increases, the time required to search memory for the correct model becomes high. Parallel distributed, connectionist, neural networks' have been shown to have appealing content addressable memory properties. This paper discusses an architecture for efficient storage and reference of model memories stored as stable patterns of activity in a parallel, distributed, connectionist, neural network. The emergent properties of content addressability and resistance to noise are exploited to perform indexing of the appropriate object centered model from image centered primitives. The system consists of three network modules each of which represent information relative to a different frame of reference. The model memory network is a large state space vector where fields in the vector correspond to ordered component objects and relative, object based spatial relationships between the component objects. The component assertion network represents evidence about the existence of object primitives in the input image. It establishes local frames of reference for object primitives relative to the image based frame of reference. The spatial relationship constraint network is an intermediate representation which enables the association between the object based and the image based frames of reference. This intermediate level represents information about possible object orderings and establishes relative spatial relationships from the image based information in the component assertion network below. It is also constrained by the lawful object orderings in the model memory network above. The system design is consistent with current psychological theories of recognition by component. It also seems to support Marr's notions

  2. Hierarchical Fault Diagnosis for a Hybrid System Based on a Multidomain Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiming Ma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The diagnosis procedure is performed by integrating three steps: multidomain modeling, event identification, and failure event classification. Multidomain model can describe the normal and fault behaviors of hybrid systems efficiently and can meet the diagnosis requirements of hybrid systems. Then the multidomain model is used to simulate and obtain responses under different failure events; the responses are further utilized as a priori information when training the event identification library. Finally, a brushless DC motor is selected as the study case. The experimental result indicates that the proposed method could identify the known and unknown failure events of the studied system. In particular, for a system with less response information under a failure event, the accuracy of diagnosis seems to be higher. The presented method integrates the advantages of current quantitative and qualitative diagnostic procedures and can distinguish between failures caused by parametric and abrupt structure faults. Another advantage of our method is that it can remember unknown failure types and automatically extend the adaptive resonance theory neural network library, which is extremely useful for complex hybrid systems.

  3. About Hierarchical XML Structures, Replacement of Relational Data Structures in Construction and Implementation of ERP Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The projects essential objective is to develop a new ERP system, of homogeneous nature, based on XML structures, as a possible replacement for classic ERP systems. The criteria that guide the objective definition are modularity, portability and Web connectivity. This objective is connected to a series of secondary objectives, considering that the technological approach will be filtered through the economic, social and legislative environment for a validation-by-context study. Statistics and cybernetics are to be used for simulation purposes. The homogeneous approach is meant to provide strong modularity and portability, in relation with the n-tier principles, but the main advantage of the model is its opening to the semantic Web, based on a Small enterprise ontology defined with XML-driven languages. Shockwave solutions will be used for implementing client-oriented hypermedia elements and an XML Gate will be de-fined between black box modules, for a clear separation with obvious advantages. Security and the XMLTP project will be an important issue for XML transfers due to the conflict between the open architecture of the Web, the readability of XML data and the privacy elements which have to be preserved within a business environment. The projects finality is oriented on small business but the semantic Web perspective and the surprising new conflict between hierarchical/network data structures and relational ones will certainly widen its scope. The proposed model is meant to fulfill the IT compatibility requirements of the European environment, defined as a knowledge society. The paper is a brief of the contributions of the team re-search at the project type A applied to CNCSIS "Research on the Role of XML in Building Extensible and Homogeneous ERP Systems".

  4. MODEM: a multi-agent hierarchical structure to model the human motor control system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emadi Andani, Mehran; Bahrami, Fariba; Jabehdar Maralani, Parviz; Ijspeert, Auke Jan

    2009-12-01

    In this study, based on behavioral and neurophysiological facts, a new hierarchical multi-agent architecture is proposed to model the human motor control system. Performance of the proposed structure is investigated by simulating the control of sit to stand movement. To develop the model, concepts of mixture of experts, modular structure, and some aspects of equilibrium point hypothesis were brought together. We have called this architecture MODularized Experts Model (MODEM). Human motor system is modeled at the joint torque level and the role of the muscles has been embedded in the function of the joint compliance characteristics. The input to the motor system, i.e., the central command, is the reciprocal command. At the lower level, there are several experts to generate the central command to control the task according to the details of the movement. The number of experts depends on the task to be performed. At the higher level, a "gate selector" block selects the suitable subordinate expert considering the context of the task. Each expert consists of a main controller and a predictor as well as several auxiliary modules. The main controller of an expert learns to control the performance of a given task by generating appropriate central commands under given conditions and/or constraints. The auxiliary modules of this expert learn to scrutinize the generated central command by the main controller. Auxiliary modules increase their intervention to correct the central command if the movement error is increased due to an external disturbance. Each auxiliary module acts autonomously and can be interpreted as an agent. Each agent is responsible for one joint and, therefore, the number of the agents of each expert is equal to the number of joints. Our results indicate that this architecture is robust against external disturbances, signal-dependent noise in sensory information, and changes in the environment. We also discuss the neurophysiological and behavioral basis of

  5. Accurate crop classification using hierarchical genetic fuzzy rule-based systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topaloglou, Charalampos A.; Mylonas, Stelios K.; Stavrakoudis, Dimitris G.; Mastorocostas, Paris A.; Theocharis, John B.

    2014-10-01

    This paper investigates the effectiveness of an advanced classification system for accurate crop classification using very high resolution (VHR) satellite imagery. Specifically, a recently proposed genetic fuzzy rule-based classification system (GFRBCS) is employed, namely, the Hierarchical Rule-based Linguistic Classifier (HiRLiC). HiRLiC's model comprises a small set of simple IF-THEN fuzzy rules, easily interpretable by humans. One of its most important attributes is that its learning algorithm requires minimum user interaction, since the most important learning parameters affecting the classification accuracy are determined by the learning algorithm automatically. HiRLiC is applied in a challenging crop classification task, using a SPOT5 satellite image over an intensively cultivated area in a lake-wetland ecosystem in northern Greece. A rich set of higher-order spectral and textural features is derived from the initial bands of the (pan-sharpened) image, resulting in an input space comprising 119 features. The experimental analysis proves that HiRLiC compares favorably to other interpretable classifiers of the literature, both in terms of structural complexity and classification accuracy. Its testing accuracy was very close to that obtained by complex state-of-the-art classification systems, such as the support vector machines (SVM) and random forest (RF) classifiers. Nevertheless, visual inspection of the derived classification maps shows that HiRLiC is characterized by higher generalization properties, providing more homogeneous classifications that the competitors. Moreover, the runtime requirements for producing the thematic map was orders of magnitude lower than the respective for the competitors.

  6. Neural networks and logical reasoning systems: a translation table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, J; Mendes, R V

    2001-04-01

    A correspondence is established between the basic elements of logic reasoning systems (knowledge bases, rules, inference and queries) and the structure and dynamical evolution laws of neural networks. The correspondence is pictured as a translation dictionary which might allow to go back and forth between symbolic and network formulations, a desirable step in learning-oriented systems and multicomputer networks. In the framework of Horn clause logics, it is found that atomic propositions with n arguments correspond to nodes with nth order synapses, rules to synaptic intensity constraints, forward chaining to synaptic dynamics and queries either to simple node activation or to a query tensor dynamics.

  7. A simple mechanical system for studying adaptive oscillatory neural networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jouffroy, Guillaume; Jouffroy, Jerome

    that the network oscillates in a suitable way, this tuning being a non trivial task. It also appears that the link with the physical body that these oscillatory entities control has a fundamental importance, and it seems that most bodies used for experimental validation in the literature (walking robots, lamprey...... model, etc.) might be too complex to study. In this paper, we use a comparatively simple mechanical system, the nonholonomic vehicle referred to as the Roller-Racer, as a means towards testing different learning strategies for an Recurrent Neural Network-based (RNN) controller/guidance system. After...

  8. Synchronization of an uncertain chaotic system via recurrent neural networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭文; 王耀南

    2005-01-01

    Incorporating distributed recurrent networks with high-order connections between neurons, the identification and synchronization problem of an unknown chaotic system in the presence of unmodelled dynamics is investigated. Based on the Lyapunov stability theory, the weights learning algorithm for the recurrent high-order neural network model is presented. Also, analytical results concerning the stability properties of the scheme are obtained. Then adaptive control law for eliminating synchronization error of uncertain chaotic plant is developed via Lyapunov methodology.The proposed scheme is applied to model and synchronize an unknown Rossler system.

  9. Adaptive neural-based fuzzy modeling for biological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shinq-Jen; Wu, Cheng-Tao; Chang, Jyh-Yeong

    2013-04-01

    The inverse problem of identifying dynamic biological networks from their time-course response data set is a cornerstone of systems biology. Hill and Michaelis-Menten model, which is a forward approach, provides local kinetic information. However, repeated modifications and a large amount of experimental data are necessary for the parameter identification. S-system model, which is composed of highly nonlinear differential equations, provides the direct identification of an interactive network. However, the identification of skeletal-network structure is challenging. Moreover, biological systems are always subject to uncertainty and noise. Are there suitable candidates with the potential to deal with noise-contaminated data sets? Fuzzy set theory is developed for handing uncertainty, imprecision and complexity in the real world; for example, we say "driving speed is high" wherein speed is a fuzzy variable and high is a fuzzy set, which uses the membership function to indicate the degree of a element belonging to the set (words in Italics to denote fuzzy variables or fuzzy sets). Neural network possesses good robustness and learning capability. In this study we hybrid these two together into a neural-fuzzy modeling technique. A biological system is formulated to a multi-input-multi-output (MIMO) Takagi-Sugeno (T-S) fuzzy system, which is composed of rule-based linear subsystems. Two kinds of smooth membership functions (MFs), Gaussian and Bell-shaped MFs, are used. The performance of the proposed method is tested with three biological systems.

  10. Hybrid artificial neural network system for short-term load forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Slobodan A.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel hybrid method for Short-Term Load Forecasting (STLF. The system comprises of two Artificial Neural Networks (ANN, assembled in a hierarchical order. The first ANN is a Multilayer Perceptron (MLP which functions as integrated load predictor (ILP for the forecasting day. The output of the ILP is then fed to another, more complex MLP, which acts as an hourly load predictor (HLP for a forecasting day. By using a separate ANN that predicts the integral of the load (ILP, additional information is presented to the actual forecasting ANN (HLP, while keeping its input space relatively small. This property enables online training and adaptation, as new data become available, because of the short training time. Different sizes of training sets have been tested, and the optimum of 30 day sliding time-window has been determined. The system has been verified on recorded data from Serbian electrical utility company. The results demonstrate better efficiency of the proposed method in comparison to non-hybrid methods because it produces better forecasts and yields smaller mean average percentage error (MAPE.

  11. Radial basis function (RBF) neural network control for mechanical systems design, analysis and Matlab simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jinkun

    2013-01-01

    Radial Basis Function (RBF) Neural Network Control for Mechanical Systems is motivated by the need for systematic design approaches to stable adaptive control system design using neural network approximation-based techniques. The main objectives of the book are to introduce the concrete design methods and MATLAB simulation of stable adaptive RBF neural control strategies. In this book, a broad range of implementable neural network control design methods for mechanical systems are presented, such as robot manipulators, inverted pendulums, single link flexible joint robots, motors, etc. Advanced neural network controller design methods and their stability analysis are explored. The book provides readers with the fundamentals of neural network control system design.   This book is intended for the researchers in the fields of neural adaptive control, mechanical systems, Matlab simulation, engineering design, robotics and automation. Jinkun Liu is a professor at Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronauti...

  12. Properties of the stimulus router system, a novel neural prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Liu Shi; Prochazka, Arthur

    2010-02-01

    Various types of neural prostheses (NPs) have been developed to restore motor function after neural injury. Surface NPs are noninvasive and inexpensive, but are often poorly selective, activating nontargeted muscles and cutaneous sensory nerves that can cause discomfort or pain. Implantable NPs are highly selective, but invasive and costly. The stimulus router system (SRS) is a novel NP consisting of fully implanted leads that "capture" and route some of the current flowing between a pair of surface electrodes to the vicinity of a target nerve. An SRS lead consists of a "pick-up" terminal that is implanted subcutaneously under one of the surface electrodes and a "delivery" terminal that is secured on or near the target nerve. We have published a preliminary report on the basic properties of the SRS [L. S. Gan , "A new means of transcutaneous coupling for neural prostheses," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng., vol. 54, no. 3, pp. 509-517, Mar. 2007]. Here, we further characterize the SRS and identify aspects that maximize its performance as a motor NP. The surface current needed to activate nerves with an SRS, was found to depend on the proximity of the delivery terminal(s) to the nerve, electrode configurations, contact areas of the surface electrodes and implanted terminals, and the distance between the surface anode and the delivery terminal.

  13. Neural Network Based Popularity Prediction For IPTV System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Li

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Internet protocol television (IPTV, being an emerging Internet application, plays an important and indispensable role in our daily life. In order to maximize user experience and on the same time to minimize service cost, we must take into pay attention to how to reduce the storage and transport costs. A lot of previous work has been done before to do this. There is a challenging problem in this: how to predict the popularities of videos as accurate as possible. To solve the problem, this paper presents a Neural Network model for the popularity prediction of the programs in the IPTV system. And we use the actual historical logs to validate our method. The historical logs are divided to two parts, one is used to train the neural network by extract input/output vectors, and the other part is used to verify the model. The experimental results from our validation show the Neural Network based method can gain better accuracy than the comparative method.

  14. Neural Network Based Intrusion Detection System for Critical Infrastructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd Vollmer; Ondrej Linda; Milos Manic

    2009-07-01

    Resiliency and security in control systems such as SCADA and Nuclear plant’s in today’s world of hackers and malware are a relevant concern. Computer systems used within critical infrastructures to control physical functions are not immune to the threat of cyber attacks and may be potentially vulnerable. Tailoring an intrusion detection system to the specifics of critical infrastructures can significantly improve the security of such systems. The IDS-NNM – Intrusion Detection System using Neural Network based Modeling, is presented in this paper. The main contributions of this work are: 1) the use and analyses of real network data (data recorded from an existing critical infrastructure); 2) the development of a specific window based feature extraction technique; 3) the construction of training dataset using randomly generated intrusion vectors; 4) the use of a combination of two neural network learning algorithms – the Error-Back Propagation and Levenberg-Marquardt, for normal behavior modeling. The presented algorithm was evaluated on previously unseen network data. The IDS-NNM algorithm proved to be capable of capturing all intrusion attempts presented in the network communication while not generating any false alerts.

  15. Hybrid fault diagnosis of nonlinear systems using neural parameter estimators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobhani-Tehrani, E; Talebi, H A; Khorasani, K

    2014-02-01

    This paper presents a novel integrated hybrid approach for fault diagnosis (FD) of nonlinear systems taking advantage of both the system's mathematical model and the adaptive nonlinear approximation capability of computational intelligence techniques. Unlike most FD techniques, the proposed solution simultaneously accomplishes fault detection, isolation, and identification (FDII) within a unified diagnostic module. At the core of this solution is a bank of adaptive neural parameter estimators (NPEs) associated with a set of single-parameter fault models. The NPEs continuously estimate unknown fault parameters (FPs) that are indicators of faults in the system. Two NPE structures, series-parallel and parallel, are developed with their exclusive set of desirable attributes. The parallel scheme is extremely robust to measurement noise and possesses a simpler, yet more solid, fault isolation logic. In contrast, the series-parallel scheme displays short FD delays and is robust to closed-loop system transients due to changes in control commands. Finally, a fault tolerant observer (FTO) is designed to extend the capability of the two NPEs that originally assumes full state measurements for systems that have only partial state measurements. The proposed FTO is a neural state estimator that can estimate unmeasured states even in the presence of faults. The estimated and the measured states then comprise the inputs to the two proposed FDII schemes. Simulation results for FDII of reaction wheels of a three-axis stabilized satellite in the presence of disturbances and noise demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed FDII solutions under partial state measurements.

  16. Neural Network Target Identification System for False Alarm Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, David; Edens, Weston; Lu, Thomas T.; Chao, Tien-Hsin

    2009-01-01

    A multi-stage automated target recognition (ATR) system has been designed to perform computer vision tasks with adequate proficiency in mimicking human vision. The system is able to detect, identify, and track targets of interest. Potential regions of interest (ROIs) are first identified by the detection stage using an Optimum Trade-off Maximum Average Correlation Height (OT-MACH) filter combined with a wavelet transform. False positives are then eliminated by the verification stage using feature extraction methods in conjunction with neural networks. Feature extraction transforms the ROIs using filtering and binning algorithms to create feature vectors. A feed forward back propagation neural network (NN) is then trained to classify each feature vector and remove false positives. This paper discusses the test of the system performance and parameter optimizations process which adapts the system to various targets and datasets. The test results show that the system was successful in substantially reducing the false positive rate when tested on a sonar image dataset.

  17. Neural Network Target Identification System for False Alarm Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, David; Edens, Weston; Lu, Thomas T.; Chao, Tien-Hsin

    2009-01-01

    A multi-stage automated target recognition (ATR) system has been designed to perform computer vision tasks with adequate proficiency in mimicking human vision. The system is able to detect, identify, and track targets of interest. Potential regions of interest (ROIs) are first identified by the detection stage using an Optimum Trade-off Maximum Average Correlation Height (OT-MACH) filter combined with a wavelet transform. False positives are then eliminated by the verification stage using feature extraction methods in conjunction with neural networks. Feature extraction transforms the ROIs using filtering and binning algorithms to create feature vectors. A feed forward back propagation neural network (NN) is then trained to classify each feature vector and remove false positives. This paper discusses the test of the system performance and parameter optimizations process which adapts the system to various targets and datasets. The test results show that the system was successful in substantially reducing the false positive rate when tested on a sonar image dataset.

  18. Neural Network Based Intrusion Detection System for Critical Infrastructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd Vollmer; Ondrej Linda; Milos Manic

    2009-07-01

    Resiliency and security in control systems such as SCADA and Nuclear plant’s in today’s world of hackers and malware are a relevant concern. Computer systems used within critical infrastructures to control physical functions are not immune to the threat of cyber attacks and may be potentially vulnerable. Tailoring an intrusion detection system to the specifics of critical infrastructures can significantly improve the security of such systems. The IDS-NNM – Intrusion Detection System using Neural Network based Modeling, is presented in this paper. The main contributions of this work are: 1) the use and analyses of real network data (data recorded from an existing critical infrastructure); 2) the development of a specific window based feature extraction technique; 3) the construction of training dataset using randomly generated intrusion vectors; 4) the use of a combination of two neural network learning algorithms – the Error-Back Propagation and Levenberg-Marquardt, for normal behavior modeling. The presented algorithm was evaluated on previously unseen network data. The IDS-NNM algorithm proved to be capable of capturing all intrusion attempts presented in the network communication while not generating any false alerts.

  19. Olfactory systems and neural circuits that modulate predator odor fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Lorey K

    2014-01-01

    When prey animals detect the odor of a predator a constellation of fear-related autonomic, endocrine, and behavioral responses rapidly occur to facilitate survival. How olfactory sensory systems process predator odor and channel that information to specific brain circuits is a fundamental issue that is not clearly understood. However, research in the last 15 years has begun to identify some of the essential features of the sensory detection systems and brain structures that underlie predator odor fear. For instance, the main (MOS) and accessory olfactory systems (AOS) detect predator odors and different types of predator odors are sensed by specific receptors located in either the MOS or AOS. However, complex predator chemosignals may be processed by both the MOS and AOS, which complicate our understanding of the specific neural circuits connected directly and indirectly from the MOS and AOS to activate the physiological and behavioral components of unconditioned and conditioned fear. Studies indicate that brain structures including the dorsal periaqueductal gray (DPAG), paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus, and the medial amygdala (MeA) appear to be broadly involved in predator odor induced autonomic activity and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) stress hormone secretion. The MeA also plays a key role in predator odor unconditioned fear behavior and retrieval of contextual fear memory associated with prior predator odor experiences. Other neural structures including the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and the ventral hippocampus (VHC) appear prominently involved in predator odor fear behavior. The basolateral amygdala (BLA), medial hypothalamic nuclei, and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) are also activated by some but not all predator odors. Future research that characterizes how distinct predator odors are uniquely processed in olfactory systems and neural circuits will provide significant insights into the differences of how diverse predator

  20. Hardware implementation of a neural vision system based on a neural network using integrated and fire neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, M.; Lamela, H.; Jiménez, M.; Gimeno, J.; Ruiz-Llata, M.

    2007-04-01

    In this paper we present the scheme for a control circuit used in an image processing system which is to be implemented in a neural network which has a high level of connectivity and reconfiguration of neurons for integration and trigger based on the Address-Event Representation. This scheme will be employed as a pre-processing stage for a vision system which employs as its core processing an Optical Broadcast Neural Network (OBNN). [Optical Engineering letters 42 (9), 2488(2003)]. The proposed vision system allows the possibility to introduce patterns from any acquisition system of images, for posterior processing.

  1. Fuzzy neural network technique for system state forecasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dezhi; Wang, Wilson; Ismail, Fathy

    2013-10-01

    In many system state forecasting applications, the prediction is performed based on multiple datasets, each corresponding to a distinct system condition. The traditional methods dealing with multiple datasets (e.g., vector autoregressive moving average models and neural networks) have some shortcomings, such as limited modeling capability and opaque reasoning operations. To tackle these problems, a novel fuzzy neural network (FNN) is proposed in this paper to effectively extract information from multiple datasets, so as to improve forecasting accuracy. The proposed predictor consists of both autoregressive (AR) nodes modeling and nonlinear nodes modeling; AR models/nodes are used to capture the linear correlation of the datasets, and the nonlinear correlation of the datasets are modeled with nonlinear neuron nodes. A novel particle swarm technique [i.e., Laplace particle swarm (LPS) method] is proposed to facilitate parameters estimation of the predictor and improve modeling accuracy. The effectiveness of the developed FNN predictor and the associated LPS method is verified by a series of tests related to Mackey-Glass data forecast, exchange rate data prediction, and gear system prognosis. Test results show that the developed FNN predictor and the LPS method can capture the dynamics of multiple datasets effectively and track system characteristics accurately.

  2. A GIS-Enabled, Michigan-Specific, Hierarchical Groundwater Modeling and Visualization System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Q.; Li, S.; Mandle, R.; Simard, A.; Fisher, B.; Brown, E.; Ross, S.

    2005-12-01

    Efficient management of groundwater resources relies on a comprehensive database that represents the characteristics of the natural groundwater system as well as analysis and modeling tools to describe the impacts of decision alternatives. Many agencies in Michigan have spent several years compiling expensive and comprehensive surface water and groundwater inventories and other related spatial data that describe their respective areas of responsibility. However, most often this wealth of descriptive data has only been utilized for basic mapping purposes. The benefits from analyzing these data, using GIS analysis functions or externally developed analysis models or programs, has yet to be systematically realized. In this talk, we present a comprehensive software environment that allows Michigan groundwater resources managers and frontline professionals to make more effective use of the available data and improve their ability to manage and protect groundwater resources, address potential conflicts, design cleanup schemes, and prioritize investigation activities. In particular, we take advantage of the Interactive Ground Water (IGW) modeling system and convert it to a customized software environment specifically for analyzing, modeling, and visualizing the Michigan statewide groundwater database. The resulting Michigan IGW modeling system (IGW-M) is completely window-based, fully interactive, and seamlessly integrated with a GIS mapping engine. The system operates in real-time (on the fly) providing dynamic, hierarchical mapping, modeling, spatial analysis, and visualization. Specifically, IGW-M allows water resources and environmental professionals in Michigan to: * Access and utilize the extensive data from the statewide groundwater database, interactively manipulate GIS objects, and display and query the associated data and attributes; * Analyze and model the statewide groundwater database, interactively convert GIS objects into numerical model features

  3. Systems of Systems Modeled by a Hierarchical Part-Whole State-Based Formalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Pazzi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an explicit state-based modeling approach aimed at modeling Systems of Systems behavior. The approach allows to specify and verify incrementally safety and liveness rules without using model checking techniques. The state-based approach allows moreover to use the system behavior directly as an interface, greatly improving the effectiveness of the recursive composition needed when assembling Systems of Systems. Such systems are, at the same time, both parts and wholes, thus giving a formal characterization to the notion of Holon.

  4. Comparative Study of Backpropagation Algorithms in Neural Network Based Identification of Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheela Tiwari

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paperexplores theapplicationof artificial neural networksfor online identification of a multimachinepower system.Arecurrent neural networkhas been proposedas the identifier of the two area, four machinesystemwhich is a benchmark system for studying electromechanical oscillations in multimachine powersystems. This neural identifier is trained using the static Backpropagation algorithm. The emphasis of thepaper is on investigating the performance of the variants of the Backpropagation algorithm in training theneural identifier. The paper also compares the performances of the neural identifiers trained usingvariantsof the Backpropagation algorithmover a wide range of operating conditions.The simulation resultsestablish a satisfactory performance of the trained neural identifiers in identification of the test powersystem

  5. Fault Tolerant Neural Network for ECG Signal Classification Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MERAH, M.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to apply a new robust hardware Artificial Neural Network (ANN for ECG classification systems. This ANN includes a penalization criterion which makes the performances in terms of robustness. Specifically, in this method, the ANN weights are normalized using the auto-prune method. Simulations performed on the MIT ? BIH ECG signals, have shown that significant robustness improvements are obtained regarding potential hardware artificial neuron failures. Moreover, we show that the proposed design achieves better generalization performances, compared to the standard back-propagation algorithm.

  6. Structural Health Monitoring Using Neural Network Based Vibrational System Identification

    CERN Document Server

    Sofge, Donald A

    2007-01-01

    Composite fabrication technologies now provide the means for producing high-strength, low-weight panels, plates, spars and other structural components which use embedded fiber optic sensors and piezoelectric transducers. These materials, often referred to as smart structures, make it possible to sense internal characteristics, such as delaminations or structural degradation. In this effort we use neural network based techniques for modeling and analyzing dynamic structural information for recognizing structural defects. This yields an adaptable system which gives a measure of structural integrity for composite structures.

  7. NEURAL NETWORK SYSTEM FOR DIAGNOSTICS OF AVIATION DESIGNATION PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. Єременко

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In the article for solving the classification problem of the technical state of the  object, proposed to use a hybrid neural network with a Kohonen layer and multilayer perceptron. The information-measuring system can be used for standardless diagnostics, cluster analysis and to classify the products which made from composite materials. The advantage of this architecture is flexibility, high performance, ability to use different methods for collecting diagnostic information about unit under test, high reliability of information processing

  8. Dual inductive link coil design for a neural recording system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rush, Alexander; Troyk, Philip R

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports an approach to the physical design of the coils used in a dual inductive link to provide two-way wireless communication and power for a neural recording system. The design approach makes use of an analytic model of the link performance in terms of the physical parameters of the link, which allows physical parameters to be iterated on a computer rather than on the bench to find the optimal design within the physical restrictions imposed. In particular, this approach was used to choose the optimal implant data coil sizing to maximize the difference between the contributions of the constructive and destructive paths of the reverse telemetry signal.

  9. Application of Adaptive Neural Network Observer in Chaotic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milad Malekzadeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chaos control is an important subject in control theory. Chaos control usually confronts with some problems due to unavailability of states or losing the system characteristics during the modeling process. In this situation, using an appropriate observer in control strategy may overcome the problem. In this paper, states are estimated using an observer without having complete prior information from nonlinear term based on neural network. Simulation results verify performance of the proposed structure in estimating nonlinear term specifically for an online practical use.

  10. Obstacle Avoidance of a Mobile Robot with Hierarchical Structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chan Gyu [Yeungnam College of Science and Technolgy, Taegu (Korea)

    2001-06-01

    This paper proposed a new hierarchical fuzzy-neural network algorithm for navigation of a mobile robot within unknown dynamic environment. Proposed navigation algorithm used the learning ability of the neural network and the feasibility of control highly nonlinear system of fuzzy theory. The proposed navigation algorithm used fuzzy algorithm for goal approach and fuzzy-network for effective collision avoidance. Some computer simulation results for a mobile robot equipped with ultrasonic range sensors show that the suggested navigation algorithm is very effective to escape in stationary and moving obstacles environment. (author). 11 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Neural systems supporting and affecting economically relevant behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braeutigam S

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Sven BraeutigamOxford Centre for Human Brain Activity, University of Oxford, Oxford, United KingdomAbstract: For about a hundred years, theorists and traders alike have tried to unravel and understand the mechanisms and hidden rules underlying and perhaps determining economically relevant behavior. This review focuses on recent developments in neuroeconomics, where the emphasis is placed on two directions of research: first, research exploiting common experiences of urban inhabitants in industrialized societies to provide experimental paradigms with a broader real-life content; second, research based on behavioral genetics, which provides an additional dimension for experimental control and manipulation. In addition, possible limitations of state-of-the-art neuroeconomics research are addressed. It is argued that observations of neuronal systems involved in economic behavior converge to some extent across the technologies and paradigms used. Conceptually, the data available as of today raise the possibility that neuroeconomic research might provide evidence at the neuronal level for the existence of multiple systems of thought and for the importance of conflict. Methodologically, Bayesian approaches in particular may play an important role in identifying mechanisms and establishing causality between patterns of neural activity and economic behavior.Keywords: neuroeconomics, behavioral genetics, decision-making, consumer behavior, neural system

  12. Hybrid Viscosity Approaches to General Systems of Variational Inequalities with Hierarchical Fixed Point Problem Constraints in Banach Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu-Chuan Ceng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to introduce and analyze hybrid viscosity methods for a general system of variational inequalities (GSVI with hierarchical fixed point problem constraint in the setting of real uniformly convex and 2-uniformly smooth Banach spaces. Here, the hybrid viscosity methods are based on Korpelevich’s extragradient method, viscosity approximation method, and hybrid steepest-descent method. We propose and consider hybrid implicit and explicit viscosity iterative algorithms for solving the GSVI with hierarchical fixed point problem constraint not only for a nonexpansive mapping but also for a countable family of nonexpansive mappings in X, respectively. We derive some strong convergence theorems under appropriate conditions. Our results extend, improve, supplement, and develop the recent results announced by many authors.

  13. Cycles of insanity and creativity within contemplative neural systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaler, Stephen L

    2016-09-01

    Random connection weight disturbances within an assembly of artificial neural networks (ANN) drive a progression of activation patterns that are tantamount to the memories and ideas nucleating within the brain's cortex. The numerical evaluation of these pattern-based notions by another, more placid system of ANNs governs the magnitude of weight disturbances administered to the former assembly, that perturbative intensity in turn controlling the novelty of the resulting ideational stream as well as the retention of newly formed concepts. In search of solution patterns to posed problems, such collaborating neural systems autonomously cycle between two extremes in mean synaptic perturbation level. The higher limit, characterized by chaos and inattentiveness to exogenous input patterns, is the regime in which ideas first form and incubate. The lower bound, marked by relative synaptic tranquility, is favorable to the reactivation and reinforcement of concepts first seeded during heightened perturbation. When considering this synthetic neural architecture as a cognitive model, the proposed source of such synaptic fluctuations is volume neurotransmitter release within cortex where both ideational and critic nets are commingled. As a result of their overlap, not only are the generative cortical networks suffused with neurotransmitters, but also those functioning in a critic role, leading to altered 'opinions' about the perturbation-driven stream of consciousness that then govern the injection of neurotransmitters into cortex. The likely effect of such chemical feedback is that the brain constantly cycles between states of idea generating chaos and perception stabilizing tranquility in much the same way that creative artificial neural systems do. Postulating that ideas are potentially useful or interesting false memories born within such turmoil, creativity appears to take place through a cyclic process consisting of alternating phases of (1) cognitive incapacitation

  14. Bounds for the time to failure of hierarchical systems of fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez, J.B.; Vázquez-Prada, M.; Moreno, Y.

    1999-01-01

    For years limited Monte Carlo simulations have led to the suspicion that the time to failure of hierarchically organized load-transfer models of fracture is nonzero for sets of infinite size. This fact could have profound significance in engineering practice and also in geophysics. Here, we devel...

  15. HD 181068: A Red Giant in a Triply Eclipsing Compact Hierarchical Triple System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Derekas, A.; Kiss, Lazlo L.; Borkovits, T.

    2011-01-01

    by ground-based spectroscopy and interferometry, which show it to be a hierarchical triple with two types of mutual eclipses. The primary is a red giant that is in a 45-day orbit with a pair of red dwarfs in a close 0.9-day orbit. The red giant shows evidence for tidally induced oscillations that are driven...

  16. Recurrent Neural Network for Single Machine Power System Stabilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widi Aribowo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, recurrent neural network (RNN is used to design power system stabilizer (PSS due to its advantage on the dependence not only on present input but also on past condition. A RNN-PSS is able to capture the dynamic response of a system without any delays caused by external feedback, primarily by the internal feedback loop in recurrent neuron. In this paper, RNNPSS consists of a RNN-identifier and a RNN-controller. The RNN-Identifier functions as the tracker of dynamics characteristics of the plant, while the RNN-controller is used to damp the system’s low frequency oscillations. Simulation results using MATLAB demonstrate that the RNNPSS can successfully damp out oscillation and improve the performance of the system.

  17. Incomplete fuzzy data processing systems using artificial neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patyra, Marek J.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, the implementation of a fuzzy data processing system using an artificial neural network (ANN) is discussed. The binary representation of fuzzy data is assumed, where the universe of discourse is decartelized into n equal intervals. The value of a membership function is represented by a binary number. It is proposed that incomplete fuzzy data processing be performed in two stages. The first stage performs the 'retrieval' of incomplete fuzzy data, and the second stage performs the desired operation on the retrieval data. The method of incomplete fuzzy data retrieval is proposed based on the linear approximation of missing values of the membership function. The ANN implementation of the proposed system is presented. The system was computationally verified and showed a relatively small total error.

  18. Artificial neural network analysis of triple effect absorption refrigeration systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hajizadeh Aghdam, A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Islamic Azad University (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], email: a.hajizadeh@iaukashan.ac.ir; Nazmara, H.; Farzaneh, B. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], email: h.nazmara@nioec.org, email: b_farzaneh_ms@yahoo.com

    2011-07-01

    In this study, artificial neural networks are utilized to predict the performance of triple effect series and parallel flow absorption refrigeration systems, with lithium bromide/water as the working fluid. Important parameters such as high generator and evaporator temperatures were varied and their effects on the performance characteristics of the refrigeration unit were observed. Absorption refrigeration systems make energy savings possible because they can use heat energy to produce cooling, in place of the electricity used for conventional vapour compression chillers. In addition, non-conventional sources of energy (such as solar, waste heat, and geothermal) can be utilized as their primary energy input. Moreover, absorption units use environmentally friendly working fluid pairs instead of CFCs and HCFCs, which affect the ozone layer. Triple effect absorption cycles were analysed. Results apply for both series and parallel flow systems. A relative preference for parallel-flow over series-flow is also shown.

  19. HD 35502: a hierarchical triple system with a magnetic B5IVpe primary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikora, J.; Wade, G. A.; Bohlender, D. A.; Shultz, M.; Adelman, S. J.; Alecian, E.; Hanes, D.; Monin, D.; Neiner, C.; MiMeS Collaboration; BinaMIcS Collaboration

    2016-08-01

    We present our analysis of HD 35502 based on high- and medium-resolution spectropolarimetric observations. Our results indicate that the magnetic B5IVsnp star is the primary component of a spectroscopic triple system and that it has an effective temperature of 18.4 ± 0.6 kK, a mass of 5.7 ± 0.6 M⊙, and a polar radius of 3.0^{+1.1}_{-0.5} R_{odot }. The two secondary components are found to be essentially identical A-type stars for which we derive effective temperatures (8.9 ± 0.3 kK), masses (2.1 ± 0.2 M⊙), and radii (2.1 ± 0.4 R⊙). We infer a hierarchical orbital configuration for the system in which the secondary components form a tight binary with an orbital period of 5.668 66(6) d that orbits the primary component with a period of over 40 yr. Least-Squares Deconvolution profiles reveal Zeeman signatures in Stokes V indicative of a longitudinal magnetic field produced by the B star ranging from approximately -4 to 0 kG with a median uncertainty of 0.4 kG. These measurements, along with the line variability produced by strong emission in Hα, are used to derive a rotational period of 0.853 807(3) d. We find that the measured v sin i = 75 ± 5 km s-1 of the B star then implies an inclination angle of the star's rotation axis to the line of sight of 24^{+6}_{-10}{}^circ. Assuming the Oblique Rotator Model, we derive the magnetic field strength of the B star's dipolar component (14^{+9}_{-3} kG) and its obliquity (63± 13deg). Furthermore, we demonstrate that the calculated Alfvén radius (41^{+17}_{-6}R_ast) and Kepler radius (2.1^{+0.4}_{-0.7}R_ast) place HD 35502's central B star well within the regime of centrifugal magnetosphere-hosting stars.

  20. NNSYSID and NNCTRL Tools for system identification and control with neural networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Magnus; Ravn, Ole; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2001-01-01

    Two toolsets for use with MATLAB have been developed: the neural network based system identification toolbox (NNSYSID) and the neural network based control system design toolkit (NNCTRL). The NNSYSID toolbox has been designed to assist identification of nonlinear dynamic systems. It contains...... a number of nonlinear model structures based on neural networks, effective training algorithms and tools for model validation and model structure selection. The NNCTRL toolkit is an add-on to NNSYSID and provides tools for design and simulation of control systems based on neural networks. The user can...

  1. Neural Network Enhanced Structure Determination of Osteoporosis, Immune System, and Radiation Repair Proteins Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation will utilize self learning neural network technology to determine the structure of osteoporosis, immune system disease, and excess radiation...

  2. Hierarchical photocatalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Yu, Jiaguo; Jaroniec, Mietek

    2016-05-01

    As a green and sustainable technology, semiconductor-based heterogeneous photocatalysis has received much attention in the last few decades because it has potential to solve both energy and environmental problems. To achieve efficient photocatalysts, various hierarchical semiconductors have been designed and fabricated at the micro/nanometer scale in recent years. This review presents a critical appraisal of fabrication methods, growth mechanisms and applications of advanced hierarchical photocatalysts. Especially, the different synthesis strategies such as two-step templating, in situ template-sacrificial dissolution, self-templating method, in situ template-free assembly, chemically induced self-transformation and post-synthesis treatment are highlighted. Finally, some important applications including photocatalytic degradation of pollutants, photocatalytic H2 production and photocatalytic CO2 reduction are reviewed. A thorough assessment of the progress made in photocatalysis may open new opportunities in designing highly effective hierarchical photocatalysts for advanced applications ranging from thermal catalysis, separation and purification processes to solar cells.

  3. An Aircraft Navigation System Fault Diagnosis Method Based on Optimized Neural Network Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jean-dedieu Weyepe

    2014-01-01

    Air data and inertial reference system (ADIRS) is one of the complex sub-system in the aircraft navigation system and it plays an important role into the flight safety of the aircraft. This paper propose an optimize neural network algorithm which is a combination of neural network and ant colony algorithm to improve efficiency of maintenance engineer job task.

  4. Neural networks and dynamical system techniques for volcanic tremor analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Carniel

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available A volcano can be seen as a dynamical system, the number of state variables being its dimension N. The state is usually confined on a manifold with a lower dimension f, manifold which is characteristic of a persistent «structural configuration». A change in this manifold may be a hint that something is happening to the dynamics of the volcano, possibly leading to a paroxysmal phase. In this work the original state space of the volcano dynamical system is substituted by a pseudo state space reconstructed by the method of time-delayed coordinates, with suitably chosen lag time and embedding dimension, from experimental time series of seismic activity, i.e. volcanic tremor recorded at Stromboli volcano. The monitoring is done by a neural network which first learns the dynamics of the persistent tremor and then tries to detect structural changes in its behaviour.

  5. Stability Analysis of Neural Networks-Based System Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talel Korkobi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper treats some problems related to nonlinear systems identification. A stability analysis neural network model for identifying nonlinear dynamic systems is presented. A constrained adaptive stable backpropagation updating law is presented and used in the proposed identification approach. The proposed backpropagation training algorithm is modified to obtain an adaptive learning rate guarantying convergence stability. The proposed learning rule is the backpropagation algorithm under the condition that the learning rate belongs to a specified range defining the stability domain. Satisfying such condition, unstable phenomena during the learning process are avoided. A Lyapunov analysis leads to the computation of the expression of a convenient adaptive learning rate verifying the convergence stability criteria. Finally, the elaborated training algorithm is applied in several simulations. The results confirm the effectiveness of the CSBP algorithm.

  6. A Hybrid Hierarchical PPC System for Engineer-to-Order Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xiaoping(李小平); Xu Xiaofei; Zhan Dechen

    2004-01-01

    For Engineer-to-Order (ETO) enterprises, both the capacity-oriented hierarchical production planning and control (HPPC) in which all resources, critical or ordinary, have the same importance and the material- oriented Operational Plan/Material Requirements Planning (OP/MRP) in which plans'consistency at different stages is seldom considered in advance do not completely satisfy its needs for production planning and control. HHPPC (hybrid hierarchical PPC), which combines HPPC with OP/MRP, is presented in which plans at most neighboring stages coordinate by ex-ante feedbacks and critical resources are utilized prior to ordinary ones by OP/MRP mode. The optimization problems arising at the Master Production Scheduling (MPS), operational plan and the fine planning stages in HHPPC are all modeled as project scheduling problems.

  7. Living ordered neural networks as model systems for signal processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villard, C.; Amblard, P. O.; Becq, G.; Gory-Fauré, S.; Brocard, J.; Roth, S.

    2007-06-01

    Neural circuit architecture is a fundamental characteristic of the brain, and how architecture is bound to biological functions is still an open question. Some neuronal geometries seen in the retina or the cochlea are intriguing: information is processed in parallel by several entities like in "pooling" networks which have recently drawn the attention of signal processing scientists. These systems indeed exhibit the noise-enhanced processing effect, which is also actively discussed in the neuroscience community at the neuron scale. The aim of our project is to use in-vitro ordered neuron networks as living paradigms to test ideas coming from the computational science. The different technological bolts that have to be solved are enumerated and the first results are presented. A neuron is a polarised cell, with an excitatory axon and a receiving dendritic tree. We present how soma confinement and axon differentiation can be induced by surface functionalization techniques. The recording of large neuron networks, ordered or not, is also detailed and biological signals shown. The main difficulty to access neural noise in the case of weakly connected networks grown on micro electrode arrays is explained. This open the door to a new detection technology suitable for sub-cellular analysis and stimulation, whose development will constitute the next step of this project.

  8. Fuzzy stochastic neural network model for structural system identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiaomo; Mahadevan, Sankaran; Yuan, Yong

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a dynamic fuzzy stochastic neural network model for nonparametric system identification using ambient vibration data. The model is developed to handle two types of imprecision in the sensed data: fuzzy information and measurement uncertainties. The dimension of the input vector is determined by using the false nearest neighbor approach. A Bayesian information criterion is applied to obtain the optimum number of stochastic neurons in the model. A fuzzy C-means clustering algorithm is employed as a data mining tool to divide the sensed data into clusters with common features. The fuzzy stochastic model is created by combining the fuzzy clusters of input vectors with the radial basis activation functions in the stochastic neural network. A natural gradient method is developed based on the Kullback-Leibler distance criterion for quick convergence of the model training. The model is validated using a power density pseudospectrum approach and a Bayesian hypothesis testing-based metric. The proposed methodology is investigated with numerically simulated data from a Markov Chain model and a two-story planar frame, and experimentally sensed data from ambient vibration data of a benchmark structure.

  9. Effects of Fast Simple Numerical Calculation Training on Neural Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Hikaru; Nagase, Tomomi; Taki, Yasuyuki; Sassa, Yuko; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Nouchi, Rui; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive training, including fast simple numerical calculation (FSNC), has been shown to improve performance on untrained processing speed and executive function tasks in the elderly. However, the effects of FSNC training on cognitive functions in the young and on neural mechanisms remain unknown. We investigated the effects of 1-week intensive FSNC training on cognitive function, regional gray matter volume (rGMV), and regional cerebral blood flow at rest (resting rCBF) in healthy young adults. FSNC training was associated with improvements in performance on simple processing speed, speeded executive functioning, and simple and complex arithmetic tasks. FSNC training was associated with a reduction in rGMV and an increase in resting rCBF in the frontopolar areas and a weak but widespread increase in resting rCBF in an anatomical cluster in the posterior region. These results provide direct evidence that FSNC training alone can improve performance on processing speed and executive function tasks as well as plasticity of brain structures and perfusion. Our results also indicate that changes in neural systems in the frontopolar areas may underlie these cognitive improvements.

  10. Hierarchical functional connectivity between the core language system and the working memory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makuuchi, Michiru; Friederici, Angela D

    2013-10-01

    Language processing inevitably involves working memory (WM) operations, especially for sentences with complex syntactic structures. Evidence has been provided for a neuroanatomical segregation between core syntactic processes and WM, but the dynamic relation between these systems still has to be explored. In the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we investigated the network dynamics of regions involved in WM operations which support sentence processing during reading, comparing a set of dynamic causal models (DCM) with different assumptions about the underlying connectional architecture. The DCMs incorporated the core language processing regions (pars opercularis and middle temporal gyrus), WM related regions (inferior frontal sulcus and intraparietal sulcus), and visual word form area (fusiform gyrus). The results indicate a processing hierarchy from the visual to WM to core language systems, and moreover, a clear increase of connectivity between WM regions and language regions as the processing load increases for syntactically complex sentences.

  11. Adaptive Neural Control Design For a Class of Nonlinear Time-delay Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Ling-ling; ZHANG Wei

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes an indirect adaptive neural control scheme for a class of nonlinear systems with time delays. Based on the backstepping technique and Lyapunov–Krasovskii functional method are combined to construct the indirect adaptive neural controller. The proposed indirect adaptive neural controller guarantees that the state variables converge to a small neighborhood of the origin and all the signals of the closed-loop system are bounded. Finally, an example is used to show the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy.

  12. BOOK REVIEW: Theory of Neural Information Processing Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galla, Tobias

    2006-04-01

    It is difficult not to be amazed by the ability of the human brain to process, to structure and to memorize information. Even by the toughest standards the behaviour of this network of about 1011 neurons qualifies as complex, and both the scientific community and the public take great interest in the growing field of neuroscience. The scientific endeavour to learn more about the function of the brain as an information processing system is here a truly interdisciplinary one, with important contributions from biology, computer science, physics, engineering and mathematics as the authors quite rightly point out in the introduction of their book. The role of the theoretical disciplines here is to provide mathematical models of information processing systems and the tools to study them. These models and tools are at the centre of the material covered in the book by Coolen, Kühn and Sollich. The book is divided into five parts, providing basic introductory material on neural network models as well as the details of advanced techniques to study them. A mathematical appendix complements the main text. The range of topics is extremely broad, still the presentation is concise and the book well arranged. To stress the breadth of the book let me just mention a few keywords here: the material ranges from the basics of perceptrons and recurrent network architectures to more advanced aspects such as Bayesian learning and support vector machines; Shannon's theory of information and the definition of entropy are discussed, and a chapter on Amari's information geometry is not missing either. Finally the statistical mechanics chapters cover Gardner theory and the replica analysis of the Hopfield model, not without being preceded by a brief introduction of the basic concepts of equilibrium statistical physics. The book also contains a part on effective theories of the macroscopic dynamics of neural networks. Many dynamical aspects of neural networks are usually hard to find in the

  13. Neural mechanism of facilitation system during physical fatigue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaaki Tanaka

    Full Text Available An enhanced facilitation system caused by motivational input plays an important role in supporting performance during physical fatigue. We tried to clarify the neural mechanisms of the facilitation system during physical fatigue using magnetoencephalography (MEG and a classical conditioning technique. Twelve right-handed volunteers participated in this study. Participants underwent MEG recording during the imagery of maximum grips of the right hand guided by metronome sounds for 10 min. Thereafter, fatigue-inducing maximum handgrip trials were performed for 10 min; the metronome sounds were started 5 min after the beginning of the handgrip trials. The metronome sounds were used as conditioned stimuli and maximum handgrip trials as unconditioned stimuli. The next day, they were randomly assigned to two groups in a single-blinded, two-crossover fashion to undergo two types of MEG recordings, that is, for the control and motivation sessions, during the imagery of maximum grips of the right hand guided by metronome sounds for 10 min. The alpha-band event-related desynchronizations (ERDs of the motivation session relative to the control session within the time windows of 500 to 700 and 800 to 900 ms after the onset of handgrip cue sounds were identified in the sensorimotor areas. In addition, the alpha-band ERD within the time window of 400 to 500 ms was identified in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (Brodmann's area 46. The ERD level in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex was positively associated with that in the sensorimotor areas within the time window of 500 to 700 ms. These results suggest that the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is involved in the neural substrates of the facilitation system and activates the sensorimotor areas during physical fatigue.

  14. Optimal Workflow Scheduling in Critical Infrastructure Systems with Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Vukmirović

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Critical infrastructure systems (CISs, such as power grids, transportation systems, communication networks and water systems are the backbone of a country’s national security and industrial prosperity. These CISs execute large numbers of workflows with very high resource requirements that can span through different systems and last for a long time. The proper functioning and synchronization of these workflows is essential since humanity’s well-being is connected to it. Because of this, the challenge of ensuring availability and reliability of these services in the face of a broad range of operating conditions is very complicated. This paper proposes an architecture which dynamically executes a scheduling algorithm using feedback about the current status of CIS nodes. Different artificial neural networks (ANNs were created in order to solve the scheduling problem. Their performances were compared and as the main result of this paper, an optimal ANN architecture for workflow scheduling in CISs is proposed. A case study is shown for a meter data management system with measurements from a power distribution management system in Serbia. Performance tests show that significant improvement of the overall execution time can be achieved by ANNs.

  15. Neural systems language: a formal modeling language for the systematic description, unambiguous communication, and automated digital curation of neural connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ramsay A; Swanson, Larry W

    2013-09-01

    Systematic description and the unambiguous communication of findings and models remain among the unresolved fundamental challenges in systems neuroscience. No common descriptive frameworks exist to describe systematically the connective architecture of the nervous system, even at the grossest level of observation. Furthermore, the accelerating volume of novel data generated on neural connectivity outpaces the rate at which this data is curated into neuroinformatics databases to synthesize digitally systems-level insights from disjointed reports and observations. To help address these challenges, we propose the Neural Systems Language (NSyL). NSyL is a modeling language to be used by investigators to encode and communicate systematically reports of neural connectivity from neuroanatomy and brain imaging. NSyL engenders systematic description and communication of connectivity irrespective of the animal taxon described, experimental or observational technique implemented, or nomenclature referenced. As a language, NSyL is internally consistent, concise, and comprehensible to both humans and computers. NSyL is a promising development for systematizing the representation of neural architecture, effectively managing the increasing volume of data on neural connectivity and streamlining systems neuroscience research. Here we present similar precedent systems, how NSyL extends existing frameworks, and the reasoning behind NSyL's development. We explore NSyL's potential for balancing robustness and consistency in representation by encoding previously reported assertions of connectivity from the literature as examples. Finally, we propose and discuss the implications of a framework for how NSyL will be digitally implemented in the future to streamline curation of experimental results and bridge the gaps among anatomists, imagers, and neuroinformatics databases.

  16. Strawberry Maturity Neural Network Detectng System Based on Genetic Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Liming

    The quick and non-detective detection of agriculture product is one of the measures to increase the precision and productivity of harvesting and grading. Having analyzed H frequency of different maturities in different light intensities, the results show that H frequency for the same maturity has little influence in different light intensities; Under the same light intensity, three strawberry maturities are changing in order. After having confirmed the H frequency section to distinguish the different strawberry maturity, the triplelayer feed-forward neural network system to detect strawberry maturity was designed by using genetic algorithm. The test results show that the detecting precision ratio is 91.7%, it takes 160ms to distinguish one strawberry. Therefore, the online non-detective detecting the strawberry maturity could be realized.

  17. Recurrent neural networks-based multivariable system PID predictive control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yan; WANG Fanzhen; SONG Ying; CHEN Zengqiang; YUAN Zhuzhi

    2007-01-01

    A nonlinear proportion integration differentiation (PID) controller is proposed on the basis of recurrent neural networks,due to the difficulty of tuning the parameters of conventional PID controller.In the control process of nonlinear multivariable system,a decoupling controller was constructed,which took advantage of multi-nonlinear PID controllers in parallel.With the idea of predictive control,two multivariable predictive control strategies were established.One strategy involved the use of the general minimum variance control function on the basis of recursive multi-step predictive method.The other involved the adoption of multistep predictive cost energy to train the weights of the decoupling controller.Simulation studies have shown the efficiency of these strategies.

  18. Remote Neural Pendants In A Welding-Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venable, Richard A.; Bucher, Joseph H.

    1995-01-01

    Neural network integrated circuits enhance functionalities of both remote terminals (called "pendants") and communication links, without necessitating installation of additional wires in links. Makes possible to incorporate many features into pendant, including real-time display of critical welding parameters and other process information, capability for communication between technician at pendant and host computer or technician elsewhere in system, and switches and potentiometers through which technician at pendant exerts remote control over such critical aspects of welding process as current, voltage, rate of travel, flow of gas, starting, and stopping. Other potential manufacturing applications include control of spray coating and of curing of composite materials. Potential nonmanufacturing uses include remote control of heating, air conditioning, and lighting in electrically noisy and otherwise hostile environments.

  19. Chemosensory signals and their receptors in the olfactory neural system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihara, S; Yoshikawa, K; Touhara, K

    2013-12-19

    Chemical communication is widely used among various organisms to obtain essential information from their environment required for life. Although a large variety of molecules have been shown to act as chemical cues, the molecular and neural basis underlying the behaviors elicited by these molecules has been revealed for only a limited number of molecules. Here, we review the current knowledge regarding the signaling molecules whose flow from receptor to specific behavior has been characterized. Discussing the molecules utilized by mice, insects, and the worm, we focus on how each organism has optimized its reception system to suit its living style. We also highlight how the production of these signaling molecules is regulated, an area in which considerable progress has been recently made.

  20. A neural network architecture for implementation of expert systems for real time monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramamoorthy, P. A.

    1991-01-01

    Since neural networks have the advantages of massive parallelism and simple architecture, they are good tools for implementing real time expert systems. In a rule based expert system, the antecedents of rules are in the conjunctive or disjunctive form. We constructed a multilayer feedforward type network in which neurons represent AND or OR operations of rules. Further, we developed a translator which can automatically map a given rule base into the network. Also, we proposed a new and powerful yet flexible architecture that combines the advantages of both fuzzy expert systems and neural networks. This architecture uses the fuzzy logic concepts to separate input data domains into several smaller and overlapped regions. Rule-based expert systems for time critical applications using neural networks, the automated implementation of rule-based expert systems with neural nets, and fuzzy expert systems vs. neural nets are covered.

  1. Stochastic Neural Field Theory and the System-Size Expansion

    KAUST Repository

    Bressloff, Paul C.

    2010-01-01

    We analyze a master equation formulation of stochastic neurodynamics for a network of synaptically coupled homogeneous neuronal populations each consisting of N identical neurons. The state of the network is specified by the fraction of active or spiking neurons in each population, and transition rates are chosen so that in the thermodynamic or deterministic limit (N → ∞) we recover standard activity-based or voltage-based rate models. We derive the lowest order corrections to these rate equations for large but finite N using two different approximation schemes, one based on the Van Kampen system-size expansion and the other based on path integral methods. Both methods yield the same series expansion of the moment equations, which at O(1/N) can be truncated to form a closed system of equations for the first-and second-order moments. Taking a continuum limit of the moment equations while keeping the system size N fixed generates a system of integrodifferential equations for the mean and covariance of the corresponding stochastic neural field model. We also show how the path integral approach can be used to study large deviation or rare event statistics underlying escape from the basin of attraction of a stable fixed point of the mean-field dynamics; such an analysis is not possible using the system-size expansion since the latter cannot accurately determine exponentially small transitions. © by SIAM.

  2. Output-back fuzzy logic systems and equivalence with feedback neural networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A new idea, output-back fuzzy logic systems, is proposed. It is proved that output-back fuzzy logic systems must be equivalent to feedback neural networks. After the notion of generalized fuzzy logic systems is defined, which contains at least a typical fuzzy logic system and an output-back fuzzy logic system, one important conclusion is drawn that generalized fuzzy logic systems are almost equivalent to neural networks.

  3. Platforms for artificial neural networks : neurosimulators and performance prediction of MIMD-parallel systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vuurpijl, L.G.

    1998-01-01

    In this thesis, two platforms for simulating artificial neural networks are discussed: MIMD-parallel processor systems as an execution platform and neurosimulators as a research and development platform. Because of the parallelism encountered in neural networks, distributed processor systems seem to

  4. Platforms for artificial neural networks : neurosimulators and performance prediction of MIMD-parallel systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vuurpijl, L.G.

    1998-01-01

    In this thesis, two platforms for simulating artificial neural networks are discussed: MIMD-parallel processor systems as an execution platform and neurosimulators as a research and development platform. Because of the parallelism encountered in neural networks, distributed processor systems seem to

  5. Resilient model approximation for Markov jump time-delay systems via reduced model with hierarchical Markov chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yanzheng; Zhang, Lixian; Sreeram, Victor; Shammakh, Wafa; Ahmad, Bashir

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, the resilient model approximation problem for a class of discrete-time Markov jump time-delay systems with input sector-bounded nonlinearities is investigated. A linearised reduced-order model is determined with mode changes subject to domination by a hierarchical Markov chain containing two different nonhomogeneous Markov chains. Hence, the reduced-order model obtained not only reflects the dependence of the original systems but also model external influence that is related to the mode changes of the original system. Sufficient conditions formulated in terms of bilinear matrix inequalities for the existence of such models are established, such that the resulting error system is stochastically stable and has a guaranteed l2-l∞ error performance. A linear matrix inequalities optimisation coupled with line search is exploited to solve for the corresponding reduced-order systems. The potential and effectiveness of the developed theoretical results are demonstrated via a numerical example.

  6. A novel 300 kW arc plasma inverter system based on hierarchical controlled building block structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    To date, the high power arc plasma technology is widely used. A next generation high power arc plasma system based on building block structure is presented. The whole arc plasma inverter system is composed of 12 paralleled units to increase the system output capability. The hierarchical control system is adopted to improve the reliability and flexibility of the high power arc plasma inverter. To ensure the reliable turn on and off of the IGBT module in each building block unit, a special pulse drive circuit is designed by using pulse transformer. The experimental result indicates that the high power arc plasma inverter system can transfer 300 kW arc plasma energy reliably with high efficiency.

  7. An integrated architecture of adaptive neural network control for dynamic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ke, Liu; Tokar, R.; Mcvey, B.

    1994-07-01

    In this study, an integrated neural network control architecture for nonlinear dynamic systems is presented. Most of the recent emphasis in the neural network control field has no error feedback as the control input which rises the adaptation problem. The integrated architecture in this paper combines feed forward control and error feedback adaptive control using neural networks. The paper reveals the different internal functionality of these two kinds of neural network controllers for certain input styles, e.g., state feedback and error feedback. Feed forward neural network controllers with state feedback establish fixed control mappings which can not adapt when model uncertainties present. With error feedbacks, neural network controllers learn the slopes or the gains respecting to the error feedbacks, which are error driven adaptive control systems. The results demonstrate that the two kinds of control scheme can be combined to realize their individual advantages. Testing with disturbances added to the plant shows good tracking and adaptation.

  8. Adaptive Hierarchical Sliding Mode Control with Input Saturation for Attitude Regulation of Multi-satellite Tethered System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhiqiang; Sun, Guanghui

    2017-06-01

    This paper proposes a novel adaptive hierarchical sliding mode control for the attitude regulation of the multi-satellite inline tethered system, where the input saturation is taken into account. The governing equations for the attitude dynamics of the three-satellite inline tethered system are derived firstly by utilizing Lagrangian mechanics theory. Considering the fact that the attitude of the central satellite can be adjusted by using the simple exponential stabilization scheme, the decoupling of the central satellite and the terminal ones is presented, and in addition, the new adaptive sliding mode control law is applied to stabilize the attitude dynamics of the two terminal satellites based on the synchronization and partial contraction theory. In the adaptive hierarchical sliding mode control design, the input is modeled as saturated input due to the fact that the flywheel torque is bounded, and meanwhile, an adaptive update rate is introduced to eliminate the effect of the saturated input and the external perturbation. The proposed control scheme can be applied on the two-satellite system to achieve fixed-point rotation. Numerical results validate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  9. Adaptive Hierarchical Sliding Mode Control with Input Saturation for Attitude Regulation of Multi-satellite Tethered System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhiqiang; Sun, Guanghui

    2016-11-01

    This paper proposes a novel adaptive hierarchical sliding mode control for the attitude regulation of the multi-satellite inline tethered system, where the input saturation is taken into account. The governing equations for the attitude dynamics of the three-satellite inline tethered system are derived firstly by utilizing Lagrangian mechanics theory. Considering the fact that the attitude of the central satellite can be adjusted by using the simple exponential stabilization scheme, the decoupling of the central satellite and the terminal ones is presented, and in addition, the new adaptive sliding mode control law is applied to stabilize the attitude dynamics of the two terminal satellites based on the synchronization and partial contraction theory. In the adaptive hierarchical sliding mode control design, the input is modeled as saturated input due to the fact that the flywheel torque is bounded, and meanwhile, an adaptive update rate is introduced to eliminate the effect of the saturated input and the external perturbation. The proposed control scheme can be applied on the two-satellite system to achieve fixed-point rotation. Numerical results validate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  10. Adaptive Neural Control for a Class of Outputs Time-Delay Nonlinear Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruliang Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers an adaptive neural control for a class of outputs time-delay nonlinear systems with perturbed or no. Based on RBF neural networks, the radius basis function (RBF neural networks is employed to estimate the unknown continuous functions. The proposed control guarantees that all closed-loop signals remain bounded. The simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme.

  11. Expert Diagnosing System for a Rotation Mechanism Based on a Neural Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    By combining the artificial neural network with the rule reasoning expert system,an expert diagnosing system for a rotation mechanism was established. This expert system takes advantage of both a neural network and a rule reasoning expert system; it can also make use of all kinds of knowledge in the repository to diagnose the fault with the positive and negative mixing reasoning mode. The binary system was adopted to denote all kinds of fault in a rotation mechanism. The neural networks were trained with a random parallel algorithm (Alopex). The expert system overcomes the self-learning difficulty of the rule reasoning expert system and the shortcoming of poor system control of the neural network.The expert system developed in this paper has powerful diagnosing ability.

  12. Neural network diagnostic system for dengue patients risk classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faisal, Tarig; Taib, Mohd Nasir; Ibrahim, Fatimah

    2012-04-01

    With the dramatic increase of the worldwide threat of dengue disease, it has been very crucial to correctly diagnose the dengue patients in order to decrease the disease severity. However, it has been a great challenge for the physicians to identify the level of risk in dengue patients due to overlapping of the medical classification criteria. Therefore, this study aims to construct a noninvasive diagnostic system to assist the physicians for classifying the risk in dengue patients. Systematic producers have been followed to develop the system. Firstly, the assessment of the significant predictors associated with the level of risk in dengue patients was carried out utilizing the statistical analyses technique. Secondly, Multilayer perceptron neural network models trained via Levenberg-Marquardt and Scaled Conjugate Gradient algorithms was employed for constructing the diagnostic system. Finally, precise tuning for the models' parameters was conducted in order to achieve the optimal performance. As a result, 9 noninvasive predictors were found to be significantly associated with the level of risk in dengue patients. By employing those predictors, 75% prediction accuracy has been achieved for classifying the risk in dengue patients using Scaled Conjugate Gradient algorithm while 70.7% prediction accuracy were achieved by using Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm.

  13. DECOUPLING CONTROL OF TWO MOTORS SYSTEM BASED ON NEURAL NETWORK INVERSE SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Deming; Ju Ping; Liu Guohai

    2004-01-01

    In accordance with the characteristics of two motors system, the united mathematic model of two-motors inverter system with v/f variable frequency speed-regulating is given. Two-motor inverter system can be decoupled by the neural network invert system, and changed into a sub-system of speed and a sub-system of tension. Multiple controllers are designed, and good results are obtained. The system has good static and dynamic performances and high anti-disturbance of load.

  14. NNSYSID and NNCTRL Tools for system identification and control with neural networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Magnus; Ravn, Ole; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2001-01-01

    choose among several designs such as direct inverse control, internal model control, nonlinear feedforward, feedback linearisation, optimal control, gain scheduling based on instantaneous linearisation of neural network models and nonlinear model predictive control. This article gives an overview......Two toolsets for use with MATLAB have been developed: the neural network based system identification toolbox (NNSYSID) and the neural network based control system design toolkit (NNCTRL). The NNSYSID toolbox has been designed to assist identification of nonlinear dynamic systems. It contains...... a number of nonlinear model structures based on neural networks, effective training algorithms and tools for model validation and model structure selection. The NNCTRL toolkit is an add-on to NNSYSID and provides tools for design and simulation of control systems based on neural networks. The user can...

  15. NNSYSID and NNCTRL Tools for system identification and control with neural networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Magnus; Ravn, Ole; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2001-01-01

    Two toolsets for use with MATLAB have been developed: the neural network based system identification toolbox (NNSYSID) and the neural network based control system design toolkit (NNCTRL). The NNSYSID toolbox has been designed to assist identification of nonlinear dynamic systems. It contains...... a number of nonlinear model structures based on neural networks, effective training algorithms and tools for model validation and model structure selection. The NNCTRL toolkit is an add-on to NNSYSID and provides tools for design and simulation of control systems based on neural networks. The user can...... choose among several designs such as direct inverse control, internal model control, nonlinear feedforward, feedback linearisation, optimal control, gain scheduling based on instantaneous linearisation of neural network models and nonlinear model predictive control. This article gives an overview...

  16. Neural Networks Control of a Magnetic Levitation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-04-17

    investigation of the use of artificial neural networks (ANN) in conjunction of proportional-integral-derivative ( PID ) controllers in control of non...neural networks in controlling closed-loop active magnetic bearing and comparison with the use of PID controllers . The obtained results should create a

  17. Parallel hierarchical radiosity rendering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, M.

    1993-07-01

    In this dissertation, the step-by-step development of a scalable parallel hierarchical radiosity renderer is documented. First, a new look is taken at the traditional radiosity equation, and a new form is presented in which the matrix of linear system coefficients is transformed into a symmetric matrix, thereby simplifying the problem and enabling a new solution technique to be applied. Next, the state-of-the-art hierarchical radiosity methods are examined for their suitability to parallel implementation, and scalability. Significant enhancements are also discovered which both improve their theoretical foundations and improve the images they generate. The resultant hierarchical radiosity algorithm is then examined for sources of parallelism, and for an architectural mapping. Several architectural mappings are discussed. A few key algorithmic changes are suggested during the process of making the algorithm parallel. Next, the performance, efficiency, and scalability of the algorithm are analyzed. The dissertation closes with a discussion of several ideas which have the potential to further enhance the hierarchical radiosity method, or provide an entirely new forum for the application of hierarchical methods.

  18. Neural signal processing and closed-loop control algorithm design for an implanted neural recording and stimulation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Lei; McConley, Marc; Angermueller, Kai; Goldberg, David; Corba, Massimiliano; Kim, Louis; Moran, James; Parks, Philip D; Sang Chin; Widge, Alik S; Dougherty, Darin D; Eskandar, Emad N

    2015-08-01

    A fully autonomous intracranial device is built to continually record neural activities in different parts of the brain, process these sampled signals, decode features that correlate to behaviors and neuropsychiatric states, and use these features to deliver brain stimulation in a closed-loop fashion. In this paper, we describe the sampling and stimulation aspects of such a device. We first describe the signal processing algorithms of two unsupervised spike sorting methods. Next, we describe the LFP time-frequency analysis and feature derivation from the two spike sorting methods. Spike sorting includes a novel approach to constructing a dictionary learning algorithm in a Compressed Sensing (CS) framework. We present a joint prediction scheme to determine the class of neural spikes in the dictionary learning framework; and, the second approach is a modified OSort algorithm which is implemented in a distributed system optimized for power efficiency. Furthermore, sorted spikes and time-frequency analysis of LFP signals can be used to generate derived features (including cross-frequency coupling, spike-field coupling). We then show how these derived features can be used in the design and development of novel decode and closed-loop control algorithms that are optimized to apply deep brain stimulation based on a patient's neuropsychiatric state. For the control algorithm, we define the state vector as representative of a patient's impulsivity, avoidance, inhibition, etc. Controller parameters are optimized to apply stimulation based on the state vector's current state as well as its historical values. The overall algorithm and software design for our implantable neural recording and stimulation system uses an innovative, adaptable, and reprogrammable architecture that enables advancement of the state-of-the-art in closed-loop neural control while also meeting the challenges of system power constraints and concurrent development with ongoing scientific research designed

  19. ξTauri: a unique laboratory to study the dynamic interaction in a compact hierarchical quadruple system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemravová, J. A.; Harmanec, P.; Brož, M.; Vokrouhlický, D.; Mourard, D.; Hummel, C. A.; Cameron, C.; Matthews, J. M.; Bolton, C. T.; Božić, H.; Chini, R.; Dembsky, T.; Engle, S.; Farrington, C.; Grunhut, J. H.; Guenther, D. B.; Guinan, E. F.; Korčáková, D.; Koubský, P.; Kříček, R.; Kuschnig, R.; Mayer, P.; McCook, G. P.; Moffat, A. F. J.; Nardetto, N.; Prša, A.; Ribeiro, J.; Rowe, J.; Rucinski, S.; Škoda, P.; Šlechta, M.; Tallon-Bosc, I.; Votruba, V.; Weiss, W. W.; Wolf, M.; Zasche, P.; Zavala, R. T.

    2016-10-01

    Context. Compact hierarchical systems are important because the effects caused by the dynamical interaction among its members occur ona human timescale. These interactions play a role in the formation of close binaries through Kozai cycles with tides. One such system is ξ Tauri: it has three hierarchical orbits: 7.14 d (eclipsing components Aa, Ab), 145 d (components Aa+Ab, B), and 51 yr (components Aa+Ab+B, C). Aims: We aim to obtain physical properties of the system and to study the dynamical interaction between its components. Methods: Our analysis is based on a large series of spectroscopic photometric (including space-borne) observations and long-baseline optical and infrared spectro-interferometric observations. We used two approaches to infer the system properties: a set of observation-specific models, where all components have elliptical trajectories, and an N-body model, which computes the trajectory of each component by integrating Newton's equations of motion. Results: The triple subsystem exhibits clear signs of dynamical interaction. The most pronounced are the advance of the apsidal line and eclipse-timing variations. We determined the geometry of all three orbits using both observation-specific and N-body models. The latter correctly accounted for observed effects of the dynamical interaction, predicted cyclic variations of orbital inclinations, and determined the sense of motion of all orbits. Using perturbation theory, we demonstrate that prominent secular and periodic dynamical effects are explainable with a quadrupole interaction. We constrained the basic properties of all components, especially of members of the inner triple subsystem and detected rapid low-amplitude light variations that we attribute to co-rotating surface structures of component B. We also estimated the radius of component B. Properties of component C remain uncertain because of its low relative luminosity. We provide an independent estimate of the distance to the system

  20. Hybrid energy system evaluation in water supply system energy production: neural network approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Fabio V.; Ramos, Helena M. [Civil Engineering Department, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001, Lisbon (Portugal); Reis, Luisa Fernanda R. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, EESC/USP, Departamento de Hidraulica e Saneamento., Avenida do Trabalhador Saocarlense, 400, Sao Carlos-SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Water supply systems are large consumers of energy and the use of hybrid systems for green energy production is this new proposal. This work presents a computational model based on neural networks to determine the best configuration of a hybrid system to generate energy in water supply systems. In this study the energy sources to make this hybrid system can be the national power grid, micro-hydro and wind turbines. The artificial neural network is composed of six layers, trained to use data generated by a model of hybrid configuration and an economic simulator - CES. The reason for the development of an advanced model of forecasting based on neural networks is to allow rapid simulation and proper interaction with hydraulic and power model simulator - HPS. The results show that this computational model is useful as advanced decision support system in the design of configurations of hybrid power systems applied to water supply systems, improving the solutions in the development of its global energy efficiency.

  1. Hybrid energy system evaluation in water supply system energy production: neural network approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio V. Goncalves, Helena M. Ramos, Luisa Fernanda R. Reis

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Water supply systems are large consumers of energy and the use of hybrid systems for green energy production is this new proposal. This work presents a computational model based on neural networks to determine the best configuration of a hybrid system to generate energy in water supply systems. In this study the energy sources to make this hybrid system can be the national power grid, micro-hydro and wind turbines. The artificial neural network is composed of six layers, trained to use data generated by a model of hybrid configuration and an economic simulator – CES. The reason for the development of an advanced model of forecasting based on neural networks is to allow rapid simulation and proper interaction with hydraulic and power model simulator – HPS. The results show that this computational model is useful as advanced decision support system in the design of configurations of hybrid power systems applied to water supply systems, improving the solutions in the development of its global energy efficiency.

  2. On the Computational Power of Spiking Neural P Systems with Self-Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xun; Song, Tao; Gong, Faming; Zheng, Pan

    2016-01-01

    Neural-like computing models are versatile computing mechanisms in the field of artificial intelligence. Spiking neural P systems (SN P systems for short) are one of the recently developed spiking neural network models inspired by the way neurons communicate. The communications among neurons are essentially achieved by spikes, i. e. short electrical pulses. In terms of motivation, SN P systems fall into the third generation of neural network models. In this study, a novel variant of SN P systems, namely SN P systems with self-organization, is introduced, and the computational power of the system is investigated and evaluated. It is proved that SN P systems with self-organization are capable of computing and accept the family of sets of Turing computable natural numbers. Moreover, with 87 neurons the system can compute any Turing computable recursive function, thus achieves Turing universality. These results demonstrate promising initiatives to solve an open problem arisen by Gh Păun.

  3. On the Computational Power of Spiking Neural P Systems with Self-Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xun; Song, Tao; Gong, Faming; Zheng, Pan

    2016-06-01

    Neural-like computing models are versatile computing mechanisms in the field of artificial intelligence. Spiking neural P systems (SN P systems for short) are one of the recently developed spiking neural network models inspired by the way neurons communicate. The communications among neurons are essentially achieved by spikes, i. e. short electrical pulses. In terms of motivation, SN P systems fall into the third generation of neural network models. In this study, a novel variant of SN P systems, namely SN P systems with self-organization, is introduced, and the computational power of the system is investigated and evaluated. It is proved that SN P systems with self-organization are capable of computing and accept the family of sets of Turing computable natural numbers. Moreover, with 87 neurons the system can compute any Turing computable recursive function, thus achieves Turing universality. These results demonstrate promising initiatives to solve an open problem arisen by Gh Păun.

  4. A Decentralized Approach to the Formulation of Hypotheses: A Hierarchical Structural Model for a Prion Self-Assembled System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mingyang; Zhang, Feifei; Song, Chao; Shi, Pengfei; Zhu, Jin

    2016-07-01

    Innovation in hypotheses is a key transformative driver for scientific development. The conventional centralized hypothesis formulation approach, where a dominant hypothesis is typically derived from a primary phenomenon, can, inevitably, impose restriction on the range of conceivable experiments and legitimate hypotheses, and ultimately impede understanding of the system of interest. We report herein the proposal of a decentralized approach for the formulation of hypotheses, through initial preconception-free phenomenon accumulation and subsequent reticular logical reasoning processes. The two-step approach can provide an unbiased, panoramic view of the system and as such should enable the generation of a set of more coherent and therefore plausible hypotheses. As a proof-of-concept demonstration of the utility of this open-ended approach, a hierarchical model has been developed for a prion self-assembled system, allowing insight into hitherto elusive static and dynamic features associated with this intriguing structure.

  5. Fluctuation relations between hierarchical kinetically equivalent networks with Arrhenius-type transitions and their roles in systems and structural biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, De-Ming; Lu, Yi-Ta; Chang, Cheng-Hung

    2017-06-01

    The legality of using simple kinetic schemes to determine the stochastic properties of a complex system depends on whether the fluctuations generated from hierarchical equivalent schemes are consistent with one another. To analyze this consistency, we perform lumping processes on the stochastic differential equations and the generalized fluctuation-dissipation theorem and apply them to networks with the frequently encountered Arrhenius-type transition rates. The explicit Langevin force derived from those networks enables us to calculate the state fluctuations caused by the intrinsic and extrinsic noises on the free energy surface and deduce their relations between kinetically equivalent networks. In addition to its applicability to wide classes of network related systems, such as those in structural and systems biology, the result sheds light on the fluctuation relations for general physical variables in Keizer's canonical theory.

  6. Adaptive fuzzy-neural-network control for maglev transportation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wai, Rong-Jong; Lee, Jeng-Dao

    2008-01-01

    A magnetic-levitation (maglev) transportation system including levitation and propulsion control is a subject of considerable scientific interest because of highly nonlinear and unstable behaviors. In this paper, the dynamic model of a maglev transportation system including levitated electromagnets and a propulsive linear induction motor (LIM) based on the concepts of mechanical geometry and motion dynamics is developed first. Then, a model-based sliding-mode control (SMC) strategy is introduced. In order to alleviate chattering phenomena caused by the inappropriate selection of uncertainty bound, a simple bound estimation algorithm is embedded in the SMC strategy to form an adaptive sliding-mode control (ASMC) scheme. However, this estimation algorithm is always a positive value so that tracking errors introduced by any uncertainty will cause the estimated bound increase even to infinity with time. Therefore, it further designs an adaptive fuzzy-neural-network control (AFNNC) scheme by imitating the SMC strategy for the maglev transportation system. In the model-free AFNNC, online learning algorithms are designed to cope with the problem of chattering phenomena caused by the sign action in SMC design, and to ensure the stability of the controlled system without the requirement of auxiliary compensated controllers despite the existence of uncertainties. The outputs of the AFNNC scheme can be directly supplied to the electromagnets and LIM without complicated control transformations for relaxing strict constrains in conventional model-based control methodologies. The effectiveness of the proposed control schemes for the maglev transportation system is verified by numerical simulations, and the superiority of the AFNNC scheme is indicated in comparison with the SMC and ASMC strategies.

  7. An alternative respiratory sounds classification system utilizing artificial neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rami J Oweis

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Computerized lung sound analysis involves recording lung sound via an electronic device, followed by computer analysis and classification based on specific signal characteristics as non-linearity and nonstationarity caused by air turbulence. An automatic analysis is necessary to avoid dependence on expert skills. Methods: This work revolves around exploiting autocorrelation in the feature extraction stage. All process stages were implemented in MATLAB. The classification process was performed comparatively using both artificial neural networks (ANNs and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference systems (ANFIS toolboxes. The methods have been applied to 10 different respiratory sounds for classification. Results: The ANN was superior to the ANFIS system and returned superior performance parameters. Its accuracy, specificity, and sensitivity were 98.6%, 100%, and 97.8%, respectively. The obtained parameters showed superiority to many recent approaches. Conclusions: The promising proposed method is an efficient fast tool for the intended purpose as manifested in the performance parameters, specifically, accuracy, specificity, and sensitivity. Furthermore, it may be added that utilizing the autocorrelation function in the feature extraction in such applications results in enhanced performance and avoids undesired computation complexities compared to other techniques.

  8. Detection of Denial of Service Attacks against Domain Name System Using Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Fadlee A. Rasid

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we introduce an intrusion detection system for Denial of Service (DoS attacks against Domain Name System (DNS. Our system architecture consists of two most important parts: a statistical preprocessor and a neural network classifier. The preprocessor extracts required statistical features in a short-time frame from traffic received by the target name server. We compared three different neural networks for detecting and classifying different types of DoS attacks. The proposed system is evaluated in a simulated network and showed that the best performed neural network is a feed-forward backpropagation with an accuracy of 99%.

  9. Adaptive control of chaotic systems based on a single layer neural network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen Liqun [Space Control and Inertia Technology Research Center, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)], E-mail: liqunshen@gmail.com; Wang Mao [Space Control and Inertia Technology Research Center, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2007-08-27

    This Letter presents an adaptive neural network control method for the chaos control problem. Based on a single layer neural network, the dynamic about the unstable fixed period point of the chaotic system can be adaptively identified without detailed information about the chaotic system. And the controlled chaotic system can be stabilized on the unstable fixed period orbit. Simulation results of Henon map and Lorenz system verify the effectiveness of the proposed control method.

  10. PERFORMANCE COMPARISON FOR INTRUSION DETECTION SYSTEM USING NEURAL NETWORK WITH KDD DATASET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Devaraju

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Intrusion Detection Systems are challenging task for finding the user as normal user or attack user in any organizational information systems or IT Industry. The Intrusion Detection System is an effective method to deal with the kinds of problem in networks. Different classifiers are used to detect the different kinds of attacks in networks. In this paper, the performance of intrusion detection is compared with various neural network classifiers. In the proposed research the four types of classifiers used are Feed Forward Neural Network (FFNN, Generalized Regression Neural Network (GRNN, Probabilistic Neural Network (PNN and Radial Basis Neural Network (RBNN. The performance of the full featured KDD Cup 1999 dataset is compared with that of the reduced featured KDD Cup 1999 dataset. The MATLAB software is used to train and test the dataset and the efficiency and False Alarm Rate is measured. It is proved that the reduced dataset is performing better than the full featured dataset.

  11. ADAPTIVE FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM OF ARMED HELICOPTER USING WAVELET NEURAL NETWORK METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHURong-gang; JIANGChangsheng; FENGBin

    2004-01-01

    A discussion is devoted to the design of an adaptive flight control system of the armed helicopter using wavelet neural network method. Firstly, the control loop of the attitude angle is designed with a dynamic inversion scheme in a quick loop and a slow loop. respectively. Then, in order to compensate the error caused by dynamic inversion, the adaptive flight control system of the armed helicopter using wavelet neural network method is put forward, so the BP wavelet neural network and the Lyapunov stable wavelet neural network are used to design the helicopter flight control system. Finally, the typical maneuver flight is simulated to demonstrate its validity and effectiveness. Result proves that the wavelet neural network has an engineering practical value and the effect of WNN is good.

  12. Neural network based optimal control of HVAC&R systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Min

    Heating, Ventilation, Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration (HVAC&R) systems have wide applications in providing a desired indoor environment for different types of buildings. It is well acknowledged that 30%-40% of the total energy generated is consumed by buildings and HVAC&R systems alone account for more than 50% of the building energy consumption. Low operational efficiency especially under partial load conditions and poor control are part of reasons for such high energy consumption. To improve energy efficiency, HVAC&R systems should be properly operated to maintain a comfortable and healthy indoor environment under dynamic ambient and indoor conditions with the least energy consumption. This research focuses on the optimal operation of HVAC&R systems. The optimization problem is formulated and solved to find the optimal set points for the chilled water supply temperature, discharge air temperature and AHU (air handling unit) fan static pressure such that the indoor environment is maintained with the least chiller and fan energy consumption. To achieve this objective, a dynamic system model is developed first to simulate the system behavior under different control schemes and operating conditions. The system model is modular in structure, which includes a water-cooled vapor compression chiller model and a two-zone VAV system model. A fuzzy-set based extended transformation approach is then applied to investigate the uncertainties of this model caused by uncertain parameters and the sensitivities of the control inputs with respect to the interested model outputs. A multi-layer feed forward neural network is constructed and trained in unsupervised mode to minimize the cost function which is comprised of overall energy cost and penalty cost when one or more constraints are violated. After training, the network is implemented as a supervisory controller to compute the optimal settings for the system. In order to implement the optimal set points predicted by the

  13. Neural Control System in Obstacle Avoidance in Mobile Robots Using Ultrasonic Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Medina-Santiago

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development and implementation of neural control systems in mobile robots in obstacle avoidance in real time using ultrasonic sensors with complex strategies of decision-making in development (Matlab and Processing. An Arduino embedded platform is used to implement the neural control for field results.

  14. Application of Neural network PID Controller in Constant Temperature and Constant Liquid-level System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen,Guochu; Zhang,Lin; Hao,Ninmei; Liu,Xianguang; Wang,Junhong

    2003-01-01

    Guided by the principle of neural network, an intelligent PID controller based on neural network is devised and applied to control of constant temperature and constant liquidlevel system. The experiment results show that this controller has high accuracy and strong robustness and good characters.

  15. Synthetical Control of AGC/LPC System Based on Neural Networks Internal Model Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    One synthetical control method of AGC/LPC system based on intelligence control theory-neural networks internal model control method is presented. Genetic algorithm (GA) is applied to optimize the parameters of the neural networks. Simulation results prove that this method is effective.

  16. Review: the role of neural crest cells in the endocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Meghan Sara; Bronner-Fraser, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    The neural crest is a pluripotent population of cells that arises at the junction of the neural tube and the dorsal ectoderm. These highly migratory cells form diverse derivatives including neurons and glia of the sensory, sympathetic, and enteric nervous systems, melanocytes, and the bones, cartilage, and connective tissues of the face. The neural crest has long been associated with the endocrine system, although not always correctly. According to current understanding, neural crest cells give rise to the chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla, chief cells of the extra-adrenal paraganglia, and thyroid C cells. The endocrine tumors that correspond to these cell types are pheochromocytomas, extra-adrenal paragangliomas, and medullary thyroid carcinomas. Although controversies concerning embryological origin appear to have mostly been resolved, questions persist concerning the pathobiology of each tumor type and its basis in neural crest embryology. Here we present a brief history of the work on neural crest development, both in general and in application to the endocrine system. In particular, we present findings related to the plasticity and pluripotency of neural crest cells as well as a discussion of several different neural crest tumors in the endocrine system.

  17. Hierarchical Modulation with Vector Rotation for E-MBMS Transmission in LTE Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Zhao

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Enhanced Multimedia Broadcast and Multicast Service (E-MBMS is considered of key importance for the proliferation of Long-Term Evolution (LTE network in mobile market. Hierarchical modulation (HM, which involves a “base-layer” (BL and an “enhancement-layer” (EL bit streams, is a simple technique for achieving tradeoff between service quality and radio coverage. Therefore, it is appealing for MBMS. Generally, HM suffers from the severe performance degradation of the less protected EL stream. In this paper, HM with vector rotation operation introduced to EL stream is proposed, in order to improve EL's performance. With the proper interleaving in frequency domain, this operation can exploit the inherent diversity gain from the multipath channel. In this way, HM with vector rotation can effectively enhance multimedia broadcasting on quality video and coverage. The simulation results with scalable video coding (SVC as source show the significant benefits in comparison with the conventional HM and alternative schemes.

  18. A neurodynamical model of visual attention: feedback enhancement of spatial resolution in a hierarchical system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deco, G; Zihl, J

    2001-01-01

    Human beings have the capacity to recognize objects in natural visual scenes with high efficiency despite the complexity of such scenes, which usually contain multiple objects. One possible mechanism for dealing with this problem is selective attention. Psychophysical evidence strongly suggests that selective attention can enhance the spatial resolution in the input region corresponding to the focus of attention. In this work we adopt a computational neuroscience perspective to analyze the attentional enhancement of spatial resolution in the area containing the objects of interest. We extend and apply the computational model of Deco and Schürmann (2000), which consists of several modules with feedforward and feedback interconnections describing the mutual links between different areas of the visual cortex. Each module analyses the visual input with different spatial resolution and can be thought of as a hierarchical predictor at a given level of resolution. Moreover, each hierarchical predictor has a submodule that consists of a group of neurons performing a biologically based 2D Gabor wavelet transformation at a given resolution level. The attention control decides in which local regions the spatial resolution should be enhanced in a serial fashion. In this sense, the scene is first analyzed at a coarse resolution level, and the focus of attention enhances iteratively the resolution at the location of an object until the object is identified. We propose and simulate new psychophysical experiments where the effect of the attentional enhancement of spatial resolution can be demonstrated by predicting different reaction time profiles in visual search experiments where the target and distractors are defined at different levels of resolution.

  19. FGF Signaling Transforms Non-neural Ectoderm into Neural Crest

    OpenAIRE

    Yardley, Nathan; García-Castro, Martín I.

    2012-01-01

    The neural crest arises at the border between the neural plate and the adjacent non-neural ectoderm. It has been suggested that both neural and non-neural ectoderm can contribute to the neural crest. Several studies have examined the molecular mechanisms that regulate neural crest induction in neuralized tissues or the neural plate border. Here, using the chick as a model system, we address the molecular mechanisms by which non-neural ectoderm generates neural crest. We report that in respons...

  20. A Fuzzy-Neural Network Control of Nonlinear Dynamic Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In this paper,an adaptive dynamic control scheme based on a fuzzy neural network is presented,that presents utilizes both feed-forward and feedback controller elements.The former of the two elements comprises a neural network with both identification and control role,and the latter is a fuzzy neural algorithm,which is introduced to provide additional control enhancement.The feedforward controller provides only coarse control,whereas the feedback oontroller can generate on-line conditional proposition rule automatically to improve the overall control action.These properties make the design very versatile and applicable to a range of industrial applications.

  1. Modeling of the height control system using artificial neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R Tahavvor

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Automation of agricultural and machinery construction has generally been enhanced by intelligent control systems due to utility and efficiency rising, ease of use, profitability and upgrading according to market demand. A broad variety of industrial merchandise are now supplied with computerized control systems of earth moving processes to be performed by construction and agriculture field vehicle such as grader, backhoe, tractor and scraper machines. A height control machine which is used in measuring base thickness is consisted of two mechanical and electronic parts. The mechanical part is consisted of conveyor belt, main body, electrical engine and invertors while the electronic part is consisted of ultrasonic, wave transmitter and receiver sensor, electronic board, control set, and microcontroller. The main job of these controlling devices consists of the topographic surveying, cutting and filling of elevated and spotted low area, and these actions fundamentally dependent onthe machine's ability in elevation and thickness measurement and control. In this study, machine was first tested and then some experiments were conducted for data collection. Study of system modeling in artificial neural networks (ANN was done for measuring, controlling the height for bases by input variable input vectors such as sampling time, probe speed, conveyer speed, sound wave speed and speed sensor are finally the maximum and minimum probe output vector on various conditions. The result reveals the capability of this procedure for experimental recognition of sensors' behavior and improvement of field machine control systems. Inspection, calibration and response, diagnosis of the elevation control system in combination with machine function can also be evaluated by some extra development of this system. Materials and Methods Designing and manufacture of the planned apparatus classified in three dissimilar, mechanical and electronic module, courses of

  2. Hierarchical Bayesian Data Analysis in Radiometric SAR System Calibration: A Case Study on Transponder Calibration with RADARSAT-2 Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn J. Döring

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A synthetic aperture radar (SAR system requires external absolute calibration so that radiometric measurements can be exploited in numerous scientific and commercial applications. Besides estimating a calibration factor, metrological standards also demand the derivation of a respective calibration uncertainty. This uncertainty is currently not systematically determined. Here for the first time it is proposed to use hierarchical modeling and Bayesian statistics as a consistent method for handling and analyzing the hierarchical data typically acquired during external calibration campaigns. Through the use of Markov chain Monte Carlo simulations, a joint posterior probability can be conveniently derived from measurement data despite the necessary grouping of data samples. The applicability of the method is demonstrated through a case study: The radar reflectivity of DLR’s new C-band Kalibri transponder is derived through a series of RADARSAT-2 acquisitions and a comparison with reference point targets (corner reflectors. The systematic derivation of calibration uncertainties is seen as an important step toward traceable radiometric calibration of synthetic aperture radars.

  3. A novel neural-wavelet approach for process diagnostics and complex system modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Rong

    Neural networks have been effective in several engineering applications because of their learning abilities and robustness. However certain shortcomings, such as slow convergence and local minima, are always associated with neural networks, especially neural networks applied to highly nonlinear and non-stationary problems. These problems can be effectively alleviated by integrating a new powerful tool, wavelets, into conventional neural networks. The multi-resolution analysis and feature localization capabilities of the wavelet transform offer neural networks new possibilities for learning. A neural wavelet network approach developed in this thesis enjoys fast convergence rate with little possibility to be caught at a local minimum. It combines the localization properties of wavelets with the learning abilities of neural networks. Two different testbeds are used for testing the efficiency of the new approach. The first is magnetic flowmeter-based process diagnostics: here we extend previous work, which has demonstrated that wavelet groups contain process information, to more general process diagnostics. A loop at Applied Intelligent Systems Lab (AISL) is used for collecting and analyzing data through the neural-wavelet approach. The research is important for thermal-hydraulic processes in nuclear and other engineering fields. The neural-wavelet approach developed is also tested with data from the electric power grid. More specifically, the neural-wavelet approach is used for performing short-term and mid-term prediction of power load demand. In addition, the feasibility of determining the type of load using the proposed neural wavelet approach is also examined. The notion of cross scale product has been developed as an expedient yet reliable discriminator of loads. Theoretical issues involved in the integration of wavelets and neural networks are discussed and future work outlined.

  4. Artificial Neural Network-Based System for PET Volume Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mhd Saeed Sharif

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumour detection, classification, and quantification in positron emission tomography (PET imaging at early stage of disease are important issues for clinical diagnosis, assessment of response to treatment, and radiotherapy planning. Many techniques have been proposed for segmenting medical imaging data; however, some of the approaches have poor performance, large inaccuracy, and require substantial computation time for analysing large medical volumes. Artificial intelligence (AI approaches can provide improved accuracy and save decent amount of time. Artificial neural networks (ANNs, as one of the best AI techniques, have the capability to classify and quantify precisely lesions and model the clinical evaluation for a specific problem. This paper presents a novel application of ANNs in the wavelet domain for PET volume segmentation. ANN performance evaluation using different training algorithms in both spatial and wavelet domains with a different number of neurons in the hidden layer is also presented. The best number of neurons in the hidden layer is determined according to the experimental results, which is also stated Levenberg-Marquardt backpropagation training algorithm as the best training approach for the proposed application. The proposed intelligent system results are compared with those obtained using conventional techniques including thresholding and clustering based approaches. Experimental and Monte Carlo simulated PET phantom data sets and clinical PET volumes of nonsmall cell lung cancer patients were utilised to validate the proposed algorithm which has demonstrated promising results.

  5. Artificial Neural Network-Based System for PET Volume Segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, Mhd Saeed; Abbod, Maysam; Amira, Abbes; Zaidi, Habib

    2010-01-01

    Tumour detection, classification, and quantification in positron emission tomography (PET) imaging at early stage of disease are important issues for clinical diagnosis, assessment of response to treatment, and radiotherapy planning. Many techniques have been proposed for segmenting medical imaging data; however, some of the approaches have poor performance, large inaccuracy, and require substantial computation time for analysing large medical volumes. Artificial intelligence (AI) approaches can provide improved accuracy and save decent amount of time. Artificial neural networks (ANNs), as one of the best AI techniques, have the capability to classify and quantify precisely lesions and model the clinical evaluation for a specific problem. This paper presents a novel application of ANNs in the wavelet domain for PET volume segmentation. ANN performance evaluation using different training algorithms in both spatial and wavelet domains with a different number of neurons in the hidden layer is also presented. The best number of neurons in the hidden layer is determined according to the experimental results, which is also stated Levenberg-Marquardt backpropagation training algorithm as the best training approach for the proposed application. The proposed intelligent system results are compared with those obtained using conventional techniques including thresholding and clustering based approaches. Experimental and Monte Carlo simulated PET phantom data sets and clinical PET volumes of nonsmall cell lung cancer patients were utilised to validate the proposed algorithm which has demonstrated promising results.

  6. Gain Scheduling Control of Nonlinear Systems Based on Neural State Space Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a novel method for gain scheduling control of nonlinear systems based on extraction of local linear state space models from neural networks with direct application to robust control. A neural state space model of the system is first trained based on in- and output training...... samples from the system, after which linearized state space models are extracted from the neural network in a number of operating points according to a simple and computationally cheap scheme. Robust observer-based controllers can then be designed in each of these operating points,and gain scheduling...

  7. An Expert System Using A Neural Network For Steam Generator Tube Inspection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kilyoo; Huh, Younghwan [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Woo, Heegon; Choi, Sungsoo [Korea Electric Power Corporation, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    1991-04-15

    An expert system using neural network is built to automatically evaluate eddy current (EC) signals generated during steam generator (S/G) tubes inspection. The system consists of three subsystem, i.e., syntactic pattern recognition subsystem, neural network subsystem and rule based production subsystem. The syntactic pattern recognition subsystem makes it easy to process the vast EC signal data, screens EC signals and detects event signals such as defect signals and structural signals. The neural network subsystem is useful to classify the event signals which often contain noise signals. The expert system implemented on HP 9000/370 workstation also supplies a good EC test data management function.

  8. Intelligent Intrusion Detection System Model Using Rough Neural Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Huai-zhi; HU Chang-zhen; TAN Hui-min

    2005-01-01

    A model of intelligent intrusion detection based on rough neural network (RNN), which combines the neural network and rough set, is presented. It works by capturing network packets to identify network intrusions or malicious attacks using RNN with sub-nets. The sub-net is constructed by detection-oriented signatures extracted using rough set theory to detect different intrusions. It is proved that RNN detection method has the merits of adaptive, high universality,high convergence speed, easy upgrading and management.

  9. Radial basis function neural network for power system load-flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karami, A.; Mohammadi, M.S. [Faculty of Engineering, The University of Guilan, P.O. Box 41635-3756, Rasht (Iran)

    2008-01-15

    This paper presents a method for solving the load-flow problem of the electric power systems using radial basis function (RBF) neural network with a fast hybrid training method. The main idea is that some operating conditions (values) are needed to solve the set of non-linear algebraic equations of load-flow by employing an iterative numerical technique. Therefore, we may view the outputs of a load-flow program as functions of the operating conditions. Indeed, we are faced with a function approximation problem and this can be done by an RBF neural network. The proposed approach has been successfully applied to the 10-machine and 39-bus New England test system. In addition, this method has been compared with that of a multi-layer perceptron (MLP) neural network model. The simulation results show that the RBF neural network is a simpler method to implement and requires less training time to converge than the MLP neural network. (author)

  10. Compensating for Channel Fading in DS-CDMA Communication Systems Employing ICA Neural Network Detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Overbye

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we examine the impact of channel fading on the bit error rate of a DS-CDMA communication system. The system employs detectors that incorporate neural networks effecting methods of independent component analysis (ICA, subspace estimation of channel noise, and Hopfield type neural networks. The Rayleigh fading channel model is used. When employed in a Rayleigh fading environment, the ICA neural network detectors that give superior performance in a flat fading channel did not retain this superior performance. We then present a new method of compensating for channel fading based on the incorporation of priors in the ICA neural network learning algorithms. When the ICA neural network detectors were compensated using the incorporation of priors, they give significantly better performance than the traditional detectors and the uncompensated ICA detectors. Keywords: CDMA, Multi-user Detection, Rayleigh Fading, Multipath Detection, Independent Component Analysis, Prior Probability Hebbian Learning, Natural Gradient

  11. A new neural network model for the feedback stabilization of nonlinear systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mei-qin LIU; Sen-lin ZHANG; Gang-long YAN

    2008-01-01

    A new neural network model termed 'standard neural network model' (SNNM) is presented,and a state-feedback control law is then designed for the SNNM to stabilize the closed-loop system.The control design constraints are shown to be a set of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs),which can be easily solved by the MATLAB LMI Control Toolbox to determine the control law.Most recurrent neural networks (including the chaotic neural network) and nonlinear systems modeled by neural networks or Takagi and Sugeno (T-S) fuzzy models can be transformed into the SNNMs to be stabilization controllers synthesized in the framework of a unified SNNM.Finally,three numerical examples are provided to illustrate the design developed in this paper.

  12. Research on architecture of intelligent design platform for artificial neural network expert system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Honghong

    2017-09-01

    Based on the review of the development and current situation of CAD technology, the necessity of combination of artificial neural network and expert system, and then present an intelligent design system based on artificial neural network. Moreover, it discussed the feasibility of realization of a design-oriented expert system development tools on the basis of above combination. In addition, knowledge representation strategy and method and the solving process are given in this paper.

  13. A hyperstable neural network for the modelling and control of nonlinear systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K Warwick; Q M Zhu; Z Ma

    2000-04-01

    A multivariable hyperstable robust adaptive decoupling control algorithm based on a neural network is presented for the control of nonlinear multivariable coupled systems with unknown parameters and structure. The Popov theorem is used in the design of the controller. The modelling errors, coupling action and other uncertainties of the system are identified on-line by a neural network. The identified results are taken as compensation signals such that the robust adaptive control of nonlinear systems is realised. Simulation results are given.

  14. A case for spiking neural network simulation based on configurable multiple-FPGA systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shufan; Wu, Qiang; Li, Renfa

    2011-09-01

    Recent neuropsychological research has begun to reveal that neurons encode information in the timing of spikes. Spiking neural network simulations are a flexible and powerful method for investigating the behaviour of neuronal systems. Simulation of the spiking neural networks in software is unable to rapidly generate output spikes in large-scale of neural network. An alternative approach, hardware implementation of such system, provides the possibility to generate independent spikes precisely and simultaneously output spike waves in real time, under the premise that spiking neural network can take full advantage of hardware inherent parallelism. We introduce a configurable FPGA-oriented hardware platform for spiking neural network simulation in this work. We aim to use this platform to combine the speed of dedicated hardware with the programmability of software so that it might allow neuroscientists to put together sophisticated computation experiments of their own model. A feed-forward hierarchy network is developed as a case study to describe the operation of biological neural systems (such as orientation selectivity of visual cortex) and computational models of such systems. This model demonstrates how a feed-forward neural network constructs the circuitry required for orientation selectivity and provides platform for reaching a deeper understanding of the primate visual system. In the future, larger scale models based on this framework can be used to replicate the actual architecture in visual cortex, leading to more detailed predictions and insights into visual perception phenomenon.

  15. Neutron spectrometry and dosimetry by means of Bonner spheres system and artificial neural networks applying robust design of artificial neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez B, M.R.; Ortiz R, J.M.; Vega C, H.R. [UAZ, Av. Ramon Lopez Velarde No. 801, 98000 Zacatecas (Mexico)

    2006-07-01

    An Artificial Neural Network has been designed, trained and tested to unfold neutron spectra and simultaneously to calculate equivalent doses. A set of 187 neutron spectra compiled by the International Atomic Energy Agency and 13 equivalent doses were used in the artificial neural network designed, trained and tested. In order to design the neural network was used the robust design of artificial neural networks methodology, which assures that the quality of the neural networks takes into account from the design stage. Unless previous works, here, for first time a group of neural networks were designed and trained to unfold 187 neutron spectra and at the same time to calculate 13 equivalent doses, starting from the count rates coming from the Bonner spheres system by using a systematic and experimental strategy. (Author)

  16. Distributed mixed-integer fuzzy hierarchical programming for municipal solid waste management. Part I: System identification and methodology development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Guanhui; Huang, Guohe; Dong, Cong; Xu, Ye; Chen, Xiujuan; Chen, Jiapei

    2017-03-01

    Due to the existence of complexities of heterogeneities, hierarchy, discreteness, and interactions in municipal solid waste management (MSWM) systems such as Beijing, China, a series of socio-economic and eco-environmental problems may emerge or worsen and result in irredeemable damages in the following decades. Meanwhile, existing studies, especially ones focusing on MSWM in Beijing, could hardly reflect these complexities in system simulations and provide reliable decision support for management practices. Thus, a framework of distributed mixed-integer fuzzy hierarchical programming (DMIFHP) is developed in this study for MSWM under these complexities. Beijing is selected as a representative case. The Beijing MSWM system is comprehensively analyzed in many aspects such as socio-economic conditions, natural conditions, spatial heterogeneities, treatment facilities, and system complexities, building a solid foundation for system simulation and optimization. Correspondingly, the MSWM system in Beijing is discretized as 235 grids to reflect spatial heterogeneity. A DMIFHP model which is a nonlinear programming problem is constructed to parameterize the Beijing MSWM system. To enable scientific solving of it, a solution algorithm is proposed based on coupling of fuzzy programming and mixed-integer linear programming. Innovations and advantages of the DMIFHP framework are discussed. The optimal MSWM schemes and mechanism revelations will be discussed in another companion paper due to length limitation.

  17. Extended hierarchical temporal memory for visual object tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryś, Sebastian; Jankowski, Stanisław

    2011-10-01

    A system for simultaneous multi-obstacle recognition and tracking is proposed. Based on the novel Hierarchical Temporal Memory algorithm, it is design for application in vision problems but generally not constrained to it. Thanks to its modular and mostly parallel architecture it can be easily implemented in distributed environment attaining significant computation speed and thus it is suited for real-time processing tasks like visual data processing in mobile robotics. Derived from standard neural network paradigm the system can extract information concerning position, relative speed and type of an obstacle in a dynamically changing environment. It can be easily enhanced for basic prediction tasks.

  18. booc.io: An Education System with Hierarchical Concept Maps and Dynamic Non-linear Learning Plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Michail; Strobelt, Hendrik; Tompkin, James; Fredericks, Colin; Huff, Connor; Higgins, Dana; Strezhnev, Anton; Komisarchik, Mayya; King, Gary; Pfister, Hanspeter

    2017-01-01

    Information hierarchies are difficult to express when real-world space or time constraints force traversing the hierarchy in linear presentations, such as in educational books and classroom courses. We present booc.io, which allows linear and non-linear presentation and navigation of educational concepts and material. To support a breadth of material for each concept, booc.io is Web based, which allows adding material such as lecture slides, book chapters, videos, and LTIs. A visual interface assists the creation of the needed hierarchical structures. The goals of our system were formed in expert interviews, and we explain how our design meets these goals. We adapt a real-world course into booc.io, and perform introductory qualitative evaluation with students.

  19. ECG Identification System Using Neural Network with Global and Local Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Kuo-Kun; Lee, Dachao; Chen, Charles

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a human identification system via extracted electrocardiogram (ECG) signals. Two hierarchical classification structures based on global shape feature and local statistical feature is used to extract ECG signals. Global shape feature represents the outline information of ECG signals and local statistical feature extracts the…

  20. Adaptive neural control for a class of perturbed strict-feedback nonlinear time-delay systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min; Chen, Bing; Shi, Peng

    2008-06-01

    This paper proposes a novel adaptive neural control scheme for a class of perturbed strict-feedback nonlinear time-delay systems with unknown virtual control coefficients. Based on the radial basis function neural network online approximation capability, an adaptive neural controller is presented by combining the backstepping approach and Lyapunov-Krasovskii functionals. The proposed controller guarantees the semiglobal boundedness of all the signals in the closed-loop system and contains minimal learning parameters. Finally, three simulation examples are given to demonstrate the effectiveness and applicability of the proposed scheme.

  1. Design of Neural Network Control System for Controlling Trajectory of Autonomous Underwater Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İkbal Eski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A neural network based robust control system design for the trajectory of Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs is presented in this paper. Two types of control structure were used to control prescribed trajectories of an AUV. The vehicle was tested with random disturbances while taxiing under water. The results of the simulation showed that the proposed neural network based robust control system has superior performance in adapting to large random disturbances such as underwater flow. It is proved that this kind of neural predictor could be used in real-time AUV applications.

  2. Sensor Fault Diagnosis for a Class of Time Delay Uncertain Nonlinear Systems Using Neural Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mou Chen; Chang-Sheng Jiang; Qing-Xian Wu

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a sliding mode observer scheme of sensor fault diagnosis is proposed for a class of time delay nonlinear systems with input uncertainty based on neural network. The sensor fault and the system input uncertainty are assumed to be unknown but bounded. The radial basis function (RBF) neural network is used to approximate the sensor fault. Based on the output of the RBF neural network, the sliding mode observer is presented. Using the Lyapunov method, a criterion for stability is given in terms of matrix inequality. Finally, an example is given for illustrating the availability of the fault diagnosis based on the proposed sliding mode observer.

  3. A hierarchical 3D segmentation method and the definition of vertebral body coordinate systems for QCT of the lumbar spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastmeyer, André; Engelke, Klaus; Fuchs, Christina; Kalender, Willi A

    2006-08-01

    We have developed a new hierarchical 3D technique to segment the vertebral bodies in order to measure bone mineral density (BMD) with high trueness and precision in volumetric CT datasets. The hierarchical approach starts with a coarse separation of the individual vertebrae, applies a variety of techniques to segment the vertebral bodies with increasing detail and ends with the definition of an anatomic coordinate system for each vertebral body, relative to which up to 41 trabecular and cortical volumes of interest are positioned. In a pre-segmentation step constraints consisting of Boolean combinations of simple geometric shapes are determined that enclose each individual vertebral body. Bound by these constraints viscous deformable models are used to segment the main shape of the vertebral bodies. Volume growing and morphological operations then capture the fine details of the bone-soft tissue interface. In the volumes of interest bone mineral density and content are determined. In addition, in the segmented vertebral bodies geometric parameters such as volume or the length of the main axes of inertia can be measured. Intra- and inter-operator precision errors of the segmentation procedure were analyzed using existing clinical patient datasets. Results for segmented volume, BMD, and coordinate system position were below 2.0%, 0.6%, and 0.7%, respectively. Trueness was analyzed using phantom scans. The bias of the segmented volume was below 4%; for BMD it was below 1.5%. The long-term goal of this work is improved fracture prediction and patient monitoring in the field of osteoporosis. A true 3D segmentation also enables an accurate measurement of geometrical parameters that may augment the clinical value of a pure BMD analysis.

  4. Identification of Complex Dynamical Systems with Neural Networks (2/2)

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    The identification and analysis of high dimensional nonlinear systems is obviously a challenging task. Neural networks have been proven to be universal approximators but this still leaves the identification task a hard one. To do it efficiently, we have to violate some of the rules of classical regression theory. Furthermore we should focus on the interpretation of the resulting model to overcome its black box character. First, we will discuss function approximation with 3 layer feedforward neural networks up to new developments in deep neural networks and deep learning. These nets are not only of interest in connection with image analysis but are a center point of the current artificial intelligence developments. Second, we will focus on the analysis of complex dynamical system in the form of state space models realized as recurrent neural networks. After the introduction of small open dynamical systems we will study dynamical systems on manifolds. Here manifold and dynamics have to be identified in parall...

  5. Identification of Complex Dynamical Systems with Neural Networks (1/2)

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    The identification and analysis of high dimensional nonlinear systems is obviously a challenging task. Neural networks have been proven to be universal approximators but this still leaves the identification task a hard one. To do it efficiently, we have to violate some of the rules of classical regression theory. Furthermore we should focus on the interpretation of the resulting model to overcome its black box character. First, we will discuss function approximation with 3 layer feedforward neural networks up to new developments in deep neural networks and deep learning. These nets are not only of interest in connection with image analysis but are a center point of the current artificial intelligence developments. Second, we will focus on the analysis of complex dynamical system in the form of state space models realized as recurrent neural networks. After the introduction of small open dynamical systems we will study dynamical systems on manifolds. Here manifold and dynamics have to be identified in parall...

  6. Adaptive Neural Control of Uncertain MIMO Nonlinear Systems With State and Input Constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ziting; Li, Zhijun; Chen, C L Philip

    2016-03-17

    An adaptive neural control strategy for multiple input multiple output nonlinear systems with various constraints is presented in this paper. To deal with the nonsymmetric input nonlinearity and the constrained states, the proposed adaptive neural control is combined with the backstepping method, radial basis function neural network, barrier Lyapunov function (BLF), and disturbance observer. By ensuring the boundedness of the BLF of the closed-loop system, it is demonstrated that the output tracking is achieved with all states remaining in the constraint sets and the general assumption on nonsingularity of unknown control coefficient matrices has been eliminated. The constructed adaptive neural control has been rigorously proved that it can guarantee the semiglobally uniformly ultimate boundedness of all signals in the closed-loop system. Finally, the simulation studies on a 2-DOF robotic manipulator system indicate that the designed adaptive control is effective.

  7. Simulation of Missile Autopilot with Two-Rate Hybrid Neural Network System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ASTROV, I.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a two-rate hybrid neural network system, which consists of two artificial neural network subsystems. These neural network subsystems are used as the dynamic subsystems controllers.1 This is because such neuromorphic controllers are especially suitable to control complex systems. An illustrative example - two-rate neural network hybrid control of decomposed stochastic model of a rigid guided missile over different operating conditions - was carried out using the proposed two-rate state-space decomposition technique. This example demonstrates that this research technique results in simplified low-order autonomous control subsystems with various speeds of actuation, and shows the quality of the proposed technique. The obtained results show that the control tasks for the autonomous subsystems can be solved more qualitatively than for the original system. The simulation and animation results with use of software package Simulink demonstrate that this research technique would work for real-time stochastic systems.

  8. A configurable realtime DWT-based neural data compression and communication VLSI system for wireless implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuning; Kamboh, Awais M; Mason, Andrew J

    2014-04-30

    This paper presents the design of a complete multi-channel neural recording compression and communication system for wireless implants that addresses the challenging simultaneous requirements for low power, high bandwidth and error-free communication. The compression engine implements discrete wavelet transform (DWT) and run length encoding schemes and offers a practical data compression solution that faithfully preserves neural information. The communication engine encodes data and commands separately into custom-designed packet structures utilizing a protocol capable of error handling. VLSI hardware implementation of these functions, within the design constraints of a 32-channel neural compression implant, is presented. Designed in 0.13μm CMOS, the core of the neural compression and communication chip occupies only 1.21mm(2) and consumes 800μW of power (25μW per channel at 26KS/s) demonstrating an effective solution for intra-cortical neural interfaces.

  9. A search for tight hierarchical triple systems amongst the eclipsing binaries in the CoRoT fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajdu, T.; Borkovits, T.; Forgács-Dajka, E.; Sztakovics, J.; Marschalkó, G.; Benkő, J. M.; Klagyivik, P.; Sallai, M. J.

    2017-10-01

    We report a comprehensive search for hierarchical triple stellar system candidates amongst eclipsing binaries (EBs) observed by the CoRoT spacecraft. We calculate and check eclipse timing variation (ETV) diagrams for almost 1500 EBs in an automated manner. We identify five relatively short period Algol systems for which our combined light-curve and complex ETV analyses (including both the light-travel time effect and short-term dynamical third-body perturbations) resulted in consistent third-body solutions. The computed periods of the outer bodies are between 82 and 272 d (with an alternative solution of 831 d for one of the targets). We find that the inner and outer orbits are near coplanar in all but one case. The dynamical masses of the outer subsystems determined from the ETV analyses are consistent with both the results of our light-curve analyses and the spectroscopic information available in the literature. One of our candidate systems exhibits outer eclipsing events as well, the locations of which are in good agreement with the ETV solution. We also report another certain triply eclipsing triple system that, however, is lacking a reliable ETV solution due to the very short time range of the data, and four new blended systems (composite light curves of two EBs each), where we cannot decide whether the components are gravitationally bounded or not. Amongst these blended systems, we identify the longest period and highest eccentricity EB in the entire CoRoT sample.

  10. A chaotic neural network mimicking an olfactory system and its application on image recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Le; LI Guang; LI Xu; GUO Hong-ji; Walter J. Freeman

    2004-01-01

    Based on the research of a biological olfactory system, a novel chaotic neural network model - K set model has been established. This chaotic neural network not only simulates the real brain activity of an olfactory system, but also presents a novel chaotic concept for signal processing and pattern recognition. The characteristics of the K set models are investigated and show that a KⅢ model can be used for image pattern classification.

  11. An Inductively-Powered Wireless Neural Recording System with a Charge Sampling Analog Front-End

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Seung Bae; Lee, Byunghun; Kiani, Mehdi; Mahmoudi, Babak; Gross, Robert; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2015-01-01

    An inductively-powered wireless integrated neural recording system (WINeR-7) is presented for wireless and battery less neural recording from freely-behaving animal subjects inside a wirelessly-powered standard homecage. The WINeR-7 system employs a novel wide-swing dual slope charge sampling (DSCS) analog front-end (AFE) architecture, which performs amplification, filtering, sampling, and analog-to-time conversion (ATC) with minimal interference and small amount of power. The output of the D...

  12. A Sliding Mode Control-based on a RBF Neural Network for Deburring Industry Robotic Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Yong Tao; Jiaqi Zheng; Yuanchang Lin

    2016-01-01

    A sliding mode control method based on radial basis function (RBF) neural network is proposed for the deburring of industry robotic systems. First, a dynamic model for deburring the robot system is established. Then, a conventional SMC scheme is introduced for the joint position tracking of robot manipulators. The RBF neural network based sliding mode control (RBFNN-SMC) has the ability to learn uncertain control actions. In the RBFNN-SMC scheme, the adaptive tuning algorithms for network par...

  13. Transient stability analysis of electric energy systems via a fuzzy ART-ARTMAP neural network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Wagner Peron; Silveira, Maria do Carmo G.; Lotufo, AnnaDiva P.; Minussi, Carlos. R. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Sao Paulo State University (UNESP), P.O. Box 31, 15385-000, Ilha Solteira, SP (Brazil)

    2006-04-15

    This work presents a methodology to analyze transient stability (first oscillation) of electric energy systems, using a neural network based on ART architecture (adaptive resonance theory), named fuzzy ART-ARTMAP neural network for real time applications. The security margin is used as a stability analysis criterion, considering three-phase short circuit faults with a transmission line outage. The neural network operation consists of two fundamental phases: the training and the analysis. The training phase needs a great quantity of processing for the realization, while the analysis phase is effectuated almost without computation effort. This is, therefore the principal purpose to use neural networks for solving complex problems that need fast solutions, as the applications in real time. The ART neural networks have as primordial characteristics the plasticity and the stability, which are essential qualities to the training execution and to an efficient analysis. The fuzzy ART-ARTMAP neural network is proposed seeking a superior performance, in terms of precision and speed, when compared to conventional ARTMAP, and much more when compared to the neural networks that use the training by backpropagation algorithm, which is a benchmark in neural network area. (author)

  14. Neural networks for structural design - An integrated system implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berke, Laszlo; Hafez, Wassim; Pao, Yoh-Han

    1992-01-01

    The development of powerful automated procedures to aid the creative designer is becoming increasingly critical for complex design tasks. In the work described here Artificial Neural Nets are applied to acquire structural analysis and optimization domain expertise. Based on initial instructions from the user an automated procedure generates random instances of structural analysis and/or optimization 'experiences' that cover a desired domain. It extracts training patterns from the created instances, constructs and trains an appropriate network architecture and checks the accuracy of net predictions. The final product is a trained neural net that can estimate analysis and/or optimization results instantaneously.

  15. Automated implementation of rule-based expert systems with neural networks for time-critical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramamoorthy, P. A.; Huang, Song; Govind, Girish

    1991-01-01

    In fault diagnosis, control and real-time monitoring, both timing and accuracy are critical for operators or machines to reach proper solutions or appropriate actions. Expert systems are becoming more popular in the manufacturing community for dealing with such problems. In recent years, neural networks have revived and their applications have spread to many areas of science and engineering. A method of using neural networks to implement rule-based expert systems for time-critical applications is discussed here. This method can convert a given rule-based system into a neural network with fixed weights and thresholds. The rules governing the translation are presented along with some examples. We also present the results of automated machine implementation of such networks from the given rule-base. This significantly simplifies the translation process to neural network expert systems from conventional rule-based systems. Results comparing the performance of the proposed approach based on neural networks vs. the classical approach are given. The possibility of very large scale integration (VLSI) realization of such neural network expert systems is also discussed.

  16. An Active Stereo Vision System Based on Neural Pathways of Human Binocular Motor System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-zhang Gu; Makoto Sato; Xiao-lin Zhang

    2007-01-01

    An active stereo vision system based on a model of neural pathways of human binocular motor system is proposed. With this model, it is guaranteed that the two cameras of the active stereo vision system can keep their lines of sight fixed on the same target object during smooth pursuit. This feature is very important for active stereo vision systems, since not only 3D reconstruction needs the two cameras have an overlapping field of vision, but also it can facilitate the 3D reconstruction algorithm. To evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed method, some software simulations are done to demonstrate the same target tracking characteristic in a virtual environment apt to mistracking easily. Here, mistracking means two eyes track two different objects separately. Then the proposed method is implemented in our active stereo vision system to perform real tracking task in a laboratory scene where several persons walk self-determining. Before the proposed model is implemented in the system, mistracking occurred frequently. After it is enabled, mistracking never occurred. The result shows that the vision system based on neural pathways of human binocular motor system can reliably avoid mistracking.

  17. NONLINEAR MODELING AND CONTROLLING OF ARTIFICIAL MUSCLE SYSTEM USING NEURAL NETWORKS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian Sheping; Ding Guoqing; Yan Detian; Lin Liangming

    2004-01-01

    The pneumatic artificial muscles are widely used in the fields of medical robots,etc.Neural networks are applied to modeling and controlling of artificial muscle system.A single-joint artificial muscle test system is designed.The recursive prediction error (RPE) algorithm which yields faster convergence than back propagation (BP) algorithm is applied to train the neural networks.The realization of RPE algorithm is given.The difference of modeling of artificial muscles using neural networks with different input nodes and different hidden layer nodes is discussed.On this basis the nonlinear control scheme using neural networks for artificial muscle system has been introduced.The experimental results show that the nonlinear control scheme yields faster response and higher control accuracy than the traditional linear control scheme.

  18. Adaptive Output-Feedback Neural Control of Switched Uncertain Nonlinear Systems With Average Dwell Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Lijun; Zhao, Jun

    2015-07-01

    This paper investigates the problem of adaptive neural tracking control via output-feedback for a class of switched uncertain nonlinear systems without the measurements of the system states. The unknown control signals are approximated directly by neural networks. A novel adaptive neural control technique for the problem studied is set up by exploiting the average dwell time method and backstepping. A switched filter and different update laws are designed to reduce the conservativeness caused by adoption of a common observer and a common update law for all subsystems. The proposed controllers of subsystems guarantee that all closed-loop signals remain bounded under a class of switching signals with average dwell time, while the output tracking error converges to a small neighborhood of the origin. As an application of the proposed design method, adaptive output feedback neural tracking controllers for a mass-spring-damper system are constructed.

  19. Radial Basis Function Neural Network-based PID model for functional electrical stimulation system control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Longlong; Zhang, Guangju; Wan, Baikun; Hao, Linlin; Qi, Hongzhi; Ming, Dong

    2009-01-01

    Functional electrical stimulation (FES) has been widely used in the area of neural engineering. It utilizes electrical current to activate nerves innervating extremities affected by paralysis. An effective combination of a traditional PID controller and a neural network, being capable of nonlinear expression and adaptive learning property, supply a more reliable approach to construct FES controller that help the paraplegia complete the action they want. A FES system tuned by Radial Basis Function (RBF) Neural Network-based Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) model was designed to control the knee joint according to the desired trajectory through stimulation of lower limbs muscles in this paper. Experiment result shows that the FES system with RBF Neural Network-based PID model get a better performance when tracking the preset trajectory of knee angle comparing with the system adjusted by Ziegler- Nichols tuning PID model.

  20. Neural network decoupling technique and its application to a powered wheelchair system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuan Nghia Nguyen; Nguyen, Hung T

    2015-08-01

    This paper proposes a neural network decoupling technique for an uncertain multivariable system. Based on a linear diagonalization technique, a reference model is designed using nominal parameters to provide training signals for a neural network decoupler. A neural network model is designed to learn the dynamics of the uncertain multivariable system in order to avoid required calculations of the plant Jacobian. To avoid overfitting problem, both neural networks are trained by the Lavenberg-Marquardt with Bayesian regulation algorithm that uses a real-time recurrent learning algorithm to obtain gradient information. Three experimental results in the powered wheelchair control application confirm that the proposed technique effectively minimises the coupling effects caused by input-output interactions even under the condition of system uncertainties.

  1. Fundamentals of computational intelligence neural networks, fuzzy systems, and evolutionary computation

    CERN Document Server

    Keller, James M; Fogel, David B

    2016-01-01

    This book covers the three fundamental topics that form the basis of computational intelligence: neural networks, fuzzy systems, and evolutionary computation. The text focuses on inspiration, design, theory, and practical aspects of implementing procedures to solve real-world problems. While other books in the three fields that comprise computational intelligence are written by specialists in one discipline, this book is co-written by current former Editor-in-Chief of IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems, a former Editor-in-Chief of IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems, and the founding Editor-in-Chief of IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation. The coverage across the three topics is both uniform and consistent in style and notation. Discusses single-layer and multilayer neural networks, radial-basi function networks, and recurrent neural networks Covers fuzzy set theory, fuzzy relations, fuzzy logic interference, fuzzy clustering and classification, fuzzy measures and fuzz...

  2. Diagnosis of mechanical pumping system using neural networks and system parameters analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Tai Ming; Wang, Wei Hui [National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung (China)

    2009-01-15

    Normally, a mechanical pumping system is equipped to monitor some of the important input and output signals which are set to the prescribed values. This paper addressed dealing with these signals to establish the database of input- output relation by using a number of neural network models through learning algorithms. These signals encompass normal and abnormal running conditions. The abnormal running conditions were artificially generated. Meanwhile, for the purpose of setting up an on-line diagnosis network, the learning speed and accuracy of three kinds of networks, viz., the backpropagation (BPN), radial basis function (RBF) and adaptive linear (ADALINE) neural networks have been compared and assessed. The assessment criteria of the networks are compared with the correlation result matrix in terms of the neuron vectors. Both BPN and RBF are judged by the maximum vector based on the post-regression analysis, and the ADALINE is judged by the minimum vector based on the least mean square error analysis. By ignoring the neural network training time, it has been shown that if the mechanical diagnosis system is tackled off-line, the RBF method is suggested. However, for on-line diagnosis, the BPN method is recommended

  3. Integrating resource defence theory with a neural nonapeptide pathway to explain territory-based mating systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldfield, Ronald G; Harris, Rayna M; Hofmann, Hans A

    2015-01-01

    The ultimate-level factors that drive the evolution of mating systems have been well studied, but an evolutionarily conserved neural mechanism involved in shaping behaviour and social organization across species has remained elusive. Here, we review studies that have investigated the role of neural arginine vasopressin (AVP), vasotocin (AVT), and their receptor V1a in mediating variation in territorial behaviour. First, we discuss how aggression and territoriality are a function of population density in an inverted-U relationship according to resource defence theory, and how territoriality influences some mating systems. Next, we find that neural AVP, AVT, and V1a expression, especially in one particular neural circuit involving the lateral septum of the forebrain, are associated with territorial behaviour in males of diverse species, most likely due to their role in enhancing social cognition. Then we review studies that examined multiple species and find that neural AVP, AVT, and V1a expression is associated with territory size in mammals and fishes. Because territoriality plays an important role in shaping mating systems in many species, we present the idea that neural AVP, AVT, and V1a expression that is selected to mediate territory size may also influence the evolution of different mating systems. Future research that interprets proximate-level neuro-molecular mechanisms in the context of ultimate-level ecological theory may provide deep insight into the brain-behaviour relationships that underlie the diversity of social organization and mating systems seen across the animal kingdom.

  4. AN INTELLIGENT CONTROL SYSTEM BASED ON RECURRENT NEURAL FUZZY NETWORK AND ITS APPLICATION TO CSTR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Li; YU Jinshou

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, an intelligent control system based on recurrent neural fuzzy network is presented for complex, uncertain and nonlinear processes, in which a recurrent neural fuzzy network is used as controller (RNFNC) to control a process adaptively and a recurrent neural network based on recursive predictive error algorithm (RNNM) is utilized to estimate the gradient information (ey)/(e)u for optimizing the parameters of controller.Compared with many neural fuzzy control systems, it uses recurrent neural network to realize the fuzzy controller. Moreover, recursive predictive error algorithm (RPE) is implemented to construct RNNM on line. Lastly, in order to evaluate the performance of theproposed control system, the presented control system is applied to continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR). Simulation comparisons, based on control effect and output error,with general fuzzy controller and feed-forward neural fuzzy network controller (FNFNC),are conducted. In addition, the rates of convergence of RNNM respectively using RPE algorithm and gradient learning algorithm are also compared. The results show that the proposed control system is better for controlling uncertain and nonlinear processes.

  5. Multi-channel holographic birfurcative neural network system for real-time adaptive EOS data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hua-Kuang; Diep, J.; Huang, K.

    1991-01-01

    Viewgraphs on multi-channel holographic bifurcative neural network system for real-time adaptive Earth Observing System (EOS) data analysis are presented. The objective is to research and develop an optical bifurcating neuromorphic pattern recognition system for making optical data array comparisons and to evaluate the use of the system for EOS data classification, reduction, analysis, and other applications.

  6. MODELACIÓN DE LA ESTRUCTURA JERÁRQUICA DE MACROINVERTEBRADOS BENTÓNICOS A TRAVÉS DE REDES NEURONALES ARTIFICIALES Modeling of the Hierarchical Structure of Freshwater Macroinvertebrates Using Artificial Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLAUDIA RICO

    ordination or clustering. Currently, analytical tools of bio-inspired computation belonging to the area of artificial intelligence are available to achieve ecological models with desirable characteristics, such as; flexibility, accuracy, robustness and reliability. In this context, this study employed two computational methods useful in ecoinformatics referring to artificial neural networks (RNAR for the modeling of the hierarchical structure of a benthic macroinvertebrate community in self-organization and prediction terms. The first ANN modeling method consisted of a Kohonen self-organization map (SOM, a non-supervised learning tool that classify the species of macroinvertebrates; this SOM in the input layer of gets the abundance of each ‘taxa’ from the data matrix, while in the output layer was visualized the computational results. Thus, in the output layer the species are organized in fifteen units and four hierarchical clusters. The second ANN method applied consisted of a multilayer feed-forward perceptron net with back-propagation algorithm to predict the three major insect orders; this means, Ephemeroptera, Coleoptera and Trichoptera (ECT richness and abundance using a set of nine physical-chemical variables. This ANN architecture included a neuron for each environmental variable, a hidden layer with seven neurons and a neuron in the output layer for ECT prediction. The results suggest that both types of ANN used, SOM and perceptron, were correspondingly related to the hierarchical patterns and with the richness and abundance patterns’ predictions, and gave the data analysis and understanding of the dynamic of the macroinvertebrates community, in a correct way.

  7. Study of a Bionic Pattern Classifier Based on Olfactory Neural System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Li; Guang Li; Le Wang; Walter J.Freeman

    2004-01-01

    Simulating biological olfactory neural system, KⅢ network, which is a high-dimensional chaotic neural network, is designed in this paper. Different from conventional artificial neural network, the KⅢ network works in its chaotic trajectory. It can simulate not only the output EEG waveform observed in electrophysiological experiments, but also the biological intelligence for pattern classification. The simulation analysis and application to the recognition of handwriting nmerals are presented here. The classification performance of the KⅢ network at different noise levels was also investigated.

  8. Neural network-based H∞ filtering for nonlinear systems with time-delays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A novel H∞ design methodology for a neural network-based nonlinear filtering scheme is addressed.Firstly,neural networks are employed to approximate the nonlinearities.Next,the nonlinear dynamic system is represented by the mode-dependent linear difference inclusion (LDI).Finally,based on the LDI model,a neural network-based nonlinear filter (NNBNF) is developed to minimize the upper bound of H∞ gain index of the estimation error under some linear matrix inequality (LMI) constraints.Compared with the existing nonlinear filters,NNBNF is time-invariant and numerically tractable.The validity and applicability of the proposed approach are successfully demonstrated in an illustrative example.

  9. Research on a Neural Network Approach Based Diagnosis Expert System of Crack Control in Massive Concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Liu-xin; WANG Huan-chen; ZHANG Xian-hui

    2001-01-01

    A detailed study of the capabilities of artificial neural networks to diagnoses cracks in massive concrete structures is presented. This paper includes the components of the expert system such as design thought, basic structure, building of knowledge base and the implementation of neural network applied model. The realizing method of neural network based clustering algorithm in the knowledge base and selfstudy is analyzed emphatically and stimulated by means of the computer. From the above study, some important conclusions have been drawn and some new viewpoints have been suggested.

  10. A Worsted Yarn Virtual Production System Based on BP Neural Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董奎勇; 于伟东

    2004-01-01

    Back-Propagation (BP) neural network and its modified algorithm are introduced. Two series of BP neural network models have been established to predict yarn properties and to deduce wool fiber qualities. The results from these two series of models have been compared with the measured values respectively, proving that the accuracy in both the prediction model and the deduction model is high. The experimental results and the corresponding analysis show that the BP neural network is an efficient technique for the quality prediction and has wide prospect in the application of worsted yarn production system.

  11. Improvement of Power System Stability using Artificial Neural Network based HVDC Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagu Bhookya

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, investigation is carried out for the improvement of power system stability by utilizing auxiliary controls for controlling HVDC power flow. The current controller model and the line dynamics are considered in the stability analysis. Transient stability analysis is done on a multi-machine system, where, a neural network controller is developed to improve the stability of the power system and to improve the response time of the controller to the changing conditions in power system. The results show the application of the neural network controller in AC-DC power systems.

  12. Design of intelligent systems based on fuzzy logic, neural networks and nature-inspired optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Castillo, Oscar; Kacprzyk, Janusz

    2015-01-01

    This book presents recent advances on the design of intelligent systems based on fuzzy logic, neural networks and nature-inspired optimization and their application in areas such as, intelligent control and robotics, pattern recognition, time series prediction and optimization of complex problems. The book is organized in eight main parts, which contain a group of papers around a similar subject. The first part consists of papers with the main theme of theoretical aspects of fuzzy logic, which basically consists of papers that propose new concepts and algorithms based on fuzzy systems. The second part contains papers with the main theme of neural networks theory, which are basically papers dealing with new concepts and algorithms in neural networks. The third part contains papers describing applications of neural networks in diverse areas, such as time series prediction and pattern recognition. The fourth part contains papers describing new nature-inspired optimization algorithms. The fifth part presents div...

  13. Decentralized neural identifier and control for nonlinear systems based on extended Kalman filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañeda, Carlos E; Esquivel, P

    2012-07-01

    A time-varying learning algorithm for recurrent high order neural network in order to identify and control nonlinear systems which integrates the use of a statistical framework is proposed. The learning algorithm is based in the extended Kalman filter, where the associated state and measurement noises covariance matrices are composed by the coupled variance between the plant states. The formulation allows identification of interactions associate between plant state and the neural convergence. Furthermore, a sliding window-based method for dynamical modeling of nonstationary systems is presented to improve the neural identification in the proposed methodology. The efficiency and accuracy of the proposed method is assessed to a five degree of freedom (DOF) robot manipulator where based on the time-varying neural identifier model, the decentralized discrete-time block control and sliding mode techniques are used to design independent controllers and develop the trajectory tracking for each DOF.

  14. Adaptive Backstepping Output Feedback Control for SISO Nonlinear System Using Fuzzy Neural Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shao-Cheng Tong; Yong-Ming Li

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a new fuzzy-neural adaptive control approach is developed for a class of single-input and single-output (SISO) nonlinear systems with unmeasured states. Using fuzzy neural networks to approximate the unknown nonlinear functions, a fuzzy-neural adaptive observer is introduced for state estimation as well as system identification. Under the framework of the backstepping design, fuzzy-neural adaptive output feedback control is constructed rccursively. It is proven that the proposed fuzzy adaptive control approach guarantees the global boundedness property for all the signals, driving the tracking error to a small neighbordhood of the origin. Simulation example is included to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  15. STEADY-STATE HIERARCHICAL INTELLIGENT CONTROL OF LARGE-SCALE INDUSTRIAL PROCESSES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAN Baiwu

    2004-01-01

    This paper considers the fourth stage of development of hierarchical control ofindustrial processes to the intelligent control and optimization stage, and reviews what theauthor and his Group have been investigating for the past decade in the on-line steady-state hierarchical intelligent control of large-scale industrial processes (LSIP)This papergives a definition of intelligent control of large-scale systems first, and then reviews the useof neural networks for identification and optimization, the use of expert systems to solvesome kinds of hierarchical multi-objective optimization problems by an intelligent decisionunit (ID), the use of fuzzy logic control, and the use of iterative learning controlSeveralimplementation examples are introducedThis paper reviews other main achievements ofthe Group alsoFinally this paper gives a perspective of future development.

  16. Hierarchical distance-based fuzzy approach to evaluate urban water supply systems in a semi-arid region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yekta, Tahereh Sadeghi; Khazaei, Mohammad; Nabizadeh, Ramin; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Nasseri, Simin; Yari, Ahmad Reza

    2015-01-01

    Hierarchical distance-based fuzzy multi-criteria group decision making was served as a tool to evaluate the drinking water supply systems of Qom, a semi-arid city located in central part of Iran. A list of aspects consisting of 6 criteria and 35 sub-criteria were evaluated based on a linguistic term set by five decision-makers. Four water supply alternatives including "Public desalinated distribution system", "PET Bottled Drinking Water", "Private desalinated water suppliers" and "Household desalinated water units" were assessed based on criteria and sub-criteria. Data were aggregated and normalized to apply Performance Ratings of Alternatives. Also, the Performance Ratings of Alternatives were aggregated again to achieve the Aggregate Performance Ratings. The weighted distances from ideal solution and anti-ideal solution were calculated after secondary normalization. The proximity of each alternative to the ideal solution was determined as the final step. The alternatives were ranked based on the magnitude of ideal solutions. Results showed that "Public desalinated distribution system" was the most appropriate alternative to supply the drinking needs of Qom population. Also, "PET Bottled Drinking Water" was the second acceptable option. A novel classification of alternatives to satisfy the drinking water requirements was proposed which is applicable for the other cities located in semi-arid regions of Iran. The health issues were considered as independent criterion, distinct from the environmental issues. The constraints of high-tech alternatives were also considered regarding to the level of dependency on overseas.

  17. Developing and using expert systems and neural networks in medicine: a review on benefits and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikhtaheri, Abbas; Sadoughi, Farahnaz; Hashemi Dehaghi, Zahra

    2014-09-01

    Complicacy of clinical decisions justifies utilization of information systems such as artificial intelligence (e.g. expert systems and neural networks) to achieve better decisions, however, application of these systems in the medical domain faces some challenges. We aimed at to review the applications of these systems in the medical domain and discuss about such challenges. Following a brief introduction of expert systems and neural networks by representing few examples, the challenges of these systems in the medical domain are discussed. We found that the applications of expert systems and artificial neural networks have been increased in the medical domain. These systems have shown many advantages such as utilization of experts' knowledge, gaining rare knowledge, more time for assessment of the decision, more consistent decisions, and shorter decision-making process. In spite of all these advantages, there are challenges ahead of developing and using such systems including maintenance, required experts, inputting patients' data into the system, problems for knowledge acquisition, problems in modeling medical knowledge, evaluation and validation of system performance, wrong recommendations and responsibility, limited domains of such systems and necessity of integrating such systems into the routine work flows. We concluded that expert systems and neural networks can be successfully used in medicine; however, there are many concerns and questions to be answered through future studies and discussions.

  18. A Neural Network with Minimal Structure for Maglev System Modeling and Control

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    6 pages; International audience; The paper is concerned with the determination of a minimal structure of a one hidden layer perceptron for system identification and control. Structural identification is a key issue in neural modeling. Decreasing the size of the neural networks is a way to avoid overfitting and bad generalization and leads moreover to simpler models which are required for real time applications, particularly in control. A learning algorithm and a pruning method both based on a...

  19. MINUTIAE EXTRACTION BASED ON ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS FOR AUTOMATIC FINGERPRINT RECOGNITION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Necla ÖZKAYA

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Automatic fingerprint recognition systems are utilised for personal identification with the use of comparisons of local ridge characteristics and their relationships. Critical stages in personal identification are to extract features automatically, fast and reliably from the input fingerprint images. In this study, a new approach based on artificial neural networks to extract minutiae from fingerprint images is developed and introduced. The results have shown that artificial neural networks achieve the minutiae extraction from fingerprint images with high accuracy.

  20. Distributed PACS using distributed file system with hierarchical meta data servers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiroyasu, Tomoyuki; Minamitani, Yoshiyuki; Miki, Mitsunori; Yokouchi, Hisatake; Yoshimi, Masato

    2012-01-01

    In this research, we propose a new distributed PACS (Picture Archiving and Communication Systems) which is available to integrate several PACSs that exist in each medical institution. The conventional PACS controls DICOM file into one data-base. On the other hand, in the proposed system, DICOM file is separated into meta data and image data and those are stored individually. Using this mechanism, since file is not always accessed the entire data, some operations such as finding files, changing titles, and so on can be performed in high-speed. At the same time, as distributed file system is utilized, accessing image files can also achieve high-speed access and high fault tolerant. The introduced system has a more significant point. That is the simplicity to integrate several PACSs. In the proposed system, only the meta data servers are integrated and integrated system can be constructed. This system also has the scalability of file access with along to the number of file numbers and file sizes. On the other hand, because meta-data server is integrated, the meta data server is the weakness of this system. To solve this defect, hieratical meta data servers are introduced. Because of this mechanism, not only fault--tolerant ability is increased but scalability of file access is also increased. To discuss the proposed system, the prototype system using Gfarm was implemented. For evaluating the implemented system, file search operating time of Gfarm and NFS were compared.