Sample records for hierarchical inside-out growth

  1. Inside-out growth or inside-out quenching? Clues from colour gradients of local galaxies (United States)

    Lian, Jianhui; Yan, Renbin; Blanton, Michael; Kong, Xu


    We constrain the spatial gradient of star formation history (SFH) within galaxies using the colour gradients in NUV - u (where NUV stands for near-ultraviolet) and u - i for a local spatially resolved galaxy sample. By splitting each galaxy into an inner and an outer part, we find that most galaxies show negative gradients in these two colours. We first rule out dust extinction gradient and metallicity gradient as the dominant source for the colour gradient. Then using stellar population models, we explore variations in SFH to explain the colour gradients. As shown by our earlier work, a two-phase SFH consisting of an early secular evolution (growth) phase and a subsequent rapid evolution (quenching) phase is necessary to explain the observed colour distributions among galaxies. We explore two different inside-out growth models and two different inside-out quenching models by varying parameters of the SFH between inner and outer regions of galaxies. Two of the models can explain the observed range of colour gradients in NUV - u and u - i colours. We further distinguish them using an additional constraint provided by the u - i colour gradient distribution, under the assumption of constant galaxy formation rate and a common SFH followed by most galaxies. We find the best model is an inside-out growth model in which the inner region has a shorter e-folding time-scale in the growth phase than the outer region. More spatially resolved UV observations are needed to improve the significance of the result.

  2. The impact on growth of outside-in and inside-out innovation in SME networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brink, Tove


    The purpose of this paper is to reveal what impact the dual approaches of outside-in and inside-out innovation have on growth in turnover in small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) working together in network context. This is illustrated through research in three informal, Danish food industry...... networks with 60 SMEs responding. The research employs structural equation modelling for statistical analyses. The findings reveal that both the outside-in and the inside-out approaches have a significant positive impact on innovation and growth. The findings shed light on the need for combined dual...... organising of both to enable innovation and growth. Moreover, the network context does not significantly utilise theoretical insights on loose coupled systems. A contribution is made to innovation theory on the duality of the outside-in and the insideout approaches for a combined understanding of the impact...

  3. The inside-out growth of the most massive galaxies at 0.3 < z < 0.9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Lei; Yee, H. K. C.; Li, I. H. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3H4 (Canada); Yan, Renbin [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kentucky, 505 Rose Street, Lexington, KY 40506-0055 (United States); Lee, Eve [Astronomy Department, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Gilbank, David G. [South African Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 9, Observatory 7935 (South Africa); Ellingson, E. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Science, UCB-389, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Barrientos, L. F. [Instituto de Astrofísica, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Avenida Vicuña Mackenna 4860, Macul, Santiago (Chile); Gladders, M. D. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, 5640 S. Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Hsieh, B. C., E-mail: [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)


    We study the surface brightness profiles of a sample of brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) with 0.3 < z < 0.9. The BCGs are selected from the first Red-sequence Cluster Survey and an X-ray cluster survey. The surface brightness profiles of the BCGs are measured using HST ACS images, and the majority of them can be well modeled by a single Sérsic profile with a typical Sérsic index n ∼ 6 and a half-light radius ∼30 kpc. Although the single Sérsic model fits the profiles well, we argue that the systematics in the sky background measurement and the coupling between the model parameters make the comparison of the best-fit model parameters ambiguous. Direct comparison of the BCG profiles, on the other hand, has revealed an inside-out growth for these most massive galaxies: as the mass of a BCG increases, the central mass density of the galaxy increases slowly (ρ{sub 1kpc}∝M{sub ∗}{sup 0.39}), while the slope of the outer profile grows continuously shallower (α{sub r{sup 1}{sup /}{sup 4}}∝M{sub ∗}{sup −2.5}). Such a fashion of growth continues down to the less massive early-type galaxies (ETGs) as a smooth function of galaxy mass, without apparent distinction between BCGs and non-BCGs. For the very massive ETGs and BCGs, the slope of the Kormendy relation starts to trace the slope of the surface brightness profiles and becomes insensitive to subtle profile evolution. These results are generally consistent with dry mergers being the major driver of the mass growth for BCGs and massive ETGs. We also find strong correlations between the richness of clusters and the properties of BCGs: the more massive the clusters are, the more massive the BCGs (M{sub bcg}{sup ∗}∝M{sub clusters}{sup 0.6}) and the shallower their surface brightness profiles. After taking into account the bias in the cluster samples, we find the masses of the BCGs have grown by at least a factor of 1.5 from z = 0.5 to z = 0, in contrast to the previous findings of no evolution. Such an

  4. Fungal Biofilms: Inside Out. (United States)

    Lagree, Katherine; Mitchell, Aaron P


    We focus this article on turning a biofilm inside out. The "inside" of the biofilm comprises the individual biofilm-related phenotypes, their environmental drivers and genetic determinants, and the coordination of gene functions through transcriptional regulators. Investigators have viewed the inside of the biofilm through diverse approaches, and this article will attempt to capture the essence of many. The ultimate goal is to connect the inside to the "outside," which we view as biofilm structure, development, pharmacological attributes, and medical impact.

  5. Inside-out meniscus repair. (United States)

    Nelson, Clay G; Bonner, Kevin F


    Meniscus repair over resection, when feasible, should be strongly considered in an effort to preserve meniscus integrity and function, especially in younger patients. Currently, a number of techniques and implants may be used to achieve a successful result. Although all-inside meniscus repair devices have evolved significantly since their introduction and have become the repair technique of choice for many surgeons, the classic inside-out repair technique is still very useful to have in one's armamentarium. Though less popular because of the ease of current-generation fixators, the inside-out technique can still offer advantages for those surgeons who are proficient. With the versatility to address most tear patterns, the ability to deliver sutures with smaller needle diameters, and proven long-term results, it has been considered the gold standard in meniscus repair. We review the inside-out repair technique for both a medial and lateral meniscus tear with some helpful tips when performing the technique, and we present a video demonstration of the lateral meniscus repair technique.

  6. Poetry Inside Out: Bridging Cultures through Language (United States)

    Rutherford, Marty


    This paper is about a writing and literary translation program called Poetry Inside Out (PIO). Students in the PIO program study poetic form and structure, figurative language, and the fundamentals of literary translation in an extended workshop format. During a typical Poetry Inside Out workshop, participants read, discuss, translate and recite…

  7. Inside-out electrical capacitance tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærsgaard-Rasmussen, Jimmy; Meyer, Knud Erik


    ; allowing the inside-out sensor to move inside the outer tube. A test sensor was constructed and capacitances were measured using the charge transfer technique. Sensitivity matrices for the inside-out sensor were calculated with a finite element approach and some special issues with the sensitivity matrices...

  8. Windows Server® 2008 Inside Out

    CERN Document Server

    Stanek, William R


    Learn how to conquer Windows Server 2008-from the inside out! Designed for system administrators, this definitive resource features hundreds of timesaving solutions, expert insights, troubleshooting tips, and workarounds for administering Windows Server 2008-all in concise, fast-answer format. You will learn how to perform upgrades and migrations, automate deployments, implement security features, manage software updates and patches, administer users and accounts, manage Active Directory® directory services, and more. With INSIDE OUT, you'll discover the best and fastest ways to perform core a

  9. From Inside Out: Beyond Teaching about Leadership (United States)

    Posner, Barry Z.


    We begin this special issue focusing on the theoretical framework issues in leadership education. As always, Barry Posner has us thinking about the broader context of leadership education, namely what matters most in individual leadership development. In his article, "From Inside Out: Beyond Teaching 'About' Leadership," what matters…

  10. Inside Out--Reflection from Newtown (United States)

    Connelly, Susan


    Trauma can turn anyone inside out. But when an entire community experiences the same trauma in a matter of minutes, it shatters the rhythm of everyday life and forces a redefinition of "normal." In this article, a school counselor in Newtown who experienced the massacre at Sandy Hook Elementary School shares her perspectives on the…

  11. Inside-out formation of massive galaxies (United States)

    de la Rosa, I. G.


    A significant fraction of the present day massive galaxies have compact cores embedded inside their disks or halos. Strikingly, those compact cores are similar to the massive high-redshift quiescent compact galaxies, nicknamed red-nuggets. We present observational evidence supporting an inside-out formation scenario, where present-day massive galaxies can begin as dense spheroidal cores (red-nuggets), around which either a spheroidal halo or a disk are accreted later. This contribution is based on the paper by de la Rosa et al. (2016).

  12. Inside-out neuropharmacology of nicotinic drugs. (United States)

    Henderson, Brandon J; Lester, Henry A


    Upregulation of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) is a venerable result of chronic exposure to nicotine; but it is one of several consequences of pharmacological chaperoning by nicotine and by some other nicotinic ligands, especially agonists. Nicotinic ligands permeate through cell membranes, bind to immature AChR oligomers, elicit incompletely understood conformational reorganizations, increase the interaction between adjacent AChR subunits, and enhance the maturation process toward stable AChR pentamers. These changes and stabilizations in turn lead to increases in both anterograde and retrograde traffic within the early secretory pathway. In addition to the eventual upregulation of AChRs at the plasma membrane, other effects of pharmacological chaperoning include modifications to endoplasmic reticulum stress and to the unfolded protein response. Because these processes depend on pharmacological chaperoning within intracellular organelles, we group them as "inside-out pharmacology". This term contrasts with the better-known, acute, "outside-in" effects of activating and desensitizing plasma membrane AChRs. We review current knowledge concerning the mechanisms and consequences of inside-out pharmacology. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'The Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor: From Molecular Biology to Cognition'. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, Shannon G.; Franx, Marijn; Muzzin, Adam [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, NL-2300 AA Leiden (Netherlands); Van Dokkum, Pieter G. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520-8101 (United States); Quadri, Ryan F.; Williams, Rik J. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Marchesini, Danilo [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, Medford, MA 02155 (United States); Holden, Bradford P. [UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Stefanon, Mauro, E-mail: [Observatori Astronomic de la Universitat de Valencia, E-46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain)


    We study the structural evolution of massive galaxies by linking progenitors and descendants at a constant cumulative number density of n{sub c} = 1.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} Mpc{sup -3} to z {approx} 3. Structural parameters were measured by fitting Sersic profiles to high-resolution CANDELS HST WFC3 J{sub 125} and H{sub 160} imaging in the UKIDSS-UDS at 1 < z < 3 and ACS I{sub 814} imaging in COSMOS at 0.25 < z < 1. At a given redshift, we selected the HST band that most closely samples a common rest-frame wavelength so as to minimize systematics from color gradients in galaxies. At fixed n{sub c}, galaxies grow in stellar mass by a factor of {approx}3 from z {approx} 3 to z {approx} 0. The size evolution is complex: galaxies appear roughly constant in size from z {approx} 3 to z {approx} 2 and then grow rapidly to lower redshifts. The evolution in the surface mass density profiles indicates that most of the mass at r < 2 kpc was in place by z {approx} 2, and that most of the new mass growth occurred at larger radii. This inside-out mass growth is therefore responsible for the larger sizes and higher Sersic indices of the descendants toward low redshift. At z < 2, the effective radius evolves with the stellar mass as r{sub e} {proportional_to}M {sup 2.0}, consistent with scenarios that find dissipationless minor mergers to be a key driver of size evolution. The progenitors at z {approx} 3 were likely star-forming disks with r{sub e} {approx} 2 kpc, based on their low Sersic index of n {approx} 1, low median axis ratio of b/a {approx} 0.52, and typical location in the star-forming region of the U - V versus V - J diagram. By z {approx} 1.5, many of these star-forming disks disappeared, giving rise to compact quiescent galaxies. Toward lower redshifts, these galaxies continued to assemble mass at larger radii and became the local ellipticals that dominate the high-mass end of the mass function at the present epoch.

  14. Making a difference from the inside out. (United States)

    Heilemann, Marysue V; Brown, Theresa; Deutchman, Larry


    Nursing leaders, researchers, and activists have called for change in mass media depictions of nurses since the 1980s, but some nurses are not sure they should make any effort. This article offers a focused look at the trajectories of 2 individuals: Theresa Brown, a clinical nurse and author who writes for the New York Times, and Larry Deutchman, the Executive Vice President of Marketing and Industry Relations at Entertainment Industries Council, Inc. Both Brown and Deutchman were motivated to acquire skills and to take risks to think creatively, and/or to collaborate with other professionals in media to benefit nursing and health. Analysis of their paths offers ideas for action, growth, learning, and collaboration for nurses in relation to the ways that nursing is represented in written and visual media. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Inside-Out Manufacturing of Composite Structures Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Demonstrate the inside-out manufacturing process by manufacturing a complex shaped composite structure with imbedded wiring and fluid handling without the use of a...

  16. Inside-Out Meniscal Repair: Medial and Lateral Approach. (United States)

    Chahla, Jorge; Serra Cruz, Raphael; Cram, Tyler R; Dean, Chase S; LaPrade, Robert F


    Preservation of meniscal tissue has been proven to be the best approach in most cases of meniscal tears. Currently available techniques for treating a peripheral meniscal tear include inside-out, outside-in, and all-inside techniques. Each of these techniques present potential advantages and disadvantages. Despite technologic advances in all-inside devices, because of implant-related complications, cost concerns, and device availability, the inside-out technique is still the preferred method among many surgeons. Although the inside-out repair technique is considered more technically demanding and requires additional incisions, it has several advantages such as the possibility for an increased number of sutures, creating a stronger construct, and greater versatility in their placement. This article describes the inside-out meniscal repair technique with its corresponding posterolateral and posteromedial surgical approaches.

  17. At All Hours: Learning from the Inside Out. (United States)

    Balliro, Lenore


    One English-as-a-Second-Language teacher talks about her opportunity to experience language learning from the inside out: She enrolled in a beginning level Spanish course at a local community college. (Author/VWL)

  18. Inside-Out Repair of Meniscal Ramp Lesions. (United States)

    DePhillipo, Nicholas N; Cinque, Mark E; Kennedy, Nicholas I; Chahla, Jorge; Geeslin, Andrew G; Moatshe, Gilbert; Engebretsen, Lars; LaPrade, Robert F


    Meniscal ramp lesions have been reported to be present in 9% to 17% of patients undergoing anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Detection at the time of arthroscopy can be accomplished based upon clinical suspicion and careful evaluation without the use of an accessory posteromedial portal. Options for surgical treatment include arthroscopic repair using an all-inside or inside-out technique. The purpose of this Technical Note is to detail our arthroscopic inside-out repair technique for meniscal ramp lesions.

  19. Red nuggets grow inside-out: evidence from gravitational lensing (United States)

    Oldham, Lindsay; Auger, Matthew W.; Fassnacht, Christopher D.; Treu, Tommaso; Brewer, Brendon J.; Koopmans, L. V. E.; Lagattuta, David; Marshall, Philip; McKean, John; Vegetti, Simona


    We present a new sample of strong gravitational lens systems where both the foreground lenses and background sources are early-type galaxies. Using imaging from Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/Advanced Camera for Studies (ACS) and Keck/NIRC2, we model the surface brightness distributions and show that the sources form a distinct population of massive, compact galaxies at redshifts 0.4 ≲ z ≲ 0.7, lying systematically below the size-mass relation of the global elliptical galaxy population at those redshifts. These may therefore represent relics of high-redshift red nuggets or their partly evolved descendants. We exploit the magnifying effect of lensing to investigate the structural properties, stellar masses and stellar populations of these objects with a view to understanding their evolution. We model these objects parametrically and find that they generally require two Sérsic components to properly describe their light profiles, with one more spheroidal component alongside a more envelope-like component, which is slightly more extended though still compact. This is consistent with the hypothesis of the inside-out growth of these objects via minor mergers. We also find that the sources can be characterized by red-to-blue colour gradients as a function of radius which are stronger at low redshift - indicative of ongoing accretion - but that their environments generally appear consistent with that of the general elliptical galaxy population, contrary to recent suggestions that these objects are pre-dominantly associated with clusters.

  20. Observational evidence for an inside-out substorm onset scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, Michael G [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    We present observations which provide strong support for a substorm onset scenario in which a localized inner magnetospheric instability developed first and was later followed by the development of a Near Earth Neutral Line (NENL) farther down-tail. Specifically, we find that the onset began as a localized brightening of an intensified growth phase arc which developed as a periodic series of arc-aligned (i.e. azimuthally arrayed) bright spots. As the disturbance grew, it evolved into vortical structures that propagated poleward and eventually morphed into an east-west aligned arc system at the poleward edge of the auroral substorm bulge. The auroral intensification shows an exponential growth with an estimated e-folding time of around 188 seconds (linear growth rate, {gamma} of 5.33 x 10{sup -3} s{sup -1}). During the initial breakup, no obvious distortions of auroral forms to the north were observed. However, during the expansion phase, intensifications of the poleward boundary of the expanding bulge were observed together with the equatorward ejection of auroral streamers into the bulge. A strong particle injection was observed at geosynchronous orbit, but was delayed by several minutes relative to onsel. Ground magnetometer data also shows a two phase development of mid-latitude positive H-bays, with a quasi-linear increase in H between the onset and the injection. We conclude that this event provides strong evidence in favor of the so-called 'inside-out' substorm onset scenario in which the near Earth region activates first followed at a later time by the formation of a near-to-mid tail substorm X-line. The ballooning instability is discussed as a likely mechanism for the initial onset.

  1. A Journey of Learning Mathematics through Inside-Out Approach (United States)

    Belbase, Shashidhar


    In this paper I discussed an episode of inside-out approach of learning mathematics that started from my deeply held values, feelings, thoughts, and experiences making them starting point of learning process. I was engaged in a brief learning session with a geometrical problem as context within the session. Data from video record of the learning…

  2. From the inside Out: Group Work with Women of Color (United States)

    Short, Ellen L.; Williams, Wendi S.


    This article will present two models for conducting group work with Women of Color (WOC): the SisterCircle Approach and the Group Relations Model. The authors contend that the models, when used together, combine an internal and external focus ("inside out") of group work that can assist group workers to conduct individual and group-level…

  3. Time and Space Complexity of Inside-Out Macro Grammars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asveld, P.R.J.


    Starting form Fischer's IO Standard Form Theorem we show that for each inside-out (or IO-) macro language $L$ there exists a $\\lambda$-free IO macro grammar with the following property: for each $x$ in $L$ there is a derivation of $x$ of length at most linear in the length of $x$. Then we construct

  4. Time and Space Complexity of Inside-Out Macro Languages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asveld, P.R.J.


    Starting from Fischer's IO Standard Form Theorem we show that for each inside-out (or IO-) macro language $L$, there is a $\\lambda$-free IO-macro grammar with the following property: for each $x$ in $L$, there is a derivation of $x$ of length at most linear in the length of $x$. Then we construct a

  5. Inside-Out Versus All-Inside Repair of Isolated Meniscal Tears: An Updated Systematic Review. (United States)

    Fillingham, Yale A; Riboh, Jonathan C; Erickson, Brandon J; Bach, Bernard R; Yanke, Adam B


    Meniscal tears are common in the young, active population. In this group of patients, repair is advised when possible. While inside-out repair remains the standard technique, recent advances in all-inside repair devices have led to a growth in their popularity. Previous reviews on the topic have focused on outdated implants of limited clinical relevance. To determine the difference in failure rates, functional outcomes, and complications between inside-out and modern all-inside repairs. Systematic review. A systematic review was registered with PROSPERO and performed following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines using the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases. Inclusion criteria were (1) clinical study reporting on all-inside or inside-out repair, (2) evidence levels 1 to 4, and (3) use of modern all-inside implants for all-inside repairs. Exclusion criteria were (1) use of meniscal arrows or screws and (2) concomitant surgical procedures. Study characteristics, subjects, surgical technique, clinical outcomes, and complications were collected and analyzed. A total of 481 studies were screened and assessed for eligibility, which identified 27 studies for review. Studies defined clinical failure as persistent mechanical symptoms, effusion, or joint line tenderness, while anatomic failure was incomplete or no healing on MRI or second-look arthroscopy. There were no significant differences in clinical or anatomic failure rates between inside-out and all-inside repairs (clinical failure: 11% vs 10%, respectively, P = .58; anatomic failure: 13% vs 16%, respectively, P = .63). Mean ± SD Lysholm and Tegner scores for inside-out repair were 88.0 ± 3.5 and 5.3 ± 1.2, while the respective scores for all-inside repair were 90.4 ± 3.7 and 6.3 ± 1.3. Complications occurred at a rate of 5.1% for inside-out repairs and 4.6% for all-inside repairs. The quality of the evidence comparing inside-out and all-inside meniscal

  6. Medial epicanthoplasty using the "inside-out" technique. (United States)

    Seo, Jae Don; Kim, Ji Hoon; Pak, Chang Sik; Heo, Chan-Yeong


    The epicanthal fold, a skin remnant covering the medial canthal region, is especially common in Asians. Although numerous surgical techniques for the treatment of the epicanthal fold have been developed, the terms of scars and a natural look remain controversial. In this regard, the authors have developed a new method for medial epicanthoplasty. From January 2005 to December 2011, medial epicanthoplasty was performed on 1132 patients using a technique in which the skin flap inside of the medial epicanthal fold is moved outward (the "Inside-Out" technique). Preoperative and postoperative (2 months) interepicanthal distance was measured. Satisfactory results were achieved in the majority of cases. While nine patients complained of visible scarring after the operation, the scar formation spontaneously resolved within 6 months. This new "Inside-Out" technique for the treatment of the epicanthal fold is easy, simple, and delivers good aesthetic results.

  7. Time and Space Complexity of Inside-Out Macro Grammars


    Asveld, P.R.J.


    Starting form Fischer's IO Standard Form Theorem we show that for each inside-out (or IO-) macro language $L$ there exists a $\\lambda$-free IO macro grammar with the following property: for each $x$ in $L$ there is a derivation of $x$ of length at most linear in the length of $x$. Then we construct a nondeterministic log-space bounded auxiliary pushdown automaton which accepts $L$ in polynomial time. Therefore the IO-macro languages are (many-one) log-space reducible to the context-free langu...

  8. Inside-Out Repair for Radial Meniscus Tears. (United States)

    Pareek, Ayoosh; O'Malley, Michael P; Levy, Bruce A; Stuart, Michael J; Krych, Aaron J


    Understanding of meniscal function through basic science, natural history, and biomechanics has highlighted the importance of preserving the meniscus to maintain normal knee biomechanics. Tears that may alter these biomechanics can contribute to the progressive nature of degenerative joint disease in the knee. Radial tears result in the disruption of the circumferential fibers causing inability of the native meniscus to resist normal hoop stresses, thereby leading to increased focal areas of pressure that cause complications such as early onset arthrosis. In this technical note, we describe our preferred operative technique to repair radial meniscal tears using an arthroscopic inside-out approach with satisfactory clinical outcomes and healing response.

  9. Windows Sharepoint Services 3.0 Inside Out

    CERN Document Server

    O' Connor, Errin


    Dig in-and learn how the experts use Windows SharePoint Services 3.0-from the inside out! This book packs hundreds of time-saving solutions, troubleshooting tips, and workarounds-all in concise, fast-answer format. You will learn how to simplify information sharing, make team collaboration more efficient, and improve your personal productivity. You'll discover how to design workflows and projects for SharePoint sites, manage design teams and source control, and use cascading style sheets to control site appearance. You'll get to explore new features for using Windows SharePoint Services with

  10. Integrin αIIbβ3 Inside-out Activation (United States)

    Kurtz, Lisa; Kao, Liyo; Newman, Debra; Kurtz, Ira; Zhu, Quansheng


    Integrins are a family of heterodimeric adhesion receptors that transmit signals bi-directionally across the plasma membranes. The transmembrane domain (TM) of integrin plays a critical role in mediating transition of the receptor from the default inactive to the active state on the cell surfaces. In this study, we successfully applied the substituted cysteine scanning accessibility method to determine the intracellular border of the integrin αIIbβ3 TM in the inactive and active states in living cells. We examined the aqueous accessibility of 75 substituted cysteines comprising the C terminus of both αIIb and β3 TMs, the intracellular membrane-proximal regions, and the whole cytoplasmic tails, to the labeling of a membrane-permeable, cysteine-specific chemical biotin maleimide (BM). The active state of integrin αIIbβ3 heterodimer was generated by co-expression of activating partners with the cysteine-substituted constructs. Our data revealed that, in the inactive state, the intracellular lipid/aqueous border of αIIb TM was at Lys994 and β3 TM was at Phe727 respectively; in the active state, the border of αIIb TM shifted to Pro998, whereas the border of β3 TM remained unchanged, suggesting that complex conformational changes occurred in the TMs upon αIIbβ3 inside-out activation. On the basis of the results, we propose a new inside-out activation mechanism for integrin αIIbβ3 and by inference, all of the integrins in their native cellular environment. PMID:22613710

  11. The transperiosteal "inside-out" occipital artery harvesting technique. (United States)

    Benet, Arnau; Tabani, Halima; Ding, Xinmin; Burkhardt, Jan-Karl; Rodriguez Rubio, Roberto; Tayebi Meybodi, Ali; Nisson, Peyton; Kola, Olivia; Gandhi, Sirin; Yousef, Sonia; Lawton, Michael T


    OBJECTIVE The occipital artery (OA) is a frequently used donor vessel for posterior circulation bypass procedures due to its proximity to the recipient vessels and its optimal caliber, length, and flow rate. However, its tortuous course through multiple layers of suboccipital muscles necessitates layer-by-layer dissection. The authors of this cadaveric study aimed to describe a landmark-based novel anterograde approach to harvest OA in a proximal-to-distal "inside-out" fashion, which avoids multilayer dissection. METHODS Sixteen cadaveric specimens were prepared for surgical simulation, and the OA was harvested using the classic (n = 2) and novel (n = 14) techniques. The specimens were positioned three-quarters prone, with 45° contralateral head rotation. An inverted hockey-stick incision was made from the spinous process of C-2 to the mastoid tip, and the distal part of the OA was divided to lift up a myocutaneous flap, including the nuchal muscles. The OA was identified using the occipital groove (OG), the digastric muscle (DM) and its groove (DG), and the superior oblique muscle (SOM) as key landmarks. The OA was harvested anterogradely from the OG and within the flap until the skin incision was reached (proximal-to-distal technique). In addition, 35 dry skulls were assessed bilaterally (n = 70) to study additional craniometric landmarks to infer the course of the OA in the OG. RESULTS The OA was consistently found running in the OG, which was found between the posterior belly of the DM and the SOM. The mean total length of the mobilized OA was 12.8 ± 1.2 cm, with a diameter of 1.3 ± 0.1 mm at the suboccipital segment and 1.1 ± 0.1 mm at the skin incision. On dry skulls, the occipitomastoid suture (OMS) was found to be medial to the OG in the majority of the cases (68.6%), making it a useful landmark to locate the OG and thus the proximal OA. CONCLUSIONS The anterograde transperiosteal inside-out approach for harvesting the OA is a fast and easy technique

  12. An inside-out vein graft filled with platelet-rich plasma for repair of a short sciatic nerve defect in rats. (United States)

    Kim, Ji Yeong; Jeon, Woo Joo; Kim, Dong Hwee; Rhyu, Im Joo; Kim, Young Hwan; Youn, Inchan; Park, Jong Woong


    Platelet-rich plasma containing various growth factors can promote nerve regeneration. An inside-out vein graft can substitute nerve autograft to repair short nerve defects. It is hypothesized that an inside-out vein graft filled with platelet-rich plasma shows better effects in the repair of short sciatic nerve defects. In this study, an inside-out vein autograft filled with platelet-rich plasma was used to bridge a 10 mm-long sciatic nerve defect in rats. The sciatic nerve function of rats with an inside-out vein autograft filled with platelet-rich plasma was better improved than that of rats with a simple inside-out vein autograft. At 6 and 8 weeks, the sciatic nerve function of rats with an inside-out vein autograft filled with platelet-rich plasma was better than that of rats undergoing nerve autografting. Compared with the sciatic nerve repaired with a simple inside-out vein autograft, the number of myelinated axons was higher, axon diameter and myelin sheath were greater in the sciatic nerve repaired with an inside-out vein autograft filled with platelet-rich plasma and they were similar to those in the sciatic nerve repaired with nerve autograft. These findings suggest that an inside-out vein graft filled with platelet-rich plasma can substitute nerve autograft to repair short sciatic nerve defects.

  13. Bacteria versus selenium: A view from the inside out (United States)

    Staicu, Lucian; Oremland, Ronald S.; Tobe, Ryuta; Mihara, Hisaaki


    Bacteria and selenium (Se) are closely interlinked as the element serves both essential nutrient requirements and energy generation functions. However, Se can also behave as a powerful toxicant for bacterial homeostasis. Conversely, bacteria play a tremendous role in the cycling of Se between different environmental compartments, and bacterial metabolism has been shown to participate to all valence state transformations undergone by Se in nature. Bacteria possess an extensive molecular repertoire for Se metabolism. At the end of the 1980s, a novel mode of anaerobic respiration based on Se oxyanions was experimentally documented for the first time. Following this discovery, specific enzymes capable of reducing Se oxyanions and harvesting energy were found in a number of anaerobic bacteria. The genes involved in the expression of these enzymes have later been identified and cloned. This iterative approach undertaken outside-in led to the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of Se transformations in bacteria. Based on the extensive knowledge accumulated over the years, we now have a full(er) view from the inside out, from DNA-encoding genes to enzymes and thermodynamics. Bacterial transformations of Se for assimilatory purposes have been the object of numerous studies predating the investigation of Se respiration. Remarkable contributions related to the understating of the molecular picture underlying seleno-amino acid biosynthesis are reviewed herein. Under certain circumstances, Se is a toxicant for bacterial metabolism and bacteria have evolved strategies to counteract this toxicity, most notably by the formation of elemental Se (nano)particles. Several biotechnological applications, such as the production of functional materials and the biofortification of crop species using Se-utilizing bacteria, are presented in this chapter.

  14. Star Formation Quenching, How Fast And How Frequently? Inside-Out Or Not? (United States)

    Lian, Jianhui; Yan, Renbin; Blanton, Michael; Zhang, Kai; Kong, Xu


    Star formation quenching is a critical process that drive galaxies evolving from blue star-forming to red passive stage. This rapid quenching process is necessary in galaxy evolution models to explain the galaxy distribution in NUV-optical colour-colour diagrams1,2 and the buildup of red-sequence from z = 1 to z = 03,4,5. Yet, the mechanism of this quenching process is not fully understood and is of hot debate. Many candidate scenarios, such as strangulation due to shock heating in massive halos, AGN feedback or gas stripping due to environmental effect, have been proposed. To differentiate these scenarios, more constraints on the quenching process and thus the potential physical mechanism are badly needed. The first result we show in this poster is the properties of quenching process we obtained from the galaxy distribution in NUV-optical colour-colour diagrams. Aside from the unclear integrated star formation history (SFH) of galaxies, how the SFH of galaxies varies internally is still poorly understood. One direct probe of the internal variation of SFH is the spatial distribution of colours, i.e. the colour gradient. In the second part of the results of this poster, we explicitly illustrate the definition of 'inside-out growth' and 'inside-out quenching' scenarios and utilize the galaxy distribution in the u-I colour gradients to see which one is more observationally favoured.

  15. Economic feasibility of producing inside-out beams from small-diameter logs (United States)

    David W. Patterson; Richard A. Kluender; James E. Granskog


    Previous work has shown that it is technically feasible to produce inside-out (ISO) beams by taking small-diameter (5 to 7 in.) logs, slabbing four sides, quartering the cant, and turning the quarters inside out and gluing them together. After drying, the beams were found to be straight, with no cracks, and of equal or better mechanical properties than solid sawn...

  16. Inside Out (United States)

    Jennings, Matt


    In a world ruled by digital communications, it can seem like there are almost as many methods, tools, and platforms to communicate with internal audiences as there are opinions and perspectives on how to do it effectively. Organizations of various sizes are struggling with how to reach their audiences' divided attention, and higher education…

  17. Comparative Study of Management of Attico-antral CSOM by Conventional Mastoidectomy with Inside Out Technique. (United States)

    Vaidya, Sudhakar; Gupta, Shobhit


    This prospective study was undertaken to compare the different aspects of inside out and conventional mastoidectomy techniques in attico-antral type of chronic suppurative otitis media. 100 cases of unsafe ear selected in this study were divided in 2 groups-(1) Group A-50 patients operated by conventional technique of canal wall down mastoidectomy. (2) Group B-50 patients operated by inside out technique of canal wall down mastoidectomy. The patients in our series were regularly followed to assess the condition of the postoperative cavity for three months. Post operative results were better by inside out as compared to conventional technique of mastoidectomy. Hearing and air-bone gap improvement was more in patients operated by inside out mastoidectomy. Less number of patients suffered with post operative residual disease like cholesteatoma, granulation, discharge and residual perforation as compared to conventional mastoidectomy.

  18. Interconversion of molecular face-rotating polyhedra through turning inside out. (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Fang, Hongxun; Zhang, Wei; Zhuang, Yongbin; Tian, Zhongqun; Cao, Xiaoyu


    We report the post-synthesis interconversion of two enantiomeric organic cages through turning inside out. By scrutinizing the thermodynamics and kinetics, we are able to control the racemization rate by various reaction conditions and reveal that the turning-inside-out interconversion is realized through a partial disassembly pathway. The kinetics investigation also provides insight into the dynamic essence of imine chemistry using different solvents and catalysts.

  19. Liquid phase epitaxial growth of heterostructured hierarchical MOF thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Chernikova, Valeriya


    Precise control of epitaxial growth of MOF-on-MOF thin films, for ordered hierarchical tbo-type structures is demonstrated. The heterostructured MOF thin film was fabricated by successful sequential deposition of layers from two different MOFs. The 2-periodic layers, edge-transitive 4,4-square lattices regarded as supermolecular building layers, were commendably cross-linked using a combination of inorganic/organic and organic pillars.

  20. Estudio de las emociones en los personajes animados de Inside Out/ Study of emotions in the animated characters from Inside Out


    Leticia Porto Pedrosa


    Este artículo pretende mostrar la importancia de investigar las emociones a partir del cine de animación y su influencia en la audiencia infantil. Para ello, se lleva a cabo un recorrido a lo largo del tratamiento y la representación de las emociones encarnadas en los personajes animados de los largometrajes de Pixar. A través de la revisión bibliográfica y el análisis de contenido de la película Inside Out (2015), se profundiza en las principales emociones como la ...

  1. Comparison of arthroscopic medial meniscal suture repair techniques: inside-out versus all-inside repair. (United States)

    Choi, Nam-Hong; Kim, Tae-Hyung; Victoroff, Brian N


    There are no reports comparing meniscal healing between inside-out and all-inside repairs using sutures. No difference in healing rate exists between meniscal repairs with inside-out and all-inside suture repair in conjunction with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with hamstring tendon. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Forty-eight consecutive patients underwent meniscal repairs of longitudinal tears of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus combined with anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions. All-inside repair was attempted when the tears were located in the red-red zone or the ramp area of the meniscus. If a tear that was in the ramp area or red-red zone extended to the midbody of the meniscus, or if there was a tear in red-white zone, the inside-out repair technique was used. Fourteen patients had all-inside meniscal repairs, and 34 patients had inside-out meniscal repairs with absorbable sutures. Identical postoperative rehabilitation protocols were used. Postoperative evaluations included Lysholm knee scoring scale, Tegner activity levels, Lachman and pivot-shift tests, and KT-1000 arthrometer. Assessment of meniscal status was performed using joint line tenderness, McMurray test, and range of motion. Follow-up magnetic resonance imaging scans were obtained on all patients. Mean follow-up was 35.7 months. No patient had joint line tenderness or reported pain or clicking on McMurray test. There was no significant difference in range of motion between groups. Follow-up magnetic resonance imaging scans demonstrated that 10 (71.4%) menisci were healed and 4 (28.6%) partially healed in the all-inside group; 24 (70.6%) menisci were healed and 10 (29.4%) partially healed in the inside-out group. There was no significant difference in meniscal healing between groups. There were no differences in Lachman test, KT-1000 arthrometer side-to-side differences measurements, Lysholm scores, and Tegner activity scales. There was a significant difference in

  2. Estudio de las emociones en los personajes animados de Inside Out/ Study of emotions in the animated characters from Inside Out

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Porto Pedrosa


    Full Text Available Este artículo pretende mostrar la importancia de investigar las emociones a partir del cine de animación y su influencia en la audiencia infantil. Para ello, se lleva a cabo un recorrido a lo largo del tratamiento y la representación de las emociones encarnadas en los personajes animados de los largometrajes de Pixar. A través de la revisión bibliográfica y el análisis de contenido de la película Inside Out (2015, se profundiza en las principales emociones como la tristeza y la alegría para comprender cuál es el papel social de esta dimensión esencial en el ser humano. The purpose of this paper is to discuss about the importance of investigating the emotions from the cartoon movies and its influence on the child audience. For this, in this article studies the treatment and representation of emotions on the characters of films Pixar Studios. Through literature review and analysis of content of the cartoon movie Inside Out (2015, it delves into the main emotions like sadness and joy to understand what the social role of this essential dimension of the human being.

  3. My Dance and the Ideal Body: Looking at Ballet Practice from the Inside Out (United States)

    Jackson, Jennifer


    This paper argues for a change of thinking about the "ideal body" in relation to ballet as a dance form and how it is studied. It distinguishes between spectator and practitioner perspectives on ballet, and draws on the practice of established dance artists and that of the author to write about the first-person experience--from the inside out.…

  4. Pathways to Faculty Learning and Pedagogical Improvement. Inside Out. Volume 1, Issue 3 (United States)

    Bickerstaff, Susan; Edgecombe, Nikki


    This issue of "Inside Out," a publication of Community College Research Center's (CCRC's) Scaling Innovation project, explores how developmental education reforms can create opportunities for faculty to engage in professional learning related to instruction. The authors present a case study at Fullerton College, where the process of…

  5. The Inside-Out Prison Exchange Program: The Impact of Structure, Content, and Readings (United States)

    Allred, Sarah L.


    This study examines qualitative and quantitative data from a fifteen-week experiential course held in a county jail. The course was modeled after the Inside-Out Prison Exchange Program, and included college students and people who were incarcerated at the time. Survey data and comments gleaned from student papers were used to assess the impact of…

  6. Turning Spiroketals Inside Out: A Rearrangement Triggered by an Enol Ether Epoxidation. (United States)

    Lorenc, Chris; Saurí, Josep; Moser, Arvin; Buevich, Alexei V; Williams, Antony J; Williamson, R Thomas; Martin, Gary E; Peczuh, Mark W


    Invited for this month's cover picture is the group of Professor Mark Peczuh at the University of Connecticut. The cover picture compares the rearrangement of a small molecule to the process of turning a stuffed animal inside out. The recycled, inside-out stuffed animals are both artistic and philosophically provocative. They capture the essence of the rearrangement reaction because the compounds themselves turn inside out over the course of the reaction, extending the diversity of products that can arise from simple starting materials. Small molecules often have functional groups with latent reactivity; under the appropriate conditions, those groups can react with other compounds (e.g., reagents) and also with other groups in the same molecule in an intramolecular reaction. The research team found that the epoxidation of some highly functionalized spiroketal compounds promoted rearrangements of their structures that turned them inside out. Some of the features of the products led them to use X-ray crystallography or a combination of computer-assisted structure elucidation, computation, and a new version of the 1,1-ADEQUATE NMR experiment to determine their structures. For more details, see the Communication on p. 577 ff.

  7. Turning Schools Inside Out: Connecting Schools and Communities through Public Arts and Literacies (United States)

    Charest, Brian C.; Bell, Lauren D.; Gonzalez, Marialuisa; Parker, Veronica L.


    In this paper we tell a story about how we partnered with a Chicago high school in order to turn the school inside out by displaying larger-than-life teacher portraits and statements at street level throughout the community. This paper explores how public art and activism can help teachers and students develop notions of civic literacy and…

  8. Proximal Ethnography: "Inside-Out-Inside" Research and the Impact of Shared Metaphors of Learning (United States)

    Price, Fiona


    This paper examines the way Higher Education (HE) students use metaphors to make tangible the lived and living experience of learning. The article provides a contemporary development of the ethnographic paradigm by offering a new model termed "proximal ethnography" to capture the sense of inside-out-inside research, of being what one has…

  9. Creating Community from the Inside Out: A Concentric Perspective on Collective Artmaking (United States)

    Blatt-Gross, Carolina


    As the original antidote to social alienation (and its tragic repercussions), community art through its large-scale, public, and collaborative nature has the potential to rebuild a sense of community from the inside out. This concentric notion of community art is addressed at both the individual and classroom level, exploring the origins of…

  10. Cholesteatoma surgery in children: long-term results of the inside-out technique. (United States)

    Roth, Thomas N; Ziglinas, Panagiotis; Haeusler, Rudolf; Caversaccio, Marco D


    To present the anatomical and functional results of the inside-out technique applied in pediatric cholestetaoma surgery and to evaluate functionality with good hearing results against radicality with lower recurrence rate. Retrospective analysis and evaluation of the postoperative outcome in a consecutive series of 126 children or 130 ears operated between 1992 and 2008. With the inside-out technique, cholesteatoma is eradicated from the epitympanum toward the mastoid and, as a single stage procedure, functional reconstruction of the middle ear is achieved by tympanoossiculoplasty. In 89.2% of all cases, the ear was dry postoperatively. 80.9% of the ears reached a postoperative air-bone gap of 30 dB or less and the median air conduction hearing threshold was 29 dB; in 60.9% of all cases, hearing was postoperatively improved. The recurrence rate was 16.2% in a mean postoperative follow-up 8.5 years. Altogether, 48 ears (36.9%) underwent revision surgery. The complication rate was 3.1% and involved only minor complications. The inside-out technique allows a safe removal of cholesteatoma from the epitympanum toward the mastoid with a single-stage reconstruction of the ossicular chain. For this reason we support our individual approach, which allows creation of the smallest possible cavity for the size of the cholesteatoma. Our results confirm that the inside-out technique is effective in the treatment of pediatric cholesteatoma. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Affective Films for the Hearing Impaired Child: A Test of Captioned Inside/Out Programs. (United States)

    Middleton, John

    Two captioned affective films from the AIT series Inside/Out were tested with 14 intermediate (ages 13 to 15) and 39 elementary (ages 11 and 12) hearing impaired children at the Hawaii School for the Deaf and Blind. Measures of attention, post-film discussion, student comprehension, and student and teacher opinions were taken to determine the…

  12. Comparison of all-inside meniscal repair devices with matched inside-out suture repair. (United States)

    Rosso, Claudio; Kovtun, Konstantin; Dow, William; McKenzie, Brett; Nazarian, Ara; DeAngelis, Joseph P; Ramappa, Arun J


    All-inside meniscal repairs are performed with increasing frequency because of the availability of newly developed devices. A comparison of their biomechanical characteristics may aid physicians in selecting a method of meniscal repair. All-inside meniscal repairs will be superior to their inside-out controls in response to cyclic loading and load-to-failure testing. Controlled laboratory study. Sixty-six bucket-handle tears in matched porcine menisci were repaired using the Ultra FasT-Fix, Meniscal Cinch, Ultrabraid No. 0, and FiberWire 2-0 sutures. Initial displacement, cyclic loading (100, 300, and 500 cycles), and load-to-failure testing were performed. The displacement, response to cyclic loading, and mode of failure were recorded. The stiffness was calculated. The Meniscal Cinch demonstrated a significantly higher initial displacement than the other methods tested (P = .04). No significant difference was found among the methods in response to cyclic loading. The inside-out FiberWire repair demonstrated the highest load to failure (120.8 ± 23.5 N) and was significantly higher than both the Meniscal Cinch (64.8 ± 24.1 N, P inside-out Ultrabraid suture repair (98.8 ± 29.2 N). The inside-out FiberWire repair had the highest stiffness (28.7 ± 7.8 N/mm). It was significantly higher than the Meniscal Cinch (18.0 ± 8.8 N/mm, P = .01). The most common mode of failure in all methods was suture failure. An inside-out suture repair affords surgeons the best overall biomechanical characteristics of the devices tested (initial displacement, response to cyclic loading, and load to failure). For an all-inside repair, the Ultra FasT-Fix reproduces the characteristics of its matched inside-out suture repair more closely than the Meniscal Cinch. Inside-out sutures and all-inside devices have similar responses to cyclic loading.

  13. Manganese superoxide dismutase-mediated inside-out signaling in HaCaT human keratinocytes and SKH-1 mouse skin. (United States)

    Holley, Aaron K; Xu, Yong; Noel, Teresa; Bakthavatchalu, Vasudevan; Batinic-Haberle, Ines; St Clair, Daret K


    Inside-out signaling occurs when changes in organellar activity lead to alterations in cell signaling that culminate at the cell surface. Mitochondria are vital signaling platforms in cells that participate in radiation-induced inside-out signaling. However, the importance of the reactive oxygen species (ROS)-scavenging ability of mitochondria through manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) is not established. Here, we used MnSOD heterozygous knockout and transgenic SKH-1 hairless, albino mice and MnSOD knockdown and overexpressing HaCaT human keratinocytes to study the effects of MnSOD on ultraviolet (UV) radiation-induced inside-out signaling. There is an inverse correlation between MnSOD expression and UV-induced activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), as determined by phosphorylation at Tyr1068, both in vitro and in vivo, which correlates with increased ROS production (as measured by dihydroethidium fluorescence). EGFR activation is dependent on Nox4 expression and Src kinase activation, with Src activation upstream of Nox4 in regulation of EGFR activation. Enhanced EGFR activation in MnSOD knockdown cells is abrogated by treatment with the SOD mimetic MnTnBuOE-2-PyP(5+). Our data demonstrate that the ROS-scavenging ability of mitochondria, through the expression of MnSOD, is important for UV-induced inside-out signaling. Decreased MnSOD expression enhances UV-induced activation of different oncogenic signaling pathways through an inside-out signaling-mediated mechanism. Inhibition of inside-out signaling by MnTnBuOE-2-PyP(5+) mimics the effect of endogenous MnSOD, suggesting that pharmacological intervention by SOD mimetics could play an important role in the prevention of aberrant cell signaling, which may contribute to carcinogenesis and may prove valuable for the treatment or prevention of cancer in the future.

  14. Repairing Posteromedial Meniscocapsular Separation: A Technique Using Inside-Out Meniscal Repair Needles. (United States)

    Joshi, Anant; Usman, Sajeer; Sabnis, Bhushan; Kini, Abhishek


    Posteromedial meniscocapsular separation of the knee has received renewed interest, with many articles describing a high incidence in association with anterior cruciate ligament injury. Various techniques have been described to address these lesions using all-inside meniscal repair sutures or using rotator cuff repair instruments through the posteromedial portal. Most orthopaedic surgeons are accustomed to using the "inside-out" meniscal repair technique with a double-armed suture. This technique is cost-effective and, in our opinion, more efficient in repairing such tears. We present our technique of repairing peripheral meniscocapsular lesions using an inside-out meniscal repair system. We believe that this technique is easily reproducible, is less time-consuming, and ensures a good "bite" of the capsular tissue, producing a robust repair.

  15. Modified Inside-Out Technique for Continued Use of Chronically Occluded Upper Central Veins. (United States)

    Hadziomerovic, Adnan; Hirji, Zameer; Coffey, Niamh


    This report describes a 2-step, inside-out procedure for upper body central venous access in patients with chronic central venous occlusions. Blunt cephalad dissection through the mediastinum was achieved with a curved metal cannula and guide wire followed by percutaneous puncture of an open snare from a right supraclavicular approach and dilation of the tract for a tunneled central venous catheter insertion. Of 9 patients, all had a successful placement of a tunneled central venous catheter using this method. Although this 2-step, inside-out technique is effective for creating access in the presence of central venous occlusion, further clinical evaluation is warranted. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. FasT-Fix versus inside-out suture meniscal repair in the goat model. (United States)

    Hospodar, Steven J; Schmitz, Matthew R; Golish, S Raymond; Ruder, Craig R; Miller, Mark D


    Recent all-inside meniscal repair devices are available, but in vivo studies with these devices are sparse. The FasT-Fix has inferior meniscal healing compared with the inside-out suture technique in the goat model. Controlled laboratory study. After Institutional Review Board approval, 73 male castrated goats (Capra hircus) underwent a 2-cm meniscal incision and subsequent repair with the FasT-Fix device on one knee and inside-out meniscal repair on the contralateral knee. Both repairs used a vertical mattress suture technique. Access to the menisci was via an open technique with an extra-articular osteotomy of the medial collateral ligament origin on the femur. The animals were then allowed to ambulate unrestricted in a pasture after a 7-day stay in cages. Necropsy was carried out 6 months postoperatively, and the menisci and articular cartilage were studied with gross and microscopic inspection. Nine of the 73 animals were excluded before necropsy. A total of 64 animals underwent necropsy, gross measurement of residual lesions, gross evaluation for chondral damage, histologic evaluation of meniscal repair, histologic evaluation of any adjacent inflammatory reaction to implants, and data analysis. Compared with the inside-out group, the FasT-Fix group had longer residual full-thickness defects (1.2 +/- 2.9 mm vs 0.2 +/- 1.1 mm; P = .011) and longer residual partial-thickness defects (8.4 +/- 6.3 mm vs 3.6 +/- 5.5 mm; P inside-out meniscal repair technique in the goat model. The clinical significance of this finding is not known. Further clinical study of the FasT-Fix implant is warranted.

  17. Common peroneal nerve neuropraxia after arthroscopic inside-out lateral meniscus repair. (United States)

    Anderson, Anthony W; LaPrade, Robert F


    Common peroneal nerve injury caused by suture entrapment is a complication of arthroscopic inside-out lateral meniscus repair. In the literature, the treatment of this complication has been described as immediate reexploration. We present a case of recovery after late neurolysis performed 7 months postoperatively for a common peroneal nerve neuropraxia. In addition to describing return of function after late exploration, we discuss the management and prevention of this complication.


    Yılmaz, Serdar; Cankaya, Deniz; Fırat, Ahmet; Devecı, Alper; Ozkurt, Bulent; Bozkurt, Murat


    To determine the outcomes after combined inside-out and all-inside repair technique of bucket-handle meniscus tears. A retrospective review was made of patients with bucket-handle meniscus tears repaired with combined techniques, using the all-inside technique in posterior meniscal tears and the inside-out technique in the middle part of the meniscal tears. Meniscal healing was assessed clinically using Barrett's criteria and MRI. The study comprised 52 patients with a mean age of 28.4 years old (range, 19-52 years old). The mean follow-up period was 31.3 months (range, 24-59 months). Two patients had ACL re-rupture, and complete meniscal healing was achieved in all but one patient. Although improved from preoperative status, Tegner and Lysholm scores were lower in the ACL reconstructed patients than in the intact ACL patients. Combined inside-out and all-inside meniscal repair technique is a successful and cost-effective treatment method in bucket-handle meniscus tears. Level of Evidence IV, Therapeutic Study.

  19. Inside-Out Radial Migration Facilitates Lineage-Dependent Neocortical Microcircuit Assembly. (United States)

    He, Shuijin; Li, Zhizhong; Ge, Shaoyu; Yu, Yong-Chun; Shi, Song-Hai


    Neocortical excitatory neurons migrate radially along the glial fibers of mother radial glial progenitors (RGPs) in a birth-date-dependent inside-out manner. However, the precise functional significance of this well-established orderly neuronal migration remains largely unclear. Here, we show that strong electrical synapses selectively form between RGPs and their newborn progeny and between sister excitatory neurons in ontogenetic radial clones at the embryonic stage. Interestingly, the preferential electrical coupling between sister excitatory neurons, but not that between RGP and newborn progeny, is eliminated in mice lacking REELIN or upon clonal depletion of DISABLED-1, which compromises the inside-out radial neuronal migration pattern in the developing neocortex. Moreover, increased levels of Ephrin-A ligand or receptor that laterally disperse sister excitatory neurons also disrupt preferential electrical coupling between radially aligned sister excitatory neurons. These results suggest that RGP-guided inside-out radial neuronal migration facilitates the initial assembly of lineage-dependent precise columnar microcircuits in the neocortex. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The "Inside-out" Technique for Hernia Repair with Mesh Underlay. (United States)

    Berhanu, Aaron E; Talbot, Simon G


    An improved method for mesh repair of ventral/incisional hernias after component separation is presented. The use of a Carter-Thomason suture passer (Cooper Surgical, allows for safe passage of preplaced sutures on the mesh from within the abdominal cavity through the anterior rectus sheath. This "inside-out" method makes the underlay of mesh fast and easy by improving visualization and control of sharp instruments as they are passed through the abdominal cavity. Preplacement of sutures circumferentially on the mesh also improves the distribution of tension around the repair, which may ultimately reduce the risk of hernia recurrence. The "inside-out" technique was performed on 23 patients at a single tertiary academic medical center from November 2011 to February 2014. We have followed these patients for a median of 24.5 months to assess for postoperative complications and hernia recurrence. We report an acceptable hernia recurrence rate (2 of 23 = 8.7%). One recurrence was observed in a patient who underwent repair of a recurrent ventral hernia and the other had significant loss of domain requiring an inlay mesh. The "inside-out" technique for ventral hernia repair with a mesh underlay after component separation using a Carter-Thomason suture passer is easy, safe, and reliable. We have observed no hernia recurrence in patients who underwent repair for a primary ventral hernia with an underlay technique.

  1. Inside-out method to develop volar arthroscopic portals of the wrist in cadaver specimens. (United States)

    Naroura, I; Zemirline, A; Taleb, C; Lebailly, F; Facca, S; Hidalgo Díaz, J J; Collon, S; Liverneaux, P


    Three direct volar portals for wrist arthroscopy have been described previously: two radiocarpal and one midcarpal. The aim of this study was to systematically describe four volar arthroscopic portals through minimally invasive incisions using an inside-out approach from known dorsal portals. Four volar arthroscopic wrist portals were studied on six hand specimens using an inside-out technique: a radial radiocarpal approach (RRCA), an ulnar radiocarpal approach (URCA), a radial midcarpal approach (RMCA) and an ulnar midcarpal approach (UMCA). Each volar approach corresponded to a dorsal approach: the 3/4 portal for RRCA, 4/5 portal for URCA, dorsal radial midcarpal approach for RMCA, and dorsal ulnar midcarpal approach for UMCA. The average range of motion of the scope through the RRCA was 65° in radial deviation and 72° in ulnar deviation; through the URCA it was 62° in radial deviation and 64° in ulnar deviation; through the RMCA it was 62° in radial deviation and 60° in ulnar deviation, and through the UMCA it was 59° in radial deviation and 68° in radial deviation. No iatrogenic injuries to important anatomical structures were noted. Based on these results, it is possible to perform these four volar portals through an inside-out technique with incisions mirroring the dorsal portals. They were easy to perform, safe and should be useful in ligament or bony intracarpal repair indications. Copyright © 2016 SFCM. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Inside-out flowers of Lacandonia brasiliana (Triuridaceae) provide new insights into fundamental aspects of floral patterning. (United States)

    Rudall, Paula J; Alves, Marccus; Sajo, Maria das Graças


    Background and Aims. A recently described Brazilian species, Lacandonia brasiliana, shares with its longer established putative sister species from Mexico, L. schismatica, inverted floral patterning (carpels surrounding stamens) that is almost unique among angiosperms. We present a detailed ontogenetic study of L. brasiliana for comparison with other members of the tribe Triurideae (Triuridaceae) to explore the possible evolutionary origins of "inside-out" flowers. Methods. Wild-source populations of L. brasiliana were compared morphologically and ontogenetically with related species of Triurideae, using light and scanning electron microscopy. Key Results. Relatively few morphological differences separate flowers of L. brasiliana and L. schismatica. Both species have tepals with late-developing subapical appendages. In both species, the three central (almost sessile) anthers develop precociously with respect to the carpels; the anthers remain closed, and fertilization is achieved via pollen-tube growth from germinating pollen grains of the same cleistogamous flower. Carpels are initiated on fascicles. Conclusions. The close similarity between the two Lacandonia species makes it unlikely that they arose independently from two separate homeotic transformation events; they could either represent sister species or two populations of a single disjunct species. Our study underlines the problematic generic and species boundaries within Triurideae. We present an evolutionary scenario of character evolution in Triuridaceae. The inside-out Lacandonia flower could have resulted from a stabilized homeotic transformation; this hypothesis is not in conflict with constrasting theories of the origin of the Triuridaceae flower, which coincided with a shift to unisexuality. The unisexual yet highly plastic flowers that are typical of Triuridaceae could have pre-adapted the origin of the extraordinary Lacandonia morphology.

  3. Podocyte directed therapy of nephrotic syndrome-can we bring the inside out? (United States)

    Müller-Deile, Janina; Schiffer, Mario


    Several of the drugs currently used for the treatment of glomerular diseases are prescribed for their immunotherapeutic or anti-inflammatory properties, based on the current understanding that glomerular diseases are mediated by immune responses. In recent years our understanding of podocytic signalling pathways and the crucial role of genetic predispositions in the pathology of glomerular diseases has broadened. Delineation of those signalling pathways supports the hypothesis that several of the medications and immunosuppressive agents used to treat glomerular diseases directly target glomerular podocytes. Several central downstream signalling pathways merge into regulatory pathways of the podocytic actin cytoskeleton and its connection to the slit diaphragm. The slit diaphragm and the cytoskeleton of the foot process represent a functional unit. A breakdown of the cytoskeletal backbone of the foot processes leads to internalization of slit diaphragm molecules, and internalization of slit diaphragm components in turn negatively affects cytoskeletal signalling pathways. Podocytes display a remarkable ability to recover from complete effacement and to re-form interdigitating foot processes and intact slit diaphragms after pharmacological intervention. This ability indicates an active inside-out signalling machinery which stabilizes integrin complex formations and triggers the recycling of slit diaphragm molecules from intracellular compartments to the cell surface. In this review we summarize current evidence from patient studies and model organisms on the direct impact of immunosuppressive and supportive drugs on podocyte signalling pathways. We highlight new therapeutic targets that may open novel opportunities to enhance and stabilize inside-out pathways in podocytes.

  4. Onion-like multilayered polymer capsules synthesized by a bioinspired inside-out technique. (United States)

    Zarket, Brady C; Raghavan, Srinivasa R


    Diverse structures in nature, such as the spinal disc and the onion have many concentric layers, and are created starting from the core and proceeding outwards. Here, we demonstrate an inside-out technique for creating multilayered polymer capsules. First, an initiator-loaded gel core is placed in a solution of monomer 1. The initiator diffuses outward and induces polymerization, leading to a shell of polymer 1. Thereafter, the core-shell structure is loaded with fresh initiator and placed in monomer 2, which causes a concentric shell of polymer 2 to form around the first shell. This process can be repeated to form multiple layers, each of a distinct polymer, and of controlled layer thickness. We show that these multilayered capsules can exhibit remarkable mechanical resilience as well as stimuli-responsive properties. The release of solutes from these capsules can be tailored to follow specific profiles depending on the chemistry and order of adjacent layers.Multiple concentric layers are present in a variety of structures present in nature, including the onion. Here, the authors show an inside-out strategy to synthesize multilayered polymer capsules, with different layers having specific composition and thereby specific responses to stimuli such as pH and temperature.

  5. "Inside-Out" PEGylation of Bovine β-Cross-Linked Hemoglobin. (United States)

    Webster, Kyle D; Dahhan, Dana; Otto, Abigail M; Frosti, Cheyanne L; Dean, William L; Chaires, Jonathan B; Olsen, Kenneth W


    The development of a blood substitute is urgent due to blood shortages and potential communicable diseases. A novel method, inside-out PEGylation, has been used here to conjugate a multiarm maleimide-PEG (Mal-PEG) to β-cross-linked (βXL-Hb) hemoglobin (Hb) tetramers through the Cys β93 residues. This method produces a polymer with a single PEG backbone that is surrounded by multiple proteins, rather than coating a single protein with multiple PEG chains. Electrophoresis under denaturing conditions showed a large molecular weight species. Gel filtration chromatography and analytical ultracentrifugation determined the most prevalent species had three βXL-Hb to one Mal-PEG. Thermal denaturation studies showed that the cross-linked and PEGylated species were more stable than native Hb. Cross-linking under oxy-conditions produced a high oxygen affinity Hb species (P50  = 9.18 Torr), but the oxygen affinity was not significantly altered by PEGylation (P50  = 9.67 Torr). Inside-out PEGylation can be used to produce a hemoglobin-based oxygen carrier and potentially for other multiprotein complexes. © 2017 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Growth Mechanism of a Unique Hierarchical Vaterite Structure (United States)

    Ma, Guobin; Xu, Yifei; Wang, Mu


    Calcium carbonate is one of the most significant minerals in nature as well as in biogenic sources. Calcium carbonate occurs naturally in three crystalline polymorphs, i.e., calcite, aragonite, and vaterite. Although it has been attracted much research attention to understanding of the formation mechanisms of the material, the properties of the vaterite polymorph is not well known. Here we report synthesis and formation mechanism of a unique hierarchical structure of vaterite. The material is grown by a controlled diffusion method. The structure possesses a core and an outer part. The core is convex lens-like and is formed by vaterite nanocrystals that have small misorientations. The outer part is separated into six garlic clove-like segments. Each segment possesses piles of plate-like vaterite crystals, and the orientations of the plates continuously change from pile to pile. Based on real-time experimental results and the structural analysis, a growth mechanism is presented. Work supported by NSFC (Grant No. 51172104) and MOST of China (Grant No. 2101CB630705)

  7. Nuclear pore assembly proceeds by an inside-out extrusion of the nuclear envelope. (United States)

    Otsuka, Shotaro; Bui, Khanh Huy; Schorb, Martin; Hossain, M Julius; Politi, Antonio Z; Koch, Birgit; Eltsov, Mikhail; Beck, Martin; Ellenberg, Jan


    The nuclear pore complex (NPC) mediates nucleocytoplasmic transport through the nuclear envelope. How the NPC assembles into this double membrane boundary has remained enigmatic. Here, we captured temporally staged assembly intermediates by correlating live cell imaging with high-resolution electron tomography and super-resolution microscopy. Intermediates were dome-shaped evaginations of the inner nuclear membrane (INM), that grew in diameter and depth until they fused with the flat outer nuclear membrane. Live and super-resolved fluorescence microscopy revealed the molecular maturation of the intermediates, which initially contained the nuclear and cytoplasmic ring component Nup107, and only later the cytoplasmic filament component Nup358. EM particle averaging showed that the evagination base was surrounded by an 8-fold rotationally symmetric ring structure from the beginning and that a growing mushroom-shaped density was continuously associated with the deforming membrane. Quantitative structural analysis revealed that interphase NPC assembly proceeds by an asymmetric inside-out extrusion of the INM.

  8. The Enantioselective Total Synthesis of Bisquinolizidine Alkaloids: A Modular 'Inside-Out' Approach. (United States)

    Scharnagel, Dagmar; Goller, Jessica; Deibl, Nicklas; Milius, Wolfgang; Breuning, Matthias


    Bisquinolizidine alkaloids are characterized by a chiral bispidine core (3,7-diazabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane) to which combinations of an alpha,N-fused 2-pyridone, an endo- or exo-alpha,N-annulated piperidin(on)e, and an exo-allyl substituent are attached. We developed a modular 'inside-out' approach that permits access to most members of this class. Its applicability was proven in the asymmetric synthesis of 21 natural bisquinolizidine alkaloids, among them more than ten first enantioselective total syntheses. Key steps are the first successful preparation of both enantiomers of C2-symmetric 2,6-dioxobispidine by desymmetrization of a 2,4,6,8-tetraoxo precursor, the construction of the alpha,N-fused 2-pyridone by using an enamine-bromoacrylic acid strategy, and the installation of endo- or, optionally, exo-annulated piperidin(on)es. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Thigh abscess and necrotizing fasciitis following an inside-out transobturator tape intervention: a case report. (United States)

    Kerbaj, Jad; Aubry, Camille; Prost, Caroline; Brouqui, Philippe


    Tension-free vaginal transobturator tapes are used worldwide in the treatment of urinary incontinence in women. Very few severe complications have been described following this procedure, with no standard treatment yet established. We present the case of a 36-year-old French white woman with no remarkable medical history, presenting with an abscess and necrotizing fasciitis 48 hours after an inside-out tension-free transobturator procedure. Samples were collected by guided puncture from the abscess, retrieving Staphylococcus aureus and Citrobacter koseri. Severe complications following this procedure are rare, although it can have the potential for significant morbidity and even mortality, which is worth highlighting. We recommend early surgical treatment in combination with broad-spectrum antibiotics and coverage for Staphylococcus aureus, which may be a causative agent.

  10. Fc receptor inside-out signaling and possible impact on antibody therapy. (United States)

    Brandsma, Arianne M; Jacobino, Shamir R; Meyer, Saskia; ten Broeke, Toine; Leusen, Jeanette H W


    Fc receptors (FcR) are expressed on immune cells and bind to the Fc tail of antibodies. This interaction is essential for FcR-mediated signaling and triggering of cellular effector functions. FcR activation is tightly regulated to prevent immune responses by non-antigen bound antibodies or in the absence of 'danger signals'. FcR activity may be modulated at the plasma membrane via cross-talk with integrins. In addition, cytokines at the site of infection/inflammation can increase FcR avidity, a process referred to as inside-out signaling. This regulatory mechanism has been described for FcγRI (CD64), FcγRIIa (CD32a), and FcαRI (CD89) and is also well-known for integrins. Key cellular events during inside-out signaling are (de)phosphorylation, clustering, cytoskeleton rearrangements, and conformational changes. The latter can be studied with antibodies that specifically recognize epitopes exposed by the active (high affinity) or inactive (low affinity) state of the FcR. These antibodies are important tools to investigate the role of FcR activation in disease settings. Research on FcR has gained momentum with the rise of monoclonal antibodies (mAb) entering the clinic for the treatment of cancer and other diseases. The clinical outcome of mAb therapy may be improved by increasing FcR avidity by cytokine stimulation. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Distal Inside-Out Epineural Sliding Technique to Repair Segmental Nerve Defects. (United States)

    Luokkala, Toni; Ryhänen, Jorma; Näpänkangas, Juha; Karjalainen, Teemu V


    Background: The repair of a segmental peripheral nerve injury is a clinical challenge. Several studies have been performed to determine superior methods for overcoming nerve gaps. The purpose of this study was to investigate if the inside-out slided epineurium of the distal segment of an injured nerve can serve as a conduit to bridge a short nerve defect (10 mm). Methods: Nineteen sciatic nerves in Sprague-Dawley rats were transected, and a 10-mm gap was left between the ends. A section of distal epineurium was pulled inside out to bridge the gap. Walking track analysis was performed, and the sciatic function index (SFI) was calculated. Wet muscle mass and withdrawal reflex were measured. The density of axon fibers at different levels of repaired nerves was determined, and histological analysis was performed at 16 weeks. Results: The mean SFI improved from -81.0 at 4 weeks to 36.3 at 16 weeks. The axon densities showed regeneration through the epineural tube, and 5 of the rats demonstrated a withdrawal reflex. The weight of the tibialis anterior muscle of the injured limb at 16 weeks was 59% that of the uninjured side. Conclusions: The distal epineural sheath tube provided a size-matched conduit between the nerve stumps, with no histological donor-site morbidity. Histologically, regeneration occurred through the epineural tube without neuroma formation, and functional recovery was comparable to that of previous studies of nerve repair techniques. Technique may be an addition to the armamentarium of tools used to treat segmental nerve defects.

  12. Radial transport from the Io plasma torus: driven from the inside out or outside in? (United States)

    Morgenthaler, J. P.; Marconi, M.; Oliversen, R. J.; Woodward, R. C., Jr.


    The Io plasma torus (IPT) is much more massive than it should be assuming radial transport was driven by centrifugally driven interchange instability. Two competing hypotheses have been proposed that provide the necessary impounding effect to radial transport of plasma: velocity shear impound and ring current impound. The velocity shear impound hypothesis suggests that the region of subcorotational plasma seen at the outer edge of the IPT impounds the progress of outward-moving flux tubes and processes near the IPT, such as Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities, would govern mass loss from the IPT ("inside out"). The ring current impound mechanism suggests that a population of energetic electrons on the inner edge of the ring current are distributed in energy and density in just the right way to balance the outward pressure of IPT material and processes in the magnetotail, such as reconnection after plasmoid release, would inject energetic particles that would perturb the ring current and let IPT material leak out ("outside in"). In support of the ring current impound mechanism, Louarn et al. (2014) found that roughly half of the time Galileo was sensitive to detecting them, energetic particle injections were coincident with Jovian hectometeric radio radiation (HOM), associated with auroral activity, and new bursts of narrow-band kilometric radiation (nKOM), associated with plasma leaving the vicinity of the IPT. We present new analyses of a large database of ground-based observations of Io's exosphere in [OI] 6300A. Using the IPT model of Smyth & Marconi (1998, 2000), Oliversen et al. (2001) showed the [OI] flux is a reliable proxy for the thermal electron density at Io's position. The Smyth & Marconi model (triangles in Figure) describes Io's [OI] flux well on most nights, except the two for which we have contemporaneous coverage with that of Louarn et al. (2014). These nights show strong evidence of missing mass from the IPT. We suggest that our observations can be used

  13. Outcomes of Inside-out Meniscal Repair in the Setting of Multiligament Reconstruction in the Knee. (United States)

    Chahla, Jorge; Dean, Chase S; Matheny, Lauren M; Mitchell, Justin J; Cinque, Mark E; LaPrade, Robert F


    Limited evidence exists for meniscal repair outcomes in a multiligament reconstruction setting. Purpose/Hypothesis: The purpose of this study was to assess outcomes and failure rates of meniscal repair in patients who underwent multiligament reconstruction compared with patients who underwent multiligament reconstruction but lacked meniscal tears. The authors hypothesized that the outcomes of meniscal repair associated with concomitant multiligament reconstruction would significantly improve from preoperatively to postoperatively at a minimum of 2 years after the index surgery. Secondarily, they hypothesized that this cohort would demonstrate similar outcomes and failure rates compared with the cohort that did not have meniscal lesions at the time of multiligament reconstruction. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Inclusion criteria for the study included radiographically confirmed skeletally mature patients of at least 16 years of age who underwent multiligamentous reconstruction of the knee without previous ipsilateral osteotomy, intra-articular infections, or intra-articular fractures. Patients were included in the experimental group if they underwent inside-out meniscal suture repair with concurrent multiligament reconstruction. Those included in the control group (multiligament reconstruction without a meniscal tear) underwent multiligament reconstruction but did not undergo any type of meniscal surgery. Lysholm, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index, Short Form-12 physical component summary and mental component summary, Tegner activity scale, and patient satisfaction scores were recorded preoperatively and postoperatively. The failure of meniscal repair was defined as a retear of the meniscus that was confirmed arthroscopically. There were 43 patients (16 female, 27 male) in the meniscal repair group and 62 patients (25 female, 37 male) in the control group. Follow-up was obtained in 93% of patients with a mean of 3.0 years (range, 2

  14. Inside-Out access strategy using new trans-vascular catheter approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boese Axel


    Full Text Available Image guided minimal invasive treatment can have large benefits for patient recovery and is lowering hospitalisation costs. But an access path, minimizing patient’s risk, is needed to reach the target structure inside of the body. Beside the use of natural orifices like oral, vaginal or anal cavities, a percutaneous puncture is common to enter the body. Also an interstitial path can be selected but if the pathological structure is situated in the deep, a long accesses path is required. Thereby the risk of additional damage and affecting organ functionality is increased. A possible option to come closer to the target structure with less organ damage is by using the vascular system. Entering the vessel from an uncritical point, the vasculature can be used as “highway” to the target structures. For the treatment of these nearby structures, the vessel has to be punctured and occluded afterwards by a save procedure. We propose an Inside-Out access strategy using a new trans-vascular catheter approach.

  15. A short report on knowledge exchange through research-based theatre: 'inside out of mind'. (United States)

    Schneider, Justine; Lowe, Stephen; Myers, Tanya; Scales, Kezia; Bailey, Simon; Middleton, Joanne


    The short report describes the development from page to stage of a work of theatre based on an ethnographic study. The originating research focused on the work of health care assistants (nurse's aides) whose direct impact on the quality of life of highly dependent people is often overlooked. The research followed hospital personnel on wards specialising in the 'challenging behaviour' associated with dementia in central England. Conventional research outputs failed to engage the health care assistants themselves, so we turned to theatre to remedy this. The development of the field notes into theatre was characterised by the artistic freedom given to the playwright, in contrast to more data-led approaches to theatre making. The account of the process of creating the play, Inside Out of Mind, is followed a description of how the work was received by specialist and general audiences totalling 2000+. The discussion seeks to locate the whole enterprise in relation to the field of research-based theatre and explores how the production and its associated learning events relate to definitions of research-based theatre in the light of recent attempts to encapsulate this broad and diverse methodology. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. The inside-out supercapacitor: induced charge storage in reduced graphene oxide. (United States)

    Martin, Samuel T; Akbari, Abozar; Chakraborty Banerjee, Parama; Neild, Adrian; Majumder, Mainak


    Iontronic circuits are built using components which are analogous to those used in electronic circuits, however they involve the movement of ions in an electrolyte rather than electrons in a metal or semiconductor. Developments in these circuits' performance have led to applications in biological sensing, interfacing and drug delivery. While transistors, diodes and elementary logic circuits have been demonstrated for ionic circuits if more complex circuits are to be realized, the precident set by electrical circuits suggests that a component which is analogous to an electrical capacitor is required. Herein, an ionic supercapacitor is reported, our experiments show that charge may be stored in a conductive porous reduced graphene oxide film that is contacted by two isolated aqueous solutions and that this concept extends to an arbitrary polarizable sample. Parametric studies indicate that the conductivity and porosity of this film play important roles in the resultant device's performance. This ionic capacitor has a specific capacitance of 8.6 F cm-3 at 1 mV s-1 and demonstrates the ability to filter and smooth signals in an electrolyte at a variety of low frequencies. The device has the same interfaces as a supercapacitor but their arrangement is changed, hence the name inside-out supercapacitor.

  17. Inside-out Z rings - constriction with and without GTP hydrolysis (United States)

    Osawa, Masaki; Erickson, Harold P.


    Summary The bacterial tubulin homolog FtsZ forms a ring-like structure called the Z ring that drives cytokinesis. We showed previously that FtsZ-YFP-mts, which has a short amphipathic helix (mts) on its C terminus that inserts into the membrane, can assemble contractile Z rings in tubular liposomes without any other protein. Here we study mts-FtsZ-YFP, where the membrane tether is switched to the opposite side of the protofilament. This assembled “inside-out” Z rings that wrapped around the outside surface of tubular liposomes. The inside-out Z rings were highly dynamic, and generated a constriction force that squeezed the tubular liposomes from outside. This is consistent with models where the constriction force is generated by curved protofilaments bending the membrane. We used this system to test how GTP hydrolysis by FtsZ is involved in Z-ring constriction. Without GTP hydrolysis, Z rings could still assemble and generate an initial constriction. However, the constriction quickly stopped, suggesting that Z rings became rigidly stabilized in the absence of GTP hydrolysis. We propose that remodeling of the Z ring, mediated by GTP hydrolysis and exchange of subunits, is necessary for the continuous constriction. PMID:21631604

  18. Inside-out Ultraviolet-C Sterilization of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilm In Vitro. (United States)

    Jones, Cameron C; Valdeig, Steffi; Sova, Raymond M; Weiss, Clifford R


    Biofilms are difficult to eradicate due to a protective architecture and create major challenges in patient care by diminishing both host immune response and therapeutic approaches. This study investigated a new strategy for treating surface-attached biofilms by delivering germicidal UV through a material surface in a process referred to as "inside-out sterilization" (IOS). Mature Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC® 27853™ ) biofilms were irradiated with up to 1400 mJ cm-2 of germicidal UV from both ambient and IOS configurations. The lethal dose for the ambient exposure group was 461 mJ cm-2 95% CI [292, 728] compared to the IOS treatment group of 247 mJ cm-2 95% CI [187, 325], corresponding to 47% less UV dosage for the IOS group (P < 0.05). This study demonstrated that with IOS, a lower quantal dosage of UV energy is required to eradicate biofilm than with ambient exposure by leveraging the organizational structure of the biofilm. © 2016 The American Society of Photobiology.

  19. B cell activation involves nanoscale receptor reorganizations and inside-out signaling by Syk. (United States)

    Kläsener, Kathrin; Maity, Palash C; Hobeika, Elias; Yang, Jianying; Reth, Michael


    Binding of antigen to the B cell antigen receptor (BCR) initiates a multitude of events resulting in B cell activation. How the BCR becomes signaling-competent upon antigen binding is still a matter of controversy. Using a high-resolution proximity ligation assay (PLA) to monitor the conformation of the BCR and its interactions with co-receptors at a 10-20 nm resolution, we provide direct evidence for the opening of BCR dimers during B cell activation. We also show that upon binding Syk opens the receptor by an inside-out signaling mechanism that amplifies BCR signaling. Furthermore, we found that on resting B cells, the coreceptor CD19 is in close proximity with the IgD-BCR and on activated B cells with the IgM-BCR, indicating nanoscale reorganization of receptor clusters during B cell activation.DOI: Copyright © 2014, Kläsener et al.

  20. Comparison of inside-out and all-inside techniques for the repair of isolated meniscal tears: a systematic review. (United States)

    Grant, John A; Wilde, Jeff; Miller, Bruce S; Bedi, Asheesh


    Arthroscopic meniscal repair techniques are continuing to evolve. Most studies to date comparing the healing rate of inside-out to all-inside meniscal repair techniques are confounded by associated anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction or deficiency. This review was conducted to compare the effectiveness and complications of the inside-out repair technique to that of the all-inside repair technique in isolated unstable peripheral longitudinal ("bucket-handle") meniscal tears. Systematic review. Computerized keyword searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, ACP Journal Club, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were performed. Two reviewers independently performed searches and article reduction. Studies that included stratified data for isolated unstable longitudinal meniscal tears in stable knees, repaired with either an inside-out or all-inside repair technique, were selected. Data on clinical failure, subjective outcome measures, and complications were summarized. Nineteen studies included data specific to isolated meniscal tears. The rate of clinical failure was 17% for inside-out repairs and 19% for all-inside repairs. Lysholm scores and Tegner activity scores were similar between the 2 repair methods (87.8 vs 90.2 and 5.6 vs 5.5, respectively). The prevalence of nerve injury/irritation was higher with the inside-out technique (9% vs 2%). All-inside techniques had a higher rate of local soft tissue irritation, swelling, and implant migration or breakage. The use of older generation, rigid, all-inside implants is associated with chondral injury. There are no differences in clinical failure rate or subjective outcome between inside-out and all-inside meniscus repair techniques. Complications are associated with both techniques. More nerve symptoms are associated with the inside-out repair and more implant-related complications are associated with the all-inside technique. Rates of structural healing

  1. [The experimental study on inside-out vein graft for repairing inferior alveolar nerve defect in the rabbit]. (United States)

    Chen, P; Li, H; Zhang, G


    This study describes a modification of the vein graft technique inside-out vein graft, creates an autogenous vein conduct with the collagen-rich and Schwann cells exposed to regenerating axons. To compare regeneration of inferior alveolar nerves through two conduits: inside-out vein graft and the standard vein graft. 18 adult white rabbits were selected and vena facialises of both sides were harvested. Turned the right vena facialis into inside-out vein and used to bridge an 8 mm defect created in the right inferior alveolar nerve. An 8 mm defect of the left inferior alveolar nerve was bridged by the standard vein graft. After rabbits sacrificed at 8, 14 and 20 weeks, the regenerating nerve cables were harvested from the conduits and performed histologic study. At 20 weeks, performed also electrophysiologic studies and statistical analysis of conductive velocities and histological results. Regenerating nerves connected with proximal and distal nerve stumps on both sides postoperation 8 weeks, a number of regenerating nerve fibers and thickness of axon were gradually increasing. At 20 weeks regenerating nerve on the inside-out vein graft side showed superior function results--faster conduction velocities (P nerve regeneration by an environment with collagen-rich and Schwann cells. The inside-out vein graft is an original way to repair inferior alveolar nerve.

  2. Silicon anode materials with ultra-low resistivity from the inside out for lithium ion batteries (United States)

    Xu, Guojun; Jin, Chenxin; Liu, Liekai; Lan, Yu; Yue, Zhihao; Li, Xiaomin; Sun, Fugen; Huang, Haibin; Zhou, Lang


    Broken silicon (Si) wafers with electrical resistivity of 1 and 0.001 Ω cm were respectively ball-milled to Si particles with median diameters of less than 1 μm. Both these two types of Si particles were deposited with silver (Ag) nanoparticles by self-selective electroless deposition method. 1-Ω cm-Si particles, 0.001-Ω cm-Si particles, Ag-deposited 1-Ω cm-Si particles and Ag-deposited 0.001-Ω cm-Si particles were, respectively, mixed with graphite particles in weight ratio of 1:9 to form four types of Si-C anode materials and then they were assembled into coin cells. The experimental results indicate that the Ag-deposited 0.001-Ω cm-Si sample shows the higher capacity, better rate and cycle performance than other three samples, due to the high conductivity of Ag-deposited 0.001-Ω cm-Si sample from the inside out. At the current density of 750 mA g-1, the discharge capacity gap of Ag-deposited 0.001-Ω cm-Si sample and 0.001-Ω cm-Si sample is as high as 141.7 mA h g-1, which is almost equal to the discharge capacity of the latter. Besides, the discharge capacity retention ratio of Ag-deposited 0.001-Ω cm-Si sample after 50 cycles is 70%, which is 23.5% higher than that of 0.001-Ω cm-Si sample.

  3. Inside-out versus outside-in transobturator tension-free vaginal tape: a 5-year prospective comparative study. (United States)

    Cheung, Rachel Yau Kar; Chan, Symphorosa Shing Chee; Yiu, Ka Wah; Chung, Tony Kwok Hung


    To compare the 1-year and 5-year outcomes of transobturator tension-free vaginal tape with outside-in and inside-out approaches in women with urinary stress incontinence, and to identify risk factors for treatment failure at 5 years. A prospective observational study was carried out for women with urinary stress incontinence who underwent transobturator tension-free vaginal tape from September 2004 to March 2008 in a tertiary urogynecology center. Women (n = 213) had either an outside-in (n = 124) or inside-out (n = 89) procedure. They were followed up annually until 5 years after the operation. Subjective cure was defined as women not experiencing any urine loss on physical activity. Objective cure was defined as no urine leak at cough during a standard urodynamic study. At a mean follow up of 59.2 months, the subjective cure rates were 81.7% and 84.1%; the objective cure rate were 82.6% and 82.5% for the outside-in and inside-out approach, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference between the procedures. De novo overactive bladder syndrome (10.6% in outside-in and 14.6% in inside-out approach; P = 0.40) and de novo detrusor overactivity (5.8% in outside-in and 15% in inside-out approach; P = 0.11) was also comparable between the two groups. Complications at the fifth year were low and not significantly different among both methods. The outside-in approach and inside-out approach are both safe and effective in treating women with urinary stress incontinence up to 5 years. © 2013 The Japanese Urological Association.

  4. Editorial Commentary: Feeling the Pressure! A Biomechanical Analysis of All-Inside and Inside-Out Knee Meniscus Repair. (United States)

    Barber, F Alan


    A biomechanical, time-zero comparison found that both No. 2-0 UltraBraid inside-out sutures and FasT-Fix 360 all-inside devices used to repair a displaced bucket handle knee meniscus tear increased the contact area in deeper flexion angles (at 45°-60°) and reduced the peak contact pressure (at 45°-90°). No significance difference was observed between the inside-out and all-inside repair techniques. Copyright © 2017 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Arthroscopic Inside-Out Repair of a Meniscus Bucket-Handle Tear Augmented With Bone Marrow Aspirate Concentrate. (United States)

    Muckenhirn, Kyle J; Kruckeberg, Bradley M; Cinque, Mark E; Chahla, Jorge; DePhillipo, Nicholas N; Godin, Jonathan A; LaPrade, Robert F


    Bucket-handle tears of the meniscus comprise nearly 10% of all meniscus tears and commonly affect the young male population. Displacement of the free segment can lead to significant pain and disability, necessitating reduction and surgical treatment. General contraindications include malalignment, severe arthritis, significant comorbidities, or chronic asymptomatic tears, but otherwise repair should almost always be performed. Options for surgical treatment include partial meniscectomy and arthroscopic repair using an all-inside, outside-in, or inside-out technique. The purpose of this Technical Note is to detail our arthroscopic inside-out repair technique augmented with bone marrow aspirate concentrate.

  6. Anatomic femoral tunnels in posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: inside-out versus outside-in drilling. (United States)

    Tompkins, Marc; Keller, Thomas C; Milewski, Matthew D; Gaskin, Cree M; Brockmeier, Stephen F; Hart, Joseph M; Miller, Mark D


    During posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) reconstruction, the placement and orientation of the femoral tunnel is critical to postoperative PCL function. To compare the ability of outside-in (OI) versus inside-out (IO) femoral tunnel drilling in placing the femoral tunnel aperture within the anatomic femoral footprint of the PCL, and to evaluate the orientation of the tunnels within the medial femoral condyle. Controlled laboratory study. Ten matched pairs of cadaver knees were randomized such that within each pair, 1 knee underwent arthroscopic OI drilling and the other underwent IO drilling. All knees underwent computed tomography (CT) both pre- and postoperatively with a technique optimized for ligament evaluation (80 keV with maximum mAs). Commercially available third-party software was used to fuse the pre- and postoperative CT scans, allowing comparison of the PCL footprint to the drilled tunnel. The percentage of tunnel aperture contained within the native footprint, as well as the distance from the center of the tunnel aperture to the center of the footprint, were measured. In addition, the orientation of the tunnels in the coronal and axial planes was evaluated. The OI technique placed 70.4% ± 23.7% of the tunnel within the native femoral footprint compared with 79.8% ± 16.7% for the IO technique (P = .32). The OI technique placed the center of the femoral tunnel 4.9 ± 2.2 mm from the center of the native footprint compared to 5.3 ± 2.0 mm for the IO technique (P = .65). The femoral tunnel angle in the coronal plane was 21.0° ± 9.9° for the OI technique and 37.0° ± 10.3° for the IO technique (P = .002). The tunnel angle in the axial plane was 27.3° ± 4.8° for the OI technique and 39.1° ± 11.5° for the IO technique (P = .01). This study demonstrates no difference in the ability of the OI and IO techniques to place the femoral tunnel within the PCL femoral footprint during PCL reconstruction. With the technique parameters used in this study

  7. Star formation is boosted (and quenched) from the inside-out: radial star formation profiles from MaNGA (United States)

    Ellison, Sara L.; Sánchez, Sebastian F.; Ibarra-Medel, Hector; Antonio, Braulio; Mendel, J. Trevor; Barrera-Ballesteros, Jorge


    The tight correlation between total galaxy stellar mass and star formation rate (SFR) has become known as the star-forming main sequence. Using ˜487 000 spaxels from galaxies observed as part of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Mapping Nearby Galaxies at Apache Point Observatory (MaNGA) survey, we confirm previous results that a correlation also exists between the surface densities of star formation (ΣSFR) and stellar mass (Σ⋆) on kpc scales, representing a `resolved' main sequence. Using a new metric (ΔΣSFR), which measures the relative enhancement or deficit of star formation on a spaxel-by-spaxel basis relative to the resolved main sequence, we investigate the SFR profiles of 864 galaxies as a function of their position relative to the global star-forming main sequence (ΔSFR). For galaxies above the global main sequence (positive ΔSFR) ΔΣSFR is elevated throughout the galaxy, but the greatest enhancement in star formation occurs at small radii (<3 kpc, or 0.5Re). Moreover, galaxies that are at least a factor of 3 above the main sequence show diluted gas phase metallicities out to 2Re, indicative of metal-poor gas inflows accompanying the starbursts. For quiescent/passive galaxies that lie at least a factor of 10 below the star-forming main sequence, there is an analogous deficit of star formation throughout the galaxy with the lowest values of ΔΣSFR in the central 3 kpc. Our results are in qualitative agreement with the `compaction' scenario in which a central starburst leads to mass growth in the bulge and may ultimately precede galactic quenching from the inside-out.

  8. Inside-out flowers of Lacandonia brasiliana (Triuridaceae provide new insights into fundamental aspects of floral patterning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula J. Rudall


    Full Text Available Background and Aims. A recently described Brazilian species, Lacandonia brasiliana, shares with its longer established putative sister species from Mexico, L. schismatica, inverted floral patterning (carpels surrounding stamens that is almost unique among angiosperms. We present a detailed ontogenetic study of L. brasiliana for comparison with other members of the tribe Triurideae (Triuridaceae to explore the possible evolutionary origins of “inside-out” flowers. Methods. Wild-source populations of L. brasiliana were compared morphologically and ontogenetically with related species of Triurideae, using light and scanning electron microscopy. Key Results. Relatively few morphological differences separate flowers of L. brasiliana and L. schismatica. Both species have tepals with late-developing subapical appendages. In both species, the three central (almost sessile anthers develop precociously with respect to the carpels; the anthers remain closed, and fertilization is achieved via pollen-tube growth from germinating pollen grains of the same cleistogamous flower. Carpels are initiated on fascicles. Conclusions. The close similarity between the two Lacandonia species makes it unlikely that they arose independently from two separate homeotic transformation events; they could either represent sister species or two populations of a single disjunct species. Our study underlines the problematic generic and species boundaries within Triurideae. We present an evolutionary scenario of character evolution in Triuridaceae. The inside-out Lacandonia flower could have resulted from a stabilized homeotic transformation; this hypothesis is not in conflict with constrasting theories of the origin of the Triuridaceae flower, which coincided with a shift to unisexuality. The unisexual yet highly plastic flowers that are typical of Triuridaceae could have pre-adapted the origin of the extraordinary Lacandonia morphology.

  9. Anatomical variability in the trajectory of the inside-out transobturator vaginal tape technique (TVT-O)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hinoul, Piet; Vanormelingen, Linda; Roovers, Jan-Paul; de Jonge, Eric; Smajda, Stéfan


    An experimental surgical study on human cadavers was undertaken to assess variability in the trajectory followed by the needle during application of the inside-out transobturator tape suspension (TVT-O) technique. The TVT-O surgical procedures were performed on six fresh female cadavers according to

  10. A 2D-DIGE approach to identify proteins involved in inside-out control of integrins.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langereis, J.D.; Prinsen, B.H.; Sain-van der Velden, M.G. de; Coppens, C.J.; Koenderman, L.; Ulfman, L.H.


    Leukocyte integrins are functionally regulated by "inside-out" signaling, meaning that stimulus-induced signaling pathways act on the intracellular integrin tail and induce activation of the receptor at the outside. Both a change in conformation (affinity) and in clustering (avidity/valency) of the

  11. A 2D-DIGE Approach To Identify Proteins Involved in Inside-Out Control of Integrins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langereis, Jeroen D.; Prinsen, Berthil H. C. M. T.; de Sain-van der Velden, Monique G. M.; Coppens, Cornelis J. C.; Koenderman, Leo; Ulfman, Laurien H.

    Leukocyte integrins are functionally regulated by "inside-out" signaling, meaning that stimulus-induced signaling pathways act on the intracellular integrin tail and induce activation of the receptor at the outside. Both a change in conformation (affinity) and in clustering (avidity/valency) of the

  12. Analysis of a new all-inside versus inside-out technique for repairing radial meniscal tears. (United States)

    Beamer, Brandon S; Masoudi, Aidin; Walley, Kempland C; Harlow, Ethan R; Manoukian, Ohan S; Hertz, Ben; Haeussler, Claudia; Olson, Jeffrey J; Deangelis, Joseph P; Nazarian, Ara; Ramappa, Arun J


    The purpose of this study was to compare gap formation, strength, and stiffness of repaired radial tears of the meniscus treated using a new all-inside technique versus a traditional inside-out suture technique. Radial tears were created in 36 fresh-frozen porcine menisci. Repairs were performed using a novel all-inside suture-based meniscal repair device or an inside-out technique. The repairs were tested for cyclic loading and load to failure. The displacement, response to cyclic loading (100, 300, and 500 cycles), and mode of failure were recorded, and the construct's stiffness was calculated. The all-inside repairs using the novel device resulted in a significantly lower displacement (gap formation) after 100, 300, and 500 cycles (P = .002, P = .001, and P = .001, respectively). The ultimate load to failure was significantly greater for the all-inside repairs (111.61 N v 95.01 N; P = .03). The all-inside repairs showed greater stiffness (14.53 N/mm v 11.19 N/mm; P = .02). The all-inside repairs failed most often by suture breakage (suture failure). The inside-out repairs failed most commonly when the suture pulled through the tissue (tissue failure) (P inside technique resulted in lower displacement, higher load to failure, and greater stiffness compared with the horizontal inside-out technique. In a porcine specimen meniscus repair model, the biomechanical properties of a vertical all-inside technique were superior to that of a horizontal inside-out technique. Future studies of biomechanical and clinical outcomes in human meniscal repairs with this device are warranted to explore whether this repair method is valuable to clinical practice and patient outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Cyclic growth of hierarchical structures in the aluminum-silicate system. (United States)

    Dyonizy, Agnieszka; Kaminker, Vitaliy; Wieckowska, Joanna; Krzywicki, Tomasz; Pantaleone, Jim; Nowak, Piotr; Maselko, Jerzy

    Biological structures grow spontaneously from a seed, using materials supplied by the environment. These structures are hierarchical, with the 'building blocks' on each level constructed from those on the lower level. To understand and model the processes that occur on many levels, and later construct them, is a difficult task. However interest in this subject is growing. It is now possible to study the spontaneous growth of hierarchical structures in simple, two component chemical systems. Aluminum-silicate systems have been observed to grow into structures that are approximately conical. These structures are composed of multiple smaller cones with several hierarchical levels of complexity. On the highest level the system resembles a metropolis, with a horizontal resource distribution network connecting vertical, conical structures. The cones are made from many smaller cones that are connected together forming a whole with unusual behavior. The growth is observed to switch periodically between the vertical and horizontal directions. A structure grown in a dish is observed to have many similarities to other hierarchical systems such as biological organisms or cities. This system may provide a simple model system to search for universal laws governing the growth of complex hierarchical structures. Graphical AbstractSide view of the chemical structure made from many vertical cones to form a chemical metropolis. The tallest structure is 17 cm high.

  14. Hierarchical Size Scaling during Multicellular Growth and Development. (United States)

    Uppaluri, Sravanti; Weber, Stephanie C; Brangwynne, Clifford P


    Multicellular organisms must regulate their growth across the diverse length scales of biological organization, but how this growth is controlled from organelle to body, while coordinating interdependent functions at each scale, remains poorly understood. We utilized the C. elegans worm intestine as a model system to identify distinct allometric scaling laws, revealing that the growth of individual structures is differentially regulated during development. We show that the volume of the nucleolus, a subcellular organelle, is directly proportional (isometric) to cell size during larval development. In contrast to findings in a variety of other systems, the size of the nucleus grows more slowly and is hypoallometric to the cell. We further demonstrate that the relative size of the nucleolus, the site of ribosome biogenesis, is predictive of the growth rate of the entire worm. These results highlight the importance of subcellular size for organism-level function in multicellular organisms. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Growth and containment of a hierarchical criminal network (United States)

    Marshak, Charles Z.; Rombach, M. Puck; Bertozzi, Andrea L.; D'Orsogna, Maria R.


    We model the hierarchical evolution of an organized criminal network via antagonistic recruitment and pursuit processes. Within the recruitment phase, a criminal kingpin enlists new members into the network, who in turn seek out other affiliates. New recruits are linked to established criminals according to a probability distribution that depends on the current network structure. At the same time, law enforcement agents attempt to dismantle the growing organization using pursuit strategies that initiate on the lower level nodes and that unfold as self-avoiding random walks. The global details of the organization are unknown to law enforcement, who must explore the hierarchy node by node. We halt the pursuit when certain local criteria of the network are uncovered, encoding if and when an arrest is made; the criminal network is assumed to be eradicated if the kingpin is arrested. We first analyze recruitment and study the large scale properties of the growing network; later we add pursuit and use numerical simulations to study the eradication probability in the case of three pursuit strategies, the time to first eradication, and related costs. Within the context of this model, we find that eradication becomes increasingly costly as the network increases in size and that the optimal way of arresting the kingpin is to intervene at the early stages of network formation. We discuss our results in the context of dark network disruption and their implications on possible law enforcement strategies.

  16. All-Inside Versus Inside-Out Meniscal Repair With Concurrent Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: A Meta-regression Analysis . (United States)

    Westermann, Robert W; Duchman, Kyle R; Amendola, Annunziato; Glass, Natalie; Wolf, Brian R


    Meniscal tears are frequently repaired during anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). To systematically evaluate differences in clinical failures between all-inside and inside-out meniscal repairs performed during ACLR. Meta-analysis; Level of evidence, 4. A systematic review was perfomed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. The databases queried included MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. All English-language studies reporting failure rates after meniscal repair with either the all-inside or inside-out technique performed in conjunction with ACLR were identified between 1980 and 2015. Studies with a minimum 2-year follow-up were included. Reported outcomes, clinical meniscal repair failures, and complications were assessed. Studies were weighted according to the size of the clinical series and mean follow-up length. Inverse-variance-weighted mixed models were used to evaluate whether there was a significant difference in pooled reoperation rates between repair techniques. In total, 21 studies met inclusion criteria. Of these, 13 studies reported outcomes after all-inside repair, and 10 studies reported outcomes after inside-out repair (2 studies reported both). A total of 1126 patients were included in the analysis. The mean (±SD) follow-up for all-inside repair was 58.64 ± 22.24 months versus 76.25 ± 31.69 months for inside-out repair ( P = .13). The clinical failure rate for all-inside meniscal repair performed concurrently with ACLR was 16% (121/744) compared with 10% (39/382) for inside-out repair, and this was found to be significant ( P = .016). Implant irritation and device migration were the most common complications reported for all-inside repair; complication rates did not differ between the groups. There may be fewer early clinical failures when the inside-out technique is utilized for meniscal repair at the time of concomitant ACLR

  17. Hierarchically nanostructured hydroxyapatite: hydrothermal synthesis, morphology control, growth mechanism, and biological activity (United States)

    Ma, Ming-Guo


    Hierarchically nanosized hydroxyapatite (HA) with flower-like structure assembled from nanosheets consisting of nanorod building blocks was successfully synthesized by using CaCl2, NaH2PO4, and potassium sodium tartrate via a hydrothermal method at 200°C for 24 hours. The effects of heating time and heating temperature on the products were investigated. As a chelating ligand and template molecule, the potassium sodium tartrate plays a key role in the formation of hierarchically nanostructured HA. On the basis of experimental results, a possible mechanism based on soft-template and self-assembly was proposed for the formation and growth of the hierarchically nanostructured HA. Cytotoxicity experiments indicated that the hierarchically nanostructured HA had good biocompatibility. It was shown by in-vitro experiments that mesenchymal stem cells could attach to the hierarchically nanostructured HA after being cultured for 48 hours. Objective The purpose of this study was to develop facile and effective methods for the synthesis of novel hydroxyapatite (HA) with hierarchical nanostructures assembled from independent and discrete nanobuilding blocks. Methods A simple hydrothermal approach was applied to synthesize HA by using CaCl2, NaH2PO4, and potassium sodium tartrate at 200°C for 24 hours. The cell cytotoxicity of the hierarchically nanostructured HA was tested by MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay. Results HA displayed the flower-like structure assembled from nanosheets consisting of nanorod building blocks. The potassium sodium tartrate was used as a chelating ligand, inducing the formation and self-assembly of HA nanorods. The heating time and heating temperature influenced the aggregation and morphology of HA. The cell viability did not decrease with the increasing concentration of hierarchically nanostructured HA added. Conclusion A novel, simple and reliable hydrothermal route had been developed for the synthesis of

  18. Ectopic Reelin induces neuronal aggregation with a normal birthdate-dependent "inside-out" alignment in the developing neocortex. (United States)

    Kubo, Ken-ichiro; Honda, Takao; Tomita, Kenji; Sekine, Katsutoshi; Ishii, Kazuhiro; Uto, Asuka; Kobayashi, Kazuma; Tabata, Hidenori; Nakajima, Kazunori


    Neurons in the developing mammalian neocortex form the cortical plate (CP) in an "inside-out" manner; that is, earlier-born neurons form the deeper layers, whereas later-born neurons migrate past the existing layers and form the more superficial layers. Reelin, a glycoprotein secreted by Cajal-Retzius neurons in the marginal zone (MZ), is crucial for this "inside-out" layering, because the layers are inverted in the Reelin-deficient mouse, reeler (Reln(rl)). Even though more than a decade has passed since the discovery of reelin, the biological effect of Reelin on individual migrating neurons remains unclear. In addition, although the MZ is missing in the reeler cortex, it is unknown whether Reelin directly regulates the development of the cell-body-sparse MZ. To address these issues, we expressed Reelin ectopically in the developing mouse cortex, and the results showed that Reelin caused the leading processes of migrating neurons to assemble in the Reelin-rich region, which in turn induced their cell bodies to form cellular aggregates around Reelin. Interestingly, the ectopic Reelin-rich region became cell-body-sparse and dendrite-rich, resembling the MZ, and the late-born neurons migrated past their predecessors toward the central Reelin-rich region within the aggregates, resulting in a birthdate-dependent "inside-out" alignment even ectopically. Reelin receptors and intracellular adaptor protein Dab1 were found to be necessary for formation of the aggregates. The above findings indicate that Reelin signaling is capable of inducing the formation of the dendrite-rich, cell-body-sparse MZ and a birthdate-dependent "inside-out" alignment of neurons independently of other factors/structures near the MZ.

  19. Controllable Modular Growth of Hierarchical MOF-on-MOF Architectures. (United States)

    Gu, Yifan; Wu, Yi-Nan; Li, Liangchun; Chen, Wei; Li, Fengting; Kitagawa, Susumu


    Fabrication of hybrid MOF-on-MOF heteroarchitectures can create novel and multifunctional platforms to achieve desired properties. However, only MOFs with similar crystallographic parameters can be hybridized by the classical epitaxial growth method (EGM), which largely suppressed its applications. A general strategy, called internal extended growth method (IEGM), is demonstrated for the feasible assembly of MOFs with distinct crystallographic parameters in an MOF matrix. Various MOFs with diverse functions could be introduced in a modular MOF matrix to form 3D core-satellite pluralistic hybrid system. The number of different MOF crystals interspersed could be varied on demand. More importantly, the different MOF crystals distributed in individual domains could be used to further incorporate functional units or enhance target functions. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Reinforcement of integrin-mediated T-Lymphocyte adhesion by TNF-induced Inside-out Signaling. (United States)

    Li, Qian; Huth, Steven; Adam, Dieter; Selhuber-Unkel, Christine


    Integrin-mediated leukocyte adhesion to endothelial cells is a crucial step in immunity against pathogens. Whereas the outside-in signaling pathway in response to the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor (TNF) has already been studied in detail, little knowledge exists about a supposed TNF-mediated inside-out signaling pathway. In contrast to the outside-in signaling pathway, which relies on the TNF-induced upregulation of surface molecules on endothelium, inside-out signaling should also be present in an endothelium-free environment. Using single-cell force spectroscopy, we show here that stimulating Jurkat cells with TNF significantly reinforces their adhesion to fibronectin in a biomimetic in vitro assay for cell-surface contact times of about 1.5 seconds, whereas for larger contact times the effect disappears. Analysis of single-molecule ruptures further demonstrates that TNF strengthens sub-cellular single rupture events at short cell-surface contact times. Hence, our results provide quantitative evidence for the significant impact of TNF-induced inside-out signaling in the T-lymphocyte initial adhesion machinery.

  1. Dragon on a Short Leash : An Inside-Out Analysis of China Investment Corporation


    Sarah Eaton; Zhang Yu Xuan


    Rapid growth in the number and size of sovereign wealth funds (SWFs) in recent years has occasioned a broad-ranging policy debate about how best to accommodate or, indeed, limit the participation of these funds in the worlds capital markets. The announcement in March 2007 that China would open an SWF, with an initial investment of US $200 billion, substantially raised the pitch of this debate as pundits and policymakers around the world pondered the impact that Chinas massive foreign exchange...

  2. Hierarchical structure of the countries based on electricity consumption and economic growth (United States)

    Kantar, Ersin; Aslan, Alper; Deviren, Bayram; Keskin, Mustafa


    We investigate the hierarchical structures of countries based on electricity consumption and economic growth by using the real amounts of their consumption over a certain time period. We use electricity consumption data to detect the topological properties of 64 countries from 1971 to 2008. These countries are divided into three clusters: low income group, middle income group and high income group countries. Firstly, a relationship between electricity consumption and economic growth is investigated by using the concept of hierarchical structure methods (minimal spanning tree (MST) and hierarchical tree (HT)). Secondly, we perform bootstrap techniques to investigate a value of the statistical reliability to the links of the MST. Finally, we use a clustering linkage procedure in order to observe the cluster structure more clearly. The results of the structural topologies of these trees are as follows: (i) we identified different clusters of countries according to their geographical location and economic growth, (ii) we found a strong relation between energy consumption and economic growth for all the income groups considered in this study and (iii) the results are in good agreement with the causal relationship between electricity consumption and economic growth.

  3. From the inside out: a new approach to teaching professional identity formation and professional ethics. (United States)

    Crigger, Nancy; Godfrey, Nelda


    Professional identity formation is a dynamic process that begins in undergraduate nursing education and continues to develop throughout one's professional career. In recent decades, nursing educators emphasized the social dimension of professional identity formation in which professionalization is achieved through following rules, codes, and standards set by the profession. Character or psychological development and the proper use of virtues like integrity, compassion, or courage are often part of the hidden curriculum. The purpose of this article is to introduce a recently developed conception of professionalism that is grounded in virtue ethics and integrates both social and character development into a professional identity that is dynamic, situated, and lifelong. The conception is operationalized through the Framework for Nurse Professionals (FrNP) and the Stair-Step Model of Professional Transformation. The FrNP and the Stair-Step Model promote a robust and morally resilient professional nursing identity that will foster professional growth throughout one's career. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A biomechanical evaluation of all-inside 2-stitch meniscal repair devices with matched inside-out suture repair. (United States)

    Ramappa, Arun J; Chen, Alvin; Hertz, Benjamin; Wexler, Michael; Grimaldi Bournissaint, Leandro; DeAngelis, Joseph P; Nazarian, Ara


    Many all-inside suture-based devices are currently available, including the Meniscal Cinch, FasT-Fix, Ultra FasT-Fix, RapidLoc, MaxFire, and CrossFix System. These different devices have been compared in various configurations, but to our knowledge, the Sequent meniscal repair device, which applies running sutures, has not been compared with the Ultra FasT-Fix, nor has it been compared with its suture, No. 0 Hi-Fi, using an inside-out repair technique. To assess the quality of the meniscal repair, all new devices should be compared with the gold standard: the inside-out repair. To that end, this study aims to compare the biomechanical characteristics of running sutures delivered by the Sequent meniscal repair device with 2 vertical mattress sutures applied using the Ultra FasT-Fix device and with 2 vertical mattress sutures using an inside-out repair technique with No. 0 Hi-Fi suture. Controlled laboratory study. Paired (medial and lateral), fresh-frozen porcine menisci were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: Sequent (n = 17), Ultra FasT-Fix (n = 19), and No. 0 Hi-Fi inside-out repair (n = 20). Bucket-handle tears were created in all menisci and were subjected to repair according to their grouping. Once repaired, the specimens were subjected to cyclic loading (100, 300, and 500 cycles), followed by loading to failure. The Sequent and Ultra FasT-Fix device repairs and the suture repair exhibited low initial displacements. The Sequent meniscal repair device demonstrated the lowest displacement in response to cyclic loading. No. 0 Hi-Fi suture yielded the highest load to failure. With the development of the next generation of all-inside meniscal repair devices, surgeons may use these findings to select the method best suited for their patients. The Sequent meniscal repair device displays the least amount of displacement during cyclic loading but has a similar failure load to other devices.

  5. Can washing socks without flipping inside out cause hair tourniquet syndrome? A claim with two case reports. (United States)

    Uygur, Esat; Çarkçi, Engin; Ünkar, Ethem


    Hair tourniquet syndrome (HTS) is a rare, painful condition that results when hair or pieces of thread become wrapped tightly around toes, fingers, or other appendages, occluding blood flow and causing strangulation or amputation. Although the aetiology of HTS is unclear, we postulate that washing baby socks in a washing machine without turning them inside out might be a cause. Mothers should be informed about HTS and this simple prevention method should be suggested to them. Here, we present two cases of HTS and discuss possible causes.

  6. Selective growth of hierarchical ZnO nanorod arrays on the graphene nanosheets (United States)

    Yang, Hui; Li, Lan; Li, Jinliang; Mo, Zhaojun


    We report directly selective-area grown (SAG) high-quality hierarchical ZnO nanorod arrays on the graphene nanosheets without invoking damage or introducing a catalyst. The SAG behavior in the non-catalytic growth mechanism is attributed to dangling bonds on the boundary edges of graphene nanosheets, which serve as the preferential adsorption and nucleation sites of ZnO nanorod. High densities of hierarchical ZnO nanorods show single-crystalline hexagonal wurtzite structure and are vertically well-aligned on the graphene nanosheets, with the diameter and the density strongly dependent on the growth temperature. Furthermore, no carbon impurity can be seen in the tips of the ZnO nanorods and also no carbon-related defect peak in the 10 K PL spectrum of ZnO nanorods. Our approach using a graphene-nanosheet substrate provides an efficient route for the growth of high-quality ZnO with a one-dimensional (1D) hierarchical nanostructure, which is highly desirable for fabricating 1D ZnO hybrid optoelectronic devices, particularly for a fast-response UV photodetector and highly-sensitive gas sensor.

  7. Prevalence of asymptomatic and electrically undetectable intracardiac inside-out abrasion in silicon-coated Riata® and Riata® ST implantable cardioverter-defibrillator leads. (United States)

    Schmutz, Mathieu; Delacrétaz, Etienne; Schwick, Nicola; Roten, Laurent; Fuhrer, Jürg; Boesch, Claudia; Tanner, Hildegard


    Recently, several cases of symptomatic and/or electrically detectable intracardiac inside-out abrasions in silicon-coated Riata® and Riata® ST leads have been described. However, the prevalence in asymptomatic patients with unremarkable implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) interrogation is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic and electrically undetectable intracardiac inside-out abrasion in silicon-coated Riata® and Riata® ST leads. All 52 patients with an active silicone-coated Riata® and Riata® ST lead followed up in our outpatient clinic were scheduled for a premature ICD interrogation and a biplane chest radiograph. When an intracardiac inside-out abrasion was suspected, this finding was confirmed by fluoroscopy. Mean time since implantation was 71 ± 18 months. An intracardiac inside-out abrasion was confirmed by fluoroscopy in 6 patients (11.5%). Mean time from lead implantation to detection of intracardiac inside-out abrasion was 79 ± 14 months. In all patients with an intracardiac inside-out abrasion, ICD interrogation showed normal and stable electrical parameters. Retrospectively, in 4 of these 6 patients, a coronary angiography performed 25 ± 18 months before diagnosis of intracardiac inside-out abrasion already showed the defect. Despite undetected intracardiac inside-out abrasion, 2 of these 4 patients experienced adequate antitachycardia pacing and ICD-shocks. ICD leads were replaced in all 6 patients. The prevalence of asymptomatic intracardiac inside-out abrasion in silicon-coated Riata® and Riata® ST leads is higher than 10% when assessed by fluoroscopy, and most intracardiac inside-out abrasions are not detectable by ICD interrogation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. From the Inside Out (United States)

    Fillingim, Jennifer G.; Barlow, Angela T.


    Mathematics educators promote student engagement in the Process Standards and create problem-solving tasks and facilitate discussions to help their students develop strengths in explaining their methods, using and interpreting multiple representations, and making connections between topics. They are excited and encouraged when they see students…

  9. Inside out Vessels (United States)

    Fatimi, Safia


    The author finds clay a wonderful introductory medium for high-school studio art. It is not intimidating and gives students the opportunity to express directly with their hands. This article describes the author's clay project that she introduced to her students. The clay project required students to portray their inside and outside personalities…

  10. Galaxy evolution. Evidence for mature bulges and an inside-out quenching phase 3 billion years after the Big Bang. (United States)

    Tacchella, S; Carollo, C M; Renzini, A; Förster Schreiber, N M; Lang, P; Wuyts, S; Cresci, G; Dekel, A; Genzel, R; Lilly, S J; Mancini, C; Newman, S; Onodera, M; Shapley, A; Tacconi, L; Woo, J; Zamorani, G


    Most present-day galaxies with stellar masses ≥10(11) solar masses show no ongoing star formation and are dense spheroids. Ten billion years ago, similarly massive galaxies were typically forming stars at rates of hundreds solar masses per year. It is debated how star formation ceased, on which time scales, and how this "quenching" relates to the emergence of dense spheroids. We measured stellar mass and star-formation rate surface density distributions in star-forming galaxies at redshift 2.2 with ~1-kiloparsec resolution. We find that, in the most massive galaxies, star formation is quenched from the inside out, on time scales less than 1 billion years in the inner regions, up to a few billion years in the outer disks. These galaxies sustain high star-formation activity at large radii, while hosting fully grown and already quenched bulges in their cores. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  11. Aqueous synthesis and growth of morphologically controllable, hierarchical Ni(OH)2 nanostructures (United States)

    Li, Weihong; Yang, Jieyi; Isimjan, Tayirjan T.; Yang, De-Quan; Sacher, Edward


    We report a simple route for the synthesis of several morphologies of self-assembling hierarchical Ni(OH)2 nanostructures, by the reaction of NiSO4 and NH4OH in aqueous solution, at a constant temperature, using neither surfactant nor template. Both morphology and microstructure depend on the concentrations of the reactants, the reaction temperature and the anions (Cl-, .., {{{{NO}}}3}- and {{{{SO}}}4}2-) present. The nanostructures have been characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). When {{{{SO}}}4}2- is used, irrespective of the presence of other anions, only microspheres of hierarchical Ni(OH)2 nanosheets are present, suggesting that this anion plays a critical role in microsphere formation. Electrochemical characterizations of Ni(OH)2 nanosheets show good supercapacitor performance, with relatively high capacity and excellent rate capability, indicating that these hierarchical Ni(OH)2 nanosheets are serious candidates for energy storage applications. The growth mechanism for nanosheet formation is discussed, based on SEM observations under different preparation conditions, detailing the transition from nanoparticles to nanowires to nanosheets. The specific surface area and the thickness of our Ni(OH)2 nanosheets have been determined to be 149.6 m2 g-1 and 20-30 nm, respectively.

  12. Synthetic hierarchical nanostructures: growth of carbon nanofibers on microfibers by chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan Huanan [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, 100 Institute Rd., Worcester, MA 01609 (United States); Liang Jianyu, E-mail: jianyul@wpi.ed [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, 100 Institute Rd., Worcester, MA 01609 (United States); Xia Zhenhai [Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Akron, Akron, OH 44325 (United States)


    In this paper the synthesis of three-dimensional hierarchical nanostructures by pyrolysis of acetylene to grow carbon nanofibers (CNFs) on carbon microfibers (CMFs) and glass microfibers (GMFs) is reported. The morphology and structure of the as-prepared CNFs were studied by scanning electron microscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. CNFs grown on both substrates typically exhibited two types of morphology: the coil-like CNFs with frequent change in orientation and the relatively straight and long CNFs with parallel graphene sheets. The ethanol pretreatment was effective at improving the yield and distribution of the as-grown CNFs on CMFs, but showed an adverse effect to the CNF growth on GMFs. The influence of different substrates and growth temperatures on CNF morphology and the possible growth mechanism for the observed microstructures was discussed.

  13. Growth and mechanisms of enamel-like hierarchical nanostructures on single crystalline hydroxyapatite micro-ribbons. (United States)

    Ma, Guobin; Liu, Xiang Yang; Wang, Mu


    In vitro growth of enamel-like microstructured hydroxyapatite (HAP) crystals is highly expected for developing novel biomaterials/scaffolds. It is also essential for a clearer understanding of in vivo biomineralization process. In this paper, hierarchical HAP structures are controllably fabricated by growth of nanocrystals on single crystalline micro-ribbon substrates in vitro at biophysical conditions. HAP crystals grown on the substrate change from disordered aggregations of nano-flakes to well-oriented nano-needles, branched bundles of nano-needles, and finally highly porous aggregates, with increase of F- concentrations. The flexibility of the size, morphology, and microstructure control highlights a method to produce hierarchical HAP structures for potential applications in dental restoration or bone implant. We demonstrate that the mutual effects of F- on the crystallinity of HAP and on the supersaturation of the solutions control the morphology and assembly properties of the products. Moreover, the products excellently mimic real tooth enamel structures formed with different F- intakes. The work represents an appropriate simplified model system for an in-depth understanding of the microscopic mechanisms of the effects of F- on enamel growth, and the relationship of enamel microstructures and dental diseases.

  14. A prospective trial comparing tension-free vaginal tape and transobturator vaginal tape inside-out for the surgical treatment of female stress urinary incontinence: 1-year followup. (United States)

    Lee, Kyu-Sung; Han, Deok Hyun; Choi, Yang Su; Yum, Seung Hee; Song, Seung Hun; Doo, Chin Kyung; Choo, Myung-Soo


    We prospectively compared the efficacy and safety of tension-free vaginal tape and transobturator vaginal tape inside-out for female stress urinary incontinence. A total of 120 women with stress urinary incontinence were alternately assigned to the tension-free vaginal tape group (60) or the transobturator vaginal tape inside-out group (60). Preoperative evaluation included urodynamic study and a Korean version of the incontinence quality of life questionnaire. One year after operation the surgical result, patient satisfaction, incontinence quality of life questionnaire, long-term complications and uroflowmetry were evaluated in the 2 groups. Patient characteristics were comparable in the 2 groups. Mean +/- SD operative time was significantly shorter in the transobturator vaginal tape inside-out vs the tension-free vaginal tape group (11 +/- 1.4 vs 15 +/- 1.8 minutes). In the transobturator vaginal tape inside-out and the tension-free vaginal tape groups the rates of cure (86.8% and 86.8%), improvement (6.6% and 8.2%) and failure (6.6% and 5.0%, respectively) were similar. Incontinence quality of life questionnaire parameters 1 year after surgery were improved significantly in each group and there was no difference between the 2 groups (p 0.05, respectively). There was no long-term complication in either group. Preoperative urge incontinence resolved in 80% of the tension-free vaginal tape group and in 100% of the transobturator vaginal tape inside-out group. De novo urgency developed in 4 patients (6.6%) in the transobturator vaginal tape inside-out group. The tension-free vaginal tape and transobturator vaginal tape inside-out procedures were minimally invasive and similar in operation related morbidity. Transobturator vaginal tape inside-out appeared to be as effective and safe as tension-free vaginal tape for the surgical treatment of stress urinary incontinence in women at 1-year followup.

  15. Do Young Galaxies Grow Inside-Out? The Deepest Probe of this Open Question Using New WFC3 Images of the Ultra Deep Field from HST (United States)

    Mozena, Mark; Faber, S. M.; Koo, D. C.; Dutton, A. A.


    The recent release of the deepest (limiting magnitudes 29 AB mag) WFC3 images of the UDF provides an exciting new opportunity for studying galaxy structure at z 1-3. Previously, the highest spatial resolution data of distant galaxies were limited to the visible wavelength bands of ACS from HST. These optical wavebands shift to rest-frame UV bands (at z 1-3), which trace young stellar populations. In order to probe the mature stellar populations in galaxies, rest-frame optical to NIR bands are needed. WFC3's Y, J, and H filters allow us to observe rest-frame optical and NIR wavelengths at high redshifts with high spatial resolution and thus study a galaxy's structure, formation history, and formation mechanism in terms of its underlying stellar mass and not just its most luminous young stars. Using the galaxy fitting package GIM2D, we measure the sizes and Sersic profiles of 150 distant galaxies (z 1-3) in the UDF in ACS (bviz) and WFC3 (Y, J, H) bands. We present the deepest measurements of the radial gradient of young versus old stars of these distant galaxies and compare them to local galaxies to track inside-out galaxy growth and their evolution.

  16. Low BIK outside-inside-out interactive inflammation immune-induced transcription-dependent apoptosis through FUT3-PMM2-SQSTM1-SFN-ZNF384. (United States)

    Huang, Juxiang; Wang, Lin; Jiang, Minghu; Chen, Qingchun; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Wang, Yangming; Jiang, Zhenfu; Zhang, Zhongjie


    Eighteen different Pearson mutual-positive-correlation BIK-activatory molecular feedback upstream and downstream networks were constructed from 79 overlapping of 376 GRNInfer and 98 Pearson under BIK CC ≥ 0.25 in low normal adjacent tissues of Taiwan compared with high lung adenocarcinoma. Our identified BIK interactive total feedback molecular network showed FUT3 [fucosyltransferase 3 (galactoside 3(4)-L-fucosyltransferase Lewis blood group)], PMM2 (phosphomannomutase 2), SQSTM1 (sequestosome 1), SFN_2 [REX2 RNA exonuclease 2 homolog (S. cerevisiae)] and ZNF384 (zinc finger protein 384) in low normal adjacent tissues of lung adenocarcinoma. BIK interactive total feedback terms included mitochondrial envelope, endomembrane system, integral to membrane, Golgi apparatus, cytoplasm, nucleus, cytosol, intracellular signaling cascade, mitochondrion, extracellular space, inflammation, immune response, apoptosis, cell differentiation, cell cycle, regulation of cell cycle, cell proliferation, estrogen-responsive protein Efp controls cell cycle and breast tumors growth, induction or regulation of apoptosis based on integrative GO, KEGG, GenMAPP, BioCarta and disease databases in low normal adjacent tissues of lung adenocarcinoma. Therefore, we propose low BIK outside-inside-out interactive inflammation immune-induced transcription-dependent apoptosis through FUT3-PMM2-SQSTM1-SFN-ZNF384 in normal adjacent tissues of lung adenocarcinoma.

  17. A short report on knowledge exchange through research-based theatre: ‘Inside out of mind’ (United States)

    Schneider, Justine; Lowe, Stephen; Myers, Tanya; Scales, Kezia; Bailey, Simon; Middleton, Joanne


    The short report describes the development from page to stage of a work of theatre based on an ethnographic study. The originating research focused on the work of health care assistants (nurse's aides) whose direct impact on the quality of life of highly dependent people is often overlooked. The research followed hospital personnel on wards specialising in the 'challenging behaviour' associated with dementia in central England. Conventional research outputs failed to engage the health care assistants themselves, so we turned to theatre to remedy this. The development of the field notes into theatre was characterised by the artistic freedom given to the playwright, in contrast to more data-led approaches to theatre making. The account of the process of creating the play, Inside Out of Mind, is followed a description of how the work was received by specialist and general audiences totalling 2000+. The discussion seeks to locate the whole enterprise in relation to the field of research-based theatre and explores how the production and its associated learning events relate to definitions of research-based theatre in the light of recent attempts to encapsulate this broad and diverse methodology. PMID:25103152

  18. Bacterial Genotoxins Promote Inside-Out Integrin β1 Activation, Formation of Focal Adhesion Complexes and Cell Spreading (United States)

    Levi, Laura; Toyooka, Tatsushi; Patarroyo, Manuel; Frisan, Teresa


    Integrins are membrane bound receptors that regulate several cellular processes, such as cell adhesion, migration, survival and proliferation, and may contribute to tumor initiation/progression in cells exposed to genotoxic stress. The extent of integrin activation and its role in cell survival upon intoxication with bacterial genotoxins are still poorly characterized. These toxins induce DNA strand breaks in the target cells and activate the DNA damage response (DDR), coordinated by the Ataxia Telangectasia Mutated (ATM) kinase. In the present study, we demonstrate that induction of DNA damage by two bacterial genotoxins promotes activation of integrin β1, leading to enhanced assembly of focal adhesions and cell spreading on fibronectin, but not on vitronectin. This phenotype is mediated by an ATM-dependent inside-out integrin signaling, and requires the actin cytoskeleton remodeler NET1. The toxin-mediated cell spreading and anchorage-independent survival further relies on ALIX and TSG101, two components of the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT), known to regulate integrin intracellular trafficking. These data reveal a novel aspect of the cellular response to bacterial genotoxins, and provide new tools to understand the carcinogenic potential of these effectors in the context of chronic intoxication and infection. PMID:25874996

  19. Lamins and nesprin-1 mediate inside-out mechanical coupling in muscle cell precursors through FHOD1. (United States)

    Schwartz, Christine; Fischer, Martina; Mamchaoui, Kamel; Bigot, Anne; Lok, Thevy; Verdier, Claude; Duperray, Alain; Michel, Richard; Holt, Ian; Voit, Thomas; Quijano-Roy, Suzanna; Bonne, Gisèle; Coirault, Catherine


    LINC complexes are crucial for the response of muscle cell precursors to the rigidity of their environment, but the mechanisms explaining this behaviour are not known. Here we show that pathogenic mutations in LMNA or SYNE-1 responsible for severe muscle dystrophies reduced the ability of human muscle cell precursors to adapt to substrates of different stiffness. Plated on muscle-like stiffness matrix, mutant cells exhibited contractile stress fibre accumulation, increased focal adhesions, and higher traction force than controls. Inhibition of Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) prevented cytoskeletal defects, while inhibiting myosin light chain kinase or phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase was ineffective. Depletion or inactivation of a ROCK-dependent regulator of actin remodelling, the formin FHOD1, largely rescued morphology in mutant cells. The functional integrity of lamin and nesprin-1 is thus required to modulate the FHOD1 activity and the inside-out mechanical coupling that tunes the cell internal stiffness to match that of its soft, physiological-like environment.

  20. Development of a novel automated ion channel recording method using "inside-out" whole-cell membranes. (United States)

    Vasilyev, Dmitry V; Merrill, Thomas L; Bowlby, Mark R


    Efforts to develop novel methods for recording from ion channels have been receiving increased attention in recent years. In this study, the authors report a unique "inside-out" whole-cell configuration of patch-clamp recording that has been developed. This method entails adding cells into a standard patch pipette and, with positive pressure, obtaining a gigaseal recording from a cell at the inside tip of the electrode. In this configuration, the cell may be moved through the air, first rupturing part of the cellular membrane and enabling bath access to the intracellular side of the membrane, and then into a series of wells containing differing solutions, enabling robotic control of all the steps in an experiment. The robotic system developed here fully automates the electrophysiological experiments, including gigaseal formation, obtaining whole-cell configuration, data acquisition, and drug application. Proof-of-principle experiments consisting of application of intracellularly acting potassium channel blockers to K+ channel cell lines resulted in a very rapid block, as well as block reversal, of the current. This technique allows compound application directly to the intracellular side of ion channels and enables the dissociation of compound in activities due to cellular barrier limitations. This technique should allow for parallel implementation of recording pipettes and the future development of larger array-based screening methods.

  1. Transobturator vaginal tape inside out for treatment of urethral sphincter mechanism incompetence: preliminary results in 7 female dogs. (United States)

    Claeys, Stéphanie; de Leval, Jean; Hamaide, Annick


    To evaluate the clinical efficacy of the transobturator vaginal tape inside-out (TVT-O) in incontinent female dogs affected with urethral sphincter mechanism incompetence (USMI) and to determine its urodynamic and morphologic effects. Case series. Incontinent spayed female dogs (n=7). TVT-O tape was inserted in 7 incontinent female dogs diagnosed with USMI. Urethral pressure profilometry (UPP) and vaginourethrograms were performed preoperatively, and 1 and 3 months postoperatively. Clinical efficacy of the technique was evaluated and complications reported. Follow-up information was evaluated by a telephone questionnaire. All dogs were continent immediately after the procedure. Incontinence recurred 2 months after surgery in 1 dog and was treated by phenylpropanolamine administration. At mean follow-up time of 11.3 months, 6 of 7 dogs were continent. An iatrogenic urethral tear occurred intraoperatively in 1 dog. No postoperative complications were encountered. The postoperative UPPs showed significantly increased maximal urethral closure pressure and integrated pressure. Postoperative vaginourethrograms were unremarkable. The surgical procedure did not modify the location of the urinary bladder neck in dogs with a "pelvic urinary bladder" preoperatively. TVT-O was efficient in maintaining short term continence in 6 of 7 dogs affected with USMI. © Copyright 2010 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  2. A Contact Pressure Analysis Comparing an All-Inside and Inside-Out Surgical Repair Technique for Bucket-Handle Medial Meniscus Tears. (United States)

    Marchetti, Daniel Cole; Phelps, Brian M; Dahl, Kimi D; Slette, Erik L; Mikula, Jacob D; Dornan, Grant J; Bucci, Gabriella; Turnbull, Travis Lee; Singleton, Steven B


    To directly compare effectiveness of the inside-out and all-inside medial meniscal repair techniques in restoring native contact area and contact pressure across the medial tibial plateau at multiple knee flexion angles. Twelve male, nonpaired (n = 12), fresh-frozen human cadaveric knees underwent a series of 5 consecutive states: (1) intact medial meniscus, (2) MCL tear and repair, (3) simulated bucket-handle longitudinal tear of the medial meniscus, (4) inside-out meniscal repair, and (5) all-inside meniscal repair. Knees were loaded with a 1,000-N axial compressive force at 5 knee flexion angles (0°, 30°, 45°, 60°, 90°), and contact area, mean contact pressure, and peak contact pressure were calculated using thin film pressure sensors. No significant differences were observed between the inside-out and all-inside repair techniques at any flexion angle for contact area, mean contact pressure, and peak contact pressure (all P > .791). Compared with the torn meniscus state, inside-out and all-inside repair techniques resulted in increased contact area at all flexion angles (all P inside-out technique at angles ≥45° (all P inside technique in contact area at 60° and 90° and peak contact pressure at 90° (both P inside and inside-out repair techniques at any tested flexion angle. Both techniques adequately restored native meniscus biomechanics near an intact level. An all-inside repair technique provided similar, native-state-restoring contact mechanics compared with an inside-out repair technique for the treatment of displaced bucket-handle tears of the medial meniscus. Thus, both techniques may adequately decrease the likelihood of cartilage degeneration. Copyright © 2017 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Ligation of the beta4 integrin triggers adhesion behavior of human keratinocytes by an "inside-out" mechanism. (United States)

    Kippenberger, Stefan; Loitsch, Stefan; Müller, Jutta; Guschel, Maike; Kaufmann, Roland; Bernd, August


    Carcinogenesis is considered as a multistep process involving functional changes in the hemidesmosomal organization. In normal skin keratinocytes, expression of the alpha(6)beta(4) integrin is restricted to the proliferative basal layer and mediates stable adhesion to the underlying basement membrane. Observations in carcinoma cells show a functional and spatial dissociation of the alpha(6)beta(4) integrin from the hemidesmosomal complex, which stimulates cell migration and, therefore, may contribute to carcinoma invasion. We now have evaluated the adhesion behavior of epithelial cells at different stages of transformation in response to activation of the beta(4) integrin. It is demonstrated that ligation of the beta(4) integrin augmented adhesion of carcinoma and pre-carcinoma cells to non-modified plastic. In contrast, adhesion behavior of normal human keratinocytes was not influenced by ligation of the beta(4) integrin. In order to explain the mechanism of beta(4)-mediated adhesion, the hypothesis of an "inside-out" activation of integrins was tested. Evidence is given that for cells expressing the alpha(6)beta(4) integrin, ligation of the beta(4) integrin increased beta(1) integrin-mediated adhesion. Furthermore, ligation of the beta(4) integrin led to phosphorylation of PKB/Akt at both phosphorylation sites. Functional blocking of PKB/Akt by dominant-negative overexpression decreased cell adhesion in response to beta(4) integrin ligation. Taken together, the present data establish a link between the ligation of the beta(4) integrin and beta(1) integrin-mediated cell adhesion in carcinoma and pre-carcinoma cells. Hence, these findings provide further insight into the conversion processes during carcinogenesis and show the beta(4) integrin to be a key regulator of cellular adhesion.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, Jonathan C.; Kazantzidis, Stelios; Weinberg, David H. [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Guedes, Javiera [Institute for Astronomy, ETH Zuerich, Wolgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, CH-8093 Zuerich (Switzerland); Callegari, Simone [Anthropology Institute and Museum, University of Zuerich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-8057 Zuerich (Switzerland); Mayer, Lucio [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Zuerich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-8057 Zuerich (Switzerland); Madau, Piero [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)


    We analyze the present day structure and assembly history of a high-resolution hydrodynamic simulation of the formation of a Milky-Way-(MW)-like disk galaxy, from the ''Eris'' simulation suite, dissecting it into cohorts of stars formed at different epochs of cosmic history. At z = 0, stars with t{sub form} < 2 Gyr mainly occupy the stellar spheroid, with the oldest (earliest forming) stars having more centrally concentrated profiles. The younger age cohorts populate disks of progressively longer radial scale lengths and shorter vertical scale heights. At a given radius, the vertical density profiles and velocity dispersions of stars vary smoothly as a function of age, and the superposition of old, vertically extended and young, vertically compact cohorts gives rise to a double-exponential profile like that observed in the MW. Turning to formation history, we find that the trends of spatial structure and kinematics with stellar age are largely imprinted at birth, or immediately thereafter. Stars that form during the active merger phase at z > 3 are quickly scattered into rounded, kinematically hot configurations. The oldest disk cohorts form in structures that are radially compact and relatively thick, while subsequent cohorts form in progressively larger, thinner, colder configurations from gas with increasing levels of rotational support. The disk thus forms ''inside out'' in a radial sense and ''upside down'' in a vertical sense. Secular heating and radial migration influence the final state of each age cohort, but the changes they produce are small compared to the trends established at formation. The predicted correlations of stellar age with spatial and kinematic structure are in good qualitative agreement with the correlations observed for mono-abundance stellar populations in the MW.

  5. Differential lead component pulling as a possible mechanism of inside-out abrasion and conductor cable externalization. (United States)

    Lau, Ernest W


    Conductor cable externalization with protrusion (CCE*) is highly prevalent among the Riata 8F and ST 7F defibrillation (DF) leads and infrequently present in the QuickSite and the QuickFlex coronary sinus (CS) leads (St. Jude Medical, Sylmar, CA, USA). A model for CCE* based on differential lead component pulling and conjugate extension with reciprocal compression-bending was developed. Extension of a proximal lead body segment by pectoral or cardiac movements causes reciprocal compression-bending of a distal lead body segment mediated by inextensible conductor cables running down a lead body fixed at various points by fibrous adhesions. The "sawing" action of these cables under tension causes inside-out abrasion of insulation leading to CCE*. DF leads from different manufacturers and the QuickFlex and QuickFlex μ CS leads were subjected to simulated differential pulling. Restitution from differential pulling followed three patterns: complete, partial without escalation, and incomplete with escalation. Only the last pattern (only shown by the Riata 8F and ST 7F leads) was associated with an increased risk to CCE*. For CS leads, deformation concentrated on the more flexible segment when the lead body did not have a uniform construction. The Durata, Riata ST Optim, QuickFlex μ, and Quartet leads should be relatively immune to CCE*. The Durata leads are extremely resistant to longitudinal deformation and probably cause mediastinal displacement rather than differential pulling in response to pectoral movements in vivo. Implantation techniques and lead designs can be used to minimize the risk of CCE*. A bench test for CCE* can be constructed. ©2013, The Author. Journal compilation ©2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Inside-out Regulation of Ectodomain Cleavage of Cluster-of-Differentiation-44 (CD44) and of Neuregulin-1 Requires Substrate Dimerization. (United States)

    Hartmann, Monika; Parra, Liseth M; Ruschel, Anne; Lindner, Christina; Morrison, Helen; Herrlich, Andreas; Herrlich, Peter


    Ectodomain shedding of transmembrane precursor proteins generates numerous life-essential molecules, such as epidermal growth factor receptor ligands. This cleavage not only releases the regulatory growth factor, but it is also the required first step for the subsequent processing by γ-secretase and the release of gene regulatory intracellular fragments. Signaling within the cell modifies the cytoplasmic tails of substrates, a step important in starting the specific and regulated cleavage of a large number of studied substrates. Ectodomain cleavage occurs, however, on the outside of the plasma membrane and is carried out by membrane-bound metalloproteases. How the intracellular domain modification communicates with the ectodomain of the substrate to allow for cleavage to occur is unknown. Here, we show that homodimerization of a cluster-of-differentiation-44 or of pro-neuregulin-1 monomers represents an essential pre-condition for their regulated ectodomain cleavage. Both substrates are associated with their respective metalloproteases under both basal or cleavage-stimulated conditions. These interactions only turn productive by specific intracellular signal-induced intracellular domain modifications of the substrates, which in turn regulate metalloprotease access to the substrates' ectodomain and cleavage. We propose that substrate intracellular domain modification induces a relative rotation or other positional change of the dimerization partners that allow metalloprotease cleavage in the extracellular space. Our findings fill an important gap in understanding substrate-specific inside-out signal transfer along cleaved transmembrane proteins and suggest that substrate dimerization (homo- or possibly heterodimerization) might represent a general principle in ectodomain shedding. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. Stepwise Splitting Growth and Pseudocapacitive Properties of Hierarchical Three-Dimensional Co3O4 Nanobooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huilong Chen


    Full Text Available Three-dimensional hierarchical Co3O4 nanobooks have been synthesized successfully on a large scale by calcining orthorhombic Co(CO30.5(OH·0.11H2O precursors with identical morphologies. Based on the influence of reaction time and urea concentration on the nanostructures of the precursors, a stepwise splitting growth mechanism can be proposed to understand the formation of the 3D nanobooks. The 3D Co3O4 nanobooks exhibit excellent pseudocapacitive performances with specific capacitances of 590, 539, 476, 453, and 421 F/g at current densities of 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 8 A/g, respectively. The devices can retain ca. 97.4% of the original specific capacitances after undergoing charge–discharge cycle tests 1000 times continuously at 4 A/g.

  8. Using hierarchical linear growth models to evaluate protective mechanisms that mediate science achievement (United States)

    von Secker, Clare Elaine

    The study of students at risk is a major topic of science education policy and discussion. Much research has focused on describing conditions and problems associated with the statistical risk of low science achievement among individuals who are members of groups characterized by problems such as poverty and social disadvantage. But outcomes attributed to these factors do not explain the nature and extent of mechanisms that account for differences in performance among individuals at risk. There is ample theoretical and empirical evidence that demographic differences should be conceptualized as social contexts, or collections of variables, that alter the psychological significance and social demands of life events, and affect subsequent relationships between risk and resilience. The hierarchical linear growth models used in this dissertation provide greater specification of the role of social context and the protective effects of attitude, expectations, parenting practices, peer influences, and learning opportunities on science achievement. While the individual influences of these protective factors on science achievement were small, their cumulative effect was substantial. Meta-analysis conducted on the effects associated with psychological and environmental processes that mediate risk mechanisms in sixteen social contexts revealed twenty-two significant differences between groups of students. Positive attitudes, high expectations, and more intense science course-taking had positive effects on achievement of all students, although these factors were not equally protective in all social contexts. In general, effects associated with authoritative parenting and peer influences were negative, regardless of social context. An evaluation comparing the performance and stability of hierarchical linear growth models with traditional repeated measures models is included as well.

  9. Tibiofemoral contact pressures in radial tears of the meniscus treated with all-inside repair, inside-out repair and partial meniscectomy. (United States)

    Zhang, Alan L; Miller, Stephanie L; Coughlin, Dezba G; Lotz, Jeffrey C; Feeley, Brian T


    To test contact pressures in the knee after treatment of a radial meniscus tear with an all-inside meniscal repair technique and compare the results with inside-out repair and partial meniscectomy. Six non-paired cadaveric knees were analyzed with intra-compartment pressures measured at loads of 250 N, 500 N and 1000 N at 0°, eight degrees, 15°, and 30° of knee flexion. Compartmental contact pressures were measured for the intact medial meniscus, radial tear in the posterior horn, all-inside repair using the NovoStitch suture passer device (Ceterix Orthopaedics Inc., Menlo Park, CA), inside-out repair method, and partial meniscectomy. One-way ANOVA was used for statistical analysis. The greatest differences in peak pressures between treatments were observed under 1000 N load at 30° flexion (0.8± (SD) 0.1 MPa (intact meniscus), 0.8± (SD) 0.1 MPa (all-inside), 0.9± (SD) 0.1 MPa (inside-out) and 1.6± (SD) 0.2 MPa (partial meniscectomy)). Treatment with partial meniscectomy resulted in the highest peak pressures compared to all other states (pinside technique as well as the inside-out technique resulted in significantly decreased compartment pressures compared to partial meniscectomies (pinside or inside-out techniques. An all-inside repair technique using the NovoStitch suture passer can decrease contact pressures for a radial meniscus tear similarly to the inside-out repair technique when compared to partial meniscectomy. This novel arthroscopic suture passer warrants further analysis in the clinical setting as it may be a reliable method for repair of radial meniscal tears through an arthroscopic all-inside technique. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. High EGFR_1 Inside-Out Activated Inflammation-Induced Motility through SLC2A1-CCNB2-HMMR-KIF11-NUSAP1-PRC1-UBE2C. (United States)

    Zhou, Huilei; Wang, Lin; Huang, Juxiang; Jiang, Minghu; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Liyuan; Wang, Yangming; Jiang, Zhenfu; Zhang, Zhongjie


    48 different Pearson mutual-positive-correlation epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR_1)-activatory molecular feedback, up- and down-stream network was constructed from 171 overlapping of 366 GRNInfer and 223 Pearson under EGFR_1 CC ≥0.25 in high lung adenocarcinoma compared with low human normal adjacent tissues. Our identified EGFR_1 inside-out upstream activated molecular network showed SLC2A1 (solute carrier family 2 (facilitated glucose transporter) member 1), CCNB2 (cyclin B2), HMMR (hyaluronan-mediated motility receptor (RHAMM)), KIF11 (kinesin family member 11), NUSAP1 (nucleolar and spindle associated protein 1), PRC1 (protein regulator of cytokinesis 1), UBE2C (ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2C) in high lung adenocarcinoma. EGFR_1 inside-out upstream activated terms network includes intracellular, membrane fraction, cytoplasm, plasma membrane, integral to membrane, basolateral plasma membrane, transmembrane transport, nucleus, cytosol, cell surface; T cell homeostasis, inflammation; microtubule cytoskeleton, embryonic development (sensu Mammalia), cell cycle, mitosis, thymus development, cell division, regulation of cell cycle, Contributed--cellular process--Hs cell cycle KEGG, cytokinesis, M phase, M phase of mitotic cell cycle, estrogen-responsive protein Efp controls cell cycle and breast tumors growth, cell motility, locomotion, locomotory behavior, neoplasm metastasis, spindle pole, spindle microtubule, microtubule motor activity, microtubule-based movement, mitotic spindle organization and biogenesis, mitotic centrosome separation, spindle pole body organization and biogenesis, microtubule-based process, microtubule, cytokinesis after mitosis, mitotic chromosome condensation, establishment of mitotic spindle localization, positive regulation of mitosis, mitotic spindle elongation, spindle organization and biogenesis, positive regulation of exit from mitosis, regulation of cell proliferation, positive regulation of cell proliferation based on

  11. Retropubic tension-free vaginal tape and inside-out transobturator tape: a long-term randomized trial. (United States)

    Zhang, Zhibo; Zhu, Lan; Xu, Tao; Lang, Jinghe


    The tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) and inside-out transobturator tape (TVT-O) are first-line surgical treatments for stress urinary incontinence (SUI). However, there is a lack of information regarding the long-term comparative safety of these procedures. A total of 140 SUI patients were randomized to the TVT or TVT-O procedure and were interviewed by an independent investigator at the follow-up. The primary outcomes were the proportions of patients with long-term postoperative complications. The secondary outcomes included the cure rates, quality of life (QOL) and sexual function based on validated questionnaires. One hundred and twenty (85.71%) patients completed the long-term follow-up. More TVT patients experienced perioperative complications (P < 0.05). However, in a mean follow-up of 95 months, no significant between-group difference was found in the proportions of patients with long-term complications or in the variety of reported complications. The long-term complication rates for TVT and TVT-O were 43.1% and 27.4% respectively (P = 0.07). De novo voiding (15.8%) and storage symptoms (10.8%) were the primary long-term complications. Tape exposure was possible up to 7 years after TVT-O. The objective cure rates of TVT and TVT-O procedures were 79.30 and 69.35% respectively, which were not significantly higher than the subjective rates. The Pelvic Floor Impact Questionnaire (PFIQ-7) scores remained improved (P < 0.001) after both procedures, even at the 95-month follow-up. No difference was observed in the Pelvic Organ Prolapse/Urinary Incontinence Sexual Function Questionnaire Short Form (PISQ-12) scores after either procedure. In the long term, the proportion of patients with complications and the cure rates of the two procedures did not differ significantly. The long-term complication rates were high, but morbidity was low, and the QOL remained improved.

  12. Hierarchical classification strategy for Phenotype extraction from epidermal growth factor receptor endocytosis screening. (United States)

    Cao, Lu; Graauw, Marjo de; Yan, Kuan; Winkel, Leah; Verbeek, Fons J


    Endocytosis is regarded as a mechanism of attenuating the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling and of receptor degradation. There is increasing evidence becoming available showing that breast cancer progression is associated with a defect in EGFR endocytosis. In order to find related Ribonucleic acid (RNA) regulators in this process, high-throughput imaging with fluorescent markers is used to visualize the complex EGFR endocytosis process. Subsequently a dedicated automatic image and data analysis system is developed and applied to extract the phenotype measurement and distinguish different developmental episodes from a huge amount of images acquired through high-throughput imaging. For the image analysis, a phenotype measurement quantifies the important image information into distinct features or measurements. Therefore, the manner in which prominent measurements are chosen to represent the dynamics of the EGFR process becomes a crucial step for the identification of the phenotype. In the subsequent data analysis, classification is used to categorize each observation by making use of all prominent measurements obtained from image analysis. Therefore, a better construction for a classification strategy will support to raise the performance level in our image and data analysis system. In this paper, we illustrate an integrated analysis method for EGFR signalling through image analysis of microscopy images. Sophisticated wavelet-based texture measurements are used to obtain a good description of the characteristic stages in the EGFR signalling. A hierarchical classification strategy is designed to improve the recognition of phenotypic episodes of EGFR during endocytosis. Different strategies for normalization, feature selection and classification are evaluated. The results of performance assessment clearly demonstrate that our hierarchical classification scheme combined with a selected set of features provides a notable improvement in the temporal

  13. Nitrogen deprivation promotes Populus root growth through global transcriptome reprogramming and activation of hierarchical genetic networks. (United States)

    Wei, Hairong; Yordanov, Yordan S; Georgieva, Tatyana; Li, Xiang; Busov, Victor


    We show a distinct and previously poorly characterized response of poplar (Populus tremula × Populus alba) roots to low nitrogen (LN), which involves activation of root growth and significant transcriptome reprogramming. Analysis of the temporal patterns of enriched ontologies among the differentially expressed genes revealed an ordered assembly of functionally cohesive biological events that aligned well with growth and morphological responses. A core set of 28 biological processes was significantly enriched across the whole studied period and 21 of these were also enriched in the roots of Arabidopsis thaliana during the LN response. More than half (15) of the 28 processes belong to gene ontology (GO) terms associated with signaling and signal transduction pathways, suggesting the presence of conserved signaling mechanisms triggered by LN. A reconstruction of genetic regulatory network analysis revealed a sub-network centered on a PtaNAC1 (P. tremula × alba NAM, ATAF, CUC 1) transcription factor. PtaNAC1 root-specific up-regulation increased root biomass and significantly changed the expression of the connected hub genes specifically under LN. Our results provide evidence that the root response to LN involves hierarchically structured genetic networks centered on key regulatory factors. Targeting these factors via genetic engineering or breeding approaches can allow dynamic adjustment of root architecture in response to variable nitrogen availabilities in the soil. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  14. Editorial Commentary: All-Inside or Inside-Out Meniscal Repair for the Posterior Thirds in Meniscus Allograft Transplantation? Which to Choose and What Difference It Makes. (United States)

    Ohuchi, Hiroshi


    Performing an all-inside repair or inside-out fixation for the posterior third in meniscus allograft transplantation is discussed. Less invasiveness is always important when the results are the same, and surgeons' personal experience may be a determining factor for this procedure. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Nucleation and Crystal Growth in the Formation of Hierarchical Three-Dimensional Nanoarchitecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xudong [University of Wisconsin-Madison


    project brings a new level of transformative knowledge on nucleation and crystal growth in the SPCVD NR growth processes. Specifically, quantification of the activation energy landscape guided by the OL law will allow us to establish a critical knowledge base of nucleation kinetics for SPCVD synthesis of NR branches on different material surfaces. Studying the OA kinetics will establish a transformative knowledge base to support this new crystal growth mechanism that can be applied to many functional material systems. This research will pave the road toward a capable and versatile synthesis technology for creating 3D hierarchical mesoscale structures.

  16. Hierarchical TiO2 nanospheres with dominant {001} facets: facile synthesis, growth mechanism, and photocatalytic activity. (United States)

    Li, Hongmei; Zeng, Yangsu; Huang, Tongcheng; Piao, Lingyu; Yan, Zijie; Liu, Min


    Hierarchical TiO(2) nanospheres with controlled surface morphologies and dominant {001} facets were directly synthesized from Ti powder by a facile, one-pot, hydrothermal method. The obtained hierarchical TiO(2) nanospheres have a uniform size of 400-500 nm and remarkable 78 % fraction of {001} facets. The influence of the reaction temperature, amount of HF, and reaction time on the morphology and the exposed facets was systematically studied. A possible growth mechanism speculates that Ti powder first dissolves in HF solution, and then flowerlike TiO(2) nanostructures are formed by assembly of TiO(2) nanocrystals. Because of the high concentration of HF in the early stage, these TiO(2) nanostructures were etched, and hollow structures formed on the surface. After the F(-) ions were effectively absorbed on the crystal surfaces, {001} facets appear and grow steadily. At the same time, the {101} facets also grow and meet the {101} facets from adjacent truncated tetragonal pyramids, causing coalescence of these facets and formation of nanospheres with dominant {001} facets. With further extension of the reaction time, single-crystal {001} facets of hierarchical TiO(2) nanospheres are dissolved and TiO(2) nanospheres with dominant {101} facets are obtained. The photocatalytic activities of the hierarchical TiO(2) nanospheres were evaluated and found to be closely related to the exposed {001} facets. Owing to the special hierarchical architecture and high percentage of exposed {001} facets, the TiO(2) nanospheres exhibit much enhanced photocatalytic efficiency (almost fourfold) compared to P25 TiO(2) as a benchmark material. This study provides new insight into crystal-facet engineering of anatase TiO(2) nanostructures with high percentage of {001} facets as well as opportunities for controllable synthesis of 3D hierarchical nanostructures. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Comparison of outside-in and inside-out technique for tibial fixation of a soft-tissue graft in ACL reconstruction using the Shim technique. (United States)

    Lenschow, S; Schliemann, B; Schulze, M; Raschke, M; Kösters, C


    The aim of this study was to compare the biomechanical properties of tibial fixation of a free tendon graft in ACL reconstruction using the Shim, a new wedge-shaped implant, in an outside-in technique to fixation by the Shim used in an inside-out technique and fixation by interference screw in a porcine model. Porcine tibia and flexor tendons were used. In Group 1, the Shim was applied outside-in. In Group 2, the Shim was inserted inside-out. In the Group 3, an 8-mm interference screw was used. Ten specimens were tested in each group. Load-to-failure, elongation, stiffness and failure mode were recorded. Cyclic loading was performed between 5 and 250 N for 1,000 cycles, followed by a load to failure testing. Mean maximum load-to-failure was 629.53 N in Group 1,648.54 N in Group 2 and 749.53 N in Group 3. There was no significant difference between the groups. Stiffness varied between 127.34 N/mm in Group 1, 151.27 N/mm in Group 2 and 182.25 N/mm in Group 3. No significant differences were found between outside-in Shim and interference screw fixation. No significant difference was found for elongation among the three groups. The main failure mode was a rupture of the tendon in the IFS group and a slippage of either the implant or the tendon in both groups using the Shim. As no statistically significant difference could be seen concerning load to failure, stiffness and elongation between the inside-out and the outside-in techniques, the Shim can be used for tibial fixation in an outside-in or inside-out technique depending on the preference of the surgeon. To prevent slippage of the graft a hybrid fixation should be considered.

  18. All-inside meniscal repair devices compared with their matched inside-out vertical mattress suture repair: introducing 10,000 and 100,000 loading cycles. (United States)

    Rosso, Claudio; Müller, Sebastian; Buckland, Daniel M; Schwenk, Tanja; Zimmermann, Simon; de Wild, Michael; Valderrabano, Victor


    All-inside arthroscopic meniscal repairs are favored by most clinicians because of their lower complication rate and decreased morbidity compared with inside-out techniques. Until now, only 1000 cycles have been used for biomechanical testing. All-inside meniscal repairs will show inferior biomechanical response to cyclic loading (up to 100,000 cycles) and load-to-failure testing compared with inside-out suture controls. Controlled laboratory study. Bucket-handle tears in 72 porcine menisci were repaired using the Omnispan and Fast-Fix 360 (all-inside devices) and Orthocord 2-0 and Ultrabraid 2-0 sutures (matched controls). Initial displacement, displacement after cyclic loading (100, 500, 1000, 2000, 5000, 10,000, and 100,000 cycles) between 5 and 20 N, ultimate load to failure, and mode of failure were recorded, as well as stiffness. Initial displacement and displacement after cyclic loading were not different between the groups. The Omnispan repair demonstrated the highest load-to-failure force (mean ± SD, 151.3 ± 21.5 N) and was significantly stronger than all the other constructs (Orthocord 2-0, 105.5 ± 20.4 N; Ultrabraid 2-0, 93.4 ± 22.5 N; Fast-Fix 360, 76.6 ± 14.2 N) (P inside-out mattress repair was significantly stronger than the Fast-Fix 360 repair (P = .003). The Omnispan (30.8 ± 3.5 N/mm) showed significantly higher stiffness compared with the Ultrabraid 2-0 (22.9 ± 6.9 N/mm, P inside meniscal devices show comparable biomechanical properties compared with inside-out suture repair in cyclic loading, even after 100,000 cycles. Eight to 10 weeks of rehabilitation might not pose a problem for all repairs in this worst-case scenario. © 2014 The Author(s).

  19. Inside-out and standard vein grafts associated with platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in sciatic nerve repair. A histomorphometric study. (United States)

    Roque, José Sidney; Pomini, Karina Torres; Buchaim, Rogério Leone; Buchaim, Daniela Vieira; Andreo, Jesus Carlos; Roque, Domingos Donizeti; Rodrigues, Antonio de Castro; Rosa, Geraldo Marco; Moraes, Luis Henrique Rapucci; Viterbo, Fausto


    To evaluated the tubulization technique with standard and inside-out vein, filled or not with platelet-rich plasma (PRP), in sciatic nerve repair. Seventy male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups: IOVNF (Inside-Out Vein with No Filling); IOVPRP (Inside-Out Vein filled with PRP); SVNF (Standard Vein with No Filling); SVPRP (Standard Vein filled with PRP); Sham (Control). The left external jugular vein was used as graft in a 10 mm nervous gap. In the morphological analysis of all groups, myelinated nerve fibers with evident myelin sheath, neoformation of the epineurium and perineurium, organization of intraneural fascicles and blood vessels were observed. In the morphometry of the distal stump fibers, SVPRP group had the highest means regarding fiber diameter (3.63±0.42 μm), axon diameter (2.37±0.31 μm) and myelin sheath area (11.70±0.84 μm2). IOVPRP group had the highest means regarding axon area (4.39±1.16 μm2) and myelin sheath thickness (0.80±0.19 μm). As for values of the fiber area, IOVNF group shows highest means (15.54±0.67 μm2), but are still lower than the values of the Sham group. The graft filled with platelet-rich plasma, with use standard (SVPRP) or inside-out vein (IOVPRP), promoted the improvement in axonal regeneration on sciatic nerve injury.

  20. The dual structural roles of the membrane distal region of the α-integrin cytoplasmic tail during integrin inside-out activation. (United States)

    Liu, Jiafu; Wang, Zhengli; Thinn, Aye Myat Myat; Ma, Yan-Qing; Zhu, Jieqing


    Studies on the mechanism of integrin inside-out activation have been focused on the role of β-integrin cytoplasmic tails, which are relatively conserved and bear binding sites for the intracellular activators including talin and kindlin. Cytoplasmic tails for α-integrins share a conserved GFFKR motif at the membrane-proximal region and this forms a specific interface with the β-integrin membrane-proximal region to keep the integrin inactive. The α-integrin membrane-distal regions, after the GFFKR motif, are diverse both in length and sequence and their roles in integrin activation have not been well-defined. In this study, we report that the α-integrin cytoplasmic membrane-distal region contributes to maintaining integrin in the resting state and to integrin inside-out activation. Complete deletion of the α-integrin membrane-distal region diminished talin- and kindlin-mediated integrin ligand binding and conformational change. A proper length and suitable amino acids in α-integrin membrane-distal region was found to be important for integrin inside-out activation. Our data establish an essential role for the α-integrin cytoplasmic membrane-distal region in integrin activation and provide new insights into how talin and kindlin induce the high-affinity integrin conformation that is required for fully functional integrins. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  1. Comparative study between standard and inside-out vein graft techniques on sciatic nerve repair of rats. Muscular and functional analysis. (United States)

    Bueno, Cleuber Rodrigo de Souza; Pereira, Mizael; Aparecido, Idvaldo; Buchaim, Rogerio Leone; Andreo, Jesus Carlos; Rodrigues, Antônio de Castro; Marco, Geraldo


    To compare the functional result of standart vein grafts and inside-out vein graft technique on sciatic nerve repair. We used 24 male Wistar rats divided into 4 groups: control group (CG), standard vein graft group (SVG), Inside-out vein graft group (IOVG) and denervated Group (DG). SVG, IOVG and DG underwent total section of the sciatic nerve, SVG and IOVG however underwent nerve repair surgery using a graft with normal jugular vein and inside-out jugular vein, respectively. Histological analysis of the soleus and Extensor Digitorum Longus (EDL), and Sciatic Functional Index were used to compare the results after 6 weeks. Both grafts acted favorably in muscle recovery and improved functionality; They were similar in all parameters, however, in more points SVG achieved similar to the CG, in the other hand IOVG more times was similar to DG. Fact that makes the graft with normal vein the most viable option between the two options. Both types of grafts acted beneficially wherein the graft normal vein has proved to be the best option.

  2. A Comparative Prospective Study of Two Different Treatment Sequences i.e. Bottom Up-Inside Out and Topdown-Outside in, in the Treatment of Panfacial Fractures. (United States)

    Degala, Saikrishna; Sundar, S Shyam; Mamata, K S


    To compare the sequence bottom-up inside-out with top-down outside-in, in the treatment of pan facial fractures and to evaluate the outcome of these approaches. The data from 11 patients with panfacial fracture are prospectively analysed. Five cases are treated with bottom-up approach and six patients with top-down approach. There were 11 male patients (six in top-down approach and five in bottom-up approach), ranging in age from 24 to 50 years. All injuries were result of RTA (n = 11, 100 %). Final treatment outcome was excellent in 3 (50 %), 1 (16 %) good and 2 (32 %) cases were fair in topdown approach, 3 (60 %) excellent and 2 (40 %) fair in bottom up approach with contingency coefficient value (P inside-out and top-down outside-in approaches have similar clinical outcomes. Hence it could be suggestive to start fixation of least disrupted (more stable) facial half as a guide for reconstruction of the remaining. Choice of the bottom-up inside-out or top-down outside-in sequence should be according to the pattern of fractures and preference of the surgeon. However, further controlled clinical trials, comparative studies with a larger sample size would be better to evaluate the final clinical outcome of individual techniques.

  3. Hydrothermal Fabrication of WO3 Hierarchical Architectures: Structure, Growth and Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan-Sheng Wu


    Full Text Available Recently hierarchical architectures, consisting of two-dimensional (2D nanostructures, are of great interest for potential applications in energy and environmental. Here, novel rose-like WO3 hierarchical architectures were successfully synthesized via a facile hydrothermal method. The as-prepared WO3 hierarchical architectures were in fact assembled by numerous nanosheets with an average thickness of ~30 nm. We found that the oxalic acid played a significant role in governing morphologies of WO3 during hydrothermal process. Based on comparative studies, a possible formation mechanism was also proposed in detail. Furthermore, gas-sensing measurement showed that the well-defined 3D WO3 hierarchical architectures exhibited the excellent gas sensing properties towards CO.

  4. Cyclic test comparison of all-inside device and inside-out sutures for radial meniscus lesion repair: an in vitro porcine model study. (United States)

    Lee, Yee Han Dave; Nyland, John; Burden, Robert; Caborn, David N M


    To compare biomechanical fixation and gapping characteristics of a new all-inside meniscus repair method for radial meniscus lesion repair versus conventional inside-out suture repair under submaximal cyclic loading and load-to-failure test conditions. Fresh-frozen porcine tibiae with attached lateral menisci and joint capsules were harvested and stored for 48 hours at -20°C. After thawing for 12 hours, equivalent-size healthy specimens were randomly assigned to 2 groups of 8 specimens each. Standardized radial lesions were repaired with the Sequent device (ConMed Linvatec, Largo, FL) (group 1) or conventional inside-out suturing with No. 2-0 braided polyester suture (group 2). Repaired specimens were placed in custom clamps and mounted on a servohydraulic device. After a 2-N preload, specimens were cycled from 5 to 20 N (0.1 Hz), before undergoing 1,000 submaximal loading cycles between 5 and 20 N (0.5 Hz). A 40-second delay at 100, 500, and 1,000 cycles enabled digital photographs to be taken for gapping measurement determination. Specimens then underwent load-to-failure testing (12.5 mm/s). Fixation failure mode was documented. Group displacement did not differ after 1, 100, 500, and 1,000 submaximal loading cycles. Group peak gapping did not differ at 100, 500, and 1,000 submaximal loading cycles. Load at failure and displacement and stiffness during load-to-failure testing did not differ between groups. During load-to-failure testing, all-inside specimens failed by implant dislodgement from the meniscus periphery whereas the inside-out repaired specimens failed by suture rupture. Under controlled in vitro biomechanical test conditions, the all-inside device provided radial meniscus lesion fixation that was comparable, but not superior, to conventional inside-out suturing. The all-inside radial lateral meniscus lesion repair method may provide comparable fixation to conventional inside-out suturing without the need for additional incisions and their associated

  5. Hierarchical photocatalysts. (United States)

    Li, Xin; Yu, Jiaguo; Jaroniec, Mietek


    As a green and sustainable technology, semiconductor-based heterogeneous photocatalysis has received much attention in the last few decades because it has potential to solve both energy and environmental problems. To achieve efficient photocatalysts, various hierarchical semiconductors have been designed and fabricated at the micro/nanometer scale in recent years. This review presents a critical appraisal of fabrication methods, growth mechanisms and applications of advanced hierarchical photocatalysts. Especially, the different synthesis strategies such as two-step templating, in situ template-sacrificial dissolution, self-templating method, in situ template-free assembly, chemically induced self-transformation and post-synthesis treatment are highlighted. Finally, some important applications including photocatalytic degradation of pollutants, photocatalytic H2 production and photocatalytic CO2 reduction are reviewed. A thorough assessment of the progress made in photocatalysis may open new opportunities in designing highly effective hierarchical photocatalysts for advanced applications ranging from thermal catalysis, separation and purification processes to solar cells.

  6. The inside-out transobturator male sling for the surgical treatment of stress urinary incontinence after radical prostatectomy: midterm results of a single-center prospective study. (United States)

    Leruth, Julie; Waltregny, David; de Leval, Jean


    Transobturator slings are currently promoted for the treatment of stress urinary incontinence (SUI) after radical prostatectomy (RP), but data on outcome remain limited. To assess, at midterm, the efficacy and safety of the inside-out transobturator male sling for treating post-RP SUI and to determine factors associated with failure. Prospective one-center trial involving 173 consecutive patients without detrusor overactivity, treated between 2006 and 2011 for SUI following RP. Placement of an inside-out transobturator sling. Baseline and follow-up evaluations included uroflowmetry and continence and quality-of-life (QoL) questionnaires. Cure was defined as no pad use and improvement as a number of pads per day reduced by ≥50% and two or fewer pads. Complications were recorded, and factors associated with treatment failure were evaluated. Preoperatively, 21%, 35%, and 44% of the patients were using two, three to five, and more than five pads per day, respectively. After a median follow-up of 24 mo (range: 12-60 mo), 49% were cured, 35% improved, and 16% not improved. QoL was enhanced (p6 mo (3%), and sling infection (2%); all were managed conservatively. Severe SUI before sling surgery was not associated with a worse outcome, whereas obesity and a history of pelvic irradiation or bladder neck stenosis were independent risk factors of failure, with risk ratios of 7.9 (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.3-18.9), 3.3 (95% CI, 1.4-7.8), and 2.6 (95% CI, 1.1-6.5), respectively. The inside-out transobturator male sling is an efficient and safe treatment for post-RP SUI at midterm. Patients with prior pelvic irradiation may not be suitable candidates. Copyright © 2011 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Negative-stain electron microscopy of inside-out FtsZ rings reconstituted on artificial membrane tubules show ribbons of protofilaments. (United States)

    Milam, Sara L; Osawa, Masaki; Erickson, Harold P


    FtsZ, the primary cytoskeletal element of the Z ring, which constricts to divide bacteria, assembles into short, one-stranded filaments in vitro. These must be further assembled to make the Z ring in bacteria. Conventional electron microscopy (EM) has failed to image the Z ring or resolve its substructure. Here we describe a procedure that enabled us to image reconstructed, inside-out FtsZ rings by negative-stain EM, revealing the arrangement of filaments. We took advantage of a unique lipid that spontaneously forms 500 nm diameter tubules in solution. We optimized conditions for Z-ring assembly with fluorescence light microscopy and then prepared specimens for negative-stain EM. Reconstituted FtsZ rings, encircling the tubules, were clearly resolved. The rings appeared as ribbons of filaments packed side by side with virtually no space between neighboring filaments. The rings were separated by variable expanses of empty tubule as seen by light microscopy or EM. The width varied considerably from one ring to another, but each ring maintained a constant width around its circumference. The inside-out FtsZ rings moved back and forth along the tubules and exchanged subunits with solution, similarly to Z rings reconstituted outside or inside tubular liposomes. FtsZ from Escherichia coli and Mycobacterium tuberculosis assembled rings of similar structure, suggesting a universal structure across bacterial species. Previous models for the Z ring in bacteria have favored a structure of widely scattered filaments that are not in contact. The ribbon structure that we discovered here for reconstituted inside-out FtsZ rings provides what to our knowledge is new evidence that the Z ring in bacteria may involve lateral association of protofilaments. Copyright © 2012 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Hierarchically structured transparent hybrid membranes by in situ growth of mesostructured organosilica in host polymer (United States)

    Vallé, Karine; Belleville, Philippe; Pereira, Franck; Sanchez, Clément


    The elaborate performances characterizing natural materials result from functional hierarchical constructions at scales ranging from nanometres to millimetres, each construction allowing the material to fit the physical or chemical demands occurring at these different levels. Hierarchically structured materials start to demonstrate a high input in numerous promising applied domains such as sensors, catalysis, optics, fuel cells, smart biologic and cosmetic vectors. In particular, hierarchical hybrid materials permit the accommodation of a maximum of elementary functions in a small volume, thereby optimizing complementary possibilities and properties between inorganic and organic components. The reported strategies combine sol-gel chemistry, self-assembly routes using templates that tune the material's architecture and texture with the use of larger inorganic, organic or biological templates such as latex, organogelator-derived fibres, nanolithographic techniques or controlled phase separation. We propose an approach to forming transparent hierarchical hybrid functionalized membranes using in situ generation of mesostructured hybrid phases inside a non-porogenic hydrophobic polymeric host matrix. We demonstrate that the control of the multiple affinities existing between organic and inorganic components allows us to design the length-scale partitioning of hybrid nanomaterials with tuned functionalities and desirable size organization from ångström to centimetre. After functionalization of the mesoporous hybrid silica component, the resulting membranes have good ionic conductivity offering interesting perspectives for the design of solid electrolytes, fuel cells and other ion-transport microdevices.

  9. Systematic review and meta-analysis of "inside-out" versus "outside-in" transobturator tapes in management of stress urinary incontinence in women. (United States)

    Madhuvrata, Priya; Riad, Mohamed; Ammembal, Manjunath K; Agur, Wael; Abdel-Fattah, Mohamed


    To directly compare the current evidence for the efficacy, complications, quality of life and cost to health services of both transobturator tension free vaginal tape procedures - "inside-out" versus "outside-in" - in the surgical treatment of female stress urinary incontinence. A prospective peer-reviewed protocol was prepared a priori, and a systematic search of relevant databases from 1966 to January 2011 was performed. Meta-analyses of five randomised trials and three cohort studies were performed separately in accordance with PRISMA and MOOSE, respectively. There was no significant difference in patient-reported cure/improvement (OR 1.25, 95%CI 0.78, 1.99; p=0.35) nor in objective cure/improvement (OR 1.66, 95%CI 0.8, 3.43, p=0.17) between the two groups at 12-month follow-up. Vaginal angle injuries were significantly higher with the outside-in route (OR 0.14, 95%CI 0.05, 0.41, p=0.0003). Groin/thigh pain and de-novo urgency were non-significantly higher with the inside-out route (OR 1.42, 95%CI 0.94, 2.13, p=0.10 and OR 1.46, 95%CI 0.63, 3.36, p=0.38, respectively). There was no significant difference in postoperative quality of life scores between the two groups (WMD -1.65; 95% CI -5.76, 2.46, p=0.43). None of the trials reported a "health-cost" analysis. Meta-analysis of cohort studies confirmed similar results. This is the first reported direct meta-analysis comparing both routes of transobturator tapes. It showed no evidence of significant differences in the efficacy and impact on women's quality of life between "inside-out" and "outside-in" transobturator tapes up to one-year follow-up. The "inside-out" route was associated with significantly fewer vaginal angle injuries but with trends towards higher risk of postoperative groin pain. Long-term follow-up of adequately powered RCTs is required to assess if these results pertain. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Plasma-enhanced low temperature growth of silicon nanowires and hierarchical structures by using tin and indium catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Linwei; O' Donnell, Benedict; Alet, Pierre-Jean; Cabarrocas, Pere Roca i [Laboratoire de Physique des Interfaces et des Couches Minces (LPICM), Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, F-91128 Palaiseau (France); Conesa-Boj, S; Peiro, F; Arbiol, J [MIND-IN2UB, Departement d' Electronica, Universitat de Barcelona, E-08028 Barcelona, CAT (Spain)], E-mail:, E-mail:


    Plasma-enhanced low temperature growth (<300 deg. C) of silicon nanowires (SiNWs) and hierarchical structures via a vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism are investigated. The SiNWs were grown using tin and indium as catalysts prepared by in situ H{sub 2} plasma reduction of SnO{sub 2} and ITO substrates, respectively. Effective growth of SiNWs at temperatures as low as 240 deg. C have been achieved, while tin is found to be more ideal than indium in achieving a better size and density control of the SiNWs. Ultra-thin (4-8 nm) silica nanowires, sprouting from the dendritic nucleation patterns on the catalyst's surface, were also observed to form during the cooling process. A kinetic growth model has been proposed to account for their formation mechanism. This hierarchical structure combines the advantages of the size and position controllability from the catalyst-on-top VLS-SiNWs and the ultra-thin size from the catalyst-on-bottom VLS-ScNWs.

  11. Advanced inside-out tracking approach for real-time combination of MRI and US images in the radio-frequency shielded room using combination markers. (United States)

    Nagaraj, Yeshaswini; Benedicks, Christian; Matthies, Philipp; Friebe, Michael


    For the real-time fusion of different modalities, a variety of tracking methods are available including the optical, electromagnetic (EM) and image-based tracking. But as a drawback optical tracking suffers from line of sight issues and EM tracking requires the manual referencing for the fusion procedure and is not usable in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) environment. To avoid these issues, we propose a real-time setup containing a camera capable of inside-Out tracking using combined circular markers attached to Ultrasound (US) probe and a suitable platform for automatic overlay of MRI and US image using markers. This new approach could help clinicians carry out successful surgical procedures by requiring least system interaction and solving line of sight issues. As a proof-of-concept, we show our first result by mimicking common liver tumor intervention using framed marker fusion technique in a candle gel phantom. We evaluated the tracking error distances using the combination of special markers with Inside-Out approach and conventional optical tracking. The results achieved show comparable performance to the standard Outside-In tracking and manual reference approach, while easing the interventional procedure in terms of hardware and line of sight requirements.

  12. Novel experience of laser-assisted 'inside-out' central venous access in a patient with bilateral subclavian vein occlusion requiring pacemaker implantation. (United States)

    Aye, Thandar; Phan, Thanh Trung; Muir, Douglas Findlay; Linker, Nicholas John; Hartley, Richard; Turley, Andrew John


    This new laser facilitated 'inside-out' technique was used for transvenous pacemaker insertion in a pacemaker-dependent patient with bilateral subclavian occlusion and a failed epicardial system who is not suitable for a transfemoral approach. Procedure was undertaken under general anaesthesia with venous access obtained from right femoral vein and left axillary vein. 7F multipurpose catheter was used to enter proximal edge of the occluded segment of subclavian vein via femoral approach, which then supported stiff angioplasty wires and microcatheters to tunnel into the body of occlusion. When encountered with impenetrable resistance, 1.4 mm Excimer laser helped delivery of a Pilot 200 wire, which then progressed towards the distal edge of occlusion. Serial balloon dilatations allowed wire tracked into subintimal plane, advanced towards left clavicle using knuckle wire technique, which was then externalized with blunt dissection from infraclavicular pocket area. It was later changed to Amplatz superstiff wire exiting from both ends to form a rail, which ultimately allowed passage of pacing leads after serial balloon dilatation from clavicular end. Our hybrid 'inside-out' technique permitted transvenous pacemaker insertion without complication and this is, to our knowledge, the first case using laser in this context.

  13. Behaviour of hybrid inside/out Janus nanotubes at an oil/water interface. A route to self-assembled nanofluidics? (United States)

    Picot, P; Taché, O; Malloggi, F; Coradin, T; Thill, A


    Imogolites are natural aluminosilicate nanotubes that have a diameter of a few nanometers and can be several microns long. These nanotubes have different chemical groups on their internal (Si-OH) and external (Al-OH-Al) surfaces, that can be easily functionalised independently on both surfaces. Here we show that taking advantage of the particular shape and chemistry of imogolite, it is possible to prepare inside/out Janus nanotubes. Two kinds of symmetric Janus nanotubes are prepared: one with an external hydrophilic surface and an internal hydrophobic cavity (imo-CH3) and one with an external hydrophobic surface and a hydrophilic internal cavity (OPA-imo). The behaviour of such inside/out Janus nanotubes at oil/water interfaces is studied. The OPA-imo adsorbs strongly at the oil/water interface and is very efficient in stabilising water-in-oil emulsions through an arrested coalescence mechanism. Imo-CH3 also adsorbs at the oil/water interface. It stabilises oil-in-water emulsions by inducing slow oil-triggered modifications of the viscosity of the continuous phase. The possible transport of small molecules inside the imo-CH3 nanotubes is evidenced, opening up routes towards self-assembled nanofluidics.

  14. Polarity reversal of inside-out thyroid follicles cultured within collagen gel: structure of the junctions assessed by freeze-fracture and lanthanum permeability. (United States)

    Barriere, H; Chambard, M; Selzner, J P; Mauchamp, J; Gabrion, J


    The organization of tight junctional complexes (TJs) was studied in cultured porcine thyroid cells during the inversion of polarity induced by collagen-embedding of inside-out follicles, using freeze-fracture replicas and lanthanum penetration. During the early steps of polarity reversal, freeze-fractures showed that TJs generally persisted. They increased in width and progressively branched out into the basolateral surfaces, towards the basal pole. Later, the number of TJ strands decreased and gap junctions inserted within TJ networks were found between cells in reversed follicles, in the same manner as in typically polarized follicles, embedded in collagen or in suspension. The de novo formation of TJ complexes was rarely found in the reversing structures. Despite the heterogeneity of TJs assessed by freeze-fracture, impermeability to lanthanum tracer was noted in inside-out structures. During the reversal process, some TJs remained unstained, whereas others displayed permeability to lanthanum. This heterogeneity might be due to the "opening" of a small number of junctions (perhaps only one by aggregate). When the process was achieved after 48 hr in collagen, the tightness of the junctions was complete, confirmed by the absence of lanthanum in luminal cavities of newly formed follicles.

  15. Green from the inside out (United States)

    Seydel, Jennifer


    "Green school" is an umbrella term that covers a number of educational approaches, such as environment-based curricula, environment-integrated curricula, education for sustainability, and education for sustainable development. Green schools enrich the traditional secondary curriculum by relating it to practical issues of environmental…

  16. The Inside-Out Approach (United States)

    Lindsey, Delores B.; MacDonell, Linda


    Linda MacDonell is the assistant superintendent of the Instructional Services Division of the Orange County (California) Department of Education and over the years, Delores Lindsey served as MacDonell's leadership coach. In this article, they talk about their experiences as external/internal partners building internal capacity for culturally…

  17. Listening from the Inside Out. (United States)

    Joiner, Elizabeth G.


    Examines studies in brain research which are closely related to language learning. Discusses Asher's Total Physical Response and Lozanov's Suggestopedia as approaches which activate the right brain hemisphere and involve it in the language learning process. Discusses practical applications for what is currently known about listening. (SED)

  18. There is more than one way to turn a spherical cellular monolayer inside out: type B embryo inversion in Volvox globator. (United States)

    Höhn, Stephanie; Hallmann, Armin


    Epithelial folding is a common morphogenetic process during the development of multicellular organisms. In metazoans, the biological and biomechanical processes that underlie such three-dimensional (3D) developmental events are usually complex and difficult to investigate. Spheroidal green algae of the genus Volvox are uniquely suited as model systems for studying the basic principles of epithelial folding. Volvox embryos begin life inside out and then must turn their spherical cell monolayer outside in to achieve their adult configuration; this process is called 'inversion.' There are two fundamentally different sequences of inversion processes in Volvocaceae: type A and type B. Type A inversion is well studied, but not much is known about type B inversion. How does the embryo of a typical type B inverter, V. globator, turn itself inside out? In this study, we investigated the type B inversion of V. globator embryos and focused on the major movement patterns of the cellular monolayer, cell shape changes and changes in the localization of cytoplasmic bridges (CBs) connecting the cells. Isolated intact, sectioned and fragmented embryos were analyzed throughout the inversion process using light microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy techniques. We generated 3D models of the identified cell shapes, including the localizations of CBs. We show how concerted cell-shape changes and concerted changes in the position of cells relative to the CB system cause cell layer movements and turn the spherical cell monolayer inside out. The type B inversion of V. globator is compared to the type A inversion in V. carteri. Concerted, spatially and temporally coordinated changes in cellular shapes in conjunction with concerted migration of cells relative to the CB system are the causes of type B inversion in V. globator. Despite significant similarities between type A and type B inverters, differences exist in

  19. There is more than one way to turn a spherical cellular monolayer inside out: type B embryo inversion in Volvox globator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Höhn Stephanie


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epithelial folding is a common morphogenetic process during the development of multicellular organisms. In metazoans, the biological and biomechanical processes that underlie such three-dimensional (3D developmental events are usually complex and difficult to investigate. Spheroidal green algae of the genus Volvox are uniquely suited as model systems for studying the basic principles of epithelial folding. Volvox embryos begin life inside out and then must turn their spherical cell monolayer outside in to achieve their adult configuration; this process is called 'inversion.' There are two fundamentally different sequences of inversion processes in Volvocaceae: type A and type B. Type A inversion is well studied, but not much is known about type B inversion. How does the embryo of a typical type B inverter, V. globator, turn itself inside out? Results In this study, we investigated the type B inversion of V. globator embryos and focused on the major movement patterns of the cellular monolayer, cell shape changes and changes in the localization of cytoplasmic bridges (CBs connecting the cells. Isolated intact, sectioned and fragmented embryos were analyzed throughout the inversion process using light microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy techniques. We generated 3D models of the identified cell shapes, including the localizations of CBs. We show how concerted cell-shape changes and concerted changes in the position of cells relative to the CB system cause cell layer movements and turn the spherical cell monolayer inside out. The type B inversion of V. globator is compared to the type A inversion in V. carteri. Conclusions Concerted, spatially and temporally coordinated changes in cellular shapes in conjunction with concerted migration of cells relative to the CB system are the causes of type B inversion in V. globator. Despite significant similarities

  20. Integrin αII b tail distal of GFFKR participates in inside-out αII b β3 activation. (United States)

    Li, A; Guo, Q; Kim, C; Hu, W; Ye, F


    Increases in ligand binding to integrins (activation) play critical roles in platelet and leukocyte function. Integrin activation requires talin and kindlin binding to integrin β cytoplasmic tails. Research has focused on the conserved GFFKR motif in integrin αII b tails, integrin β cytoplasmic tails and the binding partners of β tails. However, the roles of αII b tail distal of GFFKR motif are unexplored. To investigate the role of αII b tail distal of GFFKR in talin-mediated inside-out integrin signaling. We used model cell systems to examine the role of αII b tail distal of GFFKR in bidirectional αII b β3 signaling and αII b β3 -talin interactions. Deletion of amino acid residues after the GFFKR motif in αII b tail moderately decreased β3 (D723R)-induced activation, abolished talin-induced αII b β3 activation in model cells, and inhibited agonist-induced αII b β3 activation in megakaryocytic cells. Furthermore, residues in αII b tail distal of GFFKR did not affect outside-in αII b β3 signaling or αII b β3 -talin interaction. Addition of non-homologous or non-specific amino acids to the GFFKR motif restored αII b β3 activation in model cells and in megakaryocytic cells. Molecular modeling indicates that β3 -bound talin sterically clashes with the αII b tail in the αII b β3 complexes, potentially disfavoring the α-β interactions that keep αII b β3 inactive. The αII b tail sequences distal of GFFKR participate in talin-mediated inside-out αII b β3 activation through its steric clashes with β3 -bound talin. © 2014 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  1. Talin-driven inside-out activation mechanism of platelet αIIbβ3 integrin probed by multimicrosecond, all-atom molecular dynamics simulations. (United States)

    Provasi, Davide; Negri, Ana; Coller, Barry S; Filizola, Marta


    Platelet aggregation is the consequence of the binding of extracellular bivalent ligands such as fibrinogen and von Willebrand factor to the high affinity, active state of integrin αIIbβ3. This state is achieved through a so-called "inside-out" mechanism characterized by the membrane-assisted formation of a complex between the F2 and F3 subdomains of intracellular protein talin and the integrin β3 tail. Here, we present the results of multi-microsecond, all-atom molecular dynamics simulations carried on the complete transmembrane (TM) and C-terminal (CT) domains of αIIbβ3 integrin in an explicit lipid-water environment, and in the presence or absence of the talin-1 F2 and F3 subdomains. These large-scale simulations provide unprecedented molecular-level insights into the talin-driven inside-out activation of αIIbβ3 integrin. Specifically, they suggest a preferred conformation of the complete αIIbβ3 TM/CT domains in a lipid-water environment, and testable hypotheses of key intermolecular interactions between αIIbβ3 integrin and the F2/F3 domains of talin-1. Notably, not only do these simulations give support to a stable left-handed reverse turn conformation of the αIIb juxtamembrane motif rather than a helical turn, but they raise the question as to whether TM helix separation is required for talin-driven integrin activation. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Urate crystal deposition and bone erosion in gout: 'inside-out' or 'outside-in'? A dual-energy computed tomography study. (United States)

    Towiwat, Patapong; Doyle, Anthony J; Gamble, Gregory D; Tan, Paul; Aati, Opetaia; Horne, Anne; Stamp, Lisa K; Dalbeth, Nicola


    It is currently unknown whether bone erosion in gout occurs through an 'inside-out' mechanism due to direct intra-osseous crystal deposition or through an 'outside-in' mechanism from the surface of bone. The aim of this study was to examine the mechanism ('outside-in' vs. 'inside-out') of monosodium urate (MSU) crystal deposition in bone erosion in gout. Specifically, we used three-dimensional dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) to analyse the positional relationship between bone and MSU crystal deposition in tophaceous gout, and to determine whether intra-osseous crystal deposition occurs in the absence of erosion. One hundred forty-four participants with gout and at least one palpable tophus had a DECT scan of both feet. Two readers independently scored all metatarsal heads (1433 bones available for scoring). For bones in contact with urate, the bone was scored for whether urate was present within an erosion, on the surface of bone or within bone only (true intra-osseous deposit). Data were analysed using generalised estimating equations. Urate in contact with bone was present in 370 (54.3 %) of 681 joints with urate deposition. For those bones in contact with urate, deposition was present on the surface of bone in 143 (38.6 %) of 370 joints and within erosion in 227 (61.4 %) of 370. True intra-osseous urate deposition was not observed at any site (p < 0.0001). For all bones with apparent intra-osseous deposition in one plane, examination in other planes revealed urate deposition within an en face erosion. In tophaceous gout, MSU crystal deposition is present within the joint, on the bone surface and within bone erosion, but it is not observed within bone in the absence of a cortical break. These data support the concept that MSU crystals deposit outside bone and contribute to bone erosion through an 'outside-in' mechanism.

  3. Selective growth of Au nanograins on specific positions (tips, edges and facets) of Cu2O octahedrons to form Cu2O-Au hierarchical heterostructures. (United States)

    Zhu, Han; Du, MingLiang; Yu, DongLiang; Wang, Yin; Zou, MeiLing; Xu, CongSheng; Fu, YaQin


    This communication demonstrates a novel strategy for the selective growth of Au nanograins (AuNGs) on specific positions (tips, edges and facets) of Cu(2)O octahedrons to form Cu(2)O-Au hierarchical heterostructures. The surface energy distribution of the octahedrons generally follows the order of γ((facets)) tips)) and leads to the preferential growth and evolution of the heterostructures. These novel Cu(2)O-Au hierarchical heterostructures show fascinating degradations of methylene blue (MB), due to the suppressed electron/hole recombination phenomena and the highly efficient light harvesting.

  4. Src homology 2-domain containing leukocyte-specific phosphoprotein of 76 kDa is mandatory for TCR-mediated inside-out signaling, but dispensable for CXCR4-mediated LFA-1 activation, adhesion, and migration of T cells. (United States)

    Horn, Jessica; Wang, Xiaoqian; Reichardt, Peter; Stradal, Theresia E; Warnecke, Nicole; Simeoni, Luca; Gunzer, Matthias; Yablonski, Deborah; Schraven, Burkhart; Kliche, Stefanie


    Engagement of the TCR or of chemokine receptors such as CXCR4 induces adhesion and migration of T cells via so-called inside-out signaling pathways. The molecular processes underlying inside-out signaling events are as yet not completely understood. In this study, we show that TCR- and CXCR4-mediated activation of integrins critically depends on the membrane recruitment of the adhesion- and degranulation-promoting adapter protein (ADAP)/Src kinase-associated phosphoprotein of 55 kDa (SKAP55)/Rap1-interacting adapter protein (RIAM)/Rap1 module. We further demonstrate that the Src homology 2 domain containing leukocyte-specific phosphoprotein of 76 kDa (SLP76) is crucial for TCR-mediated inside-out signaling and T cell/APC interaction. Besides facilitating membrane recruitment of ADAP, SKAP55, and RIAM, SLP76 regulates TCR-mediated inside-out signaling by controlling the activation of Rap1 as well as Rac-mediated actin polymerization. Surprisingly, however, SLP76 is not mandatory for CXCR4-mediated inside-out signaling. Indeed, both CXCR4-induced T cell adhesion and migration are not affected by loss of SLP76. Moreover, after CXCR4 stimulation, the ADAP/SKAP55/RIAM/Rap1 module is recruited to the plasma membrane independently of SLP76. Collectively, our data indicate a differential requirement for SLP76 in TCR- vs CXCR4-mediated inside-out signaling pathways regulating T cell adhesion and migration.

  5. Two-Tunnel Transtibial Repair of Radial Meniscus Tears Produces Comparable Results to Inside-Out Repair of Vertical Meniscus Tears. (United States)

    Cinque, Mark E; Geeslin, Andrew G; Chahla, Jorge; Dornan, Grant J; LaPrade, Robert F


    Radial meniscus tears disrupt the circumferential fibers and thereby compromise meniscus integrity. Historically, radial tears were often treated with meniscectomy because of an incomplete understanding of the biomechanical consequences of these tears, limited information regarding the biomechanical performance of repair, and the technical difficulty associated with repair. There is a paucity of studies on the outcomes of the repair of radial meniscus tears. Purpose/Hypothesis: The purpose was to determine the outcomes of 2-tunnel transtibial repair of radial meniscus tears and compare these results to the outcomes of patients who underwent the repair of vertical meniscus tears with a minimum of 2-year follow-up. The hypothesis was that radial and vertical meniscus tear repair outcomes were comparable. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Patients who underwent 2-tunnel transtibial pullout repair for a radial meniscus tear were included in this study and compared with patients who underwent inside-out repair for a vertical meniscus tear. Subjective questionnaires were administered preoperatively and at a minimum of 2-year follow-up, including the Lysholm score, the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), the Short Form-12 (SF-12) physical component summary (PCS), the Tegner activity scale, and patient satisfaction. Analysis of covariance was used to compare postoperative outcome scores between the meniscus repair groups while accounting for baseline scores. Adjusted mean effects relative to the radial repair group were reported with 95% CIs. Twenty-seven patients who underwent 2-tunnel transtibial pullout repair for radial meniscus tears and 33 patients who underwent inside-out repair for vertical meniscus tears were available for follow-up at a mean of 3.5 years (range, 2.0-5.4 years). No preoperative outcome score significantly differed between the groups. There were no significant group differences for any of the 2-year

  6. Melatonin potentiates "inside-out" nano-thermotherapy in human breast cancer cells: a potential cancer target multimodality treatment based on melatonin-loaded nanocomposite particles. (United States)

    Xie, Wensheng; Gao, Qin; Wang, Dan; Wang, Wei; Yuan, Jie; Guo, Zhenhu; Yan, Hao; Wang, Xiumei; Sun, Xiaodan; Zhao, Lingyun


    With the wide recognition of oncostatic effect of melatonin, the current study proposes a potential breast cancer target multimodality treatment based on melatonin-loaded magnetic nanocomposite particles (Melatonin-MNPs). Melatonin-MNPs were fabricated by the single emulsion solvent extraction/evaporation method. Based on the facilitated transport of melatonin by the GLUT overexpressed on the cell membrane, such Melatonin-MNPs can be more favorably uptaken by MCF-7 cells compared with the melatonin-free nanocomposite particles, which indicates the cancer targeting ability of melatonin molecule. Inductive heating can be generated by exposure to the Melatonin-MNPs internalized within cancer cells under alternative magnetic field, so as to achieve the "inside-out" magnetic nano-thermotherapy. In addition to demonstrating the superior cytotoxic effect of such nano-thermotherapy over the conventional exogenous heating by metal bath, more importantly, the sustainable release of melatonin from the Melatonin-MNPs can be greatly promoted upon responsive to the magnetic heating. The multimodality treatment based on Melatonin-MNPs can lead to more significant decrease in cell viability than any single treatment, suggesting the potentiated effect of melatonin on the cytotoxic response to nano-thermotherapy. This study is the first to fabricate the precisely engineered melatonin-loaded multifunctional nanocomposite particles and demonstrate the potential in breast cancer target multimodality treatment.

  7. Comparison of the clinical and quality-of-life outcomes after the inside-out TVT-O procedure with or without concomitant transvaginal gynaecological surgery. (United States)

    Cho, M K; Kim, C H; Kang, W D; Kim, J W; Kim, S M; Kim, Y H


    The study was undertaken to compare the clinical and quality-of-life (QoL) outcomes of the inside-out transobturator vaginal tape (TVT-O)-only procedures and TVT-O procedures with concomitant transvaginal gynaecological surgery for the treatment of stress urinary incontinence (SUI). A review of charts from January 2006 to March 2010 identified 305 patients with urodynamic stress incontinence for whom we performed the TVT-O. Of the initial 305 patients, 272 (89.2%) were re-examined for complications 1 month, 4 months, 1 year and 2-4 years postoperatively (122 TVT-O only; 150 TVT-O + other transvaginal gynaecological surgery). They were also evaluated with the Urogenital Distress Inventory Questionnaire (UDI-6) and the Incontinence Impact Questionnaire (IIQ-7) 1-4 years after the procedure. The median follow-up was 37.3 months. The success rate was 89.3% in the TVT-O-only group vs 93.3% in the TVT-O with concomitant gynaecological surgery group (p =0.729). The QoL score was quite good for 91.8% of the TVT-O-only patients and for 96.7% of the TVT-O with concomitant gynaecologic surgery patients (p =0.405). In conclusion, gynaecological operations performed concomitantly with the TVT-O procedure do not affect the clinical and QoL outcomes of the TVT-O procedure.

  8. The "inside out" transforaminal technique to treat lumbar spinal pain in an awake and aware patient under local anesthesia: results and a review of the literature. (United States)

    Gore, Satishchandra; Yeung, Anthony


    Surgical management of back and leg pain is evolving and changing due to a better understanding of the patho-anatomy well correlated with its pathophysiology. Pain is better understood with in vivo visualization and probing of the pain generators using an endoscopic access rather than just relying on symptoms diagram and image correlation. This has resulted in a shared decision making involving patient and surgeon, focused on a broader spectrum of surgical as well as non-surgical treatments, and not just masking the pain generator. It has moved away from decisions based on diagnostic images alone, that, while noting the image alterations, cannot explain the pain experienced by each individual as images do not always show variations in nerve supply and patho-anatomy. The ability to isolate and visualize "pain" generators in the foramen and treating persistent pain by visualizing inflammation and compression of nerves, serves as the basis for transforaminal endoscopic (TFE) surgery. This has also resulted in better pre surgical planning with more specific and defined goals in mind. The "Inside out" philosophy of TFE surgery is safe and precise. It provides basic access to the disc and foramen to cover a large spectrum of painful pathologies.

  9. Mothering From the Inside Out: Results of a second randomized clinical trial testing a mentalization-based intervention for mothers in addiction treatment. (United States)

    Suchman, Nancy E; DeCoste, Cindy L; McMahon, Thomas J; Dalton, Rachel; Mayes, Linda C; Borelli, Jessica


    Mothers with histories of alcohol and drug addiction have shown greater difficulty parenting young children than mothers with no history of substance misuse. This study was the second randomized clinical trial testing the efficacy of Mothering From the Inside Out (MIO), a 12-week mentalization-based individual therapy designed to address psychological deficits commonly associated with chronic substance use that also interfere with the capacity to parent young children. Eighty-seven mothers caring for a child between 11 and 60 months of age were randomly assigned to receive 12 sessions of MIO versus 12 sessions of parent education (PE), a psychoeducation active control comparison. Maternal reflective functioning, representations of caregiving, mother-child interaction quality, and child attachment were evaluated at baseline and posttreatment and 3-month follow-up. Mother-child interaction quality was assessed again at 12-month follow-up. In comparison with PE mothers, MIO mothers demonstrated a higher capacity for reflective functioning and representational coherence at posttreatment and 3-month follow-up. At 12-month follow-up, compared to PE cohorts, MIO mothers demonstrated greater sensitivity, their children showed greater involvement, and MIO dyads showed greater reciprocity. As addiction severity increased, MIO also appeared to serve as a protective factor for maternal reflective functioning, quality of mother-child interactions, and child attachment status. Results demonstrate the promise of mentalization-based interventions provided concomitant with addiction treatment for mothers and their young children.

  10. Mothering from the Inside Out: results of a pilot study testing a mentalization-based therapy for mothers enrolled in mental health services. (United States)

    Suchman, Nancy E; Ordway, Monica R; de Las Heras, Lourdes; McMahon, Thomas J


    Mothers who are involved with mental health services (for themselves or their children) rarely receive adequate support for their role as parents. Mental illness in a parent or child often exacerbates the challenges of managing psychological distress that is germane to the parenting roll. Mentalization-based approaches to psychotherapy for parents have the potential to address challenges of emotional regulation in parents by supporting their capacity to recognize and modulate negative affect during stressful parenting situations. In this study, we piloted Mothering from the Inside Out (MIO) with 17 mothers receiving services at a community-based mental health clinic. MIO is a 12-week, mentalization-based parenting intervention that demonstrated efficacy in two previous randomized controlled trials with substance using mothers. In this study, we were interested in determining whether community-based clinicians could deliver MIO with sustained fidelity. We were also interested in examining the preliminary feasibility, acceptability and efficacy of MIO when delivered by clinicians in a community mental health center. Finally, we were interested in replicating prior tests of the proposed treatment mechanisms. Treatment outcomes included maternal reflective functioning, psychiatric and parenting stress, and mother-child interaction quality. Our findings indicated that MIO was feasible and acceptable when delivered in the community-based setting and that all maternal indices improved. However, no improvement in mother-child interaction quality was found, possibly because of insufficient time for these changes to consolidate.

  11. Low-cost transobturator vaginal tape inside-out procedure for the treatment of female stress urinary incontinence using ordinary polypropylene mesh. (United States)

    ElSheemy, Mohammed S; Elsergany, Ragheb; ElShenoufy, Ahmed


    The aim of this study is to describe the use of ordinary polypropylene mesh and our modified helical passers through a transobturator vaginal tape inside-out technique (TVT-O) as a low-cost alternative to available commercial kits in the treatment of stress urinary incontinence (SUI) with evaluation of its long-term safety and efficacy. This is important in developing countries due to limited health care resources. Tailored (11 × 1.5 cm) polypropylene tape was inserted in 59 women from June 2006 to June 2009 at the Urology Department, Cairo University Hospitals as an open prospective study. SUI was diagnosed by positive cough stress test (CST) and abdominal leak point pressure (ALPP). Patients with post-void residual urine (PVRU) > 100 ml, bladder capacity polypropylene suture (1 %) and felt subcutaneous polypropylene sutures (3 %). We had no cases of erosions or de novo urgency. SUIQQ indices improved significantly, while urodynamic parameters showed no significant difference postoperatively. Of the patients, 54 (91 %) were cured and 3 (5 %) improved, while failure was detected in 2 (3 %) patients. Our technique is safe with excellent 5-year results. It should be considered as a low-cost alternative to available commercial kits in the treatment of SUI mainly for public health systems with few financial resources.

  12. Transobturator vaginal tape inside out for treatment of urethral sphincter mechanism incompetence in female dogs: cadaveric study and preliminary study in continent female dogs. (United States)

    Claeys, Stéphanie; Ruel, Hélène; de Leval, Jean; Heimann, Marianne; Hamaide, Annick


    (1) To describe a surgical technique adapted from the "transobturator vaginal tape inside-out" (TVT-O) used in women and to define the trajectory of the tape on canine cadavers, and (2) to determine the urodynamic and morphological effects of the TVT-O in continent bitches. Cadaveric and experimental in vivo study. Fresh female canine cadavers (n=12) and spayed female Beagle dogs (2). (1) TVT-O was inserted in 12 cadavers. Dissection was performed and distances between the tape and neighboring structures were recorded. (2) TVT-O was inserted in 2 continent female Beagle dogs. Urethral pressure profilometry and vaginourethrograms were performed preoperatively, immediately after surgery, and 2, 4, and 6 months postoperatively. Histopathology was performed 6 months after surgery. (1) TVT-O tape was consistently located in a perineal space before entering the obturator foramina and was located at a safe distance from major neurovascular structures including the femoral vessels and obturator nerve. (2) TVT-O was performed without any surgical or postoperative complications in 2 continent bitches. Histopathologic examination of the tissues surrounding the tape revealed a mild fibroblastic proliferation with a mild to minimal lymphoplasmacytic inflammatory infiltration. TVT-O is a feasible and accurate procedure that can be performed in continent bitches with a low risk of complications. © Copyright 2010 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  13. Growth rate controlled synthesis of hierarchical Bi2S3/In2S3 core/shell microspheres with enhanced photocatalytic activity


    Juan Zhou; Guohui Tian; Yajie Chen; Yunhan Shi; Chungui Tian; Kai Pan; Honggang Fu


    Core/shell heterostructure composite has great potential applications in photocatalytic field because the introduction of core can remarkably improve charge transport and enhance the electron-hole separation. Herein, hierarchical Bi2S3/In2S3 core/shell structured microspheres were prepared via a simple one-pot hydrothermal process based on different growth rate of the two kinds of sulphides. The results showed that, the as-prepared hierarchical Bi2S3/In2S3 core/shell heterostructure exhibits ...

  14. Effectiveness of Retropubic Tension-Free Vaginal Tape and Transobturator Inside-Out Tape Procedures in Women With Overactive Bladder and Stress Urinary Incontinence (United States)

    Han, Ji-Yeon; Choo, Myung-Soo; Lee, Young-Suk; Seo, Ju Tae; Kim, Jang Hwan; Kim, Young Ho


    Purpose We compared the effectiveness of the retropubic tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) and the transobturator inside-out tape (TVT-O) in treating symptoms of overactive bladder (OAB) in women with stress urinary incontinence (SUI). Methods Women with urodynamic SUI and OAB (mean urgency episodes ≥1 and frequency ≥8/24 hours on a 3-day voiding diary) were assigned to the TVT or TVT-O group. Preoperative measures were based on a urodynamic study, 3-day voiding diary, the Bristol Female Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms questionnaire (BFLUTSSF), and the urgency perception scale (UPS). At 12 postoperative months, the 3-day voiding diary, symptoms questionnaire, patient satisfaction, and standing stress test were assessed. The primary endpoint was change in the number of urgency episodes/24 hours from baseline to 12 months. Results In this group of 132 women, 42 received TVT and 90 received TVT-O. The mean urgency episodes/24 hours decreased from 6.3±5.5 to 1.6±3.2 in the TVT group and from 5.1±4.4 to 1.8±3.0 in the TVT-O group. The mean percent change was significantly greater after TVT than after TVT-O (73% vs. 60%, P=0.049). All subscales of BFLUTSSF and UPS were significantly improved using either method, with significantly greater improvement seen in the quality of life (QoL) domain after TVT (P=0.002). There were no significant differences in the cure and satisfaction rates between the two groups. Conclusions Intervention with the TVT or the TVT-O significantly improved symptoms of OAB in women with SUI and OAB. Urgency and QoL significantly improved after TVT compared with that after TVT-O. PMID:24143294

  15. Repair of the Posterior Third of the Meniscus During Meniscus Allograft Transplantation: Conventional Inside-Out Repair Versus FasT-Fix All-Inside Repair. (United States)

    Ahn, Ji Hyun; Kim, Chang Hee; Lee, Sung Hyun


    To compare conventional inside-out (IO) repair and all-inside (AI) repair for the posterior third of the meniscus during meniscus allograft transplantation (MAT). Among the 64 enrolled patients, 31 patients underwent MAT with conventional IO repair, and 33 patients underwent MAT with AI repair using the FasT-Fix instrument for the posterior third of the meniscus allograft. All of the patients were retrospectively evaluated through clinical assessment at the last follow-up (54.3 months in the IO group and 55.4 months in the AI group) and through magnetic resonance imaging assessment for meniscal extrusion at 1 year postoperatively. Thirty patients (15 in each group) were evaluated through second-look arthroscopy at 1 year postoperatively. There was no significant difference in the mean Lysholm score (91.3 in the IO group and 92.3 in the AI group; P = .358) or the mean Tegner activity scale (7.1 in each group; P = .885) between the 2 groups. There was no significant difference in the mean meniscal extrusion (2.6 mm in the IO group and 2.8 mm in the AI group; P = .454), relative percentage of extrusion value (25.6% in the IO group and 24.7% in the AI group; P = .721), or meniscal healing on second-look arthroscopy (P = .796) between the 2 groups. The difference in operative time between the 2 groups was found to be statistically significant (169.9 minutes in the IO group and 123.3 minutes in the AI group; P < .001). Our comparative study on the different techniques for posterior repair of meniscus allograft suggested that AI posterior repair using FasT-Fix could be an alternative method to conventional IO repair as it gives a similar postoperative result and requires a shorter operative time. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Contact area between femoral tunnel and interference screw in anatomic rectangular tunnel ACL reconstruction: a comparison of outside-in and trans-portal inside-out techniques. (United States)

    Hiramatsu, Kunihiko; Mae, Tatsuo; Tachibana, Yuta; Nakagawa, Shigeto; Shino, Konsei


    The purpose of this study was to compare the femoral tunnel length, the femoral graft bending angle at the femoral tunnel aperture, and the contact area between the femoral tunnel wall and an interference screw used for fixation in anatomic rectangular tunnel anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction (ART ACLR). The study included 149 patients with primary ACL injury who underwent ART ACLR. Preoperatively, flexion angle of the index knee was checked under general anaesthesia. Those of less than 130° of passive flexion were assigned to the outside-in (OI) technique (78 patients), while the others to the trans-portal inside-out (TP) technique (71 patients). The patients underwent computed tomography with multiplanar reconstruction at 3-5 weeks post-operatively. Femoral tunnel length, graft bending angle, and contact ratio between the IFS and femoral tunnel were assessed. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The femoral tunnel length in the OI technique was significantly longer than that in the TP technique (P < 0.001). The femoral graft bending angle in the OI technique was significantly more acute than that in the TP technique (P < 0.001). The contact ratio in the OI technique was significantly larger than that in the TP technique at every point in the femoral tunnel (P < 0.001). The OI technique resulted in a more acute femoral graft bending angle, longer mean femoral tunnel length, and larger contact ratio than the TP technique after ART ACLR. Retrospective comparative study, Level III.

  17. Growth rate controlled synthesis of hierarchical Bi2S3/In2S3 core/shell microspheres with enhanced photocatalytic activity (United States)

    Zhou, Juan; Tian, Guohui; Chen, Yajie; Shi, Yunhan; Tian, Chungui; Pan, Kai; Fu, Honggang


    Core/shell heterostructure composite has great potential applications in photocatalytic field because the introduction of core can remarkably improve charge transport and enhance the electron-hole separation. Herein, hierarchical Bi2S3/In2S3 core/shell structured microspheres were prepared via a simple one-pot hydrothermal process based on different growth rate of the two kinds of sulphides. The results showed that, the as-prepared hierarchical Bi2S3/In2S3 core/shell heterostructure exhibits significant visible light photocatalytic activity for degradation of 2, 4-dichlorophenol. The introduction of Bi2S3 core can not only improve charge transport and enhance the electron-hole separation, but also broaden the visible light response. The hierarchical porous folwer-like shell of In2S3 could increase the specific surface area and remarkably enhanced the chemical stability of Bi2S3 against oxidation.

  18. Growth rate controlled synthesis of hierarchical Bi2S3/In2S3 core/shell microspheres with enhanced photocatalytic activity (United States)

    Zhou, Juan; Tian, Guohui; Chen, Yajie; Shi, Yunhan; Tian, Chungui; Pan, Kai; Fu, Honggang


    Core/shell heterostructure composite has great potential applications in photocatalytic field because the introduction of core can remarkably improve charge transport and enhance the electron-hole separation. Herein, hierarchical Bi2S3/In2S3 core/shell structured microspheres were prepared via a simple one-pot hydrothermal process based on different growth rate of the two kinds of sulphides. The results showed that, the as-prepared hierarchical Bi2S3/In2S3 core/shell heterostructure exhibits significant visible light photocatalytic activity for degradation of 2, 4-dichlorophenol. The introduction of Bi2S3 core can not only improve charge transport and enhance the electron-hole separation, but also broaden the visible light response. The hierarchical porous folwer-like shell of In2S3 could increase the specific surface area and remarkably enhanced the chemical stability of Bi2S3 against oxidation. PMID:24504084

  19. Growth of Hierarchically Structured High-Surface Area Alumina on FeCrAl Alloy Wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandni Rallan


    Full Text Available The formation of metastable alumina phases due to the oxidation of commercial FeCrAl alloy wires (0.5 mm thickness at various temperatures and time periods has been examined. Samples were isothermally oxidised in air using a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA. The morphology of the oxidised samples was analyzed using an Electronic Scanning Electron Microscope (ESEM and X-ray on the surface analysis was done using an Energy Dispersive X-Ray (EDX analyzer. The technique of X-Ray Diffraction (XRD was used to characterize the phase of the oxide growth. The entire study showed that it was possible to grow high-surface area gamma alumina on the FeCrAl alloy wire surfaces when isothermally oxidised above 800°C over several hours.

  20. The all-inside meniscal repair technique has less risk of injury to the lateral geniculate artery than the inside-out repair technique when suturing the lateral meniscus. (United States)

    Cuéllar, Adrián; Cuéllar, Ricardo; Heredia, Jorge Díaz; Cuéllar, Asier; García-Alonso, Ignacio; Ruiz-Ibán, Miguel Angel


    To evaluate the risk of injury to the inferior lateral geniculate artery with two different techniques for lateral meniscus repair. Eight cadaveric knees were used. Inside-out sutures and an all-inside suture device were placed at the most lateral edge of the popliteal hiatus, and 15 and 30 mm anterior to this point. The minimum distances between the sutures and the inferior lateral geniculate artery were measured through a limited lateral arthrotomy. Artery penetration or collapse due to the sutures was also evaluated. The median distance between the sutures and the artery when inserted at the lateral edge of the popliteal hiatus was 1.5 mm (interquartile range: 1.3) for the inside-out technique and 1.5 mm (1.3) for the all-inside technique (differences not significant, n.s.). When the sutures were inserted 15 mm anterior to the popliteal hiatus the distances were 1.0 mm (1.1) and 1.3 mm (1.0) for the inside-out technique and the all-inside technique, respectively (n.s.). When the sutures were inserted 30 mm anterior to the popliteal hiatus the distances were 1.0 mm (1.0) and 1.5 mm (1.0) for the inside-out technique and the all-inside technique, respectively (n.s.). The artery was punctured with two of the inside-out sutures placed 15 mm from the popliteal hiatus, no puncturing occurred in the all-inside technique (n.s.). Tying of the inside-out sutures resulted in obliteration of the artery in four of eight sutures placed at 15 mm from the popliteal hiatus and three of eight sutures at 30 mm; no obliteration of the artery was found using the all-inside device (significant differences, p = 0.002). Although both all-inside and inside-out lateral meniscal repair techniques place sutures very close to the lateral geniculate artery, the inside-out technique is riskier as extra-articular knot tying can cause artery obliteration when suturing the part of the meniscus immediately lateral to the popliteal hiatus. Therefore, all-inside meniscal repair

  1. Graft Bending Angle at the Intra-articular Femoral Tunnel Aperture After Single-Bundle Posterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: Inside-Out Versus Outside-In Techniques. (United States)

    Jang, Ki-Mo; Park, Sung-Chul; Lee, Dae-Hee


    To date, no in vivo 3-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT) studies have compared graft bending angles at the femoral tunnel aperture and femoral tunnel length in patients who underwent posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) reconstruction with outside-in (OI) and inside-out (IO) techniques. This study used in vivo 3D-CT analysis to compare graft bending angles at the femoral tunnel aperture and femoral tunnel lengths after OI and IO femoral drilling techniques in single-bundle PCL reconstruction. It was hypothesized that the graft bending angle at the femoral tunnel aperture would be less acute with the OI compared with the IO technique, with no difference in femoral tunnel lengths. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Immediate postoperative in vivo 3D-CT and curved planar reformation were used to assess the graft bending angles and femoral tunnel lengths in the sagittal, axial, and coronal planes in 67 patients who underwent single-bundle PCL reconstruction with the OI (n = 37) and IO (n = 30) techniques. The mean graft bending angles on the sagittal and axial planes were 8.2° more acute (23.5° vs 15.3°, P = .011) and 5.3° more acute (49.0° vs 43.7°, P = .013), respectively, with the IO compared with the OI technique, but the difference in the coronal plane was not statistically significant (25.3° vs 24.8°, P = .623). Femoral tunnel length was similar in the 2 groups. The graft bending angles in single-bundle PCL reconstruction were more acute in the sagittal and axial planes with the IO compared with the OI technique, but there was no difference in the coronal plane. In addition, femoral tunnel lengths did not differ significantly in patients who underwent OI and IO single-bundle PCL reconstructions. Although further biomechanical studies are needed to evaluate the effect on graft failure of a <10° difference in graft bending angle, the small magnitude of this difference would likely have little adverse effect on graft survival. © 2016 The Author(s).

  2. Hierarchical Factor Structure of the Turkish Version of the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory in a Normal Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mucahit Kagan


    Full Text Available Background: Negative consequences of traumatic experiences, such as depression, anxiety, or dissociative symptoms, etc. have been reported by many researchers. However, it is proposed that stressful events not only lead to poor psychological outcomes but also may trigger positive changes. Several instruments gauging posttraumatic benefits have been developed to examine the effects of factors that may promote positive psychological outcomes in the aftermath of stressful events. The Posttraumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI is one of the prominent instruments that assess posttraumatic positive changes. In this study we aimed to assess psychometric properties of the Turkish version of the PTGI. Method: This study differed to an extent from previous studies concerning the features of the PTGI. We used a dispositional form of the instrument in a sample recruited from high school and university students. Our data were collected from 723 volunteers. 367 subjects were males (50.76% and 356 subjects were females (49.24%. Also we did not specify any selection criteria in recruiting subjects owing to their adverse life experiences with a presumption that stressful life events are not uncommon in normal population. We administered to participants a dispositional form of the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory and the Personal View Survey-III. Item statistics for the measure were computed. We performed an explanatory factor analysis by using principal components with promax rotation and a confirmatory factor analysis by using structural equation modeling. Since the factor inter-correlations were higher than .40 we computed Schmid-Leiman transformation to obtain second-order general factor loadings. Inner consistencies and 15-day test-retest intracorrelations were calculated. Results: Item discrimination indexes ranged from .28 to .72. Promax rotated principal components analysis pointed out a three-factor structure. It was found in model testing with structural

  3. An economic growth model based on financial credits distribution to the government economy priority sectors of each regency in Indonesia using hierarchical Bayesian method (United States)

    Yasmirullah, Septia Devi Prihastuti; Iriawan, Nur; Sipayung, Feronika Rosalinda


    The success of regional economic establishment could be measured by economic growth. Since the Act No. 32 of 2004 has been implemented, unbalance economic among the regency in Indonesia is increasing. This condition is contrary different with the government goal to build society welfare through the economic activity development in each region. This research aims to examine economic growth through the distribution of bank credits to each Indonesia's regency. The data analyzed in this research is hierarchically structured data which follow normal distribution in first level. Two modeling approaches are employed in this research, a global-one level Bayesian approach and two-level hierarchical Bayesian approach. The result shows that hierarchical Bayesian has succeeded to demonstrate a better estimation than a global-one level Bayesian. It proves that the different economic growth in each province is significantly influenced by the variations of micro level characteristics in each province. These variations are significantly affected by cities and province characteristics in second level.

  4. Evaluation of transobturator tapes (E-TOT) study: randomised prospective single-blinded study comparing inside-out vs. outside-in transobturator tapes in management of urodynamic stress incontinence: short term outcomes. (United States)

    Abdel-fattah, Mohamed; Ramsay, Iain; Pringle, Stewart; Hardwick, Chris; Ali, Hassan


    To compare the "inside-out (TVT-O)" vs. "outside-in (ARIS)" transobturator tapes in the management of female urodynamic stress incontinence (USI) and to identify independent risk factors of failure of transobturator tapes. A prospective, single blinded, randomised trial. Women undergoing transobturator tapes as sole procedure in the period April 2005 and April 2007 were randomised to TVT-O for the inside-out approach and TOT-ARIS for the outside-in approach. The primary outcome measure at 6 months was the absence of USI on urodynamics. Secondary outcomes included; patient-reported success rates, overall patient satisfaction and peri-operative complications. 341 women were recruited: 171 in the outside-in group and 170 in the inside-out. Severe post-operative thigh pain was twice as common in the inside-out group but this was not statistically significant (6.7% vs. 3.5%, p=0.19). 317 women completed the 6 months follow-up; objective cure rates and patient-reported success rates were 85.4 and 80.5%, respectively, with no significant difference between the groups (p=0.28 and p=0.138, respectively). On multivariate analysis: low maximum urethral closure pressure (MUCP) (inside-out (TVT-O)" and "outside-in (ARIS)" transobturator tape procedures in the management of female USI at 6 months follow-up. Previous incontinence surgery and low MUCP were significant risk factors for failure of transobturator tapes. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Epitaxial growth of hetero-Ln-MOF hierarchical single crystals for domain- and orientation-controlled multicolor luminescence 3D coding capability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Mei; Zhu, Yi-Xuan; Wu, Kai; Chen, Ling; Hou, Ya-Jun; Yin, Shao-Yun; Wang, Hai-Ping; Fan, Ya-Nan [MOE Laboratory of Bioinorganic and Synthetic Chemistry, Lehn Institute of Functional Materials, School of Chemistry, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China); Su, Cheng-Yong [MOE Laboratory of Bioinorganic and Synthetic Chemistry, Lehn Institute of Functional Materials, School of Chemistry, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China); State Key Laboratory of Applied Organic Chemistry, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou (China)


    Core-shell or striped heteroatomic lanthanide metal-organic framework hierarchical single crystals were obtained by liquid-phase anisotropic epitaxial growth, maintaining identical periodic organization while simultaneously exhibiting spatially segregated structure. Different types of domain and orientation-controlled multicolor photophysical models are presented, which show either visually distinguishable or visible/near infrared (NIR) emissive colors. This provides a new bottom-up strategy toward the design of hierarchical molecular systems, offering high-throughput and multiplexed luminescence color tunability and readability. The unique capability of combining spectroscopic coding with 3D (three-dimensional) microscale spatial coding is established, providing potential applications in anti-counterfeiting, color barcoding, and other types of integrated and miniaturized optoelectronic materials and devices. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  6. Randomised prospective single-blinded study comparing 'inside-out' versus 'outside-in' transobturator tapes in the management of urodynamic stress incontinence: 1-year outcomes from the E-TOT study. (United States)

    Abdel-Fattah, M; Ramsay, I; Pringle, S; Hardwick, C; Ali, H; Young, D; Mostafa, A


    To compare the 'inside-out' versus 'outside-in' routes for transobturator tape insertion for urodynamic stress incontinence, and to identify independent risk factors for failure at 1 year. Prospective single-blinded randomised trial. Tertiary urogynaecology centre. A cohort of 341 women undergoing transobturator tape procedures between April 2005 and April 2007. Women were randomised to tension-free vaginal tape-obturator (TVT)-O for the 'inside-out' route (n = 170) and transobturator tape (TOT)-ARIS for the 'outside-in' route (n = 171). Participants completed validated symptom-severity, quality-of-life and sexual-function questionnaires before and after surgery. In addition, they completed the patient global impression of improvement questionnaire (PGI-I) and standard 1-hour pad test postoperatively. The primary outcome was the patient-reported success rate reported on the PGI-I scale. Secondary outcomes included objective cure rate and improvement in King's Health Questionnaire scores. A total of 341 women were recruited: 171 women to the 'outside-in' (TOT-ARIS) group and 170 to the 'inside-out' (TVT-O) group; 299 completed the 1-year follow up. The patient-reported success rate was 80% with no statistically significant differences between the groups ('outside-in' 77.6% versus 'inside-out' 81.2%; OR 1.25; 95% CI 0.71, 2.20; P = 0.54). The objective cure rate was 91% with no statistically significant difference between the groups ('outside-in' 88% versus 'inside-out' 94%; OR 2.21; 95% CI 0.85, 5.75; P = 0.157). Previous incontinence surgery (OR 1.41; 95% CI 1.18, 1.91; P = 0.029) and preoperative urgency incontinence (OR 1.78; 95% CI 1.21, 3.91, P = 0.048) were significant risk factors for failure of transobturator tape at the 1-year follow up. There are no significant differences in patient reported and objective cure rates between 'inside-out' and 'outside-in' transobturator tapes. Quality of life and sexual function significantly improved following surgery

  7. Controllable growth of polyaniline nanowire arrays on hierarchical macro/mesoporous graphene foams for high-performance flexible supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Pingping [State Key Laboratory for Modification of Chemical Fibers and Polymer Materials, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Department of Materials Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Zhao, Xin, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory for Modification of Chemical Fibers and Polymer Materials, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Li, Yingzhi [State Key Laboratory for Modification of Chemical Fibers and Polymer Materials, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Zhang, Qinghua, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory for Modification of Chemical Fibers and Polymer Materials, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China)


    Highlights: • Hierarchical porous graphene foam prepared by templating and embossing method.. • Vertically PANI nanowires aligned on interconnected porous graphene sheets. • The fRGO-F/PANI device exhibited 939 F g{sup −1} at 1 A g{sup −1}. • ED and PD of fRGO-F/PANI device was 20.9 Wh kg{sup −1} and 103.2 kW kg{sup −1}. - Abstract: Free-standing hierarchical macro/mesoporous flexible graphene foam have been constructed by rational intergration ofwell dispersed graphene oxide sheets and amino-modified polystyrene (PS) spheres through a facile “templating and embossing” technique. The three dimensional (3D) macro/mesoporous flexible graphene foam not only inherits the uniform porous structures of graphene foam, but also contains hierarchical macro/mesopores on the struts by sacrificing PS spheres and the activation of KOH, which could providing rapid pathways for ionic and electronic transport to high specific capacitance. Vertically polyaniline (PANI) nanowire arrays are then uniformly deposited onto the hierarchical macro/mesoporous graphene foam(fRGO-F/PANI) by a simple in situ polymerization, which show a high specific capacitance of 939 F g{sup −1}. Thanks to the synergistic function of 3D bicontinuous hierarchical porous structure of graphene foam and effective immobilization of PANI nanowires on the struts, the assembled symmetric supercapctior with fRGO-F/PANI as electrodes exhibits a maximum energy density and power density of 20.9 Wh kg{sup −1} and 103.2 kW kg{sup −1}, respectively. Moreover, it also displays an excellent cyclic stability with a 88.7% retention after 5000 cycles.

  8. In situ controlled rapid growth of novel high activity TiB2/(TiB2–TiN hierarchical/heterostructured nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jilin Wang


    Full Text Available In this work, a reaction coupling self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (RC-SHS method was developed for the in situ controlled synthesis of novel, high activity TiB2/(TiB2–TiN hierarchical/heterostructured nanocomposites using TiO2, Mg, B2O3, KBH4 and NH4NO3 as raw materials. The as-synthesized samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscope (SEM, X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX, transition electron microscopy (TEM, high-resolution TEM (HRTEM and selected-area electron diffraction (SAED. The obtained TiB2/TiN hierarchical/heterostructured nanocomposites demonstrated an average particle size of 100–500 nm, and every particle surface was covered by many multibranched, tapered nanorods with diameters in the range of 10–40 nm and lengths of 50–200 nm. In addition, the tapered nanorod presents a rough surface with abundant exposed atoms. The internal and external components of the nanorods were TiB2 and TiN, respectively. Additionally, a thermogravimetric and differential scanning calorimetry analyzer (TG-DSC comparison analysis indicated that the as-synthesized samples presented better chemical activity than that of commercial TiB2 powders. Finally, the possible chemical reactions as well as the proposed growth mechanism of the TiB2/(TiB2–TiN hierarchical/heterostructured nanocomposites were further discussed.

  9. Vapor-solid growth of p-Te/n-SnO2 hierarchical heterostructures and their enhanced room-temperature gas sensing properties. (United States)

    Her, Yung-Chiun; Yeh, Bu-Yu; Huang, Sing-Lin


    We have synthesized brushlike p-Te/n-SnO2 hierarchical heterostructures by a two-step thermal vapor transport process. The morphologies of the branched Te nanostructures can be manipulated by adjusting the source temperature or the argon flow rate. The growth of the branched Te nanotubes on the SnO2 nanowire backbones can be ascribed to the vapor-solid (VS) growth mechanism, in which the inherent anisotropic nature of Te lattice and/or dislocations lying along the Te nanotubes axis should play critical roles. When exposed to CO and NO2 gases at room temperature, Te/SnO2 hierarchical heterostructures changed the resistance in the same trend and exhibited much higher responses and faster response speeds than the Te nanotube counterparts. The enhancement in gas sensing performance can be ascribed to the higher specific surface areas and formations of numerous Te/Te or TeO2/TeO2 bridging point contacts and additional p-Te/n-SnO2 heterojunctions.

  10. Sphere-shaped hierarchical cathode with enhanced growth of nanocrystal planes for high-rate and cycling-stable li-ion batteries. (United States)

    Zhang, Linjing; Li, Ning; Wu, Borong; Xu, Hongliang; Wang, Lei; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Wu, Feng


    High-energy and high-power Li-ion batteries have been intensively pursued as power sources in electronic vehicles and renewable energy storage systems in smart grids. With this purpose, developing high-performance cathode materials is urgently needed. Here we report an easy and versatile strategy to fabricate high-rate and cycling-stable hierarchical sphered cathode Li(1.2)Ni(0.13)Mn(0.54)Co(0.13)O2, by using an ionic interfusion method. The sphere-shaped hierarchical cathode is assembled with primary nanoplates with enhanced growth of nanocrystal planes in favor of Li(+) intercalation/deintercalation, such as (010), (100), and (110) planes. This material with such unique structural features exhibits outstanding rate capability, cyclability, and high discharge capacities, achieving around 70% (175 mAh g(-1)) of the capacity at 0.1 C rate within about 2.1 min of ultrafast charging. Such cathode is feasible to construct high-energy and high-power Li-ion batteries.

  11. Inside-Out or Outside-In Suturing Should Not Be Considered the Standard Repair Method for Radial Tears of the Midbody of the Lateral Meniscus: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Biomechanical Studies. (United States)

    Alentorn-Geli, Eduard; Choi, J H James; Stuart, Joseph J; Toth, Alison P; Garrett, William E; Taylor, Dean C; Moorman, Claude T


    The purpose was to evaluate which meniscal repair technique for radial tears of the midbody of the lateral meniscus demonstrates the best biomechanical properties. An electronic literature search was conducted using PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, and ScienceDirect databases. Biomechanical studies investigating the repair characteristics of radial tears in the midbody of the lateral meniscus were included. After appropriate screening, a total of 54 studies were reviewed in detail (full text), and 6 met inclusion criteria. The most common cause of exclusion was the investigation of longitudinal tears. Only two studies could be meta-analyzed. Stiffness was significantly higher for all-inside compared with inside-out repair techniques (p = 0.0009). No significant differences were observed between both suture methods for load to failure (p = 0.45). However, both studies used different all-inside devices and suture constructs. No clear conclusions can be drawn from the comparison of both types of repairs for displacement, site of failure, or contact pressure changes. Overall, there are no conclusive data to suggest that inside-out or outside-in suture repair has better load to failure or stiffness, less displacement, or different site of failure compared with all-inside repair. According to biomechanical data, it is under surgeon's preference to elect one repair technique over the other. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  12. Hierarchical XP


    Jacobi, Carsten; Rumpe, Bernhard


    XP is a light-weight methodology suited particularly for small-sized teams that develop software which has only vague or rapidly changing requirements. The discipline of systems engineering knows it as approach of incremental system change or also of "muddling through". In this paper, we introduce three well known methods of reorganizing companies, namely, the holistic approach, the incremental approach, and the hierarchical approach. We show similarities between software engineering methods ...

  13. Queering Educational Leadership from the inside out (United States)

    Rottmann, Cindy


    This article draws from poststructuralist, feminist and identity-based political foundations of queer theory to construct a conceptual lens which complements other critical, anti-oppression frameworks. It reveals some of the internal struggles in the field of queer studies, describes the social context for issues related to sexuality in North…

  14. Educational Professionalism: An Inside-Out View (United States)

    Glazer, Joshua L.


    The past two decades have witnessed numerous efforts to enhance educational professionalism, such as more stringent requirements for entry, increased autonomy, and higher pay. Yet, these types of initiatives typically target aspects of the profession external to the work of teaching. In this article, I expand the view of professionalism implicit…

  15. Inside out Studio: Hope Arts Providence Project (United States)

    Gerdts, Nadine


    The construction and infrastructure of a city provide the foundation of an ideal urban lab for high school students to discover how to dissect the multifaceted layers of a place and make it their own. For six weeks in the winter of 2008, ninth-grade students in Providence, Rhode Island's Hope High School/Hope Arts Community learned to look closely…

  16. Turning Our World of Learning Inside Out! (United States)

    Monsalvatge, Laura; Long, Kris; DiBello, Lilia


    Early childhood professionals constantly reflect upon how to improve the quality of educational experiences for young children. They are often encouraged to create centers that support the development of language, literacy and mathematical concepts inside the classroom, but they often forget that there is an untapped world of learning just outside…

  17. Microsoft Office Excel 2003 Inside Out

    CERN Document Server

    Stinson, Craig


    Hey, you know your way around a spreadsheet-so now dig into Excel 2003 and really put your data to work! This supremely organized reference packs hundreds of timesaving solutions, troubleshooting tips, and handy workarounds in concise, fast-answer format. It's all muscle and no fluff. Discover the best and fastest ways to perform everyday tasks, and challenge yourself to new levels of Excel mastery! Build on what you already know about Excel and quickly dive into what's newLearn how the experts design more powerful spreadsheetsSharpen your core to advanced document editing and formatting skil

  18. Inside/Out: Interventionen in Raum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Hark


    Full Text Available Die erstmals in deutscher Übersetzung vorliegenden Aufsätze dieses Bandes, allesamt Klassiker der US-amerikanischen Queer Theory, thematisieren den komplexen Zusammenhang von Sexualität, Identität und räumlicher Verortung. Ausgehend von der Kritik an der vorgeblichen Eindeutigkeit der Trennung von privat/öffentlich sowie an den räumlichen Bildern des Closet und Coming-Out soll das Verhältnis von Sexualität und Raum neu gedacht werden. Die Beiträgerinnen und Beiträger plädieren für ein Denken, das den vielgestaltigen Praxen, queere Räume zu eröffnen, zu bewohnen und zu erfahren, Rechnung trägt, – und führen es zugleich in inspirierender und aufregender Weise vor.

  19. Information and Communication Technology Inside Out

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Søren


    Information and communication technology (ICT) has become the great technological fix of our time and not the least in the education system. There seems to be no end to the hype of ICT and the accompanying promises that education will be revolutionized—“smart” pupils will be made and the so...

  20. Self-Esteem: From the inside Out. (United States)

    Johnson, Christopher


    Argues that students' self-esteem must come from within. Provides strategies to help teachers create a classroom environment that allows students to build their own self-esteem, including (1) encouraging instead of praising; (2) building self-reliance; (3) creating a positive atmosphere of belonging; (4) recognizing individuality; and (5) modeling…

  1. Hierarchical stochastic modeling of large river ecosystems and fish growth across spatio-temporal scales and climate models: the Missouri River endangered pallid sturgeon example (United States)

    Wildhaber, Mark L.; Wikle, Christopher K.; Moran, Edward H.; Anderson, Christopher J.; Franz, Kristie J.; Dey, Rima


    We present a hierarchical series of spatially decreasing and temporally increasing models to evaluate the uncertainty in the atmosphere – ocean global climate model (AOGCM) and the regional climate model (RCM) relative to the uncertainty in the somatic growth of the endangered pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus). For effects on fish populations of riverine ecosystems, cli- mate output simulated by coarse-resolution AOGCMs and RCMs must be downscaled to basins to river hydrology to population response. One needs to transfer the information from these climate simulations down to the individual scale in a way that minimizes extrapolation and can account for spatio-temporal variability in the intervening stages. The goal is a framework to determine whether, given uncertainties in the climate models and the biological response, meaningful inference can still be made. The non-linear downscaling of climate information to the river scale requires that one realistically account for spatial and temporal variability across scale. Our down- scaling procedure includes the use of fixed/calibrated hydrological flow and temperature models coupled with a stochastically parameterized sturgeon bioenergetics model. We show that, although there is a large amount of uncertainty associated with both the climate model output and the fish growth process, one can establish significant differences in fish growth distributions between models, and between future and current climates for a given model.

  2. Hierarchical classification approach for mapping rubber tree growth using per-pixel and object-oriented classifiers with SPOT-5 imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayder Dibs


    Full Text Available There has been growing interest in Malaysia to increase the productivity of latex. This made accurate knowledge of rubber tree growth and age distribution a helpful decision making tool for the government, rubber plantation managers, and harvesters. Gathering this information using conventional methods is difficult, time consuming, and limited in spatial coverage. This paper presents hierarchical classification approach to obtain accurate map of rubber tree growth age distribution using SPOT-5 satellite imagery. The objective of the study is to evaluate the performance of pixel-based and object-oriented classifiers for rubber growth classification. At the first level, the general land cover was classified into eight land cover classes (soil, water body, rubber, mature oil palm, young oil palm, forest, urban area, and other vegetation using Mahalanobis distance (MD, k-nearest neighbor (k-NN, and Support Vector Machine (SVM classifiers. Thereafter, the best classification map, k-NN output, was used to select only pixels that belong to the rubber class from the SPOT-5 image. The extracted pixels served as input into the next classification hierarchy where four classifiers, MD, k-NN, SVM, and decision tree (DT, were implemented to map rubber trees into three intra-classes (mature, middle-aged, and young rubbers. The result produced overall accuracy of 97.48%, 96.90%, 96.25%, and 80.80% for k-NN, SVM, MD, and DT respectively. The result indicates that object-oriented classifiers are better than pixel-based methods mapping rubber tree growth.

  3. Hierarchically Ordered Porous and High-Volume Polycaprolactone Microchannel Scaffolds Enhanced Axon Growth in Transected Spinal Cords. (United States)

    Shahriari, Dena; Koffler, Jacob Y; Tuszynski, Mark H; Campana, Wendy M; Sakamoto, Jeff S


    The goal of this work was to design nerve guidance scaffolds with a unique architecture to maximize the open volume available for nerve growth. Polycaprolactone (PCL) was selected as the scaffold material based on its biocompatibility and month-long degradation. Yet, dense PCL does not exhibit suitable properties such as porosity, stiffness, strength, and cell adhesion to function as an effective nerve guidance scaffold. To address these shortcomings, PCL was processed using a modified salt-leaching technique to create uniquely controlled interconnected porosity. By controlling porosity, we demonstrated that the elastic modulus could be controlled between 2.09 and 182.1 MPa. In addition, introducing porosity and/or coating with fibronectin enhanced the PCL cell attachment properties. To produce PCL scaffolds with maximized open volume, porous PCL microtubes were fabricated and translated into scaffolds with 60 volume percent open volume. The scaffolds were tested in transected rat spinal cords. Linear axon growth within both the microtubes as well as the interstitial space between the tubes was observed, demonstrating that the entire open volume of the scaffold was available for nerve growth. Overall, a novel scaffold architecture and fabrication technique are presented. The scaffolds exhibit significantly higher volume than state-of-the-art scaffolds for promising spinal cord nerve repair.

  4. Hierarchical ZnS-In{sub 2}S{sub 3}-CuS nanospheres with nanoporous structure: facile synthesis, growth mechanism, and excellent photocatalytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yingxuan; Chen, Gang; Wang, Qun; Wang, Xu; Zhou, Ankun; Shen, Zaoyu [Department of Chemistry, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)


    Without using any templates or surfactants, hierarchical ZnS-In{sub 2}S{sub 3}-CuS nanospheres with nanoporous structure are successfully synthesized via a simple and convenient process. The nanospheres are aggregations of densely packed nanoparticles and nanorods. Different to the oriented attachment (OA) mechanism reported in the literature, the formation of these nanorods is believed to follow a lateral OA mechanism (nanoparticles attach along the direction perpendicular to the crystallographic axes with lateral planes as the juncture) based on the experimental data. This process could be a general phenomenon and would provide a new insight into the OA mechanism. A detailed time-resolved TEM kinetic study of the formation of the complex structure is shown. The dipole mechanism and electric field-induced growth are found to be responsible for the final architecture. Photocatalytic activities for water splitting are investigated under visible-light irradiation ({lambda} > 400 nm) and an especially high photocatalytic activity (apparent yield of 22.6% at 420 nm) is achieved by unloaded ZnIn{sub 0.25}Cu{sub 0.02}S{sub 1.395} prepared at 180 C for 18 h because of their high crystallinity, large pore volume, and the presence of nanorods with special microstructures. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  5. A Bayesian hierarchical mixture model for platelet derived growth factor receptor phosphorylation to improve estimation of progression-free survival in prostate cancer (United States)

    Morita, Satoshi; Thall, Peter F.; Bekele, B. Nebiyou; Mathew, Paul


    SUMMARY Advances in understanding the biological underpinnings of many cancers have led increasingly to the use of molecularly targeted anti-cancer therapies. Because the platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) has been implicated in the progression of prostate cancer bone metastases, it is of great interest to examine possible relationships between PDGFR inhibition and therapeutic outcomes. Here, we analyze the association between change in activated PDGFR (p-PDGFR) and progression free survival (PFS) time based on large within-patient samples of cell-specific p-PDGFR values taken before and after treatment from each of 88 prostate cancer patients. To utilize these paired samples as covariate data in a regression model for PFS time, and because the p-PDGFR distributions are bimodal, we first employ a Bayesian hierarchical mixture model to obtain a deconvolution of the pre-treatment and post-treatment within-patient p-PDGFR distributions. We evaluate fits of the mixture model and a non-mixture model that ignores the bimodality by using a supnorm metric to compare the empirical distribution of each p-PDGFR data set with the corresponding fitted distribution under each model. Our results show that first using the mixture model to account for the bimodality of the within-patient p-PDGFR distributions, and then using the posterior within-patient component mean changes in p-PDGFR so obtained as covariates in the regression model for PFS time provides an improved estimation. PMID:20390057

  6. Does improvement in maternal attachment representations predict greater maternal sensitivity, child attachment security and lower rates of relapse to substance use? A second test of Mothering from the Inside Out treatment mechanisms. (United States)

    Suchman, Nancy E; DeCoste, Cindy; Borelli, Jessica L; McMahon, Thomas J


    In this study, we replicated a rigorous test of the proposed mechanisms of change associated with Mothering from the Inside out (MIO), an evidence-based parenting therapy that aims to enhance maternal reflective functioning and mental representations of caregiving in mothers enrolled in addiction treatment and caring for young children. First, using data from 84 mothers who enrolled in our second randomized controlled trial, we examined whether therapist fidelity to core MIO treatment components predicted improvement in maternal reflective functioning and mental representations of caregiving, even after taking fidelity to non-MIO components into account. Next, we examined whether improvement in directly targeted outcomes (e.g., maternal mentalizing and mental representations of caregiving) led to improvements in the indirectly targeted outcome of maternal caregiving sensitivity, even after controlling for other plausible competing mechanisms (e.g., improvement in maternal psychiatric distress and substance use). Third, we examined whether improvement in targeted parenting outcomes (e.g., maternal mentalizing, mental representations of caregiving and caregiving sensitivity) was associated in improvement in child attachment status, even after controlling for competing mechanisms (e.g., improvement in maternal psychiatric distress and substance use). Finally, we examined whether improvement in maternal mentalizing and caregiving representations was associated with a reduction in relapse to substance use. Support was found for the first three tests of mechanisms but not the fourth. Implications for future research and intervention development are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Inside/Out: Interventionen in Raum Inside/Out: Interventions in Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Hark


    Full Text Available Die erstmals in deutscher Übersetzung vorliegenden Aufsätze dieses Bandes, allesamt Klassiker der US-amerikanischen Queer Theory, thematisieren den komplexen Zusammenhang von Sexualität, Identität und räumlicher Verortung. Ausgehend von der Kritik an der vorgeblichen Eindeutigkeit der Trennung von privat/öffentlich sowie an den räumlichen Bildern des Closet und Coming-Out soll das Verhältnis von Sexualität und Raum neu gedacht werden. Die Beiträgerinnen und Beiträger plädieren f��r ein Denken, das den vielgestaltigen Praxen, queere Räume zu eröffnen, zu bewohnen und zu erfahren, Rechnung trägt, – und führen es zugleich in inspirierender und aufregender Weise vor.The essays in the volume at hand comprise the first translations into German of US-American Queer Theory classics. They explore the complex interrelation of sexuality, identity, and spatial positioning. The essays intentions are to reconceive the relationship between sexuality and space, taking as their points of departure both the critique of the supposed transparency of the separation between private and public as well as the spatial images of the closet and coming out. The authors plead for a thinking that allows for the complex praxis of opening, occupying, and experiencing queer spaces—and at the same time they present this in an inspiring and exciting manner.

  8. Evaluating the Femoral-Side Critical Corner in Posterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: The Effect of Outside-In Versus Inside-Out Creation of Femoral Tunnels on Graft Contact Pressure in a Synthetic Knee Model. (United States)

    Narvy, Steven J; Hatch, George F; Ihn, Hansel E; Heckmann, Nathanael D; McGarry, Michelle H; Tibone, James E; Lee, Thay Q


    To characterize and compare the graft contact characteristics of outside-in (OI) and inside-out (IO) femoral tunnels during single-bundle reconstruction of the anterolateral bundle of the posterior cruciate ligament in a synthetic knee model. Femoral tunnels were separately made in 16 synthetic femora (8 OI and 8 IO). Achilles tendon allografts were fixed using suspensory fixation with a pressure sensor between the allograft and femoral tunnel. Grafts were cyclically loaded; force, contact area, contact pressure, and peak pressure at the aperture were measured. This process was repeated using the same allograft to assess the other tunnel angle in a separate specimen. IO specimens showed higher mean contact pressure at all loading cycles, with significance shown at 50 N (P = .02). Peak pressure was also greater in IO specimens at all loading cycles and reached statistical significance at 100 N (P = .04). IO specimens had a lower contact area at 150 N (P = .04). No statistically significant differences in force were observed between the 2 groups. OI creation of the femoral tunnel for anterolateral bundle reconstruction of the posterior cruciate ligament resulted in decreased mean and peak contact pressures at the femoral aperture compared with IO tunnel creation at the specific trajectories and loading parameters tested in this synthetic femoral model. These biomechanical data suggest that OI creation of the femoral tunnel may help reduce in vivo graft contact pressure at the femoral aperture. These data suggest that a tunnel drilled from OI may result in less graft pressure at the femoral aperture, which may prevent graft elongation and optimize graft survival. Copyright © 2017 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Erica June; Van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Skelton, Rosalind E.; Bezanson, Rachel; Lundgren, Britt [Astronomy Department, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Brammer, Gabriel [European Southern Observatory, Alonson de Cordova 3107, Casilla 19001, Vitacura, Santiago (Chile); Foerster Schreiber, Natascha [Max-Planck-Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Franx, Marijn; Fumagalli, Mattia; Patel, Shannon; Labbe, Ivo [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, Leiden (Netherlands); Rix, Hans-Walter; Da Cunha, Elisabete; Schmidt, Kasper B. [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy (MPIA), Koenigstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Kriek, Mariska [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Quadri, Ryan [Carnegie Observatories, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States)


    We investigate the buildup of galaxies at z {approx} 1 using maps of H{alpha} and stellar continuum emission for a sample of 57 galaxies with rest-frame H{alpha} equivalent widths >100 A in the 3D-HST grism survey. We find that the H{alpha} emission broadly follows the rest-frame R-band light but that it is typically somewhat more extended and clumpy. We quantify the spatial distribution with the half-light radius. The median H{alpha} effective radius r{sub e} (H{alpha}) is 4.2 {+-} 0.1 kpc but the sizes span a large range, from compact objects with r{sub e} (H{alpha}) {approx} 1.0 kpc to extended disks with r{sub e} (H{alpha}) {approx} 15 kpc. Comparing H{alpha} sizes to continuum sizes, we find =1.3 {+-} 0.1 for the full sample. That is, star formation, as traced by H{alpha}, typically occurs out to larger radii than the rest-frame R-band stellar continuum; galaxies are growing their radii and building up from the inside out. This effect appears to be somewhat more pronounced for the largest galaxies. Using the measured H{alpha} sizes, we derive star formation rate surface densities, {Sigma}{sub SFR}. We find that {Sigma}{sub SFR} ranges from {approx}0.05 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} kpc{sup -2} for the largest galaxies to {approx}5 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} kpc{sup -2} for the smallest galaxies, implying a large range in physical conditions in rapidly star-forming z {approx} 1 galaxies. Finally, we infer that all galaxies in the sample have very high gas mass fractions and stellar mass doubling times <500 Myr. Although other explanations are also possible, a straightforward interpretation is that we are simultaneously witnessing the rapid formation of compact bulges and large disks at z {approx} 1.

  10. Hierarchical growth of TiO2 nanosheets on anodic ZnO nanowires for high efficiency dye-sensitized solar cells (United States)

    Miles, David O.; Lee, Chang Soo; Cameron, Petra J.; Mattia, Davide; Kim, Jong Hak


    We present a novel route to hierarchical core-shell structures consisting of an anodic ZnO nanowire core surrounded by a shell of TiO2 nanosheets (ZNW@TNS). This material combines the beneficial properties of enhanced electron transport, provided by the nanowire core, with the high surface area and chemical stability of the TiO2 shell. Quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (qssDSSCs) are prepared using different quantities of either the bare ZnO nanowires or the hierarchical nanowire structures and the effect on cell performance is examined. It is found that whilst the addition of the bare ZnO nanowires results in a decrease in cell performance, significant improvements can be achieved with the addition of small quantities of the hierarchical structures. Power conversion efficiencies of up to 7.5% are achieved under 1 Sun, AM 1.5 simulated sunlight, with a ∼30% increase compared to non-hierarchical mesoporous TiO2 films. A solid-state DSSC (ssDSSC) with a single component solid polymer also exhibits excellent efficiency of 7.2%. The improvement in cell performance is related to the improved light scattering, surface area and electron transport properties via the use of reflectance spectroscopy, BET surface area measurements and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.

  11. Growth of hierarchical 3D mesoporous NiSix /NiCo2 O4 core/shell heterostructures on nickel foam for lithium-ion batteries. (United States)

    Zhang, Qiaobao; Chen, Huixin; Wang, Jiexi; Xu, Daguo; Li, Xinhai; Yang, Yong; Zhang, Kaili


    We demonstrate the facile and well-controlled design and fabrication of heterostructured and hierarchical 3D mesoporous NiSix /NiCo2 O4 core/shell nanowire arrays on nickel foam through a facile chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique combined with a simple but powerful chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique. The smart hybridization of NiCo2 O4 and NiSix nanostructures results in an intriguing mesoporous hierarchical core/shell nanowire-array architecture. The nanowire arrays demonstrate enhanced electrochemical performance as binder- and conductive-agent-free electrodes for lithium ion batteries (LIBs) with excellent capacity retention and high rate capability on cycling. The electrodes can maintain a high reversible capacity of 1693 mA h g(-1) after 50 cycles at 20 mA g(-1) . Given the outstanding performance and simple, efficient, cost-effective fabrication, we believe that these 3D NiSix /NiCo2 O4 core/shell heterostructured arrays have great potential application in high-performance LIBs. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Growth of Hierarchal Mesoporous NiO Nanosheets on Carbon Cloth as Binder-free Anodes for High-performance Flexible Lithium-ion Batteries (United States)

    Long, Hu; Shi, Tielin; Hu, Hao; Jiang, Shulan; Xi, Shuang; Tang, Zirong


    Mesoporous NiO nanosheets were directly grown on three-dimensional (3D) carbon cloth substrate, which can be used as binder-free anode for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). These mesoporous nanosheets were interconnected with each other and forming a network with interval voids, which give rise to large surface area and efficient buffering of the volume change. The integrated hierarchical electrode maintains all the advantageous features of directly building two-dimensional (2D) nanostructues on 3D conductive substrate, such as short diffusion length, strain relaxation and fast electron transport. As the LIB anode, it presents a high reversible capacity of 892.6 mAh g-1 after 120 cycles at a current density of 100 mA g-1 and 758.1 mAh g-1 at a high charging rate of 700 mA g-1 after 150 cycles. As demonstrated in this work, the hierarchical NiO nanosheets/carbon cloth also shows high flexibility, which can be directly used as the anode to build flexible LIBs. The introduced facile and low-cost method to prepare NiO nanosheets on flexible and conductive carbon cloth substrate is promising for the fabrication of high performance energy storage devices, especially for next-generation wearable electronic devices.

  13. Catalysis with hierarchical zeolites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Martin Spangsberg; Taarning, Esben; Egeblad, Kresten


    topic. Until now, the main reason for developing hierarchical zeolites has been to achieve heterogeneous catalysts with improved performance but this particular facet has not yet been reviewed in detail. Thus, the present paper summaries and categorizes the catalytic studies utilizing hierarchical...

  14. Hierarchical multifunctional nanocomposites (United States)

    Ghasemi-Nejhad, Mehrdad N.


    properties of the fibers can also be improved by the growth of nanotubes on the fibers. The combination of the two will produce super-performing materials, not currently available. Since the improvement of fiber starts with carbon nanotube grown on micron-size fibers (and matrix with a nanomaterial) to give the macro-composite, this process is a bottom-up "hierarchical" advanced manufacturing process, and since the resulting nanocomposites will have "multifunctionality" with improve properties in various functional areas such as chemical and fire resistance, damping, stiffness, strength, fracture toughness, EMI shielding, and electrical and thermal conductivity, the resulting nanocomposites are in fact "multifunctional hierarchical nanocomposites." In this paper, the current state of knowledge in processing, performance, and characterization of these materials are addressed.

  15. Facile growth and composition-dependent photocatalytic activity of flowerlike BiOCl{sub 1−x}Br{sub x} hierarchical microspheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, Qin; Guo, Yingna [School of Chemistry, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024 (China); Zhou, Dandan; Yang, Yuxin [School of Environment, Northeast Normal University, Changchun, 130117 (China); Guo, Yihang, E-mail: [School of Environment, Northeast Normal University, Changchun, 130117 (China)


    Highlights: • Flowerlike BiOCl{sub 1−x}Br{sub x} hierarchical microspheres were prepared by solvothermal route. • BiOCl{sub 1−x}Br{sub x} microspheres exhibited composition-dependent photocatalytic activity. • Band gap and potential of valence band dominated the photoactivity of BiOCl{sub 1−x}Br{sub x}. • BiOCl{sub 1−x}Br{sub x} microspheres can be reused at least four times without obvious activity loss. - Abstract: A group of nanosheet-assembled three-dimensional BiOCl{sub 1−x}Br{sub x} hierarchical microspheres (x = 0, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.7, 0.8 and 1.0) with layered tetragonal crystal phase were prepared by 2-methoxyethanol-assisted solvothermal route and using ionic liquids as both halogen sources and structure-directing agent. By the combination of the results including XRD, XPS and UV–vis/DR spectra, lattice substitution of halogen atoms each other and then formation of BiOCl{sub 1−x}Br{sub x} solid solution was evidenced. Additionally, the BiOCl{sub 1−x}Br{sub x} microspheres exhibited interesting composition-dependent band gaps. The simulated sunlight and visible-light photocatalytic properties including degradation, mineralization and reusability of the BiOCl{sub 1−x}Br{sub x} microspheres were evaluated by selecting p-nitrophenol (PNP) and tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBPA) as the target pollutant compounds, finding that the balance between the suitable band gap and adequate potential of the valence band in BiOCl{sub 1−x}Br{sub x} crystals dominated their photocatalytic activity. Additionally, the BiOCl{sub 1−x}Br{sub x} microspheres with advantages such as enhanced photon utilization efficiency, larger BET surface area and favorable (110) exposed reactive surface gave the positive influence on their photocatalytic activity. Based on the results of photoelectrochemistry experiment and indirect chemical probe testing, direct {sup •} O{sub 2}{sup −} and h{sub VB}{sup +} photooxidation for the decomposition of PNP or TBBPA was

  16. Introduction into Hierarchical Matrices

    KAUST Repository

    Litvinenko, Alexander


    Hierarchical matrices allow us to reduce computational storage and cost from cubic to almost linear. This technique can be applied for solving PDEs, integral equations, matrix equations and approximation of large covariance and precision matrices.

  17. Programming with Hierarchical Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørbæk, Peter

    This report desribes the hierarchical maps used as a central data structure in the Corundum framework. We describe its most prominent features, ague for its usefulness and briefly describe some of the software prototypes implemented using the technology....

  18. Micromechanics of hierarchical materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mishnaevsky, Leon, Jr.


    A short overview of micromechanical models of hierarchical materials (hybrid composites, biomaterials, fractal materials, etc.) is given. Several examples of the modeling of strength and damage in hierarchical materials are summarized, among them, 3D FE model of hybrid composites...... with nanoengineered matrix, fiber bundle model of UD composites with hierarchically clustered fibers and 3D multilevel model of wood considered as a gradient, cellular material with layered composite cell walls. The main areas of research in micromechanics of hierarchical materials are identified, among them......, the investigations of the effects of load redistribution between reinforcing elements at different scale levels, of the possibilities to control different material properties and to ensure synergy of strengthening effects at different scale levels and using the nanoreinforcement effects. The main future directions...

  19. Growth of three dimensional flower-like molybdenum disulfide hierarchical structures on graphene/carbon nanotube network: An advanced heterostructure for energy storage devices (United States)

    Lingappan, Niranjanmurthi; Van, Ngoc Huynh; Lee, Suok; Kang, Dae Joon


    We report the design and synthesis of three dimensional flower-like molybdenum disulphide (f-MoS2) hierarchical structures, on reduced graphene oxide (RGO)/oxidized multi-walled carbon nanotube (o-MWCNT) backbone (f-MoS2/RGO/o-MWCNT), through one-pot hydrothermal method. Control experiments reveal that the homogenously distributed o-MWCNTs on RGO play an essential role for the formation of such morphology. As an anode for lithium ion batteries, the f-MoS2/RGO/o-MWCNT hybrid delivers a high reversible capacity of 1275 mAh g-1 at the current density of 100 mA g-1, superior rate capability and excellent long cycle life, with capacity retention of 93% after 100 cycles. The outstanding electrochemical performance can be attributed to the large surface area, short diffusion length and continuous electron transport pathway, as a consequence of the intimate contact between f-MoS2, graphene, and o-MWCNTs.

  20. Hydrothermal growth of two dimensional hierarchical MoS2 nanospheres on one dimensional CdS nanorods for high performance and stable visible photocatalytic H2 evolution (United States)

    Chava, Rama Krishna; Do, Jeong Yeon; Kang, Misook


    The visible photocatalytic H2 production from water splitting considered as a clean and renewable energy source could solve the problem of greenhouse gas emission from fossil fuels. Despite tremendous efforts, the development of cost effective, highly efficient and more stable visible photocatalysts for splitting of water remains a great challenge. Here, we report the heteronanostructures consisting of hierarchical MoS2 nanospheres grown on 1D CdS nanorods referred to as CdS-MoS2 HNSs as a high performance visible photocatalyst for H2 evolution. The as-synthesized CdS-MoS2 HNSs exhibited ∼11 fold increment of H2 evolution rate when compared to pure CdS nanorods. This remarkable enhanced hydrogen evolution performance can be assigned to the positive synergetic effect from heteronanostructures formed between the CdS and MoS2 components which assist as an electron sink and source for abundant active edge sites and in turn increases the charge separation. This study presents a low-cost visible photocatalyst for solar energy conversion to achieve efficient H2.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naranjo-Romero, Raúl; Vázquez-Semadeni, Enrique; Loughnane, Robert M. [Instituto de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apdo. Postal 3-72, Morelia, Michoacán, 58089, México (Mexico)


    We investigate the Hierarchical Gravitational Fragmentation scenario through numerical simulations of the prestellar stages of the collapse of a marginally gravitationally unstable isothermal sphere immersed in a strongly gravitationally unstable, uniform background medium. The core developes a Bonnor–Ebert (BE)-like density profile, while at the time of singularity (the protostar) formation the envelope approaches a singular-isothermal-sphere (SIS)-like r{sup −2} density profile. However, these structures are never hydrostatic. In this case, the central flat region is characterized by an infall speed, while the envelope is characterized by a uniform speed. This implies that the hydrostatic SIS initial condition leading to Shu's classical inside-out solution is not expected to occur, and therefore neither should the inside-out solution. Instead, the solution collapses from the outside-in, naturally explaining the observation of extended infall velocities. The core, defined by the radius at which it merges with the background, has a time-variable mass, and evolves along the locus of the ensemble of observed prestellar cores in a plot of M/M{sub BE} versus M, where M is the core's mass and M{sub BE} is the critical BE mass, spanning the range from the “stable” to the “unstable” regimes, even though it is collapsing at all times. We conclude that the presence of an unstable background allows a core to evolve dynamically from the time when it first appears, even when it resembles a pressure-confined, stable BE-sphere. The core can be thought of as a ram-pressure confined BE-sphere, with an increasing mass due to the accretion from the unstable background.

  2. Micromolar Cd2+ affects the growth, hierarchical structure and peptide composition of the biosilica of the freshwater diatom Nitzschia palea (Kutzing) W. Smith

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heredia, Alejandro; Figueira, Etelvina; Rodrigues, Carina T.; Rodriguez-Galvan, Andres; Basiuk, Vladimir A.; Vrieling, Engel G.; Almeida, Salome F. P.

    Biosilica from diatoms is formed at ambient conditions under the control of biological and physicochemical processes. The changes in growth and biosilica formation through uptake of different concentrations of Cd2+ by the diatom Nitzschia palea (Kutzing) W. Smith was investigated, correlating Cd2+

  3. Parallel hierarchical radiosity rendering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, Michael [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    In this dissertation, the step-by-step development of a scalable parallel hierarchical radiosity renderer is documented. First, a new look is taken at the traditional radiosity equation, and a new form is presented in which the matrix of linear system coefficients is transformed into a symmetric matrix, thereby simplifying the problem and enabling a new solution technique to be applied. Next, the state-of-the-art hierarchical radiosity methods are examined for their suitability to parallel implementation, and scalability. Significant enhancements are also discovered which both improve their theoretical foundations and improve the images they generate. The resultant hierarchical radiosity algorithm is then examined for sources of parallelism, and for an architectural mapping. Several architectural mappings are discussed. A few key algorithmic changes are suggested during the process of making the algorithm parallel. Next, the performance, efficiency, and scalability of the algorithm are analyzed. The dissertation closes with a discussion of several ideas which have the potential to further enhance the hierarchical radiosity method, or provide an entirely new forum for the application of hierarchical methods.

  4. A class of vertex-edge-growth small-world network models having scale-free, self-similar and hierarchical characters (United States)

    Ma, Fei; Su, Jing; Hao, Yongxing; Yao, Bing; Yan, Guanghui


    The problem of uncovering the internal operating function of network models is intriguing, demanded and attractive in researches of complex networks. Notice that, in the past two decades, a great number of artificial models are built to try to answer the above mentioned task. Based on the different growth ways, these previous models can be divided into two categories, one type, possessing the preferential attachment, follows a power-law P(k) ∼k-γ, 2 elements.

  5. Hierarchical Network Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomadsen, Tommy


    design. The papers have all been submitted for journals, and except for two papers, are awaiting review. The papers are mostly concerned with optimal methods and, in a few cases, heuristics for designing hierarchical and ring networks. All papers develop bounds which are used in the optimal methods...... danne grundlag for et studie af design af hierarkiske netværk. Afhandlings vigtigste bidrag best ar af syv artikler, der er inkluderet i appendiks. Artiklerne handler om design af hierarkisk netværk og ring netværk. Artiklerne er alle indsendt til videnskablige journaler og afventer bedømmelse, bortset......Communication networks are immensely important today, since both companies and individuals use numerous services that rely on them. This thesis considers the design of hierarchical (communication) networks. Hierarchical networks consist of layers of networks and are well-suited for coping...

  6. Hierarchical Porous Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grote, Christopher John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    Materials Design is often at the forefront of technological innovation. While there has always been a push to generate increasingly low density materials, such as aero or hydrogels, more recently the idea of bicontinuous structures has gone more into play. This review will cover some of the methods and applications for generating both porous, and hierarchically porous structures.

  7. Microparticles with hierarchical porosity (United States)

    Petsev, Dimiter N; Atanassov, Plamen; Pylypenko, Svitlana; Carroll, Nick; Olson, Tim


    The present disclosure provides oxide microparticles with engineered hierarchical porosity and methods of manufacturing the same. Also described are structures that are formed by templating, impregnating, and/or precipitating the oxide microparticles and method for forming the same. Suitable applications include catalysts, electrocatalysts, electrocatalysts support materials, capacitors, drug delivery systems, sensors and chromatography.

  8. Microsoft® Exchange Server 2010 Inside Out

    CERN Document Server

    Redmond, Tony


    Dive into Exchange Server 2010 and SP1-and discover how to really put your messaging solutions to work! This well-organized and in-depth reference packs all the details you need to deploy and manage Exchange 2010, including hundreds of timesaving solutions, expert tips, and workarounds.Topics include preparing for the deployment of Exchange 2010; new features of Service Pack 1; using Remote PowerShell and the Exchange Management Shell; understanding how the new Role Based Access Control (RBAC) permissions model works and how to customize it to your requirements; the new high availability mode

  9. Microsoft® Office Access™ 2007 Inside Out

    CERN Document Server

    Viescas, John


    You're beyond the basics, so dive right in and really put your database skills to work! This supremely organized reference is packed with hundreds of timesaving solutions, troubleshooting tips, and workarounds. It's all muscle and no fluff. Discover how the experts tackle Access 2007-and challenge yourself to new levels of mastery! Create tables that support your database design strategyImport and link to data from spreadsheets, text files, databases, and other ODBC data sourcesBuild simple to complex queries to manipulate dataLearn advanced techniques for building and customizing user inter

  10. Turning Groups Inside Out: A Social Network Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rienties, Bart; Tempelaar, Dirk


    Most research related to learning in groups focuses on the unit of the group and/or its group members. However, students may benefit from crossing the boundaries of their own group, as students in different groups may provide access to new, non-redundant knowledge and opportunities for learning.

  11. Microsoft® Office Excel® 2007 Inside Out

    CERN Document Server

    Dodge, Mark


    You're beyond the basics, so dive in and really put your spreadsheet skills to work! This supremely organized reference is packed with hundreds of timesaving solutions, troubleshooting tips, and workarounds. It's all muscle and no fluff. Discover how the experts tackle Excel 2007-and challenge yourself to new levels of mastery!Learn expert techniques for designing powerful spreadsheetsApply built-in functions-or write your own-and carry out complex calculationsUse rich charting capabilities and new SmartArt graphics to visually represent dataPerform sophisticated data analysis: financial, stat

  12. Looking at High School Mathematics Education from the Inside Out (United States)

    Schornick, Paula


    United States schools are not providing students with the mathematical background necessary to compete on an international level and become successful adults. Recently, educators and researchers have focused on learning what factors might attribute to this lack of mathematical knowledge. However, few studies have searched for answers from the…

  13. Turning the inside out: the microbiology of atopic dermatitis. (United States)

    Brüssow, Harald


    Allergy is on the rise worldwide. The hygiene hypothesis of atopic diseases linked microbes with atopic dermatitis (AD) both as drivers and modulators of skin pathology. The earlier literature favoured an inside-outside model of AD where an immunological abnormality compounded by a gut microbiota dysbiosis is the primary event. Probiotic intervention trials with lactobacilli and bifidobacteria as well as the application of bifidogenic oligosaccharide prebiotics showed indeed promising clinical results, but no consistent gut microbiota dysbiosis could be linked with AD. An alternative hypothesis known as outside-inside model of AD considers a genetic skin barrier effect compounded by a skin microbiota dysbiosis as primary pathogenic event. Cultivation microbiology has demonstrated strong skin colonization with superantigen-encoding Staphylococcus aureus in AD patients; microbiota and molecular microbiome analyses demonstrated that S. aureus abundance fluctuates and parallels clinical symptoms. In a mouse model, δ-toxin of S. aureus induced mast cell degranulation, leading to AD-like symptoms. Mutant mice developing AD symptoms showed increased skin colonization with S. aureus; antibiotic treatment alleviated the symptoms. Clinical trials showed that various treatments reducing S. aureus skin load also reduced AD symptoms, suggesting S. aureus as a potential critical driver of AD and a target for antimicrobial interventions other than antibiotics. © 2015 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Deep Change: Professional Development From the Inside Out (United States)

    Peery, Angela B.


    Professional development for teachers is at a crucial period. In order to help students meet demanding new standards, teachers must have greater success than ever before. The concept of "teacher as learner" must be explored more deeply by educators. At the core of this concept is the idea that many reforms undertaken in the name of greater student…

  15. The Road Less Traveled: Changing Schools from the Inside Out (United States)

    Goodwin, Bryan


    Roughly 30 years ago, American educators stood at a crossroads, with a decision to make about the future of education. With their ears ringing of warnings that they were facing a "rising tide of mediocrity" and recognizing unacceptable gaps in achievement between disadvantaged students and others, educators set off down a path of reform…

  16. Writing for Justice: Persuasion from the Inside Out (United States)

    Hansen, Mark


    In this article, the author shares his experience in teaching persuasive writing to 3rd graders. He began his instruction with a focus on how he could shift the students from rote work on persuasive pieces to actually writing to persuade. For students, careful modeling is the linchpin of any new learning. So, to begin a unit on persuasive writing,…

  17. Looking from the Inside Out: Rethinking University History (United States)

    Horne, Julia


    When Geoffrey Sherington and I set out on our project on the Australian Public University, which culminated in "Sydney: The Making of a Public University" (2012), we wanted to move away from the emphasis of conventional institutional history on chancellors, vice-chancellors and governing councils in order to explore the university as a…

  18. Inside out: Action Research from the Teacher-Researcher Perspective (United States)

    Megowan-Romanowicz, Colleen


    Teachers enrolled in the master of natural science program for high school science teachers at a large research university must complete a year-long action research study. This account, by the program's action research coordinator, describes both process and outcomes of this research experience from the perspectives of the research coordinator and…

  19. Analysing 'from the inside out': Frederic Rzewski's De Profundis from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the musicological discourse on Western Art Music, music analysis and music performance are commonly seen as essentially different activities that generate ontologically different results. The convergence between these activities is that both performers and analysts are engaged with questions of musical meaning: ...

  20. School Reform from the Inside Out: Policy, Practice, and Performance (United States)

    Elmore, Richard F.


    This is essential reading for any school leader, education reformer, policymaker, or citizen interested in the forces that promote school change. "Giving test results to an incoherent, badly run school doesn't automatically make it a better school. The work of turning a school around entails improving the knowledge and skills of…

  1. Inside Out: Knowledge Brokering by Short-Term Policy Placements (United States)

    Bruce, Ann; O'Callaghan, Kenneth


    The evidence-policy interface is important for delivery of sustainable development policy. We examine one specific form of knowledge brokering, the temporary placement of academic research scientists in UK policy arenas. We argue that successful knowledge brokerage depends on establishing social processes critical to effective knowledge exchange.…

  2. The Memristor Inside Out : The missing element has been found!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeltsema, D.


    Earlier this year HP Lab engineers announced their physical realization of the ‘missing’ fourth basic circuit element in electronics: the memristor. Not often a technological discovery attracted so much attention from the media. Apart from the wildest possible speculations on future applications in

  3. Learning/work: Turning work and lifelong learning inside out (United States)

    Walters, Shirley; Cooper, Linda


    CONFINTEA VI took place against the background of an uneven and contradictory social and economic impact of globalisation. This impact registered globally and locally, in both the political North and South, drawing new lines of inequality between "core" and "periphery", between insiders and outsiders of contemporary society. Financial turmoil in the world has exacerbated levels of poverty and insecurity. The question is how work-related education and conceptions of learning might promote greater inclusion and security for those whose livelihoods are most severely affected by globalisation. The Belém Framework for Action implicitly recognises that lifelong learning and work cannot be discussed outside broader socio-economic and political contexts. The authors of this article draw substantially on research from around the world and argue for the re-insertion of "politics and power" into both the theory and practice of "lifelong learning" and "work".

  4. Inside Out: Organizations as Service Systems Equipped with Relational Boundaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Jimena Crespo Garrido


    Full Text Available Currently, literature on organizational boundaries is at the center of a heated debate, characterized by a shift from a transactional approach to a broader immaterial perspective centered on the concept of boundless organizations. However, the overestimation of the effects of contemporary dematerialization on business processes can lead to the progressive neglect of the existence of corporate borders. In light of this consideration, the present work aims at proposing a new type of criterion for defining organizational boundaries, halfway between the conception of the firm’s total openness and total closure. To this end, the authors envisage the use of a new interpretive logic defined as “relational”, resulting from the specification of the systemic view (and as the sum of the logic underlying the viable systems approach (VSA. This approach views the definition of boundaries. Therefore, in the large and intricate scenery of the studies dedicated to organizational boundaries, this work contributes to a better understanding of border selection as an interactive and changeable process capable of pushing organizations towards a greater awareness of their strategic dimension. This paper also offers some insights for future research, suggesting that both scholars and professionals investigate, firstly, new frontiers for the identification of organizational boundaries and, secondly, the possible positive repercussions that new organizational redesign modes could determine for a greater competitive success.

  5. "Inside-out Pedagogy": Theorising Pedagogical Transformation through Teaching Philosophy (United States)

    Scholl, Rosie


    This retrospective interview study focused on the impact that training and implementation of Philosophy, in Lipman's tradition of Philosophy for Children, had on the pedagogy of 14 primary teachers at one school. Semi-structured interviews were conducted to document the impact of teaching Philosophy on pedagogy, the resources required to…

  6. Learning/Work: Turning Work and Lifelong Learning inside out (United States)

    Walters, Shirley; Cooper, Linda


    CONFINTEA VI took place against the background of an uneven and contradictory social and economic impact of globalisation. This impact registered globally and locally, in both the political North and South, drawing new lines of inequality between "core" and "periphery", between insiders and outsiders of contemporary society. Financial turmoil in…

  7. The neurobiology of the emotional adolescent: From the inside out. (United States)

    Guyer, Amanda E; Silk, Jennifer S; Nelson, Eric E


    Adolescents are commonly portrayed as highly emotional, with their behaviors often hijacked by their emotions. Research on the neural substrates of adolescent affective behavior is beginning to paint a more nuanced picture of how neurodevelopmental changes in brain function influence affective behavior, and how these influences are modulated by external factors in the environment. Recent neurodevelopmental models suggest that the brain is designed to promote emotion regulation, learning, and affiliation across development, and that affective behavior reciprocally interacts with age-specific social demands and different social contexts. In this review, we discuss current findings on neurobiological mechanisms of adolescents' affective behavior and highlight individual differences in and social-contextual influences on adolescents' emotionality. Neurobiological mechanisms of affective processes related to anxiety and depression are also discussed as examples. As the field progresses, it will be critical to test new hypotheses generated from the foundational empirical and conceptual work and to focus on identifying more precisely how and when neural networks change in ways that promote or thwart adaptive affective behavior during adolescence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Positioning the Brand 3.0 : An inside out approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rik Riezebos; drs. Jaap van der Grinten


    Korean edition! Positioning is hot. Not only in the realm of consumer goods manufacturers, but also for other companies, institutions, governments and even individual persons. An explosion of good quality products on the market and targeted media and advertising campaigns has led to an increasing

  9. Using Raspberry Pi to Teach Computing "Inside Out" (United States)

    Jaokar, Ajit


    This article discusses the evolution of computing education in preparing for the next wave of computing. With the proliferation of mobile devices, most agree that we are living in a "post-PC" world. Using the Raspberry Pi computer platform, based in the UK, as an example, the author discusses computing education in a world where the…

  10. Inside Out: Action Research from the Teacher-Researcher Perspective (United States)

    Megowan-Romanowicz, Colleen


    Teachers enrolled in the master of natural science program for high school science teachers at a large research university must complete a year-long action research study. This account, by the program’s action research coordinator, describes both process and outcomes of this research experience from the perspectives of the research coordinator and the teacher-researchers, shedding light on the organizational learning that takes place, and the ways in which the research experience affected individual teacher-researchers. Teachers reported that their action research experience changed them in fundamental ways, providing them with a framework for deepening their understanding of student thinking, challenging their folk wisdom about teaching and learning, building confidence in their abilities and renewing their commitment to teaching as a vocation.

  11. The Inside-Out Mechanism of Dicers from Budding Yeasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D Weinberg; K Nakanishi; D Patel; D Bartel


    The Dicer ribonuclease III (RNase III) enzymes process long double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) into small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) that direct RNA interference. Here, we describe the structure and activity of a catalytically active fragment of Kluyveromyces polysporus Dcr1, which represents the noncanonical Dicers found in budding yeasts. The crystal structure revealed a homodimer resembling that of bacterial RNase III but extended by a unique N-terminal domain, and it identified additional catalytic residues conserved throughout eukaryotic RNase III enzymes. Biochemical analyses showed that Dcr1 dimers bind cooperatively along the dsRNA substrate such that the distance between consecutive active sites determines the length of the siRNA products. Thus, unlike canonical Dicers, which successively remove siRNA duplexes from the dsRNA termini, budding-yeast Dicers initiate processing in the interior and work outward. The distinct mechanism of budding-yeast Dicers establishes a paradigm for natural molecular rulers and imparts substrate preferences with ramifications for biological function.

  12. The Inside-Out Mechanism of Dicers from Budding Yeasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinberg, David E.; Nakanishi, Kotaro; Patel, Dinshaw J.; Bartel, David P. (Whitehead); (MSKCC)


    The Dicer ribonuclease III (RNase III) enzymes process long double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) into small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) that direct RNA interference. Here, we describe the structure and activity of a catalytically active fragment of Kluyveromyces polysporus Dcr1, which represents the noncanonical Dicers found in budding yeasts. The crystal structure revealed a homodimer resembling that of bacterial RNase III but extended by a unique N-terminal domain, and it identified additional catalytic residues conserved throughout eukaryotic RNase III enzymes. Biochemical analyses showed that Dcr1 dimers bind cooperatively along the dsRNA substrate such that the distance between consecutive active sites determines the length of the siRNA products. Thus, unlike canonical Dicers, which successively remove siRNA duplexes from the dsRNA termini, budding-yeast Dicers initiate processing in the interior and work outward. The distinct mechanism of budding-yeast Dicers establishes a paradigm for natural molecular rulers and imparts substrate preferences with ramifications for biological function.

  13. Inside out: modern imaging techniques to reveal animal anatomy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lauridsen, Henrik; Hansen, Kasper; Wang, Tobias; Agger, Peter; Andersen, Jonas L; Knudsen, Peter S; Rasmussen, Anne S; Uhrenholt, Lars; Pedersen, Michael


    Animal anatomy has traditionally relied on detailed dissections to produce anatomical illustrations, but modern imaging modalities, such as MRI and CT, now represent an enormous resource that allows...

  14. Inside Out: Modern Imaging Techniques to Reveal Animal Anatomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Henrik; Hansen, Kasper; Wang, Tobias


    and blood vessels in a variety of animals, including fish, amphibians, reptiles, mammals, and spiders. The images have a similar quality to most traditional anatomical drawings and are presented together with interactive movies of the anatomical structures, where the object can be viewed from different...

  15. Oriented attachment growth of BiOCl nanosheets with exposed {l_brace}1 1 0{r_brace} facets and photocatalytic activity of the hierarchical nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Zhankui, E-mail: [Key Laboratory of Micro-Nano Materials for Energy Storage and Conversion of Henan Province, Institute of Surface Micro and Nano Materials, Xuchang University, Xuchang 461000 (China); Mi, Liwei [Key Laboratory of Micro-Nano Materials for Energy Storage and Conversion of Henan Province, Institute of Surface Micro and Nano Materials, Xuchang University, Xuchang 461000 (China); Zeng, Dawen [State Key Laboratory of Material Processing and Die and Mould Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Growth of BiOCl nanosheets in EG medium was experimentally revealed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Oriented attachment mechanism governed formation of single crystalline BiOCl. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The exposed facets of BiOCl nanosheets were {l_brace}1 1 0{r_brace} planes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The samples could efficiently degrade MO irradiated either by UV or by Vis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The high efficiency was associated with the exposed {l_brace}1 1 0{r_brace} facets of BiOCl. - Abstract: The formation mechanism of nanosheet assembled BiOCl nanostructures in non-aqueous solvothermal system was investigated through time series experiments. The products obtained at different reaction times were characterized by XRD, SEM and (HR)TEM techniques. The photocatalytic property of the samples was measured by decomposing the organic dye of methyl orange. The ability to generate hydroxyl radicals for the samples was also measured by photoluminescence method using coumarin as fluorescence probe molecules. It was revealed that oriented attachment was responsible for the slow transformation of BiOCl from polycrystalline nanoparticles to single crystalline nanosheets. The role of the solvent ethylene glycol and the interaction with the other species during the oriented attachment growth of the BiOCl nanosheets was discussed. The photocatalytic activity tests demonstrated that the BiOCl nanostructures could efficiently decompose methyl orange under either UV light irradiation or visible light irradiation. The high photodegradation efficiency was associated with the atomic arrangement of exposed {l_brace}1 1 0{r_brace} facets.

  16. Hierarchical models and functional traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Loon, E.E.; Shamoun-Baranes, J.; Sierdsema, H.; Bouten, W.; Cramer, W.; Badeck, F.; Krukenberg, B.; Klotz, S.; Kühn, I.; Schweiger, O.; Böhning-Gaese, K.; Schaefer, H.-C.; Kissling, D.; Brandl, R.; Brändle, M.; Fricke, R.; Leuschner, C.; Buschmann, H.; Köckermann, B.; Rose, L.


    Hierarchical models for animal abundance prediction are conceptually elegant. They are generally more parsimonous than non-hierarchical models derived from the same data, give relatively robust predictions and automatically provide consistent output at multiple (spatio-temporal) scales. Another

  17. Hierarchical super-structure identified by polarized light microscopy, electron microscopy and nanoindentation: Implications for the limits of biological control over the growth mode of abalone sea shells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schneider Andreas S


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mollusc shells are commonly investigated using high-resolution imaging techniques based on cryo-fixation. Less detailed information is available regarding the light-optical properties. Sea shells of Haliotis pulcherina were embedded for polishing in defined orientations in order to investigate the interface between prismatic calcite and nacreous aragonite by standard materialographic methods. A polished thin section of the interface was prepared with a defined thickness of 60 μm for quantitative birefringence analysis using polarized light and LC-PolScope microscopy. Scanning electron microscopy images were obtained for comparison. In order to study structural-mechanical relationships, nanoindentation experiments were performed. Results Incident light microscopy revealed a super-structure in semi-transparent regions of the polished cross-section under a defined angle. This super-structure is not visible in transmitted birefringence analysis due to the blurred polarization of small nacre platelets and numerous organic interfaces. The relative orientation and homogeneity of calcite prisms was directly identified, some of them with their optical axes exactly normal to the imaging plane. Co-oriented "prism colonies" were identified by polarized light analyses. The nacreous super-structure was also visualized by secondary electron imaging under defined angles. The domains of the super-structure were interpreted to consist of crystallographically aligned platelet stacks. Nanoindentation experiments showed that mechanical properties changed with the same periodicity as the domain size. Conclusions In this study, we have demonstrated that insights into the growth mechanisms of nacre can be obtained by conventional light-optical methods. For example, we observed super-structures formed by co-oriented nacre platelets as previously identified using X-ray Photo-electron Emission Microscopy (X-PEEM [Gilbert et al., Journal of the

  18. Echoes from teacher discourse: an inside-out perspective Echoes from teacher discourse: an inside-out perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana de Carvalho Kuerten Dellagnelo


    Full Text Available Researchers in teacher education have paid increasing attention to teacher reflectivity and its relevance for teaching/learning practices. However, to our knowledge, there has been no investigation of teacher reflectivity from the perspective of Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL. In this paper we draw mainly on SFL to examine aspects of the relationship between teachers and learners as construed in self-evaluative reports written by 4 Brazilian teacher-trainees. These reports – self-reflections on the trainees’ own teaching practices – were collected as part of work developed in a Teaching Practicum Course taken by these trainees. In addition to SFL, in our discussion of results we also draw on research related to teacher education/reflectivity (e.g., Freeman & Johnson, 1998; Richards & Lockart, 1996. The linguistic structures described and interpreted in order to unravel the roles these trainees ascribe to themselves and their students reveal a selfcentered positioning of the trainees as social participants whose practices are shaped by conceptions traditionally established by a culture of schooling which maintains the emphasis of teaching on the transmission of knowledge. Results also reveal asymmetry between teachers and students inasmuch as the latter are construed as playing a secondary role, with little responsibility in the process of teaching/learning a foreign language. The study may contribute to enhance the search for awareness of contrasts between new views of language teaching/learning and traditional perceptions such as the ones conveyed in the reports analyzed. Researchers in teacher education have paid increasing attention to teacher reflectivity and its relevance for teaching/learning practices. However, to our knowledge, there has been no investigation of teacher reflectivity from the perspective of Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL. In this paper we draw mainly on SFL to examine aspects of the relationship between teachers and learners as construed in self-evaluative reports written by 4 Brazilian teacher-trainees. These reports – self-reflections on the trainees’ own teaching practices – were collected as part of work developed in a Teaching Practicum Course taken by these trainees. In addition to SFL, in our discussion of results we also draw on research related to teacher education/reflectivity (e.g., Freeman & Johnson, 1998; Richards & Lockart, 1996. The linguistic structures described and interpreted in order to unravel the roles these trainees ascribe to themselves and their students reveal a selfcentered positioning of the trainees as social participants whose practices are shaped by conceptions traditionally established by a culture of schooling which maintains the emphasis of teaching on the transmission of knowledge. Results also reveal asymmetry between teachers and students inasmuch as the latter are construed as playing a secondary role, with little responsibility in the process of teaching/learning a foreign language. The study may contribute to enhance the search for awareness of contrasts between new views of language teaching/learning and traditional perceptions such as the ones conveyed in the reports analyzed.

  19. Growth, Structure, and Photocatalytic Properties of Hierarchical V₂O₅-TiO₂ Nanotube Arrays Obtained from the One-step Anodic Oxidation of Ti-V Alloys. (United States)

    Nevárez-Martínez, María C; Mazierski, Paweł; Kobylański, Marek P; Szczepańska, Grażyna; Trykowski, Grzegorz; Malankowska, Anna; Kozak, Magda; Espinoza-Montero, Patricio J; Zaleska-Medynska, Adriana


    V₂O₅-TiO₂ mixed oxide nanotube (NT) layers were successfully prepared via the one-step anodization of Ti-V alloys. The obtained samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV-Vis absorption, photoluminescence spectroscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (DRX), and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The effect of the applied voltage (30-50 V), vanadium content (5-15 wt %) in the alloy, and water content (2-10 vol %) in an ethylene glycol-based electrolyte was studied systematically to determine their influence on the morphology, and for the first-time, on the photocatalytic properties of these nanomaterials. The morphology of the samples varied from sponge-like to highly-organized nanotubular structures. The vanadium content in the alloy was found to have the highest influence on the morphology and the sample with the lowest vanadium content (5 wt %) exhibited the best auto-alignment and self-organization (length = 1 μm, diameter = 86 nm and wall thickness = 11 nm). Additionally, a probable growth mechanism of V₂O₅-TiO₂ nanotubes (NTs) over the Ti-V alloys was presented. Toluene, in the gas phase, was effectively removed through photodegradation under visible light (LEDs, λmax = 465 nm) in the presence of the modified TiO₂ nanostructures. The highest degradation value was 35% after 60 min of irradiation. V₂O₅ species were ascribed as the main structures responsible for the generation of photoactive e- and h⁺ under Vis light and a possible excitation mechanism was proposed.

  20. Hierarchical species distribution models (United States)

    Hefley, Trevor J.; Hooten, Mevin B.


    Determining the distribution pattern of a species is important to increase scientific knowledge, inform management decisions, and conserve biodiversity. To infer spatial and temporal patterns, species distribution models have been developed for use with many sampling designs and types of data. Recently, it has been shown that count, presence-absence, and presence-only data can be conceptualized as arising from a point process distribution. Therefore, it is important to understand properties of the point process distribution. We examine how the hierarchical species distribution modeling framework has been used to incorporate a wide array of regression and theory-based components while accounting for the data collection process and making use of auxiliary information. The hierarchical modeling framework allows us to demonstrate how several commonly used species distribution models can be derived from the point process distribution, highlight areas of potential overlap between different models, and suggest areas where further research is needed.

  1. Hierarchically Structured Electrospun Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole E. Zander


    Full Text Available Traditional electrospun nanofibers have a myriad of applications ranging from scaffolds for tissue engineering to components of biosensors and energy harvesting devices. The generally smooth one-dimensional structure of the fibers has stood as a limitation to several interesting novel applications. Control of fiber diameter, porosity and collector geometry will be briefly discussed, as will more traditional methods for controlling fiber morphology and fiber mat architecture. The remainder of the review will focus on new techniques to prepare hierarchically structured fibers. Fibers with hierarchical primary structures—including helical, buckled, and beads-on-a-string fibers, as well as fibers with secondary structures, such as nanopores, nanopillars, nanorods, and internally structured fibers and their applications—will be discussed. These new materials with helical/buckled morphology are expected to possess unique optical and mechanical properties with possible applications for negative refractive index materials, highly stretchable/high-tensile-strength materials, and components in microelectromechanical devices. Core-shell type fibers enable a much wider variety of materials to be electrospun and are expected to be widely applied in the sensing, drug delivery/controlled release fields, and in the encapsulation of live cells for biological applications. Materials with a hierarchical secondary structure are expected to provide new superhydrophobic and self-cleaning materials.

  2. Context updates are hierarchical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Karl Ingason


    Full Text Available This squib studies the order in which elements are added to the shared context of interlocutors in a conversation. It focuses on context updates within one hierarchical structure and argues that structurally higher elements are entered into the context before lower elements, even if the structurally higher elements are pronounced after the lower elements. The crucial data are drawn from a comparison of relative clauses in two head-initial languages, English and Icelandic, and two head-final languages, Korean and Japanese. The findings have consequences for any theory of a dynamic semantics.

  3. Detecting Hierarchical Structure in Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herlau, Tue; Mørup, Morten; Schmidt, Mikkel Nørgaard


    a generative Bayesian model that is able to infer whether hierarchies are present or not from a hypothesis space encompassing all types of hierarchical tree structures. For efficient inference we propose a collapsed Gibbs sampling procedure that jointly infers a partition and its hierarchical structure......Many real-world networks exhibit hierarchical organization. Previous models of hierarchies within relational data has focused on binary trees; however, for many networks it is unknown whether there is hierarchical structure, and if there is, a binary tree might not account well for it. We propose....... On synthetic and real data we demonstrate that our model can detect hierarchical structure leading to better link-prediction than competing models. Our model can be used to detect if a network exhibits hierarchical structure, thereby leading to a better comprehension and statistical account the network....

  4. Nested and Hierarchical Archimax copulas

    KAUST Repository

    Hofert, Marius


    The class of Archimax copulas is generalized to nested and hierarchical Archimax copulas in several ways. First, nested extreme-value copulas or nested stable tail dependence functions are introduced to construct nested Archimax copulas based on a single frailty variable. Second, a hierarchical construction of d-norm generators is presented to construct hierarchical stable tail dependence functions and thus hierarchical extreme-value copulas. Moreover, one can, by itself or additionally, introduce nested frailties to extend Archimax copulas to nested Archimax copulas in a similar way as nested Archimedean copulas extend Archimedean copulas. Further results include a general formula for the density of Archimax copulas.

  5. Trees and Hierarchical Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Haeseler, Arndt


    The "raison d'etre" of hierarchical dustering theory stems from one basic phe­ nomenon: This is the notorious non-transitivity of similarity relations. In spite of the fact that very often two objects may be quite similar to a third without being that similar to each other, one still wants to dassify objects according to their similarity. This should be achieved by grouping them into a hierarchy of non-overlapping dusters such that any two objects in ~ne duster appear to be more related to each other than they are to objects outside this duster. In everyday life, as well as in essentially every field of scientific investigation, there is an urge to reduce complexity by recognizing and establishing reasonable das­ sification schemes. Unfortunately, this is counterbalanced by the experience of seemingly unavoidable deadlocks caused by the existence of sequences of objects, each comparatively similar to the next, but the last rather different from the first.

  6. Hierarchical Discriminant Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Lu


    Full Text Available The Internet of Things (IoT generates lots of high-dimensional sensor intelligent data. The processing of high-dimensional data (e.g., data visualization and data classification is very difficult, so it requires excellent subspace learning algorithms to learn a latent subspace to preserve the intrinsic structure of the high-dimensional data, and abandon the least useful information in the subsequent processing. In this context, many subspace learning algorithms have been presented. However, in the process of transforming the high-dimensional data into the low-dimensional space, the huge difference between the sum of inter-class distance and the sum of intra-class distance for distinct data may cause a bias problem. That means that the impact of intra-class distance is overwhelmed. To address this problem, we propose a novel algorithm called Hierarchical Discriminant Analysis (HDA. It minimizes the sum of intra-class distance first, and then maximizes the sum of inter-class distance. This proposed method balances the bias from the inter-class and that from the intra-class to achieve better performance. Extensive experiments are conducted on several benchmark face datasets. The results reveal that HDA obtains better performance than other dimensionality reduction algorithms.

  7. Hierarchical clustering for graph visualization

    CERN Document Server

    Clémençon, Stéphan; Rossi, Fabrice; Tran, Viet Chi


    This paper describes a graph visualization methodology based on hierarchical maximal modularity clustering, with interactive and significant coarsening and refining possibilities. An application of this method to HIV epidemic analysis in Cuba is outlined.

  8. Direct hierarchical assembly of nanoparticles (United States)

    Xu, Ting; Zhao, Yue; Thorkelsson, Kari


    The present invention provides hierarchical assemblies of a block copolymer, a bifunctional linking compound and a nanoparticle. The block copolymers form one micro-domain and the nanoparticles another micro-domain.

  9. Hierarchical materials: Background and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    Hierarchical design draws inspiration from analysis of biological materials and has opened new possibilities for enhancing performance and enabling new functionalities and extraordinary properties. With the development of nanotechnology, the necessary technological requirements for the manufactur...

  10. Hierarchical classification as relational framing. (United States)

    Slattery, Brian; Stewart, Ian


    The purpose of this study was to model hierarchical classification as contextually controlled, generalized relational responding or relational framing. In Experiment 1, a training procedure involving nonarbitrarily related multidimensional stimuli was used to establish two arbitrary shapes as contextual cues for 'member of' and 'includes' relational responding, respectively. Subsequently those cues were used to establish a network of arbitrary stimuli in particular hierarchical relations with each other, and then test for derivation of further untrained hierarchical relations as well as for transformation of functions. Resultant patterns of relational framing showed properties of transitive class containment, asymmetrical class containment, and unilateral property induction, consistent with conceptions of hierarchical classification as described within the cognitive developmental literature. Experiment 2 extended the basic model by using "fuzzy category" stimuli and providing a better controlled test of transformation of functions. Limitations and future research directions are discussed. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Zha


    Full Text Available In existing construction experience of Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI, GeoNetwork, as the geographical information integrated solution, is an effective way of building SDI. During GeoNetwork serving as an internet application, several shortcomings are exposed. The first one is that the time consuming of data loading has been considerately increasing with the growth of metadata count. Consequently, the efficiency of query and search service becomes lower. Another problem is that stability and robustness are both ruined since huge amount of metadata. The final flaw is that the requirements of multi-user concurrent accessing based on massive data are not effectively satisfied on the internet. A novel approach, Hierarchical Optimization Model (HOM, is presented to solve the incapability of GeoNetwork working with massive data in this paper. HOM optimizes the GeoNetwork from these aspects: internal procedure, external deployment strategies, etc. This model builds an efficient index for accessing huge metadata and supporting concurrent processes. In this way, the services based on GeoNetwork can maintain stable while running massive metadata. As an experiment, we deployed more than 30 GeoNetwork nodes, and harvest nearly 1.1 million metadata. From the contrast between the HOM-improved software and the original one, the model makes indexing and retrieval processes more quickly and keeps the speed stable on metadata amount increasing. It also shows stable on multi-user concurrent accessing to system services, the experiment achieved good results and proved that our optimization model is efficient and reliable.

  12. Hierarchical structures of ZnO spherical particles synthesized solvothermally

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriko Saito and Hajime Haneda


    Full Text Available We review the solvothermal synthesis, using a mixture of ethylene glycol (EG and water as the solvent, of zinc oxide (ZnO particles having spherical and flower-like shapes and hierarchical nanostructures. The preparation conditions of the ZnO particles and the microscopic characterization of the morphology are summarized. We found the following three effects of the ratio of EG to water on the formation of hierarchical structures: (i EG restricts the growth of ZnO microcrystals, (ii EG promotes the self-assembly of small crystallites into spheroidal particles and (iii the high water content of EG results in hollow spheres.

  13. Deliberate change without hierarchical influence?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørskov, Sladjana; Kesting, Peter; Ulhøi, John Parm


    Purpose This paper aims to present that deliberate change is strongly associated with formal structures and top-down influence. Hierarchical configurations have been used to structure processes, overcome resistance and get things done. But is deliberate change also possible without formal...... reveals that deliberate change is indeed achievable in a non-hierarchical collaborative OSS community context. However, it presupposes the presence and active involvement of informal change agents. The paper identifies and specifies four key drivers for change agents’ influence. Originality....../value The findings contribute to organisational analysis by providing a deeper understanding of the importance of leadership in making deliberate change possible in non-hierarchical settings. It points to the importance of “change-by-conviction”, essentially based on voluntary behaviour. This can open the door...

  14. Static Correctness of Hierarchical Procedures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff


    basis for a general type hierarchy with static type checking, which enables first-order polymorphism combined with multiple inheritance and specialization in a language with assignments. We extend the results to include opaque types. An opaque version of a type is different from the original but has......A system of hierarchical, fully recursive types in a truly imperative language allows program fragments written for small types to be reused for all larger types. To exploit this property to enable type-safe hierarchical procedures, it is necessary to impose a static requirement on procedure calls....... We introduce an example language and prove the existence of a sound requirement which preserves static correctness while allowing hierarchical procedures. This requirement is further shown to be optimal, in the sense that it imposes as few restrictions as possible. This establishes the theoretical...

  15. Modelling hierarchical and modular complex networks: division and independence (United States)

    Kim, D.-H.; Rodgers, G. J.; Kahng, B.; Kim, D.


    We introduce a growing network model which generates both modular and hierarchical structure in a self-organized way. To this end, we modify the Barabási-Albert model into the one evolving under the principles of division and independence as well as growth and preferential attachment (PA). A newly added vertex chooses one of the modules composed of existing vertices, and attaches edges to vertices belonging to that module following the PA rule. When the module size reaches a proper size, the module is divided into two, and a new module is created. The karate club network studied by Zachary is a simple version of the current model. We find that the model can reproduce both modular and hierarchical properties, characterized by the hierarchical clustering function of a vertex with degree k, C(k), being in good agreement with empirical measurements for real-world networks.

  16. Structural integrity of hierarchical composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Paggi


    Full Text Available Interface mechanical problems are of paramount importance in engineering and materials science. Traditionally, due to the complexity of modelling their mechanical behaviour, interfaces are often treated as defects and their features are not explored. In this study, a different approach is illustrated, where the interfaces play an active role in the design of innovative hierarchical composites and are fundamental for their structural integrity. Numerical examples regarding cutting tools made of hierarchical cellular polycrystalline materials are proposed, showing that tailoring of interface properties at the different scales is the way to achieve superior mechanical responses that cannot be obtained using standard materials

  17. Hierarchical Ag mesostructures for single particle SERS substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Minwei, E-mail:; Zhang, Yin


    Highlights: • Hierarchical Ag mesostructures with the size of 250, 360 and 500 nm are synthesized via a seed-mediated approach. • The Ag mesostructures present the tailorable size and highly roughened surfaces. • The average enhancement factors for individual Ag mesostructures were estimated to be as high as 10{sup 6}. - Abstract: Hierarchical Ag mesostructures with highly rough surface morphology have been synthesized at room temperature through a simple seed-mediated approach. Electron microscopy characterizations indicate that the obtained Ag mesostructures exhibit a textured surface morphology with the flower-like architecture. Moreover, the particle size can be tailored easily in the range of 250–500 nm. For the growth process of the hierarchical Ag mesostructures, it is believed that the self-assembly mechanism is more reasonable rather than the epitaxial overgrowth of Ag seed. The oriented attachment of nanoparticles is revealed during the formation of Ag mesostructures. Single particle surface enhanced Raman spectra (sp-SERS) of crystal violet adsorbed on the hierarchical Ag mesostructures were measured. Results reveal that the hierarchical Ag mesostructures can be highly sensitive sp-SERS substrates with good reproducibility. The average enhancement factors for individual Ag mesostructures are estimated to be about 10{sup 6}.

  18. Hierarchical Engineered Materials and Structures (United States)


    of lightweight cellular materials (such as honeycombs and foams ) which are commonly used in "hierarchically designed" structural materials, especially...response past the elevated yield stress is modeled as perfectly plastic. The viscoelastic properties are not modeled because it is assumed that the

  19. In Situ Confined Growth Based on a Self-Templating Reduction Strategy of Highly Dispersed Ni Nanoparticles in Hierarchical Yolk-Shell Fe@SiO2 Structures as Efficient Catalysts. (United States)

    Jiao, Jiao; Wang, Haiyan; Guo, Wanchun; Li, Ruifei; Tian, Kesong; Xu, Zhaopeng; Jia, Yin; Wu, Yuehao; Cao, Ling


    Ni-based magnetic catalysts exhibit moderate activity, low cost, and magnetic reusability in hydrogenation reactions. However, Ni nanoparticles anchored on magnetic supports commonly suffer from undesirable agglomeration during catalytic reactions due to the relatively weak affinity of the magnetic support for the Ni nanoparticles. A hierarchical yolk-shell Fe@SiO2 /Ni catalyst, with an inner movable Fe core and an ultrathin SiO2 /Ni shell composed of nanosheets, was synthesized in a self-templating reduction strategy with a hierarchical yolk-shell Fe3 O4 @nickel silicate nanocomposite as the precursor. The spatial confinement of highly dispersed Ni nanoparticles with a mean size of 4 nm within ultrathin SiO2 nanosheets with a thickness of 2.6 nm not only prevented their agglomeration during catalytic transformations but also exposed the abundant active Ni sites to reactants. Moreover, the large inner cavities and interlayer spaces between the assembled ultrathin SiO2 /Ni nanosheets provided suitable mesoporous channels for diffusion of the reactants towards the active sites. As expected, the Fe@SiO2 /Ni catalyst displayed high activity, high stability, and magnetic recoverability for the reduction of nitroaromatic compounds. In particular, the Ni-based catalyst in the conversion of 4-nitroamine maintained a rate of over 98 % and preserved the initial yolk-shell structure without any obvious aggregation of Ni nanoparticles after ten catalytic cycles, which confirmed the high structural stability of the Ni-based catalyst. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Hierarchical Prisoner's Dilemma in Hierarchical Public-Goods Game

    CERN Document Server

    Fujimoto, Yuma; Kaneko, Kunihiko


    The dilemma in cooperation is one of the major concerns in game theory. In a public-goods game, each individual pays a cost for cooperation, or to prevent defection, and receives a reward from the collected cost in a group. Thus, defection is beneficial for each individual, while cooperation is beneficial for the group. Now, groups (say, countries) consisting of individual players also play games. To study such a multi-level game, we introduce a hierarchical public-goods (HPG) game in which two groups compete for finite resources by utilizing costs collected from individuals in each group. Analyzing this HPG game, we found a hierarchical prisoner's dilemma, in which groups choose the defection policy (say, armaments) as a Nash strategy to optimize each group's benefit, while cooperation optimizes the total benefit. On the other hand, for each individual within a group, refusing to pay the cost (say, tax) is a Nash strategy, which turns to be a cooperation policy for the group, thus leading to a hierarchical d...

  1. Multicast Routing of Hierarchical Data (United States)

    Shacham, Nachum


    The issue of multicast of broadband, real-time data in a heterogeneous environment, in which the data recipients differ in their reception abilities, is considered. Traditional multicast schemes, which are designed to deliver all the source data to all recipients, offer limited performance in such an environment, since they must either force the source to overcompress its signal or restrict the destination population to those who can receive the full signal. We present an approach for resolving this issue by combining hierarchical source coding techniques, which allow recipients to trade off reception bandwidth for signal quality, and sophisticated routing algorithms that deliver to each destination the maximum possible signal quality. The field of hierarchical coding is briefly surveyed and new multicast routing algorithms are presented. The algorithms are compared in terms of network utilization efficiency, lengths of paths, and the required mechanisms for forwarding packets on the resulting paths.

  2. Hierarchical matrices algorithms and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Hackbusch, Wolfgang


    This self-contained monograph presents matrix algorithms and their analysis. The new technique enables not only the solution of linear systems but also the approximation of matrix functions, e.g., the matrix exponential. Other applications include the solution of matrix equations, e.g., the Lyapunov or Riccati equation. The required mathematical background can be found in the appendix. The numerical treatment of fully populated large-scale matrices is usually rather costly. However, the technique of hierarchical matrices makes it possible to store matrices and to perform matrix operations approximately with almost linear cost and a controllable degree of approximation error. For important classes of matrices, the computational cost increases only logarithmically with the approximation error. The operations provided include the matrix inversion and LU decomposition. Since large-scale linear algebra problems are standard in scientific computing, the subject of hierarchical matrices is of interest to scientists ...

  3. High-performance hierarchical fracturing (United States)

    Cobb, Nicolas B.; Zhang, Weidong


    We describe in more detail a mask data preparation (MDP) flow previously proposed. The focus on this paper is a performance comparison of hierarchical fracturing techniques compared to standard fracturing. Our flow uses GDSII data as input, including a GDSII-based job deck description. The output is maximally compacted, trapezoidal mask writer (MW) formatted data. Our flow takes advantage of hierarchy explicit in the GDSII file(s). This allows optimal determination of 'cover cells', which are repeatable groups of patterns within the data. The use of cover cells allows a reduction of fracturing runtime. In one case, a 21 GB MEBES file was fractured in 30 hours using the standard technique and 53 minutes using the hierarchical cover cell technique.

  4. Topological properties of hierarchical networks. (United States)

    Agliari, Elena; Barra, Adriano; Galluzzi, Andrea; Guerra, Francesco; Tantari, Daniele; Tavani, Flavia


    Hierarchical networks are attracting a renewal interest for modeling the organization of a number of biological systems and for tackling the complexity of statistical mechanical models beyond mean-field limitations. Here we consider the Dyson hierarchical construction for ferromagnets, neural networks, and spin glasses, recently analyzed from a statistical-mechanics perspective, and we focus on the topological properties of the underlying structures. In particular, we find that such structures are weighted graphs that exhibit a high degree of clustering and of modularity, with a small spectral gap; the robustness of such features with respect to the presence of thermal noise is also studied. These outcomes are then discussed and related to the statistical-mechanics scenario in full consistency. Last, we look at these weighted graphs as Markov chains and we show that in the limit of infinite size, the emergence of ergodicity breakdown for the stochastic process mirrors the emergence of metastabilities in the corresponding statistical mechanical analysis.

  5. Topological properties of hierarchical networks (United States)

    Agliari, Elena; Barra, Adriano; Galluzzi, Andrea; Guerra, Francesco; Tantari, Daniele; Tavani, Flavia


    Hierarchical networks are attracting a renewal interest for modeling the organization of a number of biological systems and for tackling the complexity of statistical mechanical models beyond mean-field limitations. Here we consider the Dyson hierarchical construction for ferromagnets, neural networks, and spin glasses, recently analyzed from a statistical-mechanics perspective, and we focus on the topological properties of the underlying structures. In particular, we find that such structures are weighted graphs that exhibit a high degree of clustering and of modularity, with a small spectral gap; the robustness of such features with respect to the presence of thermal noise is also studied. These outcomes are then discussed and related to the statistical-mechanics scenario in full consistency. Last, we look at these weighted graphs as Markov chains and we show that in the limit of infinite size, the emergence of ergodicity breakdown for the stochastic process mirrors the emergence of metastabilities in the corresponding statistical mechanical analysis.

  6. Automatic Hierarchical Color Image Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Huang


    Full Text Available Organizing images into semantic categories can be extremely useful for content-based image retrieval and image annotation. Grouping images into semantic classes is a difficult problem, however. Image classification attempts to solve this hard problem by using low-level image features. In this paper, we propose a method for hierarchical classification of images via supervised learning. This scheme relies on using a good low-level feature and subsequently performing feature-space reconfiguration using singular value decomposition to reduce noise and dimensionality. We use the training data to obtain a hierarchical classification tree that can be used to categorize new images. Our experimental results suggest that this scheme not only performs better than standard nearest-neighbor techniques, but also has both storage and computational advantages.

  7. Hybrid and hierarchical composite materials

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Chang-Soo; Sano, Tomoko


    This book addresses a broad spectrum of areas in both hybrid materials and hierarchical composites, including recent development of processing technologies, structural designs, modern computer simulation techniques, and the relationships between the processing-structure-property-performance. Each topic is introduced at length with numerous  and detailed examples and over 150 illustrations.   In addition, the authors present a method of categorizing these materials, so that representative examples of all material classes are discussed.

  8. Statistical significance for hierarchical clustering. (United States)

    Kimes, Patrick K; Liu, Yufeng; Neil Hayes, David; Marron, James Stephen


    Cluster analysis has proved to be an invaluable tool for the exploratory and unsupervised analysis of high-dimensional datasets. Among methods for clustering, hierarchical approaches have enjoyed substantial popularity in genomics and other fields for their ability to simultaneously uncover multiple layers of clustering structure. A critical and challenging question in cluster analysis is whether the identified clusters represent important underlying structure or are artifacts of natural sampling variation. Few approaches have been proposed for addressing this problem in the context of hierarchical clustering, for which the problem is further complicated by the natural tree structure of the partition, and the multiplicity of tests required to parse the layers of nested clusters. In this article, we propose a Monte Carlo based approach for testing statistical significance in hierarchical clustering which addresses these issues. The approach is implemented as a sequential testing procedure guaranteeing control of the family-wise error rate. Theoretical justification is provided for our approach, and its power to detect true clustering structure is illustrated through several simulation studies and applications to two cancer gene expression datasets. © 2017, The International Biometric Society.

  9. Self-assembled zinc/copper hydroxide carbonates with tunable hierarchical nanostructure. (United States)

    Zhou, Min; Hu, Ye; Ferrari, Mauro; Xie, Zhaohui


    Here, we report a synthetic, polymer-mediated method for the self-assembly of zinc/copper hydroxide carbonate superstructures including 3D hierarchical sunflower-like, urchin-like, alga-like, and rotiform-like zinc hydroxide carbonate (ZHC) microstructures, and hierarchical copper hydroxide carbonate (CHC) microspheres with radiating nanoplates and nanorods. As a capping agent, poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) was found to play an important role in directing the growth and self-assembly of such unique structures. The crystal structure of the products and the resulting hierarchical superstructure morphology, as controlled by the molecular weight and concentration of PVP, were systematically investigated. A possible growth mechanism for the formation of hierarchical superstructures with different morphologies is also proposed.

  10. Hierarchical mordenite zeolite nano-rods bundles favourable to bulky molecules (United States)

    Dai, Guang; Hao, Wenming; Xiao, Huan; Ma, Jinghong; Li, Ruifeng


    Hierarchical mordenite zeolite nano-rods bundles were successfully synthesized by a novel approach of using organosilane functioned fumed silica as silicon source. The organic moiety linked on the surface of fumed silica inhibits the growth of zeolite crystal into large size, leading to the nano-rods assembled bundles. The mordenite nanorods bundles exhibited significantly improved mesitylene adsorption capacity compared with the conventional mordenite. As a catalyst, the hierarchical mordenite nanorods bundles showed remarkable catalytic performance in the benzylation of mesitylene by benzyl chloride, due to the efficient diffusion rate and improved accessibility of the active sites in the hierarchical mordenite nanorods bundles.

  11. Hierarchical organisation of causal graphs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dziopa, P. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de la Vallee du Rhone, 30 - Marcoule (France). Dept. des Procedes de Retraitement; Gentil, S. [ENSIEG, 38 - Saint-Martin d`Heres (France)


    This paper deals with the design of a supervision system using a hierarchy of models formed by graphs, in which the variables are the nodes and the causal relations between the variables of the arcs. To obtain a representation of the variables evolutions which contains only the relevant features of their real evolutions, the causal relations are completed with qualitative transfer functions (QTFs) which produce roughly the behaviour of the classical transfer functions. Major improvements have been made in the building of the hierarchical organization. First, the basic variables of the uppermost level and the causal relations between them are chosen. The next graph is built by adding intermediary variables to the upper graph. When the undermost graph has been built, the transfer functions parameters corresponding to its causal relations are identified. The second task consists in the upwelling of the information from the undermost graph to the uppermost one. A fusion procedure of the causal relations has been designed to compute the QFTs relevant for each level. This procedure aims to reduce the number of parameters needed to represent an evolution at a high level of abstraction. These techniques have been applied to the hierarchical modelling of nuclear process. (authors). 8 refs., 12 figs.

  12. Hierarchical Structures in Hypertext Learning Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezdan, Eniko; Kester, Liesbeth; Kirschner, Paul A.


    Bezdan, E., Kester, L., & Kirschner, P. A. (2011, 9 September). Hierarchical Structures in Hypertext Learning Environments. Presentation for the visit of KU Leuven, Open University, Heerlen, The Netherlands.

  13. Discovering hierarchical structure in normal relational data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Mikkel Nørgaard; Herlau, Tue; Mørup, Morten


    Hierarchical clustering is a widely used tool for structuring and visualizing complex data using similarity. Traditionally, hierarchical clustering is based on local heuristics that do not explicitly provide assessment of the statistical saliency of the extracted hierarchy. We propose a non......-parametric generative model for hierarchical clustering of similarity based on multifurcating Gibbs fragmentation trees. This allows us to infer and display the posterior distribution of hierarchical structures that comply with the data. We demonstrate the utility of our method on synthetic data and data of functional...

  14. Hierarchical Robust and Adaptive Nonlinear Control Design

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Haddad, Wassim


    The authors proposed the development of a general multiechelon hierarchical nonlinear switching control design framework that minimizes control law complexity subject to the achievement of control law robustness...

  15. Adaptive Sampling in Hierarchical Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knap, J; Barton, N R; Hornung, R D; Arsenlis, A; Becker, R; Jefferson, D R


    We propose an adaptive sampling methodology for hierarchical multi-scale simulation. The method utilizes a moving kriging interpolation to significantly reduce the number of evaluations of finer-scale response functions to provide essential constitutive information to a coarser-scale simulation model. The underlying interpolation scheme is unstructured and adaptive to handle the transient nature of a simulation. To handle the dynamic construction and searching of a potentially large set of finer-scale response data, we employ a dynamic metric tree database. We study the performance of our adaptive sampling methodology for a two-level multi-scale model involving a coarse-scale finite element simulation and a finer-scale crystal plasticity based constitutive law.

  16. Multicollinearity in hierarchical linear models. (United States)

    Yu, Han; Jiang, Shanhe; Land, Kenneth C


    This study investigates an ill-posed problem (multicollinearity) in Hierarchical Linear Models from both the data and the model perspectives. We propose an intuitive, effective approach to diagnosing the presence of multicollinearity and its remedies in this class of models. A simulation study demonstrates the impacts of multicollinearity on coefficient estimates, associated standard errors, and variance components at various levels of multicollinearity for finite sample sizes typical in social science studies. We further investigate the role multicollinearity plays at each level for estimation of coefficient parameters in terms of shrinkage. Based on these analyses, we recommend a top-down method for assessing multicollinearity in HLMs that first examines the contextual predictors (Level-2 in a two-level model) and then the individual predictors (Level-1) and uses the results for data collection, research problem redefinition, model re-specification, variable selection and estimation of a final model. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The Case for a Hierarchical Cosmology (United States)

    Vaucouleurs, G. de


    The development of modern theoretical cosmology is presented and some questionable assumptions of orthodox cosmology are pointed out. Suggests that recent observations indicate that hierarchical clustering is a basic factor in cosmology. The implications of hierarchical models of the universe are considered. Bibliography. (LC)

  18. Hierarchical decision making for flood risk reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Custer, Rocco; Nishijima, Kazuyoshi


    River flood events often cause large economic damages and casualties requiring stakeholders to manage flood risk. In flood prone areas, flood risk management can be achieved through a series hierarchically integrated protection structures, which together form a hierarchical flood protection system...

  19. Biased trapping issue on weighted hierarchical networks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, we present trapping issues of weight-dependent walks on weighted hierarchical networks which are based on the classic scale-free hierarchical networks. Assuming that edge's weight is used as local information by a random walker, we introduce a biased walk. The biased walk is that a walker, at each step, ...

  20. Aggregation in hierarchical discrete-event systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al-Falou, AA; Van Schuppen, JH


    We propose an algorithm for the hierarchical decomposition of a large automaton-based discrete-event system. We also provide an estimation of the numerical cost in terms of the size of the system. Our hierarchical decomposition is illustrated with simple examples from dynamical ST-control and

  1. A template-free CVD route to synthesize hierarchical porous ZnO films (United States)

    Duan, Xiangyang; Chen, Guangde; Guo, Lu'an; Zhu, Youzhang; Ye, Honggang; Wu, Yelong


    Unique porous ZnO films were successfully synthesized on Si substrates without any catalysts or templates using chemical vapor deposition method. Unlike earlier reports, they are hierarchical porous, containing both macropores and mesopores. The zinc oxide seed layer and the weight ratio of source materials were found to be the major factors that would facilitate the synthesis of these hierarchical porous films. We found that all the macropores were surrounded by grain boundaries. As presented in the SEM images, the newborn ZnO atoms would prefer to adsorb nearby the grain boundaries and nucleate there in the growth stage. A schematic diagram based on the aforesaid phenomenon was proposed to explain the synthesis of the hierarchical porous ZnO film. An unusual strong emission peak located at 420 nm was observed in the photoluminescence spectrum. It was suggested that the emission peak was attributed to the special hierarchical porous structure, especially the grain boundaries in the nanowalls of these films.

  2. Processing of hierarchical syntactic structure in music. (United States)

    Koelsch, Stefan; Rohrmeier, Martin; Torrecuso, Renzo; Jentschke, Sebastian


    Hierarchical structure with nested nonlocal dependencies is a key feature of human language and can be identified theoretically in most pieces of tonal music. However, previous studies have argued against the perception of such structures in music. Here, we show processing of nonlocal dependencies in music. We presented chorales by J. S. Bach and modified versions in which the hierarchical structure was rendered irregular whereas the local structure was kept intact. Brain electric responses differed between regular and irregular hierarchical structures, in both musicians and nonmusicians. This finding indicates that, when listening to music, humans apply cognitive processes that are capable of dealing with long-distance dependencies resulting from hierarchically organized syntactic structures. Our results reveal that a brain mechanism fundamental for syntactic processing is engaged during the perception of music, indicating that processing of hierarchical structure with nested nonlocal dependencies is not just a key component of human language, but a multidomain capacity of human cognition.

  3. Hierarchically Nanostructured Materials for Sustainable Environmental Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng eRen


    Full Text Available This article presents a comprehensive overview of the hierarchical nanostructured materials with either geometry or composition complexity in environmental applications. The hierarchical nanostructures offer advantages of high surface area, synergistic interactions and multiple functionalities towards water remediation, environmental gas sensing and monitoring as well as catalytic gas treatment. Recent advances in synthetic strategies for various hierarchical morphologies such as hollow spheres and urchin-shaped architectures have been reviewed. In addition to the chemical synthesis, the physical mechanisms associated with the materials design and device fabrication have been discussed for each specific application. The development and application of hierarchical complex perovskite oxide nanostructures have also been introduced in photocatalytic water remediation, gas sensing and catalytic converter. Hierarchical nanostructures will open up many possibilities for materials design and device fabrication in environmental chemistry and technology.

  4. Hierarchically Nanoporous Bioactive Glasses for High Efficiency Immobilization of Enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, W.; Min, D.D.; Zhang, X.D.


    Bioactive glasses with hierarchical nanoporosity and structures have been heavily involved in immobilization of enzymes. Because of meticulous design and ingenious hierarchical nanostructuration of porosities from yeast cell biotemplates, hierarchically nanostructured porous bioactive glasses can...

  5. Controlled synthesis and thermal stability of hydroxyapatite hierarchical microstructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Ruixue [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266042 (China); Chen, Kezheng, E-mail: [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266042 (China); Liao, Zhongmiao; Meng, Nan [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266042 (China)


    Highlights: ► Hydroxyapatite hierarchical microstructures have been synthesized by a facile method. ► The morphology and size of the building units of 3D structures can be controlled. ► The hydroxyapatite with 3D structure is morphologically and structurally stable up to 800 °C. - Abstract: Hydroxyapatite (HAp) hierarchical microstructures with novel 3D morphology were prepared through a template- and surfactant-free hydrothermal homogeneous precipitation method. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to characterize the morphology and composition of the synthesized products. Interestingly, the obtained HAp with 3D structure is composed of one-dimensional (1D) nanorods or two-dimensional (2D) nanoribbons, and the length and morphology of these building blocks can be controlled through controlling the pH of the reaction. The building blocks are single crystalline and have different preferential orientation growth under different pH conditions. At low pH values, octacalcium phosphate (OCP) phase formed first and then transformed into HAp phase due to the increased pH value caused by the decomposition of urea. The investigation on the thermal stability reveals that the prepared HAp hierarchical microstructures are morphologically and structurally stable up to 800 °C.

  6. A hierarchical artificial retina architecture (United States)

    Parker, Alice C.; Azar, Adi N.


    Connectivity in the human retina is complex. Over one hundred million photoreceptors transduce light into electrical signals. These electrical signals are sent to the ganglion cells through amacrine and bipolar cells. Lateral connections involving horizontal and amacrine cells span throughout the outer plexiform layer and inner plexiform layer respectively. Horizontal cells are important for photoreceptor regulation by depolarizing them after an illumination occurs. Horizontal cells themselves form an electrical network that communicates by gap junctions, and these cells exhibit plasticity (change in behavior and structure) with respect to glycine receptors. The bipolar and amacrine cells transfer electrical signals from photoreceptors to the ganglion cells. Furthermore, amacrine cells are responsible for further processing the retinal image. Finally, the ganglion cells receive electrical signals from the bipolar and amacrine cells and will spike at a faster rate if there is a change in the overall intensity for a group of photoreceptors, sending a signal to the brain. Dramatic progress is being made with respect to retinal prostheses, raising hope for an entire synthetic retina in the future. We propose a bio-inspired 3D hierarchical pyramidal architecture for a synthetic retina that mimics the overall structure of the human retina. We chose to use a 3D architecture to facilitate connectivity among retinal cells, maintaining a hierarchical structure similar to that of the biological retina. The first layer of the architecture contains electronic circuits that model photoreceptors and horizontal cells. The second layer contains amacrine and bipolar electronic cells, and the third layer contains ganglion cells. Layer I has the highest number of cells, and layer III has the lowest number of cells, resulting in a pyramidal architecture. In our proposed architecture we intend to use photodetectors to transduce light into electrical signals. We propose to employ

  7. Growth, Structure, and Photocatalytic Properties of Hierarchical V2O5–TiO2 Nanotube Arrays Obtained from the One-step Anodic Oxidation of Ti–V Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María C. Nevárez-Martínez


    Full Text Available V2O5-TiO2 mixed oxide nanotube (NT layers were successfully prepared via the one-step anodization of Ti-V alloys. The obtained samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, UV-Vis absorption, photoluminescence spectroscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX, X-ray diffraction (DRX, and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The effect of the applied voltage (30–50 V, vanadium content (5–15 wt % in the alloy, and water content (2–10 vol % in an ethylene glycol-based electrolyte was studied systematically to determine their influence on the morphology, and for the first-time, on the photocatalytic properties of these nanomaterials. The morphology of the samples varied from sponge-like to highly-organized nanotubular structures. The vanadium content in the alloy was found to have the highest influence on the morphology and the sample with the lowest vanadium content (5 wt % exhibited the best auto-alignment and self-organization (length = 1 μm, diameter = 86 nm and wall thickness = 11 nm. Additionally, a probable growth mechanism of V2O5-TiO2 nanotubes (NTs over the Ti-V alloys was presented. Toluene, in the gas phase, was effectively removed through photodegradation under visible light (LEDs, λmax = 465 nm in the presence of the modified TiO2 nanostructures. The highest degradation value was 35% after 60 min of irradiation. V2O5 species were ascribed as the main structures responsible for the generation of photoactive e− and h+ under Vis light and a possible excitation mechanism was proposed.

  8. Hierarchical resolution of power spectra (United States)

    Badii, R.; Finardi, M.; Broggi, G.; Sepúlveda, M. A.


    We identify the basic ingredients determining the structure of the power spectra of non-linear dynamical systems in a hierarchical order of importance. The analysis, performed with the help of symbolic methods, shows that dynamical invariants such as topological and metric properties of the symbolic orbits explain the main qualitative features of the spectra, whereas the coordinate-dependent values of the observable itself represent a less relevant contribution. Consideration of simple dynamical models with increasing number of topological transition rules evidences the formation of coherent structures (peaks) and explains their position and size. By constructing the parse tree of the allowed symbolic itineraries, it is possible to estimate conditional probabilities by considering orbits belonging to adjacent tree levels. Accordingly, a Markov transition matrix is obtained for each level l and is used to generate signals with statistical properties which approximate those of the actual one increasingly better for l → ∞. A considerable improvement is achieved by recoding the original signal in terms of variable-length words and by re-applying the above procedure to the transformed signal, which is equivalent to a renormalization operation of the associated dynamical map. The accuracy of the estimates is directly related to the convergence of the scaling function for the conditional probabilities. Analytic results are presented for the simplest five Markov models arising from piecewise-linear, continuous, one-dimensional maps. Numerical studies have been performed for the logistic and Hénon maps and for the Lorenz system.

  9. Hierarchically nanostructured barium sulfate fibers. (United States)

    Romero-Ibarra, Issis C; Rodríguez-Gattorno, Geonel; García-Sánchez, Mario F; Sánchez-Solís, Antonio; Manero, Octavio


    BaSO(4) nanostructures with controlled morphologies were successfully produced via one-step process through precipitation of BaSO(4) in aqueous and organic media. The synthesis is carried out by mixing solutions of BaCl(2) and Na(2)SO(4) in presence of EDTA (disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) at room temperature. The influence of the reaction conditions such as initial reactants concentration, pH, EDTA/[Ba(2+)] ratio and aging on the BaSO(4) nanoparticles organization is studied. Using EDTA in aqueous media, spherical secondary particles of 500 nm diameter are obtained, which are formed by 4 nm size primary particles. With dimethyl sulfoxide and small amounts of water (5%) and EDTA, the aging process allows the production of long homogeneous fibers, related to hierarchical organization of BaSO(4) nanoparticles. Direct observation of self-assembling of primary particles by HRTEM allows proposing a mechanism for fiber formation, which is based on multipolar attractions that lead to a brick-by-brick organization along a preferential orientation. Results evidence the role of EDTA as controlling agent of the morphology and primary and secondary mean particle size.

  10. A hierarchical theory of macroecology. (United States)

    Passy, Sophia I


    The relationships of local population density (N) with body size (M) and distribution (D) have been extensively studied because they reveal how ecological and historical factors structure species communities; however, a unifying model explaining their joint behaviour, has not been developed. Here, I propose a theory that explores these relationships hierarchically and predicts that: (1) at a metacommunity level, niche breadth, population density and regional distribution are all related and size-dependent and (2) at a community level, the exponents b and d of the relationships N ~ M (b) and N ~ D (d) are functions (f) of the environment and, consequently, species richness (S), allowing the following reformulation of the power laws: N ~ M (f(S)) and N ~ D (f(S)) . Using this framework and continental data on stream environment, diatoms, invertebrates and fish, I address the following fundamental, but unresolved ecological questions: how do species partition their resources across environments, is energetic equivalence among them possible, are generalists more common than specialists, why are locally abundant species also regionally prevalent, and, do microbes have different biogeography than macroorganisms? The discovery that community scaling behaviour is environmentally constrained calls for better integration of macroecology and environmental science. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  11. Hierarchical analysis of acceptable use policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Laughton


    Full Text Available Acceptable use policies (AUPs are vital tools for organizations to protect themselves and their employees from misuse of computer facilities provided. A well structured, thorough AUP is essential for any organization. It is impossible for an effective AUP to deal with every clause and remain readable. For this reason, some sections of an AUP carry more weight than others, denoting importance. The methodology used to develop the hierarchical analysis is a literature review, where various sources were consulted. This hierarchical approach to AUP analysis attempts to highlight important sections and clauses dealt with in an AUP. The emphasis of the hierarchal analysis is to prioritize the objectives of an AUP.

  12. Classification using Hierarchical Naive Bayes models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langseth, Helge; Dyhre Nielsen, Thomas


    Classification problems have a long history in the machine learning literature. One of the simplest, and yet most consistently well-performing set of classifiers is the Naïve Bayes models. However, an inherent problem with these classifiers is the assumption that all attributes used to describe......, termed Hierarchical Naïve Bayes models. Hierarchical Naïve Bayes models extend the modeling flexibility of Naïve Bayes models by introducing latent variables to relax some of the independence statements in these models. We propose a simple algorithm for learning Hierarchical Naïve Bayes models...

  13. Hierarchical modeling and analysis for spatial data

    CERN Document Server

    Banerjee, Sudipto; Gelfand, Alan E


    Among the many uses of hierarchical modeling, their application to the statistical analysis of spatial and spatio-temporal data from areas such as epidemiology And environmental science has proven particularly fruitful. Yet to date, the few books that address the subject have been either too narrowly focused on specific aspects of spatial analysis, or written at a level often inaccessible to those lacking a strong background in mathematical statistics.Hierarchical Modeling and Analysis for Spatial Data is the first accessible, self-contained treatment of hierarchical methods, modeling, and dat

  14. Hierarchically structured, nitrogen-doped carbon membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Hong


    The present invention is a structure, method of making and method of use for a novel macroscopic hierarchically structured, nitrogen-doped, nano-porous carbon membrane (HNDCMs) with asymmetric and hierarchical pore architecture that can be produced on a large-scale approach. The unique HNDCM holds great promise as components in separation and advanced carbon devices because they could offer unconventional fluidic transport phenomena on the nanoscale. Overall, the invention set forth herein covers a hierarchically structured, nitrogen-doped carbon membranes and methods of making and using such a membranes.

  15. Hydrothermal growth of hierarchical Ni3S2 and Co3S4 on a reduced graphene oxide hydrogel@Ni foam: a high-energy-density aqueous asymmetric supercapacitor. (United States)

    Ghosh, Debasis; Das, Chapal Kumar


    Ni foam@reduced graphene oxide (rGO) hydrogel-Ni3S2 and Ni foam@rGO hydrogel-Co3S4 composites have been successfully synthesized with the aid of a two-step hydrothermal protocol, where the rGO hydrogel is sandwiched between the metal sulfide and Ni foam substrate. Sonochemical deposition of exfoliated rGO on Ni foam with subsequent hydrothermal treatment results in the formation of a rGO-hydrogel-coated Ni foam. Then second-time hydrothermal treatment of the dried Ni@rGO substrate with corresponding metal nitrate and sodium sulfide results in individual uniform growth of porous Ni3S2 nanorods and a Co3S4 self-assembled nanosheet on a Ni@rGO substrate. Both Ni@rGO-Ni3S2 and Ni@rGO-Co3S4 have been electrochemically characterized in a 6 M KOH electrolyte, exhibiting high specific capacitance values of 987.8 and 1369 F/g, respectively, at 1.5 A/g accompanied by the respective outstanding cycle stability of 97.9% and 96.6% at 12 A/g over 3000 charge-discharge cycles. An advanced aqueous asymmetric (AAS) supercapacitor has been fabricated by exploiting the as-prepared Ni@rGO-Co3S4 as a positive electrode and Ni@rGO-Ni3S2 as a negative electrode. The as-fabricated AAS has shown promising energy densities of 55.16 and 24.84 Wh/kg at high power densities of 975 and 13000 W/kg, respectively, along with an excellent cycle stability of 96.2% specific capacitance retention over 3000 charge-discharge cycles at 12 A/g. The enhanced specific capacitance, stupendous cycle stability, elevated energy density, and a power density as an AAS of these electrode materials indicate that it could be a potential candidate in the field of supercapacitors.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demian Horia


    Full Text Available In this paper I will present different types of representation, of hierarchical information inside a relational database. I also will compare them to find the best organization for specific scenarios.

  17. Packaging glass with hierarchically nanostructured surface

    KAUST Repository

    He, Jr-Hau


    An optical device includes an active region and packaging glass located on top of the active region. A top surface of the packaging glass includes hierarchical nanostructures comprised of honeycombed nanowalls (HNWs) and nanorod (NR) structures extending from the HNWs.

  18. Hierarchical DSE for multi-ASIP platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Micconi, Laura; Corvino, Rosilde; Gangadharan, Deepak


    This work proposes a hierarchical Design Space Exploration (DSE) for the design of multi-processor platforms targeted to specific applications with strict timing and area constraints. In particular, it considers platforms integrating multiple Application Specific Instruction Set Processors (ASIPs...

  19. Hierarchical modularity in human brain functional networks

    CERN Document Server

    Meunier, D; Fornito, A; Ersche, K D; Bullmore, E T; 10.3389/neuro.11.037.2009


    The idea that complex systems have a hierarchical modular organization originates in the early 1960s and has recently attracted fresh support from quantitative studies of large scale, real-life networks. Here we investigate the hierarchical modular (or "modules-within-modules") decomposition of human brain functional networks, measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in 18 healthy volunteers under no-task or resting conditions. We used a customized template to extract networks with more than 1800 regional nodes, and we applied a fast algorithm to identify nested modular structure at several hierarchical levels. We used mutual information, 0 < I < 1, to estimate the similarity of community structure of networks in different subjects, and to identify the individual network that is most representative of the group. Results show that human brain functional networks have a hierarchical modular organization with a fair degree of similarity between subjects, I=0.63. The largest 5 modules at ...

  20. Crystal networks in silk fibrous materials: from hierarchical structure to ultra performance. (United States)

    Nguyen, Anh Tuan; Huang, Qiao-Ling; Yang, Zhen; Lin, Naibo; Xu, Gangqin; Liu, Xiang Yang


    This review provides a comprehensive survey of the structural characteristics of crystal networks of silk soft fibrous materials in correlation with the macroscopic properties/performance and the network formation mechanisms. The correlation between the hierarchical mesoscopic structures and the mechanical properties of silk soft fibrous materials including silk fibroin hydrogels and naturally spun silk fibers are addressed based on the hierarchical crystal network models. Namely, two types of hierarchical networks are identified: the weak nanofibril-nanofibril interaction case (i.e., silk fibroin hydrogels), and the strong nanofibril-nanofibril interaction case (i.e., silk fibers). The macroscopic properties, i.e., the rheological/mechanical properties, can be controlled in terms of tuning different levels of hierarchical network structures by ultrasonication-induced gelation, introducing the initial nucleation centers, etc. Such controls take effect by different mesoscale assembly pathways, which are found to occur via different routes of the nucleation and growth processes. Furthermore, the hierarchical network model of soft fibrous materials can be applied to explain the superior mechanical properties and the unique strain-hardening behaviors of spider silk fibers within the framework of hierarchical breaking mechanism. Obviously, a knowledge of crystal networks will allow the prediction of the performance and engineering strategy of silk fibrous materials in generals. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Feature Selection in Hierarchical Feature Spaces


    Ristoski, Petar; Paulheim, Heiko


    Feature selection is an important preprocessing step in data mining, which has an impact on both the runtime and the result quality of the subsequent processing steps. While there are many cases where hierarchic relations between features exist, most existing feature selection approaches are not capable of exploiting those relations. In this paper, we introduce a method for feature selection in hierarchical feature spaces. The method first eliminates redundant features along paths in the hier...

  2. Hierarchical Solution of Large Markov Decision Processes


    Barry, Jennifer; Kaelbling, Leslie P.; Lozano-Perez, Tomas


    This paper presents an algorithm for finding approximately optimal policies in very large Markov decision processes by constructing a hierarchical model and then solving it. This strategy sacrifices optimality for the ability to address a large class of very large problems. Our algorithm works efficiently on enumerated-states and factored MDPs by constructing a hierarchical structure that is no larger than both the reduced model of the MDP and the regression tree for the ...

  3. Metal hierarchical patterning by direct nanoimprint lithography


    Boya Radha; Su Hui Lim; Saifullah, Mohammad S. M.; Kulkarni, Giridhar U.


    Three-dimensional hierarchical patterning of metals is of paramount importance in diverse fields involving photonics, controlling surface wettability and wearable electronics. Conventionally, this type of structuring is tedious and usually involves layer-by-layer lithographic patterning. Here, we describe a simple process of direct nanoimprint lithography using palladium benzylthiolate, a versatile metal-organic ink, which not only leads to the formation of hierarchical patterns but also is a...

  4. Hierarchical Model of Container Ports Throughput

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Rozmarynowska


    Full Text Available In this article the attempt has been made to construct hierarchical model of container ports throughput development. The presented hierarchical approach uses the relationships of development of global economy and container flows at different geographical levels: global (container throughput in all seaport on the world, regional (container throughput in the Baltic seaports and national (container throughput in Polish seaports. Model have been evaluated for their fit and usefulness for predictive purposes.

  5. Hierarchical organization versus self-organization


    Busseniers, Evo


    In this paper we try to define the difference between hierarchical organization and self-organization. Organization is defined as a structure with a function. So we can define the difference between hierarchical organization and self-organization both on the structure as on the function. In the next two chapters these two definitions are given. For the structure we will use some existing definitions in graph theory, for the function we will use existing theory on (self-)organization. In the t...

  6. Translating Management Practices in Hierarchical Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wæraas, Arild; Nielsen, Jeppe Agger

    structures affect translators’ approaches taken towards management ideas. This paper reports the findings from a longitudinal case study of the translation of Leadership Pipeline in a Danish fire department and how the translators’ approach changed over time from a modifying to a reproducing mode. The study...... hierarchical structures offer translators considerable control over the translation process. This hierarchical control seems to reduce the likelihood of unpredictable translation outcomes....

  7. Learning Hierarchical Feature Extractors for Image Recognition (United States)


    Learning Hierarchical Feature Extractors For Image Recognition by Y-Lan Boureau A dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements...DATES COVERED 00-00-2012 to 00-00-2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Learning Hierarchical Feature Extractors For Image Recognition 5a. CONTRACT...pooling for all weighting schemes. With average pooling, weighting by the square root of the cluster weight performs best. P = 16 configuration space

  8. Hierarchical control architecture for mobile offshore bases


    Girard, A; Karl Hedrick; João Tasso de Figueiredo Borges de Sousa


    A hierarchical architecture for Mobile Offshore Bases (MOB) control is presented. By a control architecture we mean a specific way of organizing the motion control and navigation functions performed by the MOB. It is convenient to organize the functions into hierarchical layers. This way, a complex design problem is partitioned into a number of more manageable sub-problems that are addressed in separate layers. The decomposition also allows for modular design and testing and the incorporation...

  9. Evaluating Hierarchical Structure in Music Annotations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian McFee


    Full Text Available Music exhibits structure at multiple scales, ranging from motifs to large-scale functional components. When inferring the structure of a piece, different listeners may attend to different temporal scales, which can result in disagreements when they describe the same piece. In the field of music informatics research (MIR, it is common to use corpora annotated with structural boundaries at different levels. By quantifying disagreements between multiple annotators, previous research has yielded several insights relevant to the study of music cognition. First, annotators tend to agree when structural boundaries are ambiguous. Second, this ambiguity seems to depend on musical features, time scale, and genre. Furthermore, it is possible to tune current annotation evaluation metrics to better align with these perceptual differences. However, previous work has not directly analyzed the effects of hierarchical structure because the existing methods for comparing structural annotations are designed for “flat” descriptions, and do not readily generalize to hierarchical annotations. In this paper, we extend and generalize previous work on the evaluation of hierarchical descriptions of musical structure. We derive an evaluation metric which can compare hierarchical annotations holistically across multiple levels. sing this metric, we investigate inter-annotator agreement on the multilevel annotations of two different music corpora, investigate the influence of acoustic properties on hierarchical annotations, and evaluate existing hierarchical segmentation algorithms against the distribution of inter-annotator agreement.

  10. Hierarchical screening for multiple mental disorders. (United States)

    Batterham, Philip J; Calear, Alison L; Sunderland, Matthew; Carragher, Natacha; Christensen, Helen; Mackinnon, Andrew J


    There is a need for brief, accurate screening when assessing multiple mental disorders. Two-stage hierarchical screening, consisting of brief pre-screening followed by a battery of disorder-specific scales for those who meet diagnostic criteria, may increase the efficiency of screening without sacrificing precision. This study tested whether more efficient screening could be gained using two-stage hierarchical screening than by administering multiple separate tests. Two Australian adult samples (N=1990) with high rates of psychopathology were recruited using Facebook advertising to examine four methods of hierarchical screening for four mental disorders: major depressive disorder, generalised anxiety disorder, panic disorder and social phobia. Using K6 scores to determine whether full screening was required did not increase screening efficiency. However, pre-screening based on two decision tree approaches or item gating led to considerable reductions in the mean number of items presented per disorder screened, with estimated item reductions of up to 54%. The sensitivity of these hierarchical methods approached 100% relative to the full screening battery. Further testing of the hierarchical screening approach based on clinical criteria and in other samples is warranted. The results demonstrate that a two-phase hierarchical approach to screening multiple mental disorders leads to considerable increases efficiency gains without reducing accuracy. Screening programs should take advantage of prescreeners based on gating items or decision trees to reduce the burden on respondents. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluating Hierarchical Structure in Music Annotations (United States)

    McFee, Brian; Nieto, Oriol; Farbood, Morwaread M.; Bello, Juan Pablo


    Music exhibits structure at multiple scales, ranging from motifs to large-scale functional components. When inferring the structure of a piece, different listeners may attend to different temporal scales, which can result in disagreements when they describe the same piece. In the field of music informatics research (MIR), it is common to use corpora annotated with structural boundaries at different levels. By quantifying disagreements between multiple annotators, previous research has yielded several insights relevant to the study of music cognition. First, annotators tend to agree when structural boundaries are ambiguous. Second, this ambiguity seems to depend on musical features, time scale, and genre. Furthermore, it is possible to tune current annotation evaluation metrics to better align with these perceptual differences. However, previous work has not directly analyzed the effects of hierarchical structure because the existing methods for comparing structural annotations are designed for “flat” descriptions, and do not readily generalize to hierarchical annotations. In this paper, we extend and generalize previous work on the evaluation of hierarchical descriptions of musical structure. We derive an evaluation metric which can compare hierarchical annotations holistically across multiple levels. sing this metric, we investigate inter-annotator agreement on the multilevel annotations of two different music corpora, investigate the influence of acoustic properties on hierarchical annotations, and evaluate existing hierarchical segmentation algorithms against the distribution of inter-annotator agreement. PMID:28824514

  12. Evaluating Hierarchical Structure in Music Annotations. (United States)

    McFee, Brian; Nieto, Oriol; Farbood, Morwaread M; Bello, Juan Pablo


    Music exhibits structure at multiple scales, ranging from motifs to large-scale functional components. When inferring the structure of a piece, different listeners may attend to different temporal scales, which can result in disagreements when they describe the same piece. In the field of music informatics research (MIR), it is common to use corpora annotated with structural boundaries at different levels. By quantifying disagreements between multiple annotators, previous research has yielded several insights relevant to the study of music cognition. First, annotators tend to agree when structural boundaries are ambiguous. Second, this ambiguity seems to depend on musical features, time scale, and genre. Furthermore, it is possible to tune current annotation evaluation metrics to better align with these perceptual differences. However, previous work has not directly analyzed the effects of hierarchical structure because the existing methods for comparing structural annotations are designed for "flat" descriptions, and do not readily generalize to hierarchical annotations. In this paper, we extend and generalize previous work on the evaluation of hierarchical descriptions of musical structure. We derive an evaluation metric which can compare hierarchical annotations holistically across multiple levels. sing this metric, we investigate inter-annotator agreement on the multilevel annotations of two different music corpora, investigate the influence of acoustic properties on hierarchical annotations, and evaluate existing hierarchical segmentation algorithms against the distribution of inter-annotator agreement.

  13. Hierarchical Nanoceramics for Industrial Process Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruud, James, A.; Brosnan, Kristen, H.; Striker, Todd; Ramaswamy, Vidya; Aceto, Steven, C.; Gao, Yan; Willson, Patrick, D.; Manoharan, Mohan; Armstrong, Eric, N., Wachsman, Eric, D.; Kao, Chi-Chang


    This project developed a robust, tunable, hierarchical nanoceramics materials platform for industrial process sensors in harsh-environments. Control of material structure at multiple length scales from nano to macro increased the sensing response of the materials to combustion gases. These materials operated at relatively high temperatures, enabling detection close to the source of combustion. It is anticipated that these materials can form the basis for a new class of sensors enabling widespread use of efficient combustion processes with closed loop feedback control in the energy-intensive industries. The first phase of the project focused on materials selection and process development, leading to hierarchical nanoceramics that were evaluated for sensing performance. The second phase focused on optimizing the materials processes and microstructures, followed by validation of performance of a prototype sensor in a laboratory combustion environment. The objectives of this project were achieved by: (1) synthesizing and optimizing hierarchical nanostructures; (2) synthesizing and optimizing sensing nanomaterials; (3) integrating sensing functionality into hierarchical nanostructures; (4) demonstrating material performance in a sensing element; and (5) validating material performance in a simulated service environment. The project developed hierarchical nanoceramic electrodes for mixed potential zirconia gas sensors with increased surface area and demonstrated tailored electrocatalytic activity operable at high temperatures enabling detection of products of combustion such as NOx close to the source of combustion. Methods were developed for synthesis of hierarchical nanostructures with high, stable surface area, integrated catalytic functionality within the structures for gas sensing, and demonstrated materials performance in harsh lab and combustion gas environments.

  14. BiOCl nanowire with hierarchical structure and its Raman features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian Ye [National Center for Nanoscience and Technology, No. 11, Beiyitiao, Zhongguancun, Beijing 100190 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Guo Chuanfei; Guo Yanjun; Wang Qi [National Center for Nanoscience and Technology, No. 11, Beiyitiao, Zhongguancun, Beijing 100190 (China); Liu Qian, E-mail: [National Center for Nanoscience and Technology, No. 11, Beiyitiao, Zhongguancun, Beijing 100190 (China)


    BiOCl is a promising V-VI-VII-compound semiconductor with excellent optical and electrical properties, and has great potential applications in photo-catalysis, photoelectric, etc. We successfully synthesize BiOCl nanowire with a hierarchical structure by combining wet etch (top-down) with liquid phase crystal growth (bottom-up) process, opening a novel method to construct ordered bismuth-based nanostructures. The morphology and lattice structures of Bi nanowires, {beta}-Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanowires and BiOCl nanowires with the hierarchical structure are investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transition electron microscope (TEM). The formation mechanism of such ordered BiOCl hierarchical structure is considered to mainly originate from the highly preferred growth, which is governed by the lattice match between (1 1 0) facet of BiOCl and (2 2 0) or (0 0 2) facet of {beta}-Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}. A schematic model is also illustrated to depict the formation process of the ordered BiOCl hierarchical structure. In addition, Raman properties of the BiOCl nanowire with the hierarchical structure are investigated deeply.

  15. Template-free synthesis of hierarchical TiO2 hollow microspheres as scattering layer for dye-sensitized solar cells (United States)

    Rui, Yichuan; Wang, Linlin; Zhao, Jiachang; Wang, Hongzhi; Li, Yaogang; Zhang, Qinghong; Xu, Jingli


    Hierarchical TiO2 hollow microspheres were synthesized by a 2-step process consisting of thermal hydrolysis and subsequent solvothermal reaction. Quasi-monodispersed solid TiO2 microspheres aggregated by amorphous particles were firstly obtained by the controlled thermal hydrolysis of titanium sulfate, and then the solid structures transformed to hollow ones and crystallized during the subsequent solvothermal treatment. SEM and TEM images of the samples revealed that the morphological evolution was in perfect accordance with the inside-out Ostwald ripening mechanism. The rich porosity and unique hierarchical hollow structure endow the TiO2 microspheres with a large specific surface area of 108.0 m2 g-1. As an effective anode material for dye-sensitized solar cells, TiO2 hollow microspheres showed good capability of dye adsorption and strong light scattering, leading to a comparable energy conversion efficiency to the commercial 18NR-T transparent titania. Finally, a high efficiency of 7.84% was achieved for the bi-layer DSSC by coating the hollow microspheres on top of the 18NR-T titania as the light scattering layer.

  16. Simulations of the Complex Hierarchical Growth of Structure (United States)

    Hallman, E. J.; Ryu, D.; Kang, H.; Jones, T. W.


    We will present results from cosmological numerical hydro/n-body simulations. Specifically we target complex structures in the clusters of galaxies that form, and in their immediate environment. These features include shocks and cold fronts. Clusters are synthetically observed, and the images are analyzed for evidence of these structures. Using time-resolved movies of the simulations in progress, we examine the evolution of clusters and groups in the simulations and its observable consequences. The simulations use an Eulerian TVD type scheme for the gas and a particle mesh N-body method. The simulated volumes are (50h-1 Mpc)3 and (100h-1 Mpc)3 respectively. Each is represented by 10243 uniformly spaced grid points. The simulation evolves from early times (z 40-60), from primordial density fluctuations in a concordance model LCDM universe, until the current epoch. A wide array of complex structures form in the simulations, including filaments, accretion shocks, merger shocks and cluster internal shocks, as well as contact discontinuities which may give rise to the observed cold fronts. These features appear inside clusters, as well as in the surrounding warm/hot medium, and serve as a key diagnostic of the dynamical state of the gas, as well as a tracer of its evolution. This work is supported by the NSF and the Minnesota Supercomputing Institute.

  17. Synthesis and Field Emission Properties of Hierarchical ZnO Nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deyan Peng


    Full Text Available Three novel kinds of hierarchical ZnO nanostructures: nanocombs nanoscrewdrivers and nanonails, have been synthesized in large quantities via a simple thermal evaporation process in the same run of growth in different regions of the quartz tube. The morphologies could be well controlled by adjusting the distances between the source materials and the substrates. These ZnO products were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. The field emission properties of the ZnO nanostructures were investigated. These hierarchical ZnO nanostructures may be attractive building blocks for field emission microelectronic devices and other devices.

  18. Self-assembled biomimetic superhydrophobic hierarchical arrays. (United States)

    Yang, Hongta; Dou, Xuan; Fang, Yin; Jiang, Peng


    Here, we report a simple and inexpensive bottom-up technology for fabricating superhydrophobic coatings with hierarchical micro-/nano-structures, which are inspired by the binary periodic structure found on the superhydrophobic compound eyes of some insects (e.g., mosquitoes and moths). Binary colloidal arrays consisting of exemplary large (4 and 30 μm) and small (300 nm) silica spheres are first assembled by a scalable Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technology in a layer-by-layer manner. After surface modification with fluorosilanes, the self-assembled hierarchical particle arrays become superhydrophobic with an apparent water contact angle (CA) larger than 150°. The throughput of the resulting superhydrophobic coatings with hierarchical structures can be significantly improved by templating the binary periodic structures of the LB-assembled colloidal arrays into UV-curable fluoropolymers by a soft lithography approach. Superhydrophobic perfluoroether acrylate hierarchical arrays with large CAs and small CA hysteresis can be faithfully replicated onto various substrates. Both experiments and theoretical calculations based on the Cassie's dewetting model demonstrate the importance of the hierarchical structure in achieving the final superhydrophobic surface states. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Stage III Community-based Efficacy Trial for Mothering From the Inside Out (United States)


    Addiction; Substance Abuse Drug Chronic; Child Neglect; Child Neglect Emotional; Child Abuse; Parenting; Parent-Child Problem; Parent-Child Relations; Parent / Child Problem; Parenteral Drug Abuse; Parents

  20. Turning body and self inside out: visualized heartbeats alter bodily self-consciousness and tactile perception. (United States)

    Aspell, Jane Elizabeth; Heydrich, Lukas; Marillier, Guillaume; Lavanchy, Tom; Herbelin, Bruno; Blanke, Olaf


    Prominent theories highlight the importance of bodily perception for self-consciousness, but it is currently not known whether bodily perception is based on interoceptive or exteroceptive signals or on integrated signals from these anatomically distinct systems. In the research reported here, we combined both types of signals by surreptitiously providing participants with visual exteroceptive information about their heartbeat: A real-time video image of a periodically illuminated silhouette outlined participants' (projected, "virtual") bodies and flashed in synchrony with their heartbeats. We investigated whether these "cardio-visual" signals could modulate bodily self-consciousness and tactile perception. We report two main findings. First, synchronous cardio-visual signals increased self-identification with and self-location toward the virtual body, and second, they altered the perception of tactile stimuli applied to participants' backs so that touch was mislocalized toward the virtual body. We argue that the integration of signals from the inside and the outside of the human body is a fundamental neurobiological process underlying self-consciousness.

  1. Innovation – inside out. Change and stability in social and health care education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wegener, Charlotte


    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to scrutinize and challenge the call for innovation in welfare domains. The study asks how social practices across boundaries unfold in the field of social and health care educations under innovation imperatives. Methodology: The design is a multi-sited field...... study of collaborative practices in social and health care educations in Denmark, and it explores activities and interactions among people, the work tasks and the artifacts with which they engage. The multi-sited design is based on the theoretically informed hypothesis that crossing boundaries between...... and health care education. The empirical practice is thus understood to be cross-organizational. The study was carried out on three levels, macro, meso and micro: Policy requirements for change (macro level), managerial strategies and collaboration (meso level) and the daily work tasks in educators...

  2. Writing from Inside Out: Accounts of Sudanese Women Working In the Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saadia Izzeldin Malik


    Full Text Available This paper examines the experiences of some Sudanese women working in the media. The paper brings to the center of analysis voices and experiences of women reporters, presenters, head of media sections, directors, and writers through adopting autobiographic and ethnographic research methods. The main question of this paper is how the “glass ceiling” metaphor-the invisible barriers that one, read women, can see through but not easily get through is applicable to the position of women in the media institutions of Sudan? Applying qualitative research methods, the paper found that Sudanese women journalists are constantly facing and negotiating gender disparities in work place, and poor working conditions; cultural/society’s perception of women working in the media; limited margin of press freedom in the country, and confronting the Islamist perception of the government of the Sudanese “woman”.

  3. Inside Out: Program Integrity and Effectiveness of the Cognitive-Behavioural Program EQUIP for Incarcerated Youth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helmond, P.E.


    In correctional facilities intervention programs are used to reduce behavioral problems and recidivism. Intervention programs can be effective when they contain effective ingredients and are implemented with high levels of program integrity. Program integrity is the degree to which programs are

  4. Disruption from the Inside-Out: Innovation in the Restaurant Industry


    Makaela Reinke


    Eating out looks much like it always has, even amidst today's storms of disruptive and breakthrough models. How is it that while so much of our world changes, the business of eating has essentially stayed the same? Has the restaurant industry been affected by disruptive models at all?

  5. Disruption from the Inside-Out: Innovation in the Restaurant Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makaela Reinke


    Full Text Available Eating out looks much like it always has, even amidst today's storms of disruptive and breakthrough models. How is it that while so much of our world changes, the business of eating has essentially stayed the same? Has the restaurant industry been affected by disruptive models at all?

  6. Inside Out: What We (Do Not) Talk About When We Talk About Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simovska, Venka; Lagermann, Laila Colding; Abduljalil, Heba Salah Y


    In this article, we discuss issues that are rarely (if ever) talked about in research: experiences of deep insight and inspiration, of meaning-making, of embodied passion and of excitement related to the practice of engaging in qualitative research and of being a qualitative researcher. These are...

  7. Inside out: efflux of carbon dioxide from leaves represents more than leaf metabolism. (United States)

    Stutz, Samantha S; Anderson, Jeremiah; Zulick, Rachael; Hanson, David T


    High concentrations of inorganic carbon in the xylem, produced from root, stem, and branch respiration, travel via the transpiration stream and eventually exit the plant through distant tissues as CO2. Unlike previous studies that focused on the efflux of CO2 from roots and woody tissues, we focus on efflux from leaves and the potential effect on leaf respiration measurements. We labeled transported inorganic carbon, spanning reported xylem concentrations, with 13C and then manipulated transpiration rates in the dark in order to vary the rates of inorganic carbon supply to cut leaves from Brassica napus and Populus deltoides. We used tunable diode laser absorbance spectroscopy to directly measure the rate of gross 13CO2 efflux, derived from inorganic carbon supplied from outside of the leaf, relative to gross 12CO2 efflux generated from leaf cells. These experiemnts showed that 13CO2 efflux was dependent upon the rate of inorganic carbon supply to the leaf and the rate of transpiration. Our data show that the gross leaf efflux of xylem-transported CO2 is likely small in the dark when rates of transpiration are low. However, gross leaf efflux of xylem-transported CO2 could approach half the rate of leaf respiration in the light when transpiration rates and branch inorganic carbon concentrations are high, irrespective of the grossly different petiole morphologies in our experiment. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  8. Outside in - inside out. Creating focus on the patient - a vaccine company perspective. (United States)

    Sohy, Denis; Dusart, Isabelle; Goulet, Philibert; Visy, Diane; Gasthuys, Luc; Poplazarova, Tatjana; Breuer, Thomas; Begg, Norman


    Involving patients in the development of medicines and vaccines should result in benefits to patients. The vaccine recipient is usually a healthy person. We describe the rationale and implementation of a vaccine company's initiative to encourage employees to identify with patients of the conditions prevented by the vaccines they help to produce. The Voice of the Patient ("VoP"), begun in 2014, is an educational programme directed at the 16,000 employees of a global vaccine company. It engages employees through an understanding that they are all "vaccine patients", and that they can make a difference by considering the impact of decisions made in their day to day work. The initiative includes presentations about vaccine-preventable diseases, global live webcasts with experts and patients, employee visits to healthcare facilities in developing countries, and the production of patient-focused sections in research publications. In a 2017 employee survey, 90% of respondents said they know how their daily work impacts patients and they demonstrate focus on patients. We believe this is preliminary evidence that, by supporting employee awareness of the impact of their individual roles, VoP could be a model for a type of initiative that will contribute to industry's continuing evolution towards more patient-centred healthcare.

  9. Inside Out, Outside In: Power and Culture in a Learning Community (United States)

    Wilbur, Gretchen; Scott, Randall


    In this article the authors report on a university learning community that they designed and team taught on learning, culture, and power. The authors use it as a case to investigate the question: Can the unequal power dynamic of the university classroom be productively transformed to create a democratic learning experience that fosters learning…

  10. "Inside Out": A Collaborative Approach to Designing Schools in England, 1945-1972 (United States)

    Burke, Catherine


    This article explores the European dimension of a collaborative approach to school design through the lives and relationships of a group of key individuals who in England set about transforming school in the post-war era. The philosophy and practice of this group of architects, educators, designers and policy makers, who regarded the school…

  11. The Inside, Out: Diaries as Entry Points to Historical Perspective-Taking (United States)

    Lemisko, Lynn


    Diaries can serve as meaningful entry points for advancing historical consciousness and develop historical thinking (Seixas, 2002) because they can connect readers/learners with the diverse emotions, thoughts and motivations of the people who wrote them in particular times and particular places. According to philosopher and historian, R.G.…

  12. Identification and Characterization of an Inside-Out Folding Intermediate of T4 Phage Sliding Clamp. (United States)

    Singh, Manika Indrajit; Jain, Vikas


    Protein folding process involves formation of transiently occurring intermediates that are difficult to isolate and characterize. It is both necessary and interesting to characterize the structural conformations adopted by these intermediates, also called molten globules (MG), to understand protein folding. Here, we investigated the equilibrium (un)folding intermediate state of T4 phage gene product 45 (gp45, also known as DNA polymerase processivity factor or sliding clamp) obtained during chemical denaturation. We show that gp45 undergoes substantial conformational rearrangement during unfolding and forms an expanded dry-MG. By monitoring the fluorescence of tryptophans that were strategically introduced at various sites, we demonstrate that the urea-treated molecule has its surface residues flip inside the core, and closely placed residues move farther. We were also able to isolate and purify the MG form of gp45 in native condition (i.e., nondenaturing buffer, at physiological pH and temperature); characteristics of this purified molecule substantially match with urea-treated wild-type gp45. To the best of our knowledge, this is one of the few reports that demonstrate the isolation and purification of a protein folding intermediate in native condition. We believe that our work not only allows us to dissect the process of protein folding, but will also help in the designing of folding inhibitors against sliding clamps to treat a wide variety of diseases from bacterial infection to cancer, due to the vast presence of clamps in all the domains of life. Copyright © 2017 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Inside out and outside in: Rethinking Spelling in Inclusive Elementary Classrooms (United States)

    Anderson, Derek L.; Standerford, N. Suzanne


    A serendipitous moment, a passing conversation, led to this study. A university professor expressed concern that his second-grade son was "bored" with his weekly spelling lists, homework, and tests. A colleague of his, a former elementary teacher with 30 years experience and currently teaching field-based methods courses in this child's…

  14. Inside Out: Detecting Learners' Confusion to Improve Interactive Digital Learning Environments (United States)

    Arguel, Amaël; Lockyer, Lori; Lipp, Ottmar V.; Lodge, Jason M.; Kennedy, Gregor


    Confusion is an emotion that is likely to occur while learning complex information. This emotion can be beneficial to learners in that it can foster engagement, leading to deeper understanding. However, if learners fail to resolve confusion, its effect can be detrimental to learning. Such detrimental learning experiences are particularly…

  15. Upside down and inside out: Flip Your Classroom to Improve Student Learning (United States)

    Fulton, Kathleen


    Educators are notorious for jumping on passing fads and chasing the newest innovations, from the open classrooms of the 1970s to the one-laptop-per-student initiatives of the past decade. It is not surprising that when the next new thing--the flipped classroom--hit the hallways of America's schools, it was met with hesitation and skepticism from…

  16. Being Turned Inside Out: Researching Youth, Morality and Restitution from the Global South (United States)

    Swartz, Sharlene


    This article maps my journey as a scholar engaged in the research of youth morality (located in the Global South); as a beneficiary of injustice having grown up as a white South African; as a navigator of complex personal histories (discovering my mixed race family origins); and arriving at restitution as a career research focus. It reflects on…

  17. Responsive Teaching from the Inside Out: Teaching Base Ten to Young Children (United States)

    Empson, Susan B.


    Decision making during instruction that is responsive to children's mathematical thinking is examined reflexively by the researcher in the context of teaching second graders. Focus is on exploring how the research base on learning informs teaching decisions that are oriented to building on children's sound conceptions. The development of four…

  18. Flipping the Academy: Is Learning from outside the Classroom Turning the University Inside Out? (United States)

    Helyer, Ruth; Corkill, Helen


    This paper explores the idea that the variety of approaches to experiential learning, and the diversity of ways in which learning is accessed and facilitated, is contributing to the conventional world of the university being turned upside-down. Work-based and experiential learning acknowledge learning derived from outside the classroom; similarly,…

  19. The Inside-Out Project: Illustrating the Complexity of Relationships in Kindergarten and First Grade (United States)

    Essa, Eva L.; Taylor, Jennifer M.; Pratt, Julia M.; Roberts, Shari A.


    A group of six children from kindergarten/first grade class in a Reggio-inspired program were involved in a four-month project to design an outdoor area in which indoor materials could be used. Facilitated by teachers and student teachers, projects provide a venue for children's integrated, developmentally appropriate learning. Because they…

  20. Outside In and Inside Out: Using a Case Study Assignment in a Reading Methods Course (United States)

    Kindle, Karen J.; Schmidt, Cynthia M.


    Teacher education programs that focus on preparing urban elementary school educators face a daunting task. In a relatively short time, roughly four semesters of coursework, students are prepared to be transformed into teachers who are certified to meet the challenges of urban schools. This transformation occurs from the outside in as they learn…

  1. Learning about Properties of 2-D Shapes from the Inside out (United States)

    Forsythe, Sue; Cook, Dave


    Geometer Sketchpad is far from a new innovation, but its potential in the classroom is probably still understated. The application described here can be replicated in any classroom, and the impact on learning is likely to be significant. The experiences documented are "real", and show how a software package can enhance an area of the mathematics…

  2. Mathematics Turned inside out: The Intensive Faculty versus the Extensive Faculty (United States)

    Grcar, Joseph F.


    Research universities in the United States have larger mathematics faculties outside their mathematics departments than inside. Members of this "extensive" faculty conduct most mathematics research, their interests are the most heavily published areas of mathematics, and they teach this mathematics in upper division courses independent…

  3. Working from the Inside Out: A Case Study of Mackay Safe Community (United States)

    Hanson, Dale; Gunning, Colleen; Rose, Judy; McFarlane, Kathryn; Franklin, Richard C.


    Mackay Whitsunday Safe Community (MWSC) was established in 2000 in response to high rates of injury observed in the region. MWSC assumed an ecological perspective, incorporating targeted safety promotion campaigns reinforced by supportive environments and policy. By involving the community in finding its own solutions, MWSC attempted to catalyze…

  4. Eye Inside Out: Endonasal Endoscopic Reposition of Eye from Nose with Complete Vision Regainment. (United States)

    Mishra, Girish S; Bhatt, Sushen Harish


    Faciomaxillary and ocular trauma is a common entity in most emergency and trauma units. We came across a 68-year-old female patient with a history of bull horn injury over the right eye. Examination revealed an empty orbital socket with unreliable perception of light present. Imaging showed that the eye had displaced posteroinferomedially to be lying in the ethmoid air cells in the nasal cavity. Under nasal endoscopic guidance, the eye was reposited back into the orbital socket and conjunctival sutures were taken to stabilize the position. The patient had vision of counting fingers at 1.5 m on the first postoperative day which improved to 6/24 on last follow-up. Such is the rarity that never before has such a case been described in literature where traumatic displacement of eyeball into the nose has been successfully repositioned by an endonasal endoscope with appreciable regaining of vision. It also further promotes endonasal endoscopic approach in the management of orbital blow out injuries.

  5. Leadership from the inside Out: Student Leadership Development within Authentic Leadership and Servant Leadership Frameworks (United States)

    Kiersch, Christa; Peters, Janet


    Developing undergraduate student leaders who are authentic in their leadership and who have a drive to serve and support those around them is not only good for the students and their host schools, but arguably good for students' future employers and even the future of our society. Our goal is to determine how such student leaders could be…

  6. Amerikanimerad kultur : En kritisk diskursanalys av kulturella värderingar i Inside Out och Minions


    Ragnhage, Lukas; Wendel, Erik


    Animerad film har under de senaste 100 åren utvecklats i en snabb takt, från korta tecknade Disney-filmer till dagens datoranimerade långfilmer. Ledande inom denna utveckling är USA som med sina lättsmälta animerade filmer etablerat sig som underhållningsform i många familjers hem världen över. Amerika har med hjälp av företag som Disney och Pixar blivit pionjärer inom genren och dominerar distributionen av animerad film i världen.   Med ett av världens mest inflytelserika länder som största ...

  7. Inside-Out Feelings. An Actions for Health Book. Contemporary Health Series. (United States)

    ETR Associates, Santa Cruz, CA.

    This document contains two short fictional stories about teenagers who sometimes feel awkward, confused, or lonely. In the first story, a Latino boy is insecure about how he appears to other people. In the second story, an African American girl feels sad and lonely sometimes in spite of her popularity and good looks. In both stories, talking to…

  8. Inside-out electrical capacitance tomography for downhole multiphase flow evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærsgaard-Rasmussen, Jimmy

    of information available. The objective of the work presented in this report was to develop a method for providing high quality mobile measurements from the inside of oil wells. It is shown that electrical capacitance tomography is a suitable method for the purpose. The conventional methods are only partially...... for the electric field inside the sensor is derived and subsequently an analytical expression for the sensitivity matrix is found. The analytical solution is for a slightly idealized geometry, so numerical methods are applied to obtain the sensitivity matrix for the exact sensor geometry. The numerical methods...... and the sections with water could be clearly identified. It was concluded that the system is ready for field-test. Three sensors were shipped for offshore field test, but unfortunately the test was canceled because of problems with the well....

  9. Turning the Looking Glass inside out: A Gifted Student in an At-Risk Setting (United States)

    Barone, Diane; Schneider, Rebecca


    This qualitative study occurred in a multigrade classroom of 3rd, 4th, and 5th graders in a school labeled at-risk. The focal student in this study was Kirby, identified in this setting as a gifted student. Kirby's classroom teacher and a university researcher collaborated in data collection that included interviews, classroom observations, a…

  10. Valuing Cultural Context and Style: Strategies for Teaching Traditional Jazz Dance from the Inside Out (United States)

    Hubbard, Karen W.


    This article presents an approach to teaching that acknowledges the history and style of authentic jazz dance; also known as traditional jazz dance. Described for students on the first class-day as "...your great-grandparents' jazz..." the course is an introduction to the stylistic characteristics of an indigenous U.S. form evolved primarily from…

  11. From the inside out: Eagle Rock School Producing a New Generation of CES Teachers (United States)

    Condon, Dan


    In this article, the author gives an overview of Eagle Rock School's Teaching Fellowship Program which he founded in collaboration with Public Allies, Inc. and under the auspices of Eagle Rock's Professional Development Center. Eagle Rock's Teaching Fellowship has two perspectives: (1) local; and (2) global. Locally, Fellows contribute skills,…

  12. Loving Nature From the Inside Out: A Biophilia Matrix Identification Strategy for Designers. (United States)

    McGee, Beth; Marshall-Baker, Anna


    The development of the Biophilic Design Matrix (BDM) was to aid designers or other specialists in identifying and quantifying biophilic features through a visual inventory of interior spaces. With mounting evidence to support the healing attributes of biophilic environments, we propose a method to identify biophilic content within interior spaces. Such a strategy offers much promise to the advancement of restorative environments. The BDM was based on Stephen Kellert's biophilic design attribute list and modified to be appropriate for interior environments, specifically children's healthcare spaces. A photo-ethnographic documentation method of 24 child life play spaces within a South Atlantic state was used to determine whether the BDM could reliably reveal biophilic features (listed as attributes by Kellert in 2008). This matrix appears useful in documenting biophilia within the pediatric healthcare context, attesting to the usability and functionality of the BDM for this special population. Specifically, the BDM revealed that biophilic attributes were constantly present in some spaces while others were completely absent. When a biophilic attribute was present, the BDM indicated that they varied considerably in type and occurrence. Thus, use of the BDM in the hospital areas designed for patient recreation and play successfully provided a visual inventory of biophilic features as well as the frequency of application. Further use of the BDM as a tool for strategizing biophilic feature inclusion can thus increase the connections available with nature in the interior, beneficial for optimizing health and wellness. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Mental Health: Healing Deep Wounds from the Inside Out. Native Americans in the Health Professions. (United States)

    Westberg, Jane


    Interviews with Native American mental health and social workers discuss how Native mental health problems are related to historical trauma and chronically inadequate mental health services. Elements of culturally relevant mental health services include locally delivered workshops, kinship foster care, tribal elders, spirituality, and Native care…

  14. From the inside/out: Greene County jail inmates on restorative reentry. (United States)

    Hass, Aida Y; Saxon, Caryn E


    The application of criminal justice sanctions is often misguided by a failure to recognize the need for a comprehensive approach in the transformation of offenders into law-abiding citizens. Restorative justice is a growing movement within criminal justice that recognizes the disconnect between offender rehabilitative measures and the social dynamics within which offender reentry takes place. By using restorative approaches to justice, what one hopes of these alternative processes is that the offenders become reconnected to the community and its values, something rarely seen in retributive models in which punishment is imposed and offenders can often experience further alienation from society. In this study, the authors wish to examine factors that contribute to failed prisoner reentry and reintegration and explore how restorative reintegration processes can address these factors as well as the needs, attitudes, and perceptions that help construct and maintain many of the obstacles and barriers returning inmates face when attempting to reintegrate into society.

  15. Australian Teacher Education: Inside-Out, Outside-In, Backwards and Forwards? (United States)

    Ling, Lorraine M.


    Teacher Education in Australia seems to be in a dynamic and constant cycle of review and change. Policy governing teacher education has also been eminently changeable and dynamic. To some extent this stems from three year terms for governments where a short term and expedient political view is taken. There has also been ongoing centre-periphery…

  16. Turning depression inside out : Life events, cognitive emotion regulation and treatment in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stikkelbroek, Y.A.J.


    In view of the large burden of disease for the depressed adolescents, their families and society as a whole, studies on risk factors and mechanisms for development of a depression, as well as effect studies concerning specific treatment procedures for adolescents with depression, are definitely

  17. The Shark in the Vitrine: Experiencing our Practice From the Inside Out With Transdisciplinary Lenses (United States)

    Samaras, Anastasia P.; Karczmarczyk, Diana; Smith, Lesley; Woodville, Louisa; Harmon, Laurie; Nasser, Ilham; Parsons, Seth A.; Smith, Toni M.; Borne, Kirk; Constantine, Lynne Scott; Mendoza, Esperanza Roman; Suh, Jennifer; Swanson, Ryan


    The Scholars of Studying Teaching Collaborative engaged a dozen faculty members from 12 specializations and 4 colleges at a large public university in a 2-year teaching and research project with the goal of learning about and enacting a self-study of professional practice. Participants were selected from various disciplines to provoke alternative…

  18. Mathematics Turned Inside Out: The Intensive Faculty Versus the Extensive Faculty


    Grcar, Joseph F.


    Research universities in the United States have larger mathematics faculties outside their mathematics departments than inside. Members of this "extensive" faculty conduct most mathematics research, their interests are the most heavily published areas of mathematics, and they teach this mathematics in upper division courses independent of mathematics departments. The existence of this de facto faculty challenges the pertinence of institutional and national policies for higher education in mat...

  19. Understanding Asthma from the Inside Out | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine (United States)

    Skip to main content NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine NIH MedlinePlus Salud Download the Current Issue PDF [2.68 mb] Trusted Health Information from the National Institutes of Health Home Current Issue ...

  20. Inside Out: Active learning in fluid dynamics in and out of the classroom (United States)

    Kaye, Nigel; Benson, Lisa; Sill, Ben


    Active learning can be broadly defined as any activity that engages students beyond just listening. But is it worth the effort, when we can just lecture and tell students all they need to know? Learning theories posit that students remember far more of what they say and do than of what they hear and see. The benefits of active learning include increased attendance (because class is now something different and attending is more worthwhile) and deeper understanding of concepts (because students get to practice answering and generating questions). A recent meta-analysis of research on active learning has summarized evidence of real outcomes of active learning. Research is showing that students' performance on exams are higher and that they fail at lower rates in classes that involve active learning compared to traditional lecturing. Other studies have shown evidence of improved performance in follow-on classes, showing that the improved learning lasts. There are some topics and concepts that are best taught (or at least introduced) through lecturing, but even lecturing can be broken up by short activities that engage students so they learn more effectively. In this presentation, we will review the findings of the meta study and provide examples of active learning both inside and outside the classroom that demonstrate simple ways of introducing this approach in fluid dynamics classes.

  1. New chitin complexes and their anti-aging activity from inside out. (United States)

    Morganti, P; Fabrizi, G; Palombo, P; Palombo, M; Guarneri, F; Cardillo, A; Morganti, G


    Nutritional and topical antioxidants and immuno-modulant compounds play a key role in maintaining healthy skin. However, little is known about the combined effects antioxidant cosmeceuticals and nutricosmetics can have on the appearance of aging skin. The clinical trial was designed to study the combined effects on skin hydration, superficial lipids, elasticity, peroxidation and global clinical appearance, of melatonin, Vit. E and Betaglucan (MEB) complexed with chitin nano-crystals administered both topically and orally. Clinical examinations were conducted by dermatologists. By a randomized placebo-controlled, 12 week multicenter study on 70 healthy subjects, affected with skin photo-aging, the anti-aging efficacy and tolerability of the combined activity of topical emulsion and oral hard capsules, containing MEB complexed with chitin nano-crystals (CN) was evaluated clinically and by biophysical non-invasive measurements at week 4,8 and 12. The effects of MEB intake resulted significantly higher (p<0.005) than placebo for all the parameters evaluated by biophysical and clinical measurements. The values resulted higher when the active ingredients MEB were complexed with CN, whether used topically, orally or a combination of both (p<0.05). The positive results, observed since week 4, were accompanied by no side-effects throughout the entire study. The combined topical and oral use of MEB was associated with reduced wrinkling, better skin appearance and general overall wellness. When MEB were complexed with CN, the obtained results were statistically more positive (p<0.05) for all the biophysical and clinical parameters considered.

  2. Perspective Taking, Cultural Stress, and the Individual: From the Inside Out (United States)


    uncertainty-avoidance, masculinity-femininity, power- distance, long-term orientation, and indulgence–self restraint ( Hofstede et al., 2010). In...Lane, H. C.; Core, M.; Dixon, M.; Forbell, E.; Segal, E. A. A Social Work Model of Empathy. Social Work 2009, 10 (2), 114–127. Hofstede , G.; Gert J. H

  3. Turning Ideologies inside Out: Developing Young Readers' Empathy for Critical Voices in Narrative Fiction (United States)

    Pereira, Íris Susana Pires; Campos, Ângela


    This article is located at the crossroads between two distinctive human traits, empathy and rational thought, with narrative emerging as a particularly powerful means to enable young readers to bring them together. Specifically, we discuss the role that critical literary exegesis plays in the development of empathic consciousness in literary…

  4. Outside in, inside out: Notes on the Retreating God in Nancy's Deconstruction of Christianity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kate, L. ten


    According to Jean-Luc Nancy, a deconstruction of Christianity looks for the ‘unthought’ in the christian religion. By this unthought dimension he means ‘something’ in Christianity that at the same time ‘is not Christianity proper’ and ‘has not mingled with it’. It appears to be simultaneously

  5. Development and investigation of functional hierarchical hybrid materials (United States)

    Athauda, Thushara J.

    In this dissertation, a series of hierarchical hybrid materials were developed and their process-morphology-activity relationship was studied. In this context, zinc oxide was used as a model metal-oxide semiconductor for the development of branched hierarchical nanostructures on various flexible substrates including cotton, nylon, and electrospun organic and inorganic nanofibers. In all cases, well-defined, radially oriented, highly dense, uniform, and single crystalline arrays of ZnO nanostructures were successfully grown using an optimized hydrothermal growth strategy. This process involves seed solution treatment of a substrate with ZnO nanocrystals that will form nucleation sites for subsequent anisotropic growth of single crystalline ZnO nanowires by incubation in the growth solution. All ZnO nanowires exhibit wurtzite crystal structure oriented along the c-axis which was confirmed by XRD analysis. Seed-to-growth solution concentration ratio ([S]/[G]) was determined to be the most important process parameter on the morphology of the resulting nanostructures when applied to cotton and nylon surfaces. Increase in the [S]/[G] values resulted in the amount of ZnO grown on the surfaces to drop significantly, which also resulted in a morphological transform from nanorods to needle-like structures. Consequently, a strong dependency of the physical, optical, and electrochemical properties of the resulting materials was observed. In addition, room temperature photoluminescence measurements revealed that the band-gap of ZnO widened as the morphology changed from nanorods to nanoneedles. Additional analyses revealed that cotton bearing ZnO nanorods exhibits a lower propensity for contact transfer of E. coli than unmodified cotton fabric. Moreover, studies with nonwoven nanofibers generated by electrospinning revealed that the morphology of the branched nanostructures was also controlled by the density of the underlying fibrous platform. The amount of ZnO nanorods grown

  6. Hierarchical Micro-Nano Coatings by Painting (United States)

    Kirveslahti, Anna; Korhonen, Tuulia; Suvanto, Mika; Pakkanen, Tapani A.


    In this paper, the wettability properties of coatings with hierarchical surface structures and low surface energy were studied. Hierarchically structured coatings were produced by using hydrophobic fumed silica nanoparticles and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) microparticles as additives in polyester (PES) and polyvinyldifluoride (PVDF). These particles created hierarchical micro-nano structures on the paint surfaces and lowered or supported the already low surface energy of the paint. Two standard application techniques for paint application were employed and the presented coatings are suitable for mass production and use in large surface areas. By regulating the particle concentrations, it was possible to modify wettability properties gradually. Highly hydrophobic surfaces were achieved with the highest contact angle of 165∘. Dynamic contact angle measurements were carried out for a set of selected samples and low hysteresis was obtained. Produced coatings possessed long lasting durability in the air and in underwater conditions.

  7. [Comparative hierarchic structure of the genetic language]. (United States)

    Ratner, V A


    The genetical texts and genetic language are built according to hierarchic principle and contain no less than 6 levels of coding sequences, separated by marks of punctuation, separation and indication: codons, cistrons, scriptons, replicons, linkage groups, genomes. Each level has all the attributes of the language. This hierarchic system expresses some general properties and regularities. The rules of genetic language being determined, the variability of genetical texts is generated by block-modular combinatorics on each level. Between levels there are some intermediate sublevels and module types capable of being combined. The genetic language is compared with two different independent linguistic systems: human natural languages and artificial programming languages. Genetic language is a natural one by its origin, but it is a typical technical language of the functioning genetic regulatory system--by its predestination. All three linguistic systems under comparison have evident similarity of the organization principles and hierarchical structures. This argues for similarity of their principles of appearance and evolution.

  8. Towards a sustainable manufacture of hierarchical zeolites. (United States)

    Verboekend, Danny; Pérez-Ramírez, Javier


    Hierarchical zeolites have been established as a superior type of aluminosilicate catalysts compared to their conventional (purely microporous) counterparts. An impressive array of bottom-up and top-down approaches has been developed during the last decade to design and subsequently exploit these exciting materials catalytically. However, the sustainability of the developed synthetic methods has rarely been addressed. This paper highlights important criteria to ensure the ecological and economic viability of the manufacture of hierarchical zeolites. Moreover, by using base leaching as a promising case study, we verify a variety of approaches to increase reactor productivity, recycle waste streams, prevent the combustion of organic compounds, and minimize separation efforts. By reducing their synthetic footprint, hierarchical zeolites are positioned as an integral part of sustainable chemistry. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Hierarchical Neural Network Structures for Phoneme Recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Vasquez, Daniel; Minker, Wolfgang


    In this book, hierarchical structures based on neural networks are investigated for automatic speech recognition. These structures are evaluated on the phoneme recognition task where a  Hybrid Hidden Markov Model/Artificial Neural Network paradigm is used. The baseline hierarchical scheme consists of two levels each which is based on a Multilayered Perceptron. Additionally, the output of the first level serves as a second level input. The computational speed of the phoneme recognizer can be substantially increased by removing redundant information still contained at the first level output. Several techniques based on temporal and phonetic criteria have been investigated to remove this redundant information. The computational time could be reduced by 57% whilst keeping the system accuracy comparable to the baseline hierarchical approach.

  10. Multiscale Inorganic Hierarchically Materials: Towards an Improved Orthopaedic Regenerative Medicine. (United States)

    Ruso, Juan M; Sartuqui, Javier; Messina, Paula V


    Bone is a biologically and structurally sophisticated multifunctional tissue. It dynamically responds to biochemical, mechanical and electrical clues by remodelling itself and accordingly the maximum strength and toughness are along the lines of the greatest applied stress. The challenge is to develop an orthopaedic biomaterial that imitates the micro- and nano-structural elements and compositions of bone to locally match the properties of the host tissue resulting in a biologically fixed implant. Looking for the ideal implant, the convergence of life and materials sciences occurs. Researchers in many different fields apply their expertise to improve implantable devices and regenerative medicine. Materials of all kinds, but especially hierarchical nano-materials, are being exploited. The application of nano-materials with hierarchical design to calcified tissue reconstructive medicine involve intricate systems including scaffolds with multifaceted shapes that provides temporary mechanical function; materials with nano-topography modifications that guarantee their integration to tissues and that possesses functionalized surfaces to transport biologic factors to stimulate tissue growth in a controlled, safe, and rapid manner. Furthermore materials that should degrade on a timeline coordinated to the time that takes the tissues regrow, are prepared. These implantable devices are multifunctional and for its construction they involve the use of precise strategically techniques together with specific material manufacturing processes that can be integrated to achieve in the design, the required multifunctionality. For such reasons, even though the idea of displacement from synthetic implants and tissue grafts to regenerative-medicine-based tissue reconstruction has been guaranteed for well over a decade, the reality has yet to emerge. In this paper, we examine the recent approaches to create enhanced bioactive materials. Their design and manufacturing procedures as well

  11. Three-dimensional ZnO hierarchical nanostructures: Solution phase synthesis and applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiaoliang; Ahmad, Mashkoor; Sun, Hongyu


    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures have been studied extensively in the past 20 years due to their novel electronic, photonic, mechanical and electrochemical properties. Recently, more attention has been paid to assemble nanoscale building blocks into three-dimensional (3D) complex hierarchical...... structures, which not only inherit the excellent properties of the single building blocks but also provide potential applications in the bottom-up fabrication of functional devices. This review article focuses on 3D ZnO hierarchical nanostructures, and summarizes major advances in the solution phase...... synthesis, applications in environment, and electrical/electrochemical devices. We present the principles and growth mechanisms of ZnO nanostructures via different solution methods, with an emphasis on rational control of the morphology and assembly. We then discuss the applications of 3D ZnO hierarchical...

  12. Lattice-Symmetry-Driven Epitaxy of Hierarchical GaN Nanotripods

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Ping


    Lattice-symmetry-driven epitaxy of hierarchical GaN nanotripods is demonstrated. The nanotripods emerge on the top of hexagonal GaN nanowires, which are selectively grown on pillar-patterned GaN templates using molecular beam epitaxy. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy confirms that two kinds of lattice-symmetry, wurtzite (wz) and zinc-blende (zb), coexist in the GaN nanotripods. Periodical transformation between wz and zb drives the epitaxy of the hierarchical nanotripods with N-polarity. The zb-GaN is formed by the poor diffusion of adatoms, and it can be suppressed by improving the ability of the Ga adatoms to migrate as the growth temperature increased. This controllable epitaxy of hierarchical GaN nanotripods allows quantum dots to be located at the phase junctions of the nanotripods and nanowires, suggesting a new recipe for multichannel quantum devices.

  13. Hierarchical Analysis of the Omega Ontology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joslyn, Cliff A.; Paulson, Patrick R.


    Initial delivery for mathematical analysis of the Omega Ontology. We provide an analysis of the hierarchical structure of a version of the Omega Ontology currently in use within the US Government. After providing an initial statistical analysis of the distribution of all link types in the ontology, we then provide a detailed order theoretical analysis of each of the four main hierarchical links present. This order theoretical analysis includes the distribution of components and their properties, their parent/child and multiple inheritance structure, and the distribution of their vertical ranks.

  14. Hierarchical MAS Based Control Strategy for Microgrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wu


    Full Text Available Microgrids have become a hot topic driven by the dual pressures of environmental protection concerns and the energy crisis. In this paper, a challenge for the distributed control of a modern electric grid incorporating clusters of residential microgrids is elaborated and a hierarchical multi-agent system (MAS is proposed as a solution. The issues of how to realize the hierarchical MAS and how to improve coordination and control strategies are discussed. Based on MATLAB and ZEUS platforms, bilateral switching between grid-connected mode and island mode is performed under control of the proposed MAS to enhance and support its effectiveness.

  15. Translating Management Ideas in Hierarchical Organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wæraas, Arild; Nielsen, Jeppe

    of Leadership Pipeline in a Danish fire department and how the translators’ approach changed over time from a modifying to a reproducing mode. The study finds that translation does not necessarily imply transformation of the management idea at every phase of the process, pointing instead to efforts of exact...... imitation and copying of the ”original” idea. It also suggests that translation is likely to involve multiple and successive translation modes and, furthermore, that strongly hierarchical structures offer translators control over the translation process. This hierarchical control seems to reduce...

  16. Hierarchical control of electron-transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westerhoff, Hans V.; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal; Egger, Louis


    In this chapter the role of electron transfer in determining the behaviour of the ATP synthesising enzyme in E. coli is analysed. It is concluded that the latter enzyme lacks control because of special properties of the electron transfer components. These properties range from absence of a strong...... back pressure by the protonmotive force on the rate of electron transfer to hierarchical regulation of the expression of the gens that encode the electron transfer proteins as a response to changes in the bioenergetic properties of the cell.The discussion uses Hierarchical Control Analysis...

  17. Hierarchical machining materials and their performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidorenko, Daria; Loginov, Pavel; Levashov, Evgeny


    Machining is an important technological process in many areas of industry. The efficiency of machining determines the quality of many industrial products. Machining efficiency and cost depend on the properties, strength, and microstructure of the machining materials. One of the promising ways...... to increase the reliability and wear resistance of machining tools is the development and use of hierarchical machining materials. In the area of machining materials, designed typically as binder/reinforcement composites, hierarchical structures are realized as lower-scale secondary reinforcements (such...... machining materials and their performance....

  18. Hierarchical social networks and information flow (United States)

    López, Luis; F. F. Mendes, Jose; Sanjuán, Miguel A. F.


    Using a simple model for the information flow on social networks, we show that the traditional hierarchical topologies frequently used by companies and organizations, are poorly designed in terms of efficiency. Moreover, we prove that this type of structures are the result of the individual aim of monopolizing as much information as possible within the network. As the information is an appropriate measurement of centrality, we conclude that this kind of topology is so attractive for leaders, because the global influence each actor has within the network is completely determined by the hierarchical level occupied.

  19. Hierarchical Cd4SiS6/SiO2 Heterostructure Nanowire Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Jian


    Full Text Available Abstract Novel hierarchical Cd4SiS6/SiO2 based heterostructure nanowire arrays were fabricated on silicon substrates by a one-step thermal evaporation of CdS powder. The as-grown products were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy. Studies reveal that a typical hierarchical Cd4SiS6/SiO2 heterostructure nanowire is composed of a single crystalline Cd4SiS6 nanowire core sheathed with amorphous SiO2 sheath. Furthermore, secondary nanostructures of SiO2 nanowires are highly dense grown on the primary Cd4SiS6 core-SiO2 sheath nanowires and formed hierarchical Cd4SiS6/SiO2 based heterostructure nanowire arrays which stand vertically on silicon substrates. The possible growth mechanism of hierarchical Cd4SiS6/SiO2 heterostructure nanowire arrays is proposed. The optical properties of hierarchical Cd4SiS6/SiO2 heterostructure nanowire arrays are investigated using Raman and Photoluminescence spectroscopy.

  20. Hierarchical Cd4SiS6/SiO2 Heterostructure Nanowire Arrays. (United States)

    Liu, Jian; Wang, Chunrui; Xie, Qingqing; Cai, Junsheng; Zhang, Jing


    Novel hierarchical Cd4SiS6/SiO2 based heterostructure nanowire arrays were fabricated on silicon substrates by a one-step thermal evaporation of CdS powder. The as-grown products were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy. Studies reveal that a typical hierarchical Cd4SiS6/SiO2 heterostructure nanowire is composed of a single crystalline Cd4SiS6 nanowire core sheathed with amorphous SiO2 sheath. Furthermore, secondary nanostructures of SiO2 nanowires are highly dense grown on the primary Cd4SiS6 core-SiO2 sheath nanowires and formed hierarchical Cd4SiS6/SiO2 based heterostructure nanowire arrays which stand vertically on silicon substrates. The possible growth mechanism of hierarchical Cd4SiS6/SiO2 heterostructure nanowire arrays is proposed. The optical properties of hierarchical Cd4SiS6/SiO2 heterostructure nanowire arrays are investigated using Raman and Photoluminescence spectroscopy.

  1. A Hierarchical Bayesian Model to Predict Self-Thinning Line for Chinese Fir in Southern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiongqing Zhang

    Full Text Available Self-thinning is a dynamic equilibrium between forest growth and mortality at full site occupancy. Parameters of the self-thinning lines are often confounded by differences across various stand and site conditions. For overcoming the problem of hierarchical and repeated measures, we used hierarchical Bayesian method to estimate the self-thinning line. The results showed that the self-thinning line for Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.Hook. plantations was not sensitive to the initial planting density. The uncertainty of model predictions was mostly due to within-subject variability. The simulation precision of hierarchical Bayesian method was better than that of stochastic frontier function (SFF. Hierarchical Bayesian method provided a reasonable explanation of the impact of other variables (site quality, soil type, aspect, etc. on self-thinning line, which gave us the posterior distribution of parameters of self-thinning line. The research of self-thinning relationship could be benefit from the use of hierarchical Bayesian method.

  2. Ionothermal synthesis of hierarchical BiOBr microspheres for water treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Dieqing [The Education Ministry Key Lab of Resource Chemistry and Shanghai Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Functional Materials, Shanghai Normal University, 100 Guilin Road, Shanghai 200231 (China); Department of Chemistry and Institute of Environment, Energy and Sustainability, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong (China); Wen, Meicheng; Jiang, Bo; Li, Guisheng [The Education Ministry Key Lab of Resource Chemistry and Shanghai Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Functional Materials, Shanghai Normal University, 100 Guilin Road, Shanghai 200231 (China); Yu, Jimmy C., E-mail: [Department of Chemistry and Institute of Environment, Energy and Sustainability, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong (China)


    Graphical abstract: Hierarchical BiOBr microspheres were prepared from a bromine-containing ionic liquid. The material was found effective for removing heavy metals, degrading organic pollutants and killing bacteria. Highlight: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ionothermal synthesis of BiOBr microspheres with hierarchical structure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Efficient mass transfer and excellent light-harvesting ability. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Suitable for removing heavy metals and treatment of organic dyes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Remarkable photocatalytic bactericidal property. - Abstract: Bismuth oxybromide (BiOBr) micropsheres with hierarchical morphologies have been fabricated via an ionothermal synthesis route. Ionic liquid acts as a unique soft material capable of promoting nucleation and in situ growth of 3D hierarchical BiOBr mesocrystals without the help of surfactants. The as-prepared BiOBr nanomaterials can effectively remove heavy metal ions and organic dyes from wastewater. They can also kill Micrococcus lylae, a Gram positive bacterium, in water under fluorescent light irradiation. Their high adaptability in water treatment may be ascribed to their hierarchical structure, allowing them high surface to volume ratio, facile species transportation and excellent light-harvesting ability.

  3. Hierarchical traits distances explain grassland Fabaceae species’ ecological niches distances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian eFort


    Full Text Available Fabaceae species play a key role in ecosystem functioning through their capacity to fix atmospheric nitrogen via their symbiosis with Rhizobium bacteria. To increase benefits of using Fabaceae in agricultural systems, it is necessary to find ways to evaluate species or genotypes having potential adaptations to sub-optimal growth conditions. We evaluated the relevance of phylogenetic distance, absolute trait distance and hierarchical trait distance for comparing the adaptation of 13 grassland Fabaceae species to different habitats, i.e. ecological niches. We measured a wide range of functional traits (root traits, leaf traits and whole plant traits in these species. Species phylogenetic and ecological distances were assessed from a species-level phylogenetic tree and species’ ecological indicator values, respectively. We demonstrated that differences in ecological niches between grassland Fabaceae species were related more to their hierarchical trait distances than to their phylogenetic distances. We showed that grassland Fabaceae functional traits tend to converge among species with the same ecological requirements. Species with acquisitive root strategies (thin roots, shallow root systems are competitive species adapted to non-stressful meadows, while conservative ones (coarse roots, deep root systems are able to tolerate stressful continental climates. In contrast, acquisitive species appeared to be able to tolerate low soil-P availability, while conservative ones need high P availability. Finally we highlight that traits converge along the ecological gradient, providing the assumption that species with similar root-trait values are better able to coexist, regardless of their phylogenetic distance.

  4. Modular networks with hierarchical organization: The dynamical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    another example, this time a hierarchical structure, viz., the Cayley tree with b branches at each vertex. Again, it is easy to see that the clustering vs. degree curve will not show the characteristic scaling seen for the RB model. In fact, in the next section, we show that even for networks where both hierarchy and modularity are.

  5. Modular networks with hierarchical organization: The dynamical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    As both hierarchy and modularity are seen in natural systems, which necessarily have to be robust against environmental fluctuations, we conclude that additional constraints are necessary for the emergence of hierarchical structure, similar to the occurrence of modularity through multi-constraint optimization as shown by us ...

  6. Tanzania: A Hierarchical Cluster Analysis Approach | Ngaruko ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using survey data from Kibondo district, west Tanzania, we use hierarchical cluster analysis to classify borrower farmers according to their borrowing behaviour into four distinctive clusters. The appreciation of the existence of heterogeneous farmer clusters is vital in forging credit delivery policies that are not only ...

  7. Transforming Hierarchical Relationships in Student Conduct Administration (United States)

    Jacobson, Kelly A.


    Conflict transformation theory provided a philosophical lens for this critical cultural, constructivist study, wherein four student conduct administrators who engage in leveling hierarchical relationships with students in conduct processes shared ways they make meaning of their professional practice. Through informal, unstructured interviews, a…

  8. Ultrafast Hierarchical OTDM/WDM Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideyuki Sotobayashi


    Full Text Available Ultrafast hierarchical OTDM/WDM network is proposed for the future core-network. We review its enabling technologies: C- and L-wavelength-band generation, OTDM-WDM mutual multiplexing format conversions, and ultrafast OTDM wavelengthband conversions.

  9. SORM applied to hierarchical parallel system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager


    The old hierarchical stochastic load combination model of Ferry Borges and Castanheta and the corresponding problem of determining the distribution of the extreme random load effect is the inspiration to this paper. The evaluation of the distribution function of the extreme value by use of a part...

  10. A hierarchical classification scheme of psoriasis images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maletti, Gabriela Mariel; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær


    A two-stage hierarchical classification scheme of psoriasis lesion images is proposed. These images are basically composed of three classes: normal skin, lesion and background. The scheme combines conventional tools to separate the skin from the background in the first stage, and the lesion from...

  11. Parallel Temporal Dynamics in Hierarchical Cognitive Control (United States)

    Ranti, Carolyn; Chatham, Christopher H.; Badre, David


    Cognitive control allows us to follow abstract rules in order to choose appropriate responses given our desired outcomes. Cognitive control is often conceptualized as a hierarchical decision process, wherein decisions made at higher, more abstract levels of control asymmetrically influence lower-level decisions. These influences could evolve sequentially across multiple levels of a hierarchical decision, consistent with much prior evidence for central bottlenecks and seriality in decision-making processes. However, here, we show that multiple levels of hierarchical cognitive control are processed primarily in parallel. Human participants selected responses to stimuli using a complex, multiply contingent (third order) rule structure. A response deadline procedure allowed assessment of the accuracy and timing of decisions made at each level of the hierarchy. In contrast to a serial decision process, error rates across levels of the decision mostly declined simultaneously and at identical rates, with only a slight tendency to complete the highest level decision first. Simulations with a biologically plausible neural network model demonstrate how such parallel processing could emerge from a previously developed hierarchically nested frontostriatal architecture. Our results support a parallel processing model of cognitive control, in which uncertainty on multiple levels of a decision is reduced simultaneously. PMID:26051820

  12. Hierarchical Logistic Regression in Course Placement (United States)

    Schulz, E. Matthew; Betebenner, Damian; Ahn, Meeyeon


    Whether hierarchical logistic regression can reduce the sample size requirement for estimating optimal cutoff scores in a course placement service where predictive validity is measured by a threshold utility function is explored. Data from courses with varying class size were randomly partitioned into two halves per course. Nonhierarchical and…

  13. Analyzing security protocols in hierarchical networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Ye; Nielson, Hanne Riis


    Validating security protocols is a well-known hard problem even in a simple setting of a single global network. But a real network often consists of, besides the public-accessed part, several sub-networks and thereby forms a hierarchical structure. In this paper we first present a process calculus...

  14. Integrating Linear Programming and Analytical Hierarchical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comprehensive Linear Programming model established, including 106 variables and 43 ecological-socio-economic constraints. Land capability and suitability evaluation accomplished using ecological factors and Comparative Advantages of the uses and the factors, respectively. Analytical Hierarchical Process followed ...

  15. Hierarchical Network Design Using Simulated Annealing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomadsen, Tommy; Clausen, Jens


    networks are described and a mathematical model is proposed for a two level version of the hierarchical network problem. The problem is to determine which edges should connect nodes, and how demand is routed in the network. The problem is solved heuristically using simulated annealing which as a sub...

  16. Hierarchical Scaling in Systems of Natural Cities

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Yanguang


    Hierarchies can be modeled by a set of exponential functions, from which we can derive a set of power laws indicative of scaling. These scaling laws are followed by many natural and social phenomena such as cities, earthquakes, and rivers. This paper is devoted to revealing the scaling patterns in systems of natural cities by reconstructing the hierarchy with cascade structure. The cities of America, Britain, France, and Germany are taken as examples to make empirical analyses. The hierarchical scaling relations can be well fitted to the data points within the scaling ranges of the size and area of the natural cities. The size-number and area-number scaling exponents are close to 1, and the allometric scaling exponent is slightly less than 1. The results suggest that natural cities follow hierarchical scaling laws and hierarchical conservation law. Zipf's law proved to be one of the indications of the hierarchical scaling, and the primate law of city-size distribution represents a local pattern and can be mer...

  17. Sharing the proceeds from a hierarchical venture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Moreno-Ternero, Juan D.; Tvede, Mich


    We consider the problem of distributing the proceeds generated from a joint venture in which the participating agents are hierarchically organized. We introduce and characterize a family of allocation rules where revenue ‘bubbles up’ in the hierarchy. The family is flexible enough to accommodate...

  18. Effects of non-polar solvent on the morphology and property of three-dimensional hierarchical TiO2 nanostructures by one-step solvothermal route (United States)

    Zhou, Yi; Wu, Hongyan; Zhong, Xian; Liu, Ce


    Three-dimensional (3D) hierarchical rutile TiO2 microspheres composed of nanorods with diameter of several-tens of nanometers, with different morphologies and with average size ranging from 1.3 to 1.8 μm, were successfully synthesized through a surfactant-free solvothermal route. The effects of the solvents n-hexane, chloroform, and cyclohexane on the microstructures of 3D hierarchical TiO2 nanostructures were investigated. Results of scanning electron microscopy showed that 3D sea-urchin like hierarchical TiO2 composed of nanorods with a diameter of 10 nm can only be prepared in the cyclohexane-water system. The growth mechanism of 3D sea-urchin like hierarchical TiO2 composed of numerous nanorods was further examined and found to differ from the well-known "growth → assembly" mode. The effects of surface tension and polarity of solvents on the morphology and crystal strength of 3D hierarchical TiO2 nanostructure were also investigated. In addition, the prepared 3D sea-urchin like hierarchical TiO2 showed highest photocatalytic activity compared with other 3D hierarchical TiO2 nanostructures in this study and Degussa P25 for the degradation of Rhodamine B solution under UV light irradiation, which could be attributed to its special hierarchical superstructure, the increase of surface catalytic sites and its special composition units.

  19. Hierarchical organisation in perception of orientation. (United States)

    Spinelli, D; Antonucci, G; Daini, R; Martelli, M L; Zoccolotti, P


    According to Rock [1990, in The Legacy of Solomon Asch (Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates)], hierarchical organisation of perception describes cases in which the orientation of an object is affected by the immediately surrounding elements in the visual field. Various experiments were performed to study the hierarchical organisation of orientation perception. In most of them the rod-and-frame-illusion (RFI: change of the apparent vertical measured on a central rod surrounded by a tilted frame) was measured in the presence/absence of a second inner frame. The first three experiments showed that, when the inner frame is vertical, the direction and size of the illusion are consistent with expectancies based on the hierarchical organisation hypothesis. An analysis of published and unpublished data collected on a large number of subjects showed that orientational hierarchical effects are independent from the absolute size of the RFI. In experiments 4 to 7 we examined the perceptual conditions of the inner stimulus (enclosure, orientation, and presence of luminance borders) critical for obtaining a hierarchical organisation effect. Although an inner vertical square was effective in reducing the illusion (experiment 3), an inner circle enclosing the rod was ineffective (experiment 4). This indicates that definite orientation is necessary to modulate the illusion. However, orientational information provided by a vertical or horizontal rectangle presented near the rod, but not enclosing it, did not modulate the RFI (experiment 5). This suggests that the presence of a figure with oriented contours enclosing the rod is critical. In experiments 6 and 7 we studied whether the presence of luminance borders is important or whether the inner upright square might be effective also if made of subjective contours. When the subjective contour figure was salient and the observers perceived it clearly, its effectiveness in modulating the RFI was comparable to that observed with

  20. Generic hierarchical engine for mask data preparation (United States)

    Kalus, Christian K.; Roessl, Wolfgang; Schnitker, Uwe; Simecek, Michal


    Electronic layouts are usually flattened on their path from the hierarchical source downstream to the wafer. Mask data preparation has certainly been identified as a severe bottleneck since long. Data volumes are not only doubling every year along the ITRS roadmap. With the advent of optical proximity correction and phase-shifting masks data volumes are escalating up to non-manageable heights. Hierarchical treatment is one of the most powerful means to keep memory and CPU consumption in reasonable ranges. Only recently, however, has this technique acquired more public attention. Mask data preparation is the most critical area calling for a sound infrastructure to reduce the handling problem. Gaining more and more attention though, are other applications such as large area simulation and manufacturing rule checking (MRC). They all would profit from a generic engine capable to efficiently treat hierarchical data. In this paper we will present a generic engine for hierarchical treatment which solves the major problem, steady transitions along cell borders. Several alternatives exist how to walk through the hierarchy tree. They have, to date, not been thoroughly investigated. One is a bottom-up attempt to treat cells starting with the most elementary cells. The other one is a top-down approach which lends itself to creating a new hierarchy tree. In addition, since the variety, degree of hierarchy and quality of layouts extends over a wide range a generic engine has to take intelligent decisions when exploding the hierarchy tree. Several applications will be shown, in particular how far the limits can be pushed with the current hierarchical engine.

  1. Controllable synthesis of hierarchical strontium molybdate by sonochemical method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Wanquan; Zhu, Wei [Department of Chemistry, University of Science and Technology of China (USTC), Hefei 230026 (China); Peng, Chao; Yang, Fan; Xuan, Shouhu; Gong, Xinglong [CAS Key Laboratory of Mechanical Behavior and Design of Materials, Department of Modern Mechanics, USTC, Hefei 230027 (China)


    Large-scale chrysanthemum-like strontium molybdate (SrMoO{sub 4}) with hierarchical structure has been successfully synthesized via a facile and fast ultrasound irradiation approach at room temperature. By varying the experimental conditions, SrMoO{sub 4} with different morphologies, such as spindles, peanuts, spheres, and rods, can be obtained. The products are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and selected-area electron diffraction (SAED). The influent parameters including concentration, pH value, and surfactants have been investigated. A possible growth mechanism is proposed and the shape evolution of the products is characterized. The as-prepared chrysanthemum-like SrMoO{sub 4} particles are used as the precursor for electrorheological fluid and their electrorheological property is investigated. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  2. A general strategy to determine the congruence between a hierarchical and a non-hierarchical classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marín Ignacio


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Classification procedures are widely used in phylogenetic inference, the analysis of expression profiles, the study of biological networks, etc. Many algorithms have been proposed to establish the similarity between two different classifications of the same elements. However, methods to determine significant coincidences between hierarchical and non-hierarchical partitions are still poorly developed, in spite of the fact that the search for such coincidences is implicit in many analyses of massive data. Results We describe a novel strategy to compare a hierarchical and a dichotomic non-hierarchical classification of elements, in order to find clusters in a hierarchical tree in which elements of a given "flat" partition are overrepresented. The key improvement of our strategy respect to previous methods is using permutation analyses of ranked clusters to determine whether regions of the dendrograms present a significant enrichment. We show that this method is more sensitive than previously developed strategies and how it can be applied to several real cases, including microarray and interactome data. Particularly, we use it to compare a hierarchical representation of the yeast mitochondrial interactome and a catalogue of known mitochondrial protein complexes, demonstrating a high level of congruence between those two classifications. We also discuss extensions of this method to other cases which are conceptually related. Conclusion Our method is highly sensitive and outperforms previously described strategies. A PERL script that implements it is available at

  3. A general strategy to determine the congruence between a hierarchical and a non-hierarchical classification. (United States)

    Marco, Antonio; Marín, Ignacio


    Classification procedures are widely used in phylogenetic inference, the analysis of expression profiles, the study of biological networks, etc. Many algorithms have been proposed to establish the similarity between two different classifications of the same elements. However, methods to determine significant coincidences between hierarchical and non-hierarchical partitions are still poorly developed, in spite of the fact that the search for such coincidences is implicit in many analyses of massive data. We describe a novel strategy to compare a hierarchical and a dichotomic non-hierarchical classification of elements, in order to find clusters in a hierarchical tree in which elements of a given "flat" partition are overrepresented. The key improvement of our strategy respect to previous methods is using permutation analyses of ranked clusters to determine whether regions of the dendrograms present a significant enrichment. We show that this method is more sensitive than previously developed strategies and how it can be applied to several real cases, including microarray and interactome data. Particularly, we use it to compare a hierarchical representation of the yeast mitochondrial interactome and a catalogue of known mitochondrial protein complexes, demonstrating a high level of congruence between those two classifications. We also discuss extensions of this method to other cases which are conceptually related. Our method is highly sensitive and outperforms previously described strategies. A PERL script that implements it is available at

  4. Refinements in hierarchical phrase-based translation systems


    Pino, Juan Miguel


    The relatively recently proposed hierarchical phrase-based translation model for statistical machine translation (SMT) has achieved state-of-the-art performance in numerous recent translation evaluations. Hierarchical phrase-based systems comprise a pipeline of modules with complex interactions. In this thesis, we propose refinements to the hierarchical phrase-based model as well as improvements and analyses in various modules for hierarchical phrase-based systems. We too...

  5. Structural and photovoltaic characteristics of hierarchical ZnO nanostructures electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleem, Muhammad, E-mail: [Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Technology and Systems of the Education Ministry of China, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Fang, L. [Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Technology and Systems of the Education Ministry of China, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Shaukat, Saleem F.; Ahmad, M. Ashfaq [Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Raza, Rizwan, E-mail: [Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Akhtar, Majid Niaz; Jamil, Ayesha; Aslam, Samia [Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Abbas, Ghazanfar [Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan)


    Highlights: • Hierarchically ZnO nanostructures electrodes were grown using hot plate magnetic stirring at different growth reaction temperature. • We have investigated the effect of working temperature of 160°, 170°, 180°, and 190° on the growth mechanism of nanospheres and on the power conversion efficiency of DSSCs. • ZnO nanospheres with perfect aggregation show superior power conversion efficiency of 1.24% which is about 83% higher than nanoparticles DSSC. • An obvious vogue is that the overall power conversion efficiency decreases as the degree of the spherical aggregation is gradually destroyed. - Abstract: Structural and photovoltaic characteristics of hierarchical ZnO nanostructures solar cell have been studied in relation to growth reaction temperature. It is found that the hierarchical ZnO nanostructures network to act not only as large surface area substrates but also as a transport medium for electrons injected from the dye molecules. The incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency is decreased by increasing the growth reaction temperature of ZnO electrodes. The best conversion efficiency of a 0.25 cm{sup 2} cell is measured to be 1.24% under 100 mW cm{sup −2} irradiation.

  6. Modeling evolutionary dynamics of epigenetic mutations in hierarchically organized tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Sottoriva


    Full Text Available The cancer stem cell (CSC concept is a highly debated topic in cancer research. While experimental evidence in favor of the cancer stem cell theory is apparently abundant, the results are often criticized as being difficult to interpret. An important reason for this is that most experimental data that support this model rely on transplantation studies. In this study we use a novel cellular Potts model to elucidate the dynamics of established malignancies that are driven by a small subset of CSCs. Our results demonstrate that epigenetic mutations that occur during mitosis display highly altered dynamics in CSC-driven malignancies compared to a classical, non-hierarchical model of growth. In particular, the heterogeneity observed in CSC-driven tumors is considerably higher. We speculate that this feature could be used in combination with epigenetic (methylation sequencing studies of human malignancies to prove or refute the CSC hypothesis in established tumors without the need for transplantation. Moreover our tumor growth simulations indicate that CSC-driven tumors display evolutionary features that can be considered beneficial during tumor progression. Besides an increased heterogeneity they also exhibit properties that allow the escape of clones from local fitness peaks. This leads to more aggressive phenotypes in the long run and makes the neoplasm more adaptable to stringent selective forces such as cancer treatment. Indeed when therapy is applied the clone landscape of the regrown tumor is more aggressive with respect to the primary tumor, whereas the classical model demonstrated similar patterns before and after therapy. Understanding these often counter-intuitive fundamental properties of (non-hierarchically organized malignancies is a crucial step in validating the CSC concept as well as providing insight into the therapeutical consequences of this model.

  7. Incorporating Usability Criteria into the Development of Animated Hierarchical Maps (United States)

    Shih, Yu-Cheng; Huang, Pei-Ren; Chen, Sherry Y.


    Nowadays, Web-based learning systems have become popular because they can provide multiple tools, among which hierarchical maps are widely used to support teaching and learning. However, traditional hierarchical maps may let learners easily get lost within large information space. This study proposes an animated hierarchical map to address this…

  8. Poor-data and data-poor species stock assessment using a Bayesian hierarchical approach. (United States)

    Jiao, Yan; Cortés, Enric; Andrews, Kate; Guo, Feng


    Appropriate inference for stocks or species with low-quality data (poor data) or limited data (data poor) is extremely important. Hierarchical Bayesian methods are especially applicable to small-area, small-sample-size estimation problems because they allow poor-data species to borrow strength from species with good-quality data. We used a hammerhead shark complex as an example to investigate the advantages of using hierarchical Bayesian models in assessing the status of poor-data and data-poor exploited species. The hammerhead shark complex (Sphyrna spp.) along the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts of the United States is composed of three species: the scalloped hammerhead (S. lewini), the great hammerhead (S. mokarran), and the smooth hammerhead (S. zygaena) sharks. The scalloped hammerhead comprises 70-80% of the catch and has catch and relative abundance data of good quality, whereas great and smooth hammerheads have relative abundance indices that are both limited and of low quality presumably because of low stock density and limited sampling. Four hierarchical Bayesian state-space surplus production models were developed to simulate variability in population growth rates, carrying capacity, and catchability of the species. The results from the hierarchical Bayesian models were considerably more robust than those of the nonhierarchical models. The hierarchical Bayesian approach represents an intermediate strategy between traditional models that assume different population parameters for each species and those that assume all species share identical parameters. Use of the hierarchical Bayesian approach is suggested for future hammerhead shark stock assessments and for modeling fish complexes with species-specific data, because the poor-data species can borrow strength from the species with good data, making the estimation more stable and robust.

  9. Object tracking with hierarchical multiview learning (United States)

    Yang, Jun; Zhang, Shunli; Zhang, Li


    Building a robust appearance model is useful to improve tracking performance. We propose a hierarchical multiview learning framework to construct the appearance model, which has two layers for tracking. On the top layer, two different views of features, grayscale value and histogram of oriented gradients, are adopted for representation under the cotraining framework. On the bottom layer, for each view of each feature, three different random subspaces are generated to represent the appearance from multiple views. For each random view submodel, the least squares support vector machine is employed to improve the discriminability for concrete and efficient realization. These two layers are combined to construct the final appearance model for tracking. The proposed hierarchical model assembles two types of multiview learning strategies, in which the appearance can be described more accurately and robustly. Experimental results in the benchmark dataset demonstrate that the proposed method can achieve better performance than many existing state-of-the-art algorithms.

  10. Hierarchical Self-organization of Complex Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHAI Li-he; WEN Dong-sheng


    Researches on organization and structure in complex systems are academic and industrial fronts in modern sciences. Though many theories are tentatively proposed to analyze complex systems, we still lack a rigorous theory on them. Complex systems possess various degrees of freedom, which means that they should exhibit all kinds of structures. However, complex systems often show similar patterns and structures. Then the question arises why such similar structures appear in all kinds of complex systems. The paper outlines a theory on freedom degree compression and the existence of hierarchical self-organization for all complex systems is found. It is freedom degree compression and hierarchical self-organization that are responsible for the existence of these similar patterns or structures observed in the complex systems.

  11. Application of hierarchical matrices for partial inverse

    KAUST Repository

    Litvinenko, Alexander


    In this work we combine hierarchical matrix techniques (Hackbusch, 1999) and domain decomposition methods to obtain fast and efficient algorithms for the solution of multiscale problems. This combination results in the hierarchical domain decomposition (HDD) method, which can be applied for solution multi-scale problems. Multiscale problems are problems that require the use of different length scales. Using only the finest scale is very expensive, if not impossible, in computational time and memory. Domain decomposition methods decompose the complete problem into smaller systems of equations corresponding to boundary value problems in subdomains. Then fast solvers can be applied to each subdomain. Subproblems in subdomains are independent, much smaller and require less computational resources as the initial problem.

  12. Hierarchical photo stream segmentation using context (United States)

    Gong, Bo; Jain, Ramesh


    Photo stream segmentation is to segment photo streams into groups, each of which corresponds to an event. Photo stream segmentation can be done with or without prior knowledge of event structure. In this paper, we study the problem by assuming that there is no a priori event model available. Although both context and content information are important for photo stream segmentation, we focus on investigating the usage of context information in this work. We consider different information components of context such as time, location, and optical setting for inexpensive segmentation of photo streams from common users of modern digital camera. As events are hierarchical, we propose to segment photo stream using hierarchical mixture model. We compare the generated hierarchy with that created by users to see how well results can be obtained without knowing the prior event model. We experimented with about 3000 photos from amateur photographers to study the efficacy of the approach for these context information components.

  13. Hierarchical silica particles by dynamic multicomponent assembly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Z. W.; Hu, Q. Y.; Pang, J. B.


    Abstract: Aerosol-assisted assembly of mesoporous silica particles with hierarchically controllable pore structure has been prepared using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and poly(propylene oxide) (PPO, H[OCH(CH3)CH2],OH) as co-templates. Addition of the hydrophobic PPO significantly...... influences the delicate hydrophilic-hydrophobic balance in the well-studied CTAB-silicate co-assembling system, resulting in various mesostructures (such as hexagonal, lamellar, and hierarchical structure). The co-assembly of CTAB, silicate clusters, and a low-molecular-weight PPO (average M-n 425) results......-silicate assembling system was discussed. The mesostructure of these particles was characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and N-2 sorption. (c) 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved....

  14. Hierarchical Fuzzy Sets To Query Possibilistic Databases


    Thomopoulos, Rallou; Buche, Patrice; Haemmerlé, Ollivier


    Within the framework of flexible querying of possibilistic databases, based on the fuzzy set theory, this chapter focuses on the case where the vocabulary used both in the querying language and in the data is hierarchically organized, which occurs in systems that use ontologies. We give an overview of previous works concerning two issues: firstly, flexible querying of imprecise data in the relational model; secondly, the introduction of fuzziness in hierarchies. Concerning the latter point, w...

  15. Hierarchically Structured Nanomaterials for Electrochemical Energy Conversion


    Trogadas, P.; Ramani, V; Strasser, P.; T.F. Fuller; Coppens, M. O.


    © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Hierarchical nanomaterials are highly suitable as electrocatalysts and electrocatalyst supports in electrochemical energy conversion devices. The intrinsic kinetics of an electrocatalyst are associated with the nanostructure of the active phase and the support, while the overall properties are also affected by the mesostructure. Therefore, both structures need to be controlled. A comparative state-of-the-art review of catalysts and supports i...

  16. Pattern Recognition by Hierarchical Temporal Memory


    Maltoni, Prof. Davide


    Hierarchical Temporal Memory (HTM) is still largely unknown by the pattern recognition community and only a few studies have been published in the scientific literature. This paper reviews HTM architecture and related learning algorithms by using formal notation and pseudocode description. Novel approaches are then proposed to encode coincidence-group membership (fuzzy grouping) and to derive temporal groups (maxstab temporal clustering). Systematic experiments on three line-drawing datasets ...

  17. Internet advertising effectiveness by using hierarchical model


    Rahmani, Samaneh


    Abstract. Present paper has been developed with the title of internet advertising effectiveness by using hierarchical model. Presenting the question: Today Internet is an important channel in marketing and advertising. The reason for this could be the ability of the Internet to reduce costs and people’s access to online services[1]. Also advertisers can easily access a multitude of users and communicate with them at low cost [9]. On the other hand, compared to traditional advertising, interne...

  18. Predicting protein functions using incomplete hierarchical labels. (United States)

    Yu, Guoxian; Zhu, Hailong; Domeniconi, Carlotta


    Protein function prediction is to assign biological or biochemical functions to proteins, and it is a challenging computational problem characterized by several factors: (1) the number of function labels (annotations) is large; (2) a protein may be associated with multiple labels; (3) the function labels are structured in a hierarchy; and (4) the labels are incomplete. Current predictive models often assume that the labels of the labeled proteins are complete, i.e. no label is missing. But in real scenarios, we may be aware of only some hierarchical labels of a protein, and we may not know whether additional ones are actually present. The scenario of incomplete hierarchical labels, a challenging and practical problem, is seldom studied in protein function prediction. In this paper, we propose an algorithm to Predict protein functions using Incomplete hierarchical LabeLs (PILL in short). PILL takes into account the hierarchical and the flat taxonomy similarity between function labels, and defines a Combined Similarity (ComSim) to measure the correlation between labels. PILL estimates the missing labels for a protein based on ComSim and the known labels of the protein, and uses a regularization to exploit the interactions between proteins for function prediction. PILL is shown to outperform other related techniques in replenishing the missing labels and in predicting the functions of completely unlabeled proteins on publicly available PPI datasets annotated with MIPS Functional Catalogue and Gene Ontology labels. The empirical study shows that it is important to consider the incomplete annotation for protein function prediction. The proposed method (PILL) can serve as a valuable tool for protein function prediction using incomplete labels. The Matlab code of PILL is available upon request.

  19. Hierarchical mixtures of naive Bayes classifiers


    Wiering, M.A.


    Naive Bayes classifiers tend to perform very well on a large number of problem domains, although their representation power is quite limited compared to more sophisticated machine learning algorithms. In this pa- per we study combining multiple naive Bayes classifiers by using the hierar- chical mixtures of experts system. This system, which we call hierarchical mixtures of naive Bayes classifiers, is compared to a simple naive Bayes classifier and to using bagging and boosting for combining ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisnawita Lisnawita


    Full Text Available AbstrakInternet pada era sekarang ini adalah salah satu kebutuhan manusia, karena itu dibutuhkan bandwidth yang besar supaya bisa download atau upload dengan cepat, tapi karena keterbatasan bandwidth yang ada, maka perlu Manajemen bandwidth dengan metode Hierarchical Token Bucket(HTB, metode ini banyak digunakan untuk mengatasi permasalahan pada koneksi Internet, memaksimalkan penggunaan bandwidth sehingga semua user dapat menggunakan bandwidth secara adil dan semua user mendapatkan kenyamanan dan kepuasan ketika browsing, Penelitian ini menggunakan metode Hierarchical Token Bucket(HTB yaitu salah satu metode yang dirancang untuk bisa melakukan manajemen bandwidth dengan baik, dimana algoritma ini menerapkan disiplin antrian yang mempunyai kelebihan dalam pembatasan trafik pada tiap level maupun klasifikasi, sehingga bandwidth yang tidak dipakai oleh level yang tinggi dapat digunakan atau dibagi oleh level yang lebih rendah.Kata Kunci: Bandwidth,Manajemen Bandwidth,HTBAbstractInternet in this era is one of human needs, because it takes a large bandwid thin order to download or upload quickly,but due to the limited bandwidth available, the necessary management bandwidth by using Hierarchical Token Bucket(HTB, this method is widely used for solve the problems on Internet connections, maximizing the use of bandwidth so that all users can use the bandwidth fairly and users get the comfort and satisfaction when browsing, this researchusing Hierarchical Token Bucket(HTB is one method that is designed to be able to perform bandwidth management,where the algorithm queuing discipline which have advantage sin traffic restriction soneach level and classification, so that the bandwidth is not used by a high level can be used or share by a low levelKeywords: Bandwidth, Bandwidth Management, HTB

  1. Hierarchical Parallel Evaluation of a Hamming Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shmuel T. Klein


    Full Text Available The Hamming code is a well-known error correction code and can correct a single error in an input vector of size n bits by adding logn parity checks. A new parallel implementation of the code is presented, using a hierarchical structure of n processors in logn layers. All the processors perform similar simple tasks, and need only a few bytes of internal memory.

  2. Hierarchical unilamellar vesicles of controlled compositional heterogeneity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maik Hadorn

    Full Text Available Eukaryotic life contains hierarchical vesicular architectures (i.e. organelles that are crucial for material production and trafficking, information storage and access, as well as energy production. In order to perform specific tasks, these compartments differ among each other in their membrane composition and their internal cargo and also differ from the cell membrane and the cytosol. Man-made structures that reproduce this nested architecture not only offer a deeper understanding of the functionalities and evolution of organelle-bearing eukaryotic life but also allow the engineering of novel biomimetic technologies. Here, we show the newly developed vesicle-in-water-in-oil emulsion transfer preparation technique to result in giant unilamellar vesicles internally compartmentalized by unilamellar vesicles of different membrane composition and internal cargo, i.e. hierarchical unilamellar vesicles of controlled compositional heterogeneity. The compartmentalized giant unilamellar vesicles were subsequently isolated by a separation step exploiting the heterogeneity of the membrane composition and the encapsulated cargo. Due to the controlled, efficient, and technically straightforward character of the new preparation technique, this study allows the hierarchical fabrication of compartmentalized giant unilamellar vesicles of controlled compositional heterogeneity and will ease the development of eukaryotic cell mimics that resemble their natural templates as well as the fabrication of novel multi-agent drug delivery systems for combination therapies and complex artificial microreactors.

  3. A neural model of hierarchical reinforcement learning. (United States)

    Rasmussen, Daniel; Voelker, Aaron; Eliasmith, Chris


    We develop a novel, biologically detailed neural model of reinforcement learning (RL) processes in the brain. This model incorporates a broad range of biological features that pose challenges to neural RL, such as temporally extended action sequences, continuous environments involving unknown time delays, and noisy/imprecise computations. Most significantly, we expand the model into the realm of hierarchical reinforcement learning (HRL), which divides the RL process into a hierarchy of actions at different levels of abstraction. Here we implement all the major components of HRL in a neural model that captures a variety of known anatomical and physiological properties of the brain. We demonstrate the performance of the model in a range of different environments, in order to emphasize the aim of understanding the brain's general reinforcement learning ability. These results show that the model compares well to previous modelling work and demonstrates improved performance as a result of its hierarchical ability. We also show that the model's behaviour is consistent with available data on human hierarchical RL, and generate several novel predictions.

  4. Hierarchical image classification in the bioscience literature. (United States)

    Kim, Daehyun; Yu, Hong


    Our previous work has shown that images appearing in bioscience articles can be classified into five types: Gel-Image, Image-of-Thing, Graph, Model, and Mix. For this paper, we explored and analyzed features strongly associated with each image type and developed a hierarchical image classification approach for classifying an image into one of the five types. First, we applied texture features to separate images into two groups: 1) a texture group comprising Gel Image, Image-of-Thing, and Mix, and 2) a non-texture group comprising Graph and Model. We then applied entropy, skewness, and uniformity for the first group, and edge difference, uniformity, and smoothness for the second group to classify images into specific types. Our results show that hierarchical image classification accurately divided images into the two groups during the initial classification and that the overall accuracy of the image classification was higher than that of our previous approach. In particular, the recall of hierarchical image classification was greatly improved due to the high accuracy of the initial classification.

  5. The traveling salesman problem: a hierarchical model. (United States)

    Graham, S M; Joshi, A; Pizlo, Z


    Our review of prior literature on spatial information processing in perception, attention, and memory indicates that these cognitive functions involve similar mechanisms based on a hierarchical architecture. The present study extends the application of hierarchical models to the area of problem solving. First, we report results of an experiment in which human subjects were tested on a Euclidean traveling salesman problem (TSP) with 6 to 30 cities. The subject's solutions were either optimal or near-optimal in length and were produced in a time that was, on average, a linear function of the number of cities. Next, the performance of the subjects is compared with that of five representative artificial intelligence and operations research algorithms, that produce approximate solutions for Euclidean problems. None of these algorithms was found to be an adequate psychological model. Finally, we present a new algorithm for solving the TSP, which is based on a hierarchical pyramid architecture. The performance of this new algorithm is quite similar to the performance of the subjects.

  6. Image Search Reranking With Hierarchical Topic Awareness. (United States)

    Tian, Xinmei; Yang, Linjun; Lu, Yijuan; Tian, Qi; Tao, Dacheng


    With much attention from both academia and industrial communities, visual search reranking has recently been proposed to refine image search results obtained from text-based image search engines. Most of the traditional reranking methods cannot capture both relevance and diversity of the search results at the same time. Or they ignore the hierarchical topic structure of search result. Each topic is treated equally and independently. However, in real applications, images returned for certain queries are naturally in hierarchical organization, rather than simple parallel relation. In this paper, a new reranking method "topic-aware reranking (TARerank)" is proposed. TARerank describes the hierarchical topic structure of search results in one model, and seamlessly captures both relevance and diversity of the image search results simultaneously. Through a structured learning framework, relevance and diversity are modeled in TARerank by a set of carefully designed features, and then the model is learned from human-labeled training samples. The learned model is expected to predict reranking results with high relevance and diversity for testing queries. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed method, we collect an image search dataset and conduct comparison experiments on it. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed TARerank outperforms the existing relevance-based and diversified reranking methods.

  7. Metal hierarchical patterning by direct nanoimprint lithography. (United States)

    Radha, Boya; Lim, Su Hui; Saifullah, Mohammad S M; Kulkarni, Giridhar U


    Three-dimensional hierarchical patterning of metals is of paramount importance in diverse fields involving photonics, controlling surface wettability and wearable electronics. Conventionally, this type of structuring is tedious and usually involves layer-by-layer lithographic patterning. Here, we describe a simple process of direct nanoimprint lithography using palladium benzylthiolate, a versatile metal-organic ink, which not only leads to the formation of hierarchical patterns but also is amenable to layer-by-layer stacking of the metal over large areas. The key to achieving such multi-faceted patterning is hysteretic melting of ink, enabling its shaping. It undergoes transformation to metallic palladium under gentle thermal conditions without affecting the integrity of the hierarchical patterns on micro- as well as nanoscale. A metallic rice leaf structure showing anisotropic wetting behavior and woodpile-like structures were thus fabricated. Furthermore, this method is extendable for transferring imprinted structures to a flexible substrate to make them robust enough to sustain numerous bending cycles.

  8. Towards a hierarchical optimization modeling framework for ... (United States)

    Background:Bilevel optimization has been recognized as a 2-player Stackelberg game where players are represented as leaders and followers and each pursue their own set of objectives. Hierarchical optimization problems, which are a generalization of bilevel, are especially difficult because the optimization is nested, meaning that the objectives of one level depend on solutions to the other levels. We introduce a hierarchical optimization framework for spatially targeting multiobjective green infrastructure (GI) incentive policies under uncertainties related to policy budget, compliance, and GI effectiveness. We demonstrate the utility of the framework using a hypothetical urban watershed, where the levels are characterized by multiple levels of policy makers (e.g., local, regional, national) and policy followers (e.g., landowners, communities), and objectives include minimization of policy cost, implementation cost, and risk; reduction of combined sewer overflow (CSO) events; and improvement in environmental benefits such as reduced nutrient run-off and water availability. Conclusions: While computationally expensive, this hierarchical optimization framework explicitly simulates the interaction between multiple levels of policy makers (e.g., local, regional, national) and policy followers (e.g., landowners, communities) and is especially useful for constructing and evaluating environmental and ecological policy. Using the framework with a hypothetical urba

  9. Hierarchical structure of Turkey's foreign trade (United States)

    Kantar, Ersin; Deviren, Bayram; Keskin, Mustafa


    We examine the hierarchical structures of Turkey's foreign trade by using real prices of their commodity export and import move together over time. We obtain the topological properties among the countries based on Turkey's foreign trade during the 1996-2010 period by using the concept of hierarchical structure methods (minimal spanning tree, (MST) and hierarchical tree, (HT)). These periods are divided into two subperiods, such as 1996-2002 and 2003-2010, in order to test various time-window and observe the temporal evolution. We perform the bootstrap techniques to investigate a value of the statistical reliability to the links of the MSTs and HTs. We also use a clustering linkage procedure in order to observe the cluster structure much better. From the structural topologies of these trees, we identify different clusters of countries according to their geographical location and economic ties. Our results show that the DE (Germany), UK (United Kingdom), FR (France), IT (Italy) and RU (Russia) are more important within the network, due to a tighter connection with other countries. We have also found that these countries play a significant role for Turkey's foreign trade and have important implications for the design of portfolio and investment strategies.

  10. Hierarchical architecture for flexible energy storage. (United States)

    Pan, H; Ma, J; Tao, J; Zhu, S


    The introduction of hierarchy and chirality into structure is of great interest, and can result in new optical and electronic properties due to the synergistic effect of helical and anisotropic structures. Herein, we demonstrate a simple and straightforward route toward the fabrication of hierarchical chiral materials based on the assembly of two-dimensional graphene oxide nanosheets (GO) and one-dimensional cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs). The unique layered structure of CNC/GO could be preserved in the solid state, allowing electrode active SnO 2 to be loaded for potential applications in energy storage. The resultant SnO 2 /CNC/reduced GO (SnO 2 /CNC/rGO) composite could be processed into film, fiber, and textile with an extremely high tensile strength of 100 MPa. The free-standing SnO 2 /CNC/rGO electrodes exhibit highly improved energy storage performance, with a reversible capacity of ∼500 mA h g -1 maintained for 1500 cycles in the film and ∼800 mA h g -1 maintained for 150 cycles in the textile at a current density of 500 mA g -1 . This is attributed to the prepared hierarchical chiral structures. The presented technique provides an effective approach to producing hierarchical functional materials from nanoparticles as building blocks, which might open an avenue for the creation of new flexible energy storage devices.

  11. Hierarchical ZnO with twinned structure: Morphology evolution, formation mechanism and properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Ruixia; Song, Xueling; Li, Jia; Yang, Ping, E-mail:


    Various hierarchical ZnO architectures constructed by twinned structures have been synthesized via a trisodium citrate assisted hydrothermal method on a large scale. The probable formation mechanisms of hierarchical ZnO structures with twinned structure were proposed and discussed. The hierarchical ZnO with twinned structures are composed of two hemispheres with a center concave junction to join them together at their waists. The ZnO microspheres with rough surfaces were obtained when the concentration of trisodium citrate is 0.1 M. However, the football-like microspheres consisted of hexagonal nanosheets were formed when adding glycerol into the water, which should be attributed to the slower nucleation and growth rate of nanocrystals. The hamburger-like ZnO with different aspect ratio and nonuniform ZnO microspheres were generated due to the different quantity of initial nuclei and growth units when simply modulating the concentration of trisodium citrate. The surface area of football-like ZnO is about 3.51 times of microspheres composed of irregular particles. However their photocatalytic performances are similar under UV light irradiation, which indicates that pore sizes of the sample have more important influences on the photocatalytic activity. - Highlights: • Hierarchical ZnO constructed by twinned structures have been synthesized. • The formation mechanisms of ZnO with twinned structure were discussed. • Football-like microspheres were obtained due to the slower nucleation and growth. • Hamburger-like ZnO was formed due to the amount of initial nuclei and growth units. • Pore sizes have important effects on the photocatalytic activity of sample.

  12. Three-Dimensional ZnO Hierarchical Nanostructures: Solution Phase Synthesis and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoliang Wang


    Full Text Available Zinc oxide (ZnO nanostructures have been studied extensively in the past 20 years due to their novel electronic, photonic, mechanical and electrochemical properties. Recently, more attention has been paid to assemble nanoscale building blocks into three-dimensional (3D complex hierarchical structures, which not only inherit the excellent properties of the single building blocks but also provide potential applications in the bottom-up fabrication of functional devices. This review article focuses on 3D ZnO hierarchical nanostructures, and summarizes major advances in the solution phase synthesis, applications in environment, and electrical/electrochemical devices. We present the principles and growth mechanisms of ZnO nanostructures via different solution methods, with an emphasis on rational control of the morphology and assembly. We then discuss the applications of 3D ZnO hierarchical nanostructures in photocatalysis, field emission, electrochemical sensor, and lithium ion batteries. Throughout the discussion, the relationship between the device performance and the microstructures of 3D ZnO hierarchical nanostructures will be highlighted. This review concludes with a personal perspective on the current challenges and future research.

  13. Controlled Fabrication of Flower-like Nickel Oxide Hierarchical Structures and Their Application in Water Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linxia Wang


    Full Text Available Flower-like NiO hierarchical structures with 2–5 μm diameter assembled from nanosheet building blocks have been successfully fabricated via a wet-chemical method combined with thermodecomposition technology. The template-free method is facile and effective in preparing flower-like NiO superstructures in high yield. The intermediate product and final hierarchical structures are characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform IR (FTIR, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. The effects of growth temperature and reaction time on the morphologies of the as-prepared structures were investigated by SEM characterization and a possible mechanism for the formation of flower-like NiO is proposed. Based on the nitrogen adsorption and desorption measurements, the BET surface area of the as-obtained sample is 55.7 m2/g and the pore-size distribution plot indicates a bimodal mesopore distribution, with pore sizes of ca. 2.6 nm and 7.4 nm, respectively. In comparison with sphere-like and rod-like structures, the flower-like NiO hierarchical structures show an excellent ability to rapidly remove various pollutants when used as adsorbent and photocatalyst in waste-water treatment, which may be attributed to its unique hierarchical and porous surface structures.

  14. Hierarchical Parallelization of Gene Differential Association Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwarkadas Sandhya


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microarray gene differential expression analysis is a widely used technique that deals with high dimensional data and is computationally intensive for permutation-based procedures. Microarray gene differential association analysis is even more computationally demanding and must take advantage of multicore computing technology, which is the driving force behind increasing compute power in recent years. In this paper, we present a two-layer hierarchical parallel implementation of gene differential association analysis. It takes advantage of both fine- and coarse-grain (with granularity defined by the frequency of communication parallelism in order to effectively leverage the non-uniform nature of parallel processing available in the cutting-edge systems of today. Results Our results show that this hierarchical strategy matches data sharing behavior to the properties of the underlying hardware, thereby reducing the memory and bandwidth needs of the application. The resulting improved efficiency reduces computation time and allows the gene differential association analysis code to scale its execution with the number of processors. The code and biological data used in this study are downloadable from Conclusions The performance sweet spot occurs when using a number of threads per MPI process that allows the working sets of the corresponding MPI processes running on the multicore to fit within the machine cache. Hence, we suggest that practitioners follow this principle in selecting the appropriate number of MPI processes and threads within each MPI process for their cluster configurations. We believe that the principles of this hierarchical approach to parallelization can be utilized in the parallelization of other computationally demanding kernels.

  15. Hierarchical Naive Bayes for genetic association studies. (United States)

    Malovini, Alberto; Barbarini, Nicola; Bellazzi, Riccardo; de Michelis, Francesca


    Genome Wide Association Studies represent powerful approaches that aim at disentangling the genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying complex traits. The usual "one-SNP-at-the-time" testing strategy cannot capture the multi-factorial nature of this kind of disorders. We propose a Hierarchical Naïve Bayes classification model for taking into account associations in SNPs data characterized by Linkage Disequilibrium. Validation shows that our model reaches classification performances superior to those obtained by the standard Naïve Bayes classifier for simulated and real datasets. In the Hierarchical Naïve Bayes implemented, the SNPs mapping to the same region of Linkage Disequilibrium are considered as "details" or "replicates" of the locus, each contributing to the overall effect of the region on the phenotype. A latent variable for each block, which models the "population" of correlated SNPs, can be then used to summarize the available information. The classification is thus performed relying on the latent variables conditional probability distributions and on the SNPs data available. The developed methodology has been tested on simulated datasets, each composed by 300 cases, 300 controls and a variable number of SNPs. Our approach has been also applied to two real datasets on the genetic bases of Type 1 Diabetes and Type 2 Diabetes generated by the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium. The approach proposed in this paper, called Hierarchical Naïve Bayes, allows dealing with classification of examples for which genetic information of structurally correlated SNPs are available. It improves the Naïve Bayes performances by properly handling the within-loci variability.

  16. Emergent hierarchical structures in multiadaptive games. (United States)

    Lee, Sungmin; Holme, Petter; Wu, Zhi-Xi


    We investigate a game-theoretic model of a social system where both the rules of the game and the interaction structure are shaped by the behavior of the agents. We call this type of model, with several types of feedback couplings from the behavior of the agents to their environment, a multiadaptive game. Our model has a complex behavior with several regimes of different dynamic behavior accompanied by different network topological properties. Some of these regimes are characterized by heterogeneous, hierarchical interaction networks, where cooperation and network topology coemerge from the dynamics.

  17. A Hierarchical Framework for Facial Age Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuyu Liang


    Full Text Available Age estimation is a complex issue of multiclassification or regression. To address the problems of uneven distribution of age database and ignorance of ordinal information, this paper shows a hierarchic age estimation system, comprising age group and specific age estimation. In our system, two novel classifiers, sequence k-nearest neighbor (SKNN and ranking-KNN, are introduced to predict age group and value, respectively. Notably, ranking-KNN utilizes the ordinal information between samples in estimation process rather than regards samples as separate individuals. Tested on FG-NET database, our system achieves 4.97 evaluated by MAE (mean absolute error for age estimation.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The model presented in this paper is based on the model developed by Billionnet for the hierarchical workforce problem. In Billionnet’s Model, while determining the workers’ weekly costs, weekly working hours of workers are not taken into consideration. In our model, the weekly costs per worker are reduced in proportion to the working hours per week. Our model is illustrated on the Billionnet’s Example. The models in question are compared and evaluated on the basis of the results obtained from the example problem. A reduction is achieved in the total cost by the proposed model.

  19. Modelling complex networks by random hierarchical graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Numerous complex networks contain special patterns, called network motifs. These are specific subgraphs, which occur oftener than in randomized networks of Erdős-Rényi type. We choose one of them, the triangle, and build a family of random hierarchical graphs, being Sierpiński gasket-based graphs with random "decorations". We calculate the important characteristics of these graphs - average degree, average shortest path length, small-world graph family characteristics. They depend on probability of decorations. We analyze the Ising model on our graphs and describe its critical properties using a renormalization-group technique.

  20. Additive Manufacturing of Hierarchical Porous Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grote, Christopher John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division. Polymers and Coatings


    Additive manufacturing has become a tool of choice for the development of customizable components. Developments in this technology have led to a powerful array of printers that t serve a variety of needs. However, resin development plays a crucial role in leading the technology forward. This paper addresses the development and application of printing hierarchical porous structures. Beginning with the development of a porous scaffold, which can be functionalized with a variety of materials, and concluding with customized resins for metal, ceramic, and carbon structures.

  1. Hierarchical Control for Multiple DC Microgrids Clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shafiee, Qobad; Dragicevic, Tomislav; Vasquez, Juan Carlos


    . Another distributed policy is employed then to regulate the power flow among the MGs according to their local SOCs. The proposed distributed controllers on each MG communicate with only the neighbor MGs through a communication infrastructure. Finally, the small signal model is expanded for dc MG clusters......This paper presents a distributed hierarchical control framework to ensure reliable operation of dc Microgrid (MG) clusters. In this hierarchy, primary control is used to regulate the common bus voltage inside each MG locally. An adaptive droop method is proposed for this level which determines...

  2. Structural analysis of hierarchically organized zeolites (United States)

    Mitchell, Sharon; Pinar, Ana B.; Kenvin, Jeffrey; Crivelli, Paolo; Kärger, Jörg; Pérez-Ramírez, Javier


    Advances in materials synthesis bring about many opportunities for technological applications, but are often accompanied by unprecedented complexity. This is clearly illustrated by the case of hierarchically organized zeolite catalysts, a class of crystalline microporous solids that has been revolutionized by the engineering of multilevel pore architectures, which combine unique chemical functionality with efficient molecular transport. Three key attributes, the crystal, the pore and the active site structure, can be expected to dominate the design process. This review examines the adequacy of the palette of techniques applied to characterize these distinguishing features and their catalytic impact. PMID:26482337

  3. Technique for fast and efficient hierarchical clustering (United States)

    Stork, Christopher


    A fast and efficient technique for hierarchical clustering of samples in a dataset includes compressing the dataset to reduce a number of variables within each of the samples of the dataset. A nearest neighbor matrix is generated to identify nearest neighbor pairs between the samples based on differences between the variables of the samples. The samples are arranged into a hierarchy that groups the samples based on the nearest neighbor matrix. The hierarchy is rendered to a display to graphically illustrate similarities or differences between the samples.

  4. A Comparison of Hierarchical and Non-Hierarchical Bayesian Approaches for Fitting Allometric Larch (Larix.spp. Biomass Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongsheng Chen


    Full Text Available Accurate biomass estimations are important for assessing and monitoring forest carbon storage. Bayesian theory has been widely applied to tree biomass models. Recently, a hierarchical Bayesian approach has received increasing attention for improving biomass models. In this study, tree biomass data were obtained by sampling 310 trees from 209 permanent sample plots from larch plantations in six regions across China. Non-hierarchical and hierarchical Bayesian approaches were used to model allometric biomass equations. We found that the total, root, stem wood, stem bark, branch and foliage biomass model relationships were statistically significant (p-values < 0.001 for both the non-hierarchical and hierarchical Bayesian approaches, but the hierarchical Bayesian approach increased the goodness-of-fit statistics over the non-hierarchical Bayesian approach. The R2 values of the hierarchical approach were higher than those of the non-hierarchical approach by 0.008, 0.018, 0.020, 0.003, 0.088 and 0.116 for the total tree, root, stem wood, stem bark, branch and foliage models, respectively. The hierarchical Bayesian approach significantly improved the accuracy of the biomass model (except for the stem bark and can reflect regional differences by using random parameters to improve the regional scale model accuracy.

  5. Stability of leadership in bottom-up hierarchical organizations


    Galam, Serge


    The stability of a leadership against a growing internal opposition is studied in bottom-up hierarchical organizations. Using a very simple model with bottom-up majority rule voting, the dynamics of power distribution at the various hierarchical levels is calculated within a probabilistic framework. Given a leadership at the top, the opposition weight from the hierarchy bottom is shown to fall off quickly while climbing up the hierarchy. It reaches zero after only a few hierarchical levels. I...

  6. Automated hierarchical testable design of digital circuits (United States)

    Kraak, M.


    The thesis gives an overview of approaches dealing with the selection of test strategies and methods for digital circuits and the incorporation of test in designs. A review is provided of existing testability analyzers. A new way to analyze testability at three hierarchical levels of abstraction is presented. It is shown how this approach is contained in an expert system rule-base called TRI Stage Testability Analysis (TRISTAN). The paper then deals with testability synthesis. It is shown that a new synthesis method had to be devised to be able to hierarchically select test strategies and methods. The testability synthesizer is also contained in a rule-base, called Intelligent Synthesis of Testable Designs (ISOLDE). TRISTAN and ISOLDE are parts of an expert system called WAGNER. The knowledge processor for WAGNER is covered, presenting its knowledge representation scheme, knowledge acquisition and inference mechanism. Results of experiments done with WAGNER on board and chip level designs are given. Conclusive remarks provide an outlook to continued research.

  7. Hierarchical approaches to analysis of natural textures (United States)

    Lutsiv, Vadim R.; Malyshev, Igor A.; Novikova, Tatiana A.


    The surface textures of natural objects often have the visible fractal-like properties. A similar pattern of texture could be found looking at the forests in the aerial photographs or at the trees in the outdoor scenes when the image spatial resolution was changed. Or the texture patterns are different at different spatial resolution levels in the aerial photographs of villages. It creates the difficulties in image segmentation and object recognition because the levels of spatial resolution necessary to get the homogeneously and correctly labeled texture regions differ for different types of landscape. E.g. if the spatial resolution was sufficient for distinguishing between the textures of agricultural fields, water, and asphalt, the texture labeled areas of forest or suburbs are hardly fragmented, because the texture peculiarities corresponding to two stable levels of texture spatial resolution will be visible in this case. A hierarchical texture analysis could solve this problem, and we did it in two different ways: we performed the texture segmentation simultaneously for several levels of image spatial resolution, or we subjected the texture labeled image of highest spatial resolution to a recurring texture segmentation using the texture cells of larger sizes. The both approaches turned out to be rather fruitful for the aerial photographs as well as for the outdoor images. They generalize and support the hierarchical image analysis technique presented in another our paper. Some of the methods applied were borrowed from the living vision systems.

  8. Layer like porous materials with hierarchical structure. (United States)

    Roth, Wieslaw J; Gil, Barbara; Makowski, Wacław; Marszalek, Bartosz; Eliášová, Pavla


    Many chemical compositions produce layered solids consisting of extended sheets with thickness not greater than a few nanometers. The layers are weakly bonded together in a crystal and can be modified into various nanoarchitectures including porous hierarchical structures. Several classes of 2-dimensional (2D) materials have been extensively studied and developed because of their potential usefulness as catalysts and sorbents. They are discussed in this review with focus on clays, layered transition metal oxides, silicates, layered double hydroxides, metal(iv) phosphates and phosphonates, especially zirconium, and zeolites. Pillaring and delamination are the primary methods for structural modification and pore tailoring. The reported approaches are described and compared for the different classes of materials. The methods of characterization include identification by X-ray diffraction and microscopy, pore size analysis and activity assessment by IR spectroscopy and catalytic testing. The discovery of layered zeolites was a fundamental breakthrough that created unprecedented opportunities because of (i) inherent strong acid sites that make them very active catalytically, (ii) porosity through the layers and (iii) bridging of 2D and 3D structures. Approximately 16 different types of layered zeolite structures and modifications have been identified as distinct forms. It is also expected that many among the over 200 recognized zeolite frameworks can produce layered precursors. Additional advances enabled by 2D zeolites include synthesis of layered materials by design, hierarchical structures obtained by direct synthesis and top-down preparation of layered materials from 3D frameworks.

  9. Oracle Database DBFS Hierarchical Storage Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivenes, A


    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory creates large numbers of images during each shot cycle for the analysis of optics, target inspection and target diagnostics. These images must be readily accessible once they are created and available for the 30 year lifetime of the facility. The Livermore Computing Center (LC) runs a High Performance Storage System (HPSS) that is capable of storing NIF's estimated 1 petabyte of diagnostic images at a fraction of what it would cost NIF to operate its own automated tape library. With Oracle 11g Release 2 database, it is now possible to create an application transparent, hierarchical storage system using the LC's HPSS. Using the Oracle DBMS-LOB and DBMS-DBFS-HS packages a SecureFile LOB can now be archived to storage outside of the database and accessed seamlessly through a DBFS 'link'. NIF has chosen to use this technology to implement a hierarchical store for its image based SecureFile LOBs. Using a modified external store and DBFS links, files are written to and read from a disk 'staging area' using Oracle's backup utility. Database external procedure calls invoke OS based scripts to manage a staging area and the transfer of the backup files between the staging area and the Lab's HPSS.

  10. Hierarchical prisoner’s dilemma in hierarchical game for resource competition (United States)

    Fujimoto, Yuma; Sagawa, Takahiro; Kaneko, Kunihiko


    Dilemmas in cooperation are one of the major concerns in game theory. In a public goods game, each individual cooperates by paying a cost or defecting without paying it, and receives a reward from the group out of the collected cost. Thus, defecting is beneficial for each individual, while cooperation is beneficial for the group. Now, groups (say, countries) consisting of individuals also play games. To study such a multi-level game, we introduce a hierarchical game in which multiple groups compete for limited resources by utilizing the collected cost in each group, where the power to appropriate resources increases with the population of the group. Analyzing this hierarchical game, we found a hierarchical prisoner’s dilemma, in which groups choose the defecting policy (say, armament) as a Nash strategy to optimize each group’s benefit, while cooperation optimizes the total benefit. On the other hand, for each individual, refusing to pay the cost (say, tax) is a Nash strategy, which turns out to be a cooperation policy for the group, thus leading to a hierarchical dilemma. Here the group reward increases with the group size. However, we find that there exists an optimal group size that maximizes the individual payoff. Furthermore, when the population asymmetry between two groups is large, the smaller group will choose a cooperation policy (say, disarmament) to avoid excessive response from the larger group, and the prisoner’s dilemma between the groups is resolved. Accordingly, the relevance of this hierarchical game on policy selection in society and the optimal size of human or animal groups are discussed.

  11. In situ ultrasonic diagnostic of zeolite X crystallization with novel (hierarchical) morphology from coal fly ash. (United States)

    Musyoka, Nicholas M; Petrik, Leslie F; Hums, Eric; Baser, Hasan; Schwieger, Wilhelm


    In this paper the applicability of an in situ ultrasonic diagnostic technique in understanding the formation process of zeolite X with a novel morphology was demonstrated. The complexity of the starting fly ash feedstock demands independent studies of the formation process for each type of zeolite since it is not known whether the crystallization mechanism will always follow the expected reaction pathway. The hierarchical zeolite X was noted to follow a solution phase-mediated crystallization mechanism which differs from earlier studies of the zeolite A formation process from unaged, clear solution extracted from fused fly ash. The use of the in situ ultrasonic monitoring system provided sufficient data points which enabled closer estimation of the time of transition from the nucleation to the crystal growth step. In order to evaluate the effect of temperature on the resulting in situ attenuation signal, synthesis at three higher temperatures (80, 90 and 94 °C) was investigated. It was shown, by the shift of the US-attenuation signal, that faster crystallization occurred when higher temperatures were applied. The novel hierarchical zeolite X was comprised of intergrown disc-like platelets. It was further observed that there was preferential growth of the disc-shaped platelets of zeolite X crystals in one dimension as the synthesis temperature was increased, allowing tailoring of the hierarchical morphology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A novel BiOCl film with flowerlike hierarchical structures and its optical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao Sihai; Guo Chuanfei; Guo Yanjun; Liu Qian [National Center for Nanoscience and Technology, China No. 11, Beiyitiao, Zhongguancun, Beijing 100190 (China); Lv Ying [School of Metallurgical Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China)], E-mail:


    A novel BiOCl film with flowerlike hierarchical structures has been fabricated for the first time by dipping Bi film in a mixed solution of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and HCl. This method presents the advantages of a simple technique, template-free, uniform and controllable morphology, as well as easy mass production. Each flowerlike hierarchical structure is composed of several dozen ultra-thin single-crystal nanopetals which grow along the (110) directions in the tetragonal structure. The layered growth of nanopetals is related to the more marked anion polarization along the c axis and layered stacking of various atoms (Cl-Bi-O-Bi-Cl). The growth mechanism of the BiOCl hierarchical structure is preferred to be a nucleation-dissolution-recrystallization process. A Raman shift originating from laser-induced compressive stress is observed. Photoluminescence (PL) spectra of the BiOCl film show principal green emission, indicating potential applications in optoelectronic devices.

  13. Hierarchically organized layout for visualization of biochemical pathways. (United States)

    Tsay, Jyh-Jong; Wu, Bo-Liang; Jeng, Yu-Sen


    Many complex pathways are described as hierarchical structures in which a pathway is recursively partitioned into several sub-pathways, and organized hierarchically as a tree. The hierarchical structure provides a natural way to visualize the global structure of a complex pathway. However, none of the previous research on pathway visualization explores the hierarchical structures provided by many complex pathways. In this paper, we aim to develop algorithms that can take advantages of hierarchical structures, and give layouts that explore the global structures as well as local structures of pathways. We present a new hierarchically organized layout algorithm to produce layouts for hierarchically organized pathways. Our algorithm first decomposes a complex pathway into sub-pathway groups along the hierarchical organization, and then partition each sub-pathway group into basic components. It then applies conventional layout algorithms, such as hierarchical layout and force-directed layout, to compute the layout of each basic component. Finally, component layouts are joined to form a final layout of the pathway. Our main contribution is the development of algorithms for decomposing pathways and joining layouts. Experiment shows that our algorithm is able to give comprehensible visualization for pathways with hierarchies, cycles as well as complex structures. It clearly renders the global component structures as well as the local structure in each component. In addition, it runs very fast, and gives better visualization for many examples from previous related research. 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Fractal image perception provides novel insights into hierarchical cognition. (United States)

    Martins, M J; Fischmeister, F P; Puig-Waldmüller, E; Oh, J; Geissler, A; Robinson, S; Fitch, W T; Beisteiner, R


    Hierarchical structures play a central role in many aspects of human cognition, prominently including both language and music. In this study we addressed hierarchy in the visual domain, using a novel paradigm based on fractal images. Fractals are self-similar patterns generated by repeating the same simple rule at multiple hierarchical levels. Our hypothesis was that the brain uses different resources for processing hierarchies depending on whether it applies a "fractal" or a "non-fractal" cognitive strategy. We analyzed the neural circuits activated by these complex hierarchical patterns in an event-related fMRI study of 40 healthy subjects. Brain activation was compared across three different tasks: a similarity task, and two hierarchical tasks in which subjects were asked to recognize the repetition of a rule operating transformations either within an existing hierarchical level, or generating new hierarchical levels. Similar hierarchical images were generated by both rules and target images were identical. We found that when processing visual hierarchies, engagement in both hierarchical tasks activated the visual dorsal stream (occipito-parietal cortex, intraparietal sulcus and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex). In addition, the level-generating task specifically activated circuits related to the integration of spatial and categorical information, and with the integration of items in contexts (posterior cingulate cortex, retrosplenial cortex, and medial, ventral and anterior regions of temporal cortex). These findings provide interesting new clues about the cognitive mechanisms involved in the generation of new hierarchical levels as required for fractals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Synthesis and carbon dioxide sorption of layered double hydroxide/silica foam nanocomposites with hierarchical mesostructure

    KAUST Repository

    Fu, Liling


    Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) with a hierarchical mesostructure are successfully synthesized on mesoporous silica foams by simple impregnation and hydrothermal treatment. The as-synthesized LDH/silica foam nanocomposites show well-defined mesostructures with high surface areas, large pore volumes, and mesopores of 6-7 nm. The nanocomposites act as carbon dioxide (CO2) sorbents under simulated flue gas conditions. They also exhibit significantly enhanced CO2 capacities under high-pressure conditions and high CO2/N2 and CO2/CH4 selectivities. Respect the hierarchy: Hierarchical mesoporous layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanocomposites with high surface areas and large pore volumes are synthesized by controlled hydrothermal growth of LDH precursors on a mesoporous silica foam. The as-synthesized nanocomposites exhibit a significantly enhanced capacity and selectivity towards carbon dioxide, making them very promising candidates for carbon dioxide (CO2) separation applications. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Chiral acidic amino acids induce chiral hierarchical structure in calcium carbonate (United States)

    Jiang, Wenge; Pacella, Michael S.; Athanasiadou, Dimitra; Nelea, Valentin; Vali, Hojatollah; Hazen, Robert M.; Gray, Jeffrey J.; McKee, Marc D.


    Chirality is ubiquitous in biology, including in biomineralization, where it is found in many hardened structures of invertebrate marine and terrestrial organisms (for example, spiralling gastropod shells). Here we show that chiral, hierarchically organized architectures for calcium carbonate (vaterite) can be controlled simply by adding chiral acidic amino acids (Asp and Glu). Chiral, vaterite toroidal suprastructure having a `right-handed' (counterclockwise) spiralling morphology is induced by L-enantiomers of Asp and Glu, whereas `left-handed' (clockwise) morphology is induced by D-enantiomers, and sequentially switching between amino-acid enantiomers causes a switch in chirality. Nanoparticle tilting after binding of chiral amino acids is proposed as a chiral growth mechanism, where a `mother' subunit nanoparticle spawns a slightly tilted, consequential `daughter' nanoparticle, which by amplification over various length scales creates oriented mineral platelets and chiral vaterite suprastructures. These findings suggest a molecular mechanism for how biomineralization-related enantiomers might exert hierarchical control to form extended chiral suprastructures.

  17. Hierarchical image segmentation for learning object priors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, Lakshman [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yang, Xingwei [TEMPLE UNIV.; Latecki, Longin J [TEMPLE UNIV.; Li, Nan [TEMPLE UNIV.


    The proposed segmentation approach naturally combines experience based and image based information. The experience based information is obtained by training a classifier for each object class. For a given test image, the result of each classifier is represented as a probability map. The final segmentation is obtained with a hierarchial image segmentation algorithm that considers both the probability maps and the image features such as color and edge strength. We also utilize image region hierarchy to obtain not only local but also semi-global features as input to the classifiers. Moreover, to get robust probability maps, we take into account the region context information by averaging the probability maps over different levels of the hierarchical segmentation algorithm. The obtained segmentation results are superior to the state-of-the-art supervised image segmentation algorithms.

  18. Hierarchical organisation of Britain through percolation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Arcaute, Elsa; Hatna, Erez; Murcio, Roberto; Vargas-Ruiz, Camilo; Masucci, Paolo; Wang, Jiaqiu; Batty, Michael


    Urban systems present hierarchical structures at many different scales. These are observed as administrative regional delimitations, which are the outcome of geographical, political and historical constraints. Using percolation theory on the street intersections and on the road network of Britain, we obtain hierarchies at different scales that are independent of administrative arrangements. Natural boundaries, such as islands and National Parks, consistently emerge at the largest/regional scales. Cities are devised through recursive percolations on each of the emerging clusters, but the system does not undergo a phase transition at the distance threshold at which cities can be defined. This specific distance is obtained by computing the fractal dimension of the clusters extracted at each distance threshold. We observe that the fractal dimension presents a maximum over all the different distance thresholds. The clusters obtained at this maximum are in very good correspondence to the morphological definition of...

  19. Optimization of Hierarchical System for Data Acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Novotny


    Full Text Available Television broadcasting over IP networks (IPTV is one of a number of network applications that are except of media distribution also interested in data acquisition from group of information resources of variable size. IP-TV uses Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP protocol for media streaming and RTP Control Protocol (RTCP protocol for session quality feedback. Other applications, for example sensor networks, have data acquisition as the main task. Current solutions have mostly problem with scalability - how to collect and process information from large amount of end nodes quickly and effectively? The article deals with optimization of hierarchical system of data acquisition. Problem is mathematically described, delay minima are searched and results are proved by simulations.

  20. Optimization of Hierarchically Scheduled Heterogeneous Embedded Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pop, Traian; Pop, Paul; Eles, Petru


    We present an approach to the analysis and optimization of heterogeneous distributed embedded systems. The systems are heterogeneous not only in terms of hardware components, but also in terms of communication protocols and scheduling policies. When several scheduling policies share a resource......, they are organized in a hierarchy. In this paper, we address design problems that are characteristic to such hierarchically scheduled systems: assignment of scheduling policies to tasks, mapping of tasks to hardware components, and the scheduling of the activities. We present algorithms for solving these problems....... Our heuristics are able to find schedulable implementations under limited resources, achieving an efficient utilization of the system. The developed algorithms are evaluated using extensive experiments and a real-life example....

  1. Entrepreneurial intention modeling using hierarchical multiple regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Jeger


    Full Text Available The goal of this study is to identify the contribution of effectuation dimensions to the predictive power of the entrepreneurial intention model over and above that which can be accounted for by other predictors selected and confirmed in previous studies. As is often the case in social and behavioral studies, some variables are likely to be highly correlated with each other. Therefore, the relative amount of variance in the criterion variable explained by each of the predictors depends on several factors such as the order of variable entry and sample specifics. The results show the modest predictive power of two dimensions of effectuation prior to the introduction of the theory of planned behavior elements. The article highlights the main advantages of applying hierarchical regression in social sciences as well as in the specific context of entrepreneurial intention formation, and addresses some of the potential pitfalls that this type of analysis entails.

  2. Hierarchical super-resolution-based inpainting. (United States)

    Le Meur, Olivier; Ebdelli, Mounira; Guillemot, Christine


    This paper introduces a novel framework for examplar-based inpainting. It consists in performing first the inpainting on a coarse version of the input image. A hierarchical super-resolution algorithm is then used to recover details on the missing areas. The advantage of this approach is that it is easier to inpaint low-resolution pictures than high-resolution ones. The gain is both in terms of computational complexity and visual quality. However, to be less sensitive to the parameter setting of the inpainting method, the low-resolution input picture is inpainted several times with different configurations. Results are efficiently combined with a loopy belief propagation and details are recovered by a single-image super-resolution algorithm. Experimental results in a context of image editing and texture synthesis demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. Results are compared to five state-of-the-art inpainting methods.

  3. Hierarchical imaging of the human knee (United States)

    Schulz, Georg; Götz, Christian; Deyhle, Hans; Müller-Gerbl, Magdalena; Zanette, Irene; Zdora, Marie-Christine; Khimchenko, Anna; Thalmann, Peter; Rack, Alexander; Müller, Bert


    Among the clinically relevant imaging techniques, computed tomography (CT) reaches the best spatial resolution. Sub-millimeter voxel sizes are regularly obtained. For investigations on true micrometer level lab-based μCT has become gold standard. The aim of the present study is the hierarchical investigation of a human knee post mortem using hard X-ray μCT. After the visualization of the entire knee using a clinical CT with a spatial resolution on the sub-millimeter range, a hierarchical imaging study was performed using a laboratory μCT system nanotom m. Due to the size of the whole knee the pixel length could not be reduced below 65 μm. These first two data sets were directly compared after a rigid registration using a cross-correlation algorithm. The μCT data set allowed an investigation of the trabecular structures of the bones. The further reduction of the pixel length down to 25 μm could be achieved by removing the skin and soft tissues and measuring the tibia and the femur separately. True micrometer resolution could be achieved after extracting cylinders of several millimeters diameters from the two bones. The high resolution scans revealed the mineralized cartilage zone including the tide mark line as well as individual calcified chondrocytes. The visualization of soft tissues including cartilage, was arranged by X-ray grating interferometry (XGI) at ESRF and Diamond Light Source. Whereas the high-energy measurements at ESRF allowed the simultaneous visualization of soft and hard tissues, the low-energy results from Diamond Light Source made individual chondrocytes within the cartilage visual.

  4. Multimodal X-ray Imaging of Hierarchical Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkbak, Mie Elholm


    Hierarchical materials – materials displaying distinct structural features on multiple different length scales - are found in abundance in nature. Bone is an excellent example of a hierarchical material, combining mineral platelets, water and organic molecules to an intricate 3D structure. Well-d...

  5. Hierarchical microcrack model for materials exemplified at enamel. (United States)

    Özcoban, H; Yilmaz, E D; Schneider, G A


    This article investigates the mechanical properties of a material with hierarchically arranged microcracks. Hierarchically structured biomaterials such as enamel exhibit superior mechanical properties as being stiff and damage tolerant at the same time. The common mechanical explanation for this behavior is based on the hierarchically structured arrangement of hard minerals and soft organics and their cooperative deformation mechanisms. In situ mechanical experiments with mm-sized bovine enamel bending bars an scanning electron microscope reveal that enamel is able to withstand mechanical loading even if it contains microcracks on different lengths scales. To clarify this issue an analytical hierarchical microcrack model of non-interacting cracks is presented. The model predicts a decrease of the elastic modulus and the fracture strength with increasing levels of hierarchy. The fracture strain on the other hand may decrease or increase with the number of hierarchical levels, depending on the microcrack density. This simple hierarchical microcrack model is able to explain already published experiments with focused ion beam prepared μm-sized enamel cantilevers on different hierarchical levels. In addition it is shown that microcracking during loading in hierarchical materials may lead to substantial pseudoplastic behavior. Copyright © 2017 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Hierarchical Approaches to the Analysis of Genetic Diversity in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hierarchical analysis highlights the nature of relationship between and among type samples as outlined by standard descriptors. It produces an output called dendrogram, which depicts the hierarchical structure of genetic interaction in clusters/groups. Genetic diversity is the variation of heritable characteristics in a ...

  7. Hierarchical structure of moral stages assessed by a sorting task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boom, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/07472732X; Brugman, D.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073721239; Van der Heijden, P.G.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073087998


    Following criticism of Kohlberg’s theory of moral judgment, an empirical re-examination of hierarchical stage structure was desirable. Utilizing Piaget’s concept of reflective abstraction as a basis, the hierarchical stage structure was investigated using a new method. Study participants (553 Dutch

  8. Hierarchical clustering using correlation metric and spatial continuity constraint (United States)

    Stork, Christopher L.; Brewer, Luke N.


    Large data sets are analyzed by hierarchical clustering using correlation as a similarity measure. This provides results that are superior to those obtained using a Euclidean distance similarity measure. A spatial continuity constraint may be applied in hierarchical clustering analysis of images.

  9. Higher-Order Item Response Models for Hierarchical Latent Traits (United States)

    Huang, Hung-Yu; Wang, Wen-Chung; Chen, Po-Hsi; Su, Chi-Ming


    Many latent traits in the human sciences have a hierarchical structure. This study aimed to develop a new class of higher order item response theory models for hierarchical latent traits that are flexible in accommodating both dichotomous and polytomous items, to estimate both item and person parameters jointly, to allow users to specify…

  10. Hierarchical Participation Constraints for Adaptive Learning and Coordination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yi, Sangyoon; Stieglitz, Nils; Knudsen, Thorbjørn

    by formal aspects of organizations, the underlying mechanisms still need to be unpacked. As such an organizing principle, we suggest in this study that hierarchical participation constraints promote both adaptive learning at the individual level and dynamic coordination at the organization level....... Hierarchical participation constraints therefore provide for efficiency and adaptability in dealing with diverse problems from unpredictable environments....

  11. Hierarchical Factoring Based On Image Analysis And Orthoblique Rotations. (United States)

    Stankov, L


    The procedure for hierarchical factoring suggested by Schmid and Leiman (1957) is applied within the framework of image analysis and orthoblique rotational procedures. It is shown that this approach necessarily leads to correlated higher order factors. Also, one can obtain a smaller number of factors than produced by typical hierarchical procedures.

  12. Topology-based hierarchical scheduling using deficit round robin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Hao; Yan, Ying; Berger, Michael Stubert


    This paper proposes a topology-based hierarchical scheduling scheme using Deficit Round Robin (DRR). The main idea of the topology-based hierarchical scheduling is to map the topology of the connected network into the logical structure of the scheduler, and combine several token schedulers...

  13. Hierarchical Data Structures, Institutional Research, and Multilevel Modeling (United States)

    O'Connell, Ann A.; Reed, Sandra J.


    Multilevel modeling (MLM), also referred to as hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) or mixed models, provides a powerful analytical framework through which to study colleges and universities and their impact on students. Due to the natural hierarchical structure of data obtained from students or faculty in colleges and universities, MLM offers many…

  14. Hierarchical Fullerene Assembly: Seeded Coprecipitation and Electric Field Directed Assembly. (United States)

    Stelson, Angela C; Penterman, Sonny J; Watson, Chekesha M Liddell


    Hierarchical C60 colloidal films are assembled from nanoscale to macroscale. Fullerene molecular crystals are grown via seeded cosolvent precipitation with mixed solvent [tetrahydronaphthalene (THN)/trimethylpyridine (TMP)] and antisolvent 2-propanol. The fullerene solutions are aged under illumination, which due to the presence of TMP reduces the free monomer concentration through fullerene aggregation into nanoparticles. The nanoparticles seed the growth of monodisperse fullerene colloids on injection into the antisolvent. Diverse colloidal morphologies are prepared as a function of injection volume and fullerene solution concentration. The high fullerene solubility of THN enables C60 colloids to be prepared in quantities sufficient for assembly (5 × 10(8) ). Electric fields are applied to colloidal C60 platelets confined to two dimensions. The particles assemble under dipolar forces, dielectrophoretic forces, and electrohydrodynamic flows. Frequency-dependent phase transitions occur at the critical Maxwell-Wagner crossover frequency, where the effective polarizability of the particles in the medium is substantially reduced. Structures form as a function of field strength, frequency, and confinement including hexagonal, oblique, string fluid, coexistent hexagonal-rhombic, and tetratic. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Time-Hierarchical Clustering and Visualization of Weather Forecast Ensembles. (United States)

    Ferstl, Florian; Kanzler, Mathias; Rautenhaus, Marc; Westermann, Rudiger


    We propose a new approach for analyzing the temporal growth of the uncertainty in ensembles of weather forecasts which are started from perturbed but similar initial conditions. As an alternative to traditional approaches in meteorology, which use juxtaposition and animation of spaghetti plots of iso-contours, we make use of contour clustering and provide means to encode forecast dynamics and spread in one single visualization. Based on a given ensemble clustering in a specified time window, we merge clusters in time-reversed order to indicate when and where forecast trajectories start to diverge. We present and compare different visualizations of the resulting time-hierarchical grouping, including space-time surfaces built by connecting cluster representatives over time, and stacked contour variability plots. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our visual encodings with forecast examples of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, which convey the evolution of specific features in the data as well as the temporally increasing spatial variability.

  16. Hierarchical tubular structures grown from the gel/liquid interface. (United States)

    Steenbjerg Ibsen, Casper Jon; Mikladal, Bjørn Fridur; Bjørnholt Jensen, Uffe; Birkedal, Henrik


    Three dimensional hierarchical materials are widespread in nature but are difficult to synthesize by using self-assembly/organization. Here, we employ a gel-liquid interface to obtain centimeter-long ∼100 μm diameter tubes with complex mineral wall structures that grow from the interface into solution. The gel, made from gelatin, is loaded with metal chloride salt, whereas the solution is a high pH anion source. Tubes were obtained with a range of cations (Ca(2+) , Sr(2+) , Ba(2+) , Cu(2+) , and Zn(2+) ) and anions (CO3 (2-) and PO4 (3-) ). The crystalline phases found in the tube walls corresponded to expectations from solution chemistries and phase solubilities. The growth mechanism is found to be akin to that of chemical gardens. The divalent cations modify the strength of the gelatin gel in a manner that involves not only simple electrostatic screening, but also ion-specific effects. Thus, tubes were not obtained for those ions and/or concentrations that significantly changed the gel's mechanical structure. At high Cu(2+) loading, for example, vertical convection bands, not Liesegang bands, were observed in the gels. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Hierarchical electrode architectures for electrical energy storage & conversion.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zavadil, Kevin Robert; Missert, Nancy A.; Shelnutt, John Allen; van Swol, Frank B.


    The integration and stability of electrocatalytic nanostructures, which represent one level of porosity in a hierarchical structural scheme when combined with a three-dimensional support scaffold, has been studied using a combination of synthetic processes, characterization techniques, and computational methods. Dendritic platinum nanostructures have been covalently linked to common electrode surfaces using a newly developed chemical route; a chemical route equally applicable to a range of metals, oxides, and semiconductive materials. Characterization of the resulting bound nanostructure system confirms successful binding, while electrochemistry and microscopy demonstrate the viability of these electroactive particles. Scanning tunneling microscopy has been used to image and validate the short-term stability of several electrode-bound platinum dendritic sheet structures toward Oswald ripening. Kinetic Monte Carlo methods have been applied to develop an understanding of the stability of the basic nano-scale porous platinum sheets as they transform from an initial dendrite to hole containing sheets. Alternate synthetic strategies were pursued to grow dendritic platinum structures directly onto subunits (graphitic particles) of the electrode scaffold. A two-step photocatalytic seeding process proved successful at generating desirable nano-scale porous structures. Growth in-place is an alternate strategy to the covalent linking of the electrocatalytic nanostructures.

  18. Anti-hierarchical evolution of the active galactic nucleus space density in a hierarchical universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enoki, Motohiro [Faculty of Business Administration, Tokyo Keizai University, Kokubunji, Tokyo 185-8502 (Japan); Ishiyama, Tomoaki [Center for Computational Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan); Kobayashi, Masakazu A. R. [Research Center for Space and Cosmic Evolution, Ehime University, Matsuyama, Ehime 790-8577 (Japan); Nagashima, Masahiro, E-mail: [Faculty of Education, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki, Nagasaki 852-8521 (Japan)


    Recent observations show that the space density of luminous active galactic nuclei (AGNs) peaks at higher redshifts than that of faint AGNs. This downsizing trend in the AGN evolution seems to be contradictory to the hierarchical structure formation scenario. In this study, we present the AGN space density evolution predicted by a semi-analytic model of galaxy and AGN formation based on the hierarchical structure formation scenario. We demonstrate that our model can reproduce the downsizing trend of the AGN space density evolution. The reason for the downsizing trend in our model is a combination of the cold gas depletion as a consequence of star formation, the gas cooling suppression in massive halos, and the AGN lifetime scaling with the dynamical timescale. We assume that a major merger of galaxies causes a starburst, spheroid formation, and cold gas accretion onto a supermassive black hole (SMBH). We also assume that this cold gas accretion triggers AGN activity. Since the cold gas is mainly depleted by star formation and gas cooling is suppressed in massive dark halos, the amount of cold gas accreted onto SMBHs decreases with cosmic time. Moreover, AGN lifetime increases with cosmic time. Thus, at low redshifts, major mergers do not always lead to luminous AGNs. Because the luminosity of AGNs is correlated with the mass of accreted gas onto SMBHs, the space density of luminous AGNs decreases more quickly than that of faint AGNs. We conclude that the anti-hierarchical evolution of the AGN space density is not contradictory to the hierarchical structure formation scenario.

  19. Improved Adhesion and Compliancy of Hierarchical Fibrillar Adhesives. (United States)

    Li, Yasong; Gates, Byron D; Menon, Carlo


    The gecko relies on van der Waals forces to cling onto surfaces with a variety of topography and composition. The hierarchical fibrillar structures on their climbing feet, ranging from mesoscale to nanoscale, are hypothesized to be key elements for the animal to conquer both smooth and rough surfaces. An epoxy-based artificial hierarchical fibrillar adhesive was prepared to study the influence of the hierarchical structures on the properties of a dry adhesive. The presented experiments highlight the advantages of a hierarchical structure despite a reduction of overall density and aspect ratio of nanofibrils. In contrast to an adhesive containing only nanometer-size fibrils, the hierarchical fibrillar adhesives exhibited a higher adhesion force and better compliancy when tested on an identical substrate.

  20. Hierarchically structured nanocarbon electrodes for flexible solid lithium batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Wei, Di


    The ever increasing demand for storage of electrical energy in portable electronic devices and electric vehicles is driving technological improvements in rechargeable batteries. Lithium (Li) batteries have many advantages over other rechargeable battery technologies, including high specific energy and energy density, operation over a wide range of temperatures (-40 to 70. °C) and a low self-discharge rate, which translates into a long shelf-life (~10 years) [1]. However, upon release of the first generation of rechargeable Li batteries, explosions related to the shorting of the circuit through Li dendrites bridging the anode and cathode were observed. As a result, Li metal batteries today are generally relegated to non-rechargeable primary battery applications, because the dendritic growth of Li is associated with the charging and discharging process. However, there still remain significant advantages in realizing rechargeable secondary batteries based on Li metal anodes because they possess superior electrical conductivity, higher specific energy and lower heat generation due to lower internal resistance. One of the most practical solutions is to use a solid polymer electrolyte to act as a physical barrier against dendrite growth. This may enable the use of Li metal once again in rechargeable secondary batteries [2]. Here we report a flexible and solid Li battery using a polymer electrolyte with a hierarchical and highly porous nanocarbon electrode comprising aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and carbon nanohorns (CNHs). Electrodes with high specific surface area are realized through the combination of CNHs with CNTs and provide a significant performance enhancement to the solid Li battery performance. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.