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Sample records for hierarchical bio2co3 microspheres

  1. Rose-like monodisperse bismuth subcarbonate hierarchical hollow microspheres: One-pot template-free fabrication and excellent visible light photocatalytic activity and photochemical stability for NO removal in indoor air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Fan; Lee, S.C.; Wu, Zhongbiao; Huang, Yu; Fu, Min; Ho, Wing-Kei; Zou, Shichun; Wang, Bo

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Rose-like monodisperse hierarchical nitrogen doped (BiO) 2 CO 3 hollow microspheres fabricated by a one-pot template-free method exhibit excellent visible light photocatalytic activity and photochemical stability in the removal of NO in indoor air. The special hierarchical microstructure, the high charge separation efficiency and two-band-gap structure in all contribute to the outstanding photocatalytic performance. Highlights: → Rose-like monodisperse hierarchical (BiO) 2 CO 3 hollow microspheres are fabricated. → The (BiO) 2 CO 3 microspheres are self-assembled of single-crystalline nanosheets. → Nitrogen is in situ doped into the lattice of hierarchical (BiO) 2 CO 3 microspheres. → The (BiO) 2 CO 3 microspheres exhibit outstanding visible light activity for NO removal. → The (BiO) 2 CO 3 microspheres also exhibit high photochemical stability. - Abstract: Rose-like monodisperse hierarchical (BiO) 2 CO 3 hollow microspheres are fabricated by a one-pot template-free method for the first time based on hydrothermal treatment of ammonia bismuth citrate and urea in water. The microstructure and band structure of the as-prepared (BiO) 2 CO 3 superstructure are characterized in detail by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, N 2 adsorption-desorption isotherms, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The monodisperse hierarchical (BiO) 2 CO 3 microspheres are constructed by the self-assembly of single-crystalline nanosheets. The aggregation of nanosheets result in the formation of three dimensional hierarchical framework containing mesopores and macropores, which is favorable for efficient transport of reaction molecules and harvesting of photo-energy. The result reveals the existence of special two-band-gap structure (3.25 and 2.0 eV) for (BiO) 2 CO 3 . The band gap of 3.25 eV is intrinsic and the

  2. Fabrication, modification and application of (BiO)_2CO_3-based photocatalysts: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni, Zilin; Sun, Yanjuan; Zhang, Yuxin; Dong, Fan

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The (BiO)_2CO_3 with Aurivillius structure y is an emergent material. • Synthesis of (BiO)_2CO_3 micro/nano structures was reviewed. • The mechanisms of (BiO)_2CO_3 based nanocomposites were discussed. • Doping (BiO)_2CO_3 with nonmetals for enhanced activity was highlighted. • Multi-functional applications of (BiO)_2CO_3 based derivatives was demonstrated. - Abstract: (BiO)_2CO_3 (BOC), a fascinating material, belongs to the Aurivillius-related oxide family with an intergrowth texture in which Bi_2O_2"2"+ layers and CO_3"2"− layers are orthogonal to each other. BOC is a suitable candidate for various fields, such as healthcare, photocatalysis, humidity sensor, nonlinear optical application and supercapacitors. Recently, the photocatalysis properties of (BiO)_2CO_3 have been gained increased attention. BOC has a wide band gap (3.1–3.5 eV), which constrains its visible light absorption and utilization. In order to enhance the visible light driven photocatalytic performance of BOC, many modification strategies have been developed. According to the discrepancies of different coupling mechanisms, six primary systems of BOC-based nanocomposites can be classified and summarized: namely, metal/BOC heterojunction, single metal oxides (metal sulfides)/BOC heterostructure, bismuth-based metallic acid salts (Bi_xMO_y)/BOC, bismuth oxyhalides (BiOX)/BOC, metal-free semiconductor/BOC and the BOC-based complex heterojunction. Doping BOC with nonmetals (C, N and oxygen vacancy) is unique strategy and warrants a separate categorization. In this review, we first give a detailed description of the strategies to fabricate various BOC micro/nano structures. Next, the mechanisms of photocatalytic activity enhancement are elaborated in three parts, including BOC-based nanocomposites, nonmetal doping and formation of oxygen vacancy. The enhanced photocatalytic activity of BOC-based systems can be attributed to the unique interaction of the p–n junction (semiconductor/semiconductor heterostructures), the Schottky junction (metal/semiconductor heterostructures), the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) effect, the surface scattering and reflecting (SSR) effect, the well-matched band structures, tunable electronic band structure, photosensitization and excellent electronic conductivity. Besides, multi-functional applications of BOC based materials are presented. Finally, prospective about the rational design, mechanistic understanding and application of BOC based materials is demonstrated, aiming to broaden the perspective and provide guidelines for future work.

  3. Fe(Ⅲ) ions enhanced catalytic properties of (BiO)2CO3 nanowires and mechanism study for complete degradation of xanthate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yujiao; Cui, Kuixin; Hu, Mingyi; Jin, Shengming

    2017-08-01

    The wire-like Fe 3+ -doped (BiO) 2 CO 3 photocatalyst was synthesized by a hydrothermal method. The photocatalytic property of Fe 3+ -doped (BiO) 2 CO 3 nanowires was evaluated through degradation of sodium isopropyl xanthate under UV-visible light irradiation. The as-prepared Fe 3+ -doped (BiO) 2 CO 3 nanowires were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-vis DRS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) in detail. The results of XRD showed that the crystallinity of (BiO) 2 CO 3 nanowires decreased when Fe 3+ ions were introduced into the solution system. XPS results illustrated that xanthate could be absorbed on the surface of Fe 3+ -doped (BiO) 2 CO 3 nanowires to produce BiS bond at the beginning of the reaction, which could broaden the visible light absorption. FTIR spectra confirmed the formation of SO 4 2- after photocatalytic decomposition of xanthate solution. The Fe 3+ -doped (BiO) 2 CO 3 nanowires showed an enhanced photocatalytic activity for decomposition of xanthate due to the narrower band gap and larger BET surface area, comparing with pure (BiO) 2 CO 3 nanowires. By the results of UV-vis spectra of the solution and FTIR spectra of recycled Fe 3+ -doped (BiO) 2 CO 3 , the xanthate was oxidized completely into CO 2 and SO 4 2- . The photocatalytic degradation process of xanthate followed a pseudo-second-order kinetics model. The mechanism of enhanced photocatalytic activity was proposed as well. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Capture of atmospheric CO2 into (BiO)2CO3/graphene or graphene oxide nanocomposites with enhanced photocatalytic performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Wendong; Dong, Fan; Zhang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Self-assembly of (BiO) 2 CO 3 nanoflakes on graphene and graphene oxide nanosheets were realized by a one-pot efficient capture of atmospheric CO 2 at room temperature. - Highlights: • A facile one-step method was developed for graphene-based composites. • The synthesis was conducted by utilization of atmospheric CO 2 . • (BiO) 2 CO 3 -graphene and (BiO) 2 CO 3 -graphene oxide composites were synthesized. • The nanocomposites exhibited enhanced photocatalytic activity. - Abstract: Self-assembly of (BiO) 2 CO 3 nanoflakes on graphene (Ge) and graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets, as an effective strategy to improve the photocatalytic performance of two-dimensional (2D) nanostructured materials, were realized by a one-pot efficient capture of atmospheric CO 2 at room temperature. The as-synthesized samples were characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM, XPS, UV–vis DRS, Time-resolved ns-level PL and BET-BJH measurement. The photocatalytic activity of the obtained samples was evaluated by the removal of NO at the indoor air level under simulated solar-light irradiation. Compared with pure (BiO) 2 CO 3 , (BiO) 2 CO 3 /Ge and (BiO) 2 CO 3 /GO nanocomposites exhibited enhanced photocatalytic activity due to their large surface areas and pore volume, and efficient charge separation and transfer. The present work could provide a simple method to construct 2D nanocomposites by efficient utilization of CO 2 in green synthetic strategy.

  5. Improved solar-driven photocatalytic performance of Ag_2CO_3/(BiO)_2CO_3 prepared in-situ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, Junbo; Li, Jianzhang; Huang, Shengtian; Cheng, Chaozhu; Yuan, Wei; Li, Minjiao; Ding, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Ag_2CO_3/(BiO)_2CO_3 photocatalysts were prepared in-situ. • The photo-induced charge separation rate has been greatly increased. • The photocatalytic activity has been greatly promoted. - Abstract: Ag_2CO_3/(BiO)_2CO_3 composites have been fabricated in-situ via a facile parallel flaw co-precipitation method. The specific surface area, structure, morphology, and the separation rate of photo-induced charge pairs of the photocatalysts were characterized by Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) method, X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy(DRS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and surface photovoltage (SPV) spectroscopy, respectively. XRD patterns and DRS demonstrated that Ag_2CO_3 has no effect on the crystal phase and bandgap of (BiO)_2CO_3. The existence of Ag_2CO_3 in the composites enhances the separation rate of photo-induced charge pairs of the photocatalysts. The photocatalytic performance of Ag_2CO_3/(BiO)_2CO_3 was evaluated by the decolorization of methyl orange (MO) aqueous solution under simulated solar irradiation. It was found that the simulated solar-induced photocatalytic activity of Ag_2CO_3/(BiO)_2CO_3 copmposites was significantly improved, which was mainly attributed to the enhanced surface area and the separation rate of photo-induced charge pairs.

  6. Enhancing visible light photocatalytic and photocharge separation of (BiO)_2CO_3 plate via dramatic I"− ions doping effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Lei; Cao, Jing; Lin, Haili; Guo, Xiaomin; Zhang, Meiyu; Chen, Shifu

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Novel I-(BiO)_2CO_3 was prepared by a facile chemical precipitation method. • I"− ions impurity level located on the top of valence band of (BiO)_2CO_3. • I"− ions doping largely improved photocatalytic activity of I-(BiO)_2CO_3. • I-(BiO)_2CO_3 displayed excellent photocharge separation efficiency. - Abstract: Novel I"− ions doped (BiO)_2CO_3 (I-(BiO)_2CO_3) photocatalysts were successfully synthesized via a facile chemical precipitation method. Under visible light (λ > 400 nm), I-(BiO)_2CO_3 displayed much higher activity for rhodamine B and dichlorophenol degradation than the undoped (BiO)_2CO_3. The pseudo-first-order rate constant k_a_p_p of RhB degradation over 15.0% I-(BiO)_2CO_3 was 0.54 h"−"1, which is 11.3 times higher than that of (BiO)_2CO_3. The doped I"− ions formed an impurity level on the top of valence band of (BiO)_2CO_3 and induced much more visible light to be absorbed. The enhanced photocurrent and surface photovoltage properties were detected, which strongly ensures the efficient separation of electrons and holes in I-(BiO)_2CO_3 system under visible light. It provides a facile way to improve the photocatalytic activity of the wide-band-gap (BiO)_2CO_3 via intense doping effect of I"− ions.

  7. Facile preparation of hierarchically porous polymer microspheres for superhydrophobic coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jiefeng; Wong, Julia Shuk-Ping; Hu, Mingjun; Li, Wan; Li, Robert. K. Y.

    2013-12-01

    A facile method, i.e., nonsolvent assisted electrospraying, is proposed to fabricate hierarchically porous microspheres. The pore size on the microsphere surface ranges from a few tens to several hundred nanometers. Thermally and nonsolvent induced phase separation as well as breath figure is responsible for the formation of the hierarchical structures with different nano-sized pores. The nonsolvent could not only induce phase separation, but also stabilize the interface between the droplet and air, which can prevent the droplet from strong deformation, and is therefore beneficial to the formation of regular and uniform microspheres. On the other hand, solvent evaporation, polymer diffusion and Coulomb fission during electrospraying influence the morphology of finally obtained products. In this paper, the influence of polymer concentration, the weight ratio between nonsolvent and polymer and the flowing rate on the morphology of the porous microsphere is carefully studied. The hierarchically porous microsphere significantly increases the surface roughness and thus the hydrophobicity, and the contact angle can reach as high as 152.2 +/- 1.2°. This nonsolvent assisted electrospraying opens a new way to fabricate superhydrophobic coating materials.A facile method, i.e., nonsolvent assisted electrospraying, is proposed to fabricate hierarchically porous microspheres. The pore size on the microsphere surface ranges from a few tens to several hundred nanometers. Thermally and nonsolvent induced phase separation as well as breath figure is responsible for the formation of the hierarchical structures with different nano-sized pores. The nonsolvent could not only induce phase separation, but also stabilize the interface between the droplet and air, which can prevent the droplet from strong deformation, and is therefore beneficial to the formation of regular and uniform microspheres. On the other hand, solvent evaporation, polymer diffusion and Coulomb fission during

  8. Controlled synthesis of three-dimensional hierarchical Bi2WO6 microspheres with optimum photocatalytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Hong; Song, Jimei; Zhang, Hui; Gao, Fei; Zhao, Shaojuan; Hu, Haiqin

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The synthesized method is very simple. It can be widely used in the production. ► The morphology is novel and the property is fine. ► The formation of 3D hierarchical microsphere can be induced by changing the concentration of KNO 3 . -- Abstract: Three-dimensional (3D) hierarchical Bi 2 WO 6 microsphere and octahedral Bi 2 WO 6 have been synthesized by a facile hydrothermal method using KNO 3 solution and distilled water as solvent, respectively. The obtained products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, N 2 adsorption/desorption, and UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy in detail. The concentration of KNO 3 played a key role in the formation of 3D hierarchical Bi 2 WO 6 microspheres. A possible formation mechanism of Bi 2 WO 6 microsphere was proposed. The photocatalytic activity of the as-synthesized products was evaluated by monitoring the degradation of MB solution under sunlight irradiation. It was found that the photocatalytic activity of the 3D hierarchical Bi 2 WO 6 microsphere was superior to the octahedral Bi 2 WO 6 , which was attributed to the larger surface area and special hierarchical structure of Bi 2 WO 6 microsphere.

  9. Hierarchical CuO hollow microspheres: Controlled synthesis for enhanced lithium storage performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan Xiangfeng; Li Liping; Li Guangshe; Fu Zhengwei; Zheng Jing; Yan Tingjiang

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Hierarchical CuO microspheres with hollow interiors were formed through self-wrapping of a single layer of radically oriented CuO nanorods, and these microspheres showed excellent cycle performance and enhanced lithium storage capacity. Display Omitted Research highlights: → Hierarchical CuO hollow microspheres were prepared by a hydrothermal method. → The CuO hollow microspheres were assembled from radically oriented nanorods. → The growth mechanism was proposed to proceed via self-assembly and Ostwald's ripening. → The microspheres showed good cycle performance and enhanced lithium storage capacity. → Hierarchical microstructures with hollow interiors promote electrochemical property. - Abstract: In this work, hierarchical CuO hollow microspheres were hydrothermally prepared without use of any surfactants or templates. By controlling the formation reaction conditions and monitoring the relevant reaction processes using time-dependent experiments, it is demonstrated that hierarchical CuO microspheres with hollow interiors were formed through self-wrapping of a single layer of radically oriented CuO nanorods, and that hierarchical spheres could be tuned to show different morphologies and microstructures. As a consequence, the formation mechanism was proposed to proceed via a combined process of self-assembly and Ostwald's ripening. Further, these hollow microspheres were initiated as the anode material in lithium ion batteries, which showed excellent cycle performance and enhanced lithium storage capacity, most likely because of the synergetic effect of small diffusion lengths in building blocks of nanorods and proper void space that buffers the volume expansion. The strategy reported in this work is reproducible, which may help to significantly improve the electrochemical performance of transition metal oxide-based anode materials via designing the hollow structures necessary for developing lithium ion batteries and the relevant

  10. Hierarchically assembled Au microspheres and sea urchin-like architectures: formation mechanism and SERS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiansong; Yang, Da-Peng; Huang, Peng; Li, Min; Li, Chao; Chen, Di; Cui, Daxiang

    2012-12-21

    The hierarchically assembled Au microspheres/sea urchin-like structures have been synthesized in aqueous solution at room temperature with and without proteins (bovine serum albumin, BSA) as mediators. The average diameter of an individual Au microsphere is 300-600 nm, which is composed of some compact nanoparticles with an average diameter of about 15 nm. Meanwhile, the sea urchin-like Au architecture exhibits an average diameter of 600-800 nm, which is made up of some nanopricks with an average length of 100-200 nm. These products are characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electronic microscopy (TEM). It is found that the BSA and ascorbic acid (AA) have great effects on the morphology of the resulting products. Two different growth mechanisms are proposed. The study on surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) activities is also carried out between Au microspheres and Au sea urchin-like architectures. It is found that Au urchin-like architectures possess much higher SERS activity than the Au microspheres. Our work may shed light on the design and synthesis of hierarchically self-assembled 3D micro/nano-architectures for SERS, catalysis and biosensors.

  11. Chitin/clay microspheres with hierarchical architecture for highly efficient removal of organic dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Rui; Mao, Jie; Peng, Na; Luo, Xiaogang; Chang, Chunyu

    2018-05-15

    Numerous adsorbents have been reported for efficient removal of dye from water, but the high cost raw materials and complicated fabrication process limit their practical applications. Herein, novel nanocomposite microspheres were fabricated from chitin and clay by a simple thermally induced sol-gel transition. Clay nanosheets were uniformly embedded in a nanofiber weaved chitin microsphere matrix, leading to their hierarchical architecture. Benefiting from this unique structure, microspheres could efficiently remove methylene blue (MB) through a spontaneous physic-sorption process which fit well with pseudo-second-order and Langmuir isotherm models. The maximal values of adsorption capability obtained by calculation and experiment were 152.2 and 156.7 mg g -1 , respectively. Chitin/clay microspheres (CCM2) could remove 99.99% MB from its aqueous solution (10 mg g -1 ) within 20 min. These findings provide insight into a new strategy for fabrication of dye adsorbents with hierarchical structure from low cost raw materials. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Ionothermal synthesis of hierarchical BiOBr microspheres for water treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Dieqing [The Education Ministry Key Lab of Resource Chemistry and Shanghai Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Functional Materials, Shanghai Normal University, 100 Guilin Road, Shanghai 200231 (China); Department of Chemistry and Institute of Environment, Energy and Sustainability, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong (China); Wen, Meicheng; Jiang, Bo; Li, Guisheng [The Education Ministry Key Lab of Resource Chemistry and Shanghai Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Functional Materials, Shanghai Normal University, 100 Guilin Road, Shanghai 200231 (China); Yu, Jimmy C., E-mail: jimyu@cuhk.edu.hk [Department of Chemistry and Institute of Environment, Energy and Sustainability, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong (China)

    2012-04-15

    Graphical abstract: Hierarchical BiOBr microspheres were prepared from a bromine-containing ionic liquid. The material was found effective for removing heavy metals, degrading organic pollutants and killing bacteria. Highlight: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ionothermal synthesis of BiOBr microspheres with hierarchical structure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Efficient mass transfer and excellent light-harvesting ability. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Suitable for removing heavy metals and treatment of organic dyes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Remarkable photocatalytic bactericidal property. - Abstract: Bismuth oxybromide (BiOBr) micropsheres with hierarchical morphologies have been fabricated via an ionothermal synthesis route. Ionic liquid acts as a unique soft material capable of promoting nucleation and in situ growth of 3D hierarchical BiOBr mesocrystals without the help of surfactants. The as-prepared BiOBr nanomaterials can effectively remove heavy metal ions and organic dyes from wastewater. They can also kill Micrococcus lylae, a Gram positive bacterium, in water under fluorescent light irradiation. Their high adaptability in water treatment may be ascribed to their hierarchical structure, allowing them high surface to volume ratio, facile species transportation and excellent light-harvesting ability.

  13. Ionothermal synthesis of hierarchical BiOBr microspheres for water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Dieqing; Wen, Meicheng; Jiang, Bo; Li, Guisheng; Yu, Jimmy C.

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Hierarchical BiOBr microspheres were prepared from a bromine-containing ionic liquid. The material was found effective for removing heavy metals, degrading organic pollutants and killing bacteria. Highlight: ► Ionothermal synthesis of BiOBr microspheres with hierarchical structure. ► Efficient mass transfer and excellent light-harvesting ability. ► Suitable for removing heavy metals and treatment of organic dyes. ► Remarkable photocatalytic bactericidal property. - Abstract: Bismuth oxybromide (BiOBr) micropsheres with hierarchical morphologies have been fabricated via an ionothermal synthesis route. Ionic liquid acts as a unique soft material capable of promoting nucleation and in situ growth of 3D hierarchical BiOBr mesocrystals without the help of surfactants. The as-prepared BiOBr nanomaterials can effectively remove heavy metal ions and organic dyes from wastewater. They can also kill Micrococcus lylae, a Gram positive bacterium, in water under fluorescent light irradiation. Their high adaptability in water treatment may be ascribed to their hierarchical structure, allowing them high surface to volume ratio, facile species transportation and excellent light-harvesting ability.

  14. Hierarchical ZnO microspheres built by sheet-like network: Large-scale synthesis and structurally enhanced catalytic performances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Guoxing; Liu Yuanjun; Ji Zhenyuan; Bai Song; Shen Xiaoping; Xu Zheng

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Hierarchical ZnO microspheres were prepared through a facile precursor procedure in the absence of self-assembled templates, organic additives, or matrices. ► The building blocks of microspheres, sheet-like ZnO networks, are porous mesocrystal terminated with (0 1 −1 0) crystal planes. ► The hierarchical ZnO microsphere catalyst exhibits structure-induced enhancement of catalytic performance and a strong durability. - Abstract: Large-scale novel hierarchical ZnO microspheres were fabricated by a facile precursor procedure in the absence of self-assembled templates, organic additives, or matrices. A field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) image reveals that the ZnO microspheres with diameter of 5–18 μm are built by sheet-like ZnO networks with average thickness of 40 nm and length of several microns. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) image indicates that the building blocks, sheet-like ZnO networks, are porous mesocrystal terminated with {0 1 −1 0} crystal planes. A potential application of the ZnO microspheres as a catalyst in the synthesis of 5-substituted 1H-tetrazoles was investigated. It was found that the hierarchical ZnO microsphere catalyst exhibits structure-induced enhancement of catalytic performance and a strong durability.

  15. Pt supported self-assembled nest-like-porous WO3 hierarchical microspheres as electrocatalyst for methanol oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jun; Tu, Jiang-ping; Du, Gao-hui; Dong, Zi-min; Su, Qing-mei; Xie, Dong; Wang, Xiu-li

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Nest-like-porous (NLP) WO 3 microspheres are assembled by a hydrothermal method. ► The NLP-WO 3 microspheres have a hexagonal structure and high porous surface. ► Great enhancement of electrochemical property is achieved for Pt/NLP-WO 3 microspheres. -- Abstract: Hexagonal tungsten trioxide (hex-WO 3 ) hierarchical microspheres with nest-like pores are synthesized by a facile hydrothermal method. The nest-like-porous (NLP) WO 3 hierarchical microspheres with 5–6 μm in diameters are self-assembled of single-crystal nanowires. The nanowires have lengths of several hundred nanometers and diameters of 5–30 nm; the long axis of nanowire is oriented toward 〈0 0 1〉 direction. The specific surface area of hex-WO 3 microspheres is 62 m 2 g −1 . 20 wt.% Pt nanoparticles with ∼7 nm are loaded onto the WO 3 microspheres using a conventional microwave-assisted ethylene glycol (EG) method. The electrocatalytic activity for methanol oxidation of Pt/NLP-WO 3 microspheres is investigated by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. Due to the large tunnels of hexagonal structure and high porous surface morphology, great enhancement of electrochemical performance is achieved. The Pt/NLP-WO 3 microspheres are demonstrated to be a promising anode material for direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC)

  16. Hierarchical synthesis of corrugated photocatalytic TiO{sub 2} microsphere architectures on natural pollen surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdogan, Deniz Altunoz; Ozensoy, Emrah, E-mail: ozensoy@fen.bilkent.edu.tr

    2017-05-01

    Highlights: • Biotemplate-based photocatalytic material was synthesized in the form of corrugated TiO{sub 2} microspheres. • Characterization of photocatalysts as a function of temperature. • Photocatalytic activities studied in the gas and solution phases. - Abstract: Biomaterials are challenging, yet vastly promising templates for engineering unusual inorganic materials with unprecedented surface and structural properties. In the current work, a novel biotemplate-based photocatalytic material was synthesized in the form of corrugated TiO{sub 2} microspheres by utilizing a sol-gel methodology where Ambrosia trifida (Ab, Giant ragweed) pollen was exploited as the initial biological support surface. Hierarchically synthesized TiO{sub 2} microspheres were structurally characterized in detail via SEM-EDX, Raman spectroscopy, XRD and BET techniques in order to shed light on the surface chemistry, crystal structure, chemical composition and morphology of these novel material architectures. Photocatalytic functionality of the synthesized materials was demonstrated both in gas phase as well as in liquid phase. Along these lines, air and water purification capabilities of the synthesized TiO{sub 2} microspheres were established by performing photocatalytic oxidative NOx(g) storage and Rhodamine B(aq) degradation experiments; respectively. The synthetic approach presented herein offers new opportunities to design and create sophisticated functional materials that can be used in micro reactor systems, adsorbents, drug delivery systems, catalytic processes, and sensor technologies.

  17. Fabrication of hierarchical porous ZnO-Al2O3 microspheres with enhanced adsorption performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Chunsheng; Pi, Meng; Xu, Difa; Jiang, Chuanjia; Cheng, Bei

    2017-12-01

    Hierarchical porous ZnO-Al2O3 microspheres were fabricated through a simple hydrothermal route. The as-prepared hierarchical porous ZnO-Al2O3 composites were utilized as adsorbents to remove organic dye Congo red (CR) from water. The ZnO-Al2O3 composites had morphology of microspheres with diameters in the range of 12-16 μm, which were assembled by nanosheets with thicknesses of approximately 60 nm. The adsorption kinetics of CR onto the ZnO-Al2O3 composites was properly fitted by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The equilibrium adsorption data were perfectly described by the Langmuir isotherm and had a maximum adsorption capacity that reached 397 mg/g, which was significantly higher than the value of the pure alumina (Al2O3) and zinc oxide (ZnO) samples. The superior CR removal efficiency of the ZnO-Al2O3 composites was attributed to its well-developed hierarchical porous structures and larger specific surface area (201 m2/g), which were conducive to the diffusion and adsorption of CR molecules. Moreover, the regeneration study reveals that the ZnO-Al2O3 composites have suitable stability and reusability. The results also indicate that the as-prepared sample can act as a highly effective adsorbent in anionic dye removal from wastewater.

  18. Uniform Cu2Cl(OH)3 hierarchical microspheres: A novel adsorbent for methylene blue adsorptive removal from aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Wei; Gao, Pin; Xie, Jimin; Zong, Sekai; Cui, Henglv; Yue, Xuejie

    2013-01-01

    Using the solution phase method without any surfactants or templates, the hierarchical of Cu 2 Cl(OH) 3 microspheres were synthesized by freeze drying. The size and surface area of the microspheres are ca. 1–2 µm and 76.61 m 2 g −1 , respectively. A possible formation mechanism is presented based on the experimental results. Methylene blue was chosen to investigate the adsorption capacity of the as-prepared adsorbent. The effects of various experimental parameters, such as pH, initial dye concentration, and contact time were investigated. The results showed that the dye removal increased with the increasing in the initial concentration of the dye and also increased in the amount of microspheres used and initial pH. Adsorption data fitted well with the Freundlich adsorption isotherm. The thermodynamic analysis presented the exothermic, spontaneous and more ordered arrangement process. The microspheres could be employed effective for removal of dyes from aqueous solution. - Graphical abstract: The single-crystalline hierarchical Cu 2 Cl(OH) 3 spheres can be prepared for the first time by using a template-free process through freeze-drying. Meanwhile, the hierarchical spheres exhibited high adsorption capacity to methylene blue. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Cu 2 Cl(OH) 3 microspheres were successfully synthesized through a freeze drying process. • A possible formation mechanism of hierarchical microspheres was presented. • The Cu 2 Cl(OH) 3 microspheres have high methylene blue adsorption capacity. • Methylene blue adsorption is a spontaneous and exothermic process. • The adsorption mechanism of microspheres onto dye was proposed in detail

  19. Facile Synthesis of Rambutan-Like ZnO Hierarchical Hollow Microspheres with Highly Photocatalytic Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke-Jian Ju

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rambutan-like ZnO hierarchical hollow microspheres (ZnO HHMs were constructed under hydrothermal conditions, using carboxyl methyl starch (CMS as a soft template. The resulting products were characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The experimental parameters and growth mechanism of rambutan-like ZnO HHMs were discussed in some detail. The as-prepared samples displayed improved photocatalytic activity for the degradation of rhodamine B under ultraviolet (UV irradiation.

  20. Visible-light photocatalytic activity of Ag2O coated Bi2WO6 hierarchical microspheres assembled by nanosheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Lin; Hua, Hao; Yang, Qi; Hu, Chenguo

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Bi 2 WO 6 hierarchical microspheres assembled by nanosheets and dispersed nanosheets are synthesized. • Ag 2 O/Bi 2 WO 6 heterostuctures exhibites an enhanced photocatalytic activity compared with the Bi 2 WO 6 nanostructures. • Photocatalytic activity of the Ag 2 O/Bi 2 WO 6 microspheres is higher than that of the nanosheets. • Bi 2 WO 6 hierarchical structure is an excellent architecture for loading of Ag 2 O nanoparticles. - Abstract: Bi 2 WO 6 hierarchical microspheres assembled by nanosheets and dispersed nanosheets were synthesized by hydrothermal reaction in different conditions. Ag 2 O nanoparticles were deposited on the surface of Bi 2 WO 6 microspheres and nanosheets by the chemical precipitation method. The photocatalytic performance of pure Bi 2 WO 6 nanostructures and Ag 2 O/Bi 2 WO 6 heterostructures were evaluated by the photocatalytic decolorization of RhB solution under visible-light irradiation. Compared with the pure Bi 2 WO 6 nanostructures, the Ag 2 O/Bi 2 WO 6 heterostructures exhibited an obviously enhanced photocatalytic activity. And photocatalytic activity of the Ag 2 O/Bi 2 WO 6 microspheres is higher than that of the Ag 2 O/Bi 2 WO 6 nanosheets. This work demonstrates that the Bi 2 WO 6 hierarchical three-dimensional structure is an excellent architecture for the loading of Ag 2 O nanoparticles to build a highly efficient photocatalyst

  1. Facile synthesis of hierarchical double-shell WO{sub 3} microspheres with enhanced photocatalytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhenfeng [College of Environment and Chemical Engineering, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300387 (China); State Key Laboratory of Hollow-Fiber Membrane Materials and Membrane Processes, Tianjin 300387 (China); Chu, Deqing, E-mail: dqingchu@163.com [College of Environment and Chemical Engineering, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300387 (China); State Key Laboratory of Hollow-Fiber Membrane Materials and Membrane Processes, Tianjin 300387 (China); Wang, Limin, E-mail: wanglimin@tjpu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300387 (China); State Key Laboratory of Hollow-Fiber Membrane Materials and Membrane Processes, Tianjin 300387 (China); Wang, Lipeng [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Hu, Wenhui; Chen, Xiangyu; Yang, Huifang [College of Environment and Chemical Engineering, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Sun, Jingjing [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300387 (China)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • HDS-WO{sub 3} were fabricated via mild process. • A possible growth mechanism for HDS-WO{sub 3} is proposed. • The excellent photocatalytic activity is attributed to the larger surface area of the HDS-WO{sub 3} nanostructures. - Abstract: Hierarchical double-shell WO{sub 3} microspheres (HDS-WO{sub 3}) have been successfully obtained through the thermal decomposition of WO{sub 3}·H{sub 2}O formed by metal salts as the templates. The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), and the morphology was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In addition, the HDS-WO{sub 3} microspheres were analyzed by the Thermogravimetric (TG) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis. The synthetic mechanism of the products with hierarchical structures was proposed. The obtained HDS-WO{sub 3} exhibits excellent photocatalytic efficiency (84.9%), which is much higher than other WO{sub 3} sample under visible light illumination.

  2. Pulp regeneration in a full-length human tooth root using a hierarchical nanofibrous microsphere system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiangwei; Ma, Chi; Xie, Xiaohua; Sun, Hongchen; Liu, Xiaohua

    2016-04-15

    While pulp regeneration using tissue engineering strategy has been explored for over a decade, successful regeneration of pulp tissues in a full-length human root with a one-end seal that truly simulates clinical endodontic treatment has not been achieved. To address this challenge, we designed and synthesized a unique hierarchical growth factor-loaded nanofibrous microsphere scaffolding system. In this system, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) binds with heparin and is encapsulated in heparin-conjugated gelatin nanospheres, which are further immobilized in the nanofibers of an injectable poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) microsphere. This hierarchical microsphere system not only protects the VEGF from denaturation and degradation, but also provides excellent control of its sustained release. In addition, the nanofibrous PLLA microsphere integrates the extracellular matrix-mimicking architecture with a highly porous injectable form, efficiently accommodating dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) and supporting their proliferation and pulp tissue formation. Our in vivo study showed the successful regeneration of pulp-like tissues that fulfilled the entire apical and middle thirds and reached the coronal third of the full-length root canal. In addition, a large number of blood vessels were regenerated throughout the canal. For the first time, our work demonstrates the success of pulp tissue regeneration in a full-length root canal, making it a significant step toward regenerative endodontics. The regeneration of pulp tissues in a full-length tooth root canal has been one of the greatest challenges in the field of regenerative endodontics, and one of the biggest barriers for its clinical application. In this study, we developed a unique approach to tackle this challenge, and for the first time, we successfully regenerated living pulp tissues in a full-length root canal, making it a significant step toward regenerative endodontics. This study will make positive scientific

  3. Hierarchical Mn₂O₃ Microspheres In-Situ Coated with Carbon for Supercapacitors with Highly Enhanced Performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Feilong; Lu, Shuang; Peng, Lifang; Zhou, Jing; Kong, Jinming; Jia, Dianzeng; Li, Feng

    2017-11-23

    Porous Mn₂O₃ microspheres have been synthesized and in-situ coated with amorphous carbon to form hierarchical C@Mn₂O₃ microspheres by first producing MnCO₃ microspheres in solvothermal reactions, and then annealing at 500 °C. The self-assembly growth of MnCO₃ microspheres can generate hollow structures inside each of the particles, which can act as micro-reservoirs to store biomass-glycerol for generating amorphous carbon onto the surfaces of Mn₂O₃ nanorods consisting of microspheres. The C@Mn₂O₃ microspheres, prepared at 500 °C, exhibit highly enhanced pseudocapacitive performances when compared to the particles after annealed at 400 °C and 600 °C. Specifically, the C@Mn₂O₃ microspheres prepared at 500 °C show high specific capacitances of 383.87 F g -1 at current density of 0.5 A g -1 , and excellent cycling stability of 90.47% of its initial value after cycling for 5000 times. The asymmetric supercapacitors assembled with C@Mn₂O₃ microspheres after annealed at 500 °C and activated carbon (AC) show an energy density of up to 77.8 Wh kg -1 at power density of 500.00 W kg -1 , and a maximum power density of 20.14 kW kg -1 at energy density of 46.8 Wh kg -1 . We can attribute the enhanced electrochemical performances of the materials to their three-dimensional (3D) hierarchical structure in-situ coated with carbon.

  4. Hierarchical Mn2O3 Microspheres In-Situ Coated with Carbon for Supercapacitors with Highly Enhanced Performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Feilong; Lu, Shuang; Peng, Lifang; Zhou, Jing; Kong, Jinming; Jia, Dianzeng; Li, Feng

    2017-01-01

    Porous Mn2O3 microspheres have been synthesized and in-situ coated with amorphous carbon to form hierarchical C@Mn2O3 microspheres by first producing MnCO3 microspheres in solvothermal reactions, and then annealing at 500 °C. The self-assembly growth of MnCO3 microspheres can generate hollow structures inside each of the particles, which can act as micro-reservoirs to store biomass-glycerol for generating amorphous carbon onto the surfaces of Mn2O3 nanorods consisting of microspheres. The C@Mn2O3 microspheres, prepared at 500 °C, exhibit highly enhanced pseudocapacitive performances when compared to the particles after annealed at 400 °C and 600 °C. Specifically, the C@Mn2O3 microspheres prepared at 500 °C show high specific capacitances of 383.87 F g−1 at current density of 0.5 A g−1, and excellent cycling stability of 90.47% of its initial value after cycling for 5000 times. The asymmetric supercapacitors assembled with C@Mn2O3 microspheres after annealed at 500 °C and activated carbon (AC) show an energy density of up to 77.8 Wh kg−1 at power density of 500.00 W kg−1, and a maximum power density of 20.14 kW kg−1 at energy density of 46.8 Wh kg−1. We can attribute the enhanced electrochemical performances of the materials to their three-dimensional (3D) hierarchical structure in-situ coated with carbon. PMID:29168756

  5. Hierarchical Mn2O3 Microspheres In-Situ Coated with Carbon for Supercapacitors with Highly Enhanced Performances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feilong Gong

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Porous Mn2O3 microspheres have been synthesized and in-situ coated with amorphous carbon to form hierarchical C@Mn2O3 microspheres by first producing MnCO3 microspheres in solvothermal reactions, and then annealing at 500 °C. The self-assembly growth of MnCO3 microspheres can generate hollow structures inside each of the particles, which can act as micro-reservoirs to store biomass-glycerol for generating amorphous carbon onto the surfaces of Mn2O3 nanorods consisting of microspheres. The C@Mn2O3 microspheres, prepared at 500 °C, exhibit highly enhanced pseudocapacitive performances when compared to the particles after annealed at 400 °C and 600 °C. Specifically, the C@Mn2O3 microspheres prepared at 500 °C show high specific capacitances of 383.87 F g−1 at current density of 0.5 A g−1, and excellent cycling stability of 90.47% of its initial value after cycling for 5000 times. The asymmetric supercapacitors assembled with C@Mn2O3 microspheres after annealed at 500 °C and activated carbon (AC show an energy density of up to 77.8 Wh kg−1 at power density of 500.00 W kg−1, and a maximum power density of 20.14 kW kg−1 at energy density of 46.8 Wh kg−1. We can attribute the enhanced electrochemical performances of the materials to their three-dimensional (3D hierarchical structure in-situ coated with carbon.

  6. TiO_2 hierarchical hollow microspheres with different size for application as anodes in high-performance lithium storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xiaobing; Meng, Qiuxia; Wang, Yuanyuan; Liang, Huijun; Bai, Zhengyu; Wang, Kui; Lou, Xiangdong; Cai, Bibo; Yang, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: In the application of lithium-ion batteries, the influences of microsphere sizes are more significant than the secondary nanoparticles size and crystallinity of TiO_2-HSs for their transfer resistance and cycling performance, so that the bigger sizes of TiO_2-HSs can retain high reversible capacities after 30 recycles. - Highlights: • Hierarchical hollow microspheres have size-effect in the application of lithium ion battery. • The microsphere sizes can significantly affect the cycling capacities of TiO_2. • The nanoparticles size affect the initial discharge capacity and lithium ion diffusion. • Controlled microsphere size is more significant for improving TiO_2 cycling capacities. - Abstract: Nowadays, the safety issue has greatly hindered the development of large capacity lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), especially in electric vehicles applications. TiO_2 is a kind of potential anode candidate for improving the safety of LIBs. However, it still needs to understand how to improve the performance of TiO_2 anode in the practical applications. Herein, we design a contrast experiment by using three sizes of TiO_2 hierarchical hollow microspheres (TiO_2-HSs). The research results indicated that the cycling performance of TiO_2-HSs anode can be affected by the size of microspheres, and the nanoparticles size of microspheres and crystallinity of TiO_2 can affect their initial discharge capacity and lithium ion diffusion. And, the influence of microspheres size is more significant. This may provide a new strategy for improving the lithium-ion storage property of TiO_2 anode material in the practical applications.

  7. Alkali-corrosion synthesis and excellent DSSC performance of novel jujube-like hierarchical TiO2 microspheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jiajia; Li, Po; Wen, Xiaogang

    2018-04-01

    Novel jujube-like hierarchical TiO2 microspheres (HTMs) were synthesized by an alkali-corrosion process of titanium phosphate (Ti2O3(H2PO4)2 · 2H2O) microspheres. The hierarchical titanium phosphate microsphere (HTPM) intermediates consisting of nanoflakes with a thickness of 20 nm were firstly prepared by a facile hydrothermal method. After reacting with diluted NaOH at low temperature and atmospheric pressure, followed by subsequent acid washing and a calcination process, the HTPM intermediates were transformed to TiO2 with the microsphere morphology well retained, while the nanoflakes became porous, and some new nanowires were formed between the nanoflakes. Finally, HTMs consisting of porous nanoflakes and nanowires were obtained. The possible growth mechanisms of HTPMs and HTMs are discussed. The HTMs demonstrate high specific surface area and excellent light-scattering ability. The performance of the dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) of the HTMs synthesized under different conditions is studied, and a total conversion efficiency of up to 8.93% was obtained. The improved DSSC performance was attributed to the enhanced dye loading, light-scattering, and charge transporting ability of the HTMs with a unique hierarchical nanostructure.

  8. Novel hollow microspheres of hierarchical zinc-aluminum layered double hydroxides and their enhanced adsorption capacity for phosphate in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Jiabin; Yang, Siliang; Yu, Jiaguo; Shu, Zhan

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Hierarchical Zn-Al LDHs hollow microspheres were first synthesized by a simple hydrothermal method using urea as precipitating agent. → The morphology of Zn-Al LDHs can be tailored from irregular platelet to hollow microspheres by simply varying concentrations of urea. → The as-prepared samples exhibit high adsorption capacity (54.1-232 mg/g) for phosphate from aqueous solution. - Abstract: Hollow microspheres of hierarchical Zn-Al layered double hydroxides (LDHs) were synthesized by a simple hydrothermal method using urea as precipitating agent. The morphology and microstructure of the as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms and fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. It was found that the morphology of hierarchical Zn-Al LDHs can be tuned from irregular platelets to hollow microspheres by simply varying concentrations of urea. The effects of initial phosphate concentration and contact time on phosphate adsorption using various Zn-Al LDHs and their calcined products (LDOs) were investigated from batch tests. Our results indicate that the equilibrium adsorption data were best fitted by Langmuir isothermal model, with the maximum adsorption capacity of 54.1-232 mg/g; adsorption kinetics follows the pseudo-second-order kinetic equation and intra-particle diffusion model. In addition, Zn-Al LDOs are shown to be effective adsorbents for removing phosphate from aqueous solutions due to their hierarchical porous structures and high specific surface areas.

  9. Controlled Synthesis of Hierarchically Assembled Porous ZnO Microspheres with Enhanced Gas-Sensing Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengsheng You

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The ZnO microspheres constructed by porous nanosheets were successfully synthesized by calcinating zinc hydroxide carbonate (ZHC microspheres obtained by a sample hydrothermal method. The samples were characterized in detail with scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, and thermogravimetric and differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC. The results indicated that the prepared ZnO microspheres were well crystalline with wurtzite hexagonal phase. The effects of reaction time, temperature, the amount of trisodium citrate, and urea on the morphology of ZnO microspheres were studied. The formation mechanism of porous ZnO microspheres was discussed. Furthermore, the gas-sensing properties for detection of organic gas of the prepared porous ZnO microspheres were investigated. The results indicated that the prepared porous ZnO microspheres exhibited high gas-sensing properties for detection of ethanol gas.

  10. Polymerization of Alkylsilanes on ZIF-8 to Hierarchical Siloxane Microspheres and Microflowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Yang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs in the polymerization field remains comparatively rare up to now, let alone studies on the fabrication of polymer microstructures through a MOFs-catalyzed assembly process. Zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8, a well-known MOF for its chemical and thermal stabilities, was used to induce a polymerization reaction of saturated alkylsilanes for the first time. The reaction temperature was found to be critical for morphology control of the polymerized ZIF-siloxane composites. The polymerization of alkylsilanes by ZIF-8 at room temperature resulted in siloxane microspheres while rose petal-like microstructures were obtained at higher temperature. The effects of the reaction time on the structures of the polymerization products were also investigated and the polymerization reaction process was proposed. This work expands the field of MOFs’ applications and develops a reasonable method for the multidimensional assembly of MOFs building blocks into required structures or platforms for designing new kinds of hierarchical morphologies, which to our knowledge has not been previously investigated.

  11. Hierarchical NiO-SiO2 composite hollow microspheres with enhanced adsorption affinity towards Congo red in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Chunsheng; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Zhu, Bicheng; Yu, Jiaguo; Ho, Wingkei

    2016-03-15

    Hollow microspheres and hierarchical porous nanostructured materials with desired morphologies have gained remarkable attention for their potential applications in environmental technology. In this study, NiO-SiO2 hollow microspheres were prepared by co-precipitation with SiO2 and nickel salt as precursors, followed by dipping in alkaline solution and calcination. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, nitrogen adsorption, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The synthesized hollow spheres were composed of a SiO2 shell and hierarchical porous NiO nanosheets on the surface. Adsorption experiments suggested that NiO-SiO2 composite particles were powerful adsorbents for removal of Congo red from water, with a maximum adsorption capacity of 204.1 mg/g. The high specific surface areas, hollow structures, and hierarchical porous surfaces of the hollow composite particles are suitable for various applications, including adsorption of pollutants, chemical separation, and water purification. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Electrospray synthesis and properties of hierarchically structured PLGA TIPS microspheres for use as controlled release technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Salman A; Ng, Wing H; Bowen, James; Tang, Justin; Gomez, Alessandro; Kenyon, Anthony J; Day, Richard M

    2016-04-01

    Microsphere-based controlled release technologies have been utilized for the long-term delivery of proteins, peptides and antibiotics, although their synthesis poses substantial challenges owing to formulation complexities, lack of scalability, and cost. To address these shortcomings, we used the electrospray process as a reproducible, synthesis technique to manufacture highly porous (>94%) microspheres while maintaining control over particle structure and size. Here we report a successful formulation recipe used to generate spherical poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) microspheres using the electrospray (ES) coupled with a novel thermally induced phase separation (TIPS) process with a tailored Liquid Nitrogen (LN2) collection scheme. We show how size, shape and porosity of resulting microspheres can be controlled by judiciously varying electrospray processing parameters and we demonstrate examples in which the particle size (and porosity) affect release kinetics. The effect of electrospray treatment on the particles and their physicochemical properties are characterized by scanning electron microscopy, confocal Raman microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and mercury intrusion porosimetry. The microspheres manufactured here have successfully demonstrated long-term delivery (i.e. 1week) of an active agent, enabling sustained release of a dye with minimal physical degradation and have verified the potential of scalable electrospray technologies for an innovative TIPS-based microsphere production protocol. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Synthesis and adsorption properties of hierarchical Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@MgAl-LDH magnetic microspheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Xiaoge; Li, Bo; Wen, Xiaogang, E-mail: wenxg@scu.edu.cn [Sichuan University, School of Materials Science and Engineering (China)

    2017-04-15

    In this study, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} microspheres were prepared by a hydrothermal method, and then the synthesized Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} microspheres were used as template to prepare Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@MgAl-LDH composite microspheres by a coprecipitation process. Morphology, composition, and crystal structure of synthesized nanomaterials were characterized by X-ray powder diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy technologies. The composite hierarchical microspheres are composed of inner Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} core and outer MgAl-LDH-nanoflake layer, and the average thickness of MgAl-LDH-nanoflake is about 70 nm. The adsorption property of the products toward congo red was also measured using UV–vis spectrometer. The result demonstrated that the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@MgAl-LDH composite adsorbent could remove 99.8% congo red in 30 min, and the maximum adsorption capacity is about 404.6 mg/g, while congo red removal rate of pure MgAl-LDH and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} are only 86.3 and 53.1% in 40 min, respectively, and their adsorption capacity are 345.72 and 220.56 mg/g, respectively. It indicates the composite Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@ MgAl-LDH nanomaterials have better adsorption performance than pure Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and MgAl-LDH nanomaterials. In addition, the magnetic nanocomposites could be separated easily, and it demonstrated good cycle performance.

  14. Hierarchical porous microspheres of the Co3O4@graphene with enhanced electrocatalytic performance for electrochemical biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, MinHo; Jeong, Jae-Min; Lee, Kyoung G; Kim, Do Hyun; Lee, Seok Jae; Choi, Bong Gill

    2017-03-15

    The integration of organic and inorganic building blocks into hierarchical porous architectures makes potentially desirable electrocatalytic materials in many electrochemical applications due to their combination of attractive qualities of dissimilar components and well-constructed charge transfer pathways. Herein, we demonstrate the preparation of the hierarchical porous Co 3 O 4 @graphene (Co 3 O 4 @G) microspheres by one-step hydrothermal method to achieve high electrocatalytic performance for enzyme-free biosensor applications. The obtained Co 3 O 4 @G microspheres are consisted of the interconnected networks of Co 3 O 4 and graphene sheets, and thus provide large accessible active sites through porous structure, while graphene sheets offer continuous electron pathways for efficient electrocatalytic reaction of Co 3 O 4 . These structural merits with synergy effect of Co 3 O 4 and graphene lead to a high performance of enzyme-free detection for glucose: high sensitivity, good selectivity, and remarkable stability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Facile synthesis of TiO2 hierarchical microspheres assembled by ultrathin nanosheets for dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Fang; Zhang, Xuyan; Wu, Yao; Wu, Dapeng; Gao, Zhiyong; Jiang, Kai

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •TiO 2 hierarchical spheres were prepared via one-pot solvothermal route. •TiO 2 hierarchical spheres based DSSCs shows a conversion efficiency of 5.56%. •The performance of DSSC is dependence of the thickness of photoanode. -- Abstract: TiO 2 hierarchical microspheres assembled by ultrathin nanosheets were prepared via solvothermal route for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The performance of cells was investigated by diffuse and reflectance spectra, photocurrent–voltage measurement, incident-photon-to-current conversion efficiency and electrochemical impedance spectra. Photoanodes with different thickness of TiO 2 hierarchical spheres were studied, which proves that the photoanode with thickness of 15.9 μm exhibits higher performance (short-circuit current density of 12.36 mA cm −2 , open-circuit voltage of 0.73 mV, fill factor of 61.95, and conversion efficiency of 5.56%) than that of P25-based DSSC due to the excellent particle interconnections, low electron recombination and high specific surface area (78 m 2 g −1 )

  16. Mo-doped V2O5 hierarchical nanorod/nanoparticle core/shell porous microspheres with improved performance for cathode of lithium-ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haolin; Zeng, Jianyun; Hao, Wen; Zhou, Peng; Wen, Xiaogang

    2018-05-01

    Mo-doped V2O5 hierarchical nanorod/nanoparticle core/shell porous microspheres (MVHPMs) were prepared via a simple hydrothermal approach using ammonium metavanadate and ammonium molybdate as precursors followed by a thermal annealing process. The samples were characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM, EDS, and XPS carefully; it confirmed that porous microspheres with uniform Mo doping in the V2O5 matrix were obtained, and it contains an inner core self-assembled with 1D nanorods and outer shell consisting of nanoparticles. A plausible growth mechanism of Mo-doped V2O5 (Mo-V2O5) porous microspheres is suggested. The unique microstructure made the Mo-V2O5 hierarchical microspheres a good cathode material for Li-ion battery. The results indicate the synthesized Mo-V2O5 hierarchical microspheres exhibit well-improved electrochemical performance compared to the undoped samples. It delivers a high initial reversible capacity of 282 mAh g-1 at 0.2 C, 208 mAh g-1 at 2 C, and 111 mAh g-1 at 10 C, and it also exhibits good cycling stabilities; a capacity of 144 mAh g-1 is obtained after 200 cycles at 6 C with a capacity retention of > 82%, which is much high than that of pure V2O5 (95 mAh g-1 with a capacity retention of 72%). [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  17. Adsorptive removal of an anionic dye Congo red by flower-like hierarchical magnesium oxide (MgO)-graphene oxide composite microspheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Xu, Difa; Zhu, Bicheng; Cheng, Bei; Jiang, Chuanjia

    2018-03-01

    Flower-like magnesium oxide (MgO) microspheres and MgO-graphene oxide (GO) composites with an average diameter of 500 nm and hierarchical structure were synthesized through an ethylene glycol-mediated self-assembly process. The adsorption of Congo red (CR) by the prepared samples was evaluated in water under ambient conditions. The equilibrium adsorption isotherms of CR on the as-prepared samples could be described by the Langmuir model. The MgO-GO microspheres prepared with 0.5 wt% GO showed higher adsorption capacity (237.0 mg/g) than the MgO microspheres (227.7 mg/g). Adsorption kinetics results of CR indicated that pseudo-second-order kinetic equation could well explain the adsorption kinetics behaviors of CR. These findings indicate that the MgO-GO composite microspheres are potential adsorbents for effective removal of Congo red from wastewater.

  18. Hydrothermal synthesis of 3D hierarchical flower-like MoSe{sub 2} microspheres and their adsorption performances for methyl orange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Hua, E-mail: tanghua@mail.ujs.edu.cn; Huang, Hong; Wang, Xiaoshuai; Wu, Kongqiang; Tang, Guogang; Li, Changsheng

    2016-08-30

    Highlights: • 3D hierarchical flower-like MoSe{sub 2} microspheres have been fabricated via a hydrothermal method. • A possible evolution process of 3D hierarchical flower-like MoSe{sub 2} microspheres was discussed. • Flower-like MoSe{sub 2} microspheres exhibit excellent adsorption properties for dye methyl orange removal from aqueous solution. - Abstract: In this paper, we report a facile and versatile modified hydrothermal method for synthesis of three-dimensional (3D) hierarchical flower-like MoSe{sub 2} microspheres using selenium powders and sodium molybdate as raw materials. The as-prepared MoSe{sub 2} was investigated for application as an adsorbent for the removal of dye contaminants from water. Power X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscope (XPS) and N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption analysis were carried out to study the microstructure of the as-synthesized product. A possible growth mechanism of MoSe{sub 2} flower-like microspheres was preliminarily proposed on the basis of observation of a time-dependent morphology evolution process. Moreover, the MoSe{sub 2} sample exhibited good adsorption properties, with maximum adsorption capacity of 36.91 mg/g for methyl orange. The adsorption process of methyl orange on 3D hierarchical flower-like MoSe{sub 2} microspheres was systematically investigated, which was found to obey the pseudo-second-order rate equation and Langmuir adsorption model.

  19. Hierarchical assembly of urchin-like alpha-iron oxide hollow microspheres and molybdenum disulphide nanosheets for ethanol gas sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongzhi; Fan, Xin; Yang, Aijun; Zong, Xiaoqi

    2018-08-01

    In this paper, we fabricated a high-performance ethanol sensor using layer-by-layer self-assembled urchin-like alpha-iron oxide (α-Fe 2 O 3 ) hollow microspheres/molybdenum disulphide (MoS 2 ) nanosheets heterostructure as sensitive materials. The nanostructural, morphological, and compositional properties of the as-prepared α-Fe 2 O 3 /MoS 2 heterostructure were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), which confirmed its successful preparation and rationality. The α-Fe 2 O 3 /MoS 2 nanocomposite sensor shows good selectivity, excellent reproducibility, fast response/recovery time and low detection limit towards ethanol gas at room temperature, which is superior to the single component of α-Fe 2 O 3 hollow microspheres and MoS 2 nanosheets. Furthermore, the response of the α-Fe 2 O 3 /MoS 2 nanocomposite sensor as a function of ethanol gas concentration was also demonstrated. The enhanced ethanol sensing properties of the α-Fe 2 O 3 /MoS 2 nanocomposite sensor were ascribed to the synergistic effect and heterojunction between the urchin-Like α-Fe 2 O 3 hollow microspheres and MoS 2 nanosheets. This work verifies that the hierarchical α-Fe 2 O 3 /MoS 2 nanoheterostructure is a potential candidate for fabricating room-temperature ethanol gas sensor. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Fluorine- and iron-modified hierarchical anatase microsphere photocatalyst for water cleaning: facile wet chemical synthesis and wavelength-sensitive photocatalytic reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shaohong; Sun, Xudong; Li, Ji-Guang; Li, Xiaodong; Xiu, Zhimeng; Yang, He; Xue, Xiangxin

    2010-03-16

    High photocatalytic efficiency, easy recovery, and no biological toxicity are three key properties related to the practical application of anatase photocatalyst in water cleaning, but seem to be incompatible. Nanoparticles-constructed hierarchical anatase microspheres with high crystallinity and good dispersion prepared in this study via one-step solution processing at 90 degrees C under atmospheric pressure by using ammonium fluotitanate as the titanium source and urea as the precipitant can reconcile these three requirements. The hierarchical microspheres were found to grow via an aggregative mechanism, and contact recrystallization occurred at high additions of the FeCl(3) electrolyte into the reaction system. Simultaneous incorporation of fluorine and iron into the TiO(2) matrix was confirmed by combined analysis of X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. Surface structure and morphology changes of the microspheres induced by high-temperature annealing were clearly observed by field-emission scanning electron microscopy, especially for the phase-transformed particles. The original nanoparticles-constructed rough surfaces partially became smooth, resulting in a sharp drop in photocatalytic efficiency. Interestingly, iron loading has detrimental effects on the visible-light photocatalytic activity of both the as-prepared and the postannealed anatase microspheres but greatly enhances the photocatalytic activity of the as-prepared anatase microspheres under UV irradiation. No matter under UV or visible-light irradiation, the fluorine-loaded anatase microspheres and especially the postannealed ones show excellent photocatalytic performance. The underlying mechanism of fluorine and iron loading on the photocatalytic efficacy of the anatase microspheres was discussed in detail. Beyond photocatalytic applications, this kind of material is of great importance to the assembling of

  1. Hierarchical porous ZnMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} microspheres architectured with sub-nanoparticles as a high performance anode for lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rong, Haibo; Xie, Guiting; Cheng, Si; Zhen, Zihao [New Energy Research Institute, College of Environment and Energy, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006, Guangdong (China); Jiang, Zhongqing [Department of Chemical Engineering, Ningbo University of Technology, Ningbo 315016, Zhejiang (China); Huang, Jianlin; Jiang, Yu; Chen, Bohong [New Energy Research Institute, College of Environment and Energy, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006, Guangdong (China); Jiang, Zhong-Jie, E-mail: zhongjiejiang1978@hotmail.com [New Energy Research Institute, College of Environment and Energy, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006, Guangdong (China)

    2016-09-15

    A simple two-step procedure, which involves the synthesis of the Zn{sub 0.33}Mn{sub 0.67}CO{sub 3} microspheres through a hydrothermal process and the subsequent calcination, has been used to synthesize the ZnMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} microspheres with a hierarchical porous morphology consisting of the ZnMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} sub-nanoparticles. When evaluated as anode materials for lithium ion batteries (LIBs), these hierarchical porous ZnMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} microspheres could exhibit a stable reversible capability of ∼723.7 mAh g{sup −1} at the current density of 400 mA g{sup −1}, which is much higher than those of the ZnMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} based materials reported previously, indicating the great potential of using them as the anode for the LIBs. This is further supported by their better rate capability and higher cycling stability. Careful analysis has shown that the unique porous structure of the hierarchical porous ZnMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} microspheres which consists of the ZnMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} sub-nanoparticles plays an important role in their higher electrochemical performance, since it allows the accommodation of the volume expansion during the repeated discharge–charge cycles, preventing them from the structural destruction, and increase the accessibility of the electrode material to the Li{sup +} storage, making a better utilization of active materials and an easy diffusion of electrolytes in and out of the electrode material. - Graphical abstract: The ZnMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} microspheres with a hierarchical porous morphology consisting of the ZnMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} sub-nanoparticles have been synthesized by the calcination of the Zn{sub 0.33}Mn{sub 0.67}CO{sub 3} microspheres and could exhibit superior electrochemical performance when used as anode materials for lithium ion batteries. - Highlights: • A simple procedure has been used to synthesize the ZnMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} microspheres. • The ZnMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} microspheres exhibit excellent performance when used in LIBs

  2. Hierarchical porous ZnMn_2O_4 microspheres architectured with sub-nanoparticles as a high performance anode for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rong, Haibo; Xie, Guiting; Cheng, Si; Zhen, Zihao; Jiang, Zhongqing; Huang, Jianlin; Jiang, Yu; Chen, Bohong; Jiang, Zhong-Jie

    2016-01-01

    A simple two-step procedure, which involves the synthesis of the Zn_0_._3_3Mn_0_._6_7CO_3 microspheres through a hydrothermal process and the subsequent calcination, has been used to synthesize the ZnMn_2O_4 microspheres with a hierarchical porous morphology consisting of the ZnMn_2O_4 sub-nanoparticles. When evaluated as anode materials for lithium ion batteries (LIBs), these hierarchical porous ZnMn_2O_4 microspheres could exhibit a stable reversible capability of ∼723.7 mAh g"−"1 at the current density of 400 mA g"−"1, which is much higher than those of the ZnMn_2O_4 based materials reported previously, indicating the great potential of using them as the anode for the LIBs. This is further supported by their better rate capability and higher cycling stability. Careful analysis has shown that the unique porous structure of the hierarchical porous ZnMn_2O_4 microspheres which consists of the ZnMn_2O_4 sub-nanoparticles plays an important role in their higher electrochemical performance, since it allows the accommodation of the volume expansion during the repeated discharge–charge cycles, preventing them from the structural destruction, and increase the accessibility of the electrode material to the Li"+ storage, making a better utilization of active materials and an easy diffusion of electrolytes in and out of the electrode material. - Graphical abstract: The ZnMn_2O_4 microspheres with a hierarchical porous morphology consisting of the ZnMn_2O_4 sub-nanoparticles have been synthesized by the calcination of the Zn_0_._3_3Mn_0_._6_7CO_3 microspheres and could exhibit superior electrochemical performance when used as anode materials for lithium ion batteries. - Highlights: • A simple procedure has been used to synthesize the ZnMn_2O_4 microspheres. • The ZnMn_2O_4 microspheres exhibit excellent performance when used in LIBs. • The porous structure plays a crucial role in their high performance. • These spheres exhibit a good morphology retention

  3. Direct large-scale synthesis of 3D hierarchical mesoporous NiO microspheres as high-performance anode materials for lithium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    bai, Zhongchao; Ju, Zhicheng; Guo, Chunli; Qian, Yitai; Tang, Bin; Xiong, Shenglin

    2014-03-21

    Hierarchically porous materials are an ideal material platform for constructing high performance Li-ion batteries (LIBs), offering great advantages such as large contact area between the electrode and the electrolyte, fast and flexible transport pathways for the electrolyte ions and the space for buffering the strain caused by repeated Li insertion/extraction. In this work, NiO microspheres with hierarchically porous structures have been synthesized via a facile thermal decomposition method by only using a simple precursor. The superstructures are composed of nanocrystals with high specific surface area, large pore volume, and broad pore size distribution. The electrochemical properties of 3D hierarchical mesoporous NiO microspheres were examined by cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge-discharge studies. The results demonstrate that the as-prepared NiO nanospheres are excellent electrode materials in LIBs with high specific capacity, good retention and rate performance. The 3D hierarchical mesoporous NiO microspheres can retain a reversible capacity of 800.2 mA h g(-1) after 100 cycles at a high current density of 500 mA g(-1).

  4. Hierarchical, porous CuS microspheres integrated with carbon nanotubes for high-performance supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yang; Liu, Xianming; Wang, Weixiao; Cheng, Jinbing; Yan, Hailong; Tang, Chengchun; Kim, Jang-Kyo; Luo, Yongsong

    2015-11-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) incorporated porous 3-dimensional (3D) CuS microspheres have been successfully synthesized via a simple refluxing method assisted by PVP. The composites are composed of flower-shaped CuS secondary microspheres, which in turn are assembled with primary nanosheets of 15-30 nm in thickness and fully integrated with CNT. The composites possess a large specific surface area of 189.6 m2 g-1 and a high conductivity of 0.471 S cm-1. As electrode materials for supercapacitors, the nanocomposites show excellent cyclability and rate capability and deliver an average reversible capacitance as high as 1960 F g-1 at a current density of 10 mA cm-2 over 10000 cycles. The high electrochemical performance can be attributed to the synergistic effect of CNTs and the unique microstructure of CuS. The CNTs serve as not only a conductive agent to accelerate the transfer of electrons in the composites, but also as a buffer matrix to restrain the volume change and stabilize the electrode structure during the charge/discharge process. The porous structure of CuS also helps to stabilize the electrode structure and facilitates the transport for electrons.

  5. Visible-light photocatalytic activity of graphene oxide-wrapped Bi2WO6 hierarchical microspheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Jiali; Yu, Hongwen; Li, Haiyan; Sun, Lei; Zhang, Kexin; Yang, Hongjun

    2015-07-01

    A facile approach of fabricating homogeneous graphene oxide (GO)-wrapped Bi2WO6 microspheres (GO/Bi2WO6) is developed. The transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results show that a heterojunction interface between GO and Bi2WO6. The UV-vis diffuse reflection spectra (DRS) reveal that the as-prepared GO/Bi2WO6 composites own more intensive absorption in the visible light range compared with pure Bi2WO6. These characteristic structural and optical properties endow GO/Bi2WO6 composites with enhanced photocatalytic activity. The enhanced photocatalytic activity of the GO/Bi2WO6 is attributed predominantly to the synergetic effect between GO and Bi2WO6, causing rapid generation and separation of photo-generated charge carriers.

  6. Structural, optical, and magnetic studies of manganese-doped zinc oxide hierarchical microspheres by self-assembly of nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Yao-Ming; Lou, Shi-Yun; Zhou, Shao-Min; Yuan, Rui-Jian; Zhu, Gong-Yu; Li, Ning

    2012-02-02

    In this study, a series of manganese [Mn]-doped zinc oxide [ZnO] hierarchical microspheres [HMSs] are prepared by hydrothermal method only using zinc acetate and manganese acetate as precursors and ethylene glycol as solvent. X-ray diffraction indicates that all of the as-obtained samples including the highest Mn (7 mol%) in the crystal lattice of ZnO have a pure phase (hexagonal wurtzite structure). A broad Raman spectrum from as-synthesized doping samples ranges from 500 to 600 cm-1, revealing the successful doping of paramagnetic Mn2+ ions in the host ZnO. Optical absorption analysis of the samples exhibits a blueshift in the absorption band edge with increasing dopant concentration, and corresponding photoluminescence spectra show that Mn doping suppresses both near-band edge UV emission and defect-related blue emission. In particular, magnetic measurements confirm robust room-temperature ferromagnetic behavior with a high Curie temperature exceeding 400 K, signifying that the as-formed Mn-doped ZnO HMSs will have immense potential in spintronic devices and spin-based electronic technologies.

  7. Facile growth and composition-dependent photocatalytic activity of flowerlike BiOCl{sub 1−x}Br{sub x} hierarchical microspheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, Qin; Guo, Yingna [School of Chemistry, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024 (China); Zhou, Dandan; Yang, Yuxin [School of Environment, Northeast Normal University, Changchun, 130117 (China); Guo, Yihang, E-mail: guoyh@nenu.edu.cn [School of Environment, Northeast Normal University, Changchun, 130117 (China)

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: • Flowerlike BiOCl{sub 1−x}Br{sub x} hierarchical microspheres were prepared by solvothermal route. • BiOCl{sub 1−x}Br{sub x} microspheres exhibited composition-dependent photocatalytic activity. • Band gap and potential of valence band dominated the photoactivity of BiOCl{sub 1−x}Br{sub x}. • BiOCl{sub 1−x}Br{sub x} microspheres can be reused at least four times without obvious activity loss. - Abstract: A group of nanosheet-assembled three-dimensional BiOCl{sub 1−x}Br{sub x} hierarchical microspheres (x = 0, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.7, 0.8 and 1.0) with layered tetragonal crystal phase were prepared by 2-methoxyethanol-assisted solvothermal route and using ionic liquids as both halogen sources and structure-directing agent. By the combination of the results including XRD, XPS and UV–vis/DR spectra, lattice substitution of halogen atoms each other and then formation of BiOCl{sub 1−x}Br{sub x} solid solution was evidenced. Additionally, the BiOCl{sub 1−x}Br{sub x} microspheres exhibited interesting composition-dependent band gaps. The simulated sunlight and visible-light photocatalytic properties including degradation, mineralization and reusability of the BiOCl{sub 1−x}Br{sub x} microspheres were evaluated by selecting p-nitrophenol (PNP) and tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBPA) as the target pollutant compounds, finding that the balance between the suitable band gap and adequate potential of the valence band in BiOCl{sub 1−x}Br{sub x} crystals dominated their photocatalytic activity. Additionally, the BiOCl{sub 1−x}Br{sub x} microspheres with advantages such as enhanced photon utilization efficiency, larger BET surface area and favorable (110) exposed reactive surface gave the positive influence on their photocatalytic activity. Based on the results of photoelectrochemistry experiment and indirect chemical probe testing, direct {sup •} O{sub 2}{sup −} and h{sub VB}{sup +} photooxidation for the decomposition of PNP or TBBPA was

  8. Synthesis of CdS flower-like hierarchical microspheres as electrode material for electrochemical performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaviyarasu, K.; Manikandan, E.; Maaza, M.

    2015-01-01

    We report in this paper, a facile hydrothermal route for the preparation of CdS nanocrystals at room temperature (RT). Composition, structure and morphology of the products were analyzed and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirms that the hydrothermal treatment at 180 °C for periods ranging from 0 to 1440 min caused no significant modification of the long range order structure subjected to hydrothermal treatment. From the XRD analysis the diffraction peaks pertaining to 26.75°, 43.89° and 52.34° are attributed to the (111), (220) and (311) planes of cubic zinc blende structure. The Photoluminescence (PL) spectra are dominated by a strong narrow band edge emission tunable in the blue region of the visible spectra indicating the narrow size distribution of CdS nanocrystals. TEM observation shows that the CdS nanocrystals synthesized by hydrothermal synthesis are well dispersed and the average crystallite size was found to be ∼10 nm. The confocal microscopic studies reveal that each flower like spheres is due to Ostwald's ripening with numerous nanoparticles aggregating a surface. - Highlights: • The adjacent particle coalesces together forming spherical particles. • The average crystalline size of CdS nanoparticles was found to be ∼3 nm. • In the case of spherical crystallite, is given by L = 3/4 D. • The CdS nanocrystal exhibits a direct band gap of 2.4 eV. • The microspheres are dispersed with good monodispersity

  9. Hierarchical nanosheet-based Ni3S2 microspheres grown on Ni foam for high-performance all-solid-state asymmetric supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gaofeng; Cong, Yuan; Zhang, Chuanxiang; Tao, Haijun; Sun, Yueming; Wang, Yuqiao

    2017-10-01

    The hierarchical nanosheet-based Ni3S2 microspheres directly grew on Ni foam using a two-step hydrothermal method. The microsphere with a diameter of ˜1 microns and a rough surface was well connected to each other without any binders to provide a larger specific surface area, shorter ion/electron diffusion paths, richer electroactive sites as a supercapacitor electrode. As a three-electrode supercapacitor, it delivers a high specific capacity of 981.8 F g-1 at 2 A g-1, an excellent rate capability of 436.4 F g-1 at 12 A g-1, and a good cycling stability of 950.9 F g-1 with 96.9% retention after 1000 cycles at 2 A g-1. Furthermore, an asymmetric supercapacitor based on Ni3S2-microsphere as a positive electrode and active carbon as a negative electrode shows a high energy density of 29.4 Wh kg-1 at 324.5 W kg-1 and a high power density of 3197.6 W kg-1 at 15.1 Wh kg-1. This work demonstrates that nanosheet-based Ni3S2 microspheres coated Ni foam can be an effective electrode for a real supercapacitor.

  10. Hierarchical carbon-coated acanthosphere-like Li4Ti5O12 microspheres for high-power lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, Yujing; Xu, Xiaomin; Li, Li; Cai, Rui; Shao, Zongping

    2016-05-01

    In this work, carbon-coated hierarchical acanthosphere-like Li4Ti5O12 microspheres (denoted as AM-LTO) were prepared via a two-step hydrothermal process with low-cost glucose as the organic carbon source. The hierarchical porous microspheres had open structures with diameters of 4-6 μm, which consisted of a bunch of willow leaf-like nanosheets. Each nanosheet was comprised of Li4Ti5O12 nanoparticles that are 20 nm in size and coated by a thin carbon layer. When applied as the anode material for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), the AM-LTO presented outstanding rate and cycling performance due to its unique morphologies. A high capacity of 145.6 mAh g-1 was achieved for AM-LTO at a rate of 40C (1C = 175 mAh g-1). In contrast, the sample synthesized without glucose as carbon source (denoted as S-LTO) experienced an obvious structural collapse during the hydrothermal reaction and presented a specific capacity of only 67 mAh g-1 at 1C, which further decreased to 14 mAh g-1 at 40C. Further morphological growth of the acanthosphere-like Li4Ti5O12 microspheres and their excellent performance as an anode in LIBs were also discussed in this work.

  11. Facile synthesis of hierarchically porous Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} microspheres for high rate lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, L.F.; Luo, H.J.; Yuan, C.Z.; Su, X.F.; Xu, K.; Zhang, X.G. [Nanjing Univ. of Aeronautics and Astronautics (China). College of Material Science and Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries are used in electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) due to their excellent energy storage capacity. Graphite is widely used as an anode material in EV and HEV applications. This study investigated the use of a lithium-titanium alloy (Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}) designed to avoid reductions of the electrolyte on the surface of the electrode. The study showed that the composite material shows excellent cycling performance, excellent reversibility, structural stability, and Li-ion mobility in the charge-discharge process. A simple template-free hydrothermal method for fabricating Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} hierarchical microspheres assembled by uniform nanoparticles was presented. The 1-step process produced microspheres with a high yield and uniform diameter. Details of the synthesis process, and the electrochemical and structural properties of the resulting materials were presented. 5 refs.

  12. Facile synthesis of hierarchical CoMn2O4 microspheres with porous and micro-/nanostructural morphology as anode electrodes for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yana; Hou, Xianhua; Li, Yajie; Ru, Qiang; Wang, Shaofeng; Hu, Shejun; Lam, Kwok-ho

    2017-09-01

    Hierarchical CoMn2O4 microspheres assembled by nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized by a facile hydrothermal method and a subsequent annealing treatment. XRD detection indicate the crystal structure. SEM and TEM results reveal the 3-dimensional porous and micro-/nanostructural microsphere assembled by nanoparticles with a size of 20-100 nm. The CoMn2O4 electrode show initial specific discharge capacity of approximately 1546 mAh/g at the current rates 100 mA/g with a coulombic efficiency of 66.7% and remarkable specific capacities (1029-485 mAh/g) at various current rates (100-2800 mA/g). [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  13. Hierarchically porous MnO2 microspheres doped with homogeneously distributed Fe3O4 nanoparticles for supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jian; Tang, Shaochun; Xie, Hao; Dai, Yuming; Meng, Xiangkang

    2014-10-22

    Hierarchically porous yet densely packed MnO2 microspheres doped with Fe3O4 nanoparticles are synthesized via a one-step and low-cost ultrasound assisted method. The scalable synthesis is based on Fe(2+) and ultrasound assisted nucleation and growth at a constant temperature in a range of 25-70 °C. Single-crystalline Fe3O4 particles of 3-5 nm in diameter are homogeneously distributed throughout the spheres and none are on the surface. A systematic optimization of reaction parameters results in isolated, porous, and uniform Fe3O4-MnO2 composite spheres. The spheres' average diameter is dependent on the temperature, and thus is controllable in a range of 0.7-1.28 μm. The involved growth mechanism is discussed. The specific capacitance is optimized at an Fe/Mn atomic ratio of r = 0.075 to be 448 F/g at a scan rate of 5 mV/s, which is nearly 1.5 times that of the extremely high reported value for MnO2 nanostructures (309 F/g). Especially, such a structure allows significantly improved stability at high charging rates. The composite has a capacitance of 367.4 F/g at a high scan rate of 100 mV/s, which is 82% of that at 5 mV/s. Also, it has an excellent cycling performance with a capacitance retention of 76% after 5000 charge/discharge cycles at 5 A/g.

  14. Self-assembled hierarchical direct Z-scheme g-C3N4/ZnO microspheres with enhanced photocatalytic CO2 reduction performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Ning; Zhang, Liuyang; Fu, Junwei; Cheng, Bei; Yu, Jiaguo

    2018-05-01

    Photocatalytic reduction of CO2 into hydrocarbon fuels has been regarded as a promising approach to ease the greenhouse effect and the energy shortage. Herein, an electrostatic self-assembly method was exploited to prepare g-C3N4/ZnO composite microsphere. This method simply utilized the opposite surface charge of each component, achieving a hierarchical structure with intimate contact between them. A much improved photocatalytic CO2 reduction activity was attained. The CH3OH production rate was 1.32 μmol h-1 g-1, which was 2.1 and 4.1 times more than that of the pristine ZnO and g-C3N4, respectively. This facile design bestowed the g-C3N4/ZnO composite an extended light adsorption caused by multi-light scattering effect. It also guaranteed the uniform distribution of g-C3N4 nanosheets on the surface of ZnO microspheres, maximizing their advantage and synergistic effect. Most importantly, the preeminent performance was proposed and validated based on the direct Z-scheme. The recombination rate was considerably suppressed. This work features the meliority of constructing hierarchical direct Z-scheme structures in photocatalytic CO2 reduction reactions.

  15. Self-assembly of nano/micro-structured Fe3O4 microspheres among 3D rGO/CNTs hierarchical networks with superior lithium storage performances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Jinlong; Feng, Haibo; Wang, Xipeng; Qian, Dong; Jiang, Jianbo; Li, Junhua; Peng, Sanjun; Deng, Miao; Liu, Youcai

    2014-01-01

    Nano/micro-structured Fe 3 O 4 microspheres among three-dimensional (3D) reduced graphene oxide (rGO)/carbon nanotubes (CNTs) hierarchical networks (the ternary composite is denoted as rGCFs) have been synthesized using a facile, self-assembled and one-pot hydrothermal approach. The rGCFs composite exhibits superior lithium storage performances: initial discharge and charge capacities of 1452 and 1036 mAh g −1 , respectively, remarkable rate capability at current densities from 100 mA g −1 to 10 A g −1 and outstanding cycling performance up to 200 cycles. The highly enhanced electrochemical performances of rGCFs depend heavily on the robust 3D rGO/CNTs hierarchical networks, the stable nano/microstructures of active Fe 3 O 4 microspheres and the positive synergistic effects of building components. The systematic structure characterizations and electrochemical investigations provide insightful understanding towards the relationship between structure/morphology and lithium storage performances, which may pave the way for the rational design of composite materials with desirable goals. (papers)

  16. Facile synthesis of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} hierarchical microspheres with improved lithium storage performances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Xiaojuan, E-mail: houxiaojuan@nuc.edu.cn; He, Jian; An, Kun; Mu, Jiliang; Chou, Xiujian; Xue, Chenyang

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • The Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} microspheres were first fabricated without any surfactant. • The Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} microspheres present excellent electrochemical performances. • The excellent performances result from porous nanosheets assembled architectures. • The microspheres exhibit a high specific capacity of 1000 mA h g at 100 mA g. - Abstract: Porous nanosheets-assembled Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} microspheres have been first successfully fabricated by a facile solvothermal method without any surfactant followed by a relatively low annealing temperature (400 °C) with a higher specific surface area compared to the annealing temperature of 600 °C. The nanosheets-assembled microspheres exhibit a high discharge capacity of 1000 mA h g{sup −1} at a current density of 100 mA g{sup −1} after 50 cycles and 850 mA h g{sup −1} at a current density of 500 mA g{sup −1} after 80 cycles, even at a high current density of 1.6 A g{sup −1} the cycling reversible capacity can still keep 750 mA h g{sup −1}, the representative capacities are relatively higher than most of reports about pure Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}. We attribute the excellent electrochemical performances to the porous nanosheets structure and architectures, which can provide more effective electrode/electrolyte contact area and direct ion transmission path, then lead to faster lithium-ion diffusion, confirmed by EIS measurements. The high specific capacity, excellent cycling and rate performances demonstrate that the porous nanosheets assembled microspheres present promising application in lithium storage.

  17. Hydroxyapatite hierarchically nanostructured porous hollow microspheres: rapid, sustainable microwave-hydrothermal synthesis by using creatine phosphate as an organic phosphorus source and application in drug delivery and protein adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Chao; Zhu, Ying-Jie; Lu, Bing-Qiang; Zhao, Xin-Yu; Zhao, Jing; Chen, Feng; Wu, Jin

    2013-04-22

    Hierarchically nanostructured porous hollow microspheres of hydroxyapatite (HAP) are a promising biomaterial, owing to their excellent biocompatibility and porous hollow structure. Traditionally, synthetic hydroxyapatite is prepared by using an inorganic phosphorus source. Herein, we report a new strategy for the rapid, sustainable synthesis of HAP hierarchically nanostructured porous hollow microspheres by using creatine phosphate disodium salt as an organic phosphorus source in aqueous solution through a microwave-assisted hydrothermal method. The as-obtained products are characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform IR (FTIR) spectroscopy, SEM, TEM, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) nitrogen sorptometry, dynamic light scattering (DLS), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). SEM and TEM micrographs show that HAP hierarchically nanostructured porous hollow microspheres consist of HAP nanosheets or nanorods as the building blocks and DLS measurements show that the diameters of HAP hollow microspheres are within the range 0.8-1.5 μm. The specific surface area and average pore size of the HAP porous hollow microspheres are 87.3 m(2) g(-1) and 20.6 nm, respectively. The important role of creatine phosphate disodium salt and the influence of the experimental conditions on the products were systematically investigated. This method is facile, rapid, surfactant-free and environmentally friendly. The as-prepared HAP porous hollow microspheres show a relatively high drug-loading capacity and protein-adsorption ability, as well as sustained drug and protein release, by using ibuprofen as a model drug and hemoglobin (Hb) as a model protein, respectively. These experiments indicate that the as-prepared HAP porous hollow microspheres are promising for applications in biomedical fields, such as drug delivery and protein adsorption. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Solvothermal Synthesis of Three-Dimensional Hierarchical CuS Microspheres from a Cu-Based Ionic Liquid Precursor for High-Performance Asymmetric Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Feng, Huijie; Yang, Jiaqin; Qin, Qing; Fan, Hongmin; Wei, Caiying; Zheng, Wenjun

    2015-10-07

    It is meaningful to exploit copper sulfide materials with desired structure as well as potential application due to their cheapness and low toxicity. A low-temperature and facile solvothermal method for preparing three-dimensional (3D) hierarchical covellite (CuS) microspheres from an ionic liquid precursor [Bmim]2Cu2Cl6 (Bmim = 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium) is reported. The formation of CuS nanostructures was achieved by decomposition of intermediate complex Cu(Tu)3Cl (thiourea = Tu), which produced CuS microspheres with diameters of 2.5-4 μm assembled by nanosheets with thicknesses of 10-15 nm. The ionic liquid, as an "all-in-one" medium, played a key role for the fabrication and self-assembly of CuS nanosheets. The alkylimidazolium rings ([Bmim](+)) were found to adsorb onto the (001) facets of CuS crystals, which inhibited the crystal growth along the [001] direction, while the alkyl chain had influence on the assembly of CuS nanosheets. The CuS microspheres showed enhanced electrochemical performance and high stability for the application in supercapacitors due to intriguing structural design and large specific surface area. When this well-defined CuS electrode was assembled into an asymmetric supercapacitor (ASC) with an activated carbon (AC) electrode, the CuS//AC-ASC demonstrated good cycle performance (∼88% capacitance after 4000 cycles) and high energy density (15.06 W h kg(-1) at a power density of 392.9 W kg(-1)). This work provides new insights into the use of copper sulfide electrode materials for asymmetric supercapacitors and other electrochemical devices.

  19. A four-functional composite-hierarchical anatase TiO2 microsphere consisting of nanoparticles, nanowires and submicron ellipsoidal spheres for Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Niu; Chen, Feitai; Sun, Panpan; Sun, Xiaohua; Sebo, Bobby; Zhao, Xingzhong

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Abstract: In this paper, we prepare a composite-hierarchical microsphere (HMS) which is composed of two kinds of HMSs: one flower-like microsphere (FMS, ∼1.5 μm, containing nanoparticles and nanowires) and plentiful mesoporous submicron ellipsoidal spheres (ESs, ∼200 nm, assembled with nanoparticles) which are embedded evenly in the FMS. For comparing, pure FMS and ES are prepared, respectively. It is found that the composite-HMS possesses (a) the highest BET surface area, (b) the highest light scattering ability, (c) the fastest electron transport and the longest electron life time, and (d) light trapping ability enabled by multiple light reflection and scattering between ESs and nanowires inside each FMS*ESs particle. The energy conversion efficiency of 7.91% of the DSSC based on FMS*ESs is higher than devices based on ES and FMS (7.22% and 7.24%, respectively), which also benefits from the structural advantages of the composite-HMS compared with non-composite HMSs

  20. Template-free synthesis of hierarchical yolk-shell Co and N codoped porous carbon microspheres with enhanced performance for oxygen reduction reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Shujun; Cui, Qian; Wang, Kui; Bai, Zhengyu; Yang, Lin; Qiao, Jinli

    2015-08-01

    The structures and compositions of materials have important influences on their performance. Herein, hierarchically structured yolk-shell Co and N codoped porous carbon microspheres (YS-Co/N-PCMs) have been successfully synthesized by using low-cost melamine, formaldehyde and cobalt acetate as raw materials via a facile template-free hydrothermal method and a subsequent pyrolysis. The formation process of the yolk-shell precursor is systematically investigated, involving a morphological evolution process from solid microspheres, ultrathin and wrinkled shells wrap, to yolk-shell structure formation. More importantly, the unique structure combines the favorable features towards oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), such as high surface area, sufficient Co-Nx and graphitic N active sites and suitable pore structures. As a result, the YS-Co/N-PCMs catalyst shows high catalytic activity for ORR in alkaline media for fuel cells, which not only outperforms commercial Pt-based catalysts in terms of resistance to methanol crossover and long-time stability, but is also better than many non-precious metal doped carbon-based catalysts reported previously. In addition, the YS-Co/N-PCMs catalyst also has high catalytic activity toward oxygen evolution reaction (OER). Therefore, the YS-Co/N-PCMs catalyst may serve as a promising alternative to Pt/C catalyst for ORR and OER in alkaline media.

  1. Fabrication and photovoltaic performance of niobium doped TiO{sub 2} hierarchical microspheres with exposed {001} facets and high specific surface area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yongqiang; Ran, Huili [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001 (China); State Centre for International Cooperation on Designer Low-Carbon and Environmental Materials, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001 (China); Fan, Jiajie, E-mail: fanjiajie@zzu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001 (China); State Centre for International Cooperation on Designer Low-Carbon and Environmental Materials, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001 (China); Zhang, Xiaoli; Mao, Jing [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001 (China); State Centre for International Cooperation on Designer Low-Carbon and Environmental Materials, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001 (China); Shao, Guosheng [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001 (China); State Centre for International Cooperation on Designer Low-Carbon and Environmental Materials, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001 (China); Institute for Renewable Energy and Environmental Technologies, University of Bolton, Bolton BL3 5AB (United Kingdom)

    2017-07-15

    Highlights: • Nb-doped hierarchical TiO{sub 2} microsphere DSSCs show enhanced performance. • Nb{sup 5+} dopant replaces Ti{sup 4+} cation in TiO{sub 2} lattice. • Electrons transport was enhanced due to the down-shifted conduction band minimum. • Exposed (001) facets and high specific surface area allows high dye-loading. - Abstract: The niobium doped hierarchical anatase TiO{sub 2} microspheres, which are consist of a serried nano-thorns and plicate nano-ribbons with exposed {001} facets, were synthesized using hydrothermal method followed by heat treatment. The effects of niobium on the microstructures and photovoltaic performances of the dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were studied. The results revealed that Nb{sup 5+} doping replaces Ti{sup 4+} cations in TiO{sub 2} lattice, and the bandgap of the films varies with increasing Nb doping concentration because of the downshift of the conduction band minimum (CBM). The niobium-doped TiO{sub 2} DSSCs with moderate loadings show enhanced performance comparing with their pure TiO{sub 2} counterparts. Optimally, the conversion efficiency of the Nb-3.5 (Nb 3.5 mol%) DSSC is 4.99%. This is higher than that (4.39%) of pure TiO{sub 2} cells by 13.7%. This is due to the fact that the Nb-doped solar cells have increased the number of the photo-induced electrons because of their exposed (001) facets and higher specific surface area; and enhanced electrons collection and transport because of the downshifted CBM of the Nb-doped TiO{sub 2}. However, heavy Nb doping results in the decrease of the performance of the niobium-doped cells due to the excessive defects within the Nb-TiO{sub 2} samples resulting in enhanced charge recombination at defects.

  2. Three-dimensional sea-urchin-like hierarchical TiO{sub 2} microspheres synthesized by a one-pot hydrothermal method and their enhanced photocatalytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Yi, E-mail: zhouyihn@163.com [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Changsha University of Science and Technology, Hunan, 410114 (China); Huang, Yan; Li, Dang; He, Wenhong [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Changsha University of Science and Technology, Hunan, 410114 (China)

    2013-07-15

    Graphical abstract: SEM images of the samples synthesized at different hydrothermal temperatures for 8 h: (a) 75; (b) 100; (c) 120; and (d) 140°C, followed by calcination at 450 °C for 2 h. Highlights: ► Effects of calcination temperature on the phase transformation were studied. ► Effects of hydrothermal temperature and time on the morphology growth were studied. ► A two-stage reaction mechanism for the formation was presented. ► The photocatalytic activity was evaluated under sunlight irradiation. ► Effects of calcination temperature on the photocatalytic activity were studied. - Abstract: Novel three-dimensional sea-urchin-like hierarchical TiO{sub 2} superstructures were synthesized on a Ti plate in a mixture of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and NaOH aqueous solution by a facile one-pot hydrothermal method at a low temperature, followed by protonation and calcination. The results of series of electron microscopy characterizations suggested that the hierarchical TiO{sub 2} superstructures consisted of numerous one-dimensional nanostructures. The microspheres were approximately 2–4 μm in diameter, and the one-dimensional TiO{sub 2} nanostructures were up to 600–700 nm long. A two-stage reaction mechanism, i.e., initial growth and then assembly, was proposed for the formation of these architectures. The three-dimensional sea-urchin-like hierarchical TiO{sub 2} microstructures showed excellent photocatalytic activity for the degradation of Rhodamine B aqueous solution under sunlight irradiation, which was attributed to the special three-dimensional hierarchical superstructure, and increased number of surface active sites. This novel superstructure has promising use in practical aqueous purification.

  3. A hierarchically assembled mesoporous ZnO hemisphere array and hollow microspheres for photocatalytic membrane water filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jia Hong; Zhang, Xiwang; Du, Alan J; Bai, Hongwei; Ng, Jiawei; Sun, Darren

    2012-05-28

    A mesoporous ZnO hemisphere array has been prepared via a topotactic transition of Zn(4)(OH)(6)CO(3)·H(2)O (ZCHH) by chemical bath deposition. Each hemisphere is comprised of a radially oriented nanoflake shell grown on the hemispherical interior. Reaction time-dependent SEM analysis shows that the morphological formation of ZCHH involves a deposition-growth-secondary growth-redeposition procedure. Upon calcination, ZCHH readily decomposes to nanocrystalline wurtzite-phase ZnO without significant change in morphology, and the release of CO(2) and H(2)O from ZCHH creates an additional mesoporous structure in both hemispherical interior and nanoflake shell. A similar process but without using a substrate has been developed for synthesis of mesoporous ZnO hollow microspheres in powder form. Both the elaborated superstructured photocatalysts consisting of mesoporous nanoflakes have been demonstrated to exhibit excellent performances in the photocatalytic membrane filtration.

  4. Hierarchically ordered macro-mesoporous ZnS microsphere with reduced graphene oxide supporter for a highly efficient photodegradation of methylene blue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sookhakian, M., E-mail: m.sokhakian@gmail.com [Department of Physics, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia); Amin, Y.M. [Department of Physics, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia); Basirun, W.J. [Department of Chemistry, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia); Centre of Research in Nanotechnology and Catalysis (NanoCat), Institute of Postgraduate Studies, University Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia)

    2013-10-15

    A facile one-pot method for the fabrication of high quality self-assembled hierarchically ordered macro-mesoporous ZnS microsphere–reduced graphene oxide (RGO) composite without the use of templates or surfactants is described. During the hydrothermal process, reduced graphene oxide (RGO) was loaded into the ZnS microsphere by in situ reduction of graphene oxide added in the self-assembly system. The morphology and structure of the as-prepared composites were confirmed by X-ray diffraction, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Incorporation of reduced graphene oxide as an excellent electron-transporting material effectively suppresses the charge recombination. Hence, a significant enhancement in the photocatalytic efficiency for the photodegradation of methylene blue was observed with the ZnS–RGO composite, compared to the pure ZnS. Overall, this research results may lay down new vistas for the in situ fabrication of the ZnS–RGO composite as a highly efficient photocatalysis under visible-light irradiation and their applications in environmental protection.

  5. Rational design of anatase TiO2 architecture with hierarchical nanotubes and hollow microspheres for high-performance dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jiuwang; Khan, Javid; Chai, Zhisheng; Yuan, Yufei; Yu, Xiang; Liu, Pengyi; Wu, Mingmei; Mai, Wenjie

    2016-01-01

    Large surface area, sufficient light-harvesting and superior electron transport property are the major factors for an ideal photoanode of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), which requires rational design of the nanoarchitectures and smart integration of state-of-the-art technologies. In this work, a 3D anatase TiO2 architecture consisting of vertically aligned 1D hierarchical TiO2 nanotubes (NTs) with ultra-dense branches (HTNTs, bottom layer) and 0D hollow TiO2 microspheres with rough surface (HTS, top layer) is first successfully constructed on transparent conductive fluorine-doped tin oxide glass through a series of facile processes. When used as photoanodes, the DSSCs achieve a very large short-current density of 19.46 mA cm-2 and a high overall power conversion efficiency of 8.38%. The remarkable photovoltaic performance is predominantly ascribed to the enhanced charge transport capacity of the NTs (function as the electron highway), the large surface area of the branches (act as the electron branch lines), the pronounced light harvesting efficiency of the HTS (serve as the light scattering centers), and the engineered intimate interfaces between all of them (minimize the recombination effect). Our work demonstrates a possibility of fabricating superior photoanodes for high-performance DSSCs by rational design of nanoarchitectures and smart integration of multi-functional components.

  6. Visible-light photocatalytic activity of graphene oxide-wrapped Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} hierarchical microspheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhai, Jiali; Yu, Hongwen, E-mail: yuhw@iga.ac.cn; Li, Haiyan; Sun, Lei; Zhang, Kexin; Yang, Hongjun

    2015-07-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • GO/Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} are readily fabricated by facile bubbling pretreatment and freeze drying. • GO/Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} possess excellent photocatalytic activity under visible light irradiation. • The visible light activity of GO/Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} is affected by the amount of GO. • The photostablity of GO is due to the photo-generated electrons transfer to Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6}. - Abstract: A facile approach of fabricating homogeneous graphene oxide (GO)-wrapped Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} microspheres (GO/Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6}) is developed. The transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results show that a heterojunction interface between GO and Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6}. The UV–vis diffuse reflection spectra (DRS) reveal that the as-prepared GO/Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} composites own more intensive absorption in the visible light range compared with pure Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6}. These characteristic structural and optical properties endow GO/Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} composites with enhanced photocatalytic activity. The enhanced photocatalytic activity of the GO/Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} is attributed predominantly to the synergetic effect between GO and Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6}, causing rapid generation and separation of photo-generated charge carriers.

  7. Photothermal-enhanced catalysis in core-shell plasmonic hierarchical Cu7S4 microsphere@zeolitic imidazole framework-8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feifan; Huang, Yanjie; Chai, Zhigang; Zeng, Min; Li, Qi; Wang, Yuan; Xu, Dongsheng

    2016-12-01

    Conventional semiconductor photocatalysis based on band-edge absorption remains inefficient due to the limited harvesting of solar irradiation and the complicated surface/interface chemistry. Herein, novel photothermal-enhanced catalysis was achieved in a core-shell hierarchical Cu 7 S 4 nano-heater@ZIF-8 heterostructures via near-infrared localized surface plasmon resonance. Our results demonstrated that both the high surface temperature of the photothermal Cu 7 S 4 core and the close-adjacency of catalytic ZIF-8 shell contributed to the extremely enhanced catalytic activity. Under laser irradiation (1450 nm, 500 mW), the cyclocondensation reaction rate increased 4.5-5.4 fold compared to that of the process at room temperature, in which the 1.6-1.8 fold enhancement was due to the localized heating effect. The simulated sunlight experiments showed a photothermal activation efficiency (PTAE) of 0.07%, further indicating the validity of photothermal catalysis based on the plasmonic semiconductor nanomaterials. More generally, this approach provides a platform to improve reaction activity with efficient utilization of solar energy, which can be readily extended to other green-chemistry processes.

  8. Controllable synthesis of Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} nanoplate self-assembled hierarchical erythrocyte microspheres via a one-pot hydrothermal reaction with enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Zhenya; Huang, Lin; Xie, Yanyu; Lin, Zheguan; Fan, Yunyan; Liu, Dan; Chen, Lu; Zhang, Zizhong, E-mail: z.zhang@fzu.edu.cn; Wang, Xuxu

    2017-05-01

    Highlights: • Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} hierarchical erythrocyte structure was designed by F{sup −}-assisted one-pot reaction. • Erythrocyte structure enhanced the visible-light photocatalytic activity of Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6}. • Superoxide radical anions and h{sup +} were the main active species for RhB degradation. - Abstract: This work provides a simple approach of the F{sup −}-assisted one-pot hydrothermal reaction to successfully synthesize Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} hierarchical erythrocyte microspheres. The importance role of F{sup −} was systematically investigated by comparing different type of halogen ions, hydrothermal temperature and time. The possible growth mechanism of Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} hierarchical structures was proposed. The hierarchical erythrocytes were formed through the well-ordered and oriented self-assembly of thin Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} nanoplate primary subunits. F{sup −} ions were absorbed on Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} nanoplate surface to suppress the nanoplate stack but to induce a self-assembly through the edge interaction of Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} nanoplates into erythrocyte-like hierarchical microspheres superstructures. This erythrocyte structure narrowed the band gap energy and enhanced the visible-light photocatalytic activity of Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6}. Moreover, superoxide radical anions and h{sup +} were revealed as the main active species responding for the RhB degradation on Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} under visible light irradiation.

  9. Copper Salts Mediated Morphological Transformation of Cu2O from Cubes to Hierarchical Flower-like or Microspheres and Their Supercapacitors Performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang; Zhang, Yu; Zhu, Pengli; Zhou, Fengrui; Zeng, Wenjin; Lu, Daoqiang Daniel; Sun, Rong; Wong, Chingping

    2015-01-01

    Monodisperse Cu2O of different microstructures, such as cubes, flower-like, and microspheres, have been extensively synthesized by a simple polyol reduction method using different copper salts, i.e. (Cu(acac)2, Cu(OH)2, and Cu(Ac)2·H2O). The effects of copper salts on the morphology of Cu2O were investigated in details through various characterization methods, including X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and UV-Vis absorption spectra. The effects of morphology on the electrochemical properties were further studied. Among the different structures, Cu2O with the microspheric morphology shows the highest specific capacitance and the best cycling stability compared with those of the other two structures, thus bear larger volume charge during the electrochemical reaction due to the microspheres of small nanoparticles. PMID:25857362

  10. Growth of a sea urchin-like rutile TiO2 hierarchical microsphere film on Ti foil for a quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ri, Jin Hyok; Wu, Shufang; Jin, Jingpeng; Peng, Tianyou

    2017-11-30

    A sea urchin-like rutile TiO 2 microsphere (RMS) film was fabricated on Ti foil via a hydrothermal process. The resulting rutile TiO 2 hierarchical microspheres with a diameter of 5-6 μm are composed of nanorods with a diameter of ∼200 nm and a length of 1-2 μm. The sea urchin-like hierarchical structure leads to the Ti foil-based RMS film possessing much better light-scattering capability in the visible region than the bare Ti foil. By using it as an underlayer of a nanosized anatase TiO 2 film (bTPP3) derived from a commercially available paste (TPP3), the corresponding bilayer Ti foil-based quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) only gives a conversion efficiency of 4.05%, much lower than the single bTPP3 film-based one on Ti foil (5.97%). By spin-coating a diluted TPP3 paste (sTPP3) on the RMS film prior to scraping the bTPP3 film, the resulting RMS/sTPP3/bTPP3 film-based DSSC achieves a significantly enhanced efficiency (7.27%). The electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) show that the RMS/sTPP3/bTPP3 film possesses better electron transport capability and longer electron lifetime than the bTPP3 film. This work not only provides the first example of directly growing rutile TiO 2 hierarchically structured microsphere film on Ti foil suitable for replacing the rigid, heavy and expensive transparent conductive oxide (TCO) glass substrate to serve as a light-scattering underlayer of Ti foil-based quasi-solid-state DSSCs, but also paves a new route to develop Ti foil-based flexible DSSCs with high efficiency, low cost and a wide application field through optimizing the composition and structure of the photoanode.

  11. In situ grown hierarchical 50%BiOCl/BiOI hollow flowerlike microspheres on reduced graphene oxide nanosheets for enhanced visible-light photocatalytic degradation of rhodamine B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiangde; Yang, Jinjin; Yu, Xiang; Zhu, Yi; Zhang, Yuanming

    2018-03-01

    50%BiOCl/BiOI/reduced graphene oxide (50%BiOCl/BiOI/rGO) composite photocatalyst was synthesized successfully by a facile one-step solvothermal route in this work. Reduction of graphene oxide (GO) took place in the process of solvothermal reaction and a new Bi-C bond between rGO and 50%BiOCl/BiOI was formed. The introduction of rGO affected the morphology of 50%BiOCl/BiOI, resulting in the transformation of 50%BiOCl/BiOI from solid microspheres to hollow microspheres. Both the introduction of rGO and formation of 50%BiOCl/BiOI hollow microspheres can facilitate the light absorption. The strong interaction between 50%BiOCl/BiOI and rGO and the electrical conductivity of rGO greatly improved the effective separation of photogenerated carriers. Hence, GOB-5 demonstrated the highest photocatalytic activity which was over twice of the pristine 50%BiOCl/BiOI in the presence of visible light. Mechanism study revealed that 50%BiOCl/BiOI generated electrons and holes in the presence of visible light, and holes together with rad O2- generated from reduction of O2 by electrons degraded the pollutant directly. Overall, this work provides an excellent reference to the synthesis of chemically bonded BiOX/BiOY (X, Y = Cl, Br, I)/rGO nanocomposite and helps to promote their applications in environmental protection and photoelectric conversion.

  12. Sustainable one-step synthesis of hierarchical microspheres of PEGylated MoS2 nanosheets and MoO3 nanorods: Their cytotoxicity towards lung and breast cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Neeraj; George, Blassan Plackal Adimuriyil; Abrahamse, Heidi; Parashar, Vyom; Ngila, Jane Catherine

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Microspheres of PEGylated MoS 2 nanosheets were synthesised by hydrothermal route. • PEGylated MoS 2 have shown good cytotoxicity towards breast cancer (MCF-7) cells. • For comparison, h-MoO 3 nanorods were prepared by simple chemical route. • h-MoO 3 have exhibited excellent cytotoxicity towards lung (A549) cancer cells. - Abstract: Nanotechnology provides an emerging potent alternate mode of cancer therapy. Nanomaterials dispersion or solubility is of particular concern in utilising their full potential applications in biomedical fields. PEGylation of nanomaterials is considered to provide products with stealth properties, and physiological environment with no obvious adverse effects. The purpose of this work was to develop a sustainable one-step method for fabrication of hierarchical microspheres of PEGylated MoS 2 nanosheets using a stoichiometric ratio of Mo(VI) and thiourea. This study further investigated the cytotoxicity of the PEGylated MoS 2 nanosheets towards lung (A549) and breast cancer (MCF-7) cell lines by analysing morphological changes and performing dose-dependent cell proliferation, and cytotoxicity analysis using adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay. For comparison, MoO 3 nanorods were synthesised by simple chemical route and their cytotoxicity towards lung (A549) and breast cancer (MCF-7) cell lines were checked. The findings suggested that PEGylated MoS 2 nanosheets have excellent cytotoxicity towards breast cancer (MCF-7) cell lines, and MoO 3 have better cytotoxicity towards lung (A549) cancer cell lines. This work envisages an accessible foundation for engineering sophisticated biomolecule–MoS 2 nanosheets conjugation due to the defect-rich biocompatible surface, to achieve great versatility, additional functions, and further advances in the biomedical field.

  13. Sustainable one-step synthesis of hierarchical microspheres of PEGylated MoS{sub 2} nanosheets and MoO{sub 3} nanorods: Their cytotoxicity towards lung and breast cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Neeraj [Department of Applied Chemistry, University of Johannesburg, Doornfontein 2028, South Africa, (South Africa); George, Blassan Plackal Adimuriyil; Abrahamse, Heidi [Laser Research Centre, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Johannesburg, Doornfontein 2028 (South Africa); Parashar, Vyom, E-mail: vyomparashar@gmail.com [Department of Applied Chemistry, University of Johannesburg, Doornfontein 2028, South Africa, (South Africa); Ngila, Jane Catherine, E-mail: jcngila@uj.ac.za [Department of Applied Chemistry, University of Johannesburg, Doornfontein 2028, South Africa, (South Africa)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • Microspheres of PEGylated MoS{sub 2} nanosheets were synthesised by hydrothermal route. • PEGylated MoS{sub 2} have shown good cytotoxicity towards breast cancer (MCF-7) cells. • For comparison, h-MoO{sub 3} nanorods were prepared by simple chemical route. • h-MoO{sub 3} have exhibited excellent cytotoxicity towards lung (A549) cancer cells. - Abstract: Nanotechnology provides an emerging potent alternate mode of cancer therapy. Nanomaterials dispersion or solubility is of particular concern in utilising their full potential applications in biomedical fields. PEGylation of nanomaterials is considered to provide products with stealth properties, and physiological environment with no obvious adverse effects. The purpose of this work was to develop a sustainable one-step method for fabrication of hierarchical microspheres of PEGylated MoS{sub 2} nanosheets using a stoichiometric ratio of Mo(VI) and thiourea. This study further investigated the cytotoxicity of the PEGylated MoS{sub 2} nanosheets towards lung (A549) and breast cancer (MCF-7) cell lines by analysing morphological changes and performing dose-dependent cell proliferation, and cytotoxicity analysis using adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay. For comparison, MoO{sub 3} nanorods were synthesised by simple chemical route and their cytotoxicity towards lung (A549) and breast cancer (MCF-7) cell lines were checked. The findings suggested that PEGylated MoS{sub 2} nanosheets have excellent cytotoxicity towards breast cancer (MCF-7) cell lines, and MoO{sub 3} have better cytotoxicity towards lung (A549) cancer cell lines. This work envisages an accessible foundation for engineering sophisticated biomolecule–MoS{sub 2} nanosheets conjugation due to the defect-rich biocompatible surface, to achieve great versatility, additional functions, and further advances in the biomedical field.

  14. Sustainable one-step synthesis of hierarchical microspheres of PEGylated MoS2 nanosheets and MoO3 nanorods: Their cytotoxicity towards lung and breast cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Neeraj; George, Blassan Plackal Adimuriyil; Abrahamse, Heidi; Parashar, Vyom; Ngila, Jane Catherine

    2017-02-01

    Nanotechnology provides an emerging potent alternate mode of cancer therapy. Nanomaterials dispersion or solubility is of particular concern in utilising their full potential applications in biomedical fields. PEGylation of nanomaterials is considered to provide products with stealth properties, and physiological environment with no obvious adverse effects. The purpose of this work was to develop a sustainable one-step method for fabrication of hierarchical microspheres of PEGylated MoS2 nanosheets using a stoichiometric ratio of Mo(VI) and thiourea. This study further investigated the cytotoxicity of the PEGylated MoS2 nanosheets towards lung (A549) and breast cancer (MCF-7) cell lines by analysing morphological changes and performing dose-dependent cell proliferation, and cytotoxicity analysis using adenosine 5‧-triphosphate (ATP), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay. For comparison, MoO3 nanorods were synthesised by simple chemical route and their cytotoxicity towards lung (A549) and breast cancer (MCF-7) cell lines were checked. The findings suggested that PEGylated MoS2 nanosheets have excellent cytotoxicity towards breast cancer (MCF-7) cell lines, and MoO3 have better cytotoxicity towards lung (A549) cancer cell lines. This work envisages an accessible foundation for engineering sophisticated biomolecule-MoS2 nanosheets conjugation due to the defect-rich biocompatible surface, to achieve great versatility, additional functions, and further advances in the biomedical field.

  15. Core-shell composite of hierarchical MoS2 nanosheets supported on graphitized hollow carbon microspheres for high performance lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, Yuan; Wang, Beibei; Zhao, Xiaojun; Wang, Gang; Wang, Hui

    2016-01-01

    In this work, a core-shell composite composed of MoS 2 nanosheets grown on hollow carbon microspheres is synthesized by a hydrothermal and a subsequent annealing route. The result shows that well-graphitized hollow-carbon@highlycrystallineMoS 2 (HC@MoS 2 ) was obtained after the four-step reaction. And it is found that the synthesized MoS 2 is consist of 2H and 1T phases. The lithium storage property of the composite is investigated as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries. Benefited from the special morphology and structure, a stable capacity of 970 mAh g −1 for over 100 cycles at a current density of 0.25 A g −1 is realized on the material. Even at a high current density of 4 A g −1 , a reversible capacity as high as 560 mAh g −1 is delivered. Moreover, the reasons for the excellent electrochemical performance of the material are explored and discussed in detail.

  16. Microradiographic microsphere manipulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singleton, R.M.

    1980-01-01

    A method and apparatus are provided for radiographic characterization of small hollow spherical members (microspheres), constructed of either optically transparent or opaque materials. The apparatus involves a microsphere manipulator which holds a batch of microspheres between two parallel thin plastic films for contact microradiographic characterization or projection microradiography thereof. One plastic film is translated to relative to and parallel to the other to roll the microspheres through any desired angle to allow different views of the microspheres

  17. Metallic coating of microspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, S.F.

    1980-01-01

    Extremely smooth, uniform metal coatings of micrometer thicknesses on microscopic glass spheres (microspheres) are often needed as targets for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments. The first part of this paper reviews those methods used successfully to provide metal coated microspheres for ICF targets, including magnetron sputtering, electro- and electroless plating, and chemical vapor pyrolysis. The second part of this paper discusses some of the critical aspects of magnetron sputter coating of microspheres, including substrate requirements, the sticking of microspheres during coating (preventing a uniform coating), and the difficulties in growing the desired dense, smooth, uniform microstructure on continuously moving spherical substrates

  18. Glass microspheres for brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prado, Miguel O.; Prastalo, Simon; Blaumann, Herman; Longhino, Juan M.; Repetto Llamazares, A.H.V.

    2007-01-01

    We developed the capacity to produce glass microspheres containing in their structure one or more radioactive isotopes useful for brachytherapy. We studied the various facts related with their production: (Rare earth) alumino silicate glass making, glass characterization, microspheres production, nuclear activation through (n,γ) nuclear reactions, mechanical characterization before and after irradiation. Corrosion tests in simulated human plasma and mechanical properties characterization were done before and after irradiation. (author) [es

  19. Method for sizing hollow microspheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnum, E.H.; Fries, R.J.

    1975-10-29

    Hollow Microspheres may be effectively sized by placing them beneath a screen stack completely immersed in an ultrasonic bath containing a liquid having a density at which the microspheres float and ultrasonically agitating the bath.

  20. Ceramic microspheres for cementing applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2011-01-01

    A method and apparatus for manufacturing ceramic microspheres from industrial slag. The microspheres have a particle size of about 38 microns to about 150 microns. The microspheres are used to create a cement slurry having a density of at least about 11 lbs/g. The resultant cement slurry may then be

  1. Ceramic microspheres for cementing applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    A method and apparatus for manufacturing ceramic microspheres from industrial slag. The microspheres have a particle size of about 38 microns to about 150 microns. The microspheres are used to create a cement slurry having a density of at least about 11 lbs/g. The resultant cement slurry may then be

  2. Ceramic microspheres for cementing applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2012-01-01

    A method and apparatus for manufacturing ceramic microspheres from industrial slag. The microspheres have a particle size of about 38 microns to about 150 microns. The microspheres are used to create a cement slurry having a density of at least about 11 lbs/g. The resultant cement slurry may then be

  3. Preparation of alumina microspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, W.R. dos; Abrao, A.

    1980-01-01

    Inorganic exchangers are widely used for adsorption and column partition chromatography. The main difficulty of using commercial alumina (in powder) for column chromatography is related to its packing, and the operations through the column become diffcult and time-consuming; also it turns to be virtually impossible to use large dimension columns. In order to eliminate these problems, a process for the preparation of alumina micro-spheres was developed as an adaptation of a similar process used to prepare nuclear fuel microspheres (UO 2 , ThO 2 ). The flowsheet of this process is presented together with the analytical results of sphericity after calcination, granulometry, density and characterization by X-ray diffractometry. Solubility tests showed that the so-prepared microspheres are well resistant to strong acids and bases; retention tests showed their efficiency, mainly to copper. (C.L.B.) [pt

  4. Silicon Microspheres Photonics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serpenguzel, A.

    2008-01-01

    Electrophotonic integrated circuits (EPICs), or alternatively, optoelectronic integrated circuit (OEICs) are the natural evolution of the microelectronic integrated circuit (IC) with the addition of photonic capabilities. Traditionally, the IC industry has been based on group IV silicon, whereas the photonics industry on group III-V semiconductors. However, silicon based photonic microdevices have been making strands in siliconizing photonics. Silicon microspheres with their high quality factor whispering gallery modes (WGMs), are ideal candidates for wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) applications in the standard near-infrared communication bands. In this work, we will discuss the possibility of using silicon microspheres for photonics applications in the near-infrared

  5. Hierarchical CdIn{sub 2}S{sub 4} microspheres wrapped by mesoporous g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} ultrathin nanosheets with enhanced visible light driven photocatalytic reduction activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Wei; Huang, Ting; Hua, Yu-Xiang; Liu, Tian-Yu [Key Laboratory of Education Ministry for Soft Chemistry and Functional Materials, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); Liu, Xiao-Heng, E-mail: xhliu@mail.njust.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Education Ministry for Soft Chemistry and Functional Materials, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); Chen, Shen-Ming, E-mail: smchen78@ms15.hinet.net [Electroanalysis and Bioelectrochemistry Lab, Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, National Taipei University of Technology, No. 1, Section 3, Chung-Hsiao East Road, Taipei 106, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2016-12-15

    In this investigation, a series of hierarchical CdIn{sub 2}S{sub 4}/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} nanocomposites were firstly synthesized by a facile one-pot hydrothermal strategy, wherein the mesoporous g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} nanosheets were in-situ self-wrapped onto CdIn{sub 2}S{sub 4} nanosheets. Systematic characterization by XRD, FT-IR, UV-vis DRS, SEM, TEM, HAAF-STEM, XPS, photoelectrochemical tests were employed to analyze the phase structure, chemical composition, morphology and photocatalytic mechanism. The application, including photo-redox reaction and photocatalytic water splitting, were used to estimate the photocatalytic activity of as-obtained CdIn{sub 2}S{sub 4}/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} nanocomposites. The results indicate that CdIn{sub 2}S{sub 4}/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} heterostructures exhibit more efficient improvement of the photocatalytic performances towards photo-reduction of 4-NA to corresponding 4-PDA and photocatalytic H{sub 2} generation from water splitting than these counterparts as results of construction of intimate interfacial contact, which would promote the separation of photo-generated holes and electrons. Meanwhile, benefitting from the excellent surface wrap, the CdIn{sub 2}S{sub 4}/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} nanocomposites possess notable enhanced photocatalytic stability. This research may provide a promising way to fabricate highly efficient photocatalysts with excellent stability and expand the application of CdIn{sub 2}S{sub 4} in fine chemical engineering.

  6. Synthesis of magnetic polymeric microspheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gervald, A Yu; Gritskova, Inessa A; Prokopov, Nikolai I [M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State Academy of Fine Chemical Technology, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2010-05-13

    The key types of magnetic polymeric microspheres are considered. Methods of synthesis of different types of magnetic nanoparticles and of preparation of stable magnetic fluids on their basis are outlined. The overview of the methods for the manufacture of magnetic polymeric microspheres is presented. The effect of the synthesis conditions on the characteristics of magnetic polymeric microspheres such as the diameter and the particle size distribution and the content of magnetic material is discussed by particular examples. The application fields of magnetic polymeric microspheres are briefly surveyed.

  7. Synthesis of magnetic polymeric microspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gervald, A Yu; Gritskova, Inessa A; Prokopov, Nikolai I

    2010-01-01

    The key types of magnetic polymeric microspheres are considered. Methods of synthesis of different types of magnetic nanoparticles and of preparation of stable magnetic fluids on their basis are outlined. The overview of the methods for the manufacture of magnetic polymeric microspheres is presented. The effect of the synthesis conditions on the characteristics of magnetic polymeric microspheres such as the diameter and the particle size distribution and the content of magnetic material is discussed by particular examples. The application fields of magnetic polymeric microspheres are briefly surveyed.

  8. Review: microspheres for radioembolization therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Mingqiang; Xu Shuhe

    2007-12-01

    Radioembolization of liver cancer has been proven to be an effective therapy in nuclear medicine. The yttrium-90 glass microspheres has been used to treat both primary and metastatic liver tumors in clinic which shown encouraging results. The preparation, stability, degradation and application for medical purpose of radioactive microspheres are reviewed. At first, the theory of radioem- bolization treating cancer is discussed; and then three major radiolabled micro- sphere materials are expounded: viz. glass, resin-based and polymer-based; Future improvements in the preparation and use of radioactive microspheres are prospected at last. (authors)

  9. Review: microspheres for radioembolization therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mingqiang, Zhao; Shuhe, Xu [China Inst. of Atomic Energy, Beijing (China)

    2007-12-15

    Radioembolization of liver cancer has been proven to be an effective therapy in nuclear medicine. The yttrium-90 glass microspheres has been used to treat both primary and metastatic liver tumors in clinic which shown encouraging results. The preparation, stability, degradation and application for medical purpose of radioactive microspheres are reviewed. At first, the theory of radioem- bolization treating cancer is discussed; and then three major radiolabled micro- sphere materials are expounded: viz. glass, resin-based and polymer-based; Future improvements in the preparation and use of radioactive microspheres are prospected at last. (authors)

  10. Two-Phase Diffusion Technique for the Preparation of Ultramacroporous/Mesoporous Silica Microspheres via Interface Hydrolysis, Diffusion, and Gelation of TEOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Minhua; Li, Yupeng; Yu, Liang; Wang, Chongqing; Zhang, Lixiong

    2018-02-06

    Honeycombed hierarchical ultramacroporous/mesoporous silica microspheres were prepared via the hydrolysis of TEOS in the oil-water interface, with subsequent diffusion and gelation in the acidic water-phase microdroplets with the assistance of a simple homemade microdevice. The diffusion of furfuryl alcohol (FA) also happened at a relatively high rate during the hydrolysis and diffusion of TEOS. Therefore, plenty of FA will be inside of the water microdroplets and form a decent number of polyfurfuryl alcohol (PFA) microparticles, thereby obtaining honeycombed hierarchical porosity silica microspheres with abundant ultramacroporous cavities and mesopores after calcination. It was found that the concentration of FA, residence time, and reaction temperature have significant effects on the porosity and pore size due to the influence on the diffusion rate and amount of FA in water-phase microdroplets. The honeycombed silica microspheres have obvious microscopic visible ultramacroporous cavities with the submicrometer cavity diameter as high as 85% porosity based on the rough overall volume of microsphere. N 2 adsorption-desorption isotherms show that the honeycombed hierarchical porosity silica microspheres have a high surface area of 602 m 2 g -1 , a mesopore volume of 0.77 cm 3 /g, and a mesopore porosity of 99.6% based on the total pore volume of N 2 adsorption-desorption. On the basis of the experiment results, a rational formation process of the honeycombed hierarchical porosity silica microspheres was deduced.

  11. Fabrication of hierarchical β-Co (OH) 2 microspheres via ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... diameter assembled from nanoplate building blocks were successfully fabricated via a hydrothermal process in the presence of a cation surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). The products are characterized in detail by multiform techniques: X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive ...

  12. Gastroretentive Floating Microspheres of Silymarin: Preparation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Cellulose microspheres – formulated with hydroxylpropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) and ethyl cellulose (EC) – and Eudragit microspheres – formulated with Eudragit® S 100 (ES) and Eudragit® RL (ERL) - were prepared by an emulsion-solvent evaporation method. The floating microspheres were evaluated for flow ...

  13. Temperature influence in crystallinity of polymer microspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezende, Cristiane de P.; Novack, Katia M.

    2011-01-01

    Drug delivery technology is evolving through the creation of new techniques of drug delivery effectively. The new methods used in drugs administration are based in microencapsulation process. Microsphere encapsulation modifies drug delivery bringing benefits and efficiency. In this work has been evaluated the influence of temperature in microspheres preparation. Microspheres were obtained by PMMA-co-PEG (COP) copolymer with indomethacin inserted in polymer matrix. Samples were characterized by SEM, DSC and XRD. SEM micrographs confirmed the formation of different sizes of microspheres and it was verified that higher temperatures make more crystalline microspheres. (author)

  14. Controllable growth of MoS{sub 2}/C flower-like microspheres with enhanced electrochemical performance for lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, Q.Q., E-mail: zjxqq@hdu.edu.cn; Ji, Z.G.

    2016-07-15

    Tailored design/fabrication of hierarchical porous advanced electrodes is of great importance for developing high-performance power sources. Herein, we report a facile solvothermal method for fabrication of hierarchical porous MoS{sub 2}/C flower-like microspheres. Interestingly, the obtained MoS{sub 2}/C microspheres are composed of interconnected secondary thin nanoflakes and an amorphous carbon layer. As an anode material for lithium ion batteries, the resultant MoS{sub 2}/C flower-like microspheres electrode delivers a high specific capacity of 1125.9 mAh g{sup −1} and good cycle capability (916.6 mAh g{sup −1} at 200 mA g{sup −1} up to 400 cycles), as well as enhanced rate performance. The excellent electrochemical performance is attributed to the unique porous composite architecture with fast transportation of ion/electron and good strain accommodation during the lithiation/delithiation reaction. Our research may pave the way for construction of other high-performance metal sulfides electrodes for electrochemical energy storage. - Graphical abstract: We report a facile solvothermal method for fabrication of hierarchical porous MoS{sub 2}/C flower-like microspheres composed of interconnected thin nanoflakes and an amorphous carbon layer. As an anode material for LIBs, MoS{sub 2}/C flower-like microspheres electrode delivers enhanced electrochemical performance. - Highlights: • We prepared MoS{sub 2}/C flower-like microspheres via a facile solvothermal method. • The microsphere consists of interconnected nanoflake and an amorphous carbon layer. • The MoS{sub 2}/C microspheres show high capacity and good rate performance.

  15. Development of Risperidone PLGA Microspheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan D’Souza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to design and evaluate biodegradable PLGA microspheres for sustained delivery of Risperidone, with an eventual goal of avoiding combination therapy for the treatment of schizophrenia. Two PLGA copolymers (50 : 50 and 75 : 25 were used to prepare four microsphere formulations of Risperidone. The microspheres were characterized by several in vitro techniques. In vivo studies in male Sprague-Dawley rats at 20 and 40 mg/kg doses revealed that all formulations exhibited an initial burst followed by sustained release of the active moiety. Additionally, formulations prepared with 50 : 50 PLGA had a shorter duration of action and lower cumulative AUC levels than the 75 : 25 PLGA microspheres. A simulation of multiple dosing at weekly or 15-day regimen revealed pulsatile behavior for all formulations with steady state being achieved by the second dose. Overall, the clinical use of Formulations A, B, C, or D will eliminate the need for combination oral therapy and reduce time to achieve steady state, with a smaller washout period upon cessation of therapy. Results of this study prove the suitability of using PLGA copolymers of varying composition and molecular weight to develop sustained release formulations that can tailor in vivo behavior and enhance pharmacological effectiveness of the drug.

  16. Preparing microspheres of actinide nitrides from carbon containing oxide sols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triggiani, L.V.

    1975-01-01

    A process is given for preparing uranium nitride, uranium oxynitride, and uranium carboxynitride microspheres and the microspheres as compositions of matter. The microspheres are prepared from carbide sols by reduction and nitriding steps. (Official Gazette)

  17. Chitosan Microspheres as Radiolabeled Delivery Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Permtermsin, Chalermsin; Ngamprayad, Tippanan; Phumkhem, Sudkanung; Srinuttrakul, Wannee; Kewsuwan, Prartana

    2007-08-01

    Full text: This study optimized conditions for preparing, characterizing, radiolabeled of chitosan microspheres and the biodistribution of 99mTc-Chitosan microspheres after intravenous administration. Particle size distribution of the microspheres was determined by light scattering. Zeta potential was studied by dynamic light scattering and electrophoresis technique. Biodistribution studies were performed by radiolabeling using 99mTc. The results shown that geometric mean diameter of the microspheres was found to be 77.26?1.96 ?m. Microsphere surface charge of chitosan microspheres was positive charge and zeta potential was 25.80 ? 0.46 mV. The labeling efficiency for this condition was more than 95% and under this condition was stable for at least 6 h. Radioactivity

  18. In vitro Evaluation of Nateglinide-Loaded Microspheres Formulated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Nateglinide, Microspheres, Micromeritics, Drug release, Ionic ... Oral drug delivery systems (DDS) are commonly divided into immediate release and modified release systems. ..... Albumin Microspheres for Potential Intramuscular.

  19. Evaluation of radiolabelled microspheres as digesta markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, B.A.; Turner, B.V.; Dixon, A.E.; Exley, D.M.; Young, S.B.; Abidin, Z.

    1991-01-01

    The suitability of microspheres as markers for measuring digesta kinetics in sheep was examined. Microspheres offer advantages of uniformity of size and density, and stability during passage through the gastrointestinal tract. They are commercially available labelled with the choice of one of eleven different radionuclides and can be easily measured in digesta and faecal material. Tests comparing several types of digesta markers gave different measures of kinetic parameters when the measurements were made concurrently in the same sheep. However, concurrent measurements derived from use of microspheres were consistent. Microspheres offer a new alternative for digestive studies. (author). 19 refs, 4 tabs

  20. Fabrication of biomimetic superhydrophobic surface using hierarchical polyaniline spheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiaofei; Wang, Jixiao; Zhao, Yanchai; Wang, Zhi; Wang, Shichang

    2011-06-01

    Wettability and water-adhesion behavior are the most important properties of solid surfaces from both fundamental and practical aspects. Here, the biomimetic superhydrophobic surface was fabricated via a simple coating process using polyaniline (PANI) microspheres which is covered with PANI nanowires as functional component, and poly-vinyl butyral (PVB, poly-vinyl alcohol crosslinked with n-butylaldehyde) as PANI microsphere adhering improvement agent to the substrate. The obtained surface displays superhydrophobic behavior without any modification with low-surface-energy materials such as thiol- or fluoroalkylsilane. The effects of coating process and the content of PANI microspheres on superhydropbobic behavior were discussed. Combine contact angle, water-adhesion measurements, scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) observations with selected areas energy dispersion spectrometer (EDS), the hydrophobic mechanism was proposed. The superhydrophobicity is attributed to a hierarchical morphology of PANI microspheres and the nature of the material itself. In addition, induced by van der Waals forces, the created superhydrophobic surface here shows the strong water-adhesion behavior. The surface has the combination performance of Lotus leaf and gecko's pad. The special wettability would be of great significance to the liquid microtransport in microfluid devices. The experimental results show that the ordinary coating process is a facile approach for fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces.

  1. Glass microspheres for medical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conzone, Samuel David

    Radioactive dysprosium lithium borate glass microspheres have been developed as biodegradable radiation delivery vehicles for the radiation synovectomy treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Once injected into a diseased joint, the microspheres deliver a potent dose of radiation to the diseased tissue, while a non-uniform chemical reaction converts the glass into an amorphous, porous, hydrated dysprosium phosphate reaction product. The non-radioactive, lithium-borate component is dissolved from the glass (up to 94% weight loss), while the radioactive 165Dy reacts with phosphate anions in the body fluids, and becomes "chemically" trapped in a solid, dysprosium phosphate reaction product that has the same size as the un-reacted glass microsphere. Ethylene diamine tetraacetate (EDTA) chelation therapy can be used to dissolve the dysprosium phosphate reaction product after the radiation delivery has subsided. The dysprosium phosphate reaction product, which formed in vivo in the joint of a Sprague-Dawley rat, was dissolved by EDTA chelation therapy in 100 Gy) of localized beta radiation to a treatment site within the body, followed by complete biodegradability. The non-uniform reaction process is a desirable characteristic for a biodegradable radiation delivery vehicle, but it is also a novel material synthesis technique that can convert a glass to a highly porous materials with widely varying chemical composition by simple, low-temperature, glass/solution reaction. The reaction product formed by nonuniform reaction occupies the same volume as the un-reacted glass, and after drying for 1 h at 300°C, has a specific surface area of ≈200 m2/g, a pore size of ≈30 nm, and a nominal crushing strength of ≈10 MPa. Finally, rhenium glass microspheres, composed of micron-sized, metallic rhenium particles dispersed within a magnesium alumino borate glass matrix were produced by sintering ReO2 powder and glass frit at 1050°C. A 50 mg injection of radioactive rhenium glass

  2. Microsphere estimates of blood flow: Methodological considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    von Ritter, C.; Hinder, R.A.; Womack, W.; Bauerfeind, P.; Fimmel, C.J.; Kvietys, P.R.; Granger, D.N.; Blum, A.L.

    1988-01-01

    The microsphere technique is a standard method for measuring blood flow in experimental animals. Sporadic reports have appeared outlining the limitations of this method. In this study the authors have systematically assessed the effect of blood withdrawals for reference sampling, microsphere numbers, and anesthesia on blood flow estimates using radioactive microspheres in dogs. Experiments were performed on 18 conscious and 12 anesthetized dogs. Four blood flow estimates were performed over 120 min using 1 x 10 6 microspheres each time. The effects of excessive numbers of microspheres pentobarbital sodium anesthesia, and replacement of volume loss for reference samples with dextran 70 were assessed. In both conscious and anesthetized dogs a progressive decrease in gastric mucosal blood flow and cardiac output was observed over 120 min. This was also observed in the pancreas in conscious dogs. The major factor responsible for these changes was the volume loss due to the reference sample withdrawals. Replacement of the withdrawn blood with dextran 70 led to stable blood flows to all organs. The injection of excessive numbers of microspheres did not modify hemodynamics to a greater extent than did the injection of 4 million microspheres. Anesthesia exerted no influence on blood flow other than raising coronary flow. The authors conclude that although blood flow to the gastric mucosa and the pancreas is sensitive to the minor hemodynamic changes associated with the microsphere technique, replacement of volume loss for reference samples ensures stable blood flow to all organs over a 120-min period

  3. Thermal analysis of iron hydroxide microspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turcanu, C.N.; Cornescu, M.

    1979-03-01

    The thermal treatment is an important step in the preparative technology of the iron oxids microspheres with well established mechanical, physical and chemical characteristics. The first indications on the heating procedure have been obtained from the thermal analysis on iron hydroxide microspheres prepared by the support precipitation and internal gelification methods. (author)

  4. Encapsulated PDMS microspheres with reactive handles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez, Lidia; Ma, Baoguang; Li, Li

    2014-01-01

    , cured PDMS microspheres are coated with poly(methyl methacrylate) using a chemical process (solvent evaporation technique). Three solvents are used in three different experiments: dichloromethane, tetrahydrofuran, and acetone. The composition and morphology of the cured PDMS microspheres and PMMA coated...

  5. Microencapsulation and microspheres for food applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sagis, L.M.C.

    2015-01-01

    This book provides an update on the latest developments, challenges, and opportunities in the highly expanding field of microencapsulation and microspheres for food applications, examining the various types of microspheres and microcapsules essential to those who need to develop stable and

  6. U3O8 microspheres sintering kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godoy, A.L.E.

    1986-01-01

    U 3 O 8 microspheres sintering kinetics was determined using a hot-stage optical microscopy apparatus, able to reach temperature up to 1350 0 C in controlled atmospheres. The sintered material had its microstructure analysed by optical and electron microscopy. The microspheres were characterized initialy utilizing X-ray diffractometry and thermogravimetry. The equation which describes the microspheres shrinkage in function of the time was obtained using finite difference analysis X-ray diffractometry indicated hexagonal structure for the microspheres main starting material, ammonium diuranate thermogravimetric analysis showed reduction of this material to U 3 O 8 at 600 0 C. Ceramography results showed 5 hours sintered microspheres grain sizes G vary with the temperature. Sintered U 3 O 8 micrographs compared with published results for UO 2 , indicate similar homogeneity microstructural characteristics and suggest the processed micorspheres to be potentially useful as nuclear fuels. (Author) [pt

  7. Magnetic susceptibility characterisation of superparamagnetic microspheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grob, David Tim; Wise, Naomi; Oduwole, Olayinka; Sheard, Steve

    2018-04-01

    The separation of magnetic materials in microsystems using magnetophoresis has increased in popularity. The wide variety and availability of magnetic beads has fuelled this drive. It is important to know the magnetic characteristics of the microspheres in order to accurately use them in separation processes integrated on a lab-on-a-chip device. To investigate the magnetic susceptibility of magnetic microspheres, the magnetic responsiveness of three types of Dynabeads microspheres were tested using two different approaches. The magnetophoretic mobility of individual microspheres is studied using a particle tracking system and the magnetization of each type of Dynabeads microsphere is measured using SQUID relaxometry. The magnetic beads' susceptibility is obtained at four different applied magnetic fields in the range of 38-70 mT for both the mobility and SQUID measurements. The susceptibility values in both approaches show a consistent magnetic field dependence.

  8. Hierarchical ZnO with twinned structure: Morphology evolution, formation mechanism and properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Ruixia; Song, Xueling; Li, Jia; Yang, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Various hierarchical ZnO architectures constructed by twinned structures have been synthesized via a trisodium citrate assisted hydrothermal method on a large scale. The probable formation mechanisms of hierarchical ZnO structures with twinned structure were proposed and discussed. The hierarchical ZnO with twinned structures are composed of two hemispheres with a center concave junction to join them together at their waists. The ZnO microspheres with rough surfaces were obtained when the concentration of trisodium citrate is 0.1 M. However, the football-like microspheres consisted of hexagonal nanosheets were formed when adding glycerol into the water, which should be attributed to the slower nucleation and growth rate of nanocrystals. The hamburger-like ZnO with different aspect ratio and nonuniform ZnO microspheres were generated due to the different quantity of initial nuclei and growth units when simply modulating the concentration of trisodium citrate. The surface area of football-like ZnO is about 3.51 times of microspheres composed of irregular particles. However their photocatalytic performances are similar under UV light irradiation, which indicates that pore sizes of the sample have more important influences on the photocatalytic activity. - Highlights: • Hierarchical ZnO constructed by twinned structures have been synthesized. • The formation mechanisms of ZnO with twinned structure were discussed. • Football-like microspheres were obtained due to the slower nucleation and growth. • Hamburger-like ZnO was formed due to the amount of initial nuclei and growth units. • Pore sizes have important effects on the photocatalytic activity of sample

  9. Hierarchical ZnO with twinned structure: Morphology evolution, formation mechanism and properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Ruixia; Song, Xueling; Li, Jia; Yang, Ping, E-mail: mse_yangp@ujn.edu.cn

    2015-04-15

    Various hierarchical ZnO architectures constructed by twinned structures have been synthesized via a trisodium citrate assisted hydrothermal method on a large scale. The probable formation mechanisms of hierarchical ZnO structures with twinned structure were proposed and discussed. The hierarchical ZnO with twinned structures are composed of two hemispheres with a center concave junction to join them together at their waists. The ZnO microspheres with rough surfaces were obtained when the concentration of trisodium citrate is 0.1 M. However, the football-like microspheres consisted of hexagonal nanosheets were formed when adding glycerol into the water, which should be attributed to the slower nucleation and growth rate of nanocrystals. The hamburger-like ZnO with different aspect ratio and nonuniform ZnO microspheres were generated due to the different quantity of initial nuclei and growth units when simply modulating the concentration of trisodium citrate. The surface area of football-like ZnO is about 3.51 times of microspheres composed of irregular particles. However their photocatalytic performances are similar under UV light irradiation, which indicates that pore sizes of the sample have more important influences on the photocatalytic activity. - Highlights: • Hierarchical ZnO constructed by twinned structures have been synthesized. • The formation mechanisms of ZnO with twinned structure were discussed. • Football-like microspheres were obtained due to the slower nucleation and growth. • Hamburger-like ZnO was formed due to the amount of initial nuclei and growth units. • Pore sizes have important effects on the photocatalytic activity of sample.

  10. Progress in Preparation of Monodisperse Polymer Microspheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongyan

    2017-12-01

    The monodisperse crosslinked polymer microspheres have attracted much attention because of their superior thermal and solvent resistance, mechanical strength, surface activity and adsorption properties. They are of wide prospects for using in many fields such as biomedicine, electronic science, information technology, analytical chemistry, standard measurement and environment protection etc. Functional polymer microspheres prepared by different methods have the outstanding surface property, quantum size effect and good potential future in applications with its designable structure, controlled size and large ratio of surface to volume. Scholars of all over the world have focused on this hot topic. The preparation method and research progress in functional polymer microspheres are addressed in the paper.

  11. Evaluation of Controlled Release Theophylline Microspheres ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    High drug/polymer ratio, low processing temperature and low HLB value of ... Keywords: Microsphere, Emulsion solvent evaporation, Theophylline, Temperature, ... evaporation, stirring rate, viscosity of ... organic solvent is removed from the.

  12. Easy synthesis of hierarchical carbon spheres with superior capacitive performance in supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xinhua; Kim, Seok; Heo, Min Seon; Kim, Ji Eun; Suh, Hongsuk; Kim, Il

    2013-10-01

    An easy template-free approach to the fabrication of pure carbon microspheres has been achieved via direct pyrolysis of as-prepared polyaromatic hydrocarbons including polynaphthalene and polypyrene. The polyaromatics were synthesized from aromatic hydrocarbons (AHCs) using anhydrous zinc chloride as the Friedel-Crafts catalyst and chloromethyl methyl ether as a cross-linker. The experimental results show that the methylene bridges between phenyl rings generate a hierarchical porous polyaromatic precursor to form three-dimensionally (3D) interconnected micro-, meso-, and macroporous networks during carbonization. These hierarchical porous carbon aggregates of spherical carbon spheres exhibit faster ion transport/diffusion behavior and increased surface area usage in electric double-layer capacitors. Furthermore, micropores are present in the 3D interconnected network inside the cross-linked AHC-based carbon microspheres, thus imparting an exceptionally large, electrochemically accessible surface area for charge accumulation.

  13. Self-templated Synthesis of Nickel Silicate Hydroxide/Reduced Graphene Oxide Composite Hollow Microspheres as Highly Stable Supercapacitor Electrode Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanhua; Zhou, Wenjie; Yu, Hong; Feng, Tong; Pu, Yong; Liu, Hongdong; Xiao, Wei; Tian, Liangliang

    2017-12-01

    Nickel silicate hydroxide/reduced graphene oxide (Ni 3 Si 2 O 5 (OH) 4 /RGO) composite hollow microspheres were one-pot hydrothermally synthesized by employing graphene oxide (GO)-wrapped SiO 2 microspheres as the template and silicon source, which were prepared through sonication-assisted interfacial self-assembly of tiny GO sheets on positively charged SiO 2 substrate microspheres. The composition, morphology, structure, and phase of Ni 3 Si 2 O 5 (OH) 4 /RGO microspheres as well as their electrochemical properties were carefully studied. It was found that Ni 3 Si 2 O 5 (OH) 4 /RGO microspheres featured distinct hierarchical porous morphology with hollow architecture and a large specific surface area as high as 67.6 m 2  g -1 . When utilized as a supercapacitor electrode material, Ni 3 Si 2 O 5 (OH) 4 /RGO hollow microspheres released a maximum specific capacitance of 178.9 F g -1 at the current density of 1 A g -1 , which was much higher than that of the contrastive bare Ni 3 Si 2 O 5 (OH) 4 hollow microspheres and bare RGO material developed in this work, displaying enhanced supercapacitive behavior. Impressively, the Ni 3 Si 2 O 5 (OH) 4 /RGO microsphere electrode exhibited outstanding rate capability and long-term cycling stability and durability with 97.6% retention of the initial capacitance after continuous charging/discharging for up to 5000 cycles at the current density of 6 A g -1 , which is superior or comparable to that of most of other reported nickel-based electrode materials, hence showing promising application potential in the energy storage area.

  14. PLGA/alginate composite microspheres for hydrophilic protein delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhai, Peng; Chen, X.B.; Schreyer, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres and PLGA/alginate composite microspheres were prepared by a novel double emulsion and solvent evaporation technique and loaded with bovine serum albumin (BSA) or rabbit anti-laminin antibody protein. The addition of alginate and the use of a surfactant during microsphere preparation increased the encapsulation efficiency and reduced the initial burst release of hydrophilic BSA. Confocal laser scanning microcopy (CLSM) of BSA-loaded PLGA/alginate composite microspheres showed that PLGA, alginate, and BSA were distributed throughout the depths of microspheres; no core/shell structure was observed. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that PLGA microspheres erode and degrade more quickly than PLGA/alginate composite microspheres. When loaded with anti-laminin antibody, the function of released antibody was well preserved in both PLGA and PLGA/alginate composite microspheres. The biocompatibility of PLGA and PLGA/alginate microspheres were examined using four types of cultured cell lines, representing different tissue types. Cell survival was variably affected by the inclusion of alginate in composite microspheres, possibly due to the sensitivity of different cell types to excess calcium that may be released from the calcium cross-linked alginate. - Highlights: • A double emulsion technique is used to prepare protein-loaded PLGA or PLGA/alginate microspheres. • PLGA, alginate and protein are distributed evenly within microsphere structure. • Addition of alginate improves loading efficiency and slows degradation and protein release. • PLGA/alginate microspheres have favorable biocompatibility

  15. PLGA/alginate composite microspheres for hydrophilic protein delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhai, Peng [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Saskatchewan, S7N5E5 (Canada); Division of Biomedical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, S7N5A9 (Canada); Chen, X.B. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, S7N5A9 (Canada); Division of Biomedical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, S7N5A9 (Canada); Schreyer, David J., E-mail: david.schreyer@usask.ca [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Saskatchewan, S7N5E5 (Canada); Division of Biomedical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, S7N5A9 (Canada)

    2015-11-01

    Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres and PLGA/alginate composite microspheres were prepared by a novel double emulsion and solvent evaporation technique and loaded with bovine serum albumin (BSA) or rabbit anti-laminin antibody protein. The addition of alginate and the use of a surfactant during microsphere preparation increased the encapsulation efficiency and reduced the initial burst release of hydrophilic BSA. Confocal laser scanning microcopy (CLSM) of BSA-loaded PLGA/alginate composite microspheres showed that PLGA, alginate, and BSA were distributed throughout the depths of microspheres; no core/shell structure was observed. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that PLGA microspheres erode and degrade more quickly than PLGA/alginate composite microspheres. When loaded with anti-laminin antibody, the function of released antibody was well preserved in both PLGA and PLGA/alginate composite microspheres. The biocompatibility of PLGA and PLGA/alginate microspheres were examined using four types of cultured cell lines, representing different tissue types. Cell survival was variably affected by the inclusion of alginate in composite microspheres, possibly due to the sensitivity of different cell types to excess calcium that may be released from the calcium cross-linked alginate. - Highlights: • A double emulsion technique is used to prepare protein-loaded PLGA or PLGA/alginate microspheres. • PLGA, alginate and protein are distributed evenly within microsphere structure. • Addition of alginate improves loading efficiency and slows degradation and protein release. • PLGA/alginate microspheres have favorable biocompatibility.

  16. Preparation and surface modification of hierarchical nanosheets-based ZnO microstructures for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Yongming; Lin, Yu, E-mail: linyuyrr@163.com; Lin, Yibing; Yang, Jiyuan

    2014-02-15

    This paper reports a simple one-step hydrothermal route for the preparation of hierarchical nanosheets-based ZnO microstructures and their application to dye-sensitized solar cells. The morphologies of the products were controlled by the dosage of the reactants. Their physical characteristics were detected by X-ray diffraction, a field-emission scanning electron microscope and a surface analyzer. It is proved that the sample of ZnO microspheres with larger surface area and stronger light-trapping capacity since the superiority of their entirely spherical structures exhibits better photoelectrochemical properties than the mixtures of ZnO microspheres and ZnO microflowers. A dye-sensitized solar cell assembled by the ZnO microspheres as photoanode shows an energy conversion efficiency of 2.94% after surface modification by tetrabutyl titanate solution at 90 {sup °}C. This result is over 1.6 times higher than the non-modified cell fabricated by the ZnO microspheres on the basis of the external improvement and the stability enhancement for the dye-sensitized ZnO photoanode. - Graphical abstract: Influences on energy conversion efficiency of the dye-sensitized solar cells assembled by decorating hierarchical nanosheets-based ZnO microstructures with tetrabutyl titanate solution at different temperatures. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Hierarchical nanosheets-based ZnO microstructures were controllably synthesized. • The ZnO microspheres show good optical and electrochemical properties. • The ZnO microspheres were modified by C{sub 16}H{sub 36}O{sub 4}Ti solution. • Remarkable increase of conversion efficiency is observed after surface modification.

  17. DEGRADATION AND INTRAHEPATIC COMPATIBILITY OF ALBUMIN-HEPARIN CONJUGATE MICROSPHERES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    CREMERS, HFM; WOLF, RFE; BLAAUW, EH; SCHAKENRAAD, JM; LAM, KH; NIEUWENHUIS, P; VERRIJK, R; KWON, G; BAE, YH; KIM, SW; FEIJEN, J

    The in vitro degradation properties of glutaraldehyde cross-linked albumin and albumin-heparin conjugate microspheres (AMS and AHCMS respectively) were evaluated using light microscopy, turbidity measurements and heparin release determinations, showing that the microspheres are degraded by

  18. Biocompatibility of Polyhydroxybutyrate Microspheres: in vitro and in vivo Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Shishatskaya, Ekaterina I.; Voinova, Olga N.; Goreva, Anastasya V.; Mogilnaya, Olga A.; Volova, Tatiana G.

    2008-01-01

    Microspheres have been prepared from the resorbable linear polyester of β-hydroxybutyric acid (polyhydroxybutyrate, PHB) by the solvent evaporation technique and investigated in vitro and in vivo. Biocompatibility of the microspheres has been proved in tests in the culture of mouse fibroblast cell line NIH 3Т3 and in experiments on intramuscular implantation of the microspheres to Wistar rats for 3 months. Tissue response to the implantation of polymeric microspheres has been found to consist...

  19. Biomineralized multifunctional magnetite/carbon microspheres for applications in Li-ion batteries and water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Hyun-Woo; Park, Sangbaek; Song, Hee Jo; Kim, Jae-Chan; Jang, Eunjin; Hong, Kug Sun; Kim, T Doohun; Kim, Dong-Wan

    2015-03-16

    Advanced functional materials incorporating well-defined multiscale architectures are a key focus for multiple nanotechnological applications. However, strategies for developing such materials, including nanostructuring, nano-/microcombination, hybridization, and so on, are still being developed. Here, we report a facile, scalable biomineralization process in which Micrococcus lylae bacteria are used as soft templates to synthesize 3D hierarchically structured magnetite (Fe3O4) microspheres for use as Li-ion battery anode materials and in water treatment applications. Self-assembled Fe3O4 microspheres with flower-like morphologies are systematically fabricated from biomineralized 2D FeO(OH) nanoflakes at room temperature and are subsequently subjected to post-annealing at 400 °C. In particular, because of their mesoporous properties with a hollow interior and the improved electrical conductivity resulting from the carbonized bacterial templates, the Fe3 O4 microspheres obtained by calcining the FeO(OH) in Ar exhibit enhanced cycle stability and rate capability as Li-ion battery anodes, as well as superior adsorption of organic pollutants and toxic heavy metals. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Preparation and Characterization of Sugar Cane Wax Microspheres ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and characterize indomethacin (IM) microspheres prepared with sugar cane wax microsperes. Methods: Microspheres were prepared by melt-emulsified dispersion and cooling-induced solidification method. The microspheres were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and differntial scanning calorimetry ...

  1. Preparation of polymer microspheres by radiation-induced polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naka, Y.; Yamamoto, Y.; Yoshida, Y.; Tagawa, S.

    1995-01-01

    Cross-liking monomer, diethylene glycol dimethacrylate gives microspheres from organic solution by radiation-induced polymerization. /One of the remarkable result is that the number of the microspheres is not changing during the polymerization. Ethyl methacrylate, maleic anhydride, styrene and acrylamide are used as comonomers. These comonomers give the microspheres in the range of 0 to 0.4 as mol fractions. (author)

  2. Flexible Microsphere-Embedded Film for Microsphere-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Cheng; Yan, Yinzhou; Feng, Chao; Xu, Jiayu; Dong, Peng; Guan, Wei; Zeng, Yong; Zhao, Yan; Jiang, Yijian

    2017-09-27

    Dielectric microspheres with extraordinary microscale optical properties, such as photonic nanojets, optical whispering-gallery modes (WGMs), and directional antennas, have drawn interest in many research fields. Microsphere-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (MERS) is an alternative approach for enhanced Raman detection by dielectric microstructures. Unfortunately, fabrication of microsphere monolayer arrays is the major challenge of MERS for practical applications on various specimen surfaces. Here we report a microsphere-embedded film (MF) by immersing a highly refractive microsphere monolayer array in the poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) film as a flexible MERS sensing platform for one- to three-dimensional (1D to 3D) specimen surfaces. The directional antennas and wave-guided whispering-gallery modes (WG-WGMs) contribute to the majority of Raman enhancement by the MFs. Moreover, the MF can be coupled with surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) to provide an extra >10-fold enhancement. The limit of detection is therefore improved for sensing of crystal violet (CV) and Sudan I molecules in aqueous solutions at concentrations down to 10 -7 M. A hybrid dual-layer microsphere enhancer, constructed by depositing a MF onto a microsphere monolayer array, is also demonstrated, wherein the WG-WGMs become dominant and boost the enhancement ratio >50-fold. The present work opens up new opportunities for design of cost-effective and flexible MERS sensing platforms as individual or associated techniques toward practical applications in ultrasensitive Raman detection.

  3. Biosensing by WGM Microspherical Resonators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giancarlo C. Righini

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Whispering gallery mode (WGM microresonators, thanks to their unique properties, have allowed researchers to achieve important results in both fundamental research and engineering applications. Among the various geometries, microspheres are the simplest 3D WGM resonators; the total optical loss in such resonators can be extremely low, and the resulting extraordinarily high Q values of 108–109 lead to high energy density, narrow resonant-wavelength lines and a lengthy cavity ringdown. They can also be coated in order to better control their properties or to increase their functionality. Their very high sensitivity to changes in the surrounding medium has been exploited for several sensing applications: protein adsorption, trace gas detection, impurity detection in liquids, structural health monitoring of composite materials, detection of electric fields, pressure sensing, and so on. In the present paper, after a general introduction to WGM resonators, attention is focused on spherical microresonators, either in bulk or in bubble format, to their fabrication, characterization and functionalization. The state of the art in the area of biosensing is presented, and the perspectives of further developments are discussed.

  4. Catalysis with hierarchical zeolites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Martin Spangsberg; Taarning, Esben; Egeblad, Kresten

    2011-01-01

    Hierarchical (or mesoporous) zeolites have attracted significant attention during the first decade of the 21st century, and so far this interest continues to increase. There have already been several reviews giving detailed accounts of the developments emphasizing different aspects of this research...... topic. Until now, the main reason for developing hierarchical zeolites has been to achieve heterogeneous catalysts with improved performance but this particular facet has not yet been reviewed in detail. Thus, the present paper summaries and categorizes the catalytic studies utilizing hierarchical...... zeolites that have been reported hitherto. Prototypical examples from some of the different categories of catalytic reactions that have been studied using hierarchical zeolite catalysts are highlighted. This clearly illustrates the different ways that improved performance can be achieved with this family...

  5. Hierarchical Network Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomadsen, Tommy

    2005-01-01

    Communication networks are immensely important today, since both companies and individuals use numerous services that rely on them. This thesis considers the design of hierarchical (communication) networks. Hierarchical networks consist of layers of networks and are well-suited for coping...... with changing and increasing demands. Two-layer networks consist of one backbone network, which interconnects cluster networks. The clusters consist of nodes and links, which connect the nodes. One node in each cluster is a hub node, and the backbone interconnects the hub nodes of each cluster and thus...... the clusters. The design of hierarchical networks involves clustering of nodes, hub selection, and network design, i.e. selection of links and routing of ows. Hierarchical networks have been in use for decades, but integrated design of these networks has only been considered for very special types of networks...

  6. Micromechanics of hierarchical materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mishnaevsky, Leon, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    A short overview of micromechanical models of hierarchical materials (hybrid composites, biomaterials, fractal materials, etc.) is given. Several examples of the modeling of strength and damage in hierarchical materials are summarized, among them, 3D FE model of hybrid composites...... with nanoengineered matrix, fiber bundle model of UD composites with hierarchically clustered fibers and 3D multilevel model of wood considered as a gradient, cellular material with layered composite cell walls. The main areas of research in micromechanics of hierarchical materials are identified, among them......, the investigations of the effects of load redistribution between reinforcing elements at different scale levels, of the possibilities to control different material properties and to ensure synergy of strengthening effects at different scale levels and using the nanoreinforcement effects. The main future directions...

  7. Programming with Hierarchical Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørbæk, Peter

    This report desribes the hierarchical maps used as a central data structure in the Corundum framework. We describe its most prominent features, ague for its usefulness and briefly describe some of the software prototypes implemented using the technology....

  8. Introduction into Hierarchical Matrices

    KAUST Repository

    Litvinenko, Alexander

    2013-12-05

    Hierarchical matrices allow us to reduce computational storage and cost from cubic to almost linear. This technique can be applied for solving PDEs, integral equations, matrix equations and approximation of large covariance and precision matrices.

  9. Introduction into Hierarchical Matrices

    KAUST Repository

    Litvinenko, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Hierarchical matrices allow us to reduce computational storage and cost from cubic to almost linear. This technique can be applied for solving PDEs, integral equations, matrix equations and approximation of large covariance and precision matrices.

  10. Scalable synthesis of mesoporous titania microspheres via spray-drying method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Manas; Wan, Li; Zhu, Yongheng; Liu, Yupu; Liu, Yang; Gao, Wenjun; Li, Yuhui; Zheng, Gengfeng; Elzatahry, Ahmed A; Alghamdi, Abdulaziz; Deng, Yonghui; Zhao, Dongyuan

    2016-10-01

    Mesoporous TiO2 has several potential applications due to its unique electronic and optical properties, although its structures and morphologies are typically difficult to tune because of its uncontrollable and fast sol-gel reaction. In this study we have coupled the template-directed-sol-gel-chemistry with the low-cost, scalable, and environmentally benign aerosol (spray-drying) one-pot preparation technique for the fabrication of hierarchically mesoporous TiO2 microspheres and Fe3O4@mesoporous TiO2-x microspheres in a large scale. Parameters during the pre-hydrolysis and spray-drying treatment were varied to successfully control the bead diameter, morphology, monodispersity, surface area and pore size for improving their effectiveness for better application. Unlike to the previous aerosol synthetic approaches, where mainly quite a high temperature gradient with the strict control of spray-drying precursor concentration is implied, our strategy is lying on comparatively low drying temperature with an additional post-ultrasonication (further hydrolysis and condensation) route of the pre-calcined TiO2 samples. As-synthesized mesoporous microspheres have a size distribution from 500nm to 5μm, specific surface areas ranging from 150 to 162m(2)g(-1) and mean pore sizes of several nanometers (4-6nm). Further Fe3O4@mesoporous TiO2-x microspheres were observed to show remarkable selective phosphopeptide-enrichment activity which might have significant importance in disease diagnosis and other biomedical applications. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Hydrogen transport and storage in engineered glass microspheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rambach, G.D.

    1995-04-18

    New, high strength glass microspheres filled with pressurized hydrogen exhibit densities which make them attractive for bulk hydrogen storage and transport. The membrane tensile stress at failure for our engineered glass microspheres is about 150,000 psi, permitting a threefold increase in pressure limit and storage capacity above commercial microspheres, which have been studied a decade ago and have been shown to fail at membrane stresses of 50,000 psi. Our analysis relating glass microspheres for hydrogen transport with infrastructure and economics, indicate that pressurized microspheres can be economically competitive with other forms of bulk rail and truck transport such as pressurized tube transports and liquid hydrogen trailers.

  12. A microsphere suspension model of metamaterial fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Duan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Drawing an analogy to the liquid phase of natural materials, we theoretically propose a microsphere suspension model to realize a metamaterial fluid with artificial electromagnetic indexes. By immersing high-ε, micrometer-sized dielectric spheres in a low-ε insulating oil, the structured fluid exhibits liquid-like properties from dispersing phase as well as the isotropic negative electromagnetic parameters caused by Mie resonances from dispersed microspheres. The work presented here will benefit the development of structured fluids toward metamaterials.

  13. Albumin microspheres labeled with Ga-67 by chelation: concise communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hnatowich, D.J.; Schlegel, P.

    1981-01-01

    Albumin microspheres have been synthesized with EDTA and DTPA chelating groups covalently bound to their surface. The microspheres may be labeled with Ga-67 at high yield (97 +- 2%) by transcomplexation from a 0.1 M Ga-67 acetate solution. With EDTA microspheres the resulting label dissociates only slightly after 24 hr in 50% plasma at 37 0 C, whereas with DTPA microspheres the label shows no detectable dissociation over this period. By contrast, microspheres without chelating groups lose their label virtually completely under these conditions. Following intravenous administration of sized Ga-67 DTPA microspheres in mice, about (84 +- 16)% of the activity localizes in the lungs at 5 min, with (60 +- 7)% remaining after 2 h. Since labeling is by chelation, the microspheres may also be tagged with other metallic radionuclides

  14. Tunable fabrication of hierarchical hybrids via the incorporation of poly(dopamine) functional interlayer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Ting; Zhao, Xin; Zhang, Junxian; Dong, Jie; Zhang, Qinghua, E-mail: qhzhang@dhu.edu.cn

    2016-04-30

    Highlights: • PS/PDA with well-defined core/shell structures was prepared in aqueous solution. • Au NPs were coated on PS/PDA by in-situ reduction and self-assembly approach. • PS/PDA/Au had homogeneous and dense Au coatings with different shape. • Hierarchical spheres exhibited a well-defined core/shell structure maintaining the spherical morphology. - Abstract: Two kinds of ternary hybrids were prepared by anchoring different shapes and loadings of Au nanoparticles (NPs) on poly(dopamine) (PDA) functionalized polystyrene (PS) microspheres with two different strategies, i.e., in situ reduction and self-assembly approach. PDA coatings were firstly introduced to functionalize the hydrophobic PS surface with sufficient amino and hydroxyl groups, which enhanced the interaction between Au NPs and the polymer spheres. Thus, Au NPs could be easily immobilized onto the surface of the PDA/PS microspheres, and the hierarchical composite microspheres exhibited a well-defined core/shell structure without sacrificing the spherical PS morphology. PS/PDA/Au-R and PS/PDA/Au-A microspheres fabricated by in situ reduction and self-assembly approach showed different distinct Au nano-shell morphology with the corresponding optical, catalytic and electrochemical properties. Field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electronic microscopy verified these hierarchical structures with the ultrathin PDA film incorporating between the inner PS core and the outer Au NPs shell. X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed the presence of PDA and Au layer on the surface of the composite particles. These green and facile methods with mild experimental conditions can extend to fabricate other polymer or inorganic substrates coated by various noble metals.

  15. Parallel hierarchical radiosity rendering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, Michael [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1993-07-01

    In this dissertation, the step-by-step development of a scalable parallel hierarchical radiosity renderer is documented. First, a new look is taken at the traditional radiosity equation, and a new form is presented in which the matrix of linear system coefficients is transformed into a symmetric matrix, thereby simplifying the problem and enabling a new solution technique to be applied. Next, the state-of-the-art hierarchical radiosity methods are examined for their suitability to parallel implementation, and scalability. Significant enhancements are also discovered which both improve their theoretical foundations and improve the images they generate. The resultant hierarchical radiosity algorithm is then examined for sources of parallelism, and for an architectural mapping. Several architectural mappings are discussed. A few key algorithmic changes are suggested during the process of making the algorithm parallel. Next, the performance, efficiency, and scalability of the algorithm are analyzed. The dissertation closes with a discussion of several ideas which have the potential to further enhance the hierarchical radiosity method, or provide an entirely new forum for the application of hierarchical methods.

  16. Gastroretentive Floating Microspheres of Silymarin: Preparation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    simulated gastric fluid for at least 12 h, and, therefore, could potentially ... systems (GRFDDS) have a bulk density ... The objective of this work was to develop and characterise gastroretentive floating microspheres of silymarin which, following oral administration, would exhibit .... hydrochloric acid to maintain sink conditions.

  17. Structuring of diamond films using microsphere lithography

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Domonkos, Mária; Ižák, Tibor; Štolcová, L.; Proška, J.; Demo, Pavel; Kromka, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 5 (2014), s. 320-324 ISSN 1210-2709 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : nanostructuring * diamond thin films * polystyrene microspheres * reactive ion etching * scanning electron microscopy Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  18. Method and apparatus for producing microspherical particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egli, W.; Bailey, W.H.; Leary, D.F.; Lansley, R.J.

    1979-01-01

    This invention relates generally to a method and apparatus for producing microspherical particles and more particularly to a method and apparatus which are particularly useful in connection with the sol-gel process for the production of nuclear fuel kernels. (U.K.)

  19. MICROSPHERE SIZE INFLUENCES THE FOREIGN BODY REACTION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandstra, J.; Hiemstra, C.; Petersen, A. H.; Zuidema, J.; van Beuge, M. M.; Rodriguez, S.; Lathuile, A. A. R.; Veldhuis, G. J.; Steendam, R.; Bank, R. A.; Popa, E. R.

    2014-01-01

    Biodegradable poly-(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microspheres (MSP) are attractive candidate vehicles for site-specific or systemic sustained release of therapeutic compounds. This release may be altered by the host's foreign body reaction (FBR), which is dependent on the characteristics of the

  20. Beat-Frequency/Microsphere Medical Ultrasonic Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yost, William T.; Cantrell, John H.; Pretlow, Robert A., III

    1995-01-01

    Medical ultrasonic imaging system designed to provide quantitative data on various flows of blood in chambers, blood vessels, muscles, and tissues of heart. Sensitive enough to yield readings on flows of blood in heart even when microspheres used as ultrasonic contrast agents injected far from heart and diluted by circulation of blood elsewhere in body.

  1. Neutrosophic Hierarchical Clustering Algoritms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rıdvan Şahin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Interval neutrosophic set (INS is a generalization of interval valued intuitionistic fuzzy set (IVIFS, whose the membership and non-membership values of elements consist of fuzzy range, while single valued neutrosophic set (SVNS is regarded as extension of intuitionistic fuzzy set (IFS. In this paper, we extend the hierarchical clustering techniques proposed for IFSs and IVIFSs to SVNSs and INSs respectively. Based on the traditional hierarchical clustering procedure, the single valued neutrosophic aggregation operator, and the basic distance measures between SVNSs, we define a single valued neutrosophic hierarchical clustering algorithm for clustering SVNSs. Then we extend the algorithm to classify an interval neutrosophic data. Finally, we present some numerical examples in order to show the effectiveness and availability of the developed clustering algorithms.

  2. Hydrogen transport and storage in engineered glass microspheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rambach, G.D.

    1994-04-20

    New, high-strength, hollow, glass microspheres filled with pressurized hydrogen exhibit storage densities which make them attractive for bulk hydrogen storage and transport. The hoop stress at failure of our engineered glass microspheres is about 150,000 psi, permitting a three-fold increase in pressure limit and storage capacity above commercial microspheres, which fail at wall stresses of 50,000 psi. For this project, microsphere material and structure will be optimized for storage capacity and charge/discharge kinetics to improve their commercial practicality. Microsphere production scale up will be performed, directed towards large-scale commercial use. Our analysis relating glass microspheres for hydrogen transport with infrastructure and economics` indicate that pressurized microspheres can be economically competitive with other forms of bulk rail and truck transport such as hydride beds, cryocarbons and pressurized tube transports. For microspheres made from advanced materials and processes, analysis will also be performed to identify the appropriate applications of the microspheres considering property variables, and different hydrogen infrastructure, end use, production and market scenarios. This report presents some of the recent modelling results for large beds of glass microspheres in hydrogen storage applications. It includes plans for experiments to identify the properties relevant to large-bed hydrogen transport and storage applications, of the best, currently producible, glass microspheres. This work began in March, 1994. Project successes will be manifest in the matching of cur-rent glass microspheres with a useful application in hydrogen bulk transport and storage, and in developing microsphere materials and processes that increase the storage density and reduce the storage energy requirement.

  3. In vitro evaluation of biodegradable microspheres with surface-bound ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keegan, Mark E; Royce, Sara M; Fahmy, Tarek; Saltzman, W Mark

    2006-02-21

    Protein ligands were conjugated to the surface of biodegradable microspheres. These microsphere-ligand conjugates were then used in two in vitro model systems to evaluate the effect of conjugated ligands on microsphere behavior. Microsphere retention in agarose columns was increased by ligands on the microsphere surface specific for receptors on the agarose matrix. In another experiment, conjugating the lectin Ulex europaeus agglutinin 1 to the microsphere surface increased microsphere adhesion to Caco-2 monolayers compared to control microspheres. This increase in microsphere adhesion was negated by co-administration of l-fucose, indicating that the increase in adhesion is due to specific interaction of the ligand with carbohydrate receptors on the cell surface. These results demonstrate that the ligands conjugated to the microspheres maintain their receptor binding activity and are present on the microsphere surface at a density sufficient to target the microspheres to both monolayers and three-dimensional matrices bearing complementary receptors.

  4. Hierarchical wave functions revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Dingping.

    1997-11-01

    We study the hierarchical wave functions on a sphere and on a torus. We simplify some wave functions on a sphere or a torus using the analytic properties of wave functions. The open question, the construction of the wave function for quasi electron excitation on a torus, is also solved in this paper. (author)

  5. Hierarchical Porous Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grote, Christopher John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-07

    Materials Design is often at the forefront of technological innovation. While there has always been a push to generate increasingly low density materials, such as aero or hydrogels, more recently the idea of bicontinuous structures has gone more into play. This review will cover some of the methods and applications for generating both porous, and hierarchically porous structures.

  6. The Hierarchical Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Sofron

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on the hierarchical perspective, one of the methods for representing space that was used before the discovery of the Renaissance linear perspective. The hierarchical perspective has a more or less pronounced scientific character and its study offers us a clear image of the way the representatives of the cultures that developed it used to perceive the sensitive reality. This type of perspective is an original method of representing three-dimensional space on a flat surface, which characterises the art of Ancient Egypt and much of the art of the Middle Ages, being identified in the Eastern European Byzantine art, as well as in the Western European Pre-Romanesque and Romanesque art. At the same time, the hierarchical perspective is also present in naive painting and infantile drawing. Reminiscences of this method can be recognised also in the works of some precursors of the Italian Renaissance. The hierarchical perspective can be viewed as a subjective ranking criterion, according to which the elements are visually represented by taking into account their relevance within the image while perception is ignored. This paper aims to show how the main objective of the artists of those times was not to faithfully represent the objective reality, but rather to emphasize the essence of the world and its perennial aspects. This may represent a possible explanation for the refusal of perspective in the Egyptian, Romanesque and Byzantine painting, characterised by a marked two-dimensionality.

  7. Optically Levitated Microspheres as a Probe for New Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rider, Alexander; Moore, David; Blakemore, Charles; Lu, Marie; Gratta, Giorgio

    2016-03-01

    We are developing novel techniques to probe new interactions at micron distances using optically levitated dielectric microspheres. Levitated microspheres are an ideal probe for short-range interactions because they are suspended using the radiation pressure at the focus of a laser beam, which means that the microspheres can be precisely manipulated and isolated from the surrounding environment at high vacuum. We have performed a search for unknown charged particles bound within the bulk of the microspheres. Currently, we are searching for the presence of a Chameleon field postulated to explain the presence of dark energy in the universe. In the future we plan to use optically levitated microspheres to search for micron length-scale gravity like interactions that could couple between a microsphere and another mass. We will present resent results from these experiments and plans for future searches for new interactions.

  8. Hydrogen transport and storage in engineered glass microspheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rambach, G.D.

    1995-02-28

    New, high strength glass microspheres filled with pressurized hydrogen exhibit densities which make them attractive for bulk hydrogen storage and transport. The membrane tensile stress at failure for engineered glass microspheres is about 150,000 psi, permitting a three-fold increase in pressure limit and storage capacity above commercial microspheres, which have been studied a decade ago and have been shown to fail at membrane stresses of 50,000 psi. This analysis relating glass microspheres for hydrogen transport with infrastructure and economics, indicate that pressurized microspheres can be economically competitive with other forms of bulk rail and truck transport such as pressurized tube transports and liquid hydrogen trailers. This paper will describe the matching of current glass microspheres with the useful application in commercial hydrogen bulk transport and storage.

  9. Beat frequency ultrasonic microsphere contrast agent detection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretlow, III, Robert A. (Inventor); Yost, William T. (Inventor); Cantrell, Jr., John H. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A system for and method of detecting and measuring concentrations of an ultrasonically-reflective microsphere contrast agent involving detecting non-linear sum and difference beat frequencies produced by the microspheres when two impinging signals with non-identical frequencies are combined by mixing. These beat frequencies can be used for a variety of applications such as detecting the presence of and measuring the flow rates of biological fluids and industrial liquids, including determining the concentration level of microspheres in the myocardium.

  10. Microsphere formation in droplets using antisolvent vapour precipitation technique

    OpenAIRE

    Chew, Sean Jun Liang

    2017-01-01

    In previous studies, the antisolvent vapour precipitation method has been proven to produce uniformly sized lactose microspheres (1.0 µm) from a single droplet (1.2 mm diameter) at atmospheric pressure. These types of particles have potential applications in the pharmaceutical industry, especially due to their high dissolution rate. This project looked into the possibility of using antisolvent vapour precipitation to produce microspheres from finely atomised droplets. Microspheres in the sub-...

  11. Hierarchical VOOH hollow spheres for symmetrical and asymmetrical supercapacitor devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Xuyang; Wang, Cong; Feng, Wenjing; Xing, Na; Jiang, Hanmei; Lu, Xiangyu; Zhang, Yifu; Meng, Changgong

    2018-01-01

    Hierarchical VOOH hollow spheres with low crystallinity composed of nanoparticles were prepared by a facile and template-free method, which involved a precipitation of precursor microspheres in aqueous solution at room temperature and subsequent hydrothermal reaction. Quasi-solid-state symmetric and asymmetric supercapacitor (SSC and ASC) devices were fabricated using hierarchical VOOH hollow spheres as the electrodes, and the electrochemical properties of the VOOH//VOOH SSC device and the VOOH//AC ASC device were studied by cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic charge-discharge (GCD) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Results demonstrated that the electrochemical performance of the VOOH//AC ASC device was better than that of the VOOH//VOOH SSC device. After 3000 cycles, the specific capacitance of the VOOH//AC ASC device retains 83% of the initial capacitance, while the VOOH//VOOH SSC device retains only 7.7%. Findings in this work proved that hierarchical VOOH hollow spheres could be a promising candidate as an ideal electrode material for supercapacitor devices.

  12. Preparation of polystyrene microsphere with emulsion microencapsulation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Bo Zhang Lin; Zhang Zhganwen; You Dan; Wei Yun; Wang Chaoyang; Lin Bo; Shi Tao; Chu Qiaomei

    2003-01-01

    The preparation of hollow polystyrene microspheres that are used as inner shell of multi-shell plastic microspheres in the ICF experiments is focused on. The effects of surfactants, water-soluble polymer and electrolyte on the properties of resultant microspheres are studied. Based on these experiments, a fabricating procedure was established with which hollow microspheres were prepared with diameter about 150-3000 μm, wall thickness 0.8-15 μm and toughness Ra less than 4 nm. (authors)

  13. Intestinal absorption of PLAGA microspheres in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damgé, C; Aprahamian, M; Marchais, H; Benoit, J P; Pinget, M

    1996-12-01

    Rhodamine B-labelled poly (DL-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLAGA) microspheres of 2 different sizes, 1-5 microns and 5-10 microns, were administered as a single dose (1.44 x 10(9) and 1.83 x 10(8) particles, respectively) into the ileal lumen of adult rats. The content of rhodamine in the mesenteric vein and ileal lumen was analysed periodically from 10 min to 48 h as well as the distribution of microspheres in the intestinal mucosa and various other tissues. The concentration of rhodamine decreased progressively in the intestinal lumen and was negligible after 24 h. The number of microspheres in the mesenteric vein increased rapidly and reached a maximum after 4 h whatever the size of the particles. It then decreased progressively, but more rapidly with microspheres > 5 microns than with microspheres PLAGA microspheres mainly crossed the intestinal mucosa at the site of Peyer's patches where microspheres of 5 microns were retained in the ileal lumen. A few small microspheres were occasionally observed in the epithelial cells. Only the smallest particles were recovered in the liver, lymph nodes and spleen while basement membranes were always labelled. It is concluded that PLAGA microspheres could be useful for the oral delivery of antigens if their size is between 1 and 5 microns.

  14. Preparation of porous zirconia microspheres by internal gelation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pathak, Sachin S.; Pius, I.C.; Bhanushali, R.D.; Rao, T.V. Vittal; Mukerjee, S.K.

    2008-01-01

    A modified internal gelation process for the preparation of porous zirconia microspheres has been developed. The conventional method has been modified by adding a surfactant in the feed broth. The effects of variation of surfactant concentration, washing techniques and temperature of calcination on the pore volume and the surface area of the microspheres have been studied. The conditions were optimized to obtain porous stable microspheres suitable for various applications. The microspheres were characterized by surface area analysis, pore volume analysis, thermogravimetric analysis and X-ray diffraction. The ion exchange behavior was studied using pH titration

  15. Photoluminescence and lasing in whispering gallery mode glass microspherical resonators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ristić, D. [Ruđer Bošković Institute, Division of Materials Physics, Laboratory for Molecular Physics, Bijenička c. 54, Zagreb (Croatia); Center of Excellence for Advanced Materials and Sensing Devices, Research unit New Functional Materials, Bijenička c. 54, Zagreb (Croatia); Berneschi, S.; Camerini, M. [IFAC-CNR Istituto di Fisica Applicata, Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Farnesi, D.; Pelli, S. [IFAC-CNR Istituto di Fisica Applicata, Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Centro Studi e Ricerche ' E. Fermi' , Piazza del Viminale 2, 00184 Roma (Italy); Trono, C. [IFAC-CNR Istituto di Fisica Applicata, Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Chiappini, A.; Chiasera, A.; Ferrari, M. [CSMFO Group, Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie, IFN-CNR, Via alla Cascata 56/C, 38050 Povo-Trento (Italy); Lukowiak, A. [Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research, PAS, ul. Okolna 2, Wroclaw 50-950 (Poland); Dumeige, Y.; Féron, P. [Laboratoire d' Optronique, (CNRS-UMR 6082-Foton), ENSSAT, 6 rue de Kérampont, 22300 Lannion (France); Righini, G.C. [IFAC-CNR Istituto di Fisica Applicata, Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Centro Studi e Ricerche ' E. Fermi' , Piazza del Viminale 2, 00184 Roma (Italy); Soria, S., E-mail: s.soria@ifac.cnr.it [IFAC-CNR Istituto di Fisica Applicata, Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Conti, G. Nunzi [IFAC-CNR Istituto di Fisica Applicata, Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Centro Studi e Ricerche ' E. Fermi' , Piazza del Viminale 2, 00184 Roma (Italy)

    2016-02-15

    We report experimental results regarding the development of Er{sup 3+}-doped glass microspherical cavities for the fabrication of compact sources at 1.55 μm. We investigate several different approaches in order to fabricate the microspheres including direct melting of Er{sup 3+}-doped glass powders, synthesis of Er{sup 3+}-doped monolithic microspheres by drawing Er{sup 3+}-doped glass, and coating of silica microspheres with an Er{sup 3+}-doped sol–gel layer. Details of the different fabrication processes are presented together with the photoluminescence characterization in free space configuration of the microspheres and of the glass precursor. We have analyzed the photoluminescence spectra of the whispering gallery modes of the microspheres excited using evanescent coupling and we demonstrate tunable laser action in a wide range of wavelengths around 1.55 μm. As much as 90 μW of laser output power was measured in Er{sup 3+}-doped glass microspheres. - Highlights: • Different approaches in microsphere fabrication and various types of post-processing. • Trimming of photorefractive glass microsphere lasers with UV light. • Peak power record of 90 μW by pumping at 1480 nm.

  16. Microsphere based improved sunscreen formulation of ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogna, Deepak; Jain, Sunil K; Yadav, Awesh K; Agrawal, G P

    2007-04-01

    Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) microspheres of ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate (EHM) were prepared by emulsion solvent evaporation method to improve its photostability and effectiveness as sunscreening agent. Process parameters like stirring speed and aqueous polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) concentration were analyzed in order to optimize the formulations. Shape and surface morphology of the microspheres were examined using scanning electron microscopy. Particle size of the microspheres was determined using laser diffraction particle size analyzer. The PMMA microspheres of EHM were incorporated in water-removable cream base. The in vitro drug release of EHM in pH 7.4 was performed using dialysis membrane. Thin layer chromatography was performed to determine photostability of EHM inside the microspheres. The formulations were evaluated for sun protection factor (SPF) and minimum erythema dose (MED) in albino rats. Cream base formulation containing microspheres prepared using EHM:PMMA in ratio of 1:3 (C(3)) showed slowest drug (EHM) release and those prepared with EHM: PMMA in ratio of 1:1 showed fastest release. The cream base formulations containing EHM loaded microspheres had shown better SPF (more than 16.0) as compared to formulation C(d) that contained 3% free EHM as sunscreen agent and showed SPF 4.66. These studies revealed that the incorporation of EHM loaded PMMA microspheres into cream base had greatly increased the efficacy of sunscreen formulation approximately four times. Further, photostability was also shown to be improved in PMMA microspheres.

  17. Low pressure gas filling of laser fusion microspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, J.C.; Dressler, J.L.; Hendricks, C.D.

    1979-01-01

    In our laser fusion microsphere production, large, thin gel-microspheres are formed before the chemicals are fused into glass. In this transient stage,, the gel-microspheres are found to be highly permeable to argon and many other inert gases. When the gel transforms to glass, the argon gas, for example, is trapped within to form argon filled, fusion target quality, glass microspheres. On the average, the partial pressure of the argon fills attained in this process is around 2 x 10 4 Pa at room temperature

  18. Histological Comparison of Kidney Tissue Following Radioembolization with Yttrium-90 Resin Microspheres and Embolization with Bland Microspheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Suresh de, E-mail: suresh.desilva@unsw.edu.au [Southern Radiology Group, Radiology Department Sutherland Hospital (Australia); Mackie, Simon [Western General Hospital, Department of Urology (United Kingdom); Aslan, Peter [St George Hospital, Department of Urology (Australia); Cade, David [Sirtex Technology Pty Ltd (Australia); Delprado, Warick [Douglass Hanly Moir Pathology (Australia)

    2016-12-15

    BackgroundIntra-arterial brachytherapy with yttrium-90 ({sup 90}Y) resin microspheres (radioembolization) is a procedure to selectively deliver high-dose radiation to tumors. The purpose of this research was to compare the radioembolic effect of {sup 90}Y-radioembolization versus the embolic effect of bland microspheres in the porcine kidney model.MethodsIn each of six pigs, ~25–33 % of the kidney volume was embolized with {sup 90}Y resin microspheres and an equivalent number of bland microspheres in the contralateral kidney. Kidney volume was estimated visually from contrast-enhanced fluoroscopy imaging. Morphologic and histologic analysis was performed 8–9 weeks after the procedure to assess the locations of the microspheres and extent of tissue necrosis from {sup 90}Y-radioembolization and bland embolization. A semi-quantified evaluation of the non-acute peri-particle and perivascular tissue reaction was conducted. All guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed.ResultsKidneys embolized with {sup 90}Y-radioembolization decreased in mass by 30–70 % versus the contralateral kidney embolized with bland microspheres. These kidneys showed significant necrosis/fibrosis, avascularization, and glomerular atrophy in the immediate vicinity of the {sup 90}Y resin microspheres. By contrast, glomerular changes were not observed, even with clusters of bland microspheres in afferent arterioles. Evidence of a foreign body reaction was recorded in some kidneys with bland microspheres, and subcapsular scarring/infarction only with the highest load (4.96 × 10{sup 6}) of bland microspheres.ConclusionThis study showed that radioembolization with {sup 90}Y resin microspheres produces localized necrosis/fibrosis and loss of kidney mass in a porcine kidney model. This result supports the study of {sup 90}Y resin microspheres for the localized treatment of kidney tumors.

  19. A novel route for synthesis and growth formation of metal oxides microspheres: Insights from V_2O_3 microspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yifu; Huang, Chi; Meng, Changgong; Hu, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Highly polydisperse V_2O_3 solid microspheres with large specific surface area were successfully synthesized via a facile hydrothermal decomposition of VOC_2O_4 solution. The morphology and composition were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). V_2O_3 microspheres display an obvious Mott phase transition at −128.5 °C (cooling curve) and −114.5 °C (heating curve). Some parameters including the reaction temperature, concentration of VOC_2O_4, reaction time, surfactant, H_2C_2O_4 and precursor were briefly discussed to reveal the formation of V_2O_3 microspheres. It was found that the precursor is crucial for the fabrication of microsphere. A self-assembly growth mechanism was suggested to explain the growth process of microspheres and the autogenic CO and CO_2 gas served as the soft templates. Furthermore, this route was developed to synthesize different metal oxides microspheres, and it was found that AlO(OH), Fe_3O_4, Fe_2O_3, Co_3O_4, Cr_2O_3, MoO_2 and WO_3 microspheres were obtained. All the results showed this process was successfully explored as a methodology to synthesize different metal oxides microspheres using the gas as the templates by this facile hydrothermal route. - Highlights: • Highly uniform V_2O_3 solid microspheres were synthesized. • V_2O_3 microspheres display an obvious Mott phase transition. • The autogenic CO and CO_2 gas served as the soft templates for designed synthesis. • AlO(OH), Fe_3O_4, Fe_2O_3, Co_3O_4, Cr_2O_3, MoO_2 and WO_3 microspheres were obtained. • A methodology to synthesize different metal oxides microspheres was developed.

  20. Histological Comparison of Kidney Tissue Following Radioembolization with Yttrium-90 Resin Microspheres and Embolization with Bland Microspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Suresh de; Mackie, Simon; Aslan, Peter; Cade, David; Delprado, Warick

    2016-01-01

    BackgroundIntra-arterial brachytherapy with yttrium-90 ("9"0Y) resin microspheres (radioembolization) is a procedure to selectively deliver high-dose radiation to tumors. The purpose of this research was to compare the radioembolic effect of "9"0Y-radioembolization versus the embolic effect of bland microspheres in the porcine kidney model.MethodsIn each of six pigs, ~25–33 % of the kidney volume was embolized with "9"0Y resin microspheres and an equivalent number of bland microspheres in the contralateral kidney. Kidney volume was estimated visually from contrast-enhanced fluoroscopy imaging. Morphologic and histologic analysis was performed 8–9 weeks after the procedure to assess the locations of the microspheres and extent of tissue necrosis from "9"0Y-radioembolization and bland embolization. A semi-quantified evaluation of the non-acute peri-particle and perivascular tissue reaction was conducted. All guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed.ResultsKidneys embolized with "9"0Y-radioembolization decreased in mass by 30–70 % versus the contralateral kidney embolized with bland microspheres. These kidneys showed significant necrosis/fibrosis, avascularization, and glomerular atrophy in the immediate vicinity of the "9"0Y resin microspheres. By contrast, glomerular changes were not observed, even with clusters of bland microspheres in afferent arterioles. Evidence of a foreign body reaction was recorded in some kidneys with bland microspheres, and subcapsular scarring/infarction only with the highest load (4.96 × 10"6) of bland microspheres.ConclusionThis study showed that radioembolization with "9"0Y resin microspheres produces localized necrosis/fibrosis and loss of kidney mass in a porcine kidney model. This result supports the study of "9"0Y resin microspheres for the localized treatment of kidney tumors.

  1. Neutron transmission measurements on hydrogen filled microspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyrnjaja, Eva; Hummel, Stefan; Keding, Marcus; Smolle, Marie-Theres; Gerger, Joachim; Zawisky, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Hollow microspheres are promising candidates for future hydrogen storage technologies. Although the physical process for hydrogen diffusion through glass is well understood, measurements of static quantities (e.q. hydrogen pressure inside the spheres) as well as dynamic properties (e.g. diffusion rate of hydrogen through glass) are still difficult to handle due to the small size of the spheres (d≈15μm). For diffusion rate measurements, the long-term stability of the experiment is also mandatory due to the relatively slow diffusion rate. In this work, we present an accurate and long-term stable measurement technique for static and dynamic properties, using neutron radiography. Furthermore, possible applications for hydrogen filled microspheres within the scope of radiation issues are discussed

  2. Optical Microspherical Resonators for Biomedical Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giancarlo C. Righini

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Optical resonators play an ubiquitous role in modern optics. A particular class of optical resonators is constituted by spherical dielectric structures, where optical rays are total internal reflected. Due to minimal reflection losses and to potentially very low material absorption, these guided modes, known as whispering gallery modes, can confer the resonator an exceptionally high quality factor Q, leading to high energy density, narrow resonant-wavelength lines and a lengthy cavity ringdown. These attractive characteristics make these miniaturized optical resonators especially suited as laser cavities and resonant filters, but also as very sensitive sensors. First, a brief analysis is presented of the characteristics of microspherical resonators, of their fabrication methods, and of the light coupling techniques. Then, we attempt to overview some of the recent advances in the development of microspherical biosensors, underlining a number of important applications in the biomedical field.

  3. Aptamer Based Microsphere Biosensor for Thrombin Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xudong Fan

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available We have developed an optical microsphere resonator biosensor using aptamer asreceptor for the measurement of the important biomolecule thrombin. The sphere surface ismodified with anti-thrombin aptamer, which has excellent binding affinity and selectivityfor thrombin. Binding of the thrombin at the sphere surface is monitored by the spectralposition of the microsphere’s whispering gallery mode resonances. A detection limit on theorder of 1 NIH Unit/mL is demonstrated. Control experiments with non-aptameroligonucleotide and BSA are also carried out to confirm the specific binding betweenaptamer and thrombin. We expect that this demonstration will lead to the development ofhighly sensitive biomarker sensors based on aptamer with lower cost and higher throughputthan current technology.

  4. Sputter coating of microspherical substrates by levitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, A.T.; Hosford, C.D.

    Microspheres are substantially uniformly coated with metals or nonmetals by simltaneously levitating them and sputter coating them at total chamber pressures less than 1 torr. A collimated hole structure comprising a parallel array of upwardly projecting individual gas outlets is machined out to form a dimple. Glass microballoons,, which are particularly useful in laser fusion applications, can be substantially uniformly coated using the coating method and apparatus.

  5. Glass microspheres covering film: first field evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnani, G.; Filippi, F.

    2006-01-01

    A trial was carried out to evaluate, in the North-Centre of Italy, the behaviour in field of a new plastic covering film, prepared with the inclusion of empty glass microspheres (Solex). The trial was conducted on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) and eggplant (Solanum melongena L.). The new film was compared to a covering film with the same optical (diffuse light) and constitutional (co-extruded three layers EVA-WPE) characteristics. Since the first results, the innovative film showed a better behaviour than the control one. It presented light and thermal conditions (lower temperature during the day and slightly higher temperature in the night, compared to the control film) that allowed a better growth and yield than the control film. The growth analysis of tomato showed that plants grown under glass microsphere film had an higher growth rate (dry weight/days) and thickness of leaves compared to the control one. The yield of tomato and eggplant presented an increase in plants cultivated under the innovative film, especially for number and weight of fruits. The commercial quality did not show any differences between the films, except for the flesh hardness of tomato: this could be explained with the fact that the glass microspheres film provides environmental conditions avoiding plant stress during some stages of its cycle [it

  6. STRUCTURING OF DIAMOND FILMS USING MICROSPHERE LITHOGRAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Domonkos

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the structuring of micro- and nanocrystalline diamond thin films is demonstrated. The structuring of the diamond films is performed using the technique of microsphere lithography followed by reactive ion etching. Specifically, this paper presents a four-step fabrication process: diamond deposition (microwave plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition, mask preparation (by the standard Langmuir-Blodgett method, mask modification and diamond etching. A self-assembled monolayer of monodisperse polystyrene (PS microspheres with close-packed ordering is used as the primary template. Then the PS microspheres and the diamond films are processed in capacitively coupled radiofrequency plasma  using different plasma chemistries. This fabrication method illustrates the preparation of large arrays of periodic and homogeneous hillock-like structures. The surface morphology of processed diamond films is characterized by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscope. The potential applications of such diamond structures in various fields of nanotechnology are also briefly discussed.

  7. Yttrium-90 microsphere induced gastrointestinal tract ulceration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rikabi Ali A

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Radiomicrosphere therapy (RT utilizing yttrium-90 (90Y microspheres has been shown to be an effective regional treatment for primary and secondary hepatic malignancies. We sought to determine a large academic institution's experience regarding the extent and frequency of gastrointestinal complications. Methods Between 2004 and 2007, 27 patients underwent RT for primary or secondary hepatic malignancies. Charts were subsequently reviewed to determine the incidence and severity of GI ulceration. Results Three patients presented with gastrointestinal bleeding and underwent upper endoscopy. Review of the pretreatment angiograms showed normal vascular anatomy in one patient, sclerosed hepatic vasculature in a patient who had undergone prior chemoembolization in a second, and an aberrant left hepatic artery in a third. None had undergone prophylactic gastroduodenal artery embolization. Endoscopic findings included erythema, mucosal erosions, and large gastric ulcers. Microspheres were visible on endoscopic biopsy. In two patients, gastric ulcers were persistent at the time of repeat endoscopy 1–4 months later despite proton pump inhibitor therapy. One elderly patient who refused surgical intervention died from recurrent hemorrhage. Conclusion Gastrointestinal ulceration is a known yet rarely reported complication of 90Y microsphere embolization with potentially life-threatening consequences. Once diagnosed, refractory ulcers should be considered for aggressive surgical management.

  8. Adsorption behavior of protein onto siloxane microspheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Bailing [Chengdu Institute of Organic Chemistry, Graduate School of CAS, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041 (China)]. E-mail: Blliuchem@hotmail.com; Cao Shunsheng [Chengdu Institute of Organic Chemistry, Graduate School of CAS, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041 (China); Deng Xiaobo [Chengdu Institute of Organic Chemistry, Graduate School of CAS, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041 (China); Li Songjun [Chengdu Institute of Organic Chemistry, Graduate School of CAS, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041 (China); Luo Rong [Chengdu Institute of Organic Chemistry, Graduate School of CAS, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041 (China)

    2006-09-15

    The siloxane microspheres with core-shell structure (PMMA/PMPS) (MMA, methyl methacrylate; MPS, 3-methacryloxypropyl-trimethoxysilane) have been prepared by dispersion polymerization as described in our previous work. In this paper, the developed poly(MMA-MPS) microspheres, as a carrier, are used to investigate the adsorption behavior of bovine serum albumin (BSA) on them. The Langmuir and Freundlich models have been applied to describe the adsorption behavior. The experimental results indicated that the presence of PMPS evidently increases the adsorption rate and the amount of protein, and it also influences the interaction of BSA molecules. The adsorption of BSA on the poly(MMA-MPS) microspheres seems to be sensitive to pH and ionic strength. The fittings curves from Langmuir and Freundlich models showed that the adsorption was actually more complicated than ideal situation because one or more interactions were involved in the process. For understanding the electronic contribution, the Zeta potential was used to measure the reactive system before and after protein adsorption.

  9. Adsorption behavior of protein onto siloxane microspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Bailing; Cao Shunsheng; Deng Xiaobo; Li Songjun; Luo Rong

    2006-01-01

    The siloxane microspheres with core-shell structure (PMMA/PMPS) (MMA, methyl methacrylate; MPS, 3-methacryloxypropyl-trimethoxysilane) have been prepared by dispersion polymerization as described in our previous work. In this paper, the developed poly(MMA-MPS) microspheres, as a carrier, are used to investigate the adsorption behavior of bovine serum albumin (BSA) on them. The Langmuir and Freundlich models have been applied to describe the adsorption behavior. The experimental results indicated that the presence of PMPS evidently increases the adsorption rate and the amount of protein, and it also influences the interaction of BSA molecules. The adsorption of BSA on the poly(MMA-MPS) microspheres seems to be sensitive to pH and ionic strength. The fittings curves from Langmuir and Freundlich models showed that the adsorption was actually more complicated than ideal situation because one or more interactions were involved in the process. For understanding the electronic contribution, the Zeta potential was used to measure the reactive system before and after protein adsorption

  10. Hierarchical species distribution models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefley, Trevor J.; Hooten, Mevin B.

    2016-01-01

    Determining the distribution pattern of a species is important to increase scientific knowledge, inform management decisions, and conserve biodiversity. To infer spatial and temporal patterns, species distribution models have been developed for use with many sampling designs and types of data. Recently, it has been shown that count, presence-absence, and presence-only data can be conceptualized as arising from a point process distribution. Therefore, it is important to understand properties of the point process distribution. We examine how the hierarchical species distribution modeling framework has been used to incorporate a wide array of regression and theory-based components while accounting for the data collection process and making use of auxiliary information. The hierarchical modeling framework allows us to demonstrate how several commonly used species distribution models can be derived from the point process distribution, highlight areas of potential overlap between different models, and suggest areas where further research is needed.

  11. Bayesian nonparametric hierarchical modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunson, David B

    2009-04-01

    In biomedical research, hierarchical models are very widely used to accommodate dependence in multivariate and longitudinal data and for borrowing of information across data from different sources. A primary concern in hierarchical modeling is sensitivity to parametric assumptions, such as linearity and normality of the random effects. Parametric assumptions on latent variable distributions can be challenging to check and are typically unwarranted, given available prior knowledge. This article reviews some recent developments in Bayesian nonparametric methods motivated by complex, multivariate and functional data collected in biomedical studies. The author provides a brief review of flexible parametric approaches relying on finite mixtures and latent class modeling. Dirichlet process mixture models are motivated by the need to generalize these approaches to avoid assuming a fixed finite number of classes. Focusing on an epidemiology application, the author illustrates the practical utility and potential of nonparametric Bayes methods.

  12. Hierarchically Structured Electrospun Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-07

    in the natural lotus and silver ragwort leaves. Figure 4. Examples of electrospun bio-mimics of natural hierarchical structures. (A) Lotus leaf...B) pillared poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) electrospun fiber mimic; (C) silver ragwort leaf; (D) electrospun fiber mimic made from nylon 6 and...domains containing the protein in the surrounding EVA fibers [115]. A wide variety of core-shell fibers have been generated, including PCL/ gelatin

  13. Hierarchical video summarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratakonda, Krishna; Sezan, M. Ibrahim; Crinon, Regis J.

    1998-12-01

    We address the problem of key-frame summarization of vide in the absence of any a priori information about its content. This is a common problem that is encountered in home videos. We propose a hierarchical key-frame summarization algorithm where a coarse-to-fine key-frame summary is generated. A hierarchical key-frame summary facilitates multi-level browsing where the user can quickly discover the content of the video by accessing its coarsest but most compact summary and then view a desired segment of the video with increasingly more detail. At the finest level, the summary is generated on the basis of color features of video frames, using an extension of a recently proposed key-frame extraction algorithm. The finest level key-frames are recursively clustered using a novel pairwise K-means clustering approach with temporal consecutiveness constraint. We also address summarization of MPEG-2 compressed video without fully decoding the bitstream. We also propose efficient mechanisms that facilitate decoding the video when the hierarchical summary is utilized in browsing and playback of video segments starting at selected key-frames.

  14. Hierarchically Structured Electrospun Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole E. Zander

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional electrospun nanofibers have a myriad of applications ranging from scaffolds for tissue engineering to components of biosensors and energy harvesting devices. The generally smooth one-dimensional structure of the fibers has stood as a limitation to several interesting novel applications. Control of fiber diameter, porosity and collector geometry will be briefly discussed, as will more traditional methods for controlling fiber morphology and fiber mat architecture. The remainder of the review will focus on new techniques to prepare hierarchically structured fibers. Fibers with hierarchical primary structures—including helical, buckled, and beads-on-a-string fibers, as well as fibers with secondary structures, such as nanopores, nanopillars, nanorods, and internally structured fibers and their applications—will be discussed. These new materials with helical/buckled morphology are expected to possess unique optical and mechanical properties with possible applications for negative refractive index materials, highly stretchable/high-tensile-strength materials, and components in microelectromechanical devices. Core-shell type fibers enable a much wider variety of materials to be electrospun and are expected to be widely applied in the sensing, drug delivery/controlled release fields, and in the encapsulation of live cells for biological applications. Materials with a hierarchical secondary structure are expected to provide new superhydrophobic and self-cleaning materials.

  15. Wetting, meniscus structure, and capillary interactions of microspheres bound to a cylindrical liquid interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Paul Y; Dinsmore, Anthony D; Hoagland, David A; Russell, Thomas P

    2018-03-14

    Wetting, meniscus structure, and capillary interactions for polystyrene microspheres deposited on constant curvature cylindrical liquid interfaces, constructed from nonvolatile ionic or oligomeric liquids, were studied by optical interferometry and optical microscopy. The liquid interface curvature resulted from the preferential wetting of finite width lines patterned onto planar silicon substrates. Key variables included sphere diameter, nominal (or average) contact angle, and deviatoric interfacial curvature. Menisci adopted the quadrupolar symmetry anticipated by theory, with interfacial deformation closely following predicted dependences on sphere diameter and nominal contact angle. Unexpectedly, the contact angle was not constant locally around the contact line, the nominal contact angle varied among seemingly identical spheres, and the maximum interface deviation did not follow the predicted dependence on deviatoric interfacial curvature. Instead, this deviation was up to an order-of-magnitude larger than predicted. Trajectories of neighboring microspheres visually manifested quadrupole-quadrupole interactions, eventually producing square sphere packings that foreshadow interfacial assembly as a potential route to hierarchical 2D particle structures.

  16. Controlling silk fibroin microspheres via molecular weight distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, Dong-Mei; Pan, Jue-Jing; Wang, Qun; Liu, Xin-Fang; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Ke-Qin

    2015-01-01

    Silk fibroin (SF) microspheres were produced by salting out SF solution via the addition of potassium phosphate buffer solution (K 2 HPO 4 –KH 2 PO 4 ). The morphology, size and polydispersity of SF microspheres were adjusted by changing the molecular weight (MW) distribution and concentration of SF, as well as the ionic strength and pH of the buffer solution. Changing the conditions under which the SF fiber dissolved in the Lithium Boride (LiBr) solution resulted in altering the MW distribution of SF solution. Under optimal salting-out conditions (ionic strength > 0.7 M and pH > 7) and using a smaller and narrower SF MW distribution, SF microspheres with smoother shapes and more uniform sizes were produced. Meanwhile, the size and polydispersity of the microspheres increased when the SF concentration was increased from 0.25 mg/mL to 20 mg/mL. The improved SF microspheres, obtained by altering the distribution of molecular weight, have potential in drug and gene delivery applications. - Highlights: • MW distribution was changed by applying different dissolving methods of SF fiber. • Smaller and narrower MW distribution improves the quality of SF microspheres. • Size and polydispersity of microspheres increase as SF concentration increases. • Improved SF microspheres have potential in drug and gene delivery applications

  17. Toward quantum-limited position measurements using optically levitated microspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Libbrecht, Kenneth G.; Black, Eric D.

    2004-01-01

    We propose the use of optically levitated microspheres as test masses in experiments aimed at reaching and potentially exceeding the standard quantum limit for position measurements. Optically levitated microspheres have low mass and are essentially free of suspension thermal noise, making them well suited for experimentally testing our understanding of quantum-limited measurements

  18. Toward quantum-limited position measurements using optically levitated microspheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Libbrecht, Kenneth G.; Black, Eric D

    2004-01-26

    We propose the use of optically levitated microspheres as test masses in experiments aimed at reaching and potentially exceeding the standard quantum limit for position measurements. Optically levitated microspheres have low mass and are essentially free of suspension thermal noise, making them well suited for experimentally testing our understanding of quantum-limited measurements.

  19. Development and evaluation of floating microspheres of curcumin in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To prepare and evaluate floating microspheres of curcumin for prolonged gastric residence and to study their effect on alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Methods: Floating microsphere were prepared by emulsion-solvent diffusion method, using hydroxylpropyl methylcellulose, chitosan and Eudragit S 100 polymer in ...

  20. Development and Evaluation of Floating Microspheres of Curcumin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To prepare and evaluate floating microspheres of curcumin for prolonged gastric residence time and increased drug bioavailability. Methods: Floating microsphere were prepared by emulsion solvent diffusion method, using hydroxylpropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), ethyl cellulose (EC), Eudragit S 100 polymer in ...

  1. PLGA and PHBV Microsphere Formulations and Solid-State Characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Chiming; Plackett, David; Needham, David

    2009-01-01

    To develop and characterize the solid-state properties of poly(DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and poly(3-hydroxybutyric acid-co-3-hydroxyvaleric acid) (PHBV) microspheres for the localized and controlled release of fusidic acid (FA). The effects of FA loading and polymer composition on the me...... of a DCM-FA-rich phase in the forming microsphere....

  2. Preparation of mesoporous zirconia microspheres as inert matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Ting [State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China); Wang, Chen; Lv, Jinlong [Beijing Key Laboratory of Fine Ceramics, Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China); Liang, Tongxiang, E-mail: txliang@tsinghua.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China)

    2016-12-01

    Mesoporous zirconia microspheres, with a diameter of 900 μm, were prepared as an inert accelerator driven system (ADS) transmutation element matrix by the sol-gel method. The purpose of mesopores is to improve the adsorption capacity of inert matrix fuel (IMF) for minor actinides. The study indicated that the mesoporous zirconia performance was improved after the microspheres were hydrothermally treated at 150 °C, the specific surface area increased from 28.29 m{sup 2}/g to 61.28 m{sup 2}/g, and hydrothermal treatment avoided the cracking of the microspheres. Pre-decomposition of the organics during the hydrothermal process stabilized the mesoporous structure. The average pore diameter of mesoporous microsphere was 14.3 nm. - Highlights: • Mesoporous zirconia microspheres with a diameter of 900 μm were prepared as ADS transmutation element inert matrix. • The mesoporous performance was improved after the microspheres were hydrothermally treated at 150 °C. • The specific surface area increased from 28.29 m{sup 2}/g to 61.28 m{sup 2}/g. • The hydrothermal treatment could avoid the cracking of the microspheres. • The specific surface area of mesoporous microsphere was 61.28 m{sup 2}/g and the average pore diameter was 14.3 nm.

  3. Antibacterial activity of ciprofloxacin-loaded zein microsphere films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Jianxi; Wang Huajie; Zhou Yanqing; Wang Jinye

    2009-01-01

    Our aim was to produce an antibiotic-emitting coating composed of zein microspheres for the prevention of bacterial infection on implanted devices. Ciprofloxacin-loaded zein microspheres were prepared using a phase separation procedure, with particle sizes between 0.5 and 2 μm. Drug encapsulation and drug loading varied with the amount of both zein and ciprofloxacin, and the highest encapsulation efficiency was 8.27% (2 mg/ml ciprofloxacin and 20 mg/ml zein; n = 3). A ciprofloxacin-loaded zein microsphere film (CF-MS film) was generated via solvent evaporation. Continuous drug release from a trypsin-degraded microsphere film was observed for up to 28 days. The liberation of ciprofloxacin from the trypsin-degraded film and the biodegradation of the microsphere film were highly correlated. Proliferation assay of the growth of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) by the MTT method showed that the microsphere film had no toxicity when compared with cells grown on Corning culture plates alone and plates with a zein film alone. Quantification of bacteria adhesion showed that adhesion on the microsphere film is significantly suppressed. In addition, according to the results of bacterial growth tests, ciprofloxacin-loaded microsphere films maintained antibacterial activity for more than 6 days. In contrast, a control medium containing a zein film allowed constant bacterial growth. These results indicate that CF-MS films might be useful as antibacterial films on implanted devices.

  4. Apparatus for manufacturing ceramics microspheres for cementing applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2012-01-01

    A method and apparatus for manufacturing ceramic microspheres from industrial slag. The micro spheres have a particle size of about 38 microns to about 150 microns. The microspheres are used to create a cement slurry having a density of at least about Illbs/g. The resultant cement slurry may then be

  5. Controlling silk fibroin microspheres via molecular weight distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Dong-Mei; Pan, Jue-Jing; Wang, Qun; Liu, Xin-Fang; Wang, Hui [National Engineering Laboratory for Modern Silk, College for Textile and Clothing Engineering, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China); Zhang, Ke-Qin, E-mail: kqzhang@suda.edu.cn [National Engineering Laboratory for Modern Silk, College for Textile and Clothing Engineering, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China); Research Center of Cooperative Innovation for Functional Organic/Polymer Material Micro/Nanofabrication, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China)

    2015-05-01

    Silk fibroin (SF) microspheres were produced by salting out SF solution via the addition of potassium phosphate buffer solution (K{sub 2}HPO{sub 4}–KH{sub 2}PO{sub 4}). The morphology, size and polydispersity of SF microspheres were adjusted by changing the molecular weight (MW) distribution and concentration of SF, as well as the ionic strength and pH of the buffer solution. Changing the conditions under which the SF fiber dissolved in the Lithium Boride (LiBr) solution resulted in altering the MW distribution of SF solution. Under optimal salting-out conditions (ionic strength > 0.7 M and pH > 7) and using a smaller and narrower SF MW distribution, SF microspheres with smoother shapes and more uniform sizes were produced. Meanwhile, the size and polydispersity of the microspheres increased when the SF concentration was increased from 0.25 mg/mL to 20 mg/mL. The improved SF microspheres, obtained by altering the distribution of molecular weight, have potential in drug and gene delivery applications. - Highlights: • MW distribution was changed by applying different dissolving methods of SF fiber. • Smaller and narrower MW distribution improves the quality of SF microspheres. • Size and polydispersity of microspheres increase as SF concentration increases. • Improved SF microspheres have potential in drug and gene delivery applications.

  6. Porous-wall hollow glass microspheres as carriers for biomolecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuyi; Dynan, William S; Wicks, George; Serkiz, Steven

    2013-09-17

    The present invention includes compositions of porous-wall hollow glass microspheres and one or more biomolecules, wherein the one or more biomolecules are positioned within a void location within the hollow glass microsphere, and the use of such compositions for the diagnostic and/or therapeutic delivery of biomolecules.

  7. Antibacterial activity of ciprofloxacin-loaded zein microsphere films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu Jianxi [Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 354 Fenglin Road, Shanghai 200032 (China); Henan Normal University, 46 East Construction Road, Xinxiang, Henan 453007 (China); Wang Huajie [College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 1954 Huashan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China); Zhou Yanqing [Henan Normal University, 46 East Construction Road, Xinxiang, Henan 453007 (China); Wang Jinye, E-mail: jywang@mail.sioc.ac.cn [Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 354 Fenglin Road, Shanghai 200032 (China); College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 1954 Huashan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China)

    2009-05-05

    Our aim was to produce an antibiotic-emitting coating composed of zein microspheres for the prevention of bacterial infection on implanted devices. Ciprofloxacin-loaded zein microspheres were prepared using a phase separation procedure, with particle sizes between 0.5 and 2 {mu}m. Drug encapsulation and drug loading varied with the amount of both zein and ciprofloxacin, and the highest encapsulation efficiency was 8.27% (2 mg/ml ciprofloxacin and 20 mg/ml zein; n = 3). A ciprofloxacin-loaded zein microsphere film (CF-MS film) was generated via solvent evaporation. Continuous drug release from a trypsin-degraded microsphere film was observed for up to 28 days. The liberation of ciprofloxacin from the trypsin-degraded film and the biodegradation of the microsphere film were highly correlated. Proliferation assay of the growth of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) by the MTT method showed that the microsphere film had no toxicity when compared with cells grown on Corning culture plates alone and plates with a zein film alone. Quantification of bacteria adhesion showed that adhesion on the microsphere film is significantly suppressed. In addition, according to the results of bacterial growth tests, ciprofloxacin-loaded microsphere films maintained antibacterial activity for more than 6 days. In contrast, a control medium containing a zein film allowed constant bacterial growth. These results indicate that CF-MS films might be useful as antibacterial films on implanted devices.

  8. Formulation and Evaluation of Microspheres Based on Gelatin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Formulation and Evaluation of Microspheres Based on Gelatin-Mucin Admixtures for the Rectal Delivery of Cefuroxime Sodium. K C Ofokansi, M U Adikwu. Abstract. Purpose: Swellable microspheres based on polymers or their admixtures are frequently employed as drug delivery systems to achieve a controlled release ...

  9. Microspheres with Ultrahigh Holmium Content for Radioablation of Malignancies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bult, W.; Seevinck, P.R.; Krijger, G.C.; Visser, T.; Kroon-Batenburg, L.M.J.; Bakker, C.J.G.; Hennink, W.E.; van het Schip, A.D.; Nijsen, J.F.W.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop microspheres with an ultra high holmium content which can be neutron activated for radioablation of malignancies. These microspheres are proposed to be delivered selectively through either intratumoral injections into solid tumors or administered via an

  10. Microspheres with ultrahigh holmium content for radioablation of malignancies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bult, W; Seevinck, P R; Krijger, G C; Visser, T; Kroon-Batenburg, L M J; Bakker, C J G; Hennink, W E; van het Schip, A D; Nijsen, J F W

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to develop microspheres with an ultra high holmium content which can be neutron activated for radioablation of malignancies. These microspheres are proposed to be delivered selectively through either intratumoral injections into solid tumors or administered via an

  11. Microspheres with Ultrahigh Holmium Content for Radioablation of Malignancies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bult, W.; Seevinck, P.R.; Krijger, G.C.; Visser, T.; Kroon-Batenburg, L.M.J.; Bakker, C.J.G.; Hennink, W.E.; Van het Schip, A.D.; Nijsen, J.F.W.

    Purpose The aim of this study was to develop microspheres with an ultra high holmium content which can be neutron activated for radioablation of malignancies. These microspheres are proposed to be delivered selectively through either intratumoral injections into solid tumors or administered via an

  12. Optimization of sustained release aceclofenac microspheres using response surface methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deshmukh, Rameshwar K.; Naik, Jitendra B., E-mail: jitunaik@gmail.com

    2015-03-01

    Polymeric microspheres containing aceclofenac were prepared by single emulsion (oil-in-water) solvent evaporation method using response surface methodology (RSM). Microspheres were prepared by changing formulation variables such as the amount of Eudragit® RS100 and the amount of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) by statistical experimental design in order to enhance the encapsulation efficiency (E.E.) of the microspheres. The resultant microspheres were evaluated for their size, morphology, E.E., and in vitro drug release. The amount of Eudragit® RS100 and the amount of PVA were found to be significant factors respectively for determining the E.E. of the microspheres. A linear mathematical model equation fitted to the data was used to predict the E.E. in the optimal region. Optimized formulation of microspheres was prepared using optimal process variables setting in order to evaluate the optimization capability of the models generated according to IV-optimal design. The microspheres showed high E.E. (74.14 ± 0.015% to 85.34 ± 0.011%) and suitably sustained drug release (minimum; 40% to 60%; maximum) over a period of 12 h. The optimized microspheres formulation showed E.E. of 84.87 ± 0.005 with small error value (1.39). The low magnitudes of error and the significant value of R{sup 2} in the present investigation prove the high prognostic ability of the design. The absence of interactions between drug and polymers was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray powder diffractometry (XRPD) revealed the dispersion of drug within microspheres formulation. The microspheres were found to be discrete, spherical with smooth surface. The results demonstrate that these microspheres could be promising delivery system to sustain the drug release and improve the E.E. thus prolong drug action and achieve the highest healing effect with minimal gastrointestinal side effects. - Highlights: • Aceclofenac microspheres

  13. Preparation and Characterization of Fluorescent SiO2 Microspheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Cui; Zhang, Hao; Guan, Ruifang

    2018-01-01

    Fluorescent compound without typical fluorophores was synthesized with citric acid (CA) and aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTS) firstly, and then it was grafted to the surface of the prepared SiO2 microspheres by chemical reaction. The fluorescent SiO2 microspheres with good fluorescent properties were obtained by optimizing the reaction conditions. And the morphology and structure of the fluorescent SiO2 microspheres have been characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The results showed that the preparation of fluorescent SiO2 microspheres have good monodispersity and narrow particle size distribution. Moreover, the fluorescent SiO2 microspheres can be applied to detect Fe3+ in aqueous solution, prepare fluorescent SiO2 rubber, and have potential to be applied in the fluorescent labeling and fingerprint appearing technique fields.

  14. Study on the Degradation of Polylactide Microsphere In Vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HeYing; WeiShuli

    2001-01-01

    This report concentrated on the rules and mechanism of the degradation of polylactide and the microspheres. The rate of degradation was assessed with five methods: observation of microsphere surface morphology by SEM, determination of the weight loss of the microspheres, determination of the molecular mass of the polymers by GPC, determination of pH and determination of the contents of lactic acid by UV spectrophotometry. The degradation of polylactide microspheres showed two-phase characteristics. At the early stage of the degradation, the high molecular mass polymers were cleaved into lower molecular mass fractions and at the late stage, there was a period of erosion and weight loss of the microspheres. The degradation was much slower for polymers with a higher molecular mass. The polylactide degradation showed good regularity.

  15. Hollow porous-wall glass microspheres for hydrogen storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heung, Leung K.; Schumacher, Ray F.; Wicks, George G.

    2010-02-23

    A porous wall hollow glass microsphere is provided having a diameter range of between 1 to 200 microns, a density of between 1.0 to 2.0 gm/cc, a porous-wall structure having wall openings defining an average pore size of between 10 to 1000 angstroms, and which contains therein a hydrogen storage material. The porous-wall structure facilitates the introduction of a hydrogen storage material into the interior of the porous wall hollow glass microsphere. In this manner, the resulting hollow glass microsphere can provide a membrane for the selective transport of hydrogen through the porous walls of the microsphere, the small pore size preventing gaseous or liquid contaminants from entering the interior of the hollow glass microsphere.

  16. Preparation and dual microwave-absorption properties of carboxylic poly(arylene ether nitrile)/Fe3O4 hybrid microspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Zhen; Meng Fanbin; Zhao Rui; Zhan Yingqing; Zhong Jiachun; Liu Xiaobo

    2012-01-01

    The carboxylic poly(arylene ether nitrile)/Fe 3 O 4 hybrid microspheres were prepared via solvothermal method. The carboxylic poly(arylene ether nitrile) (PEN-COOH) was introduced into the Fe 3 O 4 microspheres by chemisorption with mass content up to 15% as defined by infrared spectra and thermal gravimetric analysis. The hybrid sphere is of hierarchical polymer–inorganic microstructure as observed by transmission electron microscopy. The microwave-absorption of the sample owns a shifting peak and a special immobilized peak with the variation of absorber thickness from 3 to 5 mm. Maximum microwave-absorption of the product is capable of over −30 dB in the range of 10–12 GHz. By proposed equivalent filter circuit model, the immobilized peak was attributed to the ordered nanostructure where the Fe 3 O 4 nanocrystals were isolated by PEN-COOH. The product has the potential to be applied as microwave absorber with high microwave-absorption, good dispersibility and robust polymer–inorganic interfacial adherence. - Highlights: ► We prepared poly(arylene ether nitrile)/Fe 3 O 4 hybrid microspheres with hierarchical polymer–inorganic nanostructure. ► A shifting and an immobilized microwave absorbing peaks were observed on the sample. ► Possible mechanism was proposed on the basis of electromagnetic data.

  17. Template-Free Synthesis of Sb2S3 Hollow Microspheres as Anode Materials for Lithium-Ion and Sodium-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jianjun; Liu, Li; Xia, Jing; Zhang, Yue; Li, Min; Ouyang, Yan; Nie, Su; Wang, Xianyou

    2018-03-01

    Hierarchical Sb2S3 hollow microspheres assembled by nanowires have been successfully synthesized by a simple and practical hydrothermal reaction. The possible formation process of this architecture was investigated by X-ray diffraction, focused-ion beam-scanning electron microscopy dual-beam system, and transmission electron microscopy. When used as the anode material for lithium-ion batteries, Sb2S3 hollow microspheres manifest excellent rate property and enhanced lithium-storage capability and can deliver a discharge capacity of 674 mAh g-1 at a current density of 200 mA g-1 after 50 cycles. Even at a high current density of 5000 mA g-1, a discharge capacity of 541 mAh g-1 is achieved. Sb2S3 hollow microspheres also display a prominent sodium-storage capacity and maintain a reversible discharge capacity of 384 mAh g-1 at a current density of 200 mA g-1 after 50 cycles. The remarkable lithium/sodium-storage property may be attributed to the synergetic effect of its nanometer size and three-dimensional hierarchical architecture, and the outstanding stability property is attributed to the sufficient interior void space, which can buffer the volume expansion. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  18. Context updates are hierarchical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Karl Ingason

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This squib studies the order in which elements are added to the shared context of interlocutors in a conversation. It focuses on context updates within one hierarchical structure and argues that structurally higher elements are entered into the context before lower elements, even if the structurally higher elements are pronounced after the lower elements. The crucial data are drawn from a comparison of relative clauses in two head-initial languages, English and Icelandic, and two head-final languages, Korean and Japanese. The findings have consequences for any theory of a dynamic semantics.

  19. Detecting Hierarchical Structure in Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herlau, Tue; Mørup, Morten; Schmidt, Mikkel Nørgaard

    2012-01-01

    Many real-world networks exhibit hierarchical organization. Previous models of hierarchies within relational data has focused on binary trees; however, for many networks it is unknown whether there is hierarchical structure, and if there is, a binary tree might not account well for it. We propose...... a generative Bayesian model that is able to infer whether hierarchies are present or not from a hypothesis space encompassing all types of hierarchical tree structures. For efficient inference we propose a collapsed Gibbs sampling procedure that jointly infers a partition and its hierarchical structure....... On synthetic and real data we demonstrate that our model can detect hierarchical structure leading to better link-prediction than competing models. Our model can be used to detect if a network exhibits hierarchical structure, thereby leading to a better comprehension and statistical account the network....

  20. Preparation of Hierarchical BiOBr Microspheres for Visible Light-Induced Photocatalytic Detoxification and Disinfection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayla Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Photocatalytic degradation is a promising alternative to traditional wastewater treatment methods. Recently developed visible light-responsive photocatalyst, BiOBr, has attracted extensive attentions. Hereby, a detailed investigation of application of BiOBr to bacterial inactivation and organic pollutants degradation is reported. Hydrothermal catalyst was prepared using template-free method. While, for solvothermal synthesis, CTAB was used as a template. Results indicate a higher photocatalytic activity by the solvothermally prepared catalyst. Solvothermally prepared BiOBr exhibited high photocatalytic activities in both water detoxification and disinfection.

  1. Mesoporous metal oxide microsphere electrode compositions and their methods of making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parans Paranthaman, Mariappan; Bi, Zhonghe; Bridges, Craig A.; Brown, Gilbert M.

    2017-04-11

    Compositions and methods of making are provided for treated mesoporous metal oxide microspheres electrodes. The compositions include microspheres with an average diameter between about 200 nanometers and about 10 micrometers and mesopores on the surface and interior of the microspheres. The methods of making include forming a mesoporous metal oxide microsphere composition and treating the mesoporous metal oxide microspheres by at least annealing in a reducing atmosphere, doping with an aliovalent element, and coating with a coating composition.

  2. Hierarchical quark mass matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasin, A.

    1998-02-01

    I define a set of conditions that the most general hierarchical Yukawa mass matrices have to satisfy so that the leading rotations in the diagonalization matrix are a pair of (2,3) and (1,2) rotations. In addition to Fritzsch structures, examples of such hierarchical structures include also matrices with (1,3) elements of the same order or even much larger than the (1,2) elements. Such matrices can be obtained in the framework of a flavor theory. To leading order, the values of the angle in the (2,3) plane (s 23 ) and the angle in the (1,2) plane (s 12 ) do not depend on the order in which they are taken when diagonalizing. We find that any of the Cabbibo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix parametrizations that consist of at least one (1,2) and one (2,3) rotation may be suitable. In the particular case when the s 13 diagonalization angles are sufficiently small compared to the product s 12 s 23 , two special CKM parametrizations emerge: the R 12 R 23 R 12 parametrization follows with s 23 taken before the s 12 rotation, and vice versa for the R 23 R 12 R 23 parametrization. (author)

  3. Hierarchical partial order ranking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsen, Lars

    2008-01-01

    Assessing the potential impact on environmental and human health from the production and use of chemicals or from polluted sites involves a multi-criteria evaluation scheme. A priori several parameters are to address, e.g., production tonnage, specific release scenarios, geographical and site-specific factors in addition to various substance dependent parameters. Further socio-economic factors may be taken into consideration. The number of parameters to be included may well appear to be prohibitive for developing a sensible model. The study introduces hierarchical partial order ranking (HPOR) that remedies this problem. By HPOR the original parameters are initially grouped based on their mutual connection and a set of meta-descriptors is derived representing the ranking corresponding to the single groups of descriptors, respectively. A second partial order ranking is carried out based on the meta-descriptors, the final ranking being disclosed though average ranks. An illustrative example on the prioritisation of polluted sites is given. - Hierarchical partial order ranking of polluted sites has been developed for prioritization based on a large number of parameters

  4. Nested and Hierarchical Archimax copulas

    KAUST Repository

    Hofert, Marius; Huser, Raphaë l; Prasad, Avinash

    2017-01-01

    The class of Archimax copulas is generalized to nested and hierarchical Archimax copulas in several ways. First, nested extreme-value copulas or nested stable tail dependence functions are introduced to construct nested Archimax copulas based on a single frailty variable. Second, a hierarchical construction of d-norm generators is presented to construct hierarchical stable tail dependence functions and thus hierarchical extreme-value copulas. Moreover, one can, by itself or additionally, introduce nested frailties to extend Archimax copulas to nested Archimax copulas in a similar way as nested Archimedean copulas extend Archimedean copulas. Further results include a general formula for the density of Archimax copulas.

  5. Nested and Hierarchical Archimax copulas

    KAUST Repository

    Hofert, Marius

    2017-07-03

    The class of Archimax copulas is generalized to nested and hierarchical Archimax copulas in several ways. First, nested extreme-value copulas or nested stable tail dependence functions are introduced to construct nested Archimax copulas based on a single frailty variable. Second, a hierarchical construction of d-norm generators is presented to construct hierarchical stable tail dependence functions and thus hierarchical extreme-value copulas. Moreover, one can, by itself or additionally, introduce nested frailties to extend Archimax copulas to nested Archimax copulas in a similar way as nested Archimedean copulas extend Archimedean copulas. Further results include a general formula for the density of Archimax copulas.

  6. Long pulse microsphere experiments at 3 TW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyle, M.J.; Attwood, D.T.; Brooks, K.M.

    1977-01-01

    Previous 1.06 μm laser implosion experiments have explored the parameter space associated with microsphere targets of typically less than 100 psec. Exploding pusher experiments have now been performed using long pulses (100 to 200 psec FWHM), and large diameter (100 to 150 μm) targets on the 3 TW Argus laser facility. Absorption, transport, implosion and neutron and α yield characteristics are discussed and compared with earlier short pulse results. The observed neutron yields are discussed in light of the temporal mismatch between the absorption and implosion time scales imposed by the large diameter, long pulse conditions

  7. Visible-light-driven N-(BiO)2CO3/Graphene oxide composites with improved photocatalytic activity and selectivity for NOx removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Meijuan; Huang, Yu; Yao, Jie; Cao, Jun-ji; Liu, Yuan

    2018-02-01

    N-doped (BiO)2CO3 (NBOC)/graphene oxide (GO) composite obtained from three-dimensional hierarchical microspheres is successfully synthesized by one-pot hydrothermal method for the first time. In this synthesis, citrate ion plays a critical role in N doping. The obtained samples are used to degrade gaseous nitrogen oxides (NOx) at parts-per-billion (ppb) level under visible-light irradiation. NBOC-GO composite with 1.0 wt% graphene oxide (GO) displays the highest photocatalytic NO removal efficiency, which is 4.3 times higher than that of pristine (BiO)2CO3. Moreover, NBOC-GO composite significantly inhibits toxic NO2 intermediate production, indicating its high selectivity for NO conversion. Compared with regular GO, N doping considerably improves the catalytic performance of NBOC-GO composite, which increases NO removal by 74.6% and fully inhibits NO2 generation. The improved photocatalytic activity is mainly ascribed to extended optical absorption ability and enhanced separation efficiency of photogenerated charge carriers over NBOC-GO composite. Both results of electron spin resonance and theoretical analysis of band structure indicate that NO removal is dominated by oxidation with rad OH and rad O2- radicals. The photocatalytic activity improvement mechanism over the NBOC-GO composite is proposed accordingly based on systematic characterizations. This study demonstrates a feasible route to fabricating Bi-containing composites with high selectivity and stability for air pollution control and provides a new insight into the associated photocatalytic mechanisms.

  8. A Hierarchically Micro-Meso-Macroporous Zeolite CaA for Methanol Conversion to Dimethyl Ether

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Wang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A hierarchical zeolite CaA with microporous, mesoporous and macroporous structure was hydrothermally synthesized by a ”Bond-Blocking” method using organo-functionalized mesoporous silica (MS as a silica source. The characterization by XRD, SEM/TEM and N2 adsorption/desorption techniques showed that the prepared material had well-crystalline zeolite Linde Type A (LTA topological structure, microspherical particle morphologies, and hierarchically intracrystalline micro-meso-macropores structure. With the Bond-Blocking principle, the external surface area and macro-mesoporosity of the hierarchical zeolite CaA can be adjusted by varying the organo-functionalized degree of the mesoporous silica surface. Similarly, the distribution of the micro-meso-macroporous structure in the zeolite CaA can be controlled purposely. Compared with the conventional microporous zeolite CaA, the hierarchical zeolite CaA as a catalyst in the conversion of methanol to dimethyl ether (DME, exhibited complete DME selectivity and stable catalytic activity with high methanol conversion. The catalytic performances of the hierarchical zeolite CaA results clearly from the micro-meso-macroporous structure, improving diffusion properties, favoring the access to the active surface and avoiding secondary reactions (no hydrocarbon products were detected after 3 h of reaction.

  9. Insulin delivery through nasal route using thiolated microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nema, Tarang; Jain, Ashish; Jain, Aviral; Shilpi, Satish; Gulbake, Arvind; Hurkat, Pooja; Jain, Sanjay K

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential of developed thiolated microspheres for insulin delivery through nasal route. In the present study, cysteine was immobilized on carbopol using EDAC. A total of 269.93 µmol free thiol groups per gram polymer were determined. The prepared nonthiolated and thiolated microspheres were studied for particle shape, size, drug content, swellability, mucoadhesion and in vitro insulin release. The thiolated microspheres exhibited higher mucoadhesion due to formation of covalent bonds via disulfide bridges with the mucus gel layer. Drug permeation through goat nasal mucosa of nonthiolated and thiolated microspheres were found as 52.62 ± 2.4% and 78.85 ± 3.1% in 6 h, respectively. Thiolated microspheres bearing insulin showed better reduction in blood glucose level (BGL) in comparison to nonthiolated microspheres as 31.23 ± 2.12% and 75.25 ± 0.93% blood glucose of initial BGL were observed at 6 h after nasal delivery of thiolated and nonthiolated microspheres in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rabbits.

  10. Magnetic poly(glycidyl methacrylate) microspheres for protein capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koubková, Jana; Müller, Petr; Hlídková, Helena; Plichta, Zdeněk; Proks, Vladimír; Vojtěšek, Bořivoj; Horák, Daniel

    2014-09-25

    The efficient isolation and concentration of protein antigens from complex biological samples is a critical step in several analytical methods, such as mass spectrometry, flow cytometry and immunochemistry. These techniques take advantage of magnetic microspheres as immunosorbents. The focus of this study was on the development of new superparamagnetic polymer microspheres for the specific isolation of the tumor suppressor protein p53. Monodisperse macroporous poly(glycidyl methacrylate) (PGMA) microspheres measuring approximately 5 μm and containing carboxyl groups were prepared by multistep swelling polymerization of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA), 2-[(methoxycarbonyl)methoxy]ethyl methacrylate (MCMEMA) and ethylene dimethylacrylate (EDMA) as a crosslinker in the presence of cyclohexyl acetate as a porogen. To render the microspheres magnetic, iron oxide was precipitated within their pores; the Fe content in the particles received ∼18 wt%. Nonspecific interactions between the magnetic particles and biological media were minimized by coating the microspheres with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) terminated by carboxyl groups. The carboxyl groups of the magnetic PGMA microspheres were conjugated with primary amino groups of mouse monoclonal DO-1 antibody using conventional carbodiimide chemistry. The efficiency of protein p53 capture and the degree of nonspecific adsorption on neat and PEG-coated magnetic microspheres were determined by western blot analysis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Measurement of thermal diffusivity of depleted uranium metal microspheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humrickhouse-Helmreich, Carissa J.; Corbin, Rob; McDeavitt, Sean M.

    2014-03-01

    The high void space of nuclear fuels composed of homogeneous uranium metal microspheres may allow them to achieve ultra-high burnup by accommodating fuel swelling and reducing fuel/cladding interactions; however, the relatively low thermal conductivity of microsphere nuclear fuels may limit their application. To support the development of microsphere nuclear fuels, an apparatus was designed in a glovebox and used to measure the apparent thermal diffusivity of a packed bed of depleted uranium (DU) microspheres with argon fill in the void spaces. The developed Crucible Heater Test Assembly (CHTA) recorded radial temperature changes due to an initial heat pulse from a central thin-diameter cartridge heater. Using thermocouple positions and time-temperature data, the apparent thermal diffusivity was calculated. The thermal conductivity of the DU microspheres was calculated based on the thermal diffusivity from the CHTA, known material densities and specific heat capacities, and an assumed 70% packing density based on prior measurements. Results indicate that DU metal microspheres have very low thermal conductivity, relative to solid uranium metal, and rapidly form an oxidation layer even in a low oxygen environment. At 500 °C, the thermal conductivity of the DU metal microsphere bed was 0.431 ± 0.0560 W/m-K compared to the literature value of approximately 32 W/m-K for solid uranium metal.

  12. Measurement of thermal diffusivity of depleted uranium metal microspheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humrickhouse-Helmreich, Carissa J., E-mail: carissahelmreich@tamu.edu [Texas A and M University, Department of Nuclear Engineering, 337 Zachry Engineering Center, 3133 TAMU, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Corbin, Rob, E-mail: rcorbin@terrapower.com [TerraPower, LLC, 330 120th Ave NE, Suite 100, Bellevue, WA 98005 (United States); McDeavitt, Sean M., E-mail: mcdeavitt@tamu.edu [Texas A and M University, Department of Nuclear Engineering, 337 Zachry Engineering Center, 3133 TAMU, College Station, TX 77843 (United States)

    2014-03-15

    The high void space of nuclear fuels composed of homogeneous uranium metal microspheres may allow them to achieve ultra-high burnup by accommodating fuel swelling and reducing fuel/cladding interactions; however, the relatively low thermal conductivity of microsphere nuclear fuels may limit their application. To support the development of microsphere nuclear fuels, an apparatus was designed in a glovebox and used to measure the apparent thermal diffusivity of a packed bed of depleted uranium (DU) microspheres with argon fill in the void spaces. The developed Crucible Heater Test Assembly (CHTA) recorded radial temperature changes due to an initial heat pulse from a central thin-diameter cartridge heater. Using thermocouple positions and time–temperature data, the apparent thermal diffusivity was calculated. The thermal conductivity of the DU microspheres was calculated based on the thermal diffusivity from the CHTA, known material densities and specific heat capacities, and an assumed 70% packing density based on prior measurements. Results indicate that DU metal microspheres have very low thermal conductivity, relative to solid uranium metal, and rapidly form an oxidation layer even in a low oxygen environment. At 500 °C, the thermal conductivity of the DU metal microsphere bed was 0.431 ± 0.0560 W/m-K compared to the literature value of approximately 32 W/m-K for solid uranium metal.

  13. Preparation of nano-hydroxyapatite/poly(l-lactide) biocomposite microspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Xueyu; Han Yadong; Zhuang Xiuli; Chen Xuesi; Li Yuesheng; Jing Xiabin

    2007-01-01

    Nano-hydroxyapatite (HA)/poly(l-lactide) (PLLA) composite microspheres with relatively uniform size distribution were prepared by a solid-in-oil-in-water (s/o/w) emusion solvent evaporation method. The encapsulation of the HA nanopaticles in microshperes was significantly improved by grafting PLLA on the surface of the HA nanoparticles (p-HA) during emulsion process. This procedure gave a possibility to obtain p-HA/PLLA composite microspheres with uniform morphology and the encapsulated p-HA nanoparticle loading reached up to 40 wt% (33 wt% of pure HA) in the p-HA/PLLA composite microspheres. The microstructure of composite microspheres from core-shell to single phase changed with the variation of p-HA to PLLA ratios. p-HA/PLLA composite microspheres with the diameter range of 2-3 μm were obtained. The entrapment efficiency of p-HA in microspheres could high up to 90 wt% and that of HA was only 13 wt%. Surface and bulk characterizations of the composite microspheres were performed by measurements such as wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM)

  14. Current knowledge on biodegradable microspheres in drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajapati, Vipul D; Jani, Girish K; Kapadia, Jinita R

    2015-08-01

    Biodegradable microspheres have gained popularity for delivering a wide variety of molecules via various routes. These types of products have been prepared using various natural and synthetic biodegradable polymers through suitable techniques for desired delivery of various challenging molecules. Selection of biodegradable polymers and technique play a key role in desired drug delivery. This review describes an overview of the fundamental knowledge and status of biodegradable microspheres in effective delivery of various molecules via desired routes with consideration of outlines of various compendial and non-compendial biodegradable polymers, formulation techniques and release mechanism of microspheres, patents and commercial biodegradable microspheres. There are various advantages of using biodegradable polymers including promise of development with different types of molecules. Biocompatibility, low dosage and reduced side effects are some reasons why usage biodegradable microspheres have gained in popularity. Selection of biodegradable polymers and formulation techniques to create microspheres is the biggest challenge in research. In the near future, biodegradable microspheres will become the eco-friendly product for drug delivery of various genes, hormones, proteins and peptides at specific site of body for desired periods of time.

  15. Measurement of thermal diffusivity of depleted uranium metal microspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humrickhouse-Helmreich, Carissa J.; Corbin, Rob; McDeavitt, Sean M.

    2014-01-01

    The high void space of nuclear fuels composed of homogeneous uranium metal microspheres may allow them to achieve ultra-high burnup by accommodating fuel swelling and reducing fuel/cladding interactions; however, the relatively low thermal conductivity of microsphere nuclear fuels may limit their application. To support the development of microsphere nuclear fuels, an apparatus was designed in a glovebox and used to measure the apparent thermal diffusivity of a packed bed of depleted uranium (DU) microspheres with argon fill in the void spaces. The developed Crucible Heater Test Assembly (CHTA) recorded radial temperature changes due to an initial heat pulse from a central thin-diameter cartridge heater. Using thermocouple positions and time–temperature data, the apparent thermal diffusivity was calculated. The thermal conductivity of the DU microspheres was calculated based on the thermal diffusivity from the CHTA, known material densities and specific heat capacities, and an assumed 70% packing density based on prior measurements. Results indicate that DU metal microspheres have very low thermal conductivity, relative to solid uranium metal, and rapidly form an oxidation layer even in a low oxygen environment. At 500 °C, the thermal conductivity of the DU metal microsphere bed was 0.431 ± 0.0560 W/m-K compared to the literature value of approximately 32 W/m-K for solid uranium metal

  16. Nanomechanics of biocompatible hollow thin-shell polymer microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynos, Emmanouil; Koutsos, Vasileios; McDicken, W Norman; Moran, Carmel M; Pye, Stephen D; Ross, James A; Sboros, Vassilis

    2009-07-07

    The nanomechanical properties of biocompatible thin-shell hollow polymer microspheres with approximately constant ratio of shell thickness to microsphere diameter were measured by nanocompression tests in aqueous conditions. These microspheres encapsulate an inert gas and are used as ultrasound contrast agents by releasing free microbubbles in the presence of an ultrasound field as a result of free gas leakage from the shell. The tests were performed using an atomic force microscope (AFM) employing the force-distance curve technique. An optical microscope, on which the AFM was mounted, was used to guide the positioning of tipless cantilevers on top of individual microspheres. We performed a systematic study using several cantilevers with spring constants varying from 0.08 to 2.3 N/m on a population of microspheres with diameters from about 2 to 6 microm. The use of several cantilevers with various spring constants allowed a systematic study of the mechanical properties of the microsphere thin shell at different regimes of force and deformation. Using thin-shell mechanics theory for small deformations, the Young's modulus of the thin wall material was estimated and was shown to exhibit a strong size effect: it increased as the shell became thinner. The Young's modulus of thicker microsphere shells converged to the expected value for the macroscopic bulk material. For high applied forces, the force-deformation profiles showed a reversible and/or irreversible nonlinear behavior including "steps" and "jumps" which were attributed to mechanical instabilities such as buckling events.

  17. Brownian dynamics simulations of insulin microspheres formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Chakrabarti, Amit; Gunton, James

    2010-03-01

    Recent experiments have indicated a novel, aqueous process of microsphere insulin fabrication based on controlled phase separation of protein from water-soluble polymers. We investigate the insulin microsphere crystal formation from insulin-PEG-water systems via 3D Brownian Dynamics simulations. We use the two component Asakura-Oosawa model to simulate the kinetics of this colloid polymer mixture. We first perform a deep quench below the liquid-crystal boundary that leads to fractal formation. We next heat the system to obtain a break-up of the fractal clusters and subsequently cool the system to obtain a spherical aggregation of droplets with a relatively narrow size distribution. We analyze the structure factor S(q) to identify the cluster dimension. S(q) crosses over from a power law q dependence of 1.8 (in agreement with DLCA) to 4 as q increases, which shows the evolution from fractal to spherical clusters. By studying the bond-order parameters, we find the phase transition from liquid-like droplets to crystals which exhibit local HCP and FCC order. This work is supported by grants from the NSF and Mathers Foundation.

  18. Thyroid artery embolization with microspheres for hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Yahui; Zhong Chenfu; Chen Weijun; Zhang Ying; Luo Jun; Li Xiaoguang; Cao Junjie; Gan Changli; Cao Junjie; Gan Changli

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the method and efficacy of thyroid artery embolization as a new therapy for hyperthyroidism. Methods: Thirteen patients with hyperthyroidism underwent selective thyroid artery embolization. Totally 25 thyroid arteries were embolized with microspheres. The indications for this therapy were as followings: 1) To give hyperthyroid patients having an alternative for surgical and 131 I treatment, and 2) To provide a new method for those clinically being difficult to get control with medicine. Results: Serum level of thyroid hormones dropped significantly[T3 from 2.84-9.0 ng/ml to 0.8-2.2 ng/ml, T4 from 162.9-277.2 ng/ml to 50-126 ng/ml] and symptoms of hyperthyroidism were under control in 12 patients within 1 month after the embolization. One patient remained no change 1 month later and refused to be embolized again. The symptoms of twelve patients were effectively controlled through low dose antithyroid medication for more than 6 months follow up with no serious complications. Conclusion: Thyroid artery embolization with microspheres is an effective alternative for surgical and 131 I treatment of hyperthyroidism. (authors)

  19. Preparation and properties of polyvinyl alcohol microspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, J.H.; Grens, J.Z.; Poco, J.F.; Ives, B.H.

    1986-06-01

    Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) microspheres, having a size range of ∼150- to 250-μm diameter with 1- to 5-μm wall thickness, have been fabricated using a solution droplet technique. The spheres were developed for possible use on the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Program. PVA, a polymer chosen based on earlier survey work carried out at KMS Fusion, Inc., has good strength, low hydrogen permeability, is optically transparent, and water soluble. The latter property makes it safe and easy to use in our droplet generator system. A unique dual-orifice droplet generator was used to prepare the spheres. The droplet generator operating conditions and the column processing parameters were chosen using results from our 1-D model calculations as a guide. The polymer microsphere model is an extension of the model we developed to support the glass sphere production. After preparation, the spheres were physically characterized for surface quality, sphericity, wall thickness (and uniformity), and size. We also determined the buckling pressure for both uncoated and CH-coated spheres. Radiation stability to beta decay (from tritium) was evaluated by exposing the spheres to a 7-keV electron beam. The results from these and other physical property measurements are presented in this report

  20. Storage stability of biodegradable polyethylene glycol microspheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Era; Sheth, Saahil; Polito, Kristen; Sell, Scott A.; Zustiak, Silviya P.

    2017-10-01

    Degradable hydrogel microspheres are popular choices for multiple biomedical applications, including drug, protein, or cell carriers for minimally invasive delivery. Clinical transitioning of such new, sensitive pharmaceutical preparations requires investigation of storage methods that retain key properties for extended time. In this study, we sought to determine the influence of seven common storage conditions on the physical and mechanical properties of degradable polyethylene glycol (PEG) hydrogel microspheres: 25 °C, 4 °C, -80 °C, lyophilization/-20 °C, dimethyl sulfoxide/-80 °C, dimethyl sulfoxide/lyophilization/-20 °C, vacuum/-20 °C. We have outlined the storage conditions in detail and explained their effect on swelling ratio, stiffness and degradation rate post-storage. Additionally, we have implemented protein-loaded hydrogels to evaluate the effect of storage conditions on diffusivity as well as protein stability post-storage. We found that hydrogels could be stored short-term (1-4 d) under moist conditions (i.e. storage without drying) without a substantial loss of properties. For extended storage (7-28 d), they could be stored either at  -80 °C (moist condition) or vacuum drying (dry condition).

  1. Transmutations across hierarchical levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neill, R.V.

    1977-01-01

    The development of large-scale ecological models depends implicitly on a concept known as hierarchy theory which views biological systems in a series of hierarchical levels (i.e., organism, population, trophic level, ecosystem). The theory states that an explanation of a biological phenomenon is provided when it is shown to be the consequence of the activities of the system's components, which are themselves systems in the next lower level of the hierarchy. Thus, the behavior of a population is explained by the behavior of the organisms in the population. The initial step in any modeling project is, therefore, to identify the system components and the interactions between them. A series of examples of transmutations in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems are presented to show how and why changes occur. The types of changes are summarized and possible implications of transmutation for hierarchy theory, for the modeler, and for the ecological theoretician are discussed

  2. Trees and Hierarchical Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Haeseler, Arndt

    1990-01-01

    The "raison d'etre" of hierarchical dustering theory stems from one basic phe­ nomenon: This is the notorious non-transitivity of similarity relations. In spite of the fact that very often two objects may be quite similar to a third without being that similar to each other, one still wants to dassify objects according to their similarity. This should be achieved by grouping them into a hierarchy of non-overlapping dusters such that any two objects in ~ne duster appear to be more related to each other than they are to objects outside this duster. In everyday life, as well as in essentially every field of scientific investigation, there is an urge to reduce complexity by recognizing and establishing reasonable das­ sification schemes. Unfortunately, this is counterbalanced by the experience of seemingly unavoidable deadlocks caused by the existence of sequences of objects, each comparatively similar to the next, but the last rather different from the first.

  3. Optimisation by hierarchical search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zintchenko, Ilia; Hastings, Matthew; Troyer, Matthias

    2015-03-01

    Finding optimal values for a set of variables relative to a cost function gives rise to some of the hardest problems in physics, computer science and applied mathematics. Although often very simple in their formulation, these problems have a complex cost function landscape which prevents currently known algorithms from efficiently finding the global optimum. Countless techniques have been proposed to partially circumvent this problem, but an efficient method is yet to be found. We present a heuristic, general purpose approach to potentially improve the performance of conventional algorithms or special purpose hardware devices by optimising groups of variables in a hierarchical way. We apply this approach to problems in combinatorial optimisation, machine learning and other fields.

  4. Development of nuclear fuel microsphere handling techniques and equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mack, J.E.; Suchomel, R.R.; Angelini, P.

    1979-01-01

    Considerable progress has been made in the development of microsphere handling techniques and equipment for nuclear applications. Work at Oak Ridge National Laboratory with microspherical fuel forms dates back to the early sixties with the development of the sol-gel process. Since that time a number of equipment items and systems specifically related to microsphere handling and characterization have been identified and developed for eventual application in a remote recycle facility. These include positive and negative pressure transfer systems, samplers, weighers, a blender-dispenser, and automated devices for particle size distribution and crushing strength analysis. The current status of these and other components and systems is discussed

  5. How hierarchical is language use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Stefan L.; Bod, Rens; Christiansen, Morten H.

    2012-01-01

    It is generally assumed that hierarchical phrase structure plays a central role in human language. However, considerations of simplicity and evolutionary continuity suggest that hierarchical structure should not be invoked too hastily. Indeed, recent neurophysiological, behavioural and computational studies show that sequential sentence structure has considerable explanatory power and that hierarchical processing is often not involved. In this paper, we review evidence from the recent literature supporting the hypothesis that sequential structure may be fundamental to the comprehension, production and acquisition of human language. Moreover, we provide a preliminary sketch outlining a non-hierarchical model of language use and discuss its implications and testable predictions. If linguistic phenomena can be explained by sequential rather than hierarchical structure, this will have considerable impact in a wide range of fields, such as linguistics, ethology, cognitive neuroscience, psychology and computer science. PMID:22977157

  6. Investigation Into Accessible Surface Vinyl Concentrations of Nonstoichiometric PDMS Microspheres from Hydrosilylation Reactions and Their Further Crosslinking Reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Baoguang; Hansen, Jens Henrik; Hvilsted, Søren

    2015-01-01

    The introduction of surface vinyl groups to PDMS microspheres broadens the latter's applicability range since the microspheres can be further functionalized or crosslinked into elastomers. Quantification of the surface vinyl concentration of PDMS microspheres is therefore essential. Here, a novel...

  7. Optical diffraction by ordered 2D arrays of silica microspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shcherbakov, A.A.; Shavdina, O.; Tishchenko, A.V.; Veillas, C.; Verrier, I.; Dellea, O.; Jourlin, Y.

    2017-01-01

    The article presents experimental and theoretical studies of angular dependent diffraction properties of 2D monolayer arrays of silica microspheres. High-quality large area defect-free monolayers of 1 μm diameter silica microspheres were deposited by the Langmuir-Blodgett technique under an accurate optical control. Measured angular dependencies of zeroth and one of the first order diffraction efficiencies produced by deposited samples were simulated by the rigorous Generalized Source Method taking into account particle size dispersion and lattice nonideality. - Highlights: • High quality silica microsphere monolayer was fabricated. • Accurate measurements of diffraction efficiency angular dependencies. • Rigorous diffraction simulation of both ideal hexagonal and realistic microsphere arrangements. • Qualitative rationalization of the obtained results and the observed differences between the experiment and the theory.

  8. BIOCOMPATIBLE FLUORESCENT MICROSPHERES: SAFE PARTICLES FOR MATERIAL PENETRATION STUDIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farquar, G; Leif, R

    2009-07-15

    Biocompatible polymers with hydrolyzable chemical bonds have been used to produce safe, non-toxic fluorescent microspheres for material penetration studies. The selection of polymeric materials depends on both biocompatibility and processability, with tailored fluorescent properties depending on specific applications. Microspheres are composed of USFDA-approved biodegradable polymers and non-toxic fluorophores and are therefore suitable for tests where human exposure is possible. Micropheres were produced which contain unique fluorophores to enable discrimination from background aerosol particles. Characteristics that affect dispersion and adhesion can be modified depending on use. Several different microsphere preparation methods are possible, including the use of a vibrating orifice aerosol generator (VOAG), a Sono-Tek atomizer, an emulsion technique, and inkjet printhead. Applications for the fluorescent microspheres include challenges for biodefense system testing, calibrants for biofluorescence sensors, and particles for air dispersion model validation studies.

  9. Preparation of UN microspheres by internal gelation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirasu, Yoshiro; Yamagishi, Shigeru [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-07-01

    UN microspheres were prepared from (UO{sub 3}+C) microspheres internally gelled in a hot silicone oil column. The gel microspheres were calcined at 480degC in nitrogen, after washing and drying. The calcined ones were carbothermically nitrided at 1400-1800degC in a nitrogen-based atmosphere in two ways: one in N{sub 2} followed by N{sub 2}-8%H{sub 2}, and the other in N{sub 2}-8%H{sub 2} only. In both cases, highly pure UN microspheres around 500 ppm of both oxygen and carbon impurities were obtained, although their densities were still low. (author)

  10. Silicon microspheres for near-IR communication applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serpengüzel, Ali; Demir, Abdullah

    2008-01-01

    We have performed transverse electric and transverse magnetic polarized elastic light scattering calculations at 90° and 0° in the o-band at 1.3 µm for a 15 µm radius silicon microsphere with a refractive index of 3.5. The quality factors are on the order of 10 7 and the mode/channel spacing is 7 nm, which correlate well with the refractive index and the optical size of the microsphere. The 90° elastic light scattering can be used to monitor a dropped channel (drop port), whereas the 0° elastic scattering can be used to monitor the transmission channel (through port). The optical resonances of the silicon microspheres provide the necessary narrow linewidths that are needed for high-resolution optical communication applications. Potential telecommunication applications include filters, modulators, switches, wavelength converters, detectors, amplifiers and light sources. Silicon microspheres show promise as potential building blocks for silicon-based electrophotonic integration

  11. XPS analysis of aluminosilicate microspheres bioactivity tested in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todea, M.; Vanea, E. [Faculty of Physics and Institute of Interdisciplinary Research on Bio-Nano-Sciences, Babes Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca 400084 (Romania); Bran, S. [University of Medicine and Pharmacy “Iuliu Haţieganu”, Department of Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery, 400029 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Berce, P. [Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Faculty of Machine Building and National Centre of Rapid Prototyping, 400641 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Simon, S., E-mail: simons@phys.ubbcluj.ro [Faculty of Physics and Institute of Interdisciplinary Research on Bio-Nano-Sciences, Babes Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca 400084 (Romania)

    2013-04-01

    The study aims to characterize surface properties of aluminosilicate microspheres incorporating yttrium, with potential biomedical applications. Micrometric particles of spherical shape were obtained by spray drying method. The behavior of aluminosilicate microspheres without yttrium and with yttrium was investigated under in vitro conditions, by seven days incubation in simulated body fluid (SBF). The surface elemental composition and the atomic environments on outermost layer of the microspheres, prior to and after incubation in SBF were evaluated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) in order to investigate their bioactivity. The results were analyzed to underline the effect of yttrium addition on surface properties of the aluminosilicate microspheres and implicitly on the behavior of the samples in simulated body environments.

  12. Investigation of defects on PAMS microspheres fabricated with microencapsulation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Sufen; Li Bo; Liu Yiyang; Zhang Zhanwen; Qi Xiaobo

    2012-01-01

    Poly-(α-methylstyrene) (PAMS) microspheres were fabricated with W1/O/W2 double emulsion microencapsulation method, and the effects of polyvinylalcohol (PVA) and CaCl 2 weight concentrations and the O/W2 phase ratio on the percentages of defected PAMS microspheres were studied. The weight concentrations of PVA and CaCl 2 and the O/W2 phase ratio in the fabrication process of PAMS microspheres were optimized. The results show that, for the three parameters being 1.0%, 1.5%, and 0.01, respectively, the percentage of the defect-free PAMS microspheres without vacuoles in the shell wall can be up to 60%. (authors)

  13. Preparation and In-vitro Evaluation of Metformin Microspheres Using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . Methods: Metformin microspheres were prepared by non-aqueous solvent evaporation method using various polymers, including ethylcellulose (EC), hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), carbopol 934P (CA) and chitosan (CH). The effect ...

  14. Investigation of concrete mixtures incorporating hollow plastic microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    This study investigated the potential of hollow plastic microspheres, HPM, for providing non-air-entrained portland cement concrete resistance to damage from cycles of freezing and thawing. In the study, a mixture with an air-entraining agent (vinsol...

  15. Resonant microsphere gyroscope based on a double Faraday rotator system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Chengfeng; Tang, Jun; Cui, Danfeng; Wu, Dajin; Zhang, Chengfei; Li, Chunming; Zhen, Yongqiu; Xue, Chenyang; Liu, Jun

    2016-10-15

    The resonant microsphere gyroscope is proposed based on a double Faraday rotator system for the resonant microsphere gyroscope (RMSG) that is characterized by low insertion losses and does not destroy the reciprocity of the gyroscope system. Use of the echo suppression structure and the orthogonal polarization method can effectively inhibit both the backscattering noise and the polarization error, and reduce them below the system sensitivity limit. The resonance asymmetry rate dropped from 34.2% to 2.9% after optimization of the backscattering noise and the polarization noise, which greatly improved the bias stability and the scale factor linearity of the proposed system. Additionally, based on the optimum parameters for the double Faraday rotator system, a bias stability of 0.04°/s has been established for an integration time of 10 s in 1000 s in a resonator microsphere gyroscope using a microsphere resonator with a diameter of 1 mm and a Q of 7.2×106.

  16. [Optimization of riboflavin sodium phosphate loading to calcium alginate floating microspheres by response surface methodology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, An-yang; Fan, Tian-yuan

    2009-12-18

    To investigate the preparation, optimization and in vitro properties of riboflavin sodium phosphate floating microspheres. The floating microspheres composed of riboflavin sodium phosphate and calcium alginate were prepared using ion gelatin-oven drying method. The properties of the microspheres were investigated, including the buoyancy, release, appearance and entrapment efficiency. The formulation was optimized by response surface methodology (RSM). The optimized microspheres were round. The entrapment efficiency was 57.49%. All the microspheres could float on the artificial gastric juice over 8 hours. The release of the drug from the microspheres complied with Fick's diffusion.

  17. A review on target drug delivery: magnetic microspheres

    OpenAIRE

    Amit Chandna; Deepa Batra; Satinder Kakar; Ramandeep Singh

    2013-01-01

    Novel drug delivery system aims to deliver the drug at a rate directed by the needs of the body during the period of treatment, and target the active entity to the site of action. A number of novel drug delivery systems have emerged encompassing various routes of administration, to achieve controlled and targeted drug delivery, magnetic micro carriers being one of them. Magnetic microsphere is newer approach in pharmaceutical field. Magnetic microspheres as an alternative to traditional ra...

  18. Hierarchical Discriminant Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Lu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Internet of Things (IoT generates lots of high-dimensional sensor intelligent data. The processing of high-dimensional data (e.g., data visualization and data classification is very difficult, so it requires excellent subspace learning algorithms to learn a latent subspace to preserve the intrinsic structure of the high-dimensional data, and abandon the least useful information in the subsequent processing. In this context, many subspace learning algorithms have been presented. However, in the process of transforming the high-dimensional data into the low-dimensional space, the huge difference between the sum of inter-class distance and the sum of intra-class distance for distinct data may cause a bias problem. That means that the impact of intra-class distance is overwhelmed. To address this problem, we propose a novel algorithm called Hierarchical Discriminant Analysis (HDA. It minimizes the sum of intra-class distance first, and then maximizes the sum of inter-class distance. This proposed method balances the bias from the inter-class and that from the intra-class to achieve better performance. Extensive experiments are conducted on several benchmark face datasets. The results reveal that HDA obtains better performance than other dimensionality reduction algorithms.

  19. Hierarchical Linked Views

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erbacher, Robert; Frincke, Deb

    2007-07-02

    Coordinated views have proven critical to the development of effective visualization environments. This results from the fact that a single view or representation of the data cannot show all of the intricacies of a given data set. Additionally, users will often need to correlate more data parameters than can effectively be integrated into a single visual display. Typically, development of multiple-linked views results in an adhoc configuration of views and associated interactions. The hierarchical model we are proposing is geared towards more effective organization of such environments and the views they encompass. At the same time, this model can effectively integrate much of the prior work on interactive and visual frameworks. Additionally, we expand the concept of views to incorporate perceptual views. This is related to the fact that visual displays can have information encoded at various levels of focus. Thus, a global view of the display provides overall trends of the data while focusing in on individual elements provides detailed specifics. By integrating interaction and perception into a single model, we show how one impacts the other. Typically, interaction and perception are considered separately, however, when interaction is being considered at a fundamental level and allowed to direct/modify the visualization directly we must consider them simultaneously and how they impact one another.

  20. Development and Evaluation of Isoniazid Loaded Silk Fibroin Microsphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narinder Singh

    Full Text Available Aim: Current experimental investigation is dedicated to prepare microspheres with small size and good sphericity by Phase Separation method using Isoniazid (INH as model drug. Silk fibroin has unique intrinsic qualities like biodegradability, biocompatibility or release properties and their tunable drug loading capacity. The delivery loading proficiency of the drug molecules in silk spheres be contingent on their charge, and hydrophobicity or subsequent in altered drug release profiles. Methods: In the present work Isoniazid loaded silk fibroin microsphere was prepared by using phase separation method. Microsphere was evaluated for Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy, Entrapment efficiency, Scanning electron microscopy Studies. Results: Scanning electron microscopy studies revealed that Isoniazid Loaded Silk Fibroin Microspheres were spherical. Entrapment Efficiency of Isoniazid loaded Microspheres of different Formulation from F1 to F5 was in range of 53 to 68 %. F3 showed 68.47 % entrapment Efficiency and the optimized formulation drug release was 93.56 % at 24 hours. Conclusion: Experimental report disclosed a new aqueous based formulation method for silk spheres with controllable shape or size and sphere. Isoniazid loaded silk microspheres may act as ideal nano formulation with elaborated studies.

  1. Synthesis and characterization of Supeparamagnetics Microspheres (PMMA via suspension polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Emilio Feuser

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Magnetics nanoparticles (NPMs has found many applications in biomedical and technological areas. The objective of this work is the preparation and characterization of PMMA microspheres containing NPMs coated with oleic acid (NPMs-AO. For the preparation of MNPs-AO was used the coprecipitation method in an aqueous medium. For the preparation of the superparamagnetic microspheres used in suspension polymerization technique. The microspheres showed a size distribution particles of approximately 150um and a spherical morphology. From the analysis of gel permeation chromatography (GPC determined the number average molecular weight (Mw of the magnetics microspheres and there was a variation in the Mw depending on the concentration of MNPs-AO in this reaction. To analyze the magnetic properties used the vibrating sample magnetometer (MAV. The microspheres showed superparamagnetic properties and a value of saturation magnetization (Ms of about 8 emu/g MNPs. Therefore you can conclude that it is possible to obtain superparamagnetics microspheres for a particular application, either, biomedical or technological.

  2. Innovative hydrogen storage in hollow glass-microspheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keding, M.; Schmid, G.; Tajmar, M. [Austrian Research Centers, Vienna (Austria)

    2009-07-01

    Hydrogen storage technologies are becoming increasingly important for a number of future applications. The Austrian Research Centers (ARC) are developing a unique hydrogen storage system that combines the advantages of both hollow glass microsphere and chemical compound hydrogen storage, but eliminates their respective drawbacks. Water is utilized as a functional liquid to carry the hollow glass microspheres that are loaded with up to 700 bar of hydrogen gas. Sodium borohydride (NaBH{sub 4}) is then injected together with the glass microspheres into a reaction chamber where the water reacts catalytically with the NaBH{sub 4} producing hydrogen and heat. The heat is then utilized to release the hydrogen from the hollow glass microspheres providing a double hydrogen generation process without any external energy or heat during storage or gas release. The paper described this hydrogen storage system with particular reference to microspheres, the coating process, the experimental facility and NaBH{sub 4} test results. It was concluded that hydrogen storage and production on demand is possible with microspheres and sodium borohydride solution. 9 refs., 16 figs.

  3. Microspheres and Nanotechnology for Drug Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jóhannesson, Gauti; Stefánsson, Einar; Loftsson, Thorsteinn

    2016-01-01

    Ocular drug delivery to the posterior segment of the eye can be accomplished by invasive drug injections into different tissues of the eye and noninvasive topical treatment. Invasive treatment involves the risks of surgical trauma and infection, and conventional topical treatments are ineffective in delivering drugs to the posterior segment of the eye. In recent years, nanotechnology has become an ever-increasing part of ocular drug delivery. In the following, we briefly review microspheres and nanotechnology for drug delivery to the eye, including different forms of nanotechnology such as nanoparticles, microparticles, liposomes, microemulsions and micromachines. The permeation barriers and anatomical considerations linked to ocular drug delivery are discussed and a theoretical overview on drug delivery through biological membranes is given. Finally, in vitro, in vivo and human studies of x03B3;-cyclodextrin nanoparticle eyedrop suspensions are discussed as an example of nanotechnology used for drug delivery to the eye. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Chitosan microspheres in novel drug delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Analava; Dey, Baishakhi

    2011-07-01

    The main aim in the drug therapy of any disease is to attain the desired therapeutic concentration of the drug in plasma or at the site of action and maintain it for the entire duration of treatment. A drug on being used in conventional dosage forms leads to unavoidable fluctuations in the drug concentration leading to under medication or overmedication and increased frequency of dose administration as well as poor patient compliance. To minimize drug degradation and loss, to prevent harmful side effects and to increase drug bioavailability various drug delivery and drug targeting systems are currently under development. Handling the treatment of severe disease conditions has necessitated the development of innovative ideas to modify drug delivery techniques. Drug targeting means delivery of the drug-loaded system to the site of interest. Drug carrier systems include polymers, micelles, microcapsules, liposomes and lipoproteins to name some. Different polymer carriers exert different effects on drug delivery. Synthetic polymers are usually non-biocompatible, non-biodegradable and expensive. Natural polymers such as chitin and chitosan are devoid of such problems. Chitosan comes from the deacetylation of chitin, a natural biopolymer originating from crustacean shells. Chitosan is a biocompatible, biodegradable, and nontoxic natural polymer with excellent film-forming ability. Being of cationic character, chitosan is able to react with polyanions giving rise to polyelectrolyte complexes. Hence chitosan has become a promising natural polymer for the preparation of microspheres/nanospheres and microcapsules. The techniques employed to microencapsulate with chitosan include ionotropic gelation, spray drying, emulsion phase separation, simple and complex coacervation. This review focuses on the preparation, characterization of chitosan microspheres and their role in novel drug delivery systems.

  5. Direct hierarchical assembly of nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ting; Zhao, Yue; Thorkelsson, Kari

    2014-07-22

    The present invention provides hierarchical assemblies of a block copolymer, a bifunctional linking compound and a nanoparticle. The block copolymers form one micro-domain and the nanoparticles another micro-domain.

  6. Hierarchical materials: Background and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    Hierarchical design draws inspiration from analysis of biological materials and has opened new possibilities for enhancing performance and enabling new functionalities and extraordinary properties. With the development of nanotechnology, the necessary technological requirements for the manufactur...

  7. Functional annotation of hierarchical modularity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanchana Padmanabhan

    Full Text Available In biological networks of molecular interactions in a cell, network motifs that are biologically relevant are also functionally coherent, or form functional modules. These functionally coherent modules combine in a hierarchical manner into larger, less cohesive subsystems, thus revealing one of the essential design principles of system-level cellular organization and function-hierarchical modularity. Arguably, hierarchical modularity has not been explicitly taken into consideration by most, if not all, functional annotation systems. As a result, the existing methods would often fail to assign a statistically significant functional coherence score to biologically relevant molecular machines. We developed a methodology for hierarchical functional annotation. Given the hierarchical taxonomy of functional concepts (e.g., Gene Ontology and the association of individual genes or proteins with these concepts (e.g., GO terms, our method will assign a Hierarchical Modularity Score (HMS to each node in the hierarchy of functional modules; the HMS score and its p-value measure functional coherence of each module in the hierarchy. While existing methods annotate each module with a set of "enriched" functional terms in a bag of genes, our complementary method provides the hierarchical functional annotation of the modules and their hierarchically organized components. A hierarchical organization of functional modules often comes as a bi-product of cluster analysis of gene expression data or protein interaction data. Otherwise, our method will automatically build such a hierarchy by directly incorporating the functional taxonomy information into the hierarchy search process and by allowing multi-functional genes to be part of more than one component in the hierarchy. In addition, its underlying HMS scoring metric ensures that functional specificity of the terms across different levels of the hierarchical taxonomy is properly treated. We have evaluated our

  8. Hierarchical architecture of active knits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abel, Julianna; Luntz, Jonathan; Brei, Diann

    2013-01-01

    Nature eloquently utilizes hierarchical structures to form the world around us. Applying the hierarchical architecture paradigm to smart materials can provide a basis for a new genre of actuators which produce complex actuation motions. One promising example of cellular architecture—active knits—provides complex three-dimensional distributed actuation motions with expanded operational performance through a hierarchically organized structure. The hierarchical structure arranges a single fiber of active material, such as shape memory alloys (SMAs), into a cellular network of interlacing adjacent loops according to a knitting grid. This paper defines a four-level hierarchical classification of knit structures: the basic knit loop, knit patterns, grid patterns, and restructured grids. Each level of the hierarchy provides increased architectural complexity, resulting in expanded kinematic actuation motions of active knits. The range of kinematic actuation motions are displayed through experimental examples of different SMA active knits. The results from this paper illustrate and classify the ways in which each level of the hierarchical knit architecture leverages the performance of the base smart material to generate unique actuation motions, providing necessary insight to best exploit this new actuation paradigm. (paper)

  9. Photoluminescence properties of the Eu-doped alpha-Al2O3 microspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Dianguang; Zhu, Zhenfeng

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Al 2 O 3 :Eu 3+ phosphors were prepared via a microwave solvothermal route. • The particles were hierarchically nanostructured microspheres packaged by nanosheets. • The powders presented excellent orange–red emission when excited at 393 nm. • Critical concentration and distance of Eu 3+ in Al 2 O 3 is 0.007, 18 Å, respectively. -- Abstract: Al 2 O 3 :Eu 3+ samples were synthesized via microwave solvothermal method and thermal decomposition of Eu 3+ doped precursors. The sample characterizations were carried out by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and photoluminescence (PL) spectra. XRD results indicated that Eu 3+ doped samples were most of α-Al 2 O 3 phase after being calcined at 1473 K. SEM results showed that the obtained α-Al 2 O 3 based powders via microwave solvothermal method were microspheres with an average diameter about 1.6 μm. PL spectra showed that upon excitation at 393 nm, the orange–red emission bands at the wavelength longer than 560 nm were from 5 D 0 → 7 F J (J = 1, 2) transitions. The asymmetry ratio of ( 5 D 0 → 7 F 2 )/( 5 D 0 → 7 F 1 ) intensity is about 1 and this value suggests that Eu 3+ ions occupy the same ratio of symmetry and asymmetry sites. It is shown that the 0.7 mol% of doping concentration of Eu 3+ ions in α-Al 2 O 3 :Eu 3+ is optimum. According to Dexter’s theory, the critical distance between Eu 3+ ions for energy transfer was determined to be 18 Å

  10. Controllable synthesis of mesoporous multi-shelled ZnO microspheres as efficient photocatalysts for NO oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaolang; Zhang, Huiqiang; Zhang, Dieqing; Miao, Yingchun; Li, Guisheng

    2018-03-01

    The successful application of hierarchically porous structure in environmental treatment has provided new insights for solving environmental problems. Hierarchically structured semiconductor materials were considered as promising photocatalysts for NO oxidation in gas phase. Multi-shelled ZnO microspheres (MMSZ) were controllably shaped with hierarchically porous structures via a facile hydrothermal route using amino acid (N-Acetyl-D-Proline) as template and post-calcination treatment. Symmetric Ostwald ripening was used to explain the morphological evolution of hierarchical nanostructure. MMSZ was proved highly efficient for oxidizing NO (400 ppb) in gas phase under UV light irradiation with a much higher photocatalytic removal rate (77.3%) than that of the as-obtained ZnO crystals with other hierachically porous structures, owing to its higher photocurrent intensity. Such greatly enhanced photocatalytic activity can be assigned to the enhanced crystallinity of ZnO, mesopores and unique multi-shelled structure. Enhanced crystallinity promotes photogenerated charges under light irradiation. Mesoporous porosity can ensure enough light scattering between the shells. Multi-shelled structure endows ZnO with higher specific surface area and high frequency of multiple light reflection, resulting in more exposed active sites, higher light utilization efficiency, and fast separation efficiency of photogenerated charge carriers. The experimental results demonstrated that the photogenerated holes (h+) are the main active species. Hierarchically structured ZnO is not only contributed to directly use solar energy to solving various problems caused by atmospheric pollution, but also has potential applications in energy converse and storage including solar cells, lithium batteries, water-splitting, etc.

  11. The synthesis and photocatalytic activity of ZnSe microspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Huaqiang; Xiao Yujiang; Zhang Sichun

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the synthesis of semiconductor ZnSe microspheres composed of nanoparticles via a solvothermal route between the organic molecule selenophene (C 4 H 4 Se) and ZnCl 2 without adding any surfactant. The ZnSe microspheres were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), specific surface area measurement, and photoluminescence (PL) spectra. A strong and broad blue PL emission at 443 nm in wavelength (∼2.79 eV in photon energy) is attributed to the near-band-edge (NBE) emission of ZnSe, while the 530 nm peak is a defect-related (DL) emission. The photocatalytic activity of the as-prepared ZnSe microspheres was evaluated by photodegradation of methyl orange (MO) dye under ultraviolet (UV) light and visible light irradiation. The degradations of MO reach 94% or 95.1%, close to 100%, in the presence of the as-synthesized ZnSe microspheres or commercial ZnSe powder after 7 or 10 h under UV irradiation, respectively. Meanwhile the degradations of MO reach 94.3% or 60.6% in the presence of the as-synthesized ZnSe microspheres or commercial ZnSe powder after 12 h, respectively. The degradation rate of ZnSe microspheres is twice that of ZnSe commercial powder under UV light irradiation, and three times under visible light irradiation. The degradation process of MO dye on ZnSe microspheres under UV or visible light is also discussed.

  12. Microsphere-based super-resolution scanning optical microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huszka, Gergely; Yang, Hui; Gijs, Martin A M

    2017-06-26

    High-refractive index dielectric microspheres positioned within the field of view of a microscope objective in a dielectric medium can focus the light into a so-called photonic nanojet. A sample placed in such nanojet can be imaged by the objective with super-resolution, i.e. with a resolution beyond the classical diffraction limit. However, when imaging nanostructures on a substrate, the propagation distance of a light wave in the dielectric medium in between the substrate and the microsphere must be small enough to reveal the sample's nanometric features. Therefore, only the central part of an image obtained through a microsphere shows super-resolution details, which are typically ∼100 nm using white light (peak at λ = 600 nm). We have performed finite element simulations of the role of this critical distance in the super-resolution effect. Super-resolution imaging of a sample placed beneath the microsphere is only possible within a very restricted central area of ∼10 μm 2 , where the separation distance between the substrate and the microsphere surface is very small (∼1 μm). To generate super-resolution images over larger areas of the sample, we have fixed a microsphere on a frame attached to the microscope objective, which is automatically scanned over the sample in a step-by-step fashion. This generates a set of image tiles, which are subsequently stitched into a single super-resolution image (with resolution of λ/4-λ/5) of a sample area of up to ∼10 4 μm 2 . Scanning a standard optical microscope objective with microsphere therefore enables super-resolution microscopy over the complete field-of-view of the objective.

  13. Preparation of open porous polycaprolactone microspheres and their applications as effective cell carriers in hydrogel system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Qingchun [Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering (China); Tan, Ke; Ye, Zhaoyang [State Key Laboratory of Bioreactor Engineering, School of Bioengineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, 200237 China (China); Zhang, Yan, E-mail: zhang_yan@ecust.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering (China); Tan, Wensong [State Key Laboratory of Bioreactor Engineering, School of Bioengineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, 200237 China (China); Lang, Meidong, E-mail: mdlang@ecust.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering (China)

    2012-12-01

    Common hydrogel, composed of synthetic polymers or natural polysaccharides could not support the adhesion of anchorage-dependent cells due to the lack of cell affinitive interface and high cell constraint. The use of porous polyester microspheres as cell-carriers and introduction of cell-loaded microspheres into the hydrogel system might overcome the problem. However, the preparation of the open porous microsphere especially using polycaprolactone (PCL) has been rarely reported. Here, the open porous PCL microspheres were fabricated via the combined emulsion/solvent evaporation and particle leaching method. The microspheres exhibited porous surface and inter-connective pore structure. Additionally, the pore structure could be easily controlled by adjusting the processing parameters. The surface pore size could be altered from 20 {mu}m to 80 {mu}m and the internal porosities were varied from 30% to 70%. The obtained microspheres were evaluated to delivery mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and showed the improved cell adhesion and growth when compared with the non-porous microspheres. Then, the MSCs loaded microspheres were introduced into agarose hydrogel. MSCs remained alive and sustained proliferation in microsphere/agarose composite in 5-day incubation while a decrement of MSCs viabilities was found in agarose hydrogel without microspheres. The results indicated that the microsphere/hydrogel composite had a great potential in cell therapy and injectable system for tissue regeneration. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The open porous polycaprolactone microspheres were fabricated using paraffin as a porogen. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The microspheres exhibited porous surface and inter-connective pore structure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The surface and internal pore size and porosity of microsphere could be controlled. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The porous microspheres exhibited an improved cell adhesion and proliferation. Black

  14. Highly efficient and porous TiO{sub 2}-coated Ag@Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@C-Au microspheres for degradation of organic pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Mao, E-mail: shenmao19820808@163.com; Chen, Suqing, E-mail: 465060605@qq.com; Jia, Wenping, E-mail: tzcjwp@tzc.edu.cn [Taizhou University, College of Pharmaceutical and Chemical Engineering (China); Fan, Guodong, E-mail: fangd@sust.edu.cn [Shan xi University of Science and Technology, Key Laboratory of Auxiliary Chemistry and Technology for Chemical Industry, Ministry of Education (China); Jin, Yanxian, E-mail: shirleyj@tzc.edu.cn; Liang, Huading, E-mail: shanjian8208@163.com [Taizhou University, College of Pharmaceutical and Chemical Engineering (China)

    2016-12-15

    In this paper, we reported a novel hierarchical porous Ag@Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@C-Au@TiO{sub 2} core@shell microspheres with a highly photocatalytic activity and magnetically separable properties. The synthesis method is included of a Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} magnetic embedded Ag core (Ag@Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}), an interlayer of carbon modified by PEI to form sufficient amounts of amine functional groups (Ag@Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@C-PEI), the grafting of Au nanoparticles on the surface of Ag@Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@C-PEI (Ag@Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@C-Au), and an ordered porous TiO{sub 2} structured shell. As an example of the applications, the photocatalytic activities of the samples were investigated by the reduction of Rhodamine B (RhB) under visible-light irradiation. The results show that the porous Ag@Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@C-Au@TiO{sub 2} core@shell microspheres display higher adsorption and photocatalytic activities compared to the pure porous TiO{sub 2} and Ag@Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@C@TiO{sub 2} microspheres, which are attributed to the local surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) by the Ag and Au nanoparticles and the high specific surface area.

  15. Nano-MnO2@TiO2 microspheres: A novel structure and excellent performance as anode of lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhiguang; Chen, Xiaoqiao; Xing, Lidang; Liao, Youhao; Xu, Mengqing; Li, Xiaoping; Liu, Xiang; Li, Weishan

    2018-03-01

    A structurally hierarchical MnO2/TiO2 composite (Nano-MnO2@TiO2) is fabricated by calcining MnCO3 microspheres and coating a thin layer of TiO2 through the heat decomposition of tetrabutyl titanate, and evaluated as anode of gravimetrically and volumetrically high energy density lithium ion battery. The characterizations from FESEM, TEM, HRTEM and XRD, indicate that the resulting Nano-MnO2@TiO2 takes a spherical morphology with a core of about 2 μm in diameter, consisting of compact MnO2 nanoparticles, and a shell of 60 nm thick, consisting of smaller TiO2 nanoparticles. The charge/discharge tests demonstrate that Nano-MnO2@TiO2 exhibits excellent performance as anode of lithium ion battery, delivering a capacity of 938 mAh g-1 at 300 mA g-1 after 200 cycles, compared to the 103 mAh g-1 of the uncoated sample. The microsphere consisting of compact nanoparticles provides Nano-MnO2@TiO2 with high specific gravity. The dimensionally and structurally stable TiO2 maintains the integrity of MnO2 microspheres and facilitates lithium insertion/extraction. This unique structure yields the excellent cyclic stability and rate capability of Nano-MnO2@TiO2.

  16. Ulex europaeus 1 lectin targets microspheres to mouse Peyer's patch M-cells in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, N; Clark, M A; Jepson, M A; Hirst, B H

    1998-03-01

    The interaction of latex microspheres with mouse Peyer's patch membranous M-cells was studied in a mouse gut loop model after the microspheres were coated with a variety of agents. Carboxylated microspheres (diameter 0.5 micron) were covalently coated with lectins Ulex europaeus 1, Concanavalin A, Euonymus europaeus and Bandeiraea simplicifolia 1 isolectin-B4, human immunoglobulin A or bovine serum albumin. Of the treatments examined, only Ulex europaeus (UEA1) resulted in significant selective binding of microspheres to M-cells. UEA1-coated microspheres bound to M-cells at a level 100-fold greater than BSA-coated microspheres, but binding to enterocytes was unaffected. Incubation of UEA1-coated microspheres with alpha-L-fucose reduced M-cell binding to a level comparable with BSA-coated microspheres. This indicated that targeting by UEA1 was via a carbohydrate receptor on the M-cell surface. Adherence of UEA1-coated microspheres to M-cells occurred within 10 min of inoculation into mouse gut loops and UEA1-coated microspheres were transported to 10 microns below the apical surface of M-cells within 60 min of inoculation. UEA1-coated microspheres also targeted mouse Peyer's patch M-cells after intragastric administration. These results demonstrated that altering the surface chemistry of carboxylated polystyrene microspheres increased M-cell targeting, suggesting a strategy to enhance delivery of vaccine antigens to the mucosal immune system.

  17. A reproducible accelerated in vitro release testing method for PLGA microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jie; Lee, Kyulim; Choi, Stephanie; Qu, Wen; Wang, Yan; Burgess, Diane J

    2016-02-10

    The objective of the present study was to develop a discriminatory and reproducible accelerated in vitro release method for long-acting PLGA microspheres with inner structure/porosity differences. Risperidone was chosen as a model drug. Qualitatively and quantitatively equivalent PLGA microspheres with different inner structure/porosity were obtained using different manufacturing processes. Physicochemical properties as well as degradation profiles of the prepared microspheres were investigated. Furthermore, in vitro release testing of the prepared risperidone microspheres was performed using the most common in vitro release methods (i.e., sample-and-separate and flow through) for this type of product. The obtained compositionally equivalent risperidone microspheres had similar drug loading but different inner structure/porosity. When microsphere particle size appeared similar, porous risperidone microspheres showed faster microsphere degradation and drug release compared with less porous microspheres. Both in vitro release methods investigated were able to differentiate risperidone microsphere formulations with differences in porosity under real-time (37 °C) and accelerated (45 °C) testing conditions. Notably, only the accelerated USP apparatus 4 method showed good reproducibility for highly porous risperidone microspheres. These results indicated that the accelerated USP apparatus 4 method is an appropriate fast quality control tool for long-acting PLGA microspheres (even with porous structures). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A novel 3D structure composed of strings of hierarchical TiO{sub 2} spheres formed on TiO{sub 2} nanobelts with high photocatalytic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Yongjian [State Key Laboratory of Alternate Electrical Power System with Renewable Energy Sources, School of Renewable Energy, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China); Li, Meicheng, E-mail: mcli@ncepu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Alternate Electrical Power System with Renewable Energy Sources, School of Renewable Energy, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China); Suzhou Institute, North China Electric Power University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Song, Dandan; Li, Xiaodan; Yu, Yue [State Key Laboratory of Alternate Electrical Power System with Renewable Energy Sources, School of Renewable Energy, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China)

    2014-03-15

    A novel hierarchical titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) composite nanostructure with strings of anatase TiO{sub 2} hierarchical micro-spheres and rutile nanobelts framework (TiO{sub 2} HSN) is successfully synthesized via a one-step hydrothermal method. Particularly, the strings of hierarchical spheres are assembled by very thin TiO{sub 2} nanosheets, which are composed of highly crystallized anatase nanocrystals. Meanwhile, the HSN has a large surface area of 191 m{sup 2}/g, which is about 3 times larger than Degussa P25. More importantly, the photocatalytic activity of HSN and P25 were evaluated by the photocatalytic oxidation decomposition of methyl orange (MO) under UV light illumination, and the TiO{sub 2} HSN shows enhanced photocatalytic activity compared with Degussa P25, as result of its continuous hierarchical structures, special conductive channel and large specific surface area. With these features, the hierarchical TiO{sub 2} may have more potential applications in the fields of dye-sensitized solar cells and lithium ion batteries. -- Graphical abstract: Novel TiO{sub 2} with anatase micro-spheres and rutile nanobelts is synthesized. Enhanced photocatalysis is attributed to hierarchical structures (3D spheres), conductive channel (1D nanobelts) and large specific surface area (2D nanosheet). Highlights: • The novel TiO{sub 2} nanostructure (HSN) is fabricated for the first time. • HSN is composed of strings of anatase hierarchical spheres and rutile nanobelt. • HSN presents a larger S{sub BET} of 191 m{sup 2}/g, 3 times larger than the Degussa P25 (59 m{sup 2}/g). • HSN owns three kinds of dimensional TiO{sub 2} (1D, 2D and 3D) simultaneously. • HSN exhibits better photocatalytic performance compared with Degussa P25.

  19. A review on target drug delivery: magnetic microspheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Chandna

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic microsphere is newer approach in pharmaceutical field. Magnetic microspheres as an alternative to traditional radiation methods which use highly penetrating radiation that is absorbed throughout the body. Its use is limited by toxicity and side effects. The aim of the specific targeting is to enhance the efficiency of drug delivery & at the same time to reduce the toxicity & side effects. This kind of delivery system is very much important which localises the drug to the disease site. In this larger amount of freely circulating drug can be replaced by smaller amount of magnetically targeted drug. Magnetic carriers receive magnetic responses to a magnetic field from incorporated materials that are used for magnetic microspheres are chitosan, dextran etc. magnetic microspheres can be prepared from a variety of carrier material. One of the most utilized is serum albumin from human or other appropriate species. Drug release from albumin microspheres can be sustained or controlled by various stabilization procedures generally involving heat or chemical cross-linking of the protein carrier matrix.

  20. Magnetic propulsion of microspheres at liquid-glass interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgesen, Geir

    2018-02-01

    Bio-coated, magnetic microspheres have many applications in biotechnology and medical technology as a tool to separate and extract cells or molecules in a water solution by applying external strong magnetic field gradients. However, magnetic microspheres with or without attached cargo can also be separated in the liquid solution if they are exposed to alternating or rotating, relatively weak magnetic fields. Microspheres that have a higher density than the liquid will approach the bottom surface of the sample cell, and then a combination of viscous and surface frictional forces can propel the magnetic microspheres along the surface in a direction perpendicular to the axis of field rotation. Experiments demonstrating this type of magnetic propulsion are shown, and the forces active in the process are discussed. The motion of particles inside sample cells that were tilted relative to the horizontal direction was studied, and the variation of propulsion velocity as a function of tilt angle was used to find the values of different viscous and mechanical parameters of motion. Propulsion speeds of up to 5 μm/s were observed and were found to be caused by a partly rolling and partly slipping motion of rotating microspheres with a slipping coefficient near 0.6.

  1. Pharmacodynamics of diclofenac from novel Eudragit entrapped microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momoh, M A; Kenechukwu, F C; Adedokun, M O; Odo, C E; Attama, A A

    2014-05-01

    Effective clinical utilization of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as diclofenac sodium (DS) is significantly limited by their ulcerogenic potential and poor bioavailability after oral administration, thus necessitating the need for a better carrier to minimize these obvious limitations. The objective of this study was to evaluate Eudragit® RS100/RL100 microspheres formulated by the solvent-evaporation technique for improved delivery of diclofenac. Three batches of (DF1, DF2 and DF3) microspheres were prepared using different ratios of Eudragit RS-100 and RL-100 polymers based on the solvent-evaporation method. The microspheres were characterized based on morphological properties, particle size analysis and encapsulation efficiency (EE%). In vitro release of DS was investigated in both 0.1 N HCl (pH 1.2) and phosphate-buffered saline (pH 7.4), while anti-inflammatory studies were evaluated in the rat model. Maximum EE% of 86.61 ± 0.11, 88.14 ± 0.16 and 85.50 ± 0.21 was obtained for DF1, DF2 and DF3, respectively. Discrete, smooth and brownish microspheres of size range 437 ± 0.01-479 ± 0.21 µm were obtained. Release of DS from the formulation depends on the polymer ratio. All the batches exhibited good anti-inflammatory activities. Microsphere formulations based on Eudragit® polymers would likely offer a reliable and alternative means of delivering DS orally.

  2. Iron Nanoparticles-Encapsulating Silica Microspheres for Arterial Embolization Hyperthermia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Z; Kawashita, M, E-mail: zhixia@ecei.tohoku.ac.jp [Graduate School of Biomedical Engineering, Tohoku University (Japan)

    2011-10-29

    We attempted to prepare {alpha}-Fe-encapsulating silica ({alpha}FeSi) microspheres by a sol-gel process using tetramethoxysilane (TMOS) in water-in-oil emulsion. The effect of preparation conditions on the structure, magnetic and heating properties of resultant products were investigated. Oil phase consisted of kerosene with 32 wt% of surfactants (sorbitan monooleate / sorbitan monostearate in 3:1 weight ratio). Water phase consisted of TMOS, ethanol (CH{sub 2}CH{sub 3}OH), water and iron nitrate (Fe(NO{sub 3}){sub 3{center_dot}}9H{sub 2}O) with TMOS / CH{sub 2}CH{sub 3}OH/H{sub 2}O/Fe{sup 3+} in 1:7.4:16.2:0.4{approx}1.2 molar ratio. Fe{sup 3+}-containing silica gel (FeSiG) microspheres 5 to 30 {mu}m in size were successfully obtained by adding the water phase into the oil phase at 60 deg. C under stirring of 1500 rpm for 100 min. {alpha}FeSi microspheres was obtained by heating the FeSiG microspheres at 850deg. C in argon atmosphere. The obtained {alpha}FeSi microspheres have a saturation magnetization (Ms) up to 21 emu g{sup -1} and a coercive force (Hc) of 133 Oe. The in vitro heating generation was evaluated under an alternating current (AC) magnetic field of 300 Oe and 100 kHz.

  3. Solvent/Non-Solvent Sintering To Make Microsphere Scaffolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurencin, Cato T.; Brown, Justin L.; Nair, Lakshmi

    2011-01-01

    A solvent/non-solvent sintering technique has been devised for joining polymeric microspheres to make porous matrices for use as drug-delivery devices or scaffolds that could be seeded with cells for growing tissues. Unlike traditional sintering at elevated temperature and pressure, this technique is practiced at room temperature and pressure and, therefore, does not cause thermal degradation of any drug, protein, or other biochemical with which the microspheres might be loaded to impart properties desired in a specific application. Also, properties of scaffolds made by this technique are more reproducible than are properties of comparable scaffolds made by traditional sintering. The technique involves the use of two miscible organic liquids: one that is and one that is not a solvent for the affected polymer. The polymeric microspheres are placed in a mold having the size and shape of the desired scaffold, then the solvent/non-solvent mixture is poured into the mold to fill the void volume between the microspheres, then the liquid mixture is allowed to evaporate. Some of the properties of the resulting scaffold can be tailored through choice of the proportions of the liquids and the diameter of the microspheres.

  4. Research progress of fabricating polyvinyl alcohol coating on plastic microsphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Lin; Chen Sufen; Liu Meifang; Zhang Zhanwen; Yao Hong; Li Bo; Liu Yiyang

    2012-01-01

    In the procedures of designing polystyrene-polyvinyl alcohol-CH (carbon and hydrogen elements) (PS-PVA-CH) triple-layer microspheres, there are many methods such as drop-tower technique, emulsion micro-encapsulation, dip (spin) coating, interfacial polycondensation, and spraying technique to prepare the PVA coating. Drop-tower technique, emulsion micro-encapsulation and dip (spin) coating are most-commonly used. The advantages, disadvantages and the research progress of the three methods are summarized in this paper. Emulsion micro-encapsulation is suitable for preparing double-layer microspheres of sizes smaller then 500 μm, with high survival ratio and good quality. However, the preparation process is easily influenced by artificial factors. Small-sized double-layer microspheres can also be prepared by the drop-tower technique, and the preparation period is short. But there are still some problems such as the difficulty in designing the droplet generator, uneven PVA coating and the difficulty in preparing large-sized microspheres. Dip (spin) coating technique can be used to prepare PS-PVA microspheres with sizes larger than 1000 μm, but the spread of PVA coating is affected by many factors in this method, and the prepared PVA coating is too thin and not uniform. (authors)

  5. IVIVC from Long Acting Olanzapine Microspheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan D'Souza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, four PLGA microsphere formulations of Olanzapine were characterized on the basis of their in vitro behavior at 37°C, using a dialysis based method, with the goal of obtaining an IVIVC. In vivo profiles were determined by deconvolution (Nelson-Wagner method and using fractional AUC. The in vitro and in vivo release profiles exhibited the same rank order of drug release. Further, in vivo profiles obtained with both approaches were nearly superimposable, suggesting that fractional AUC could be used as an alternative to the Nelson-Wagner method. A comparison of drug release profiles for the four formulations revealed that the in vitro profile lagged slightly behind in vivo release, but the results were not statistically significant (P0.96 between in vitro release and in vivo measurements confirmed the excellent relationship between in vitro drug release and the amount of drug absorbed in vivo. The results of this study suggest that proper selection of an in vitro method will greatly aid in establishing a Level A IVIVC for long acting injectables.

  6. One-pot hydrothermal growth of raspberry-like CeO{sub 2} on CuO microsphere as copper-based catalyst for Rochow reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Zheying [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Complex Systems, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Li, Jing [State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Complex Systems, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Shi, Laishun, E-mail: lshunsh@sdu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Ji, Yongjun, E-mail: yjji@ipe.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Complex Systems, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Zhong, Ziyi [School of Chemical & Biomedical Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 62 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637459 (Singapore); Su, Fabing, E-mail: fbsu@ipe.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Complex Systems, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2015-12-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Ce–CuO composites were prepared via a one-pot and template-free hydrothermal method. • Ce–CuO consisted of raspberry-like CeO{sub 2} particles dispersed on porous CuO microspheres. • CuO microspheres were formed by self-assembly of nanorods. • Ce–CuO exhibited superior catalytic activity for dimethyldichlorosilane synthesis. - Abstract: In this work, we prepared a novel structure comprising of raspberry-like CeO{sub 2} deposited on CuO microspheres (Ce–CuO) for Rochow reaction. The synthesis was carried out via a facile one-pot hydrothermal reaction without using any template, in which, the basic copper carbonate microspheres were first formed via self-assembly of basic copper carbonate nanorods, followed with deposition of cerium hydroxide. After calcination, they were transformed into Ce–CuO but still maintained the hierarchical structure, and meanwhile, mesoporous structure was formed (for simplicity, we will only state them as metal oxide in the following context). The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), temperature-programmed reduction (TPR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. When used as a Cu-based catalyst, Ce–CuO exhibited superior catalytic property to the single CuO, CeO{sub 2} and their physically mixture in the Rochow reaction with dimethyldichlorosilane (M2) selectivity increased from ca. 65 to 83.7%. The higher M2 selectivity of Ce–CuO is mainly due to its larger surface area and the synergistic effect between CuO and CeO{sub 2}. This work demonstrates that catalytic performance of the Cu-based can be improved by adding Ce rare-earth element and by carefully controlling their structures.

  7. Automated characterization of glass microspheres used for laser fusion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajima, Tsuyoshi; Norimatsu, Takayoshi; Izawa, Yasukazu; Yamanaka, Chiyoe.

    1985-01-01

    In laser fusion experiments glass microspheres of 100 to 1000 μm in diameter and 1 to 20 μm in wall thickness are most commonly used as fuel containers. The glass microspheres should be characterized precisely to meet stringent experimental requirements. Much time is consumed to characterize and select good quality spheres among thousands of spheres. We have developed an automated system to characterize and select glass microspheres. The system consists of charger, quadrupole rail, image processing and X-Y stage control with micro-computer. Total processing time primarily depends on the time required for image analysis, which should be compromised with the accuracy of characterization. The time for simple characterization requires about 10 sec. at present. (author)

  8. Preparation of alumina microspheres. Its application as in inorganic exchanger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, W.R. dos; Abrao, A [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Sao Paulo (Brazil). Centro de Engenharia Quimica

    1980-01-01

    Inorganic exchangers are widely used for adsorption and column partition chromatography. The main difficulty of using commercial alumina (in powder) for column chromatography is related to its packing, and the operations through the column become diffcult and time-consuming; also it turns to be virtually impossible to use large dimension columns. In order to eliminate these problems, a process for the preparation of alumina microspheres was developed as an adaptation of a similar process used to prepare nuclear fuel microspheres (UO/sub 2/, ThO/sub 2/). The flowsheet of this process is presented together with the analytical results of sphericity after calcination, granulometry, density and characterization by X-ray diffractometry. Solubility tests showed that the so-prepared microspheres are well resistant to strong acids and bases; retention tests showed their efficiency, mainly to copper.

  9. Electrodepositing of Au on hollow PS micro-spheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Jingyuan; Zhang Yunwang; Du Kai; Wan Xiaobo; Xiao Jiang; Zhang Wei; Zhang Lin; Chen Jing

    2010-01-01

    Using the self-regulating new micro-sphere electrodepositing device, the techniques of electrodepositing gold on hollow PS micro-spheres were established. The experiment was carried out under the following conditions: voltage was about 0.7 ∼ 0.8 V, current density was 2.0 mA · cm -2 , the temperature was 45 degree C, cathode rotating rate was 250 r · min -1 , flow rate of the solution was 7 mL · min -1 · cm -2 . Hollow gold-plated micro-spheres were prepared with well spherical symmetry, uniform thickness and surface smoothness under 500 nm. The speed of the gold depositing was 6 μm · h -1 . (authors)

  10. Radiolabeled microsphere measurements of alveolar bone blood flow in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, M.L.; Jeffcoat, M.K.; Goldhaber, P.

    1978-01-01

    Radiolabeled microspheres were injected into the left cardiac ventricle in healthy adult dogs to quantify blood in maxillary and mandibular alveolar bone. Heart rate, arterial blood pressure and pulse contour were monitored throughout each experiment. Blood flow in maxillary alveolar bone was more than 30 % greater (p<.001) than in mandibular alveolar bone. Alveolar bone blood flow (mean +- S.D.) measured as ml/min per gram was 0.12 +- .02 in the maxilla compared to 0.09 +- .02 in the mandible. The cardiovascular parameters monitored were constant immediately prior to the injection of microspheres and remained unchanged during and following injection. It is possible that radiolabeled microspheres can be used to quantify the circulatory changes in alveolar bone during the development of destructive periodontal disease in dogs. (author)

  11. Deliberate change without hierarchical influence?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørskov, Sladjana; Kesting, Peter; Ulhøi, John Parm

    2017-01-01

    reveals that deliberate change is indeed achievable in a non-hierarchical collaborative OSS community context. However, it presupposes the presence and active involvement of informal change agents. The paper identifies and specifies four key drivers for change agents’ influence. Originality....../value The findings contribute to organisational analysis by providing a deeper understanding of the importance of leadership in making deliberate change possible in non-hierarchical settings. It points to the importance of “change-by-conviction”, essentially based on voluntary behaviour. This can open the door...

  12. Synthesis and electrochemical properties of porous double-shelled Mn2O3 hollow microspheres as a superior anode material for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiao, Yu; Yu, Yan; Jin, Yi; Guan, Yi-Biao; Chen, Chun-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Double-shelled Mn 2 O 3 hollow microspheres are prepared by a multi-step. • synthesis procedure. • Solid, hollow and yolk-structured Mn 2 O 3 spheres are prepared for comparison. • The double-shelled hollow Mn 2 O 3 is superior in electrochemical properties. - Abstract: By means of a specially designed multi-step synthesis procedure involving steps of precipitation, controlled oxidation, selective etching and calcination, porous double-shelled Mn 2 O 3 hollow microspheres are synthesized. Solid, hollow and yolk-structured Mn 2 O 3 are also similarly synthesized for comparison. X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopies, IR spectroscopy, thermogravimetry, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller measurements are employed to investigate their structures and compositions. Galvanostatic cell cycling and impedance spectroscopy are used to characterize the electrochemical properties of Mn 2 O 3 /Li cells. The results show that the hierarchical hollow structured (double-shelled, hollow and yolk-structured) Mn 2 O 3 anode materials deliver higher reversible capacities and excellent cycling stabilities than the solid Mn 2 O 3 . Moreover, among the three hierarchical hollow structured samples, the double shelled sample possesses the best cycling performance, especially at a high current density

  13. Construct 3D porous hollow Co3O4 micro-sphere: A potential oxidizer of nano-energetic materials with superior reactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Zheng, Bo; Qiao, Zhiqiang; Chen, Jin; Zhang, Liyuan; Zhang, Long; Li, Zhaoqian; Zhang, Xingquan; Yang, Guangcheng

    2018-06-01

    High energy density and rapid reactivity are the future trend for nano-energetic materials. Energetic performance of nano-energetic materials depends on the interfacial diffusion and mass transfer during the reacted process. However, the development of desired structure to significantly enhance reactivity still remains challenging. Here we focused on the design and preparation of 3D porous hollow Co3O4 micro-spheres, in which gas-blowing agents (air) and maximize interfacial interactions were introduced to enhance mass transport and reduce the diffusion distance between the oxidizer and fuel (Aluminum). The 3D hierarchical Co3O4/Al based nano-energetic materials show a low-onset decomposition temperature (423 °C), and high heat output (3118 J g-1) resulting from porous and hollow nano-structure of Co3O4 micro-spheres. Furthermore, 3D hierarchical Co3O4/Al arrays were directly fabricated on the silicon substrate, which was fully compatible with silicon-based microelectromechanical systems to achieve functional nanoenergetics-on-a-chip. This approach provides a simple and efficient way to fabricate 3D ordered nano-energetic arrays with superior reactivity and the potential on the application in micro-energetic devices.

  14. Fracture properties and heat resistance of ceramics consisting of microspheres of stabilized zirconium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasulin, Yu.L.; Barinov, S.M.; Ivanov, A.B.; Timofeev, V.N.; Grevtsev, S.N.; Ivanov, D.A.

    1980-01-01

    Determined were effective specific fracture work, critical coefficient of stress intensity in the upper point of the fracture, strength and heat resistance during heat changes (20-1300 deg C) of the material produced by sintering stabilized zirconium dioxide microspheres. Dependence of these characteristics on granulometric composition of microspheres was determined. It was ascertained that the additional introduction of large microspheres into the bulk of small microspheres increased the metal fracture work. Specific work of material fracture progress exceeded specific work of fracture motion initiation. High value of fracture work together with high strength permits to use the material formed of microspheres as structural ceramics

  15. Temperature influence in crystallinity of polymer microspheres; Influencia da temperatura na cristalinidade de microesferas polimericas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rezende, Cristiane de P.; Novack, Katia M., E-mail: knovack@iceb.ufop.br [Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto - UFOP, ICEB, DEQUI, Ouro Preto, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Drug delivery technology is evolving through the creation of new techniques of drug delivery effectively. The new methods used in drugs administration are based in microencapsulation process. Microsphere encapsulation modifies drug delivery bringing benefits and efficiency. In this work has been evaluated the influence of temperature in microspheres preparation. Microspheres were obtained by PMMA-co-PEG (COP) copolymer with indomethacin inserted in polymer matrix. Samples were characterized by SEM, DSC and XRD. SEM micrographs confirmed the formation of different sizes of microspheres and it was verified that higher temperatures make more crystalline microspheres. (author)

  16. Cephradin-plaga microspheres for sustained delivery to cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustariz-Peyret, C; Coudane, J; Vert, M; Kaltsatos, V; Boisramé, B

    1999-01-01

    In the field of controlled drug delivery, most of the reported work is aimed at introducing new systems, or at providing basic information on the critical parameters which affect release profiles in vitro and occasionally in vivo. The situation is totally different when one wants to fulfil the specific requirements imposed by the marketing of a sustained release device to be used in humans or in animals eaten by human beings. The control of the release characteristics is then a difficult challenge. In this work, attempts were made to combine cephradin, a hydrophilic beta-lactam antibiotic, and bioresorbable polymeric matrices of a poly(alpha-hydroxy acid) in the form of microspheres with the aim of delivering the antibiotic to cattle at a dose rate of 4-5 mg/kg/day over a 3-4 days period after i.m. injection. PLAGA aliphatic polyesters were selected because they are already FDA approved as matrices. The solvent evaporation technique using PVA as the emulsion stabilizer was selected because it is efficient and can be extended to an industrial scale. Various experimental conditions were used in order to obtain the highest encapsulation yields compatible with the desired specifications. Decreasing the volume of the aqueous phase and adding a water-miscible organic solvent/non-solvent of cephradin failed. In contrast, microspheres containing up to 30% cephradin were prepared after addition of sodium chloride to the aqueous dispersing phase. The amount of entrapped drug was raised to 40% by decreasing the temperature and the pressure. Preliminary investigations using dogs showed that 20% cephradin microspheres prepared under these conditions extended the presence of cephradin in the blood circulation up to 48 h. Increasing the load led to higher blood concentrations but shorter sustained release. The fact that the microspheres were for cattle limited the volume of the injection and thus the amount of microspheres to be administered. The other limiting factors were

  17. Use of molecular beams to support microspheres during plasma coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crane, J.K.; Smith, R.D.; Johnson, W.L.; Letts, S.A.; Korbel, G.R.; Krenick, R.M.

    1980-01-01

    Spherical laser fusion targets can be levitated on beams of Ar or other gas atoms. This is an especially useful and reliable technique for supporting microspheres during plasma coating or plasma etching. The reliability of this technique is principally the result of two things: the success of a special centering device which provides a lateral, stabilizing force on the levitated microspheres; and a gas handling system which is capable of controlling levitation gas flow in the microtorr liter/sec range. We have determined that the operational regime of this device is that of Knudsen's flow. This knowledge of the flow characteristics has been important in developing this device

  18. Oxaliplatin loaded PLAGA microspheres: design of specific release profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagarce, F; Cruaud, O; Deuschel, C; Bayssas, M; Griffon-Etienne, G; Benoit, J

    2002-08-21

    Oxaliplatin loaded PLAGA microspheres have been prepared by solvent extraction process. Parameters affecting the release kinetics in vitro have been studied in order to design specific release profiles suitable for direct intra-tumoral injection. By varying the nature and the relative proportions of different polymers we managed to prepare microspheres with good encapsulation efficiency (75-90%) and four different release profiles: zero order kinetics (type II) and the classical sigmoïd release profile with three different sizes of plateau and burst. These results, if correlated with in vivo activity, are promising to enhance effectiveness of local tumor treatment.

  19. UO2 microspheres obtainment through the internal gelation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sterba, M.E.; Gomez Constenla, A.

    1987-01-01

    UO 2 microspheres obtainment process through the internal gelation method which allows the spheres' obtainment of uniform size is detailed herein, varying the same among 0.3 and 1.7 mm of diameter. The sintered density reaches 10.78 g/cm 3 , permitting the fuels fabrication dispersed and vibro-compacted fuels. The trichloroethylene use implementation as gelation agent is described, thus reducing the number of stages in the microspheres fabrication. At the same time, the uranium sun composition has been modified so as to be compatible with the use solvent. (Author)

  20. Optical diffraction by ordered 2D arrays of silica microspheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherbakov, A. A.; Shavdina, O.; Tishchenko, A. V.; Veillas, C.; Verrier, I.; Dellea, O.; Jourlin, Y.

    2017-03-01

    The article presents experimental and theoretical studies of angular dependent diffraction properties of 2D monolayer arrays of silica microspheres. High-quality large area defect-free monolayers of 1 μm diameter silica microspheres were deposited by the Langmuir-Blodgett technique under an accurate optical control. Measured angular dependencies of zeroth and one of the first order diffraction efficiencies produced by deposited samples were simulated by the rigorous Generalized Source Method taking into account particle size dispersion and lattice nonideality.

  1. Excitation of resonances of microspheres on an optical fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpengüzel, A.; Arnold, S.; Griffel, G.

    1995-04-01

    Morphology-dependent resonances (MDR's) of solid microspheres are excited by using an optical fiber coupler. The narrowest measured MDR linewidths are limited by the excitation laser linewidth ( < 0.025 nm). Only MDR's, with an on-resonance to off-resonance intensity ratio of 104, contribute to scattering. The intensity of various resonance orders is understood by the localization principle and the recently developed generalized Lorentz-Mie theory. The microsphere fiber system has potential for becoming a building block in dispersive microphotonics. The basic physics underlying our approach may be considered a harbinger for the coupling of active photonic microstructures such as microdisk lasers.

  2. Modified composite microspheres of hydroxyapatite and poly(lactide-co-glycolide) as an injectable scaffold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Xixue; Shen, Hong; Yang, Fei; Liang, Xinjie; Wang, Shenguo; Wu, Decheng

    2014-01-01

    The compound of hydroxyapatite-poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (HA-PLGA) was prepared by ionic bond between HA and PLGA. HA-PLGA was more stable than the simple physical blend of hydroxyapatite and poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (HA/PLGA). The surface of HA-PLGA microsphere fabricated by an emulsion–solvent evaporation method was rougher than that of HA/PLGA microspheres. Moreover, surface HA content of HA-PLGA microspheres was more than that of HA/PLGA microspheres. In vitro mouse OCT-1 osteoblast-like cell culture results showed that the HA-PLGA microspheres clearly promoted osteoblast attachment, proliferation and alkaline phosphatase activity. It was considered that surface rich HA component and rough surface of HA-PLGA microsphere enhanced cell growth and differentiation. The good cell affinity of the HA-PLGA microspheres indicated that they could be used as an injectable scaffold for bone tissue engineering.

  3. Modified composite microspheres of hydroxyapatite and poly(lactide-co-glycolide) as an injectable scaffold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Xixue [BNLMS, State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); CAS Key Laboratory for Biomedical Effects of Nanomaterials and Nanosafety, National Center for Nanoscience and Technology, Beijing 100190 (China); Shen, Hong, E-mail: shenhong516@iccas.ac.cn [BNLMS, State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Yang, Fei [BNLMS, State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Liang, Xinjie [CAS Key Laboratory for Biomedical Effects of Nanomaterials and Nanosafety, National Center for Nanoscience and Technology, Beijing 100190 (China); Wang, Shenguo, E-mail: wangsg@iccas.ac.cn [BNLMS, State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Wu, Decheng, E-mail: dcwu@iccas.ac.cn [BNLMS, State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2014-02-15

    The compound of hydroxyapatite-poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (HA-PLGA) was prepared by ionic bond between HA and PLGA. HA-PLGA was more stable than the simple physical blend of hydroxyapatite and poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (HA/PLGA). The surface of HA-PLGA microsphere fabricated by an emulsion–solvent evaporation method was rougher than that of HA/PLGA microspheres. Moreover, surface HA content of HA-PLGA microspheres was more than that of HA/PLGA microspheres. In vitro mouse OCT-1 osteoblast-like cell culture results showed that the HA-PLGA microspheres clearly promoted osteoblast attachment, proliferation and alkaline phosphatase activity. It was considered that surface rich HA component and rough surface of HA-PLGA microsphere enhanced cell growth and differentiation. The good cell affinity of the HA-PLGA microspheres indicated that they could be used as an injectable scaffold for bone tissue engineering.

  4. Electroactive nanoparticle directed assembly of functionalized graphene nanosheets into hierarchical structures with hybrid compositions for flexible supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Bong Gill; Huh, Yun Suk; Hong, Won Hi; Erickson, David; Park, Ho Seok

    2013-04-01

    Hierarchical structures of hybrid materials with the controlled compositions have been shown to offer a breakthrough for energy storage and conversion. Here, we report the integrative assembly of chemically modified graphene (CMG) building blocks into hierarchical complex structures with the hybrid composition for high performance flexible pseudocapacitors. The formation mechanism of hierarchical CMG/Nafion/RuO2 (CMGNR) microspheres, which is triggered by the cooperative interplay during the in situ synthesis of RuO2 nanoparticles (NPs), was extensively investigated. In particular, the hierarchical CMGNR microspheres consisting of the aggregates of CMG/Nafion (CMGN) nanosheets and RuO2 NPs provided large surface area and facile ion accessibility to storage sites, while the interconnected nanosheets offered continuous electron pathways and mechanical integrity. The synergistic effect of CMGNR hybrids on the supercapacitor (SC) performance was derived from the hybrid composition of pseudocapacitive RuO2 NPs with the conductive CMGNs as well as from structural features. Consequently, the CMGNR-SCs showed a specific capacitance as high as 160 F g-1, three-fold higher than that of conventional graphene SCs, and a capacitance retention of >95% of the maximum value even after severe bending and 1000 charge-discharge tests due to the structural and compositional features.Hierarchical structures of hybrid materials with the controlled compositions have been shown to offer a breakthrough for energy storage and conversion. Here, we report the integrative assembly of chemically modified graphene (CMG) building blocks into hierarchical complex structures with the hybrid composition for high performance flexible pseudocapacitors. The formation mechanism of hierarchical CMG/Nafion/RuO2 (CMGNR) microspheres, which is triggered by the cooperative interplay during the in situ synthesis of RuO2 nanoparticles (NPs), was extensively investigated. In particular, the hierarchical CMGNR

  5. Modular networks with hierarchical organization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Several networks occurring in real life have modular structures that are arranged in a hierarchical fashion. In this paper, we have proposed a model for such networks, using a stochastic generation method. Using this model we show that, the scaling relation between the clustering and degree of the nodes is not a necessary ...

  6. Hierarchical Microaggressions in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Kathryn; Anderson, Myron; Stewart, Saran

    2015-01-01

    Although there has been substantial research examining the effects of microaggressions in the public sphere, there has been little research that examines microaggressions in the workplace. This study explores the types of microaggressions that affect employees at universities. We coin the term "hierarchical microaggression" to represent…

  7. Evaluation of nonradioactive, colored microspheres for measurement of regional myocardial blood flow in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hale, S.L.; Alker, K.J.; Kloner, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    Measurement of regional myocardial blood flow (RMBF) is crucial in experimental studies of myocardial ischemia and reperfusion in dogs. The standard measurement technique uses radioactive microspheres; however, not all institutions are able to dispose of radioactive waste and therefore cannot make use of this method. We tested a new, nonradioactive microsphere, labeled with colors instead of nuclides. Simultaneous blood flow measurements with two nuclide-labeled and two colored microspheres were performed after coronary occlusion in dogs. Both techniques show a within-method correlation of r greater than 0.98. Duplicate variability for paired RMBF values in 80 samples was 8.7 +/- 0.1% when computed with radioactive microspheres and 13.2 +/- 1.8% when computed with colored microspheres. There was a good correlation in the measurement of RMBF between the radioactive- and colored-microsphere methods (r = 0.98). The best-fitting linear regression line was expressed by the formula: Colored-microsphere RMBF = 1.11 (radioactive-microsphere RMBF)-0.02. When measured by colored microspheres, RMBF was approximately 8% higher than when computed with radioactive microspheres for blood flow values of 0-2 ml/min/g. When blood flow was increased pharmacologically to levels of 2-7.5 ml/min/g, colored microspheres yielded blood flow values 39% higher than the values computed by radioactive microspheres. We conclude that the nonradioactive, colored-microsphere method correlates with the radioactive technique, but at high flows, it yields values greater than those obtained with radioactive microspheres

  8. Surface modification of cyclomatrix polyphosphazene microsphere by thiol-ene chemistry and lectin recognition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Chen; Zhu, Xue-yan; Gao, Qiao-ling; Fang, Fei; Huang, Xiao-jun

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A new synthetic route leading to polyphosphazene cyclomatrix microsphere with various functional groups has achieved via thiol-ene click modification. Herein, hexacholorocyclophosphazene (HCCP) crosslinked with bisphenol-S and 4,4′-diallyl bisphenol-S to generate broadly dispersed microspheres. Thiol-ene modification under UV irradiation not only presented high efficiency and flexibility for post-functionalization, but also imposed no harm on global morphology and crosslinked skeleton of such microspheres. - Highlights: • Functional polyphosphazene microspheres with high chemical flexibility were synthesized by thiol-ene modification. • Polyphosphazene microspheres possessed high thermal stability. • Glycosylated polyphosphazene microspheres showed affinity to lectin Con-A, which inferred potential application in biomedicine. - Abstract: A new synthetic route leading to functional polyphosphazene cyclomatrix microsphere has been developed via thiol-ene click modification. Hexacholorocyclophosphazene (HCCP) was crosslinked with both bisphenol-S and 4,4′-diallyl bisphenol-S to obtain vinyl polyphosphazene microspheres (VPZM) in order to ensure high crosslinking degree and introduce vinyl moieties. Compared to the microspheres obtained by HCCP and bisphenol-S, the size of VPZM was broadly dispersed from 400 nm to 1.40 μm. Thiol-ene click reactions were carried out to attach functional groups, such as glucosyl, carboxyl, ester and dodecyl groups onto polyphosphazene microspheres, which demonstrated no change in morphology and size after modification. Solid state NMR (SSNMR) and Fourier transform infrared spectoscopy (FT-IR) results showed that the vinyl moieties were introduced in the period of crosslinking and functionalization was also successful via click reactions. Moreover, the microspheres presented a little difference in thermal properties after modification. Concanavalin A (Con-A) fluorescent adsorption was also observed for

  9. Polymer based microspheres of aceclofenac as sustained release parenterals for prolonged anti-inflammatory effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, Manpreet; Sharma, Sumit; Sinha, VR, E-mail: sinha_vr@rediffmail.com

    2017-03-01

    Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) (75:25) and polycaprolactone (PCL) microspheres were fabricated for prolonged release of aceclofenac by parenteral administration. Microspheres encapsulating aceclofenac were designed to release the drug at controlled rate for around one month. Biodegradable microspheres were prepared by solvent emulsification evaporation method in different polymer:drug ratios (1:1, 2:1 and 3:1). After drug loading, PLGA and PCL microspheres showed a controlled size distribution with an average size of 11.75 μm and 3.81 μm respectively and entrapment efficiency in the range of 90 ± 0.72% to 91.06 ± 4.01% with PLGA and 83.01 ± 2.13% to 90.4 ± 2.11% with PCL. Scanning electron microscopy has confirmed good spherical structures of microspheres. The percent yield of biodegradable polymeric microspheres ranged between 30.95 ± 10.14% to 92.84 ± 3.15% and 47.33 ± 4.72% to 80 ± 3.60% for PLGA and PCL microspheres respectively. PLGA microspheres followed Higuchi release pattern while Korsmeyer-Peppas explained the release pattern of PCL microspheres. Stability studies of microspheres were also carried out by storing the preparations at 2-8 °C for 30, 60 and 90 days and evaluating them for entrapment efficiency, residual drug content and polymer drug compatability. In-vivo studies showed significant anti-inflammatory activity of microspheres upto 48 hours using the carrageenan induced rat paw oedema model. - Highlights: • PLGA and PCL polymeric microspheres for parenteral prolonged drug delivery system were formulated. • Polymeric microspheres were characterized physically and drug excipient incompatability. • Three months accelerated stability studies were carried for drug loaded polymeric microspheres. • Pharmacodynamic studies prove the rationality of sustained therapeutic effect of designed drug delivery system.

  10. Surface modification of cyclomatrix polyphosphazene microsphere by thiol-ene chemistry and lectin recognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Chen; Zhu, Xue-yan; Gao, Qiao-ling; Fang, Fei; Huang, Xiao-jun, E-mail: hxjzxh@zju.edu.cn

    2016-11-30

    Graphical abstract: A new synthetic route leading to polyphosphazene cyclomatrix microsphere with various functional groups has achieved via thiol-ene click modification. Herein, hexacholorocyclophosphazene (HCCP) crosslinked with bisphenol-S and 4,4′-diallyl bisphenol-S to generate broadly dispersed microspheres. Thiol-ene modification under UV irradiation not only presented high efficiency and flexibility for post-functionalization, but also imposed no harm on global morphology and crosslinked skeleton of such microspheres. - Highlights: • Functional polyphosphazene microspheres with high chemical flexibility were synthesized by thiol-ene modification. • Polyphosphazene microspheres possessed high thermal stability. • Glycosylated polyphosphazene microspheres showed affinity to lectin Con-A, which inferred potential application in biomedicine. - Abstract: A new synthetic route leading to functional polyphosphazene cyclomatrix microsphere has been developed via thiol-ene click modification. Hexacholorocyclophosphazene (HCCP) was crosslinked with both bisphenol-S and 4,4′-diallyl bisphenol-S to obtain vinyl polyphosphazene microspheres (VPZM) in order to ensure high crosslinking degree and introduce vinyl moieties. Compared to the microspheres obtained by HCCP and bisphenol-S, the size of VPZM was broadly dispersed from 400 nm to 1.40 μm. Thiol-ene click reactions were carried out to attach functional groups, such as glucosyl, carboxyl, ester and dodecyl groups onto polyphosphazene microspheres, which demonstrated no change in morphology and size after modification. Solid state NMR (SSNMR) and Fourier transform infrared spectoscopy (FT-IR) results showed that the vinyl moieties were introduced in the period of crosslinking and functionalization was also successful via click reactions. Moreover, the microspheres presented a little difference in thermal properties after modification. Concanavalin A (Con-A) fluorescent adsorption was also observed for

  11. Perfusion measurements with radioactively labelled microspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schosser, R.

    1980-01-01

    The technique and the evaluation of the microsphere-method are comprehensively represented in theory and practice. Some changes and new concepts are discussed, besides the known foundations and techniques, that assure an essential methodic improvement resp. practical simplifications. Two new formulas are derived within the frame of the theoretical principles, by which the absolute flux of shorts can be calculated, i.e. on the one hand in the case of known and on the other hand in the case of unknown applied amount of indicator. The determination of the optimal indicator dose is defined and formulated mathematically with respect to the experimental conditions to be expected. The matrix method was designed for the analysis of complex gamma spectra. Hereby there is no selective error accumulation in the case of low energy radio nuclids contrary to the so far exclusively used stripping technique. The number of possible error quantities was reduced by one resp. two variables. The error of particular radio nuclid components is quantitatively computed as standard deviation by means of the theory of approximated systems of linear equations. The external measurement of distance was developed. This technique is less susceptible for errors as the aliquota i.e. whole body measurement technique. Additionally less measurement time is needed. A flexible computer program for a desk top computer was developped for the evaluation. The data from the gamma spectrometer are recorded on tipe and automatically read in by the computer. The manual input are limited to the weights of the organs and some control parameter. The output is made by a clearly arranged table by means of a lineprinter. (orig./MG) [de

  12. Preparation of hierarchical porous Zn-salt particles and their superhydrophobic performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Dahai; Jia, Mengqiu, E-mail: jiamq@mail.buct.edu.cn

    2015-12-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Hierarchical particles with high roughness were prepared by modified hydrothermal route. • The high roughness is provided by extremely low thickness of sheet crystals. • FEVE polymer derivative was used for surface treatment of hierarchical surface. • The novel particles via surface treatment were firstly used as superhydrophobic materials. • The product properties were compared with multi-scale ZnO particles via conventional route. - Abstract: Superhydrophobic surfaces arranged by hierarchical porous particles were prepared using modified hydrothermal routes under the effect of sodium citrate. Two particle samples were generated in the medium of hexamethylenetetramine (P1) and urea (P2), respectively. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, and transmission electron microscope were adopted for the investigation, and results revealed that the P1 and P2 particles are porous microspheres with crosslinked extremely thin (10–30 nm) sheet crystals composed of Zn{sub 5}(OH){sub 8}Ac{sub 2}·2H{sub 2}O and Zn{sub 5}(CO{sub 3}){sub 2}(OH){sub 6}, respectively. The prepared particles were treated with a fluoroethylene vinyl ether derivative and studied using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer. Results showed that the hierarchical surfaces of these particles were combined with low-wettable fluorocarbon layers. Moreover, the fabricated surface composed of the prepared hierarchical particles displayed considerably high contact angles, indicating great superhydrophobicity for the products. The wetting behavior of the particles was analyzed with a theoretical wetting model in comparison with that of chestnut-like ZnO products obtained through a conventional hydrothermal route. Correspondingly, this study provided evidence that high roughness surface plays a great role in superhydrophobic behavior.

  13. Hierarchically structured, nitrogen-doped carbon membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Hong; Wu, Tao

    2017-01-01

    The present invention is a structure, method of making and method of use for a novel macroscopic hierarchically structured, nitrogen-doped, nano-porous carbon membrane (HNDCMs) with asymmetric and hierarchical pore architecture that can be produced

  14. Modelling and Characterization of Effective Thermal Conductivity of Single Hollow Glass Microsphere and Its Powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bing; Wang, Hui; Qin, Qing-Hua

    2018-01-14

    Tiny hollow glass microsphere (HGM) can be applied for designing new light-weighted and thermal-insulated composites as high strength core, owing to its hollow structure. However, little work has been found for studying its own overall thermal conductivity independent of any matrix, which generally cannot be measured or evaluated directly. In this study, the overall thermal conductivity of HGM is investigated experimentally and numerically. The experimental investigation of thermal conductivity of HGM powder is performed by the transient plane source (TPS) technique to provide a reference to numerical results, which are obtained by a developed three-dimensional two-step hierarchical computational method. In the present method, three heterogeneous HGM stacking elements representing different distributions of HGMs in the powder are assumed. Each stacking element and its equivalent homogeneous solid counterpart are, respectively, embedded into a fictitious matrix material as fillers to form two equivalent composite systems at different levels, and then the overall thermal conductivity of each stacking element can be numerically determined through the equivalence of the two systems. The comparison of experimental and computational results indicates the present computational modeling can be used for effectively predicting the overall thermal conductivity of single HGM and its powder in a flexible way. Besides, it is necessary to note that the influence of thermal interfacial resistance cannot be removed from the experimental results in the TPS measurement.

  15. Recombinant Gelatin Microspheres : Novel Formulations for Tissue Repair?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuin, Annemarie; Kluijtmans, Sebastiaan G.; Bouwstra, Jan B.; Harmsen, Martin C.; Van Luyn, Marja J. A.

    Microspheres (MSs) can function as multifunctional scaffolds in different approaches of tissue repair (TR), as a filler, a slow-release depot for growth factors, or a delivery vehicle for cells. Natural cell adhesion-supporting extracellular matrix components like gelatin are good materials for

  16. Use of molecular beams to support microspheres during plasma coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crane, J.K.; Smith, R.D.; Johnson, W.L.; Jordan, C.W.; Letts, S.A.; Korbel, G.R.; Krenik, R.M.

    1980-01-01

    Spherical targets can be levitated on beams of Ar or other gas atoms. This is an especially useful technique for supporting microspheres during plasma coating and processing. Measurements of gas flow and pressure indicate that the levitation device operates in the regime of Knudsen's flow. This device is currently being used in the development of future generation laser targets

  17. Albumin-heparin microspheres as carriers for cytostatic agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, Harry; Feijen, Jan; Kwon, G.; Bae, Y.H.; Kim, S.W.; Noteborn, H.P.J.M.; Mcvie, J.G.

    1990-01-01

    Much work has been done on adriamycin-loaded albumin microspheres (Alb-MS) for chemoembolization [1–4], the rationale being that site-specific drug delivery may increase the therapeutic efficacy of the drug. Alb-Ms are being investigated because of their biocompatibility and because the degradation

  18. Fabrication of periodically ordered diamond nanostructures by microsphere lithography

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Domonkos, Mária; Ižák, Tibor; Štolcová, L.; Proška, J.; Kromka, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 251, č. 12 (2014), s. 2587-2592 ISSN 0370-1972 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : CVD growth * diamond * microsphere lithography * selective area deposition Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.489, year: 2014

  19. loaded Eudragit RL 100 Microspheres Prepared by an Emulsion

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    drug release profiles of the microspheres at pH 1.2 showed poor drug release characteristics while at. pH 6.8 ... drug delivery, improve bioavailability and stability and target drug to ... The factors affecting particle size, drug loading and drug.

  20. BIOCOMPATIBLE FLUORESCENT MICROSPHERES: SAFE PARTICLES FOR MATERIAL PENETRATION STUDIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    farquar, G; Leif, R

    2008-09-12

    Biocompatible polymers with hydrolyzable chemical bonds are being used to produce safe, non-toxic fluorescent microspheres for material penetration studies. The selection of polymeric materials depends on both biocompatibility and processability, with tailored fluorescent properties depending on specific applications. Microspheres are composed of USFDA-approved biodegradable polymers and non-toxic fluorophores and are therefore suitable for tests where human exposure is possible. Micropheres are being produced which contain unique fluorophores to enable discrimination from background aerosol particles. Characteristics that affect dispersion and adhesion can be modified depending on use. Several different microsphere preparation methods are possible, including the use of a vibrating orifice aerosol generator (VOAG), a Sono-Tek atomizer, an emulsion technique, and inkjet printhead. The advantages and disadvantages of each method will be presented and discussed in greater detail along with fluorescent and charge properties of the aerosols. Applications for the fluorescent microspheres include challenges for biodefense system testing, calibrants for biofluorescence sensors, and particles for air dispersion model validation studies.

  1. Biotemplate synthesis of monodispersed iron phosphate hollow microspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Feng; Li Dongxu

    2010-01-01

    Monodispersed iron phosphate hollow microspheres with a high degree of crystallization were prepared through a facile in situ deposition method using rape pollen grains as a biotemplate. The functional group on the surface of the pollen grains could adsorb Fe 3+ , which provided the nucleation sites for growth of iron phosphate nanoparticles. After being sintered at 600 deg. C for 10 h, the pollen grains were removed and iron phosphate hollow microspheres were obtained. A scanning electron microscope and x-ray diffraction were applied to characterize the morphology and crystalline structure of the pollen grains, iron phosphate-coated pollen grains and iron phosphate hollow microspheres. Differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravity analyses were performed to investigate the thermal behavior of the iron phosphate-coated pollen grains during the calcinations. Energy dispersive spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were utilized to investigate the interaction between the pollen grains and iron phosphate. The effect of the pollen wall on the surface morphology of these iron phosphate hollow microspheres was also proven in this work.

  2. Biotemplate synthesis of monodispersed iron phosphate hollow microspheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao Feng; Li Dongxu, E-mail: dongxuli@njut.edu.c [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, Jiangsu Nanjing 210009 (China)

    2010-03-15

    Monodispersed iron phosphate hollow microspheres with a high degree of crystallization were prepared through a facile in situ deposition method using rape pollen grains as a biotemplate. The functional group on the surface of the pollen grains could adsorb Fe{sup 3+}, which provided the nucleation sites for growth of iron phosphate nanoparticles. After being sintered at 600 deg. C for 10 h, the pollen grains were removed and iron phosphate hollow microspheres were obtained. A scanning electron microscope and x-ray diffraction were applied to characterize the morphology and crystalline structure of the pollen grains, iron phosphate-coated pollen grains and iron phosphate hollow microspheres. Differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravity analyses were performed to investigate the thermal behavior of the iron phosphate-coated pollen grains during the calcinations. Energy dispersive spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were utilized to investigate the interaction between the pollen grains and iron phosphate. The effect of the pollen wall on the surface morphology of these iron phosphate hollow microspheres was also proven in this work.

  3. Hollow microspheres with a tungsten carbide kernel for PEMFC application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Arbigny, Julien Bernard; Taillades, Gilles; Marrony, Mathieu; Jones, Deborah J; Rozière, Jacques

    2011-07-28

    Tungsten carbide microspheres comprising an outer shell and a compact kernel prepared by a simple hydrothermal method exhibit very high surface area promoting a high dispersion of platinum nanoparticles, and an exceptionally high electrochemically active surface area (EAS) stability compared to the usual Pt/C electrocatalysts used for PEMFC application.

  4. Processing and Characterization of Sol-Gel Cerium Oxide Microspheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClure, Zachary D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Padilla Cintron, Cristina [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-09-27

    Of interest to space exploration and power generation, Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) can provide long-term power to remote electronic systems without the need for refueling or replacement. Plutonium-238 (Pu-238) remains one of the more promising materials for thermoelectric power generation due to its high power density, long half-life, and low gamma emissions. Traditional methods for processing Pu-238 include ball milling irregular precipitated powders before pressing and sintering into a dense pellet. The resulting submicron particulates of Pu-238 quickly accumulate and contaminate glove boxes. An alternative and dust-free method for Pu-238 processing is internal gelation via sol-gel techniques. Sol-gel methodology creates monodisperse and uniform microspheres that can be packed and pressed into a pellet. For this study cerium oxide microspheres were produced as a surrogate to Pu-238. The similar electronic orbitals between cerium and plutonium make cerium an ideal choice for non-radioactive work. Before the microspheres can be sintered and pressed they must be washed to remove the processing oil and any unreacted substituents. An investigation was performed on the washing step to find an appropriate wash solution that reduced waste and flammable risk. Cerium oxide microspheres were processed, washed, and characterized to determine the effectiveness of the new wash solution.

  5. Preparation and Characterization of Sugar Cane Wax Microspheres ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    scanning calorimetry (DSC) as well as for drug loading, and in vitro and in vivo release in albino sheeps. Results: SEM images .... Rolex, India), and the sphericity factor (S) was calculated using ... using a fully validated high performance liquid ... Pharmacokinetic and data analysis ... microspheres exerts an influence on the.

  6. Preparation and Characterization of Colon-Specific Microspheres of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To prepare and evaluate colon specific drug delivery system of diclofenac sodium for highly localized delivery to the colon. Methods: The colon specific drug delivery system was prepared as matrix-type microspheres using Ethyl Cellulose (EC), Cellulose Acetate Phthalate (CAP), and Eudragit L 100-55 by the ...

  7. Method for forming microspheres for encapsulation of nuclear waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelini, Peter; Caputo, Anthony J.; Hutchens, Richard E.; Lackey, Walter J.; Stinton, David P.

    1984-01-01

    Microspheres for nuclear waste storage are formed by gelling droplets containing the waste in a gelation fluid, transferring the gelled droplets to a furnace without the washing step previously used, and heating the unwashed gelled droplets in the furnace under temperature or humidity conditions that result in a substantially linear rate of removal of volatile components therefrom.

  8. Formulation and evaluation of matrix microspheres for simultaneous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prepared microspheres were characterized for their micromeritic properties and drug loading, as well as by infrared spectroscopy (IR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), x-ray powder diffractometry (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The in vitro release studies were performed in pH 7.4, phosphate ...

  9. Mucoadhesive microspheres: a promising tool in drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Sanjay B; Sawant, Krutika K

    2008-10-01

    Mucoadhesive polymers have recently gained interest among pharmaceutical scientists as a means of improving drug delivery by promoting the residence time and contact time of the dosage form with the mucous membranes. Mucoadhesion is the process whereby synthetic and natural polymers adhere to mucosal surfaces in the body. If these materials are then incorporated into pharmaceutical formulations, drug absorption by mucosal cells may be enhanced or the drug will be released at the site for an extended period of time. Microspheres, in general, have the potential to be used for targeted and controlled release drug delivery; however, coupling of mucoadhesive properties to microspheres has additional advantages like, a much more intimate contact with the mucus layer, efficient absorption and enhanced bioavailability of the drugs due to a high surface to volume ratio. The present review describes the potential applications of mucoadhesive microspheres as a novel carrier system to improve drug delivery by various routes of administration like buccal, oral, nasal, ocular, vaginal and rectal, either for systemic or for local effects. The mucoadhesive polymers, methods of preparation of microspheres and their in vitro and in vivo evaluation are also described.

  10. Calcium carbonate microspheres as carriers for the anticancer drug camptothecin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, Neng [Division of Biomedical Engineering, School of Engineering, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, G12 8LT (United Kingdom); State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, West China Hospital, West China Medical School, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Department of Bio-pharmaceutical Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu ,610065 (China); Yin, Huabing, E-mail: huabing.yin@glasgow.ac.uk [Division of Biomedical Engineering, School of Engineering, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, G12 8LT (United Kingdom); Ji, Bozhi; Klauke, Norbert; Glidle, Andrew [Division of Biomedical Engineering, School of Engineering, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, G12 8LT (United Kingdom); Zhang, Yongkui; Song, Hang [Department of Bio-pharmaceutical Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu ,610065 (China); Cai, Lulu; Ma, Liang; Wang, Guangcheng [State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, West China Hospital, West China Medical School, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Chen, Lijuan, E-mail: lijuan17@hotmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, West China Hospital, West China Medical School, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Wang, Wenwen [State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, West China Hospital, West China Medical School, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China)

    2012-12-01

    Biogenic calcium carbonate has come to the attention of many researchers as a promising drug delivery system due to its safety, pH sensitivity and the large volume of information already in existence on its medical use. In this study, we employed bovine serum albumin (BSA) as an additive to synthesize a series of porous calcium carbonate microspheres (CCMS). These spheres, identified as vaterite, are stable both in aqueous solutions and organic solvents. Camptothecin, an effective anticancer agent, was loaded into the CCMS by simple diffusion and adsorption. The camptothecin loaded CCMS showed sustained cell growth inhibitory activity and a pH dependent release of camptothecin. With a few hours, the release is negligible under physiological conditions (pH = 7.4) but almost complete at pH 4 to 6 (i.e. pHs found in lysosomes and solid tumor tissue respectively). These findings suggest that porous, biogenic calcium carbonate microspheres could be promising carriers for the safe and efficient delivery of anticancer drugs of low aqueous solubility. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer BSA-doped calcium carbonate microspheres with porous structure were prepared. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Camptothecin was encapsulated in the spherical microparticles with encapsulation efficiency up to 11%. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The release of encapsulated camptothecin is pH dependent Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In vitro studies showed an effective anticancer activity of the camptothecin- microspheres.

  11. Effects of hepatic arterial yttrium 90 glass microspheres in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollner, I; Knutsen, C; Smith, P; Prieskorn, D; Chrisp, C; Andrews, J; Juni, J; Warber, S; Klevering, J; Crudup, J

    1988-04-01

    A 22-micron glass microsphere called TheraSphere (Theragenics Corp., Atlanta, GA) has been developed in which yttrium 89 oxide is incorporated into the glass matrix and is activated by neutron bombardment to form the beta-emitting isotope yttrium 90 (Y 90) before using the spheres as radiotherapeutic vehicles. The injection of up to 12 times (on a liver weight basis) the anticipated human dose of nonradioactive TheraSphere into the hepatic arteries of dogs was well tolerated and produced clinically silent alterations within centrolobular areas. The hepatic arterial (HA) injection of radioactive TheraSphere also produced portal changes similar to those observed in humans after external beam therapy. While the extent of damage increased with the delivered dose, radiation exposures in excess of 30,000 cGy did not cause total hepatic necrosis and were compatible with survival. No microspheres distributed to the bone marrow and absolutely no myelosuppression was encountered in any animal. Proposed hepatic exposures to humans of 5000 to 10,000 cGy by means of these microspheres, therefore, would appear to be feasible and tolerable. Radiotherapeutic microsphere administration preceded by regional infusion of a radiosensitizing agent and/or immediately following the redistribution of blood flow toward intrahepatic tumor by vasoactive agents can potentially yield a synergistic, highly selective attack on tumors confined to the liver.

  12. Formulation and Optimization of Celecoxib-Loaded Microspheres ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    factors in the preparation of celecoxib-loaded microspheres. Methods: ... made with biodegradable polymers, are ... filtration on Whatman filter paper no.1 and washed 4 - 5 times with n-hexane [11]. The product was then air-dried at room.

  13. Preparation and characterization of microspheres of albumin-heparin conjugates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwon, Glen S.; Bae, You Han; Kim, Sung Wan; Cremers, Harry; Cremers, H.F.M.; Feijen, Jan

    1991-01-01

    Albumin-heparin microspheres have been prepared as a new drug carrier. A soluble albumin-heparin conjugate was synthesized by forming amide bonds between human serum albumin and heparin. After purification the albumin-heparin conjugate was crosslinked in a water-in-oil emulsion to form

  14. Novel fluorescent poly(glycidyl methacrylate) - silica microspheres

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Grama, Silvia; Boiko, N.; Bilyy, R.; Klyuchivska, O.; Antonyuk, V.; Stoika, R.; Horák, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 56, July (2014), s. 92-104 ISSN 0014-3057 R&D Projects: GA MŠk EE2.3.30.0029; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : microspheres * silica * poly(glycidyl methacrylate) Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 3.005, year: 2014

  15. Fabrication of polystyrene hollow microspheres as laser fusion ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    free from preheating problems and have emerged as good alternative to .... carry a system over the energy barrier comes from the Brownian motion of the ... This increase implies an increase in the electrical contribution to the free energy of the .... microsphere is mainly determined by rotational speed of the magnetic stirrer.

  16. Development of activity standard for 90Y microspheres

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mo, L

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available 90Y is a therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals used in the treatment of liver cancer following implantation via a catheter in the hepatic artery, 90Y microspheres are embolised in the microvasculature of liver cancer where they irradiate the tumour by a...

  17. Enhanced photoelectrochemical properties of F-containing TiO2 sphere thin film induced by its novel hierarchical structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Xiang; Tao Jie; Li Yingying; Zhu Hong

    2009-01-01

    The novel nanostructured F-containing TiO 2 (F-TiO 2 ) sphere was directly synthesized on the surface of Ti foil in the solution of NH 4 F and HCl by one-step hydrothermal approach under low-temperature condition. The samples were characterized respectively by means of field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results showed that the F-TiO 2 sphere was hierarchical structure, which composed of porous octahedron crystals with one truncated cone, leading to a football-like morphology. XPS results indicated that F - anions were just physically adsorbed on the surface of TiO 2 microspheres. The studies on the optical properties of the F-TiO 2 were carried out by UV-vis light absorption spectrum. The surface fluorination of the spheres, the unique nanostructure induced accessible macropores or mesopores, and the increased light-harvesting abilities were crucial for the high photoelectrochemical activity of the synthesized F-TiO 2 sphere for water-splitting. The photocurrent density of the F-TiO 2 sphere thin film was more than two times than that of the P25 thin film. Meanwhile, a formation mechanism was briefly proposed. This approach could provide a facile method to synthesize F-TiO 2 microsphere with a special morphology and hierarchical structure in large scale.

  18. The high surface energy of NiO {110} facets incorporated into TiO{sub 2} hollow microspheres by etching Ti plate for enhanced photocatalytic and photoelectrochemical activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jian; Cui, Hongzhi, E-mail: cuihongzhi1965@163.com; Song, Xiaojie; Wei, Na; Tian, Jian, E-mail: jiantian@sdust.edu.cn

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • NiO/TiO{sub 2} hollow microspheres were fabricated by etching Ti plate. • The incorporated NiO nanoparticles exposed high surface energy {110} facets. • The p–n junction catalysts improved photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic activity. • Using this synthesis strategy, other mixed semiconducting metal oxide microspheres. - Abstract: We present a rational design for the controllable synthesis of NiO/TiO{sub 2} hollow microspheres (NTHMs) with Ti plate via a one-pot template-free synthesis strategy. Specifically, to enhance the formation of hollow microspheres, part of the titanium source is provided by the Ti plate. The hollow spherical NiO/TiO{sub 2} particles possess unique microstructural characteristics, namely, a higher specific surface area (∼65.82 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}), a larger mesoporous structure (∼7.79 nm), and hierarchical nanoarchitectures connected with mesopores within the shell (monodispersed size of ∼1 μm and shell thickness of ∼80 nm). In addition, as a cocatalyst for improved catalytic activity, the incorporated NiO nanoparticles with exposed high surface energy {110} facets displayed an outstanding performance. It has been proven that this facile nanostructure possesses remarkably high photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic activities. The main mechanism for enhancement of photocatalytic activity is attributed to the construction of p-n junctions with an inner electric field between TiO{sub 2} and NiO, which can dramatically enhance the separation efficiency of the photogenerated electron-hole pairs. This strategy could be applied to fabricate mixed metal oxide hollow microspheres toward the photoelectrochemical catalysis.

  19. Hollow mesoporous titania microspheres: New technology and enhanced photocatalytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Zhenliang; Wei, Wenrui; Wang, Litong [School of Chemical Engineering, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350108 (China); Hong, Ruoyu, E-mail: rhong@suda.edu.cn [School of Chemical Engineering, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350108 (China); College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science & Key Laboratory of Organic Synthesis of Jiangsu Province, Soochow University, SIP, Suzhou 215123 (China)

    2015-12-01

    Graphical abstract: Schematic of the formation process of HTS. - Highlights: • Amino modified porous PS-DVB microspheres were used as templates to coat TiO{sub 2.} • The coating of TiO{sub 2} was conducted under regular changing atmospheric pressure. • The PS-DVB@TiO{sub 2} was calcinated first under nitrogen and then under air to get HTS. • The resultant products were provided with high surface area and excellent photocatalytic activity under UV irradiation. - Abstract: Hollow titania microspheres (HTS) were fabricated via a sol–gel process by coating the hydrolysis product of titanium tetrabutoxide (TBOT) onto the amino (–NH{sub 2}) modified porous polystyrene cross-linked divinyl benzene (PS-DVB) microspheres under changing atmospheric pressure, followed by calcination in nitrogen and air atmosphere. Particularly, the atmospheric pressure was continuously and regularly changed during the formation process of PS-DVB@TiO{sub 2} microspheres. Then the TiO{sub 2} particles were absorbed into the pores and onto the surface of PS-DVB as well. The resultant HTS (around 2 μm in diameter) featured a high specific surface area (84.37 m{sup 2}/g), anatase crystal and stable hollow microsphere structure, which led to high photocatalysis activity. The photocatalytic degradation of malachite green (MG) organic dye solution was conducted under ultraviolet (UV) light irradiation, which showed a high photocatalytic ability (81% of MG was degraded after UV irradiation for 88 min). Therefore, it could be potentially applied for the treatment of wastewater contaminated by organic pollutants.

  20. Yttrium-90 microspheres for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geschwind, Jean Francois H; Salem, Riad; Carr, Brian I; Soulen, Michael C; Thurston, Kenneth G; Goin, Kathleen A; Van Buskirk, Mark; Roberts, Carol A; Goin, James E

    2004-11-01

    Unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma is extremely difficult to treat. TheraSphere consists of yttrium-90 (a pure beta emitter) microspheres, which are injected into the hepatic arteries. This article reviews the safety and survival of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma who were treated with yttrium-90 microspheres. Eighty patients were selected from a database of 108 yttrium-90 microsphere-treated patients and were staged by using Child-Pugh, Okuda, and Cancer of the Liver Italian Program scoring systems. Patients were treated with local, regional, and whole-liver approaches. Survival from first treatment was analyzed with Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression methods. Adverse events and complications of treatment were coded by using the Southwest Oncology Group toxicity scoring system. Patients received liver doses ranging from 47 to 270 Gy. Thirty-two patients (40%) received more than 1 treatment. Survival correlated with pretreatment Cancer of the Liver Italian Program scores ( P = .002), as well as with the individual Cancer of the Liver Italian Program components, Child-Pugh class, alpha-fetoprotein levels, and percentage of tumor replacement. Patients classified as Okuda stage I (n = 54) and II (n = 26) had median survival durations and 1-year survival rates of 628 days and 63%, and 384 days and 51%, respectively ( P = .02). One patient died of liver failure judged as possibly related to treatment. Thus, in selected patients with hepatocellular carcinoma, yttrium-90 microsphere treatment is safe and well tolerated. On the basis of these results, a randomized controlled trial is warranted comparing yttrium-90 microsphere treatment with transarterial chemoembolization by using the Cancer of the Liver Italian Program system for prospective stratified randomization.

  1. Preparation and drug controlled release of porous octyl-dextran microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Xin; Liu, Yanfei

    2015-01-01

    In this work, porous octyl-dextran microspheres with excellent properties were prepared by two steps. Firstly, dextran microspheres were synthesized by reversed-phase suspension polymerization. Secondly, octyl-dextran microspheres were prepared by the reaction between dextran microspheres and ethylhexyl glycidyl ether and freezing-drying method. Porous structure of microspheres was formed through the interaction between octyl groups and organic solvents. The structure, morphology, dry density, porosity and equilibrium water content of porous octyl-dextran microspheres were systematically investigated. The octyl content affected the properties of microspheres. The results showed that the dry density of microspheres decreased from 2.35 to 1.21 g/ml, porosity increased from 80.68 to 95.05% with the octyl content increasing from 0.49 to 2.28 mmol/g. Meanwhile, the equilibrium water content presented a peak value (90.18%) when the octyl content was 2.25 mmol/g. Octyl-dextran microspheres showed high capacity. Naturally drug carriers play an important role in drug-delivery systems for their biodegradability, wide raw materials sources and nontoxicity. Doxorubicin (DOX) was used as a drug model to examine the drug-loading capacity of porous octyl-dextran microspheres. The drug-loading efficiency increased with the increase in microspheres/drug ratio, while the encapsulation efficiency decreased. When microspheres/drug mass ratio was 4/1, the drug-loading efficiency and encapsulation efficiency were 10.20 and 51.00%, respectively. The release rate of DOX increased as drug content and porosity increased. In conclusion, porous octyl-dextran microspheres were synthesized successfully and have the potential to serve as an effective delivery system in drug controlled release.

  2. Automatic Hierarchical Color Image Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Huang

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Organizing images into semantic categories can be extremely useful for content-based image retrieval and image annotation. Grouping images into semantic classes is a difficult problem, however. Image classification attempts to solve this hard problem by using low-level image features. In this paper, we propose a method for hierarchical classification of images via supervised learning. This scheme relies on using a good low-level feature and subsequently performing feature-space reconfiguration using singular value decomposition to reduce noise and dimensionality. We use the training data to obtain a hierarchical classification tree that can be used to categorize new images. Our experimental results suggest that this scheme not only performs better than standard nearest-neighbor techniques, but also has both storage and computational advantages.

  3. Hierarchical matrices algorithms and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Hackbusch, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    This self-contained monograph presents matrix algorithms and their analysis. The new technique enables not only the solution of linear systems but also the approximation of matrix functions, e.g., the matrix exponential. Other applications include the solution of matrix equations, e.g., the Lyapunov or Riccati equation. The required mathematical background can be found in the appendix. The numerical treatment of fully populated large-scale matrices is usually rather costly. However, the technique of hierarchical matrices makes it possible to store matrices and to perform matrix operations approximately with almost linear cost and a controllable degree of approximation error. For important classes of matrices, the computational cost increases only logarithmically with the approximation error. The operations provided include the matrix inversion and LU decomposition. Since large-scale linear algebra problems are standard in scientific computing, the subject of hierarchical matrices is of interest to scientists ...

  4. Hierarchical Semantic Model of Geovideo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XIE Xiao

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The public security incidents were getting increasingly challenging with regard to their new features, including multi-scale mobility, multistage dynamic evolution, as well as spatiotemporal concurrency and uncertainty in the complex urban environment. However, the existing video models, which were used/designed for independent archive or local analysis of surveillance video, have seriously inhibited emergency response to the urgent requirements.Aiming at the explicit representation of change mechanism in video, the paper proposed a novel hierarchical geovideo semantic model using UML. This model was characterized by the hierarchical representation of both data structure and semantics based on the change-oriented three domains (feature domain, process domain and event domain instead of overall semantic description of video streaming; combining both geographical semantics and video content semantics, in support of global semantic association between multiple geovideo data. The public security incidents by video surveillance are inspected as an example to illustrate the validity of this model.

  5. Synthesis of chemically bonded BiOCl@Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} microspheres with exposed (0 2 0) Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} facets and their enhanced photocatalytic activities under visible light irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Yongchao [Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao 266109 (China); Chen, Zhiwei [School of Life Sciences, Shandong University of Technology, Zibo 255049 (China); Qu, Dan [Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao 266109 (China); Shi, Jinsheng, E-mail: jsshiqn@aliyun.com [Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao 266109 (China)

    2016-01-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • BiOCl@Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} composites were prepared via a controlled anion exchange method. • The shell of composites was composed of Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} sheets with exposed (0 2 0) facets. • The BiOCl@Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} composites showed efficient photocatalytic activity. • A possible photocatalytic degradation mechanism is proposed. - Abstract: Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} photocatalysts has been extensively studied for its photocatalytic activity. However, few works have been conducted on hierarchical Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} composite photocatalysts with specifically exposed facets. In this work, we report a facile method to synthesize BiOCl@Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} hierarchical composite microspheres. Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} nanosheets with specifically exposed (0 2 0) facet were directly formed on the surface of BiOCl precursor microspheres via a controlled anion exchange route between BiOCl and Na{sub 2}WO{sub 4}. The visible-light photocatalytic activity of the BiOCl@Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} heterojunction with exposed (0 2 0) facets (denoted as BiOCl@Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6}) was investigated by degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) and ciprofloxacin (CIP) aqueous solution under visible light irradiation. The experimental results indicated that the BiOCl@Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} composite microsphere with intimate interfacial contacts exhibited improved efficiency for RhB photodegradation in comparison with pure BiOCl and Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6}. The BiOCl@Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} composite microsphere also shows high photocatalytic activity for degradation of CIP under visible light irradiation. The enhanced photocatalytic performance of BiOCl@Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6}-020 hierarchical microspheres can be ascribed to the improved visible light harvesting ability, high charge separation and transfer. This work will make significant contributions toward the exploration of novel heterostructures with high potential in photocatalytic applications.

  6. FEMIC (Fibromes Embolises aux MICrospheres calibrees): Uterine Fibroid Embolization using Tris-acryl Microspheres. A French Multicenter Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joffre, Francis; Tubiana, Jean-Michel; Pelage, Jean-Pierre

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: A French multicenter registry was set up to confirm the safety and efficacy of large calibrated tris-acryl gelatin microspheres for embolization of symptomatic fibroids. Methods: Technical recommendations included embolization using large microspheres (>500 μm) with no secondary embolization agent. Postprocedural pain, clinical improvement and adverse events were prospectively evaluated during a follow-up period of at least 6 months.Results: Eighty-five women complaining of fibroid-related symptoms entered the study. In seven women, a secondary embolization agent was used in addition to microspheres. Complete resolution of menorrhagia was achieved in 84% of women at 24 months and significant uterine and fibroid volume reductions were noted after 6 months (37% and 73%, respectively). Three women experienced definitive amenorrhea (4%) and two women required hysteroscopic resection of a fibroid. Eight women were treated by hysterectomy because of treatment failure. In seven of these women, treatment failure was explained by an additional cause of symptoms including diffuse adenomyosis, endometrial hyperplasia or ovarian artery supply to the fibroids.Conclusion: Limited uterine artery embolization using large microspheres has good clinical success rate with low postprocedural pain and complications. Women can expect excellent midterm results with a high level of symptom control and significant fibroid volume reduction. Confidence in the end-point recommended here may require the experience of several cases

  7. Hybrid and hierarchical composite materials

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Chang-Soo; Sano, Tomoko

    2015-01-01

    This book addresses a broad spectrum of areas in both hybrid materials and hierarchical composites, including recent development of processing technologies, structural designs, modern computer simulation techniques, and the relationships between the processing-structure-property-performance. Each topic is introduced at length with numerous  and detailed examples and over 150 illustrations.   In addition, the authors present a method of categorizing these materials, so that representative examples of all material classes are discussed.

  8. Hierarchical analysis of urban space

    OpenAIRE

    Kataeva, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Multi-level structure of urban space, multitude of subjects of its transformation, which follow asymmetric interests, multilevel system of institutions which regulate interaction in the "population business government -public organizations" system, determine the use of hierarchic approach to the analysis of urban space. The article observes theoretical justification of using this approach to study correlations and peculiarities of interaction in urban space as in an intricately organized syst...

  9. Statistical Significance for Hierarchical Clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimes, Patrick K.; Liu, Yufeng; Hayes, D. Neil; Marron, J. S.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Cluster analysis has proved to be an invaluable tool for the exploratory and unsupervised analysis of high dimensional datasets. Among methods for clustering, hierarchical approaches have enjoyed substantial popularity in genomics and other fields for their ability to simultaneously uncover multiple layers of clustering structure. A critical and challenging question in cluster analysis is whether the identified clusters represent important underlying structure or are artifacts of natural sampling variation. Few approaches have been proposed for addressing this problem in the context of hierarchical clustering, for which the problem is further complicated by the natural tree structure of the partition, and the multiplicity of tests required to parse the layers of nested clusters. In this paper, we propose a Monte Carlo based approach for testing statistical significance in hierarchical clustering which addresses these issues. The approach is implemented as a sequential testing procedure guaranteeing control of the family-wise error rate. Theoretical justification is provided for our approach, and its power to detect true clustering structure is illustrated through several simulation studies and applications to two cancer gene expression datasets. PMID:28099990

  10. Robust platforms for creating organic-inorganic nanocomposite microspheres: decorating polymer microspheres containing mussel-inspired adhesion layers with inorganic nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, H; Saito, Y; Yabu, H

    2014-12-07

    We describe a method for creating robust and stable core-shell polymer microspheres decorated with inorganic (IO) nanoparticles (NPs) by a self-organization process and heterocoagulation using a mussel-inspired polymer adhesive layer between the IO NPs and the microspheres.

  11. Simulation Model of Microsphere Distribution for Selective Internal Radiation Therapy Agrees With Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Högberg, Jonas, E-mail: jonas.hogberg@radfys.gu.se [Department of Radiation Physics, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden); Rizell, Magnus [Department of Surgery, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden); Hultborn, Ragnar; Svensson, Johanna [Department of Oncology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden); Henrikson, Olof [Department of Radiology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden); Mölne, Johan [Department of Pathology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden); Gjertsson, Peter [Department of Clinical Physiology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden); Bernhardt, Peter [Department of Radiation Physics, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden); Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2016-10-01

    Purpose: To perform a detailed analysis of microsphere distribution in biopsy material from a patient treated with {sup 90}Y-labeled resin spheres and characterize microsphere distribution in the hepatic artery tree, and to construct a novel dichotomous bifurcation model for microsphere deposits and evaluate its accuracy in simulating the observed microsphere deposits. Methods and Materials: Our virtual model consisted of arteries that successively branched into 2 new generations of arteries at 20 nodes. The artery diameter exponentially decreased from the lowest generation to the highest generation. Three variable parameters were optimized to obtain concordance between simulations and measure microsphere distributions: an artery coefficient of variation (ACV) for the diameter of all artery generations and the microsphere flow distribution at the nodes; a hepatic tree distribution volume (HDV) for the artery tree; and an artery diameter reduction (ADR) parameter. The model was tested against previously measured activity concentrations in 84 biopsies from the liver of 1 patient. In 16 of 84 biopsies, the microsphere distribution regarding cluster size and localization in the artery tree was determined via light microscopy of 30-μm sections (mean concentration, 14 microspheres/mg; distributions divided into 3 groups with mean microsphere concentrations of 4.6, 14, and 28 microspheres/mg). Results: Single spheres and small clusters were observed in terminal arterioles, whereas large clusters, up to 450 microspheres, were observed in larger arterioles. For 14 microspheres/mg, the optimized parameter values were ACV=0.35, HDV = 50 cm{sup 3}, and ADR=6 μm. For 4.6 microspheres/mg, ACV and ADR decreased to 0.26 and 0 μm, respectively, whereas HDV increased to 130 cm{sup 3}. The opposite trend was observed for 28 microspheres/mg: ACV = 0.49, HDV = 20 cm{sup 3}, and ADR = 8 μm. Conclusion: Simulations and measurements reveal that microsphere clusters are

  12. Investigation of control conditions of uranium dioxide pellets sinterability through microspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assis, Gino de.

    1996-01-01

    Promotion or inhibition of ceramic powders sinterability, the decisive question in ceramic processing is approached in this dissertation. Each high density microsphere has been considered as a solid inclusion in a low density microspheres matrix, generating big pores. Such pores make it difficult for the pellets density due the fact that they are difficult to be eliminated. A master mixture, allowing the pellet densification in the projected range has been reached. Batches of microspheres have been observed sometimes with high apparent density and sometimes with low apparent density. This apparent density variation was attributed to changing the oxygen partial pressure during calcination under air atmosphere. It is evident that the control of the apparent density of the microspheres needs a further research in order to adjust the sinterability of the microspheres on the desired level.It was demonstrated that the produced microspheres do not have impurities levels that can promote its sinterability or avoid their use in nuclear area

  13. Characterization of unsaturated fatty acid sustained-release microspheres for long-term algal inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Lixiao; Jie, Xiaoting; Wang, Peifang; Li, Shiyin; Hu, Shuzhen; Li, Yiping; Li, Yong; Acharya, Kumud

    2015-02-01

    The unsaturated fatty acid (linoleic acid) sustained-release microspheres were prepared with linoleic acid (LA) using alginate-chitosan microcapsule technology. These LA sustained-release microspheres had a high encapsulation efficiency (up to 62%) tested by high performance liquid chromatography with a photo diode array. The dry microspheres were characterized by a scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction measurement, dynamic thermogravimetric analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectral analysis. The results of characterization showed that the microspheres had good thermal stability (decomposition temperature of 236°C), stable and temperature independent release properties (release time of more than 40 d). Compared to direct dosing of LA, LA sustained-released microspheres could inhibit Microcystis aeruginosa growth to the non-growth state. The results of this study suggested that the LA sustained-release microspheres may be a potential candidate for algal inhibition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Recent advances in polymeric microspheres for parenteral drug delivery--part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Shirui; Guo, Chunqiang; Shi, Yi; Li, Luk Chiu

    2012-09-01

    Polymeric microspheres have been established as a valuable parenteral drug delivery system for sustained release of therapeutic agents via subcutaneous or intramuscular injection. Biodegradable polymers which are either synthetic or from natural sources are reviewed with respect to recent advances in exploring their applications for microsphere fabrications. New information on the impact of formulation variables on the properties of microspheres formed by an emulsion method was also presented. The characterization of microspheres using advanced physical analytical techniques was also reviewed and the utilization of the information in assessing in vivo performance of the product was also highlighted. The broad clinical use of microspheres for delivery of therapeutic agents in particular biologics such as proteins has not been realized commercially. The limited availability of biodegradable polymers with a long history of regulatory approval and the challenges in gaining regulatory approval of a new polymer have hindered the development of microspheres for parenteral drug delivery.

  15. A general approach to mesoporous metal oxide microspheres loaded with noble metal nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Jin, Zhao; Xiao, Manda; Bao, Zhihong; Wang, Peng; Wang, Jianfang

    2012-01-01

    Catalytic microspheres: A general approach is demonstrated for the facile preparation of mesoporous metal oxide microspheres loaded with noble metal nanoparticles (see TEM image in the picture). Among 18 oxide/noble metal catalysts, TiO 2/0.1 mol Pd microspheres showed the highest turnover frequency in NaBH 4 reduction of 4-nitrophenol (see picture). Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Microspheres of poly(ε-caprolactone) loaded Holmium-165: morphology and thermal degradation behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geraldes, Adriana Napoleao; Miyamoto, Douglas Massao; Lira, Raphael Arivar de; Osso Junior, Joao Alberto; Nascimento, Nanci; Azevedo, Mariangela de Burgos M. de

    2011-01-01

    Polycaprolactone (PCL), being one of the most important biocompatible and biodegradable aliphatic polyester, provides many potential biomedical. The preparation of biodegradable materials, polymer-based microspheres, is being developed by our group and the goal is to prepare and label with Ho-165 different polymer-based microspheres. The use of radionuclide-loaded microspheres is a promising treatment of liver malignancies. PCL microspheres can be loaded with holmium acetylacetonate (HoAcAc). PCL and PCL/HoAcAc microspheres were prepared by an emulsion solvent extraction/evaporation technique. The PCL/ HoAcAc microspheres were irradiated in a nuclear reactor IEA-R1 at IPEN/CNEN-SP to radionuclide activation. Gamma irradiation was performed at 25 and 50 kGy doses. The microspheres were evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry analysis (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TG), Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and con focal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). In the CLSM images were observed emission in 488 nm characteristic of holmium. The SEM surface image of PCL/HoAcAc microspheres showed more roughness than PCL microspheres. TG of PCL/HoAcAc microspheres showed a substantial weight loss above 200 degree C, indicating decomposition of HoAcAc. The residual weight indicates the presence of Ho 2 O 3 . Gamma irradiation at 25 and 50 kGy doses had no effect on the PCL/HoAcAc microspheres, which indicates that the chemical composition of the microspheres had not change. (author)

  17. Microspheres of poly({epsilon}-caprolactone) loaded Holmium-165: morphology and thermal degradation behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geraldes, Adriana Napoleao; Miyamoto, Douglas Massao; Lira, Raphael Arivar de; Osso Junior, Joao Alberto; Nascimento, Nanci; Azevedo, Mariangela de Burgos M. de [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Polycaprolactone (PCL), being one of the most important biocompatible and biodegradable aliphatic polyester, provides many potential biomedical. The preparation of biodegradable materials, polymer-based microspheres, is being developed by our group and the goal is to prepare and label with Ho-165 different polymer-based microspheres. The use of radionuclide-loaded microspheres is a promising treatment of liver malignancies. PCL microspheres can be loaded with holmium acetylacetonate (HoAcAc). PCL and PCL/HoAcAc microspheres were prepared by an emulsion solvent extraction/evaporation technique. The PCL/ HoAcAc microspheres were irradiated in a nuclear reactor IEA-R1 at IPEN/CNEN-SP to radionuclide activation. Gamma irradiation was performed at 25 and 50 kGy doses. The microspheres were evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry analysis (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TG), Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and con focal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). In the CLSM images were observed emission in 488 nm characteristic of holmium. The SEM surface image of PCL/HoAcAc microspheres showed more roughness than PCL microspheres. TG of PCL/HoAcAc microspheres showed a substantial weight loss above 200 degree C, indicating decomposition of HoAcAc. The residual weight indicates the presence of Ho{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Gamma irradiation at 25 and 50 kGy doses had no effect on the PCL/HoAcAc microspheres, which indicates that the chemical composition of the microspheres had not change. (author)

  18. A general approach to mesoporous metal oxide microspheres loaded with noble metal nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Jin, Zhao

    2012-04-26

    Catalytic microspheres: A general approach is demonstrated for the facile preparation of mesoporous metal oxide microspheres loaded with noble metal nanoparticles (see TEM image in the picture). Among 18 oxide/noble metal catalysts, TiO 2/0.1 mol Pd microspheres showed the highest turnover frequency in NaBH 4 reduction of 4-nitrophenol (see picture). Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Preparation and characterization of composite microspheres for brachytherapy and hyperthermia treatment of cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Di; Huang Wenhai; Rahaman, Mohamed N.; Day, Delbert E.; Wang Deping; Gu Yifei

    2012-01-01

    Composite microspheres were prepared by coating yttrium–aluminum–silicate (YAS) glass microspheres (20–30 μm) with a layer of Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles and evaluated for potential use in brachytherapy and hyperthermia treatment of cancer. After neutron activation to form the β-emitting 90 Y radionuclide, the composite microspheres can be injected into a patient to destroy cancerous tumors; at the same time, the composite microspheres can generate heat upon application of a magnetic field to also destroy the tumors. The results showed that the composite microspheres were chemically durable when immersed in a simulated body fluid (SBF), with ∼ 0.25% weight loss and ∼ 3.2% yttrium dissolved into the SBF after 30 days at 37 °C. The composite microspheres also showed ferromagnetic properties as a result of the Fe 3 O 4 coating; when immersed in water at 20 °C (20 mg in 1 mL of water), the application of an alternating magnetic field produced a temperature increase from 20 °C to 38−46 °C depending on the thickness of the Fe 3 O 4 coating. The results indicate that these composite microspheres have promising potential in combined brachytherapy and hyperthermia treatment of cancerous tumors. - Highlights: ► Composite microspheres for brachytherapy and hyperthermia treatment of cancer. ► Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles coated on the yttrium–aluminum–silicate glass microspheres. ► Microspheres are chemically stable in SBF. ► Microspheres can generate heat for hyperthermia under an alternating magnetic field. ► Microspheres can emit β-rays for brachytherapy after neutron activation.

  20. Encapsulation of azithromycin into polymeric microspheres by reduced pressure-solvent evaporation method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xiujuan; Chang, Si; Du, Guangsheng

    2012-01-01

    Azithromycin loaded microspheres with blends of poly-l-lactide and ploy-D,L-lactide-co-glycolide as matrices were prepared by the atmosphere-solvent evaporation (ASE) and reduced pressure-solvent evaporation (RSE) method. Both the X-ray diffraction spectra and DSC thermographs demonstrated...... characteristics and release profiles of microspheres. In conclusion, the overall improvement of microspheres in appearance, encapsulation efficiency and controlled drug release through the RSE method could be easily fulfilled under optimal preparation conditions....

  1. Polydimethylsiloxane microspheres with poly(methyl methacrylate) coating: Modelling, preparation, and characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Baoguang; Hansen, Jens Henrik; Hvilsted, Søren

    2015-01-01

    functional PDMS microspheres were coated with poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) by spin coating with different concentrations of PMMA solutions. The quality of the resulting PMMA shell is investigated using rheological measurements at 50 8C with a timesweep procedure. The results strongly suggest that PMMA-coated...... PDMS microspheres react around 20 times slower than the uncoated ones, and that the PMMA shell significantly hinders the reaction between the PDMS microsphere and cross-linker. Thus the thin PMMA shells are very efficient in protecting the reactive PDMS microspheres, since the PMMA shell forms...

  2. Method for selecting hollow microspheres for use in laser fusion targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnum, Eugene H.; Fries, R. Jay; Havenhill, Jerry W.; Smith, Maurice Lee; Stoltz, Daniel L.

    1976-01-01

    Hollow microspheres having thin and very uniform wall thickness are useful as containers for the deuterium and tritium gas mixture used as a fuel in laser fusion targets. Hollow microspheres are commercially available; however, in commercial lots only a very small number meet the rigid requirements for use in laser fusion targets. Those meeting these requirements may be separated from the unsuitable ones by subjecting the commercial lot to size and density separations and then by subjecting those hollow microspheres thus separated to an external pressurization at which those which are aspherical or which have nonuniform walls are broken and separating the sound hollow microspheres from the broken ones.

  3. Controllable growth and photocatalytic activity of Cu{sub 2}O solid microspheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Hong; Zhang, Junying, E-mail: zjy@buaa.edu.cn; Wang, Mei

    2013-09-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • 3 μm uniform Cu{sub 2}O solid microspheres with abundant nanopores are achieved. • NH{sub 2}OH·HCl and SDS are main factors that manipulate morphologies of Cu{sub 2}O particles. • Surface features of microspheres influenced the photocatalytic activity of Cu{sub 2}O. • Microspheres are transforming to polyhedrons with extended holding time. - Abstract: A series of Cu{sub 2}O solid microspheres with different surface features were prepared and their photocatalytic activities were studied. The experiment conditions were investigated and the formation mechanism was explored systematically. It was found that varying the amounts of NH{sub 2}OH·HCl reductant in alkaline solutions changed the reaction process and thus altered the surface features of Cu{sub 2}O microspheres. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) surfactant, introduced as a morphology directing agent, caused the nuclei aggregation and growth process of Cu{sub 2}O solid microspheres by precisely realizing the opposite charges’ directional attraction. This SDS-mediated method can be readily extended to synthesizing solid microspheres of other metal oxides. Meanwhile, it was found that Cu{sub 2}O solid microspheres with abundant nanopores on the surface showed much higher efficient catalytic activity for decoloring methyl orange (MO) aqueous solution than with other surface features under visible light irradiation. Furthermore, we found that prolonging the holding time made Cu{sub 2}O microspheres transform to polyhedrons.

  4. Study on Magnetic Responsibility of Rare Earth Ferrite/Polyacrylamide Magnetic Microsphere

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Ming; Wang Zhifeng; Zhang Hong; Dai Shaojun; Qiu Guanming; Okamoto Hiroshi

    2005-01-01

    In inverse microemulsion, rare earth ferrite/polyacrylamide magnetic microsphere were prepared and their magnetic responsibility were studied by magnetic balance. Results indicate that the magnetic responsibility of microsphere relates to magnetic moment of rare earth ion, and it can be improved by the addition of dysprosium ion of high magnetic moment. Dysprosium content has an effect on magnetic responsibility of dysprosium ferrite/polyacrylamide magnetic microsphere. The microsphere displays strong magnetic responsibility when the molar ratio of Dy3+/iron is 0.20.

  5. Preparation of chitosan/nano hydroxyapatite organic-inorganic hybrid microspheres for bone repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jingdi; Pan, Panpan; Zhang, Yujue; Zhong, Shengnan; Zhang, Qiqing

    2015-10-01

    In this work, we encapsulated icariin (ICA) into chitosan (CS)/nano hydroxyapatite (nHAP) composite microspheres to form organic-inorganic hybrid microspheres for drug delivery carrier. The composition and morphology of composite microspheres were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and differential scanning calorimetry- thermogravimetric analysis (DSC-TGA). Moreover, we further studied the performance of swelling properties, degradation properties and drug release behavior of the microspheres. ICA, the extract of traditional Chinese medicine-epimedium, was combined to study drug release properties of the microspheres. ICA loaded microspheres take on a sustained release behavior, which can be not only ascribed to electrostatic interaction between reactive negative hydroxyl (OH) of ICA and positive amine groups (NH₂) of CS, but also depended on the homogeneous dispersion of HAP nanoparticles inside CS organic matrix. In addition, the adhesion and morphology of osteoblasts were detected by inverted fluorescence microscopy. The biocompatibility of CS/nHAP/ICA microspheres was evaluated by the MTT cytotoxicity assay, Hoechst 33258 and PI fluorescence staining. These studies demonstrate that composite microspheres provide a suitable microenvironment for osteoblast attachment and proliferation. It can be speculated that the ICA loaded CS-based organic-inorganic hybrid microspheres might have potential applications in drug delivery systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. INVESTIGATION OF DRUG RELEASE FROM BIODEGRADABLE PLG MICROSPHERES: EXPERIMENT AND THEORY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ANDREWS, MALCOLM J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; BERCHANE, NADER S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; CARSON, KENNETH H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; RICE-FICHT, ALLISON C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2007-01-30

    Piroxicam containing PLG microspheres having different size distributions were fabricated, and in vitro release kinetics were determined for each preparation. Based on the experimental results, a suitable mathematical theory has been developed that incorporates the effect of microsphere size distribution and polymer degradation on drug release. We show from in vitro release experiments that microsphere size has a significant effect on drug release rate. The initial release rate decreased with an increase in microsphere size. In addition, the release profile changed from first order to concave-upward (sigmoidal) as the system size was increased. The mathematical model gave a good fit to the experimental release data.

  7. Recent advances in Pt coating of microspheres by a batch magnetron sputtering process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, E.J.; Meyer, S.F.

    1980-01-01

    Some proposed inertial confinement fusion targets require high-Z, high density metal coatings on glass microspheres. Platinum, which satisfies the high-Z and density requirements, can be coated onto microspheres with a batch magnetron sputtering process incorporating oxygen as a dopant gas to prevent the microspheres from sticking. This paper outlines recent progress in three areas: First, the coating process has been improved; second, the oxygen content and resistivity of the oxygen doped platinum films are analyzed; and third, the roles oxygen may play in reducing microsphere sticking during sputtering are discussed in regard to cold welding, Van der Waals bonding, electrostatic sticking, and sintering

  8. Effect of various polymers concentrations on physicochemical properties of floating microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagtap, Y M; Bhujbal, R K; Ranade, A N; Ranpise, N S

    2012-11-01

    Floating microspheres have emerged as a potential candidate for gastroretentive drug delivery system. For developing a desired intragastric floatation system employing these microspheres, it is necessary to select an appropriate balance between buoyancy and drug releasing rate. These properties mainly depend on the polymers used in the formulation of the microspheres. Hence it is necessory to study the effect of these polymer concentrations on the various physicochemical properties of the microspheres. Floating microspheres were prepared by emulsion solvent evaporation technique utilising different polymers such as ethyl cellulose, Eudragit(®) RS and Eudragit(®) RL by dissolving them in a mixture of dichloromethane and methanol. Release modifiers studied were hydroxypropyl methylcellulose K4M, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose E50 LV and Eudragit(®) EPO. Prepared microspheres were analysed for particle size, surface morphology, entrapment efficiency, buoyancy, differential scanning calorimetry and in-vitro drug release. Ethyl cellulose and Eudragit(®) EPO resulted microspheres with high percentage yield, excellent spherical shape but had very less buoyancies with a high cumulative drug release. Ethyl cellulose microspheres prepared using hydroxypropyl methylcellulose K4M showed more sustained drug release and high buoyancies than that of the microspheres formulated with the hydroxypropyl methylcellulose E50 LV. Amongst these hydroxypropyl methylcellulose E50 LV showed good balance between buoyancy and the drug release.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of magnesium gluconate contained poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)/chitosan microspheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, Shekh M. [Department of Chemical, Biological and Bioengineering, North Carolina A& T State University, 1601 East Market Street, Greensboro, NC 27411 (United States); NSF Engineering Research Center for Revolutionizing Metallic Biomaterials, North Carolina A& T State University, Greensboro, NC 27411 (United States); Mahoney, Christopher [Department of Bioengineering, University of Pittsburgh, 4200 Fifth Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15250 (United States); Sankar, Jagannathan [NSF Engineering Research Center for Revolutionizing Metallic Biomaterials, North Carolina A& T State University, Greensboro, NC 27411 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, North Carolina A& T State University, 1601 East Market Street, Greensboro, NC 27411 (United States); Marra, Kacey G. [NSF Engineering Research Center for Revolutionizing Metallic Biomaterials, North Carolina A& T State University, Greensboro, NC 27411 (United States); Department of Bioengineering, University of Pittsburgh, 4200 Fifth Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15250 (United States); Department of Plastic Surgery, University of Pittsburgh, 200 Lothrop Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15250 (United States); McGowan Institute for Regenerative Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, 450 Technology Drive, Pittsburgh, PA 15250 (United States); Bhattarai, Narayan, E-mail: nbhattar@ncat.edu [Department of Chemical, Biological and Bioengineering, North Carolina A& T State University, 1601 East Market Street, Greensboro, NC 27411 (United States); NSF Engineering Research Center for Revolutionizing Metallic Biomaterials, North Carolina A& T State University, Greensboro, NC 27411 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Magnesium gluconate contained PLGA/chitosan microspheres were fabricated. • In vitro release of magnesium ions was performed using Xylidyl Blue assay. • Chitosan coated PLGA can significantly control the release of magnesium ions. • Cellular compatibility was tested using adipose-derived stem cells and PC12 cells. • The cells encounter acceptably low levels of damage in contact with microspheres. - Abstract: The goal of this study was to fabricate and investigate the chitosan coated poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres for the development of controlled release magnesium delivery system. PLGA based microspheres are ideal vehicles for many controlled release drug delivery applications. Chitosan is a naturally occurring biodegradable and biocompatible polysaccharide, which can coat the surface of PLGA to alter the release of drugs. Magnesium gluconate (MgG) was encapsulated in the PLGA and PLGA/chitosan microspheres by utilizing the double emulsion solvent evaporation technique for controlled release study. The microspheres were tested with respect to several physicochemical and biological properties, including morphology, chemical structure, chitosan adsorption efficiency, magnesium encapsulation efficiency, in vitro release of magnesium ions, and cellular compatibility using both human adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) and PC12 cells. Chitosan coated PLGA microspheres can significantly control the release of magnesium ions compared to uncoated PLGA microspheres. Both coated and uncoated microspheres showed good cellular compatibility.

  10. Methanol and ethanol electrooxidation on Pt and Pd supported on carbon microspheres in alkaline media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Changwei; Cheng, Liqiang; Liu, Yingliang [Department of Chemistry and Institute of Nanochemistry, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Shen, Peikang [State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technologies, School of Physics and Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China)

    2007-05-15

    Noble metal (Pt, Pd) electrocatalysts supported on carbon microspheres (CMS) are used for methanol and ethanol oxidation in alkaline media. The results show that noble metal electrocatalysts supported on carbon microspheres give better performance than that supported on carbon black. It is well known that palladium is not a good electrocatalyst for methanol oxidation, but it shows excellently higher activity and better steady-state electrolysis than Pt for ethanol electrooxidation in alkaline media. The results show a synergistic effect by the interaction between Pd and carbon microspheres. The Pd supported on carbon microspheres in this paper possesses excellent electrocatalytic properties and may be of great potential in direct ethanol fuel cells. (author)

  11. Hierarchal scalar and vector tetrahedra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, J.P.; Forghani, B.

    1993-01-01

    A new set of scalar and vector tetrahedral finite elements are presented. The elements are hierarchal, allowing mixing of polynomial orders; scalar orders up to 3 and vector orders up to 2 are defined. The vector elements impose tangential continuity on the field but not normal continuity, making them suitable for representing the vector electric or magnetic field. Further, the scalar and vector elements are such that they can easily be used in the same mesh, a requirement of many quasi-static formulations. Results are presented for two 50 Hz problems: the Bath Cube, and TEAM Problem 7

  12. Study of neutron absorbing microspheres in research reactors - Neutronic analyse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gana Watkins, Ignacio A.; Prado, Miguel O.; Mazufri, Claudio; Tunon, Juan M

    2012-01-01

    Now-a-days, it is increasingly common for nuclear power plants, as well as research reactors, to be designed and built with an alternative safety system aside from control rods. The acids and/or salts in solution injection systems is most frequently used. However, these systems present several implementation and operation problems due to the physical and chemical properties of the used compounds. After analyzing these drawbacks, we developed a new alternative safety system that contains the absorbing element isolated from the aqueous medium. In this context, it's proposed the use of aluminum borosilicate microspheres. The current paper presents erosion wear experiments to determine under which conditions microspheres can be considered as a potential component of a secondary shut down system in a nuclear facility (author)

  13. Carbon microspheres as ball bearings in aqueous-based lubrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Dennis, J E; Jin, Kejia; John, Vijay T; Pesika, Noshir S

    2011-07-01

    We present an exploratory study on a suspension of uniform carbon microspheres as a new class of aqueous-based lubricants. The surfactant-functionalized carbon microspheres (∼0.1 wt %) employ a rolling mechanism similar to ball bearings to provide low friction coefficients (μ ≈ 0.03) and minimize surface wear in shear experiments between various surfaces, even at high loads and high contact pressures. The size range, high monodispersity, and large yield stress of the C(μsphere), as well as the minimal environmental impact, are all desirable characteristics for the use of a C(μsphere)-SDS suspension as an alternative to oil-based lubricants in compatible devices and machinery.

  14. Polyacrylate microspheres composite for all-solid-state reference electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisiel, Anna; Donten, Mikołaj; Mieczkowski, Józef; Rius-Ruiz, F Xavier; Maksymiuk, Krzysztof; Michalska, Agata

    2010-09-01

    A novel concept is proposed for the encapsulation of components within polyacrylate microspheres, prior to their incorporation into a membrane phase. Thus finer and better controlled dispersion of heterogeneous membrane components can be achieved. This concept was verified by using a poly(n-butyl acrylate) membrane-based reference electrode as an example. In this example the proper dispersion of solid constituents of the heterogeneous membrane and prevention of their leakage are both of primary importance. Potassium chloride-loaded poly(n-butyl acrylate) microspheres were prepared and then left in contact with silver nitrate to convert some of the KCl into AgCl. The material obtained was introduced into a poly(n-butyl acrylate) membrane. The reference electrode membranes obtained in this way were characterized with much more stable potential (both in different electrolytes and over time) compared with electrodes prepared by the direct introduction of KCl and AgCl to the membrane.

  15. Coherent inflation for large quantum superpositions of levitated microspheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Isart, Oriol

    2017-12-01

    We show that coherent inflation (CI), namely quantum dynamics generated by inverted conservative potentials acting on the center of mass of a massive object, is an enabling tool to prepare large spatial quantum superpositions in a double-slit experiment. Combined with cryogenic, extreme high vacuum, and low-vibration environments, we argue that it is experimentally feasible to exploit CI to prepare the center of mass of a micrometer-sized object in a spatial quantum superposition comparable to its size. In such a hitherto unexplored parameter regime gravitationally-induced decoherence could be unambiguously falsified. We present a protocol to implement CI in a double-slit experiment by letting a levitated microsphere traverse a static potential landscape. Such a protocol could be experimentally implemented with an all-magnetic scheme using superconducting microspheres.

  16. Synthesis and characterization of porous microspheres bearing pyrrolidone units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maciejewska, M., E-mail: mmacieje@umcs.pl; Kołodyńska, D.

    2015-01-15

    Porous microspheres of glycydyl methacrylate (GMA) cross-linked with trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate (TRIM) were prepared with toluene as porogen by suspension-emulsion polymerization. With increasing molar ratio of the functional monomer to cross-linker, the epoxy group content increases significantly whereas the parameters of porous structure (specific surface area and total pore volume) decreases. In order to obtain adsorbents bearing functional groups the porous methacrylate network was modified by subsequent reaction with pyrrolidone. The materials were studied using elemental analysis, infrared spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), attenuated total reflection (ATR) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, thermal gravimetry. Additionally, polymers sorption capacity towards Cu(II) was investigated. - Highlights: • Porous microspheres with reactive epoxy group were synthesized. • Highly developed porous structure was created. • Pyrrolidone units were incorporated during ring–opening reaction. • Polymers sorption capacity towards Cu (II) was investigated.

  17. Chitosan magnetic microspheres for technological applications: Preparation and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podzus, P.E.; Daraio, M.E.; Jacobo, S.E.

    2009-01-01

    One of the major applications of chitosan and its many derivatives are based on its ability to bind strongly heavy and toxic metal ions. In this study chitosan magnetic microspheres have been synthesized. Acetic acid (1%w/v) solution was used as solvent for the chitosan polymer solution (2%w/v) where magnetite nanoparticles were suspended in order to obtain a stable ferrofluid. Glutaraldehyde was used as cross-linker. The magnetic characteristic of these materials allows an easy removal after use if is necessary. The morphological characterization of the microspheres shows that they can be produced in the size range 800-1100 μm. The adsorption of Cu(II) onto chitosan-magnetite nanoparticles was studied in batch system. A second-order kinetic model was used to fit the kinetic data, leading to an equilibrium adsorption capacity of 19 mg Cu/g chitosan.

  18. PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF POROUS WALLED HOLLOW GLASS MICROSPHERES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raszewski, F; Erich Hansen, E; Ray Schumacher, R; David Peeler, D

    2008-04-21

    Porous-walled hollow glass microspheres (PWHGMs) of a modified alkali borosilicate composition have been successfully fabricated by combining the technology of producing hollow glass microspheres (HGMs) with the knowledge associated with porous glasses. HGMs are first formed by a powder glass--flame process, which are then transformed to PWHGMs by heat treatment and subsequent treatment in acid. Pore diameter and pore volume are most influenced by heat treatment temperature. Pore diameter is increased by a factor of 10 when samples are heat treated prior to acid leaching; 100 {angstrom} in non-heat treated samples to 1000 {angstrom} in samples heat treated at 600 C for 8 hours. As heat treatment time is increased from 8 hours to 24 hours there is a slight shift increase in pore diameter and little or no change in pore volume.

  19. Onion-like microspheres with tricomponent from gelable triblock copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ke; Gao, Lei; Chen, Yongming; Yang, Zhenzhong

    2010-06-01

    Onion-like functional microspheres with three alternate layers were obtained by aerosol-assisted self-assembly of a functional block copolymer, poly(3-(triethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate)-block-polystyrene-block-poly(2-vinylpyridine) (PTEPM-b-PS-b-P2VP). Through self-gelation reaction occurred in the PTEPM layers, organic/inorganic hybrid functional spheres with highly ordered concentric curved lamellar structure were prepared. Using these hybrid onion-like microspheres as templates, gold ions were entrapped into the P2VP layers and then gold nanoparticles located in each P2VP layers were formed by a reduction. By dispersing in acidic water, the onion-like polymeric spheres were broken and, as a result, sandwich-like nanoplates with curved morphology were obtained. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Treatment of metastasis localizations by intratumoral injection of radionuclide microsphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuo Peiyu; Pang Yan; Zhu Dianqing; Chang Keli; Zhu Yanjia

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the therapeutic effects of radionuclide-labeled microsphere by intratumoral injection into 18 patients with superficial metastasis tumor for treatment. Methods: 18 patients with superficial metastasis were treated with radionuclide-labeled microsphere ( 90 Y-GTMS and 32 P-GTMS) by multi-point intratumoral injection. Each injection dose was 11.1-18.5 MBq/g (tumor). Results: 1 patient was relieved completely, 9 were relieved partly, 5 were improved and 3 kept stable. The total rate of relief and virtual value were 55.6% and 83.3% respectively. Conclusion: Topical treatment by using radionuclide may help diminish the tumor, control its progress and ease the symptoms. Thus it can be used as a supplement of routine treatment of tumors and it should do some work in therapy of malignant tumors in late stages

  1. Microsphere imaging with confocal microscopy and two photon microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, Hyung Su; An, Kyung Won; Lee, Jai Hyung

    2002-01-01

    We have acquired images of polystyrene and fused-silica microsphere by using conventional optical microscopy, confocal microscopy and two-photon microscopy, and performed comparative analysis of these images. Different from conventional optical microscopy, confocal and two-photon microscopy had good optical sectioning capability. In addition, confocal microscopy and two-photon microscopy had better lateral resolution than conventional optical microscopy. These results are attributed to confocality and nonlinearity of confocal microscopy and two photon microscopy, respectively.

  2. Resin 90Y microsphere activity measurements for liver brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dezarn, William A.; Kennedy, Andrew S.

    2007-01-01

    The measurement of the radioactivity administered to the patient is one of the major components of 90 Y microsphere liver brachytherapy. The activity of 90 Y microspheres in a glass delivery vial was measured in a dose calibrator. The calibration value to use for 90 Y in the dose calibrator was verified using an activity calibration standard provided by the microsphere manufacturer. This method allowed for the determination of a consistent, reproducible local activity standard. Additional measurements were made to determine some of the factors that could affect activity measurement. The axial response of the dose calibrator was determined by the ratio of activity measurements at the bottom and center of the dose calibrator. The axial response was 0.964 for a glass shipping vial, 1.001 for a glass V-vial, and 0.988 for a polycarbonate V-vial. Comparisons between activity measurements in the dose calibrator and those using a radiation survey meter were found to agree within 10%. It was determined that the dose calibrator method was superior to the survey meter method because the former allowed better defined measurement geometry and traceability of the activity standard back to the manufacturer. Part of the preparation of resin 90 Y microspheres for patient delivery is to draw out a predetermined activity from a shipping vial and place it into a V-vial for delivery to the patient. If the drawn activity was placed in a glass V-vial, the activity measured in the dose calibrator with a glass V-vial was 4% higher than the drawn activity from the shipping vial standard. If the drawn activity was placed in a polycarbonate V-vial, the activity measured in the dose calibrator with a polycarbonate V-vial activity was 20% higher than the drawn activity from the shipping vial standard. Careful characterization of the local activity measurement standard is recommended instead of simply accepting the calibration value of the dose calibrator manufacturer

  3. The measurement of radioactive microspheres in biological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mernagh, J.R.; Spiers, E.W.; Adiseshiah, M.

    1976-01-01

    Measurements of the distribution of radioactive microspheres are used in investigations of regional coronary blood flow, but the size and shape of the heart varies for different test animals, and the organ is frequently divided into smaller pieces for studies of regional perfusion. Errors are introduced by variations in the distribution of the radioactive source and the amount of Compton scatter in different samples. A technique has therefore been developed to allow the counting of these tissue samples in their original form, and correction factors have been derived to inter-relate the various counting geometries thus encountered. Dogs were injected with microspheres labelled with 141 Ce, 51 Cr or 85 Sr. The tissue samples did not require remodelling to fit a standard container, and allowance was made for the inhomogeneous distribution in the blood samples. The activities in the centrifuged blood samples were correlated with those from the tissue samples by a calibration procedure involving comparisons of the counts from samples of microspheres embedded in sachets of gelatine, and similar samples mixed with blood and then centrifuged. The calibration data have indicated that 51 Cr behaves anomalously, and its use as a label for microspheres may introduce unwarranted errors. A plane cylindrical 10 x 20 cm NaI detector was used, and a 'worst case' correction of 20% was found to be necessary for geometry effects. The accuracy of this method of correlating different geometries was tested by remodelling the same tissue sample into different sizes and comparing the results, and the validity of the technique was supported by agreement of the final results with previously published data. (U.K.)

  4. Immunomagnetic sulfonated hypercrosslinked polystyrene microspheres for electrochemical detection of proteins

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šálek, Petr; Korecká, L.; Horák, Daniel; Petrovský, Eduard; Kovářová, Jana; Metelka, R.; Čadková, M.; Bílková, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 38 (2011), s. 14783-14792 ISSN 0959-9428 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/09/0857; GA ČR GA203/09/1242 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505; CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : styrene * divinylbenzene * microspheres Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 5.968, year: 2011

  5. Carefully calibrated microsphere embolization of tumors and AVMs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurent, A.; Wassef, M.; Beaujeux, R.; Hodes, J.E.; Gobin, P.Y.; Schenker, C.; Bouchez, B.; Brette, M.D.; Aymard, A.; Cophignon, J.; Merland, J.J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper evaluates the efficacy of a new type of uniformly calibrated microsphere for embolization of various pathologies. Fourteen tumors (five intracranial, eight extracranial, one spine), and seven facial arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) (nose, lip, and scalp) were embolized preoperatively. Angiographic, surgical devascularization, and histologic findings were correlated with the spheres' size. In the second part of the study, spinal cord (n = 22) and intracerbral (n = 14) AVM, Weber-Osler-Rendu disease (n = 2), and epistaxis (n = 1) embolization was angiographically evaluated

  6. Magnetic poly(glycidyl methacrylate) microspheres for protein capture

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koubková, Jana; Müller, P.; Hlídková, Helena; Plichta, Zdeněk; Proks, Vladimír; Vojtěšek, B.; Horák, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 5 (2014), s. 482-491 ISSN 1871-6784 R&D Projects: GA ČR GCP207/12/J013; GA MŠk 7E12053 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 246513 - NADINE Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : glycidyl methacrylate * microspheres * protein p53 Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.898, year: 2014

  7. Porous spherical shells and microspheres by electrodispersion precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, M.T.; Sisson, W.G.; Basaran, O.A.; Hayes, S.M.; Bobrowski, S.J.

    1994-01-01

    The ability to reproduce the synthesis of dense- and porous-microspheres and micron-sized spherical shells is very important in (a) the development of ceramics for structural, electronic, catalyst and thermal applications; and (b) the encapsulation of products for controlled-release of drugs, flavors and perfumes, and inks and dyes, and the protection of light-sensitive components and mechanical support of fragile materials. Larger metallic- and ceramic-spherical shells have been used in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments and as catalyst supports. The current paper will focus on a recent technique that has been developed for synthesizing ceramic microspheres and micro-shells. Pulsed electric fields have been used to enhance the dispersion of aqueous metal (Zr and Al) salt solutions from a nozzle and into a nonconducting liquid continuous phase that is immiscible with the aqueous phase. The diameter of the resulting microdroplets ranged in size from approximately 0.1 to 10 μm. Precipitation of hydrous metal oxides occurred as ammonia, which was dissolved in varying amounts in the continuous phase, diffused into the aqueous microdroplets. Spherical shells were formed at higher ammonia concentrations and microspheres were produced at lower ammonia concentrations. Upon drying, dimples appeared in the particles that were synthesized at higher ammonia concentrations. The latter result accords with the well known fact that under certain conditions spherical shells collapse when a fluid is extracted from the core of the particle. No dimples were observed in the microspheres that were produced at lower ammonia concentrations. Analog X-ray dot maps for aluminum and zirconium were done to determine the spatial distribution of each metal in the particles

  8. Power output and efficiency of beta-emitting microspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheneler, David; Ward, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Current standard methods to calculate the dose of radiation emitted during medical applications by beta-minus emitting microspheres rely on an over-simplistic formalism. This formalism is a function of the average activity of the radioisotope used and the physiological dimensions of the patient only. It neglects the variation in energy of the emitted beta particle due to self-attenuation, or self-absorption, effects related to the finite size of the sphere. Here it is assumed the sphere is comprised of a pure radioisotope with beta particles being emitted isotropically throughout the material. The full initial possible kinetic energy distribution of a beta particle is taken into account as well as the energy losses due to scattering by other atoms in the microsphere and bremsstrahlung radiation. By combining Longmire’s theory of the mean forward range of charged particles and the Rayleigh distribution to take into account the statistical nature of scattering and energy straggling, the linear attenuation, or self-absorption, coefficient for beta-emitting radioisotopes has been deduced. By analogy with gamma radiation transport in spheres, this result was used to calculate the rate of energy emitted by a beta-emitting microsphere and its efficiency. Comparisons to standard point dose kernel formulations generated using Monte Carlo data show the efficacy of the proposed method. Yttrium-90 is used as a specific example throughout, as a medically significant radioisotope, frequently used in radiation therapy for treating cancer. - Highlights: • Range-energy relationship for the beta particles in yttrium-90 is calculated. • Formalism for the semi-analytical calculation of self-absorption coefficients. • Energy-dependent self-absorption coefficient calculated for yttrium-90. • Flux rate of beta particles from a self-attenuating radioactive sphere is shown. • The efficiency of beta particle emitting radioactive microspheres is calculated

  9. Sustained release of simvastatin from hollow carbonated hydroxyapatite microspheres prepared by aspartic acid and sodium dodecyl sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ke; Wang, Yinjing; Zhao, Xu; Li, Yi; Yang, Tao; Zhang, Xue; Wu, Xiaoguang

    2017-06-01

    Hollow carbonated hydroxyapatite (HCHAp) microspheres as simvastatin (SV) sustained-release vehicles were fabricated through a novel and simple one-step biomimetic strategy. Firstly, hollow CaCO 3 microspheres were precipitated through the reaction of CaCl 2 with Na 2 CO 3 in the presence of aspartic acid and sodium dodecyl sulfate. Then, the as-prepared hollow CaCO 3 microspheres were transformed into HCHAp microspheres with a controlled anion-exchange method. The HCHAp microspheres were 3-5μm with a shell thickness of 0.5-1μm and were constructed of short needle nanoparticles. The HCHAp microspheres were then loaded with SV, exhibiting excellent drug-loading capacity and sustained release properties. These results present a new material synthesis strategy for HCHAp microspheres and suggest that the as-prepared HCHAp microspheres are promising for applications in drug delivery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Kefiran-alginate gel microspheres for oral delivery of ciprofloxacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blandón, Lina M; Islan, German A; Castro, Guillermo R; Noseda, Miguel D; Thomaz-Soccol, Vanete; Soccol, Carlos R

    2016-09-01

    Ciprofloxacin is a broad-spectrum antibiotic associated with gastric and intestinal side effects after extended oral administration. Alginate is a biopolymer commonly employed in gel synthesis by ionotropic gelation, but unstable in the presence of biological metal-chelating compounds and/or under dried conditions. Kefiran is a microbial biopolymer able to form gels with the advantage of displaying antimicrobial activity. In the present study, kefiran-alginate gel microspheres were developed to encapsulate ciprofloxacin for antimicrobial controlled release and enhanced bactericidal effect against common pathogens. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis of the hybrid gel microspheres showed a spherical structure with a smoother surface compared to alginate gel matrices. In vitro release of ciprofloxacin from kefiran-alginate microspheres was less than 3.0% and 5.0% at pH 1.2 (stomach), and 5.0% and 25.0% at pH 7.4 (intestine) in 3 and 21h, respectively. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) of ciprofloxacin-kefiran showed the displacement of typical bands of ciprofloxacin and kefiran, suggesting a cooperative interaction by hydrogen bridges between both molecules. Additionally, the thermal analysis of ciprofloxacin-kefiran showed a protective effect of the biopolymer against ciprofloxacin degradation at high temperatures. Finally, antimicrobial assays of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhymurium, and Staphylococcus aureus demonstrated the synergic effect between ciprofloxacin and kefiran against the tested microorganisms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Microspherical polyaniline/graphene nanocomposites for high performance supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hailiang; Zhou, Xufeng; Zhang, Yiming; Chen, Liang; Liu, Zhaoping

    2013-12-01

    Polyaniline/graphene nanocomposites with microspherical morphology and porous structure are prepared as electrode materials for supercapacitors. Using few-layer graphene obtained by liquid phase exfoliation of graphite as the raw material, porous graphene microspheres are produced by spray drying, and are then employed as the substrates for the growth of polyaniline nanowire arrays by in situ polymerization. In the composite, interconnected graphene sheets with few structural defects constitute a high-efficient conductive network to improve the electrical conductivity of polyaniline. Furthermore, the microspherical architecture prevents restacking of polyaniline/graphene composite nanosheets, thus facilitates fast diffusion of electrolytes. Consequently, the nanocomposite exhibits excellent electrochemical performance. A specific capacitance of 338 F g-1 is reached in 1 M H2SO4 at a scan rate of 20 mV s-1, and a high capacity retention rate of 87.4% after 10,000 cycles at a current density of 3 A g-1 can be achieved, which suggests that the polyaniline/graphene composite with such kind of 3D architecture is a promising electrode material for high-performance supercapacitors.

  12. Diclofenac salts, part 6: release from lipid microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fini, Adamo; Cavallari, Cristina; Rabasco Alvarez, Antonio M; Rodriguez, Marisa Gonzalez

    2011-08-01

    The release of diclofenac (20%, w/w) was studied from lipidic solid dispersions using three different chemical forms (acid, sodium salt, and pyrrolidine ethanol salt) and two different lipid carriers (Compritol 888 ATO or Carnauba wax) either free or together with varying amounts (10%-30%, w/w) of stearic acid. Microspheres were prepared by ultrasound-assisted atomization of the molten dispersions and analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and hot stage microscopy. The effects of different formulations on the resulting drug release profiles as a function of pH were studied and the results were discussed. The formulation of the 18 systems and the chemical form of the drug were found to strongly affect the mode of the drug release. The solubility of the chemical forms in the lipid mixture is in the following order: pyrrolidine ethanol salt ≫ acid > sodium salt (according to the solubility parameters), and the nature of the systems thus obtained ranges from a matrix, for mutually soluble drug/carrier pairs, to a microcapsule, for pairs wherein mutual solubility is poor. Drug release from microspheres prepared by pure lipids was primarily controlled by diffusion, whereas the release from microspheres containing stearic acid was diffusion/erosion controlled at pH 7.4. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Multiplex detection of plant pathogens using a microsphere immunoassay technology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratthaphol Charlermroj

    Full Text Available Plant pathogens are a serious problem for seed export, plant disease control and plant quarantine. Rapid and accurate screening tests are urgently required to protect and prevent plant diseases spreading worldwide. A novel multiplex detection method was developed based on microsphere immunoassays to simultaneously detect four important plant pathogens: a fruit blotch bacterium Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli (Aac, chilli vein-banding mottle virus (CVbMV, potyvirus, watermelon silver mottle virus (WSMoV, tospovirus serogroup IV and melon yellow spot virus (MYSV, tospovirus. An antibody for each plant pathogen was linked on a fluorescence-coded magnetic microsphere set which was used to capture corresponding pathogen. The presence of pathogens was detected by R-phycoerythrin (RPE-labeled antibodies specific to the pathogens. The assay conditions were optimized by identifying appropriate antibody pairs, blocking buffer, concentration of RPE-labeled antibodies and assay time. Once conditions were optimized, the assay was able to detect all four plant pathogens precisely and accurately with substantially higher sensitivity than enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA when spiked in buffer and in healthy watermelon leaf extract. The assay time of the microsphere immunoassay (1 hour was much shorter than that of ELISA (4 hours. This system was also shown to be capable of detecting the pathogens in naturally infected plant samples and is a major advancement in plant pathogen detection.

  14. Multiplex detection of plant pathogens using a microsphere immunoassay technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlermroj, Ratthaphol; Himananto, Orawan; Seepiban, Channarong; Kumpoosiri, Mallika; Warin, Nuchnard; Oplatowska, Michalina; Gajanandana, Oraprapai; Grant, Irene R; Karoonuthaisiri, Nitsara; Elliott, Christopher T

    2013-01-01

    Plant pathogens are a serious problem for seed export, plant disease control and plant quarantine. Rapid and accurate screening tests are urgently required to protect and prevent plant diseases spreading worldwide. A novel multiplex detection method was developed based on microsphere immunoassays to simultaneously detect four important plant pathogens: a fruit blotch bacterium Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli (Aac), chilli vein-banding mottle virus (CVbMV, potyvirus), watermelon silver mottle virus (WSMoV, tospovirus serogroup IV) and melon yellow spot virus (MYSV, tospovirus). An antibody for each plant pathogen was linked on a fluorescence-coded magnetic microsphere set which was used to capture corresponding pathogen. The presence of pathogens was detected by R-phycoerythrin (RPE)-labeled antibodies specific to the pathogens. The assay conditions were optimized by identifying appropriate antibody pairs, blocking buffer, concentration of RPE-labeled antibodies and assay time. Once conditions were optimized, the assay was able to detect all four plant pathogens precisely and accurately with substantially higher sensitivity than enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) when spiked in buffer and in healthy watermelon leaf extract. The assay time of the microsphere immunoassay (1 hour) was much shorter than that of ELISA (4 hours). This system was also shown to be capable of detecting the pathogens in naturally infected plant samples and is a major advancement in plant pathogen detection.

  15. Modified microspheres for cleaning liquid wastes from radioactive nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danilin, Lev; Drozhzhin, Valery

    2007-01-01

    An effective solution of nuclear industry problems related to deactivation of technological and natural waters polluted with toxic and radioactive elements is the development of inorganic sorbents capable of not only withdrawing radioactive nuclides, but also of providing their subsequent conservation under conditions of long-term storage. A successful technical approach to creation of sorbents can be the use of hollow aluminosilicate microspheres. Such microspheres are formed from mineral additives during coal burning in furnaces of boiler units of electric power stations. Despite some reduction in exchange capacity per a mass unit of sorbents the latter have high kinetic characteristics that makes it possible to carry out the sorption process both in static and dynamic modes. Taking into account large industrial resources of microspheres as by-products of electric power stations, a comparative simplicity of the modification process, as well as good kinetic and capacitor characteristics, this class of sorbents can be considered promising enough for solving the problems of cleaning liquid radioactive wastes of various pollution levels. (authors)

  16. Quality Assurance Issues for Therapeutic Application of Radioactive Microspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dezarn, William A.

    2008-01-01

    The use of radioactive microspheres for the treatment of hepatic cancer is a procedure that raises unique quality assurance (QA) concerns. The greatest of these concerns is the coordination of the responsibilities among the medical team members from interventional radiology, radiation oncology, nuclear medicine, and medical physics. A single QA practice and procedure guidance document does not currently exist that addresses the range of issues of concern for radioactive microspheres. A small sampling of QA issues of concern include imaging QA, procedure-specific imaging protocols, detector calibration, activity measurement, radiation safety, patient dose calculations, and patient-specific QA. Some of the items listed have historically been the responsibility of a single team member, and other items have been concerns for all. A procedural overview of the therapeutic application of radioactive microspheres is presented to illustrate the broad, team-based QA approach necessary to safely and effectively deliver this type of treatment. From this overview, the reader will be able to customize the local QA protocol to meet the local division of responsibilities

  17. Recent progress on the fabrication of hollow microspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Aijuan; Lu Yupeng; Sun Ruixue

    2007-01-01

    Hollow microspheres represent a special class of materials, on which intense interest has been paid in the fields of material science, medicine, chemistry and chromatography. Several methods, including templating method, emulsion processing, high temperature smelting and layer-by-layer self-assembly technique, have been used to produce this kind of materials. However, most of the current needs for hollow microspheres are limited because of the disadvantages of these fabricating methods, such as time-consuming and relatively complex fabricating process. Spray drying method, as a simple and feasible technology, has also been used to fabricate this kind of materials. This method can improve the efficiency and save the time to some extent, and thus gains more and more interest recently. The factors of influencing the product morphology, including inlet air temperature, atomized pressure, feed rate, initial slurry concentration, primary powders size and additives, are reviewed in this paper. In addition, several kinds of typical hollow microspheres fabricated by this method are also listed particularly

  18. Magnetic microspheres as magical novel drug delivery system: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satinder Kakar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic microspheres hold great promise for reaching the goal of controlled and site specific drug delivery. Magnetic microspheres as an alternative to traditional radiation methods which uses highly penetrating radiations that is absorbed throughout the body. Its use is limited by toxicity and side effects. Now days, several targeted treatment systems including magnetic field, electric field, ultrasound, temperature, UV light and mechanical force are being used in many disease treatments (e.g. cancer, nerve damage, heart and artery, anti-diabetic, eye and other medical treatments. Among them, the magnetic targeted drug delivery system is one of the most attractive and promising strategy for delivering the drug to the specified site. Magnetically controlled drug targeting is one of the various possible ways of drug targeting. This technology is based on binding establish anticancer drug with ferrofluid that concentrate the drug in the area of interest (tumor site by means of magnetic fields. There has been keen interest in the development of a magnetically target drug delivery system. These drug delivery systems aim to deliver the drug at a rate directed by the needs of the body during the period of treatment, and target the activity entity to the site of action. Magnetic microspheres were developed to overcome two major problems encountered in drug targeting namely: RES clearance and target site specificity.

  19. Loops in hierarchical channel networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katifori, Eleni; Magnasco, Marcelo

    2012-02-01

    Nature provides us with many examples of planar distribution and structural networks having dense sets of closed loops. An archetype of this form of network organization is the vasculature of dicotyledonous leaves, which showcases a hierarchically-nested architecture. Although a number of methods have been proposed to measure aspects of the structure of such networks, a robust metric to quantify their hierarchical organization is still lacking. We present an algorithmic framework that allows mapping loopy networks to binary trees, preserving in the connectivity of the trees the architecture of the original graph. We apply this framework to investigate computer generated and natural graphs extracted from digitized images of dicotyledonous leaves and animal vasculature. We calculate various metrics on the corresponding trees and discuss the relationship of these quantities to the architectural organization of the original graphs. This algorithmic framework decouples the geometric information from the metric topology (connectivity and edge weight) and it ultimately allows us to perform a quantitative statistical comparison between predictions of theoretical models and naturally occurring loopy graphs.

  20. Hierarchically nested river landform sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasternack, G. B.; Weber, M. D.; Brown, R. A.; Baig, D.

    2017-12-01

    River corridors exhibit landforms nested within landforms repeatedly down spatial scales. In this study we developed, tested, and implemented a new way to create river classifications by mapping domains of fluvial processes with respect to the hierarchical organization of topographic complexity that drives fluvial dynamism. We tested this approach on flow convergence routing, a morphodynamic mechanism with different states depending on the structure of nondimensional topographic variability. Five nondimensional landform types with unique functionality (nozzle, wide bar, normal channel, constricted pool, and oversized) represent this process at any flow. When this typology is nested at base flow, bankfull, and floodprone scales it creates a system with up to 125 functional types. This shows how a single mechanism produces complex dynamism via nesting. Given the classification, we answered nine specific scientific questions to investigate the abundance, sequencing, and hierarchical nesting of these new landform types using a 35-km gravel/cobble river segment of the Yuba River in California. The nested structure of flow convergence routing landforms found in this study revealed that bankfull landforms are nested within specific floodprone valley landform types, and these types control bankfull morphodynamics during moderate to large floods. As a result, this study calls into question the prevailing theory that the bankfull channel of a gravel/cobble river is controlled by in-channel, bankfull, and/or small flood flows. Such flows are too small to initiate widespread sediment transport in a gravel/cobble river with topographic complexity.

  1. Stability of glassy hierarchical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, M.; Camargo-Forero, L.; Vicsek, T.

    2018-02-01

    The structure of interactions in most animal and human societies can be best represented by complex hierarchical networks. In order to maintain close-to-optimal function both stability and adaptability are necessary. Here we investigate the stability of hierarchical networks that emerge from the simulations of an organization type with an efficiency function reminiscent of the Hamiltonian of spin glasses. Using this quantitative approach we find a number of expected (from everyday observations) and highly non-trivial results for the obtained locally optimal networks, including, for example: (i) stability increases with growing efficiency and level of hierarchy; (ii) the same perturbation results in a larger change for more efficient states; (iii) networks with a lower level of hierarchy become more efficient after perturbation; (iv) due to the huge number of possible optimal states only a small fraction of them exhibit resilience and, finally, (v) ‘attacks’ targeting the nodes selectively (regarding their position in the hierarchy) can result in paradoxical outcomes.

  2. Hierarchical modeling of active materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taya, Minoru

    2003-01-01

    Intelligent (or smart) materials are increasingly becoming key materials for use in actuators and sensors. If an intelligent material is used as a sensor, it can be embedded in a variety of structure functioning as a health monitoring system to make their life longer with high reliability. If an intelligent material is used as an active material in an actuator, it plays a key role of making dynamic movement of the actuator under a set of stimuli. This talk intends to cover two different active materials in actuators, (1) piezoelectric laminate with FGM microstructure, (2) ferromagnetic shape memory alloy (FSMA). The advantage of using the FGM piezo laminate is to enhance its fatigue life while maintaining large bending displacement, while that of use in FSMA is its fast actuation while providing a large force and stroke capability. Use of hierarchical modeling of the above active materials is a key design step in optimizing its microstructure for enhancement of their performance. I will discuss briefly hierarchical modeling of the above two active materials. For FGM piezo laminate, we will use both micromechanical model and laminate theory, while for FSMA, the modeling interfacing nano-structure, microstructure and macro-behavior is discussed. (author)

  3. Hierarchical organisation of causal graphs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dziopa, P.

    1993-01-01

    This paper deals with the design of a supervision system using a hierarchy of models formed by graphs, in which the variables are the nodes and the causal relations between the variables of the arcs. To obtain a representation of the variables evolutions which contains only the relevant features of their real evolutions, the causal relations are completed with qualitative transfer functions (QTFs) which produce roughly the behaviour of the classical transfer functions. Major improvements have been made in the building of the hierarchical organization. First, the basic variables of the uppermost level and the causal relations between them are chosen. The next graph is built by adding intermediary variables to the upper graph. When the undermost graph has been built, the transfer functions parameters corresponding to its causal relations are identified. The second task consists in the upwelling of the information from the undermost graph to the uppermost one. A fusion procedure of the causal relations has been designed to compute the QFTs relevant for each level. This procedure aims to reduce the number of parameters needed to represent an evolution at a high level of abstraction. These techniques have been applied to the hierarchical modelling of nuclear process. (authors). 8 refs., 12 figs

  4. Polymer-coated albumin microspheres as carriers for intravascular tumour targeting of cisplatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrijk, R; Smolders, I J; McVie, J G; Begg, A C

    1991-01-01

    We used a poly-lactide-co-glycolide polymer (PLAGA 50:50) to formulate cisplatin (cDDP) into microspheres designed for intravascular administration. Two systems were developed. PLAGA-coated albumin microspheres and microspheres consisting of PLAGA only. PLAGA-coated microspheres displayed a mean diameter of 31.8 +/- 0.9 microns and a payload of 7.5% cDDP (w/w). Solid PLAGA microspheres exhibited a mean diameter of 19.4 +/- 0.6 microns and a payload of 20% cDDP. Release characteristics and in vitro effects on L1210 leukemia and B16 melanoma cell lines were investigated. Both types of microsphere overcame the initial rapid release of cDDP (burst effect), and PLAGA-coated albumin microspheres also showed a lag phase of approximately 30 min before cDDP release began. PLAGA-coated albumin microspheres released most of their payload through diffusion, and the coating eventually cracked after 7 days' incubation in saline supplemented with 0.1% Tween at 37 degrees C, enabling the release of any cDDP remaining. Effects of platinum, pre-released from PLAGA-coated albumin microspheres on the in vitro growth of L1210 cells were comparable with those of standard formulations (dissolved) of cDDP. Material released from non-drug-loaded PLAGA microspheres had no effect on L1210 cell growth, suggesting the absence of cytotoxic compounds in the matrix. The colony-forming ability of B16 cells was also equally inhibited by standard cDDP and pre-released drug. These studies show that formulation of cDDP in PLAGA-based microspheres prevents the rapid burst effect of cDDP seen in previous preparations and offers an improved system of administration for hepatic artery infusion or adjuvant therapy, enabling better clinical handling and the promise of a higher ratio of tumour tissue to normal tissue.

  5. Preparation of magnetic polylactic acid microspheres and investigation of its releasing property for loading curcumin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Fengxia [Heilongjiang Key Laboratory of Molecular Design and Preparation of Flame Retarded Materials, College of Science, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040 (China); Li Xiaoli, E-mail: lixiaoli0903@163.com [Heilongjiang Key Laboratory of Molecular Design and Preparation of Flame Retarded Materials, College of Science, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040 (China); Li Bin, E-mail: libinzh62@163.com [Heilongjiang Key Laboratory of Molecular Design and Preparation of Flame Retarded Materials, College of Science, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040 (China)

    2011-11-15

    In order to obtain a targeting drug carrier system, magnetic polylactic acid (PLA) microspheres loading curcumin were synthesized by the classical oil-in-water emulsion solvent-evaporation method. In the Fourier transform infrared spectra of microspheres, the present functional groups of PLA were all kept invariably. The morphology and size distribution of magnetic microspheres were observed with scanning electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering, respectively. The results showed that the microspheres were regularly spherical and the surface was smooth with a diameter of 0.55-0.75 {mu}m. Magnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} was loaded in PLA microspheres and the content of magnetic particles was 12 wt% through thermogravimetric analysis. The magnetic property of prepared microspheres was measured by vibrating sample magnetometer. The results showed that the magnetic microspheres exhibited typical superparamagnetic behavior and the saturated magnetization was 14.38 emu/g. Through analysis of differential scanning calorimetry, the curcumin was in an amorphous state in the magnetic microspheres. The drug loading, encapsulation efficiency and releasing properties of curcumin in vitro were also investigated by ultraviolet-visible spectrum analysis. The results showed that the drug loading and encapsulation efficiency were 8.0% and 24.2%, respectively. And curcumin was obviously slowly released because the cumulative release percentage of magnetic microspheres in the phosphate buffer (pH=7.4) solution was only 49.01% in 72 h, and the basic release of curcumin finished in 120 h. - Highlights: > We prepare magnetic polylactic acid microspheres loading curcumin. > The classical oil-in-water emulsion solvent-evaporation method is used. > The magnetic microspheres are regularly spherical with a diameter of 0.55-0.75 {mu}m. > They show a certain sustained release effect on in vitro drug releasing.

  6. Mobilization of microspheres from a fractured soil during intermittent infiltration events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Sanjay; Bulicek, Mark; Metge, David W.; Harvey, Ronald W.; Ryan, Joseph N.; Boehm, Alexandria B.

    2015-01-01

    Pathogens or biocolloids mobilized in the vadose zone may consequently contaminate groundwater. We found that microspheres were mobilized from a fractured soil during intermittent rainfall and the mobilization was greater when the microsphere size was larger and when the soil had greater water permeability.The vadose zone filters pathogenic microbes from infiltrating water and consequently protects the groundwater from possible contamination. In some cases, however, the deposited microbes may be mobilized during rainfall and migrate into the groundwater. We examined the mobilization of microspheres, surrogates for microbes, in an intact core of a fractured soil by intermittent simulated rainfall. Fluorescent polystyrene microspheres of two sizes (0.5 and 1.8 mm) and Br− were first applied to the core to deposit the microspheres, and then the core was subjected to three intermittent infiltration events to mobilize the deposited microspheres. Collecting effluent samples through a 19-port sampler at the base of the core, we found that water flowed through only five ports, and the flow rates varied among the ports by a factor of 12. These results suggest that flow paths leading to the ports had different permeabilities, partly due to macropores. Although 40 to 69% of injected microspheres were retained in the core during their application, 12 to 30% of the retained microspheres were mobilized during three intermittent infiltration events. The extent of microsphere mobilization was greater in flow paths with greater permeability, which indicates that macropores could enhance colloid mobilization during intermittent infiltration events. In all ports, the 1.8-mm microspheres were mobilized to a greater extent than the 0.5-mm microspheres, suggesting that larger colloids are more likely to mobilize. These results are useful in assessing the potential of pathogen mobilization and colloid-facilitated transport of contaminants in the subsurface under natural infiltration

  7. Preparation of magnetic polylactic acid microspheres and investigation of its releasing property for loading curcumin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Fengxia; Li Xiaoli; Li Bin

    2011-01-01

    In order to obtain a targeting drug carrier system, magnetic polylactic acid (PLA) microspheres loading curcumin were synthesized by the classical oil-in-water emulsion solvent-evaporation method. In the Fourier transform infrared spectra of microspheres, the present functional groups of PLA were all kept invariably. The morphology and size distribution of magnetic microspheres were observed with scanning electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering, respectively. The results showed that the microspheres were regularly spherical and the surface was smooth with a diameter of 0.55-0.75 μm. Magnetic Fe 3 O 4 was loaded in PLA microspheres and the content of magnetic particles was 12 wt% through thermogravimetric analysis. The magnetic property of prepared microspheres was measured by vibrating sample magnetometer. The results showed that the magnetic microspheres exhibited typical superparamagnetic behavior and the saturated magnetization was 14.38 emu/g. Through analysis of differential scanning calorimetry, the curcumin was in an amorphous state in the magnetic microspheres. The drug loading, encapsulation efficiency and releasing properties of curcumin in vitro were also investigated by ultraviolet-visible spectrum analysis. The results showed that the drug loading and encapsulation efficiency were 8.0% and 24.2%, respectively. And curcumin was obviously slowly released because the cumulative release percentage of magnetic microspheres in the phosphate buffer (pH=7.4) solution was only 49.01% in 72 h, and the basic release of curcumin finished in 120 h. - Highlights: → We prepare magnetic polylactic acid microspheres loading curcumin. → The classical oil-in-water emulsion solvent-evaporation method is used. → The magnetic microspheres are regularly spherical with a diameter of 0.55-0.75 μm. → They show a certain sustained release effect on in vitro drug releasing.

  8. Highly sensitive analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in environmental water with porous cellulose/zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 composite microspheres as a novel adsorbent coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xiaotong; Liu, Shengquan; Zhu, Rong; Xiao, Lixia; Yao, Shouzhuo

    2016-07-01

    In this work, novel cellulose/zeolitic imidazolate frameworks-8 composite microspheres have been successfully fabricated and utilized as sorbent for environmental polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons efficient extraction and sensitive analysis. The composite microspheres were synthesized through the in situ hydrothermal growth of zeolitic imidazolate frameworks-8 on cellulose matrix, and exhibited favorable hierarchical structure with chemical composition as assumed through scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction patterns, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface areas characterization. A robust and highly efficient method was then successfully developed with as-prepared composite microspheres as novel solid-phase extraction sorbent with optimum extraction conditions, such as sorbent amount, sample volume, extraction time, desorption conditions, volume of organic modifier, and ionic strength. The method exhibited high sensitivity with low limit of detection down to 0.1-1.0 ng/L and satisfactory linearity with correlation coefficients ranging from 0.9988 to 0.9999, as well as good recoveries of 66.7-121.2% with relative standard deviations less than 10% for environmental polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons analysis. Thus, our method was convenient and efficient for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons extraction and detection, potential for future environmental water samples analysis. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Synthesis of plastic scintillation microspheres: Evaluation of scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santiago, L.M.; Bagán, H.; Tarancón, A.; Garcia, J.F.

    2013-01-01

    The use of plastic scintillation microspheres (PSm) appear to be an alternative to liquid scintillation for the quantification of alpha and beta emitters because it does not generate mixed wastes after the measurement (organic and radioactive). In addition to routine radionuclide determinations, PSm can be used for further applications, e.g. for usage in a continuous monitoring equipment, for measurements of samples with a high salt concentration and for an extractive scintillation support which permits the separation, pre-concentration and measurement of the radionuclides without additional steps of elution and sample preparation. However, only a few manufacturers provide PSm, and the low number of regular suppliers reduces its availability and restricts the compositions and sizes available. In this article, a synthesis method based on the extraction/evaporation methodology has been developed and successfully used for the synthesis of plastic scintillation microspheres. Seven different compositions of plastic scintillation microspheres have been synthesised; PSm1 with polystyrene, PSm2 with 2,5-Diphenyloxazol(PPO), PSm3 with p-terphenyl (pT), PSm4 with PPO and 1,4-bis(5-phenyloxazol-2-yl) (POPOP), PSm5 pT and (1,4-bis [2-methylstyryl] benzene) (Bis-MSB), PSm6 with PPO, POPOP and naphthalene and PSm7 with pT, Bis-MSB and naphthalene. The synthesised plastic scintillation microspheres have been characterised in terms of their morphology, detection capabilities and alpha/beta separation capacity. The microspheres had a median diameter of approximately 130 μm. Maximum detection efficiency values were obtained for the PSm4 composition as follows 1.18% for 3 H, 51.2% for 14 C, 180.6% for 90 Sr/ 90 Y and 76.7% for 241 Am. Values of the SQP(E) parameter were approximately 790 for PSm4 and PSm5. These values show that the synthesised PSm exhibit good scintillation properties and that the spectra are at channel numbers higher than in commercial PSm. Finally, the addition

  10. The influence of increased cross-linker chain length in thermosensitive microspheres on potential sun-protection activity

    OpenAIRE

    Musiał, Witold; Kokol, Vanja; Vončina, Bojana

    2012-01-01

    The sun protection should involve substances with protecting activity against both UVB and UVA radiation. In this research the evaluation of thermosensitive microspheres as potential molecules for sunscreen formulations was approached, using modified Boots star rating system. The microspheres, thermosensitive N-isopropylacrylamide derivatives, have potential protecting activity against UV radiation. The MX and DX microspheres, with ethylene glycol dimethacrylate and diethylene glycol dimethac...

  11. Potassium vapor assisted preparation of highly graphitized hierarchical porous carbon for high rate performance supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zheng; Zeng, Ying; Tang, Qunli; Hu, Aiping; Xiao, Kuikui; Zhang, Shiying; Deng, Weina; Fan, Binbin; Zhu, Yanfei; Chen, Xiaohua

    2017-09-01

    Ultrahigh graphitized carbon microspheres with rich hierarchical pores (AGHPCM-1) have been successfully synthesized through the one-step activation-carbonization strategy (OACS) with porous sulfonated poly-divinylbenzene as the carbon precursor, iron as the hard template and catalyst, and potassium hydroxide (KOH) as activation agent. Through the XRD, TEM, Raman and BET analysis, AGHPCM-1 shows very high graphitization degree and rich micro-, meso- and macro-pores. More importantly, the mechanism for KOH to improve the graphitization degree of carbon materials in OACS has been illustrated by the thermodynamical theory. The tremendous heat releasing from the reaction between the catalyst precursor of Fe2O3 and potassium vapor plays a key role in the formation of graphitized carbon. It may provide a general direction to prepare highly graphitized porous carbon at a moderate temperature. Integrating the advantages of high graphitization degree and rich hierarchical porous structure, the AGHPCM-1 exhibits an excellent rate performance with a response to up to the high current density of 150 A g-1 and high scan rate of 2000 mV s-1. No obvious capacitance decay can be observed after 10000 charge/discharge cycles even at the high current density of 20 A g-1.

  12. Cellulose acetate-based SiO2/TiO2 hybrid microsphere composite aerogel films for water-in-oil emulsion separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xue; Ma, Jianjun; Ling, Jing; Li, Na; Wang, Di; Yue, Fan; Xu, Shimei

    2018-03-01

    The cellulose acetate (CA)/SiO2-TiO2 hybrid microsphere composite aerogel films were successfully fabricated via water vapor-induced phase inversion of CA solution and simultaneous hydrolysis/condensation of 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APTMS) and tetrabutyl titanate (TBT) at room temperature. Micro-nano hierarchical structure was constructed on the surface of the film. The film could separate nano-sized surfactant-stabilized water-in-oil emulsions only under gravity. The flux of the film for the emulsion separation was up to 667 L m-2 h-1, while the separation efficiency was up to 99.99 wt%. Meanwhile, the film exhibited excellent stability during multiple cycles. Moreover, the film performed excellent photo-degradation performance under UV light due to the photocatalytic ability of TiO2. Facile preparation, good separation and potential biodegradation maked the CA/SiO2-TiO2 hybrid microsphere composite aerogel films a candidate in oil/water separation application.

  13. Self-Assembly of Antisite Defectless nano-LiFePO4 @C/Reduced Graphene Oxide Microspheres for High-Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongbin; Liu, Lijia; Wang, Runwei; Yan, Xiao; Wang, Ziqi; Hu, Jiangtao; Chen, Haibiao; Jiang, Shang; Ni, Ling; Qiu, Hailong; Tang, Haitong; Wei, Yingjin; Zhang, Zongtao; Qiu, Shilun; Pan, Feng

    2018-05-18

    LiFePO 4 @C/reduced graphene oxide (rGO) hierarchical microspheres with superior electrochemical activity and a high tap density were first synthesized by using a Fe 3+ -based single inorganic precursor (LiFePO 4 OH@RF/GO; RF=resorcinol-formaldehyde, GO=graphene oxide) obtained from a template-free self-assembly synthesis followed by direct calcination. The synthetic process requires no physical mixing step. The phase transformation pathway from tavorite LiFePO 4 OH to olivine LiFePO 4 upon calcination was determined by means of the in situ high-temperature XRD technique. Benefitting from the unique structure of the material, these microspheres can be densely packed together, giving a high tap density of 1.3 g cm -3 , and simultaneously, defectless LiFePO 4 primary nanocrystals modified with a highly conductive surface carbon layer and ultrathin rGO provide good electronic and ionic kinetics for fast electron/Li + ion transport. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Uniform Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} microflowers hierarchical structures assembled with porous nanoplates as superior anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiaoliang [Institute of Electrostatic & Electromagnetic Protection, Mechanical Engineering College, Shijiazhuang 050003 (China); Liu, Yanguo [School of Resources and Materials, Northeastern University at Qinhuangdao, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Arandiyan, Hamidreza [Particles and Catalysis Research Group, School of Chemical Engineering, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales 2052 (Australia); Yang, Hongping; Bai, Lu; Mujtaba, Jawayria [Beijing National Center for Electron Microscopy, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Wang, Qingguo; Liu, Shanghe [Institute of Electrostatic & Electromagnetic Protection, Mechanical Engineering College, Shijiazhuang 050003 (China); Sun, Hongyu, E-mail: hyltsun@gmail.com [Beijing National Center for Electron Microscopy, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Department of Micro- and Nanotechnology, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • Uniform Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} microflowers hierarchical structures were successfully prepared. • The Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} microflowers are assembled with porous nanoplates. • Hollow Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} microspheres exhibit better lithium storage properties than Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} microspheres. • The good lithium storage properties are attributed to the special structural nature. - Abstract: Uniform Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} microflowers assembled with porous nanoplates were successfully synthesized by a solvothermal method and subsequent annealing process. The structural and compositional analysis of the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} microflowers were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The Bruauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) specific surface area was calculated by the nitrogen isotherm curve and pore size distribution of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} microflowers was determined by the Barret–Joyner–Halenda (BJH) method. When evaluated as anode material for lithium-ion batteries, the as-prepared Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} microflowers electrodes delivered superior capacity, better cycling stability and rate capability than that of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} microspheres electrodes. The improved electrochemical performance was attributed to the microscale flowerlike architecture and the porous sheet structural nature.

  15. Multicollinearity in hierarchical linear models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Han; Jiang, Shanhe; Land, Kenneth C

    2015-09-01

    This study investigates an ill-posed problem (multicollinearity) in Hierarchical Linear Models from both the data and the model perspectives. We propose an intuitive, effective approach to diagnosing the presence of multicollinearity and its remedies in this class of models. A simulation study demonstrates the impacts of multicollinearity on coefficient estimates, associated standard errors, and variance components at various levels of multicollinearity for finite sample sizes typical in social science studies. We further investigate the role multicollinearity plays at each level for estimation of coefficient parameters in terms of shrinkage. Based on these analyses, we recommend a top-down method for assessing multicollinearity in HLMs that first examines the contextual predictors (Level-2 in a two-level model) and then the individual predictors (Level-1) and uses the results for data collection, research problem redefinition, model re-specification, variable selection and estimation of a final model. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Distributed hierarchical radiation monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barak, D.

    1985-01-01

    A solution to the problem of monitoring the radiation levels in and around a nuclear facility is presented in this paper. This is a private case of a large scale general purpose data acqisition system with high reliability, availability and short maintenance time. The physical layout of the detectors in the plant, and the strict control demands dictated a distributed and hierarchical system. The system is comprised of three levels, each level contains modules. Level one contains the Control modules which collects data from groups of detectors and executes emergency local control tasks. In level two are the Group controllers which concentrate data from the Control modules, and enable local display and communication. The system computer is in level three, enabling the plant operator to receive information from the detectors and execute control tasks. The described system was built and is operating successfully for about two years. (author)

  17. Hierarchical Control for Smart Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trangbæk, K; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    of autonomous consumers. The control system is tasked with balancing electric power production and consumption within the smart grid, and makes active use of the flexibility of a large number of power producing and/or power consuming units. The objective is to accommodate the load variation on the grid, arising......This paper deals with hierarchical model predictive control (MPC) of smart grid systems. The design consists of a high level MPC controller, a second level of so-called aggregators, which reduces the computational and communication-related load on the high-level control, and a lower level...... on one hand from varying consumption, and on the other hand by natural variations in power production e.g. from wind turbines. The high-level MPC problem is solved using quadratic optimisation, while the aggregator level can either involve quadratic optimisation or simple sorting-based min-max solutions...

  18. Silver Films with Hierarchical Chirality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Liguo; Cao, Yuanyuan; Duan, Yingying; Han, Lu; Che, Shunai

    2017-07-17

    Physical fabrication of chiral metallic films usually results in singular or large-sized chirality, restricting the optical asymmetric responses to long electromagnetic wavelengths. The chiral molecule-induced formation of silver films prepared chemically on a copper substrate through a redox reaction is presented. Three levels of chirality were identified: primary twisted nanoflakes with atomic crystal lattices, secondary helical stacking of these nanoflakes to form nanoplates, and tertiary micrometer-sized circinates consisting of chiral arranged nanoplates. The chiral Ag films exhibited multiple plasmonic absorption- and scattering-based optical activities at UV/Vis wavelengths based on their hierarchical chirality. The Ag films showed chiral selectivity for amino acids in catalytic electrochemical reactions, which originated from their primary atomic crystal lattices. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Hierarchical coarse-graining transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancaldi, Vera; King, Peter R; Christensen, Kim

    2009-03-01

    We present a hierarchical transform that can be applied to Laplace-like differential equations such as Darcy's equation for single-phase flow in a porous medium. A finite-difference discretization scheme is used to set the equation in the form of an eigenvalue problem. Within the formalism suggested, the pressure field is decomposed into an average value and fluctuations of different kinds and at different scales. The application of the transform to the equation allows us to calculate the unknown pressure with a varying level of detail. A procedure is suggested to localize important features in the pressure field based only on the fine-scale permeability, and hence we develop a form of adaptive coarse graining. The formalism and method are described and demonstrated using two synthetic toy problems.

  20. Photocatalytic activities of heterostructured TiO2-graphene porous microspheres prepared by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jikai; Zhang, Xintong; Li, Bing; Liu, Hong; Sun, Panpan; Wang, Changhua; Wang, Lingling; Liu, Yichun

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • USP method is used to prepare TiO 2 -graphene porous microspheres. • XPS shows GO sheets in the composites has been reduced to graphene. • TiO 2 -graphene microspheres display a red-shifted absorption edge. • PL spectra indicate graphene can accept the photoexcited electrons from TiO 2 . • TiO 2 -graphene shows higher photocatalytic activity than TiO 2 under solar light. -- Abstract: TiO 2 -graphene porous microspheres were prepared by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis (USP) of aqueous suspension of graphene oxide containing TiO 2 nanoparticles (Degussa P25). The composite microspheres were characterized with SEM, XPS, photoluminescence, Raman and UV–Vis absorption spectra. TiO 2 -graphene porous microspheres displayed higher photocatalytic activity for the degradation of methylene blue solution than pristine TiO 2 microspheres under the irradiation of Xe lamp, and the highest activity was obtained at a weight percentage of graphene around 1%. The effect of graphene on photocatalytic activity of porous microsphere was discussed in terms of the enhanced charge separation by TiO 2 -graphene heterojunction, increased absorption of the visible light, as well as the possible hindrance of mass transportation in microspheres

  1. Dual Drug Loaded Biodegradable Nanofibrous Microsphere for Improving Anti-Colon Cancer Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Rangrang; Li, Xiaoling; Deng, Jiaojiao; Gao, Xiang; Zhou, Liangxue; Zheng, Yu; Tong, Aiping; Zhang, Xiaoning; You, Chao; Guo, Gang

    2016-06-01

    One of the approaches being explored to increase antitumor activity of chemotherapeutics is to inject drug-loaded microspheres locally to specific anatomic sites, providing for a slow, long term release of a chemotherapeutic while minimizing systemic exposure. However, the used clinically drug carriers available at present have limitations, such as their low stability, renal clearance and residual surfactant. Here, we report docetaxel (DOC) and curcumin (CUR) loaded nanofibrous microspheres (DOC + CUR/nanofibrous microspheres), self-assembled from biodegradable PLA-PEO-PPO-PEO-PLA polymers as an injectable drug carrier without adding surfactant during the emulsification process. The obtained nanofibrous microspheres are composed entirely of nanofibers and have an open hole on the shell without the assistance of a template. It was shown that these DOC + CUR/nanofibrous microspheres could release curcumin and docetaxel slowly in vitro. The slow, sustained release of curcumin and docetaxel in vivo may help maintain local concentrations of active drug. The mechanism by which DOC + CUR/nanofibrous microspheres inhibit colorectal peritoneal carcinomatosis might involve increased induction of apoptosis in tumor cells and inhibition of tumor angiogenesis. In vitro and in vivo evaluations demonstrated efficacious synergistic antitumor effects against CT26 of curcumin and docetaxel combined nanofibrous microspheres. In conclusion, the dual drug loaded nanofibrous microspheres were considered potentially useful for treating abdominal metastases of colorectal cancer.

  2. Carbidopa/levodopa-loaded biodegradable microspheres: in vivo evaluation on experimental Parkinsonism in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arica, Betül; Kaş, H Süheyla; Moghdam, Amir; Akalan, Nejat; Hincal, A Atilla

    2005-02-16

    The purpose of this study was to prepare and characterize injectable carbidopa (CD)/levodopa (LD)-loaded Poly(L-lactides) (L-PLA), Poly(D,L-lactides) (D,L-PLA) and Poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLAGA) microspheres for the intracerebral treatment of Parkinson's disease. The microspheres were prepared by solvent evaporation method. The polymers' (L-PLA, D,L-PLA and PLAGA) concentrations were 10% (w/w) in the organic phase; the emulsifiers [sodium carboxymethylcellulose (NaCMC):sodium oleate (SO) and Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA):SO mixture (4:1 w/v)] concentrations were 0.75% in the aqueous phase. Microspheres were analyzed for morphological characteristics, size distribution, drug loading and in vitro release. The release profile of CD/LD from microspheres was characterized in the range of 12-35% within the first hour of the in vitro release experiment. The efficiency of CD- and LD-encapsulated microspheres to striatal transplantation and the altering of apomorphine-induced rotational behavior in the 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) unilaterally lesioned rat model were also tested. 6-OHDA/CD-LD-loaded microsphere groups exhibited lower rotation scores than 6-OHDA/Blank microsphere groups as early as 1 week postlesion. These benefits continued throughout the entire experimental period and they were statistically significant during the 1, 2 and 8 weeks (p<0.05). CD/LD-loaded microspheres were specifically prepared to apply as an injectable dosage forms for brain implantation.

  3. Influence of polymeric microspheres on the myocardial oxygen partial pressure in the beating heart of pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiebl, B; Mrowietz, C; Lee, S; Braune, S; Knaut, M; Lendlein, A; Franke, R P; Jung, F

    2011-07-01

    Injection of labeled microspheres is an established method in animal models to analyze the capillary organ blood flow at different time points. However, the microspheres can lead to stenoses of the capillary lumen, which might affect tissue oxygen supply. Our study aimed to investigate the influence of repeated injections of microspheres into the left coronary artery on the tissue oxygen partial pressure (pO(2)) in the downstream supplied myocardium of Göttingen minipigs. Tests (n=6 pigs each) were performed with two differently sized microspheres (ø=10 ± 0.1 μm (M10) or ø=15 ± 0.15 μm (M15)) from polystyrene. The pO(2) was measured in the midmyocardium of the left and right ventricle for 6 min continuously after each of five injections (1 × 10(6) microspheres each). There was a time laps of 12 min between each injection. In addition, the influence of the carrier solution was analyzed solely in the identical time frame. pO(2) decreased significantly in the myocardial area supplied by the ramus interventricularis paraconalis after injection of M15 microspheres. In contrast, the application of the M10 microspheres did not change the myocardial pO(2). This finding suggests to use microspheres with diameters not exceeding 10 μm for the coronary blood flow assessment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. 5-Fluorouracil:carnauba wax microspheres for chemoembolization: an in vitro evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benita, S; Zouai, O; Benoit, J P

    1986-09-01

    5-Fluorouracil:carnauba wax microspheres were prepared using a meltable dispersion process with the aid of a surfactant as a wetting agent. It was noted that only hydrophilic surfactants were able to wet the 5-fluorouracil and substantially increased its content in the microspheres. No marked effect was observed in the particle size distribution of the solid microspheres as a function of the nature of the surfactant. Increasing the stirring rate in the preparation process decreased, first, the mean droplet size of the emulsified melted dispersion in the vehicle during the heating process, and, consequently, the mean particle size of the solidified microspheres during the cooling process. 5-Fluorouracil cumulative release from the microspheres followed first-order kinetics, as shown by nonlinear regression analysis. Although the kinetic results were not indicative of the true release mechanism from a single microsphere, it was believed that 5-fluorouracil release from the microspheres was probably governed by a dissolution process, rather than by a leaching process through the carnauba wax microspheres.

  5. Effect of Fabrication Process Parameters on the Size of Gelatin/Nanohydroxyapatite Microspheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bagheri-Khoulenjani

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Nano-hydroxyapatite/gelatin (nHA/Ge microspheres are currently used in bone tissue engineering as bone filler. In this  study, the effect of fabrication process parameters on the particle size of nano-hydroxyapatite/gelatinmicrospheres was investigated. The nHA/Ge microspheres were fabricated using water in oil emulsion. In order to design an experimental design, a surface response model with 2 factors including the rate of shaking and water to oil volume ratio in 3 levels was applied. Particle size was evaluated by using an optical microscope. The morphology of microspheres and distribution of nano-particles within the microspheres were studied by using scanning electron microscope and Ca elemental map obtained from energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX, respectively. Statistical analysis of the results obtained from particle size measurements revealed that the rate of shaking has stronger influence on the particle size of microspheres. Morphological studies showed that the fabricated microspheres were spherical with smooth surface. Ca elemental map of the microspheres showed that nano-hydroxyapatite particles distributed uniformly within the microspheres.

  6. Chitosan and Nanohydroxyapatite Roles in Physical and Chemical Characteristics of Gelatin/Chitosan/Nanohydroxyapatite Microspheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bagheri-Khoulenjani

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of chitosan/biopolymer (C/P and nanohydroxyapatite/ biopolymer (nHA/P weight ratios on particle size and its uniformity, cross-linking density and NH2 content of nano-hydroxyapatite/chitosan/gelatin (nHA/C/G microspheres were investigated. Microspheres were fabricated using water-in-oil emulsion. Cross-linking of microspheres was performed using water soluble carbodiimide. Particle size and its uniformity were evaluated using an optical microscope. The morphology of microspheres was studied by scanning electron microscopy. The obtained data from particle size measurements revealed that increments in C/P ratio increased the particle size while reducing its uniformity, and increased the NH2 content and cross linking density of the microspheres. It was shown that incremental increase in nHA/P ratio increased the particle size and its uniformity and reduced the NH2 content and cross-linking density of the microspheres.Morphological studies showed that the fabricated microspheres had spherical shape in medium level of C/P ratio and nHA/P ratio. However, increasing in chitosan/biopolymer ratio induced some micro-cracks into the structure of microspheres.

  7. Kinetics of piroxicam release from low-methylated pectin/zein hydrogel microspheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    The kinetics of a model drug (piroxicam) release from pectin/zein hydrogel microspheres was studied under conditions simulating the gastrointestinal tract. It is established that the rate-limiting step in the release mechanism is drug diffusion out of the microspheres rather than its dissolution. ...

  8. Eudragit-coated dextran microspheres of 5-fluorouracil for site-specific delivery to colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Gopal; Yadav, Awesh K; Jain, Narendra K; Agrawal, Govind P

    2016-01-01

    Objective of the present investigation was to prepare and evaluate the potential of enteric coated dextran microspheres for colon targeting of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). Dextran microspheres were prepared by emulsification-crosslinking method and the formulation variables studied included different molecular weights of dextran, drug:polymer ratio, volume of crosslinking agent, stirring speed and time. Enteric coating (Eudragit S-100) of dextran microspheres was performed by oil-in-oil solvent evaporation method using different coat:core ratios (4:1 or 8:1). Uncoated and coated dextran microspheres were characterized by particle size, surface morphology, entrapment efficiency, DSC, in vitro drug release in the presence of dextranase and 2% rat cecal contents. The release study of 5-FU from coated dextran microspheres was pH dependent. No release was observed at acidic pH; however, the drug was released quickly where Eudragit starts solublizing there was continuous release of drug from the microspheres. Organ distribution study was suggested that coated dextran microspheres retard the release of drug in gastric and intestinal pH environment and released of drug from microspheres in colon due to the degradation of dextran by colonic enzymes.

  9. Enteric-coated epichlorohydrin crosslinked dextran microspheres for site-specific delivery to colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Gopal; Yadav, Awesh K; Jain, Narendra K; Agrawal, Govind P

    2015-01-01

    Enteric-coated epichlorohydrin crosslinked dextran microspheres containing 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) for colon drug delivery was prepared by emulsification-crosslinking method. The formulation variables studied includes different molecular weights of dextran, volume of crosslinking agent, stirring speed, time and temperature. Dextran microspheres showed mean entrapment efficiencies ranging between 77 and 87% and mean particle size ranging between 10 and 25 µm. About 90% of drug was released from uncoated dextran microspheres within 8 h, suggesting the fast release and indicated the drug loaded in uncoated microspheres, released before they reached colon. Enteric coating (Eudragit-S-100 and Eudragit-L-100) of dextran microspheres was performed by oil-in-oil solvent evaporation method. The release study of 5-FU from coated dextran microspheres was complete retardation in simulated gastric fluid (pH 1.2) and once the coating layer of enteric polymer was dissolved at higher pH (7.4 and 6.8), a controlled release of the drug from the microspheres was observed. Further, the release of drug was found to be higher in the presence of dextranase and rat caecal contents, indicating the susceptibility of dextran microspheres to colonic enzymes. Organ distribution and pharmacokinetic study in albino rats was performed to establish the targeting potential of optimized formulation in the colon.

  10. Multiplexed fluorescent microarray for human salivary protein analysis using polymer microspheres and fiber-optic bundles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Shuai; Benito-Peña, Elena; Zhang, Huaibin; Wu, Yue; Walt, David R

    2013-10-10

    Herein, we describe a protocol for simultaneously measuring six proteins in saliva using a fiber-optic microsphere-based antibody array. The immuno-array technology employed combines the advantages of microsphere-based suspension array fabrication with the use of fluorescence microscopy. As described in the video protocol, commercially available 4.5 μm polymer microspheres were encoded into seven different types, differentiated by the concentration of two fluorescent dyes physically trapped inside the microspheres. The encoded microspheres containing surface carboxyl groups were modified with monoclonal capture antibodies through EDC/NHS coupling chemistry. To assemble the protein microarray, the different types of encoded and functionalized microspheres were mixed and randomly deposited in 4.5 μm microwells, which were chemically etched at the proximal end of a fiber-optic bundle. The fiber-optic bundle was used as both a carrier and for imaging the microspheres. Once assembled, the microarray was used to capture proteins in the saliva supernatant collected from the clinic. The detection was based on a sandwich immunoassay using a mixture of biotinylated detection antibodies for different analytes with a streptavidin-conjugated fluorescent probe, R-phycoerythrin. The microarray was imaged by fluorescence microscopy in three different channels, two for microsphere registration and one for the assay signal. The fluorescence micrographs were then decoded and analyzed using a homemade algorithm in MATLAB.

  11. Preparation and Comparative Bioavailability Studies of Indomethacin-Loaded Cetyl Alcohol Microspheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Vishal Gupta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to compare the in vitro release and to find out whether the bioavailability of a 75 mg indomethacin capsule (Microcid SR was equivalent to optimized formulation (indomethacin-loaded cetyl alcohol microspheres. Indomethacin-loaded cetyl alcohol microspheres were prepared by meltable emulsified cooling-induced technique. Surface morphology of microspheres has been evaluated using scanning electron microscopy. A single dose, randomized, complete cross over study of IM microspheres was carried out on 10 healthy male and female Albino sheep’s under fasting conditions. The plasma was separated and the concentrations of the drug were determined by HPLC-UV method. Plasma indomethacin concentrations and other pharmacokinetic parameters obtained were statistically analyzed. The SEM images revealed the spherical shape of fat microspheres, and more than 98.0% of the isolated microspheres were in the size range 12–32 μm. DSC, FTIR spectroscopy and stability studies indicated that the drug after encapsulation with fat microspheres was stable and compatible. Both formulations were found to be bioequivalent as evidenced by in vivo studies. Based on this study, it can be concluded that cetyl alcohol microspheres and Microcid SR capsule are bioequivalent in terms of the rate and extent of absorption.

  12. ADRIAMYCIN-LOADED ALBUMIN-HEPARIN CONJUGATE MICROSPHERES FOR INTRAPERITONEAL CHEMOTHERAPY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    CREMERS, HFM; SEYMOUR, LW; LAM, K; LOS, G; KWON, G; BAE, YH; KIM, SW; FEIJEN, J

    1994-01-01

    Adriamycin-loaded albumin-heparin conjugate microspheres (ADR-AHCMS) were evaluated as possible intraperitoneal (i.p.) delivery systems for site-specific cytotoxic action. The biocompatibility of the microspheres after intraperitoneal injection was tested first. 1 day after i.p. administration of

  13. 188Re-microspheres of albumin - the potential preparation for radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyomin, D.N.; Petriev, V.M.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper author describe preparation the albumin microspheres labelled with rhenium-188. We undertake an attempt to develop kits to the generator of rhenium-188 on the basis of albumin microspheres for radiotherapy of both oncological and non-oncological diseases. Microspheres, rhenium-188 with sizes 1 0-20 micron for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (damage of large and intermediate joints), intraperitoneal administration and intrapleural administration at metastases covering a cavity. Microspheres, Re-188 with sizes 40-60 micron for treatment of disseminated kidney cancer (intraarterial, selectively), intratumoral administration to damaged nodules less than 2-3 cm. Microspheres, Re-188 with sizes 80-100 micron for large neoplasms and metastases of liver (intraarterial, selectively), intratumoral administration to damaged nodules with sizes over 3 cm. Preparation of albumin microspheres is carried out by thermal denaturation of protein in vegetable oil. Microspheres are obtained with the necessary range of sizes by ultrasonic fractionation. At our laboratory the method of preparation of albumin microspheres with any sizes of particles (from 5 -10 up to 800 -1000 microns) has been developed. (authors)

  14. A Comparative Study of Production of Glass Microspheres by using Thermal Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, May Yan; Tan, Jully; Heng, Jerry YY; Cheeseman, Christopher

    2017-06-01

    Microspheres are spherical particles that can be distinguished into two categories; solid or hollow. Microspheres typical ranges from 1 to 200 μm in diameter. Microsphere are made from glass, ceramic, carbon or plastic depending on applications. Solid glass microsphere is manufactured by direct burning of glass powders while hollow glass microspheres is produced by adding blowing agent to glass powder. This paper presented the production of glass microspheres by using the vertical thermal flame (VTF) process. Pre-treated soda lime glass powder with particle sized range from 90 to 125μm was used in this work. The results showed that glass microspheres produced by two passes through the flame have a more spherical shape as compared with the single pass. Under the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), it is observed that there is a morphology changed from uneven surface of glass powders to smooth spherical surface particles. Qualitative analysis for density of the pre-burned and burned particles was performed. Burned particles floats in water while pre-burned particles sank indicated the change of density of the particles. Further improvements of the VTF process in terms of the VTF set-up are required to increase the transformation of glass powders to glass microspheres.

  15. Release of proteins via ion exchange from albumin-heparin microspheres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwon, Glen S.; Bae, You Han; Cremers, H.F.M.; Cremers, Harry; Feijen, Jan; Kim, Sung Wan

    1992-01-01

    Albumin-heparin and albumin microspheres were prepared as ion exchange gels for the controlled release of positively charged polypeptides and proteins. The adsorption isotherms of chicken egg and human lysozyme, as model proteins, on microspheres were obtained. An adsorption isotherm of chicken egg

  16. Supercritical fluid extraction of silicone oil from uranate microspheres prepared by sol-gel process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, R.; Venkatakrishnan, R.; Sivaraman, N.; Srinivasan, T.G.; Vasudeva Rao, P.R.

    2005-01-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction of silicone oil from urania microspheres prepared through sol-gel route was investigated. The influence of pressure, temperature, and flow rate on the extraction efficiency was studied. Experimental conditions were optimised for the complete removal of silicone oil from urania microspheres. (author)

  17. Adaptive hierarchical multi-agent organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghijsen, M.; Jansweijer, W.N.H.; Wielinga, B.J.; Babuška, R.; Groen, F.C.A.

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter, we discuss the design of adaptive hierarchical organizations for multi-agent systems (MAS). Hierarchical organizations have a number of advantages such as their ability to handle complex problems and their scalability to large organizations. By introducing adaptivity in the

  18. The Case for a Hierarchical Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaucouleurs, G. de

    1970-01-01

    The development of modern theoretical cosmology is presented and some questionable assumptions of orthodox cosmology are pointed out. Suggests that recent observations indicate that hierarchical clustering is a basic factor in cosmology. The implications of hierarchical models of the universe are considered. Bibliography. (LC)

  19. Discovering hierarchical structure in normal relational data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Mikkel Nørgaard; Herlau, Tue; Mørup, Morten

    2014-01-01

    -parametric generative model for hierarchical clustering of similarity based on multifurcating Gibbs fragmentation trees. This allows us to infer and display the posterior distribution of hierarchical structures that comply with the data. We demonstrate the utility of our method on synthetic data and data of functional...

  20. Biased trapping issue on weighted hierarchical networks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    archical networks which are based on the classic scale-free hierarchical networks. ... Weighted hierarchical networks; weight-dependent walks; mean first passage ..... The weighted networks can mimic some real-world natural and social systems to ... the Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education ...

  1. Carboxyl-Functionalized Polymeric Microspheres Prepared by One-Stage Photoinitiated RAFT Dispersion Polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianbo Tan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Herein, we report a photoinitiated reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT dispersion copolymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA and methyl methacrylic (MAA for the preparation of highly monodisperse carboxyl-functionalized polymeric microspheres. High rates of polymerization were observed, with more than 90% particle yields being achieved within 3 h of UV irradiation. Effects of reaction parameters (e.g., MAA concentration, RAFT agent concentration, photoinitiator concentration, and solvent composition were studied in detail, and highly monodisperse polymeric microspheres were obtained in most cases. Finally, silver (Ag composite microspheres were prepared by in situ reduction of AgNO3 using the carboxyl-functionalized polymeric microspheres as the template. The obtained Ag composite microspheres were able to catalyze the reduction of methylene blue (MB with NaBH4 as a reductant.

  2. Behaviour of (Th, U)O2 microspheres under compression tests and pelletization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, R.A.N.

    1982-12-01

    The interrelation between the behaviour of isolated microspheres in compression tests and the microstructure of sintered pellets obtained with these microspheres, was investigated. Various batches of (Th, 5 w/o U)O 2 microspheres were produced applying the so-called gel process. The production parameters were diversified both as to the composition and to the heat treatments. The resulting products underwent compression tests in an universal tension and compression machine as single microspheres and, as bulk material, were compacted and sintered. The results of the compression tests revealed the existence of two distinct classes of fragmentation behaviour. Each of these classes causes a distinct behaviour during the pelletization, too, resulting in fuel pellets with quite different microstructures. It was evidenced that there is a relationship between these differences in the microstructure and the behaviour of the single microspheres in the compression test. (Author) [pt

  3. [Optimization of calcium alginate floating microspheres loading aspirin by artificial neural networks and response surface methodology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, An-yang; Fan, Tian-yuan

    2010-04-18

    To investigate the preparation and optimization of calcium alginate floating microspheres loading aspirin. A model was used to predict the in vitro release of aspirin and optimize the formulation by artificial neural networks (ANNs) and response surface methodology (RSM). The amounts of the material in the formulation were used as inputs, while the release and floating rate of the microspheres were used as outputs. The performances of ANNs and RSM were compared. ANNs were more accurate in prediction. There was no significant difference between ANNs and RSM in optimization. Approximately 90% of the optimized microspheres could float on the artificial gastric juice over 4 hours. 42.12% of aspirin was released in 60 min, 60.97% in 120 min and 78.56% in 240 min. The release of the drug from the microspheres complied with Higuchi equation. The aspirin floating microspheres with satisfying in vitro release were prepared successfully by the methods of ANNs and RSM.

  4. Synthesis of V2O5 microspheres by spray pyrolysis as cathode material for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zhendong; Xu, Jie; Ge, Yali; Jiang, Qiaoya; Zhang, Yaling; Yang, Yawei; Sun, Yuping; Hou, Siyu; Shang, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Yingjiu

    2018-03-01

    Vanadium oxide (V2O5) microspheres have attracted considerable attention in the energy field due to their unique properties such as high stability and electrochemical activity. Here, massive V2O5 microspheres with smooth surface, hollow cavity and uniform particle sizes (0.4–1.5 μm), were synthesized by a facile spray pyrolysis process. Post-treatment at predefined temperatures effectively turned the microsphere shell into stacked nanorods with widths of 100 nm and lengths of 500 nm when processed at 500 °C for 3 h under nitrogen atmosphere, with enhanced crystallinity. When applied as cathode materials for supercapacitors, the post-treated V2O5 microspheres at 500 °C exhibited improved specific capacitance and longer discharge time. This is an effective method to manufacture massive V2O5 microspheres with tailored structure and potential applications in high-performance energy storage materials.

  5. Preparation of berbamine loaded chitosan-agarose microspheres and in vitro release study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Hu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Berbamine loaded chitosan-agarose microspheres were prepared using a water-in-oil emulsion technique. Optimum preparing parameters were determined by orthogonal experiments as follows: ratio of berbamine to chitosan (w/w is 1:10; percentage of emulsifier (span 80, v/v is 6%; volume of glutaraldehyde is 2 mL; and reaction temperature is 70 ºC. Under these optimal conditions, the encapsulation efficiency and loading capacity of microspheres are 84.57% and 8.44%, respectively. The swelling tests showed that the microspheres possessed higher swelling ratio at pH 7.4 than at pH 1.2. FTIR indicated that berbamine had been successfully loaded in the chitosan-agarose microspheres by physical entrapment. In vitro release studies showed that berbamine was released from microspheres in a significantly sustained fashion.

  6. The physical and chemical stability of suspensions of sustained-release diclofenac microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, L; Boni, R L; Adeyeye, C M

    1998-01-01

    The major challenge in liquid sustained-release oral suspensions is to minimize drug diffusion into the suspending medium and to retain the original properties of the microparticles during storage. Diclofenac wax microspheres prepared by the hydrophobic congealable disperse phase method were formulated as a sustained release suspension and stored at three different temperatures (25, 37 and 45 degrees C) for 3 months, to evaluate the physical and chemical stability of the suspended microspheres. Suspensions of microspheres stored at ambient temperatures were both physically and chemically stable, but at higher temperatures, up to 45 degrees C, there was a decrease in drug release due to scaling and melting on the microsphere surface as observed by scanning electron microscopy. However, on prolonged storage, up to 90 days, especially at 45 degrees C, temperature became a dominant factor causing an increase in drug release. The suspension of diclofenac microspheres was chemically stable for 3 months, while the plain drug suspension exhibited slight degradation.

  7. Biomimetic composite microspheres of collagen/chitosan/nano-hydroxyapatite: In-situ synthesis and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Shu-Hua; Liang, Mian-Hui; Wang, Peng; Luo, Yong

    2016-01-01

    The collagen/chitosan/hydroxyapatite (COL/CS/HA) composite microspheres with a good spherical form and a high dispersity were successfully obtained using an in-situ synthesis method. The FT-IR and XRD results revealed that the inorganic phase in the microspheres was crystalline HA containing carbonate ions. The morphology of the composite microspheres was dependent on the HA content, and a more desirable morphology was achieved when 20 wt.% HA was contained. The composite microspheres exhibited a narrow particle distribution, most of which ranged from 5 to 10 μm. In addition, the needle-like HA nano-particles were uniformly distributed in the composite microspheres, and their crystallinity and crystal size decreased with the HA content. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Pilot trial of Y-90 glass microspheres in the treatment of primary hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houle, S.; Yip, T.C.K.; Shepherd, F.A.; Rotstein, L.E.; Theis, B.; Cawthorn, R.; Barnes, K.

    1987-01-01

    A pilot trial is currently under way at our institution to determine the potential of new Y-90 glass microspheres (Theraspheres, Theragenics Corp., Atlanta) for the treatment of primary hepatocellular carcinoma. The Y-90 microspheres are injected through a percutaneous hepatic artery catheter positioned angiographically. The injection is facilitated by a new delivery system. Prior to the injection of the Y-90 microspheres, the presence of shunting is assessed by injecting Tc-99m human albumin microspheres (HAM) via the hepatic artery catheter. Bremsstrahlung scans done after injection demonstrate the distribution the Y-90 microspheres within the liver and the lack of extrahepatic activity. In the first group of patients treated, no significant toxicity was demonstrated for absorbed doses between 5,000 and 10,000 rad to the liver, and up to 20,000 rad to the tumor itself

  9. Hierarchically Nanostructured Materials for Sustainable Environmental Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng eRen

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a comprehensive overview of the hierarchical nanostructured materials with either geometry or composition complexity in environmental applications. The hierarchical nanostructures offer advantages of high surface area, synergistic interactions and multiple functionalities towards water remediation, environmental gas sensing and monitoring as well as catalytic gas treatment. Recent advances in synthetic strategies for various hierarchical morphologies such as hollow spheres and urchin-shaped architectures have been reviewed. In addition to the chemical synthesis, the physical mechanisms associated with the materials design and device fabrication have been discussed for each specific application. The development and application of hierarchical complex perovskite oxide nanostructures have also been introduced in photocatalytic water remediation, gas sensing and catalytic converter. Hierarchical nanostructures will open up many possibilities for materials design and device fabrication in environmental chemistry and technology.

  10. Hierarchical Rhetorical Sentence Categorization for Scientific Papers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachman, G. H.; Khodra, M. L.; Widyantoro, D. H.

    2018-03-01

    Important information in scientific papers can be composed of rhetorical sentences that is structured from certain categories. To get this information, text categorization should be conducted. Actually, some works in this task have been completed by employing word frequency, semantic similarity words, hierarchical classification, and the others. Therefore, this paper aims to present the rhetorical sentence categorization from scientific paper by employing TF-IDF and Word2Vec to capture word frequency and semantic similarity words and employing hierarchical classification. Every experiment is tested in two classifiers, namely Naïve Bayes and SVM Linear. This paper shows that hierarchical classifier is better than flat classifier employing either TF-IDF or Word2Vec, although it increases only almost 2% from 27.82% when using flat classifier until 29.61% when using hierarchical classifier. It shows also different learning model for child-category can be built by hierarchical classifier.

  11. Processing of hierarchical syntactic structure in music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelsch, Stefan; Rohrmeier, Martin; Torrecuso, Renzo; Jentschke, Sebastian

    2013-09-17

    Hierarchical structure with nested nonlocal dependencies is a key feature of human language and can be identified theoretically in most pieces of tonal music. However, previous studies have argued against the perception of such structures in music. Here, we show processing of nonlocal dependencies in music. We presented chorales by J. S. Bach and modified versions in which the hierarchical structure was rendered irregular whereas the local structure was kept intact. Brain electric responses differed between regular and irregular hierarchical structures, in both musicians and nonmusicians. This finding indicates that, when listening to music, humans apply cognitive processes that are capable of dealing with long-distance dependencies resulting from hierarchically organized syntactic structures. Our results reveal that a brain mechanism fundamental for syntactic processing is engaged during the perception of music, indicating that processing of hierarchical structure with nested nonlocal dependencies is not just a key component of human language, but a multidomain capacity of human cognition.

  12. A self-template and self-activation co-coupling green strategy to synthesize high surface area ternary-doped hollow carbon microspheres for high performance supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Meng; Fu, Jianwei; Wang, Minghuan; Wang, Kai; Wang, Shaomin; Wang, Zhiwei; Chen, Zhimin; Xu, Qun

    2018-04-06

    Development of facile and cost-effective routes to achieve hierarchical porous and heteroatoms-doped carbon architectures is urgently needed for high-performance supercapacitor application. In our study, ternary-doped (nitrogen, phosphorus and oxygen) hollow carbon microspheres (NPO-HCSs) are fabricated by one-step pyrolysis of single poly(cyclotriphosphazene-co-phloroglucinol) (PCPP) microsphere, which is generated through a facile polymerization between hexachlorocyclotriphosphazene and phloroglucinol at mild conditions. The whole preparation process is not used any additional template or activating agent. The obtained NPO-HCS-950 with average diameter of 580 nm and shell thickness of about 80 nm have a high specific surface area (2390 m 2  g -1 ), a large pore volume (1.35 cm 3  g -1 ), hierarchically interconnected pore texture, and uniform ternary heteroatom doping (O: 3.04 at%; N: 1.33 at% and P: 0.67 at%). As an electrode material for supercapacitors, the specific capacitance of the NPO-HCS-950 reaches 253 F g -1 of 1 A g - 1 and 176 F g -1 at 20 A g -1 , revealing superior rate performance. The capacity retention after 10,000 consecutive charge-discharge cycles at 20 A g -1 is up to 98.9%, demonstrating excellent cycling stability. Moreover, the assembled symmetric supercapacitor using NPO-HCS-950 exhibits a relatively high energy density of 17.6 W h kg -1 at a power density of 800 W kg -1 . Thus, a promising electrode material for high-performance supercapacitors is obtained through a facile, green and scalable synthesis route. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Microspheres with an ultra high holmium content for brachytherapy of malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lira, Raphael A.; Myamoto, Douglas M.; Souza, Jaime R.; Nascimento, Nanci; Azevedo, Mariangela de Burgos M. de; Osso Junior, Joao A.; Martinelli, Jose R.

    2011-01-01

    The overall objective of this work is to develop biodegradable microspheres intended for internal radiation therapy which provides an improved treatment for hepatic carcinomas. The most studied brachytherapy system employing microspheres made of holmium-biopolymer system is composed by poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) and holmium acetylacetonate (HoAcAc). The importance of the holmium high content in the microspheres can be interpreted as follow from a therapeutic standpoint, to achieve an effective use of microspheres loaded with HoAcAc, a high content of holmium is required to yield enough radioactivity with a relatively low amount of microspheres.The usual amounts of holmium that are incorporated in the microspheres composed by poly(L-lactic acid) and HoAcAc are 17.0 ± 0.5% (w/w) of holmium, which corresponds to a loading of about 50% of HoAcAc. Different approaches have been investigated to increase that value. One updated approach towards this direction is the production of microspheres with ultrahigh holmium as matrix using HoAcAc crystals as the sole starting material without the use of biopolymer. Likewise, in the search of microspheres with increased holmium content , it has been demonstrated that by changing the HoAcAc crystal structure by its recrystallization from crystal phase to the amorphous there is lost of acetylacetonate and water molecules causing the increasing of the holmium content. Microspheres were prepared by solvent evaporation, using holmium acetylacetonate (HoAcAc) crystals as the sole ingredient. Microspheres were characterized by using light and scanning electron microscopy, infrared and Raman spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, X-rays diffraction, and confocal laser scanning microscopy. (author)

  14. Microspheres with an ultra high holmium content for brachytherapy of malignancies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lira, Raphael A.; Myamoto, Douglas M.; Souza, Jaime R.; Nascimento, Nanci; Azevedo, Mariangela de Burgos M. de [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Biotecnologia; Osso Junior, Joao A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Radiofarmacia; Martinelli, Jose R. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias e Tecnologia de Materiais

    2011-07-01

    The overall objective of this work is to develop biodegradable microspheres intended for internal radiation therapy which provides an improved treatment for hepatic carcinomas. The most studied brachytherapy system employing microspheres made of holmium-biopolymer system is composed by poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) and holmium acetylacetonate (HoAcAc). The importance of the holmium high content in the microspheres can be interpreted as follow from a therapeutic standpoint, to achieve an effective use of microspheres loaded with HoAcAc, a high content of holmium is required to yield enough radioactivity with a relatively low amount of microspheres.The usual amounts of holmium that are incorporated in the microspheres composed by poly(L-lactic acid) and HoAcAc are 17.0 {+-} 0.5% (w/w) of holmium, which corresponds to a loading of about 50% of HoAcAc. Different approaches have been investigated to increase that value. One updated approach towards this direction is the production of microspheres with ultrahigh holmium as matrix using HoAcAc crystals as the sole starting material without the use of biopolymer. Likewise, in the search of microspheres with increased holmium content , it has been demonstrated that by changing the HoAcAc crystal structure by its recrystallization from crystal phase to the amorphous there is lost of acetylacetonate and water molecules causing the increasing of the holmium content. Microspheres were prepared by solvent evaporation, using holmium acetylacetonate (HoAcAc) crystals as the sole ingredient. Microspheres were characterized by using light and scanning electron microscopy, infrared and Raman spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, X-rays diffraction, and confocal laser scanning microscopy. (author)

  15. Covalently coating dextran on macroporous polyglycidyl methacrylate microsphere enabled rapid protein chromatographic separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Rongyue; Li, Qiang; Li, Juan; Zhou, Weiqing; Ye, Peili; Gao, Yang; Ma, Guanghui, E-mail: ghma@home.ipe.ac.cn; Su, Zhiguo

    2012-12-01

    Protein denaturation and nonspecific adsorption on polymer media as a chromatographic support have been a problem which needs to be overcome. Macroporous poly(glycidyl methacrylate-divinylbezene) (PGMA-DVB) microspheres prepared in this study were firstly covalently coated with dextran through a three-step method. The dextran was firstly adsorbed onto the microspheres and then covalently bound to the PGMA-DVB microsphere through ether bonds which were formed by hydroxyl group reacting with epoxy group at the presence of 4-(Dimethylamino) pyridine. Finally, the coating dextran layer was crosslinked by ethylene glycol diglycidyl ether to form the continuous network coating. The coated microspheres were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectra, scanning electron microscope, mercury porosimetry measurements, laser scanning confocal microscope, and protein adsorption experiments. Results showed that PGMA-DVB microspheres coated with dextran successfully maintained the macroporous structure and high permeability. The backpressure was only 1.69 MPa at a high flow rate of 2891 cm/h. Consequently, the hydrophilicity and biocompatibility of modified microspheres were greatly improved, and the contact angle decreased from 184 Degree-Sign to 13 Degree-Sign , and nonspecific adsorption of proteins was decreased to little or none. The clad dextran coating with large amounts of hydroxyl group was easily derived to be various functional groups. The derived media have great potential applications in rapid protein chromatography. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Macroporous PGMA-DVB microspheres were covalently coated with dextran. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The hydrophilicity of the coated microspheres was significantly improved. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The irreversible adsorption of proteins was reduced to zero. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The coated microspheres can maintain the macropore structure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The coated microspheres

  16. Covalently coating dextran on macroporous polyglycidyl methacrylate microsphere enabled rapid protein chromatographic separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Rongyue; Li, Qiang; Li, Juan; Zhou, Weiqing; Ye, Peili; Gao, Yang; Ma, Guanghui; Su, Zhiguo

    2012-01-01

    Protein denaturation and nonspecific adsorption on polymer media as a chromatographic support have been a problem which needs to be overcome. Macroporous poly(glycidyl methacrylate–divinylbezene) (PGMA–DVB) microspheres prepared in this study were firstly covalently coated with dextran through a three-step method. The dextran was firstly adsorbed onto the microspheres and then covalently bound to the PGMA–DVB microsphere through ether bonds which were formed by hydroxyl group reacting with epoxy group at the presence of 4-(Dimethylamino) pyridine. Finally, the coating dextran layer was crosslinked by ethylene glycol diglycidyl ether to form the continuous network coating. The coated microspheres were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectra, scanning electron microscope, mercury porosimetry measurements, laser scanning confocal microscope, and protein adsorption experiments. Results showed that PGMA–DVB microspheres coated with dextran successfully maintained the macroporous structure and high permeability. The backpressure was only 1.69 MPa at a high flow rate of 2891 cm/h. Consequently, the hydrophilicity and biocompatibility of modified microspheres were greatly improved, and the contact angle decreased from 184° to 13°, and nonspecific adsorption of proteins was decreased to little or none. The clad dextran coating with large amounts of hydroxyl group was easily derived to be various functional groups. The derived media have great potential applications in rapid protein chromatography. - Highlights: ► Macroporous PGMA–DVB microspheres were covalently coated with dextran. ► The hydrophilicity of the coated microspheres was significantly improved. ► The irreversible adsorption of proteins was reduced to zero. ► The coated microspheres can maintain the macropore structure. ► The coated microspheres were applied to rapid protein separation.

  17. Formulation and characterization of ketoprofen embedded polycaprolactone microspheres using solvent evaporation method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Wagh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to prepare polymeric microspheres containing Ketoprofen (KFN by single emulsion [oil-in-water (o/w] solvent evaporation method. Polycaprolactone (PCL, biocompatible polymer, was used for the preparation of sustained released microspheres of KFN. A Plackett–Burman design was employed by using the Design-Expert® software (Version- 9.0.3.1, Stat-Ease Inc., Minneapolis, MN. Eleven factors out of six processing factors were investigated in order to enhance the encapsulation efficiency (EE of the microspheres. The resultant microspheres were characterized for their size, morphology, EE, and drug release. Imaging of particles was performed by field emission scanning electron microscopy. Interaction between the drug and polymers were investigated by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffractometry (XRPD and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC. Graphical and mathematical analyses of the design showed that concentration of factor PCL (B and varying speed (F, revolution per minute, rpm were significant negative effect on the EE and identified as the significant factor determining the EE of the microspheres. The microspheres showed high % EE (31.18 % to 96.81 %. The microspheres were found to be discrete, oval with porous surface. The FTIR analysis confirmed no interaction of KFN with the polymer. The XRPD revealed the dispersion of drug within microspheres formulation. Sustained drug release profile over 12 h was achieved by PCL polymer. In conclusion, polymeric microspheres containing KFN can be successfully prepared using the technique of experimental design, and these results helped in finding the optimum formulation variables for EE of microspheres.

  18. [Preparation of citrulline microspheres by spray drying technique for colonic targeting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahri, S; Zerrouk, N; Lassoued, M-A; Tsapis, N; Chaumeil, J-C; Sfar, S

    2014-03-01

    Citrulline is an amino acid that becomes essential in situations of intestinal insufficiency such as short bowel syndrome. It is therefore interesting to provide the patients with dosage forms for routing citrulline to the colon. The aim of this work is to formulate microspheres of citrulline for colonic targeting by the technique of spray drying. Eudragit(®) FS 30D was selected as polymer to encapsulate citrulline using the spray drying technique. Citrulline and Eudragit(®) FS 30D were dissolved in water and ethanol, respectively. The aqueous and the ethanolic solutions were then mixed in 1:2 (v/v) ratio. Microspheres were obtained by nebulizing the citrulline-Eudragit(®) FS 30D solution using a Mini spray dryer equipped with a 0.7mm nozzle. The microspheres have been formulated using citrulline and Eudragit(®) FS 30D. The size distribution of microspheres was determined by light diffraction. The morphology of the microspheres was studied by electron microscopy. Manufacturing yields, encapsulation rate and dissolution profiles were also studied. The microspheres obtained had a spherical shape with a smooth surface and a homogeneous size except for the microspheres containing the highest concentration of polymer (90 %). The formulation showed that the size and morphology of the microspheres are influenced by the polymer concentration. Manufacturing yields were about 51 % but encapsulation rate were always very high (above 90 %). The in vitro dissolution study showed that the use of the Eudragit(®) FS 30D under these conditions is not appropriate to change the dissolution profile of the citrulline. This technique has led to the formulation of microspheres with good physical properties in terms of morphology and size. The compression of the microspheres should help to control citrulline release for colonic targeting. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Development and optimization of enteric coated mucoadhesive microspheres of duloxetine hydrochloride using 32 full factorial design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setia, Anupama; Kansal, Sahil; Goyal, Naveen

    2013-01-01

    Background: Microspheres constitute an important part of oral drug delivery system by virtue of their small size and efficient carrier capacity. However, the success of these microspheres is limited due to their short residence time at the site of absorption. Objective: The objective of the present study was to formulate and systematically evaluate in vitro performance of enteric coated mucoadhesive microspheres of duloxetine hydrochloride (DLX), an acid labile drug. Materials and Methods: DLX microspheres were prepared by simple emulsification phase separation technique using chitosan as carrier and glutaraldehyde as a cross-linking agent. Microspheres prepared were coated with eudragit L-100 using an oil-in-oil solvent evaporation method. Eudragit L-100was used as enteric coating polymer with the aim to release the drug in small intestine The microspheres prepared were characterized by particle size, entrapment efficiency, swelling index (SI), mucoadhesion time, in vitro drug release and surface morphology. A 32 full factorial design was employed to study the effect of independent variables polymer-to-drug ratio (X1) and stirring speed (X2) on dependent variables, particle size, entrapment efficiency, SI, in vitro mucoadhesion and drug release up to 24 h (t24). Results: Microspheres formed were discrete, spherical and free flowing. The microspheres exhibited good mucoadhesive property and also showed high percentage entrapment efficiency. The microspheres were able to sustain the drug release up to 24 h. Conclusion: Thus, the prepared enteric coated mucoadhesive microspheres may prove to be a potential controlled release formulation of DLX for oral administration. PMID:24167786

  20. Superb adsorption capacity of hierarchical calcined Ni/Mg/Al layered double hydroxides for Congo red and Cr(VI) ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lei, Chunsheng [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); College of Environmental & Safety Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China); Zhu, Xiaofeng [College of Environmental & Safety Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China); Zhu, Bicheng; Jiang, Chuanjia; Le, Yao [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Yu, Jiaguo, E-mail: jiaguoyu@yahoo.com [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia)

    2017-01-05

    Highlights: • Ni/Mg/Al layered double hydroxides (NMA-LDHs) synthesized. • NMA-LDHs with hierarchically hollow microsphere structure. • Calcined NMA-LDHs have large adsorption capacities for CR and Cr(VI) ions. - Abstract: The preparation of hierarchical porous materials as catalysts and sorbents has attracted much attention in the field of environmental pollution control. Herein, Ni/Mg/Al layered double hydroxides (NMA-LDHs) hierarchical flower-like hollow microspheres were synthesized by a hydrothermal method. After the NMA-LDHs was calcined at 600 °C, NMA-LDHs transformed into Ni/Mg/Al layered double oxides (NMA-LDOs), which maintained the hierarchical flower-like hollow structure. The crystal phase, morphology, and microstructure of the as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy elemental mapping, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and nitrogen adsorption−desorption methods. Both the calcined and non-calcined NMA-LDHs were examined for their performance to remove Congo red (CR) and hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) ions in aqueous solution. The maximum monolayer adsorption capacities of CR and Cr(VI) ions over the NMA-LDOs sample were 1250 and 103.4 mg/g at 30 °C, respectively. Thermodynamic studies indicated that the adsorption process was endothermic in nature. In addition, the addition of coexisting anions negatively influenced the adsorption capacity of Cr(VI) ions, in the following order: CO{sub 3}{sup 2−} > SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} > H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}{sup −} > Cl{sup −}. This work will provide new insight into the design and fabrication of advanced adsorption materials for water pollutant removal.

  1. Preparation of Polysaccharide-Based Microspheres by a Water-in-Oil Emulsion Solvent Diffusion Method for Drug Carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yodthong Baimark

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Polysaccharide-based microspheres of chitosan, starch, and alginate were prepared by the water-in-oil emulsion solvent diffusion method for use as drug carriers. Blue dextran was used as a water-soluble biomacromolecular drug model. Scanning electron microscopy showed sizes of the resultant microspheres that were approximately 100 μm or less. They were spherical in shape with a rough surface and good dispersibility. Microsphere matrices were shown as a sponge. Drug loading efficiencies of all the microspheres were higher than 80%, which suggested that this method has potential to prepare polysaccharide-based microspheres containing a biomacromolecular drug model for drug delivery applications.

  2. Design of sustained-release nitrendipine microspheres having solid dispersion structure by quasi-emulsion solvent diffusion method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cui, Fude; Yang, Mingshi; Jiang, Yanyan

    2003-01-01

    crystallization technique, i.e. quasi-emulsion solvent diffusion method. The factors of effect on micromeritic properties and release profiles of the resultant microspheres were investigated. And the bioavailability of nitrendipine microspheres was evaluated in six healthy dogs. The results showed...... that the particle size of microspheres was determined mainly by the agitation speed. The dissolution rate of nitrendipine from microspheres was enhanced significantly with increasing the amount of dispersing agents, and sustained by adding retarding agents. The release rate of microspheres could be controlled...

  3. Strain-tuned optoelectronic properties of hollow gallium sulphide microspheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yin; Chen, Chen; Liang, C. Y.; Liu, Z. W.; Li, Y. S.; Che, Renchao

    2015-10-01

    Sulfide semiconductors have attracted considerable attention. The main challenge is to prepare materials with a designable morphology, a controllable band structure and optoelectronic properties. Herein, we report a facile chemical transportation reaction for the synthesis of Ga2S3 microspheres with novel hollow morphologies and partially filled volumes. Even without any extrinsic dopant, photoluminescence (PL) emission wavelength could be facilely tuned from 635 to 665 nm, depending on its intrinsic inhomogeneous strain distribution. Geometric phase analysis (GPA) based on high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) imaging reveals that the strain distribution and the associated PL properties can be accurately controlled by changing the growth temperature gradient, which depends on the distance between the boats used for raw material evaporation and microsphere deposition. The stacking-fault density, lattice distortion degree and strain distribution at the shell interfacial region of the Ga2S3 microspheres could be readily adjusted. Ab initio first-principles calculations confirm that the lowest conductive band (LCB) is dominated by S-3s and Ga-4p states, which shift to the low-energy band as a result of the introduction of tensile strain, well in accordance with the observed PL evolution. Therefore, based on our strain driving strategy, novel guidelines toward the reasonable design of sulfide semiconductors with tunable photoluminescence properties are proposed.Sulfide semiconductors have attracted considerable attention. The main challenge is to prepare materials with a designable morphology, a controllable band structure and optoelectronic properties. Herein, we report a facile chemical transportation reaction for the synthesis of Ga2S3 microspheres with novel hollow morphologies and partially filled volumes. Even without any extrinsic dopant, photoluminescence (PL) emission wavelength could be facilely tuned from 635 to 665 nm, depending on its

  4. Preparation of Syndiotactic Poly(vinyl alcohol)/Poly(vinyl pivalate/vinyl acetate) Microspheres with Radiopacity Using Suspension Copolymerization and Saponification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seok Lyoo, Won; Wook Cha, Jin; Young Kwak, Kun; Jae Lee, Young; Yong Jeon, Han; Sik Chung, Yong; Kyun Noh, Seok

    2010-06-01

    To prepare Poly(vinyl pivalate/vinyl acetate) [P(VPi/VAc)] microspheres with radiopacity, the suspension copolymerization approach in the presence of aqueous radiopaque nanoparticles was used. After, The P(VPi/VAc) microspheres with radiopacity were saponified in heterogeneous system, and then P(VPi/VAc) microspheres without aggregates were converted to s-PVA/P(VPi/VAc) microspheres of skin/core structure through the heterogeneous surface saponification. Radiopacity of microspheres was confirmed with Computed tomography (CT).

  5. Microsphere preparation using highly branched dextran degraded by electron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Min Ho; Yoo, Sun Kyun [Joongbu Univ., Geumsan (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Hyun Suk; Lee, Byung Cheol [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-07-01

    Dextrans as noble alternative consist predominantly of linear a-1,6 glucose linkages with some degree of branching via 1,2-, 1,3-, or 1,4- linkage. Dextrans have been investigated as potential macromolecular carriers for delivery of drugs and proteins, primarily to increase the longevity of therapeutic agents in the delivery of drugs and proteins, primarily to increase the longevity of therapeutic agents in the circulation. In most previous researches, linear type of dextrans with molecular weight of new type of drug delivery agent. Since 1950, the clinical dextran has been manufactured by acid hydrolysis, of which processes are multi-steps and time-consumed. Therefore, the objective of this research is evaluate the microsphere synthesised by highly branched dextran degraded by a electron beam radiation. Linear type of dextran was purchased from Sigma company. Branch type of dextran was produced and purified in our lab. The branch degree of dextran was evaluated using dextranase and analyzed by TLC. The air-dry dextran and two solution dextran was irradiated at room temperature using a electrostatic beam. The electron beam energy applied was 1.0 to 2.5 MeV. Dose was 70 kGy. The molecular average weight if 11,215,000 of linear dextran and 7,413,000 was degraded to 213,000 and 112,000, respectively. Branched dextran applied by a beam still retained its branched structure. The size of microsphere was dependant of the amount of PPG added to make water to water emulsion. Swelling of microsphere of branched dextran was higher than of linear dextran.

  6. Microsphere preparation using highly branched dextran degraded by electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Min Ho; Yoo, Sun Kyun; Kang, Hyun Suk; Lee, Byung Cheol

    2011-01-01

    Dextrans as noble alternative consist predominantly of linear a-1,6 glucose linkages with some degree of branching via 1,2-, 1,3-, or 1,4- linkage. Dextrans have been investigated as potential macromolecular carriers for delivery of drugs and proteins, primarily to increase the longevity of therapeutic agents in the delivery of drugs and proteins, primarily to increase the longevity of therapeutic agents in the circulation. In most previous researches, linear type of dextrans with molecular weight of new type of drug delivery agent. Since 1950, the clinical dextran has been manufactured by acid hydrolysis, of which processes are multi-steps and time-consumed. Therefore, the objective of this research is evaluate the microsphere synthesised by highly branched dextran degraded by a electron beam radiation. Linear type of dextran was purchased from Sigma company. Branch type of dextran was produced and purified in our lab. The branch degree of dextran was evaluated using dextranase and analyzed by TLC. The air-dry dextran and two solution dextran was irradiated at room temperature using a electrostatic beam. The electron beam energy applied was 1.0 to 2.5 MeV. Dose was 70 kGy. The molecular average weight if 11,215,000 of linear dextran and 7,413,000 was degraded to 213,000 and 112,000, respectively. Branched dextran applied by a beam still retained its branched structure. The size of microsphere was dependant of the amount of PPG added to make water to water emulsion. Swelling of microsphere of branched dextran was higher than of linear dextran

  7. Trapping of a microsphere pendulum resonator in an optical potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, J. M.; Wu, Y.; Nic Chormaic, S.; Minogin, V. G.

    2009-01-01

    We propose a method to spatially confine or corral the movements of a micropendulum via the optical forces produced by two simultaneously excited optical modes of a photonic molecule comprising two microspherical cavities. We discuss how the cavity-enhanced optical force generated in the photonic molecule can create an optomechanical potential of about 10 eV deep and 30 pm wide, which can be used to trap the pendulum at any given equilibrium position by a simple choice of laser frequencies. This result presents opportunities for very precise all-optical self-alignment of microsystems.

  8. Hierarchical ordering with partial pairwise hierarchical relationships on the macaque brain data sets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woosang Lim

    Full Text Available Hierarchical organizations of information processing in the brain networks have been known to exist and widely studied. To find proper hierarchical structures in the macaque brain, the traditional methods need the entire pairwise hierarchical relationships between cortical areas. In this paper, we present a new method that discovers hierarchical structures of macaque brain networks by using partial information of pairwise hierarchical relationships. Our method uses a graph-based manifold learning to exploit inherent relationship, and computes pseudo distances of hierarchical levels for every pair of cortical areas. Then, we compute hierarchy levels of all cortical areas by minimizing the sum of squared hierarchical distance errors with the hierarchical information of few cortical areas. We evaluate our method on the macaque brain data sets whose true hierarchical levels are known as the FV91 model. The experimental results show that hierarchy levels computed by our method are similar to the FV91 model, and its errors are much smaller than the errors of hierarchical clustering approaches.

  9. Magnetic Ganoderma lucidum spore microspheres: A novel material to immobilize CotA multicopper oxidase for dye decolorization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Lili [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Wang, Yan, E-mail: wangy_msn@hit.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Zhao, Min [College of Life Science, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040 (China); Song, Jinzhu [School of Life Science and Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Wang, Jueyu; Jin, Zijing [College of Life Science, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040 (China)

    2016-08-05

    Highlights: • Hollow microspheres were obtained from Ganoderma lucidum spores. • Novel magnetic microspheres were prepared by load hollow spore microspheres with Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles. • CotA multicopper oxidase was immobilized on the magnetic spore microspheres for indigo carmine decolorization. • The immobilized CotA displayed higher decolorization capability and reusability. - Abstract: In this study, hollow microspheres were obtained from Ganoderma lucidum spores. Then the hollow microspheres were loaded with Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles to prepare novel magnetic spore microspheres. TEM images and X-ray diffractometry demonstrated that the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles were incorporated throughout the spore microsphere. CotA multicopper oxidase was chosen as biomacromolecule to study the loading ability of the magnetic spore microspheres. The combination of the CotA enzyme with the microsphere was observed by laser scanning confocal microscope. The loaded amount of CotA on the microspheres was 75 mg/g when the CotA concentration was 1.2 mg/mL and the activity recovery of the immobilized CotA was 81%. The magnetic microspheres loaded with CotA, which can be easily and quickly recovered by an external magnetic field, were used for dye decolorization. After 1 h decolorization, 99% of the indigo carmine has been removed by 10 mg microspheres. In addition, the immobilized CotA retained 75% of activity after 10 consecutive cycles, which indicated that the magnetic spore microspheres are good support material for immobilization of the enzyme.

  10. Magnetic Ganoderma lucidum spore microspheres: A novel material to immobilize CotA multicopper oxidase for dye decolorization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Lili; Wang, Yan; Zhao, Min; Song, Jinzhu; Wang, Jueyu; Jin, Zijing

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Hollow microspheres were obtained from Ganoderma lucidum spores. • Novel magnetic microspheres were prepared by load hollow spore microspheres with Fe_3O_4 nanoparticles. • CotA multicopper oxidase was immobilized on the magnetic spore microspheres for indigo carmine decolorization. • The immobilized CotA displayed higher decolorization capability and reusability. - Abstract: In this study, hollow microspheres were obtained from Ganoderma lucidum spores. Then the hollow microspheres were loaded with Fe_3O_4 nanoparticles to prepare novel magnetic spore microspheres. TEM images and X-ray diffractometry demonstrated that the Fe_3O_4 nanoparticles were incorporated throughout the spore microsphere. CotA multicopper oxidase was chosen as biomacromolecule to study the loading ability of the magnetic spore microspheres. The combination of the CotA enzyme with the microsphere was observed by laser scanning confocal microscope. The loaded amount of CotA on the microspheres was 75 mg/g when the CotA concentration was 1.2 mg/mL and the activity recovery of the immobilized CotA was 81%. The magnetic microspheres loaded with CotA, which can be easily and quickly recovered by an external magnetic field, were used for dye decolorization. After 1 h decolorization, 99% of the indigo carmine has been removed by 10 mg microspheres. In addition, the immobilized CotA retained 75% of activity after 10 consecutive cycles, which indicated that the magnetic spore microspheres are good support material for immobilization of the enzyme.

  11. Classification using Hierarchical Naive Bayes models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langseth, Helge; Dyhre Nielsen, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Classification problems have a long history in the machine learning literature. One of the simplest, and yet most consistently well-performing set of classifiers is the Naïve Bayes models. However, an inherent problem with these classifiers is the assumption that all attributes used to describe......, termed Hierarchical Naïve Bayes models. Hierarchical Naïve Bayes models extend the modeling flexibility of Naïve Bayes models by introducing latent variables to relax some of the independence statements in these models. We propose a simple algorithm for learning Hierarchical Naïve Bayes models...

  12. Hierarchical analysis of acceptable use policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Laughton

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Acceptable use policies (AUPs are vital tools for organizations to protect themselves and their employees from misuse of computer facilities provided. A well structured, thorough AUP is essential for any organization. It is impossible for an effective AUP to deal with every clause and remain readable. For this reason, some sections of an AUP carry more weight than others, denoting importance. The methodology used to develop the hierarchical analysis is a literature review, where various sources were consulted. This hierarchical approach to AUP analysis attempts to highlight important sections and clauses dealt with in an AUP. The emphasis of the hierarchal analysis is to prioritize the objectives of an AUP.

  13. Hierarchical modeling and analysis for spatial data

    CERN Document Server

    Banerjee, Sudipto; Gelfand, Alan E

    2003-01-01

    Among the many uses of hierarchical modeling, their application to the statistical analysis of spatial and spatio-temporal data from areas such as epidemiology And environmental science has proven particularly fruitful. Yet to date, the few books that address the subject have been either too narrowly focused on specific aspects of spatial analysis, or written at a level often inaccessible to those lacking a strong background in mathematical statistics.Hierarchical Modeling and Analysis for Spatial Data is the first accessible, self-contained treatment of hierarchical methods, modeling, and dat

  14. Hierarchically structured, nitrogen-doped carbon membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Hong

    2017-08-03

    The present invention is a structure, method of making and method of use for a novel macroscopic hierarchically structured, nitrogen-doped, nano-porous carbon membrane (HNDCMs) with asymmetric and hierarchical pore architecture that can be produced on a large-scale approach. The unique HNDCM holds great promise as components in separation and advanced carbon devices because they could offer unconventional fluidic transport phenomena on the nanoscale. Overall, the invention set forth herein covers a hierarchically structured, nitrogen-doped carbon membranes and methods of making and using such a membranes.

  15. Preparation of hollow hydroxyapatite microspheres by the conversion of borate glass at near room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Aihua; Ai, Fanrong; Liu, Xin; Wang, Deping; Huang, Wenhai; Xu, Wei

    2010-01-01

    Hollow hydroxyapatite microspheres, consisting of a hollow core and a porous shell, were prepared by converting Li 2 O-CaO-B 2 O 3 glass microspheres in dilute phosphate solution at 37 o C. The results confirmed that Li 2 O-CaO-B 2 O 3 glass was transformed to hydroxyapatite without changing the external shape and dimension of the original glass object. Scanning electron microscopy images showed the shell wall of the microsphere was built from hydroxyapatite particles, and these particles spontaneously align with one another to form a porous sphere with an interior cavity. Increase in phosphate concentration resulted in an increase in the reaction rate, which in turn had an effect on shell wall structure of the hollow hydroxyapatite microsphere. For the Li 2 O-CaO-B 2 O 3 glass microspheres reacted in low-concentration K 2 HPO 4 solution, lower reaction rate and a multilayered microstructure were observed. On the other hand, the glass microspheres reacted in higher phosphate solution converted more rapidly and produced a single hydroxyapatite layer. Furthermore, the mechanism of forming hydroxyapatite hollow microsphere was described.

  16. Performance evaluation of bipolar and tripolar excitations during nozzle-jetting-based alginate microsphere fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herran, C. Leigh; Huang, Yong; Chai, Wenxuan

    2012-08-01

    Microspheres, small spherical (polymeric) particles with or without second phase materials embedded or encapsulated, are important for many biomedical applications such as drug delivery and organ printing. Scale-up fabrication with the ability to precisely control the microsphere size and morphology has always been of great manufacturing interest. The objective of this work is to experimentally study the performance differences of bipolar and tripolar excitation waveforms in using drop-on-demand (DOD)-based single nozzle jetting for alginate microsphere fabrication. The fabrication performance has been evaluated based on the formability of alginate microspheres as a function of materials properties (sodium alginate and calcium chloride concentrations) and operating conditions. The operating conditions for each excitation include voltage rise/fall times, dwell times and excitation voltage amplitudes. Overall, the bipolar excitation is more robust in making spherical, monodispersed alginate microspheres as good microspheres for its wide working range of material properties and operating conditions, especially during the fabrication of highly viscous materials such as the 2% sodium alginate solution. For both bipolar and tripolar excitations, the sodium alginate concentration and the voltage dwell times should be carefully selected to achieve good microsphere formability.

  17. Performance evaluation of bipolar and tripolar excitations during nozzle-jetting-based alginate microsphere fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leigh Herran, C; Huang, Yong; Chai, Wenxuan

    2012-01-01

    Microspheres, small spherical (polymeric) particles with or without second phase materials embedded or encapsulated, are important for many biomedical applications such as drug delivery and organ printing. Scale-up fabrication with the ability to precisely control the microsphere size and morphology has always been of great manufacturing interest. The objective of this work is to experimentally study the performance differences of bipolar and tripolar excitation waveforms in using drop-on-demand (DOD)-based single nozzle jetting for alginate microsphere fabrication. The fabrication performance has been evaluated based on the formability of alginate microspheres as a function of materials properties (sodium alginate and calcium chloride concentrations) and operating conditions. The operating conditions for each excitation include voltage rise/fall times, dwell times and excitation voltage amplitudes. Overall, the bipolar excitation is more robust in making spherical, monodispersed alginate microspheres as good microspheres for its wide working range of material properties and operating conditions, especially during the fabrication of highly viscous materials such as the 2% sodium alginate solution. For both bipolar and tripolar excitations, the sodium alginate concentration and the voltage dwell times should be carefully selected to achieve good microsphere formability. (paper)

  18. A novel approach to preparing magnetic protein microspheres with core-shell structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Wei; Sun Zhendong; Li Fengsheng; Chen Kai; Liu Tianyu; Liu Jialing; Zhou Tianle; Guo Rui

    2011-01-01

    Magnetic protein microspheres with core-shell structure were prepared through a novel approach based on the sonochemical method and the emulsion solvent evaporation method. The microspheres are composed of the oleic acid and undecylenic acid modified Fe 3 O 4 cores and coated with globular bovine serum albumin (BSA). Under an optimized condition, up to 57.8 wt% of approximately 10 nm superparamagnetic Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles could be uniformly encapsulated into the BSA microspheres with the diameter of approximately 160 nm and the high saturation magnetization of 38.5 emu/g, besides of the abundant functional groups. The possible formation mechanism of magnetic microspheres was discussed in detail. - Research Highlights: → Magnetic protein microspheres with core-shell structure were prepared through a novel approach based on the sonochemical method and the emulsion solvent evaporation method.→ The microspheres are composed of the oleic acid and undecylenic acid modified Fe 3 O 4 cores and coated with globular bovine serum albumin (BSA).→ 57.8 wt% of approximately 10 nm superparamagnetic Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles could be uniformly encapsulated into the BSA microspheres with the diameter of approximately 160 nm and the high saturation magnetization of 38.5 emu/g, besides the abundant functional groups.

  19. Transmission electron microscopy and Raman characterization of copper (I) oxide microspheres composed of nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Wenzhong; Tu Ya; Wang Lijuan; Liang Yujie; Shi Honglong

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Raman spectroscopy of copper (I) oxide microspheres were investigated. ► Infrared active mode is greatly activated in Raman scattering spectrum. ► Infrared active mode shows up in Raman spectrum of copper (I) oxide microspheres. ► The defects existed in spheres could be responsible for the observed Raman property. - Abstract: The high-resolution transmission electron microscope and Raman spectroscopy were used to investigate the microstructures and Raman scattering property of copper (I) oxide microspheres composed of nanoparticles. High-resolution transmission electron microscope images indicate that the copper (I) oxide microspheres are composed of nanoparticles with random growth direction, indicating that there are many defects in microspheres. The Raman spectrum shows that infrared active mode, which must be odd parity and is Raman forbidden for bulk crystal due to its inversion symmetry, is activated and shows up in Raman scattering spectrum. On the basis of investigations of the microstructure features of copper (I) oxide microspheres, we attribute the appearance of IR active mode in Raman scattering spectrum to the breakdown of the symmetry of the lattice due to the presence of defects in the prepared copper (I) oxide microspheres as observed in HRTEM images.

  20. Synthesis and effect of modification on methacylate - acrylate microspheres for Trametes versicolor laccase enzyme immobilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazlan, Siti Zulaikha; Hanifah, Sharina Abu

    2014-09-01

    Immobilization of laccase on the modified copolymer methacrylate-acrylate microspheres was studied. A poly (glycidyl methacrylate-co-n-butyl acrylate) microsphere consists of epoxy groups were synthesized using suspension photocuring technique. The epoxy group in poly (GMA-nBA) microspheres were converted into amino groups with aldehyde group. Laccase immobilization is based on having the amino groups on the enzyme surface and aldehyde group on the microspheres via covalent binding. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis proved the successful surface modification on microspheres. The FTIR spectrum shows the characteristic peaks at 1646 cm-1 assigned to the conformation of the polymerization that took place between monomer GMA and nBA respectively. In addition, after modification, FTIR peaks that assigned to the epoxy ring (844 cm-1 and 904 cm-1) were decreased. The results obtained from FTIR method signify good agreement with the epoxy content method. Hence, the activity of the laccase-immobilized microspheres increased upon increasing the epoxy content. Furthermore, poly (GMA-nBA) exhibited uniform microspheres with below 2 μm surface. Immobilized enzyme showed a broader pH profile and higher temperature compared native enzyme.

  1. Ammonolysis-induced solvent removal: a facile approach for solidifying emulsion droplets into PLGA microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jayoung; Hong, Dasom; Chung, Younglim; Sah, Hongkee

    2007-12-01

    An ammonolysis-based microencapsulation technique useful for the preparation of biodegradable microspheres was described in this study. A dispersed phase consisting of poly- d, l-lactide- co-glycolide, progesterone, and methyl chloroacetate was emulsified in an aqueous phase. Upon addition of ammonia solution, the emulsion droplets were quickly transformed into poly- d, l-lactide- co-glycolide microspheres laden with progesterone. Rapid solvent removal was accompanied by ammonolysis. The chemical reaction converted water-immiscible methyl chloroacetate to water-miscible chloroacetamide and methanol. Chloroacetamide formation was proved by (1)H NMR and ESI-MS studies. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that the microspheres contained only small amounts of residual methyl chloroacetate. Incorporation efficiencies of progesterone ranged from 64.3 +/- 1.1 to 72.8 +/- 0.3%, depending upon microsphere formulations. X-ray powder diffractometry analysis substantiated that no polymorphic transition of progesterone occurred during microencapsulation. To evaluate the feasibility of this new method against the commonly used microencapsulation method, microspheres were also prepared by a typical dichloromethane-based solvent evaporation process. The important attributes of microspheres prepared from both methods were characterized for comparison. The new ammonolysis-based microencapsulation process showed interesting features distinct from those of the solvent evaporation process. The microencapsulation process reported in this study might be applicable in loading pharmaceuticals into various polymeric microspheres.

  2. Microwave Irradiation Assisted Preparation of Chitosan Composite Microsphere for Dye Adsorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyu Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan-activated carbon composite microspheres were prepared by emulsion cross-linking method and its adsorption properties for methyl orange were studied. Chitosan solution was mixed with activated carbon powder and then chitosan was cross-linked by epichlorohydrin under microwave irradiation. SEM photos show that the composite microspheres have diameters of 200–400 μm and activated carbon powder dispersed on the surface of composite microsphere. FTIR spectrum indicates chitosan is successfully cross-linked. Microwave irradiation can effectively shorten the cross-linking time. Composite microspheres have enhanced dye adsorption capacity for methyl orange compared to chitosan microspheres. Kinetic studies showed that the adsorption followed a pseudo-second-order model. Isotherm studies show that the isotherm adsorption equilibrium is better described by Freundlich isotherm. Regeneration results show that adsorption capacity of composite microsphere decreased about 5.51% after being reused for three times. These results indicated that chitosan-activated carbon composite microsphere has potential application in the removal of dye from wastewaters.

  3. A novel approach to preparing magnetic protein microspheres with core-shell structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang Wei, E-mail: climentjw@126.co [National Special Superfine Powder Engineering Research Center, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); Sun Zhendong; Li Fengsheng [National Special Superfine Powder Engineering Research Center, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); Chen Kai; Liu Tianyu; Liu Jialing [Department of Physics, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); Zhou Tianle [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); Guo Rui [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China)

    2011-03-15

    Magnetic protein microspheres with core-shell structure were prepared through a novel approach based on the sonochemical method and the emulsion solvent evaporation method. The microspheres are composed of the oleic acid and undecylenic acid modified Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} cores and coated with globular bovine serum albumin (BSA). Under an optimized condition, up to 57.8 wt% of approximately 10 nm superparamagnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles could be uniformly encapsulated into the BSA microspheres with the diameter of approximately 160 nm and the high saturation magnetization of 38.5 emu/g, besides of the abundant functional groups. The possible formation mechanism of magnetic microspheres was discussed in detail. - Research Highlights: Magnetic protein microspheres with core-shell structure were prepared through a novel approach based on the sonochemical method and the emulsion solvent evaporation method. The microspheres are composed of the oleic acid and undecylenic acid modified Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} cores and coated with globular bovine serum albumin (BSA). 57.8 wt% of approximately 10 nm superparamagnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles could be uniformly encapsulated into the BSA microspheres with the diameter of approximately 160 nm and the high saturation magnetization of 38.5 emu/g, besides the abundant functional groups.

  4. Comparative assessment of in vitro release kinetics of calcitonin polypeptide from biodegradable microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhu, Sunil; Sullivan, Jennifer L; Betageri, Guru V

    2002-01-01

    The objective of our study was to compare the in vitro release kinetics of a sustained-release injectable microsphere formulation of the polypeptide drug, calcitonin (CT), to optimize the characteristics of drug release from poly-(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) copolymer biodegradable microspheres. A modified solvent evaporation and double emulsion technique was used to prepare the microspheres. Release kinetic studies were carried out in silanized tubes and dialysis bags, whereby microspheres were suspended and incubated in phosphate buffered saline, sampled at fixed intervals, and analyzed for drug content using a modified Lowry protein assay procedure. An initial burst was observed whereby about 50% of the total dose of the drug was released from the microspheres within 24 hr and 75% within 3 days. This was followed by a period of slow release over a period of 3 weeks in which another 10-15% of drug was released. Drug release from the dialysis bags was more gradual, and 50% CT was released only after 4 days and 75% after 12 days of release. Scanning electron micrographs revealed spherical particles with channel-like structures and a porous surface after being suspended in an aqueous solution for 5 days. Differential scanning calorimetric studies revealed that CT was present as a mix of amorphous and crystalline forms within the microspheres. Overall, these studies demonstrated that sustained release of CT from PLGA microspheres over a 3-week period is feasible and that release of drug from dialysis bags was more predictable than from tubes.

  5. Application of superparamagnetic microspheres for affinity adsorption and purification of glutathione

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Qiang; Guan Yueping; Yang Mingzhu

    2012-01-01

    The superparamagnetic poly-(MA–DVB) microspheres with micron size were synthesized by the modified suspension polymerization method. Adsorption of glutathione by magnetic poly-(MA–DVB) microspheres with IDA-copper was investigated. The effect of solution pH value, affinity adsorption and desorption of glutathione was studied. The results showed that the optimum pH value for glutathione adsorption was found at pH=3.5, the maximum capacity for glutathione of magnetic poly-(MA–DVB) microspheres was estimated at 42.4 mg/g by fitting the experimental data to the Langmuir equation. The adsorption equilibrium of glutathione was obtained in about 10 min and the adsorbed glutathione was desorbed from the magnetic microspheres in about 30 min using NaCl buffer solution. The magnetic microspheres could be repeatedly utilized for the affinity adsorption of glutathione. - Highlights: ► The magnetic microsphere with surface IDA–Cu groups was synthesized. ► The magnetic microspheres were applied for adsorption of GSH. ► The adsorption–desorption of glutathione was investigated. ► The maximum adsorption capacity of GSH was fitted at 42.4 mg/g.

  6. Facile Synthesis of Mono-Dispersed Polystyrene (PS/Ag Composite Microspheres via Modified Chemical Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Zhu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A modified method based on in situ chemical reduction was developed to prepare mono-dispersed polystyrene/silver (PS/Ag composite microspheres. In this approach; mono-dispersed PS microspheres were synthesized through dispersion polymerization using poly-vinylpyrrolidone (PVP as a dispersant at first. Then, poly-dopamine (PDA was fabricated to functionally modify the surfaces of PS microspheres. With the addition of [Ag(NH32]+ to the PS dispersion, [Ag(NH32]+ complex ions were absorbed and reduced to silver nanoparticles on the surfaces of PS-PDA microspheres to form PS/Ag composite microspheres. PVP acted both as a solvent of the metallic precursor and as a reducing agent. PDA also acted both as a chemical protocol to immobilize the silver nanoparticles at the PS surface and as a reducing agent. Therefore, no additional reducing agents were needed. The resulting composite microspheres were characterized by TEM, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS, XRD, UV-Vis and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS. The results showed that Ag nanoparticles (NPs were homogeneously immobilized onto the PS microspheres’ surface in the presence of PDA and PVP. PS/Ag composite microspheres were well formed with a uniform and compact shell layer and were adjustable in terms of their optical property.

  7. Polymer blends used to develop felodipine-loaded hollow microspheres for improved oral bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pi, Chao; Feng, Ting; Liang, Jing; Liu, Hao; Huang, Dongmei; Zhan, Chenglin; Yuan, Jiyuan; Lee, Robert J; Zhao, Ling; Wei, Yumeng

    2018-06-01

    Felodipine (FD) has been widely used in anti-hypertensive treatment. However, it has extremely low aqueous solubility and poor bioavailability. To address these problems, FD hollow microspheres as multiple-unit dosage forms were synthesized by a solvent diffusion evaporation method. Particle size of the hollow microspheres, types of ethylcellulose (EC), amounts of EC, polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) and FD were investigated based on an orthogonal experiment of three factors and three levels. In addition, the release kinetics in vitro and pharmacokinetics in beagle dogs of the optimized FD hollow microspheres was investigated and compared with Plendil (commercial FD sustained-release tablets) as a single-unit dosage form. Results showed that the optimal formulation was composed of EC 10 cp :PVP:FD (0.9:0.16:0.36, w/w). The FD hollow microspheres were globular with a hollow structure and have high drug loading (17.69±0.44%) and floating rate (93.82±4.05%) in simulated human gastric fluid after 24h. Pharmacokinetic data showed that FD hollow microspheres exhibited sustained-release behavior and significantly improved relative bioavailability of FD compared with the control. Pharmacodynamic study showed that the FD hollow microspheres could effectively lower blood pressure. Therefore, these findings demonstrated that the hollow microspheres were an effective sustained-release delivery system for FD. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Controlled Release of Lysozyme from Double-Walled Poly(Lactide-Co-Glycolide (PLGA Microspheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezaul H. Ansary

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Double-walled microspheres based on poly(lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA are potential delivery systems for reducing a very high initial burst release of encapsulated protein and peptide drugs. In this study, double-walled microspheres made of glucose core, hydroxyl-terminated poly(lactide-co-glycolide (Glu-PLGA, and carboxyl-terminated PLGA were fabricated using a modified water-in-oil-in-oil-in-water (w1/o/o/w2 emulsion solvent evaporation technique for the controlled release of a model protein, lysozyme. Microspheres size, morphology, encapsulation efficiency, lysozyme in vitro release profiles, bioactivity, and structural integrity, were evaluated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM images revealed that double-walled microspheres comprising of Glu-PLGA and PLGA with a mass ratio of 1:1 have a spherical shape and smooth surfaces. A statistically significant increase in the encapsulation efficiency (82.52% ± 3.28% was achieved when 1% (w/v polyvinyl alcohol (PVA and 2.5% (w/v trehalose were incorporated in the internal and external aqueous phase, respectively, during emulsification. Double-walled microspheres prepared together with excipients (PVA and trehalose showed a better control release of lysozyme. The released lysozyme was fully bioactive, and its structural integrity was slightly affected during microspheres fabrication and in vitro release studies. Therefore, double-walled microspheres made of Glu-PLGA and PLGA together with excipients (PVA and trehalose provide a controlled and sustained release for lysozyme.

  9. Formulation and Evaluation of Microsphere Based Oro Dispersible Tablets of Itopride Hcl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.S Agrawal

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The purpose of the present work is to mask the intensely bitter taste of Itopride HCl and to formulate an Oro dispersible tablet (ODT of the taste-masked drug by incorporation of microspheres in the tablets for use in specific populations viz. pediatrics, geriatrics and patients experiencing difficulty in swallowing.Methods:With this objective in mind, microspheres loaded with Itopride HCl were prepared by solvent evaporation method using acetone as solvent for pH-sensitive polymer, Eudragit EPO and light liquid paraffin as the encapsulating medium. The prepared microspheres were characterized with regard to yield, drug content, flow properties, particle size and size distribution, surface features, in vitro drug release and taste. The ODTs so prepared from these microspheres were evaluated for hardness, thickness, weight variation, friability, disintegration time, drug content, wetting time, water absorption ratio, moisture uptake, in vitro dispersion, in vitro disintegration, in vitro drug release and stability. Results:The average size of microspheres was found to be satisfactory in terms of the size and size distribution. Microspheres prepared were of a regular spherical shape. Comparison of the dissolution profiles of microspheres in different pH media showed that microspheres having drug: polymer ratio of 1:2 produced a retarding effect in simulated salivary fluid (pH 6.8 and were further used for formulation into ODTs after addition of suitable amounts of excipients such as superdisintegrant, diluent, sweetener and flavor of directly compressible grade. ConclusionsEffective taste-masking was achieved for Itopride HCl by way of preparation of microspheres and ODTs of acceptable characteristics.

  10. Simple Synthesis of Molybdenum Disulfide/Reduced Graphene Oxide Composite Hollow Microspheres as Supercapacitor Electrode Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Wei; Zhou, Wenjie; Feng, Tong; Zhang, Yanhua; Liu, Hongdong; Tian, Liangliang

    2016-09-20

    MoS₂/RGO composite hollow microspheres were hydrothermally synthesized by using SiO₂/GO microspheres as a template, which were obtained via the sonication-assisted interfacial self-assembly of tiny GO sheets on positively charged SiO₂ microspheres. The structure, morphology, phase, and chemical composition of MoS₂/RGO hollow microspheres were systematically investigated by a series of techniques such as FE-SEM, TEM, XRD, TGA, BET, and Raman characterizations, meanwhile, their electrochemical properties were carefully evaluated by CV, GCD, and EIS measurements. It was found that MoS₂/RGO hollow microspheres possessed unique porous hollow architecture with high-level hierarchy and large specific surface area up to 63.7 m²·g -1 . When used as supercapacitor electrode material, MoS₂/RGO hollow microspheres delivered a maximum specific capacitance of 218.1 F·g -1 at the current density of 1 A·g -1 , which was much higher than that of contrastive bare MoS₂ microspheres developed in the present work and most of other reported MoS₂-based materials. The enhancement of supercapacitive behaviors of MoS₂/RGO hollow microspheres was likely due to the improved conductivity together with their distinct structure and morphology, which not only promoted the charge transport but also facilitated the electrolyte diffusion. Moreover, MoS₂/RGO hollow microsphere electrode displayed satisfactory long-term stability with 91.8% retention of the initial capacitance after 1000 charge/discharge cycles at the current density of 3 A·g -1 , showing excellent application potential.

  11. Simple Synthesis of Molybdenum Disulfide/Reduced Graphene Oxide Composite Hollow Microspheres as Supercapacitor Electrode Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Xiao

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available MoS2/RGO composite hollow microspheres were hydrothermally synthesized by using SiO2/GO microspheres as a template, which were obtained via the sonication-assisted interfacial self-assembly of tiny GO sheets on positively charged SiO2 microspheres. The structure, morphology, phase, and chemical composition of MoS2/RGO hollow microspheres were systematically investigated by a series of techniques such as FE-SEM, TEM, XRD, TGA, BET, and Raman characterizations, meanwhile, their electrochemical properties were carefully evaluated by CV, GCD, and EIS measurements. It was found that MoS2/RGO hollow microspheres possessed unique porous hollow architecture with high-level hierarchy and large specific surface area up to 63.7 m2·g−1. When used as supercapacitor electrode material, MoS2/RGO hollow microspheres delivered a maximum specific capacitance of 218.1 F·g−1 at the current density of 1 A·g−1, which was much higher than that of contrastive bare MoS2 microspheres developed in the present work and most of other reported MoS2-based materials. The enhancement of supercapacitive behaviors of MoS2/RGO hollow microspheres was likely due to the improved conductivity together with their distinct structure and morphology, which not only promoted the charge transport but also facilitated the electrolyte diffusion. Moreover, MoS2/RGO hollow microsphere electrode displayed satisfactory long-term stability with 91.8% retention of the initial capacitance after 1000 charge/discharge cycles at the current density of 3 A·g−1, showing excellent application potential.

  12. Formulation and evaluation of microsphere based oro dispersible tablets of itopride hcl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Sanjay

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of the present work is to mask the intensely bitter taste of Itopride HCl and to formulate an Oro dispersible tablet (ODT of the taste-masked drug by incorporation of microspheres in the tablets for use in specific populations viz. pediatrics, geriatrics and patients experiencing difficulty in swallowing. Methods With this objective in mind, microspheres loaded with Itopride HCl were prepared by solvent evaporation method using acetone as solvent for pH-sensitive polymer, Eudragit EPO and light liquid paraffin as the encapsulating medium. The prepared microspheres were characterized with regard to yield, drug content, flow properties, particle size and size distribution, surface features, in vitro drug release and taste. The ODTs so prepared from these microspheres were evaluated for hardness, thickness, weight variation, friability, disintegration time, drug content, wetting time, water absorption ratio, moisture uptake, in vitro dispersion, in vitro disintegration, in vitro drug release and stability. Results The average size of microspheres was found to be satisfactory in terms of the size and size distribution. Microspheres prepared were of a regular spherical shape. Comparison of the dissolution profiles of microspheres in different pH media showed that microspheres having drug: polymer ratio of 1:2 produced a retarding effect in simulated salivary fluid (pH 6.8 and were further used for formulation into ODTs after addition of suitable amounts of excipients such as superdisintegrant, diluent, sweetener and flavor of directly compressible grade. Conclusions Effective taste-masking was achieved for Itopride HCl by way of preparation of microspheres and ODTs of acceptable characteristics.

  13. Formulation and evaluation of microsphere based oro dispersible tablets of itopride hcl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Sanjay; Madan, Sarika; Agrawal, Ss

    2012-09-03

    The purpose of the present work is to mask the intensely bitter taste of Itopride HCl and to formulate an Oro dispersible tablet (ODT) of the taste-masked drug by incorporation of microspheres in the tablets for use in specific populations viz. pediatrics, geriatrics and patients experiencing difficulty in swallowing. With this objective in mind, microspheres loaded with Itopride HCl were prepared by solvent evaporation method using acetone as solvent for pH-sensitive polymer, Eudragit EPO and light liquid paraffin as the encapsulating medium. The prepared microspheres were characterized with regard to yield, drug content, flow properties, particle size and size distribution, surface features, in vitro drug release and taste. The ODTs so prepared from these microspheres were evaluated for hardness, thickness, weight variation, friability, disintegration time, drug content, wetting time, water absorption ratio, moisture uptake, in vitro dispersion, in vitro disintegration, in vitro drug release and stability. The average size of microspheres was found to be satisfactory in terms of the size and size distribution. Microspheres prepared were of a regular spherical shape. Comparison of the dissolution profiles of microspheres in different pH media showed that microspheres having drug: polymer ratio of 1:2 produced a retarding effect in simulated salivary fluid (pH 6.8) and were further used for formulation into ODTs after addition of suitable amounts of excipients such as superdisintegrant, diluent, sweetener and flavor of directly compressible grade. Effective taste-masking was achieved for Itopride HCl by way of preparation of microspheres and ODTs of acceptable characteristics.

  14. Synthesis of plastic scintillation microspheres: Alpha/beta discrimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santiago, L.M.; Bagán, H.; Tarancón, A.; Garcia, J.F.

    2014-01-01

    Plastic scintillation microspheres (PSm) have been developed as an alternative for liquid scintillation cocktails due to their ability to avoid the mixed waste, besides other strengths in which the possibility for alpha/beta discrimination is included. The aim of this work was to evaluate the capability of PSm containing two combinations of fluorescence solutes (PPO/POPOP and pT/Bis-MSB) and variable amounts of a second organic solvent (naphthalene) to enhance the alpha/beta discrimination. Two commercial detectors with different Pulse Shape Discrimination performances (Quantulus and Triathler) were used to evaluate the alpha/beta discrimination. An optimal discrimination of alpha/beta particles was reached, with very low misclassification values (2% for beta particles and 0.5% for alpha particles), when PSm containing PPO/POPOP and between 0.6 and 2.0 g of naphthalene were evaluated using Triathler and the appropriate programme for data processing. - Highlights: • Plastic scintillation microspheres for α/β discrimination have been synthesised. • The energy transfer process in PSm with different compositions has been investigated. • The α/β discrimination capabilities of two commercial detectors have been evaluated. • 2% and 0.5% of misclassifications for β and α radionuclides have been achieved respectively

  15. Synthesis, characterisation and biomedical applications of curcumin conjugated chitosan microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saranya, T S; Rajan, V K; Biswas, Raja; Jayakumar, R; Sathianarayanan, S

    2018-04-15

    Curcumin is a diaryl heptanoid of curcuminoids class obtained from Curcuma longa. It possesses various biological activities like anti-inflammatory, hypoglycemic, antioxidant, wound-healing, and antimicrobial activities. Chitosan is a biocompatible, biodegradable and non-toxic natural polymer which enhances the adhesive property of the skin. Chemical conjugation will leads to sustained release action and to enhance the bioavailability. This study aims to synthesis and characterize biocompatible curcumin conjugated chitosan microspheres for bio-medical applications. The Schiff base reaction was carried out for the preparation of curcumin conjugated chitosan by microwave method and it was characterised using FTIR and NMR. Curcumin conjugated chitosan microspheres (CCCMs) were prepared by wet milling solvent evaporation method. SEM analysis showed these CCCMs were 2-5μm spherical particles. The antibacterial activities of the prepared CCCMs were studied against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, the zone of inhibition was 28mm and 23mm respectively. Antioxidant activity of the prepared CCCMs was also studied by DPPH and H 2 O 2 method it showed IC 50 esteem value of 216μg/ml and 228μg/ml, and anti-inflammatory activity results showed that CCCMs having IC 50 value of 45μg/ml. The results conclude that the CCCMs having a good antibacterial, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. This, the prepared CCCMs have potential application in preventing skin infections. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Properties of dry masonry mixtures based on hollow aluminosilicate microspheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semenov Vyacheslav

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, there is a steady increase in the volume of housing construction in the Russian Federation. The modern trends in the field of energy and resource saving determine the need of the use of efficient building materials that ensure the safety, comfort and minimum cost of housing construction. Among the materials, often used for erecting of fencing structures, it is possible to note effective small-piece elements (ceramic and light-weight concrete units, etc.. To ensure the solidity of such structures, it is necessary to use the masonry mortars whose properties correspond to those of the main wall material. The existing dry mixes for obtaining of such mortars are expensive and often do not meet the minimum physical-and-mechanical and exploitation requirements. The solution of this problem is the usage of the hollow ceramics (aluminosilicate microspheres as a filler for such mixes. The article presents the results of studies of the main physical-and-mechanical and exploitation characteristics of dry masonry mixes with hollow ceramics microspheres modified with various chemical additives. The effect of the compounding factors on the average density and strength of dry masonry mixes was studied. The compositions have been optimized by the methods of mathematical planning.

  17. Yttrium 90 microspheres for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memon, Khairuddin; Lewandowski, Robert J; Riaz, Ahsun; Salem, Riad

    2013-01-01

    Yttrium-90 microspheres are radioactive particles which are increasingly being employed for treating patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The procedure is called radioembolization. It involves the injection of micron-sized embolic particles loaded with a radioisotope by use of transarterial techniques. Because of the sensitivity of liver parenchyma and relative insensitivity of tumor, external radiation has played a limited role in treating HCC. (90)Y administered via arterial route directs the highly concentrated radiation to the tumor while healthy liver parenchyma is relatively spared due to its preferential blood supply from portal venous blood. This technique has proven useful for the majority of patients with HCC as most of them present in advanced stage, beyond potentially curative options (resection/liver transplantation). (90)Y microspheres can be used in downstaging large tumors to bring within transplantable criteria, in patients with portal venous thrombosis due to tumor invasion and as palliative therapy. There are two available devices for (90)Y administration; TheraSphere® (glass based) and SIR-Spheres® (resin based). The procedure is performed on an outpatient basis. The incidence of complications is comparatively less and may include nausea, fatigue, abdominal pain, hepatic dysfunction, biliary injury, fibrosis, radiation pneumonitis, GI ulcers, and vascular injury; however, these can be avoided by meticulous pretreatment assessment, careful patient selection, and adequate dosimetry. This article explores the technical and clinical aspects of (90)Y radioembolization with keeping emphasis on patient selection, uses, and complications.

  18. Biocompatibility of Bletilla striata Microspheres as a Novel Embolic Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ShiHua Luo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We have prepared Chinese traditional herb Bletilla striata into microspheres as a novel embolic agent for decades. The aim of this study was to evaluate the biocompatibility of Bletilla striata microspheres (BSMs. After a thermal test of BSMs in vitro, the cell biocompatibility of BSMs was investigated in mouse fibroblasts and human umbilical vein endothelial cells using the methyl tetrazolium (MTT assay. In addition, blood biocompatibility was evaluated. In vivo intramuscular implantation and renal artery embolization in rabbits with BSMs were used to examine the inflammatory response. The experimental rabbits did not develop any fever symptoms after injection of BSMs, and BSMs exhibited no cytotoxicity in cultured mouse fibroblasts and human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Additionally, BSMs exhibited high compatibility with red blood cells and no hemolysis activity. Intramuscular implantation with BSMs resulted in a gradually lessened mild inflammatory reaction that disappeared after eight weeks. The occlusion of small renal vessels was associated with a mild perivascular inflammatory reaction without significant renal and liver function damage. In conclusion, we believe that BSMs exhibit high biocompatibility and are a promising embolic agent.

  19. Zeolitic materials with hierarchical porous structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Orozco, Sofia; Inayat, Amer; Schwab, Andreas; Selvam, Thangaraj; Schwieger, Wilhelm

    2011-06-17

    During the past several years, different kinds of hierarchical structured zeolitic materials have been synthesized due to their highly attractive properties, such as superior mass/heat transfer characteristics, lower restriction of the diffusion of reactants in the mesopores, and low pressure drop. Our contribution provides general information regarding types and preparation methods of hierarchical zeolitic materials and their relative advantages and disadvantages. Thereafter, recent advances in the preparation and characterization of hierarchical zeolitic structures within the crystallites by post-synthetic treatment methods, such as dealumination or desilication; and structured devices by in situ and ex situ zeolite coatings on open-cellular ceramic foams as (non-reactive as well as reactive) supports are highlighted. Specific advantages of using hierarchical zeolitic catalysts/structures in selected catalytic reactions, such as benzene to phenol (BTOP) and methanol to olefins (MTO) are presented. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. HIERARCHICAL ORGANIZATION OF INFORMATION, IN RELATIONAL DATABASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demian Horia

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I will present different types of representation, of hierarchical information inside a relational database. I also will compare them to find the best organization for specific scenarios.

  1. Hierarchical DSE for multi-ASIP platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Micconi, Laura; Corvino, Rosilde; Gangadharan, Deepak

    2013-01-01

    This work proposes a hierarchical Design Space Exploration (DSE) for the design of multi-processor platforms targeted to specific applications with strict timing and area constraints. In particular, it considers platforms integrating multiple Application Specific Instruction Set Processors (ASIPs...

  2. Packaging glass with hierarchically nanostructured surface

    KAUST Repository

    He, Jr-Hau

    2017-08-03

    An optical device includes an active region and packaging glass located on top of the active region. A top surface of the packaging glass includes hierarchical nanostructures comprised of honeycombed nanowalls (HNWs) and nanorod (NR) structures extending from the HNWs.

  3. Packaging glass with hierarchically nanostructured surface

    KAUST Repository

    He, Jr-Hau; Fu, Hui-Chun

    2017-01-01

    An optical device includes an active region and packaging glass located on top of the active region. A top surface of the packaging glass includes hierarchical nanostructures comprised of honeycombed nanowalls (HNWs) and nanorod (NR) structures

  4. Large-area parallel near-field optical nanopatterning of functional materials using microsphere mask

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, G.X. [NUS Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Initiative, National University of Singapore, 2 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Hong, M.H. [NUS Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Initiative, National University of Singapore, 2 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Data Storage Institute, ASTAR, DSI Building, 5 Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117608 (Singapore)], E-mail: Hong_Minghui@dsi.a-star.edu.sg; Lin, Y. [NUS Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Initiative, National University of Singapore, 2 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Wang, Z.B. [Data Storage Institute, ASTAR, DSI Building, 5 Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117608 (Singapore); Ng, D.K.T. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Data Storage Institute, ASTAR, DSI Building, 5 Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117608 (Singapore); Xie, Q. [Data Storage Institute, ASTAR, DSI Building, 5 Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117608 (Singapore); Tan, L.S. [NUS Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Initiative, National University of Singapore, 2 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Chong, T.C. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Data Storage Institute, ASTAR, DSI Building, 5 Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117608 (Singapore)

    2008-01-31

    Large-area parallel near-field optical nanopatterning on functional material surfaces was investigated with KrF excimer laser irradiation. A monolayer of silicon dioxide microspheres was self-assembled on the sample surfaces as the processing mask. Nanoholes and nanospots were obtained on silicon surfaces and thin silver films, respectively. The nanopatterning results were affected by the refractive indices of the surrounding media. Near-field optical enhancement beneath the microspheres is the physical origin of nanostructure formation. Theoretical calculation was performed to study the intensity of optical field distributions under the microspheres according to the light scattering model of a sphere on the substrate.

  5. Encapsulation of Liposomes within pH Responsive Microspheres for Oral Colonic Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Barea

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel liposome-in-microsphere (LIM formulation has been created comprising drug-loaded liposomes within pH responsive Eudragit S100 microspheres. The liposomes contained the model drug 5-ASA and were coated with chitosan in order to protect them during encapsulation within the microspheres and to improve site-specific release characteristics. In vitro drug release studies showed that LIMs prevented drug release within simulated stomach and small intestine conditions with subsequent drug release occurring in large intestine conditions. The formulation therefore has potential for oral colonic drug delivery.

  6. Preparation and properties of hollow glass microspheres for use in laser fusion experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, J.H.; Grens, J.Z.; Poco, J.F.

    1983-11-01

    We review the preparation of high quality, hollow-glass microspheres for use in laser driven fusion experiments at LLNL. The primary focus of this paper is on the liquid-droplet method for making glass spheres, which has been in use at LLNL for over six years. We have combined the results from previous studies with our current results to present a detailed description of the preparation and the composition and physical properties of the glass microspheres. We also present a mathematical model that simulates the microsphere formation process. Examples are given of the application of the model to study the effects of various process parameters.

  7. Preparation and properties of hollow glass microspheres for use in laser fusion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, J.H.; Grens, J.Z.; Poco, J.F.

    1983-01-01

    We review the preparation of high quality, hollow-glass microspheres for use in laser driven fusion experiments at LLNL. The primary focus of this paper is on the liquid-droplet method for making glass spheres, which has been in use at LLNL for over six years. We have combined the results from previous studies with our current results to present a detailed description of the preparation and the composition and physical properties of the glass microspheres. We also present a mathematical model that simulates the microsphere formation process. Examples are given of the application of the model to study the effects of various process parameters

  8. A method and apparatus for the manufacture of glass microspheres adapted to contain a thermonuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budrick, R.G.; Nolen, R.L. Jr.; Solomon, D.E.; King, F.T.

    1975-01-01

    The invention relates to the manufacture of glass microspheres. It refers to a method according to which a sintered glass-powder, whose particles are calibrated, is introduced into a blow-pipe adapted to project said glass-powder particles into a heated flue, said sintered glass-powder containing a pore-forming agent adapted to expand the glass particles into microspheres which are collected in a chamber situated abode said flue. The method can be applied to the manufacture of microspheres adapted to contain a thermonuclear fuel [fr

  9. Formation of microspheres under the action of femtosecond laser radiation on titanium samples in hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochuev, D. A.; Khorkov, K. S.; Ivashchenko, A. V.; Prokoshev, V. G.; Arakelian, S. M.

    2018-01-01

    This work describes the original method of laser synthesis of microspheres which contain titanium carbide. The formation of microspheres is carried out by the action of femtosecond laser radiation on the surface of titanium in the reaction medium - the ultimate hydrocarbon. The resulting microspheres have a high surface smoothness, a narrow particle size distribution, an average size of 1-3 μm. They can be used in applications of additive engineering, powder metallurgy as the main raw material, or as an alloying additive.

  10. Sustained release donepezil loaded PLGA microspheres for injection: Preparation, in vitro and in vivo study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Wenjia; Quan, Peng; Fang, Liang

    2015-01-01

    -solvent evaporation method. The optimized formulation which avoided the crushing of microspheres during the preparation process was characterized in terms of particle size, morphology, drug loading and EE, physical state of DP in the matrix and in vitro and in vivo release behavior. DP microspheres were prepared...... release mechanism. After single-dose administration of DP microspheres via subcutaneous injection in rats, the plasma concentration of DP reached peak concentration at 0.50 d, and then declined gradually, but was still detectable at 15 d. A good correlation between in vitro and in vivo data was obtained...

  11. Minimizing resputtering of Pt-coated microspheres in a batch magnetron sputtering process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plake, A.L.

    1981-01-01

    Preventing DT loss from glass microspheres being smoothly coated with PT is needed during fabrication of laser fusion targets. Evidence indicates that the increase of substrate temperature due to resputtering will cause DT loss. Resputtering will prevent a smooth and uniform coating on these glass microspheres (140 μm in diameter). This paper reviews the method that was developed to find a set of coating conditions to minimize the DT loss, and still be able to produce thick smooth Pt coated glass microspheres

  12. Preparation and characterization of monodisperse large-porous silica microspheres as the matrix for protein separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Hongjun; Wan, Guangping; Zhao, Junlong; Liu, Jiawei; Bai, Quan

    2016-11-04

    High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is a kind of efficient separation technology and has been used widely in many fields. Micro-sized porous silica microspheres as the most popular matrix have been used for fast separation and analysis in HPLC. In this paper, the monodisperse large-porous silica microspheres with controllable size and structure were successfully synthesized with polymer microspheres as the templates and characterized. First, the poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate) microspheres (P GMA-EDMA ) were functionalized with tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA) to generate amino groups which act as a catalyst in hydrolysis of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) to form Si-containing low molecular weight species. Then the low molecular weight species diffused into the functionalized P GMA-EDMA microspheres by induction force of the amino groups to form polymer/silica hybrid microspheres. Finally, the organic polymer templates were removed by calcination, and the large-porous silica microspheres were obtained. The compositions, morphology, size distribution, specific surface area and pore size distribution of the porous silica microspheres were characterized by infrared analyzer, scanning-electron microscopy, dynamic laser scattering, the mercury intrusion method and thermal gravimetric analysis, respectively. The results show that the agglomeration of the hybrid microspheres can be overcome when the templates were functionalized with TEPA as amination reagent, and the yield of 95.7% of the monodisperse large-porous silica microspheres can be achieved with high concentration of polymer templates. The resulting large-porous silica microspheres were modified with octadecyltrichlorosilane (ODS) and the chromatographic evaluation was performed by separating the proteins and the digest of BSA. The baseline separation of seven kinds of protein standards was achieved, and the column delivered a better performance when separating BSA digests

  13. Hierarchical organization versus self-organization

    OpenAIRE

    Busseniers, Evo

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we try to define the difference between hierarchical organization and self-organization. Organization is defined as a structure with a function. So we can define the difference between hierarchical organization and self-organization both on the structure as on the function. In the next two chapters these two definitions are given. For the structure we will use some existing definitions in graph theory, for the function we will use existing theory on (self-)organization. In the t...

  14. Hierarchical decision making for flood risk reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Custer, Rocco; Nishijima, Kazuyoshi

    2013-01-01

    . In current practice, structures are often optimized individually without considering benefits of having a hierarchy of protection structures. It is here argued, that the joint consideration of hierarchically integrated protection structures is beneficial. A hierarchical decision model is utilized to analyze...... and compare the benefit of large upstream protection structures and local downstream protection structures in regard to epistemic uncertainty parameters. Results suggest that epistemic uncertainty influences the outcome of the decision model and that, depending on the magnitude of epistemic uncertainty...

  15. Fabrication of long-term stable superoleophobic surface based on copper oxide/cobalt oxide with micro-nanoscale hierarchical roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthwal, Sumit; Lim, Si-Hyung

    2015-02-01

    We have demonstrated a simple and cost-effective technique for the large-area fabrication of a superoleophobic surface using copper as a substrate. The whole process included three simple steps: First, the copper substrate was oxidized under hot alkaline conditions to fabricate flower-like copper oxide microspheres by heating at a particular temperature for an interval of time. Second, the copper-oxide-covered copper substrate was further heated in a solution of cobalt nitrate and ammonium nitrate in the presence of an ammonia solution to fabricate cobalt oxide nanostructures. We applied this second step to increase the surface roughness because it is an important criterion for improved superoleophobicity. Finally, to reduce the surface energy of the fabricated structures, the surfaces were chemically modified with perfluorooctyltrichlorosilane. Contact-angle measurements indicate that the micro-nano binary (MNB) hierarchical structures fabricated on the copper substrate became super-repellent toward a broad range of liquids with surface tension in the range of 21.5-72 mN/m. In an attempt to significantly improve the superoleophobic property of the surface, we also examined and compared the role of nanostructures in MNB hierarchical structures with only micro-fabricated surfaces. The fabricated MNB hierarchical structures also displays thermal stability and excellent long-term stability after exposure in air for more than 9 months. Our method might provide a general route toward the preparation of novel hierarchical films on metal substrates for various industrial applications.

  16. Hierarchical Nanoceramics for Industrial Process Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruud, James, A.; Brosnan, Kristen, H.; Striker, Todd; Ramaswamy, Vidya; Aceto, Steven, C.; Gao, Yan; Willson, Patrick, D.; Manoharan, Mohan; Armstrong, Eric, N., Wachsman, Eric, D.; Kao, Chi-Chang

    2011-07-15

    This project developed a robust, tunable, hierarchical nanoceramics materials platform for industrial process sensors in harsh-environments. Control of material structure at multiple length scales from nano to macro increased the sensing response of the materials to combustion gases. These materials operated at relatively high temperatures, enabling detection close to the source of combustion. It is anticipated that these materials can form the basis for a new class of sensors enabling widespread use of efficient combustion processes with closed loop feedback control in the energy-intensive industries. The first phase of the project focused on materials selection and process development, leading to hierarchical nanoceramics that were evaluated for sensing performance. The second phase focused on optimizing the materials processes and microstructures, followed by validation of performance of a prototype sensor in a laboratory combustion environment. The objectives of this project were achieved by: (1) synthesizing and optimizing hierarchical nanostructures; (2) synthesizing and optimizing sensing nanomaterials; (3) integrating sensing functionality into hierarchical nanostructures; (4) demonstrating material performance in a sensing element; and (5) validating material performance in a simulated service environment. The project developed hierarchical nanoceramic electrodes for mixed potential zirconia gas sensors with increased surface area and demonstrated tailored electrocatalytic activity operable at high temperatures enabling detection of products of combustion such as NOx close to the source of combustion. Methods were developed for synthesis of hierarchical nanostructures with high, stable surface area, integrated catalytic functionality within the structures for gas sensing, and demonstrated materials performance in harsh lab and combustion gas environments.

  17. Evaluating Hierarchical Structure in Music Annotations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFee, Brian; Nieto, Oriol; Farbood, Morwaread M; Bello, Juan Pablo

    2017-01-01

    Music exhibits structure at multiple scales, ranging from motifs to large-scale functional components. When inferring the structure of a piece, different listeners may attend to different temporal scales, which can result in disagreements when they describe the same piece. In the field of music informatics research (MIR), it is common to use corpora annotated with structural boundaries at different levels. By quantifying disagreements between multiple annotators, previous research has yielded several insights relevant to the study of music cognition. First, annotators tend to agree when structural boundaries are ambiguous. Second, this ambiguity seems to depend on musical features, time scale, and genre. Furthermore, it is possible to tune current annotation evaluation metrics to better align with these perceptual differences. However, previous work has not directly analyzed the effects of hierarchical structure because the existing methods for comparing structural annotations are designed for "flat" descriptions, and do not readily generalize to hierarchical annotations. In this paper, we extend and generalize previous work on the evaluation of hierarchical descriptions of musical structure. We derive an evaluation metric which can compare hierarchical annotations holistically across multiple levels. sing this metric, we investigate inter-annotator agreement on the multilevel annotations of two different music corpora, investigate the influence of acoustic properties on hierarchical annotations, and evaluate existing hierarchical segmentation algorithms against the distribution of inter-annotator agreement.

  18. Evaluating Hierarchical Structure in Music Annotations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian McFee

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Music exhibits structure at multiple scales, ranging from motifs to large-scale functional components. When inferring the structure of a piece, different listeners may attend to different temporal scales, which can result in disagreements when they describe the same piece. In the field of music informatics research (MIR, it is common to use corpora annotated with structural boundaries at different levels. By quantifying disagreements between multiple annotators, previous research has yielded several insights relevant to the study of music cognition. First, annotators tend to agree when structural boundaries are ambiguous. Second, this ambiguity seems to depend on musical features, time scale, and genre. Furthermore, it is possible to tune current annotation evaluation metrics to better align with these perceptual differences. However, previous work has not directly analyzed the effects of hierarchical structure because the existing methods for comparing structural annotations are designed for “flat” descriptions, and do not readily generalize to hierarchical annotations. In this paper, we extend and generalize previous work on the evaluation of hierarchical descriptions of musical structure. We derive an evaluation metric which can compare hierarchical annotations holistically across multiple levels. sing this metric, we investigate inter-annotator agreement on the multilevel annotations of two different music corpora, investigate the influence of acoustic properties on hierarchical annotations, and evaluate existing hierarchical segmentation algorithms against the distribution of inter-annotator agreement.

  19. Hierarchical screening for multiple mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batterham, Philip J; Calear, Alison L; Sunderland, Matthew; Carragher, Natacha; Christensen, Helen; Mackinnon, Andrew J

    2013-10-01

    There is a need for brief, accurate screening when assessing multiple mental disorders. Two-stage hierarchical screening, consisting of brief pre-screening followed by a battery of disorder-specific scales for those who meet diagnostic criteria, may increase the efficiency of screening without sacrificing precision. This study tested whether more efficient screening could be gained using two-stage hierarchical screening than by administering multiple separate tests. Two Australian adult samples (N=1990) with high rates of psychopathology were recruited using Facebook advertising to examine four methods of hierarchical screening for four mental disorders: major depressive disorder, generalised anxiety disorder, panic disorder and social phobia. Using K6 scores to determine whether full screening was required did not increase screening efficiency. However, pre-screening based on two decision tree approaches or item gating led to considerable reductions in the mean number of items presented per disorder screened, with estimated item reductions of up to 54%. The sensitivity of these hierarchical methods approached 100% relative to the full screening battery. Further testing of the hierarchical screening approach based on clinical criteria and in other samples is warranted. The results demonstrate that a two-phase hierarchical approach to screening multiple mental disorders leads to considerable increases efficiency gains without reducing accuracy. Screening programs should take advantage of prescreeners based on gating items or decision trees to reduce the burden on respondents. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Formulation, evaluation and 3(2) full factorial design-based optimization of ondansetron hydrochloride incorporated taste masked microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharb, Vandana; Saharan, Vikas Anand; Dev, Kapil; Jadhav, Hemant; Purohit, Suresh

    2014-11-01

    Masking the bitter taste of Ondansetron hydrochloride (ONS) may improve palatability, acceptance and compliance of ONS products. ONS-loaded, taste-masked microspheres were prepared with a polycationic pH-sensitive polymer and 3(2) full factorial design (FFD) was applied to optimize microsphere batches. Solvent evaporation, in acetone--methanol/liquid paraffin system, was used to prepare taste-masked ONS microspheres. The effect of varying drug/polymer (D/P) ratios on microspheres characteristics were studied by 3(2) FFD. Desirability function was used to search the optimum formulation. Microspheres were evaluated by FTIR, XRD and DSC to examine interaction and effect of microencapsulation process. In vitro taste assessment approach based on bitterness threshold and drug release was used to assess bitterness scores. Prepared ONS microspheres were spherical and surface was wrinkled. ONS was molecularly dispersed in microspheres without any incompatibility with EE100. In hydrochloric acid buffer pH 1.2, ONS released completely from microsphere in just 10 min. Contrary to this, ONS release at initial 5 min from taste-masked microspheres was less than the bitterness threshold. Full factorial design and in vitro taste assessment approach, coupled together, was successfully applied to develop and optimize batches of ONS incorporated taste-masked microspheres.