WorldWideScience

Sample records for hierarchical architecture composed

  1. An Area Efficient Composed CORDIC Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AGUIRRE-RAMOS, F.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a composed architecture for the CORDIC algorithm. CORDIC is a widely used technique to calculate basic trigonometric functions using only additions and shifts. This composed architecture combines an initial coarse stage to approximate sine and cosine functions, and a second stage to finely tune those values while CORDIC operates on rotation mode. Both stages contribute to shorten the algorithmic steps required to fully execute the CORDIC algorithm. For comparison purposes, the Xilinx CORDIC logiCORE IP and previously reported research are used. The proposed architecture aims at reducing hardware resources usage as its key objective.

  2. Hierarchical architecture of active knits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abel, Julianna; Luntz, Jonathan; Brei, Diann

    2013-01-01

    Nature eloquently utilizes hierarchical structures to form the world around us. Applying the hierarchical architecture paradigm to smart materials can provide a basis for a new genre of actuators which produce complex actuation motions. One promising example of cellular architecture—active knits—provides complex three-dimensional distributed actuation motions with expanded operational performance through a hierarchically organized structure. The hierarchical structure arranges a single fiber of active material, such as shape memory alloys (SMAs), into a cellular network of interlacing adjacent loops according to a knitting grid. This paper defines a four-level hierarchical classification of knit structures: the basic knit loop, knit patterns, grid patterns, and restructured grids. Each level of the hierarchy provides increased architectural complexity, resulting in expanded kinematic actuation motions of active knits. The range of kinematic actuation motions are displayed through experimental examples of different SMA active knits. The results from this paper illustrate and classify the ways in which each level of the hierarchical knit architecture leverages the performance of the base smart material to generate unique actuation motions, providing necessary insight to best exploit this new actuation paradigm. (paper)

  3. FIA: An Open Forensic Integration Architecture for Composing Digital Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavan, Sriram; Clark, Andrew; Mohay, George

    The analysis and value of digital evidence in an investigation has been the domain of discourse in the digital forensic community for several years. While many works have considered different approaches to model digital evidence, a comprehensive understanding of the process of merging different evidence items recovered during a forensic analysis is still a distant dream. With the advent of modern technologies, pro-active measures are integral to keeping abreast of all forms of cyber crimes and attacks. This paper motivates the need to formalize the process of analyzing digital evidence from multiple sources simultaneously. In this paper, we present the forensic integration architecture (FIA) which provides a framework for abstracting the evidence source and storage format information from digital evidence and explores the concept of integrating evidence information from multiple sources. The FIA architecture identifies evidence information from multiple sources that enables an investigator to build theories to reconstruct the past. FIA is hierarchically composed of multiple layers and adopts a technology independent approach. FIA is also open and extensible making it simple to adapt to technological changes. We present a case study using a hypothetical car theft case to demonstrate the concepts and illustrate the value it brings into the field.

  4. Composing the Layer of Knowledge of Digital Technology in Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanes Mikhael

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of digital tools in architectural practice has been evolving significantly. In following such developments, architectural practice has been incorporating digital technology not only to meet the current demand but also to pursue the vast amount of possibilities ahead. However, the integration of digital technology in architectural knowledge has been reasonably operative that produces uncritical understanding, and it tends to put architects as a passive user of technology. This paper argues that there are layers of knowledge that nees to be acknowledged and nourished accordingly in embracing the use of computation tools yet avoiding the overly simplistic.understanding. It attempts to explore the methods of digital technology in archietctural design practices as well as dicussions that follow to create a critical evaluation of its roles and potentials. The review is conducted theoretically in which the use of digital in the design process is explored in such a way to reveal its importance in architectural design methods. The review also crosses beyond the disciplines of architecture to construct more comprehensive understanding that bridges the logic of digital technology and architecture. The resulted map of methods of the digital thus can be used to develop a framework for digital discourse that bridge the operative knowledge of technology to the more critical perspectives.

  5. SETH: A Hierarchical, Agent-based Architecture for Smart Spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Marsá Maestre, Iván

    2008-01-01

    The ultimate goal of any smart environment is to release users from the tasks they usually perform to achieve comfort, efficiency, and service personalization. To achieve this goal, we propose to use multiagent systems. In this report we describe the SETH architectur: a hierarchical, agent-based solution intended to be applicable to different smart space scenarios, ranging from small environments, like smart homes or smart offices, to large smart spaces like cities.

  6. Hierarchically assembled Au microspheres and sea urchin-like architectures: formation mechanism and SERS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiansong; Yang, Da-Peng; Huang, Peng; Li, Min; Li, Chao; Chen, Di; Cui, Daxiang

    2012-12-21

    The hierarchically assembled Au microspheres/sea urchin-like structures have been synthesized in aqueous solution at room temperature with and without proteins (bovine serum albumin, BSA) as mediators. The average diameter of an individual Au microsphere is 300-600 nm, which is composed of some compact nanoparticles with an average diameter of about 15 nm. Meanwhile, the sea urchin-like Au architecture exhibits an average diameter of 600-800 nm, which is made up of some nanopricks with an average length of 100-200 nm. These products are characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electronic microscopy (TEM). It is found that the BSA and ascorbic acid (AA) have great effects on the morphology of the resulting products. Two different growth mechanisms are proposed. The study on surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) activities is also carried out between Au microspheres and Au sea urchin-like architectures. It is found that Au urchin-like architectures possess much higher SERS activity than the Au microspheres. Our work may shed light on the design and synthesis of hierarchically self-assembled 3D micro/nano-architectures for SERS, catalysis and biosensors.

  7. Hierarchical Control Architecture for Demand Response in Smart Grid Scenario

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhattarai, Bishnu Prasad; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Mahat, Pukar

    2013-01-01

    , a number of issues, including DR enabling technologies, control strategy, and control architecture, are still under discussion. This paper outlines novel control requirements based on the categorization of existing DR techniques. More specifically, the roles and responsibilities of smart grid actors...... effective tool for optimum asset utilization and to avoid or delay the need for new infrastructure investment. Furthermore, most of the power networks are under the process of reconfiguration to realize the concept of smart grid and are at the transforming stage to support various forms of DR. However...... for every DR category are allotted and their mode of interactions to coordinate individual as well as coordinative goals is described. Next, hierarchical control architecture (HCA) is developed for the overall coordination of control strategies for individual DR categories. The involved issues are discussed...

  8. Hierarchical nitrogen doped bismuth niobate architectures: Controllable synthesis and excellent photocatalytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, Jungang; Cao, Rui; Wang, Zheng; Jiao, Shuqiang; Zhu, Hongmin

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Efficient visible-light-driven photocatalysts of peony-like nitrogen doped Bi 3 NbO 7 hierarchical architectures and silver-layered Bi 3 NbO 7−x Nx heterostructures were successfully synthesized in this discovery. Highlights: ► N-Bi 3 NbO 7 architectures were synthesized via two-step hydrothermal process. ► Electronic structure calculations indicated that N replaced O in samples. ► Growth mechanism is proposed for transformation of nanoparticles to microflowers. ► Excellent activities of N-Bi 3 NbO 7 architectures were obtained for degradation. ► Enhanced photocatalytic performance was observed for Ag/N-Bi 3 NbO 7 architectures. - Abstract: Nitrogen doped bismuth niobate (N-Bi 3 NbO 7 ) hierarchical architectures were synthesized via a facile two-step hydrothermal process. XRD patterns revealed that the defect fluorite-type crystal structure of Bi 3 NbO 7 remained intact upon nitrogen doping. Electron microscopy showed the N-Bi 3 NbO 7 architecture has a unique peony-like spherical superstructure composed of numerous nanosheets. UV–vis spectra indicated that nitrogen doping in the compound results in a red-shift of the absorption edge from 450 nm to 470 nm. XPS indicated that [Bi/Nb]-N bonds were formed by inducing nitrogen to replace a small amount of oxygen in Bi 3 NbO 7−x N x , which is explained by electronic structure calculations including energy band and density of states. Based on observations of architectures formation, a possible growth mechanism was proposed to explain the transformation of polyhedral-like nanoparticles to peony-like microflowers via an Ostwald riping mechanism followed by self-assembly. The N-Bi 3 NbO 7 architectures due to the large specific surface area and nitrogen doping exhibited higher photocatalytic activities in the decomposition of organic pollutant under visible-light irradiation than Bi 3 NbO 7 nanoparticles. Furthermore, an enhanced photocatalytic performance was also observed for Ag

  9. A software-based technique enabling composable hierarchical preemptive scheduling for time-triggered applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nejad, A.B.; Molnos, A.; Goossens, K.G.W.

    2013-01-01

    Many embedded real-time applications are typically time-triggered and preemptive schedulers are used to execute tasks of such applications. Orthogonally, composable partitioned embedded platforms use preemptive time-division multiplexing mechanism to isolate applications. Existing composable systems

  10. Hierarchical Communication Network Architectures for Offshore Wind Power Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Ahmed

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, large-scale wind power farms (WPFs bring new challenges for both electric systems and communication networks. Communication networks are an essential part of WPFs because they provide real-time control and monitoring of wind turbines from a remote location (local control center. However, different wind turbine applications have different requirements in terms of data volume, latency, bandwidth, QoS, etc. This paper proposes a hierarchical communication network architecture that consist of a turbine area network (TAN, farm area network (FAN, and control area network (CAN for offshore WPFs. The two types of offshore WPFs studied are small-scale WPFs close to the grid and medium-scale WPFs far from the grid. The wind turbines are modelled based on the logical nodes (LN concepts of the IEC 61400-25 standard. To keep pace with current developments in wind turbine technology, the network design takes into account the extension of the LNs for both the wind turbine foundation and meteorological measurements. The proposed hierarchical communication network is based on Switched Ethernet. Servers at the control center are used to store and process the data received from the WPF. The network architecture is modelled and evaluated via OPNET. We investigated the end-to-end (ETE delay for different WPF applications. The results are validated by comparing the amount of generated sensing data with that of received traffic at servers. The network performance is evaluated, analyzed and discussed in view of end-to-end (ETE delay for different link bandwidths.

  11. A heterogeneous hierarchical architecture for real-time computing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skroch, D.A.; Fornaro, R.J.

    1988-12-01

    The need for high-speed data acquisition and control algorithms has prompted continued research in the area of multiprocessor systems and related programming techniques. The result presented here is a unique hardware and software architecture for high-speed real-time computer systems. The implementation of a prototype of this architecture has required the integration of architecture, operating systems and programming languages into a cohesive unit. This report describes a Heterogeneous Hierarchial Architecture for Real-Time (H{sup 2} ART) and system software for program loading and interprocessor communication.

  12. Facile synthesis of Zn-doped SnO{sub 2} dendrite-built hierarchical cube-like architectures and their application in lithium storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, Tiekun, E-mail: tiekunjia@126.com [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Luoyang Institute of Science and Technology, Luoyang 471023 (China); Chen, Jian [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Luoyang Institute of Science and Technology, Luoyang 471023 (China); Deng, Zhao [State Key Lab of Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Fu, Fang; Zhao, Junwei; Wang, Xiaofeng [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Luoyang Institute of Science and Technology, Luoyang 471023 (China); Long, Fei [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Guilin University of Technology, Guilin 541004 (China)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Novel Zn-doped SnO{sub 2} dendrite-built hierarchical cube-like architectures were synthesized via a facile hydrothermal approach without surfactant. • The Zn-doped SnO{sub 2} dendrite-built hierarchical cube-like architectures were assembled by pronounced needle-like nanorod truncks with highly ordered needle-like nanorod branches. • The as-obtained Zn-doped SnO{sub 2} sample exhibited good electrochemical property. - Abstract: Zn-doped SnO{sub 2} dendrite-built hierarchical cube-like architectures were successfully synthesized by a facile hydrothermal approach without the use of any surfactants or templates. The as-prepared samples were characterized by the X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and Raman spectroscopy. The observation of FESEM and HRTEM showed that Zn-doped SnO{sub 2} hierarchical cube-like architectures were composed of numerous oriented dendrites. Each dendrite is assembled by a pronounced trunk with highly ordered branches distributing on the both sides. The as-prepared Zn-doped SnO{sub 2} dendrite-built hierarchical cube-like architectures were used as anode materials for Li-ion battery, and a stable capacity of 488.3 mA h g{sup −1} was achieved after 50 cycles. The results of electrochemical measurements indicated that the as-prepared Zn-doped SnO{sub 2} dendrite-built hierarchical cube-like architectures have potential application in Li-ion battery.

  13. Bio-Derived Hierarchical 3D Architecture from Seeds for Supercapacitor Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intawin, Pratthana; Sayed, Farheen N.; Pengpat, Kamonpan; Joyner, Jarin; Tiwary, Chandra Sekhar; Ajayan, Pulickel M.

    2017-09-01

    The generation and storage of green energy (energy from abundant and nonfossil) is important for a sustainable and clean future. The electrode material in a supercapacitor is a major component. The properties of these materials depend on its inherent architecture and composition. Here, we have chosen sunflower seeds and pumpkin seeds with a completely different structure to obtain a carbonaceous product. The product obtained from sunflower seed carbon is a three-dimensional hierarchical macroporous carbon (SSC) composed of many granular nanocrystals of potassium magnesium phosphate dispersed in a matrix. Contrary to this, carbon from pumpkin seeds (PSC) is revealed to be a more rigid structure, with no porous or ordered morphology. The electrochemical supercapacitive behavior was assessed by cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge-discharge tests. Electrochemical measurements showed that the SSC shows a high specific capacitance of 24.9 Fg-1 as compared with that obtained (2.46 Fg-1) for PSC with a cycling efficiency of 87% and 89%, respectively. On high-temperature cycling for 500 charge-discharge cycles at 0.1 Ag-1, an improved cycling efficiency of 100% and 98% for SSC and PSC, respectively, is observed.

  14. Broadband locally resonant metamaterials with graded hierarchical architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chenchen; Reina, Celia

    2018-03-01

    We investigate the effect of hierarchical designs on the bandgap structure of periodic lattice systems with inner resonators. A detailed parameter study reveals various interesting features of structures with two levels of hierarchy as compared with one level systems with identical static mass. In particular: (i) their overall bandwidth is approximately equal, yet bounded above by the bandwidth of the single-resonator system; (ii) the number of bandgaps increases with the level of hierarchy; and (iii) the spectrum of bandgap frequencies is also enlarged. Taking advantage of these features, we propose graded hierarchical structures with ultra-broadband properties. These designs are validated over analogous continuum models via finite element simulations, demonstrating their capability to overcome the bandwidth narrowness that is typical of resonant metamaterials.

  15. Secular dynamics of hierarchical multiple systems composed of nested binaries, with an arbitrary number of bodies and arbitrary hierarchical structure - II. External perturbations: flybys and supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamers, Adrian S.

    2018-05-01

    We extend the formalism of a previous paper to include the effects of flybys and instantaneous perturbations such as supernovae on the long-term secular evolution of hierarchical multiple systems with an arbitrary number of bodies and hierarchy, provided that the system is composed of nested binary orbits. To model secular encounters, we expand the Hamiltonian in terms of the ratio of the separation of the perturber with respect to the barycentre of the multiple system, to the separation of the widest orbit. Subsequently, we integrate over the perturber orbit numerically or analytically. We verify our method for secular encounters and illustrate it with an example. Furthermore, we describe a method to compute instantaneous orbital changes to multiple systems, such as asymmetric supernovae and impulsive encounters. The secular code, with implementation of the extensions described in this paper, is publicly available within AMUSE, and we provide a number of simple example scripts to illustrate its usage for secular and impulsive encounters and asymmetric supernovae. The extensions presented in this paper are a next step towards efficiently modelling the evolution of complex multiple systems embedded in star clusters.

  16. A Hierarchical Security Architecture for Cyber-Physical Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quanyan Zhu; Tamer Basar

    2011-08-01

    Security of control systems is becoming a pivotal concern in critical national infrastructures such as the power grid and nuclear plants. In this paper, we adopt a hierarchical viewpoint to these security issues, addressing security concerns at each level and emphasizing a holistic cross-layer philosophy for developing security solutions. We propose a bottom-up framework that establishes a model from the physical and control levels to the supervisory level, incorporating concerns from network and communication levels. We show that the game-theoretical approach can yield cross-layer security strategy solutions to the cyber-physical systems.

  17. Energy Management Systems and tertiary regulation in hierarchical control architectures for islanded micro-grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanseverino, Eleonora Riva; Di Silvestre, Maria Luisa; Quang, Ninh Nguyen

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the structure of the highest level of a hierarchical control architecture for micro-grids is proposed. Such structure includes two sub-levels: the Energy Management System, EMS, and the tertiary regulation. The first devoted to energy resources allocation in each time slot based...

  18. A novel snowflake-like SnO2 hierarchical architecture with superior gas sensing properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanqiong

    2018-02-01

    Snowflake-like SnO2 hierarchical architecture has been synthesized via a facile hydrothermal method and followed by calcination. The SnO2 hierarchical structures are assembled with thin nanoflakes blocks, which look like snowflake shape. A possible mechanism for the formation of the SnO2 hierarchical structures is speculated. Moreover, gas sensing tests show that the sensor based on snowflake-like SnO2 architectures exhibited excellent gas sensing properties. The enhancement may be attributed to its unique structures, in which the porous feature on the snowflake surface could further increase the active surface area of the materials and provide facile pathways for the target gas.

  19. A Multi-Time Scale Morphable Software Milieu for Polymorphous Computing Architectures (PCA) - Composable, Scalable Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Skjellum, Anthony

    2004-01-01

    Polymorphous Computing Architectures (PCA) rapidly "morph" (reorganize) software and hardware configurations in order to achieve high performance on computation styles ranging from specialized streaming to general threaded applications...

  20. Hierarchical electrode architectures for electrical energy storage & conversion.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zavadil, Kevin Robert; Missert, Nancy A.; Shelnutt, John Allen; van Swol, Frank B.

    2012-01-01

    The integration and stability of electrocatalytic nanostructures, which represent one level of porosity in a hierarchical structural scheme when combined with a three-dimensional support scaffold, has been studied using a combination of synthetic processes, characterization techniques, and computational methods. Dendritic platinum nanostructures have been covalently linked to common electrode surfaces using a newly developed chemical route; a chemical route equally applicable to a range of metals, oxides, and semiconductive materials. Characterization of the resulting bound nanostructure system confirms successful binding, while electrochemistry and microscopy demonstrate the viability of these electroactive particles. Scanning tunneling microscopy has been used to image and validate the short-term stability of several electrode-bound platinum dendritic sheet structures toward Oswald ripening. Kinetic Monte Carlo methods have been applied to develop an understanding of the stability of the basic nano-scale porous platinum sheets as they transform from an initial dendrite to hole containing sheets. Alternate synthetic strategies were pursued to grow dendritic platinum structures directly onto subunits (graphitic particles) of the electrode scaffold. A two-step photocatalytic seeding process proved successful at generating desirable nano-scale porous structures. Growth in-place is an alternate strategy to the covalent linking of the electrocatalytic nanostructures.

  1. A Hierarchical Communication Architecture for Oceanic Surveillance Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macias, Elsa; Suarez, Alvaro; Chiti, Francesco; Sacco, Andrea; Fantacci, Romano

    2011-01-01

    The interest in monitoring applications using underwater sensor networks has been growing in recent years. The severe communication restrictions imposed by underwater channels make that efficient monitoring be a challenging task. Though a lot of research has been conducted on underwater sensor networks, there are only few concrete applications to a real-world case study. In this work, hence, we propose a general three tier architecture leveraging low cost wireless technologies for acoustic communications between underwater sensors and standard technologies, Zigbee and Wireless Fidelity (WiFi), for water surface communications. We have selected a suitable Medium Access Control (MAC) layer, after making a comparison with some common MAC protocols. Thus the performance of the overall system in terms of Signals Discarding Rate (SDR), signalling delay at the surface gateway as well as the percentage of true detection have been evaluated by simulation, pointing out good results which give evidence in applicability’s favour. PMID:22247669

  2. Distributed Smart Decision-Making for a Multimicrogrid System Based on a Hierarchical Interactive Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marzband, Mousa; Parhizi, Narges; Savaghebi, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a comprehensive real-time interactive EMS framework for the utility and multiple electrically-coupled MGs is proposed. A hierarchical bi-level control scheme-BLCS with primary and secondary level controllers is applied in this regard. The proposed hierarchical architecture consists...... are treated as uncertainties in the proposed structure. In order to handle the uncertainties, Taguchi0s orthogonal array testing-TOAT approach is utilized. Then, the shortage or surplus of the MGs power should be submitted to a central EMS-CEMS in the secondary-level. In order to validate the proposed control...

  3. Implications of Services-Oriented Architecture and Open Architecture Composable Systems on the Acquisition Organizations and Processes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brummett, Cory S; Finney, Benjamin H

    2008-01-01

    .... Many systems, systems-of-systems and families of systems with different software architectures are acquired and often have difficulty operating together, which causes delays, increases costs, and limits re-use...

  4. A novel 3D structure composed of strings of hierarchical TiO{sub 2} spheres formed on TiO{sub 2} nanobelts with high photocatalytic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Yongjian [State Key Laboratory of Alternate Electrical Power System with Renewable Energy Sources, School of Renewable Energy, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China); Li, Meicheng, E-mail: mcli@ncepu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Alternate Electrical Power System with Renewable Energy Sources, School of Renewable Energy, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China); Suzhou Institute, North China Electric Power University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Song, Dandan; Li, Xiaodan; Yu, Yue [State Key Laboratory of Alternate Electrical Power System with Renewable Energy Sources, School of Renewable Energy, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China)

    2014-03-15

    A novel hierarchical titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) composite nanostructure with strings of anatase TiO{sub 2} hierarchical micro-spheres and rutile nanobelts framework (TiO{sub 2} HSN) is successfully synthesized via a one-step hydrothermal method. Particularly, the strings of hierarchical spheres are assembled by very thin TiO{sub 2} nanosheets, which are composed of highly crystallized anatase nanocrystals. Meanwhile, the HSN has a large surface area of 191 m{sup 2}/g, which is about 3 times larger than Degussa P25. More importantly, the photocatalytic activity of HSN and P25 were evaluated by the photocatalytic oxidation decomposition of methyl orange (MO) under UV light illumination, and the TiO{sub 2} HSN shows enhanced photocatalytic activity compared with Degussa P25, as result of its continuous hierarchical structures, special conductive channel and large specific surface area. With these features, the hierarchical TiO{sub 2} may have more potential applications in the fields of dye-sensitized solar cells and lithium ion batteries. -- Graphical abstract: Novel TiO{sub 2} with anatase micro-spheres and rutile nanobelts is synthesized. Enhanced photocatalysis is attributed to hierarchical structures (3D spheres), conductive channel (1D nanobelts) and large specific surface area (2D nanosheet). Highlights: • The novel TiO{sub 2} nanostructure (HSN) is fabricated for the first time. • HSN is composed of strings of anatase hierarchical spheres and rutile nanobelt. • HSN presents a larger S{sub BET} of 191 m{sup 2}/g, 3 times larger than the Degussa P25 (59 m{sup 2}/g). • HSN owns three kinds of dimensional TiO{sub 2} (1D, 2D and 3D) simultaneously. • HSN exhibits better photocatalytic performance compared with Degussa P25.

  5. Hierarchical model generation for architecture reconstruction using laser-scanned point clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Xiaojuan; Wang, Yinghui; Zhang, Xiaopeng

    2014-06-01

    Architecture reconstruction using terrestrial laser scanner is a prevalent and challenging research topic. We introduce an automatic, hierarchical architecture generation framework to produce full geometry of architecture based on a novel combination of facade structures detection, detailed windows propagation, and hierarchical model consolidation. Our method highlights the generation of geometric models automatically fitting the design information of the architecture from sparse, incomplete, and noisy point clouds. First, the planar regions detected in raw point clouds are interpreted as three-dimensional clusters. Then, the boundary of each region extracted by projecting the points into its corresponding two-dimensional plane is classified to obtain detailed shape structure elements (e.g., windows and doors). Finally, a polyhedron model is generated by calculating the proposed local structure model, consolidated structure model, and detailed window model. Experiments on modeling the scanned real-life buildings demonstrate the advantages of our method, in which the reconstructed models not only correspond to the information of architectural design accurately, but also satisfy the requirements for visualization and analysis.

  6. Distributed hierarchical control architecture for integrating smart grid assets during normal and disrupted operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalsi, Karan; Fuller, Jason C.; Somani, Abhishek; Pratt, Robert G.; Chassin, David P.; Hammerstrom, Donald J.

    2017-09-12

    Disclosed herein are representative embodiments of methods, apparatus, and systems for facilitating operation and control of a resource distribution system (such as a power grid). Among the disclosed embodiments is a distributed hierarchical control architecture (DHCA) that enables smart grid assets to effectively contribute to grid operations in a controllable manner, while helping to ensure system stability and equitably rewarding their contribution. Embodiments of the disclosed architecture can help unify the dispatch of these resources to provide both market-based and balancing services.

  7. Multi-layered hierarchical nanostructures for transparent monolithic dye-sensitized solar cell architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passoni, Luca; Fumagalli, Francesco; Perego, Andrea; Bellani, Sebastiano; Mazzolini, Piero; Di Fonzo, Fabio

    2017-06-01

    Monolithic dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) architectures hold great potential for building-integrated photovoltaics applications. They indeed benefit from lower weight and manufacturing costs as they avoid the use of a transparent conductive oxide (TCO)-coated glass counter electrode. In this work, a transparent monolithic DSC comprising a hierarchical 1D nanostructure stack is fabricated by physical vapor deposition techniques. The proof of concept device comprises hyperbranched TiO2 nanostructures, sensitized by the prototypical N719, as photoanode, a hierarchical nanoporous Al2O3 spacer, and a microporous indium tin oxide (ITO) top electrode. An overall 3.12% power conversion efficiency with 60% transmittance outside the dye absorption spectral window is demonstrated. The introduction of a porous TCO layer allows an efficient trade-off between transparency and power conversion. The porous ITO exhibits submicrometer voids and supports annealing temperatures above 400 °C without compromising its optoelectronical properties. After thermal annealing at 500 °C, the resistivity, mobility, and carrier concentration of the 800 nm-thick porous ITO layer are found to be respectively 2.3 × 10-3 Ω cm-1, 11 cm2 V-1 s-1, and 1.62 × 1020 cm-3, resulting in a series resistance in the complete device architecture of 45 Ω. Electrochemical impedance and intensity-modulated photocurrent/photovoltage spectroscopy give insight into the electronic charge dynamic within the hierarchical monolithic DSCs, paving the way for potential device architecture improvements.

  8. Hierarchically organized architecture of potassium hydrogen phthalate and poly(acrylic acid): toward a general strategy for biomimetic crystal design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oaki, Yuya; Imai, Hiroaki

    2005-12-28

    A hierarchically organized architecture in multiple scales was generated from potassium hydrogen phthalate crystals and poly(acrylic acid) based on our novel biomimetic approach with an exquisite association of polymers on crystallization.

  9. Complex and hierarchical micelle architectures from diblock copolymers using living, crystallization-driven polymerizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gädt, Torben; Ieong, Nga Sze; Cambridge, Graeme; Winnik, Mitchell A; Manners, Ian

    2009-02-01

    Block copolymers consist of two or more chemically distinct polymer segments, or blocks, connected by a covalent link. In a selective solvent for one of the blocks, core-corona micelle structures are formed. We demonstrate that living polymerizations driven by the epitaxial crystallization of a core-forming metalloblock represent a synthetic tool that can be used to generate complex and hierarchical micelle architectures from diblock copolymers. The use of platelet micelles as initiators enables the formation of scarf-like architectures in which cylindrical micelle tassels of controlled length are grown from specific crystal faces. A similar process enables the fabrication of brushes of cylindrical micelles on a crystalline homopolymer substrate. Living polymerizations driven by heteroepitaxial growth can also be accomplished and are illustrated by the formation of tri- and pentablock and scarf architectures with cylinder-cylinder and platelet-cylinder connections, respectively, that involve different core-forming metalloblocks.

  10. A Bayesian Approach to Model Selection in Hierarchical Mixtures-of-Experts Architectures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Martin A.; Peng, Fengchun; Jacobs, Robert A.

    1997-03-01

    There does not exist a statistical model that shows good performance on all tasks. Consequently, the model selection problem is unavoidable; investigators must decide which model is best at summarizing the data for each task of interest. This article presents an approach to the model selection problem in hierarchical mixtures-of-experts architectures. These architectures combine aspects of generalized linear models with those of finite mixture models in order to perform tasks via a recursive "divide-and-conquer" strategy. Markov chain Monte Carlo methodology is used to estimate the distribution of the architectures' parameters. One part of our approach to model selection attempts to estimate the worth of each component of an architecture so that relatively unused components can be pruned from the architecture's structure. A second part of this approach uses a Bayesian hypothesis testing procedure in order to differentiate inputs that carry useful information from nuisance inputs. Simulation results suggest that the approach presented here adheres to the dictum of Occam's razor; simple architectures that are adequate for summarizing the data are favored over more complex structures. Copyright 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd. All Rights Reserved.

  11. Controlled lecithin release from a hierarchical architecture on blood-contacting surface to reduce hemolysis of stored red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Qiang; Fan, Qunfu; Ye, Wei; Hou, Jianwen; Wong, Shing-Chung; Xu, Xiaodong; Yin, Jinghua

    2014-06-25

    Hemolysis of red blood cells (RBCs) caused by implant devices in vivo and nonpolyvinyl chloride containers for RBC preservation in vitro has recently gained much attention. To develop blood-contacting biomaterials with long-term antihemolysis capability, we present a facile method to construct a hydrophilic, 3D hierarchical architecture on the surface of styrene-b-(ethylene-co-butylene)-b-styrene elastomer (SEBS) with poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO)/lecithin nano/microfibers. The strategy is based on electrospinning of PEO/lecithin fibers onto the surface of poly [poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate] [P(PEGMEMA)]-modified SEBS, which renders SEBS suitable for RBC storage in vitro. We demonstrate that the constructed 3D architecture is composed of hydrophilic micro- and nanofibers, which transforms to hydrogel networks immediately in blood; the controlled release of lecithin is achieved by gradual dissolution of PEO/lecithin hydrogels, and the interaction of lecithin with RBCs maintains the membrane flexibility and normal RBC shape. Thus, the blood-contacting surface reduces both mechanical and oxidative damage to RBC membranes, resulting in low hemolysis of preserved RBCs. This work not only paves new way to fabricate high hemocompatible biomaterials for RBC storage in vitro, but provides basic principles to design and develop antihemolysis biomaterials for implantation in vivo.

  12. Bioinspired fabrication of magneto-optic hierarchical architecture by hydrothermal process from butterfly wing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Wenhong; Hu Xiaobin; Zhang Di

    2011-01-01

    We developed a green solution to incorporate nano-Fe 3 O 4 into the hierarchical architecture of a natural butterfly wing, thus obtaining unique magneto-optic nanocomposites with otherwise unavailable photonic features. Morphological characterization and Fourier Transform Infrared-Raman Spectroscope measurements indicate the assembly of Fe 3 O 4 nanocrystallites. The magnetic and optical responses of Fe 3 O 4 /wing show a coupling effect between the biological structure and magnetic material. The saturation magnetization and coercivity values of the as-prepared magneto-optic architecture varied with change of subtle structure. Such a combination of nano-Fe 3 O 4 and natural butterfly wing might create novel magneto-optic properties, and the relevant ideas could inspire the investigation of magneto-optical devices. - Highlights: → We develop a green, easy controlled hydrothermal process to synthesize magnetite hierarchical architecture. → The optical response of Fe 3 O 4 /wing exhibits a coupling effect between the structure and material. → The saturation magnetization value is mediated by shape anisotropy and the stress of different subtle structure, which has provided unique insights into studying the mysterious magnetic property of magnetite.

  13. Recyclable magnetic photocatalysts of Fe2+/TiO2 hierarchical architecture with effective removal of Cr(VI) under UV light from water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, S.C.; Zhang, Y.X.; Pan, S.S.; Ding, H.L.; Li, G.H.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► Fe 2+ /TiO 2 catalyst has a three-level hierarchical architecture. ► With a removal effectiveness of 99.3% at Cr(VI) concentration of 10 mg L −1 . ► Two-step reduction: TiO 2 photoreduces Fe 2+ to Fe and Fe reduces Cr(VI) to Cr(III). ► Hierarchical architecture serves as both photocatalytic reactor and absorbent. ► Fe 2+ /TiO 2 catalyst can be magnetically separated from wastewater and recycled. - Abstract: We report the synthesis and photocatalytic removal of Cr(VI) from water of hierarchical micro/nanostructured Fe 2+ /TiO 2 tubes. The TiO 2 tubes fabricated by a facile solvothermal approach show a three-level hierarchical architecture assembled from dense nanosheets nearly vertically standing on the surface of TiO 2 microtube. The nanosheets with a thickness of about 20 nm are composed of numerous TiO 2 nanocrystals with size in the range of 15–20 nm. Ferrous ions are doped into the hierarchical architecture by a reduction route. The Fe 2+ /TiO 2 catalyst demonstrates an effective removal of Cr(VI) from water under UV light and the removal effectiveness reaches 99.3% at the initial Cr(VI) concentration of 10 mg L −1 . The ferrous ion in the catalyst serves not as the photo-electron trap but as an intermedium of a two-step reduction. The TiO 2 photoreduces the Fe 2+ ions to Fe atoms firstly, then the Fe atoms reduce the Cr(VI) to Cr(III), and the later is removed by adsorption. The hierarchical architecture of the catalyst serves as a reactor for the photocatalytic reaction of Cr(VI) ions and an effective absorbent for the removal of Cr(III) ions. The catalyst can be easily magnetically separated from the wastewater after photocatalytic reaction and recycled after acid treatment.

  14. Supervisory control in a distributed, hierarchical architecture for a multimodular LMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otaduy, P.J.; Brittain, C.R.; Rovere, L.A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the directions and present status of the research in supervisory control for multimodular nuclear plants being conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) as part of US Department of Energy's (DOE) Advanced Controls Program. First, the hierarchical supervisory control structure envisioned for a Power Reactor Inherently Safe Module (PRISM) multimodular LMR is discussed. Next, the architecture of the supervisory module closest to the process actuators and its implementation for demonstration in a network of CPU's are presented. 12 refs., 3 figs

  15. Molecular architecture of electroactive and biodegradable copolymers composed of polylactide and carboxyl-capped aniline trimer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Baolin; Finne-Wistrand, Anna; Albertsson, Ann-Christine

    2010-04-12

    Two-, four-, and six-armed branched copolymers with electroactive and biodegradable properties were synthesized by coupling reactions between poly(l-lactides) (PLLAs) with different architecture and carboxyl-capped aniline trimer (CCAT). The aniline oligomer CCAT was prepared from amino-capped aniline trimer and succinic anhydride. FT-IR, NMR, and SEC analyses confirmed the structure of the branched copolymers. UV-vis spectra and cyclic voltammetry of CCAT and copolymer solution showed good electroactive properties, similar to those of polyaniline. The water contact angle of the PLLAs was the highest, followed by the undoped copolymer and the doped copolymers. The values of doped four-armed copolymers were 54-63 degrees . Thermal properties of the polymers were studied by DSC and TGA. The copolymers had better thermal stability than the pure PLLAs, and the T(g) between 48-58 degrees C and T(m) between 146-177 degrees C of the copolymers were lower than those of the pure PLLA counterparts. This kind of electroactive and biodegradable copolymer has a great potential for applications in cardiovascular or neuronal tissue engineering.

  16. Towards Sustainable Smart Homes by a Hierarchical Hybrid Architecture of an Intelligent Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Yang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A smart home can be realized by the provision of services, such as building control, automation and security implemented in accordance with a user’s request. One of the important issues is how to respond quickly and appropriately to a user’s request in a “dynamic environment”. An intelligent agent infers the user’s intention and provides the intact service. This paper proposes a smart home agent system based on a hierarchical hybrid architecture of a user intention model, which models the user intention as a hierarchical structure and implements it in a dynamic environment. The conventional rule-based approach needs to obtain all information before it is executed, which requires a large number of rules and is hardly scalable as the control objects are increasing. On the other hand, the proposed system consists of several modules that construct a hierarchical user intention model. The smart home system needs to take account of the information, such as time, state of device and state of the home, in addition to users’ intention. We evaluate the performance of the proposed system in a dynamic environment and conduct a blind test with seven subjects to measure the satisfaction of service, resulting in the average score of 81.46.

  17. Constructing hierarchical porous nanospheres for versatile microwave response approaches: the effect of architectural design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Bin; Liang, Xiaohui; Yi, Heng; Gong, He; Ji, Guangbin; Chen, Jiabin; Xu, Guoyue; Du, Youwei

    2017-10-24

    Owing to their immense potential in functionalized applications, tremendous interest has been devoted to the design and synthesis of nanostructures. The introduction of sufficient amount of microwaves into the absorbers on the premise that the dissipation capacity is strong enough remains a key challenge. Pursuing a general methodology to overcome the incompatibility is of great importance. There is widespread interest in designing the materials with specific architectures. Herein, the common absorber candidates were chosen to feature the hierarchical porous Fe 3 O 4 @C@Fe 3 O 4 nanospheres. Due to the reduced skin effect (induced by low-conductivity Fe 3 O 4 outer layer), multiple interfacial polarizations and scattering (due to the ternary hierarchical structures and nanoporous inner core) as well as the improved magnetic dissipation ability (because of multiple magnetic components), the material design enabled a promising microwave absorption performance. This study not only illustrates the primary mechanisms for the improved microwave absorption performance but also underscores the potential in designing the particular architectures as a strategy for achieving the compatibility characteristics.

  18. Construction of a Hierarchical Architecture of Covalent Organic Frameworks via a Postsynthetic Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gen; Tsujimoto, Masahiko; Packwood, Daniel; Duong, Nghia Tuan; Nishiyama, Yusuke; Kadota, Kentaro; Kitagawa, Susumu; Horike, Satoshi

    2018-02-21

    Covalent organic frameworks (COFs) represent an emerging class of crystalline porous materials that are constructed by the assembly of organic building blocks linked via covalent bonds. Several strategies have been developed for the construction of new COF structures; however, a facile approach to fabricate hierarchical COF architectures with controlled domain structures remains a significant challenge, and has not yet been achieved. In this study, a dynamic covalent chemistry (DCC)-based postsynthetic approach was employed at the solid-liquid interface to construct such structures. Two-dimensional imine-bonded COFs having different aromatic groups were prepared, and a homogeneously mixed-linker structure and a heterogeneously core-shell hollow structure were fabricated by controlling the reactivity of the postsynthetic reactions. Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) confirmed the structures. COFs prepared by a postsynthetic approach exhibit several functional advantages compared with their parent phases. Their Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface areas are 2-fold greater than those of their parent phases because of the higher crystallinity. In addition, the hydrophilicity of the material and the stepwise adsorption isotherms of H 2 O vapor in the hierarchical frameworks were precisely controlled, which was feasible because of the distribution of various domains of the two COFs by controlling the postsynthetic reaction. The approach opens new routes for constructing COF architectures with functionalities that are not possible in a single phase.

  19. Hierarchical Surface Architecture of Plants as an Inspiration for Biomimetic Fog Collectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad, M A K; Barthlott, W; Koch, K

    2015-12-08

    Fog collectors can enable us to alleviate the water crisis in certain arid regions of the world. A continuous fog-collection cycle consisting of a persistent capture of fog droplets and their fast transport to the target is a prerequisite for developing an efficient fog collector. In regard to this topic, a biological superior design has been found in the hierarchical surface architecture of barley (Hordeum vulgare) awns. We demonstrate here the highly wettable (advancing contact angle 16° ± 2.7 and receding contact angle 9° ± 2.6) barbed (barb = conical structure) awn as a model to develop optimized fog collectors with a high fog-capturing capability, an effective water transport, and above all an efficient fog collection. We compare the fog-collection efficiency of the model sample with other plant samples naturally grown in foggy habitats that are supposed to be very efficient fog collectors. The model sample, consisting of dry hydrophilized awns (DH awns), is found to be about twice as efficient (fog-collection rate 563.7 ± 23.2 μg/cm(2) over 10 min) as any other samples investigated under controlled experimental conditions. Finally, a design based on the hierarchical surface architecture of the model sample is proposed for the development of optimized biomimetic fog collectors.

  20. Synthesis of WO3 flower-like hierarchical architectures and their sensing properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, Dan; Wang, Guosheng; San, Xiaoguang; Song, Yinmin; Shen, Yanbai; Zhang, Yajing; Wang, Kangjun; Meng, Fanli

    2015-01-01

    WO 3 flower-like hierarchical architectures were synthesized by hydrothermal process using sodium tungstate (Na 2 WO 4 ·2H 2 O) as tungsten source and citric acid (CA) as an assistant agent. The morphology and crystal structure were investigated using scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffractometer. It is found that CA played a significant role in governing morphologies of product during hydrothermal process. The obtained products were identified as triclinic crystal WO 3 structure. The ethanol gas sensing measurements showed that well-defined WO 3 flower-like structures synthesized at CA/W molar ratio of 1 with large specific surface area exhibited the higher responses compared with others at all operating temperatures. Moreover, the reversible and fast response to ethanol gas at various gas concentrations and good selectivity were obtained. The results indicated that the WO 3 flower-like hierarchical architectures are promising materials for gas sensors. - Highlights: • WO 3 flower-like structures were successfully synthesized by hydrothermal method. • The effect of citric acid amount on morphologies was investigated. • Good ethanol gas sensing properties of WO 3 flower-like structures were obtained

  1. Formation of 1D hierarchical structures composed of Ni{sub 3}S{sub 2} nanosheets on CNTs backbone for supercapacitors and photocatalytic H{sub 2} production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Ting; Wu, Hao Bin; Wang, Yabo; Xu, Rong; Lou, Xiong Wen [David] [School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 70 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637457 (Singapore)

    2012-12-15

    One-dimensional (1D) hierarchical structures composed of Ni{sub 3}S{sub 2} nanosheets grown on carbon nanotube (CNT) backbone (denoted as CNT rate at Ni{sub 3}S{sub 2}) are fabricated by a rational multi-step transformation route. The first step involves coating the CNT backbone with a layer of silica to form CNT rate at SiO{sub 2}, which serves as the substrate for the growth of nickel silicate (NiSilicate) nanosheets in the second step to form CNT rate at SiO{sub 2} rate at NiSilicate core-double shell 1D structures. Finally the as-formed CNT rate at SiO{sub 2} rate at NiSilicate 1D structures are converted into CNT-supported Ni{sub 3}S{sub 2} nanosheets via hydrothermal treatment in the presence of Na{sub 2}S. Simultaneously the intermediate silica layer is eliminated during the hydrothermal treatment, leading to the formation of CNT rate at Ni{sub 3}S{sub 2} nanostructures. Because of the unique hybrid nano-architecture, the as-prepared 1D hierarchical structure is shown to exhibit excellent performance in both supercapacitors and photocatalytic H{sub 2} production. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  2. A distributed hierarchical architecture of expert systems for supervisory control of multimodular nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otaduy, P.J.; Brittain, C.R.; Rovere, L.A.; Gove, N.B.

    1991-01-01

    A hierarchical supervisory control architecture has being implemented at ORNL to coordinate the controllers of a multimodular nuclear plant. The supervisory controller form a network of distributed expert system interfaced with a real-time simulation of the plant, the plant's automatic controllers, and the human operator. The main goal of the supervisory controllers is to maintain the plant operating within safety envelopes while optimizing availability, minimizing stress to components and operators, and facilitating operations. Representative rules implementing strategies for situation dependent reassignment of process goals by embedding diagnostics into the control philosophy are discussed. It should noted that the control philosophies here described use the ALMR concept for illustration purposes and are not part of the official ALMR design at this time. 3 refs., 1 fig

  3. Hierarchical tailoring of strut architecture to control permeability of additive manufactured titanium implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Z.; Jones, D.; Yue, S.; Lee, P.D.; Jones, J.R.; Sutcliffe, C.J.; Jones, E.

    2013-01-01

    Porous titanium implants are a common choice for bone augmentation. Implants for spinal fusion and repair of non-union fractures must encourage blood flow after implantation so that there is sufficient cell migration, nutrient and growth factor transport to stimulate bone ingrowth. Additive manufacturing techniques allow a large number of pore network designs. This study investigates how the design factors offered by selective laser melting technique can be used to alter the implant architecture on multiple length scales to control and even tailor the flow. Permeability is a convenient parameter that characterises flow, correlating to structure openness (interconnectivity and pore window size), tortuosity and hence flow shear rates. Using experimentally validated computational simulations, we demonstrate how additive manufacturing can be used to tailor implant properties by controlling surface roughness at a microstructual level (microns), and by altering the strut ordering and density at a mesoscopic level (millimetre). Highlights: • Experimentally validated permeability prediction tools for hierarchical implants. • Randomised structures form preferential flow channels with stronger shear flows. • Hierarchical strut structures allow independent tailoring of flow and pore size

  4. Hierarchical tailoring of strut architecture to control permeability of additive manufactured titanium implants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Z. [Department of Materials, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Jones, D. [School of Engineering, University of Liverpool, Brownlow Hill, Liverpool, L69 3GH (United Kingdom); Yue, S. [Manchester X-ray Imaging Facility, School of Materials, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Lee, P.D., E-mail: peter.lee@manchester.ac.uk [Manchester X-ray Imaging Facility, School of Materials, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Jones, J.R. [Department of Materials, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Sutcliffe, C.J. [School of Engineering, University of Liverpool, Brownlow Hill, Liverpool, L69 3GH (United Kingdom); Jones, E. [Department of Advanced Technology, Stryker Orthopaedics, Raheen Business Park, Limerick (Ireland)

    2013-10-15

    Porous titanium implants are a common choice for bone augmentation. Implants for spinal fusion and repair of non-union fractures must encourage blood flow after implantation so that there is sufficient cell migration, nutrient and growth factor transport to stimulate bone ingrowth. Additive manufacturing techniques allow a large number of pore network designs. This study investigates how the design factors offered by selective laser melting technique can be used to alter the implant architecture on multiple length scales to control and even tailor the flow. Permeability is a convenient parameter that characterises flow, correlating to structure openness (interconnectivity and pore window size), tortuosity and hence flow shear rates. Using experimentally validated computational simulations, we demonstrate how additive manufacturing can be used to tailor implant properties by controlling surface roughness at a microstructual level (microns), and by altering the strut ordering and density at a mesoscopic level (millimetre). Highlights: • Experimentally validated permeability prediction tools for hierarchical implants. • Randomised structures form preferential flow channels with stronger shear flows. • Hierarchical strut structures allow independent tailoring of flow and pore size.

  5. Chitin/clay microspheres with hierarchical architecture for highly efficient removal of organic dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Rui; Mao, Jie; Peng, Na; Luo, Xiaogang; Chang, Chunyu

    2018-05-15

    Numerous adsorbents have been reported for efficient removal of dye from water, but the high cost raw materials and complicated fabrication process limit their practical applications. Herein, novel nanocomposite microspheres were fabricated from chitin and clay by a simple thermally induced sol-gel transition. Clay nanosheets were uniformly embedded in a nanofiber weaved chitin microsphere matrix, leading to their hierarchical architecture. Benefiting from this unique structure, microspheres could efficiently remove methylene blue (MB) through a spontaneous physic-sorption process which fit well with pseudo-second-order and Langmuir isotherm models. The maximal values of adsorption capability obtained by calculation and experiment were 152.2 and 156.7 mg g -1 , respectively. Chitin/clay microspheres (CCM2) could remove 99.99% MB from its aqueous solution (10 mg g -1 ) within 20 min. These findings provide insight into a new strategy for fabrication of dye adsorbents with hierarchical structure from low cost raw materials. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Design of hierarchical CuS/graphene architectures with enhanced lithium storage capability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Caihua; Su, Dezhi [Beijing Key Laboratory of Construction Tailorable Advanced Functional Materials and Green Applications, School of Materials Science & Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing, 100081 (China); Ma, Wenxian [State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing, 100083 (China); Zhao, Yongjie, E-mail: zhaoyjpeace@gmail.com [Beijing Key Laboratory of Construction Tailorable Advanced Functional Materials and Green Applications, School of Materials Science & Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing, 100081 (China); Yan, Dong [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China); State Key Laboratory of Tribology, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China); Li, Jingbo; Jin, Haibo [Beijing Key Laboratory of Construction Tailorable Advanced Functional Materials and Green Applications, School of Materials Science & Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing, 100081 (China)

    2017-05-01

    Highlights: • A delicate route was proposed for rational design of CuS/graphene composite. • Hierarchical CuS was composed of large amounts of well-arranged nanosheets. • The rationally designed structure of composite offered stable-hosts for Li{sup +} insertion. • The graphene constructed conductive paths and a network for fast transport of Li{sup +}. • The presence of the graphene in the composite reduced the dissolution of polysulfides. - Abstract: Metal-sulfides electrode materials usually suffer from poor cyclability and low rate capability in rechargeable batteries as a result of the pulverization of active materials and the loss of sulfur material induced by polysulfide dissolution. Herein, we reported a delicate and scalable route for rational design of CuS/graphene composites. Hierarchical CuS microparticles comprising of large amounts of self-assembled and well-arranged nanosheets uniformly mixed with flexible graphene layers. The obtained CuS/graphene electrodes exhibited high specific capacities, excellent cycling stability and desirable rate capability when being evaluated as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. The high specific capacities of 568 mA h g{sup −1} after 100 cycles at 50 mA g{sup −1} and 143 mA h g{sup −1} at 1000 mA g{sup −1} (in rate testing) were achieved, suggesting a very promising candidate for high-performance lithium-ion batteries. The rationally designed structures of the CuS/graphene composites offered stable-hosts for Li{sup +} insertion and alleviated the volume changes upon cycling. The presence of the graphene in composite not only constructed conductive paths and a network for fast transport of Li{sup +}, but also effectively reduced the dissolution of polysulfides into electrolyte. This graphene-based composite with hierarchical structure could be used as a safe, low-cost, and versatile material for extensively potential applications.

  7. Design of hierarchical CuS/graphene architectures with enhanced lithium storage capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Caihua; Su, Dezhi; Ma, Wenxian; Zhao, Yongjie; Yan, Dong; Li, Jingbo; Jin, Haibo

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A delicate route was proposed for rational design of CuS/graphene composite. • Hierarchical CuS was composed of large amounts of well-arranged nanosheets. • The rationally designed structure of composite offered stable-hosts for Li + insertion. • The graphene constructed conductive paths and a network for fast transport of Li + . • The presence of the graphene in the composite reduced the dissolution of polysulfides. - Abstract: Metal-sulfides electrode materials usually suffer from poor cyclability and low rate capability in rechargeable batteries as a result of the pulverization of active materials and the loss of sulfur material induced by polysulfide dissolution. Herein, we reported a delicate and scalable route for rational design of CuS/graphene composites. Hierarchical CuS microparticles comprising of large amounts of self-assembled and well-arranged nanosheets uniformly mixed with flexible graphene layers. The obtained CuS/graphene electrodes exhibited high specific capacities, excellent cycling stability and desirable rate capability when being evaluated as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. The high specific capacities of 568 mA h g −1 after 100 cycles at 50 mA g −1 and 143 mA h g −1 at 1000 mA g −1 (in rate testing) were achieved, suggesting a very promising candidate for high-performance lithium-ion batteries. The rationally designed structures of the CuS/graphene composites offered stable-hosts for Li + insertion and alleviated the volume changes upon cycling. The presence of the graphene in composite not only constructed conductive paths and a network for fast transport of Li + , but also effectively reduced the dissolution of polysulfides into electrolyte. This graphene-based composite with hierarchical structure could be used as a safe, low-cost, and versatile material for extensively potential applications.

  8. Mesoporous titanium dioxide (TiO2) with hierarchically 3D dendrimeric architectures: formation mechanism and highly enhanced photocatalytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Yun; Chen, Li-Hua; Rooke, Joanna Claire; Deng, Zhao; Hu, Zhi-Yi; Wang, Shao-Zhuan; Wang, Li; Li, Yu; Krief, Alain; Su, Bao-Lian

    2013-03-15

    Mesoporous TiO(2) with a hierarchically 3D dendrimeric nanostructure comprised of nanoribbon building units has been synthesized via a spontaneous self-formation process from various titanium alkoxides. These hierarchically 3D dendrimeric architectures can be obtained by a very facile, template-free method, by simply dropping a titanium butoxide precursor into methanol solution. The novel configuration of the mesoporous TiO(2) nanostructure in nanoribbon building units yields a high surface area. The calcined samples show significantly enhanced photocatalytic activity and degradation rates owing to the mesoporosity and their improved crystallinity after calcination. Furthermore, the 3D dendrimeric architectures can be preserved after phase transformation from amorphous TiO(2) to anatase or rutile, which occurs during calcination. In addition, the spontaneous self-formation process of mesoporous TiO(2) with hierarchically 3D dendrimeric architectures from the hydrolysis and condensation reaction of titanium butoxide in methanol has been followed by in situ optical microscopy (OM), revealing the secret on the formation of hierarchically 3D dendrimeric nanostructures. Moreover, mesoporous TiO(2) nanostructures with similar hierarchically 3D dendrimeric architectures can also be obtained using other titanium alkoxides. The porosities and nanostructures of the resultant products were characterized by SEM, TEM, XRD, and N(2) adsorption-desorption measurements. The present work provides a facile and reproducible method for the synthesis of novel mesoporous TiO(2) nanoarchitectures, which in turn could herald the fabrication of more efficient photocatalysts. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Hierarchical video surveillance architecture: a chassis for video big data analytics and exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajiboye, Sola O.; Birch, Philip; Chatwin, Christopher; Young, Rupert

    2015-03-01

    There is increasing reliance on video surveillance systems for systematic derivation, analysis and interpretation of the data needed for predicting, planning, evaluating and implementing public safety. This is evident from the massive number of surveillance cameras deployed across public locations. For example, in July 2013, the British Security Industry Association (BSIA) reported that over 4 million CCTV cameras had been installed in Britain alone. The BSIA also reveal that only 1.5% of these are state owned. In this paper, we propose a framework that allows access to data from privately owned cameras, with the aim of increasing the efficiency and accuracy of public safety planning, security activities, and decision support systems that are based on video integrated surveillance systems. The accuracy of results obtained from government-owned public safety infrastructure would improve greatly if privately owned surveillance systems `expose' relevant video-generated metadata events, such as triggered alerts and also permit query of a metadata repository. Subsequently, a police officer, for example, with an appropriate level of system permission can query unified video systems across a large geographical area such as a city or a country to predict the location of an interesting entity, such as a pedestrian or a vehicle. This becomes possible with our proposed novel hierarchical architecture, the Fused Video Surveillance Architecture (FVSA). At the high level, FVSA comprises of a hardware framework that is supported by a multi-layer abstraction software interface. It presents video surveillance systems as an adapted computational grid of intelligent services, which is integration-enabled to communicate with other compatible systems in the Internet of Things (IoT).

  10. Blood and interstitial flow in the hierarchical pore space architecture of bone tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowin, Stephen C; Cardoso, Luis

    2015-03-18

    There are two main types of fluid in bone tissue, blood and interstitial fluid. The chemical composition of these fluids varies with time and location in bone. Blood arrives through the arterial system containing oxygen and other nutrients and the blood components depart via the venous system containing less oxygen and reduced nutrition. Within the bone, as within other tissues, substances pass from the blood through the arterial walls into the interstitial fluid. The movement of the interstitial fluid carries these substances to the cells within the bone and, at the same time, carries off the waste materials from the cells. Bone tissue would not live without these fluid movements. The development of a model for poroelastic materials with hierarchical pore space architecture for the description of blood flow and interstitial fluid flow in living bone tissue is reviewed. The model is applied to the problem of determining the exchange of pore fluid between the vascular porosity and the lacunar-canalicular porosity in bone tissue due to cyclic mechanical loading and blood pressure. These results are basic to the understanding of interstitial flow in bone tissue that, in turn, is basic to understanding of nutrient transport from the vasculature to the bone cells buried in the bone tissue and to the process of mechanotransduction by these cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Hierarchical synthesis of corrugated photocatalytic TiO{sub 2} microsphere architectures on natural pollen surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdogan, Deniz Altunoz; Ozensoy, Emrah, E-mail: ozensoy@fen.bilkent.edu.tr

    2017-05-01

    Highlights: • Biotemplate-based photocatalytic material was synthesized in the form of corrugated TiO{sub 2} microspheres. • Characterization of photocatalysts as a function of temperature. • Photocatalytic activities studied in the gas and solution phases. - Abstract: Biomaterials are challenging, yet vastly promising templates for engineering unusual inorganic materials with unprecedented surface and structural properties. In the current work, a novel biotemplate-based photocatalytic material was synthesized in the form of corrugated TiO{sub 2} microspheres by utilizing a sol-gel methodology where Ambrosia trifida (Ab, Giant ragweed) pollen was exploited as the initial biological support surface. Hierarchically synthesized TiO{sub 2} microspheres were structurally characterized in detail via SEM-EDX, Raman spectroscopy, XRD and BET techniques in order to shed light on the surface chemistry, crystal structure, chemical composition and morphology of these novel material architectures. Photocatalytic functionality of the synthesized materials was demonstrated both in gas phase as well as in liquid phase. Along these lines, air and water purification capabilities of the synthesized TiO{sub 2} microspheres were established by performing photocatalytic oxidative NOx(g) storage and Rhodamine B(aq) degradation experiments; respectively. The synthetic approach presented herein offers new opportunities to design and create sophisticated functional materials that can be used in micro reactor systems, adsorbents, drug delivery systems, catalytic processes, and sensor technologies.

  12. In situ deposition of hierarchical architecture assembly from Sn-filled CNTs for lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Xiaoyu; Jiang, Hao; Hu, Yanjie; Li, Yunfeng; Huo, Junchao; Li, Chunzhong

    2013-07-24

    In this paper, we have demonstrated a hierarchical architecture assembly from Sn-filled CNTs, which was in situ deposited on Cu foils to form binder-free electrode by incorporating flame aerosol deposition (FAD) with chemical vapor deposition (CVD) processes. The reversible capacity of Sn-filled CNTs hierarchical architecture anode exhibited above 1000 mA h g(-1) before 30th cycle and stabilized at 437 mA h g(-1) after 100 cycles at a current density of 100 mA g(-1). Even at as high as 2 A g(-1), the capacity still maintained 429 mA h g(-1). The desirable cycling life and rate capacities performance were attributed to great confinement of tin in the interior of CNTs and the superior conducting network constructed by the 3D hierarchical architecture. The novel, rapid and scalable synthetic route was designed to prepare binder-free electrode with high electrochemical performance and avoid long-time mixing of active materials, binder, and carbon black, which is expected to be one of promising preparation of Sn/C anodes in lithium-ion batteries.

  13. Effects of different petal thickness on gas sensing properties of flower-like WO3·H2O hierarchical architectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, Wen; Zhang, He; Wang, Zhongchang

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: In this work, we prepare four different petal thicknesses of hierarchical WO 3 ·H 2 O architectures via a simple hydrothermal process, and systematically report their formation mechanisms and gas-sensing properties. - Highlights: • Flower-like WO 3 ·H 2 O architectures with different petal thickness were reported. • The WO 3 ·H 2 O sheet-flower sensor shows a significantly enhanced gas response. • A possible growth mechanism for the flower-like architectures is proposed. - Abstract: Hierarchical architectures consisting of two-dimensional (2D) nanostructures are of great interest for potential use in recent year. Here, we report the successful synthesis of four hierarchical tungsten oxide flower-like architectures via a simple yet facile hydrothermal method. The as-prepared WO 3 ·H 2 O hierarchical architectures are in fact assembled with numerous nanosheets or nanoplates. Through a comprehensive characterization of microstructures and morphologies of the as-prepared products, we find that petal thickness is a key factor for affecting gas-sensing performances. We further propose a possible growth mechanism for the four flower-like architectures. Moreover, gas-sensing measurements showed that the well-defined sheet-flower WO 3 ·H 2 O hierarchical architectures exhibited the excellent gas-sensing properties to ethanol owing to their largest amount of thin petal structures and pores

  14. Parallel-hierarchical processing and classification of laser beam profile images based on the GPU-oriented architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarovyi, Andrii A.; Timchenko, Leonid I.; Kozhemiako, Volodymyr P.; Kokriatskaia, Nataliya I.; Hamdi, Rami R.; Savchuk, Tamara O.; Kulyk, Oleksandr O.; Surtel, Wojciech; Amirgaliyev, Yedilkhan; Kashaganova, Gulzhan

    2017-08-01

    The paper deals with a problem of insufficient productivity of existing computer means for large image processing, which do not meet modern requirements posed by resource-intensive computing tasks of laser beam profiling. The research concentrated on one of the profiling problems, namely, real-time processing of spot images of the laser beam profile. Development of a theory of parallel-hierarchic transformation allowed to produce models for high-performance parallel-hierarchical processes, as well as algorithms and software for their implementation based on the GPU-oriented architecture using GPGPU technologies. The analyzed performance of suggested computerized tools for processing and classification of laser beam profile images allows to perform real-time processing of dynamic images of various sizes.

  15. Enhanced cycling stability of Li-rich nanotube cathodes by 3D graphene hierarchical architectures for Li-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Dingtao; Li, Yongliang; Wu, Maosheng; Deng, Libo; Ren, Xiangzhong; Zhang, Peixin

    2016-01-01

    A hybrid composite of Li 1.2 Mn 0.54 Ni 0.13 Co 0.13 O 2 nanotubes (LMNCO NTs) wrapped with reduced graphene oxide (RGO) nanosheets (LMNCO@RGO) was prepared as cathode for lithium-ion batteries. The discharge capacity of the LMNCO@RGO composite is only reducing 3.5% after 100 cycles at 1 C. Such composite which simultaneously combines a high surface area of LMNCO NTs with shorten ionic diffusion pathway and high conductivity of 3D graphene hierarchical architectures as well as structural protection layers, displaying a good cycling stability.

  16. Hierarchical SAPO‐34 Architectures with Tailored Acid Sites using Sustainable Sugar Templates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miletto, Ivana; Ivaldi, Chiara; Paul, Geo; Chapman, Stephanie; Marchese, Leonardo; Raja, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Abstract In a distinct, bottom‐up synthetic methodology, monosaccharides (fructose and glucose) and disaccharides (sucrose) have been used as mesoporogens to template hierarchical SAPO‐34 catalysts. Detailed materials characterization, which includes solid‐state magic angle spinning NMR and probe‐based FTIR, reveals that, although the mesopore dimensions are modified by the identity of the sugar template, the desirable acid characteristics of the microporous framework are retained. When the activity of the hierarchical SAPO‐34 catalysts was evaluated in the industrially relevant Beckmann rearrangement, under liquid‐phase conditions, the enhanced mass‐transport properties of sucrose‐templated hierarchical SAPO‐34 were found to deliver a superior yield of ϵ‐caprolactam. PMID:29686961

  17. Skin-Inspired Hierarchical Polymer Architectures with Gradient Stiffness for Spacer-Free, Ultrathin, and Highly Sensitive Triboelectric Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Minjeong; Lim, Seongdong; Cho, Soowon; Lee, Youngoh; Na, Sangyun; Baig, Chunggi; Ko, Hyunhyub

    2018-04-24

    The gradient stiffness between stiff epidermis and soft dermis with interlocked microridge structures in human skin induces effective stress transmission to underlying mechanoreceptors for enhanced tactile sensing. Inspired by skin structure and function, we fabricate hierarchical nanoporous and interlocked microridge structured polymers with gradient stiffness for spacer-free, ultrathin, and highly sensitive triboelectric sensors (TESs). The skin-inspired hierarchical polymers with gradient elastic modulus enhance the compressibility and contact areal differences due to effective transmission of the external stress from stiff to soft layers, resulting in highly sensitive TESs capable of detecting human vital signs and voice. In addition, the microridges in the interlocked polymers provide an effective variation of gap distance between interlocked layers without using the bulk spacer and thus facilitate the ultrathin and flexible design of TESs that could be worn on the body and detect a variety of pressing, bending, and twisting motions even in humid and underwater environments. Our TESs exhibit the highest power density (46.7 μW/cm 2 ), pressure (0.55 V/kPa), and bending (∼0.1 V/°) sensitivities ever reported on flexible TESs. The proposed design of hierarchical polymer architectures for the flexible and wearable TESs can find numerous applications in next-generation wearable electronics.

  18. Flexible System Integration and Advanced Hierarchical Control Architectures in the Microgrid Research Laboratory of Aalborg University

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meng, Lexuan; Hernández, Adriana Carolina Luna; Diaz, Enrique Rodriguez

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the system integration and hierarchical control implementation in an inverter-based microgrid research laboratory (MGRL) in Aalborg University, Denmark. MGRL aims to provide a flexible experimental platform for comprehensive studies of microgrids. The structure of the laborato...

  19. Hierarchical architecture of ReS_2/rGO composites with enhanced electrochemical properties for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi, Fei; Chen, Yuanfu; Zheng, Binjie; He, Jiarui; Li, Qian; Wang, Xinqiang; Lin, Jie; Zhou, Jinhao; Yu, Bo; Li, Pingjian; Zhang, Wanli

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The ReS_2/rGO composites have been synthesized by a facile one-pot method. • The ReS_2/rGO composites exhibit hierarchical architecture. • The ReS_2/rGO composites deliver better electrochemical performances than ReS_2. • The enhanced performance is due to porous and conductive structure of ReS_2/rGO. - Abstract: Rhenium disulfide (ReS_2), a two-dimensional (2D) semiconductor, has attracted more and more attention due to its unique anisotropic electronic, optical, mechanical properties. However, the facile synthesis and electrochemical property of ReS_2 and its composite are still necessary to be researched. In this study, for the first time, the ReS_2/reduced graphene oxide (rGO) composites have been synthesized through a facile and one-pot hydrothermal method. The ReS_2/rGO composites exhibit a hierarchical, interconnected, and porous architecture constructed by nanosheets. As anode for lithium-ion batteries, the as-synthesized ReS_2/rGO composites deliver a large initial capacity of 918 mAh g"−"1 at 0.2 C. In addition, the ReS_2/rGO composites exhibit much better electrochemical cycling stability and rate capability than that of bare ReS_2. The significant enhancement in electrochemical property can be attributed to its unique architecture constructed by nanosheets and porous structure, which can allow for easy electrolyte infiltration, efficient electron transfer, and ionic diffusion. Furthermore, the graphene with high electronic conductivity can provide good conductive passageways. The facile synthesis approach can be extended to prepare other 2D transition metal dichalcogenides semiconductors for energy storage and catalytic application.

  20. Empirical Bayes Estimation of Semi-parametric Hierarchical Mixture Models for Unbiased Characterization of Polygenic Disease Architectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jo Nishino

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies (GWAS suggest that the genetic architecture of complex diseases consists of unexpectedly numerous variants with small effect sizes. However, the polygenic architectures of many diseases have not been well characterized due to lack of simple and fast methods for unbiased estimation of the underlying proportion of disease-associated variants and their effect-size distribution. Applying empirical Bayes estimation of semi-parametric hierarchical mixture models to GWAS summary statistics, we confirmed that schizophrenia was extremely polygenic [~40% of independent genome-wide SNPs are risk variants, most within odds ratio (OR = 1.03], whereas rheumatoid arthritis was less polygenic (~4 to 8% risk variants, significant portion reaching OR = 1.05 to 1.1. For rheumatoid arthritis, stratified estimations revealed that expression quantitative loci in blood explained large genetic variance, and low- and high-frequency derived alleles were prone to be risk and protective, respectively, suggesting a predominance of deleterious-risk and advantageous-protective mutations. Despite genetic correlation, effect-size distributions for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder differed across allele frequency. These analyses distinguished disease polygenic architectures and provided clues for etiological differences in complex diseases.

  1. Self-Assembly of Hierarchical DNA Nanotube Architectures with Well-Defined Geometries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgenson, Tyler D; Mohammed, Abdul M; Agrawal, Deepak K; Schulman, Rebecca

    2017-02-28

    An essential motif for the assembly of biological materials such as actin at the scale of hundreds of nanometers and beyond is a network of one-dimensional fibers with well-defined geometry. Here, we demonstrate the programmed organization of DNA filaments into micron-scale architectures where component filaments are oriented at preprogrammed angles. We assemble L-, T-, and Y-shaped DNA origami junctions that nucleate two or three micron length DNA nanotubes at high yields. The angles between the nanotubes mirror the angles between the templates on the junctions, demonstrating that nanoscale structures can control precisely how micron-scale architectures form. The ability to precisely program filament orientation could allow the assembly of complex filament architectures in two and three dimensions, including circuit structures, bundles, and extended materials.

  2. Hierarchical carbon nanopetal/polypyrrole nanocomposite electrodes with brush-like architecture for supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherusseri, Jayesh; Kar, Kamal K

    2016-03-28

    Hierarchical 3D nanocomposite electrodes with tube brush-like morphology are synthesized by electrochemically depositing polypyrrole (PPY) on carbon nanopetal (CNP) coated carbon fibers (CFs). Initially CNPs are synthesized on CF substrate by chemical vapour deposition. The CNPs synthesized on CF (CNPCF) are further used as an electrically conducting large surface area bearing template for the electropolymerization of PPY in order to fabricate CNPCF-PPY nanocomposite electrodes for supercapacitors (SCs). The CF in CNPCF-PPY nanocomposite functions as (i) a mechanical support for the CNPs, (ii) a current collector for the SC cell and also (iii) to prevent the agglomeration of CNPs within the CNPCF-PPY nanocomposite. Transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy are used to examine the surface morphology of CNPCF-PPY nanocomposites. The chemical structure of the nanocomposites is analysed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy has been used to understand the chemical bonding states of the hierarchical CNPCF-PPY nanocomposites. The electrochemical properties of symmetric type CNPCF-PPY SC cells are examined by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge-discharge measurements. The hierarchical CNPCF-PPY SC exhibits a maximum gravimetric capacitance of 280.4 F g(-1) and an area specific capacitance of 210.3 mF cm(-2) at a current density of 0.42 mA cm(-2). The CNPCF-PPY SC cell exhibits good cycling stability of more than 5000 cycles. The present study proclaims the development of a novel lightweight SC with high-performance.

  3. Hierarchical Chitin Fibers with Aligned Nanofibrillar Architectures: A Nonwoven-Mat Separator for Lithium Metal Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joong-Kwon; Kim, Do Hyeong; Joo, Se Hun; Choi, Byeongwook; Cha, Aming; Kim, Kwang Min; Kwon, Tae-Hyuk; Kwak, Sang Kyu; Kang, Seok Ju; Jin, Jungho

    2017-06-27

    Here, we introduce regenerated fibers of chitin (Chiber), the second most abundant biopolymer after cellulose, and propose its utility as a nonwoven fiber separator for lithium metal batteries (LMBs) that exhibits an excellent electrolyte-uptaking capability and Li-dendrite-mitigating performance. Chiber is produced by a centrifugal jet-spinning technique, which allows a simple and fast production of Chibers consisting of hierarchically aligned self-assembled chitin nanofibers. Following the scrutinization on the Chiber-Li-ion interaction via computational methods, we demonstrate the potential of Chiber as a nonwoven mat-type separator by monitoring it in Li-O 2 and Na-O 2 cells.

  4. Low-Complexity Hierarchical Mode Decision Algorithms Targeting VLSI Architecture Design for the H.264/AVC Video Encoder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Corrêa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In H.264/AVC, the encoding process can occur according to one of the 13 intraframe coding modes or according to one of the 8 available interframes block sizes, besides the SKIP mode. In the Joint Model reference software, the choice of the best mode is performed through exhaustive executions of the entire encoding process, which significantly increases the encoder's computational complexity and sometimes even forbids its use in real-time applications. Considering this context, this work proposes a set of heuristic algorithms targeting hardware architectures that lead to earlier selection of one encoding mode. The amount of repetitions of the encoding process is reduced by 47 times, at the cost of a relatively small cost in compression performance. When compared to other works, the fast hierarchical mode decision results are expressively more satisfactory in terms of computational complexity reduction, quality, and bit rate. The low-complexity mode decision architecture proposed is thus a very good option for real-time coding of high-resolution videos. The solution is especially interesting for embedded and mobile applications with support to multimedia systems, since it yields good compression rates and image quality with a very high reduction in the encoder complexity.

  5. Understanding to Hierarchical Microstructures of Crab (Chinese hairy) Shell as a Natural Architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuanqiang, Zhou [Testing Center, Yangzhou University, No. 48 Wenhui East Road, Yangzhou (China); Xiangxiang, Gong [Testing Center, Yangzhou University, No. 48 Wenhui East Road, Yangzhou (China); School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou (China); Jie, Han [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou (China)

    2016-03-07

    This work was done to better understand the microstructures, composition and mechanical properties of Chinese hairy crab shell. For fully revealing its hierarchical microstructure, the crab shell was observed with electron microscope under different magnifications from different facets. XRD, EDS, FTIR and TGA techniques have been used to characterize the untreated and chemically-treated crab shells, which provided enough information to determine the species and relative content of components in this biomaterial. Combined the microstructures with constituents analysis, the structural principles of crab shell was detailedly realized from different structural levels beyond former reports. To explore the relationship between structure and function, the mechanical properties of shell have been measured through performing tensile tests. The contributions of organics and minerals in shell to the mechanical properties were also discussed by measuring the tensile strength of de-calcification samples treated with HCl solution.

  6. Understanding to Hierarchical Microstructures of Crab (Chinese hairy) Shell as a Natural Architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuanqiang, Zhou; Xiangxiang, Gong; Jie, Han

    2016-01-01

    This work was done to better understand the microstructures, composition and mechanical properties of Chinese hairy crab shell. For fully revealing its hierarchical microstructure, the crab shell was observed with electron microscope under different magnifications from different facets. XRD, EDS, FTIR and TGA techniques have been used to characterize the untreated and chemically-treated crab shells, which provided enough information to determine the species and relative content of components in this biomaterial. Combined the microstructures with constituents analysis, the structural principles of crab shell was detailedly realized from different structural levels beyond former reports. To explore the relationship between structure and function, the mechanical properties of shell have been measured through performing tensile tests. The contributions of organics and minerals in shell to the mechanical properties were also discussed by measuring the tensile strength of de-calcification samples treated with HCl solution

  7. Fabrication of TiO{sub 2} hierarchical architecture assembled by nanowires with anatase/TiO{sub 2}(B) phase-junctions for efficient photocatalytic hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, Yong; Ouyang, Feng, E-mail: ouyangfh@hit.edu.cn

    2017-05-01

    Highlights: • H-titanate nanowires hierarchical architectures (TNH) were prepared by a hydrothermal method. • Calcinations of TNH leads to the formation of anatase/TiO{sub 2}(B) phase-junctions. • The hierarchical architecture offered enhanced light harvesting and large specific surface area. • The 1D nanowires and anatase/TiO{sub 2}(B) phase-junctions both can enhance the separation of photoinduced electron-hole. • The products calcined at the optimum conditions (450 °C) exhibited a maximum hydrogenproduction rate of 7808 μmol g{sup −1} h{sup −1}. - Abstract: TiO{sub 2} hierarchical architecture assembled by nanowires with anatase/TiO{sub 2}(B) phase-junctions was prepared by a hydrothermal process followed by calcinations. The optimum calcination treatment (450 °C) not only led to the formation of anatase/TiO{sub 2}(B) phase-junctions, but also kept the morphology of 1D nanowire and hierarchical architecture well. The T-450 load 0.5 wt% Pt cocatalysts showed the best photocatalytic hydrogen production activity, with a maximum hydrogen production rate of 7808 μmol g{sup −1} h{sup −1}. The high photocatalytic activity is ascribed to the combined effects of the following three factors: (1) the hierarchical architecture exhibits better light harvesting; (2) the larger specific surface area provides more surface active sites for the photocatalytic reaction; (3) the 1D nanowires and anatase/TiO{sub 2}(B) phase-junctions both can enhance the separation of photoinduced electron-hole pairs and inhibit their recombination.

  8. High-energy lithium-ion hybrid supercapacitors composed of hierarchical urchin-like WO3/C anodes and MOF-derived polyhedral hollow carbon cathodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Juan; Li, Yuanyuan; Wang, Lei; Cai, Qifa; Li, Qingwei; Gao, Biao; Zhang, Xuming; Huo, Kaifu; Chu, Paul K

    2016-09-22

    A lithium-ion hybrid supercapacitor (Li-HSC) comprising a Li-ion battery type anode and an electrochemical double layer capacitance (EDLC) type cathode has attracted much interest because it accomplishes a large energy density without compromising the power density. In this work, hierarchical carbon coated WO 3 (WO 3 /C) with a unique mesoporous structure and metal-organic framework derived nitrogen-doped carbon hollow polyhedra (MOF-NC) are prepared and adopted as the anode and the cathode for Li-HSCs. The hierarchical mesoporous WO 3 /C microspheres assembled by radially oriented WO 3 /C nanorods along the (001) plane enable effective Li + insertion, thus exhibit high capacity, excellent rate performance and a long cycling life due to their high Li + conductivity, electronic conductivity and structural robustness. The WO 3 /C structure shows a reversible specific capacity of 508 mA h g -1 at a 0.1 C rate (1 C = 696 mA h g -1 ) after 160 discharging-charging cycles with excellent rate capability. The MOF-NC achieved the specific capacity of 269.9 F g -1 at a current density of 0.2 A g -1 . At a high current density of 6 A g -1 , 92.4% of the initial capacity could be retained after 2000 discharging-charging cycles, suggesting excellent cycle stability. The Li-HSC comprising a WO 3 /C anode and a MOF-NC cathode boasts a large energy density of 159.97 W h kg -1 at a power density of 173.6 W kg -1 and 88.3% of the capacity is retained at a current density of 5 A g -1 after 3000 charging-discharging cycles, which are better than those previously reported for Li-HSCs. The high energy and power densities of the Li-HSCs of WO 3 /C//MOF-NC render large potential in energy storage.

  9. QoSS Hierarchical NoC-Based Architecture for MPSoC Dynamic Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Sepulveda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available As electronic systems are pervading our lives, MPSoC (multiprocessor system-on-chip security is becoming an important requirement. MPSoCs are able to support multiple applications on the same chip. The challenge is to provide MPSoC security that makes possible a trustworthy system that meets the performance and security requirements of all the applications. The network-on-chip (NoC can be used to efficiently incorporate security. Our work proposes the implementation of QoSS (quality of security service to overcome present MPSoC vulnerabilities. QoSS is a novel concept for data protection that introduces security as a dimension of QoS. QoSS takes advantage of the NoC wide system visibility and critical role in enabling system operation, exploiting the NoC components to detect and prevent a wide range of attacks. In this paper, we present the implementation of a layered dynamic security NoC architecture that integrates agile and dynamic security firewalls in order to detect attacks based on different security rules. We evaluate the effectiveness of our approach over several MPSoCs scenarios and estimate their impact on the overall performance. We show that our architecture can perform a fast detection of a wide range of attacks and a fast configuration of different security policies for several MPSoC applications.

  10. Co3O4 based non-enzymatic glucose sensor with high sensitivity and reliable stability derived from hollow hierarchical architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Liangliang; He, Gege; Cai, Yanhua; Wu, Shenping; Su, Yongyao; Yan, Hengqing; Yang, Cong; Chen, Yanling; Li, Lu

    2018-02-01

    Inspired by kinetics, the design of hollow hierarchical electrocatalysts through large-scale integration of building blocks is recognized as an effective approach to the achievement of superior electrocatalytic performance. In this work, a hollow, hierarchical Co3O4 architecture (Co3O4 HHA) was constructed using a coordinated etching and precipitation (CEP) method followed by calcination. The resulting Co3O4 HHA electrode exhibited excellent electrocatalytic activity in terms of high sensitivity (839.3 μA mM-1 cm-2) and reliable stability in glucose detection. The high sensitivity could be attributed to the large specific surface area (SSA), ample unimpeded penetration diffusion paths and high electron transfer rate originating from the unique two-dimensional (2D) sheet-like character and hollow porous architecture. The hollow hierarchical structure also affords sufficient interspace for accommodation of volume change and structural strain, resulting in enhanced stability. The results indicate that Co3O4 HHA could have potential for application in the design of non-enzymatic glucose sensors, and that the construction of hollow hierarchical architecture provides an efficient way to design highly active, stable electrocatalysts.

  11. Hierarchical tailoring of strut architecture to control permeability of additive manufactured titanium implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z; Jones, D; Yue, S; Lee, P D; Jones, J R; Sutcliffe, C J; Jones, E

    2013-10-01

    Porous titanium implants are a common choice for bone augmentation. Implants for spinal fusion and repair of non-union fractures must encourage blood flow after implantation so that there is sufficient cell migration, nutrient and growth factor transport to stimulate bone ingrowth. Additive manufacturing techniques allow a large number of pore network designs. This study investigates how the design factors offered by selective laser melting technique can be used to alter the implant architecture on multiple length scales to control and even tailor the flow. Permeability is a convenient parameter that characterises flow, correlating to structure openness (interconnectivity and pore window size), tortuosity and hence flow shear rates. Using experimentally validated computational simulations, we demonstrate how additive manufacturing can be used to tailor implant properties by controlling surface roughness at a microstructual level (microns), and by altering the strut ordering and density at a mesoscopic level (millimetre). Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Morphology and Structure Engineering in Nanofiber Reactor: Tubular Hierarchical Integrated Networks Composed of Dual Phase Octahedral CoMn2 O4 /Carbon Nanofibers for Water Oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Han; Yu, Danni; Zhang, Songge; Chen, Jiawei; Wu, Wenbo; Wan, Meng; Wang, Lina; Zhang, Ming; Du, Mingliang

    2017-07-01

    1D hollow nanostructures combine the advantages of enhanced surface-to-volume ratio, short transport lengths, and efficient 1D electron transport, which can provide more design ideas for the preparation of highly active oxygen evolution (OER) electrocatalysts. A unique architecture of dual-phase octahedral CoMn 2 O 4 /carbon hollow nanofibers has been prepared via a two-step heat-treatment process including preoxidation treatment and Ostwald ripening process. The hollow and porous structures provide interior void spaces, large exposed surfaces, and high contact areas between the nanofibers and electrolyte and the morphology can be engineered by adjusting the heating conditions. Due to the intimate electrical and chemical coupling between the oxide nanocrystals and integrated carbon, the dual-phase octahedral CoMn 2 O 4 /carbon hollow nanofibers exhibit excellent OER activity with overpotentials of 337 mV at current density of 10 mA cm -2 and Tafel slope of 82 mV dec -1 . This approach will lead to the new perception of design issue for the nanoarchitecture with fine morphology, structures, and excellent electrocatalytic activity. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Self-Assembled 3D Flower-Like Hierarchical β-Ni(OH2Hollow Architectures and their In Situ Thermal Conversion to NiO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liao Gui-Hong

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Three-dimensional (3D flower-like hierarchicalβ-Ni(OH2hollow architectures were synthesized by a facile hydrothermal route. The as-obtained products were well characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM (HRTEM, SAED, and DSC-TGA. It was shown that the 3D flower-like hierarchicalβ-Ni(OH2hollow architectures with a diameter of several micrometers are assembled from nanosheets with a thickness of 10–20 nm and a width of 0.5–2.5 μm. A rational mechanism of formation was proposed on the basis of a range of contrasting experiments. 3D flower-like hierarchical NiO hollow architectures with porous structure were obtained after thermal decomposition at appropriate temperatures. UV–Vis spectra reveal that the band gap of the as-synthesized NiO samples was about 3.57 eV, exhibiting obviously red shift compared with the bulk counterpart.

  14. Preparation of 3D flower-like NiO hierarchical architectures and their electrochemical properties in lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Qing; Chen, Yuejiao; Yang, Ting; Lei, Danni; Zhang, Guanhua; Mei, Lin; Chen, Libao; Li, Qiuhong; Wang, Taihong

    2013-01-01

    3D flower-like NiO hierarchical architectures have been synthesized by a simple ethanolamine (EA)-mediated self-assembly route and subsequent calcination process. The synthesized β-Ni(OH) 2 precursors annealed at 300, 400 and 500 °C exhibit similar morphology by scanning electron microscopy and different crystallinity, surface area, and pore distribution via X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and nitrogen adsorption/desorption isotherms. The electrochemical properties indicate that the synthesized NiO hierarchical architectures annealed at 300 °C show the best electrochemical performance, which presents a reversible specific capacity of 713 mAh g −1 at a current density of 100 mA g −1 after 40 cycles. With varying the rate from 100 to 1000 mA g −1 , the capacity still remains 580 mAh g −1 at 500 mA g −1 after 18 cycles and resumes to 470 mAh g −1 at the same rate after 30 cycles. The above results indicate that the 3D flower-like NiO hierarchical architectures are promising anode materials for lithium ion batteries

  15. Anatase TiO2 hierarchical structures composed of ultra-thin nano-sheets exposing high percentage {0 0 1} facets and their application in quantum-dot sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Dapeng; Zhang, Shuo; Jiang, Shiwei; He, Jinjin; Jiang, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: TiO 2 hierarchical structures assembled from ultra-thin nanosheets exposing ∼90% {0 0 1} facets were employed as photoanode materials to improve the performance of CdS/CdSe co-sensitized solar cells. - Highlights: • THSs composited of nanosheets exposing high percent {0 0 1} facets were prepared. • THSs improve the QDs loading amount and light scattering of the photoanode. • THSs suppress the carrier recombination and finally lead to ∼25% PCE improvement. - Abstract: TiO 2 hierarchical structures (THSs) composed of ultra-thin nano-sheets exposing ∼90% {0 0 1} facets were prepared via a hydrothermal method. Time dependent trails revealed the formation of THSs experienced a self-assemble process. The as-prepared product were used as the photoanode materials for CdS/CdSe co-sensitized solar cells, and the THSs/nanoparticle hybrid photoanode demonstrated a power conversion efficiency of 3.47%, indicating ∼25% improvement compared with the nanoparticle cell

  16. Anatase TiO{sub 2} hierarchical structures composed of ultra-thin nano-sheets exposing high percentage {0 0 1} facets and their application in quantum-dot sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Dapeng, E-mail: dpengwu@126.com [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang, Henan 453007 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Henan Province for Green Motive Power and Key Materials, Henan Key Laboratory of Photovoltaic Materials, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang, Henan 453007 (China); Zhang, Shuo; Jiang, Shiwei; He, Jinjin [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang, Henan 453007 (China); Jiang, Kai [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang, Henan 453007 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Henan Province for Green Motive Power and Key Materials, Henan Key Laboratory of Photovoltaic Materials, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang, Henan 453007 (China)

    2015-03-05

    Graphical abstract: TiO{sub 2} hierarchical structures assembled from ultra-thin nanosheets exposing ∼90% {0 0 1} facets were employed as photoanode materials to improve the performance of CdS/CdSe co-sensitized solar cells. - Highlights: • THSs composited of nanosheets exposing high percent {0 0 1} facets were prepared. • THSs improve the QDs loading amount and light scattering of the photoanode. • THSs suppress the carrier recombination and finally lead to ∼25% PCE improvement. - Abstract: TiO{sub 2} hierarchical structures (THSs) composed of ultra-thin nano-sheets exposing ∼90% {0 0 1} facets were prepared via a hydrothermal method. Time dependent trails revealed the formation of THSs experienced a self-assemble process. The as-prepared product were used as the photoanode materials for CdS/CdSe co-sensitized solar cells, and the THSs/nanoparticle hybrid photoanode demonstrated a power conversion efficiency of 3.47%, indicating ∼25% improvement compared with the nanoparticle cell.

  17. Self-assembly synthesis of 3D graphene-encapsulated hierarchical Fe3O4 nano-flower architecture with high lithium storage capacity and excellent rate capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yating; Huang, Jian; Lin, Liang; Xie, Qingshui; Yan, Mengyu; Qu, Baihua; Wang, Laisen; Mai, Liqiang; Peng, Dong-Liang

    2017-10-01

    Graphene-encapsulated hierarchical metal oxides architectures can efficiently combine the merits of graphene and hierarchical metal oxides, which are deemed as the potential anode material candidates for the next-generation lithium-ion batteries due to the synergistic effect between them. Herein, a cationic surfactant induced self-assembly method is developed to construct 3D Fe3O4@reduction graphene oxide (H-Fe3O4@RGO) hybrid architecture in which hierarchical Fe3O4 nano-flowers (H-Fe3O4) are intimately encapsulated by 3D graphene network. Each H-Fe3O4 particle is constituted of rod-shaped skeletons surrounded by petal-like nano-flakes that are made up of enormous nanoparticles. When tested as the anode material in lithium-ion batteries, a high reversible capacity of 2270 mA h g-1 after 460 cycles is achieved under a current density of 0.5 A g-1. More impressively, even tested at a large current density of 10 A g-1, a decent reversible capacity of 490 mA h g-1 can be retained, which is still higher than the theoretical capacity of traditional graphite anode, demonstrating the remarkable lithium storage properties. The reasons for the excellent electrochemical performance of H-Fe3O4@RGO electrode have been discussed in detail.

  18. Hierarchical architectures TiO2: Pollen-inducted synthesis, remarkable crystalline-phase stability, tunable size, and reused photo-catalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dou, Lingling; Gao, Lishuang; Yang, Xiaohui; Song, Xiuqin

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The synthetic method is much milder and simpler than that of conventional methods. ► The obtained hierarchical TiO 2 shows three interesting hierarchical morphology. ► The products have tunable crystal phase structures. ► The pure phase of anatase can be retained after being annealed at 900 °C. ► The product exhibits higher and reused photo-catalytic activity. - Abstract: TiO 2 with hierarchical architectures, tunable crystalline phase and thermal stability is successfully fabricated on a large scale through a facile hydrolysis process of TiCl 4 combining with inducing of pollen. The structure of the as-prepared TiO 2 is characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, infrared spectra, and scanning electron microscopy. The experimental results indicate that different phases (anatase, rutile or mixed crystallite) of TiO 2 can be synthesized by controlling the experimental conditions. The pure phase of rutile or anatase can be obtained at 100 °C, while the pure phase of anatase can be retained after being annealed at 900 °C. The hierarchical structures TiO 2 are constitute through self-assembly of nanoparticles or nanorods TiO 2 , which exhibit high and reused photo-catalytic properties for degradation of methylene blue.

  19. Hierarchically porous carbon membranes containing designed nanochannel architectures obtained by pyrolysis of ion-track etched polyimide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muench, Falk, E-mail: muench@ca.tu-darmstadt.de [Department of Material- and Geoscience, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Alarich-Weiss-Straße 2, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Seidl, Tim; Rauber, Markus [Department of Material- and Geoscience, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Alarich-Weiss-Straße 2, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Material Research Department, GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Planckstraße 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Peter, Benedikt; Brötz, Joachim [Department of Material- and Geoscience, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Alarich-Weiss-Straße 2, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Krause, Markus; Trautmann, Christina [Department of Material- and Geoscience, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Alarich-Weiss-Straße 2, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Material Research Department, GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Planckstraße 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Roth, Christina [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Freie Universität Berlin, Takustraße 3, 14195 Berlin (Germany); Katusic, Stipan [Evonik Industries AG, Rodenbacher Chaussee 4, 63457 Hanau (Germany); Ensinger, Wolfgang [Department of Material- and Geoscience, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Alarich-Weiss-Straße 2, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2014-12-15

    Well-defined, porous carbon monoliths are highly promising materials for electrochemical applications, separation, purification and catalysis. In this work, we present an approach allowing to transfer the remarkable degree of synthetic control given by the ion-track etching technology to the fabrication of carbon membranes with porosity structured on multiple length scales. The carbonization and pore formation processes were examined with Raman, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements, while model experiments demonstrated the viability of the carbon membranes as catalyst support and pollutant adsorbent. Using ion-track etching, specifically designed, continuous channel-shaped pores were introduced into polyimide foils with precise control over channel diameter, orientation, density and interconnection. At a pyrolysis temperature of 950 °C, the artificially created channels shrunk in size, but their shape was preserved, while the polymer was transformed to microporous, amorphous carbon. Channel diameters ranging from ∼10 to several 100 nm could be achieved. The channels also gave access to previously closed micropore volume. Substantial surface increase was realized, as it was shown by introducing a network consisting of 1.4 × 10{sup 10} channels per cm{sup 2} of 30 nm diameter, which more than tripled the mass-normalized surface of the pyrolytic carbon from 205 m{sup 2} g{sup −1} to 732 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}. At a pyrolysis temperature of 3000 °C, membranes consisting of highly ordered graphite were obtained. In this case, the channel shape was severely altered, resulting in a pronounced conical geometry in which the channel diameter quickly decreased with increasing distance to the membrane surface. - Highlights: • Pyrolysis of ion-track etched polyimide yields porous carbon membranes. • Hierarchic porosity: continuous nanochannels embedded in a microporous carbon matrix.

  20. Hierarchically porous carbon membranes containing designed nanochannel architectures obtained by pyrolysis of ion-track etched polyimide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muench, Falk; Seidl, Tim; Rauber, Markus; Peter, Benedikt; Brötz, Joachim; Krause, Markus; Trautmann, Christina; Roth, Christina; Katusic, Stipan; Ensinger, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Well-defined, porous carbon monoliths are highly promising materials for electrochemical applications, separation, purification and catalysis. In this work, we present an approach allowing to transfer the remarkable degree of synthetic control given by the ion-track etching technology to the fabrication of carbon membranes with porosity structured on multiple length scales. The carbonization and pore formation processes were examined with Raman, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements, while model experiments demonstrated the viability of the carbon membranes as catalyst support and pollutant adsorbent. Using ion-track etching, specifically designed, continuous channel-shaped pores were introduced into polyimide foils with precise control over channel diameter, orientation, density and interconnection. At a pyrolysis temperature of 950 °C, the artificially created channels shrunk in size, but their shape was preserved, while the polymer was transformed to microporous, amorphous carbon. Channel diameters ranging from ∼10 to several 100 nm could be achieved. The channels also gave access to previously closed micropore volume. Substantial surface increase was realized, as it was shown by introducing a network consisting of 1.4 × 10 10 channels per cm 2 of 30 nm diameter, which more than tripled the mass-normalized surface of the pyrolytic carbon from 205 m 2  g −1 to 732 m 2  g −1 . At a pyrolysis temperature of 3000 °C, membranes consisting of highly ordered graphite were obtained. In this case, the channel shape was severely altered, resulting in a pronounced conical geometry in which the channel diameter quickly decreased with increasing distance to the membrane surface. - Highlights: • Pyrolysis of ion-track etched polyimide yields porous carbon membranes. • Hierarchic porosity: continuous nanochannels embedded in a microporous carbon matrix. • Freely adjustable meso- or

  1. 3D self-supported hierarchical Ni−Co architectures with integrated capacitive performance and enhanced electronic conductivity for supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, YanRu; Cheng, Baohai

    2016-01-01

    3D self-supported hierarchical Ni and Co co-hydroxide architectures are promising electrode materials for supercapacitor application attributed to their prominent properties such as binder-free electrode fabrication process and high power density. However, the intrinsic conductivity of Ni and Co co-hydroxide is poor. How to develop a new type of supercapacitors exhibiting enhanced electronic conductivity and involving pseudocapacitive performance and electric double-layer capacitive performance is still challenging. Herein, we present a facile co-electrodeposition method to fabricate self-standing Ni_xCo_2_x(OH)_y@Ni/ITO monolithic electrode by growing a layer of Ni_xCo_2_x(OH)_y with layered structure on surface of conductive Ni nanotube, which increases specific surface area and prompts fast ion adsorption/de-adsotption (electrochemical double layer capacitance performance) and fast surface redox reactions (pseudo-capacitance performance). With the conductive Ni nanotube as current collector and electronic conductor, the binder-free Ni_xCo_2_x(OH)_y@Ni/ITO electrode exhibits high specific capacitance (92.4 mF cm"−"2 at 0.1 mA cm"−"2, the mass of active material per cm"−"2 is typically in 100 s μg). Moreover, Ni_xCo_2_x(OH)_y@Ni/ITO hybrids display excellent cycling stability with 93.3% capacitance retention after 5000 cycles. The results suggest Ni_xCo_2_x(OH)_y@Ni/ITO nanostructure constructed based on integrated features of pseudocapacitive performance and electric double-layer capacitive performance and enhanced electronic conductivity is expected to be a type of excellent electrode material for supercapacitor. - Highlights: • Ni−Co electrode is fabricated by growing layered structure on Ni nanotube surface. • The layered structure prompts fast ion adsorption/de-adsotption and redox reactions. • The Ni nanotube serves as nanostructured current collector and electronic conductor. • The Ni−Co hybrids display 93.3% capacitance retention

  2. Small Composers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holgersen, Sven-Erik; Bruun, Peter; Tjagvad, Mette

    2018-01-01

    the study: What expectations do the class teacher and the professional musicians have to the creative practice, i.e. to the collaboration and to the musical outcome? To which extent do the collaborating partners share a common understanding of the aim, content and method of the workshop? How do the roles......The present chapter discusses roles and responsibilities of the collaborating partners in a creative music workshop called Small Composers. The aim is to be attentive to a number of potential alterations implicated by the collaborating partners’ different backgrounds. The following questions guided...... and responsibilities of the collaborating partners become visible through the practice? How do the professional identities of the teacher and the musicians become visible and what are the implications for the workshop as a musical community of practice?...

  3. Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Clear, Nic

    2014-01-01

    When discussing science fiction’s relationship with architecture, the usual practice is to look at the architecture “in” science fiction—in particular, the architecture in SF films (see Kuhn 75-143) since the spaces of literary SF present obvious difficulties as they have to be imagined. In this essay, that relationship will be reversed: I will instead discuss science fiction “in” architecture, mapping out a number of architectural movements and projects that can be viewed explicitly as scien...

  4. 3D Networked Tin Oxide/Graphene Aerogel with a Hierarchically Porous Architecture for High-Rate Performance Sodium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiuqiang; Chen, Shuangqiang; Sun, Bing; Wang, Chengyin; Wang, Guoxiu

    2015-09-07

    Low-cost and sustainable sodium-ion batteries are regarded as a promising technology for large-scale energy storage and conversion. The development of high-rate anode materials is highly desirable for sodium-ion batteries. The optimization of mass transport and electron transfer is crucial in the discovery of electrode materials with good high-rate performances. Herein, we report the synthesis of 3 D interconnected SnO2 /graphene aerogels with a hierarchically porous structure as anode materials for sodium-ion batteries. The unique 3 D architecture was prepared by a facile in situ process, during which cross-linked 3 D conductive graphene networks with macro-/meso-sized hierarchical pores were formed and SnO2 nanoparticles were dispersed uniformly on the graphene surface simultaneously. Such a 3 D functional architecture not only facilitates the electrode-electrolyte interaction but also provides an efficient electron pathway within the graphene networks. When applied as anode materials in sodium-ion batteries, the as-prepared SnO2 /graphene aerogel exhibited high reversible capacity, improved cycling performance compared to SnO2 , and promising high-rate capability. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Single-unit-cell layer established Bi 2 WO 6 3D hierarchical architectures: Efficient adsorption, photocatalysis and dye-sensitized photoelectrochemical performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Hongwei; Cao, Ranran; Yu, Shixin; Xu, Kang; Hao, Weichang; Wang, Yonggang; Dong, Fan; Zhang, Tierui; Zhang, Yihe

    2017-12-01

    Single-layer catalysis sparks huge interests and gains widespread attention owing to its high activity. Simultaneously, three-dimensional (3D) hierarchical structure can afford large surface area and abundant reactive sites, contributing to high efficiency. Herein, we report an absorbing single-unit-cell layer established Bi2WO6 3D hierarchical architecture fabricated by a sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS)-assisted assembled strategy. The DBS- long chains can adsorb on the (Bi2O2)2+ layers and hence impede stacking of the layers, resulting in the single-unit-cell layer. We also uncovered that SDS with a shorter chain is less effective than SDBS. Due to the sufficient exposure of surface O atoms, single-unit-cell layer 3D Bi2WO6 shows strong selectivity for adsorption on multiform organic dyes with different charges. Remarkably, the single-unit-cell layer 3D Bi2WO6 casts profoundly enhanced photodegradation activity and especially a superior photocatalytic H2 evolution rate, which is 14-fold increase in contrast to the bulk Bi2WO6. Systematic photoelectrochemical characterizations disclose that the substantially elevated carrier density and charge separation efficiency take responsibility for the strengthened photocatalytic performance. Additionally, the possibility of single-unit-cell layer 3D Bi2WO6 as dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) has also been attempted and it was manifested to be a promising dye-sensitized photoanode for oxygen evolution reaction (ORR). Our work not only furnish an insight into designing single-layer assembled 3D hierarchical architecture, but also offer a multi-functional material for environmental and energy applications.

  6. Hybrid Energy Cell with Hierarchical Nano/Micro-Architectured Polymer Film to Harvest Mechanical, Solar, and Wind Energies Individually/Simultaneously.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudem, Bhaskar; Ko, Yeong Hwan; Leem, Jung Woo; Lim, Joo Ho; Yu, Jae Su

    2016-11-09

    We report the creation of hybrid energy cells based on hierarchical nano/micro-architectured polydimethylsiloxane (HNMA-PDMS) films with multifunctionality to simultaneously harvest mechanical, solar, and wind energies. These films consist of nano/micro dual-scale architectures (i.e., nanonipples on inverted micropyramidal arrays) on the PDMS surface. The HNMA-PDMS is replicable by facile and cost-effective soft imprint lithography using a nanoporous anodic alumina oxide film formed on the micropyramidal-structured silicon substrate. The HNMA-PDMS film plays multifunctional roles as a triboelectric layer in nanogenerators and an antireflection layer for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), as well as a self-cleaning surface. This film is employed in triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) devices, fabricated by laminating it on indium-tin oxide-coated polyethylene terephthalate (ITO/PET) as a bottom electrode. The large effective contact area that emerged from the densely packed hierarchical nano/micro-architectures of the PDMS film leads to the enhancement of TENG device performance. Moreover, the HNMA-PDMS/ITO/PET, with a high transmittance of >90%, also results in highly transparent TENG devices. By placing the HNMA-PDMS/ITO/PET, where the ITO/PET is coated with zinc oxide nanowires, as the top glass substrate of DSSCs, the device is able to add the functionality of TENG devices, thus creating a hybrid energy cell. The hybrid energy cell can successfully convert mechanical, solar, and wind energies into electricity, simultaneously or independently. To specify the device performance, the effects of external pushing frequency and load resistance on the output of TENG devices are also analyzed, including the photovoltaic performance of the hybrid energy cells.

  7. Hierarchical architecture of ReS{sub 2}/rGO composites with enhanced electrochemical properties for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, Fei; Chen, Yuanfu, E-mail: yfchen@uestc.edu.cn; Zheng, Binjie; He, Jiarui; Li, Qian; Wang, Xinqiang; Lin, Jie; Zhou, Jinhao; Yu, Bo; Li, Pingjian; Zhang, Wanli

    2017-08-15

    Highlights: • The ReS{sub 2}/rGO composites have been synthesized by a facile one-pot method. • The ReS{sub 2}/rGO composites exhibit hierarchical architecture. • The ReS{sub 2}/rGO composites deliver better electrochemical performances than ReS{sub 2}. • The enhanced performance is due to porous and conductive structure of ReS{sub 2}/rGO. - Abstract: Rhenium disulfide (ReS{sub 2}), a two-dimensional (2D) semiconductor, has attracted more and more attention due to its unique anisotropic electronic, optical, mechanical properties. However, the facile synthesis and electrochemical property of ReS{sub 2} and its composite are still necessary to be researched. In this study, for the first time, the ReS{sub 2}/reduced graphene oxide (rGO) composites have been synthesized through a facile and one-pot hydrothermal method. The ReS{sub 2}/rGO composites exhibit a hierarchical, interconnected, and porous architecture constructed by nanosheets. As anode for lithium-ion batteries, the as-synthesized ReS{sub 2}/rGO composites deliver a large initial capacity of 918 mAh g{sup −1} at 0.2 C. In addition, the ReS{sub 2}/rGO composites exhibit much better electrochemical cycling stability and rate capability than that of bare ReS{sub 2}. The significant enhancement in electrochemical property can be attributed to its unique architecture constructed by nanosheets and porous structure, which can allow for easy electrolyte infiltration, efficient electron transfer, and ionic diffusion. Furthermore, the graphene with high electronic conductivity can provide good conductive passageways. The facile synthesis approach can be extended to prepare other 2D transition metal dichalcogenides semiconductors for energy storage and catalytic application.

  8. Hierarchical architectures of ZnS–In2S3 solid solution onto TiO2 nanofibers with high visible-light photocatalytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Chengbin; Meng, Deshui; Li, Yue; Wang, Longlu; Liu, Yutang; Luo, Shenglian

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A unique hierarchical architecture of ZnS–In 2 S 3 solid solution onto TiO 2 nanofibers was fabricated. The hierarchical heterostructures exhibit high visible light photocatalytic activity and outstanding recycling performance. - Highlights: • Novel hierarchical heterostructure of TiO 2 @ZnS–In 2 S 3 solid solution. • Efficient inhibition of ZnS–In 2 S 3 solid solution aggregation. • High visible light photocatalytic activity. • Highly stable recycling performance. - Abstract: A unique hierarchical architecture of ZnS–In 2 S 3 solid solution nanostructures onto TiO 2 nanofibers (TiO 2 @ZnS–In 2 S 3 ) has been successfully fabricated by simple hydrothermal method. The ZnS–In 2 S 3 solid solution nanostructures exhibit a diversity of morphologies: nanosheet, nanorod and nanoparticle. The porous TiO 2 nanofiber templates effectively inhibit the aggregation growth of ZnS–In 2 S 3 solid solution. The formation of ZnS–In 2 S 3 solid solution is proved by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and the intimate contact between TiO 2 nanofibers and ZnS–In 2 S 3 solid solution favors fast transfer of photogenerated electrons. The trinary TiO 2 @ZnS–In 2 S 3 heterostructures exhibit high adsorption capacity and visible light photocatalytic activity for the degradation of rhodamine B dye (RhB), remarkably superior to pure TiO 2 nanofibers or binary structures (ZnS/TiO 2 nanofibers, In 2 S 3 /TiO 2 nanofibers and ZnS–In 2 S 3 solid solution). Under visible light irradiation the RhB photocatalytic degradation rate over TiO 2 @ZnS–In 2 S 3 heterostructures is about 16.7, 12.5, 6.3, 5.9, and 2.2 times that over pure TiO 2 nanofibers, ZnS nanoparticles, In 2 S 3 /TiO 2 nanofibers, ZnS/TiO 2 nanofibers, and ZnS-In 2 S 3 solid solution, respectively. Furthermore, the TiO 2 @ZnS–In 2 S 3 heterostructures show highly stable recycling performance

  9. Leaf-architectured 3D Hierarchical Artificial Photosynthetic System of Perovskite Titanates Towards CO2 Photoreduction Into Hydrocarbon Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Han; Guo, Jianjun; Li, Peng; Fan, Tongxiang; Zhang, Di; Ye, Jinhua

    2013-01-01

    The development of an “artificial photosynthetic system” (APS) having both the analogous important structural elements and reaction features of photosynthesis to achieve solar-driven water splitting and CO2 reduction is highly challenging. Here, we demonstrate a design strategy for a promising 3D APS architecture as an efficient mass flow/light harvesting network relying on the morphological replacement of a concept prototype-leaf's 3D architecture into perovskite titanates for CO2 photoreduction into hydrocarbon fuels (CO and CH4). The process uses artificial sunlight as the energy source, water as an electron donor and CO2 as the carbon source, mimicking what real leaves do. To our knowledge this is the first example utilizing biological systems as “architecture-directing agents” for APS towards CO2 photoreduction, which hints at a more general principle for APS architectures with a great variety of optimized biological geometries. This research would have great significance for the potential realization of global carbon neutral cycle. PMID:23588925

  10. Creating 3D Hierarchical Carbon Architectures with Micro-, Meso-, and Macropores via a Simple Self-Blowing Strategy for a Flow-through Deionization Capacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shanshan; Yan, Tingting; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Jianping; Shi, Liyi; Zhang, Dengsong

    2016-07-20

    In this work, 3D hierarchical carbon architectures (3DHCAs) with micro-, meso-, and macropores were prepared via a simple self-blowing strategy as highly efficient electrodes for a flow-through deionization capacitor (FTDC). The obtained 3DHCAs have a hierarchically porous structure, large accessible specific surface area (2061 m(2) g(-1)), and good wettability. The electrochemical tests show that the 3DHCA electrode has a high specific capacitance and good electric conductivity. The deionization experiments demonstrate that the 3DHCA electrodes possess a high deionization capacity of 17.83 mg g(-1) in a 500 mg L(-1) NaCl solution at 1.2 V. Moreover, the 3DHCA electrodes present a fast deionization rate in 100-500 mg L(-1) NaCl solutions at 0.8-1.4 V. The 3DHCA electrodes also present a good regeneration behavior in the reiterative regeneration test. These above factors render the 3DHCAs a promising FTDC electrode material.

  11. Three-Dimensional-Moldable Nanofiber-Reinforced Transparent Composites with a Hierarchically Self-Assembled "Reverse" Nacre-like Architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Subir K; Sano, Hironari; Shams, Md Iftekhar; Yano, Hiroyuki

    2017-09-06

    Achieving a structural hierarchy and a uniform nanofiller dispersion simultaneously remains highly challenging for obtaining a robust polymer nanocomposite of immiscible components. In this study, a remarkably facile Pickering emulsification approach is developed to fabricate hierarchical composites of immiscible acrylic polymer and native cellulose nanofibers by taking advantage of the dual role of the nanofibers as both emulsion stabilizer and polymer reinforcement. The composites feature a unique "reverse" nacre-like microstructure reinforced with a well-dispersed two-tier hierarchical nanofiber network, leading to a synergistic high strength, modulus, and toughness (20, 50, and 53 times that of neat polymer, respectively), high optical transparency (89%), high flexibility, and a drastically low thermal expansion (13 ppm K -1 , 1/15th of the neat polymer). The nanocomposites have a three-dimensional-shape moldability, also their surface can be patterned with micro/nanoscale features with high fidelity by in situ compression molding, making them attractive as the substrate for flexible displays, smart contact lens devices, and photovoltaics. The Pickering emulsification approach should be broadly applicable for the fabrication of novel functional materials of various immiscible components.

  12. Triple carbon coated LiFePO4 composite with hierarchical conductive architecture as high-performance cathode for Li-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mei, Riguo; Yang, Yanfeng; Song, Xiaorui; An, Zhenguo; Zhang, Jingjie

    2015-01-01

    Triple carbon coated LiFePO 4 composite is prepared by spray drying-carbothermal reduction (SD-CTR) method. The triple carbon sources (viz. graphene oxide, thermoplastic phenolic resin and water-solubility starch) play different roles in constructing the hierarchical conductive architecture. The structure, component and morphology of the as-obtained LiFePO 4 composites are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and Raman spectroscopy. The results indicate that, compared with double carbon coated LiFePO 4 counterparts, the triple carbon coated LiFePO 4 composite possesses smaller crystallite and high-efficiency of carbon coating such as more complete coating, lower I D /I G ratio, and better conductive architecture. Benefited from the above mentioned superiority, the triple carbon coated LiFePO 4 composite exhibits outstanding electrochemical performance, especially for high-rate capability, which reaches up to 120 mA h g −1 at 10 C

  13. Knowledge Uncertainty and Composed Classifier

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klimešová, Dana; Ocelíková, E.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 2 (2007), s. 101-105 ISSN 1998-0140 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Boosting architecture * contextual modelling * composed classifier * knowledge management, * knowledge * uncertainty Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science

  14. Composing and Arranging Careers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Elliott; And Others

    1977-01-01

    With the inspiration, the originality, the skill and craftsmanship, the business acumen, the patience, and the luck, it's possible to become a classical composer, pop/rock/country composer, jingle composer, or educational composer. Describes these careers. (Editor/RK)

  15. The COMPOSE Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balletta, P.; Biagini, M.; Gallinaro, G.; Vernucci, A.

    2003-07-01

    This paper provides an overview of the on-going project COMPOSE, an EC co-funded project aiming to define, specify and validate an innovative mobile-services scenario in support of travellers, and to demonstrate the effectiveness of the new proposed location-based value-added services. COMPOSE is supported by organisations belonging to numerous categories covering, as a whole, the entire value-chain of infomobility services provision to the final user. The project team comprises, in addition to the affiliations of the authors, also Teleatlas (NL), ARS T&TT (NL), Alcatel-Bell Space (B), Skysoft (P), Hitech Marketing (A) and MobileGis (IR). The paper describes the services that will be offered to users, encompassing both the pre-trip and the on-trip framework, presents the overall hybrid system architecture also including a via-satellite component based upon the Wideband-CDMA (W-CDMA) technique adopted in UMTS, discusses the access solutions envisaged for that component permitting multiple feeder-link stations to share the CDMA multiplex capacity by directly transmitting their codes to the satellite, and illustrates the results of some computer simulations intended to assess the performance of said access solutions, with regard to the effects of the inevitable up- link frequency errors and transponder non-linearity.

  16. Hierarchical Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} architectures decorated with Pd nanoparticles for enhanced visible-light-driven photocatalytic activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jinniu; Chen, Tianhua [School of Physics and Information Technology, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an, 710062 (China); Lu, Hongbing, E-mail: hblu@snnu.edu.cn [School of Physics and Information Technology, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an, 710062 (China); Yang, Zhibo; Yin, Feng; Gao, Jianzhi; Liu, Qianru [School of Physics and Information Technology, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an, 710062 (China); Tu, Yafang [Department of Physics, Institute for Interdisciplinary Research, Jianghan University, Wuhan, 430056 (China)

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • A new kind of Pd decorated Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} hierarchical microarchitecture was synthesized. • Pd nanoparticles remarkably improved the photocatalytic activity of Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6}. • The photo-generated holes and ·O{sub 2}{sup −} played a crucial role in the degradation of RhB. • The photocatalytic enhancement mechanism of the Pd-Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} composites was proposed. - Abstract: A new kind of hierarchical Pd-Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} architecture decorated with different molar ratios of Pd to Bi, has been fabricated by a hydrothermal process, followed by a chemical deposition method. The photocatalytic activities of the pure Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} and Pd-Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} nanocatalyst were examined in the degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) dyes and phenol under visible light. The photocatalytic results showed that the Pd-Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} nanocomposites possessed observably enhanced photocatalytic activities. Particularly, the 2.0% Pd loaded Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} had the highest photocatalytic activity, exhibiting a nearly complete degradation of 30 mg/L RhB and 10 mg/L phenol within only 50 and 60 min, respectively. In addition, the trapping experiment results indicated that the photo-generated holes (h{sup +}) and ·O{sub 2}{sup −} played a crucial role in the degradation of RhB. According to the experimental results, the photocatalytic degradation mechanism of Pd-Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} was also proposed. The enhanced photocatalytic activities were ascribed to the combined effects of the highly efficient separation of electrons and holes, improved visible light utilization and increased BET specific surface areas of the Pd-Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} nanocomposites.

  17. My Career: Composer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morganelli, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about his career as a composer and offers some advice for aspiring composers. The author works as a composer in the movie industry, creating music that supports a film's story. Other composers work on television shows, and some do both television and film. The composer uses music to tell the audience what kind of…

  18. Architecturing hierarchical function layers on self-assembled viral templates as 3D nano-array electrodes for integrated Li-ion microbatteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yihang; Zhang, Wei; Zhu, Yujie; Luo, Yanting; Xu, Yunhua; Brown, Adam; Culver, James N; Lundgren, Cynthia A; Xu, Kang; Wang, Yuan; Wang, Chunsheng

    2013-01-09

    This work enables an elegant bottom-up solution to engineer 3D microbattery arrays as integral power sources for microelectronics. Thus, multilayers of functional materials were hierarchically architectured over tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) templates that were genetically modified to self-assemble in a vertical manner on current-collectors, so that optimum power and energy densities accompanied with excellent cycle-life could be achieved on a minimum footprint. The resultant microbattery based on self-aligned LiFePO(4) nanoforests of shell-core-shell structure, with precise arrangement of various auxiliary material layers including a central nanometric metal core as direct electronic pathway to current collector, delivers excellent energy density and stable cycling stability only rivaled by the best Li-ion batteries of conventional configurations, while providing rate performance per foot-print and on-site manufacturability unavailable from the latter. This approach could open a new avenue for microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) applications, which would significantly benefit from the concept that electrochemically active components be directly engineered and fabricated as an integral part of the integrated circuit (IC).

  19. Asymmetric ZnO panel-like hierarchical architectures with highly interconnected pathways for free-electron transport and photovoltaic improvements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yantao; Zhu, Chao; Wang, Lin; Li, Wei; Fung, Kwok Kwong; Wang, Ning

    2013-01-02

    Through a rapid and template-free precipitation approach, we synthesized an asymmetric panel-like ZnO hierarchical architecture (PHA) for photoanodes of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). The two sides of the PHA are constructed differently using densely interconnected, mono-crystalline and ultrathin ZnO nanosheets. By mixing these PHAs with ZnO nanoparticles (NPs), we developed an effective and feasible strategy to improve the electrical transport and photovoltaic performance of the composite photoanodes of DSCs. The highly crystallized and interconnected ZnO nanosheets largely minimized the total grain boundaries within the composite photoanodes and thus served as direct pathways for the transport and effective collection of free electrons. Through low-temperature (200 °C) annealing, these novel composite photoanodes achieved high conversion efficiencies of up to 5.59% for ZnO-based quasi-solid DSCs. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Rice husks as a sustainable silica source for hierarchical flower-like metal silicate architectures assembled into ultrathin nanosheets for adsorption and catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shouwei; Gao, Huihui; Li, Jiaxing; Huang, Yongshun; Alsaedi, Ahmed; Hayat, Tasawar; Xu, Xijin; Wang, Xiangke

    2017-01-05

    Metal silicates have attracted extensive interests due to their unique structure and promising properties in adsorption and catalysis. However, their applications were hampered by the complex and expensive synthesis. In this paper, three-dimensional (3D) hierarchical flower-like metal silicate, including magnesium silicate, zinc silicate, nickel silicate and cobalt silicate, were for the first time prepared by using rice husks as a sustainable silicon source. The flower-like morphology, interconnected ultrathin nanosheets structure and high specific surface area endowed them with versatile applications. Magnesium silicate was used as an adsorbent with the maximum adsorption capacities of 557.9, 381.3, and 482.8mg/g for Pb 2+ , tetracycline (TC), and UO 2 2+ , respectively. Ni nanoparticles/silica (Ni NPs/SiO 2 ) exhibited high catalytic activity and good stability for 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) reduction within only ∼160s, which can be attributed to the ultra-small particle size (∼6.8nm), good dispersion and high loading capacity of Ni NPs. Considering the abundance and renewability of rice husks, metal silicate with complex architecture can be easily produced at a large scale and become a sustainable and reliable resource for multifunctional applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Rational design of anatase TiO2 architecture with hierarchical nanotubes and hollow microspheres for high-performance dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jiuwang; Khan, Javid; Chai, Zhisheng; Yuan, Yufei; Yu, Xiang; Liu, Pengyi; Wu, Mingmei; Mai, Wenjie

    2016-01-01

    Large surface area, sufficient light-harvesting and superior electron transport property are the major factors for an ideal photoanode of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), which requires rational design of the nanoarchitectures and smart integration of state-of-the-art technologies. In this work, a 3D anatase TiO2 architecture consisting of vertically aligned 1D hierarchical TiO2 nanotubes (NTs) with ultra-dense branches (HTNTs, bottom layer) and 0D hollow TiO2 microspheres with rough surface (HTS, top layer) is first successfully constructed on transparent conductive fluorine-doped tin oxide glass through a series of facile processes. When used as photoanodes, the DSSCs achieve a very large short-current density of 19.46 mA cm-2 and a high overall power conversion efficiency of 8.38%. The remarkable photovoltaic performance is predominantly ascribed to the enhanced charge transport capacity of the NTs (function as the electron highway), the large surface area of the branches (act as the electron branch lines), the pronounced light harvesting efficiency of the HTS (serve as the light scattering centers), and the engineered intimate interfaces between all of them (minimize the recombination effect). Our work demonstrates a possibility of fabricating superior photoanodes for high-performance DSSCs by rational design of nanoarchitectures and smart integration of multi-functional components.

  2. Hierarchically structured, nitrogen-doped carbon membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Hong; Wu, Tao

    2017-01-01

    The present invention is a structure, method of making and method of use for a novel macroscopic hierarchically structured, nitrogen-doped, nano-porous carbon membrane (HNDCMs) with asymmetric and hierarchical pore architecture that can be produced

  3. Rational Design of a Water-Storable Hierarchical Architecture Decorated with Amorphous Barium Oxide and Nickel Nanoparticles as a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anode with Excellent Sulfur Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yufei; Wang, Wei; Ge, Lei; Xu, Xiaomin; Zhang, Zhenbao; Julião, Paulo Sérgio Barros; Zhou, Wei; Shao, Zongping

    2017-11-01

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), which can directly convert chemical energy stored in fuels into electric power, represent a useful technology for a more sustainable future. They are particularly attractive given that they can be easily integrated into the currently available fossil fuel infrastructure to realize an ideal clean energy system. However, the widespread use of the SOFC technology is hindered by sulfur poisoning at the anode caused by the sulfur impurities in fossil fuels. Therefore, improving the sulfur tolerance of the anode is critical for developing SOFCs for use with fossil fuels. Herein, a novel, highly active, sulfur-tolerant anode for intermediate-temperature SOFCs is prepared via a facile impregnation and limited reaction protocol. During synthesis, Ni nanoparticles, water-storable BaZr 0.4 Ce 0.4 Y 0.2 O 3- δ (BZCY) perovskite, and amorphous BaO are formed in situ and deposited on the surface of a Sm 0.2 Ce 0.8 O 1.9 (SDC) scaffold. More specifically, a porous SDC scaffold is impregnated with a well-designed proton-conducting perovskite oxide liquid precursor with the nominal composition of Ba(Zr 0.4 Ce 0.4 Y 0.2 ) 0.8 Ni 0.2 O 3- δ (BZCYN), calcined and reduced in hydrogen. The as-synthesized hierarchical architecture exhibits high H 2 electro-oxidation activity, excellent operational stability, superior sulfur tolerance, and good thermal cyclability. This work demonstrates the potential of combining nanocatalysts and water-storable materials in advanced electrocatalysts for SOFCs.

  4. Fabrication of a 3D Hierarchical Sandwich Co9 S8 /α-MnS@N-C@MoS2 Nanowire Architectures as Advanced Electrode Material for High Performance Hybrid Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandula, Syam; Shrestha, Khem Raj; Kim, Nam Hoon; Lee, Joong Hee

    2018-05-10

    Supercapacitors suffer from lack of energy density and impulse the energy density limit, so a new class of hybrid electrode materials with promising architectures is strongly desirable. Here, the rational design of a 3D hierarchical sandwich Co 9 S 8 /α-MnS@N-C@MoS 2 nanowire architecture is achieved during the hydrothermal sulphurization reaction by the conversion of binary mesoporous metal oxide core to corresponding individual metal sulphides core along with the formation of outer metal sulphide shell at the same time. Benefiting from the 3D hierarchical sandwich architecture, Co 9 S 8 /α-MnS@N-C@MoS 2 electrode exhibits enhanced electrochemical performance with high specific capacity/capacitance of 306 mA h g -1 /1938 F g -1 at 1 A g -1 , and excellent cycling stability with a specific capacity retention of 86.9% after 10 000 cycles at 10 A g -1 . Moreover, the fabricated asymmetric supercapacitor device using Co 9 S 8 /α-MnS@N-C@MoS 2 as the positive electrode and nitrogen doped graphene as the negative electrode demonstrates high energy density of 64.2 Wh kg -1 at 729.2 W kg -1 , and a promising energy density of 23.5 Wh kg -1 is still attained at a high power density of 11 300 W kg -1 . The hybrid electrode with 3D hierarchical sandwich architecture promotes enhanced energy density with excellent cyclic stability for energy storage. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Parallel hierarchical radiosity rendering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, Michael [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1993-07-01

    In this dissertation, the step-by-step development of a scalable parallel hierarchical radiosity renderer is documented. First, a new look is taken at the traditional radiosity equation, and a new form is presented in which the matrix of linear system coefficients is transformed into a symmetric matrix, thereby simplifying the problem and enabling a new solution technique to be applied. Next, the state-of-the-art hierarchical radiosity methods are examined for their suitability to parallel implementation, and scalability. Significant enhancements are also discovered which both improve their theoretical foundations and improve the images they generate. The resultant hierarchical radiosity algorithm is then examined for sources of parallelism, and for an architectural mapping. Several architectural mappings are discussed. A few key algorithmic changes are suggested during the process of making the algorithm parallel. Next, the performance, efficiency, and scalability of the algorithm are analyzed. The dissertation closes with a discussion of several ideas which have the potential to further enhance the hierarchical radiosity method, or provide an entirely new forum for the application of hierarchical methods.

  6. Composability in quantum cryptography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller-Quade, Joern; Renner, Renato

    2009-01-01

    If we combine two secure cryptographic systems, is the resulting system still secure? Answering this question is highly nontrivial and has recently sparked a considerable research effort, in particular, in the area of classical cryptography. A central insight was that the answer to the question is yes, but only within a well-specified composability framework and for carefully chosen security definitions. In this article, we review several aspects of composability in the context of quantum cryptography. The first part is devoted to key distribution. We discuss the security criteria that a quantum key distribution (QKD) protocol must fulfill to allow its safe use within a larger security application (e.g. for secure message transmission); and we demonstrate-by an explicit example-what can go wrong if conventional (non-composable) security definitions are used. Finally, to illustrate the practical use of composability, we show how to generate a continuous key stream by sequentially composing rounds of a QKD protocol. In the second part, we take a more general point of view, which is necessary for the study of cryptographic situations involving, for example, mutually distrustful parties. We explain the universal composability (UC) framework and state the composition theorem that guarantees that secure protocols can securely be composed to larger applications. We focus on the secure composition of quantum protocols into unconditionally secure classical protocols. However, the resulting security definition is so strict that some tasks become impossible without additional security assumptions. Quantum bit commitment is impossible in the UC framework even with mere computational security. Similar problems arise in the quantum bounded storage model and we observe a trade-off between the UC and the use of the weakest possible security assumptions.

  7. Virtual timers in hierarchical real-time systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvel, van den M.M.H.P.; Holenderski, M.J.; Cools, W.A.; Bril, R.J.; Lukkien, J.J.; Zhu, D.

    2009-01-01

    Hierarchical scheduling frameworks (HSFs) provide means for composing complex real-time systems from welldefined subsystems. This paper describes an approach to provide hierarchically scheduled real-time applications with virtual event timers, motivated by the need for integrating priority

  8. Composing Interfering Abstract Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Tecnologia , Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Caparica, Portugal. This document is a companion technical report of the paper, “Composing Interfering Abstract...a Ciência e Tecnologia (Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology) through the Carnegie Mellon Portugal Program under grant SFRH / BD / 33765

  9. Hierarchical porous ZnMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} microspheres architectured with sub-nanoparticles as a high performance anode for lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rong, Haibo; Xie, Guiting; Cheng, Si; Zhen, Zihao [New Energy Research Institute, College of Environment and Energy, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006, Guangdong (China); Jiang, Zhongqing [Department of Chemical Engineering, Ningbo University of Technology, Ningbo 315016, Zhejiang (China); Huang, Jianlin; Jiang, Yu; Chen, Bohong [New Energy Research Institute, College of Environment and Energy, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006, Guangdong (China); Jiang, Zhong-Jie, E-mail: zhongjiejiang1978@hotmail.com [New Energy Research Institute, College of Environment and Energy, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006, Guangdong (China)

    2016-09-15

    A simple two-step procedure, which involves the synthesis of the Zn{sub 0.33}Mn{sub 0.67}CO{sub 3} microspheres through a hydrothermal process and the subsequent calcination, has been used to synthesize the ZnMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} microspheres with a hierarchical porous morphology consisting of the ZnMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} sub-nanoparticles. When evaluated as anode materials for lithium ion batteries (LIBs), these hierarchical porous ZnMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} microspheres could exhibit a stable reversible capability of ∼723.7 mAh g{sup −1} at the current density of 400 mA g{sup −1}, which is much higher than those of the ZnMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} based materials reported previously, indicating the great potential of using them as the anode for the LIBs. This is further supported by their better rate capability and higher cycling stability. Careful analysis has shown that the unique porous structure of the hierarchical porous ZnMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} microspheres which consists of the ZnMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} sub-nanoparticles plays an important role in their higher electrochemical performance, since it allows the accommodation of the volume expansion during the repeated discharge–charge cycles, preventing them from the structural destruction, and increase the accessibility of the electrode material to the Li{sup +} storage, making a better utilization of active materials and an easy diffusion of electrolytes in and out of the electrode material. - Graphical abstract: The ZnMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} microspheres with a hierarchical porous morphology consisting of the ZnMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} sub-nanoparticles have been synthesized by the calcination of the Zn{sub 0.33}Mn{sub 0.67}CO{sub 3} microspheres and could exhibit superior electrochemical performance when used as anode materials for lithium ion batteries. - Highlights: • A simple procedure has been used to synthesize the ZnMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} microspheres. • The ZnMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} microspheres exhibit excellent performance when used in LIBs

  10. Hierarchical porous ZnMn_2O_4 microspheres architectured with sub-nanoparticles as a high performance anode for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rong, Haibo; Xie, Guiting; Cheng, Si; Zhen, Zihao; Jiang, Zhongqing; Huang, Jianlin; Jiang, Yu; Chen, Bohong; Jiang, Zhong-Jie

    2016-01-01

    A simple two-step procedure, which involves the synthesis of the Zn_0_._3_3Mn_0_._6_7CO_3 microspheres through a hydrothermal process and the subsequent calcination, has been used to synthesize the ZnMn_2O_4 microspheres with a hierarchical porous morphology consisting of the ZnMn_2O_4 sub-nanoparticles. When evaluated as anode materials for lithium ion batteries (LIBs), these hierarchical porous ZnMn_2O_4 microspheres could exhibit a stable reversible capability of ∼723.7 mAh g"−"1 at the current density of 400 mA g"−"1, which is much higher than those of the ZnMn_2O_4 based materials reported previously, indicating the great potential of using them as the anode for the LIBs. This is further supported by their better rate capability and higher cycling stability. Careful analysis has shown that the unique porous structure of the hierarchical porous ZnMn_2O_4 microspheres which consists of the ZnMn_2O_4 sub-nanoparticles plays an important role in their higher electrochemical performance, since it allows the accommodation of the volume expansion during the repeated discharge–charge cycles, preventing them from the structural destruction, and increase the accessibility of the electrode material to the Li"+ storage, making a better utilization of active materials and an easy diffusion of electrolytes in and out of the electrode material. - Graphical abstract: The ZnMn_2O_4 microspheres with a hierarchical porous morphology consisting of the ZnMn_2O_4 sub-nanoparticles have been synthesized by the calcination of the Zn_0_._3_3Mn_0_._6_7CO_3 microspheres and could exhibit superior electrochemical performance when used as anode materials for lithium ion batteries. - Highlights: • A simple procedure has been used to synthesize the ZnMn_2O_4 microspheres. • The ZnMn_2O_4 microspheres exhibit excellent performance when used in LIBs. • The porous structure plays a crucial role in their high performance. • These spheres exhibit a good morphology retention

  11. Composers on stage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Sanne Krogh

    A trend on the scene of contemporary music is composers going on stage, performing their pieces themselves. Within a discourse of popular music, this is more the rule than exception, but when it comes to the context of contemporary scored music, the historical and aesthetic context differs......, and something quite different is undergoing. This paper intends to discuss three examples of performances in which the composer’s appearance on stage was an important part of the piece, - both when it came to the role as a performer and as an individual person – as representer and presenter. The paper intends...

  12. Composing the Symbolic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Sacco

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available An excerpt from Sergei M. Eisenstein's memoirs describing a night visit to the museum of Chichén Itzá in Mexico is set forth as a real life example reflecting, both from a visual and theoretical perspective, the architecture of Aby Warburg's Bilderatlas Mnemosyne and his concept of Denkraum. Drawing upon Warburg's own writings and F. T. Vischer's theory of symbol, the paper looks at Eisenstein's experience at the museum as highlighting the dynamic relation between man's religious/magical and scientific/rational psychic poles, and the in-between space of thought inherent to the concept of Denkraum and visually represented by the empty dark intervals separating the images in the Bilderatlas. Adding significance to its argumentation, the paper also hints at an affinity between Eisenstein's film montaging and Warburg's image assembling criteria.

  13. Biomass-Derived Oxygen and Nitrogen Co-Doped Porous Carbon with Hierarchical Architecture as Sulfur Hosts for High-Performance Lithium/Sulfur Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhao

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a facile strategy to synthesize oxygen and nitrogen co-doped porous carbon (ONPC is reported by one-step pyrolysis of waste coffee grounds. As-prepared ONPC possesses highly rich micro/mesopores as well as abundant oxygen and nitrogen co-doping, which is applied to sulfur hosts as lithium/sulfur batteries’ appropriate cathodes. In battery testing, the sulfur/oxygen and nitrogen co-doped porous carbon (S/ONPC composite materials reveal a high initial capacity of 1150 mAh·g−1 as well as a reversible capacity of 613 mAh·g−1 after the 100th cycle at 0.2 C. Furthermore, when current density increases to 1 C, a discharge capacity of 331 mAh·g−1 is still attainable. Due to the hierarchical porous framework and oxygen/nitrogen co-doping, the S/ONPC composite exhibits a high utilization of sulfur and good electrochemical performance via the immobilization of the polysulfides through strong chemical binding.

  14. Hierarchical Broadcasting in the Future Mobile Internet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselman, C.E.W.; Eertink, E.H.; Fernandez, Milagros; Crnkovic, Ivica; Fohler, Gerhard; Griwodz, Carsten; Plagemann, Thomas; Gruenbacher, Paul

    2002-01-01

    We describe an architecture for the hierarchical distribution of multimedia broadcasts in the future mobile Internet. The architecture supports network as well as application-layer mobility solutions, and uses stream control functions that are influenced by available network resources, user-defined

  15. Teaching Composing with an Identity as a Teacher-Composer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Jennie

    2012-01-01

    I enjoy composing and feel able to write songs that I like and which feel significant to me. This has not always been the case and the change had nothing to do with my school education or my degree. Composing at secondary school did not move beyond Bach and Handel pastiche. I did not take any composing courses during my degree. What did influence…

  16. Hierarchically Structured Electrospun Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole E. Zander

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional electrospun nanofibers have a myriad of applications ranging from scaffolds for tissue engineering to components of biosensors and energy harvesting devices. The generally smooth one-dimensional structure of the fibers has stood as a limitation to several interesting novel applications. Control of fiber diameter, porosity and collector geometry will be briefly discussed, as will more traditional methods for controlling fiber morphology and fiber mat architecture. The remainder of the review will focus on new techniques to prepare hierarchically structured fibers. Fibers with hierarchical primary structures—including helical, buckled, and beads-on-a-string fibers, as well as fibers with secondary structures, such as nanopores, nanopillars, nanorods, and internally structured fibers and their applications—will be discussed. These new materials with helical/buckled morphology are expected to possess unique optical and mechanical properties with possible applications for negative refractive index materials, highly stretchable/high-tensile-strength materials, and components in microelectromechanical devices. Core-shell type fibers enable a much wider variety of materials to be electrospun and are expected to be widely applied in the sensing, drug delivery/controlled release fields, and in the encapsulation of live cells for biological applications. Materials with a hierarchical secondary structure are expected to provide new superhydrophobic and self-cleaning materials.

  17. The Hi-Ring DCN Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galili, Michael; Kamchevska, Valerija; Ding, Yunhong

    2016-01-01

    We will review recent work on the proposed hierarchical ring-based architecture (HiRing) proposed for data center networks. We will discuss the architecture and initial demonstrations of optical switching performance and time-domain synchronization......We will review recent work on the proposed hierarchical ring-based architecture (HiRing) proposed for data center networks. We will discuss the architecture and initial demonstrations of optical switching performance and time-domain synchronization...

  18. Composing the Curriculum: Teacher Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    What is composing and how is it valued? What does a good education in composing look like; what constraints hinder it and is it possible to overcome such constraints? Can composing be a personal, creative and valuable activity for the school student? What role does the teacher play in all of this? These are questions that I discuss in this…

  19. Effect of the sheet thickness of hierarchical SnO_2 on the gas sensing performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Wenlong; Zeng, Wen; BinMiao; Wang, Zhongchang

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A unique flower-like SnO_2 hierarchical architecture assembled with nanosheets were successfully synthesized. • The thickness of the unique hierarchical nanoflowers was precisely controlled. • The nanoflowers composed of thinner nanosheets show a significantly enhanced gas sensing properties. • A possible growth mechanism for the unique hierarchical SnO_2 nanoflower assembled with nanosheets of different thickness is proposed. - Abstract: A unique hierarchical SnO_2 nanoflower was successfully synthesized via a facile one-step hydrothermal method. The nanoflower was analyzed in detail using X ray diffraction, field-emission electron microscope and transmission electron microscope. It was found that the nanoflowers are all assembled from nanosheets. The nanosheet thickness could be precisely controlled by tuning the dosage of NaOH. Gas sensing tests demonstrated that the thickness of the sheet significantly affects the gas sensing performance. The improved gas sensing properties are attributed to the thinned petals as well as their pores and defects. These results show that the thickness and morphology of hierarchical nanostructures affect the functionality of gas sensors.

  20. Hierarchically Nanostructured Materials for Sustainable Environmental Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng eRen

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a comprehensive overview of the hierarchical nanostructured materials with either geometry or composition complexity in environmental applications. The hierarchical nanostructures offer advantages of high surface area, synergistic interactions and multiple functionalities towards water remediation, environmental gas sensing and monitoring as well as catalytic gas treatment. Recent advances in synthetic strategies for various hierarchical morphologies such as hollow spheres and urchin-shaped architectures have been reviewed. In addition to the chemical synthesis, the physical mechanisms associated with the materials design and device fabrication have been discussed for each specific application. The development and application of hierarchical complex perovskite oxide nanostructures have also been introduced in photocatalytic water remediation, gas sensing and catalytic converter. Hierarchical nanostructures will open up many possibilities for materials design and device fabrication in environmental chemistry and technology.

  1. Hierarchically structured, nitrogen-doped carbon membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Hong

    2017-08-03

    The present invention is a structure, method of making and method of use for a novel macroscopic hierarchically structured, nitrogen-doped, nano-porous carbon membrane (HNDCMs) with asymmetric and hierarchical pore architecture that can be produced on a large-scale approach. The unique HNDCM holds great promise as components in separation and advanced carbon devices because they could offer unconventional fluidic transport phenomena on the nanoscale. Overall, the invention set forth herein covers a hierarchically structured, nitrogen-doped carbon membranes and methods of making and using such a membranes.

  2. Hierarchical Rhetorical Sentence Categorization for Scientific Papers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachman, G. H.; Khodra, M. L.; Widyantoro, D. H.

    2018-03-01

    Important information in scientific papers can be composed of rhetorical sentences that is structured from certain categories. To get this information, text categorization should be conducted. Actually, some works in this task have been completed by employing word frequency, semantic similarity words, hierarchical classification, and the others. Therefore, this paper aims to present the rhetorical sentence categorization from scientific paper by employing TF-IDF and Word2Vec to capture word frequency and semantic similarity words and employing hierarchical classification. Every experiment is tested in two classifiers, namely Naïve Bayes and SVM Linear. This paper shows that hierarchical classifier is better than flat classifier employing either TF-IDF or Word2Vec, although it increases only almost 2% from 27.82% when using flat classifier until 29.61% when using hierarchical classifier. It shows also different learning model for child-category can be built by hierarchical classifier.

  3. A Time-Composable Operating System for the Patmos Processor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ziccardi, Marco; Schoeberl, Martin; Vardanega, Tullio

    2015-01-01

    -composable operating system, on top of a time-composable processor, facilitates incremental development, which is highly desirable for industry. This paper makes a twofold contribution. First, we present enhancements to the Patmos processor to allow achieving time composability at the operating system level. Second......, we extend an existing time-composable operating system, TiCOS, to make best use of advanced Patmos hardware features in the pursuit of time composability.......In the last couple of decades we have witnessed a steady growth in the complexity and widespread of real-time systems. In order to master the rising complexity in the timing behaviour of those systems, rightful attention has been given to the development of time-predictable computer architectures...

  4. Free-standing Hierarchical Porous Assemblies of Commercial TiO_2 Nanocrystals and Multi-walled Carbon Nanotubes as High-performance Anode Materials for Sodium Ion Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xiong; Xu, Guobao; Xiao, Huaping; Wei, Xiaolin; Yang, Liwen

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Utilization of commercial nanomaterials to freestanding sodium electrode is demonstrated. • Free-standing electrodes composed of TiO_2 and MWCNTs are hierarchically porous. • Hierarchical porous architecture benefits charge transport and interfacial Na"+ adsorption. • Free-standing hierarchical porous electrodes exhibit superior Na storage performance. - Abstract: Freestanding hierarchical porous assemblies of commercial TiO_2 nanocrystals and multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) as electrode materials for sodium ion batteries (SIBs) are prepared via modified vacuum filtration, free-drying and annealing. Microstructure characterizations reveal that TiO_2 nanocrystals are confined in hierarchically porous, highly electrically conductive and mechanically robust MWCNTs networks with cross-linking of thermally-treated bovine serum albumin. The hierarchical porous architecture not only enables rapid charge transportation and sufficient interaction between electrode and electrolyte, but also guarantees abundant interfacial sites for Na"+ adsorption, which benefits substantial contribution from pseudocapacitive Na storage. When it is used directly as an anode for sodium-ion batteries, the prepared electrode delivers high specific capacity of 100 mA h g"−"1 at a current density of 3000 mA g"−"1, and 150 mA h g"−"1 after 500 cycles at a current density of 500 mA g"−"1. The low-cost TiO_2-based freestanding anode has large potential application in high-performance SIBs for portable, flexible and wearable electronics.

  5. Loops in hierarchical channel networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katifori, Eleni; Magnasco, Marcelo

    2012-02-01

    Nature provides us with many examples of planar distribution and structural networks having dense sets of closed loops. An archetype of this form of network organization is the vasculature of dicotyledonous leaves, which showcases a hierarchically-nested architecture. Although a number of methods have been proposed to measure aspects of the structure of such networks, a robust metric to quantify their hierarchical organization is still lacking. We present an algorithmic framework that allows mapping loopy networks to binary trees, preserving in the connectivity of the trees the architecture of the original graph. We apply this framework to investigate computer generated and natural graphs extracted from digitized images of dicotyledonous leaves and animal vasculature. We calculate various metrics on the corresponding trees and discuss the relationship of these quantities to the architectural organization of the original graphs. This algorithmic framework decouples the geometric information from the metric topology (connectivity and edge weight) and it ultimately allows us to perform a quantitative statistical comparison between predictions of theoretical models and naturally occurring loopy graphs.

  6. A hierarchical classification scheme of psoriasis images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maletti, Gabriela Mariel; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    2003-01-01

    A two-stage hierarchical classification scheme of psoriasis lesion images is proposed. These images are basically composed of three classes: normal skin, lesion and background. The scheme combines conventional tools to separate the skin from the background in the first stage, and the lesion from...

  7. Dimensions of the Composing Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Aviva

    As a by-product of a study concerning how university level writers develop new genres of discourse, a study was undertaken to examine what factors or dimensions affect the composing process of university writers. Six undergraduate students at Carleton University in Ottawa participated, making available to researchers information about how they…

  8. Hierarchical ZnO with twinned structure: Morphology evolution, formation mechanism and properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Ruixia; Song, Xueling; Li, Jia; Yang, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Various hierarchical ZnO architectures constructed by twinned structures have been synthesized via a trisodium citrate assisted hydrothermal method on a large scale. The probable formation mechanisms of hierarchical ZnO structures with twinned structure were proposed and discussed. The hierarchical ZnO with twinned structures are composed of two hemispheres with a center concave junction to join them together at their waists. The ZnO microspheres with rough surfaces were obtained when the concentration of trisodium citrate is 0.1 M. However, the football-like microspheres consisted of hexagonal nanosheets were formed when adding glycerol into the water, which should be attributed to the slower nucleation and growth rate of nanocrystals. The hamburger-like ZnO with different aspect ratio and nonuniform ZnO microspheres were generated due to the different quantity of initial nuclei and growth units when simply modulating the concentration of trisodium citrate. The surface area of football-like ZnO is about 3.51 times of microspheres composed of irregular particles. However their photocatalytic performances are similar under UV light irradiation, which indicates that pore sizes of the sample have more important influences on the photocatalytic activity. - Highlights: • Hierarchical ZnO constructed by twinned structures have been synthesized. • The formation mechanisms of ZnO with twinned structure were discussed. • Football-like microspheres were obtained due to the slower nucleation and growth. • Hamburger-like ZnO was formed due to the amount of initial nuclei and growth units. • Pore sizes have important effects on the photocatalytic activity of sample

  9. Hierarchical ZnO with twinned structure: Morphology evolution, formation mechanism and properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Ruixia; Song, Xueling; Li, Jia; Yang, Ping, E-mail: mse_yangp@ujn.edu.cn

    2015-04-15

    Various hierarchical ZnO architectures constructed by twinned structures have been synthesized via a trisodium citrate assisted hydrothermal method on a large scale. The probable formation mechanisms of hierarchical ZnO structures with twinned structure were proposed and discussed. The hierarchical ZnO with twinned structures are composed of two hemispheres with a center concave junction to join them together at their waists. The ZnO microspheres with rough surfaces were obtained when the concentration of trisodium citrate is 0.1 M. However, the football-like microspheres consisted of hexagonal nanosheets were formed when adding glycerol into the water, which should be attributed to the slower nucleation and growth rate of nanocrystals. The hamburger-like ZnO with different aspect ratio and nonuniform ZnO microspheres were generated due to the different quantity of initial nuclei and growth units when simply modulating the concentration of trisodium citrate. The surface area of football-like ZnO is about 3.51 times of microspheres composed of irregular particles. However their photocatalytic performances are similar under UV light irradiation, which indicates that pore sizes of the sample have more important influences on the photocatalytic activity. - Highlights: • Hierarchical ZnO constructed by twinned structures have been synthesized. • The formation mechanisms of ZnO with twinned structure were discussed. • Football-like microspheres were obtained due to the slower nucleation and growth. • Hamburger-like ZnO was formed due to the amount of initial nuclei and growth units. • Pore sizes have important effects on the photocatalytic activity of sample.

  10. T-SDN architecture for space and ground integrated optical transport network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Kunkun; Hu, Wenjing; Gao, Shenghua; Chang, Chengwu

    2015-11-01

    Integrated optical transport network is the development trend of the future space information backbone network. The space and ground integrated optical transport network(SGIOTN) may contain a variety of equipment and systems. Changing the network or meeting some innovation missions in the network will be an expensive implement. Software Defined Network(SDN) provides a good solution to flexibly adding process logic, timely control states and resources of the whole network, as well as shielding the differences of heterogeneous equipment and so on. According to the characteristics of SGIOTN, we propose an transport SDN architecture for it, with hierarchical control plane and data plane composed of packet networks and optical transport networks.

  11. Synthesis of hierarchical mesoporous lithium nickel cobalt manganese oxide spheres with high rate capability for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Wei; Huang, Yudai; Cai, Yanjun; Guo, Yong; Wang, Xingchao; Jia, Dianzeng; Sun, Zhipeng; Pang, Weikong; Guo, Zaiping; Zong, Jun

    2018-01-01

    Hierarchical mesoporous LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 spheres have been synthesized by urea-assisted solvothermal method with adding Triton X-100. The structure and morphology of the as-prepared materials were analyzed by X-ray diffraction and electron microscope. The results show that the as-prepared samples can be indexed as hexagonal layered structure with hierarchical architecture, and the possible formation mechanism is speculated. When evaluated as cathode material, the hierarchical mesoporous LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 spheres show good electrochemical properties with high initial discharge capacity of 129.9 mAh g-1, and remain the discharge capacity of 95.5 mAh g-1 after 160 cycles at 10C. The excellent electrochemical performance of the as-prepared sample can be attributed to its stable hierarchical mesoporous framework in conjunction with large specific surface, low cation mixing and small particle size. They not only provide a large number of reaction sites for surface or interface reaction, but also shorten the diffusion length of Li+ ions. Meanwhile, the mesoporous spheres composed of nanoparticles can contribute to high rate ability and buffer volume changes during charge/discharge process.

  12. Cooperative self-construction and enhanced optical absorption of nanoplates-assembled hierarchical Bi2WO6 flowers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Shengwei; Yu Jiaguo

    2008-01-01

    Bi 2 WO 6 hierarchical multilayered flower-like assemblies are fabricated on a large scale by a simple hydrothermal method in the presence of polymeric poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate). Such 3D Bi 2 WO 6 assemblies are constructed from orderly arranged 2D layers, which are further composed of a large number of interconnected nanoplates with a mean side length of ca. 50 nm. The bimodal mesopores associated with such hierarchical assembly exhibit peak mesopore size of ca. 4 nm for the voids within a layer, and peak mesopore size of ca. 40 nm corresponding to the interspaces between stacked layers, respectively. The formation process is discussed on the basis of the results of time-dependent experiments, which support a novel 'coupled cooperative assembly and localized ripening' formation mechanism. More interestingly, we have noticed that the collective effect related to such hierarchical assembly induces a significantly enhanced optical absorbance in the UV-visible region. This work may shed some light on the design of complex architectures and exploitation of their potential applications. - Graphical abstract: Bi 2 WO 6 hierarchical multilayered flower-like assemblies are fabricated on a large scale by a simple hydrothermal method in the presence of polymeric poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate)

  13. Architectural prototyping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bardram, Jakob Eyvind; Christensen, Henrik Bærbak; Hansen, Klaus Marius

    2004-01-01

    A major part of software architecture design is learning how specific architectural designs balance the concerns of stakeholders. We explore the notion of "architectural prototypes", correspondingly architectural prototyping, as a means of using executable prototypes to investigate stakeholders...

  14. Architecture on Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Karen

    2016-01-01

    that is not scientific or academic but is more like a latent body of data that we find embedded in existing works of architecture. This information, it is argued, is not limited by the historical context of the work. It can be thought of as a virtual capacity – a reservoir of spatial configurations that can...... correlation between the study of existing architectures and the training of competences to design for present-day realities.......This paper will discuss the challenges faced by architectural education today. It takes as its starting point the double commitment of any school of architecture: on the one hand the task of preserving the particular knowledge that belongs to the discipline of architecture, and on the other hand...

  15. Composing and decomposing data types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahr, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    restrictive, disallowing subtypings that lead to more than one possible injection and should therefore be considered programming errors. Furthermore, from this refined subtyping constraint we derive a new constraint to express type isomorphism. We show how this isomorphism constraint allows us to decompose......Wouter Swierstra's data types à la carte is a technique to modularise data type definitions in Haskell. We give an alternative implementation of data types à la carte that offers more flexibility in composing and decomposing data types. To achieve this, we refine the subtyping constraint, which...... is at the centre of data types à la carte. On the one hand this refinement is more general, allowing subtypings that intuitively should hold but were not derivable beforehand. This aspect of our implementation removes previous restrictions on how data types can be combined. On the other hand our refinement is more...

  16. Composing Music with Complex Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaofan; Tse, Chi K.; Small, Michael

    In this paper we study the network structure in music and attempt to compose music artificially. Networks are constructed with nodes and edges corresponding to musical notes and their co-occurrences. We analyze sample compositions from Bach, Mozart, Chopin, as well as other types of music including Chinese pop music. We observe remarkably similar properties in all networks constructed from the selected compositions. Power-law exponents of degree distributions, mean degrees, clustering coefficients, mean geodesic distances, etc. are reported. With the network constructed, music can be created by using a biased random walk algorithm, which begins with a randomly chosen note and selects the subsequent notes according to a simple set of rules that compares the weights of the edges, weights of the nodes, and/or the degrees of nodes. The newly created music from complex networks will be played in the presentation.

  17. Quantifying loopy network architectures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Katifori

    Full Text Available Biology presents many examples of planar distribution and structural networks having dense sets of closed loops. An archetype of this form of network organization is the vasculature of dicotyledonous leaves, which showcases a hierarchically-nested architecture containing closed loops at many different levels. Although a number of approaches have been proposed to measure aspects of the structure of such networks, a robust metric to quantify their hierarchical organization is still lacking. We present an algorithmic framework, the hierarchical loop decomposition, that allows mapping loopy networks to binary trees, preserving in the connectivity of the trees the architecture of the original graph. We apply this framework to investigate computer generated graphs, such as artificial models and optimal distribution networks, as well as natural graphs extracted from digitized images of dicotyledonous leaves and vasculature of rat cerebral neocortex. We calculate various metrics based on the asymmetry, the cumulative size distribution and the Strahler bifurcation ratios of the corresponding trees and discuss the relationship of these quantities to the architectural organization of the original graphs. This algorithmic framework decouples the geometric information (exact location of edges and nodes from the metric topology (connectivity and edge weight and it ultimately allows us to perform a quantitative statistical comparison between predictions of theoretical models and naturally occurring loopy graphs.

  18. Learning with hierarchical-deep models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salakhutdinov, Ruslan; Tenenbaum, Joshua B; Torralba, Antonio

    2013-08-01

    We introduce HD (or “Hierarchical-Deep”) models, a new compositional learning architecture that integrates deep learning models with structured hierarchical Bayesian (HB) models. Specifically, we show how we can learn a hierarchical Dirichlet process (HDP) prior over the activities of the top-level features in a deep Boltzmann machine (DBM). This compound HDP-DBM model learns to learn novel concepts from very few training example by learning low-level generic features, high-level features that capture correlations among low-level features, and a category hierarchy for sharing priors over the high-level features that are typical of different kinds of concepts. We present efficient learning and inference algorithms for the HDP-DBM model and show that it is able to learn new concepts from very few examples on CIFAR-100 object recognition, handwritten character recognition, and human motion capture datasets.

  19. Deep hierarchical attention network for video description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuohao; Tang, Min; Zhang, Jun

    2018-03-01

    Pairing video to natural language description remains a challenge in computer vision and machine translation. Inspired by image description, which uses an encoder-decoder model for reducing visual scene into a single sentence, we propose a deep hierarchical attention network for video description. The proposed model uses convolutional neural network (CNN) and bidirectional LSTM network as encoders while a hierarchical attention network is used as the decoder. Compared to encoder-decoder models used in video description, the bidirectional LSTM network can capture the temporal structure among video frames. Moreover, the hierarchical attention network has an advantage over single-layer attention network on global context modeling. To make a fair comparison with other methods, we evaluate the proposed architecture with different types of CNN structures and decoders. Experimental results on the standard datasets show that our model has a more superior performance than the state-of-the-art techniques.

  20. Facile fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces with hierarchical structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eunyoung; Lee, Kun-Hong

    2018-03-06

    Hierarchical structures were fabricated on the surfaces of SUS304 plates using a one-step process of direct microwave irradiation under a carbon dioxide atmosphere. The surface nanostructures were composed of chrome-doped hematite single crystals. Superhydrophobic surfaces with a water contact angle up to 169° were obtained by chemical modification of the hierarchical structures. The samples maintained superhydrophobicity under NaCl solution up to 2 weeks.

  1. Tank waste remediation system architecture tree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PECK, L.G.

    1999-01-01

    The TWRS Architecture Tree presented in this document is a hierarchical breakdown to support the TWRS systems engineering analysis of the TWRS physical system, including facilities, hardware and software. The purpose for this systems engineering architecture tree is to describe and communicate the system's selected and existing architecture, to provide a common structure to improve the integration of work and resulting products, and to provide a framework as a basis for TWRS Specification Tree development

  2. Tank waste remediation system architecture tree; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PECK, L.G.

    1999-01-01

    The TWRS Architecture Tree presented in this document is a hierarchical breakdown to support the TWRS systems engineering analysis of the TWRS physical system, including facilities, hardware and software. The purpose for this systems engineering architecture tree is to describe and communicate the system's selected and existing architecture, to provide a common structure to improve the integration of work and resulting products, and to provide a framework as a basis for TWRS Specification Tree development

  3. Holey Nanocarbon Architectures for High-Performance Lithium-Air Batteries

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this proposal is to develop 3-dimensional hierarchical mesoporous nanocarbon architecture using primarily our unique holey nanocarbon platforms...

  4. Architectural slicing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak; Hansen, Klaus Marius

    2013-01-01

    Architectural prototyping is a widely used practice, con- cerned with taking architectural decisions through experiments with light- weight implementations. However, many architectural decisions are only taken when systems are already (partially) implemented. This is prob- lematic in the context...... of architectural prototyping since experiments with full systems are complex and expensive and thus architectural learn- ing is hindered. In this paper, we propose a novel technique for harvest- ing architectural prototypes from existing systems, \\architectural slic- ing", based on dynamic program slicing. Given...... a system and a slicing criterion, architectural slicing produces an architectural prototype that contain the elements in the architecture that are dependent on the ele- ments in the slicing criterion. Furthermore, we present an initial design and implementation of an architectural slicer for Java....

  5. Catalysis with hierarchical zeolites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Martin Spangsberg; Taarning, Esben; Egeblad, Kresten

    2011-01-01

    Hierarchical (or mesoporous) zeolites have attracted significant attention during the first decade of the 21st century, and so far this interest continues to increase. There have already been several reviews giving detailed accounts of the developments emphasizing different aspects of this research...... topic. Until now, the main reason for developing hierarchical zeolites has been to achieve heterogeneous catalysts with improved performance but this particular facet has not yet been reviewed in detail. Thus, the present paper summaries and categorizes the catalytic studies utilizing hierarchical...... zeolites that have been reported hitherto. Prototypical examples from some of the different categories of catalytic reactions that have been studied using hierarchical zeolite catalysts are highlighted. This clearly illustrates the different ways that improved performance can be achieved with this family...

  6. Hierarchical Network Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomadsen, Tommy

    2005-01-01

    Communication networks are immensely important today, since both companies and individuals use numerous services that rely on them. This thesis considers the design of hierarchical (communication) networks. Hierarchical networks consist of layers of networks and are well-suited for coping...... with changing and increasing demands. Two-layer networks consist of one backbone network, which interconnects cluster networks. The clusters consist of nodes and links, which connect the nodes. One node in each cluster is a hub node, and the backbone interconnects the hub nodes of each cluster and thus...... the clusters. The design of hierarchical networks involves clustering of nodes, hub selection, and network design, i.e. selection of links and routing of ows. Hierarchical networks have been in use for decades, but integrated design of these networks has only been considered for very special types of networks...

  7. Micromechanics of hierarchical materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mishnaevsky, Leon, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    A short overview of micromechanical models of hierarchical materials (hybrid composites, biomaterials, fractal materials, etc.) is given. Several examples of the modeling of strength and damage in hierarchical materials are summarized, among them, 3D FE model of hybrid composites...... with nanoengineered matrix, fiber bundle model of UD composites with hierarchically clustered fibers and 3D multilevel model of wood considered as a gradient, cellular material with layered composite cell walls. The main areas of research in micromechanics of hierarchical materials are identified, among them......, the investigations of the effects of load redistribution between reinforcing elements at different scale levels, of the possibilities to control different material properties and to ensure synergy of strengthening effects at different scale levels and using the nanoreinforcement effects. The main future directions...

  8. Programming with Hierarchical Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørbæk, Peter

    This report desribes the hierarchical maps used as a central data structure in the Corundum framework. We describe its most prominent features, ague for its usefulness and briefly describe some of the software prototypes implemented using the technology....

  9. Introduction into Hierarchical Matrices

    KAUST Repository

    Litvinenko, Alexander

    2013-12-05

    Hierarchical matrices allow us to reduce computational storage and cost from cubic to almost linear. This technique can be applied for solving PDEs, integral equations, matrix equations and approximation of large covariance and precision matrices.

  10. Introduction into Hierarchical Matrices

    KAUST Repository

    Litvinenko, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Hierarchical matrices allow us to reduce computational storage and cost from cubic to almost linear. This technique can be applied for solving PDEs, integral equations, matrix equations and approximation of large covariance and precision matrices.

  11. Hierarchical unilamellar vesicles of controlled compositional heterogeneity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maik Hadorn

    Full Text Available Eukaryotic life contains hierarchical vesicular architectures (i.e. organelles that are crucial for material production and trafficking, information storage and access, as well as energy production. In order to perform specific tasks, these compartments differ among each other in their membrane composition and their internal cargo and also differ from the cell membrane and the cytosol. Man-made structures that reproduce this nested architecture not only offer a deeper understanding of the functionalities and evolution of organelle-bearing eukaryotic life but also allow the engineering of novel biomimetic technologies. Here, we show the newly developed vesicle-in-water-in-oil emulsion transfer preparation technique to result in giant unilamellar vesicles internally compartmentalized by unilamellar vesicles of different membrane composition and internal cargo, i.e. hierarchical unilamellar vesicles of controlled compositional heterogeneity. The compartmentalized giant unilamellar vesicles were subsequently isolated by a separation step exploiting the heterogeneity of the membrane composition and the encapsulated cargo. Due to the controlled, efficient, and technically straightforward character of the new preparation technique, this study allows the hierarchical fabrication of compartmentalized giant unilamellar vesicles of controlled compositional heterogeneity and will ease the development of eukaryotic cell mimics that resemble their natural templates as well as the fabrication of novel multi-agent drug delivery systems for combination therapies and complex artificial microreactors.

  12. Photoinduced switchable wettability of bismuth coating with hierarchical dendritic structure between superhydrophobicity and superhydrophilicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Chunping; Lu, Zhong; Zhao, Huiping; Yang, Hao, E-mail: hyangwit@hotmail.com; Chen, Rong, E-mail: rchenhku@hotmail.com

    2015-10-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Hierarchical bismuth nanostructures were synthesized by galvanic replacement reaction. • The bismuth coating shows superhydrophobicity after being modified by stearic acid. • Wetting transition could be realized by alternation of irradiation and modification. - Abstract: Special wettability such as superhydrophobicity and superhydrophilicity has aroused considerable attention in recent years, especially for the surface that can be switched between superhydrophobicity and superhydrophilicity. In this work, hierarchical bismuth nanostructures with hyperbranched dendritic architectures were synthesized via the galvanic replacement reaction between zinc plate and BiCl{sub 3} in ethylene glycol solution, which was composed of a trunk, branches (secondary branch), and leaves (tertiary branch). After being modified by stearic acid, the as-prepared bismuth coating shows superhydrophobicity with a high water contact angle of 164.8° and a low sliding angle of 3°. More importantly, a remarkable surface wettability transition between superhydrophobicity and superhydrophilicity could be easily realized by the alternation of UV–vis irradiation and modification with stearic acid. The tunable wetting behavior of bismuth coating could be used as smart materials to make a great application in practice.

  13. Neural Architectures for Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, James K.

    1991-01-01

    The cerebellar model articulated controller (CMAC) neural architectures are shown to be viable for the purposes of real-time learning and control. Software tools for the exploration of CMAC performance are developed for three hardware platforms, the MacIntosh, the IBM PC, and the SUN workstation. All algorithm development was done using the C programming language. These software tools were then used to implement an adaptive critic neuro-control design that learns in real-time how to back up a trailer truck. The truck backer-upper experiment is a standard performance measure in the neural network literature, but previously the training of the controllers was done off-line. With the CMAC neural architectures, it was possible to train the neuro-controllers on-line in real-time on a MS-DOS PC 386. CMAC neural architectures are also used in conjunction with a hierarchical planning approach to find collision-free paths over 2-D analog valued obstacle fields. The method constructs a coarse resolution version of the original problem and then finds the corresponding coarse optimal path using multipass dynamic programming. CMAC artificial neural architectures are used to estimate the analog transition costs that dynamic programming requires. The CMAC architectures are trained in real-time for each obstacle field presented. The coarse optimal path is then used as a baseline for the construction of a fine scale optimal path through the original obstacle array. These results are a very good indication of the potential power of the neural architectures in control design. In order to reach as wide an audience as possible, we have run a seminar on neuro-control that has met once per week since 20 May 1991. This seminar has thoroughly discussed the CMAC architecture, relevant portions of classical control, back propagation through time, and adaptive critic designs.

  14. Accelerated Hierarchical Collision Detection for Simulation using CUDA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jimmy Alison; Fugl, Andreas Rune; Petersen, Henrik Gordon

    2011-01-01

    . The hierarchical nature of the bounding volume structure complicates an efficient implementation on massively parallel architectures such as modern graphics cards and we therefore propose a hybrid method where only box and triangle overlap tests and transformations are offloaded to the graphics card. When...

  15. Children Composing and the Tonal Idiom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roels, Johanna Maria; Van Petegem, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Existing studies have demonstrated how children compose, experiment and use their imagination within the conventions of the tonal idiom with functional harmony. However, one area of research that has hardly been explored is how tonality emerges in the compositions of children who compose by transforming their own non-musical ideas, such as their…

  16. Adolescents' Dialogic Composing with Mobile Phones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Julie

    2016-01-01

    This 14-month study examined the phone-based composing practice of three adolescents. Given the centrality of mobile phones to youth culture, the researcher sought to create a description of the participants' composing practices with these devices. Focal participants were users of Twitter and Instagram, two social media platforms that are usually…

  17. Heterogeneous network architectures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henrik Lehrmann

    2006-01-01

    is flexibility. This thesis investigates such heterogeneous network architectures and how to make them flexible. A survey of algorithms for network design is presented, and it is described how using heuristics can increase the speed. A hierarchical, MPLS based network architecture is described......Future networks will be heterogeneous! Due to the sheer size of networks (e.g., the Internet) upgrades cannot be instantaneous and thus heterogeneity appears. This means that instead of trying to find the olution, networks hould be designed as being heterogeneous. One of the key equirements here...... and it is discussed that it is advantageous to heterogeneous networks and illustrated by a number of examples. Modeling and simulation is a well-known way of doing performance evaluation. An approach to event-driven simulation of communication networks is presented and mixed complexity modeling, which can simplify...

  18. New insight in magnetic saturation behavior of nickel hierarchical structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ji; Zhang, Jianxing; Liu, Chunting; Chen, Kezheng

    2017-09-01

    It is unanimously accepted that non-ferromagnetic inclusions in a ferromagnetic system will lower down total saturation magnetization in unit of emu/g. In this study, ;lattice strain; was found to be another key factor to have critical impact on magnetic saturation behavior of the system. The lattice strain determined assembling patterns of primary nanoparticles in hierarchical structures and was intimately related with the formation process of these architectures. Therefore, flower-necklace-like and cauliflower-like nickel hierarchical structures were used as prototype systems to evidence the relationship between assembling patterns of primary nanoparticles and magnetic saturation behaviors of these architectures. It was found that the influence of lattice strain on saturation magnetization outperformed that of non-ferromagnetic inclusions in these hierarchical structures. This will enable new insights into fundamental understanding of related magnetic effects.

  19. Robotic architectures

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mtshali, M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the development of mobile robotic systems, a robotic architecture plays a crucial role in interconnecting all the sub-systems and controlling the system. The design of robotic architectures for mobile autonomous robots is a challenging...

  20. Neutrosophic Hierarchical Clustering Algoritms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rıdvan Şahin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Interval neutrosophic set (INS is a generalization of interval valued intuitionistic fuzzy set (IVIFS, whose the membership and non-membership values of elements consist of fuzzy range, while single valued neutrosophic set (SVNS is regarded as extension of intuitionistic fuzzy set (IFS. In this paper, we extend the hierarchical clustering techniques proposed for IFSs and IVIFSs to SVNSs and INSs respectively. Based on the traditional hierarchical clustering procedure, the single valued neutrosophic aggregation operator, and the basic distance measures between SVNSs, we define a single valued neutrosophic hierarchical clustering algorithm for clustering SVNSs. Then we extend the algorithm to classify an interval neutrosophic data. Finally, we present some numerical examples in order to show the effectiveness and availability of the developed clustering algorithms.

  1. Architecture & Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Mary; Delahunt, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Most art teachers would agree that architecture is an important form of visual art, but they do not always include it in their curriculums. In this article, the authors share core ideas from "Architecture and Environment," a teaching resource that they developed out of a long-term interest in teaching architecture and their fascination with the…

  2. Hierarchical wave functions revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Dingping.

    1997-11-01

    We study the hierarchical wave functions on a sphere and on a torus. We simplify some wave functions on a sphere or a torus using the analytic properties of wave functions. The open question, the construction of the wave function for quasi electron excitation on a torus, is also solved in this paper. (author)

  3. Hierarchical Porous Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grote, Christopher John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-07

    Materials Design is often at the forefront of technological innovation. While there has always been a push to generate increasingly low density materials, such as aero or hydrogels, more recently the idea of bicontinuous structures has gone more into play. This review will cover some of the methods and applications for generating both porous, and hierarchically porous structures.

  4. The Hierarchical Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Sofron

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on the hierarchical perspective, one of the methods for representing space that was used before the discovery of the Renaissance linear perspective. The hierarchical perspective has a more or less pronounced scientific character and its study offers us a clear image of the way the representatives of the cultures that developed it used to perceive the sensitive reality. This type of perspective is an original method of representing three-dimensional space on a flat surface, which characterises the art of Ancient Egypt and much of the art of the Middle Ages, being identified in the Eastern European Byzantine art, as well as in the Western European Pre-Romanesque and Romanesque art. At the same time, the hierarchical perspective is also present in naive painting and infantile drawing. Reminiscences of this method can be recognised also in the works of some precursors of the Italian Renaissance. The hierarchical perspective can be viewed as a subjective ranking criterion, according to which the elements are visually represented by taking into account their relevance within the image while perception is ignored. This paper aims to show how the main objective of the artists of those times was not to faithfully represent the objective reality, but rather to emphasize the essence of the world and its perennial aspects. This may represent a possible explanation for the refusal of perspective in the Egyptian, Romanesque and Byzantine painting, characterised by a marked two-dimensionality.

  5. A self-defining hierarchical data system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, J.

    1992-01-01

    The Self-Defining Data System (SDS) is a system which allows the creation of self-defining hierarchical data structures in a form which allows the data to be moved between different machine architectures. Because the structures are self-defining they can be used for communication between independent modules in a distributed system. Unlike disk-based hierarchical data systems such as Starlink's HDS, SDS works entirely in memory and is very fast. Data structures are created and manipulated as internal dynamic structures in memory managed by SDS itself. A structure may then be exported into a caller supplied memory buffer in a defined external format. This structure can be written as a file or sent as a message to another machine. It remains static in structure until it is reimported into SDS. SDS is written in portable C and has been run on a number of different machine architectures. Structures are portable between machines with SDS looking after conversion of byte order, floating point format, and alignment. A Fortran callable version is also available for some machines.

  6. Hierarchical species distribution models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefley, Trevor J.; Hooten, Mevin B.

    2016-01-01

    Determining the distribution pattern of a species is important to increase scientific knowledge, inform management decisions, and conserve biodiversity. To infer spatial and temporal patterns, species distribution models have been developed for use with many sampling designs and types of data. Recently, it has been shown that count, presence-absence, and presence-only data can be conceptualized as arising from a point process distribution. Therefore, it is important to understand properties of the point process distribution. We examine how the hierarchical species distribution modeling framework has been used to incorporate a wide array of regression and theory-based components while accounting for the data collection process and making use of auxiliary information. The hierarchical modeling framework allows us to demonstrate how several commonly used species distribution models can be derived from the point process distribution, highlight areas of potential overlap between different models, and suggest areas where further research is needed.

  7. Bayesian nonparametric hierarchical modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunson, David B

    2009-04-01

    In biomedical research, hierarchical models are very widely used to accommodate dependence in multivariate and longitudinal data and for borrowing of information across data from different sources. A primary concern in hierarchical modeling is sensitivity to parametric assumptions, such as linearity and normality of the random effects. Parametric assumptions on latent variable distributions can be challenging to check and are typically unwarranted, given available prior knowledge. This article reviews some recent developments in Bayesian nonparametric methods motivated by complex, multivariate and functional data collected in biomedical studies. The author provides a brief review of flexible parametric approaches relying on finite mixtures and latent class modeling. Dirichlet process mixture models are motivated by the need to generalize these approaches to avoid assuming a fixed finite number of classes. Focusing on an epidemiology application, the author illustrates the practical utility and potential of nonparametric Bayes methods.

  8. Hierarchically Structured Electrospun Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-07

    in the natural lotus and silver ragwort leaves. Figure 4. Examples of electrospun bio-mimics of natural hierarchical structures. (A) Lotus leaf...B) pillared poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) electrospun fiber mimic; (C) silver ragwort leaf; (D) electrospun fiber mimic made from nylon 6 and...domains containing the protein in the surrounding EVA fibers [115]. A wide variety of core-shell fibers have been generated, including PCL/ gelatin

  9. Hierarchical Ni0.54Co0.46O2 nanowire and nanosheet arrays grown on carbon fiber cloth for high-performance supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yuanzhi; Zhang, Lijuan; Zhang, Hang; Zhang, Cui; Liu, Shuangxi

    2016-10-01

    Hierarchical Ni0.54Co0.46O2 architectures composed by nanowires or nanosheets were successfully grown on bio-mass carbon fiber cloth (CFC) by hydrothermal method. The morphology of Ni0.54Co0.46O2 can be effectively controlled by using different precipitators. The structural effects of the two kinds of morphologies were researched. the results suggest that the Ni0.54Co0.46O2 nanosheet arrays grown on CFC (NCO-NSs/CFC) shows a higher Faradaic areal capacity of 438 μAh cm-2 (238.1 mAh g-1) at a current density of 1 mA cm-2 and still about 90.3% initial capacity retention even at the high current density of 50 mA cm-2. Moreover, an all-solid-state flexible symmetric supercapacitor device has been successfully assembled. The optimized device delivers superior electrochemical performance with an outstanding energy density of 92.4 Wh kg-1 at a power density of 207.2 W kg-1. Such hierarchical nanostructure composed by well-aligned uniform Ni0.54Co0.46O2 nanosheet arrays grown on bio-mass carbon fiber cloth might hold great promise as battery-type electrode material for high-performance supercapacitor.

  10. Hierarchical video summarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratakonda, Krishna; Sezan, M. Ibrahim; Crinon, Regis J.

    1998-12-01

    We address the problem of key-frame summarization of vide in the absence of any a priori information about its content. This is a common problem that is encountered in home videos. We propose a hierarchical key-frame summarization algorithm where a coarse-to-fine key-frame summary is generated. A hierarchical key-frame summary facilitates multi-level browsing where the user can quickly discover the content of the video by accessing its coarsest but most compact summary and then view a desired segment of the video with increasingly more detail. At the finest level, the summary is generated on the basis of color features of video frames, using an extension of a recently proposed key-frame extraction algorithm. The finest level key-frames are recursively clustered using a novel pairwise K-means clustering approach with temporal consecutiveness constraint. We also address summarization of MPEG-2 compressed video without fully decoding the bitstream. We also propose efficient mechanisms that facilitate decoding the video when the hierarchical summary is utilized in browsing and playback of video segments starting at selected key-frames.

  11. Music and emotion-a composer's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douek, Joel

    2013-01-01

    This article takes an experiential and anecdotal look at the daily lives and work of film composers as creators of music. It endeavors to work backwards from what practitioners of the art and craft of music do instinctively or unconsciously, and try to shine a light on it as a conscious process. It examines the role of the film composer in his task to convey an often complex set of emotions, and communicate with an immediacy and universality that often sit outside of common language. Through the experiences of the author, as well as interviews with composer colleagues, this explores both concrete and abstract ways in which music can bring meaning and magic to words and images, and as an underscore to our daily lives.

  12. On the national characteristics of Chinese ancient architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jun; Shan, Xiaoxian

    2018-03-01

    architecture is a complex composed of technology and art. It is a concrete reflection of everything in the local society at that time. The architecture is basically consistent with the social content and historical development. This paper analyzes the formation, characteristics and style of ancient Chinese architecture and expounds its national spirit and characteristics.

  13. The Hi-Ring architecture for datacentre networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galili, Michael; Kamchevska, Valerija; Ding, Yunhong

    2016-01-01

    This paper summarizes recent work on a hierarchical ring-based network architecture (Hi-Ring) for datacentre and short-range applications. The architecture allows leveraging benefits of optical switching technologies while maintaining a high level of connection granularity. We discuss results...

  14. Enterprise architecture, a blueprint for enterprise logistics rollout

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Coetzee, J

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper it is proposed that Enterprise architecture in principle develops the Logistic Support model for systems on System Hierarchical Level 6 and higher. The Enterprise architectural model is a blue print, like the DNA for biological systems...

  15. Architectural Contestation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merle, J.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation addresses the reductive reading of Georges Bataille's work done within the field of architectural criticism and theory which tends to set aside the fundamental ‘broken’ totality of Bataille's oeuvre and also to narrowly interpret it as a mere critique of architectural form,

  16. Architecture Sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avgeriou, Paris; Stal, Michael; Hilliard, Rich

    2013-01-01

    Software architecture is the foundation of software system development, encompassing a system's architects' and stakeholders' strategic decisions. A special issue of IEEE Software is intended to raise awareness of architecture sustainability issues and increase interest and work in the area. The

  17. Memory architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2012-01-01

    A memory architecture is presented. The memory architecture comprises a first memory and a second memory. The first memory has at least a bank with a first width addressable by a single address. The second memory has a plurality of banks of a second width, said banks being addressable by components

  18. Hierarchical video summarization based on context clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Belle L.; Smith, John R.

    2003-11-01

    A personalized video summary is dynamically generated in our video personalization and summarization system based on user preference and usage environment. The three-tier personalization system adopts the server-middleware-client architecture in order to maintain, select, adapt, and deliver rich media content to the user. The server stores the content sources along with their corresponding MPEG-7 metadata descriptions. In this paper, the metadata includes visual semantic annotations and automatic speech transcriptions. Our personalization and summarization engine in the middleware selects the optimal set of desired video segments by matching shot annotations and sentence transcripts with user preferences. Besides finding the desired contents, the objective is to present a coherent summary. There are diverse methods for creating summaries, and we focus on the challenges of generating a hierarchical video summary based on context information. In our summarization algorithm, three inputs are used to generate the hierarchical video summary output. These inputs are (1) MPEG-7 metadata descriptions of the contents in the server, (2) user preference and usage environment declarations from the user client, and (3) context information including MPEG-7 controlled term list and classification scheme. In a video sequence, descriptions and relevance scores are assigned to each shot. Based on these shot descriptions, context clustering is performed to collect consecutively similar shots to correspond to hierarchical scene representations. The context clustering is based on the available context information, and may be derived from domain knowledge or rules engines. Finally, the selection of structured video segments to generate the hierarchical summary efficiently balances between scene representation and shot selection.

  19. Architectural Narratives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiib, Hans

    2010-01-01

    a functional framework for these concepts, but tries increasingly to endow the main idea of the cultural project with a spatially aesthetic expression - a shift towards “experience architecture.” A great number of these projects typically recycle and reinterpret narratives related to historical buildings......In this essay, I focus on the combination of programs and the architecture of cultural projects that have emerged within the last few years. These projects are characterized as “hybrid cultural projects,” because they intend to combine experience with entertainment, play, and learning. This essay...... and architectural heritage; another group tries to embed new performative technologies in expressive architectural representation. Finally, this essay provides a theoretical framework for the analysis of the political rationales of these projects and for the architectural representation bridges the gap between...

  20. Three Ways to Link Merge with Hierarchical Concept-Combination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Thornton

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In the Minimalist Program, language competence is seen to stem from a fundamental ability to construct hierarchical structure, an operation dubbed ‘Merge’. This raises the problem of how to view hierarchical concept-combination. This is a conceptual operation which also builds hierarchical structure. We can conceive of a garden that consists of a lawn and a flower-bed, for example, or a salad consisting of lettuce, fennel and rocket, or a crew consisting of a pilot and engineer. In such cases, concepts are put together in a way that makes one the accommodating element with respect to the others taken in combination. The accommodating element becomes the root of a hierarchical unit. Since this unit is itself a concept, the operation is inherently recursive. Does this mean the mind has two independent systems of hierarchical construction? Or is some form of integration more likely? Following a detailed examination of the operations involved, this paper shows there are three main ways in which Merge might be linked to hierarchical concept-combination. Also examined are the architectural implications that arise in each case.

  1. Studies in Composing Hydrogen Atom Wavefunctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Putnam, Lance Jonathan; Kuchera-Morin, JoAnn; Peliti, Luca

    2015-01-01

    We present our studies in composing elementary wavefunctions of a hydrogen-like atom and identify several relationships between physical phenomena and musical composition that helped guide the process. The hydrogen-like atom accurately describes some of the fundamental quantum mechanical phenomen...

  2. Novel Ultrathin Membranes Composed of Organic Ions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaban, Vitaly V.; Verspeek, Bram; Khandelia, Himanshu

    2013-01-01

    of artificial bilayers composed of long-chained organic ions, such as dodecyltrimethylammonium (DMA(+)) and perfluorooctaonate (PFO-). Various ratios of DMA/PFO surfactants result in bilayers of different stability, thickness, area per molecule, and density profiles. In our quest for water filtration, we...

  3. The Composer in the Liberal Arts College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Elliott

    2011-01-01

    This essay explores the role of music composition within the curriculum of a typical small liberal arts college and the faculty composer's role(s) in facilitating the study of composition. The relationship between composition and campus performance is discussed, particularly in light of the increased emphasis on performance in formerly all-male…

  4. Composing Networks: Writing Practices on Mobile Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swarts, Jason

    2016-01-01

    This article is an investigation of composing practices through which people create networks with mobile phones. By looking through the lens of actor-network theory, the author portrays the networking activity of mobile phone users as translation, what Latour describes as an infralanguage to which different disciplinary perspectives can be…

  5. A hypercrosslinking-induced self-assembly strategy for preparation of advanced hierarchical porous polymers with customizable functional components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hongji; Wu, Jinlun; Zheng, Bingna; Mai, Weicong; Xu, Fei; Chen, Luyi; Liu, Hao; Fu, Ruowen; Wu, Dingcai; Matyjaszewski, Krzysztof

    2017-05-09

    The fabrication of advanced hierarchical porous polymers with a unique 3D nanonetwork structure composed of functional core-microporous shell nanoparticles was reported based on the development of a simple and efficient hypercrosslinking-induced self-assembly strategy.

  6. Composing chaotic music from the letter m

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotiropoulos, Anastasios D.

    Chaotic music is composed from a proposed iterative map depicting the letter m, relating the pitch, duration and loudness of successive steps. Each of the two curves of the letter m is based on the classical logistic map. Thus, the generating map is xn+1 = r xn(1/2 - xn) for xn between 0 and 1/2 defining the first curve, and xn+1 = r (xn - 1/2)(1 - xn) for xn between 1/2 and 1 representing the second curve. The parameter r which determines the height(s) of the letter m varies from 2 to 16, the latter value ensuring fully developed chaotic solutions for the whole letter m; r = 8 yielding full chaotic solutions only for its first curve. The m-model yields fixed points, bifurcation points and chaotic regions for each separate curve, as well as values of the parameter r greater than 8 which produce inter-fixed points, inter-bifurcation points and inter-chaotic regions from the interplay of the two curves. Based on this, music is composed from mapping the m- recurrence model solutions onto actual notes. The resulting musical score strongly depends on the sequence of notes chosen by the composer to define the musical range corresponding to the range of the chaotic mathematical solutions x from 0 to 1. Here, two musical ranges are used; one is the middle chromatic scale and the other is the seven- octaves range. At the composer's will and, for aesthetics, within the same composition, notes can be the outcome of different values of r and/or shifted in any octave. Compositions with endings of non-repeating note patterns result from values of r in the m-model that do not produce bifurcations. Scores of chaotic music composed from the m-model and the classical logistic model are presented.

  7. Hierarchical Recurrent Neural Hashing for Image Retrieval With Hierarchical Convolutional Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaoqiang; Chen, Yaxiong; Li, Xuelong

    Hashing has been an important and effective technology in image retrieval due to its computational efficiency and fast search speed. The traditional hashing methods usually learn hash functions to obtain binary codes by exploiting hand-crafted features, which cannot optimally represent the information of the sample. Recently, deep learning methods can achieve better performance, since deep learning architectures can learn more effective image representation features. However, these methods only use semantic features to generate hash codes by shallow projection but ignore texture details. In this paper, we proposed a novel hashing method, namely hierarchical recurrent neural hashing (HRNH), to exploit hierarchical recurrent neural network to generate effective hash codes. There are three contributions of this paper. First, a deep hashing method is proposed to extensively exploit both spatial details and semantic information, in which, we leverage hierarchical convolutional features to construct image pyramid representation. Second, our proposed deep network can exploit directly convolutional feature maps as input to preserve the spatial structure of convolutional feature maps. Finally, we propose a new loss function that considers the quantization error of binarizing the continuous embeddings into the discrete binary codes, and simultaneously maintains the semantic similarity and balanceable property of hash codes. Experimental results on four widely used data sets demonstrate that the proposed HRNH can achieve superior performance over other state-of-the-art hashing methods.Hashing has been an important and effective technology in image retrieval due to its computational efficiency and fast search speed. The traditional hashing methods usually learn hash functions to obtain binary codes by exploiting hand-crafted features, which cannot optimally represent the information of the sample. Recently, deep learning methods can achieve better performance, since deep

  8. Context updates are hierarchical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Karl Ingason

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This squib studies the order in which elements are added to the shared context of interlocutors in a conversation. It focuses on context updates within one hierarchical structure and argues that structurally higher elements are entered into the context before lower elements, even if the structurally higher elements are pronounced after the lower elements. The crucial data are drawn from a comparison of relative clauses in two head-initial languages, English and Icelandic, and two head-final languages, Korean and Japanese. The findings have consequences for any theory of a dynamic semantics.

  9. Architectural technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2005-01-01

    The booklet offers an overall introduction to the Institute of Architectural Technology and its projects and activities, and an invitation to the reader to contact the institute or the individual researcher for further information. The research, which takes place at the Institute of Architectural...... Technology at the Roayl Danish Academy of Fine Arts, School of Architecture, reflects a spread between strategic, goal-oriented pilot projects, commissioned by a ministry, a fund or a private company, and on the other hand projects which originate from strong personal interests and enthusiasm of individual...

  10. Systemic Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poletto, Marco; Pasquero, Claudia

    -up or tactical design, behavioural space and the boundary of the natural and the artificial realms within the city and architecture. A new kind of "real-time world-city" is illustrated in the form of an operational design manual for the assemblage of proto-architectures, the incubation of proto-gardens...... and the coding of proto-interfaces. These prototypes of machinic architecture materialize as synthetic hybrids embedded with biological life (proto-gardens), computational power, behavioural responsiveness (cyber-gardens), spatial articulation (coMachines and fibrous structures), remote sensing (FUNclouds...

  11. Humanizing Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Tanya Søndergaard

    2015-01-01

    The article proposes the urban digital gallery as an opportunity to explore the relationship between ‘human’ and ‘technology,’ through the programming of media architecture. It takes a curatorial perspective when proposing an ontological shift from considering media facades as visual spectacles...... agency and a sense of being by way of dematerializing architecture. This is achieved by way of programming the symbolic to provide new emotional realizations and situations of enlightenment in the public audience. This reflects a greater potential to humanize the digital in media architecture....

  12. Detecting Hierarchical Structure in Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herlau, Tue; Mørup, Morten; Schmidt, Mikkel Nørgaard

    2012-01-01

    Many real-world networks exhibit hierarchical organization. Previous models of hierarchies within relational data has focused on binary trees; however, for many networks it is unknown whether there is hierarchical structure, and if there is, a binary tree might not account well for it. We propose...... a generative Bayesian model that is able to infer whether hierarchies are present or not from a hypothesis space encompassing all types of hierarchical tree structures. For efficient inference we propose a collapsed Gibbs sampling procedure that jointly infers a partition and its hierarchical structure....... On synthetic and real data we demonstrate that our model can detect hierarchical structure leading to better link-prediction than competing models. Our model can be used to detect if a network exhibits hierarchical structure, thereby leading to a better comprehension and statistical account the network....

  13. Nonlinear robust hierarchical control for nonlinear uncertain systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonessa Alexander

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A nonlinear robust control-system design framework predicated on a hierarchical switching controller architecture parameterized over a set of moving nominal system equilibria is developed. Specifically, using equilibria-dependent Lyapunov functions, a hierarchical nonlinear robust control strategy is developed that robustly stabilizes a given nonlinear system over a prescribed range of system uncertainty by robustly stabilizing a collection of nonlinear controlled uncertain subsystems. The robust switching nonlinear controller architecture is designed based on a generalized (lower semicontinuous Lyapunov function obtained by minimizing a potential function over a given switching set induced by the parameterized nominal system equilibria. The proposed framework robustly stabilizes a compact positively invariant set of a given nonlinear uncertain dynamical system with structured parametric uncertainty. Finally, the efficacy of the proposed approach is demonstrated on a jet engine propulsion control problem with uncertain pressure-flow map data.

  14. Composability-Centered Convolutional Neural Network Pruning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Xipeng [North Carolina State University; Guan, Hui [North Carolina State University; Lim, Seung-Hwan [ORNL; Patton, Robert M. [ORNL

    2018-02-01

    This work studies the composability of the building blocks ofstructural CNN models (e.g., GoogleLeNet and Residual Networks) in thecontext of network pruning. We empirically validate that a networkcomposed of pre-trained building blocks (e.g. residual blocks andInception modules) not only gives a better initial setting fortraining, but also allows the training process to converge at asignificantly higher accuracy in much less time. Based on thatinsight, we propose a {\\em composability-centered} design for CNNnetwork pruning. Experiments show that this new scheme shortens theconfiguration process in CNN network pruning by up to 186.8X forResNet-50 and up to 30.2X for Inception-V3, and meanwhile, the modelsit finds that meet the accuracy requirement are significantly morecompact than those found by default schemes.

  15. Systems and Methods for Composable Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-29

    simplistic module that performs a mathematical operation on two numbers. The most important method is the Execute() method. This will get called when it is...addition, an input control is also specified in the example below. In this example, the mathematical operator can only be chosen from a preconfigured...approaches. Some of the industries that could benefit from Composable Analytics include pharmaceuticals, health care, insurance, actuaries , and

  16. Hierarchical quark mass matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasin, A.

    1998-02-01

    I define a set of conditions that the most general hierarchical Yukawa mass matrices have to satisfy so that the leading rotations in the diagonalization matrix are a pair of (2,3) and (1,2) rotations. In addition to Fritzsch structures, examples of such hierarchical structures include also matrices with (1,3) elements of the same order or even much larger than the (1,2) elements. Such matrices can be obtained in the framework of a flavor theory. To leading order, the values of the angle in the (2,3) plane (s 23 ) and the angle in the (1,2) plane (s 12 ) do not depend on the order in which they are taken when diagonalizing. We find that any of the Cabbibo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix parametrizations that consist of at least one (1,2) and one (2,3) rotation may be suitable. In the particular case when the s 13 diagonalization angles are sufficiently small compared to the product s 12 s 23 , two special CKM parametrizations emerge: the R 12 R 23 R 12 parametrization follows with s 23 taken before the s 12 rotation, and vice versa for the R 23 R 12 R 23 parametrization. (author)

  17. Hierarchical partial order ranking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsen, Lars

    2008-01-01

    Assessing the potential impact on environmental and human health from the production and use of chemicals or from polluted sites involves a multi-criteria evaluation scheme. A priori several parameters are to address, e.g., production tonnage, specific release scenarios, geographical and site-specific factors in addition to various substance dependent parameters. Further socio-economic factors may be taken into consideration. The number of parameters to be included may well appear to be prohibitive for developing a sensible model. The study introduces hierarchical partial order ranking (HPOR) that remedies this problem. By HPOR the original parameters are initially grouped based on their mutual connection and a set of meta-descriptors is derived representing the ranking corresponding to the single groups of descriptors, respectively. A second partial order ranking is carried out based on the meta-descriptors, the final ranking being disclosed though average ranks. An illustrative example on the prioritisation of polluted sites is given. - Hierarchical partial order ranking of polluted sites has been developed for prioritization based on a large number of parameters

  18. Gene Composer in a structural genomics environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorimer, Don; Raymond, Amy; Mixon, Mark; Burgin, Alex; Staker, Bart; Stewart, Lance

    2011-01-01

    For structural biology applications, protein-construct engineering is guided by comparative sequence analysis and structural information, which allow the researcher to better define domain boundaries for terminal deletions and nonconserved regions for surface mutants. A database software application called Gene Composer has been developed to facilitate construct design. The structural genomics effort at the Seattle Structural Genomics Center for Infectious Disease (SSGCID) requires the manipulation of large numbers of amino-acid sequences and the underlying DNA sequences which are to be cloned into expression vectors. To improve efficiency in high-throughput protein structure determination, a database software package, Gene Composer, has been developed which facilitates the information-rich design of protein constructs and their underlying gene sequences. With its modular workflow design and numerous graphical user interfaces, Gene Composer enables researchers to perform all common bioinformatics steps used in modern structure-guided protein engineering and synthetic gene engineering. An example of the structure determination of H1N1 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase PB2 subunit is given

  19. Architectural Theatricality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvedebrink, Tenna Doktor Olsen

    environments and a knowledge gap therefore exists in present hospital designs. Consequently, the purpose of this thesis has been to investigate if any research-based knowledge exist supporting the hypothesis that the interior architectural qualities of eating environments influence patient food intake, health...... and well-being, as well as outline a set of basic design principles ‘predicting’ the future interior architectural qualities of patient eating environments. Methodologically the thesis is based on an explorative study employing an abductive approach and hermeneutic-interpretative strategy utilizing tactics...... and food intake, as well as a series of references exist linking the interior architectural qualities of healthcare environments with the health and wellbeing of patients. On the basis of these findings, the thesis presents the concept of Architectural Theatricality as well as a set of design principles...

  20. Nested and Hierarchical Archimax copulas

    KAUST Repository

    Hofert, Marius; Huser, Raphaë l; Prasad, Avinash

    2017-01-01

    The class of Archimax copulas is generalized to nested and hierarchical Archimax copulas in several ways. First, nested extreme-value copulas or nested stable tail dependence functions are introduced to construct nested Archimax copulas based on a single frailty variable. Second, a hierarchical construction of d-norm generators is presented to construct hierarchical stable tail dependence functions and thus hierarchical extreme-value copulas. Moreover, one can, by itself or additionally, introduce nested frailties to extend Archimax copulas to nested Archimax copulas in a similar way as nested Archimedean copulas extend Archimedean copulas. Further results include a general formula for the density of Archimax copulas.

  1. Nested and Hierarchical Archimax copulas

    KAUST Repository

    Hofert, Marius

    2017-07-03

    The class of Archimax copulas is generalized to nested and hierarchical Archimax copulas in several ways. First, nested extreme-value copulas or nested stable tail dependence functions are introduced to construct nested Archimax copulas based on a single frailty variable. Second, a hierarchical construction of d-norm generators is presented to construct hierarchical stable tail dependence functions and thus hierarchical extreme-value copulas. Moreover, one can, by itself or additionally, introduce nested frailties to extend Archimax copulas to nested Archimax copulas in a similar way as nested Archimedean copulas extend Archimedean copulas. Further results include a general formula for the density of Archimax copulas.

  2. Static Extraction and Conformance Analysis of Hierarchical Runtime Architectural Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-14

    information as a separate input. For instance, the Software Bookshelf (Finnigan et al. 1997), of which (PBS 2000) is an instantiation, has the...Kostas Kontogiannis, Hausi A. Müller, John Mylopoulos, Stephen G. Perelgut, Martin Stanley, and Kerny Wong. The Soft- ware Bookshelf . IBM Systems...pages 70–79, 2004. PBS. PBS: The Portable Bookshelf . http://www.swag.uwaterloo.ca/pbs/, 2000. Dewayne E. Perry and Alexander L. Wolf. Foundations for

  3. Local Design Methodologies for a Hierarchic Control Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-04-12

    regional (in the sense of knowledge and influence) controllers which are distributed throughout the structure [9,39,54,56,65,68]. Many decentralized...occurs, it is necessary that - gpk = gk > 0 (3.74) I which is true provided Hk > 0 and gt 0 0. These conditions will be met near a strong minimum, but...Astronautics, 19763 Semester spent at Leningrad State University, 1975 PROFESSIONAL SUMMARY Current major area of teaching and research is in the design and

  4. Architectural freedom and industrialized architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Inge

    2012-01-01

    to explain that architecture can be thought as a complex and diverse design through customization, telling exactly the revitalized storey about the change to a contemporary sustainable and better performing expression in direct relation to the given context. Through the last couple of years we have...... proportions, to organize the process on site choosing either one room wall components or several rooms wall components – either horizontally or vertically. Combined with the seamless joint the playing with these possibilities the new industrialized architecture can deliver variations in choice of solutions...... for retrofit design. If we add the question of the installations e.g. ventilation to this systematic thinking of building technique we get a diverse and functional architecture, thereby creating a new and clearer story telling about new and smart system based thinking behind architectural expression....

  5. Architectural freedom and industrialized architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Inge

    2012-01-01

    to explain that architecture can be thought as a complex and diverse design through customization, telling exactly the revitalized storey about the change to a contemporary sustainable and better performing expression in direct relation to the given context. Through the last couple of years we have...... expression in the specific housing area. It is the aim of this article to expand the different design strategies which architects can use – to give the individual project attitudes and designs with architectural quality. Through the customized component production it is possible to choose different...... for retrofit design. If we add the question of the installations e.g. ventilation to this systematic thinking of building technique we get a diverse and functional architecture, thereby creating a new and clearer story telling about new and smart system based thinking behind architectural expression....

  6. Architectural freedom and industrialised architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Inge

    2012-01-01

    Architectural freedom and industrialized architecture. Inge Vestergaard, Associate Professor, Cand. Arch. Aarhus School of Architecture, Denmark Noerreport 20, 8000 Aarhus C Telephone +45 89 36 0000 E-mai l inge.vestergaard@aarch.dk Based on the repetitive architecture from the "building boom" 1960...... customization, telling exactly the revitalized storey about the change to a contemporary sustainable and better performed expression in direct relation to the given context. Through the last couple of years we have in Denmark been focusing a more sustainable and low energy building technique, which also include...... to the building physic problems a new industrialized period has started based on light weight elements basically made of wooden structures, faced with different suitable materials meant for individual expression for the specific housing area. It is the purpose of this article to widen up the different design...

  7. PICNIC Architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saranummi, Niilo

    2005-01-01

    The PICNIC architecture aims at supporting inter-enterprise integration and the facilitation of collaboration between healthcare organisations. The concept of a Regional Health Economy (RHE) is introduced to illustrate the varying nature of inter-enterprise collaboration between healthcare organisations collaborating in providing health services to citizens and patients in a regional setting. The PICNIC architecture comprises a number of PICNIC IT Services, the interfaces between them and presents a way to assemble these into a functioning Regional Health Care Network meeting the needs and concerns of its stakeholders. The PICNIC architecture is presented through a number of views relevant to different stakeholder groups. The stakeholders of the first view are national and regional health authorities and policy makers. The view describes how the architecture enables the implementation of national and regional health policies, strategies and organisational structures. The stakeholders of the second view, the service viewpoint, are the care providers, health professionals, patients and citizens. The view describes how the architecture supports and enables regional care delivery and process management including continuity of care (shared care) and citizen-centred health services. The stakeholders of the third view, the engineering view, are those that design, build and implement the RHCN. The view comprises four sub views: software engineering, IT services engineering, security and data. The proposed architecture is founded into the main stream of how distributed computing environments are evolving. The architecture is realised using the web services approach. A number of well established technology platforms and generic standards exist that can be used to implement the software components. The software components that are specified in PICNIC are implemented in Open Source.

  8. Architectural freedom and industrialised architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Inge

    2012-01-01

    to the building physic problems a new industrialized period has started based on light weight elements basically made of wooden structures, faced with different suitable materials meant for individual expression for the specific housing area. It is the purpose of this article to widen up the different design...... to this systematic thinking of the building technique we get a diverse and functional architecture. Creating a new and clearer story telling about new and smart system based thinking behind the architectural expression....

  9. Transmutations across hierarchical levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neill, R.V.

    1977-01-01

    The development of large-scale ecological models depends implicitly on a concept known as hierarchy theory which views biological systems in a series of hierarchical levels (i.e., organism, population, trophic level, ecosystem). The theory states that an explanation of a biological phenomenon is provided when it is shown to be the consequence of the activities of the system's components, which are themselves systems in the next lower level of the hierarchy. Thus, the behavior of a population is explained by the behavior of the organisms in the population. The initial step in any modeling project is, therefore, to identify the system components and the interactions between them. A series of examples of transmutations in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems are presented to show how and why changes occur. The types of changes are summarized and possible implications of transmutation for hierarchy theory, for the modeler, and for the ecological theoretician are discussed

  10. Trees and Hierarchical Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Haeseler, Arndt

    1990-01-01

    The "raison d'etre" of hierarchical dustering theory stems from one basic phe­ nomenon: This is the notorious non-transitivity of similarity relations. In spite of the fact that very often two objects may be quite similar to a third without being that similar to each other, one still wants to dassify objects according to their similarity. This should be achieved by grouping them into a hierarchy of non-overlapping dusters such that any two objects in ~ne duster appear to be more related to each other than they are to objects outside this duster. In everyday life, as well as in essentially every field of scientific investigation, there is an urge to reduce complexity by recognizing and establishing reasonable das­ sification schemes. Unfortunately, this is counterbalanced by the experience of seemingly unavoidable deadlocks caused by the existence of sequences of objects, each comparatively similar to the next, but the last rather different from the first.

  11. Optimisation by hierarchical search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zintchenko, Ilia; Hastings, Matthew; Troyer, Matthias

    2015-03-01

    Finding optimal values for a set of variables relative to a cost function gives rise to some of the hardest problems in physics, computer science and applied mathematics. Although often very simple in their formulation, these problems have a complex cost function landscape which prevents currently known algorithms from efficiently finding the global optimum. Countless techniques have been proposed to partially circumvent this problem, but an efficient method is yet to be found. We present a heuristic, general purpose approach to potentially improve the performance of conventional algorithms or special purpose hardware devices by optimising groups of variables in a hierarchical way. We apply this approach to problems in combinatorial optimisation, machine learning and other fields.

  12. William Byrd: Political and Recusant Composer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel Foshay Bacon

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Amidst the pendulum of political and religious upheaval that pervaded England throughout the sixteenth and seventeenth century, William Byrd stands as one of the best loved and lauded composers. Byrd succeeded in the secular and sacred realms, contributing great works to the Anglican Church, popularizing the English madrigal and producing prolific amounts of sacred music. However, in a time where one’s religious beliefs were often linked with political loyalty, Byrd defied his monarch’s established and enforced Protestant religion, composing politically charged music for recusant use in clandestine Catholic Church services. His themes were aligned with the Jesuit mission and his texts were often drawn from the lips of martyred Catholics at the gallows; their last words forever immortalized by Byrd for the furthering of the Jesuit cause and the Counter-Reformation. The examination of sources by prominent Byrd scholars, an analyses of Byrd’s ‘political’ compositions and a study of the social and historical background are used to place Byrd within the appropriate context, prove his recusant and political leanings, and analyze his precarious relationship with the English monarch, Elizabeth I. It is shown that Byrd could not have proceeded with his recusant practices, personally or musically, had it not been for his status as a composer, as well as Byrd’s shrewdness in procuring diplomatic relationships with high persons at court and with Queen Elizabeth I through the Chapel Royal. Finally, Byrd’s success at writing for the Anglican Church service and popular secular music showcased his ability to take a moderate stance in situations that benefitted his status with the crown

  13. Q&A: The AI composer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinney, Laura

    2017-09-01

    Computer scientist Luc Steels uses artificial intelligence to explore the origins and evolution of language. He is best known for his 1999-2001 Talking Heads Experiment, in which robots had to construct a language from scratch to communicate with each other. Now Steels, who works at the Free University of Brussels (VUB), has composed an opera based on the legend of Faust, with a twenty-first-century twist. He talks about Mozart as a nascent computer programmer, how music maps onto language, and the blurred boundaries of a digitized world.

  14. Clasp Together: Composing for Mind and Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Harry Whalley

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper will explore questions of agency, control and interaction and the embodied nature of musical performance in relation to the use of human-computer interaction (HCI, through the experimental work Clasp Together (beta 2 for small ensemble and live electronics by J. Harry Whalley. This practice-led research is situated at the intersection of music neurotechnology for sound synthesis and brain-computer interfaces (BCI, and explores the use of neural patterns from Electroencephalography (EEG as a control instrument. The composition departed from the traditional composer/performer paradigm by including both non-instrumental physical gestures and cognitive or emotive instructions integrated into the score.

  15. Hierarchical processing in the prefrontal cortex in a variety of cognitive domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeon-Ae eJeon

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This review scrutinizes several findings on human hierarchical processing within the prefrontal cortex (PFC in diverse cognitive domains. Converging evidence from previous studies has shown that the PFC, specifically Brodmann area (BA 44, may function as the essential region for hierarchical processing across the domains. In language fMRI studies, BA 44 was significantly activated for the hierarchical processing of center-embedded sentences and this pattern of activations was also observed in artificial grammar. The same pattern was observed in the visuo-spatial domain where BA44 was actively involved in the processing of hierarchy for the visual symbol. Musical syntax, which is the rule-based arrangement of musical sets, has also been construed as hierarchical processing as in the language domain such that the activation in BA44 was observed in a chord sequence paradigm. P600 ERP was also engendered during the processing of musical hierarchy. Along with a longstanding idea that a human’s number faculty is developed as a by-product of language faculty, BA44 was closely involved in hierarchical processing in mental arithmetic. This review extended its discussion of hierarchical processing to hierarchical behavior, that is, human action which has been referred to as being hierarchically composed. Several lesion and TMS studies supported the involvement of BA44 for hierarchical processing in the action domain. Lastly, the hierarchical organization of cognitive controls was discussed within the PFC, forming a cascade of top-down hierarchical processes operating along a posterior-to-anterior axis of the lateral PFC including BA44 within the network. It is proposed that PFC is actively involved in different forms of hierarchical processing and specifically BA44 may play an integral role in the process. Taking levels of proficiency and subcortical areas into consideration may provide further insight into the functional role of BA44 for hierarchical

  16. Architectural geometry

    KAUST Repository

    Pottmann, Helmut; Eigensatz, Michael; Vaxman, Amir; Wallner, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Around 2005 it became apparent in the geometry processing community that freeform architecture contains many problems of a geometric nature to be solved, and many opportunities for optimization which however require geometric understanding. This area of research, which has been called architectural geometry, meanwhile contains a great wealth of individual contributions which are relevant in various fields. For mathematicians, the relation to discrete differential geometry is significant, in particular the integrable system viewpoint. Besides, new application contexts have become available for quite some old-established concepts. Regarding graphics and geometry processing, architectural geometry yields interesting new questions but also new objects, e.g. replacing meshes by other combinatorial arrangements. Numerical optimization plays a major role but in itself would be powerless without geometric understanding. Summing up, architectural geometry has become a rewarding field of study. We here survey the main directions which have been pursued, we show real projects where geometric considerations have played a role, and we outline open problems which we think are significant for the future development of both theory and practice of architectural geometry.

  17. Architectural geometry

    KAUST Repository

    Pottmann, Helmut

    2014-11-26

    Around 2005 it became apparent in the geometry processing community that freeform architecture contains many problems of a geometric nature to be solved, and many opportunities for optimization which however require geometric understanding. This area of research, which has been called architectural geometry, meanwhile contains a great wealth of individual contributions which are relevant in various fields. For mathematicians, the relation to discrete differential geometry is significant, in particular the integrable system viewpoint. Besides, new application contexts have become available for quite some old-established concepts. Regarding graphics and geometry processing, architectural geometry yields interesting new questions but also new objects, e.g. replacing meshes by other combinatorial arrangements. Numerical optimization plays a major role but in itself would be powerless without geometric understanding. Summing up, architectural geometry has become a rewarding field of study. We here survey the main directions which have been pursued, we show real projects where geometric considerations have played a role, and we outline open problems which we think are significant for the future development of both theory and practice of architectural geometry.

  18. Hierarchical Ag mesostructures for single particle SERS substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Minwei, E-mail: xuminwei@xjtu.edu.cn; Zhang, Yin

    2017-01-30

    Highlights: • Hierarchical Ag mesostructures with the size of 250, 360 and 500 nm are synthesized via a seed-mediated approach. • The Ag mesostructures present the tailorable size and highly roughened surfaces. • The average enhancement factors for individual Ag mesostructures were estimated to be as high as 10{sup 6}. - Abstract: Hierarchical Ag mesostructures with highly rough surface morphology have been synthesized at room temperature through a simple seed-mediated approach. Electron microscopy characterizations indicate that the obtained Ag mesostructures exhibit a textured surface morphology with the flower-like architecture. Moreover, the particle size can be tailored easily in the range of 250–500 nm. For the growth process of the hierarchical Ag mesostructures, it is believed that the self-assembly mechanism is more reasonable rather than the epitaxial overgrowth of Ag seed. The oriented attachment of nanoparticles is revealed during the formation of Ag mesostructures. Single particle surface enhanced Raman spectra (sp-SERS) of crystal violet adsorbed on the hierarchical Ag mesostructures were measured. Results reveal that the hierarchical Ag mesostructures can be highly sensitive sp-SERS substrates with good reproducibility. The average enhancement factors for individual Ag mesostructures are estimated to be about 10{sup 6}.

  19. How hierarchical is language use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Stefan L.; Bod, Rens; Christiansen, Morten H.

    2012-01-01

    It is generally assumed that hierarchical phrase structure plays a central role in human language. However, considerations of simplicity and evolutionary continuity suggest that hierarchical structure should not be invoked too hastily. Indeed, recent neurophysiological, behavioural and computational studies show that sequential sentence structure has considerable explanatory power and that hierarchical processing is often not involved. In this paper, we review evidence from the recent literature supporting the hypothesis that sequential structure may be fundamental to the comprehension, production and acquisition of human language. Moreover, we provide a preliminary sketch outlining a non-hierarchical model of language use and discuss its implications and testable predictions. If linguistic phenomena can be explained by sequential rather than hierarchical structure, this will have considerable impact in a wide range of fields, such as linguistics, ethology, cognitive neuroscience, psychology and computer science. PMID:22977157

  20. Relational Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reeh, Henrik

    2018-01-01

    in a scholarly institution (element #3), as well as the certified PhD scholar (element #4) and the architectural profession, notably its labour market (element #5). This first layer outlines the contemporary context which allows architectural research to take place in a dynamic relationship to doctoral education...... a human and institutional development going on since around 1990 when the present PhD institution was first implemented in Denmark. To be sure, the model is centred around the PhD dissertation (element #1). But it involves four more components: the PhD candidate (element #2), his or her supervisor...... and interrelated fields in which history, place, and sound come to emphasize architecture’s relational qualities rather than the apparent three-dimensional solidity of constructed space. A third layer of relational architecture is at stake in the professional experiences after the defence of the authors...

  1. Architectural Anthropology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stender, Marie

    Architecture and anthropology have always had a common focus on dwelling, housing, urban life and spatial organisation. Current developments in both disciplines make it even more relevant to explore their boundaries and overlaps. Architects are inspired by anthropological insights and methods......, while recent material and spatial turns in anthropology have also brought an increasing interest in design, architecture and the built environment. Understanding the relationship between the social and the physical is at the heart of both disciplines, and they can obviously benefit from further...... collaboration: How can qualitative anthropological approaches contribute to contemporary architecture? And just as importantly: What can anthropologists learn from architects’ understanding of spatial and material surroundings? Recent theoretical developments in anthropology stress the role of materials...

  2. Architectural Engineers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rikke Premer

    engineering is addresses from two perspectives – as an educational response and an occupational constellation. Architecture and engineering are two of the traditional design professions and they frequently meet in the occupational setting, but at educational institutions they remain largely estranged....... The paper builds on a multi-sited study of an architectural engineering program at the Technical University of Denmark and an architectural engineering team within an international engineering consultancy based on Denmark. They are both responding to new tendencies within the building industry where...... the role of engineers and architects increasingly overlap during the design process, but their approaches reflect different perceptions of the consequences. The paper discusses some of the challenges that design education, not only within engineering, is facing today: young designers must be equipped...

  3. Reframing Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Søren

    2013-01-01

    I would like to thank Prof. Stephen Read (2011) and Prof. Andrew Benjamin (2011) for both giving inspiring and elaborate comments on my article “Dwelling in-between walls: the architectural surround”. As I will try to demonstrate below, their two different responses not only supplement my article...... focuses on how the absence of an initial distinction might threaten the endeavour of my paper. In my reply to Read and Benjamin, I will discuss their suggestions and arguments, while at the same time hopefully clarifying the postphenomenological approach to architecture....

  4. [Mental disease in two classical music composers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rempelakos, L; Poulakou-Rebelakou, E; Ploumpidis, D

    2012-01-01

    A study οn two neglected classical music composers suffering a not syphilitic mental disease, is attempted here, syphilis of the central nervous system being frequent in that time. A brief overview on the psychiatric ailments of many great composers reveals suicide attempts and more or less severe depression following external events. The issue of a possible relationship between mental disease and (musical) creativity can be discussed, as mood swings and a certain tendency to melancholia are frequent features of a talented brain (a fact that can also be detected in their works). The first case presented here is Hans Rott from Austria, the beloved student of Anton Bruckner, who was considered to be at least equal to his famous classmate Gustav Mahler. The great expectations of his teacher and his friends suddenly came to an end, when he suffered a crisis of schizophrenia and was hospitalized in an insane asylum in Lower Austria. The tragic psychiatric adventure of the young musician lasted almost four years. He was diagnosed as a case of "hallucinatory insanity" and "persecution mania" by the medical staff, before dying of tuberculosis, aged only 26, and having completed only one symphony and several smaller works. His name came again on surface only a century after his death, when in 1989 his Symphony in E Major was discovered and premiered with great success, permitting to its creator a posthumous recognition, among Bruckner and Mahler. The second case of mental illness is that of the Armenian Komitas Vardapet. He was an orphan who grew up in theological schools and became a monk and later a priest, though he spent some years in Berlin in order to develop his musical skills. He is considered to be an authority of Armenian ecclesiastic music, introducing polyphony in the Armenian Church's music and collecting numerous traditional songs from all parts of Armenia. In 1915, during the Armenian genocide he was deported, tortured but finally saved, due to interventions

  5. Art Music by Caribbean Composers: Guadeloupe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gangelhoff, Christine

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Guadeloupe retains more than its colonial and cultural roots from France. It has been an Overseas Department of that country since 1946. Many of the art-musical styles of Guadeloupe are derived from the ballroom and couple-dance traditions of old, reinvented in a creole tradition: quadrilles, waltzes, biguines and mazurkas (Gerstin, 2007-2011. Two of the most influential and consumed popular music genres are gwoka and compas. The Festival Internationale Saint-Georges, held annually since 2010, was created to celebrate the music of Saint-Georges, to promote artists of colour and to perform classical music written by composers of African descent, though the main focus of the festival is classical music.

  6. Art Music by Caribbean Composers: Guadeloupe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Gangelhoff

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Guadeloupe retains more than its colonial and cultural roots from France. It has been an Overseas Department of that country since 1946. Many of the art-musical styles of Guadeloupe are derived from the ballroom and couple-dance traditions of old, reinvented in a creole tradition: quadrilles, waltzes, biguines and mazurkas (Gerstin, 2007-2011. Two of the most influential and consumed popular music genres are gwoka and compas. The Festival Internationale Saint-Georges, held annually since 2010, was created to celebrate the music of Saint-Georges, to promote artists of colour and to perform classical music written by composers of African descent, though the main focus of the festival is classical music.

  7. Nailed timber beams with I composed section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Luís Nunes de Góes

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The employment of built-up timber beams, made of commercial dimensions pieces, is becoming increasingly important in timber structures in Brazil, mainly due to the ever-growing scarcity of timber elements in larger sizes. The built-up system has vast application, from beams for residential buildings to girders for small bridges. The objective of this work is the theoretical and experimental study of nailed timber beams with composed cross section I. The design procedure of EUROCODE 5/93 and NBR 7190/97 are shown and evaluated, as well as the theory about the subject matter. The experimental evaluation of the theoretical models was made by means of bending tests in prototypes of built-up timber beams. The obtained results shows that the EUROCODE 5/93 procedure is the most indicated for evaluating effective bending stiffness, normal and shear stresses as well as the load on fasteners.

  8. Composing Models of Geographic Physical Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, Barbara; Frank, Andrew U.

    Processes are central for geographic information science; yet geographic information systems (GIS) lack capabilities to represent process related information. A prerequisite to including processes in GIS software is a general method to describe geographic processes independently of application disciplines. This paper presents such a method, namely a process description language. The vocabulary of the process description language is derived formally from mathematical models. Physical processes in geography can be described in two equivalent languages: partial differential equations or partial difference equations, where the latter can be shown graphically and used as a method for application specialists to enter their process models. The vocabulary of the process description language comprises components for describing the general behavior of prototypical geographic physical processes. These process components can be composed by basic models of geographic physical processes, which is shown by means of an example.

  9. Textile Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heimdal, Elisabeth Jacobsen

    2010-01-01

    Textiles can be used as building skins, adding new aesthetic and functional qualities to architecture. Just like we as humans can put on a coat, buildings can also get dressed. Depending on our mood, or on the weather, we can change coat, and so can the building. But the idea of using textiles...

  10. Hierarchical Discriminant Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Lu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Internet of Things (IoT generates lots of high-dimensional sensor intelligent data. The processing of high-dimensional data (e.g., data visualization and data classification is very difficult, so it requires excellent subspace learning algorithms to learn a latent subspace to preserve the intrinsic structure of the high-dimensional data, and abandon the least useful information in the subsequent processing. In this context, many subspace learning algorithms have been presented. However, in the process of transforming the high-dimensional data into the low-dimensional space, the huge difference between the sum of inter-class distance and the sum of intra-class distance for distinct data may cause a bias problem. That means that the impact of intra-class distance is overwhelmed. To address this problem, we propose a novel algorithm called Hierarchical Discriminant Analysis (HDA. It minimizes the sum of intra-class distance first, and then maximizes the sum of inter-class distance. This proposed method balances the bias from the inter-class and that from the intra-class to achieve better performance. Extensive experiments are conducted on several benchmark face datasets. The results reveal that HDA obtains better performance than other dimensionality reduction algorithms.

  11. Hierarchical Linked Views

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erbacher, Robert; Frincke, Deb

    2007-07-02

    Coordinated views have proven critical to the development of effective visualization environments. This results from the fact that a single view or representation of the data cannot show all of the intricacies of a given data set. Additionally, users will often need to correlate more data parameters than can effectively be integrated into a single visual display. Typically, development of multiple-linked views results in an adhoc configuration of views and associated interactions. The hierarchical model we are proposing is geared towards more effective organization of such environments and the views they encompass. At the same time, this model can effectively integrate much of the prior work on interactive and visual frameworks. Additionally, we expand the concept of views to incorporate perceptual views. This is related to the fact that visual displays can have information encoded at various levels of focus. Thus, a global view of the display provides overall trends of the data while focusing in on individual elements provides detailed specifics. By integrating interaction and perception into a single model, we show how one impacts the other. Typically, interaction and perception are considered separately, however, when interaction is being considered at a fundamental level and allowed to direct/modify the visualization directly we must consider them simultaneously and how they impact one another.

  12. A service based component model for composing and exploring MPSoC platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tranberg-Hansen, Anders Sejer; Madsen, Jan

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an abstract service based modelling method for use in performance estimation and design space exploration of Multi Processor System On Chip (MPSoC) based systems. The method provides the infrastructure for composing abstract hardware and software models of stream based systems...... which can be used to produce detailed quantitative information regarding runtime properties of a given system through simulations. The method is based on a service oriented model of computation which is a modified version of Hierarchical Coloured Petri Nets.......This paper presents an abstract service based modelling method for use in performance estimation and design space exploration of Multi Processor System On Chip (MPSoC) based systems. The method provides the infrastructure for composing abstract hardware and software models of stream based systems...

  13. From green architecture to architectural green

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Earon, Ofri

    2011-01-01

    that describes the architectural exclusivity of this particular architecture genre. The adjective green expresses architectural qualities differentiating green architecture from none-green architecture. Currently, adding trees and vegetation to the building’s facade is the main architectural characteristics...... they have overshadowed the architectural potential of green architecture. The paper questions how a green space should perform, look like and function. Two examples are chosen to demonstrate thorough integrations between green and space. The examples are public buildings categorized as pavilions. One......The paper investigates the topic of green architecture from an architectural point of view and not an energy point of view. The purpose of the paper is to establish a debate about the architectural language and spatial characteristics of green architecture. In this light, green becomes an adjective...

  14. Direct hierarchical assembly of nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ting; Zhao, Yue; Thorkelsson, Kari

    2014-07-22

    The present invention provides hierarchical assemblies of a block copolymer, a bifunctional linking compound and a nanoparticle. The block copolymers form one micro-domain and the nanoparticles another micro-domain.

  15. Hierarchical materials: Background and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    Hierarchical design draws inspiration from analysis of biological materials and has opened new possibilities for enhancing performance and enabling new functionalities and extraordinary properties. With the development of nanotechnology, the necessary technological requirements for the manufactur...

  16. A computer architecture for intelligent machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, D. R.; Saridis, G. N.

    1992-01-01

    The theory of intelligent machines proposes a hierarchical organization for the functions of an autonomous robot based on the principle of increasing precision with decreasing intelligence. An analytic formulation of this theory using information-theoretic measures of uncertainty for each level of the intelligent machine has been developed. The authors present a computer architecture that implements the lower two levels of the intelligent machine. The architecture supports an event-driven programming paradigm that is independent of the underlying computer architecture and operating system. Execution-level controllers for motion and vision systems are briefly addressed, as well as the Petri net transducer software used to implement coordination-level functions. A case study illustrates how this computer architecture integrates real-time and higher-level control of manipulator and vision systems.

  17. Functional annotation of hierarchical modularity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanchana Padmanabhan

    Full Text Available In biological networks of molecular interactions in a cell, network motifs that are biologically relevant are also functionally coherent, or form functional modules. These functionally coherent modules combine in a hierarchical manner into larger, less cohesive subsystems, thus revealing one of the essential design principles of system-level cellular organization and function-hierarchical modularity. Arguably, hierarchical modularity has not been explicitly taken into consideration by most, if not all, functional annotation systems. As a result, the existing methods would often fail to assign a statistically significant functional coherence score to biologically relevant molecular machines. We developed a methodology for hierarchical functional annotation. Given the hierarchical taxonomy of functional concepts (e.g., Gene Ontology and the association of individual genes or proteins with these concepts (e.g., GO terms, our method will assign a Hierarchical Modularity Score (HMS to each node in the hierarchy of functional modules; the HMS score and its p-value measure functional coherence of each module in the hierarchy. While existing methods annotate each module with a set of "enriched" functional terms in a bag of genes, our complementary method provides the hierarchical functional annotation of the modules and their hierarchically organized components. A hierarchical organization of functional modules often comes as a bi-product of cluster analysis of gene expression data or protein interaction data. Otherwise, our method will automatically build such a hierarchy by directly incorporating the functional taxonomy information into the hierarchy search process and by allowing multi-functional genes to be part of more than one component in the hierarchy. In addition, its underlying HMS scoring metric ensures that functional specificity of the terms across different levels of the hierarchical taxonomy is properly treated. We have evaluated our

  18. MUF architecture /art London

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenningsen Kajita, Heidi

    2009-01-01

    Om MUF architecture samt interview med Liza Fior og Katherine Clarke, partnere i muf architecture/art......Om MUF architecture samt interview med Liza Fior og Katherine Clarke, partnere i muf architecture/art...

  19. Re-Composing the Digital Present

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Barker

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the temporality that is produced in some recent and historical examples of media art. In exploring works by Janet Cardiff, Dennis Del Favero, and Omer Fast, I use the philosophy of Michel Serres and Gilles Deleuze to understand the convergence of temporalities that are composed in the digital present, as one moment in time overlays another moment. Developing Serres' concept of multi-temporality and Deleuze's philosophy of time and memory into a means to understand the non-linear time presented in these works, I argue that the different compositional strategies enacted by these artists provide the aesthetic grounding to experience “temporal thickness.” From here I investigate the interactive digital artworks Frames by Grahame Weinbren and Can You See Me Now? by the artist group Blast Theory. In this investigation, I understand interaction with technology, and the way that it shapes our sensory and processual experience, as a specifically temporal and temporalizing transaction, where human movements in the present are overlayed by technological processes.

  20. Architectural fragments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Jacob Sebastian

    2018-01-01

    I have created a large collection of plaster models: a collection of Obstructions, errors and opportunities that may develop into architecture. The models are fragments of different complex shapes as well as more simple circular models with different profiling and diameters. In this contect I have....... I try to invent the ways of drawing the models - that decode and unfold them into architectural fragments- into future buildings or constructions in the landscape. [1] Luigi Moretti: Italian architect, 1907 - 1973 [2] Man Ray: American artist, 1890 - 1976. in 2015, I saw the wonderful exhibition...... "Man Ray - Human Equations" at the Glyptotek in Copenhagen, organized by the Philips Collection in Washington D.C. and the Israel Museum in Jerusalem (in 2013). See also: "Man Ray - Human Equations" catalogue published by Hatje Cantz Verlag, Germany, 2014....

  1. Kosmos = architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tine Kurent

    1985-12-01

    Full Text Available The old Greek word "kosmos" means not only "cosmos", but also "the beautiful order", "the way of building", "building", "scenography", "mankind", and, in the time of the New Testament, also "pagans". The word "arhitekton", meaning first the "master of theatrical scenography", acquired the meaning of "builder", when the words "kosmos" and ~kosmetes" became pejorative. The fear that architecture was not considered one of the arts before Renaissance, since none of the Muses supervised the art of building, results from the misunderstanding of the word "kosmos". Urania was the Goddes of the activity implied in the verb "kosmein", meaning "to put in the beautiful order" - everything, from the universe to the man-made space, i. e. the architecture.

  2. Metabolistic Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    Textile Spaces presents different approaches to using textile as a spatial definer and artistic medium. The publication collages images and text, art and architecture, science, philosophy and literature, process and product, past, present and future. It forms an insight into soft materials' funct......' functional and poetic potentials, linking the disciplines through fragments that aim to inspire a further look into the artists' and architects' practices, while simultaneously framing these textile visions in a wider context.......Textile Spaces presents different approaches to using textile as a spatial definer and artistic medium. The publication collages images and text, art and architecture, science, philosophy and literature, process and product, past, present and future. It forms an insight into soft materials...

  3. Advanced control architecture for autonomous vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Markus; Dickmanns, Ernst D.

    1997-06-01

    An advanced control architecture for autonomous vehicles is presented. The hierarchical architecture consists of four levels: a vehicle level, a control level, a rule-based level and a knowledge-based level. A special focus is on forms of internal representation, which have to be chosen adequately for each level. The control scheme is applied to VaMP, a Mercedes passenger car which autonomously performs missions on German freeways. VaMP perceives the environment with its sense of vision and conventional sensors. It controls its actuators for locomotion and attention focusing. Modules for perception, cognition and action are discussed.

  4. A computational architecture for social agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, A.H. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This article describes a new class of information-processing models for social agents. They axe derived from primate brain architecture, the processing in brain regions, the interactions among brain regions, and the social behavior of primates. In another paper, we have reviewed the neuroanatomical connections and functional involvements of cortical regions. We reviewed the evidence for a hierarchical architecture in the primate brain. By examining neuroanatomical evidence for connections among neural areas, we were able to establish anatomical regions and connections. We then examined evidence for specific functional involvements of the different neural axeas and found some support for hierarchical functioning, not only for the perception hierarchies but also for the planning and action hierarchy in the frontal lobes.

  5. Towards recovering the software architecture of microservice-based systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Granchelli, Giona; Cardarelli, Mario; Francesco, Paolo Di; Malavolta, Ivano; Iovino, Ludovico; Salle, Amleto Di

    2017-01-01

    Today the microservice architectural style is being adopted by many key technological players such as Netflix, Amazon, The Guardian. A microservice architecture is composed of a large set of small services, each running in its own process and communicating with lightweight mechanisms (often via REST

  6. Composing Interactive Dance Pieces for the MotionComposer, a device for Persons with Disabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Bergsland, Andreas; Wechsler, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The authors have developed a new hardware/software device for persons with disabilities (the MotionComposer), and in the process created a number of interactive dance pieces for non- disabled professional dancers. The paper briefly describes the hardware and motion tracking software of the device before going into more detail concerning the mapping strategies and sound design applied to three interactive dance pieces. The paper concludes by discussing a particular philosophy championing trans...

  7. Self-assembly and optically triggered disassembly of hierarchical dendron-virus complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kostiainen, Mauri A.; Kasyutich, Oksana; Cornelissen, Jeroen Johannes Lambertus Maria; Nolte, Roeland J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Nature offers a vast array of biological building blocks that can be combined with synthetic materials to generate a variety of hierarchical architectures. Viruses are particularly interesting in this respect because of their structure and the possibility of them functioning as scaffolds for the

  8. Hierarchical structure of the otolith of adult wild carp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Zhuo; Gao Yonghua [State key laboratory of new ceramics and fine processing, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Feng Qingling, E-mail: biomater@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [State key laboratory of new ceramics and fine processing, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2009-04-30

    The otolith of adult wild carp contains a pair of asterisci, a pair of lappilli and a pair of sagittae. Current research works are mainly restricted to the field of the daily ring structure. The purpose of this work is to explore the structural characteristics of carp's otolith in terms of hierarchy from nanometer to millimeter scale by transmission election microscope (TEM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Based on the observation, carp's lapillus is composed of ordered aragonite crystals. Seven hierarchical levels of the microstructure were proposed and described with the scheme representing a complete organization in detail. SEM studies show not only the clear daily growth increment, but also the morphology within the single daily increment. The domain structure of crystal orientation in otolith was observed for the first time. Furthermore, TEM investigation displays that the lapillus is composed of aragonite crystals with nanometer scale. Four hierarchical levels of the microstructure of the sagitta are also proposed. The asteriscus which is composed of nanometer scale vaterite crystals is considered to have a uniform structure.

  9. Hierarchical structure of the otolith of adult wild carp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhuo; Gao Yonghua; Feng Qingling

    2009-01-01

    The otolith of adult wild carp contains a pair of asterisci, a pair of lappilli and a pair of sagittae. Current research works are mainly restricted to the field of the daily ring structure. The purpose of this work is to explore the structural characteristics of carp's otolith in terms of hierarchy from nanometer to millimeter scale by transmission election microscope (TEM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Based on the observation, carp's lapillus is composed of ordered aragonite crystals. Seven hierarchical levels of the microstructure were proposed and described with the scheme representing a complete organization in detail. SEM studies show not only the clear daily growth increment, but also the morphology within the single daily increment. The domain structure of crystal orientation in otolith was observed for the first time. Furthermore, TEM investigation displays that the lapillus is composed of aragonite crystals with nanometer scale. Four hierarchical levels of the microstructure of the sagitta are also proposed. The asteriscus which is composed of nanometer scale vaterite crystals is considered to have a uniform structure.

  10. Mobile Multicast in Hierarchical Proxy Mobile IPV6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafizah Mohd Aman, Azana; Hashim, Aisha Hassan A.; Mustafa, Amin; Abdullah, Khaizuran

    2013-12-01

    Mobile Internet Protocol Version 6 (MIPv6) environments have been developing very rapidly. Many challenges arise with the fast progress of MIPv6 technologies and its environment. Therefore the importance of improving the existing architecture and operations increases. One of the many challenges which need to be addressed is the need for performance improvement to support mobile multicast. Numerous approaches have been proposed to improve mobile multicast performance. This includes Context Transfer Protocol (CXTP), Hierarchical Mobile IPv6 (HMIPv6), Fast Mobile IPv6 (FMIPv6) and Proxy Mobile IPv6 (PMIPv6). This document describes multicast context transfer in hierarchical proxy mobile IPv6 (H-PMIPv6) to provide better multicasting performance in PMIPv6 domain.

  11. Nanomechanical strength mechanisms of hierarchical biological materials and tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehler, Markus J; Ackbarow, Theodor

    2008-12-01

    Biological protein materials (BPMs), intriguing hierarchical structures formed by assembly of chemical building blocks, are crucial for critical functions of life. The structural details of BPMs are fascinating: They represent a combination of universally found motifs such as alpha-helices or beta-sheets with highly adapted protein structures such as cytoskeletal networks or spider silk nanocomposites. BPMs combine properties like strength and robustness, self-healing ability, adaptability, changeability, evolvability and others into multi-functional materials at a level unmatched in synthetic materials. The ability to achieve these properties depends critically on the particular traits of these materials, first and foremost their hierarchical architecture and seamless integration of material and structure, from nano to macro. Here, we provide a brief review of this field and outline new research directions, along with a review of recent research results in the development of structure-property relationships of biological protein materials exemplified in a study of vimentin intermediate filaments.

  12. Protocol-transparent resource sharing in hierarchically scheduled real-time systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvel, van den M.M.H.P.; Bril, R.J.; Lukkien, J.J.

    2010-01-01

    Hierarchical scheduling frameworks (HSFs) provide means for composing complex real-time systems from well-defined, independently analyzed subsystems. To support resource sharing within two-level HSFs, three synchronization protocols based on the stack resource policy (SRP) have recently been

  13. A Hierarchical Algorithm for Integrated Scheduling and Control With Applications to Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sokoler, Leo Emil; Dinesen, Peter Juhler; Jørgensen, John Bagterp

    2016-01-01

    The contribution of this paper is a hierarchical algorithm for integrated scheduling and control via model predictive control of hybrid systems. The controlled system is a linear system composed of continuous control, state, and output variables. Binary variables occur as scheduling decisions in ...

  14. Neural codes of seeing architectural styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Heeyoung; Nasar, Jack L; Nikrahei, Bardia; Walther, Dirk B

    2017-01-10

    Images of iconic buildings, such as the CN Tower, instantly transport us to specific places, such as Toronto. Despite the substantial impact of architectural design on people's visual experience of built environments, we know little about its neural representation in the human brain. In the present study, we have found patterns of neural activity associated with specific architectural styles in several high-level visual brain regions, but not in primary visual cortex (V1). This finding suggests that the neural correlates of the visual perception of architectural styles stem from style-specific complex visual structure beyond the simple features computed in V1. Surprisingly, the network of brain regions representing architectural styles included the fusiform face area (FFA) in addition to several scene-selective regions. Hierarchical clustering of error patterns further revealed that the FFA participated to a much larger extent in the neural encoding of architectural styles than entry-level scene categories. We conclude that the FFA is involved in fine-grained neural encoding of scenes at a subordinate-level, in our case, architectural styles of buildings. This study for the first time shows how the human visual system encodes visual aspects of architecture, one of the predominant and longest-lasting artefacts of human culture.

  15. Connecting Architecture and Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchgeher, Georg; Weinreich, Rainer

    Software architectures are still typically defined and described independently from implementation. To avoid architectural erosion and drift, architectural representation needs to be continuously updated and synchronized with system implementation. Existing approaches for architecture representation like informal architecture documentation, UML diagrams, and Architecture Description Languages (ADLs) provide only limited support for connecting architecture descriptions and implementations. Architecture management tools like Lattix, SonarJ, and Sotoarc and UML-tools tackle this problem by extracting architecture information directly from code. This approach works for low-level architectural abstractions like classes and interfaces in object-oriented systems but fails to support architectural abstractions not found in programming languages. In this paper we present an approach for linking and continuously synchronizing a formalized architecture representation to an implementation. The approach is a synthesis of functionality provided by code-centric architecture management and UML tools and higher-level architecture analysis approaches like ADLs.

  16. Performance Estimation for Hardware/Software codesign using Hierarchical Colored Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grode, Jesper Nicolai Riis; Madsen, Jan; Jerraya, Ahmed-Amine

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents an approach for abstract modeling of the functional behavior of hardware architectures using Hierarchical Colored Petri Nets (HCPNs). Using HCPNs as architectural models has several advantages such as higher estimation accuracy, higher flexibility, and the need for only one...... estimation tool. This makes the approach very useful for designing component models used for performance estimation in Hardware/Software Codesign frameworks such as the LYCOS system. The paper presents the methodology and rules for designing component models using HCPNs. Two examples of architectural models...

  17. Universally composable protocols with relaxed set-up assumptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barak, Boaz; Canetti, Ran; Nielsen, Jesper Buus

    2004-01-01

    A desirable goal for cryptographic protocols is to guarantee security when the protocol is composed with other protocol instances. Universally composable (UC) protocols provide this guarantee in a strong sense: A protocol remains secure even when composed concurrently with an unbounded number of ...

  18. Synthesis and formation process of SrSO{sub 4}:Sm{sup 3+} phosphors with hierarchical structures and its electron trapping luminescence properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Jiayue, E-mail: jiayue_sun@126.com; Sun, Guangchao; Xue, Bing; Cui, Dianpeng

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: •SrSO{sub 4} flower-like structures were synthesized by a aqueous solution route. •The as-prepared SrSO{sub 4} crystals have high crystalline. •The flower-like structures are composed of well aligned microtablets. •SrSO{sub 4} nuclei spontaneous attach by an “oriented attachment” process. •The SrSO{sub 4} crystals have excellent electron trapping luminescence properties. -- Abstract: Novel three-dimensional (3D) flower-like Strontium sulfate (SrSO{sub 4}) microstructures with hierarchical architecture were successfully fabricated by using Sr(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} react with Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} aqueous solution under ambient conditions at room temperature. The SrSO{sub 4} flower-like microcrystals have a uniform diameter of about 10 μm, which are composed of numerous well-aligned single tablet-like SrSO{sub 4} crystals oriented radially to their center. The growth mechanism of the flower-like hierarchical celestine particles is discussed to obtain a better understanding on their formation process. XRD patterns confirm the single crystal phase of SrSO{sub 4}. In the photoluminescence property investigations of SrSO{sub 4}:Sm{sup 3+}, narrow bands observed are well identified with the electronic transition configurations of Sm{sup 3+}. The temperature-dependent photoluminescence spectra show that the temperature of maximum emission intensity is 25 °C. The thermal stability and electron trapping luminescence properties were also characterized.

  19. Deliberate change without hierarchical influence?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørskov, Sladjana; Kesting, Peter; Ulhøi, John Parm

    2017-01-01

    reveals that deliberate change is indeed achievable in a non-hierarchical collaborative OSS community context. However, it presupposes the presence and active involvement of informal change agents. The paper identifies and specifies four key drivers for change agents’ influence. Originality....../value The findings contribute to organisational analysis by providing a deeper understanding of the importance of leadership in making deliberate change possible in non-hierarchical settings. It points to the importance of “change-by-conviction”, essentially based on voluntary behaviour. This can open the door...

  20. High-performance supercapacitors based on hierarchically porous graphite particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Zheng; Wen, Jing; Yan, Chunzhu; Rice, Lynn; Sohn, Hiesang; Lu, Yunfeng [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Shen, Meiqing [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072 (China); Cai, Mei [General Motor R and D Center, Warren, MI 48090 (United States); Dunn, Bruce [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2011-07-15

    Hierarchically porous graphite particles are synthesized using a continuous, scalable aerosol approach. The unique porous graphite architecture provides the particles with high surface area, fast ion transportation, and good electronic conductivity, which endows the resulting supercapacitors with high energy and power densities. This work provides a new material platform for high-performance supercapacitors with high packing density, and is adaptable to battery electrodes, fuel-cell catalyst supports, and other applications. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  1. Simultaneous formation of multiscale hierarchical surface morphologies through sequential wrinkling and folding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Sun, Qingyang; Xiao, Jianliang

    2018-02-01

    Highly organized hierarchical surface morphologies possess various intriguing properties that could find important potential applications. In this paper, we demonstrate a facile approach to simultaneously form multiscale hierarchical surface morphologies through sequential wrinkling. This method combines surface wrinkling induced by thermal expansion and mechanical strain on a three-layer structure composed of an aluminum film, a hard Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) film, and a soft PDMS substrate. Deposition of the aluminum film on hard PDMS induces biaxial wrinkling due to thermal expansion mismatch, and recovering the prestrain in the soft PDMS substrate leads to wrinkling of the hard PDMS film. In total, three orders of wrinkling patterns form in this process, with wavelength and amplitude spanning 3 orders of magnitude in length scale. By increasing the prestrain in the soft PDMS substrate, a hierarchical wrinkling-folding structure was also obtained. This approach can be easily extended to other thin films for fabrication of multiscale hierarchical surface morphologies with potential applications in different areas.

  2. Predicting and Modeling RNA Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westhof, Eric; Masquida, Benoît; Jossinet, Fabrice

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY A general approach for modeling the architecture of large and structured RNA molecules is described. The method exploits the modularity and the hierarchical folding of RNA architecture that is viewed as the assembly of preformed double-stranded helices defined by Watson-Crick base pairs and RNA modules maintained by non-Watson-Crick base pairs. Despite the extensive molecular neutrality observed in RNA structures, specificity in RNA folding is achieved through global constraints like lengths of helices, coaxiality of helical stacks, and structures adopted at the junctions of helices. The Assemble integrated suite of computer tools allows for sequence and structure analysis as well as interactive modeling by homology or ab initio assembly with possibilities for fitting within electronic density maps. The local key role of non-Watson-Crick pairs guides RNA architecture formation and offers metrics for assessing the accuracy of three-dimensional models in a more useful way than usual root mean square deviation (RMSD) values. PMID:20504963

  3. Architectural Drawing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinø, Nicolai

    2018-01-01

    In a time of computer aided design, computer graphics and parametric design tools, the art of architectural drawing is in a state of neglect. But design and drawing are inseparably linked in ways which often go unnoticed. Essentially, it is very difficult, if not impossible, to conceive of a design...... is that computers can represent graphic ideas both faster and better than most medium-skilled draftsmen, drawing in design is not only about representing final designs. In fact, several steps involving the capacity to draw lie before the representation of a final design. Not only is drawing skills an important...... prerequisite for learning about the nature of existing objects and spaces, and thus to build a vocabulary of design. It is also a prerequisite for both reflecting and communicating about design ideas. In this paper, a taxonomy of notation, reflection, communication and presentation drawing is presented...

  4. Architectural Theatricality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvedebrink, Tenna Doktor Olsen; Fisker, Anna Marie; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2013-01-01

    In the attempt to improve patient treatment and recovery, researchers focus on applying concepts of hospitality to hospitals. Often these concepts are dominated by hotel-metaphors focusing on host–guest relationships or concierge services. Motivated by a project trying to improve patient treatment...... is known for his writings on theatricality, understood as a holistic design approach emphasizing the contextual, cultural, ritual and social meanings rooted in architecture. Relative hereto, the International Food Design Society recently argued, in a similar holistic manner, that the methodology used...... to provide an aesthetic eating experience includes knowledge on both food and design. Based on a hermeneutic reading of Semper’s theory, our thesis is that this holistic design approach is important when debating concepts of hospitality in hospitals. We use this approach to argue for how ‘food design...

  5. Lab architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crease, Robert P.

    2008-04-01

    There are few more dramatic illustrations of the vicissitudes of laboratory architecturethan the contrast between Building 20 at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and its replacement, the Ray and Maria Stata Center. Building 20 was built hurriedly in 1943 as temporary housing for MIT's famous Rad Lab, the site of wartime radar research, and it remained a productive laboratory space for over half a century. A decade ago it was demolished to make way for the Stata Center, an architecturally striking building designed by Frank Gehry to house MIT's computer science and artificial intelligence labs (above). But in 2004 - just two years after the Stata Center officially opened - the building was criticized for being unsuitable for research and became the subject of still ongoing lawsuits alleging design and construction failures.

  6. Modular networks with hierarchical organization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Several networks occurring in real life have modular structures that are arranged in a hierarchical fashion. In this paper, we have proposed a model for such networks, using a stochastic generation method. Using this model we show that, the scaling relation between the clustering and degree of the nodes is not a necessary ...

  7. Hierarchical Microaggressions in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Kathryn; Anderson, Myron; Stewart, Saran

    2015-01-01

    Although there has been substantial research examining the effects of microaggressions in the public sphere, there has been little research that examines microaggressions in the workplace. This study explores the types of microaggressions that affect employees at universities. We coin the term "hierarchical microaggression" to represent…

  8. Architecture-Based Reliability Analysis of Web Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Cobra Mariam

    2012-01-01

    In a Service Oriented Architecture (SOA), the hierarchical complexity of Web Services (WS) and their interactions with the underlying Application Server (AS) create new challenges in providing a realistic estimate of WS performance and reliability. The current approaches often treat the entire WS environment as a black-box. Thus, the sensitivity…

  9. Model architecture of intelligent data mining oriented urban transportation information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bogang; Tao, Yingchun; Sui, Jianbo; Zhang, Feizhou

    2007-06-01

    Aiming at solving practical problems in urban traffic, the paper presents model architecture of intelligent data mining from hierarchical view. With artificial intelligent technologies used in the framework, the intelligent data mining technology improves, which is more suitable for the change of real-time road condition. It also provides efficient technology support for the urban transport information distribution, transmission and display.

  10. Flexible Near-Field Nanopatterning with Ultrathin, Conformal Phase Masks on Nonplanar Substrates for Biomimetic Hierarchical Photonic Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Young Woo; Park, Junyong; Kim, Taehoon; Kang, Seok Hee; Kim, Hyowook; Shin, Jonghwa; Jeon, Seokwoo; Hong, Suck Won

    2016-04-26

    Multilevel hierarchical platforms that combine nano- and microstructures have been intensively explored to mimic superior properties found in nature. However, unless directly replicated from biological samples, desirable multiscale structures have been challenging to efficiently produce to date. Departing from conventional wafer-based technology, new and efficient techniques suitable for fabricating bioinspired structures are highly desired to produce three-dimensional architectures even on nonplanar substrates. Here, we report a facile approach to realize functional nanostructures on uneven microstructured platforms via scalable optical fabrication techniques. The ultrathin form (∼3 μm) of a phase grating composed of poly(vinyl alcohol) makes the material physically flexible and enables full-conformal contact with rough surfaces. The near-field optical effect can be identically generated on highly curved surfaces as a result of superior conformality. Densely packed nanodots with submicron periodicity are uniformly formed on microlens arrays with a radius of curvature that is as low as ∼28 μm. Increasing the size of the gratings causes the production area to be successfully expanded by up to 16 in(2). The "nano-on-micro" structures mimicking real compound eyes are transferred to flexible and stretchable substrates by sequential imprinting, facilitating multifunctional optical films applicable to antireflective diffusers for large-area sheet-illumination displays.

  11. Memory controllers for real-time embedded systems predictable and composable real-time systems

    CERN Document Server

    Akesson, Benny

    2012-01-01

      Verification of real-time requirements in systems-on-chip becomes more complex as more applications are integrated. Predictable and composable systems can manage the increasing complexity using formal verification and simulation.  This book explains the concepts of predictability and composability and shows how to apply them to the design and analysis of a memory controller, which is a key component in any real-time system. This book is generally intended for readers interested in Systems-on-Chips with real-time applications.   It is especially well-suited for readers looking to use SDRAM memories in systems with hard or firm real-time requirements. There is a strong focus on real-time concepts, such as predictability and composability, as well as a brief discussion about memory controller architectures for high-performance computing. Readers will learn step-by-step how to go from an unpredictable SDRAM memory, offering highly variable bandwidth and latency, to a predictable and composable shared memory...

  12. Hierarchical trigger of the ALICE calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Muller, Hans; Novitzky, Norbert; Kral, Jiri; Rak, Jan; Schambach, Joachim; Wang, Ya-Ping; Wang, Dong; Zhou, Daicui

    2010-01-01

    The trigger of the ALICE electromagnetic calorimeters is implemented in 2 hierarchically connected layers of electronics. In the lower layer, level-0 algorithms search shower energy above threshold in locally confined Trigger Region Units (TRU). The top layer is implemented as a single, global trigger unit that receives the trigger data from all TRUs as input to the level-1 algorithm. This architecture was first developed for the PHOS high pT photon trigger before it was adopted by EMCal also for the jet trigger. TRU units digitize up to 112 analogue input signals from the Front End Electronics (FEE) and concentrate their digital stream in a single FPGA. A charge and time summing algorithm is combined with a peakfinder that suppresses spurious noise and is precise to single LHC bunches. With a peak-to-peak noise level of 150 MeV the linear dynamic range above threshold spans from MIP energies at 215 up to 50 GeV. Local level-0 decisions take less than 600 ns after LHC collisions, upon which all TRUs transfer ...

  13. Hierarchical Design of Tissue Regenerative Constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Jonas C; De Laporte, Laura

    2018-03-01

    The worldwide shortage of organs fosters significant advancements in regenerative therapies. Tissue engineering and regeneration aim to supply or repair organs or tissues by combining material scaffolds, biochemical signals, and cells. The greatest challenge entails the creation of a suitable implantable or injectable 3D macroenvironment and microenvironment to allow for ex vivo or in vivo cell-induced tissue formation. This review gives an overview of the essential components of tissue regenerating scaffolds, ranging from the molecular to the macroscopic scale in a hierarchical manner. Further, this review elaborates about recent pivotal technologies, such as photopatterning, electrospinning, 3D bioprinting, or the assembly of micrometer-scale building blocks, which enable the incorporation of local heterogeneities, similar to most native extracellular matrices. These methods are applied to mimic a vast number of different tissues, including cartilage, bone, nerves, muscle, heart, and blood vessels. Despite the tremendous progress that has been made in the last decade, it remains a hurdle to build biomaterial constructs in vitro or in vivo with a native-like structure and architecture, including spatiotemporal control of biofunctional domains and mechanical properties. New chemistries and assembly methods in water will be crucial to develop therapies that are clinically translatable and can evolve into organized and functional tissues. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. SUSTAINABLE ARCHITECTURE : WHAT ARCHITECTURE STUDENTS THINK

    OpenAIRE

    SATWIKO, PRASASTO

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable architecture has become a hot issue lately as the impacts of climate change become more intense. Architecture educations have responded by integrating knowledge of sustainable design in their curriculum. However, in the real life, new buildings keep coming with designs that completely ignore sustainable principles. This paper discusses the results of two national competitions on sustainable architecture targeted for architecture students (conducted in 2012 and 2013). The results a...

  15. Modeling Architectural Patterns Using Architectural Primitives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zdun, Uwe; Avgeriou, Paris

    2005-01-01

    Architectural patterns are a key point in architectural documentation. Regrettably, there is poor support for modeling architectural patterns, because the pattern elements are not directly matched by elements in modeling languages, and, at the same time, patterns support an inherent variability that

  16. Software architecture 2

    CERN Document Server

    Oussalah, Mourad Chabanne

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, software architectures have significantly contributed to the development of complex and distributed systems. Nowadays, it is recognized that one of the critical problems in the design and development of any complex software system is its architecture, i.e. the organization of its architectural elements. Software Architecture presents the software architecture paradigms based on objects, components, services and models, as well as the various architectural techniques and methods, the analysis of architectural qualities, models of representation of architectural templa

  17. Lightweight enterprise architectures

    CERN Document Server

    Theuerkorn, Fenix

    2004-01-01

    STATE OF ARCHITECTUREArchitectural ChaosRelation of Technology and Architecture The Many Faces of Architecture The Scope of Enterprise Architecture The Need for Enterprise ArchitectureThe History of Architecture The Current Environment Standardization Barriers The Need for Lightweight Architecture in the EnterpriseThe Cost of TechnologyThe Benefits of Enterprise Architecture The Domains of Architecture The Gap between Business and ITWhere Does LEA Fit? LEA's FrameworkFrameworks, Methodologies, and Approaches The Framework of LEATypes of Methodologies Types of ApproachesActual System Environmen

  18. Software architecture 1

    CERN Document Server

    Oussalah , Mourad Chabane

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, software architectures have significantly contributed to the development of complex and distributed systems. Nowadays, it is recognized that one of the critical problems in the design and development of any complex software system is its architecture, i.e. the organization of its architectural elements. Software Architecture presents the software architecture paradigms based on objects, components, services and models, as well as the various architectural techniques and methods, the analysis of architectural qualities, models of representation of architectural template

  19. SiC: An Agent Based Architecture for Preventing and Detecting Attacks to Ubiquitous Databases

    OpenAIRE

    Pinzón, Cristian; de Paz Santana, Yanira; Bajo Pérez, Javier; Abraham, Ajith P.; Corchado Rodríguez, Juan M.

    2009-01-01

    One of the main attacks to ubiquitous databases is the structure query language (SQL) injection attack, which causes severe damages both in the commercial aspect and in the user’s confidence. This chapter proposes the SiC architecture as a solution to the SQL injection attack problem. This is a hierarchical distributed multiagent architecture, which involves an entirely new approach with respect to existing architectures for the prevention and detection of SQL injections. SiC incorporates a k...

  20. The architecture of a video image processor for the space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalamanchili, S.; Lee, D.; Fritze, K.; Carpenter, T.; Hoyme, K.; Murray, N.

    1987-01-01

    The architecture of a video image processor for space station applications is described. The architecture was derived from a study of the requirements of algorithms that are necessary to produce the desired functionality of many of these applications. Architectural options were selected based on a simulation of the execution of these algorithms on various architectural organizations. A great deal of emphasis was placed on the ability of the system to evolve and grow over the lifetime of the space station. The result is a hierarchical parallel architecture that is characterized by high level language programmability, modularity, extensibility and can meet the required performance goals.

  1. NERIES: Seismic Data Gateways and User Composed Datasets Metadata Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinuso, Alessandro; Trani, Luca; Kamb, Linus; Frobert, Laurent

    2010-05-01

    One of the NERIES EC project main objectives is to establish and improve the networking of seismic waveform data exchange and access among four main data centers in Europe: INGV, GFZ, ORFEUS and IPGP. Besides the implementation of the data backbone, several investigations and developments have been conducted in order to offer to the users the data available from this network, either programmatically or interactively. One of the challenges is to understand how to enable users` activities such as discovering, aggregating, describing and sharing datasets to obtain a decrease in the replication of similar data queries towards the network, exempting the data centers to guess and create useful pre-packed products. We`ve started to transfer this task more and more towards the users community, where the users` composed data products could be extensively re-used. The main link to the data is represented by a centralized webservice (SeismoLink) acting like a single access point to the whole data network. Users can download either waveform data or seismic station inventories directly from their own software routines by connecting to this webservice, which routes the request to the data centers. The provenance of the data is maintained and transferred to the users in the form of URIs, that identify the dataset and implicitly refer to the data provider. SeismoLink, combined with other webservices (eg EMSC-QuakeML earthquakes catalog service), is used from a community gateway such as the NERIES web portal (http://www.seismicportal.eu). Here the user interacts with a map based portlet which allows the dynamic composition of a data product, binding seismic event`s parameters with a set of seismic stations. The requested data is collected by the back-end processes of the portal, preserved and offered to the user in a personal data cart, where metadata can be generated interactively on-demand. The metadata, expressed in RDF, can also be remotely ingested. They offer rating

  2. Birth Location, Migration and Clustering of Important Composers: Historical Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borowiecki, Karol; O’Hagan, John

    2010-01-01

    and 1899. This information is compiled from the large, Grove Music Online (2009) encyclopedia. There is also some discussion of the biases evident in choosing “significant” composers. The data show a marked level ofmigration of important composers going back many centuries suggesting that the phenomenon......This article examines the 522 most important composers in the last 800 years, as identified by Charles Murray (2003), in terms of their birth location and migration. It also examines detailed patterns of migration and tendencies to cluster in certain cities for those composers born between 1750...

  3. Hierarchically Nanostructured Transition Metal Oxides for Lithium‐Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Mingbo; Tang, Hao; Li, Lulu; Hu, Qin; Zhang, Li; Xue, Huaiguo

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Lithium‐ion batteries (LIBs) have been widely used in the field of portable electric devices because of their high energy density and long cycling life. To further improve the performance of LIBs, it is of great importance to develop new electrode materials. Various transition metal oxides (TMOs) have been extensively investigated as electrode materials for LIBs. According to the reaction mechanism, there are mainly two kinds of TMOs, one is based on conversion reaction and the other is based on intercalation/deintercalation reaction. Recently, hierarchically nanostructured TMOs have become a hot research area in the field of LIBs. Hierarchical architecture can provide numerous accessible electroactive sites for redox reactions, shorten the diffusion distance of Li‐ion during the reaction, and accommodate volume expansion during cycling. With rapid research progress in this field, a timely account of this advanced technology is highly necessary. Here, the research progress on the synthesis methods, morphological characteristics, and electrochemical performances of hierarchically nanostructured TMOs for LIBs is summarized and discussed. Some relevant prospects are also proposed. PMID:29593962

  4. Hierarchical organization of brain functional networks during visual tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, Zhao; Cai, Shi-Min; Fu, Zhong-Qian; Zhang, Jie

    2011-09-01

    The functional network of the brain is known to demonstrate modular structure over different hierarchical scales. In this paper, we systematically investigated the hierarchical modular organizations of the brain functional networks that are derived from the extent of phase synchronization among high-resolution EEG time series during a visual task. In particular, we compare the modular structure of the functional network from EEG channels with that of the anatomical parcellation of the brain cortex. Our results show that the modular architectures of brain functional networks correspond well to those from the anatomical structures over different levels of hierarchy. Most importantly, we find that the consistency between the modular structures of the functional network and the anatomical network becomes more pronounced in terms of vision, sensory, vision-temporal, motor cortices during the visual task, which implies that the strong modularity in these areas forms the functional basis for the visual task. The structure-function relationship further reveals that the phase synchronization of EEG time series in the same anatomical group is much stronger than that of EEG time series from different anatomical groups during the task and that the hierarchical organization of functional brain network may be a consequence of functional segmentation of the brain cortex.

  5. Communication-Oriented Design Space Exploration for Reconfigurable Architectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gogniat Guy

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Many academic works in computer engineering focus on reconfigurable architectures and associated tools. Fine-grain architectures, field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs, are the most well-known structures of reconfigurable hardware. Dedicated tools (generic or specific allow for the exploration of their design space to choose the best architecture characteristics and/or to explore the application characteristics. The aim is to increase the synergy between the application and the architecture in order to get the best performance. However, there is no generic tool to perform such an exploration for coarse-grain or heterogeneous-grain architectures, just a small number of very specific tools are able to explore a limited set of architectures. To address this major lack, in this paper we propose a new design space exploration approach adapted to fine- and coarse-grain granularities. Our approach combines algorithmic and architecture explorations. It relies on an automatic estimation tool which computes the communication hierarchical distribution and the architectural processing resources use rate for the architecture under exploration. Such an approach forwards the rapid definition of efficient reconfigurable architectures dedicated to one or several applications.

  6. Hierarchical VOOH hollow spheres for symmetrical and asymmetrical supercapacitor devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Xuyang; Wang, Cong; Feng, Wenjing; Xing, Na; Jiang, Hanmei; Lu, Xiangyu; Zhang, Yifu; Meng, Changgong

    2018-01-01

    Hierarchical VOOH hollow spheres with low crystallinity composed of nanoparticles were prepared by a facile and template-free method, which involved a precipitation of precursor microspheres in aqueous solution at room temperature and subsequent hydrothermal reaction. Quasi-solid-state symmetric and asymmetric supercapacitor (SSC and ASC) devices were fabricated using hierarchical VOOH hollow spheres as the electrodes, and the electrochemical properties of the VOOH//VOOH SSC device and the VOOH//AC ASC device were studied by cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic charge-discharge (GCD) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Results demonstrated that the electrochemical performance of the VOOH//AC ASC device was better than that of the VOOH//VOOH SSC device. After 3000 cycles, the specific capacitance of the VOOH//AC ASC device retains 83% of the initial capacitance, while the VOOH//VOOH SSC device retains only 7.7%. Findings in this work proved that hierarchical VOOH hollow spheres could be a promising candidate as an ideal electrode material for supercapacitor devices.

  7. Automatic Hierarchical Color Image Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Huang

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Organizing images into semantic categories can be extremely useful for content-based image retrieval and image annotation. Grouping images into semantic classes is a difficult problem, however. Image classification attempts to solve this hard problem by using low-level image features. In this paper, we propose a method for hierarchical classification of images via supervised learning. This scheme relies on using a good low-level feature and subsequently performing feature-space reconfiguration using singular value decomposition to reduce noise and dimensionality. We use the training data to obtain a hierarchical classification tree that can be used to categorize new images. Our experimental results suggest that this scheme not only performs better than standard nearest-neighbor techniques, but also has both storage and computational advantages.

  8. Hierarchical matrices algorithms and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Hackbusch, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    This self-contained monograph presents matrix algorithms and their analysis. The new technique enables not only the solution of linear systems but also the approximation of matrix functions, e.g., the matrix exponential. Other applications include the solution of matrix equations, e.g., the Lyapunov or Riccati equation. The required mathematical background can be found in the appendix. The numerical treatment of fully populated large-scale matrices is usually rather costly. However, the technique of hierarchical matrices makes it possible to store matrices and to perform matrix operations approximately with almost linear cost and a controllable degree of approximation error. For important classes of matrices, the computational cost increases only logarithmically with the approximation error. The operations provided include the matrix inversion and LU decomposition. Since large-scale linear algebra problems are standard in scientific computing, the subject of hierarchical matrices is of interest to scientists ...

  9. Hierarchical Semantic Model of Geovideo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XIE Xiao

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The public security incidents were getting increasingly challenging with regard to their new features, including multi-scale mobility, multistage dynamic evolution, as well as spatiotemporal concurrency and uncertainty in the complex urban environment. However, the existing video models, which were used/designed for independent archive or local analysis of surveillance video, have seriously inhibited emergency response to the urgent requirements.Aiming at the explicit representation of change mechanism in video, the paper proposed a novel hierarchical geovideo semantic model using UML. This model was characterized by the hierarchical representation of both data structure and semantics based on the change-oriented three domains (feature domain, process domain and event domain instead of overall semantic description of video streaming; combining both geographical semantics and video content semantics, in support of global semantic association between multiple geovideo data. The public security incidents by video surveillance are inspected as an example to illustrate the validity of this model.

  10. Hybrid and hierarchical composite materials

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Chang-Soo; Sano, Tomoko

    2015-01-01

    This book addresses a broad spectrum of areas in both hybrid materials and hierarchical composites, including recent development of processing technologies, structural designs, modern computer simulation techniques, and the relationships between the processing-structure-property-performance. Each topic is introduced at length with numerous  and detailed examples and over 150 illustrations.   In addition, the authors present a method of categorizing these materials, so that representative examples of all material classes are discussed.

  11. Hierarchical analysis of urban space

    OpenAIRE

    Kataeva, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Multi-level structure of urban space, multitude of subjects of its transformation, which follow asymmetric interests, multilevel system of institutions which regulate interaction in the "population business government -public organizations" system, determine the use of hierarchic approach to the analysis of urban space. The article observes theoretical justification of using this approach to study correlations and peculiarities of interaction in urban space as in an intricately organized syst...

  12. Statistical Significance for Hierarchical Clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimes, Patrick K.; Liu, Yufeng; Hayes, D. Neil; Marron, J. S.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Cluster analysis has proved to be an invaluable tool for the exploratory and unsupervised analysis of high dimensional datasets. Among methods for clustering, hierarchical approaches have enjoyed substantial popularity in genomics and other fields for their ability to simultaneously uncover multiple layers of clustering structure. A critical and challenging question in cluster analysis is whether the identified clusters represent important underlying structure or are artifacts of natural sampling variation. Few approaches have been proposed for addressing this problem in the context of hierarchical clustering, for which the problem is further complicated by the natural tree structure of the partition, and the multiplicity of tests required to parse the layers of nested clusters. In this paper, we propose a Monte Carlo based approach for testing statistical significance in hierarchical clustering which addresses these issues. The approach is implemented as a sequential testing procedure guaranteeing control of the family-wise error rate. Theoretical justification is provided for our approach, and its power to detect true clustering structure is illustrated through several simulation studies and applications to two cancer gene expression datasets. PMID:28099990

  13. Constructive Epistemic Modeling: A Hierarchical Bayesian Model Averaging Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, F. T. C.; Elshall, A. S.

    2014-12-01

    Constructive epistemic modeling is the idea that our understanding of a natural system through a scientific model is a mental construct that continually develops through learning about and from the model. Using the hierarchical Bayesian model averaging (HBMA) method [1], this study shows that segregating different uncertain model components through a BMA tree of posterior model probabilities, model prediction, within-model variance, between-model variance and total model variance serves as a learning tool [2]. First, the BMA tree of posterior model probabilities permits the comparative evaluation of the candidate propositions of each uncertain model component. Second, systemic model dissection is imperative for understanding the individual contribution of each uncertain model component to the model prediction and variance. Third, the hierarchical representation of the between-model variance facilitates the prioritization of the contribution of each uncertain model component to the overall model uncertainty. We illustrate these concepts using the groundwater modeling of a siliciclastic aquifer-fault system. The sources of uncertainty considered are from geological architecture, formation dip, boundary conditions and model parameters. The study shows that the HBMA analysis helps in advancing knowledge about the model rather than forcing the model to fit a particularly understanding or merely averaging several candidate models. [1] Tsai, F. T.-C., and A. S. Elshall (2013), Hierarchical Bayesian model averaging for hydrostratigraphic modeling: Uncertainty segregation and comparative evaluation. Water Resources Research, 49, 5520-5536, doi:10.1002/wrcr.20428. [2] Elshall, A.S., and F. T.-C. Tsai (2014). Constructive epistemic modeling of groundwater flow with geological architecture and boundary condition uncertainty under Bayesian paradigm, Journal of Hydrology, 517, 105-119, doi: 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2014.05.027.

  14. Distributed and decentralized control architectures for converter-interfaced microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragicevic, Tomislav; Wu, Dan; Shafiee, Qobad

    2017-01-01

    This paper gives a summary on recently available technologies for decentralized and distributed control of microgrids. They can be classified into two general categories: 1) power line communication based architectures and 2) multi-agent based architectures. The essential control methods and info......This paper gives a summary on recently available technologies for decentralized and distributed control of microgrids. They can be classified into two general categories: 1) power line communication based architectures and 2) multi-agent based architectures. The essential control methods...... and information sharing algorithms applied in these architectures are reviewed and examined in a hierarchical manner, in order to point out benefits they will bring to future microgrid applications. The paper is concluded with a summary on existing methods and a discussion on future development trends....

  15. Research and Design in Unified Coding Architecture for Smart Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Han

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Standardized and sharing information platform is the foundation of the Smart Grids. In order to improve the dispatching center information integration of the power grids and achieve efficient data exchange, sharing and interoperability, a unified coding architecture is proposed. The architecture includes coding management layer, coding generation layer, information models layer and application system layer. Hierarchical design makes the whole coding architecture to adapt to different application environments, different interfaces, loosely coupled requirements, which can realize the integration model management function of the power grids. The life cycle and evaluation method of survival of unified coding architecture is proposed. It can ensure the stability and availability of the coding architecture. Finally, the development direction of coding technology of the Smart Grids in future is prospected.

  16. Virtual Prototyping and Performance Analysis of Two Memory Architectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huda S. Muhammad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The gap between CPU and memory speed has always been a critical concern that motivated researchers to study and analyze the performance of memory hierarchical architectures. In the early stages of the design cycle, performance evaluation methodologies can be used to leverage exploration at the architectural level and assist in making early design tradeoffs. In this paper, we use simulation platforms developed using the VisualSim tool to compare the performance of two memory architectures, namely, the Direct Connect architecture of the Opteron, and the Shared Bus of the Xeon multicore processors. Key variations exist between the two memory architectures and both design approaches provide rich platforms that call for the early use of virtual system prototyping and simulation techniques to assess performance at an early stage in the design cycle.

  17. Method of moments solution of volume integral equations using higher-order hierarchical Legendre basis functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Oleksiy S.; Jørgensen, Erik; Meincke, Peter

    2004-01-01

    An efficient higher-order method of moments (MoM) solution of volume integral equations is presented. The higher-order MoM solution is based on higher-order hierarchical Legendre basis functions and higher-order geometry modeling. An unstructured mesh composed of 8-node trilinear and/or curved 27...... of magnitude in comparison to existing higher-order hierarchical basis functions. Consequently, an iterative solver can be applied even for high expansion orders. Numerical results demonstrate excellent agreement with the analytical Mie series solution for a dielectric sphere as well as with results obtained...

  18. Colin Rowe: Space as well-composed illusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Schnoor

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Architectural historian Colin Rowe, although well known for his intriguing analytical writings on modern architecture, rarely examined architectural space as a scholarly subject-matter. Historians examining Rowe’s writings rarely refer to the issue of space, either. Anthony Vidler, Werner Oechslin, Alexander Caragonne and others have examined Rowe’s investigations into urban space, his analyses of formal principles in architecture, or his critical stance towards the myths of modernism, but have not singled out architectural space as subject matter. Nevertheless, this paper argues that Rowe is indeed one of the few post-war historians writing in the English language to have conveyed analyses of architectural space, particularly in the volume The Mathematics of the Ideal Villa (1976. The paper examines how Rowe understood architectural space as relevant only when not seen as ‘pure’ but ‘contaminated’ with ambiguity and active character: notions of flatness versus depth and horizontal versus vertical, as well as the overlapping of conflicting scales or whole structural or spatial systems are central for Rowe’s reading of architectural space, which is also always infused with an idea of movement. Further, the paper traces influences of Rowe’s approach beyond the obvious influence by Rudolf Wittkower to Heinrich Wölfflin’s style and method, partially conveyed through the translation of Sigfried Giedion’s writings.

  19. Architectural design decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Antonius Gradus Johannes

    2008-01-01

    A software architecture can be considered as the collection of key decisions concerning the design of the software of a system. Knowledge about this design, i.e. architectural knowledge, is key for understanding a software architecture and thus the software itself. Architectural knowledge is mostly

  20. Information Integration Architecture Development

    OpenAIRE

    Faulkner, Stéphane; Kolp, Manuel; Nguyen, Duy Thai; Coyette, Adrien; Do, Thanh Tung; 16th International Conference on Software Engineering and Knowledge Engineering

    2004-01-01

    Multi-Agent Systems (MAS) architectures are gaining popularity for building open, distributed, and evolving software required by systems such as information integration applications. Unfortunately, despite considerable work in software architecture during the last decade, few research efforts have aimed at truly defining patterns and languages for designing such multiagent architectures. We propose a modern approach based on organizational structures and architectural description lan...

  1. Fragments of Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Jacob Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Topic 3: “Case studies dealing with the artistic and architectural work of architects worldwide, and the ties between specific artistic and architectural projects, methodologies and products”......Topic 3: “Case studies dealing with the artistic and architectural work of architects worldwide, and the ties between specific artistic and architectural projects, methodologies and products”...

  2. Composer: Authoring Tool for iTV Programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.L. Guimarães (Rodrigo); R.M.R. Costa; L.F.G. Soares

    2008-01-01

    htmlabstractThis paper presents Composer, an authoring tool to help creating interactive TV programs for the Brazilian Terrestrial Digital TV System. In Composer, several abstractions are defined creating different document views (structural, temporal, layout and textual). One of these views, the

  3. FeelSound : Collaborative Composing of Acoustic Music

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fikkert, Wim; Hakvoort, Michiel; van der Vet, Paul; Nijholt, Anton

    2009-01-01

    FeelSound is a multi-user application for collaboratively composing music in an entertaining way. Up to four composers can jointly create acoustic music on a top-projection multitouch sensitive table. The notes of an acoustic instrument are represented on a harmonic table and, by drawing shapes on

  4. Affective evolutionary music composition with MetaCompose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scirea, Marco; Togelius, Julian; Eklund, Peter

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the MetaCompose music generator, a compositional, extensible framework for affective music composition. In this context ‘affective’ refers to the music generator’s ability to express emotional information. The main purpose of MetaCompose is to create music in real-time that can...

  5. The Links between Handwriting and Composing for Y6 Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medwell, Jane; Strand, Steve; Wray, David

    2009-01-01

    Although handwriting is often considered a matter of presentation, a substantial body of international research suggests that the role of handwriting in children's composing has been neglected. Automaticity in handwriting is now seen as of key importance in composing but this proposition is relatively untested in the UK and the assumption has been…

  6. Grammar for College Writing: A Sentence-Composing Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killgallon, Don; Killgallon, Jenny

    2010-01-01

    Across America, in thousands of classrooms, from elementary school to high school, the time-tested sentence-composing approach has given students tools to become better writers. Now the authors present a much anticipated sentence-composing grammar worktext for college writing. This book presents a new and easier way to understand grammar: (1) Noun…

  7. Different micromanipulation applications based on common modular control architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipola, Risto; Vallius, Tero; Pudas, Marko; Röning, Juha

    2010-01-01

    This paper validates a previously introduced scalable modular control architecture and shows how it can be used to implement research equipment. The validation is conducted by presenting different kinds of micromanipulation applications that use the architecture. Conditions of the micro-world are very different from those of the macro-world. Adhesive forces are significant compared to gravitational forces when micro-scale objects are manipulated. Manipulation is mainly conducted by automatic control relying on haptic feedback provided by force sensors. The validated architecture is a hierarchical layered hybrid architecture, including a reactive layer and a planner layer. The implementation of the architecture is modular, and the architecture has a lot in common with open architectures. Further, the architecture is extensible, scalable, portable and it enables reuse of modules. These are the qualities that we validate in this paper. To demonstrate the claimed features, we present different applications that require special control in micrometer, millimeter and centimeter scales. These applications include a device that measures cell adhesion, a device that examines properties of thin films, a device that measures adhesion of micro fibers and a device that examines properties of submerged gel produced by bacteria. Finally, we analyze how the architecture is used in these applications.

  8. An Approach for Composing Services Based on Environment Ontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangjun Cai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Service-oriented computing is revolutionizing the modern computing paradigms with its aim to boost software reuse and enable business agility. Under this paradigm, new services are fabricated by composing available services. The problem arises as how to effectively and efficiently compose heterogeneous services facing the high complexity of service composition. Based on environment ontology, this paper introduces a requirement-driven service composition approach. We propose the algorithms to decompose the requirement, the rules to deduct the relation between services, and the algorithm for composing service. The empirical results and the comparison with other services’ composition methodologies show that this approach is feasible and efficient.

  9. Hierarchal scalar and vector tetrahedra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, J.P.; Forghani, B.

    1993-01-01

    A new set of scalar and vector tetrahedral finite elements are presented. The elements are hierarchal, allowing mixing of polynomial orders; scalar orders up to 3 and vector orders up to 2 are defined. The vector elements impose tangential continuity on the field but not normal continuity, making them suitable for representing the vector electric or magnetic field. Further, the scalar and vector elements are such that they can easily be used in the same mesh, a requirement of many quasi-static formulations. Results are presented for two 50 Hz problems: the Bath Cube, and TEAM Problem 7

  10. Virtual Environment Composable Training for Operational Readiness (VECTOR)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barba, Charles; Deaton, John E; Santarelli, Tom; Knerr, Bruce; Singer, Michael; Belanich, Jim

    2006-01-01

    .... This paper describes the cultural-training application, the architectural design, and the associated implementation of the immersive environment and intelligent agent technology to control game non-player characters (NPC...

  11. Stroke, music, and creative output: Alfred Schnittke and other composers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagvazdin, Yuri

    2015-01-01

    Alfred Schnittke (1934-1998), a celebrated Russian composer of the twentieth century, suffered from several strokes which affected his left cerebral hemisphere. The disease, however, did not diminish his musical talent. Moreover, he stated that his illness in a way facilitated his work. The composer showed amazingly high productivity after his first and second injuries of the central nervous system. The main topic of this chapter is the effect of strokes on Schnittke's output, creativity, and style of music. A brief biography of the composer with the chronology of his brain hemorrhages is included. In addition, the influence of cerebrovascular lesions on creative potential of other prominent composers such as Benjamin Britten, Jean Langlais, Vissarion Shebalin, Igor Stravinsky, and Ira Randall Thompson is discussed. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Hierarchical modular structure enhances the robustness of self-organized criticality in neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shengjun; Zhou Changsong

    2012-01-01

    One of the most prominent architecture properties of neural networks in the brain is the hierarchical modular structure. How does the structure property constrain or improve brain function? It is thought that operating near criticality can be beneficial for brain function. Here, we find that networks with modular structure can extend the parameter region of coupling strength over which critical states are reached compared to non-modular networks. Moreover, we find that one aspect of network function—dynamical range—is highest for the same parameter region. Thus, hierarchical modularity enhances robustness of criticality as well as function. However, too much modularity constrains function by preventing the neural networks from reaching critical states, because the modular structure limits the spreading of avalanches. Our results suggest that the brain may take advantage of the hierarchical modular structure to attain criticality and enhanced function. (paper)

  13. Biomolecule-Assisted Hydrothermal Synthesis and Self-Assembly of Bi2Te3 Nanostring-Cluster Hierarchical Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mi, Jianli; Lock, Nina; Sun, Ting

    2010-01-01

    A simple biomolecule-assisted hydrothermal approach has been developed for the fabrication of Bi2Te3 thermoelectric nanomaterials. The product has a nanostring-cluster hierarchical structure which is composed of ordered and aligned platelet-like crystals. The platelets are100 nm in diameter...

  14. A top-down approach for the prediction of hardness and toughness of hierarchical materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpinteri, Alberto; Paggi, Marco

    2009-01-01

    Many natural and man-made materials exhibit structure over more than one length scale. In this paper, we deal with hierarchical grained composite materials that have recently been designed to achieve superior hardness and toughness as compared to their traditional counterparts. Their nested structure, where meso-grains are recursively composed of smaller and smaller micro-grains at the different scales with a fractal-like topology, is herein studied from a hierarchical perspective. Considering a top-down approach, i.e. from the largest to the smallest scale, we propose a recursive micromechanical model coupled with a generalized fractal mixture rule for the prediction of hardness and toughness of a grained material with n hierarchical levels. A relationship between hardness and toughness is also derived and the analytical predictions are compared with experimental data.

  15. Hierarchically nested river landform sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasternack, G. B.; Weber, M. D.; Brown, R. A.; Baig, D.

    2017-12-01

    River corridors exhibit landforms nested within landforms repeatedly down spatial scales. In this study we developed, tested, and implemented a new way to create river classifications by mapping domains of fluvial processes with respect to the hierarchical organization of topographic complexity that drives fluvial dynamism. We tested this approach on flow convergence routing, a morphodynamic mechanism with different states depending on the structure of nondimensional topographic variability. Five nondimensional landform types with unique functionality (nozzle, wide bar, normal channel, constricted pool, and oversized) represent this process at any flow. When this typology is nested at base flow, bankfull, and floodprone scales it creates a system with up to 125 functional types. This shows how a single mechanism produces complex dynamism via nesting. Given the classification, we answered nine specific scientific questions to investigate the abundance, sequencing, and hierarchical nesting of these new landform types using a 35-km gravel/cobble river segment of the Yuba River in California. The nested structure of flow convergence routing landforms found in this study revealed that bankfull landforms are nested within specific floodprone valley landform types, and these types control bankfull morphodynamics during moderate to large floods. As a result, this study calls into question the prevailing theory that the bankfull channel of a gravel/cobble river is controlled by in-channel, bankfull, and/or small flood flows. Such flows are too small to initiate widespread sediment transport in a gravel/cobble river with topographic complexity.

  16. Stability of glassy hierarchical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, M.; Camargo-Forero, L.; Vicsek, T.

    2018-02-01

    The structure of interactions in most animal and human societies can be best represented by complex hierarchical networks. In order to maintain close-to-optimal function both stability and adaptability are necessary. Here we investigate the stability of hierarchical networks that emerge from the simulations of an organization type with an efficiency function reminiscent of the Hamiltonian of spin glasses. Using this quantitative approach we find a number of expected (from everyday observations) and highly non-trivial results for the obtained locally optimal networks, including, for example: (i) stability increases with growing efficiency and level of hierarchy; (ii) the same perturbation results in a larger change for more efficient states; (iii) networks with a lower level of hierarchy become more efficient after perturbation; (iv) due to the huge number of possible optimal states only a small fraction of them exhibit resilience and, finally, (v) ‘attacks’ targeting the nodes selectively (regarding their position in the hierarchy) can result in paradoxical outcomes.

  17. Hierarchical modeling of active materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taya, Minoru

    2003-01-01

    Intelligent (or smart) materials are increasingly becoming key materials for use in actuators and sensors. If an intelligent material is used as a sensor, it can be embedded in a variety of structure functioning as a health monitoring system to make their life longer with high reliability. If an intelligent material is used as an active material in an actuator, it plays a key role of making dynamic movement of the actuator under a set of stimuli. This talk intends to cover two different active materials in actuators, (1) piezoelectric laminate with FGM microstructure, (2) ferromagnetic shape memory alloy (FSMA). The advantage of using the FGM piezo laminate is to enhance its fatigue life while maintaining large bending displacement, while that of use in FSMA is its fast actuation while providing a large force and stroke capability. Use of hierarchical modeling of the above active materials is a key design step in optimizing its microstructure for enhancement of their performance. I will discuss briefly hierarchical modeling of the above two active materials. For FGM piezo laminate, we will use both micromechanical model and laminate theory, while for FSMA, the modeling interfacing nano-structure, microstructure and macro-behavior is discussed. (author)

  18. Hierarchical organisation of causal graphs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dziopa, P.

    1993-01-01

    This paper deals with the design of a supervision system using a hierarchy of models formed by graphs, in which the variables are the nodes and the causal relations between the variables of the arcs. To obtain a representation of the variables evolutions which contains only the relevant features of their real evolutions, the causal relations are completed with qualitative transfer functions (QTFs) which produce roughly the behaviour of the classical transfer functions. Major improvements have been made in the building of the hierarchical organization. First, the basic variables of the uppermost level and the causal relations between them are chosen. The next graph is built by adding intermediary variables to the upper graph. When the undermost graph has been built, the transfer functions parameters corresponding to its causal relations are identified. The second task consists in the upwelling of the information from the undermost graph to the uppermost one. A fusion procedure of the causal relations has been designed to compute the QFTs relevant for each level. This procedure aims to reduce the number of parameters needed to represent an evolution at a high level of abstraction. These techniques have been applied to the hierarchical modelling of nuclear process. (authors). 8 refs., 12 figs

  19. Modeling Architectural Patterns’ Behavior Using Architectural Primitives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waqas Kamal, Ahmad; Avgeriou, Paris

    2008-01-01

    Architectural patterns have an impact on both the structure and the behavior of a system at the architecture design level. However, it is challenging to model patterns’ behavior in a systematic way because modeling languages do not provide the appropriate abstractions and because each pattern

  20. Outline of a novel architecture for cortical computation

    OpenAIRE

    Majumdar, Kaushik

    2007-01-01

    In this paper a novel architecture for cortical computation has been proposed. This architecture is composed of computing paths consisting of neurons and synapses only. These paths have been decomposed into lateral, longitudinal and vertical components. Cortical computation has then been decomposed into lateral computation (LaC), longitudinal computation (LoC) and vertical computation (VeC). It has been shown that various loop structures in the cortical circuit play important roles in cortica...

  1. A NEW OS ARCHITECTURE FOR IOT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Y. Astier

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Current computer operating systems architectures are not well suited for the coming world of connected objects, known as the Internet of Things (IoT for multiple reasons: poor communication performances in both point-to-point and broadcast cases, poor operational reliability and network security, excessive requirements both in terms of processor power and memory size leading to excessive electrical power consumption. We introduce a new computer operating system architecture well adapted to IoT, from the most modest to the most complex, and more generally able to significantly raise the input/output capacities of any communicating computer. This architecture rests on the principles of the Von Neumann hardware model, and is composed of two types of asymmetric distributed containers, which communicate by message passing. We describe the sub-systems of both of these types of containers, where each sub-system has its own scheduler, and a dedicated execution level.

  2. Facile Fabrication of a Hierarchical Superhydrophobic Coating with Aluminate Coupling Agent Modified Kaolin

    OpenAIRE

    Hui Li; Mengnan Qu; Zhe Sun; Jinmei He; Anning Zhou

    2013-01-01

    A superhydrophobic coating was fabricated from the dispersion of unmodified kaolin particles and aluminate coupling agent in anhydrous ethanol. Through surface modification, water contact angle of the coating prepared by modified kaolin particles increased dramatically from 0° to 152°, and the sliding angle decreased from 90° to 3°. Scanning electron microscopy was used to examine the surface morphology. A structure composed of micro-nano hierarchical component, combined with the surface modi...

  3. Religious architecture: anthropological perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkaaik, O.

    2013-01-01

    Religious Architecture: Anthropological Perspectives develops an anthropological perspective on modern religious architecture, including mosques, churches and synagogues. Borrowing from a range of theoretical perspectives on space-making and material religion, this volume looks at how religious

  4. Avionics Architecture for Exploration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of the AES Avionics Architectures for Exploration (AAE) project is to develop a reference architecture that is based on standards and that can be scaled and...

  5. RATS: Reactive Architectures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Christensen, Marc

    2004-01-01

    This project had two goals: To build an emulation prototype board for a tiled architecture and to demonstrate the utility of a global inter-chip free-space photonic interconnection fabric for polymorphous computer architectures (PCA...

  6. Rhein-Ruhr architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2002-01-01

    katalog til udstillingen 'Rhein - Ruhr architecture' Meldahls smedie, 15. marts - 28. april 2002. 99 sider......katalog til udstillingen 'Rhein - Ruhr architecture' Meldahls smedie, 15. marts - 28. april 2002. 99 sider...

  7. Architecture and Film

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Javaheri, Saharnaz

    2016-01-01

    Film does not exist without architecture. In every movie that has ever been made throughout history, the cinematic image of architecture is embedded within the picture. Throughout my studies and research, I began to see that there is no director who can consciously or unconsciously deny the use of architectural elements in his or her movies. Architecture offers a strong profile to distinguish characters and story. In the early days, films were shot in streets surrounde...

  8. Proposed hardware architectures of particle filter for object tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Halym, Howida A.; Mahmoud, Imbaby Ismail; Habib, SED

    2012-12-01

    In this article, efficient hardware architectures for particle filter (PF) are presented. We propose three different architectures for Sequential Importance Resampling Filter (SIRF) implementation. The first architecture is a two-step sequential PF machine, where particle sampling, weight, and output calculations are carried out in parallel during the first step followed by sequential resampling in the second step. For the weight computation step, a piecewise linear function is used instead of the classical exponential function. This decreases the complexity of the architecture without degrading the results. The second architecture speeds up the resampling step via a parallel, rather than a serial, architecture. This second architecture targets a balance between hardware resources and the speed of operation. The third architecture implements the SIRF as a distributed PF composed of several processing elements and central unit. All the proposed architectures are captured using VHDL synthesized using Xilinx environment, and verified using the ModelSim simulator. Synthesis results confirmed the resource reduction and speed up advantages of our architectures.

  9. The Ulster Cycle: Cultural Significance for Irish Composers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Goff

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available For more than three hundred years, Irish composers have engaged with tales from early Irish saga-literature which comprises four main series: Mythological, Ulster and Fenian cycles as well as the Cycle of Kings. This literary corpus dates from 600–1200 CE and is amongst the oldest in Europe. The fragmented history of the literature reveals a continuity of tradition in that the ancient sagas evolved from the oral Irish tradition, were gradually recorded in Irish, and kept alive in modern times through translation into the English language. The timelessness and social impact of these sagas, centuries after they were documented, resonate with Irish composers through the identification of local features and/or universal themes of redemption, triumph or tragedy depicted in the literature. The focus here is on sagas from the Ulster Cycle as they have been most celebrated by Irish composers; the majority of which have been composed since Thomas Kinsella’s successful translation of the Táin Bó Cuailnge in 1969. How the composers chose to embrace the Irish past lies in each composer’s execution of the peculiar local and universal themes exhibited in the sagas. The aim of this article is to initiate an interdisciplinary discussion of the cultural significance of this literary corpus for Irish composers by exploring an area of Irish musicological discourse that has not been hitherto documented. A brief literary background to the Ulster Cycle leads to a discussion of what prompted the composers to engage with Ulster Cycle themes at a particular time in their respective careers. An exploration of the various stylistic features employed in selected works sheds light on the cultural ideologies that prevailed in Ireland at the time of their respective composition.

  10. Project Integration Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, William Henry

    2008-01-01

    The Project Integration Architecture (PIA) is a distributed, object-oriented, conceptual, software framework for the generation, organization, publication, integration, and consumption of all information involved in any complex technological process in a manner that is intelligible to both computers and humans. In the development of PIA, it was recognized that in order to provide a single computational environment in which all information associated with any given complex technological process could be viewed, reviewed, manipulated, and shared, it is necessary to formulate all the elements of such a process on the most fundamental level. In this formulation, any such element is regarded as being composed of any or all of three parts: input information, some transformation of that input information, and some useful output information. Another fundamental principle of PIA is the assumption that no consumer of information, whether human or computer, can be assumed to have any useful foreknowledge of an element presented to it. Consequently, a PIA-compliant computing system is required to be ready to respond to any questions, posed by the consumer, concerning the nature of the proffered element. In colloquial terms, a PIA-compliant system must be prepared to provide all the information needed to place the element in context. To satisfy this requirement, PIA extends the previously established object-oriented- programming concept of self-revelation and applies it on a grand scale. To enable pervasive use of self-revelation, PIA exploits another previously established object-oriented-programming concept - that of semantic infusion through class derivation. By means of self-revelation and semantic infusion through class derivation, a consumer of information can inquire about the contents of all information entities (e.g., databases and software) and can interact appropriately with those entities. Other key features of PIA are listed.

  11. Elements of Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elements of Architecture explores new ways of engaging architecture in archaeology. It conceives of architecture both as the physical evidence of past societies and as existing beyond the physical environment, considering how people in the past have not just dwelled in buildings but have existed...

  12. Disruptive Logic Architectures and Technologies From Device to System Level

    CERN Document Server

    Gaillardon, Pierre-Emmanuel; Clermidy, Fabien

    2012-01-01

    This book discusses the opportunities offered by disruptive technologies to overcome the economical and physical limits currently faced by the electronics industry. It provides a new methodology for the fast evaluation of an emerging technology from an architectural perspective and discusses the implications from simple circuits to complex architectures. Several technologies are discussed, ranging from 3-D integration of devices (Phase Change Memories, Monolithic 3-D, Vertical NanoWires-based transistors) to dense 2-D arrangements (Double-Gate Carbon Nanotubes, Sublithographic Nanowires, Lithographic Crossbar arrangements). Novel architectural organizations, as well as the associated tools, are presented in order to explore this freshly opened design space. Describes a novel architectural organization for future reconfigurable systems; Includes a complete benchmarking toolflow for emerging technologies; Generalizes the description of reconfigurable circuits in terms of hierarchical levels; Assesses disruptive...

  13. Multicollinearity in hierarchical linear models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Han; Jiang, Shanhe; Land, Kenneth C

    2015-09-01

    This study investigates an ill-posed problem (multicollinearity) in Hierarchical Linear Models from both the data and the model perspectives. We propose an intuitive, effective approach to diagnosing the presence of multicollinearity and its remedies in this class of models. A simulation study demonstrates the impacts of multicollinearity on coefficient estimates, associated standard errors, and variance components at various levels of multicollinearity for finite sample sizes typical in social science studies. We further investigate the role multicollinearity plays at each level for estimation of coefficient parameters in terms of shrinkage. Based on these analyses, we recommend a top-down method for assessing multicollinearity in HLMs that first examines the contextual predictors (Level-2 in a two-level model) and then the individual predictors (Level-1) and uses the results for data collection, research problem redefinition, model re-specification, variable selection and estimation of a final model. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Distributed hierarchical radiation monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barak, D.

    1985-01-01

    A solution to the problem of monitoring the radiation levels in and around a nuclear facility is presented in this paper. This is a private case of a large scale general purpose data acqisition system with high reliability, availability and short maintenance time. The physical layout of the detectors in the plant, and the strict control demands dictated a distributed and hierarchical system. The system is comprised of three levels, each level contains modules. Level one contains the Control modules which collects data from groups of detectors and executes emergency local control tasks. In level two are the Group controllers which concentrate data from the Control modules, and enable local display and communication. The system computer is in level three, enabling the plant operator to receive information from the detectors and execute control tasks. The described system was built and is operating successfully for about two years. (author)

  15. Hierarchical Control for Smart Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trangbæk, K; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    of autonomous consumers. The control system is tasked with balancing electric power production and consumption within the smart grid, and makes active use of the flexibility of a large number of power producing and/or power consuming units. The objective is to accommodate the load variation on the grid, arising......This paper deals with hierarchical model predictive control (MPC) of smart grid systems. The design consists of a high level MPC controller, a second level of so-called aggregators, which reduces the computational and communication-related load on the high-level control, and a lower level...... on one hand from varying consumption, and on the other hand by natural variations in power production e.g. from wind turbines. The high-level MPC problem is solved using quadratic optimisation, while the aggregator level can either involve quadratic optimisation or simple sorting-based min-max solutions...

  16. Silver Films with Hierarchical Chirality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Liguo; Cao, Yuanyuan; Duan, Yingying; Han, Lu; Che, Shunai

    2017-07-17

    Physical fabrication of chiral metallic films usually results in singular or large-sized chirality, restricting the optical asymmetric responses to long electromagnetic wavelengths. The chiral molecule-induced formation of silver films prepared chemically on a copper substrate through a redox reaction is presented. Three levels of chirality were identified: primary twisted nanoflakes with atomic crystal lattices, secondary helical stacking of these nanoflakes to form nanoplates, and tertiary micrometer-sized circinates consisting of chiral arranged nanoplates. The chiral Ag films exhibited multiple plasmonic absorption- and scattering-based optical activities at UV/Vis wavelengths based on their hierarchical chirality. The Ag films showed chiral selectivity for amino acids in catalytic electrochemical reactions, which originated from their primary atomic crystal lattices. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Hierarchical coarse-graining transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancaldi, Vera; King, Peter R; Christensen, Kim

    2009-03-01

    We present a hierarchical transform that can be applied to Laplace-like differential equations such as Darcy's equation for single-phase flow in a porous medium. A finite-difference discretization scheme is used to set the equation in the form of an eigenvalue problem. Within the formalism suggested, the pressure field is decomposed into an average value and fluctuations of different kinds and at different scales. The application of the transform to the equation allows us to calculate the unknown pressure with a varying level of detail. A procedure is suggested to localize important features in the pressure field based only on the fine-scale permeability, and hence we develop a form of adaptive coarse graining. The formalism and method are described and demonstrated using two synthetic toy problems.

  18. Neurosyphilis in Anglo-American Composers and Jazz Musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitenfeld, Darko; Kust, Davor; Breitenfeld, Tomislav; Prpić, Marin; Lucijanić, Marko; Zibar, Davor; Hostić, Vedran; Franceschi, Maja; Bolanča, Ante

    2017-09-01

    Syphilis is a sexually transmitted, systemic disease caused by the spirochete bacterium Treponema pallidum. The most common mechanism of transmission is sexual intercourse. Although there are several hypotheses, the exact origin of the disease remains unknown. Newly published evidence suggests that the hypothesis supporting the theory of the American origin of the disease is the valid one. Among 1500 analyzed pathographies of composers and musicians, data on ten Anglo-American composers and jazz musicians having suffered from neurosyphilis (tertiary stage of the disease) were extracted for this report. In this group of Anglo-American composers and musicians, most of them died from progressive paralysis while still in the creative phase of life. Additionally, diagnoses of eleven other famous neurosyphilitic composers, as well as basic biographic data on ten less known composers that died from neurosyphilis-progressive paralysis are also briefly mentioned. In conclusion, neurosyphilis can cause serious neurological damage, as well as permanent disability or death, preventing further work and skill improvement.

  19. Program Execution on Reconfigurable Multicore Architectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjiva Prasad

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on the two observations that diverse applications perform better on different multicore architectures, and that different phases of an application may have vastly different resource requirements, Pal et al. proposed a novel reconfigurable hardware approach for executing multithreaded programs. Instead of mapping a concurrent program to a fixed architecture, the architecture adaptively reconfigures itself to meet the application's concurrency and communication requirements, yielding significant improvements in performance. Based on our earlier abstract operational framework for multicore execution with hierarchical memory structures, we describe execution of multithreaded programs on reconfigurable architectures that support a variety of clustered configurations. Such reconfiguration may not preserve the semantics of programs due to the possible introduction of race conditions arising from concurrent accesses to shared memory by threads running on the different cores. We present an intuitive partial ordering notion on the cluster configurations, and show that the semantics of multithreaded programs is always preserved for reconfigurations "upward" in that ordering, whereas semantics preservation for arbitrary reconfigurations can be guaranteed for well-synchronised programs. We further show that a simple approximate notion of efficiency of execution on the different configurations can be obtained using the notion of amortised bisimulations, and extend it to dynamic reconfiguration.

  20. Vital architecture, slow momentum policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braae, Ellen Marie

    2010-01-01

    A reflection on the relation between Danish landscape architecture policy and the statements made through current landscape architectural project.......A reflection on the relation between Danish landscape architecture policy and the statements made through current landscape architectural project....

  1. Adaptive hierarchical multi-agent organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghijsen, M.; Jansweijer, W.N.H.; Wielinga, B.J.; Babuška, R.; Groen, F.C.A.

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter, we discuss the design of adaptive hierarchical organizations for multi-agent systems (MAS). Hierarchical organizations have a number of advantages such as their ability to handle complex problems and their scalability to large organizations. By introducing adaptivity in the

  2. The Case for a Hierarchical Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaucouleurs, G. de

    1970-01-01

    The development of modern theoretical cosmology is presented and some questionable assumptions of orthodox cosmology are pointed out. Suggests that recent observations indicate that hierarchical clustering is a basic factor in cosmology. The implications of hierarchical models of the universe are considered. Bibliography. (LC)

  3. Discovering hierarchical structure in normal relational data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Mikkel Nørgaard; Herlau, Tue; Mørup, Morten

    2014-01-01

    -parametric generative model for hierarchical clustering of similarity based on multifurcating Gibbs fragmentation trees. This allows us to infer and display the posterior distribution of hierarchical structures that comply with the data. We demonstrate the utility of our method on synthetic data and data of functional...

  4. Biased trapping issue on weighted hierarchical networks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    archical networks which are based on the classic scale-free hierarchical networks. ... Weighted hierarchical networks; weight-dependent walks; mean first passage ..... The weighted networks can mimic some real-world natural and social systems to ... the Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education ...

  5. Scalable Hierarchical Algorithms for stochastic PDEs and UQ

    KAUST Repository

    Litvinenko, Alexander

    2015-01-07

    H-matrices and Fast Multipole (FMM) are powerful methods to approximate linear operators coming from partial differential and integral equations as well as speed up computational cost from quadratic or cubic to log-linear (O(n log n)), where n number of degrees of freedom in the discretization. The storage is reduced to the log-linear as well. This hierarchical structure is a good starting point for parallel algorithms. Parallelization on shared and distributed memory systems was pioneered by Kriemann [1,2]. Since 2005, the area of parallel architectures and software is developing very fast. Progress in GPUs and Many-Core Systems (e.g. XeonPhi with 64 cores) motivated us to extend work started in [1,2,7,8].

  6. Scalable Hierarchical Algorithms for stochastic PDEs and Uncertainty Quantification

    KAUST Repository

    Litvinenko, Alexander

    2015-01-05

    H-matrices and Fast Multipole (FMM) are powerful methods to approximate linear operators coming from partial differential and integral equations as well as speed up computational cost from quadratic or cubic to log-linear (O(n log n)), where n number of degrees of freedom in the discretization. The storage is reduced to the log-linear as well. This hierarchical structure is a good starting point for parallel algorithms. Parallelization on shared and distributed memory systems was pioneered by R. Kriemann, 2005. Since 2005, the area of parallel architectures and software is developing very fast. Progress in GPUs and Many-Core Systems (e.g. XeonPhi with 64 cores) motivated us to extend work started in [1,2,7,8].

  7. THE BAGATELLE GENRE AND ITS REALIZATION IN THE CREATION OF COMPOSER NICOLAE CIOLAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDRONOVICI-RUSU ADELA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper there is an excursion into the history of the bagatelle genre. Initially conceived as a piece of minor importance, with a moderate instrumental-technical aspect that belongs to „easy” pieces for interpretation, the bagatelle dur­ing its evolution, obtained a status of an aphoristic musical genre in which a profound ideative content is essentially conveyed in a laconic, concentrated form. Further are analyzed five Bagatelles for piano written by composer Nicolae Ciolac. The author considers the thematic and architectural problems of the opus, as well as some speciic interpretative peculiarities. In conclu­sion it is affirmed that the analyzed bagatelles represent s group of pieces novel for Moldovan composition that has at its base a logic characteristic of the miniature genre.

  8. Processing of hierarchical syntactic structure in music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelsch, Stefan; Rohrmeier, Martin; Torrecuso, Renzo; Jentschke, Sebastian

    2013-09-17

    Hierarchical structure with nested nonlocal dependencies is a key feature of human language and can be identified theoretically in most pieces of tonal music. However, previous studies have argued against the perception of such structures in music. Here, we show processing of nonlocal dependencies in music. We presented chorales by J. S. Bach and modified versions in which the hierarchical structure was rendered irregular whereas the local structure was kept intact. Brain electric responses differed between regular and irregular hierarchical structures, in both musicians and nonmusicians. This finding indicates that, when listening to music, humans apply cognitive processes that are capable of dealing with long-distance dependencies resulting from hierarchically organized syntactic structures. Our results reveal that a brain mechanism fundamental for syntactic processing is engaged during the perception of music, indicating that processing of hierarchical structure with nested nonlocal dependencies is not just a key component of human language, but a multidomain capacity of human cognition.

  9. XVII CENTURY TURKISH DIVAN POETS WHOSE WORKS HAVE BEEN COMPOSED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Nuri PARMAKSIZ

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Classical Turkish poetry and classical Turkish music have been inseparable art branches for centuries. The best examples of music and poems created in the same periods have been the most prominent proof of this. One of these periods without doubt have been 17th century. It has been observed that composers demand divan poetry of 17thand 18thcentury greatly. Mystical poems constitute most of the poems composed in these centuries. Almost all of the poems in the divans of some mystic divan poets have been composed. In this study, the poets in the mentioned century have been determined and then the poems in the new and previous repertoires of these poets have been tried to reveal with screening and comparasion methods .

  10. Composers on Stage: Ambiguous Authorship in Contemporary Music Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Sanne Krogh

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, workflows within the field of contemporary classical music have changed drastically. Increasingly, composers are active in the process of creating and co-creating performances, not only the auditory dimensions but also the visual design and theatrical staging. The practice has...... but involving themselves in other ways. The article explores the ambivalent authorship at stake in these performances, arguing that they appear to be projects that reveal the processes of musical performance in ways that undermine the Romantic idea of the composer while concurrently celebrating that very same...... idea through their exposition and staging of the composer. The examples used to illustrate my argument are analyses of All the Time (Hodkinson, 2001), Buenos Aires (Steen-Andersen 2014) and Ord for Ord (Rønsholdt, 2014)...

  11. On Converting Software Systems to Object Oriented Architectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Czibula

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Object-oriented concepts are useful concerning the reuse of existing software. Therefore a transformation of procedural programs to objectoriented architectures becomes an important process to enhance the reuse of procedural programs. Moreover, it would be useful to assist by automatic methods the software developers in transforming procedural code into an equivalent
    object-oriented one. In this paper we aim at introducing a hierarchical clustering algorithm that can be used for assisting software developers in the process of transforming procedural code into an object-oriented architecture.

  12. Fabrication and properties of dual-level hierarchical structures mimicking gecko foot hairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Liu, Shiyuan; Lv, Hao

    2013-02-01

    In nature, geckos have extraordinary adhesive capabilities. The multi-scale hierarchical structure of the gecko foot hairs, especially the high-aspect-ratio structure of its micro-scale seta and nano-scale spatulae is the critical factor of the gecko's ability to adopt and stick to any different surface with powerful adhesion force. In this paper, we present a simple and effective approach to fabricate dual-level hierarchical structures mimicking gecko foot hairs. Polydimethyl-siloxane (PDMS) hierarchical arrays were fabricated by demolding from a double stack mold that was composed of an SU-8 mold by thick film photolithography and a silicon mold by inductively coupled plasma (ICP) etching. Top pillars of the fabricated structures have 3 micom diameter and 18 microm in height, while base pillars have 25 microm diameter and 40 microm in height. The water droplet contact angle tests indicate that the hierarchical structures increase the hydrophobic property significantly compared with the single-level arrays and the unstructured polymers, exhibiting superhydrophobicity (154.2 degrees) like the Tokay gecko's (160.9 degrees). The shear force tests show that the top pillars make attachment through side contact with a value of about 0.25 N/cm2, and moreover, the hierarchical structures are demonstrated to be more suitable for contacting with rough surfaces.

  13. Robust Real-Time Music Transcription with a Compositional Hierarchical Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesek, Matevž; Leonardis, Aleš; Marolt, Matija

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents a new compositional hierarchical model for robust music transcription. Its main features are unsupervised learning of a hierarchical representation of input data, transparency, which enables insights into the learned representation, as well as robustness and speed which make it suitable for real-world and real-time use. The model consists of multiple layers, each composed of a number of parts. The hierarchical nature of the model corresponds well to hierarchical structures in music. The parts in lower layers correspond to low-level concepts (e.g. tone partials), while the parts in higher layers combine lower-level representations into more complex concepts (tones, chords). The layers are learned in an unsupervised manner from music signals. Parts in each layer are compositions of parts from previous layers based on statistical co-occurrences as the driving force of the learning process. In the paper, we present the model's structure and compare it to other hierarchical approaches in the field of music information retrieval. We evaluate the model's performance for the multiple fundamental frequency estimation. Finally, we elaborate on extensions of the model towards other music information retrieval tasks.

  14. Composable Framework Support for Software-FMEA Through Model Execution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocsis, Imre; Patricia, Andras; Brancati, Francesco; Rossi, Francesco

    2016-08-01

    Performing Failure Modes and Effect Analysis (FMEA) during software architecture design is becoming a basic requirement in an increasing number of domains; however, due to the lack of standardized early design phase model execution, classic SW-FMEA approaches carry significant risks and are human effort-intensive even in processes that use Model-Driven Engineering.Recently, modelling languages with standardized executable semantics have emerged. Building on earlier results, this paper describes framework support for generating executable error propagation models from such models during software architecture design. The approach carries the promise of increased precision, decreased risk and more automated execution for SW-FMEA during dependability- critical system development.

  15. Exporting Humanist Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tom

    2016-01-01

    The article is a chapter in the catalogue for the Danish exhibition at the 2016 Architecture Biennale in Venice. The catalogue is conceived at an independent book exploring the theme Art of Many - The Right to Space. The chapter is an essay in this anthology tracing and discussing the different...... values and ethical stands involved in the export of Danish Architecture. Abstract: Danish architecture has, in a sense, been driven by an unwritten contract between the architects and the democratic state and its institutions. This contract may be viewed as an ethos – an architectural tradition...... with inherent aesthetic and moral values. Today, however, Danish architecture is also an export commodity. That raises questions, which should be debated as openly as possible. What does it mean for architecture and architects to practice in cultures and under political systems that do not use architecture...

  16. Software architecture evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barais, Olivier; Le Meur, Anne-Francoise; Duchien, Laurence

    2008-01-01

    Software architectures must frequently evolve to cope with changing requirements, and this evolution often implies integrating new concerns. Unfortunately, when the new concerns are crosscutting, existing architecture description languages provide little or no support for this kind of evolution....... The software architect must modify multiple elements of the architecture manually, which risks introducing inconsistencies. This chapter provides an overview, comparison and detailed treatment of the various state-of-the-art approaches to describing and evolving software architectures. Furthermore, we discuss...... one particular framework named Tran SAT, which addresses the above problems of software architecture evolution. Tran SAT provides a new element in the software architecture descriptions language, called an architectural aspect, for describing new concerns and their integration into an existing...

  17. Visual question answering using hierarchical dynamic memory networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Jiayu; Li, Shiren; Duan, Zhikui; Huang, Junwei

    2018-04-01

    Visual Question Answering (VQA) is one of the most popular research fields in machine learning which aims to let the computer learn to answer natural language questions with images. In this paper, we propose a new method called hierarchical dynamic memory networks (HDMN), which takes both question attention and visual attention into consideration impressed by Co-Attention method, which is the best (or among the best) algorithm for now. Additionally, we use bi-directional LSTMs, which have a better capability to remain more information from the question and image, to replace the old unit so that we can capture information from both past and future sentences to be used. Then we rebuild the hierarchical architecture for not only question attention but also visual attention. What's more, we accelerate the algorithm via a new technic called Batch Normalization which helps the network converge more quickly than other algorithms. The experimental result shows that our model improves the state of the art on the large COCO-QA dataset, compared with other methods.

  18. Unsupervised active learning based on hierarchical graph-theoretic clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Weiming; Hu, Wei; Xie, Nianhua; Maybank, Steve

    2009-10-01

    Most existing active learning approaches are supervised. Supervised active learning has the following problems: inefficiency in dealing with the semantic gap between the distribution of samples in the feature space and their labels, lack of ability in selecting new samples that belong to new categories that have not yet appeared in the training samples, and lack of adaptability to changes in the semantic interpretation of sample categories. To tackle these problems, we propose an unsupervised active learning framework based on hierarchical graph-theoretic clustering. In the framework, two promising graph-theoretic clustering algorithms, namely, dominant-set clustering and spectral clustering, are combined in a hierarchical fashion. Our framework has some advantages, such as ease of implementation, flexibility in architecture, and adaptability to changes in the labeling. Evaluations on data sets for network intrusion detection, image classification, and video classification have demonstrated that our active learning framework can effectively reduce the workload of manual classification while maintaining a high accuracy of automatic classification. It is shown that, overall, our framework outperforms the support-vector-machine-based supervised active learning, particularly in terms of dealing much more efficiently with new samples whose categories have not yet appeared in the training samples.

  19. Hierarchical sinuous-antenna phased array for millimeter wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cukierman, Ari; Lee, Adrian T.; Raum, Christopher; Suzuki, Aritoki; Westbrook, Benjamin

    2018-03-01

    We present the design, fabrication, and measured performance of a hierarchical sinuous-antenna phased array coupled to superconducting transition-edge-sensor (TES) bolometers for millimeter wavelengths. The architecture allows for dual-polarization wideband sensitivity with a beam width that is approximately frequency-independent. We report on measurements of a prototype device, which uses three levels of triangular phased arrays to synthesize beams that are approximately constant in width across three frequency bands covering a 3:1 bandwidth. The array element is a lens-coupled sinuous antenna. The device consists of an array of hemispherical lenses coupled to a lithographed wafer, which integrates TESs, planar sinuous antennas, and microwave circuitry including band-defining filters. The approximately frequency-independent beam widths improve coupling to telescope optics and keep the sensitivity of an experiment close to optimal across a broad frequency range. The design can be straightforwardly modified for use with non-TES lithographed cryogenic detectors such as kinetic inductance detectors. Additionally, we report on the design and measurements of a broadband 180° hybrid that can simplify the design of future multichroic focal planes including but not limited to hierarchical phased arrays.

  20. Ritornelo: composição passo a passo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Ferraz

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper intents to present the mecanism of « objects incrustation » and the « continuous variation of composition techniques » – operators that guided the composition of Ritornelo, for flute and percussion. The article also focus the relation between these strategies and an especific way to compose where sound and musical objects don’t assume the first position in the compositional plan. The technical aspects of Ritornelo’s composition are also related to a way of composing withouth a previous plan, at the same time, it doesn’t follow the cause-effect logic present ed in more tradicional musical improvisation.

  1. Hierarchical Swarm Model: A New Approach to Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanning Chen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel optimization model called hierarchical swarm optimization (HSO, which simulates the natural hierarchical complex system from where more complex intelligence can emerge for complex problems solving. This proposed model is intended to suggest ways that the performance of HSO-based algorithms on complex optimization problems can be significantly improved. This performance improvement is obtained by constructing the HSO hierarchies, which means that an agent in a higher level swarm can be composed of swarms of other agents from lower level and different swarms of different levels evolve on different spatiotemporal scale. A novel optimization algorithm (named PS2O, based on the HSO model, is instantiated and tested to illustrate the ideas of HSO model clearly. Experiments were conducted on a set of 17 benchmark optimization problems including both continuous and discrete cases. The results demonstrate remarkable performance of the PS2O algorithm on all chosen benchmark functions when compared to several successful swarm intelligence and evolutionary algorithms.

  2. Modular Assembly of Hierarchically Structured Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leophairatana, Porakrit

    The synthesis of macromolecules with complex yet highly controlled molecular architectures has attracted significant attention in the past few decades due to the growing demand for specialty polymers that possess novel properties. Despite recent efforts, current synthetic routes lack the ability to control several important architectural variables while maintaining low polydispersity index. This dissertation explores a new synthetic scheme for the modular assembly of hierarchically structured polymers (MAHP) that allows virtually any complex polymer to be assembled from a few basic molecular building blocks using a single common coupling chemistry. Complex polymer structures can be assembled from a molecular toolkit consisting of (1) copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC), (2) linear heterobifunctional macromonomers, (3) a branching heterotrifunctional molecule, (4) a protection/deprotection strategy, (5) "click" functional solid substrates, and (6) functional and responsive polymers. This work addresses the different challenges that emerged during the development of this synthetic scheme, and presents strategies to overcome those challenges. Chapter 3 investigates the alkyne-alkyne (i.e. Glaser) coupling side reactions associated with the atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) synthesis of alkyne-functional macromonomers, as well as with the CuAAC reaction of alkyne functional building blocks. In typical ATRP synthesis of unprotected alkyne functional polymers, Glaser coupling reactions can significantly compromise the polymer functionality and undermine the success of subsequent click reactions in which the polymers are used. Two strategies are reported that effectively eliminate these coupling reactions: (1) maintaining low temperature post-ATRP upon exposure to air, followed by immediate removal of copper catalyst; and (2) adding excess reducing agents post-ATRP, which prevents the oxidation of Cu(I) catalyst required by the Glaser coupling

  3. Decentralized and Modular Electrical Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elisabelar, Christian; Lebaratoux, Laurence

    2014-08-01

    This paper presents the studies made on the definition and design of a decentralized and modular electrical architecture that can be used for power distribution, active thermal control (ATC), standard inputs-outputs electrical interfaces.Traditionally implemented inside central unit like OBC or RTU, these interfaces can be dispatched in the satellite by using MicroRTU.CNES propose a similar approach of MicroRTU. The system is based on a bus called BRIO (Bus Réparti des IO), which is composed, by a power bus and a RS485 digital bus. BRIO architecture is made with several miniature terminals called BTCU (BRIO Terminal Control Unit) distributed in the spacecraft.The challenge was to design and develop the BTCU with very little volume, low consumption and low cost. The standard BTCU models are developed and qualified with a configuration dedicated to ATC, while the first flight model will fly on MICROSCOPE for PYRO actuations and analogue acquisitions. The design of the BTCU is made in order to be easily adaptable for all type of electric interface needs.Extension of this concept is envisaged for power conditioning and distribution unit, and a Modular PCDU based on BRIO concept is proposed.

  4. Composable Virtual Platforms for Mixed-Criticality Embedded Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beyranvand Nejad, A.

    2014-01-01

    Recent trends show a steady increase towards concurrently executing more and more applications on a single embedded system. Multi-Processor System-on-Chip (MPSoC) architectures are proposed to allow complex design of embedded systems. This is achieved by integrating as many processing resources as

  5. Composable virtual platforms for mixed-criticality embedded systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nejad, A.B.

    2014-01-01

    Recent trends show a steady increase towards concurrently executing more and more applications on a single embedded system. Multi-Processor System-on-Chip (MPSoC) architectures are proposed to allow complex design of embedded systems. This is achieved by integrating as many processing resources as

  6. A Mobile Service Oriented Multiple Object Tracking Augmented Reality Architecture for Education and Learning Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanarungrot, Sasithorn; White, Martin; Newbury, Paul

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the design of our service-oriented architecture to support mobile multiple object tracking augmented reality applications applied to education and learning scenarios. The architecture is composed of a mobile multiple object tracking augmented reality client, a web service framework, and dynamic content providers. Tracking of…

  7. HyperCell : A Bio-inspired Design Framework for Real-time Interactive Architectures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chang, J.R.

    2018-01-01

    This pioneering research focuses on Biomimetic Interactive Architecture using “Computation”, “Embodiment”, and “Biology” to generate an intimate embodied convergence to propose a novel rule-based design framework for creating organic architectures composed of swarm-based intelligent components.

  8. Composable power management with energy and power budgets per application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nelson, A.; Molnos, A.M.; Goossens, K.G.W.

    2011-01-01

    Embedded Multiprocessor Systems-on-Chip (MPSoCs) commonly run multiple applications at once. These applications may have different time criticalities, i.e. non real-time, soft real-time, and firm or hard real-time. Application-level composability is used to provide each application with its own

  9. The Nigerian Art Music Composer, His Training, Vocal Compositions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The music arena has undergone some changes within the past decades in Nigeria; partly due to contact of Nigerians with music of the other world cultures and due to intercultural borrowings within Nigeria. This trend has been a masterminding force in the shaping of the musical arena in Nigeria with the art music composer ...

  10. Composing with New Technology: Teacher Reflections on Learning Digital Video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, David L.; Chiu, Ming Ming

    2015-01-01

    This study explores teachers' reflections on their learning to compose with new technologies in the context of teacher education and/or teacher professional development. English language arts (ELA) teachers (n = 240) in 15 courses learned to use digital video (DV), completed at least one DV group project, and responded to open-ended survey…

  11. Sound Computational Interpretation of Formal Encryption with Composed Keys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laud, P.; Corin, R.J.; In Lim, J.; Hoon Lee, D.

    2003-01-01

    The formal and computational views of cryptography have been related by the seminal work of Abadi and Rogaway. In their work, a formal treatment of encryption that uses atomic keys is justified in the computational world. However, many proposed formal approaches allow the use of composed keys, where

  12. Teaching Effective Communication Skills with ACE: Analyzing, Composing, & Evaluating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Lisa Gueldenzoph; Shwom, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Most business communication classes teach students to use a writing process to compose effective documents. Students practice the process by applying it to various types of writing with various purposes-reports, presentations, bad news letters, persuasive memos, etc. However, unless students practice that process in other contexts outside of the…

  13. Composes organiques et activités antioxydantes de Ampelocissus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    31 juil. 2015 ... additives or the necessary supplements in the food preserving. Key words: Composed organic, activity antioxidant, Ampelocissus multistriata. INTRODUCTION. Sur le plan physiologique, les végétaux verts en cours de croissance utilisent l'énergie que leur fournit la lumière solaire captée par les feuilles.

  14. Quiet Grove in a Savage Garden: A Composer's Bicameral Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohlen, Donald

    2004-01-01

    This author, a composer, states that music has been the primal generator of his existence and the definition of living creatively; and that understanding the bicameral reality of creativity through a study of the nature of consciousness involves a symbiotic host of disciplines. In the study of the occurrence of "creativity," consciousness as well…

  15. Component Composability Issues in Object-Oriented Programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aksit, Mehmet; Tekinerdogan, B.

    1997-01-01

    Building software from reusable components is considered important in reducing development costs. Object-oriented languages such as C++, Smalltalk and Java, however, are not capable of expressing certain aspects of applications in a composable way. Software engineers may experience difficulties in

  16. Flower-Like CuO/ZnO Hybrid Hierarchical Nanostructures Grown on Copper Substrate: Glycothermal Synthesis, Characterization, Hydrophobic and Anticorrosion Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshad Beshkar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work we have demonstrated a facile formation of CuO nanostructures on copper substrates by the oxidation of copper foil in ethylene glycol (EG at 80 °C. On immersing a prepared CuO film into a solution containing 0.1 g Zn(acac2 in 20 mL EG for 8 h, ZnO flower-like microstructures composed of hierarchical three-dimensional (3D aggregated nanoparticles and spherical architectures were spontaneously formed at 100 °C. The as-synthesized thin films and 3D microstructures were characterized using XRD, SEM, and EDS techniques. The effects of sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB, and polyethylene glycol (PEG 6000 as surfactants and stabilizers on the morphology of the CuO and ZnO structures were discussed. Possible growth mechanisms for the controlled organization of primary building units into CuO nanostructures and 3D flower-like ZnO architectures were proposed. The hydrophobic property of the products was characterized by means of water contact angle measurement. After simple surface modification with stearic acid and PDMS, the resulting films showed hydrophobic and even superhydrophobic characteristics due to their special surface energy and nano-microstructure morphology. Importantly, stable superhydrophobicity with a contact angle of 153.5° was successfully observed for CuO-ZnO microflowers after modification with PDMS. The electrochemical impedance measurements proved that the anticorrosion efficiency for the CuO/ZnO/PDMS sample was about 99%.

  17. Flower-Like CuO/ZnO Hybrid Hierarchical Nanostructures Grown on Copper Substrate: Glycothermal Synthesis, Characterization, Hydrophobic and Anticorrosion Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beshkar, Farshad; Khojasteh, Hossein; Salavati-Niasari, Masoud

    2017-06-25

    In this work we have demonstrated a facile formation of CuO nanostructures on copper substrates by the oxidation of copper foil in ethylene glycol (EG) at 80 °C. On immersing a prepared CuO film into a solution containing 0.1 g Zn(acac)₂ in 20 mL EG for 8 h, ZnO flower-like microstructures composed of hierarchical three-dimensional (3D) aggregated nanoparticles and spherical architectures were spontaneously formed at 100 °C. The as-synthesized thin films and 3D microstructures were characterized using XRD, SEM, and EDS techniques. The effects of sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS), cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), and polyethylene glycol (PEG) 6000 as surfactants and stabilizers on the morphology of the CuO and ZnO structures were discussed. Possible growth mechanisms for the controlled organization of primary building units into CuO nanostructures and 3D flower-like ZnO architectures were proposed. The hydrophobic property of the products was characterized by means of water contact angle measurement. After simple surface modification with stearic acid and PDMS, the resulting films showed hydrophobic and even superhydrophobic characteristics due to their special surface energy and nano-microstructure morphology. Importantly, stable superhydrophobicity with a contact angle of 153.5° was successfully observed for CuO-ZnO microflowers after modification with PDMS. The electrochemical impedance measurements proved that the anticorrosion efficiency for the CuO/ZnO/PDMS sample was about 99%.

  18. Sustained oscillations, irregular firing and chaotic dynamics in hierarchical modular networks with mixtures of electrophysiological cell types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petar eTomov

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The cerebral cortex exhibits neural activity even in the absence of externalstimuli. This self-sustained activity is characterized by irregular firing ofindividual neurons and population oscillations with a broad frequency range.Questions that arise in this context, are: What are the mechanismsresponsible for the existence of neuronal spiking activity in the cortexwithout external input? Do these mechanisms depend on the structural organization of the cortical connections? Do they depend onintrinsic characteristics of the cortical neurons? To approach the answers to these questions, we have used computer simulations of cortical network models. Our networks have hierarchical modular architecture and are composedof combinations of neuron models that reproduce the firing behavior of the five main cortical electrophysiological cell classes: regular spiking (RS, chattering (CH, intrinsically bursting (IB, low threshold spiking (LTS and fast spiking (FS. The population of excitatory neurons is built of RS cells(always present and either CH or IB cells. Inhibitoryneurons belong to the same class, either LTS or FS. Long-lived self-sustained activity states in our networksimulations display irregular single neuron firing and oscillatoryactivity similar to experimentally measured ones. The duration of self-sustained activity strongly depends on the initial conditions,suggesting a transient chaotic regime. Extensive analysis of the self-sustainedactivity states showed that their lifetime expectancy increases with the numberof network modules and is favored when the network is composed of excitatory neurons of the RS and CH classes combined with inhibitory neurons of the LTS class. These results indicate that the existence and properties of the self-sustained cortical activity states depend on both the topology of the network and the neuronal mixture that comprises the network.

  19. Hierarchical ordering with partial pairwise hierarchical relationships on the macaque brain data sets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woosang Lim

    Full Text Available Hierarchical organizations of information processing in the brain networks have been known to exist and widely studied. To find proper hierarchical structures in the macaque brain, the traditional methods need the entire pairwise hierarchical relationships between cortical areas. In this paper, we present a new method that discovers hierarchical structures of macaque brain networks by using partial information of pairwise hierarchical relationships. Our method uses a graph-based manifold learning to exploit inherent relationship, and computes pseudo distances of hierarchical levels for every pair of cortical areas. Then, we compute hierarchy levels of all cortical areas by minimizing the sum of squared hierarchical distance errors with the hierarchical information of few cortical areas. We evaluate our method on the macaque brain data sets whose true hierarchical levels are known as the FV91 model. The experimental results show that hierarchy levels computed by our method are similar to the FV91 model, and its errors are much smaller than the errors of hierarchical clustering approaches.

  20. A proof-of-concept implementation of persistence in a hierarchical storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossman, R.; Qin, Xiao; Lifka, D.

    1992-01-01

    The concept of providing transparent access to a collection of files in a mass storage system is a familiar one. The goal of this project was to investigate the feasibility of providing similar access to a collection of persistent, complex objects. We describe an architecture for interfacing a persistent store of complex objects to a hierarchical storage system. Persistent object stores support the uniform creation, storage, and access of complex objects, regardless of their lifetimes. In other words, a mechanism is provided so that persistent objects outlive the processes which create them and can be accessed in a uniform manner by other processes. We validated this architecture by implementing a proof-of-concept system and testing the system on two stores of data. These tests indicate that this architecture supports the creation. storage and access of very large persistent object stores

  1. Sustained Activity in Hierarchical Modular Neural Networks: Self-Organized Criticality and Oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sheng-Jun; Hilgetag, Claus C.; Zhou, Changsong

    2010-01-01

    Cerebral cortical brain networks possess a number of conspicuous features of structure and dynamics. First, these networks have an intricate, non-random organization. In particular, they are structured in a hierarchical modular fashion, from large-scale regions of the whole brain, via cortical areas and area subcompartments organized as structural and functional maps to cortical columns, and finally circuits made up of individual neurons. Second, the networks display self-organized sustained activity, which is persistent in the absence of external stimuli. At the systems level, such activity is characterized by complex rhythmical oscillations over a broadband background, while at the cellular level, neuronal discharges have been observed to display avalanches, indicating that cortical networks are at the state of self-organized criticality (SOC). We explored the relationship between hierarchical neural network organization and sustained dynamics using large-scale network modeling. Previously, it was shown that sparse random networks with balanced excitation and inhibition can sustain neural activity without external stimulation. We found that a hierarchical modular architecture can generate sustained activity better than random networks. Moreover, the system can simultaneously support rhythmical oscillations and SOC, which are not present in the respective random networks. The mechanism underlying the sustained activity is that each dense module cannot sustain activity on its own, but displays SOC in the presence of weak perturbations. Therefore, the hierarchical modular networks provide the coupling among subsystems with SOC. These results imply that the hierarchical modular architecture of cortical networks plays an important role in shaping the ongoing spontaneous activity of the brain, potentially allowing the system to take advantage of both the sensitivity of critical states and the predictability and timing of oscillations for efficient information

  2. Sustained activity in hierarchical modular neural networks: self-organized criticality and oscillations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Jun Wang

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral cortical brain networks possess a number of conspicuous features of structure and dynamics. First, these networks have an intricate, non-random organization. They are structured in a hierarchical modular fashion, from large-scale regions of the whole brain, via cortical areas and area subcompartments organized as structural and functional maps to cortical columns, and finally circuits made up of individual neurons. Second, the networks display self-organized sustained activity, which is persistent in the absence of external stimuli. At the systems level, such activity is characterized by complex rhythmical oscillations over a broadband background, while at the cellular level, neuronal discharges have been observed to display avalanches, indicating that cortical networks are at the state of self-organized criticality. We explored the relationship between hierarchical neural network organization and sustained dynamics using large-scale network modeling. It was shown that sparse random networks with balanced excitation and inhibition can sustain neural activity without external stimulation. We find that a hierarchical modular architecture can generate sustained activity better than random networks. Moreover, the system can simultaneously support rhythmical oscillations and self-organized criticality, which are not present in the respective random networks. The underlying mechanism is that each dense module cannot sustain activity on its own, but displays self-organized criticality in the presence of weak perturbations. The hierarchical modular networks provide the coupling among subsystems with self-organized criticality. These results imply that the hierarchical modular architecture of cortical networks plays an important role in shaping the ongoing spontaneous activity of the brain, potentially allowing the system to take advantage of both the sensitivityof critical state and predictability and timing of oscillations for efficient

  3. A bioscaffolding strategy for hierarchical zeolites with a nanotube-trimodal network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guannan; Huang, Haibo; Yu, Bowen; Wang, Yun; Tao, Jiawei; Wei, Yingxu; Li, Shougui; Liu, Zhongmin; Xu, Yan; Xu, Ruren

    2016-02-01

    Hierarchical zeolite monoliths with multimodal porosity are of paramount importance as they open up new horizons for advanced applications. So far, hierarchical zeolites based on nanotube scaffolds have never been reported. Inspired by the organization of biominerals, we have developed a novel precursor scaffolding-solid phase crystallization strategy for hierarchical zeolites with a unique nanotube scaffolding architecture and nanotube-trimodal network, where biomolecular self-assembly (BSA) provides a scaffolding blueprint. By vapor-treating Sil-1 seeded precursor scaffolds, zeolite MFI nanotube scaffolds are self-generated, during which evolution phenomena such as segmented voids and solid bridges are observed, in agreement with the Kirkendall effect in a solid-phase crystallization system. The nanotube walls are made of intergrown single crystals rendering good mechanical stability. The inner diameter of the nanotube is tunable between 30 and 90 nm by varying the thickness of the precursor layers. Macropores enclosed by cross-linked nanotubes can be modulated by the choice of BSA. Narrow mesopores are formed by intergrown nanocrystals. Hierarchical ZSM-5 monoliths with nanotube (90 nm), micropore (0.55 nm), mesopore (2 nm) and macropore (700 nm) exhibit superior catalytic performance in the methanol-to-hydrocarbon (MTH) conversion compared to conventional ZSM-5. BSA remains intact after crystallization, allowing a higher level of organization and functionalization of the zeolite nanotube scaffolds. The current work may afford a versatile strategy for hierarchical zeolite monoliths with nanotube scaffolding architectures and a nanotube-multimodal network leading to self-supporting and active zeolite catalysts, and for applications beyond.

  4. Classification using Hierarchical Naive Bayes models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langseth, Helge; Dyhre Nielsen, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Classification problems have a long history in the machine learning literature. One of the simplest, and yet most consistently well-performing set of classifiers is the Naïve Bayes models. However, an inherent problem with these classifiers is the assumption that all attributes used to describe......, termed Hierarchical Naïve Bayes models. Hierarchical Naïve Bayes models extend the modeling flexibility of Naïve Bayes models by introducing latent variables to relax some of the independence statements in these models. We propose a simple algorithm for learning Hierarchical Naïve Bayes models...

  5. Hierarchical analysis of acceptable use policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Laughton

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Acceptable use policies (AUPs are vital tools for organizations to protect themselves and their employees from misuse of computer facilities provided. A well structured, thorough AUP is essential for any organization. It is impossible for an effective AUP to deal with every clause and remain readable. For this reason, some sections of an AUP carry more weight than others, denoting importance. The methodology used to develop the hierarchical analysis is a literature review, where various sources were consulted. This hierarchical approach to AUP analysis attempts to highlight important sections and clauses dealt with in an AUP. The emphasis of the hierarchal analysis is to prioritize the objectives of an AUP.

  6. Hierarchical modeling and analysis for spatial data

    CERN Document Server

    Banerjee, Sudipto; Gelfand, Alan E

    2003-01-01

    Among the many uses of hierarchical modeling, their application to the statistical analysis of spatial and spatio-temporal data from areas such as epidemiology And environmental science has proven particularly fruitful. Yet to date, the few books that address the subject have been either too narrowly focused on specific aspects of spatial analysis, or written at a level often inaccessible to those lacking a strong background in mathematical statistics.Hierarchical Modeling and Analysis for Spatial Data is the first accessible, self-contained treatment of hierarchical methods, modeling, and dat

  7. Definition of an Object-Oriented Modeling Language for Enterprise Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Lê, Lam Son; Wegmann, Alain

    2005-01-01

    In enterprise architecture, the goal is to integrate business resources and IT resources in order to improve an enterprises competitiveness. In an enterprise architecture project, the development team usually constructs a model that represents the enterprise: the enterprise model. In this paper, we present a modeling language for building such enterprise models. Our enterprise models are hierarchical object-oriented representations of the enterprises. This paper presents the foundations of o...

  8. Control system architecture: The standard and non-standard models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thuot, M.E.; Dalesio, L.R.

    1993-01-01

    Control system architecture development has followed the advances in computer technology through mainframes to minicomputers to micros and workstations. This technology advance and increasingly challenging accelerator data acquisition and automation requirements have driven control system architecture development. In summarizing the progress of control system architecture at the last International Conference on Accelerator and Large Experimental Physics Control Systems (ICALEPCS) B. Kuiper asserted that the system architecture issue was resolved and presented a ''standard model''. The ''standard model'' consists of a local area network (Ethernet or FDDI) providing communication between front end microcomputers, connected to the accelerator, and workstations, providing the operator interface and computational support. Although this model represents many present designs, there are exceptions including reflected memory and hierarchical architectures driven by requirements for widely dispersed, large channel count or tightly coupled systems. This paper describes the performance characteristics and features of the ''standard model'' to determine if the requirements of ''non-standard'' architectures can be met. Several possible extensions to the ''standard model'' are suggested including software as well as the hardware architectural feature

  9. Control system architecture: The standard and non-standard models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thuot, M.E.; Dalesio, L.R.

    1993-01-01

    Control system architecture development has followed the advances in computer technology through mainframes to minicomputers to micros and workstations. This technology advance and increasingly challenging accelerator data acquisition and automation requirements have driven control system architecture development. In summarizing the progress of control system architecture at the last International Conference on Accelerator and Large Experimental Physics Control Systems (ICALEPCS) B. Kuiper asserted that the system architecture issue was resolved and presented a open-quotes standard modelclose quotes. The open-quotes standard modelclose quotes consists of a local area network (Ethernet or FDDI) providing communication between front end microcomputers, connected to the accelerator, and workstations, providing the operator interface and computational support. Although this model represents many present designs, there are exceptions including reflected memory and hierarchical architectures driven by requirements for widely dispersed, large channel count or tightly coupled systems. This paper describes the performance characteristics and features of the open-quotes standard modelclose quotes to determine if the requirements of open-quotes non-standardclose quotes architectures can be met. Several possible extensions to the open-quotes standard modelclose quotes are suggested including software as well as the hardware architectural features

  10. Preparation of hierarchical porous Zn-salt particles and their superhydrophobic performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Dahai; Jia, Mengqiu, E-mail: jiamq@mail.buct.edu.cn

    2015-12-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Hierarchical particles with high roughness were prepared by modified hydrothermal route. • The high roughness is provided by extremely low thickness of sheet crystals. • FEVE polymer derivative was used for surface treatment of hierarchical surface. • The novel particles via surface treatment were firstly used as superhydrophobic materials. • The product properties were compared with multi-scale ZnO particles via conventional route. - Abstract: Superhydrophobic surfaces arranged by hierarchical porous particles were prepared using modified hydrothermal routes under the effect of sodium citrate. Two particle samples were generated in the medium of hexamethylenetetramine (P1) and urea (P2), respectively. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, and transmission electron microscope were adopted for the investigation, and results revealed that the P1 and P2 particles are porous microspheres with crosslinked extremely thin (10–30 nm) sheet crystals composed of Zn{sub 5}(OH){sub 8}Ac{sub 2}·2H{sub 2}O and Zn{sub 5}(CO{sub 3}){sub 2}(OH){sub 6}, respectively. The prepared particles were treated with a fluoroethylene vinyl ether derivative and studied using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer. Results showed that the hierarchical surfaces of these particles were combined with low-wettable fluorocarbon layers. Moreover, the fabricated surface composed of the prepared hierarchical particles displayed considerably high contact angles, indicating great superhydrophobicity for the products. The wetting behavior of the particles was analyzed with a theoretical wetting model in comparison with that of chestnut-like ZnO products obtained through a conventional hydrothermal route. Correspondingly, this study provided evidence that high roughness surface plays a great role in superhydrophobic behavior.

  11. Enterprise architecture management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahimi, Fatemeh; Gøtze, John; Møller, Charles

    2017-01-01

    Despite the growing interest in enterprise architecture management, researchers and practitioners lack a shared understanding of its applications in organizations. Building on findings from a literature review and eight case studies, we develop a taxonomy that categorizes applications of enterprise...... architecture management based on three classes of enterprise architecture scope. Organizations may adopt enterprise architecture management to help form, plan, and implement IT strategies; help plan and implement business strategies; or to further complement the business strategy-formation process....... The findings challenge the traditional IT-centric view of enterprise architecture management application and suggest enterprise architecture management as an approach that could support the consistent design and evolution of an organization as a whole....

  12. Can You Hear Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryhl, Camilla

    2016-01-01

    Taking an off set in the understanding of architectural quality being based on multisensory architecture, the paper aims to discuss the current acoustic discourse in inclusive design and its implications to the integration of inclusive design in architectural discourse and practice as well...... as the understanding of user needs. The paper further points to the need to elaborate and nuance the discourse much more, in order to assure inclusion to the many users living with a hearing impairment or, for other reasons, with a high degree of auditory sensitivity. Using the authors’ own research on inclusive...... design and architectural quality for people with a hearing disability and a newly conducted qualitative evaluation research in Denmark as well as architectural theories on multisensory aspects of architectural experiences, the paper uses examples of existing Nordic building cases to discuss the role...

  13. Enterprise architecture management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahimi, Fatemeh; Gøtze, John; Møller, Charles

    2017-01-01

    architecture management based on three classes of enterprise architecture scope. Organizations may adopt enterprise architecture management to help form, plan, and implement IT strategies; help plan and implement business strategies; or to further complement the business strategy-formation process......Despite the growing interest in enterprise architecture management, researchers and practitioners lack a shared understanding of its applications in organizations. Building on findings from a literature review and eight case studies, we develop a taxonomy that categorizes applications of enterprise....... The findings challenge the traditional IT-centric view of enterprise architecture management application and suggest enterprise architecture management as an approach that could support the consistent design and evolution of an organization as a whole....

  14. A novel hierarchical ZnO disordered/ordered bilayer nanostructured film for dye sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Yamin, E-mail: yaminfengccnuphy@outlook.com; Wu, Fei; Jiang, Jian; Zhu, Jianhui; Fodjouong, Ghislain Joel; Meng, Gaoxiang; Xing, Yanmin; Wang, Wenwu; Huang, Xintang, E-mail: xthuang@phy.ccnu.edu.cn

    2013-12-25

    Graphical abstract: A novel hierarchical disordered/ordered bilayer ZnO nanostructured film in the length of 18 μm have been successfully synthesized on the FTO substrate; the hierarchical ZnO nanostructured film electrodes applied in DSSCs exhibit photoelectric conversion efficiency as high as 5.16%. Highlights: •A novel hierarchical ZnO structure film was fabricated on a FTO substrate. •Hierarchical ZnO film is applied as the electrodes for dye sensitized solar cells. •The film possess high specific surface area and fast electron transport effect. •The light-scattering effect of the hierarchical film is pronounced. •The energy conversion efficiency of hierarchical ZnO electrode reaches to 5.16%. -- Abstract: A novel hierarchical ZnO nanostructured film is synthesized via a chemical bath deposition (CBD) method followed by a treatment of thermal decomposition onto a fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate. This hierarchical film is composed of disordered ZnO nanorods (NRs) (top layer) and ordered ZnO nanowires (NWs) (bottom layer). The products possess the following features such as high specific surface area, fast electron transport, and pronounced light-scattering effect, which are quite suitable for dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) applications. A light-to-electricity conversion efficiency of 5.16% is achieved when the hierarchical ZnO nanostructured film is used as the photoanode under 100 mW cm{sup −2} illumination. This efficiency is found to be much higher than that of the DSSCs with pure ordered ZnO NWs (1.45%) and disordered ZnO NRs (3.31%) photoanodes.

  15. A novel hierarchical ZnO disordered/ordered bilayer nanostructured film for dye sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Yamin; Wu, Fei; Jiang, Jian; Zhu, Jianhui; Fodjouong, Ghislain Joel; Meng, Gaoxiang; Xing, Yanmin; Wang, Wenwu; Huang, Xintang

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A novel hierarchical disordered/ordered bilayer ZnO nanostructured film in the length of 18 μm have been successfully synthesized on the FTO substrate; the hierarchical ZnO nanostructured film electrodes applied in DSSCs exhibit photoelectric conversion efficiency as high as 5.16%. Highlights: •A novel hierarchical ZnO structure film was fabricated on a FTO substrate. •Hierarchical ZnO film is applied as the electrodes for dye sensitized solar cells. •The film possess high specific surface area and fast electron transport effect. •The light-scattering effect of the hierarchical film is pronounced. •The energy conversion efficiency of hierarchical ZnO electrode reaches to 5.16%. -- Abstract: A novel hierarchical ZnO nanostructured film is synthesized via a chemical bath deposition (CBD) method followed by a treatment of thermal decomposition onto a fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate. This hierarchical film is composed of disordered ZnO nanorods (NRs) (top layer) and ordered ZnO nanowires (NWs) (bottom layer). The products possess the following features such as high specific surface area, fast electron transport, and pronounced light-scattering effect, which are quite suitable for dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) applications. A light-to-electricity conversion efficiency of 5.16% is achieved when the hierarchical ZnO nanostructured film is used as the photoanode under 100 mW cm −2 illumination. This efficiency is found to be much higher than that of the DSSCs with pure ordered ZnO NWs (1.45%) and disordered ZnO NRs (3.31%) photoanodes

  16. An Architecture of Reconciliation

    OpenAIRE

    Bolton, Carlton Robert

    2001-01-01

    The reconciliation of architectural idea and built form is accomplished by the materialization of the idea through the use of specific materials with their inherent qualities and restrictions. The learning begins when one sees these restrictions not as a hinderance to the idea, but that which can reveal the very essence of Architecture. The virtue of this architecture of reconciliation lies in its ability to help Man understand his surroundings and place in the world at large. This is acc...

  17. Flexible weapons architecture design

    OpenAIRE

    Pyant, William C.

    2015-01-01

    Present day air-delivered weapons are of a closed architecture, with little to no ability to tailor the weapon for the individual engagement. The closed architectures require weaponeers to make the target fit the weapon instead of fitting the individual weapons to a target. The concept of a flexible weapons aims to modularize weapons design using an open architecture shell into which different modules are inserted to achieve the desired target fractional damage while reducing cost and civilia...

  18. Architecture for the senses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryhl, Camilla

    2009-01-01

    Accommodating sensory disabilities in architectural design requires specific design considerations. These are different from the ones included by the existing design concept 'accessibility', which primarily accommodates physical disabilites. Hence a new design concept 'sensory accessbility......' is presented as a parallel and complementary concept to the existing one. Sensory accessiblity accommodates sensory disabilities and describes architectural design requirements needed to ensure access to to the sensory experiences and architectural quality of a given space. The article is based on research...

  19. Architecture humanitarian emergencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomez-Guillamon, Maria; Eskemose Andersen, Jørgen; Contreras, Jorge Lobos

    2013-01-01

    Introduced by scientific articles conserning architecture and human rights in light of cultures, emergencies, social equality and sustainability, democracy, economy, artistic development and science into architecture. Concluding in definition of needs for new roles, processes and education of arc......, Architettura di Alghero in Italy, Architecture and Design of Kocaeli University in Turkey, University of Aguascalientes in Mexico, Architectura y Urbanismo of University of Chile and Escuela de Architectura of Universidad Austral in Chile....

  20. Architecture in Everyday Life

    OpenAIRE

    Costa Agarez, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    For most architects, architecture is not only art, craft, passion and engagement; it is their ‘bread-and-butter’, too, and has been so since long. Architecture, consciously or unconsciously, is also the ‘bread-and-butter’ of communities across the world: successfully or unsuccessfully it is part of the daily lives of ordinary women and men. Yet practitioners, theoreticians and historians of architecture often disregard the more quotidian side of the discipline, a neglect that is inversely pro...

  1. The ATLAS Analysis Architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cranmer, K.S.

    2008-01-01

    We present an overview of the ATLAS analysis architecture including the relevant aspects of the computing model and the major architectural aspects of the Athena framework. Emphasis will be given to the interplay between the analysis use cases and the technical aspects of the architecture including the design of the event data model, transient-persistent separation, data reduction strategies, analysis tools, and ROOT interoperability

  2. Architecture for Data Management

    OpenAIRE

    Vukolic, Marko

    2015-01-01

    In this document we present the preliminary architecture of the SUPERCLOUD data management and storage. We start by defining the design requirements of the architecture, motivated by use cases and then review the state-of-the-art. We survey security and dependability technologies and discuss designs for the overall unifying architecture for data management that serves as an umbrella for different security and dependability data management features. Specifically the document lays out the archi...

  3. Architecture and Stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiib, Hans

    2009-01-01

    as "experiencescape" - a space between tourism, culture, learning and economy. Strategies related to these challenges involve new architectural concepts and art as ‘engines' for a change. New expressive architecture and old industrial buildings are often combined into hybrid narratives, linking the past...... with the future. But this is not enough. The agenda is to develop architectural spaces, where social interaction and learning are enhanced by art and fun. How can we develop new architectural designs in our inner cities and waterfronts where eventscapes, learning labs and temporal use are merged with everyday...

  4. Grid Architecture 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taft, Jeffrey D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The report describes work done on Grid Architecture under the auspices of the Department of Electricity Office of Electricity Delivery and Reliability in 2015. As described in the first Grid Architecture report, the primary purpose of this work is to provide stakeholder insight about grid issues so as to enable superior decision making on their part. Doing this requires the creation of various work products, including oft-times complex diagrams, analyses, and explanations. This report provides architectural insights into several important grid topics and also describes work done to advance the science of Grid Architecture as well.

  5. Towards a Media Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebsen, Tobias

    2010-01-01

    This text explores the concept of media architecture as a phenomenon of visual culture that describes the use of screen-technology in new spatial configurations in practices of architecture and art. I shall argue that this phenomenon is not necessarily a revolutionary new approach, but rather...... a result of conceptual changes in both modes visual representation and in expressions of architecture. These are changes the may be described as an evolution of ideas and consequent experiments that can be traced back to changes in the history of art and the various styles and ideologies of architecture....

  6. Decentralized Software Architecture

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Khare, Rohit

    2002-01-01

    .... While the term "decentralization" is familiar from political and economic contexts, it has been applied extensively, if indiscriminately, to describe recent trends in software architecture towards...

  7. Ecological materials for solar architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zbasnik-Senegaenik, M.

    2000-01-01

    In general, materials which have been used in construction, have had a negative influence in all the phases of the life cycle. The effects can be seen in the form of tampering with the environment, overuse of electric power, harmful emissions, wastes and in the form of pollution with vapours, dust, fibres, poisonous and radioactive matter. Materials can be divided into three groups regarding their origin: natural materials, artificial mineral materials and synthetic materials. An assessment of separate influences on macro- and micro-environment shows a hierarchical scale of suitability of material use. Materials of natural origin (stone, clay, wood) and less artificial ones (brick, ceramic, metals, glass, lime, cement, concrete, mineral thermal-insulation materials) are most convenient for man and environment. Synthetic materials (plastics, polymers, synthetic thermal-insulation materials, synthetic pastes, composed synthetic materials) negatively influence macro- and micro-environment and therefore they should be used on an extremely selective and premeditated basis. Ecological structure of the future will demand the nowadays-established exploitation of natural sources of power and passive exploitation of natural resources. Introduction of ecological constructing is to be foreseen in planing of the future buildings. At present ecological constructing includes two principles ecological selection of materials and disintegration of composite materials and constructions. (au)

  8. Zeolitic materials with hierarchical porous structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Orozco, Sofia; Inayat, Amer; Schwab, Andreas; Selvam, Thangaraj; Schwieger, Wilhelm

    2011-06-17

    During the past several years, different kinds of hierarchical structured zeolitic materials have been synthesized due to their highly attractive properties, such as superior mass/heat transfer characteristics, lower restriction of the diffusion of reactants in the mesopores, and low pressure drop. Our contribution provides general information regarding types and preparation methods of hierarchical zeolitic materials and their relative advantages and disadvantages. Thereafter, recent advances in the preparation and characterization of hierarchical zeolitic structures within the crystallites by post-synthetic treatment methods, such as dealumination or desilication; and structured devices by in situ and ex situ zeolite coatings on open-cellular ceramic foams as (non-reactive as well as reactive) supports are highlighted. Specific advantages of using hierarchical zeolitic catalysts/structures in selected catalytic reactions, such as benzene to phenol (BTOP) and methanol to olefins (MTO) are presented. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. HIERARCHICAL ORGANIZATION OF INFORMATION, IN RELATIONAL DATABASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demian Horia

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I will present different types of representation, of hierarchical information inside a relational database. I also will compare them to find the best organization for specific scenarios.

  10. Hierarchical DSE for multi-ASIP platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Micconi, Laura; Corvino, Rosilde; Gangadharan, Deepak

    2013-01-01

    This work proposes a hierarchical Design Space Exploration (DSE) for the design of multi-processor platforms targeted to specific applications with strict timing and area constraints. In particular, it considers platforms integrating multiple Application Specific Instruction Set Processors (ASIPs...

  11. Packaging glass with hierarchically nanostructured surface

    KAUST Repository

    He, Jr-Hau

    2017-08-03

    An optical device includes an active region and packaging glass located on top of the active region. A top surface of the packaging glass includes hierarchical nanostructures comprised of honeycombed nanowalls (HNWs) and nanorod (NR) structures extending from the HNWs.

  12. Packaging glass with hierarchically nanostructured surface

    KAUST Repository

    He, Jr-Hau; Fu, Hui-Chun

    2017-01-01

    An optical device includes an active region and packaging glass located on top of the active region. A top surface of the packaging glass includes hierarchical nanostructures comprised of honeycombed nanowalls (HNWs) and nanorod (NR) structures

  13. A Framework For Efficient Homomorphic Universally Composable Commitments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, Bernardo Machado

    primitives and protocols while retaining security guarantees. Moreover, commitments with homomorphic properties enable significantly more efficient constructions of protocols for applications such as zero knowledge proofs, two-party computation through garbled circuits and multiparty computation. However......, achieving universal composability for commitment schemes often sacrifices both concrete and asymptotic efficiency, specially if homomorphic properties are required. In this thesis we bridge the gap between stand alone and universally composable commitment schemes, for which we achieve optimal efficiency...... related to a statistical security parameter as a setup. The rest of our constructions leverage secret sharing and coding theory techniques, including a novel method for verifying that a large number of strings are codewords of a given linear code with linear complexity....

  14. Hierarchical organization versus self-organization

    OpenAIRE

    Busseniers, Evo

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we try to define the difference between hierarchical organization and self-organization. Organization is defined as a structure with a function. So we can define the difference between hierarchical organization and self-organization both on the structure as on the function. In the next two chapters these two definitions are given. For the structure we will use some existing definitions in graph theory, for the function we will use existing theory on (self-)organization. In the t...

  15. Hierarchical decision making for flood risk reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Custer, Rocco; Nishijima, Kazuyoshi

    2013-01-01

    . In current practice, structures are often optimized individually without considering benefits of having a hierarchy of protection structures. It is here argued, that the joint consideration of hierarchically integrated protection structures is beneficial. A hierarchical decision model is utilized to analyze...... and compare the benefit of large upstream protection structures and local downstream protection structures in regard to epistemic uncertainty parameters. Results suggest that epistemic uncertainty influences the outcome of the decision model and that, depending on the magnitude of epistemic uncertainty...

  16. The methodology of composing the exercises system with fit balls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voronov N.P.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The original methodology of composing the exercises system with fit balls was considered. More than 10 publications were analysed. On the lesson with fit balls the problem was revealed. In the experiment took part 30 students at the age from 18 till 21. All the famous exercises were systematized. As a result, a big attractiveness and assimilability of the proposed complex was revealed. The effectiveness of the complex of physical exercises with fit balls for students was proved.

  17. Semantic Service Discovery Techniques for the composable web

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Villamor, José Ignacio

    2013-01-01

    This PhD thesis contributes to the problem of resource and service discovery in the context of the composable web. In the current web, mashup technologies allow developers reusing services and contents to build new web applications. However, developers face a problem of information flood when searching for appropriate services or resources for their combination. To contribute to overcoming this problem, a framework is defined for the discovery of services and resources. In this framework, thr...

  18. Nanoscale biomemory composed of recombinant azurin on a nanogap electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Yong-Ho; Lee, Taek; Choi, Jeong-Woo; Park, Hyung Ju; Yun, Wan Soo; Min, Junhong

    2013-01-01

    We fabricate a nanoscale biomemory device composed of recombinant azurin on nanogap electrodes. For this, size-controllable nanogap electrodes are fabricated by photolithography, electron beam lithography, and surface catalyzed chemical deposition. Moreover, we investigate the effect of gap distance to optimize the size of electrodes for a biomemory device and explore the mechanism of electron transfer from immobilized protein to a nanogap counter-electrode. As the distance of the nanogap electrode is decreased in the nanoscale, the absolute current intensity decreases according to the distance decrement between the electrodes due to direct electron transfer, in contrast with the diffusion phenomenon of a micro-electrode. The biomemory function is achieved on the optimized nanogap electrode. These results demonstrate that the fabricated nanodevice composed of a nanogap electrode and biomaterials provides various advantages such as quantitative control of signals and exclusion of environmental effects such as noise. The proposed bioelectronics device, which could be mass-produced easily, could be applied to construct a nanoscale bioelectronics system composed of a single biomolecule. (paper)

  19. Composing the theme of city to be diverse and sustainable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiranegara, H. W.

    2018-01-01

    To give a path for developing a city needs a theme. City’s goal stated in a document of a spatial plan were too broad and insufficient detail in giving a direction. To make more detail and precise, every city has to compose a city theme. It is developed based on the potential, the uniqueness, the excellence, and the sustainability of its human resources, natural resources, and man-made resources. An integration among the three of resources which have the highest score become a theme of the city. The aim of this research was to formulate the conceptual framework to compose a city theme. The research design was the interview survey in Banda Aceh, Banjarmasin, and Kupang. Informants were the government officials, academics, figures, the private sector and public who considered related to the intended information being collected. Having set the conceptual framework, the interview directed to check the implementation in realities. The result was that the conceptual framework could accommodate the phenomenon of composing the theme of the city. Yet, it was a preliminary in nature and needed more research to get a complete result.

  20. Hierarchical Nanoceramics for Industrial Process Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruud, James, A.; Brosnan, Kristen, H.; Striker, Todd; Ramaswamy, Vidya; Aceto, Steven, C.; Gao, Yan; Willson, Patrick, D.; Manoharan, Mohan; Armstrong, Eric, N., Wachsman, Eric, D.; Kao, Chi-Chang

    2011-07-15

    This project developed a robust, tunable, hierarchical nanoceramics materials platform for industrial process sensors in harsh-environments. Control of material structure at multiple length scales from nano to macro increased the sensing response of the materials to combustion gases. These materials operated at relatively high temperatures, enabling detection close to the source of combustion. It is anticipated that these materials can form the basis for a new class of sensors enabling widespread use of efficient combustion processes with closed loop feedback control in the energy-intensive industries. The first phase of the project focused on materials selection and process development, leading to hierarchical nanoceramics that were evaluated for sensing performance. The second phase focused on optimizing the materials processes and microstructures, followed by validation of performance of a prototype sensor in a laboratory combustion environment. The objectives of this project were achieved by: (1) synthesizing and optimizing hierarchical nanostructures; (2) synthesizing and optimizing sensing nanomaterials; (3) integrating sensing functionality into hierarchical nanostructures; (4) demonstrating material performance in a sensing element; and (5) validating material performance in a simulated service environment. The project developed hierarchical nanoceramic electrodes for mixed potential zirconia gas sensors with increased surface area and demonstrated tailored electrocatalytic activity operable at high temperatures enabling detection of products of combustion such as NOx close to the source of combustion. Methods were developed for synthesis of hierarchical nanostructures with high, stable surface area, integrated catalytic functionality within the structures for gas sensing, and demonstrated materials performance in harsh lab and combustion gas environments.

  1. Evaluating Hierarchical Structure in Music Annotations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFee, Brian; Nieto, Oriol; Farbood, Morwaread M; Bello, Juan Pablo

    2017-01-01

    Music exhibits structure at multiple scales, ranging from motifs to large-scale functional components. When inferring the structure of a piece, different listeners may attend to different temporal scales, which can result in disagreements when they describe the same piece. In the field of music informatics research (MIR), it is common to use corpora annotated with structural boundaries at different levels. By quantifying disagreements between multiple annotators, previous research has yielded several insights relevant to the study of music cognition. First, annotators tend to agree when structural boundaries are ambiguous. Second, this ambiguity seems to depend on musical features, time scale, and genre. Furthermore, it is possible to tune current annotation evaluation metrics to better align with these perceptual differences. However, previous work has not directly analyzed the effects of hierarchical structure because the existing methods for comparing structural annotations are designed for "flat" descriptions, and do not readily generalize to hierarchical annotations. In this paper, we extend and generalize previous work on the evaluation of hierarchical descriptions of musical structure. We derive an evaluation metric which can compare hierarchical annotations holistically across multiple levels. sing this metric, we investigate inter-annotator agreement on the multilevel annotations of two different music corpora, investigate the influence of acoustic properties on hierarchical annotations, and evaluate existing hierarchical segmentation algorithms against the distribution of inter-annotator agreement.

  2. Evaluating Hierarchical Structure in Music Annotations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian McFee

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Music exhibits structure at multiple scales, ranging from motifs to large-scale functional components. When inferring the structure of a piece, different listeners may attend to different temporal scales, which can result in disagreements when they describe the same piece. In the field of music informatics research (MIR, it is common to use corpora annotated with structural boundaries at different levels. By quantifying disagreements between multiple annotators, previous research has yielded several insights relevant to the study of music cognition. First, annotators tend to agree when structural boundaries are ambiguous. Second, this ambiguity seems to depend on musical features, time scale, and genre. Furthermore, it is possible to tune current annotation evaluation metrics to better align with these perceptual differences. However, previous work has not directly analyzed the effects of hierarchical structure because the existing methods for comparing structural annotations are designed for “flat” descriptions, and do not readily generalize to hierarchical annotations. In this paper, we extend and generalize previous work on the evaluation of hierarchical descriptions of musical structure. We derive an evaluation metric which can compare hierarchical annotations holistically across multiple levels. sing this metric, we investigate inter-annotator agreement on the multilevel annotations of two different music corpora, investigate the influence of acoustic properties on hierarchical annotations, and evaluate existing hierarchical segmentation algorithms against the distribution of inter-annotator agreement.

  3. Hierarchical screening for multiple mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batterham, Philip J; Calear, Alison L; Sunderland, Matthew; Carragher, Natacha; Christensen, Helen; Mackinnon, Andrew J

    2013-10-01

    There is a need for brief, accurate screening when assessing multiple mental disorders. Two-stage hierarchical screening, consisting of brief pre-screening followed by a battery of disorder-specific scales for those who meet diagnostic criteria, may increase the efficiency of screening without sacrificing precision. This study tested whether more efficient screening could be gained using two-stage hierarchical screening than by administering multiple separate tests. Two Australian adult samples (N=1990) with high rates of psychopathology were recruited using Facebook advertising to examine four methods of hierarchical screening for four mental disorders: major depressive disorder, generalised anxiety disorder, panic disorder and social phobia. Using K6 scores to determine whether full screening was required did not increase screening efficiency. However, pre-screening based on two decision tree approaches or item gating led to considerable reductions in the mean number of items presented per disorder screened, with estimated item reductions of up to 54%. The sensitivity of these hierarchical methods approached 100% relative to the full screening battery. Further testing of the hierarchical screening approach based on clinical criteria and in other samples is warranted. The results demonstrate that a two-phase hierarchical approach to screening multiple mental disorders leads to considerable increases efficiency gains without reducing accuracy. Screening programs should take advantage of prescreeners based on gating items or decision trees to reduce the burden on respondents. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Supervisory Control System Architecture for Advanced Small Modular Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cetiner, Sacit M [ORNL; Cole, Daniel L [University of Pittsburgh; Fugate, David L [ORNL; Kisner, Roger A [ORNL; Melin, Alexander M [ORNL; Muhlheim, Michael David [ORNL; Rao, Nageswara S [ORNL; Wood, Richard Thomas [ORNL

    2013-08-01

    This technical report was generated as a product of the Supervisory Control for Multi-Modular SMR Plants project within the Instrumentation, Control and Human-Machine Interface technology area under the Advanced Small Modular Reactor (SMR) Research and Development Program of the U.S. Department of Energy. The report documents the definition of strategies, functional elements, and the structural architecture of a supervisory control system for multi-modular advanced SMR (AdvSMR) plants. This research activity advances the state-of-the art by incorporating decision making into the supervisory control system architectural layers through the introduction of a tiered-plant system approach. The report provides a brief history of hierarchical functional architectures and the current state-of-the-art, describes a reference AdvSMR to show the dependencies between systems, presents a hierarchical structure for supervisory control, indicates the importance of understanding trip setpoints, applies a new theoretic approach for comparing architectures, identifies cyber security controls that should be addressed early in system design, and describes ongoing work to develop system requirements and hardware/software configurations.

  5. Quantification of complex modular architecture in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeb, Catherine; Kaandorp, Jaap; Jansson, Fredrik; Puillandre, Nicolas; Dubuisson, Jean-Yves; Cornette, Raphaël; Jabbour, Florian; Coudert, Yoan; Patiño, Jairo; Flot, Jean-François; Vanderpoorten, Alain

    2018-04-01

    Morphometrics, the assignment of quantities to biological shapes, is a powerful tool to address taxonomic, evolutionary, functional and developmental questions. We propose a novel method for shape quantification of complex modular architecture in thalloid plants, whose extremely reduced morphologies, combined with the lack of a formal framework for thallus description, have long rendered taxonomic and evolutionary studies extremely challenging. Using graph theory, thalli are described as hierarchical series of nodes and edges, allowing for accurate, homologous and repeatable measurements of widths, lengths and angles. The computer program MorphoSnake was developed to extract the skeleton and contours of a thallus and automatically acquire, at each level of organization, width, length, angle and sinuosity measurements. Through the quantification of leaf architecture in Hymenophyllum ferns (Polypodiopsida) and a fully worked example of integrative taxonomy in the taxonomically challenging thalloid liverwort genus Riccardia, we show that MorphoSnake is applicable to all ramified plants. This new possibility of acquiring large numbers of quantitative traits in plants with complex modular architectures opens new perspectives of applications, from the development of rapid species identification tools to evolutionary analyses of adaptive plasticity. © 2018 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2018 New Phytologist Trust.

  6. Architecture and Intelligentsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Rappaport

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The article observes intellectual and cultural level of architecture and its important functions in social process. Historical analysis shows constant decline of intellectual level of profession, as a reaction on radical changes in its social functions and mass scale, leading to degrading of individual critical reflection and growing dependence of architecture to political and economical bureaucracy.

  7. Architecture and Intelligentsia

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander Rappaport

    2015-01-01

    The article observes intellectual and cultural level of architecture and its important functions in social process. Historical analysis shows constant decline of intellectual level of profession, as a reaction on radical changes in its social functions and mass scale, leading to degrading of individual critical reflection and growing dependence of architecture to political and economical bureaucracy.

  8. OS Friendly Microprocessor Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    NOTES Patrick La Fratta is now affiliated with Micron Technology, Inc., Boise, Idaho. 14. ABSTRACT We present an introduction to the patented ...Operating System Friendly Microprocessor Architecture (OSFA). The software framework to support the hardware-level security features is currently patent ...Army is assignee. OS Friendly Microprocessor Architecture. United States Patent 9122610. 2015 Sep. 2. Jungwirth P, inventor; US Army is assignee

  9. Architecture, Drawing, Topology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meldgaard, Morten

    This book presents contributions of drawing and text along with their many relationalities from ontology to history and vice versa in a range of reflections on architecture, drawing and topology. We hope to thereby indicate the potential of the theme in understanding not only the architecture of ...

  10. Software Architecture Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    Many software systems eventually undergo changes to their basic architectural structure. Such changes may be prompted by new feature requests, new quality attribute requirements, changing technology, or other reasons. Whatever the causes, architecture evolution is commonplace in real-world software projects. Today's software architects, however,…

  11. FTS2000 network architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klenart, John

    1991-01-01

    The network architecture of FTS2000 is graphically depicted. A map of network A topology is provided, with interservice nodes. Next, the four basic element of the architecture is laid out. Then, the FTS2000 time line is reproduced. A list of equipment supporting FTS2000 dedicated transmissions is given. Finally, access alternatives are shown.

  12. Adaptive Architectural Envelope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Isak Worre; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2010-01-01

    . The general scopes of this paper are to develop a new adaptive kinetic architectural structure, particularly a reconfigurable architectural structure which can transform body shape from planar geometries to hyper-surfaces using different control strategies, i.e. a transformation into more than one or two...

  13. Architecture and energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marsh, Rob; Lauring, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Traditional low-energy architecture has not necessarily led to reduced energy consumption. A paradigm shift is proposed promoting pluralistic energy-saving strategies.......Traditional low-energy architecture has not necessarily led to reduced energy consumption. A paradigm shift is proposed promoting pluralistic energy-saving strategies....

  14. Re[valuating]-architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pereira Roders, A.R.; Post, J.M.; Erkelens, P.A.; Haugen, T.I.

    2006-01-01

    The architectural hierarchy of aims altered in the last decades. Quality and comfort have dethroned functionality! We are already familiar with the taxonomy – quality certification in the construction world; but in architectural designs, it is not common to evaluate scientifically, if the design has

  15. Digitally-Driven Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henriette Bier

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The shift from mechanical to digital forces architects to reposition themselves: Architects generate digital information, which can be used not only in designing and fabricating building components but also in embedding behaviours into buildings. This implies that, similar to the way that industrial design and fabrication with its concepts of standardisation and serial production influenced modernist architecture, digital design and fabrication influences contemporary architecture. While standardisation focused on processes of rationalisation of form, mass-customisation as a new paradigm that replaces mass-production, addresses non-standard, complex, and flexible designs. Furthermore, knowledge about the designed object can be encoded in digital data pertaining not just to the geometry of a design but also to its physical or other behaviours within an environment. Digitally-driven architecture implies, therefore, not only digitally-designed and fabricated architecture, it also implies architecture – built form – that can be controlled, actuated, and animated by digital means.In this context, this sixth Footprint issue examines the influence of digital means as pragmatic and conceptual instruments for actuating architecture. The focus is not so much on computer-based systems for the development of architectural designs, but on architecture incorporating digital control, sens­ing, actuating, or other mechanisms that enable buildings to inter­act with their users and surroundings in real time in the real world through physical or sensory change and variation.

  16. Digitally-Driven Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henriette Bier

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The shift from mechanical to digital forces architects to reposition themselves: Architects generate digital information, which can be used not only in designing and fabricating building components but also in embedding behaviours into buildings. This implies that, similar to the way that industrial design and fabrication with its concepts of standardisation and serial production influenced modernist architecture, digital design and fabrication influences contemporary architecture. While standardisa­tion focused on processes of rationalisation of form, mass-customisation as a new paradigm that replaces mass-production, addresses non-standard, complex, and flexible designs. Furthermore, knowledge about the designed object can be encoded in digital data pertaining not just to the geometry of a design but also to its physical or other behaviours within an environment. Digitally-driven architecture implies, therefore, not only digitally-designed and fabricated architecture, it also implies architecture – built form – that can be controlled, actuated, and animated by digital means. In this context, this sixth Footprint issue examines the influence of digital means as prag­matic and conceptual instruments for actuating architecture. The focus is not so much on computer-based systems for the development of architectural designs, but on architecture incorporating digital control, sens­ing, actuating, or other mechanisms that enable buildings to inter­act with their users and surroundings in real time in the real world through physical or sensory change and variation.

  17. Architecture in Everyday Life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agarez, R.; Mota, N.

    2015-01-01

    For most architects, architecture is not only art, craft, passion and engagement; it is their ‘bread-and-butter’, too, and has been so since long. Architecture, consciously or unconsciously, is also the ‘bread-and-butter’ of communities across the world: successfully or unsuccessfully it is part of

  18. Enterprise architecture intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veneberg, R.K.M.; Iacob, Maria Eugenia; van Sinderen, Marten J.; Bodenstaff, L.; Reichert, M.U.; Rinderle-Ma, S.; Grossmann, G.

    2014-01-01

    Combining enterprise architecture and operational data is complex (especially when considering the actual ‘matching’ of data with enterprise architecture objects), and little has been written on how to do this. Therefore, in this paper we aim to fill this gap and propose a method to combine

  19. Information Architecture: Looking Ahead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Louis

    2002-01-01

    Considers the future of the field of information architecture. Highlights include a comparison with the growth of the field of professional management; the design of information systems since the Web; more demanding users; the need for an interdisciplinary approach; and how to define information architecture. (LRW)

  20. Architectural Physics: Lighting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkinson, R. G.

    The author coordinates the many diverse branches of knowledge which have dealt with the field of lighting--physiology, psychology, engineering, physics, and architectural design. Part I, "The Elements of Architectural Physics", discusses the physiological aspects of lighting, visual performance, lighting design, calculations and measurements of…

  1. Architecture or Sculpture?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumeister, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    Jørn Utzon´s museum design for Asger Jorn´s collection in Silkeborg contextualized in the postwar context of an organic architecture.......Jørn Utzon´s museum design for Asger Jorn´s collection in Silkeborg contextualized in the postwar context of an organic architecture....

  2. Globalization and Landscape Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Robert R. Hewitt

    2014-01-01

    The literature review examines globalization and landscape architecture as discourse, samples its various meanings, and proposes methods to identify and contextualize its specific literature. Methodologically, the review surveys published articles and books by leading authors and within the WorldCat.org Database associated with landscape architecture and globalization, analyzing survey results for comprehensive concept...

  3. Research Through Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peder Pedersen, Claus

    2018-01-01

    Presentation of the PhD research at the Aarhus School of Architecture and selected PhD projects in relation to PhD exhibition at Godsbanen.......Presentation of the PhD research at the Aarhus School of Architecture and selected PhD projects in relation to PhD exhibition at Godsbanen....

  4. Aesthetics of sustainable architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, S.; Hill, G.; Sauerbruch, M.; Hutton, L.; Knowles, R.; Bothwell, K.; Brennan, J.; Jauslin, D.; Holzheu, H.; AlSayyad, N.; Arboleda, G.; Bharne, V.; Røstvik, H.; Kuma, K.; Sunikka-Blank, M.; Glaser, M.; Pero, E.; Sjkonsberg, M.; Teuffel, P.; Mangone, G.; Finocchiaro, L.; Hestnes, A.; Briggs, D.; Frampton, K.; Lee, S.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to reveal, explore and further the debate on the aesthetic potentials of sustainable architecture and its practice. This book opens a new area of scholarship and discourse in the design and production of sustainable architecture, one that is based in aesthetics. The

  5. Teaching American Indian Architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winchell, Dick

    1991-01-01

    Reviews "Native American Architecture," by Nabokov and Easton, an encyclopedic work that examines technology, climate, social structure, economics, religion, and history in relation to house design and the "meaning" of space among tribes of nine regions. Describes this book's use in a college course on Native American architecture. (SV)

  6. Performances of multiprocessor multidisk architectures for continuous media storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gennart, Benoit A.; Messerli, Vincent; Hersch, Roger D.

    1996-03-01

    Multimedia interfaces increase the need for large image databases, capable of storing and reading streams of data with strict synchronicity and isochronicity requirements. In order to fulfill these requirements, we consider a parallel image server architecture which relies on arrays of intelligent disk nodes, each disk node being composed of one processor and one or more disks. This contribution analyzes through bottleneck performance evaluation and simulation the behavior of two multi-processor multi-disk architectures: a point-to-point architecture and a shared-bus architecture similar to current multiprocessor workstation architectures. We compare the two architectures on the basis of two multimedia algorithms: the compute-bound frame resizing by resampling and the data-bound disk-to-client stream transfer. The results suggest that the shared bus is a potential bottleneck despite its very high hardware throughput (400Mbytes/s) and that an architecture with addressable local memories located closely to their respective processors could partially remove this bottleneck. The point- to-point architecture is scalable and able to sustain high throughputs for simultaneous compute- bound and data-bound operations.

  7. The NA60 experiment readout architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Floris, M; Usai, G L; David, A; Rosinsky, P; Ohnishi, H

    2004-01-01

    The NA60 experiment was designed to identify signatures of a new state of matter, the Quark Gluon Plasma, in heavy-ion collisions at the CERN Super Proton Synchroton. The apparatus is composed of four main detectors: a muon spectrometer (MS), a zero degree calorimeter (ZDC), a silicon vertex telescope (VT), and a silicon microstrip beam tracker (BT). The readout of the whole experiment is based on a PCI architecture. The basic unit is a general purpose PCI card, interfaced to the different subdetectors via custom mezzanine cards. This allowed us to successfully implement several completely different readout protocols (from the VME like protocol of the MS to the custom protocol of the pixel telescope). The system was fully tested with proton and ion beams, and several million events were collected in 2002 and 2003. This paper presents the readout architecture of NA60, with particular emphasis on the PCI layer common to all the subdetectors. (16 refs).

  8. Knowledge and Architectural Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verbeke, Johan

    2017-01-01

    of the level of research methods and will explain that the research methods and processes in creative practice research are very similar to grounded theory which is an established research method in the social sciences. Finally, an argument will be made for a more explicit research attitude in architectural......This paper focuses on the specific knowledge residing in architectural practice. It is based on the research of 35 PhD fellows in the ADAPT-r (Architecture, Design and Art Practice Training-research) project. The ADAPT-r project innovates architectural research in combining expertise from academia...... and from practice in order to highlight and extract the specific kind of knowledge which resides and is developed in architectural practice (creative practice research). The paper will discuss three ongoing and completed PhD projects and focusses on the outcomes and their contribution to the field...

  9. Product Architecture Modularity Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkola, Juliana Hsuan

    2003-01-01

    The focus of this paper is to integrate various perspectives on product architecture modularity into a general framework, and also to propose a way to measure the degree of modularization embedded in product architectures. Various trade-offs between modular and integral product architectures...... and how components and interfaces influence the degree of modularization are considered. In order to gain a better understanding of product architecture modularity as a strategy, a theoretical framework and propositions are drawn from various academic literature sources. Based on the literature review......, the following key elements of product architecture are identified: components (standard and new-to-the-firm), interfaces (standardization and specification), degree of coupling, and substitutability. A mathematical function, termed modularization function, is introduced to measure the degree of modularization...

  10. Can architecture be barbaric?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hürol, Yonca

    2009-06-01

    The title of this article is adapted from Theodor W. Adorno's famous dictum: 'To write poetry after Auschwitz is barbaric.' After the catastrophic earthquake in Kocaeli, Turkey on the 17th of August 1999, in which more than 40,000 people died or were lost, Necdet Teymur, who was then the dean of the Faculty of Architecture of the Middle East Technical University, referred to Adorno in one of his 'earthquake poems' and asked: 'Is architecture possible after 17th of August?' The main objective of this article is to interpret Teymur's question in respect of its connection to Adorno's philosophy with a view to make a contribution to the politics and ethics of architecture in Turkey. Teymur's question helps in providing a new interpretation of a critical approach to architecture and architectural technology through Adorno's philosophy. The paper also presents a discussion of Adorno's dictum, which serves for a better understanding of its universality/particularity.

  11. Architecture in the Islamic Civilization: Muslim Building or Islamic Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Yassin, Ayat Ali; Utaberta, Dr. Nangkula

    2012-01-01

    The main problem of the theory in the arena of islamic architecture is affected by some of its Westernthoughts, and stereotyping the islamic architecture according to Western thoughts; this leads to the breakdownof the foundations in the islamic architecture. It is a myth that islamic architecture is subjected to theinfluence from foreign architectures. This paper will highlight the dialectical concept of islamic architecture ormuslim buildings and the areas of recognition in islamic architec...

  12. Enhanced high-frequency microwave absorption of Fe3O4 architectures based on porous nanoflake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiaoliang; Liu, Yanguo; Han, Hongyan

    2017-01-01

    Hierarchical Fe3O4 architectures assembled with porous nanoplates (p-Fe3O4) were synthesized. Due to the strong shape anisotropy of the nanoplates, the p-Fe3O4 exhibits increased microwave resonance towards high frequency range. The improved microwave absorption properties of the p-Fe3O4, includi...

  13. Enhanced high-frequency microwave absorption of Fe3O4 architectures based on porous nanoflake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiaoliang; Liu, Yanguo; Han, Hongyan

    2017-01-01

    Hierarchical Fe3O4 architectures assembled with porous nanoplates (p-Fe3O4) were synthesized. Due to the strong shape anisotropy of the nanoplates, the p-Fe3O4 exhibits increased microwave resonance towards high frequency range. The improved microwave absorption properties of the p-Fe3O4, including...

  14. Minimalism in architecture: Abstract conceptualization of architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilski Dragana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Minimalism in architecture contains the idea of the minimum as a leading creative tend to be considered and interpreted in working through phenomena of empathy and abstraction. In the Western culture, the root of this idea is found in empathy of Wilhelm Worringer and abstraction of Kasimir Malevich. In his dissertation, 'Abstraction and Empathy' Worringer presented his thesis on the psychology of style through which he explained the two opposing basic forms: abstraction and empathy. His conclusion on empathy as a psychological basis of observation expression is significant due to the verbal congruence with contemporary minimalist expression. His intuition was enhenced furthermore by figure of Malevich. Abstraction, as an expression of inner unfettered inspiration, has played a crucial role in the development of modern art and architecture of the twentieth century. Abstraction, which is one of the basic methods of learning in psychology (separating relevant from irrelevant features, Carl Jung is used to discover ideas. Minimalism in architecture emphasizes the level of abstraction to which the individual functions are reduced. Different types of abstraction are present: in the form as well as function of the basic elements: walls and windows. The case study is an example of Sou Fujimoto who is unequivocal in its commitment to the autonomy of abstract conceptualization of architecture.

  15. Extraocular muscle architecture in hawks and owls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plochocki, Jeffrey H; Segev, Tamar; Grow, Wade; Hall, Margaret I

    2018-02-06

    A complete and accurate understanding of extraocular muscle function is important to the veterinary care of the avian eye. This is especially true for birds of prey, which rely heavily on vision for survival and yet are prone to ocular injury and disease. To better understand the function of extraocular muscles in birds of prey, we studied extraocular muscle architecture grossly and histologically. This sample was composed of two each of the following species: red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis), Harris's hawk (Parabuteo unicinctus), great horned owl (Bubo virginianus), and barn owl (Tyto alba). All extraocular muscles were dissected and weighed. To analyze muscle fiber architecture, the superior oblique and quadratus muscles were dissected, weighed, and sectioned at 5 μm thickness in the transverse plane. We calculated the physiologic cross-sectional area and the ratio of muscle mass to predicted effective maximum tetanic tension. Hawk and owl extraocular muscles exhibit significant physiological differences that play roles in ocular movements and closure of the nictitating membrane. Owls, which do not exhibit extraocular movement, have muscle architecture suited to stabilize the position of a massive, tubular eye that protrudes significantly from the orbit. Hawks, which have a more globose eye that is largely contained within the orbit, do not require as much muscular stability and instead have muscle architecture that facilitates rapid eye movement. © 2018 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  16. Biomedical laboratories: architecture and radioprotection principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapa, Renata

    2005-01-01

    In institutions where biological research are made and some technologies make use of radioisotope, the radiation protection is an issue of biosecurity for conceptual reasons. In the process of architectural design of Biomedical Laboratories, engineering and architecture reveal interfaces with other areas of knowledge and specific concepts. Exploring the role of architectural design in favor of personal and environmental protection in biological containment laboratories that handle non-sealed sources in research, the work discusses the triad that compose the principle of containment in health environments: best practices, protective equipment, physical facilities, with greater emphasis on the latter component. The shortcomings of the design process are reflected in construction and in use-operation and maintenance of these buildings, with direct consequences on the occupational health and safety, environmental and credibility of work processes. In this context, the importance of adoption of alternatives to improve the design process is confirmed, taking into account the early consideration of several variables involved and providing subsidies to the related laboratories . The research, conducted at FIOCRUZ - a Brazilian health institution, developed from the analysis of the participants in the architectural project, aiming at the formulation of design guidelines which could contribute to the rationalisation of this kind of building construction

  17. Hierarchically structured transparent hybrid membranes by in situ growth of mesostructured organosilica in host polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallé, Karine; Belleville, Philippe; Pereira, Franck; Sanchez, Clément

    2006-02-01

    The elaborate performances characterizing natural materials result from functional hierarchical constructions at scales ranging from nanometres to millimetres, each construction allowing the material to fit the physical or chemical demands occurring at these different levels. Hierarchically structured materials start to demonstrate a high input in numerous promising applied domains such as sensors, catalysis, optics, fuel cells, smart biologic and cosmetic vectors. In particular, hierarchical hybrid materials permit the accommodation of a maximum of elementary functions in a small volume, thereby optimizing complementary possibilities and properties between inorganic and organic components. The reported strategies combine sol-gel chemistry, self-assembly routes using templates that tune the material's architecture and texture with the use of larger inorganic, organic or biological templates such as latex, organogelator-derived fibres, nanolithographic techniques or controlled phase separation. We propose an approach to forming transparent hierarchical hybrid functionalized membranes using in situ generation of mesostructured hybrid phases inside a non-porogenic hydrophobic polymeric host matrix. We demonstrate that the control of the multiple affinities existing between organic and inorganic components allows us to design the length-scale partitioning of hybrid nanomaterials with tuned functionalities and desirable size organization from ångström to centimetre. After functionalization of the mesoporous hybrid silica component, the resulting membranes have good ionic conductivity offering interesting perspectives for the design of solid electrolytes, fuel cells and other ion-transport microdevices.

  18. Urban architecture in urban renewal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmgren, Steen; Svensson, Ole

    2001-01-01

    and without obvious architectural value. These issues raise pertinent questions: what urban architectural problems and qualities exist in the complex, inner suburbs? What differences exist between professionals' and residents' perceptions and assessments of urban architecture? How can a shared language...

  19. Hierarchical structure observation and nanoindentation size effect characterization for a limnetic shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jingru; Fan, Cuncai; Ma, Hansong; Wei, Yueguang

    2015-06-01

    In the present research, hierarchical structure observation and mechanical property characterization for a type of biomaterial are carried out. The investigated biomaterial is Hyriopsis cumingii, a typical limnetic shell, which consists of two different structural layers, a prismatic "pillar" structure and a nacreous "brick and mortar" structure. The prismatic layer looks like a "pillar forest" with variation-section pillars sized on the order of several tens of microns. The nacreous material looks like a "brick wall" with bricks sized on the order of several microns. Both pillars and bricks are composed of nanoparticles. The mechanical properties of the hierarchical biomaterial are measured by using the nanoindentation test. Hardness and modulus are measured for both the nacre layer and the prismatic layer, respectively. The nanoindentation size effects for the hierarchical structural materials are investigated experimentally. The results show that the prismatic nanostructured material has a higher stiffness and hardness than the nacre nanostructured material. In addition, the nanoindentation size effects for the hierarchical structural materials are described theoretically, by using the trans-scale mechanics theory considering both strain gradient effect and the surface/interface effect. The modeling results are consistent with experimental ones.

  20. ANALYSING EFFICIENCY OF AGGRESSIVE ETF-COMPOSED PORTFOLIO STRATEGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Zaviyalov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates investment characteristics of Exchange Traded Funds, a unique category of mutual funds which can be traded like any common equity on any stock exchange through authorized broker companies. One can buy and sell ETFs during the entire trading session, one can open short positions using ETFs and trade on margin. ETF price is determined by supply and demand and due to arbitrage, prices are very close to net asset values (NAV. ETFs attract both individual and institutional investors because they combine the benefits of open-end and closed-end funds. The article explores the results of statistical research to find a principal opportunity to implement an "aggressive" ETF-composed portfolio strategy which can secure stable above-market returns. To put it otherwise, the research aims to test the market efficiency hypothesis in the sector of ETF-composed portfolios. The research methodology centers on statistically testing the null hypothesis whether the average S&P500 return and each of the ETF-composed portfolio strategies average returns are equal to zero. To test such a hypothesis one should perform t-tests with several significance levels. If the null hypothesis is rejected on a certain significance level, this would mean that the average return of the portfolio strategy is significantly different from the average return of the S&P500 index. Based on the results of the t-tests, one can conclude whether the above-mentioned market segment is inefficient or partially inefficient, which would mean one can find an "aggressive"strategy to secure stable above-market returns.

  1. Writing for the web composing, coding, and constructing web sites

    CERN Document Server

    Applen, JD

    2013-01-01

    Writing for the Web unites theory, technology, and practice to explore writing and hypertext for website creation. It integrates such key topics as XHTML/CSS coding, writing (prose) for the Web, the rhetorical needs of the audience, theories of hypertext, usability and architecture, and the basics of web site design and technology. Presenting information in digestible parts, this text enables students to write and construct realistic and manageable Web sites with a strong theoretical understanding of how online texts communicate to audiences. Key features of the book

  2. Facile synthesis and optical property of SnO2 flower-like architectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Qingrui; Li Zhengquan; Wu Changzheng; Bai Xue; Xie Yi

    2006-01-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) hierarchical tin dioxide (SnO 2 ) flower-like architectures consisting of sheet-like nanoparticles have been successfully prepared by a simply mild hydrothermal method based on the reaction between tin foil, NaOH and KBrO 3 . The photoluminescence (PL) spectrum exhibit that the flower-like architectures of SnO 2 have strong PL emission, which suggest its possible applications in nanoscaled optoelectronic devices. The formation process of SnO 2 architectures is investigated and the corresponding mechanism is also proposed

  3. The clinician's guide to composing effective business plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettinger, Alan B; Blondell, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    In today's challenging healthcare environment, clinicians need to understand the fundamentals of financial analysis, which are the underpinnings of their clinical programs, especially when seeking administrative support for new initiatives. The business plan for new clinical program initiatives is composed of diverse elements such as the mission statement, market and competitive analyses, operations plan, and financial analysis. Armed with a basic knowledge of financial analysis of clinical programs, as well as forward-looking analysis of an initiative's added value, the healthcare provider can work much more effectively with administration in developing or creating new healthcare program initiatives.

  4. Joint stiffness identification of body structure using neural network. Jointed part composed of 2 beams; Neural network ni yoru shatai kozo no ketsugo gosei dotei. Buzai 2 hon kara naru ketsugobu no baai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okabe, A; Tomioka, N [Nihon University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    The method to obtain a joint stiffness value from displacements of jointed part using hierarchical neural networks in case of a jointed part composed of two beams were proposed. First, the sample data of displacements of jointed part vs. joint stiffness are prepared as learned data. Second, the relations between displacements of jointed part and joint stiffness are constructed from these learned data using a hierarchical neural networks. It was found that the value of joint stiffness can be obtained from displacement of jointed part by the trained neural network. 4 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Outline of a novel architecture for cortical computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Kaushik

    2008-03-01

    In this paper a novel architecture for cortical computation has been proposed. This architecture is composed of computing paths consisting of neurons and synapses. These paths have been decomposed into lateral, longitudinal and vertical components. Cortical computation has then been decomposed into lateral computation (LaC), longitudinal computation (LoC) and vertical computation (VeC). It has been shown that various loop structures in the cortical circuit play important roles in cortical computation as well as in memory storage and retrieval, keeping in conformity with the molecular basis of short and long term memory. A new learning scheme for the brain has also been proposed and how it is implemented within the proposed architecture has been explained. A few mathematical results about the architecture have been proposed, some of which are without proof.

  6. Art of Film – A Way of Architectural Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Petrovici

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The art of film, the most popular art of the 20th century, can represent for architecture a means of teaching and promoting its specific values, an inspirational source and a good example of efficient and accessible cultural communication. The architecture presents many resemblances with the world of film regarding the concept and space exploring for communicating some ideas or concepts. Both film and architecture have narrative qualities, work with the world of illusions and representations and compose various elements in order to carry on certain significances. The film makers are making available the suggestive and semantic potential of architecture to render states and attitudes, to outline certain meanings or to emit opinions and comments on political, psychological and social issues.

  7. Travels in Architectural History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Deriu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Travel is a powerful force in shaping the perception of the modern world and plays an ever-growing role within architectural and urban cultures. Inextricably linked to political and ideological issues, travel redefines places and landscapes through new transport infrastructures and buildings. Architecture, in turn, is reconstructed through visual and textual narratives produced by scores of modern travellers — including writers and artists along with architects themselves. In the age of the camera, travel is bound up with new kinds of imaginaries; private records and recollections often mingle with official, stereotyped views, as the value of architectural heritage increasingly rests on the mechanical reproduction of its images. Whilst students often learn about architectural history through image collections, the place of the journey in the formation of the architect itself shifts. No longer a lone and passionate antiquarian or an itinerant designer, the modern architect eagerly hops on buses, trains, and planes in pursuit of personal as well as professional interests. Increasingly built on a presumption of mobility, architectural culture integrates travel into cultural debates and design experiments. By addressing such issues from a variety of perspectives, this collection, a special 'Architectural Histories' issue on travel, prompts us to rethink the mobile conditions in which architecture has historically been produced and received.

  8. On Detailing in Contemporary Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Claus; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2010-01-01

    Details in architecture have a significant influence on how architecture is experienced. One can touch the materials and analyse the detailing - thus details give valuable information about the architectural scheme as a whole. The absence of perceptual stimulation like details and materiality...... / tactility can blur the meaning of the architecture and turn it into an empty statement. The present paper will outline detailing in contemporary architecture and discuss the issue with respect to architectural quality. Architectural cases considered as sublime piece of architecture will be presented...

  9. Fractionated Spacecraft Architectures Seeding Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mathieu, Charlotte; Weigel, Annalisa

    2006-01-01

    .... Models were developed from a customer-centric perspective to assess different fractionated spacecraft architectures relative to traditional spacecraft architectures using multi-attribute analysis...

  10. Construction of hierarchically porous metal-organic frameworks through linker labilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Shuai; Zou, Lanfang; Qin, Jun-Sheng; Li, Jialuo; Huang, Lan; Feng, Liang; Wang, Xuan; Bosch, Mathieu; Alsalme, Ali; Cagin, Tahir; Zhou, Hong-Cai

    2017-05-01

    A major goal of metal-organic framework (MOF) research is the expansion of pore size and volume. Although many approaches have been attempted to increase the pore size of MOF materials, it is still a challenge to construct MOFs with precisely customized pore apertures for specific applications. Herein, we present a new method, namely linker labilization, to increase the MOF porosity and pore size, giving rise to hierarchical-pore architectures. Microporous MOFs with robust metal nodes and pro-labile linkers were initially synthesized. The mesopores were subsequently created as crystal defects through the splitting of a pro-labile-linker and the removal of the linker fragments by acid treatment. We demonstrate that linker labilization method can create controllable hierarchical porous structures in stable MOFs, which facilitates the diffusion and adsorption process of guest molecules to improve the performances of MOFs in adsorption and catalysis.

  11. Regulatory switches for hierarchical use of carbon sources in E. coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth S. Perez-Alfaro

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work we study the preferential use of carbon sources in the bacterium Escherichia coli. To that end we engineered transcriptional fusions of the reporter gene gfpmut2, downstream of transcription-factor promoters, and analyzed their activity under several conditions. The chosen transcription factors are known to regulate catabolic operons associated to the consumption of alternative sugars. The obtained results indicate the following hierarchical order of sugar preference in this bacterium: glucose > arabinose > sorbitol > galactose. Further dynamical results allowed us to conjecture that this hierarchical behavior might be operated by at least the following three regulatory strategies: 1 the coordinated activation of the corresponding operons by the global regulator catabolic repressor protein (CRP, 2 their asymmetrical responses to specific and unspecific sugars and, 3 the architecture of the associated gene regulatory networks.

  12. Priority-Based Hierarchical Operational Management for Multiagent-Based Microgrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takumi Kato

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Electricity consumption in the world is constantly increasing, making our lives become more and more dependent on electricity. There are several new paradigms proposed in the field of power grids. In Japan, especially after the Great East Japan Earthquake in March 2011, the new power grid paradigms are expected to be more resilient to survive several difficulties during disasters. In this paper, we focus on microgrids and propose priority-based hierarchical operational management for multiagent-based microgrids. The proposed management is a new multiagent-based load shedding scheme and multiagent-based hierarchical architecture to realize such resilient microgrids. We developed a prototype system and performed an evaluation of the proposed management using the developed system. The result of the evaluation shows the effectiveness of our proposal in power shortage situations, such as disasters.

  13. MOF-5 decorated hierarchical ZnO nanorod arrays and its photoluminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yinmin; Lan, Ding; Wang, Yuren; Cao, He; Jiang, Heng

    2011-04-01

    The strategy to manipulate nanoscale materials into well-organized hierarchical architectures is very important to both material synthesis and nanodevice applications. Here, nanoscale MOF-5 crystallites were successfully fabricated onto ordered hierarchical ZnO arrays based on aqueous chemical synthesis and molecule self-assembly technology guided room temperature diffusion method, which has the advantages of energy saving and simple operation. The structures and morphologies of the samples were performed by X-ray powder diffraction and field emission scanning electronic microscopy. The MOF-5 crystallites have good quality and bind well to the hexagonal-patterned ZnO arrays. The photoluminescence spectrum shows that the emission of hybrid MOF-5-ZnO films displays a blue shift in green emission and intensity reduction in UV emission. This ordered hybrid semiconductor material is expected to exploit the great potentiality in sensors, micro/nanodevices, and screen displays.

  14. Analysis hierarchical model for discrete event systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciortea, E. M.

    2015-11-01

    The This paper presents the hierarchical model based on discrete event network for robotic systems. Based on the hierarchical approach, Petri network is analysed as a network of the highest conceptual level and the lowest level of local control. For modelling and control of complex robotic systems using extended Petri nets. Such a system is structured, controlled and analysed in this paper by using Visual Object Net ++ package that is relatively simple and easy to use, and the results are shown as representations easy to interpret. The hierarchical structure of the robotic system is implemented on computers analysed using specialized programs. Implementation of hierarchical model discrete event systems, as a real-time operating system on a computer network connected via a serial bus is possible, where each computer is dedicated to local and Petri model of a subsystem global robotic system. Since Petri models are simplified to apply general computers, analysis, modelling, complex manufacturing systems control can be achieved using Petri nets. Discrete event systems is a pragmatic tool for modelling industrial systems. For system modelling using Petri nets because we have our system where discrete event. To highlight the auxiliary time Petri model using transport stream divided into hierarchical levels and sections are analysed successively. Proposed robotic system simulation using timed Petri, offers the opportunity to view the robotic time. Application of goods or robotic and transmission times obtained by measuring spot is obtained graphics showing the average time for transport activity, using the parameters sets of finished products. individually.

  15. Self-assembled biomimetic superhydrophobic hierarchical arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hongta; Dou, Xuan; Fang, Yin; Jiang, Peng

    2013-09-01

    Here, we report a simple and inexpensive bottom-up technology for fabricating superhydrophobic coatings with hierarchical micro-/nano-structures, which are inspired by the binary periodic structure found on the superhydrophobic compound eyes of some insects (e.g., mosquitoes and moths). Binary colloidal arrays consisting of exemplary large (4 and 30 μm) and small (300 nm) silica spheres are first assembled by a scalable Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technology in a layer-by-layer manner. After surface modification with fluorosilanes, the self-assembled hierarchical particle arrays become superhydrophobic with an apparent water contact angle (CA) larger than 150°. The throughput of the resulting superhydrophobic coatings with hierarchical structures can be significantly improved by templating the binary periodic structures of the LB-assembled colloidal arrays into UV-curable fluoropolymers by a soft lithography approach. Superhydrophobic perfluoroether acrylate hierarchical arrays with large CAs and small CA hysteresis can be faithfully replicated onto various substrates. Both experiments and theoretical calculations based on the Cassie's dewetting model demonstrate the importance of the hierarchical structure in achieving the final superhydrophobic surface states. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Multiphase static droplet simulations in hierarchically structured super-hydrophobic surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Shin; Lee, Joon Sang [School of Mechanical Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-15

    The surface of first part of study is textured with microscopic pillars of prototypical top geometries as a rectangle. The second one is textured with a hierarchical structure, composed of secondary pillar structures added on the primary texture. The length ratio between two scales of texture is 1:16. We evaluated the non-wetting characteristics of two types of surfaces by measuring CAs as well as the transition from the Wenzel's to Cassie's regimes. We measure the Contact angles (CAs), using the Lattice Boltzmann model (LBM), for two different surface configurations. We evaluated the effect of the hierarchical structure; the robustness of the Cassie regime is enhanced and the apparent contact angle is increased by the secondary structures. This is achieved by increasing the energy barrier against the transition between wetting and non-wetting regimes.

  17. Architectural Knitted Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mossé, Aurélie

    2010-01-01

    WGSN reports from the Architectural Knitted Surfaces workshop recently held at ShenkarCollege of Engineering and Design, Tel Aviv, which offered a cutting-edge insight into interactive knitted surfaces. With the increasing role of smart textiles in architecture, the Architectural Knitted Surfaces...... workshop brought together architects and interior and textile designers to highlight recent developments in intelligent knitting. The five-day workshop was led by architects Ayelet Karmon and Mette Ramsgaard Thomsen, together with Amir Cang and Eyal Sheffer from the Knitting Laboratory, in collaboration...

  18. Towards Adaptive Evolutionary Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Sebastian HOlt; Rask, Nina; Risi, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents first results from an interdisciplinary project, in which the fields of architecture, philosophy and artificial life are combined to explore possible futures of architecture. Through an interactive evolutionary installation, called EvoCurtain, we investigate aspects of how...... to the development of designs tailored to the individual preferences of inhabitants, changing the roles of architects and designers entirely. Architecture-as-it-could-be is a philosophical approach conducted through artistic methods to anticipate the technological futures of human-centered development within...

  19. Computer architecture technology trends

    CERN Document Server

    1991-01-01

    Please note this is a Short Discount publication. This year's edition of Computer Architecture Technology Trends analyses the trends which are taking place in the architecture of computing systems today. Due to the sheer number of different applications to which computers are being applied, there seems no end to the different adoptions which proliferate. There are, however, some underlying trends which appear. Decision makers should be aware of these trends when specifying architectures, particularly for future applications. This report is fully revised and updated and provides insight in

  20. THEORETICAL FOUNDATIONS OF COMPOSING A REFERENCE BOOK OF REGIONAL TOPONYMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilyin Dmitriy Yuryevich

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the linguistic issues of composing a reference book of regional toponyms – a genre that requires special consideration in national lexicography. The assortment of these issues gave the possibility to carry out complex description of regional toponyms on the basis of semantic, functional, and orpthologuos criteria that let unify the names of Volgograd region settlements that are registered in various documents. The significance of the composed reference book is determined by several factors – the presence of local subsystems of geographical names in Russian toponymy; the inconsistency of current orthography norms on using capital letter in compound proprius names and fused-with-hyphen spelling of toponyms and off-toponym derivations; the lack of linguistically justified explanation of peculiarities of grammatical norms in the field of proper names use. The reference book of regional toponyms is based on the object description (toponymic vocabulary, principles of lexical units selection (description of spelling and grammatical properties of toponyms, encyclopedic information, the glossary (full list of toponyms of Volgograd region, typical article. The articles in the reference book are arranged in lexicographical zones with grammatical and semantic markers, lexicographical illustrations, other lexicographical labels, word etymology including. The reference book on Volgograd region toponymy is addressed to executive and administration authorities, journalists, regional ethnographers.

  1. Microfabrication of hierarchical structures for engineered mechanical materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera Canudas, Marc

    Materials found in nature present, in some cases, unique properties from their constituents that are of great interest in engineered materials for applications ranging from structural materials for the construction of bridges, canals and buildings to the fabrication of new lightweight composites for airplane and automotive bodies, to protective thin film coatings, amongst other fields. Research in the growing field of biomimetic materials indicates that the micro-architectures present in natural materials are critical to their macroscopic mechanical properties. A better understanding of the effect that structure and hierarchy across scales have on the material properties will enable engineered materials with enhanced properties. At the moment, very few theoretical models predict mechanical properties of simple materials based on their microstructures. Moreover these models are based on observations from complex biological systems. One way to overcome this challenge is through the use of microfabrication techniques to design and fabricate simple materials, more appropriate for the study of hierarchical organizations and microstructured materials. Arrays of structures with controlled geometry and dimension can be designed and fabricated at different length scales, ranging from a few hundred nanometers to centimeters, in order to mimic similar systems found in nature. In this thesis, materials have been fabricated in order to gain fundamental insight into the complex hierarchical materials found in nature and to engineer novel materials with enhanced mechanical properties. The materials fabricated here were mechanically characterized and compared to simple mechanics models to describe their behavior with the goal of applying the knowledge acquired to the design and synthesis of future engineered materials with novel properties.

  2. Architectures of prototypes and architectural prototyping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus Marius; Christensen, Michael; Sandvad, Elmer

    1998-01-01

    together as a team, but developed a prototype that more than fulfilled the expectations of the shipping company. The prototype should: - complete the first major phase within 10 weeks, - be highly vertical illustrating future work practice, - continuously live up to new requirements from prototyping......This paper reports from experience obtained through development of a prototype of a global customer service system in a project involving a large shipping company and a university research group. The research group had no previous knowledge of the complex business of shipping and had never worked...... sessions with users, - evolve over a long period of time to contain more functionality - allow for 6-7 developers working intensively in parallel. Explicit focus on the software architecture and letting the architecture evolve with the prototype played a major role in resolving these conflicting...

  3. Modular Power Architectures for Microgrid Clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Hengwei; Liu, Leo; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2014-01-01

    One of the most important elements in microgrids is the configuration architecture which includes installed capacity, devices location, converter topologies, as well as system control and management strategies. Reliability, security and stability in microgrids require global communication systems...... in order to provide information for management, supervision, and protection purposes. In this paper, the main objective is to reveal the reasons leading to unreliability and insecurity in microgrids systems, and to propose a generic modular concept which is conceived from the viewpoint of a unified system....... The user-frame concept proposed here when designing microgrids considers that the end-user is the basis for the geographical deployment. Meanwhile, a modular user-oriented approach is adopted in order to enhance reliability and expansibility. Finally, a unified dispatching and hierarchical management...

  4. Static and dynamic friction of hierarchical surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costagliola, Gianluca; Bosia, Federico; Pugno, Nicola M

    2016-12-01

    Hierarchical structures are very common in nature, but only recently have they been systematically studied in materials science, in order to understand the specific effects they can have on the mechanical properties of various systems. Structural hierarchy provides a way to tune and optimize macroscopic mechanical properties starting from simple base constituents and new materials are nowadays designed exploiting this possibility. This can be true also in the field of tribology. In this paper we study the effect of hierarchical patterned surfaces on the static and dynamic friction coefficients of an elastic material. Our results are obtained by means of numerical simulations using a one-dimensional spring-block model, which has previously been used to investigate various aspects of friction. Despite the simplicity of the model, we highlight some possible mechanisms that explain how hierarchical structures can significantly modify the friction coefficients of a material, providing a means to achieve tunability.

  5. Hierarchical silica particles by dynamic multicomponent assembly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Z. W.; Hu, Q. Y.; Pang, J. B.

    2005-01-01

    Abstract: Aerosol-assisted assembly of mesoporous silica particles with hierarchically controllable pore structure has been prepared using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and poly(propylene oxide) (PPO, H[OCH(CH3)CH2],OH) as co-templates. Addition of the hydrophobic PPO significantly...... influences the delicate hydrophilic-hydrophobic balance in the well-studied CTAB-silicate co-assembling system, resulting in various mesostructures (such as hexagonal, lamellar, and hierarchical structure). The co-assembly of CTAB, silicate clusters, and a low-molecular-weight PPO (average M-n 425) results...... in a uniform lamellar structure, while the use of a high-molecular-weight PPO (average M-n 2000), which is more hydrophobic, leads to the formation of hierarchical pore structure that contains meso-meso or meso-macro pore structure. The role of PPO additives on the mesostructure evolution in the CTAB...

  6. On Utmost Multiplicity of Hierarchical Stellar Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gebrehiwot Y. M.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available According to theoretical considerations, multiplicity of hierarchical stellar systems can reach, depending on masses and orbital parameters, several hundred, while observational data confirm the existence of at most septuple (seven-component systems. In this study, we cross-match the stellar systems of very high multiplicity (six and more components in modern catalogues of visual double and multiple stars to find among them the candidates to hierarchical systems. After cross-matching the catalogues of closer binaries (eclipsing, spectroscopic, etc., some of their components were found to be binary/multiple themselves, what increases the system's degree of multiplicity. Optical pairs, known from literature or filtered by the authors, were flagged and excluded from the statistics. We compiled a list of hierarchical systems with potentially very high multiplicity that contains ten objects. Their multiplicity does not exceed 12, and we discuss a number of ways to explain the lack of extremely high multiplicity systems.

  7. Hierarchical Micro-Nano Coatings by Painting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirveslahti, Anna; Korhonen, Tuulia; Suvanto, Mika; Pakkanen, Tapani A.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, the wettability properties of coatings with hierarchical surface structures and low surface energy were studied. Hierarchically structured coatings were produced by using hydrophobic fumed silica nanoparticles and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) microparticles as additives in polyester (PES) and polyvinyldifluoride (PVDF). These particles created hierarchical micro-nano structures on the paint surfaces and lowered or supported the already low surface energy of the paint. Two standard application techniques for paint application were employed and the presented coatings are suitable for mass production and use in large surface areas. By regulating the particle concentrations, it was possible to modify wettability properties gradually. Highly hydrophobic surfaces were achieved with the highest contact angle of 165∘. Dynamic contact angle measurements were carried out for a set of selected samples and low hysteresis was obtained. Produced coatings possessed long lasting durability in the air and in underwater conditions.

  8. Hierarchical capillary adhesion of microcantilevers or hairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jianlin; Feng Xiqiao; Xia Re; Zhao Hongping

    2007-01-01

    As a result of capillary forces, animal hairs, carbon nanotubes or nanowires of a periodically or randomly distributed array often assemble into hierarchical structures. In this paper, the energy method is adopted to analyse the capillary adhesion of microsized hairs, which are modelled as clamped microcantilevers wetted by liquids. The critical conditions for capillary adhesion of two hairs, three hairs or two bundles of hairs are derived in terms of Young's contact angle, elastic modulus and geometric sizes of the beams. Then, the hierarchical capillary adhesion of hairs is addressed. It is found that for multiple hairs or microcantilevers, the system tends to take a hierarchical structure as a result of the minimization of the total potential energy of the system. The level number of structural hierarchy increases with the increase in the number of hairs if they are sufficiently long. Additionally, we performed experiments to verify our theoretical solutions for the adhesion of microbeams

  9. Hierarchical Traces for Reduced NSM Memory Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Torbjørn S.

    This paper presents work on using hierarchical long term memory to reduce the memory requirements of nearest sequence memory (NSM) learning, a previously published, instance-based reinforcement learning algorithm. A hierarchical memory representation reduces the memory requirements by allowing traces to share common sub-sequences. We present moderated mechanisms for estimating discounted future rewards and for dealing with hidden state using hierarchical memory. We also present an experimental analysis of how the sub-sequence length affects the memory compression achieved and show that the reduced memory requirements do not effect the speed of learning. Finally, we analyse and discuss the persistence of the sub-sequences independent of specific trace instances.

  10. Visible-light photocatalytic activity of Ag2O coated Bi2WO6 hierarchical microspheres assembled by nanosheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Lin; Hua, Hao; Yang, Qi; Hu, Chenguo

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Bi 2 WO 6 hierarchical microspheres assembled by nanosheets and dispersed nanosheets are synthesized. • Ag 2 O/Bi 2 WO 6 heterostuctures exhibites an enhanced photocatalytic activity compared with the Bi 2 WO 6 nanostructures. • Photocatalytic activity of the Ag 2 O/Bi 2 WO 6 microspheres is higher than that of the nanosheets. • Bi 2 WO 6 hierarchical structure is an excellent architecture for loading of Ag 2 O nanoparticles. - Abstract: Bi 2 WO 6 hierarchical microspheres assembled by nanosheets and dispersed nanosheets were synthesized by hydrothermal reaction in different conditions. Ag 2 O nanoparticles were deposited on the surface of Bi 2 WO 6 microspheres and nanosheets by the chemical precipitation method. The photocatalytic performance of pure Bi 2 WO 6 nanostructures and Ag 2 O/Bi 2 WO 6 heterostructures were evaluated by the photocatalytic decolorization of RhB solution under visible-light irradiation. Compared with the pure Bi 2 WO 6 nanostructures, the Ag 2 O/Bi 2 WO 6 heterostructures exhibited an obviously enhanced photocatalytic activity. And photocatalytic activity of the Ag 2 O/Bi 2 WO 6 microspheres is higher than that of the Ag 2 O/Bi 2 WO 6 nanosheets. This work demonstrates that the Bi 2 WO 6 hierarchical three-dimensional structure is an excellent architecture for the loading of Ag 2 O nanoparticles to build a highly efficient photocatalyst

  11. Analysis of Architecture Pattern Usage in Legacy System Architecture Documentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harrison, Neil B.; Avgeriou, Paris

    2008-01-01

    Architecture patterns are an important tool in architectural design. However, while many architecture patterns have been identified, there is little in-depth understanding of their actual use in software architectures. For instance, there is no overview of how many patterns are used per system or

  12. Bionics in architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugár Viktória

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The adaptation of the forms and phenomena of nature is not a recent concept. Observation of natural mechanisms has been a primary source of innovation since prehistoric ages, which can be perceived through the history of architecture. Currently, this idea is coming to the front again through sustainable architecture and adaptive design. Investigating natural innovations and the clear-outness of evolution during the 20th century led to the creation of a separate scientific discipline, Bionics. Architecture and Bionics are strongly related to each other, since the act of building is as old as the human civilization - moreover its first formal and structural source was obviously the surrounding environment. Present paper discusses the definition of Bionics and its connection with the architecture.

  13. DSP Architecture Design Essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Marković, Dejan

    2012-01-01

    In DSP Architecture Design Essentials, authors Dejan Marković and Robert W. Brodersen cover a key subject for the successful realization of DSP algorithms for communications, multimedia, and healthcare applications. The book addresses the need for DSP architecture design that maps advanced DSP algorithms to hardware in the most power- and area-efficient way. The key feature of this text is a design methodology based on a high-level design model that leads to hardware implementation with minimum power and area. The methodology includes algorithm-level considerations such as automated word-length reduction and intrinsic data properties that can be leveraged to reduce hardware complexity. From a high-level data-flow graph model, an architecture exploration methodology based on linear programming is used to create an array of architectural solutions tailored to the underlying hardware technology. The book is supplemented with online material: bibliography, design examples, CAD tutorials and custom software.

  14. METRIC context unit architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, R.O.

    1988-01-01

    METRIC is an architecture for a simple but powerful Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC). Its speed comes from the simultaneous processing of several instruction streams, with instructions from the various streams being dispatched into METRIC's execution pipeline as they become available for execution. The pipeline is thus kept full, with a mix of instructions for several contexts in execution at the same time. True parallel programming is supported within a single execution unit, the METRIC Context Unit. METRIC's architecture provides for expansion through the addition of multiple Context Units and of specialized Functional Units. The architecture thus spans a range of size and performance from a single-chip microcomputer up through large and powerful multiprocessors. This research concentrates on the specification of the METRIC Context Unit at the architectural level. Performance tradeoffs made during METRIC's design are discussed, and projections of METRIC's performance are made based on simulation studies.

  15. Flexible weapons architecture design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyant, William C., III

    Present day air-delivered weapons are of a closed architecture, with little to no ability to tailor the weapon for the individual engagement. The closed architectures require weaponeers to make the target fit the weapon instead of fitting the individual weapons to a target. The concept of a flexible weapons aims to modularize weapons design using an open architecture shell into which different modules are inserted to achieve the desired target fractional damage while reducing cost and civilian casualties. This thesis shows that the architecture design factors of damage mechanism, fusing, weapons weight, guidance, and propulsion are significant in enhancing weapon performance objectives, and would benefit from modularization. Additionally, this thesis constructs an algorithm that can be used to design a weapon set for a particular target class based on these modular components.

  16. Border information flow architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-01

    This brochure describes the Border Information Flow Architecture (BIFA). The Transportation Border Working Group, a bi-national group that works to enhance coordination and planning between the United States and Canada, identified collaboration on th...

  17. Layered Fault Management Architecture

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sztipanovits, Janos

    2004-01-01

    ... UAVs or Organic Air Vehicles. The approach of this effort was to analyze fault management requirements of formation flight for fleets of UAVs, and develop a layered fault management architecture which demonstrates significant...

  18. Thermal Space in Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Mads Dines

    Present research is revolving around the design process and the use of digital applications to support the design process among architects. This work is made in relation to the current discussions about sustainable architecture and the increased focus on energy consumption and the comfort in our...... and understanding of spaces in buildings can change significantly and instead of the creation of frozen geometrical spaces, thermal spaces can be created as it is suggested in meteorological architecture where functions are distributed in relation to temperature gradients. This creates an interesting contrast......-introducing an increased adaptability in the architecture can be a part of re-defining the environmental agenda and re-establish a link between the environment of the site and the environment of the architecture and through that an increased appreciation of the sensuous space here framed in discussions about thermal...

  19. The toolbus coordination architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Klint, P.

    1996-01-01

    Building large, heterogeneous, distributed software systems poses serious problems for the software engineer; achieving interoperability of software systems is still a major challenge. We describe an experiment in designing a generic software architecture for solving these problems. To get

  20. Service Modularity and Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brax, Saara A.; Bask, Anu; Hsuan, Juliana

    2017-01-01

    , platform-based and mass-customized service business models, comparative research designs, customer perspectives and service experience, performance in context of modular services, empirical evidence of benefits and challenges, architectural innovation in services, modularization in multi-provider contexts......Purpose: Services are highly important in a world economy which has increasingly become service driven. There is a growing need to better understand the possibilities for, and requirements of, designing modular service architectures. The purpose of this paper is to elaborate on the roots...... of the emerging research stream on service modularity, provide a concise overview of existing work on the subject, and outline an agenda for future research on service modularity and architecture. The articles in the special issue offer four diverse sets of research on service modularity and architecture. Design...