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Sample records for hidrogenio eletrolitico nos

  1. Electrolytic hydrogen production at off-peak consumption and his utilization as energy vector at peak consumption through use of fuel cells; Producao de hidrogenio eletrolitico nos horarios fora de ponta e sua utilizacao como vetor energetico nos horarios de ponta atraves do uso de celulas a combustivel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gambetta, Francielle [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia]. E-mail: fgambetta@fem.unicamp.br; Silva, Ennio Peres da [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica. Lab. de Hidrogenio

    2008-07-01

    Due the fact that consumers have different demand, depending on the pace of economic activities and their daily habits of consumption, there is a different electrical demand throughout the day. Demand, in general, is minimal during the morning and it grows with the move for hours to reach peak consumption between 18:00 and 22:00, then turning to fall. It is old the idea of storing electricity produced in off-peak for its consumption in peak hours. To store large amounts of electrical power is required its conversion into some other form of energy, since it is impossible to store electrical energy as such in large quantities. One way of storing electricity is in the form of hydrogen produced by electrolysis of water which then can be stored, purified and converted into electricity through fuel cells. When there is an increase in demand for electricity, there is a need to expand the supply of energy, which means investments in generation, transmission and distribution. This work was performed a preliminary analysis of the production of electrolytic hydrogen in hours of low demand and its use in the generation of electricity in peak hours, making use of the fuel cells, so that to a certain limit value of increased electricity demand, there is no need for expansion of supply of Foz do Iguacu/PR. Moreover, at this work, the ability to harness the heat generated in fuel cells for heating water in homes was considered. (author)

  2. Preliminary analysis for implementation of a hybrid solar-wind system with storage of electrical energy generated through electrolytic hydrogen and fuel cells; Analise preliminar para implementacao de um sistema hibrido solar-eolico com armazenamento da energia eletrica gerada atraves de hidrogenio eletrolitico e celula a combustivel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Daniel Gabriel; Furlan, Andre Luis; Lopes, Davi Gabriel [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEM/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica], e-mail: danielg@fem.unicamp.br; Silva, Ennio Peres; Apolinario, Fernando Resende [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (IFGW/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica Gleb Wataghin. Lab. de Hidrogenio; Silva, Maria Eugenia Vieira da; Rocha, Paulo Alexandre Costa [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica e de Producao; Codeceira Neto, Alcides [Companhia Hidro Eletrica do Sao Francisco (CHESF), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Due to relevance of the study and applicability of hybrid electric power generation from solar photovoltaic and wind power in Brazil, the present paper aims to introduce briefly the importance of technical and economic comparison of two electrical energy storage technologies (batteries versus H2 + fuel cell) and also to indicate the previous difficulties related to this possible application. In this context, it was intended a partnership between State University of Campinas - UNICAMP, the Federal University of Ceara - UFC and Hydro Electric Company of the Sao Francisco - CHESF in the meaning of makes viable an implementation. (author)

  3. "NOME" NOS SALMOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Stadelmann

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available "Nome" ocorre 96 vezes nos Salmos de maneira diferente do uso comum que dele se faz na nossa linguagem. O motivo é que "nome" é um termo referencial que designa a Deus cultuado na liturgia da comunidade dos fiéis. Distinguimos duas modalidades no uso de "nome": a primeira consiste na invocação do "nome" em súplicas pela intervenção de Deus, para que venha em auxílio dos homens por meio do seu poder irresistível, de sua autoridade suprema e de sua soberania ilimitada; a segunda se emprega nos encâmios ao "nome" para enaltecer a glória, honra e santidade de Deus.

  4. Offre pour nos membres

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    Walibi Rhône-Alpes accueille son événement Halloween FreakShow le week-end du 15 et 16 octobre puis tous les jours du 20 octobre au 02 novembre 2016 ! ouverture prolongée jusqu’à 19h et feu d’artifices chaque soir 29, 30 et 31 octobre ! Loup-garou show; 1 labyrinthe; jeu de piste sur le parc (et nombreux lots à gagner); animations (sculpture sur citrouilles et maquillage) et d'autres surpises ! Tarifs pour nos membres : Entrée "Zone terrestre": 23 € au lieu de 29 €. Entrée gratuite pour les enfants de moins de 3 ans, avec accès aux attractions limité. Parking gratuit.

  5. NOAA NOS SOS, EXPERIMENTAL - Currents

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA NOS SOS server is part of the IOOS DIF SOS Project. The stations in this dataset have currents data. *These services are for testing and evaluation use...

  6. NOAA NOS SOS, EXPERIMENTAL - Wind

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA NOS SOS server is part of the IOOS DIF SOS Project. The stations in this dataset have wind data. *These services are for testing and evaluation use only*...

  7. NOAA NOS SOS, EXPERIMENTAL - Salinity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA NOS SOS server is part of the IOOS DIF SOS Project. The stations in this dataset have salinity data. *These services are for testing and evaluation use...

  8. NOAA NOS SOS, EXPERIMENTAL - Conductivity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA NOS SOS server is part of the IOOS DIF SOS Project. The stations in this dataset have conductivity data. *These services are for testing and evaluation use...

  9. AFLATOXICOSE EM SUÍNOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Silveira Flôres Schoenau

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO É descrito um surto de aflatoxicose em suínos Duroc de 2 a 6 meses, que consumiam ração contaminada por 519 ppb de aflatoxinas. A morbidade foi de 97%. A mortalidade foi alta, mas não determinada com exatidão. Os sinais clínicos incluíam recusa do alimento, pouco ganho ou perda de peso, diarreia e icterícia. Lesões subagudas e crônicas foram observadas em 4 porcos necropsiados. Nas lesões subagudas o fígado era escuro, com áreas centrolobulares hemorrágicas deprimidas, havia edema da parede da vesícula biliar e bile viscosa. Nos casos crônicos o fígado apresentava-se firme e amarelo-alaranjado. Havia líquido citrino nas cavidades e edema no cólon espiral. Havia avermelhamento da mucosa gástrica da região fúndica. Alterações subagudas eram necrose e hemorragias centrolobulares, hepatomegalocitose, fibrose e hiperplasia ductal. Nos casos crônicos havia fibrose, hiperplasia ductal, megalocitose e degeneração gordurosa hepatocelular. O diagnóstico de aflatoxicose foi feito baseado nos sinais clínicos, nos achados morfológicos e na presença de níveis significativos de aflatoxina na ração dos porcos (B1 = 484,3ppb, B2 = 110,8ppb, G1 = 343,7ppb e G2 = 99,2ppb. Frangos submetidos à mesma alimentação também desenvolveram lesões da toxicose.

  10. A epilepsia nos tumores cerebrais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Marques-Assis

    1969-03-01

    Full Text Available De 411 casos de tumores cerebrais foram estudados 86 (19,4% que apresentaram manifestações epilépticas. A epilepsia foi estudada quanto à duração, ao tipo de manifestação e à severidade, em relação à natureza e à localização dos tumores cerebrais. A análise dos resultados permitiu aos autores chegarem às seguintes conclusões: 1 a epilepsia incidiu em 19,4% dos casos; 2 o oligodendroglioma, as metástases carcinomatosas e o glioblastoma multiforme foram, pela ordem, os tumores mais epileptogênicos; 3 as áreas frontal, parietal e temporal foram, nessa ordem, as localizações mais epileptogênicas; 4 os carcinomas metastáticos predominaram nos casos com epilepsia com menos de um ano de evolução, enquanto que os astrocitomas predominaram nos casos com mais de três anos; quanto à topografia, predominou a região frontal no primeiro grupo e a temporal, no segundo; 5 nas formas mais severas de epilepsia predominaram os oligodendrogliomas e os meningeomas, quanto à natureza, e a região frontotemporal e a foice, quanto à localização; 6 os craniofaringeomas e os meduloblastomas foram os tumores que mais freqüentemente determinaram o aparecimento de convulsões puras; nesses casos, a sela túrsica e a fossa posterior foram as sedes mais freqüentes; 7 os carcinomas metastáticos e os meningeomas, quanto à natureza, e as regiões frontoparietal e parietal, quanto à localização, foram os mais freqüentemente encontrados nos casos com crises de tipo bravais-jacksoniano.

  11. O luto profissional nos enfermeiros

    OpenAIRE

    Gama, Maria Georgeana Marques da

    2014-01-01

    O crescente contacto do enfermeiro com a morte em contexto profissional tem sido muitas vezes perspectivado num sentido negativo pelas dificuldades emocionais que desencadeia e pelas consequências de sobrecarga nos profissionais de saúde, conducentes a processos de evitamento relacional e de isolamento social e profissional. A exposição diária à morte e ao processo de morrer, para além da sobrecarga de luto, pode constituir-se num desafio ao crescimento pessoal e profissional dos enfermeiros....

  12. MGE-derived nNOS+interneurons promote fear acquisition in nNOS-/-mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lin; Yuan, Hong-Jin; Cao, Bo; Kong, Cheng-Cheng; Yuan, Fang; Li, Jun; Ni, Huan-Yu; Wu, Hai-Yin; Chang, Lei; Liu, Yan; Luo, Chun-Xia

    2017-12-02

    Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) 1 , mainly responsible for NO release in central nervous system (CNS) 2 , plays a significant role in multiple physiological functions. However, the function of nNOS + interneurons in fear learning has not been much explored. Here we focused on the medial ganglionic eminences (MGE) 3 -derived nNOS + interneurons in fear learning. To determine the origin of nNOS + interneurons, we cultured neurons in vitro from MGE, cortex, lateral ganglionic eminence (LGE) 4 , caudal ganglionic eminences (CGE) 5 and preoptic area (POA) 6 . The results showed that MGE contained the most abundant precursors of nNOS + interneurons. Moreover, donor cells from E12.5 embryos demonstrated the highest positive rate of nNOS + interneurons compared with other embryonic periods (E11.5, E12, E13, E13.5 and E14). Additionally, these cells from E12.5 embryos showed long axonal and abundant dendritic arbors after 10 days culture, indicating the capability to disperse and integrate in host neural circuits after transplantation. To investigate the role of MGE-derived nNOS + interneurons in fear learning, donor MGE cells were transplanted into dentate gyrus (DG) 7 of nNOS knock-out (nNOS -/- ) or wild-type mice. Results showed that the transplantation of MGE cells promoted the acquisition of nNOS -/- but not the wild-type mice, suggesting the importance of nNOS + neurons in fear acquisition. Moreover, we transplanted MGE cells from nNOS -/- mice or wild-type mice into DG of the nNOS -/- mice and found that only MGE cells from wild-type mice but not the nNOS -/- mice rescued the deficit in acquisition of the nNOS -/- mice, further confirming the positive role of nNOS + neurons in fear learning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The Brazilian electric sector regulation as reference for the hydrogen regulation as energetic vector; A regulacao do setor eletrico brasileiro como referencia para regulacao do hidrogenio como vetor energetico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paternostro, Andre de Goes [Universidade Salvador (UNIFACS), Salvador, BA (Brazil); Fundacao de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado da Bahia (FAPSB), Salvador, BA (Brazil)]. E-mail: apater@hotmail.com

    2008-07-01

    This paper is based on the Brazilian electric sector to outline parallels for introduction of hydrogen as energetic vector in Brazilian matrix. For this purpose it was achieved an analysis of regulation theory, of electric sector reorganization, the new model of energy trade and the NOS role. In face of this analysis, hydrogen regulation may be established through a mix of four models: tariff model by return tax; tariff by marginal cost; regulation by performance and price cap. This new industrial sector should start vertical and with its maturity become non vertical as electric sector after its reorganization. Regarding the market, advanced purchase of hydrogen should be established enabling the reduction of incertitude in trade as well as reduction of implantation costs. NOS should pursue electric energy generation from hydrogen as this may carry impacts in transmission networks as well as in distribution network depending on how hydrogen was generated, whether in large scale or for local consumption supply. (author)

  14. Relative contributions of NOS isoforms during experimental colitis: endothelial-derived NOS maintains mucosal integrity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vallance, Bruce A.; Dijkstra, Gerard; Qiu, Bosheng; van der Waaij, Laurens A.; van Goor, Harry; Jansen, Peter L. M.; Mashimo, Hiroshi; Collins, Stephen M.

    2004-01-01

    The role of nitric oxide (NO) in inflammatory bowel diseases has traditionally focused on the inducible form of NO synthase (iNOS). However, the constitutive endothelial (eNOS) and neuronal (nNOS) isoforms may also impact on colitis, either by contributing to the inflammation or by regulating

  15. Neuronal NOS localises to human airway cilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Claire L; Lucas, Jane S; Walker, Woolf T; Owen, Holly; Premadeva, Irnthu; Lackie, Peter M

    2015-01-30

    Airway NO synthase (NOS) isoenzymes are responsible for rapid and localised nitric oxide (NO) production and are expressed in airway epithelium. We sought to determine the localisation of neuronal NOS (nNOS) in airway epithelium due to the paucity of evidence. Sections of healthy human bronchial tissue in glycol methacrylate resin and human nasal polyps in paraffin wax were immunohistochemically labelled and reproducibly demonstrated nNOS immunoreactivity, particularly at the proximal portion of cilia; this immunoreactivity was blocked by a specific nNOS peptide fragment. Healthy human epithelial cells differentiated at an air-liquid interface (ALI) confirmed the presence of all three NOS isoenzymes by immunofluorescence labelling. Only nNOS immunoreactivity was specific to the ciliary axonemeand co-localised with the cilia marker β-tubulin in the proximal part of the ciliary axoneme. We report a novel localisation of nNOS at the proximal portion of cilia in airway epithelium and conclude that its independent and local regulation of NO levels is crucial for normal cilia function. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. PODE A ARTE NOS SALVAR?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Rizério de Almeida e Pessoa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available O desenvolvimento do caráter técnico-científico-industrial da civilização moderna trouxe consigo um renovado interesse em se discutir o homem e seu lugar no mundo. Durante o século XX, seja na arte, literatura ou filosofia, não faltaram vozes anunciando para o futuro o fim do homem ou a submissão de seu pensamento a níveis cada vez maiores de alienação. O interesse ou mesmo a necessidade de se questionar um modo de resistência capaz de trazer o homem de volta a si mesmo deu origem a diferentes leituras acerca do lugar do homem no mundo moderno. Entre elas, destacamos a interpretação da essência humana desenvolvida por Martin Heidegger. Segundo o autor alemão, cumpre-nos romper com o tradicional paradigma da subjetividade, que orientou o modo como a modernidade entendeu o ser do homem. Ora, a intenção dessa pesquisa é justamente demarcar as consequências dessa ruptura com a subjetividade para a compreensão do homem e enfim problematizar as suas implicações teóricas ou filosóficas mais gerais. De fato, desde que o homem se arvorou o título de “senhor da terra” parece que ele se encontra em todos oslugares, quando, na verdade, é justamente no domínio da técnica que ele se encontra o mais distante de si mesmo ou de sua essência. Para reencontrar-se consigo mesmo, faz-se necessário a preparação para o advento do novo homem, e está reservada à arte, ao que parece, abrir caminhos na densa floresta que separa o homem de sua autenticidade. Cabe a nós, portanto, questionar se e em que medida a arte pode cumprir essa tarefa, ou se, ao contrário, estamos esperando dela mais do que pode oferecer.

  17. NOAA NOS SOS, EXPERIMENTAL - Water Temperature

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA NOS SOS server is part of the IOOS DIF SOS Project. The stations in this dataset have water temperature data. *These services are for testing and evaluation...

  18. NOAA NOS SOS, EXPERIMENTAL - Air Temperature

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA NOS SOS server is part of the IOOS DIF SOS Project. The stations in this dataset have air temperature data. *These services are for testing and evaluation...

  19. NOAA NOS SOS, EXPERIMENTAL - Water Level

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA NOS SOS server is part of the IOOS DIF SOS Project. The stations in this dataset have water surface height above a reference datum. *These services are for...

  20. Study of the influence of the temperature in the magnetic properties and in microstructure in the permanent magnets Pr-Fe-B-Nb-Co based obtained by hydrogen; Estudo da influencia da temperatura nas propriedades magneticas e na microestrutura nos imas permanentes a base de Pr-Fe-B-Nb-Co obtidos com hidrogenio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Suelanny Carvalho da

    2007-07-01

    Fine magnetic powders were produced using the hydrogenation disproportionation desorption and recombination (HDDR) process. The first stage in this work involved an investigation of the effect of the Co content and range of desorption/ recombination temperatures between 800 and 900 deg C with the purpose of optimizing the HDDR treatment for Pr{sub 14}Fe{sub 80}B{sub 6} and Pr{sub 14}Fe{sub bal}Co{sub x}B{sub 6}Nb{sub 0,1} (x= 0, 4, 8, 10, 12, 16) alloys. The cast alloys were annealed at 1100 deg C for 20 hours for homogenization. The processing temperature (desorption/ recombination) affected the microstructure and magnetic properties of the bonded magnets. The alloy with low cobalt content (4 at.%) required the highest reaction temperature (880 deg C) to yield anisotropic bonded magnets. The optimum temperature for alloys with 8 at.% Co and 10 at.% Co were 840 deg C and 820 deg C, respectively. Alloys with high cobalt content (12 at.% and 16 at.%) were processed at 840 deg C. The optimum desorption temperature for achieving high anisotropy for Pr{sub 14}Fe{sub 80}B{sub 6} and Pr{sub 14}Fe{sub 79,9}B{sub 6}Nb{sub 0,1} was 820 deg C. The best remanence (862 mT) was achieved with the Pr{sub 14}Fe{sub 67,9}B{sub 6}Co{sub 12}Nb{sub 0,1} magnet, processed at 840 deg C. Each alloy required an optimum reaction temperature and exhibited a particular microstructure according to the composition. The second stage of the work involved the characterization, for each temperature, of the Pr{sub 14}Fe{sub 80}B{sub 6} HDDR powder processed using X-ray diffraction analysis. The samples of the HDDR material were studied by synchrotron radiation powder diffraction using the Rietveld method for cell refinement, phase quantification and crystallite sizes determination. Scanning electron microscopy has also been employed to reveal the morphology of the HDDR powder. (author)

  1. Renal nerves and nNOS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kompanowska-Jezierska, Elzbieta; Wolff, Helle; Kuczeriszka, Marta

    2008-01-01

    It was hypothesized that renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) are involved in the acute inhibition of renin secretion and the natriuresis following slow NaCl loading (NaLoad) and that RSNA participates in the regulation of arterial blood pressure (MABP......). This was tested by NaLoad after chronic renal denervation with and without inhibition of nNOS by S-methyl-thiocitrulline (SMTC). In addition, the acute effects of renal denervation on MABP and sodium balance were assessed. Rats were investigated in the conscious, catheterized state, in metabolic cages...... of acutely and chronically denervated rats were less than control (15% and 9%, respectively, P renal denervation (14.5 +/- 0.2 vs. 19.3 +/- 1.3 mIU/l, P

  2. Editorial - O que nos (pre)ocupa?

    OpenAIRE

    Palmeirim, Madalena Manzoni

    2012-01-01

    Todo o gesto artístico é, em certa medida, um acto político. O contrário torna-se cada vez mais difícil de afirmar. Neste Portugal que se encontra nas mãos de um corpo político sem voz cultural, as decisões que nos são impostas ultrapassam a tão necessária condição de austeridade para fundarem um estado catatónico, onde a cultura é vista como uma exigência caprichosa, supérflua e desnecessária. É precisamente o esvaziamento de criatividade na retórica política que nos impede de...

  3. ¿Las emociones nos distraen?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Pilar Pacheco-Unguetti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available ¿Leerás este artículo hasta el final sin interrupciones? Puede que, mientras lo intentas, recibas algún mensaje de whatsapp, se abra una ventana emergente en tu ordenador con una oferta de viajes al Caribe o el cartero llame dos veces a tu puerta. También puede ser que simplemente no tengas un buen día y te resulte especialmente difícil concentrarte. Vivimos expuestos a multitud de estímulos distractores externos, algunos tan inesperados o extraños que entorpecen irremediablemente nuestra concentración en una tarea (distracción por novedad. Pero la distracción también puede tener una causa interna y cómo nos sentimos puede influir en cuánto nos distraemos.

  4. ¿Comer carne nos hizo inteligentes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Marmelada

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available La inteligencia abstracta es lo que más nos diferencia de los restantes animales. Su origen continúa siendo un misterio sujeto a debate. Hay quienes afirman que emergió paulatinamente. En este sentido se ha propuesto que incorporar la carne a la dieta de los homínidos pudo haber sido el detonante que la hizo surgir. Pero esta hipótesis tiene sus lagunas.

  5. Pobreza infantil nos paises ricos 2005

    OpenAIRE

    *UNICEF

    2006-01-01

    Este estudo de 2005 sobre pobreza infantil nos países ricos conclui que a percentagem de crianças pobres no mundo desenvolvido aumentou em 17 dos 24 países da OCDE para os quais existem dados. Independentemente do instrumento aplicado para medir a pobreza, a situação das crianças parece ter-se deteriorado ao longo da última década. A redução da pobreza infantil é uma medida do progresso no sentido da coesão social, da igualdade de oportunidades e do investimento nas crianças de hoje e no mund...

  6. Nitric oxide pathway genes (NOS1AP and NOS1) are involved in PTSD severity, depression, anxiety, stress and resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruenig, Dagmar; Morris, Charles P; Mehta, Divya; Harvey, Wendy; Lawford, Bruce; Young, Ross McD; Voisey, Joanne

    2017-08-20

    The nitric oxide pathway in the hippocampus is involved in the biological stress response with detrimental consequences to cells and HPA axis feedback. Hippocampal atrophy and HPA axis feedback dysfunction are associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This study systematically investigates two genes of the nitric oxide pathway NOS1AP and NOS1 for a potential involvement in PTSD, comorbidities and resilience. A cohort of age and gender matched Vietnam veterans including trauma-exposed cases and controls was recruited and comprehensively assessed (n=299). A total of 49 NOS1AP and 16 NOS1 polymorphisms were analysed and genotypes correlated with gold standard clinical measures to assess PTSD severity and related phenotypes (depression, anxiety, stress, resilience) based on diagnostic status. Multiple NOS1AP polymorphisms were associated across all measures, and NOS1 polymorphisms were associated with PTSD severity, stress and resilience. The GG genotype of NOS1 polymorphism rs10744891 was associated with PTSD severity (surviving multiple correction) while the combined TT-TG genotypes were associated with resilience (p=0.005; p=0.033, respectively). This study indicates that NOS1AP and NOS1 from the nitric oxide pathway are likely to play a key role in PTSD, its comorbidities and resilience. Given the essential role of NOS1AP and NOS1 in stress response they may be reliable targets for screening and intervention strategies. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. COMPOSTAGEM DE DEJETOS DE SUÍNOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Gonçalves Xavier

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A compostagem, como forma de tratamento para os dejetos de suínos, pode ser uma alternativa viável para gerenciar osefluentes desta importante atividade agropecuária. Deste modo, foi conduzido um estudo em condições de campo em 16 granjas deprodutores de suínos, no sistema de integração com a Perdigão Agroindustrial S/A Regional RS no Sistema Vertical Terminador(SVT, onde os produtores recebem os animais na saída da creche e realizam as fases de crescimento e terminação. Odelineamento experimental utilizado foi o completamente casualizado, com os seguintes tratamentos: Tratamento 1-substratocomposto por serragem, Tratamento 2-substrato composto por maravalha, Tratamento 3-substrato composto por cama de aviário eTratamento 4-Sistema convencional de tratamento de dejetos. Os tratamentos foram distribuídos às unidades experimentais(granjas de maneira aleatória, onde cada tratamento teve quatro repetições. Foram analisadas as variáveis meteorológicas,temperatura do processo de compostagem, volume de dejetos produzidos e análise físico-química do composto e dos dejetoslíquidos. Os dados coletados foram submetidos à análise com o uso de um programa estatístico, sendo que as médias dostratamentos foram comparadas através do uso de contrastes ortogonais. Houve efeito de tratamento para as variáveis volume ematéria seca dos dejetos. Conclui-se que o sistema muda as características físicas dos dejetos, reduz o volume e concentranutrientes.

  8. COMPOSTAGEM DE DEJETOS DE SUÍNOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Antonio Daí Pra

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A compostagem, como forma de tratamento para os dejetos de suínos, pode ser uma alternativa viável para gerenciar os efluentes desta importante atividade agropecuária. Deste modo, foi conduzido um estudo em condições de campo em 16 granjas de produtores de suínos, no sistema de integração com a Perdigão Agroindustrial S/A Regional RS no Sistema Vertical Terminador (SVT, onde os produtores recebem os animais na saída da creche e realizam as fases de crescimento e terminação. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o completamente casualizado, com os seguintes tratamentos: Tratamento 1-substrato composto por serragem, Tratamento 2-substrato composto por maravalha, Tratamento 3-substrato composto por cama de aviário e Tratamento 4-Sistema convencional de tratamento de dejetos. Os tratamentos foram distribuídos às unidades experimentais (granjas de maneira aleatória, onde cada tratamento teve quatro repetições. Foram analisadas as variáveis meteorológicas, temperatura do processo de compostagem, volume de dejetos produzidos e análise físico-química do composto e dos dejetos líquidos. Os dados coletados foram submetidos à análise com o uso de um programa estatístico, sendo que as médias dos tratamentos foram comparadas através do uso de contrastes ortogonais. Houve efeito de tratamento para as variáveis volume e matéria seca dos dejetos. Conclui-se que o sistema muda as características físicas dos dejetos, reduz o volume e concentra nutrientes.

  9. ATRAVESSAMENTO DE SABERES NOS ESTUDOS SOBRE A LINGUAGEM NO/DO BRASIL NOS ANOS 50

    OpenAIRE

    Caroline Mallmann Schneiders

    2011-01-01

    A problemática de pesquisa sobre a qual nos debruçamos neste estudo de dissertação volta-se a uma reflexão em torno do discurso sobre a produção do conhecimento linguístico dos anos 50 no/do Brasil. Nosso escopo central está na compreensão da temporalidade e da memória discursiva que constituem o discurso científico sobre a linguagem dessa conjuntura a partir do atravessamento de saberes do campo disciplinar da Linguística. Interessa-nos este atravessamento, pois esse domínio de saber a...

  10. Subjetividade, alteridade e desamparo nos tempos atuais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Humberto Rodrigues Rocha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho vai ao encontro do que foi realizado ao longo da teoria freudiana: contextualizar o homem em sua ordem social circundante e pensar as relações que se estabelecem na configuração do laço social. O objetivo é refletir sobre as possibilidades de outras articulações metapsicológicas, que permitam compreender a relação dos dispositivos contemporâneos criados para lidar com odesamparo, e as implicações de seu uso recorrente na condição desejante.Para tanto, nos deteremos a propósito das tensões entre as três instâncias do aparelho psíquico: id, ego e superego. Analisando as relações que estruturam o laço social, conseguimos repensar proposições psicanalíticas consagradas, tais como alteridade, desejo, pulsão e seus destinos.

  11. mRNA expression and localization of bNOS, eNOS and iNOS in human cervix at preterm and term labour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byström Birgitta

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preterm birth is the primary cause of the neonatal mortality and morbidity. There will be no preterm birth without a cervical softening. Nitric oxide (NO is shown to be a mediator of term cervical ripening. The aim of this study was to investigate mRNA expression of the three isomers of NO synthases (NOS and to identify them by immunohistochemistry in the human cervix at preterm birth compared to term. Methods The three isomers of NOS- inducible (iNOS, endothelial (eNOS and neuronal (bNOS – were investigated in the human cervix. The expression of mRNA was determined using Real-Time Multiplex RT-PCR. The localisation of synthases in the cervical tissue was analysed using immunohistochemistry. Cervical biopsies were obtained from 4 groups of women without clinical signs of infection: preterm (PTL, term labour (TL, preterm not in labour (PTnotL and term not in labour (TnotL patients. One-Way ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis, Student t-test or Mann-Whitney test were applied as appropriate to determine statistically significant differences among the groups. Results Patients in preterm labour had significantly (p Conclusion The mRNA levels were higher in the preterm labour group compared to the women at term labour. The significant increase of the eNOS mRNA expression, from the unripe to the favourable cervical state during labour, may indicate a role of eNOS and supports the role of NO in the cervical ripening process. All the three synthases were identified by immunohistochemistry in all the groups of study.

  12. Using a Professional Development Program for Enhancing Chilean Biology Teachers' Understanding of Nature of Science (NOS) and Their Perceptions About Using History of Science to Teach NOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavez, José M.; Vergara, Claudia A.; Santibañez, David; Cofré, Hernán

    2016-05-01

    A number of authors have recognized the importance of understanding the nature of science (NOS) for scientific literacy. Different instructional strategies such as decontextualized, hands-on inquiry, and history of science (HOS) activities have been proposed for teaching NOS. This article seeks to understand the contribution of HOS in enhancing biology teachers' understanding of NOS, and their perceptions about using HOS to teach NOS. These teachers ( N = 8), enrolled in a professional development program in Chile are, according to the national curriculum, expected to teach NOS, but have no specific NOS and HOS training. Teachers' views of NOS were assessed using the VNOS-D+ questionnaire at the beginning and at the end of two modules about science instruction and NOS. Both the pre- and the post-test were accompanied by interviews, and in the second session we collected information about teachers' perceptions of which interventions had been more significant in changing their views on NOS. Finally, the teachers also had to prepare a lesson plan for teaching NOS that included HOS. Some of the most important study results were: significant improvements were observed in teachers' understanding of NOS, although they assigned different levels of importance to HOS in these improvements; and although the teachers improved their understanding of NOS, most had difficulties in planning lessons about NOS and articulating historical episodes that incorporated NOS. The relationship between teachers' improved understanding of NOS and their instructional NOS skills is also discussed.

  13. METAFICÇÃO NOS ROMANCES DE MACHADO DE ASSIS

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    Janine Resende Rocha

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Nos romances de Machado de Assis, a metaficção é caracterizada de maneira permanente. Este ensaio pretende observar o efeito provocado nessas narrativas pela reflexão do ficcional produzida por elas.

  14. NOAA/NOS and USCGS Seabed Descriptions from Hydrographic Surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA/NOS and USCGS Seabed Descriptions from Hydrographic Surveys database is a compilation of surficial sediment composition from multiple sources for over...

  15. NOS CO-OPS Water Level Data, Verified, Hourly

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has verified (quality-controlled), hourly, water level (tide) data from NOAA NOS Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services (CO-OPS)....

  16. NOS CO-OPS Meteorological Data, Visibility, 6-Minute

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has Visibility data from NOAA NOS Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services (CO-OPS). WARNING: These preliminary data have not been...

  17. NOS CO-OPS Water Level Data, Preliminary, 6-Minute

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has recent, preliminary (not quality-controlled), 6-minute, water level (tide) data from NOAA NOS Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and...

  18. NOS CO-OPS Water Level Data, Preliminary, 1-Minute

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has recent, preliminary (not quality-controlled), 1-minute, water level (tide) data from NOAA NOS Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and...

  19. NOS CO-OPS Water Level Data, Verified, 6-Minute

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has verified (quality-controlled), 6-minute, water level (tide) data from NOAA NOS Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services (CO-OPS)....

  20. NOS CO-OPS Meteorological Data, Water Temperature, 6-Minute

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has Water Temperature data from NOAA NOS Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services (CO-OPS). WARNING: These preliminary data have not...

  1. NOS CO-OPS Active Currents Data, 6-Minute

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has surface Active Currents data from NOAA NOS Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services (CO-OPS). WARNING: These raw data have not...

  2. NOS CO-OPS Meteorological Data, Relative Humidity, 6-Minute

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has Relative Humidity data from NOAA NOS Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services (CO-OPS). WARNING: These preliminary data have not...

  3. NOS CO-OPS Meteorological Data, Air Temperature, 6-Minute

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has Air Temperature data from NOAA NOS Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services (CO-OPS). WARNING: These preliminary data have not...

  4. NOS CO-OPS Meteorological Data, Conductivity, 6-Minute

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has Conductivity data from NOAA NOS Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services (CO-OPS). WARNING: These preliminary data have not been...

  5. NOS CO-OPS Water Level Data, Verified, High Low

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has verified (quality-controlled), daily, high low water level (tide) data from NOAA NOS Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services...

  6. NOS CO-OPS Meteorological Data, Wind, 6-Minute

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has Wind data from NOAA NOS Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services (CO-OPS). WARNING: These preliminary data have not been subjected...

  7. NOS CO-OPS Meteorological Data, Barometric Pressure, 6-Minute

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has Barometric Pressure data from NOAA NOS Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services (CO-OPS). WARNING: These preliminary data have not...

  8. NOS CO-OPS Meteorological Data, Rain Fall, 6-Minute

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has Rain Fall data from NOAA NOS Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services (CO-OPS). WARNING: These preliminary data have not been...

  9. NOAA NOS SOS, EXPERIMENTAL, 1853-present, Barometric Pressure

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA NOS SOS server is part of the IOOS DIF SOS Project. The stations in this dataset have barometric pressure data. *These services are for testing and...

  10. Role of iNOS and eNOS expression in a group of Egyptian diabetic and nondiabetic nephropathy patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayssa I. Aly

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion The presence of iNOS is associated with tubular damage resulting in renal failure. The upregulation of NO in diabetes mellitus type 2 may explain the endothelial dysfunction that is associated with almost all diabetic complications.

  11. Pedagogical Reflections by Secondary Science Teachers at Different NOS Implementation Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Benjamin C.; Clough, Michael P.; Olson, Joanne K.

    2017-02-01

    This study investigated what 13 secondary science teachers at various nature of science (NOS) instruction implementation levels talked about when they reflected on their teaching. We then determined if differences exist in the quality of those reflections between high, medium, and low NOS implementers. This study sought to answer the following questions: (1) What do teachers talk about when asked general questions about their pedagogy and NOS pedagogy and (2) what qualitative differences, if any, exist within variables across teachers of varying NOS implementation levels? Evidence derived from these teachers' reflections indicated that self-efficacy and perceptions of general importance for NOS instruction were poor indicators of NOS implementation. However, several factors were associated with the extent that these teachers implemented NOS instruction, including the utility value they hold for NOS teaching, considerations of how people learn, understanding of NOS pedagogy, and their ability to accurately and deeply self-reflect about teaching. Notably, those teachers who effectively implemented the NOS at higher levels value NOS instruction for reasons that transcend immediate instructional objectives. That is, they value teaching NOS for achieving compelling ends realized long after formal schooling (e.g., lifelong socioscientific decision-making for civic reasons), and they deeply reflect about how to teach NOS by drawing from research about how people learn. Low NOS implementers' simplistic notions and reflections about teaching and learning appeared to be impeding factors to accurate and consistent NOS implementation. This study has implications for science teacher education efforts that promote NOS instruction.

  12. Expression analysis of NOS family and HSP genes during thermal stress in goat ( Capra hircus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Vijay Pratap; Dangi, Satyaveer Singh; Chouhan, Vikrant Singh; Gupta, Mahesh; Dangi, Saroj K.; Singh, Gyanendra; Maurya, Vijay Prakash; Kumar, Puneet; Sarkar, Mihir

    2016-03-01

    Approximately 50 genes other than heat shock protein (HSP) expression changes during thermal stress. These genes like nitric oxide synthase (NOS) need proper attention and investigation to find out their possible role in the adaptation to thermal stress in animals. So, the present study was undertaken to demonstrate the expressions of inducible form type II NOS (iNOS), endothelial type III NOS (eNOS), constitutively expressed enzyme NOS (cNOS), HSP70, and HSP90 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) during different seasons in Barbari goats. Real-time polymerase chain reaction, western blot, and immunocytochemistry were applied to investigate messenger RNA (mRNA) expression, protein expression, and immunolocalization of examined factors. The mRNA and protein expressions of iNOS, eNOS, cNOS, HSP70, and HSP90 were significantly higher ( P homeostasis in goats.

  13. Los medios de comunicación ¿nos igualan o nos diferencian?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier BALLESTA PAGÁN

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: En este artículo presentamos los resultados obtenidos en una investigación llevada a cabo en los centros educativos de Educación Secundaria Obligatoria de la Región de Murcia donde se ha pretendido valorar el equipamiento, el acceso a la información y el consumo de medios de comunicación en el hogar, por parte del alumnado inmigrante en comparación con el autóctono. Los datos aportados de dicho estudio nos confirman que la mayoría de los recursos más utilizados en el hogar es menor en los hogares del alumnado inmigrante de Educación Secundaria Obligatoria (ESO respecto al resto de la muestra en general de los alumnos. Por otra parte, el acceso a los medios, para estos alumnos inmigrantes, corrobora que son considerados recursos de gran importancia como vehículos en su acercamiento al aprendizaje y al entretenimiento. En cuanto al uso personal de dichos medios de comunicación observamos que mientras el ordenador, el móvil y el DVD son muy utilizados, comprobamos cómo desciende su uso e interés cuando abordamos otros medios de papel impreso, entre los que destacamos el libro y el periódico. Sin embargo, el uso de la televisión es bastante similar en ambos colectivos. Con relación al acceso a Internet, los resultados analizados parecen confirmar que el hogar se convierte en el lugar adecuado para su uso en ambas muestras, por encima de otros espacios públicos o privados. Sin embargo, si comprobamos la disponibilidad de acceso al mismo en el hogar por parte del alumnado inmigrante, destacamos que es menor de la que disponen los hogares autóctonos. En relación con la lectura, el nivel lector de estos jóvenes inmigrantes es también menor, aunque no existe una gran diferencia, respecto de la muestra de alumnos autóctonos. Al valorar el uso que hacen de la biblioteca comprobamos que más de la mitad de los alumnos afirman ir a ella, pero preferentemente a la pública más que la biblioteca del centro o a la de otras

  14. Las Rocas Nos Cuentan (Rocks Tell Their Stories)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llerandi-Roman, Pablo A.

    2012-01-01

    Many Earth science lessons today still focus on memorizing the names of rocks and minerals. This led the author to develop a lesson that reveals the fascinating stories told by rocks through the study of their physical properties. He first designed the lesson for Puerto Rican teachers, hence its Spanish title: "Las Rocas Nos Cuentan Su Historia."…

  15. 77 FR 27719 - Marine Mammals; File Nos. 16109 and 15575

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-11

    ... marine mammals and sea turtles had been submitted by the above-named applicants. The requested permits... Atlantic right whales and 43 other marine mammal and sea turtle species to conduct photo-identification... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA602 Marine Mammals; File Nos. 16109 and 15575...

  16. 76 FR 51001 - Marine Mammals; File Nos. 16109 and 15575

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-17

    ... mammals and sea turtles. DATES: Written, telefaxed, or e-mail comments must be received on or before... ] the North Atlantic right whale and 43 other protected marine mammal and sea turtle species in U.S... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA602 Marine Mammals; File Nos. 16109 and 15575...

  17. Aqueous Humor Outflow Physiology in NOS3 Knockout Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Yuan; Zhang, Xuejin; Song, Maomao; Wu, Jihong; Sun, Xinghuai

    2015-07-01

    To investigate the role of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) on conventional outflow function using NOS3 knockout (KO) mice. Intraocular pressure was measured in both NOS3 KO and wild type (WT) by rebound tonometry. Outflow facility was measured by perfusing enucleated mouse eyes at multiple pressure steps. A subset of eyes was sectioned and stained for histology. Mock aqueous humor ± the nitric oxide (NO) donors nitroprusside dihydrate (SNP) or S-Nitroso-N-Acetyl-D,L-Penicillamine (SNAP) was perfused into enucleated eyes. SNP and SNAP was administered topically at 0, 1, 2, and 3 hours while the contralateral eyes served as vehicle controls. Intraocular pressure was measured in both eyes before and after the last drug treatment. Intraocular pressure was higher in KO mice (18.2 ± 0.7 mm Hg vs. 13.9 ± 0.5 mm Hg, mean ± SEM, n = 30, P animals (n = 12, P < 0.05). In WT mice, SNP and SNAP caused a significant increase in pressure dependent drainage (n = 12, P < 0.05) to a similar degree as in KO mice. Topical application of SNP significantly reduced IOP in WT and KO mice (n = 12, P < 0.05), but SNAP did not change IOP significantly (n = 19). NOS3 KO mice have elevated IOP, which is likely the result of reduced pressure-dependent drainage. These findings are consistent with human data showing polymorphisms in the NOS3 gene associate with ocular hypertension and the development of glaucoma.

  18. Contribution of the nos-pdt operon to virulence phenotypes in methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapp, April M; Mogen, Austin B; Almand, Erin A; Rivera, Frances E; Shaw, Lindsey N; Richardson, Anthony R; Rice, Kelly C

    2014-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is emerging as an important regulator of bacterial stress resistance, biofilm development, and virulence. One potential source of endogenous NO production in the pathogen Staphylococcus aureus is its NO-synthase (saNOS) enzyme, encoded by the nos gene. Although a role for saNOS in oxidative stress resistance, antibiotic resistance, and virulence has been recently-described, insights into the regulation of nos expression and saNOS enzyme activity remain elusive. To this end, transcriptional analysis of the nos gene in S. aureus strain UAMS-1 was performed, which revealed that nos expression increases during low-oxygen growth and is growth-phase dependent. Furthermore, nos is co-transcribed with a downstream gene, designated pdt, which encodes a prephenate dehydratase (PDT) enzyme involved in phenylalanine biosynthesis. Deletion of pdt significantly impaired the ability of UAMS-1 to grow in chemically-defined media lacking phenylalanine, confirming the function of this enzyme. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that the operon organization of nos-pdt appears to be unique to the staphylococci. As described for other S. aureus nos mutants, inactivation of nos in UAMS-1 conferred sensitivity to oxidative stress, while deletion of pdt did not affect this phenotype. The nos mutant also displayed reduced virulence in a murine sepsis infection model, and increased carotenoid pigmentation when cultured on agar plates, both previously-undescribed nos mutant phenotypes. Utilizing the fluorescent stain 4-Amino-5-Methylamino-2',7'-Difluorofluorescein (DAF-FM) diacetate, decreased levels of intracellular NO/reactive nitrogen species (RNS) were detected in the nos mutant on agar plates. These results reinforce the important role of saNOS in S. aureus physiology and virulence, and have identified an in vitro growth condition under which saNOS activity appears to be upregulated. However, the significance of the operon organization of nos-pdt and potential

  19. Contribution of the nos-pdt operon to virulence phenotypes in methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    April M Sapp

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO is emerging as an important regulator of bacterial stress resistance, biofilm development, and virulence. One potential source of endogenous NO production in the pathogen Staphylococcus aureus is its NO-synthase (saNOS enzyme, encoded by the nos gene. Although a role for saNOS in oxidative stress resistance, antibiotic resistance, and virulence has been recently-described, insights into the regulation of nos expression and saNOS enzyme activity remain elusive. To this end, transcriptional analysis of the nos gene in S. aureus strain UAMS-1 was performed, which revealed that nos expression increases during low-oxygen growth and is growth-phase dependent. Furthermore, nos is co-transcribed with a downstream gene, designated pdt, which encodes a prephenate dehydratase (PDT enzyme involved in phenylalanine biosynthesis. Deletion of pdt significantly impaired the ability of UAMS-1 to grow in chemically-defined media lacking phenylalanine, confirming the function of this enzyme. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that the operon organization of nos-pdt appears to be unique to the staphylococci. As described for other S. aureus nos mutants, inactivation of nos in UAMS-1 conferred sensitivity to oxidative stress, while deletion of pdt did not affect this phenotype. The nos mutant also displayed reduced virulence in a murine sepsis infection model, and increased carotenoid pigmentation when cultured on agar plates, both previously-undescribed nos mutant phenotypes. Utilizing the fluorescent stain 4-Amino-5-Methylamino-2',7'-Difluorofluorescein (DAF-FM diacetate, decreased levels of intracellular NO/reactive nitrogen species (RNS were detected in the nos mutant on agar plates. These results reinforce the important role of saNOS in S. aureus physiology and virulence, and have identified an in vitro growth condition under which saNOS activity appears to be upregulated. However, the significance of the operon organization of nos-pdt and

  20. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase: From biochemistry and gene structure to clinical implications of NOS3 polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira-Paula, Gustavo H; Lacchini, Riccardo; Tanus-Santos, Jose E

    2016-01-10

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an important vasodilator with a well-established role in cardiovascular homeostasis. While mediator is synthesized from L-arginine by neuronal, endothelial, and inducible nitric oxide synthases (NOS1,NOS3 and NOS2 respectively), NOS3 is the most important isoform for NO formation in the cardiovascular system. NOS3 is a dimeric enzyme whose expression and activity are regulated at transcriptional, posttranscriptional,and posttranslational levels. The NOS3 gene, which encodes NOS3, exhibits a number of polymorphic sites including single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), variable number of tandem repeats (VNTRs), microsatellites, and insertions/deletions. Some NOS3 polymorphisms show functional effects on NOS3 expression or activity, thereby affecting NO formation. Interestingly, many studies have evaluated the effects of functional NOS3 polymorphisms on disease susceptibility and drug responses. Moreover, some studies have investigated how NOS3 haplotypes may impact endogenous NO formation and disease susceptibility. In this article,we carried out a comprehensive review to provide a basic understanding of biochemical mechanisms involved in NOS3 regulation and how genetic variations in NOS3 may translate into relevant clinical and pharmacogenetic implications.

  1. Endothelin-1 Overexpression Improves Renal Function in eNOS Knockout Mice

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    Oleg Tsuprykov

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: To investigate the renal phenotype under conditions of an activated renal ET-1 system in the status of nitric oxide deficiency, we compared kidney function and morphology in wild-type, ET-1 transgenic (ET+/+, endothelial nitric oxide synthase knockout (eNOS-/- and ET+/+eNOS-/- mice. Methods: We assessed blood pressure, parameters of renal morphology, plasma cystatin C, urinary protein excretion, expression of genes associated with glomerular filtration barrier and tissue remodeling, and plasma metabolites using metabolomics. Results: eNOS-/- and ET+/+eNOS-/- mice developed hypertension. Osteopontin, albumin and protein excretion were increased in eNOS-/- and restored in ET+/+eNOS-/- animals. All genetically modified mice developed renal interstitial fibrosis and glomerulosclerosis. Genes involved in tissue remodeling (serpine1, TIMP1, Col1a1, CCL2 were up-regulated in eNOS-/-, but not in ET+/+eNOS-/- mice. Plasma levels of free carnitine and acylcarnitines, amino acids, diacyl phosphatidylcholines, lysophosphatidylcholines and hexoses were descreased in eNOS-/- and were in the normal range in ET+/+eNOS-/- mice. Conclusion: eNOS-/- mice developed renal dysfunction, which was partially rescued by ET-1 overexpression in eNOS-/- mice. The metabolomics results suggest that ET-1 overexpression on top of eNOS knockout is associated with a functional recovery of mitochondria (rescue effect in β-oxidation of fatty acids and an increase in antioxidative properties (normalization of monounsaturated fatty acids levels.

  2. Endothelial (NOS3 E298D) and inducible (NOS2 exon 22) nitric oxide synthase polymorphisms, as well as plasma NOx, influence sepsis development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Guadalupe; Asensi, Víctor; Montes, A Hugo; Collazos, Julio; Alvarez, Victoria; Pérez-Is, Laura; Carton, José A; Taboada, Francisco; Valle-Garay, Eulalia

    2014-11-15

    Nitric oxide (NO) influences susceptibility to infection and hemodynamic failure (HF) in sepsis. NOS3 and NOS2 SNPs might modify plasma nitrite/nitrate (NOx) levels, sepsis development, hemodynamics and survival. 90 severely septic and 91 non-infected ICU patients were prospectively studied. NOS3 (E298D), NOS3 (-786 T/C), NOS3 (27 bp-VNTR), and NOS2A (exon 22) SNPs and plasma NOx levels were assessed. 21 patients (11.6%) died, 7 with sepsis. TT homozygotes and T allele carriers of NOS3 (E298D) and AG carriers of the NOS2A (exon 22) SNPs were more frequent among septic compared to non-infected ICU patients (p < 0.05). Plasma NOx was higher in septic, especially in septic with hemodynamic failure (HF) or fatal outcome (p < 0.006). Plasma NOx was higher in carriers of the T allele of the NOS3 (E298D) SNP (p = 0.006). Sepsis independently associated with HF, increased NOx, peripheral neutrophils, and fibrinogen levels, decreased prothrombin and the presence of the NOS3 (E298D) and NOS2A (exon 22) SNPs. A low APACHE II score was the only variable associated with sepsis survival. NOx was independently associated with sepsis, HF, decreased neutrophils and higher APACHE. NOS3 (E298D) and NOS2A (exon 22) SNPs, individually and in combination, and plasma NOx, associated with sepsis development. NOx associated with HF and fatal outcome. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Tratamento de dejetos suínos com biorreator UASB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Costa da Silva

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Esse trabalho tem por objetivo analisar a importância do biodigestor UASB no tratamento de dejetos suínos. A suinocultura possui papel importante quanto ao desenvolvimento econômico do Brasil. No entanto, o aumento de produção vem causando problemas ambientais graves, por conta do grande volume de resíduos sólidos gerados pela atividade. O desenvolvimento de métodos de tratamento de dejetos que agreguem valor à produção e respeitem as leis ambientais é um dos grandes desafios do setor. A biodigestão anaeróbia é um dos métodos mais eficazes para o tratamento de dejetos de suinoculturas. Este método de digestão, denominado UASB, tem como característica principal a produção de biogás e de biofertilizante, produto rico em nutrientes, e livre de patógenos. O método oferece vantagens como a promoção do bem estar animal, o aumento da fertilidade do solo, a diminuição da poluição e da emissão de gases geradores do efeito estufa e a melhoria da qualidade de vida, nos centros produtores de suínos, além de minimizar problemas relacionados ao déficit de energia elétrica. Portanto, a utilização de biodigestores UASB para o tratamento de dejetos de suínos é uma opção interessante, que deve ser avaliada com seriedade.

  4. COLECISTECTOMIA VÍDEO-LAPAROSCÓPICA EM SUÍNOS

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    Marcelo Alves Pinto

    1993-08-01

    Full Text Available Dezoito suínos foram submetidos experimentalmente a colecistectomia vídeo-laparoscópica. Neste experimento procurou-se padronizar e avaliar a técnica cirúrgica e anestésica para sua utilização em centros de treinamento em cirurgia experimental, bem como de terapêutica cirúrgica em medicina veterinária.

  5. Participação nos Lucros ou Resultados

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    Luiz Felipe Ferreira

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A participação nos lucros ou resultados é uma forma de remuneração variável, pela qual não há incidência de encargos sociais, além de incentivar o aumento da produtividade, podendo assim ser utilizada pelas empresas como estratégia, para enfrentarem os desafios dinâmicos e competitivos em que atuam. Esta pesquisa caracteriza-se como sendo exploratória, com abordagem qualitativa e tem como objetivo conceituar e explanar as formas pela quais são praticadas a participação nos lucros ou resultados em empresas do setor alimentício em Santa Catarina, que foram escolhidas por meio do critério de acessibilidade e disponibilidade. Dos dados coletados, pode-se verificar que as empresas: COC Alimentos, Moinho Catarinense e Pepsico do Brasil utilizam a participação nos resultados e a Perdigão utiliza a participação mista. A Moinho Catarinense distribui para todos os empregados um salário nominal, como a CDC Alimentos, exceto para os gerentes. A Perdigão beneficia todos os empregados, sendo que 60% da distribuição é pelo lucro líquido e 40% por indicadores de desempenho. A Pepsico do Brasil distribui aos empregados operacionais 50% de um salário nominal e para os empregados da administração central um salário nominal, atrelado ao cumprimento de metas, especificadas no programa de participação nos lucros ou resultados.

  6. Pragmatismo e os pragmáticos nos estudos organizacionais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Kanashiro Meneghetti

    Full Text Available O objetivo central deste ensaio teórico é avaliar as contribuições do pragmatismo nos Estudos Organizacionais e, os específicos, avaliar se as contribuições teóricas de Charles Peirce e John Dewey possibilitam afirmar o pragmatismo como senso comum, ciência ou teoria do conhecimento; analisar as contribuições - possibilidadese limites - do pragmatismo como conhecimento científico; compreender os percursos do pragmatismo nos Estudos Organizacionais. Chaga-se a conclusão de que ser pragmático é diferente de conceber estudos articulados no campo epistemológico do pragmatismo. O sujeito pragmático vê na sua utilidade e na necessidade deação, o ponto de tensão que coloca em dúvida a veracidade dos pressupostos do pragmatismo como ciência. O que ocorre nos Estudos Organizacionais éa conversão do pragmatismo como conhecimento científico emsubordinação irracional à utilidade e à ação prática, sobretudo, no campo da economia, da política, da ciência, da cultura, da educação, e assim por diante.

  7. Neoplasmas em suínos: 37 casos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana S. Brum

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: Neoplasmas em suínos são raros. Esse trabalho descreve os neoplasmas encontrados em suínos na rotina diagnóstica de um laboratório de patologia veterinária localizado na Região Central do Rio Grande do Sul. Durante um período de 49 anos, 2.266 casos de várias afecções em suínos foram encontrados, dos quais 37 (1,6% eram neoplasmas. Em ordem decrescente de frequência, os seguintes neoplasmas foram encontrados: Linfoma (11/37, nefroblastoma (11/37, melanoma (8/37 e papiloma (2/37. Adicionalmente, um caso de cada um dos seguintes tumores foi observado: Adenoma hepatocelular, carcinoma hepatocelular, colangiocarcinoma, histiocitoma fibroso maligno e sarcoma granulocítico. O aspecto macroscópico e histológico desses tumores é descrito e a sua epidemiologia é comparada com os dados disponíveis na literatura para neoplasia suína.

  8. Low Nitric Oxide Synthases (NOS) in Eyes with Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhutto, Imran A.; Baba, Takayuki; Merges, Carol; McLeod, D. Scott; Lutty, Gerard A.

    2009-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) production by vascular endothelium is important in regulation of blood flow. Reduced production of NO can adversely affect blood flow and other vascular functions. We investigated the expression of three nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isoforms in retina and choroid of aged human eyes and eyes with AMD. Alkaline phosphatase immunohistochemistry was performed using antibodies against inducible (iNOS), neuronal (nNOS), and endothelial (eNOS) NOSs on cryopreserved sections from aged control donor eyes (n= 13) and eyes with AMD (n= 22). CD34 antibody was used as an endothelial cell (EC) marker. Three independent masked observers scored the intensity of the immunohistochemical reaction product. Mean scores from the aged control and AMD eyes were statistically compared. In aged control retinas, nNOS was in ganglion cells (RGCs) and neurons of both nuclear layers. In choroid, perivascular nerve fibers and retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells were nNOS+. eNOS and iNOS were confined to the retinal and choroidal vascular ECs. Some cells presumably melanocytes or dendritic cells in choroid were also eNOS+. In AMD eyes, nNOS was significantly lower in RGCs, neurons, retinal vessels and RPE (p≤0.05) compared to the aged control eyes. iNOS and eNOS showed no significant differences between aged control and AMD eyes except that there was significantly less eNOS in choroidal arteries (p=0.006) and choroidal cells (p=0.03) of AMD eyes. Although NO was not measured directly, these findings suggest that there is less NO produced in AMD eyes. The decrease in retinal nNOS in AMD eyes is probably related to neuronal degeneration. The decrease in nNOS and eNOS in AMD choroid could be associated with vasoconstriction and hemodynamic changes. PMID:19836390

  9. The eNOS enhancer AVE 9488: a novel cardioprotectant against ischemia reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantz, S; Adamek, A; Fraccarollo, D; Tillmanns, J; Widder, J D; Dienesch, C; Schäfer, A; Podolskaya, A; Held, M; Ruetten, H; Ertl, G; Bauersachs, J

    2009-11-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an important regulator of vascular and myocardial function. Cardiac ischemia/reperfusion injury is reduced in mice overexpressing endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) suggesting cardioprotection by eNOS. Novel pharmacological substances, so called eNOS enhancers, upregulate eNOS expression and thereby increase NO production. We tested the effects of the eNOS enhancer AVE 9488 on cardiac ischemia/reperfusion injury in vivo in mice. After treatment with the eNOS enhancer AVE 9488 (30 mg/kg/day) or placebo for one week mice underwent 30 min of coronary artery ligation and 24 h of reperfusion in vivo. Ischemia-reperfusion damage was significantly reduced in mice treated with the eNOS enhancer when compared to placebo treated mice (infarct/area at risk 65.4 +/- 4.1 vs. 36.9 +/- 4.0%, placebo vs. eNOS enhancer, P = 0.0002). The protective effect was blunted in eNOS knockout mice treated with the eNOS enhancer (infarct/area at risk 64.1 +/- 6.2%, eNOS knockout + eNOS enhancer vs. WT + eNOS enhancer, P = ns). Reactive oxygen species were significantly reduced in mice treated with the eNOS enhancer as indicated by significantly lower malondialdehyde-thiobarbituric acid levels (placebo vs. eNOS enhancer, 3.2 +/- 0.5 vs. 0.8 +/- 0.07 micromol/l, P = 0.0003). Thus pharmacological interventions addressed to increase eNOS-derived NO production constitute a promising therapeutic approach to prevent myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury.

  10. Relationship between soil type and N₂O reductase genotype (nosZ) of indigenous soybean bradyrhizobia: nosZ-minus populations are dominant in Andosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiina, Yoko; Itakura, Manabu; Choi, Hyunseok; Saeki, Yuichi; Hayatsu, Masahito; Minamisawa, Kiwamu

    2014-01-01

    Bradyrhizobium japonicum strains that have the nosZ gene, which encodes N2O reductase, are able to mitigate N2O emissions from soils (15). To examine the distribution of nosZ genotypes among Japanese indigenous soybean bradyrhizobia, we isolated bradyrhizobia from the root nodules of soybean plants inoculated with 32 different soils and analyzed their nosZ and nodC genotypes. The 1556 resultant isolates were classified into the nosZ+/nodC+ genotype (855 isolates) and nosZ-/nodC+ genotype (701 isolates). The 11 soil samples in which nosZ- isolates significantly dominated (P volcanic ash soil prevalent in agricultural fields in Japan), whereas the 17 soil samples in which nosZ+ isolates significantly dominated were mainly alluvial soils (non-volcanic ash soils). This result was supported by a principal component analysis of environmental factors: the dominance of the nosZ- genotype was positively correlated with total N, total C, and the phosphate absorption coefficient in the soils, which are soil properties typical of Andosols. Internal transcribed spacer sequencing of representative isolates showed that the nosZ+ and nosZ- isolates of B. japonicum fell mainly into the USDA110 (BJ1) and USDA6 (BJ2) groups, respectively. These results demonstrated that the group lacking nosZ was dominant in Andosols, which can be a target soil type for an N2O mitigation strategy in soybean fields. We herein discussed how the nosZ genotypes of soybean bradyrhizobia depended on soil types in terms of N2O respiration selection and genomic determinants for soil adaptation.

  11. Relationship Between Soil Type and N2O Reductase Genotype (nosZ) of Indigenous Soybean Bradyrhizobia: nosZ-minus Populations are Dominant in Andosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiina, Yoko; Itakura, Manabu; Choi, Hyunseok; Saeki, Yuichi; Hayatsu, Masahito; Minamisawa, Kiwamu

    2014-01-01

    Bradyrhizobium japonicum strains that have the nosZ gene, which encodes N2O reductase, are able to mitigate N2O emissions from soils (15). To examine the distribution of nosZ genotypes among Japanese indigenous soybean bradyrhizobia, we isolated bradyrhizobia from the root nodules of soybean plants inoculated with 32 different soils and analyzed their nosZ and nodC genotypes. The 1556 resultant isolates were classified into the nosZ+/nodC+ genotype (855 isolates) and nosZ−/nodC+ genotype (701 isolates). The 11 soil samples in which nosZ− isolates significantly dominated (P volcanic ash soil prevalent in agricultural fields in Japan), whereas the 17 soil samples in which nosZ+ isolates significantly dominated were mainly alluvial soils (non-volcanic ash soils). This result was supported by a principal component analysis of environmental factors: the dominance of the nosZ− genotype was positively correlated with total N, total C, and the phosphate absorption coefficient in the soils, which are soil properties typical of Andosols. Internal transcribed spacer sequencing of representative isolates showed that the nosZ+ and nosZ− isolates of B. japonicum fell mainly into the USDA110 (BJ1) and USDA6 (BJ2) groups, respectively. These results demonstrated that the group lacking nosZ was dominant in Andosols, which can be a target soil type for an N2O mitigation strategy in soybean fields. We herein discussed how the nosZ genotypes of soybean bradyrhizobia depended on soil types in terms of N2O respiration selection and genomic determinants for soil adaptation. PMID:25476067

  12. Beneficial effects of exercise training after myocardial infarction require full eNOS expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Waard, Monique C; van Haperen, Rien; Soullié, Thomas; Tempel, Dennie; de Crom, Rini; Duncker, Dirk J

    2010-06-01

    Exercise training attenuates left ventricular (LV) dysfunction after myocardial infarction (MI). It could be speculated that these effects of exercise are mediated by increased endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) activity. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that eNOS plays a critical role in the exercise-induced amelioration of LV dysfunction after MI. MI or sham was induced in eNOS(-/-), eNOS(+/-) and eNOS(+/+) mice. After 8 weeks of voluntary wheel running (approximately 7 km/day in all groups) or sedentary housing, global cardiac function was determined in vivo and (immuno)histochemistry was performed to assess cardiomyocyte size, fibrosis, capillary density and apoptosis in remote myocardium. At baseline eNOS(-/-) mice had higher mean aortic pressure compared to eNOS(+/-) and eNOS(+/+) mice, but had normal global cardiac function. MI resulted in marked LV remodeling, including cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and a reduction in capillary density, increased fibrosis and apoptosis, as well as LV systolic and diastolic dysfunction to the same extent in all genotypes. In eNOS(+/+) MI mice exercise abolished fibrosis and apoptosis in the remote myocardium, attenuated LV systolic dysfunction and ameliorated pulmonary congestion. These beneficial effects were lost in eNOS(+/-) and eNOS(-/-) mice, while LV systolic dysfunction and pulmonary congestion in eNOS(+/-) mice were exacerbated by exercise. In conclusion, the beneficial effects of exercise after MI on LV remodeling and dysfunction depend critically on endogenous eNOS. The observation that the lack of one eNOS allele is sufficient to negate all beneficial effects of exercise, strongly suggests that exercise depends on full eNOS expression. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Accumbens nNOS Interneurons Regulate Cocaine Relapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Alexander C W; Scofield, Michael D; Heinsbroek, Jasper A; Gipson, Cassandra D; Neuhofer, Daniela; Roberts-Wolfe, Doug J; Spencer, Sade; Garcia-Keller, Constanza; Stankeviciute, Neringa M; Smith, Rachel J; Allen, Nicholas P; Lorang, Melissa R; Griffin, William C; Boger, Heather A; Kalivas, Peter W

    2017-01-25

    Relapse to drug use can be initiated by drug-associated cues. The intensity of cue-induced relapse is correlated with the induction of transient synaptic potentiation (t-SP) at glutamatergic synapses on medium spiny neurons (MSNs) in the nucleus accumbens core (NAcore) and requires spillover of glutamate from prefrontal cortical afferents. We used a rodent self-administration/reinstatement model of relapse to show that cue-induced t-SP and reinstated cocaine seeking result from glutamate spillover, initiating a metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5)-dependent increase in nitric oxide (NO) production. Pharmacological stimulation of mGluR5 in NAcore recapitulated cue-induced reinstatement in the absence of drug-associated cues. Using NO-sensitive electrodes, mGluR5 activation by glutamate was shown to stimulate NO production that depended on activation of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS). nNOS is expressed in ∼1% of NAcore neurons. Using a transgene strategy to express and stimulate designer receptors that mimicked mGluR5 signaling through Gq in nNOS interneurons, we recapitulated cue-induced reinstatement in the absence of cues. Conversely, using a transgenic caspase strategy, the intensity of cue-induced reinstatement was correlated with the extent of selective elimination of nNOS interneurons. The induction of t-SP during cued reinstatement depends on activating matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and selective chemogenetic stimulation of nNOS interneurons recapitulated MMP activation and t-SP induction (increase in AMPA currents in MSNs). These data demonstrate critical involvement of a sparse population of nNOS-expressing interneurons in cue-induced cocaine seeking, revealing a bottleneck in brain processing of drug-associated cues where therapeutic interventions could be effective in treating drug addiction. Relapse to cocaine use in a rat model is associated with transient increases in synaptic strength at prefrontal cortex synapses in the nucleus

  14. Beer elicits vasculoprotective effects through Akt/eNOS activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilahur, Gemma; Casani, Laura; Mendieta, Guiomar; Lamuela-Raventos, Rosa M; Estruch, Ramon; Badimon, Lina

    2014-12-01

    There is controversy regarding the effect of alcohol beverage intake in vascular vasodilatory function in peripheral arteries. The effects of beer intake in coronary vasodilation remain unknown. We investigated whether regular beer intake (alcohol and alcohol-free) protects against hypercholesterolaemia-induced coronary endothelial dysfunction and the mechanisms behind this effect. Pigs were fed 10 days: (i) a Western-type hypercholesterolaemic diet (WD); (ii) WD+low-dose beer (12·5 g alcohol/day); (iii) WD+moderate-dose beer (25 g alcohol/day); or (iv) WD+moderate-dose alcohol-free-beer (0·0 g alcohol/day). Coronary responses to endothelium-dependent vasoactive drugs (acetylcholine: receptor mediated; calcium ionophore-A23189: nonreceptor mediated), endothelium-independent vasoactive drug (SNP) and L-NMMA (NOS-antagonist) were evaluated in the LAD coronary artery by flow Doppler. Coronary Akt/eNOS activation, MCP-1 expression, oxidative DNA damage and superoxide production were assessed. Lipid profile, lipoproteins resistance to oxidation and urinary isoxanthohumol concentration were evaluated. Alcoholic and nonalcoholic beer intake prevented WD-induced impairment of receptor- and non-receptor-operated endothelial-dependent coronary vasodilation. All animals displayed a similar vasodilatory response to SNP and L-NMMA blunted all endothelial-dependent vasorelaxation responses. Haemodynamic parameters remained unchanged. Coronary arteries showed lower DNA damage and increased Akt/eNOS axis activation in beer-fed animals. Animals taking beer showed HDL with higher antioxidant capacity, higher LDL resistance to oxidation and increased isoxanthohumol levels. Weight, lipids levels, liver enzymes and MCP-1 expression were not affected by beer intake. Non-alcoholic-related beer components protect against hyperlipemia-induced coronary endothelial dysfunction by counteracting vascular oxidative damage and preserving the Akt/eNOS pathway. Light-to-moderate beer

  15. Uruguay: cómo nos cambia la vida

    OpenAIRE

    Schmal, Rodolfo

    2012-01-01

    La evolución política latinoamericana, particularmente en el cono sur –Uruguay, Chile y Argentina- en los últimos 50 años ha experimentado cambios significativos, desde los tiempos en que los formalismos democráticos eran puestos a prueba por crisis económicas y sociales que desembocaban en crisis políticas, las que por lo general terminaban “resolviéndose” por la vía militar. Agotada esta instancia, los países han tendido a retomar los cauces democráticos. Hoy nos encontramos inmersos en la ...

  16. Stromal cell–derived factor 2 is critical for Hsp90-dependent eNOS activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siragusa, Mauro; Fröhlich, Florian; Park, Eon Joo; Schleicher, Michael; Walther, Tobias C.; Sessa, William C.

    2016-01-01

    Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) catalyzes the conversion of l-arginine and molecular oxygen into l-citrulline and nitric oxide (NO), a gaseous second messenger that influences cardiovascular physiology and disease. Several mechanisms regulate eNOS activity and function, including phosphorylation at Ser and Thr residues and protein-protein interactions. Combining a tandem affinity purification approach and mass spectrometry, we identified stromal cell–derived factor 2 (SDF2) as a component of the eNOS macromolecular complex in endothelial cells. SDF2 knockdown impaired agonist-stimulated NO synthesis and decreased the phosphorylation of eNOS at Ser1177, a key event required for maximal activation of eNOS. Conversely, SDF2 overexpression dose-dependently increased NO synthesis through a mechanism involving Akt and calcium (induced with ionomycin), which increased the phosphorylation of Ser1177 in eNOS. NO synthesis by iNOS (inducible NOS) and nNOS (neuronal NOS) was also enhanced upon SDF2 overexpression. We found that SDF2 was a client protein of the chaperone protein Hsp90, interacting preferentially with the M domain of Hsp90, which is the same domain that binds to eNOS. In endothelial cells exposed to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), SDF2 was required for the binding of Hsp90 and calmodulin to eNOS, resulting in eNOS phosphorylation and activation. Thus, our data describe a function for SDF2 as a component of the Hsp90-eNOS complex that is critical for signal transduction in endothelial cells. PMID:26286023

  17. Expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS/NOS II) in the vestibule of guinea pigs after the application of cisplatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, K; Hess, A; Bloch, W; Michel, O

    2000-01-01

    It is well known that the anti-cancer drug cisplatin has an ototoxic property; however, the details are not yet evident. In this study, the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (INOS/NOS II) in the vestibule of guinea pigs after i.p. injections of cisplatin was examined immunohistochemically. Three days after the injection of cisplatin (10 mg/kg) or placebo, animals were sacrificed. Then the temporal bones were removed and subjected to Immunohistochemical studies for iNOS. In the cisplatin group, INOS was detectable, whereas the tissue in the control group was negative for iNOS. The vestibule, the wall of blood vessels and the vestibular ganglion cells showed immunoreactivity for iNOS. It is known that INOS catalyzes an inadequate quantity of NO under pathological conditions. Increased NO levels lead to inner ear dysfunction. Therefore, our results indicate that iNOS could also mediate the vestibulo-toxicity of cisplatin.

  18. Paraphilia NOS, nonconsent: not ready for the courtroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frances, Allen; First, Michael B

    2011-01-01

    Sexually violent predators (SVP) constitute a serious potential risk to public safety, especially when they are released after too short a prison sentence. Twenty states and the federal government have developed a seemingly convenient way to reduce this risk. They have passed statutes that allow for the involuntary (often lifetime) psychiatric commitment of mentally disordered sexual offenders after prison time is up. In three separate cases, the Supreme Court has accepted the constitutionality of this procedure, but only if the offender's dangerousness is caused by a mental disorder and is not a manifestation of simple criminality. The idea that paraphilic rape should be an official category in the psychiatric diagnostic manual has been explicitly rejected by Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-III, DSM-III-R, DSM-IV, and, recently, DSM-5. Despite this, paraphilia NOS, nonconsent, is still frequently used by mental health evaluators in SVP cases to provide a mental disorder diagnosis that legitimizes psychiatric commitment and makes it appear constitutional. This commentary will show how the diagnosis paraphilia NOS, nonconsent, is based on a fundamental misreading of the original intent of the DSM-IV Paraphilia Workgroup and represents a misuse of psychiatry, all in the admittedly good cause of protecting public safety.

  19. Galilean-invariant Nosé-Hoover-type thermostats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieprzyk, S; Heyes, D M; Maćkowiak, Sz; Brańka, A C

    2015-03-01

    A new pairwise Nosé-Hoover type thermostat for molecular dynamics (MD) simulations which is similar in construction to the pair-velocity thermostat of Allen and Schmid, [Mol. Simul. 33, 21 (2007)] (AS) but is based on the configurational thermostat is proposed and tested. Both thermostats generate the canonical velocity distribution, are Galilean invariant, and conserve linear and angular momentum. The unique feature of the pairwise thermostats is an unconditional conservation of the total angular momentum, which is important for thermalizing isolated systems and those nonequilibrium bulk systems manifesting local rotating currents. These thermostats were benchmarked against the corresponding Nosé-Hoover (NH) and Braga-Travis prescriptions, being based on the kinetic and configurational definitions of temperature, respectively. Some differences between the shear-rate-dependent shear viscosity from Sllod nonequilibrium MD are observed at high shear rates using the different thermostats. The thermostats based on the configurational temperature produced very similar monotically decaying shear viscosity (shear thinning) with increasing shear rate, while the NH method showed discontinuous shear thinning into a string phase, and the AS method produced a continuous increase of viscosity (shear thickening), after a shear thinning region at lower shear rates. Both pairwise additive thermostats are neither purely kinetic nor configurational in definition, and possible directions for further improvement in certain aspects are discussed.

  20. A sociologia funcionalista nos estudos organizacionais: foco em Durkheim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Cabral

    Full Text Available O tema que estrutura este ensaio é o da sociologia funcionalista, particularmente em termos de sua influência nos estudos organizacionais. O seu foco de análise é duplo. Em um primeiro momento, as obras de Durkheim. Em um segundo momento, o impacto e a supremacia dos enfoques funcionalistas nos estudos organizacionais. Embora seus segmentos estejam inter-relacionados, ele é composto de quatro partes. Na primeira, é feita uma análise histórica da emergência e sistematização das ciências sociais, de modo a traçar sua evolução até o surgimento dos trabalhos de Durkheim. Na segunda, tomando como referencial a obra de Burrell e Morgan (1979, é estudado o paradigma funcionalista em termos de sua origem e expoentes, com destaque para Comte e Spencer, visando chegar a uma compreensão inicial do pensamento de Durkheim e de sua sociologia. Na terceira, a vida e as principais obras de Durkheim são sumariadas e discutidas. Por fim, o status atual dos estudos organizacionais -vistos como um conjunto impreciso, elástico e eclético de teorias e pesquisas sociais voltados para os problemas das organizações -é analisado em termos de seus pressupostos epistemológicos e ontológicos subjacentes, como meio de explicitar a supremacia dos enfoques positivistas-funcionalistas.

  1. Endothelial and inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS) immunoreactivity and NOS-associated NADPH-diaphorase histochemistry in the domestic cat (Felis catus) testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liman, N; Alan, E; Beyaz, F; Gürbulak, K

    2013-12-01

    In this study, the cellular localization of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase (NADPH-d) and the endothelial (eNOS) and inducible (iNOS) forms of nitric oxide (NO) synthase in the cat testis were studied using enzyme histochemical and immunohistochemical techniques. Stage-dependent nuclear and cytoplasmic eNOS/iNOS immunoreactivity and cytoplasmic NADPH-d reactivity were found in all germ cells, including spermatogonia, primary spermatocytes (preleptotene, zygotene, and pachytene spermatocytes), and round (Sa, Sb1) and elongating spermatids (Sb2, Sc) of the seminiferous epithelium. The pachytene spermatocytes exhibited strong positive reactions at all spermatogenic stage. Interestingly, in elongated spermatids (Sd1) at stages VI to VII, eNOS and iNOS immunostainings was observed only in the cytoplasm but not in the nuclei. eNOS and iNOS immunolabeling was observed in the acrosomal vesicle of some round spermatids (Sb1) at stages I, VII, and VIII, and in the acrosomal cap of elongating spermatids (Sb2) at stage II. Furthermore, eNOS, iNOS, and NADPH-d reactions in elongated spermatids (Sd2) just before spermiation at stage VIII were restricted only to the middle and principal pieces of the tail. Positive reactions were also observed in the Sertoli and Leydig cells as well as in other tissues including vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells and peritubular myoid cells. These results suggest that NO may play an important role in chromatin condensation, spermatid shaping, and the final release of sperm from the spermatogenic epithelium. Furthermore, NO may also be involved in spermiogenesis, steroidogenesis, and apoptotic cell death. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Ghrelin protects against palmitic acid or lipopolysaccharide-induced hepatocyte apoptosis through inhibition of MAPKs/iNOS and restoration of Akt/eNOS pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yuqing; Wang, Jianbo; Yu, Fujun; Li, Zhengyang; Li, Huanqing; Guo, Chuanyong; Fan, Xiaoming

    2016-12-01

    Ghrelin has been shown to exert various biological functions. However, the effect and mechanism of ghrelin on PA- or LPS-induced liver injury remains unknown. Normal human hepatocyte lines (LO2 and 7701) were pretreated with ghrelin (10 -8 M) for 30min before stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or palmitic acid (PA). The proliferation and apoptosis of cells were detected with CCK8, Hoechst staining and flow cytometric analysis. Levels of NO of cell supernatants were examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The protein levels and mRNA of target genes of endothelial NOS (eNOS) and inducible NOS (iNOS) were measured by western blotting, immunofluorescence and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The expression of Bax, Bcl2, caspase 3, p-Akt, p-P38 and p-JNK were detected by western blotting. Results of CCK8, Hoechst staining and flow cytometric analysis showed that ghrelin-pretreatment attenuated LPS- or PA- induced cellular proliferation inhibition and apoptosis induction. ELISA results revealed that ghrelin pretreatment reduced levels of NO of cell supernatants (Pghrelin- pretreated group were significantly reduced compared with LPS- or PA- treated group, while protein levels of eNOS were restored by ghrelin pretreatment. Results of qRT-PCR showed that mRNA levels of Bax, iNOS were reduced by ghrelin pretreatment, while levels of mRNA of Bcl2 and eNOS were increased (Pghrelin pretreatment, while the protein levels of p-JNK, p-P38 and caspase 3 were reduced. The restoration of eNOS could be reversed by an Akt inhibitor. Ghrelin pretreatment attenuated LPS- or PA-induced hepatocyte apoptosis, which may least partly via inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs)/iNOS and restoration of Akt/eNOS pathways. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Zinc regulates iNOS-derived nitric oxide formation in endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortese-Krott, Miriam M; Kulakov, Larissa; Opländer, Christian; Kolb-Bachofen, Victoria; Kröncke, Klaus-D; Suschek, Christoph V

    2014-01-01

    Aberrant production of nitric oxide (NO) by inducible NO synthase (iNOS) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of endothelial dysfunction and vascular disease. Mechanisms responsible for the fine-tuning of iNOS activity in inflammation are still not fully understood. Zinc is an important structural element of NOS enzymes and is known to inhibit its catalytical activity. In this study we aimed to investigate the effects of zinc on iNOS activity and expression in endothelial cells. We found that zinc down-regulated the expression of iNOS (mRNA+protein) and decreased cytokine-mediated activation of the iNOS promoter. Zinc-mediated regulation of iNOS expression was due to inhibition of NF-κB transactivation activity, as determined by a decrease in both NF-κB-driven luciferase reporter activity and expression of NF-κB target genes, including cyclooxygenase 2 and IL-1β. However, zinc did not affect NF-κB translocation into the nucleus, as assessed by Western blot analysis of nuclear and cytoplasmic fractions. Taken together our results demonstrate that zinc limits iNOS-derived high output NO production in endothelial cells by inhibiting NF-κB-dependent iNOS expression, pointing to a role of zinc as a regulator of iNOS activity in inflammation.

  4. Zinc regulates iNOS-derived nitric oxide formation in endothelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam M. Cortese-Krott

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aberrant production of nitric oxide (NO by inducible NO synthase (iNOS has been implicated in the pathogenesis of endothelial dysfunction and vascular disease. Mechanisms responsible for the fine-tuning of iNOS activity in inflammation are still not fully understood. Zinc is an important structural element of NOS enzymes and is known to inhibit its catalytical activity. In this study we aimed to investigate the effects of zinc on iNOS activity and expression in endothelial cells. We found that zinc down-regulated the expression of iNOS (mRNA+protein and decreased cytokine-mediated activation of the iNOS promoter. Zinc-mediated regulation of iNOS expression was due to inhibition of NF-κB transactivation activity, as determined by a decrease in both NF-κB-driven luciferase reporter activity and expression of NF-κB target genes, including cyclooxygenase 2 and IL-1β. However, zinc did not affect NF-κB translocation into the nucleus, as assessed by Western blot analysis of nuclear and cytoplasmic fractions. Taken together our results demonstrate that zinc limits iNOS-derived high output NO production in endothelial cells by inhibiting NF-κB-dependent iNOS expression, pointing to a role of zinc as a regulator of iNOS activity in inflammation.

  5. Expression of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase (iNOS) in Microglia of the Developing Quail Retina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra, Ana; Navascués, Julio; Cuadros, Miguel A.; Calvente, Ruth; Martín-Oliva, David; Ferrer-Martín, Rosa M.; Martín-Estebané, María; Carrasco, María-Carmen; Marín-Teva, José L.

    2014-01-01

    Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), which produce large amounts of nitric oxide (NO), is induced in macrophages and microglia in response to inflammatory mediators such as LPS and cytokines. Although iNOS is mainly expressed by microglia that become activated in different pathological and experimental situations, it was recently reported that undifferentiated amoeboid microglia can also express iNOS during normal development. The aim of this study was to investigate the pattern of iNOS expression in microglial cells during normal development and after their activation with LPS by using the quail retina as model. iNOS expression was analyzed by iNOS immunolabeling, western-blot, and RT-PCR. NO production was determined by using DAR-4M AM, a reliable fluorescent indicator of subcellular NO production by iNOS. Embryonic, postnatal, and adult in situ quail retinas were used to analyze the pattern of iNOS expression in microglial cells during normal development. iNOS expression and NO production in LPS-treated microglial cells were investigated by an in vitro approach based on organotypic cultures of E8 retinas, in which microglial cell behavior is similar to that of the in situ retina, as previously demonstrated in our laboratory. We show here that amoeboid microglia in the quail retina express iNOS during normal development. This expression is stronger in microglial cells migrating tangentially in the vitreal part of the retina and is downregulated, albeit maintained, when microglia differentiate and become ramified. LPS treatment of retina explants also induces changes in the morphology of amoeboid microglia compatible with their activation, increasing their lysosomal compartment and upregulating iNOS expression with a concomitant production of NO. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that immature microglial cells express iNOS during normal development, suggesting a certain degree of activation. Furthermore, LPS treatment induces overactivation of amoeboid

  6. Normal and high eNOS levels are detrimental in both mild and severe cardiac pressure-overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Deel, Elza D; Octavia, Yanti; de Boer, Martine; Juni, Rio P; Tempel, Dennie; van Haperen, Rien; de Crom, Rini; Moens, An L; Merkus, Daphne; Duncker, Dirk J

    2015-11-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) produced by endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) exerts beneficial effects in a variety of cardiovascular disease states. Studies on the benefit of eNOS activity in pressure-overload cardiac hypertrophy and dysfunction produced by aortic stenosis are equivocal, which may be due to different expression levels of eNOS or different severities of pressure-overload. Consequently, we investigated the effects of eNOS-expression level on cardiac hypertrophy and dysfunction produced by mild or severe pressure-overload. To unravel the impact of eNOS on pressure-overload cardiac dysfunction we subjected eNOS deficient, wildtype and eNOS overexpressing transgenic (eNOS-Tg) mice to 8weeks of mild or severe transverse aortic constriction (TAC) and studied cardiac geometry and function at the whole organ and tissue level. In both mild and severe TAC, lack of eNOS ameliorated, whereas eNOS overexpression aggravated, TAC-induced cardiac remodeling and dysfunction. Moreover, the detrimental effects of eNOS in severe TAC were associated with aggravation of TAC-induced NOS-dependent oxidative stress and by further elevation of eNOS monomer levels, consistent with enhanced eNOS uncoupling. In the presence of TAC, scavenging of reactive oxygen species with N-acetylcysteine reduced eNOS S-glutathionylation, eNOS monomer and NOS-dependent superoxide levels in eNOS-Tg mice to wildtype levels. Accordingly, N-acetylcysteine improved cardiac function in eNOS-Tg but not in wildtype mice with TAC. In conclusion, independent of the severity of TAC, eNOS aggravates cardiac remodeling and dysfunction, which appears due to TAC-induced eNOS uncoupling and superoxide production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Differences in NOS protein expression and activity in the rat vestibular nucleus following unilateral labyrinthectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Y; Horii, A; Smith, P F; Darlington, C L

    2001-03-31

    We used Western blotting to analyse the expression of different isoforms of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in the rat vestibular nucleus complex (VNC) at various times following unilateral vestibular deafferentation (UVD), together with a radioenzymatic assay to compare NOS activity at the same time points. nNOS expression did not change significantly in the ipsilateral or contralateral VNC at any time following UVD. However, eNOS expression decreased significantly (P<0.05) in the contralateral VNC at 6 h post-UVD, recovering to normal levels by 50 h. iNOS was not expressed at any time following UVD. NOS activity demonstrated a significant increase in the contralateral VNC at 6 h post-UVD (P<0.05), recovering toward normal levels by 50 h.

  8. Comportamento do fósforo nos agro-ecossistemas

    OpenAIRE

    Monteiro, M.C.H.

    2012-01-01

    Nesta conferência contextualizou-se a importância do fósforo a nível agronómico, ambiental e económico, fez-se referência ao ciclo do fósforo e à situação actual das suas reservas mundiais. Tendo como base trabalhos realizados em solos Portugueses apresentaram-se resultados sobre a gestão do fósforo nos solos Portugueses focando os aspectos da dinâmica do fósforo no solo, da avaliação do risco de transferência de fósforo do solo para as águas superficiais, águas de escoamento superficial o...

  9. Lévi-Strauss nos 90 voltas ao passado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lévi-Strauss Claude

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo responde às críticas formuladas por Christian Delacampagne e Bernard Traimond em "A Polêmica Sartre/Lévi-Strauss Revisitada. Nas Raízes das Ciências Sociais de Hoje", publicado em Les Temps Modernes 596 (novembro-dezembro de 1997. Para fazê-lo, recorda inicialmente o caráter relativo da oposição entre "sociedades frias" e "sociedades quentes". Em seguida, refuta a tese de que Maurice Merleau-Ponty, sob a capa de um elogio, teria dirigido críticas veladas ao autor. Finalmente, reconhecendo o afastamento da antropologia de hoje em face das posições do autor, admite, sem se pronunciar sobre o valor desse movimento, que temas de ar sartriano ressurgem nos antropólogos contemporâneos.

  10. Lima Barreto e Oswald de Andrade nos descaminhos da modernidade

    OpenAIRE

    Fattori, Danusa da Matta Duarte

    2006-01-01

    Este estudo estabelece uma comparação entre as obras de dois importantes escritores e intelectuais brasileiros do início do século XX, Lima Barreto e Oswald de Andrade, com o objetivo de verificar a forma como ambos enfrentaram as forças modernizadoras que se impuseram no nosso país no início do século XX. Com base, principalmente, nos textos Recordações do Escrivão Isaías Caminha, O Diário íntimo, Triste fim de Policarpo Quaresma, Impressões de Leitura e Os Bruzundangas do primeiro aut...

  11. O direito dos acionistas de participar nos lucros sociais

    OpenAIRE

    Cometti, Marcelo Tadeu

    2007-01-01

    O presente trabalho tem por objetivo o estudo do direito dos acionistas de participar nos lucros sociais como um instrumento de estabilização nas relações de poder internas na companhia, sendo, para tanto, dividido em três capítulos.No primeiro capítulo são analisadas as regras estabelecidas na Lei 6.404/76 e posteriores alterações que irão determinar os critérios para a apuração e destinação dos lucros sociais. Busca-se assim determinar o conceito de lucro social, o período de...

  12. Tecnologia dos sonhos em Artemidoro, Freud, Jung e nos Warlpiri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abrahão de Oliveira Santos

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Apresentaremos distintas tecnologias dos sonhos: em Artemidoro, Freud, Jung e nos Warlpiri. Artemidoro revela a mensagem onírica imprescindível à condução do cidadão, com os elementos das instituições, da cidade, do cosmo. Com Freud, no moderno mundo europeu, o sonho recebe o sentido da interioridade. Outra leitura é de Carl Jung. O uso dos sonhos tem seu sentido histórico, se relacionando com as práticas de governo, os modos de condução da vida e da cidade. Para além das tradições eurodescendentes e mentalistas vigentes, apresentaremos a tecnologia coletiva dos sonhos dos Warlpiri e uma nova possibilidade de lidarmos com a experiência onírica.

  13. Circulating Blood eNOS Contributes to the Regulation of Systemic Blood Pressure and Nitrite Homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Katherine C.; Cortese-Krott, Miriam M.; Kovacic, Jason C.; Noguchi, Audrey; Liu, Virginia B.; Wang, Xunde; Raghavachari, Nalini; Boehm, Manfred; Kato, Gregory J.; Kelm, Malte; Gladwin, Mark T.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Mice genetically deficient in endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS−/−) are hypertensive with lower circulating nitrite levels, indicating the importance of constitutively produced nitric oxide (NO•) to blood pressure regulation and vascular homeostasis. While the current paradigm holds that this bioactivity derives specifically from expression of eNOS in endothelium, circulating blood cells also express eNOS protein. A functional red cell eNOS that modulates vascular NO• signaling has been proposed. Approach and Results To test the hypothesis that blood cells contribute to mammalian blood pressure regulation via eNOS-dependent NO• generation, we cross-transplanted WT and eNOS−/− mice, producing chimeras competent or deficient for eNOS expression in circulating blood cells. Surprisingly, we observed a significant contribution of both endothelial and circulating blood cell eNOS to blood pressure and systemic nitrite levels, the latter being a major component of the circulating NO• reservoir. These effects were abolished by the NOS inhibitor L-NAME and repristinated by the NOS substrate L-Arginine, and were independent of platelet or leukocyte depletion. Mouse erythrocytes were also found to carry an eNOS protein and convert 14C-Arginine into 14C-Citrulline in a NOS-dependent fashion. Conclusions These are the first studies to definitively establish a role for a blood borne eNOS, using cross transplant chimera models, that contributes to the regulation of blood pressure and nitrite homeostasis. This work provides evidence suggesting that erythrocyte eNOS may mediate this effect. PMID:23702660

  14. Expression of NOS and VEGF in feline mammary tumours and their correlation with angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M S; Matsumoto, M; Hidaka, R; Miyoshi, N; Yasuda, N

    2012-06-01

    In order to define the role of nitric oxide (NO) in feline mammary tumours, the expression of endothelial or inducible nitric oxide synthase (e/iNOS) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and their relationship with angiogenesis, was investigated in 23 feline mammary tumours (two hyperplastic, 19 adenocarcinoma, one osteosarcoma and one squamous cell carcinoma) by immunohistochemistry. Tumour angiogenesis was assessed by CD31 immunostaining and was expressed as microvessel density (MVD). In general, iNOS immunoreactivity was localised in tumour cells and occasionally in stromal myofibroblasts, whereas eNOS and VEGF were localised in the cytoplasm of tumour epithelial cells and endothelium. In malignancy, expression of iNOS increased from well- to less-differentiated phenotypes (Grades 1-3) and was significantly higher in G3 and G2 when compared with G1 cases. However, increasing eNOS expression was limited only in hyperplastic lesions and showed no significant changes among the grades. In addition, expression of iNOS was positively correlated with VEGF and MVD in feline mammary tumours and both measures were significantly greater in less differentiated phenotypes (Pfeline mammary tumours depended on tumour grade, and the positive correlations between iNOS and angiogenic markers suggests that iNOS synthesised by tumour cells promotes tumour growth. Thus, iNOS can be used as an important immunohistochemical marker to determine the degree of malignancy and prognosis of feline mammary carcinoma. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The Expression and Correlation of iNOS and p53 in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC is the most prevalent form of oral cancer. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and p53 are associated with a variety of human cancers, but their expression and interaction in OSCC have not been fully explored. In this study, we investigated the expression of iNOS and p53 in OSCC and their correlation with tumor development and prognosis. In addition, we explored the interaction of iNOS and p53 in OSCC. The expression of iNOS and p53 in OSCC was investigated using immunohistochemical method and their interaction was studied using RNAi technique. Our results showed that the expression of both iNOS and p53 was significantly correlated with tumor stages and pathological grade of OSCC (P<0.05. In contrast, there was no correlation between iNOS and p53 expression and lymph node metastasis (P<0.05. The OSCC survival rate was negatively associated with iNOS expression, but not with p53. A significant increase in the expression of the p53 was observed when iNOS expression was knocked down. The immunoexpression of iNOS is correlated with tumorigenesis and prognosis of OSCC and may serve as a prognostic marker.

  16. Glycochenodeoxycholate (GCDC) inhibits cytokine induced iNOS expression in rat hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucher, Brian T; Feng, Xuesheng; Jeyabalan, Geetha; Zhang, Baochun; Shao, Lifang; Guo, Zhong; Geller, David A

    2007-03-01

    Although the accumulation of hydrophobic bile acid (e.g., glycine conjugated chenodeoxycholic acid, GCDC) is considered to be an important factor contributing to cholestatic liver dysfunction, its pathogenesis is poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of the bile salt GCDC on the regulation of iNOS expression, a key immune modulator during liver inflammation. GCDC significantly decreased cytokine-stimulated iNOS promoter activity, and both iNOS mRNA and protein expression. GCDC decreased iNOS promoter activity by preventing IkappaB degradation and inhibiting NF-kappaB DNA-binding activity. To explore the role of iNOS in bile salt induced apoptosis, we also examined the effect of NO on caspase-3 activity. GCDC strongly induced caspase-3 activity, and this increase was abrogated by both exogenous NO exposure and endogenous NO synthesis. Furthermore, adenoviral iNOS (AdiNOS) pre-treatment decreased acute cholestatic-induced liver injury in a rat bile duct ligation model. These findings indicate a novel signaling pathway where potentially toxic bile salts down-regulate hepatic iNOS expression. This blockade of the iNOS mediated antiapoptotic phenotype may have important implications in certain liver disorders.

  17. EL NOS-OTROS-ORIGINARIO: Sobre la posibilidad de respetar los derechos de el-otro

    OpenAIRE

    Fager Sáenz, Nayid Abú

    2016-01-01

    Este texto plantea la posibilidad de recuperar el nos-otros-originario como clave para la superación del «sufrimiento inútil» del sujeto; de este modo, muestra al nos-otros-originario como una zona de protección de los derechos de el-otro, hace una crítica en contra del nos-otros-caído como vulnerador de derechos fundamentales, y aborda la posibilidad de recuperar el nos-otros-originario a través de una consumación definitiva de la "justicia". This article shows the possibility of recoveri...

  18. Assessment of the effect of diode laser therapy on incisional wound healing and expression of iNOS and eNOS on rat oral tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parichehr Ghalayani

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: Histological findings showed that diode laser needs several repeated irradiations for the acceleration of wound healing. The iNOS amount showed that increases are associated with better healing.

  19. Expression of beta-catenin, COX-2 and iNOS in colorectal cancer: relevance of COX-2 adn iNOS inhibitors for treatment in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Seok Kwan; Gul, Yunus A; Ithnin, Hairuszah; Talib, Arni; Seow, Heng Fong

    2004-01-01

    Promising new pharmacological agents and gene therapy targeting cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) could modulate treatment of colorectal cancer in the future. The aim of this study was to elucidate the expression fo beta-catenin and teh presence of COX-2 and iNOS in colorectal cancer specimens in Malaysia. This is a useful prelude to future studies investigating interventions directed towards COX-2 adn iNOS. A cross-section study using retrospective data over a 2-year period (1999-2000) involved 101 archival, formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples of colorectal cancers that were surgically resected in a tertiary referral. COX-2 production was detected in adjacent normal tissue in 34 sample (33.7%) and in tumour tissue in 60 samples (59.4%). More tumours expressed iNOS (82/101, 81.2%) than COX-2. No iNOS expression was detected in adjacent normal tissue. Intense beta-catenin immunoreactivity at the cell-to-cell border. Poorly differentiated tumours had significantly lower total beta-catenin (p = 0.009) and COX-2 scores (p = 0.031). No significant relationships were established between pathological stage and beta-catenin, COX-2 and iNOS scores. the accumulation of beta-catenin does not seem to be sufficient to activate pathways that lead to increased COX-2 and iNOS expression. A high proportion of colorectal cancers were found to express COX-2 and a significant number produced iNOS, suggesting that their inhibitors may be potentially useful as chemotherapeutic agents in the management of colorectal cancer.

  20. Quercetin modulates iNOS, eNOS and NOSTRIN expressions and attenuates oxidative stress in warm hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Abd-Elbaset

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R is mediated through the generation of oxidative and nitrosative stress-induced cell injury. Hence, the present study was designed to evaluate the hepatoprotective effect of quercetin (QR compared to N-acetylcysteine (NAC against hepatic I/R injury in rats and to assess iNOS, eNOS and NOSTRIN protein expressions, as a possible mechanism of its hepatoprotective effect. Hepatic ischemia was surgically performed by occlusion of hepatic pedicle (hepatic artery, portal vein, bile duct that supplies the left and medial lobes (approximately 70% of the total liver mass, for 30 min with a vascular clamp followed by releasing the clamp and the liver was reperfused for 30 min. QR-pretreatment increased eNOS protein expression with simultaneous decrease in iNOS and NOSTRIN protein expressions. It also decreased serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferases (ALT and hepatic myeloperoxidase (MPO activities. In addition, it restored the depleted content of reduced glutathione (GSH and decreased malondialdehyde (MDA and nitric oxide (NO levels. A notable finding is that QR alleviated I/R-induced histopathological changes. Therefore, the present study illustrates the hepatoprotective effect of quercetin compared to N-acetylcysteine against ischemia/reperfusion-induced liver injury by inhibiting oxidative stress and by modulating iNOS, eNOS and NOSTRIN protein expressions.

  1. Asiatic Acid Alleviates Hemodynamic and Metabolic Alterations via Restoring eNOS/iNOS Expression, Oxidative Stress, and Inflammation in Diet-Induced Metabolic Syndrome Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poungrat Pakdeechote

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Asiatic acid is a triterpenoid isolated from Centella asiatica. The present study aimed to investigate whether asiatic acid could lessen the metabolic, cardiovascular complications in rats with metabolic syndrome (MS induced by a high-carbohydrate, high-fat (HCHF diet. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with HCHF diet with 15% fructose in drinking water for 12 weeks to induce MS. MS rats were treated with asiatic acid (10 or 20 mg/kg/day or vehicle for a further three weeks. MS rats had an impairment of oral glucose tolerance, increases in fasting blood glucose, serum insulin, total cholesterol, triglycerides, mean arterial blood pressure, heart rate, and hindlimb vascular resistance; these were related to the augmentation of vascular superoxide anion production, plasma malondialdehyde and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α levels (p < 0.05. Plasma nitrate and nitrite (NOx were markedly high with upregulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS expression, but dowregulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS expression (p < 0.05. Asiatic acid significantly improved insulin sensitivity, lipid profiles, hemodynamic parameters, oxidative stress markers, plasma TNF-α, NOx, and recovered abnormality of eNOS/iNOS expressions in MS rats (p < 0.05. In conclusion, asiatic acid improved metabolic, hemodynamic abnormalities in MS rats that could be associated with its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory effects and recovering regulation of eNOS/iNOS expression.

  2. Study of the electrolyte process efficiency applied to the oil industry wastewaters; Estudo da eficiencia do processo eletrolitico aplicado em aguas de producao da industria do petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brasileiro, Ilza M.N.; Cavalcanti, Eliane B. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil); Vilar, Eudesio O. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica; Tonholo, Josealdo [Universidade Federal de Alagoas (UFAL), Maceio, AL (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2004-07-01

    The present work presents resulted obtained from the oxidation of the ammoniacal nitrogen and sulphides using a bench scale electrochemical cell which consisted of 6 pairs of stainless steel electrodes and DSA{sup R}. An experimental planning of the factorial type 2{sup 4} more three repetitions of the central point was carried through, where the following dependent parameters had been studied: salinity (mg/L), electric potential (volts), outflow (l/h), time of electrolysis (min). As indicating of the efficiency of the electrochemical treatment the following independent parameters had been analyzed: percentage of removal of sulfate and percentage of removal of N-ammoniacal, in different operational conditions. The percentage of removal of n-ammoniacal was of the order of 100 %, with a consumption of energy to 8 kWh/m{sup 3} for a flowrate of 600 l/h and 15,000 mg-L of chlorides. Moreover the work approaches the study of the incrustation in the electrodes, which considerable diminishes the income of the electrochemical process. Aiming at to diminish this problem we are studying a procedure from a controlled electrolysis for a timer. With the purpose to evaluate the incrustation level had been carried through physical-chemical analyses of alkalinity and hardness in CaCO{sub 3}, index of incrustation for chronoamperometry and electronic microscopy of sweepings. (author)

  3. Pitiose em ovinos nos estados de Pernambuco e Bahia

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    Manuel V. Carrera

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A pitiose é uma doença infecciosa causada pelo oomiceto aquático P. insidiosum que acomete animais e o homem, especialmente habitantes de áreas úmidas. A enfermidade apresenta como característica principal a formação de lesões com aspecto granulomatoso nos hospedeiros. Neste trabalho, relatou-se a ocorrência da pitiose em ovinos nos estados de Pernambuco (PE e Bahia (BA, Nordeste do Brasil, bem como foi avaliada a eficácia de um imunoterápico frente a esta enfermidade. Amostras de sangue de 53 ovinos foram coletadas, sendo 49 animais oriundos de propriedades localizadas em PE e quatro animais provenientes da BA. Sete ovinos demonstraram sinais clínicos de pitiose ovina. Um dos animais foi submetido à eutanásia e sua cabeça e linfonodo submandibular foram coletados e enviados para análises laboratoriais. Seis ovinos foram submetidos à imunoterapia, sendo mantidos nas instalações do setor de ovinocultura da Univasf/Petrolina-PE durante o tratamento. As técnicas de ELISA, cultura fúngica e reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR foram utilizadas como métodos diagnósticos da pitiose ovina, sendo eficientes para confirmação dos casos clínicos no rebanho. Ao exame microscópico do material coletado da cavidade nasal de um animal eutanasiado, observou-se uma área focalmente extensa de necrose com presença de infiltrado difuso de neutrófilos íntegros e degenerados margeando a cartilagem. Somente um animal apresentou cura clínica, indicando uma eficiência no tratamento da pitiose de 16,7% (1/6. O aumento de casos de pitiose tem sido denotado em diversos municípios de PE e da BA. Neste contexto, o emprego do imunoterápico pode ser uma alternativa a ser pesquisada. Portanto, estudos futuros devem ser realizados para investigar o efeito da imunoterapia aplicada à pitiose em ovinos.

  4. Suggesting a NOS Map for Nature of Science for Science Education Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jun-Young

    2017-01-01

    The aims of this research are 1) to explore the inter-relationships within the individual elements or tenets of Nature of Science (NOS), based on the dimensions of scientific knowledge in science learning, and 2) to consider Kuhn's concept of how scientific revolution takes place. This study suggests that instruction according to our NOS Flowchart…

  5. Pedagogical Reflections by Secondary Science Teachers at Different NOS Implementation Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Benjamin C.; Clough, Michael P.; Olson, Joanne K.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated what 13 secondary science teachers at various nature of science (NOS) instruction implementation levels talked about when they reflected on their teaching. We then determined if differences exist in the quality of those reflections between high, medium, and low NOS implementers. This study sought to answer the following…

  6. "Non alcoholic fatty liver disease and eNOS dysfunction in humans".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persico, Marcello; Masarone, Mario; Damato, Antonio; Ambrosio, Mariateresa; Federico, Alessandro; Rosato, Valerio; Bucci, Tommaso; Carrizzo, Albino; Vecchione, Carmine

    2017-03-07

    NAFLD is associated to Insulin Resistance (IR). IR is responsible for Endothelial Dysfunction (ED) through the impairment of eNOS function. Although eNOS derangement has been demonstrated in experimental models, no studies have directly shown that eNOS dysfunction is associated with NAFLD in humans. The aim of this study is to investigate eNOS function in NAFLD patients. Fifty-four NAFLD patients were consecutively enrolled. All patients underwent clinical and laboratory evaluation and liver biopsy. Patients were divided into two groups by the presence of NAFL or NASH. We measured vascular reactivity induced by patients' platelets on isolated mice aorta rings. Immunoblot assays for platelet-derived phosphorylated-eNOS (p-eNOS) and immunohistochemistry for hepatic p-eNOS have been performed to evaluate eNOS function in platelets and liver specimens. Flow-mediated-dilation (FMD) was also performed. Data were compared with healthy controls. Twenty-one (38, 8%) patients had NAFL and 33 (61, 7%) NASH. No differences were found between groups and controls except for HOMA and insulin (p liver (p liver tissue didn't match with FMD.

  7. Complex posttraumatic stress disorder: an exploratory investigation of PTSD and DES NOS among Dutch war veterans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongedijk, R. A.; Carlier, I. V.; Schreuder, B. J.; Gersons, B. P.

    1996-01-01

    The recently developed concept Disorder of Extreme Stress Not Otherwise Specified (DES NOS) or complex posttraumatic stress disorder (complex PTSD) is designed to encompass long-standing symptoms not present in PTSD. An exploratory investigation of PTSD and DES NOS was performed with the Structured

  8. 78 FR 39018 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Indian Point Nuclear Generating Unit Nos. 2 and 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-28

    ... COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Indian Point Nuclear Generating Unit Nos. 2 and 3 AGENCY... additional 20 years of operation for Indian Point Nuclear Generating Unit Nos. 2 and 3 (IP2 and IP3). This... INFORMATION: Discussion The NRC received an application, dated April 23, 2007, from Entergy Nuclear Operations...

  9. Social skills training in children with PDD-NOS: an exploratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruin, E.I.; Verheij, F.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. A deficit in social interaction is characteristic for children with Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS). The aim of this exploratory study is to assess the effect of Social Skills Training (SST) in children with DSM-IV based PDD-NOS. Methods. Ten

  10. Social skills training in children with PDD-NOS: An exploratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.I. de Bruin (Esther); F. Verheij (Fop)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractObjective. A deficit in social interaction is characteristic for children with Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS). The aim of this exploratory study is to assess the effect of Social Skills Training (SST) in children with DSM-IV based PDD-NOS. Methods. Ten

  11. Association between nucleotide mutation of eNOS gene and serum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Various mutation on endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOs) gene cause reduced production of NO, the expansion factor (VEF) and may accelerate the process of atherosclerosis. The study was designed to investigate the frequency of T-786C polymorphism of the gene or nucleotide mutation of eNOS gene in patients ...

  12. A simbologia presente nos estilos de Karate-Dō

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandel José Pacheco LOPES FILHO

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ResumoO objetivo deste estudo é interpretar os diferentes significados existentes nos emblemas/símbolos de estilos e escolas de Karate-Dō, analisando seus elementos internos e sua importância dentro dessa prática. Para sua realização, foram realizadas três etapas distintas: 1 catalogação e investigação dos estilos e escolas de Karate-Dō com maior representatividade histórica, cultural e política; 2 identificação dos símbolos utilizados por cada um desses estilos e escolas; e 3 análise de cada um desses símbolos. Essa análise torna-se importante para uma compreensão mais profunda dos diferentes significados envolvidos na prática do Karate-Dō, pois, apesar de seguirem um conjunto de valores comum a todos os Budō, as escolas possuem sua própria visão de mundo, utilizando seus símbolos para reforçar ou externar tais conceitos. A maior parte dos símbolos analisados demonstra um aprofundamento cultural em seus grafismos, sendo reconhecidos alguns elementos até de aspecto espiritual ou religioso. Esse simbolismo, em si, mostra um aspecto relevante para a compreensão do próprio fenômeno multicultural nomeado Karate-Dō.

  13. Institucionalizacao da saude publica paulista nos anos 1930-1940

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Mota

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi interpretar e compreender a institucionalização da saúde pública paulista nos anos 1930-1940, com base na história das especialidades médicas. Foram analisadas novas fontes documentais em diálogo com a literatura existente, levando à identificação de novos indícios relativamente à questão eugênica e à presença de crenças religiosas de médicos como um movimento social. Os médicos, à medida que se especializavam como sanitaristas, propunham um projeto para elevar a raça brasileira, mesclando discursos higienistas com ações sanitárias. São Paulo buscou a primazia nesse projeto, por se acreditar um Estado detentor de uma raça já constituída de “homens historicamente saudáveis”. Crenças religiosas influenciaram o debate e as decisões de época para a ordem sanitária. Historicamente, o discurso sanitário compõe questões técnico-científicas com as político-ideológicas e as culturais, produzindo uma mescla dos diferentes interesses e perspectivas de ordem corporativa da profissão.

  14. Assédio moral nos ambientes corporativos

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    Yumara Lúcia Vasconcelos

    Full Text Available Resumo:Esse artigo teve como objetivo caracterizar o assédio moral nos ambientes corporativos à luz do paradigma conceitual do que se concebe como "dignidade humana" e violação do princípio jurídico da boa-fé. Especificamente, visou identificar padrões na argumentação jurídica e no enquadramento de práticas nocivas à saúde mental do trabalhador. O estudo, de natureza qualitativa, tomou por base o estudo de situações jurídicas, orientando-se pela demanda por definição e caracterização da prática assediadora no âmbito organizacional e dos limites do conceito da dignidade humana. Como principal resultado, o estudo colocou em contraste a necessidade de contextualização do fato propulsor da denúncia e caracterização do assédio, sem olvidar a relevância do significado ou sentido atribuído pelo indivíduo ao fenômeno analisado.

  15. Heterose em suínos na fase de aleitamento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Bento Sterman Ferraz

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available Visando avaliar o ganho de produtividade, advindo da heterose, no peso de suínos em fase de aleitamento, analisaram-se os pesos ao nascimento(PO, 21 dias de idade (P21 e desmama (PD de 746leitões, sendo 201 da raça Landrace, 136 Wessex-Saddleback e 409 mestiços, pelo método dos quadrados mínimos, considerando-se, ainda, os efeitos fixos de época e ano de nascimento, ordem do parto, sexo do leitão e tamanho da leitegada, além de raças paterna e materna e suas interações. Os efeitos não genéticos tiveram influência significativa em quase todas as características. Os mestiços mostraram, em geral, pesos superiores aos puros, com estimativas de heterose de 2,6% para PO, 9,7% para P21 e 13,9% para PD, indicando a importância da herança não aditiva à medida que os leitões ficam menos dependentes de suas mães. Os efeitos de interação entre as raças paterna e materna foram cada vez maiores com o avançar da idade. Os resultados indicam haver ganho de produtividade coma utilização deste tipo de cruzamento.

  16. Agricultura sustentável nos trópicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Paterniani

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available A Agricultura sustentável deve envolver o manejo eficiente dos recursos disponíveis para satisfazer às crescentes aspirações de uma também crescente população, mantendo ou melhorando a qualidade do ambiente e conservando os recursos naturais. Tendo surgido há dez mil anos, a agricultura passou por várias fases, atingindo no presente uma eficiência sem precedentes graças ao emprego racional dos avanços científicos. A agricultura tropical enfrenta mais problemas, que são também mais complexos do que aqueles que ocorrem nos climas temperados. Apesar das limitações, o Brasil tem a agricultura tropical mais desenvolvida. Progressos subseqüentes são esperados com o emprego de técnicas inovadoras, como a Biotecnologia.Sustainable agriculture should involve the successful management for resources to satisfy changing human needs while maintaining or enhancing the quality of the environment and conserving natural resources. Since ten thousands years ago agriculture developed to several phases, attaining at present an extraordinary efficiency, thanks to the employment of scientific advances. Tropical agriculture presents more problems of higher complexity in comparison to those of temperate climates. In spite of the limitations, tropical Brazilian agriculture is better developed regarding the tropical world in general. Promising new advances are expected from technical innovations, such as Biotechnology.

  17. Molecular cloning and expression profiles of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in mud crab Scylla paramamosain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shengkang; Zhang, Zhao; Li, Chuanbiao; Zhou, Lizhen; Liu, Wenhua; Li, Yuanyou; Zhang, Yueling; Zheng, Huaiping; Wen, Xiaobo

    2012-04-01

    The importance of the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) gene family is demonstrated by many studies in vertebrates and invertebrates in recent years. However, it keeps unknown of nitric oxide (NO) system and NOS gene family in mud crab Scylla paramamosain, an important cultured commercial crustacean in China and Pacific area. In this report, the cDNA of NOS containing full-length ORF was cloned from mud crab, S. paramamosain. It was of 4424 bp, including a 5'-terminal untranslated region (UTR) of 239 bp, a 3'-terminal UTR of 540 bp, which contained two ATTTA motifs, and an open reading frame (ORF) of 3645 bp encoding a polypeptide of 1214 amino acids. Structural analysis indicated that NOS contained a typical NO synthase domain at the N-terminal, next to a flavodoxin 1 domain, a flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) binding domain, respectively, and a conservative nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) binding domain structure at the C-terminal. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed S. paramamosain NOS (SpNOS) to be expressed in all tissues examined, with the highest expression in midintestine and the weakest level in heart and eyestalk. The expression profiles of SpNOS indicated that the NOS expression levels were significantly induced in midintestine, hepatopancrease and hemocytes after challenged with Vibrio Parahaemolyticus, the synthetic double-stranded RNA polyinosinic polycytidylic acid (poly I:C) and lipopolysaccharides (LPS). The NOS activity in hemocytes showed significant increase during at 24 h-48 h time period after immune challenges with V. Parahaemolyticus, poly I:C and LPS. Results here may suggest that the inducible NOS play an important role in mud crab's defense against pathogenic infection. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Constitutive NOS expression in cultured endothelial cells is elevated by fluid shear stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjan, V; Xiao, Z; Diamond, S L

    1995-08-01

    The role of chronic fluid shear stress on endothelial constitutive nitric oxide synthase (cNOS) levels may have an important role in vessel diameter control. We subjected primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) or bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC, passages 2-14) to steady laminar shear stress. In both cell types, the intracellular level of cNOS was elevated within 3 h of flow exposure at 25 dyn/cm2 and remained elevated at 6 and 12 h of flow exposure, compared with stationary controls, as indicated by digital immunofluorescence microscopy. Shear stress exposure for 6 h caused a 2.2 +/- 0.3- and 2.8 +/- 0.3-fold elevation of cNOS protein levels in BAEC (n = 3, P shear stress. Flow exposure at 4 dyn/cm2 caused no enhancement of cNOS levels in either cell type. The flow induction of the cNOS protein levels was not blocked by preincubation of BAEC with 100-400 microM of NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, indicating that flow-induced NO (or guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate) was not involved in the elevation of cNOS levels. Protein kinase C inhibitor H-7 (10 microM) had no effect on induction of NOS protein in BAEC exposed to 25 dyn/cm2. The cNOS mRNA levels were found to be elevated by two- to threefold in BAEC after 6 or 12 h of flow exposure at either 4 or 25 dyn/cm2, and this induction of NOS mRNA occurred in the presence of dexamethasone. The elevation of cNOS levels by chronic flow exposure may provide a mechanism for chronic regulation of vessel diameter by endothelial response to prevailing blood flow.

  19. ChAT and NOS in human myenteric neurons: co-existence and co-absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Martin; Schlabrakowski, Anne; Schrödl, Falk; Neuhuber, Winfried; Brehmer, Axel

    2009-10-01

    Most myenteric neurons contain one of the two generating enzymes for major excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters: choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) or neuronal nitric oxide synthase (NOS). Two minor groups of myenteric neurons contain either both enzymes or neither. Our study had two aims: (1) to compare the proportions of neurons stained for ChAT and/or NOS in human small and large intestinal whole-mounts by co-staining with an antibody against the human neuronal protein Hu C/D (HU); (2) to characterize these neurons morphologically by co-staining with a neurofilament (NF) antibody. In small intestinal whole-mounts co-stained with HU, we counted more ChAT-positive (ChAT+) than NOS+ neurons (52% vs. 38%), whereas the large intestine exhibited fewer ChAT+ than NOS+ neurons (38% vs. 50%). Neurons co-reactive for both ChAT and NOS accounted for about 3% in both regions, whereas neurons negative for both enzymes accounted for 7% in the small intestine and 8% in the large intestine. Co-staining with NF revealed that, in both small and large intestine, ChAT+/NOS+ neurons were either spiny (type I) neurons or displayed smaller perikarya that were weakly or not NF-stained. Of all spiny neurons, almost one third was co-reactive for ChAT and NOS, whereas nearly two thirds were positive only for NOS. Neurons negative for both ChAT and NOS were heterogeneous in size and NF reactivity. Thus, neither the co-existence nor the co-absence of ChAT and NOS in human myenteric neurons is indicative for particular neuron types, with several qualitative and quantitative parameters showing a wide range of interindividual variability.

  20. SETD1B Activates iNOS Expression in Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redd, Priscilla S; Ibrahim, Mohammed L; Klement, John D; Sharman, Sarah K; Paschall, Amy V; Yang, Dafeng; Nayak-Kapoor, Asha; Liu, Kebin

    2017-06-01

    Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) generates nitric oxide (NO) in myeloid cells that acts as a defense mechanism to suppress invading microorganisms or neoplastic cells. In tumor-bearing mice, elevated iNOS expression is a hallmark of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC). MDSCs use NO to nitrate both the T-cell receptor and STAT1, thus inhibiting T-cell activation and the antitumor immune response. The molecular mechanisms underlying iNOS expression and regulation in tumor-induced MDSCs are unknown. We report here that deficiency in IRF8 results in diminished iNOS expression in both mature CD11b(+)Gr1(-) and immature CD11b(+)Gr1(+) myeloid cells in vivo Strikingly, although IRF8 was silenced in tumor-induced MDSCs, iNOS expression was significantly elevated in tumor-induced MDSCs, suggesting that the expression of iNOS is regulated by an IRF8-independent mechanism under pathologic conditions. Furthermore, tumor-induced MDSCs exhibited diminished STAT1 and NF-κB Rel protein levels, the essential inducers of iNOS in myeloid cells. Instead, tumor-induced MDSCs showed increased SETD1B expression as compared with their cellular equivalents in tumor-free mice. Chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed that H3K4me3, the target of SETD1B, was enriched at the nos2 promoter in tumor-induced MDSCs, and inhibition or silencing of SETD1B diminished iNOS expression in tumor-induced MDSCs. Our results show how tumor cells use the SETD1B-H3K4me3 epigenetic axis to bypass a normal role for IRF8 expression in activating iNOS expression in MDSCs when they are generated under pathologic conditions. Cancer Res; 77(11); 2834-43. ©2017 AACR. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  1. Identification of hamster inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) promoter sequences that influence basal and inducible iNOS expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldarriaga, Omar A; Travi, Bruno L; Choudhury, Goutam Ghosh; Melby, Peter C

    2012-07-01

    IFN-γ/LPS-activated hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) macrophages express significantly less iNOS (NOS2) than activated mouse macrophages, which contributes to the hamster's susceptibility to intracellular pathogens. We determined a mechanism responsible for differences in iNOS promoter activity in hamsters and mice. The HtPP (1.2 kb) showed low basal and inducible promoter activity when compared with the mouse, and sequences within a 100-bp region (-233 to -133) of the mouse and hamster promoters influenced this activity. Moreover, within this 100 bp, we identified a smaller region (44 bp) in the mouse promoter, which recovered basal promoter activity when swapped into the hamster promoter. The mouse homolog (100-bp region) contained a cis-element for NF-IL-6 (-153/-142), which was absent in the hamster counterpart. EMSA and supershift assays revealed that the hamster sequence did not support the binding of NF-IL-6. Introduction of a functional NF-IL-6 binding sequence into the hamster promoter or its alteration in the mouse promoter revealed the critical importance of this transcription factor for full iNOS promoter activity. Furthermore, the binding of NF-IL-6 to the iNOS promoter (-153/-142) in vivo was increased in mouse cells but was reduced in hamster cells after IFN-γ/LPS stimulation. Differences in the activity of the iNOS promoters were evident in mouse and hamster cells, so they were not merely a result of species-specific differences in transcription factors. Thus, we have identified unique DNA sequences and a critical transcription factor, NF-IL-6, which contribute to the overall basal and inducible expression of hamster iNOS.

  2. Gender and effects of a common genetic variant in the NOS1 regulator NOS1AP on cardiac repolarization in 3761 individuals from two independent populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Martin D; Kähönen, Mika; Braund, Peter; Nieminen, Tuomo; Hajat, Cother; Tomaszewski, Maciej; Viik, Jari; Lehtinen, Rami; Ng, G Andre; Macfarlane, Peter W; Burton, Paul R; Lehtimäki, Terho; Samani, Nilesh J

    2008-10-01

    A longer heart-rate corrected QT interval (QTc) is associated with increased risk of ventricular arrhythmias. Women have longer resting QTc and are more likely than men to develop drug-induced QT prolongation. Recent studies have shown association between resting QTc and a common variant (rs10494366) of the NOS1 regulator, NOS1AP. We investigated the association between rs10494366 in NOS1AP and QTc, and assessed gender-specific NOS1AP associations with QTc during rest and after exercise. We investigated the SNP associations with resting QTc in 919 women and 918 men from 504 representative families in the UK GRAPHIC study, and with QTc at rest and at 3 min recovery after exercise in 699 women and 1225 men referred for exercise testing in the Finnish FINCAVAS study. In the GRAPHIC study the minor allele (G) of the NOS1AP SNP rs10494366 prolonged QTc by 4.59 ms (95% CI 2.77-6.40; P = 7.63/10(7)) in women, but only by 1.62 ms (95% CI -0.15 to 3.38; P = 0.073) in men (gender-SNP interaction term P = 0.025). In the FINCAVAS study the G allele significantly prolonged QTc in both women (P = 0.0063) and men (P = 0.0043) at 3 min recovery after exercise, but at rest an association was only seen in women (P = 0.020 excluding outliers). A common NOS1AP variant prolongs QTc with a difference between genders. Further studies should aim to confirm this finding and to assess whether NOS1AP genotype influences the risk of drug-induced QT prolongation and risk of consequent arrhythmias.

  3. Tratamento adjuvante nos GISTs Adjuvant treatment in GISTs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laercio Gomes Lourenço

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O tumor estromal gastrointestinal (GIST é o sarcoma mais comum do aparelho digestivo. Essa neoplasia ocorre devido à mutação do gene KIT com consequente ativação constitutiva da proteína KIT. O tratamento primário é cirúrgico e consiste na sua ressecção completa. Entretanto, alguns grupos de pacientes apresentam risco elevado de recorrência mesmo após operação com ressecção completa (R0, indicando diferenças no comportamento biológico. Estudos clínicos comprovaram a atividade clínica do mesilato de imatinibe, fazendo dele a primeira linha de tratamento padrão nos GISTs metastáticos ou irressecáveis, mudando muito o desfecho clínico dessa doença em relação aos benefícios anteriormente obtidos com a quimioterapia antineoplásica. MÉTODO: Foi realizada revisão da literatura com consulta nos periódicos das bases Medline/Pubmed, Scielo e Lilacs cruzando os descritores: tumor estromal gastrointestinal, Gist, tratamento, adjuvância. Além desta revisão foi adicionada a experiência pessoal dos autores. CONCLUSÃO: Melhor refinamento dos critérios de prognóstico tem permitido selecionar de forma mais adequada pacientes para o tratamento adjuvante com imatinibe. Os resultados de maior evidência até o momento respaldam o tratamento adjuvante por um ano, o que produz benefício significativo na sobrevida livre de recidiva, mas não na sobrevida global desses pacientes.INTRODUCTION: Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST is the most common sarcoma of the digestive tract. This cancer occurs due to mutation of the KIT gene resulting in constitutive activation of KIT protein. The primary treatment is surgical and consists of complete resection. However, some groups of patients at high risk of recurrence even after surgery with complete resection (R0, indicate differences in biological behavior. Clinical studies have demonstrated the clinical activity of imatinib mesylate, making it the standard first

  4. (INTERSUBJETIVIDADE NOS ESTUDOS DE REDES SOCIAIS: DISSOLVENDO FRONTEIRAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayonara Costa

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available As redes sociais da internet (RSI se multiplicam e todas elas, embora tenham esquemas enunciativos distintos, ampliam as possibilidades de por em cena (intersubjetividades. Muitos papeis sociais são desempenhados nesses ambientes digitais que dão guarida às múltiplas faces de um sujeito que se (desconstrói em meio a um processo heterogêneo. Diante disso, a pergunta que norteia esse ensaio é: Como estudar esse processo de (desconstrução da subjetividade em redes sociais? A proposição que defendemos neste trabalho é a de que o sujeito adepto das redes sociais da internet encontra-se em um tempo-espaço propício a excitações que vão muito além das percepções idiossincráticas de cada indivíduo. Em função disso, propomos que estudar as (intersubjetividades nas RSI pode ser produtivo se relacionarmos as noções de caosmose (Guattari, self (Goffman e enunciação linguística (Benveniste. A conclusão a que chegamos é a de que o viés da enunciação linguística pode ser uma alternativa metodológica que auxilie na conexão entre uma concepção mais transversalista da subjetividade e a tese de que a interação social assemelha-se a uma encenação teatral e, por isso, pode tomar rumos diversos, de acordo com roteiros pré-estabelecidos e socialmente partilhados nos cenários digitais das RSI.

  5. Identification and molecular characterization of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) gene in the intertidal copepod Tigriopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Chang-Bum; Kang, Hye-Min; Seo, Jung Soo; Park, Heum Gi; Rhee, Jae-Sung; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2016-02-10

    In copepods, no information has been reported on the structure or molecular characterization of the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) gene. In the intertidal copepod Tigriopus japonicus, we identified a NOS gene that is involved in immune responses of vertebrates and invertebrates. In silico analyses revealed that nitric oxide (NO) synthase domains, such as the oxygenase and reductase domains, are highly conserved in the T. japonicus NOS gene. The T. japonicus NOS gene was highly transcribed in the nauplii stages, implying that it plays a role in protecting the host during the early developmental stages. To examine the involvement of the T. japonicus NOS gene in the innate immune response, the copepods were exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and two Vibrio sp. After exposure to different concentrations of LPS and Vibrio sp., T. japonicus NOS transcription was significantly increased over time in a dose-dependent manner, and the NO/nitrite concentration increased as well. Taken together, our findings suggest that T. japonicus NOS transcription is induced in response to an immune challenge as part of the conserved innate immunity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. De novo lipogenesis maintains vascular homeostasis through endothelial nitric-oxide synthase (eNOS) palmitoylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiaochao; Schneider, Jochen G; Shenouda, Sherene M; Lee, Ada; Towler, Dwight A; Chakravarthy, Manu V; Vita, Joseph A; Semenkovich, Clay F

    2011-01-28

    Endothelial dysfunction leads to lethal vascular complications in diabetes and related metabolic disorders. Here, we demonstrate that de novo lipogenesis, an insulin-dependent process driven by the multifunctional enzyme fatty-acid synthase (FAS), maintains endothelial function by targeting endothelial nitric-oxide synthase (eNOS) to the plasma membrane. In mice with endothelial inactivation of FAS (FASTie mice), eNOS membrane content and activity were decreased. eNOS and FAS were physically associated; eNOS palmitoylation was decreased in FAS-deficient cells, and incorporation of labeled carbon into eNOS-associated palmitate was FAS-dependent. FASTie mice manifested a proinflammatory state reflected as increases in vascular permeability, endothelial inflammatory markers, leukocyte migration, and susceptibility to LPS-induced death that was reversed with an NO donor. FAS-deficient endothelial cells showed deficient migratory capacity, and angiogenesis was decreased in FASTie mice subjected to hindlimb ischemia. Insulin induced FAS in endothelial cells freshly isolated from humans, and eNOS palmitoylation was decreased in mice with insulin-deficient or insulin-resistant diabetes. Thus, disrupting eNOS bioavailability through impaired lipogenesis identifies a novel mechanism coordinating nutritional status and tissue repair that may contribute to diabetic vascular disease.

  7. Electroacupuncture Delays Hypertension Development through Enhancing NO/NOS Activity in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Suk Hwang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Using spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR, this study investigated whether electroacupuncture (EA could reduce early stage hypertension by examining nitric oxide (NO levels in plasma and nitric oxide synthase (NOS levels in the mesenteric resistance artery. EA was applied to the acupuncture point Governor Vessel 20 (GV20 or to a non-acupuncture point in the tail twice weekly for 3 weeks under anesthesia. In conscious SHR and normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY rats, blood pressure was determined the day after EA treatment by the tail-cuff method. We measured plasma NO concentration, and evaluated endothelial NO syntheses (eNOS and neuronal NOS (nNOS protein expression in the mesenteric artery. Systolic blood pressure (SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP were lower after 3 weeks of GV20 treatment than EA at non-acupuncture point and no treatment control in SHR. nNOS expression by EA was significantly different between both WKY and no treatment SHR control, and EA at GV20 in SHR. eNOS expression was significantly high in EA at GV 20 compared with no treatment control. In conclusion, EA could attenuate the blood pressure elevation of SHR, along with enhancing NO/NOS activity in the mesenteric artery in SHR.

  8. Chemical shift perturbations induced by residue specific mutations of CaM interacting with NOS peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazza, Michael; Guillemette, J Guy; Dieckmann, Thorsten

    2015-10-01

    The regulation of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) by calmodulin (CaM) plays a major role in a number of key physiological and pathological processes. A detailed molecular level picture of how this regulation is achieved is critical for drug development and for our understanding of protein regulation in general. CaM is a small acidic calcium binding protein and is required to fully activate NOS. The exact mechanism of how CaM activates NOS is not fully understood at this time. Studies have shown CaM to act like a switch that causes a conformational change in NOS to allow for the electron transfer between the reductase and oxygenase domains through a process that is thought to be highly dynamic. The interaction of CaM with NOS is modified by a number of post-translation modifications including phosphorylation. Here we present backbone and sidechain (1)H, (15)N NMR assignments of modified CaM interacting with NOS peptides which provides the basis for a detailed study of CaM-NOS interaction dynamics using (15)N relaxation methods.

  9. Inhibition of GTP-dependent vesicle trafficking impairs internalization of plasmalemmal eNOS and cellular nitric oxide production

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chatterjee, Suvro; Cao, Sheng; Peterson, Timothy E; Simari, Robert D; Shah, Vijay

    2003-01-01

    .... This was associated with the mobilization of eNOS-GFP protein into Triton X-100-insoluble fractions of cell lysates, and an internalization of plasmalemmal eNOS-GFP in live and fixed ECV 304 cells...

  10. Effekt der selektiven Hemmung der induzierbaren NO-Synthase (iNOS) in einem experimentellen Model der Pulmonalen Hypertonie

    OpenAIRE

    Krug, Christoffer

    2008-01-01

    Die Rolle der verschiedenen Stickstoffmonoxidsynthasen (NOS) in der Pathogenese der Pulmonalen Hypertonie wird kontrovers diskutiert. Insbesondere die Rolle der induzierbaren NO-Synthase (iNOS oder NOS2) ist wenig untersucht. Im Rahmen dieser Arbeit erfolgten Untersuchungen in einem etablierten experimentellen Modell der Pulmonalen Hypertonie durch Injektion des Alkaloids Monocrotalin in der Ratte. In diesem klinisch relevanten Modell der PH konnte eine signifikant erhöhte Expression der iNOS...

  11. As Narrativas Multissequências e as Transnarrtivas Midiáticas Encontradas nos Games e nos Advergames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Farias Coelho

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo é o resultado parcial de meus estudos de pós-doutorado, em desenvolvimento, no Progra-ma de pós-graduação do TIDD (Tecnologia da Inteligência e Design Digital, na PUC-SP, com o auxílio de bolsa da FAPESP.  A pesquisa foi desenvolvida durante o período em que estive como professora visitante na UPF – Universidade Pompeu Fabra, em Barcelona, sob a supervisão do Profº Dr. José Fer-nandez Cávia. O artigo se propõe a analisar os game-advergames  Differences Little Red-Cap a partir da das novas formas de narrativas multissequênciais e transnarrativas que surgiram, principalmente, com o desenvolvimento desses dois novos meios de comunicação. O objetivo desse estudo é verificar como as narrativas estão se apresentando e sendo desenvolvida nos e para os  advergames-games e, como estes, através de suas características  narrativas multissequênciais e transnarrativas midiáticas podem apre-sentar novas formas de interação digital. Busca-se, portanto, observar de que maneira ocorre a interação entre os jogadores, que são ao mesmo tempo usuários e consumidores-alvos, e a empresa, criadora e patrocinadora do jogo, dentro dessa novas formas de narrativas multissequênciais  e transnarrativas midiáticas que se expandem através dos games e dos  advergames.

  12. 75 FR 75706 - Dresden Nuclear Power Station, Units 2 and 3 and Quad Cities Nuclear Power Station, Unit Nos. 1...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-06

    ... Power Station, Units 2 and 3 and Quad Cities Nuclear Power Station, Unit Nos. 1 and 2; Notice of... Nuclear Power Station, Units 2 and 3, respectively, located in Grundy County, Illinois, and to Renewed Facility Operating License Nos. DPR-29 and DPR-30 for Quad Cities Nuclear Power Station, Unit Nos. 1 and 2...

  13. 75 FR 66802 - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-29

    ... COMMISSION Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2... Regulatory Commission (the Commission) has granted the request of Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC... Operating License Nos. DPR-53 and DPR-69 for the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2...

  14. 75 FR 9449 - Virginia Electric and Power Company; North Anna Power Station, Unit Nos. 1 and 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-02

    ... North Anna Power Station, Unit Nos. 1 and 2 (NAPS). The licenses provide, among other things, that the... COMMISSION [Docket Nos. 50-338 and 50-339; NRC-2010-0026 Virginia Electric and Power Company; North Anna Power Station, Unit Nos. 1 and 2 1.0 Background The Virginia Electric and Power Company, (the licensee...

  15. CENTRALIDADE DA CRÍTICA AO TRABALHO: APONTAMENTOS SOBRE A CATEGORIA TRABALHO NOS MANUSCRITOS DE 1844 E NOS GRUNDRISSE DE MARX

    OpenAIRE

    Xavier, Vinicius dos Santos

    2016-01-01

    *Mestre em Filosofia pela Universidade Federal de São Carlos (UFSCar). Professor Efetivo de Filosofia do Ensino Médio da Rede Estadual de Educação Básica do Estado de São Paulo.Centralidade da crítica ao trabalho: apontamentos sobre a categoria trabalho nos Manuscritos de 1844 e nos Grundrisse de MarxResumo: O objetivo do artigo é refletir criticamente acerca da categoria trabalho em dois momentos da teoria marxiana: os Manuscritos Econômico-Filosóficos, texto de juventude de Marx, e os Grund...

  16. Dificuldades de aprendizagem do aluno nos anos iniciais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ildenê da Silva Sousa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta alguns resultados de metodologias pedagógicas utilizados pelos professores com crianças que necessitam de um Atendimento Especializado nos anos iniciais. A pesquisa foi realizada nas escolas Basiliano do Carmo de Jesus e Aleixo Schenatto, no Município de Sinop/MT, no período de agosto de 2010 a agosto de 2011. A metodologia utilizada para essa pesquisa foi o estudo de caso com uma abordagem qualitativa. Na coleta de dados foi feito observações e entrevistas semi-estrututadas com as crianças e professores que atendem essas crianças com necessidades especiais na sala regular e na sala de recursos. Este trabalho está centrado em duas concepções, dificuldades de aprendizagem e necessidades especiais e como a escola oferece este atendimento. Para a fundamentação teórica recorremos aos autores: Antônio Manuel Pamplona Morais , Paulo Freire, César Coll, Ana Maria Padilha. Claudino Pilleti, Nelson Pilleti e outros. Esperamos que os resultados dessa pesquisa contribua para esclarecer como se encontram o atendimento hoje nas escolas. Quais metodologias os professores utilizam na aprendizagem dessas crianças com dificuldades na aprendizagem e também com necessidades educacionais especiais, se há favorecimento da inclusão, neste dois sentidos, a contribuição da pesquisa para estas dois olhares, se possibilitou a mudança e a concepção dos professores diante da pesquisa, se é possível um atendimento especializado com qualidade na prática e se é possível adquirir uma metodologia diferenciado para este atendimento,  favorecendo o desenvolvimento do aluno nas duas concepções na educação. Palavras-chave: educação; educação especial; necessidades especiais; sócio-interacionista.

  17. NOS CO-OPS Water Level Data, High Low Tide Prediction

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has High Low Tide Predictions from NOAA NOS Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services (CO-OPS). The official Tide and Tidal Current...

  18. NOS CO-OPS Water Level Data, Tide Prediction, 60-Minute

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has High Low Tide Predictions from NOAA NOS Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services (CO-OPS). The official Tide and Tidal Current...

  19. NOS CO-OPS Water Level Data, Tide Prediction, 6-Minute

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has High Low Tide Predictions from NOAA NOS Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services (CO-OPS). The official Tide and Tidal Current...

  20. An endocardial pathway involving Tbx5, Gata4, and Nos3 required for atrial septum formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeau, Mathieu; Georges, Romain O; Laforest, Brigitte; Yamak, Abir; Lefebvre, Chantal; Beauregard, Janie; Paradis, Pierre; Bruneau, Benoit G; Andelfinger, Gregor; Nemer, Mona

    2010-11-09

    In humans, septal defects are among the most prevalent congenital heart diseases, but their cellular and molecular origins are not fully understood. We report that transcription factor Tbx5 is present in a subpopulation of endocardial cells and that its deletion therein results in fully penetrant, dose-dependent atrial septal defects in mice. Increased apoptosis of endocardial cells lacking Tbx5, as well as neighboring TBX5-positive myocardial cells of the atrial septum through activation of endocardial NOS (Nos3), is the underlying mechanism of disease. Compound Tbx5 and Nos3 haploinsufficiency in mice worsens the cardiac phenotype. The data identify a pathway for endocardial cell survival and unravel a cell-autonomous role for Tbx5 therein. The finding that Nos3, a gene regulated by many congenital heart disease risk factors including stress and diabetes, interacts genetically with Tbx5 provides a molecular framework to understand gene-environment interaction in the setting of human birth defects.

  1. NODC Standard Format NOS Coastal Wave Program (F182) Data (1979-1983) (NODC Accession 0014203)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data type was designed for analyzed wave data originating from the National Ocean Service (NOS) Coastal Wave Program. The data are organized into 3 record...

  2. Early ischaemic preconditioning requires Akt- and PKA-mediated activation of eNOS via serine1176 phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Changjun; Talukder, M A Hassan; Varadharaj, Saradhadevi; Velayutham, Murugesan; Zweier, Jay L

    2013-01-01

    The role of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS)/NO signalling is well documented in late ischaemic preconditioning (IPC); however, the role of eNOS and its activation in early IPC remains controversial. This study investigates the role of eNOS in early IPC and the signalling pathways and molecular interactions that regulate eNOS activation during early IPC. Rat hearts were subjected to 30-min global ischaemia and reperfusion (I/R) with or without IPC (three cycles 5-min I and 5-min R) in the presence or absence of the NOS inhibitor l-NAME, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor LY294002 (LY), and protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor H89 during IPC induction or prior endothelial permeablization. IPC improved post-ischaemic contractile function and reduced infarction compared with I/R with this being abrogated by l-NAME or endothelial permeablization. eNOS(Ser1176), Akt(Ser473), and PKA(Thr197) phosphorylation was increased following IPC. I/R decreased eNOS(Ser1176) phosphorylation, whereas IPC increased it. Mass spectroscopy confirmed eNOS(Ser1176) phosphorylation and quantitative Western blots showed ∼24% modification of eNOS(Ser1176) following IPC. Immunoprecipitation demonstrated eNOS, Akt, and PKA complexation. Immunohistology showed IPC-induced Akt and PKA phosphorylation in cardiomyocytes and endothelium. With eNOS activation, IPC increased NO production as measured by electron paramagnetic resonance spin trapping and fluorescence microscopy. LY or H89 not only decreased Akt(Ser473) or PKA(Thr197) phosphorylation, respectively, but also abolished IPC-induced preservation of eNOS and eNOS(Ser1176) phosphorylation as well as cardioprotection. Thus, Akt- and PKA-mediated eNOS activation, with phosphorylation near the C-terminus, is critical for early IPC-induced cardioprotection, with eNOS-derived NO from the endothelium serving a critical role.

  3. Combined effects of antioxidant vitamin and NOS3 genetic polymorphisms on breast cancer risk in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Ah; Lee, Kyoung-Mu; Yoo, Keun-Young; Noh, Dong-Young; Ahn, Sei-Hyun; Kang, Daehee

    2012-02-01

    It is becoming increasingly clear that there is wide heterogeneity in genetic predisposition to breast cancer and that breast cancer risk is determined by interactive effect between genetic and environmental factors. We investigated the combined effects of antioxidant vitamin intake and NOS3 genetic polymorphisms on breast cancer risk in a Korean population (Seoul Breast Cancer Study). Histologically confirmed breast cancer cases (n = 512) and age, menopause status-matched controls (n = 512) with no present or previous history of cancer were recruited from several teaching hospitals in Seoul during 2001-2003. Two genetic polymorphisms of NOS3 (298G > T and -786 T > C) were assessed by single base extension assays. No overall association between the individual NOS3 genotypes or diplotypes and breast cancer risk was found, although the difference between cases and controls in the frequency of the NOS3 894 G > T polymorphism showed borderline significance (OR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.52-1.06). There was no significant difference in energy intake or the intake of antioxidant vitamins between cases and controls, with the exception of vitamin E (OR = 0.49 lowest vs. highest quartile, P(trend) vitamin intake may modify the effects of the NOS3 -786 T > C or 894 G > T genetic polymorphisms on breast cancer risk. Although a multiplicative interaction was not observed, the protective effect of β-carotene intake on breast cancer risk was observed predominantly in individuals with the TG:TG diplotype of NOS3 (OR = 0.68) but not observed with others diplotype. An inverse association between vitamin E intake and breast cancer risk was observed for individuals with the NOS3 786 TC + TT genotype and the NOS3 894 GG genotype. In addition, folic acid had a protective effect in the NOS3 786 TT and NOS3 894 GT + TT genotype. Our results suggest that intake of antioxidant vitamins might modify the association between genetic polymorphisms of NOS3 and breast

  4. Development of nNOS-positive neurons in the rat sensory and sympathetic ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masliukov, P M; Emanuilov, A I; Madalieva, L V; Moiseev, K Y; Bulibin, A V; Korzina, M B; Porseva, V V; Korobkin, A A; Smirnova, V P

    2014-01-03

    Neurochemical features in sympathetic and afferent neurons are subject to change during development. Nitric oxide (NO) plays a developmental role in the nervous system. To better understand the neuroplasticity of sympathetic and afferent neurons during postnatal ontogenesis, the distribution of neuronal NO synthase (nNOS) immunoreactivity was studied in the sympathetic para- and prevertebral, nodose ganglion (NG) and Th2 and L4 dorsal root ganglia (DRG) from female Wistar rats of different ages (newborn, 10-day-old, 20-day-old, 30-day-old, 2-month-old, 6-month-old, 1-year-old, and 3-year-old). nNOS-positive neurons were revealed in all sensory ganglia but not in sympathetic ones from birth onward. The percentage of nNOS-immunoreactive (IR) neurons increased during first 10 days of life from 41.3 to 57.6 in Th2 DRG, from 40.9 to 59.1 in L4 DRG and from 31.6 to 38.5 in NG. The percentage of nNOS-IR neurons did not change in the NG later during development and senescence. However, in Th2 and L4 DRG the proportion of nNOS-IR neurons was high in animals between 10 and 30days of life and decreased up to the second month of life. In 2-month-old rats, the percentage of nNOS-IR neurons was 52.9 in Th2 DRG and 51.3 in L4 DRG. We did not find statistically significant differences in the percentage of nNOS-IR neurons between Th2 and L4 DRG and between young and aged rats. In NG and DRG of 10-day-old and older rats, a high proportion of nNOS-IR neurons binds isolectin B4. In newborn animals, only 41.3%, 45.3% and 28.4% of nNOS neuron profiles bind to IB4 in Th2, L4 DRG and NG, respectively. In 10-day-old and older rats, the number of sensory nNOS-IR neurons binding IB4 reached more than 90% in DRG and more than 80% in NG. Only a small number of nNOS-positive cells showed immunoreactivity to calcitonin gene-related peptide, neurofilament 200, calretinin. The information provided here will also serve as a basis for future studies investigating mechanisms of the development of

  5. Endogenous angiotensin II modulates nNOS expression in renovascular hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.M.C. Pereira

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO influences renal blood flow mainly as a result of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS. Nevertheless, it is unclear how nNOS expression is modulated by endogenous angiotensin II, an inhibitor of NO function. We tested the hypothesis that the angiotensin II AT1 receptor and oxidative stress mediated by NADPH oxidase contribute to the modulation of renal nNOS expression in two-kidney, one-clip (2K1C hypertensive rats. Experiments were performed on male Wistar rats (150 to 170 g body weight divided into 2K1C (N = 19 and sham-operated (N = 19 groups. nNOS expression in kidneys of 2K1C hypertensive rats (N = 9 was compared by Western blotting to that of 2K1C rats treated with low doses of the AT1 antagonist losartan (10 mg·kg-1·day-1; N = 5 or the superoxide scavenger tempol (0.2 mmol·kg-1·day-1; N = 5, which still remain hypertensive. After 28 days, nNOS expression was significantly increased by 1.7-fold in the clipped kidneys of 2K1C rats and by 3-fold in the non-clipped kidneys of 2K1C rats compared with sham rats, but was normalized by losartan. With tempol treatment, nNOS expression increased 2-fold in the clipped kidneys and 1.4-fold in the non-clipped kidneys compared with sham rats. The changes in nNOS expression were not followed by changes in the enzyme activity, as measured indirectly by the cGMP method. In conclusion, AT1 receptors and oxidative stress seem to be primary stimuli for increased nNOS expression, but this up-regulation does not result in higher enzyme activity.

  6. Angiotensin II blockade causes acute renal failure in eNOS-deficient mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Schnermann

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Compared with wild-type mice, adult endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS knockout mice (eight months of age have increased blood pressure (BP (126±9 mmHg vs. 100±4 mmHg, and an increased renal vascular resistance (155±16 vs. 65±4 mmHg.min/ml. Renal vascular resistance responses to i.v. administration of noradrenaline were markedly enhanced in eNOS knockout mice. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR of anaesthetised eNOS -/- mice was 324±57 µl/min gKW, significantly lower than the GFR of 761±126 µl/min.gKW in wild-type mice. AT1-receptor blockade with i.v. candesartan (1—1.5 mg/kg reduced arterial blood pressure and renal vascular resistance, and increased renal blood flow (RBF to about the same extent in wild-type and eNOS -/- mice. Candesartan did not alter GFR in wild-type mice (761±126 vs. 720±95 µl/min.gKW, but caused a marked decrease in GFR in eNOS -/- mice (324.5±75.2 vs. 77±18 µl/min.gKW. A similar reduction in GFR of eNOS deficient mice was also caused by angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE inhibition. Afferent arteriolar granularity, a measure of renal renin expression, was found to be reduced in eNOS -/- compared with wild-type mice. In chronically eNOS-deficient mice, angiotensin II (Ang II is critical for maintaining glomerular filtration pressure and GFR, presumably through its effect on efferent arteriolar tone.

  7. Development of nNOS-positive neurons in the rat sensory ganglia after capsaicin treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masliukov, Petr M; Moiseev, Konstantin Y; Korzina, Marina B; Porseva, Valentina V

    2015-08-27

    To gain a better understanding of the neuroplasticity of afferent neurons during postnatal ontogenesis, the distribution of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) immunoreactivity was studied in the nodose ganglion (NG) and Th2 and L4 dorsal root ganglia (DRG) from vehicle-treated and capsaicin-treated female Wistar rats at different ages (10-day-old, 20-day-old, 30-day-old, and two-month-old). The percentage of nNOS-immunoreactive (IR) neurons decreased after capsaicin treatment in all studied ganglia in first 20 days of life, from 55.4% to 36.9% in the Th2 DRG, from 54.6% to 26.1% in the L4 DRG and from 37.1% to 15.0% in the NG. However, in the NG, the proportion of nNOS-IR neurons increased after day 20, from 11.8% to 23.9%. In the sensory ganglia of all studied rats, a high proportion of nNOS-IR neurons bound isolectin B4. Approximately 90% of the sensory nNOS-IR neurons bound to IB4 in the DRG and approximately 80% in the NG in capsaicin-treated and vehicle-treated rats. In 10-day-old rats, a large number of nNOS-IR neurons also expressed TrkA, and the proportion of nNOS(+)/TrkA(+) neurons was larger in the capsaicin-treated rats compared with the vehicle-treated animals. During development, the percentage of nNOS(+)/TrkA(+) cells decreased in the first month of life in both groups. The information provided here will also serve as a basis for future studies investigating mechanisms of sensory neuron development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Regulation of IgA production by naturally occurring TNF/iNOS-producing dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tezuka, Hiroyuki; Abe, Yukiko; Iwata, Makoto; Takeuchi, Hajime; Ishikawa, Hiromichi; Matsushita, Masayuki; Shiohara, Tetsuo; Akira, Shizuo; Ohteki, Toshiaki

    2007-08-23

    Immunoglobulin-A has an irreplaceable role in the mucosal defence against infectious microbes. In human and mouse, IgA-producing plasma cells comprise approximately 20% of total plasma cells of peripheral lymphoid tissues, whereas more than 80% of plasma cells produce IgA in mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues (MALT). One of the most biologically important and long-standing questions in immunology is why this 'biased' IgA synthesis takes place in the MALT but not other lymphoid organs. Here we show that IgA class-switch recombination (CSR) is impaired in inducible-nitric-oxide-synthase-deficient (iNOS-/-; gene also called Nos2) mice. iNOS regulates the T-cell-dependent IgA CSR through expression of transforming growth factor-beta receptor, and the T-cell-independent IgA CSR through production of a proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL, also called Tnfsf13) and a B-cell-activating factor of the tumour necrosis factor (TNF) family (BAFF, also called Tnfsf13b). Notably, iNOS is preferentially expressed in MALT dendritic cells in response to the recognition of commensal bacteria by toll-like receptor. Furthermore, adoptive transfer of iNOS+ dendritic cells rescues IgA production in iNOS-/- mice. Further analysis revealed that the MALT dendritic cells are a TNF-alpha/iNOS-producing dendritic-cell subset, originally identified in mice infected with Listeria monocytogenes. The presence of a naturally occurring TNF-alpha/iNOS-producing dendritic-cell subset may explain the predominance of IgA production in the MALT, critical for gut homeostasis.

  9. Activation of Endothelial Nitric Oxide (eNOS Occurs through Different Membrane Domains in Endothelial Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Tran

    Full Text Available Endothelial cells respond to a large range of stimuli including circulating lipoproteins, growth factors and changes in haemodynamic mechanical forces to regulate the activity of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS and maintain blood pressure. While many signalling pathways have been mapped, the identities of membrane domains through which these signals are transmitted are less well characterized. Here, we manipulated bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC with cholesterol and the oxysterol 7-ketocholesterol (7KC. Using a range of microscopy techniques including confocal, 2-photon, super-resolution and electron microscopy, we found that sterol enrichment had differential effects on eNOS and caveolin-1 (Cav1 colocalisation, membrane order of the plasma membrane, caveolae numbers and Cav1 clustering. We found a correlation between cholesterol-induced condensation of the plasma membrane and enhanced high density lipoprotein (HDL-induced eNOS activity and phosphorylation suggesting that cholesterol domains, but not individual caveolae, mediate HDL stimulation of eNOS. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-induced and shear stress-induced eNOS activity was relatively independent of membrane order and may be predominantly controlled by the number of caveolae on the cell surface. Taken together, our data suggest that signals that activate and phosphorylate eNOS are transmitted through distinct membrane domains in endothelial cells.

  10. Activation of Endothelial Nitric Oxide (eNOS) Occurs through Different Membrane Domains in Endothelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Jason; Magenau, Astrid; Rodriguez, Macarena; Rentero, Carles; Royo, Teresa; Enrich, Carlos; Thomas, Shane R; Grewal, Thomas; Gaus, Katharina

    2016-01-01

    Endothelial cells respond to a large range of stimuli including circulating lipoproteins, growth factors and changes in haemodynamic mechanical forces to regulate the activity of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and maintain blood pressure. While many signalling pathways have been mapped, the identities of membrane domains through which these signals are transmitted are less well characterized. Here, we manipulated bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) with cholesterol and the oxysterol 7-ketocholesterol (7KC). Using a range of microscopy techniques including confocal, 2-photon, super-resolution and electron microscopy, we found that sterol enrichment had differential effects on eNOS and caveolin-1 (Cav1) colocalisation, membrane order of the plasma membrane, caveolae numbers and Cav1 clustering. We found a correlation between cholesterol-induced condensation of the plasma membrane and enhanced high density lipoprotein (HDL)-induced eNOS activity and phosphorylation suggesting that cholesterol domains, but not individual caveolae, mediate HDL stimulation of eNOS. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced and shear stress-induced eNOS activity was relatively independent of membrane order and may be predominantly controlled by the number of caveolae on the cell surface. Taken together, our data suggest that signals that activate and phosphorylate eNOS are transmitted through distinct membrane domains in endothelial cells.

  11. Mutation screening of NOS1AP gene in a large sample of psychiatric patients and controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nygren Gudrun

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The gene encoding carboxyl-terminal PDZ ligand of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (NOS1AP is located on chromosome 1q23.3, a candidate region for schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorders (ASD and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD. Previous genetic and functional studies explored the role of NOS1AP in these psychiatric conditions, but only a limited number explored the sequence variability of NOS1AP. Methods We analyzed the coding sequence of NOS1AP in a large population (n = 280, including patients with schizophrenia (n = 72, ASD (n = 81 or OCD (n = 34, and in healthy volunteers controlled for the absence of personal or familial history of psychiatric disorders (n = 93. Results Two non-synonymous variations, V37I and D423N were identified in two families, one with two siblings with OCD and the other with two brothers with ASD. These rare variations apparently segregate with the presence of psychiatric conditions. Conclusions Coding variations of NOS1AP are relatively rare in patients and controls. Nevertheless, we report the first non-synonymous variations within the human NOS1AP gene that warrant further genetic and functional investigations to ascertain their roles in the susceptibility to psychiatric disorders.

  12. Apoptosis in testicular tissue of rats after vasectomy: evaluation of eNOS, iNOS immunoreactivities and the effects of ozone therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpcan, Serhan; Başar, Halil; Aydos, Tolga Reşat; Kul, Oğuz; Kısa, Üçler; Başar, Murad Mehmet

    2014-12-01

    We aimed to investigate the changes in endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression and apoptotic index in rat testicular tissue, as well as serum and seminal plasma sex hormone levels after vasectomy, and the effect of ozone therapy (OT). Adult male Wistar rats were used (n=6 per group). Control (G1), sham for 4 weeks (G2) or 6 weeks (G3), orchiectomy at the 4(th) (G4) or 6(th) (G5) week after left vasectomy, orchiectomy at the 4(th) (G6) or 6(th) (G7) week after bilateral vasectomy, orchiectomy after 6 weeks OT following left (G8) or bilateral (G9) vasectomy, orchiectomy after 6 weeks OT (G10). In the left testes, while there were increases in eNOS and iNOS immunoreactivity and apoptotic indexes in G4 and G5, no changes were observed in contralateral testis. These values increased in G6 and G7, while OT inhibited these parameters in the left testis of G8 and both testes of G9. Sex hormone levels did not show any changes after vasectomy and ozone therapy. While OT was found to be protective against some parameters mentioned above under stress conditions, it seemed to cause some harmful effects when used in healthy conditions.

  13. NITRIC OXIDE PRODUCTION AND iNOS mRNA EXPRESSION IN IFN-8-STIMULATED CHICKEN MACROPHAGES TRANSFECTED WITH iNOS siRNAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utilizing RNA interference technology with siRNA in the HD-11 macrophage cell line, we determined how the knock-down of the iNOS (inducible nitric oxide synthase) gene affected IFN-' induced macrophage production of nitric oxide (NO) and mRNA expression of genes involved in this biological pathway i...

  14. Correlated NOS-Imu and myf5 expression by satellite cells in mdx mouse muscle regeneration during NOS manipulation and deflazacort treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Judy E; Vargas, Cinthya

    2003-06-01

    Satellite cells, muscle precursor cells in skeletal muscle, are normally quiescent and become activated by disease or injury. A lack of dystrophin and changes in the expression or activity of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (NOS-I) affect the timing of activation in vivo. Nitric oxide synthase inhibition delays muscle repair in normal mice, and worsens muscular dystrophy in the mdx mouse, a genetic homologue of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. However, the potential role of activation and repair events mediated by nitric oxide in determining the outcome of steroid or other treatments for muscular dystrophy is not clear. We tested the hypothesis that the extent of repair in dystrophic muscles of mdx mice is partly dependent on NOS-Imu expression and activity. Myotube formation in regenerating muscle was promoted by deflazacort treatment of mdx dystrophic mice (PImu mRNA expression and activity were present in satellite cells and very new myotubes of regenerating and dystrophic muscle. Deflazacort treatment resulted in increased NOS-Imu expression in regenerating muscles in a strong and specific correlation with myf5 expression (r=0.95, PImu and myf5 expression in the diaphragm without affecting the diameter of non-regenerating fibres. These in vivo studies suggest that gains in NOS-Imu expression and nitric oxide synthase activity in satellite cells can increase the extent and speed of repair, even in the absence of dystrophin in muscle fibres. NOS-Imu may be a useful therapeutic target to augment the effects of steroidal or other treatments of muscular dystrophy.

  15. The protein inhibitor of nNOS (PIN/DLC1/LC8) binding does not inhibit the NADPH-dependent heme reduction in nNOS, a key step in NO synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parhad, Swapnil S. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR), Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400 005 (India); Jaiswal, Deepa [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR), Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400 005 (India); TIFR Centre for Interdisciplinary Sciences, 21 Brundavan Colony, Narsingi, Hyderabad 500075 (India); Ray, Krishanu, E-mail: krishanu@tifr.res.in [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR), Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400 005 (India); Mazumdar, Shyamalava, E-mail: shyamal@tifr.res.in [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR), Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400 005 (India)

    2016-03-25

    The neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) is an essential enzyme involved in the synthesis of nitric oxide (NO), a potent neurotransmitter. Although previous studies have indicated that the dynein light chain 1 (DLC1) binding to nNOS could inhibit the NO synthesis, the claim is challenged by contradicting reports. Thus, the mechanism of nNOS regulation remained unclear. nNOS has a heme-bearing, Cytochrome P450 core, and the functional enzyme is a dimer. The electron flow from NADPH to Flavin, and finally to the heme of the paired nNOS subunit within a dimer, is facilitated upon calmodulin (CaM) binding. Here, we show that DLC1 binding to nNOS-CaM complex does not affect the electron transport from the reductase to the oxygenase domain. Therefore, it cannot inhibit the rate of NADPH-dependent heme reduction in nNOS, which results in L-Arginine oxidation. Also, the NO release activity does not decrease with increasing DLC1 concentration in the reaction mix, which further confirmed that DLC1 does not inhibit nNOS activity. These findings suggest that the DLC1 binding may have other implications for the nNOS function in the cell. - Highlights: • The effect of interaction of nNOS with DLC1 has been debatable with contradicting reports in literature. • Purified DLC1 has no effect on electron transport between reductase and oxygenase domain of purified nNOS-CaM. • The NO release activity of nNOS was not altered by DLC1, supporting that DLC1 does not inhibit the enzyme. • These findings suggest that the DLC1 binding may have other implications for the nNOS function in the cell.

  16. Striatal NOS1 has dimorphic expression and activity under stress and nicotine sensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, David; Murias, Azucena Rodrigo; Ávila-Zarza, Carmelo Antonio; Muñoz-Castañeda, Rodrigo; Aijón, José; Alonso, José Ramón; Weruaga, Eduardo

    2015-10-01

    Nicotine exerts its addictive influence through the meso-cortico-limbic reward system, where the striatum is essential. Nicotine addiction involves different neurotransmitters, nitric oxide (NO) being especially important, since it triggers the release of the others by positive feedback. In the nervous system, NO is mainly produced by nitric oxide synthase 1 (NOS1). However, other subtypes of synthases can also synthesize NO, and little is known about the specific role of each isoform in the process of addiction. In parallel, NOS activity and nicotine addiction are also affected by stress and sexual dimorphism. To determine the specific role of this enzyme, we analyzed both NOS expression and NO synthesis in the striatum of wild-type and NOS1-knocked out (KO) mice of both sexes in situations of nicotine sensitization and stress. Our results demonstrated differences between the caudate-putamen (CP) and nucleus accumbens (NA). With respect to NOS1 expression, the CP is a dimorphic region (27.5% lower cell density in males), but with a stable production of NO, exclusively due to this isoform. Thus, the nitrergic system of CP may not be involved in stress or nicotine addiction. Conversely, the NA is much more variable and strongly involved in both situations: its NO synthesis displays dimorphic variations at both basal (68.5% reduction in females) and stress levels (65.9% reduction in males), which disappear when nicotine is infused. Thus, the KO animals showed an increase in NO production (21.7%) in the NA, probably by NOS3, in an attempt to compensate the lack of NOS1. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  17. Sleep disturbances in pediatric bipolar disorder: A comparison between Bipolar I and Bipolar NOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argelinda eBaroni

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The diagnosis of Bipolar Disorder (BD in youths has been controversial, especially for the subtype BD Not Otherwise Specified (BD-NOS. In spite of growing evidence that sleep is a core feature of BD, few studies characterize and compare sleep disturbances in youth with BD type I (BD-I and BD-NOS. Sleep disturbances are frequently reported in clinical descriptions of children and adolescents with BD, however the reporting of the frequency and characteristics of sleep symptoms in youth with BD NOS and BD I during episodes remain poor. This study compares symptom of sleep disturbance as occurring in manic and depressive episodes in BD I and BD NOS youth using KSADS-PL interview data. The study also addresses whether symptoms of sleep disturbance vary in different age groups. Material and Methods: The sample consisted of 70 children and adolescent outpatients at an urban specialty clinic (42M/28F, 10.8±3.6 years old including 24 BP-I and 46 BP-NOS assessed using K-SADS-PL-parent interview. Results: Sleep disturbances including insomnia and decreased need for sleep were reported by 84.3% of the sample. Enuresis was diagnosed in 27% of sample. There were no significant differences in frequency of sleep symptoms between BD-I and BD-NOS. Regardless of BD subtype, current functioning was negatively correlated with decreased need for sleep but not insomnia, and regardless of BD subtype. Conclusion: The majority of youth with BD presents with sleep symptoms during mood episodes. BD NOS presents with the same proportion of sleep symptoms as BD I in our sample.

  18. Nuclear hydrogen - possibilities for Brazil; Hidrogenio nuclear - possibilidades para o Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saliba-Silva, Adonis Marcelo; Linardi, Marcelo [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Celulas a Combustivel e Hidrogenio]. E-mail: saliba@ipen.br

    2008-07-01

    The energy vector hydrogen represents a good possibility to replace fossil fuels. One of the main renewable sources of interest for hydrogen is water, which is abundant and can be decomposed directly into pure H{sub 2} and O{sub 2}. This water splitting can be performed by the following methods: electrolysis, thermal decomposition, and thermochemical cycles. The thermochemical cycles and high temperature electrolysis (HTE) are often thought to be feasible methods to be associated with a High Temperature Gas cooled Reactor (HTGR). Both routines have high efficiency at temperature range of 700-950 deg C. In this work, is presented an attainable proposal for Brazilian production of hydrogen based on a HTGR followed by HTE system. A research group at Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Center - CCCH at IPEN/CNEN-SP has elaborated a working plan for 10 years, where it is proposed a R and D line for hydrogen production based on nuclear energy supplied by HTGR. So, in this work, a Brazilian program for researching in this area is proposed inviting potential cooperation. (author)

  19. The Brazilian strategy for the hydrogen economy; A estrategia brasileira para economia do hidrogenio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matos, Maiana Brito de [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica; Neves Junior, Newton Pimenta

    2008-07-01

    This paper examines the Brazilian strategy in the development of technology related to hydrogen and the fuel cell systems. The Brazilian program and road map in the area are analyzed: the Program on Science, Technology and Innovation for the Hydrogen Economy - Pro H2, former Brazilian Program of the Fuel Cell Systems-ProCaC which was created in 2002 by the Ministry of Science, Technology - MCT, and the Road map for Structuring of the Hydrogen Economy in Brazil, which was created in 2004 by the Ministry of Mines and Energy - MME. (author)

  20. Art of hydrogen technology: review; Arte da tecnologia do hidrogenio - revisao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capaz, Rafael Silva; Marvulle, Valdecir [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil). Inst. de Recursos Naturais

    2006-07-01

    The era we live in, since many years ago is called 'petroleum age', because still depends on 'black gold'. It is known however that petroleum will be over on day. This could justify the growing research into new energy sources which appear as renewable alternatives and with less environmental impact. The hydrogen technology art, increasingly nowadays, involves production steps since gasification reactions to thermal decomposition, storage in gas, liquid and intermediary compounds state, transportation and still its use especially in fuel cells. (author)

  1. Post-translational regulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) by estrogens in the rat vagina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musicki, Biljana; Liu, Tongyun; Strong, Travis D; Lagoda, Gwen A; Bivalacqua, Trinity J; Burnett, Arthur L

    2010-05-01

    Estrogens control vaginal blood flow during female sexual arousal mostly through nitric oxide (NO). Although vascular effects of estrogens are attributed to an increase in endothelial NO production, the mechanisms of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) regulation by estrogens in the vagina are largely unknown. Our hypothesis was that estrogens regulate eNOS post-translationally in the vagina, providing a mechanism to affect NO bioavailability without changes in eNOS protein expression. We measured eNOS phosphorylation and eNOS interaction with caveolin-1 and heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) in the distal and proximal vagina of female rats at diestrus, 7 days after ovariectomy and 2 days after replacement of ovariectomized rats with estradiol-17beta (15 microg). Molecular mechanisms of eNOS regulation by estrogen in the rat vagina. We localized phospho-eNOS (Ser-1177) immunohistochemically to the endothelium lining blood vessels and vaginal sinusoids. Estrogen withdrawal decreased phosphorylation of eNOS on its positive regulatory site (Ser-1177) and increased eNOS binding to its negative regulator caveolin-1 (without affecting eNOS/HSP90 interaction), and they were both normalized by estradiol replacement. Protein expressions of phosphorylated Akt (protein kinase B) and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) were not affected by estrogen status, suggesting that the effect of estrogens on eNOS (Ser-1177) phosphorylation was not mediated by activated AKT or ERK1/2. eNOS phosphorylation on its negative regulatory site (Ser-114) was increased in the vagina by estrogen withdrawal and normalized by estradiol replacement, implying that the maintenance of low phosphorylation of eNOS on this site by estradiol may limit eNOS interaction with caveolin-1 and preserve the enzyme's activity. Total eNOS, inducible NOS, caveolin-1, and HSP90 protein expressions were not affected by ovariectomy or estradiol replacement in the distal or proximal vagina. These results

  2. Activation of eNOS in endothelial cells exposed to ionizing radiation involves components of the DNA damage response pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagane, Masaki; Yasui, Hironobu; Sakai, Yuri; Yamamori, Tohru [Laboratory of Radiation Biology, Department of Environmental Veterinary Sciences, Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0818 (Japan); Niwa, Koichi [Laboratory of Biochemistry, Department of Food and Cosmetic Science, Faculty of Bioindustry, Tokyo University of Agriculture, Abashiri 099-2493 (Japan); Hattori, Yuichi [Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Kondo, Takashi [Department of Radiological Sciences, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Inanami, Osamu, E-mail: inanami@vetmed.hokudai.ac.jp [Laboratory of Radiation Biology, Department of Environmental Veterinary Sciences, Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0818 (Japan)

    2015-01-02

    Highlights: • eNOS activity is increased in BAECs exposed to X-rays. • ATM is involved in this increased eNOS activity. • HSP90 modulates the radiation-induced activation of ATM and eNOS. - Abstract: In this study, the involvement of ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) kinase and heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) in endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activation was investigated in X-irradiated bovine aortic endothelial cells. The activity of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and the phosphorylation of serine 1179 of eNOS (eNOS-Ser1179) were significantly increased in irradiated cells. The radiation-induced increases in NOS activity and eNOS-Ser1179 phosphorylation levels were significantly reduced by treatment with either an ATM inhibitor (Ku-60019) or an HSP90 inhibitor (geldanamycin). Geldanamycin was furthermore found to suppress the radiation-induced phosphorylation of ATM-Ser1181. Our results indicate that the radiation-induced eNOS activation in bovine aortic endothelial cells is regulated by ATM and HSP90.

  3. Involvement of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) in the regulation of migrating motor complex (MMC) in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, M; Muñoz, J M; Arruebo, M P; Murillo, M D; Arnal, C; Bonafonte, J I; Plaza, M A

    2012-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the role of nitric oxide (NO) synthase isoforms (nNOS, eNOS, and iNOS) in the regulation of the migrating motor complex (MMC) in sheep using electromyography and their expression in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract by Western blot (WB) and immunohistochemistry. Intravenous administration of L-NAME or the nNOS inhibitor 7-nitroindazole (7-NI) decreased the MMC interval. Myoelectric activity of intestinal phase II was increased, whereas antral activity was reduced. These effects were blocked by L-arginine. Inhibitors of either iNOS (aminoguanidine and S-methylisothiourea) or eNOS (L-NIO) were ineffective. The NO donor sodium nitroprusside decreased GI myoelectric activity, inhibited the MMC pattern, and prevented the effects induced by L-NAME and 7-NI in the intestine. Intracerebroventricular administration of these agents did not modify GI motility. In the rumen, abomasal antrum, duodenum, and jejunum, WB showed three bands at about 155, 145, and 135kDa corresponding to nNOS, and a 140-kDa band (eNOS); however iNOS was not detected. Positive nNOS immunostaining was observed in neurons of the myenteric and submucous plexus of all GI tissues, while eNOS was found in the endothelial cells, ruminal and intestinal epithelium, as well as in some enteric neurons and in endocrine-like cells of the duodenal Brunner's glands. In contrast, only weak iNOS immunoreactivity was found in ruminal epithelium. Taken together, our results suggest that NO, synthesized at a peripheral level by nNOS, is tonically inhibiting the MMC pattern and intestinal motility in sheep. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. eNOS Uncoupling, A Therapeutic Target For Ischemic Foot of Diabetic Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ling; Yu, Ailin; Liu, Jingcheng; Ma, Lina; Li, Jing

    2018-02-01

    To determine the relationship between eNOS uncoupling and diabetic ischemic foot and whether reversing eNOS uncoupling by Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) transfection or folic acid (FA) supplementation can be beneficiary in diabetic ischemic foot. The bilateral common iliac artery of diabetic rats were ligated to establish the diabetic ischemic foot animal model. DHFR transfection was implemented via femoral artery and muscle injection of in vivo transfection reagent mixture (GenEscortIII) every 4 days during the 2 weeks intervention. The color doppler flow imaging (CDFI) of femoral artery for RI measurement, triceps and quadriceps structure and histology, eNOS coupling status, DHFR expression level, superoxide, peroxynitrite (ONOO- ) and nitric oxide (NO) production in the presence or absence of L-NAME (eNOS inhibitor) were examined among wild type rats (WT), diabetic sham rats (DM), rats of diabetic ischemic foot (DF) or DF with DHFR transfection (DFT) or DF with FA supplementation (DFF). Dihydroethidium (DHE) fluorescence, as an index of superoxide production was enhanced in the femoral arteries of diabetic rats and even more in those of ischemic foot from diabetic rats. However, the DHE fluorescence was diminished in the presence of L-NAME suggesting eNOS uncoupling is the source of superoxide overproduction which further led to increased peroxynitrite production and decreased NO . bioavailability. Subsequently, the hind limb muscle became atrophic and the local collateral circulation was defective due to endothelial dysfunction related to eNOS uncoupling. However, all of the above and hemodynamic index (RI) of femoral artery were resumed via restoration of DHFR protein expression by folic acid treatment or DHFR transfection. eNOS uncoupling is involved in diabetic ischemic foot due to DHFR suppression. DHFR restoration can reverse eNOS uncoupling and resume the endothelial dysfunction and pathological changes (increased vasculature resistance, hind limb muscle

  5. iNOS-dependent increase in colonic mucus thickness in DSS-colitic rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olof Schreiber

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate colonic mucus thickness in vivo in health and during experimental inflammatory bowel disease. METHODS: Colitis was induced with 5% DSS in drinking water for 8 days prior to experiment, when the descending colonic mucosa of anesthetized rats was studied using intravital microscopy. Mucus thickness was measured with micropipettes attached to a micromanipulator. To assess the contributions of NOS and prostaglandins in the regulation of colonic mucus thickness, the non-selective NOS-inhibitor L-NNA (10 mg/kg bolus followed by 3 mg/kg/h, the selective iNOS-inhibitor L-NIL (10 mg/kg bolus followed by 3 mg/kg/h and the non-selective COX-inhibitor diclofenac (5 mg/kg were administered intravenously prior to experiment. To further investigate the role of iNOS in the regulation of colonic mucus thickness, iNOS -/- mice were used. RESULTS: Colitic rats had a thicker firmly adherent mucus layer following 8 days of DSS treatment than untreated rats (88±2 µm vs 76±1 µm. During induction of colitis, the thickness of the colonic mucus layer initially decreased but was from day 3 significantly thicker than in untreated rats. Diclofenac reduced the mucus thickness similarly in colitic and untreated rats (-16±5 µm vs -14±2 µm. While L-NNA had no effect on colonic mucus thickness in DSS or untreated controls (+3±2 µm vs +3±1 µm, L-NIL reduced the mucus thickness significantly more in colitic rats than in controls (-33±4 µm vs -10±3 µm. The importance of iNOS in regulating the colonic mucus thickness was confirmed in iNOS-/- mice, which had thinner colonic mucus than wild-type mice (35±3 µm vs 50±2 µm, respectively. Furthermore, immunohistochemistry revealed increased levels of iNOS in the colonic surface epithelium following DSS treatment. CONCLUSION: Both prostaglandins and nitric oxide regulate basal colonic mucus thickness. During onset of colitis, the thickness of the mucus layer is initially reduced followed by an iNOS

  6. Assessing depression outcome in patients with moderate dementia: sensitivity of the HoNOS65+ scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canuto, Alessandra; Rudhard-Thomazic, Valérie; Herrmann, François R; Delaloye, Christophe; Giannakopoulos, Panteleimon; Weber, Kerstin

    2009-08-15

    To date, there is no widely accepted clinical scale to monitor the evolution of depressive symptoms in demented patients. We assessed the sensitivity to treatment of a validated French version of the Health of the Nation Outcome Scale (HoNOS) 65+ compared to five routinely used scales. Thirty elderly inpatients with ICD-10 diagnosis of dementia and depression were evaluated at admission and discharge using paired t-test. Using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) "depressive mood" item as gold standard, a receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis assessed the validity of HoNOS65+F "depressive symptoms" item score changes. Unlike Geriatric Depression Scale, Mini Mental State Examination and Activities of Daily Living scores, BPRS scores decreased and Global Assessment Functioning Scale score increased significantly from admission to discharge. Amongst HoNOS65+F items, "behavioural disturbance", "depressive symptoms", "activities of daily life" and "drug management" items showed highly significant changes between the first and last day of hospitalization. The ROC analysis revealed that changes in the HoNOS65+F "depressive symptoms" item correctly classified 93% of the cases with good sensitivity (0.95) and specificity (0.88) values. These data suggest that the HoNOS65+F "depressive symptoms" item may provide a valid assessment of the evolution of depressive symptoms in demented patients.

  7. TERMOS AMBIENTAIS E SOCIAIS NOS RELATÓRIOS DA ADMINISTRAÇÃO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilse Maria Beuren

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available O estudo objetiva verificar a tendência dos termos ambientais e sociais evidenciados nos relatórios da administração de 1997 a 2006 de empresas familiares brasileiras. Realizou-se pesquisa exploratória, com abordagem qualitativa, por meio de pesquisa documental e da técnica de análise de conteúdo nos RA de 1997 a 2006. No universo das 500 maiores empresas listadas na Revista Exame, edição 2006, identificaram-se 21 empresas familiares de capital aberto e de controle acionário brasileiro, mas dessas somente 16 publicaram seu RA nos dez anos considerados. Os resultados mostram que a oscilação na quantidade de páginas dos RA ao longo dos anos apresenta relação com algum evento ocorrido nas empresas. A evidenciação dos termos ambientais está mais relacionada às medidas tomadas para cuidar e preservar o meio ambiente do que aos passivos ambientais. A evidenciação dos termos sociais foi direcionada de maneira equilibrada ao público interno e externo. Conclui-se que há uma tendência nos termos ambientais e sociais evidenciados nos RA de 1997 a 2006 das empresas pesquisadas, ainda que tenham sido incorporados vários termos novos ao longo do período.

  8. Inorganic Polyphosphate Suppresses Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase (iNOS) Expression in Macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Kana; Shiba, Toshikazu; Doi, Kazuya; Morita, Koji; Kubo, Takayasu; Makihara, Yusuke; Piattelli, Adriano; Akagawa, Yasumasa

    2013-01-01

    In response to infection, macrophages produce a series of inflammatory mediators, including nitric oxide (NO), to eliminate pathogens. The production of these molecules is tightly regulated via various mechanisms, as excessive responses are often detrimental to host tissues. Here, we report that inorganic polyphosphate [poly(P)], a linear polymer of orthophosphate ubiquitously found in mammalian cells, suppresses inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a cell wall component of Gram-negative bacteria, in mouse peritoneal macrophages. Poly(P) with longer chains is more potent than those with shorter chains in suppressing LPS-induced iNOS expression. In addition, poly(P) decreased LPS-induced NO release. Moreover, poly(P) suppressed iNOS mRNA expression induced by LPS stimulation, thereby indicating that poly(P) reduces LPS-induced iNOS expression by down-regulation at the mRNA level. In contrast, poly(P) did not affect the LPS-induced release of TNF, another inflammatory mediator. Poly(P) may serve as a regulatory factor of innate immunity by modulating iNOS expression in macrophages. PMID:24040305

  9. Nitrite enhances liver graft protection against cold ischemia reperfusion injury through a NOS independent pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherif-Sayadi, Amani; Hadj Ayed-Tka, Kaouther; Zaouali, Mohamed Amine; Bejaoui, Mohamed; Hadj-Abdallah, Najet; Bouhlel, Ahlem; Ben Abdennebi, Hassen

    2017-12-01

    Nitrite has been found to protect liver graft from cold preservation injury. However, the cell signaling pathway involved in this protection remains unclear. Here, we attempt to clarify if the NOS pathway by using the NOS inhibitor, L-NAME (L-N(G)-Nitroarginine methyl ester). Rat livers were conserved for 24 h at 4°C in (IGL-1) solution enriched or not with nitrite at 50 nM. In a third group, rats were pretreated with 50 mg/kg of L-NAME before their liver procurement and preservation in IGL-1 supplemented with nitrite (50 nM) and L-NAME (1 mM). After 24 h of cold storage, rat livers were ex-vivo perfused at 37°C during 2 h. Control livers were perfused without cold storage. Nitrite effectively protected the rat liver grafts from the onset of cold I/R injury. L-NAME treatment did not abolish the beneficial effects of nitrite. Liver damage, protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation remained at low levels in both nitrite-treated groups when compared to IGL-1 group. Antioxidant enzyme activities and functional parameters were unchanged after NOS inhibition. Despite NOS inhibition by L-NAME, nitrite can still provide hepatic protection during cold I/R preservation. This suggests that nitrite acts through a NOS-independent pathway.

  10. iNOS Activity Modulates Inflammation, Angiogenesis, and Tissue Fibrosis in Polyether-Polyurethane Synthetic Implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puebla Cassini-Vieira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is considerable interest in implantation techniques and scaffolds for tissue engineering and, for safety and biocompatibility reasons, inflammation, angiogenesis, and fibrosis need to be determined. The contribution of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS in the regulation of the foreign body reaction induced by subcutaneous implantation of a synthetic matrix was never investigated. Here, we examined the role of iNOS in angiogenesis, inflammation, and collagen deposition induced by polyether-polyurethane synthetic implants, using mice with targeted disruption of the iNOS gene (iNOS−/− and wild-type (WT mice. The hemoglobin content and number of vessels were decreased in the implants of iNOS−/− mice compared to WT mice 14 days after implantation. VEGF levels were also reduced in the implants of iNOS−/− mice. In contrast, the iNOS−/− implants exhibited an increased neutrophil and macrophage infiltration. However, no alterations were observed in levels of CXCL1 and CCL2, chemokines related to neutrophil and macrophage migration, respectively. Furthermore, the implants of iNOS−/− mice showed boosted collagen deposition. These data suggest that iNOS activity controls inflammation, angiogenesis, and fibrogenesis in polyether-polyurethane synthetic implants and that lack of iNOS expression increases foreign body reaction to implants in mice.

  11. Impact of training volume and intensity on RBC-NOS/NO pathway and endurance capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koliamitra, Christina; Holtkamp, Bastian; Zimmer, Philipp; Bloch, Wilhelm; Grau, Marijke

    2017-01-01

    Acute exercise increases red blood cell-nitric oxide synthase (RBC-NOS) activation and RBC deformability but the effect of regular training remains unclear. To detect the chronic effect of enduring moderate and high intensity training on the RBC-NOS/NO pathway and to detect a relation between RBC deformability and endurance capacity. 38 healthy male subjects were randomly assigned to one of three training groups: High Volume Training (HVT; 120-140 beats per minute (bpm)), High Intensity Training (HIT; 160-180 bpm) and Moderate Intensity Training (MIT; 140-160 bpm). Blood parameters, maximum oxygen capacity (VO2 max), RBC deformability, RBC nitrite level and RBC-NOS activation were measured after venous blood sampling at rest pre (T0) and after six weeks of training (T1). RBC-NOS activation, RBC nitrite concentration and RBC deformability were significantly increased at T1 in the HIT group. Parameters were unaltered in MIT and HVT. Maximum oxygen uptake was only significantly increased in the HIT group and regression analysis revealed positive regression between VO2 max and RBC deformability. High intensity training was the only training programme that sustainably affected RBC-NOS dependent NO production and performance capacity. HIT therefore represents a time efficient training program resulting in improved RBC function potentially improving physical condition.

  12. Nitric oxide synthase 2 (NOS2) expression in histologically normal margins of oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelatto, Rosana; Itoiz, María-Elina; Guiñazú, Natalia; Piccini, Daniel; Gea, Susana; López-de Blanc, Silvia

    2014-05-01

    The activity of Nitric Oxide Synthase 2 (NOS2) was found in oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) but not in normal mucosa. Molecular changes associated to early carcinogenesis have been found in mucosa near carcinomas, which is considered a model to study field cancerization. The aim of the present study is to analyze NOS2 expression at the histologically normal margins of OSCC. Eleven biopsy specimens of OSCC containing histologically normal margins (HNM) were analyzed. Ten biopsies of normal oral mucosa were used as controls. The activity of NOS2 was determined by immunohistochemistry. Salivary nitrate and nitrite as well as tobacco and alcohol consumption were also analyzed. The Chi-squared test was applied. Six out of the eleven HNM from carcinoma samples showed positive NOS2 activity whereas all the control group samples yielded negative (p=0.005). No statistically significant association between enzyme expression and tobacco and/or alcohol consumption and salivary nitrate and nitrite was found. NOS2 expression would be an additional evidence of alterations that may occur in a state of field cancerization before the appearance of potentially malignant morphological changes.

  13. High BMI levels associate with reduced mRNA expression of IL10 and increased mRNA expression of iNOS (NOS2) in human frontal cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, J K; Olesen, R H; Vendelbo, J

    2017-01-01

    analysis was performed with BMI as variable on data on IL10, IL1β, IL6, PTGS2 (COX2) and NOS2 (iNOS). Increasing BMI is associated with a decrease in the mRNA expression of IL10 (P=0.014) and an increase in the expression of NOS2 (iNOS; P=0.040). Expressions of IL10 and NOS2 (iNOS) were negatively...... correlated (PIL10 was mostly affected by individuals with BMI ⩾40. Multiple linear regression analyses with BMI, age, sex and race as variables were performed in order to identify potential confounders. In conclusion, increasing BMI could affect the IL10-mediated anti...

  14. Protein inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor are expressed in the rat and mouse penile nerves and colocalize with penile neuronal NOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, T R; Ferrini, M G; Davila, H H; Zeller, C B; Vernet, D; Sun, J; Lalani, R; Burnett, A L; Rajfer, J; González-Cadavid, N F

    2003-02-01

    Nitrergic neurotransmission triggering penile erection is mediated by nitric oxide (NO) synthesized in the cavernosal nerves of the penis by penile neuronal NO synthase (PnNOS). In the central nervous system, nNOS is activated by the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) and, presumably, is inhibited by the protein inhibitor of NOS (PIN). The PnNOS and NMDAR are expressed in the penis, and PnNOS has been localized in penile nerves. Both proteins colocalize with PIN in the hypothalamus and the spinal cord involved in the control of erection. The present study aimed to elucidate the relationship between PnNOS, PIN, and NMDAR in the penis. It was found that in the rat, PIN was expressed in the pelvic ganglion and the cavernosal nerve, and penile PIN cDNA was cloned, sequenced, and expressed. Immunohistochemistry localized PIN to the cavernosal and dorsal nerve of the penis, whereas NMDAR was not detected in the latter. Dual-fluorescence labeling showed that PnNOS colocalized with PIN in both nerves but with NMDAR only in the cavernosal nerve. Aging did not affect the mRNA levels of PnNOS, nNOS, NMDAR, and PIN. Both PIN and NMDAR were detected in penile nerves of the wild-type and nNOS(-/-) mouse. The PIN protein did not inhibit or bind NOS in penile extracts, and in vivo, PIN cDNA reduced the erectile response to electrical field stimulation. In conclusion, PIN and NMDAR colocalize with PnNOS in penile nerves, but the functional significance of these protein interactions for penile erection remains to be elucidated.

  15. Effects of Paracetamol on NOS, COX, and CYP Activity and on Oxidative Stress in Healthy Male Subjects, Rat Hepatocytes, and Recombinant NOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trettin, Arne; Böhmer, Anke; Suchy, Maria-Theresia; Probst, Irmelin; Staerk, Ulrich; Stichtenoth, Dirk O.; Frölich, Jürgen C.

    2014-01-01

    Paracetamol (acetaminophen) is a widely used analgesic drug. It interacts with various enzyme families including cytochrome P450 (CYP), cyclooxygenase (COX), and nitric oxide synthase (NOS), and this interplay may produce reactive oxygen species (ROS). We investigated the effects of paracetamol on prostacyclin, thromboxane, nitric oxide (NO), and oxidative stress in four male subjects who received a single 3 g oral dose of paracetamol. Thromboxane and prostacyclin synthesis was assessed by measuring their major urinary metabolites 2,3-dinor-thromboxane B2 and 2,3-dinor-6-ketoprostaglandin F1α, respectively. Endothelial NO synthesis was assessed by measuring nitrite in plasma. Urinary 15(S)-8-iso-prostaglanding F2α was measured to assess oxidative stress. Plasma oleic acid oxide (cis-EpOA) was measured as a marker of cytochrome P450 activity. Upon paracetamol administration, prostacyclin synthesis was strongly inhibited, while NO synthesis increased and thromboxane synthesis remained almost unchanged. Paracetamol may shift the COX-dependent vasodilatation/vasoconstriction balance at the cost of vasodilatation. This effect may be antagonized by increasing endothelial NO synthesis. High-dosed paracetamol did not increase oxidative stress. At pharmacologically relevant concentrations, paracetamol did not affect NO synthesis/bioavailability by recombinant human endothelial NOS or inducible NOS in rat hepatocytes. We conclude that paracetamol does not increase oxidative stress in humans. PMID:24799980

  16. Religião e patriotismo: o anticomunismo católico nos Estados Unidos e no Brasil nos anos da Guerra Fria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Simone Rodeghero

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo analisa e compara o anticomunismo católico no Brasil e nos Estados Unidos no período da Guerra Fria. Depois de situar o campo de estudos constituído no Brasil sobre o tema, discute as relações entre americanismo e anticomunismo, procurando situar o catolicismo norte-americano neste meio. Utiliza-se de uma produção recente sobre cultura da Guerra Fria nos Estados Unidos. Levanta, finalmente, uma série de elementos de comparação sobre a forma que o anticomunismo católico assumiu nos dois países.This article analyses and compares the Catholic anticommunism in the Brazil and in United States during the Cold War years. After showing the recent studies produced in Brazil about the fight against communism, it discusses the relationship between Americanism, anticommunism and Catholicism. This step is based on recent historical research about the Cold War culture in the United States. Finally, it makes comparisons between the forms that anticommunism assumed in each country.

  17. Characterization of iNOS+ Neutrophil-like ring cell in tumor-bearing mice

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    Virtuoso Lauren P

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Myeloid-derived Suppressor Cells (MDSC have been identified as tumor-induced immature myeloid cells (IMC with potent immune suppressive activity in cancer. Whereas strict phenotypic classification of MDSC has been challenging due to the highly heterogeneous nature of cell surface marker expression, use of functional markers such as Arginase and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS may represent a better categorization strategy. In this study we investigated whether iNOS could be utilized as a specific marker for the identification of a more informative homogenous MDSC subset. Methods Single-cell suspensions from tumors and other organs were prepared essentially by enzymatic digestion. Flow cytometric analysis was performed on a four-color flow cytometer. Morphology, intracellular structure and localization of iNOS+ ring cells in the tumor were determined by cytospin analysis, immunofluorescence microscopy and immunohistochemistry, respectively. For functional analysis, iNOS+ ring subset were sorted and tested in vitro cell culture experiments. Pharmacologic inhibition of iNOS was performed both in vivo and in vitro. Results The results showed that intracellular iNOS staining distinguished a granular iNOS+ SSChi CD11b+ Gr-1dim F4/80+ subset with ring-shaped nuclei (ring cells among the CD11b+ Gr-1+ cell populations found in tumors. The intensity of the ring cell infiltrate correlated with tumor size and these cells constituted the second major tumor-infiltrating leukocyte subset found in established tumors. Although phenotypic analysis demonstrated that ring cells shared characteristics with tumor-associated macrophages (TAM, morphological analysis revealed a neutrophil-like appearance as detected by cytospin and immunofluorescence microscopy analysis. The presence of distinct iNOS filled granule-like structures located next to the cell membrane suggested that iNOS was stored in pre-formed vesicles and available for rapid

  18. AFLATOXINAS - ASPECTOS CLÍNICOS E TOXICOLÓGICOS EM SUÍNOS

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    Carlos Augusto Mallmann

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxinas são metabólitos fúngicos produzidos por linhagens de Aspergillus flavus var. parasiticus encontrados ubiquitariamente nos substratos alimentares que compõe a dieta dos suínos. A aflatoxicose dos suínos é uma doença dependente da dose ingerida e do tempo de exposição, caracterizando-se principalmente pela atividade hepatotóxica desta micotoxina. Na suinocultura os maiores problemas são provocados por doses subclínicas onde esta intoxicação se manifesta na forma de prejuízos sobre o desempenho traduzidos principalmente por uma baixa conversão alimentar e por imunodepressão.

  19. Mild mitochondrial uncoupling and calorie restriction increase fasting eNOS, akt and mitochondrial biogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerqueira, Fernanda M; Laurindo, Francisco R M; Kowaltowski, Alicia J

    2011-03-31

    Enhanced mitochondrial biogenesis promoted by eNOS activation is believed to play a central role in the beneficial effects of calorie restriction (CR). Since treatment of mice with dinitrophenol (DNP) promotes health and lifespan benefits similar to those observed in CR, we hypothesized that it could also impact biogenesis. We found that DNP and CR increase citrate synthase activity, PGC-1α, cytochrome c oxidase and mitofusin-2 expression, as well as fasting plasma levels of NO• products. In addition, eNOS and Akt phosphorylation in skeletal muscle and visceral adipose tissue was activated in fasting CR and DNP animals. Overall, our results indicate that systemic mild uncoupling activates eNOS and Akt-dependent pathways leading to mitochondrial biogenesis.

  20. Mild mitochondrial uncoupling and calorie restriction increase fasting eNOS, akt and mitochondrial biogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda M Cerqueira

    Full Text Available Enhanced mitochondrial biogenesis promoted by eNOS activation is believed to play a central role in the beneficial effects of calorie restriction (CR. Since treatment of mice with dinitrophenol (DNP promotes health and lifespan benefits similar to those observed in CR, we hypothesized that it could also impact biogenesis. We found that DNP and CR increase citrate synthase activity, PGC-1α, cytochrome c oxidase and mitofusin-2 expression, as well as fasting plasma levels of NO• products. In addition, eNOS and Akt phosphorylation in skeletal muscle and visceral adipose tissue was activated in fasting CR and DNP animals. Overall, our results indicate that systemic mild uncoupling activates eNOS and Akt-dependent pathways leading to mitochondrial biogenesis.

  1. Reflexões sobre o pesquisador nas trilhas da Teoria Fundamentada nos Dados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joséte Luzia Leite

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Estudo de natureza descritivo-reflexiva, objetivando apresentar as características do pesquisador que utiliza o método Teoria Fundamentada nos Dados e delinear reflexões sobre o desenvolvimento das aptidões do pesquisador para tornar-se um Teórico Fundamentado. A discussão teórica foi embasada nos referenciais dessa metodologia e apoiada na literatura. O artigo apresenta as principais demandas de estudos qualitativos com a Grounded Theory e importantes comportamentos, atitudes e características desenvolvidas pelos pesquisadores. Constata-se que a aprendizagem acerca da Teoria Fundamentada nos Dados vai além da habilidade para operacionalizar um conjunto de procedimentos e técnicas. Implica, também, em desafios de transformação na postura como pesquisador e em novas formas de pensar e pesquisar, reunindo conhecimentos a partir dos dados para formar uma teoria.

  2. Increased intracellular Ca2+ decreases cisplatin resistance by regulating iNOS expression in human ovarian cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang; Xie, Qi; Liu, Weimin; Guo, Yuting; Xu, Na; Xu, Lu; Liu, Shibing; Li, Songyan; Xu, Ye; Sun, Liankun

    2017-02-01

    Previous studies have reported that intracellular Ca2+ signals and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) are involved in cell apoptosis. However, the role of iNOS in cisplatin resistance in ovarian cancer remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that SKOV3/DDP ovarian cancer cells were more resistant to cisplatin than were SKOV3 ovarian cancer cells. The expression of intracellular Ca2+ and iNOS was more strongly induced by cisplatin in SKOV3 cells than in SKOV3/DDP cells. TAT-conjugated IP3R-derived peptide (TAT-IDPS) increased cisplatin-induced iNOS expression and apoptosis in SKOV3/DDP cells. 2-Aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB) decreased cisplatin-induced iNOS expression and apoptosis in SKOV3 cells. Thus, iNOS induction may be a valuable strategy for improving the anti-tumor efficacy of cisplatin in ovarian cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Intoxicação experimental de suínos por fumonisinas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilkin Paulo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Os efeitos da exposição oral prolongada (28 dias à fumonisina foram estudados em suínos jovens. Os animais foram divididos em três grupos experimentais e alimentados com ração ad libitum contendo: A 0mg de FB1.kg-1 (controle; B 10mg de FB1.kg-1; C 30mg de FB1.kg-1. Os suínos foram observados duas vezes por dia; seus pesos e consumo alimentar foram registrados semanalmente. Entre o 20º e 24º dia de intoxicação, os suínos do tratamentos C apresentaram diminuição do consumo de ração e ganho de peso, sinais característicos de edema pulmonar, razão pela qual um animal foi levado a óbito aos 23 dias de intoxicação. Após 28 dias, os animais foram necropsiados e os órgãos submetidos a análises macroscópica, histopatológica e ao estudo da morfologia e histologia intestinal. Nos suínos que apresentaram sinais clínicos de intoxicação, observaram-se lesões pulmonares, hepáticas e diminuição de altura das vilosidades e profundidade das criptas e hiperplasia glandular em segmentos intestinais. Conclui-se, portanto, que substanciais perdas de produtividade podem ser induzidas em suínos alimentados com ração contaminada com baixos níveis de fumonisinas.

  4. nNOS is involved in cardiac remodeling induced by chronic ethanol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Susana M; Silva, Sérgio; Meireles, Manuela; Leal, Sandra

    2015-03-02

    Chronic ethanol consumption has deleterious effects on the cardiovascular system by directly damaging the myocardial structure and/or by neurohormonal activation. Moreover, nitric oxide (NO) derived from neuronal NO synthase (nNOS) seems to be important to balance the harmful effects of ethanol consumption, because it influences several aspects of cardiac physiology and attenuates pathological cardiac remodeling. However, the impact of chronic ethanol consumption on nNOS expression is unknown. We address this subject in the present study by evaluating whether chronic ethanol consumption induces cardiac remodeling and hypertension, and if these changes are associated with alterations in the expression of nNOS. Male Wistar rats were examined after ingesting a 20% alcohol solution for 6 months. Blood alcohol concentration and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels were measured. The cardiac remodeling was assessed by histomorphometric analysis and the nNOS expression was evaluated by immunofluorescence and western blot analysis. Our results show that chronic ethanol consumption induces cardiac remodeling, namely thinning of left ventricular wall, cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and increased fibrosis, and elevations of arterial blood pressure. They also show that in rats fed with ethanol for 6 months, the circulating BNP levels had decreased as well as the expression of nNOS in left ventricle cardiomyocytes. These findings suggest that the effects of chronic ethanol consumption on BNP levels and/or on nNOS expression in cardiomyocytes may contribute to aggravate the cardiac remodeling and leads to progression of cardiomyopathy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Key role of endothelium in the eNOS-dependent cardioprotection with exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farah, C; Nascimento, A; Bolea, G; Meyer, G; Gayrard, S; Lacampagne, A; Cazorla, O; Reboul, C

    2017-01-01

    Modulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activation is recognized as a main trigger of the cardioprotective effects of exercise training on heart vulnerability to ischemia-reperfusion (IR). However, this enzyme is expressed both in coronary endothelial cells and cardiomyocytes and the contribution of each one to such cardioprotection has never been challenged. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of eNOS from the cardiomyocytes vs. the endothelium in the exercise cardioprotection. Male Wistar rats were assigned to a chronic aerobic training (Ex) (vs. sedentary group; Sed) and we investigated the role of eNOS in the effects of exercise on sensitivity to IR or anoxia-reoxygenation (A/R) at whole heart, isolated cardiomyocytes and left coronary artery (LCA) levels. We observed that exercise increased eNOS activation (Ser1177 phosphorylation) and protein S-nitrosylation in whole heart but not at cardiomyocyte level, suggesting the specific target of endothelial cells by exercise. Consistently, in isolated cardiomyocytes submitted to the A/R procedure, exercise reduced cell death and improved cells contractility, but independently of the eNOS pathway. Next, to evaluate the contribution of endothelial cells in exercise cardioprotection, LCA were isolated before and after an IR procedure performed on Langendorff hearts. Exercise improved basal relaxation sensitivity to acetylcholine and markedly reduced the alteration of endothelium-dependent coronary relaxation induced by IR. Furthermore, inactivation of coronary endothelial cells activity just before IR, obtained with a bolus of Triton X-100, totally suppressed cardioprotective effects of exercise on both left ventricular functional recovery after IR and infarct size, whereas no effect of Triton X-100 was observed in Sed group. In conclusion, these results show that coronary endothelial cells rather than cardiomyocytes play a key role in the eNOS-dependent cardioprotection of exercise

  6. Constitutive NOS uncoupling and NADPH oxidase upregulation in the penis of type 2 diabetic men with erectile dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musicki, B; Burnett, A L

    2017-03-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) involves dysfunctional nitric oxide (NO) signaling and increased oxidative stress in the penis. However, the mechanisms of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) and neuronal NO synthase (nNOS) dysregulation, and the sources of oxidative stress, are not well defined, particularly at the human level. The objective of this study was to define whether uncoupled eNOS and nNOS, and NADPH oxidase upregulation, contribute to the pathogenesis of ED in T2DM men. Penile erectile tissue was obtained from 9 T2DM patients with ED who underwent penile prosthesis surgery for ED, and from six control patients without T2DM or ED who underwent penectomy for penile cancer. The dimer-to-monomer protein expression ratio, an indicator of uncoupling for both eNOS and nNOS, total protein expressions of eNOS and nNOS, as well as protein expressions of NADPH oxidase catalytic subunit gp91phox (an enzymatic source of oxidative stress) and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal [4-HNE] and nitrotyrosine (markers of oxidative stress) were measured by western blot in this tissue. In the erectile tissue of T2DM men, eNOS and nNOS uncoupling and protein expressions of NADPH oxidase subunit gp91phox, 4-HNE- and nitrotyrosine-modified proteins were significantly (p penis may involve uncoupled eNOS and nNOS and NADPH oxidase upregulation. Our description of molecular factors contributing to the pathogenesis of T2DM-associated ED at the human level is relevant to advancing clinically therapeutic approaches to restore erectile function in T2DM patients. © 2017 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  7. Prestação de Portugal nos Jogos Olímpicos de Pequim 2008

    OpenAIRE

    SILVA,ALFREDO

    2009-01-01

    Introdução: O valor desporto de rendimento de cada nação é aferido, entre outros acontecimentos, no maior evento desportivo, os Jogos Olímpicos. O objectivo do artigo é avaliar a prestação de Portugal nos Jogos Olímpicos de Pequim 2008 no plano desportivo e financeiro e comparar com a prestação obtida nos Jogos Olímpicos de Atenas 2004. Metodologia: A metodologia adoptada no estudo consiste na recolha de informação de várias fontes documentais. Resultados: Os três o...

  8. IMPACTOS DA CRISE DE 2007/2008 NOS MERCADOS DE CAPITAIS LATINO-AMERICANOS

    OpenAIRE

    Fernanda Galvão de Barba

    2011-01-01

    A grande integração dos mercados mundiais potencializou os efeitos de crises financeiras. A crise financeira de 2007/2008, iniciada nos EUA e depois expandida para grande parte do mundo, teve severo impacto em praticamente todos os mercados do mundo, podendo ser comparada à Grande Depressão ocorrida em 1929. Esse evento abriu novamente as discussões a respeito das crises financeiras e suas repercussões nos diversos mercados financeiros do mundo. Os investidores têm questionado ...

  9. Psychomteric Validation of the Health of Nation Outcome Scales (HoNOS) in Traumatized Refugees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palic, Sabina; Elklit, Ask; Makransky, Guido

    for refugees other than those for PTSD, anxiety, and depression. This creates extensive problems in treatment monitoring and identification of appropriate treatment goals for this population with complex trauma. The psychometric properties of the HoNOS were evaluated by applying Rasch analysis to pre and post......-treatment data from 448 consecutive patients at three Danish psychiatric clinics for refugees. A10-item HoNOS version (physical problems and daily function items excluded) of pre-treatment data fit the Rasch model well. A cross validation showed excellent fit of the post-treatment data to the 10-item model...

  10. A CONTRIBUIÇÃO DA FISIOTERAPIA NOS CUIDADOS PALIATIVOS EM CRIANÇAS COM LEUCEMIA

    OpenAIRE

    Freitas, Gabrielle Silva de Souza; Caldas, Cíntia Gonçalves

    2016-01-01

    RESUMO: Este artigo teve como objetivo apontar as principais ações do fisioterapeuta nos cuidados paliativos para o restabelecimento da qualidade de vida da criança com leucemia. Este estudo apresenta caráter teórico, exploratório com abordagem qualitativa. Através dos resultados obtidos a fisioterapia pode ser benéfica nos cuidados paliativos de crianças com leucemia, pois conta com um arsenal extenso de técnicas como a cinesioterapia, eletroterapia e hidroterapia que possibilitam ao pacient...

  11. UM ESTUDO SOBRE O VALOR DO SISTEMA DE RASTREABILIDADE ANIMAL NOS EUA

    OpenAIRE

    Resende Filho, Moises de Andrade

    2006-01-01

    Esse artigo investiga o valor do sistema nacional de identificação animal (NAIS) a ser implantado nos EUA. Assume-se que os benefícios para o setor de carnes nos EUA virão como conseqüência do efeito do NAIS sobre a percepção do consumidor final em relação ao risco de consumir carne e derivados impróprios para consumo. Sistemas de demanda dos tipos “generalized almost ideal” (GAI) e “generalized quadratic almost ideal” (GQUAIDS) foram estimados incorporando-se índices de reportagens negativa...

  12. Catalytic Promiscuity of the Radical S-adenosyl-L-methionine Enzyme NosL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Wei; Ji, Xinjian; Li, Yongzhen; Zhang, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Catalytic promiscuity plays a key role in enzyme evolution and the acquisition of novel biological functions. Because of the high reactivity of radical species, in our view enzymes involving radical-mediated mechanisms could intrinsically be more prone to catalytic promiscuity. This mini-review summarizes the recent advances in the study of NosL, a radical S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM)-dependent L-tryptophan (L-Trp) lyase. We demonstrate here the interesting chemistry and remarkable catalytic promiscuity of NosL, and attempt to highlight the high evolvability of radical SAM enzymes and the potential to engineer these enzymes for novel and improved activities.

  13. O papel de imunoglobulinas na nefropatia da leptospirose em suínos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa M.F. Gonçalves

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A leptospirose é uma antropozoonose endêmica em todo o mundo, que afeta o homem e várias espécies de animais domésticos e silvestres. No início da infecção há produção de IgM para o controle da infecção e após alguns dias, IgG são produzidas e provocam lise das leptospiras circulantes. Objetivou-se neste estudo identificar depósitos de antígeno de leptospiras e imunoglobulinas no tecido renal, para avaliar o papel de imunoglobulinas na patogênese da nefropatia da leptospirose em suínos. Foram colhidas 139 amostras de sangue e rim de suínos das cidades de Teresina/PI e Timon/MA, que foram avaliadas pela SAM, imunoistoquímica e PCR. Nefrite intersticial, fibrose, vasculite, tumefação do tufo glomerular e hipercelularidade difusa foram as principais alterações histopatológicas encontradas. A imunoistoquímica detectou antígeno de leptospira em 60 suínos. Depósitos de IgG, IgM e IgA foram observados no endotélio de capilares glomerulares, dos capilares intertubulares e na cápsula de Bowman, com marcação focal, difusa, global e segmentar. A deposição de IgM e IgA foi significantemente maior nos suínos infectados. Estranhamente depósitos de IgG foi significantemente maior nos suínos não infectados, onde não havia presença de antígeno de leptospiras e nem lesão túbulo-intersticial. Concluímos que antígeno de leptospiras no rim de suínos está relacionado a depósitos de IgM e IgA mas não a depósitos de IgG.

  14. [The action of PI3K/AKT during genistein promoting the activity of eNOS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Feng-li; Zhao, Jia-hui; Zhang, Hua-ping

    2012-04-01

    Genistein could inhibit the development of atherosclerosis. This study explored the role of PI3K/AKT signaling during genistein promoted eNOS activation. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were incubated with ox-LDL (100 mg/L), then treated with genistein (100 nmol/L) for 5, 10, 15, 30 and 60 min. The production of NO was assessed by Griess reaction in cell culture supernatant. The mRNA expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) was detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The protein expression of eNOS and phosphorylation eNOS(Ser(1179)) were determined by Western blot. The effect of genistein on phosphorylation eNOS(Ser(1179)) level was also observed in the presence of LY294002 or NSC154020 (PI3K and AKT inhibitors). The concentration of NO and the expression level of phosphorylation eNOS(Ser(1179)) were significantly increased in ox-LDL + genistein treated cells than ox-LDL treated cells (all P 0.05). Furthermore, the expression level of phosphorylation eNOS(Ser(1179)) was significantly lower in PIK3/AKT inhibitors LY294002 and NSC154020 treated cells compared with ox-LDL + genistein treated cells (all P Genistein could promote the activity of eNOS through increasing phosphorylation eNOS(Ser(1179)) level through PI3K/AKT pathway.

  15. Angiotensin II-mediated posttranslational modification of nNOS in the PVN of rats with CHF: role for PIN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Neeru M; Llewellyn, Tamra L; Zheng, Hong; Patel, Kaushik P

    2013-09-15

    An increased sympathetic drive is an adverse characteristic in chronic heart failure (CHF). The protein expression of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS)- and hence nitric oxide (NO)-mediated sympathoinhibition is reduced in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of rats with CHF. However, the molecular mechanism(s) of nNOS downregulation remain(s) unclear. The aim of the study was to reveal the underlying molecular mechanism for the downregulation of nNOS in the PVN of CHF rats. Sprague-Dawley rats with CHF (6-8 wk after coronary artery ligation) demonstrated decreased nNOS dimer/monomer ratio (42%), with a concomitant increase in the expression of PIN (a protein inhibitor of nNOS known to dissociate nNOS dimers into monomers) by 47% in the PVN. Similarly, PIN expression is increased in a neuronal cell line (NG108) treated with angiotensin II (ANG II). Furthermore, there is an increased accumulation of high-molecular-weight nNOS-ubiquitin (nNOS-Ub) conjugates in the PVN of CHF rats (29%). ANG II treatment in NG108 cells in the presence of a proteasome inhibitor, lactacystin, also leads to a 69% increase in accumulation of nNOS-Ub conjugates immunoprecipitated by an antiubiquitin antibody. There is an ANG II-driven, PIN-mediated decrease in the dimeric catalytically active nNOS in the PVN, due to ubiquitin-dependent proteolytic degradation in CHF. Our results show a novel intermediary mechanism that leads to decreased levels of active nNOS in the PVN, involved in subsequent reduction in sympathoinhibition during CHF, offering a new target for the treatment of CHF and other cardiovascular diseases.

  16. Folic acid modulates eNOS activity via effects on posttranslational modifications and protein–protein interactions☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Sarah Y.; Dixon, Hannah M.; Yoganayagam, Shobana; Price, Natalie; Lang, Derek

    2013-01-01

    Folic acid enhances endothelial function and improves outcome in primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. The exact intracellular signalling mechanisms involved remain elusive and were therefore the subject of this study. Particular focus was placed on folic acid-induced changes in posttranslational modifications of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). Cultured endothelial cells were exposed to folic acid in the absence or presence of phosphatidylinositol-3' kinase/Akt (PI3K/Akt) inhibitors. The phosphorylation status of eNOS was determined via western blotting. The activities of eNOS and PI3K/Akt were evaluated. The interaction of eNOS with caveolin-1, Heat-Shock Protein 90 and calmodulin was studied using co-immunoprecipitation. Intracellular localisation of eNOS was investigated using sucrose gradient centrifugation and confocal microscopy. Folic acid promoted eNOS dephosphorylation at negative regulatory sites, and increased phosphorylation at positive regulatory sites. Modulation of phosphorylation status was concomitant with increased cGMP concentrations, and PI3K/Akt activity. Inhibition of PI3K/Akt revealed specific roles for this kinase pathway in folic acid-mediated eNOS phosphorylation. Regulatory protein and eNOS protein associations were altered in favour of a positive regulatory effect in the absence of bulk changes in intracellular eNOS localisation. Folic acid-mediated eNOS activation involves the modulation of eNOS phosphorylation status at multiple residues and positive changes in important protein–protein interactions. Such intracellular mechanisms may in part explain improvements in clinical vascular outcome following folic acid treatment. PMID:23796957

  17. Inhibition of Lipopolysaccharide-Induced iNOS, COX- 2, and TNF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inhibition of Lipopolysaccharide-Induced iNOS, COX- 2, and TNF-α Expression by Aqueous Extract of Orixa Japonica in RAW 264.7 Cells via Suppression of NF- kB Activity. C-H Kang, YH Choi, I-W Choi, J-D Lee, G-Y Kim ...

  18. Inhibition of iNOS and DNA Oxidation by Methanol Extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the antioxidant properties of the methanol extract of S. tenuifolia as well as its effect on inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cycleooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-induced cell damage in macrophage cells. Methods: The antioxidant activities of the plant extract ...

  19. The role of iNOS and PHOX in periapical bone resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, M J B; Sousa, L M A; Lara, V P L; Cardoso, F P; Júnior, G M; Totola, A H; Caliari, M V; Romero, O B; Silva, G A B; Ribeiro-Sobrinho, A P; Vieira, L Q

    2011-04-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) are key molecules in resistance to pathogens. Little is known about their role in pathogenesis of periapical lesions. To address this issue, we induced periapical lesions in mice lacking nitric oxide synthase (iNOS(-/-)) or phagocyte oxidase (PHOX(-/-)). iNOS(-/-) mice expressed higher levels of IL-1β, TNF-α, RANK, RANKL, and MCP-1 than C57BL/6 and PHOX(-/-). Apical thickening of the periodontal ligament was also greater in iNOS(-/-) compared with other groups. Interestingly, ROS production did not interfere in periapical lesion progression, but seemed to be essential for the appearance of multinucleated TRAP-positive cells. Thus, periapical lesion progression in iNOS(-/-) was associated with an imbalance of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β and TNF-α), bone-resorptive modulators (RANK and RANKL), and MCP-1. We conclude that NO, but not ROS, controls progression of bone resorption in a murine experimental model of apical periodontitis.

  20. Evidence of Aortopathy in Mice with Haploinsufficiency of Notch1 in Nos3-Null Background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara N. Koenig

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Thoracic aortic aneurysms (TAA are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in humans. While the exact etiology is unknown, genetic factors play an important role. Mutations in NOTCH1 have been linked to bicuspid aortic valve (BAV and aortopathy in humans. The aim of this study was to determine if haploinsufficiency of Notch1 contributes to aortopathy using Notch1+/−; Nos3−/− mice. Echocardiographic analysis of Notch1+/−; Nos3−/− mice reveals effacement of the sinotubular junction and a trend toward dilation of the aortic sinus. Furthermore, examination of the proximal aorta of Notch1+/−; Nos3−/− mice reveals elastic fiber degradation, a trend toward increased matrix metalloproteinase 2 expression, and increased smooth muscle cell apoptosis, features characteristic of aneurysmal disease. Although at a lower penetrance, we also found features consistent with aortopathic changes in Notch1 heterozygote mice and in Nos3-null mice. Our findings implicate a novel role for Notch1 in aortopathy of the proximal aorta.

  1. Using Video Modeling to Teach Children with PDD-NOS to Respond to Facial Expressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axe, Judah B.; Evans, Christine J.

    2012-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorders often exhibit delays in responding to facial expressions, and few studies have examined teaching responding to subtle facial expressions to this population. We used video modeling to train 3 participants with PDD-NOS (age 5) to respond to eight facial expressions: approval, bored, calming, disapproval,…

  2. 77 FR 13097 - Endangered Species; File Nos. 15661, 10027, and 15685

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XB053 Endangered Species; File Nos. 15661, 10027... authorized the AMNH to study the population biology and connectivity of green and hawksbill sea turtles...

  3. Identifying Demographic Variables Influencing the Nature of Science (NOS) Conceptions of Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaman, Ayhan

    2017-01-01

    In this survey research study, the views of practicing teachers in select aspects of NOS were investigated in connection with the effects of several variables (teaching discipline, gender, education level, teaching experience and regional work location). The instrument used to collect data was an adapted version of "Scientific Epistemological…

  4. ICoNOs MM: The IT-enabled Collaborative Networked Organizations Maturity Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santana Tapia, R.G.

    2009-01-01

    The focus of this paper is to introduce a comprehensive model for assessing and improving maturity of business-IT alignment (B-ITa) in collaborative networked organizations (CNOs): the ICoNOs MM. This two dimensional maturity model (MM) addresses five levels of maturity as well as four domains to

  5. Recapitulating the History of Sickle-Cell Anemia Research: Improving Students' NOS Views Explicitly and Reflectively

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Eric Michael; Rudge, David Wyss

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides an argument in favor of a specific pedagogical method of using the history of science to help students develop more informed views about nature of science (NOS) issues. The paper describes a series of lesson plans devoted to encouraging students to engage, "unbeknownst to them", in similar reasoning that led…

  6. Chronic moderate alcohol consumption induces iNOS expression in the penis: An immunohistochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonca, Süheyla; Yazir, Yusufhan; Göçmez, Semil Selcan; Dalçik, Ekim Nur; Utkan, Tijen; Dalçik, Hakki

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the effect of moderate alcohol consumption on metabolic alterations, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), immunohistochemical distribution, and morphological damage to penile erectile tissue in rats. Male Wistar albino rats were divided into 2 groups. Group 1 rats (control group, n = 8) received tap water ad libitum, and group 2 rats (n = 8) were fed with 20% ethanol. Increasing levels of alcohol were given to the rats over 12 weeks. Immunohistochemistry was then performed using the avidin-biotin-peroxidase technique on 5-pm thickness tissue sections. Stained sections were examined by imaging microscope. Alcohol consumption resulted in a significant increase in iNOS immunoreactivity in the penile erectile tissue. Increased iNOS expression was determined in the tunica albuginea, cavernosal smooth muscle cells, trabeculae of connective tissue, arterioles, and the urethral epithelium. Moreover, chronic alcohol consumption resulted in decreasing serum testosterone and high density lipoprotein (HDL) levels with increasing cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Chronic moderate alcohol consumption can affect penile erectile tissue by increasing iNOS immunoreactivity and induce histopathological damage such as penile fibrosis. These abnormalities are also related to the defense mechanism against morphological damage.

  7. eNOS-dependent antisenscence effect of a calcium channel blocker in human endothelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshio Hayashi

    Full Text Available Senescence of vascular endothelial cells is an important contributor to the pathogenesis of age-associated vascular disorders such as atherosclerosis. We investigated the effects of antihypertensive agents on high glucose-induced cellular senescence in human umbilical venous endothelial cells (HUVECs. Exposure of HUVECs to high glucose (22 mM for 3 days increased senescence-associated- β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal activity, a senescence marker, and decreased telomerase activity, a replicative senescence marker. The calcium channel blocker nifedipine, but not the β1-adrenergic blocking agent atenolol or the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor perindopril, reduced SA-β-gal positive cells and prevented a decrease in telomerase activity in a high-glucose environment. This beneficial effect of nifedipine was associated with reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS and increased endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS activity. Thus, nifedipine prevented high glucose-induced ROS generation and increased basal eNOS phosphorylation level at Ser-1177. Treatment with N (G-nitro-L-arginine (L-NAME and transfection of small interfering RNA (siRNA targeting eNOS eliminated the anti-senscence effect of nifedipine. These results demonstrate that nifedipine can prevent endothelial cell senescence in an eNOS-dependent manner. The anti-senescence action of nifedipine may represent a novel mechanism by which it protects against atherosclerosis.

  8. Human umbilical cord expresses several vasoactive peptides involved in the local regulation of vascular tone: protein and gene expression of Orphanin, Oxytocin, ANP, eNOS and iNOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Gerbino

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Full-term human umbilical cord contains three blood vessels: two arteries coiled around a vein and surrounded by Wharton’s jelly, a mucous tissue with few mesenchymal stromal cells and abundant extracellular matrix. Umbilical vessels lack innervations, thus endothelial cells must play a role in the control of blood flow. The aim of this study was to investigate in human umbilical cord the expression of five peptides that could be involved in the regulation of vascular tone: Orphanin FQ, Oxytocin, Atrial Natriuretic Peptide (ANP, endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase (eNOS and inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase (iNOS. The expression of these molecules in full-term human umbilical cord was investigated through immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR. Immunoreactivity for Orphanin FQ was detected in Wharton’s jelly, vessel musculature and endothelium; Oxytocin, ANP and eNOS were expressed by the umbilical epithelium, Wharton’s jelly and endothelium, whereas iNOS only by endothelial cells. RT-PCR analysis showed transcriptional expression of Oxytocin, ANP and eNOS mRNAs. The presence of Orphanin, Oxytocin, ANP, eNOS and iNOS proteins was identified in the human umbilical cord. mRNA expression for Oxytocin, ANP and eNOS suggest that these molecules are synthesized by umbilical cord cells themselves. The expression of these vasoactive molecules could be part of a general mechanism locally regulating vascular tone. (Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica 2011; Vol. 49, No. 2, pp. 211–218

  9. Human umbilical cord expresses several vasoactive peptides involved in the local regulation of vascular tone: protein and gene expression of Orphanin, Oxytocin, ANP, eNOS and iNOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauro, Annamaria; Buscemi, Maria; Provenzano, Salvatore; Gerbino, Aldo

    2011-01-01

    Full-term human umbilical cord contains three blood vessels: two arteries coiled around a vein and surrounded by Wharton's jelly, a mucous tissue with few mesenchymal stromal cells and abundant extracellular matrix. Umbilical vessels lack innervations, thus endothelial cells must play a role in the control of blood flow. The aim of this study was to investigate in human umbilical cord the expression of five peptides that could be involved in the regulation of vascular tone: Orphanin FQ, Oxytocin, Atrial Natriuretic Peptide (ANP), endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase (eNOS) and inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase (iNOS). The expression of these molecules in full-term human umbilical cord was investigated through immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR. Immunoreactivity for Orphanin FQ was detected in Wharton's jelly, vessel musculature and endothelium; Oxytocin, ANP and eNOS were expressed by the umbilical epithelium, Wharton's jelly and endothelium, whereas iNOS only by endothelial cells. RT-PCR analysis showed transcriptional expression of Oxytocin, ANP and eNOS mRNAs. The presence of Orphanin, Oxytocin, ANP, eNOS and iNOS proteins was identified in the human umbilical cord. mRNA expression for Oxytocin, ANP and eNOS suggest that these molecules are synthesized by umbilical cord cells themselves. The expression of these vasoactive molecules could be part of a general mechanism locally regulating vascular tone.

  10. Sociodemographic, neuropsychiatric and cognitive characteristics of pathological gambling and impulse control disorders NOS in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontieri, Francesco E; Assogna, Francesca; Pellicano, Clelia; Cacciari, Claudia; Pannunzi, Sara; Morrone, Annalucia; Danese, Emanuela; Caltagirone, Carlo; Spalletta, Gianfranco

    2015-01-01

    Despite of previous evidence supporting the association between impulse control disorder (ICD) and several demographic, clinical and therapeutic features in Parkinson's disease (PD), the relationships between pathological gambling (PG) or other variants of ICD (ICD-NOS) and specific neuropsychiatric or cognitive domains are not entirely defined. In this study, 155 PD patients without dementia or cognitive impairment underwent: i. the ICD diagnoses, using the Questionnaire for Impulsive-Compulsive Disorders, ii. the mood and anxiety disorders diagnoses, according to the DSM-IV-TR criteria, and iii. a comprehensive battery for measuring severity of psychopathology and neuropsychology domains. Patients were divided in those with pathological gambling (PG), ICDs not otherwise specified (ICD-NOS), or the lack of ICD (No-ICD). There was a progression in age and age at onset from the younger PG subjects throughout ICD-NOS to No-ICD. PG and ICD-NOS subjects had longer disease duration and were taking significantly higher dosages of antiparkinsonian drugs than No-ICD ones. PG subjects had significantly higher severity of depressive and anxious symptoms with respect to the other 2 groups. Both PG and ICD-NOS subjects suffer from increased severity of psychotic symptoms than No-ICD ones. The 3 groups did not differ in any cognitive measure. Our results support the concept that the different sociodemographic and neuropsychiatric profiles of PD patients are associated with different ICDs. Moreover, we clearly demonstrate the lack of relationship between ICD and cognitive performances in undemented PD patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  11. Equilibration in the Nosé–Hoover Isokinetic Ensemble: Effect of Inter-Particle Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamik Gupta

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the stationary and dynamic properties of the celebrated Nosé–Hoover dynamics of many-body interacting Hamiltonian systems, with an emphasis on the effect of inter-particle interactions. To this end, we consider a model system with both short- and long-range interactions. The Nosé–Hoover dynamics aim to generate the canonical equilibrium distribution of a system at a desired temperature by employing a set of time-reversible, deterministic equations of motion. A signature of canonical equilibrium is a single-particle momentum distribution that is Gaussian. We find that the equilibrium properties of the system within the Nosé–Hoover dynamics coincides with that within the canonical ensemble. Moreover, starting from out-of-equilibrium initial conditions, the average kinetic energy of the system relaxes to its target value over a size-independent timescale. However, quite surprisingly, our results indicate that under the same conditions and with only long-range interactions present in the system, the momentum distribution relaxes to its Gaussian form in equilibrium over a scale that diverges with the system size. On adding short-range interactions, the relaxation is found to occur over a timescale that has a much weaker dependence on system size. This system-size dependence of the timescale vanishes when only short-range interactions are present in the system. An implication of such an ultra-slow relaxation when only long-range interactions are present in the system is that macroscopic observables other than the average kinetic energy when estimated in the Nosé–Hoover dynamics may take an unusually long time to relax to its canonical equilibrium value. Our work underlines the crucial role that interactions play in deciding the equivalence between Nosé–Hoover and canonical equilibrium.

  12. Nitric oxide generation in children with malaria and the NOS2G-954C promoter polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planche, Timothy; Macallan, Derek C; Sobande, Toni; Borrmann, Steffen; Kun, Jürgen F J; Krishna, Sanjeev; Kremsner, Peter G

    2010-11-01

    Previous epidemiological studies have demonstrated a protective association between the NOS2G-954C (NOS2(Lambaréné)) polymorphism in inducible nitric oxide synthase and severe malaria. The polymorphism is commoner in children with uncomplicated compared with severe malaria. We now show that the likely mechanism for such protection is increased flux of nitrogen from arginine to nitric oxide (NO) during episodes of malaria. Forty-seven boys with uncomplicated malaria received an infusion of (15)N-arginine to measure directly whole body in vivo NO production. The NOS2G-954C genotype previously associated with reduced risk of severe malaria in Gabon was also assessed. Evaluable data were obtained from 40 boys, of whom 6 were NOS2G-954C heterozygotes. Heterozygotes had higher urinary (15)N nitrate enrichments, 2.3 ± 0.6 vs. 1.4 ± 0.5 atoms percent excess (P = 0.001) and higher ratios of (15)N between urine nitrate and plasma arginine (87 ± 11 vs. 57 ± 18%, P = 0.001) consistent with accelerated NO production. We also derived total NO production rates, combining data with total urine production rate and nitrate concentration; these showed no difference by genotype (0.62 ± 0.36, n = 6 vs. 0.83 ± 0.50 μmol/kg·h, n = 16; P = 0.36), but data were confounded by very high variability in measurements of urine output and nitrate concentrations. This study supports the idea that NOS2 genotype protects against severe malaria by increasing NO production during episodes of uncomplicated malaria.

  13. Papel de eNOS, nNOS y NT-3 en patología cardiovascular y angiogénesis

    OpenAIRE

    Vicente Miralles, Diana

    2013-01-01

    El óxido nítrico es un mediador implicado en el desarrollo de la patología cardiovascular, la principal causa de mortalidad en nuestro entorno, pero su papel no ha sido completamente esclarecido. Recientemente, se ha establecido el mecanismo a través del cual actúa la NT-3 liberada en el endotelio vascular y se ha demostrado su capacidad para, a través de la activación de su receptor TrkC, fosforilar la eNOS y, como consecuencia, aumentar la síntesis de NO en las células que expresan este r...

  14. Discourse Analysis of Science Teachers Talk as a Self-Reflective Tool for Promoting Effective NOS Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piliouras, Panagiotis; Plakitsi, Katerina; Nasis, Georgios

    2015-01-01

    Teaching the Nature of Science (NOS) in elementary schools and in higher education institutions has become the focus of the science education research community because there is a need to redefine teaching methods and practices. Studies have shown that elementary teachers' views and attitudes towards teaching the NOS are not always compatible with…

  15. Genetic variation in NOS1AP is associated with sudden cardiac death: Evidence from the Rotterdam Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Eijgelsheim (Mark); C. Newton-Cheh (Christopher); A.L.H.J. Aarnoudse (Albert-Jan); C. van Noord (Charlotte); J.C.M. Witteman (Jacqueline); A. Hofman (Albert); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); B.H.Ch. Stricker (Bruno)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractCommon variation within the nitric oxide-1 synthase activator protein (NOS1AP) locus is strongly related to QT interval, a sudden cardiac death (SCD) risk factor. A recent report describes common variation in NOS1AP associated with SCD in a US population of European ancestry. The

  16. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in tumor biology: the two sides of the same coin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lechner, Matthias; Lirk, Philipp; Rieder, Josef

    2005-01-01

    Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is one of three key enzymes generating nitric oxide (NO) from the amino acid l-arginine. iNOS-derived NO plays an important role in numerous physiological (e.g. blood pressure regulation, wound repair and host defence mechanisms) and pathophysiological

  17. Et si nos déchets devenaient la source de nouveaux produits. Notion d'économie circulaire

    OpenAIRE

    Jacquet, Nicolas; Istasse, Thibaut; Berchem, Thomas; Richel, Aurore

    2015-01-01

    Notre objectif et nos recherches se concentrent sur l'utilisation des déchets agricoles et forestiers, les déchets végétaux et industriels et nos déchets ménagers pour produire une gamme de nouveaux produits, biocarburants ou molécules chimiques.

  18. Localization of nitric oxide synthase isoforms (NOS I, II and III) in the vestibular end organs of the guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takumida, M; Anniko, M

    1998-01-01

    The localization of nitric oxide (NO) synthase (NOS) isoforms was investigated in the vestibular organ of the pigmented guinea pig by indirect immunohistochemistry. The cytoplasm of both type I and type II vestibular sensory cells as well as vestibular ganglion cells showed both NOS I and III immunoreactivity, whereas there was no reactivity in their nuclei and sensory hairs. The afferent nerve chalices were usually not stained. NOS III staining was also observed in the nerve fibers contacting type II cells and in the subepithelial tissue. The endothelial lining of the blood vessels displayed reactivity for NOS III. The cytoplasm of fluid transporting cells showed weak staining for NOS I and moderate staining for NOS III. Immunostaining for NOS II did not display any reactivity in general. These findings may suggest that NO is a mediator of neurotransmission in the vestibular system in sensory cells and ganglia. NO in the fluid transporting cells may play an important role for maintaining the endolymph and ion homeostasis, and NOS III in vascular endothelial cells implies regulatory effects of NO on vascular wall tonus and vestibular blood supply.

  19. 75 FR 77920 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Indian Point Nuclear Generating Unit Nos. 2 and 3; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-14

    ... COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Indian Point Nuclear Generating Unit Nos. 2 and 3; Notice of... additional 20 years of operation for Indian Point Nuclear Generating Unit Nos. 2 and 3 (IP2 and IP3). The IP2... submitted by Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; (3) consultation with Federal, State, local, and tribal...

  20. 76 FR 4391 - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC, Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    ... COMMISSION Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC, Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2; Exemption 1.0 Background Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC, the licensee, is the holder of Facility Operating License Nos. DPR-53 and DPR-69 which authorizes operation of the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power...

  1. 76 FR 39908 - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-07

    ... COMMISSION Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2.... DPR-53 and DPR-69, for the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2 (CCNPP), respectively... (ISFSI), currently held by Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC as owner and licensed operator...

  2. Detecting nitrous oxide reductase (nosZ) genes in soil metagenomes: method development and implications for the nitrogen cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incomplete denitrification in soils represents a major source of nitrous oxide (N2O), a potent greenhouse gas. The key enzyme for mitigating N2O emissions is NosZ, which catalyzes N2O reduction to N2 and is generally attributed to denitrifiers. We recently described an “atypical” functional NosZ enz...

  3. SOD1 suppresses maternal hyperglycemia-increased iNOS expression and consequent nitrosative stress in diabetic embryopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Hongbo; Li, Xuezheng; Reece, E Albert; Yang, Peixin

    2012-05-01

    Hyperglycemia induces oxidative stress and increases inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression. We hypothesized that oxidative stress is responsible for hyperglycemia-induced iNOS expression. iNOS-luciferase activities, nitrosylated protein, and lipid peroxidation markers 4-hydroxynonenal and malondialdehyde were determined in parietal yolk sac-2 cells exposed to 5 mmol/L glucose or high glucose (25 mmol/L) with or without copper zinc superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) treatment. Levels of iNOS protein and messenger RNA, nitrosylated protein, and cleaved caspase-3 and -8 were assessed in wild-type embryos and SOD1-overexpressing embryos from nondiabetic and diabetic dams. SOD1 treatment diminished high glucose-induced oxidative stress, as evidenced by 4-hydroxynonenal and malondialdehyde reductions, and it blocked high glucose-increased iNOS expression, iNOS-luciferase activities, and nitrosylated protein. In vivo SOD1 overexpression suppressed hyperglycemia-increased iNOS expression and nitrosylated protein, and it blocked caspase-3 and -8 cleavage. We conclude that oxidative stress induces iNOS expression, nitrosative stress, and apoptosis in diabetic embryopathy. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. 75 FR 4591 - Virginia Electric and Power Company; North Anna Power Station, Unit Nos. 1 and 2; Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-28

    ...-7, issued to Virginia Electric and Power Company, (the licensee), for operation of the North Anna Power Station, Unit Nos. 1 and 2 (NAPS). In accordance with 10 CFR 51.21, ``Criteria for and... COMMISSION Virginia Electric and Power Company; North Anna Power Station, Unit Nos. 1 and 2; Environmental...

  5. Depressed nNOS expression during spine transition in the developing hippocampus of FMR1 KO mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Xu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO, synthesized as needed by NO synthase (NOS, is involved in spinogenesis and synaptogenesis. Immature spine morphology is characteristic of fragile X syndrome (FXS. The objective of this research was to investigate and compare changes of postnatal neuronal NOS (nNOS expression in the hippocampus of male fragile X mental retardation 1 gene knockout mice (FMR1 KO mice, the animal model of FXS and male wild-type mice (WT at postnatal day 7 (P7, P14, P21, and P28. nNOS mRNA levels were analyzed by real-time quantitative PCR (N = 4-7 and nNOS protein was estimated by Western blot (N = 3 and immunohistochemistry (N = 1. In the PCR assessment, primers 5’-GTGGCCATCGTGTCCTACCATAC-3’ and 5’-GTTTCGAGGCAGGTGGAAGCTA-3’ were used for the detection of nNOS and primers 5’-CCGTTTCTCCTGGCTCAGTTTA-3’ and 5’-CCCCAATACCACATCATCCAT-3’ were used for the detection of β-actin. Compared to the WT group, nNOS mRNA expression was significantly decreased in FMR1 KO mice at P21 (KO: 0.2857 ± 0.0150, WT: 0.5646 ± 0.0657; P < 0.05. Consistently, nNOS immunoreactivity also revealed reduced staining intensity at P21 in the FMR1 KO group. Western blot analysis validated the immunostaining results by demonstrating a significant reduction in nNOS protein levels in the FMR1 KO group compared to the WT group at P21 (KO: 0.3015 ± 0.0897, WT: 1.7542 ± 0.5455; P < 0.05. These results suggest that nNOS was involved in the postnatal development of the hippocampus in FXS and impaired NO production may retard spine maturation in FXS.

  6. Depressed nNOS expression during spine transition in the developing hippocampus of FMR1 KO mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Qin; Zhu, Zhiwei; Xu, Jialu [Department of Children' s Health Care, Children' s Hospital, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou Zhejiang (China); Gu, Weizhong [Department of Pathology, Children' s Hospital, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou Zhejiang (China); Zhao, Zhengyan [Department of Children' s Health Care, Children' s Hospital, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou Zhejiang (China)

    2012-10-05

    Nitric oxide (NO), synthesized as needed by NO synthase (NOS), is involved in spinogenesis and synaptogenesis. Immature spine morphology is characteristic of fragile X syndrome (FXS). The objective of this research was to investigate and compare changes of postnatal neuronal NOS (nNOS) expression in the hippocampus of male fragile X mental retardation 1 gene knockout mice (FMR1 KO mice, the animal model of FXS) and male wild-type mice (WT) at postnatal day 7 (P7), P14, P21, and P28. nNOS mRNA levels were analyzed by real-time quantitative PCR (N = 4-7) and nNOS protein was estimated by Western blot (N = 3) and immunohistochemistry (N = 1). In the PCR assessment, primers 5′-GTGGCCATCGTGTCCTACCATAC-3′ and 5′-GTTTCGAGGCAGGTGGAAGCTA-3′ were used for the detection of nNOS and primers 5′-CCGTTTCTCCTGGCTCAGTTTA-3′ and 5′-CCCCAATACCACATCATCCAT-3′ were used for the detection of β-actin. Compared to the WT group, nNOS mRNA expression was significantly decreased in FMR1 KO mice at P21 (KO: 0.2857 ± 0.0150, WT: 0.5646 ± 0.0657; P < 0.05). Consistently, nNOS immunoreactivity also revealed reduced staining intensity at P21 in the FMR1 KO group. Western blot analysis validated the immunostaining results by demonstrating a significant reduction in nNOS protein levels in the FMR1 KO group compared to the WT group at P21 (KO: 0.3015 ± 0.0897, WT: 1.7542 ± 0.5455; P < 0.05). These results suggest that nNOS was involved in the postnatal development of the hippocampus in FXS and impaired NO production may retard spine maturation in FXS.

  7. A Teoria Fundamentada nos Dados nos estudos de Pós-Graduação Stricto Sensu da Enfermagem brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelle Miranda da Silva

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudo documental e quantitativo, que objetivou identificar as teses e dissertações defendidas nos Programas de Pós- Graduação em Enfermagem do Brasil que utilizaram o referencial metodológico da Teoria Fundamentada nos Dados (TFD e analisar os aspectos epistemológicos destacados. Os dados foram coletados no Banco de Teses da CAPES, no recorte temporal entre 1996 a 2010. Foram levantados 99 resumos. Realizou-se a leitura analítica dos mesmos para constituição do tema ou problema da pesquisa e do enquadramento teórico. O maior número de produção foi em 2005, na soma dos dois níveis acadêmicos, e 54% das defesas foram sediadas na USP. As áreas temáticas mais expressivas foram: Saúde da Criança/Adolescente; Gestão em Saúde/Enfermagem; Saúde Coletiva e Saúde da Mulher. O principal referencial teórico utilizado foi o Interacionismo Simbólico. A TFD compreende uma metodologia que pode ser empregada na enfermagem, capaz de contribuir no desenvolvimento de novas investigações para o seu aprimoramento contínuo.

  8. Expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS/NOS II) in the hydropic vestibule after injection of keyhole limpet hemocyanin into the endolymphatic sac of guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, K; Tomiyama, S; Jinnouchi, K; Hess, A; Michel, O; Yagi, T

    2001-01-01

    This study was undertaken to examine the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS / NOS II) in the hydropic vestibule of guinea pigs. Animals were systemically sensitized with 500 microg of keyhole limpet hemocyanin. Two weeks after the first injection, keyhole limpet hemocyanin (100 microg/5 microl) was injected into the endolymphatic sac following the intradural approach, and the next day temporal bones were removed for the immunohistochemical examination. Endolymphatic hydrops was evidenced by the expansion of the Reissner's membrane in the cochlea after direct injection of keyhole limpet hemocyanin into the endolymphatic sac. Inducible nitric oxide synthase expression was increased in the sensory cells, supporting cells and vestibular ganglion cells, while temporal bones, where only phosphate buffered saline was injected, did not show any inducible nitric oxide synthase immunoreactivity. High levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase-catalyzed nitric oxide were detected prior to the development of the inner ear dysfunction. Our results suggest that the occurrence of inducible nitric oxide synthase immunoreactivity parallels the inner ear disturbance as seen in endolymphatic hydrops.

  9. Genetic absence of nNOS worsens fetal alcohol effects in mice. I: behavioral deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karacay, Bahri; Bonthius, Nancy E; Plume, Jeffrey; Bonthius, Daniel J

    2015-02-01

    Alcohol abuse during pregnancy often induces neuropsychological problems in the offspring, including learning disorders, attention deficits, and behavior problems, all of which are prominent components of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). However, not all children who were exposed to alcohol in utero are equally affected by it. While some children have major deficits, others are spared. This unequal vulnerability is likely due largely to differences in fetal genetics. Some fetuses appear to have certain genotypes that make them much more prone to FASD. However, to date, no gene has been identified that worsens alcohol-induced brain dysfunction. Nitric oxide (NO) is a gaseous molecule that can protect developing neurons against alcohol-induced death. In the brain, NO is produced by neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS). In this study, we examined whether homozygous mutation of the nNOS gene in mice worsens the behavioral deficits of developmental alcohol exposure. Wild-type and nNOS(-/-) mice received alcohol (0.0, 2.2, or 4.4 mg/g) daily over postnatal days (PDs) 4 to 9. Beginning on PD 85, the mice underwent a series of behavioral tests, including open field activity, the Morris water maze, and paired pulse inhibition. For the wild-type mice, alcohol impaired performance only in the water maze. In contrast, for the nNOS(-/-) mice, alcohol impaired performance on all 3 tasks. Furthermore, the nNOS(-/-) mice were substantially more impaired than wild-type mice in their performance on all 3 of the behavioral tests and at both the low (2.2) and high (4.4) doses of alcohol. Targeted disruption of the nNOS gene worsens the behavioral impact of developmental alcohol exposure and allows alcohol-induced learning problems to emerge that are not seen in wild type. This is the first demonstration that a specific genotype can interact with alcohol to worsen functional brain deficits in an animal model of FASD. Copyright © 2015 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  10. Endogenous urotensin II selectively modulates erectile function through eNOS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta d'Emmanuele di Villa Bianca

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Urotensin II (U-II is a cyclic peptide originally isolated from the neurosecretory system of the teleost fish and subsequently found in other species, including man. U-II was identified as the natural ligand of a G-protein coupled receptor, namely UT receptor. U-II and UT receptor are expressed in a variety of peripheral organs and especially in cardiovascular tissue. Recent evidence indicates the involvement of U-II/UT pathway in penile function in human, but the molecular mechanism is still unclear. On these bases the aim of this study is to investigate the mechanism(s of U-II-induced relaxation in human corpus cavernosum and its relationship with L-arginine/Nitric oxide (NO pathway. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Human corpus cavernosum tissue was obtained following in male-to-female transsexuals undergoing surgical procedure for sex reassignment. Quantitative RT-PCR clearly demonstrated the U-II expression in human corpus cavernosum. U-II (0.1 nM-10 µM challenge in human corpus cavernosum induced a significant increase in NO production as revealed by fluorometric analysis. NO generation was coupled to a marked increase in the ratio eNOS phosphorilated/eNOS as determined by western blot analysis. A functional study in human corpus cavernosum strips was performed to asses eNOS involvement in U-II-induced relaxation by using a pharmacological modulation. Pre-treatment with both wortmannin or geldanamycinin (inhibitors of eNOS phosphorylation and heath shock protein 90 recruitment, respectively significantly reduced U-II-induced relaxation (0.1 nM-10 µM in human corpus cavernosum strips. Finally, a co-immunoprecipitation study demonstrated that UT receptor and eNOS co-immunoprecipitate following U-II challenge of human corpus cavernosum tissue. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: U-II is endogenously synthesized and locally released in human corpus cavernosum. U-II elicited penile erection through eNOS activation. Thus, U-II/UT pathway may

  11. Science learning based on local potential: Overview of the nature of science (NoS) achieved

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilujeng, Insih; Zuhdan Kun, P.; Suryadarma, IGP.

    2017-08-01

    The research concerned here examined the effectiveness of science learning conducted with local potential as basis from the point of a review of the NoS (nature of science) achieved. It used the non equivalent control group design and took place in the regions of Magelang and Pati, Province of Central Java, and the regions of Bantul and Sleman, Province of the Special Region of Yogyakarta. The research population consisted of students of the first and second grades at each junior high school chosen with research subjects sampled by means of cluster sampling. The instruments used included: a) an observation sheet, b) a written test, and c) a questionnaire. The learning and research instruments had been declared valid and reliable according to previous developmental research. In conclusion, the science learning based on local potential was effective in terms of all the NoS aspects.

  12. O papel da arte nos centros de atenção psicossocial - CAPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Mara de Melo Tavares

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Estudo sobre o uso da abordagem artística nos cuidados desenvolvidos nos Centros de Atenção Psicossocial (CAPS. Fundamentado em bases conceituais da Reforma Psiquiátrica, o objeto de estudo foi abordado por meio de uma pesquisa exploratória de campo, através da entrevista com profissionais dos CAPS. Os resultados encontrados indicam que atividades de base artística são utilizadas visando a uma interação positiva com o usuário do serviço na perspectiva de sua reabilitação psicossocial. Concluímos que o trabalho no CAPS atualiza a potencialidade criativa dos profissionais e usuários, sendo a arte tomada como uma estratégia de cuidar.

  13. Nosé-Thermostated Mechanical Systems on the n-Torus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Leo T.

    2017-09-01

    Let {H(q,p) = 1/2{allel p allel}^2 + V(q)} be an n-degree of freedom C r mechanical Hamiltonian on {T^{*}{T}^n} where {r > 2n+2} . When the metric {{allel \\cdot allel}} is flat, the Nosé-thermostated system associated to H is shown to have a positive-measure set of invariant tori near the infinite temperature limit. This is shown to be true for all variable mass thermostats similar to Nosé's, too. These results complement results of Bulter (Nonlinearity 11(29):3454-3463, 2016), Legoll et al. (Arch Ration Mech Anal 184(3):449-463, 2007, Nonlinearity 22(7):1673-1694, 2009).

  14. Nosé-Thermostated Mechanical Systems on the n-Torus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Leo T.

    2018-02-01

    Let {H(q,p) = 1/2{allel p allel}^2 + V(q)} be an n-degree of freedom C r mechanical Hamiltonian on {T^{*}{T}^n} where {r > 2n+2}. When the metric {{allel \\cdot allel}} is flat, the Nosé-thermostated system associated to H is shown to have a positive-measure set of invariant tori near the infinite temperature limit. This is shown to be true for all variable mass thermostats similar to Nosé's, too. These results complement results of Bulter (Nonlinearity 11(29):3454-3463, 2016), Legoll et al. (Arch Ration Mech Anal 184(3):449-463, 2007, Nonlinearity 22(7):1673-1694, 2009).

  15. Topografia do Brasil profundo: votos, cargos e alinhamentos nos municípios brasileiros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Marenco dos Santos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available O propósito deste artigo é identificar os padrões preponderantes da competição política realizada nos municípios brasileiros. Pretende-se analisar dois problemas: em primeiro lugar, considerando-se a estrutura federativa do Estado brasileiro e a presença de governo dividido, busca-se identificar as forças que presidem as relações intergovernamentais entre governo federal, estadual e municipal. Em segundo lugar, procura-se analisar em que medida o incremento na competição eleitoral ao nível nacional tem contribuído para incentivar disputas locais e minar as bases tradicionais de poder nos mais de 5,5 mil municípios brasileiros.

  16. A representação da oralidade nos textos publicitários

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Durante

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available

    Este estudo, baseado nos pressupostos teóricos da Análise da Conversação, aborda o aproveitamento de recursos expressivos da oralidade em textos escritos de natureza publicitária veiculados na mídia impressa. O corpus é formado por anúncios publicados pela revista Veja.

  17. Inhibition of iNOS and DNA Oxidation by Methanol Extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Available online at http://www.tjpr.org http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/tjpr.v11i3.8. Research Article. Inhibition of iNOS and DNA Oxidation by Methanol. Extract of Schizonepeta tenuifolia. Kyoung-Seok Tae and Sung-Jin Kim*. Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701, ...

  18. Role of eNOS in water exchange index maintenance-MRI studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atochin, D.; Litvak, M.; Huang, S.; Kim, Y. R.; Huang, P.

    2017-08-01

    Stroke studies employ experimental models of cerebral ischemic and reperfusion injury in rodents. MRI provides valuable supravital data of cerebral blood flow and brain tissue damage. This paper presents MRI applications for cerebral blood flow research in mice lines with impaired nitric oxide production by endothelial nitric oxide synthase. Our data demonstrates that specific modifications of MRI methodology in transgenic mouse models help to evaluate the role of eNOS in the brain-blood barrier function.

  19. Chronic moderate alcohol consumption induces iNOS expression in the penis: An immunohistochemical study

    OpenAIRE

    GONCA, Süheyla; YAZIR, Yusufhan; GÖÇMEZ, Semil Selcan; DALÇIK, Ekim Nur; Utkan, Tijen; DALÇIK, Hakkı

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the effect of moderate alcohol consumption on metabolic alterations, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), immunohistochemical distribution, and morphological damage to penile erectile tissue in rats. Materials and methods: Male Wistar albino rats were divided into 2 groups. Group 1 rats (control group, n = 8) received tap water ad libitum, and group 2 rats (n = 8) were fed with 20% ethanol. Increasing levels of alcohol were given to the rats over 12 weeks. Immunohistochemi...

  20. Association of polymorphisms in NOS3 with the ankle-brachial index in hypertensive adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kullo, Iftikhar J; Greene, M Todd; Boerwinkle, Eric; Chu, Jian; Turner, Stephen T; Kardia, Sharon L R

    2008-02-01

    We investigated the association of 14 polymorphisms in the endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene (NOS3) with ankle brachial index (ABI) in non-Hispanic white hypertensives belonging to hypertensive sibships. Subjects (n=659, mean age 61+/-9 years, 54% women) underwent measurement of ABI using a standard protocol, and the lowest of 4 ABI values was used in the analyses. Non-synonymous SNPs with a minor allele frequency >0.02 and tag SNPs selected based on a measure of linkage disequilibrium (r(2)) were genotyped. We reduced the chance of false positives by testing for replication, randomly selecting 1 hypertensive sib from each sibship to create Subset 1 (n=330) and Subset 2 (n=329). Multivariable linear regression models were used to assess the associations of single NOS3 polymorphisms and haplotypes with ABI after adjustment for covariates (age, sex, body mass index, smoking, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and diabetes). Two specific SNPs in significant LD with each other (rs891512 and rs1808593) were significantly associated with ABI in both subsets. Based on a sliding window approach with a window size of 2, estimated haplotypes from 2 SNP pairs (rs2070744-rs3918226 and rs1808593-rs7830) were also significantly associated with ABI in both subsets. In conclusion, specific NOS3 SNPs and haplotypes were associated with inter-individual variation in ABI, a non-invasive marker of peripheral arterial disease, in replicate subsets of hypertensive subjects. These findings motivate further investigation of the role of NOS3 variants in determining susceptibility to peripheral arterial disease.

  1. Altered Endometrial Expression of Endothelial Nitric oxide Synthase (eNOS) in women with Unexplained Recurrent Miscarriage and Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafi, Tohid; Novin, Marefat Ghaffari; Ghazi, Reza; Khorram, Omid

    2012-01-01

    Background Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) has diverse roles in the female reproductive system including a role in blastocyst implantation. Aberrant expression of eNOS could therefore be significant in the pathogenesis of disorders of implantation Materials and Methods eNOS protein and mRNA levels in the endometrium of women with recurrent miscarriages, unexplained infertility, and a control group was determined by compartmental quantitative immunohistochemistry and real time RT-PCR Results eNOS was immunolocalized to all layers of the endometrium and the vascular endothelium. eNOS protein expression was higher in glandular epithelium (P=0.004) and luminal epithelium (P=0.002) but not vascular endothelium and stroma (P=0.14) in women with recurrent miscarriage. Similarly, in women with unexplained infertility eNOS expression was significantly higher (Pinfertility compared with controls Conclusion Increased expression of eNOS in glandular and luminal epithelium of the endometrium in women with recurrent miscarriages and unexplained infertility suggests a detrimental effect of excess nitric oxide in endometrial receptivity and implantation PMID:22877939

  2. VEGF and eNOS Expression in Umbilical Cord from Pregnancy Complicated by Hypertensive Disorder with Different Severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Bhavina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Reduced blood flow in hypertensive pregnancy may influence the production vasoconstrictors; subsequently the vessel remains in highly contracted state. NO is a vasodilator; VEGF influences its synthesis by regulating eNOS production. Aim of our study was to evaluate the expression of VEGF and eNOS in different severity of hypertensive pregnancy. Methods. Study was conducted in 4 groups with 40 members: group 1—control, group 2—gestational hypertension, group 3—mild preeclampsia, and group 4—severe preeclampsia. Fetal end of umbilical cord was taken and follows IHC staining protocol for VEGF and eNOS antibody. Staining intensity were measured by semiquantitative scoring method. Mann Whitney U test was used to compare each group. Results. Decreased expression of both VEGF and eNOS was found in hypertensive condition than in normal condition. Among hypertensive group, severe preeclamptic group showed more intensity in staining than gestational hypertension and mild preeclampsia. Conclusion. Reduction of VEGF and eNOS in gestational hypertension may lead to hypoperfusion and subsequent hypoxia of fetus in hypertensive pregnancy. The developed hypoxic state may upregulate the synthesis of VEGF and thereby eNOS. Increased expression of VEGF and eNOS in severe group may be a compensatory mechanism to dilate the blood vessels and to improve blood flow of fetus.

  3. Gallic Acid Enriched Fraction of Phyllanthus emblica Potentiates Indomethacin-Induced Gastric Ulcer Healing via e-NOS-Dependent Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananya Chatterjee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The healing activity of gallic acid enriched ethanolic extract (GAE of Phyllanthus emblica fruits (amla against the indomethacin-induced gastric ulceration in mice was investigated. The activity was correlated with the ability of GAE to alter the cyclooxygenase- (COX- dependent healing pathways. Histology of the stomach tissues revealed maximum ulceration on the 3rd day after indomethacin (18 mg/kg, single dose administration that was associated with significant increase in inflammatory factors, namely, mucosal myeloperoxidase (MPO activity and inducible nitric oxide synthase (i-NOS expression. Proangiogenic parameters such as the levels of prostaglandin (PG E2, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF, von Willebrand Factor VIII, and endothelial NOS (e-NOS were downregulated by indomethacin. Treatment with GAE (5 mg/kg/day and omeprazole (3 mg/kg/day for 3 days led to effective healing of the acute ulceration, while GAE could reverse the indomethacin-induced proinflammatory changes of the designated biochemical parameters. The ulcer healing activity of GAE was, however, compromised by coadministration of the nonspecific NOS inhibitor, N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, but not the i-NOS-specific inhibitor, L-N6-(1-iminoethyl lysine hydrochloride (L-NIL. Taken together, these results suggested that the GAE treatment accelerates ulcer healing by inducing PGE2 synthesis and augmenting e-NOS/i-NOS ratio.

  4. Gallic Acid Enriched Fraction of Phyllanthus emblica Potentiates Indomethacin-Induced Gastric Ulcer Healing via e-NOS-Dependent Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Ananya; Chatterjee, Sirshendu; Biswas, Angshuman; Bhattacharya, Sayanti; Chattopadhyay, Subrata; Bandyopadhyay, Sandip K.

    2012-01-01

    The healing activity of gallic acid enriched ethanolic extract (GAE) of Phyllanthus emblica fruits (amla) against the indomethacin-induced gastric ulceration in mice was investigated. The activity was correlated with the ability of GAE to alter the cyclooxygenase- (COX-) dependent healing pathways. Histology of the stomach tissues revealed maximum ulceration on the 3rd day after indomethacin (18 mg/kg, single dose) administration that was associated with significant increase in inflammatory factors, namely, mucosal myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and inducible nitric oxide synthase (i-NOS) expression. Proangiogenic parameters such as the levels of prostaglandin (PG) E2, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), von Willebrand Factor VIII, and endothelial NOS (e-NOS) were downregulated by indomethacin. Treatment with GAE (5 mg/kg/day) and omeprazole (3 mg/kg/day) for 3 days led to effective healing of the acute ulceration, while GAE could reverse the indomethacin-induced proinflammatory changes of the designated biochemical parameters. The ulcer healing activity of GAE was, however, compromised by coadministration of the nonspecific NOS inhibitor, N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), but not the i-NOS-specific inhibitor, L-N6-(1-iminoethyl) lysine hydrochloride (L-NIL). Taken together, these results suggested that the GAE treatment accelerates ulcer healing by inducing PGE2 synthesis and augmenting e-NOS/i-NOS ratio. PMID:22966242

  5. Effect of magnesium supplementation on blood rheology in NOS inhibition-induced hypertension model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cengiz, Melike; Ülker, Pinar; Üyüklü, Mehmet; Yaraş, Nazmi; Özen, Nur; Aslan, Mutay; Özyurt, Dilek; Basralı, Filiz

    2016-01-27

    This study investigated the effects of magnesium on blood rheological properties and blood pressure in nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibition-induced hypertension model. Hypertension was induced by oral administration of the nonselective NOS inhibitor N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 25 mg/kg/day) for 6 weeks and systolic blood pressure was measured by the tail-cuff method. The groups receiving magnesium supplementation were fed with rat chow containing 0.8% magnesium oxide during the experiment. At the end of experiment, blood samples were obtained from abdominal aorta, using ether anesthesia. Plasma and erythrocyte magnesium levels were determined by the atomic absorption spectrometer. RBC deformability and aggregation were determined by rotational ektacytometry. Plasma fibrinogen concentration was evaluated by ELISA. Whole blood and plasma viscosities were determined by viscometer and intracellular free Ca++ level was measured by using spectroflurometric method. Blood pressure was elevated in hypertensive groups and suppressed by magnesium therapy. Plasma viscosity and RBC aggregation were found to be higher in hypertensive rats than control animals and these parameters significantly decreased in magnesium supplemented hypertensive animals. Other measurements were not different between experimental groups. These results confirm that blood pressure, plasma viscosity and RBC aggregation increased in NOS inhibition-induced hypertension model and oral magnesium supplementation improved these parameters.

  6. PRIMITIVISMO E IMAGINÁRIO ETNOGRÁFICO NOS PRIMEIROS ESCRITOS DE MICHEL LEIRIS

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    Osvaldo Fontes Filho

    Full Text Available Resumo Nos anos 20 e 30, pari passu com a formação da etnologia como disciplina academicamente postada, o primitivo surge como trunfo retórico das invectivas mais críticas contra os marasmos da civilização branca. Michel Leiris (1901-1990, nos primeiros tempos de sua formação de etnólogo, desperta para as possibilidades de desvio expressivo que ofereciam as artes ditas primitivas. Engajado em uma autorretratística literária afeita à deambulação imaginária pelos lugares da Cultura, da Mitologia e da História, o autor de L'Afrique fantôme (1934 sedimenta seus recursos estilísticos em artigos sulfurosos para a revista de vanguarda Documents (1929-1931, nos quais é possível observar a formação inicial de seu imaginário etnográfico e do que se convenciona chamar, a seu respeito, uma "etnografia de si". Este texto revisita alguns momentos da escrita leirisiana que ajudaram a impregnar de jogos de linguagem e de ficção uma nascente consciência antropológica e etnográfica, pouco propensa à objetividade imparcial e à neutra documentação científica do Outro.

  7. Música da Borda d'Água: nos textos e imagens de Alves Redol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingos Morais

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available António Alves Redol, escritor português natural de Vila Franca de Xira, nasceu a 29 de dezembro de 1911 e faleceu a 29 de novembro de 1969. Figura central do Neorrealismo português, foi autor de uma vasta obra ficcional, que inclui o teatro e o conto. Na noite de 25 de outubro de 1940, no Sport Lisboa e Vila Franca, realizou uma palestra sobre a "Música da Borda d'Água" de que não há registo conhecido. Tentamos refazer essa palestra, ou pelo menos as linhas orientadoras do seu discurso, recorrendo a textos de Redol, alguns inéditos, dos anos de 1938 e 1939, que nos foi possível consultar e digitalizar nos acervos do seu filho, António Mota Redol, em outubro de 2012. Na obra de Redol, as referências à música e dança são estruturantes das situações que descreve. Sem entrar em detalhes técnicos que talvez ignorasse, o que nos diz é revelador de como o movimento neorrealista, que tem em Fernando Lopes-Graça um solitário mentor, não descurou os repertórios e cancioneiros populares, contrapondo-os às práticas e gostos musicais das classes dominantes.

  8. O ENSINO DE TEATRO NOS CURSOS TÉCNICOS INTEGRADOS DO IFRN

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    Marinalva Nicácio de Moura

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Nesse trabalho, apresentamos uma reflexão sobre a sensibilidade estética expressa no corpo e nos gestos da narração de história em sala de aula, com intuito de ensinar teatro. O desenvolvimento dessa reflexão se dá a partir da atitude fenomenológica inspirada no filósofo francês Maurice Merleau-Ponty, na qual o corpo deixa de ser só um instrumento para significar no acontecimento teatral, realizando uma comunicação sensível na reflexibilidade corpórea. Os gestos do narrador nos dão a ver e a pensar sobre a linguagem e a comunicação do corpo, oferecendo-nos processos sensíveis e modos criativos de aprendizagem. Nessa perspectiva, a reflexão sobre o fenômeno do acontecimento teatral realizado em sala de aula, apresenta a narrativa de história como processo educativo do corpo, configurando-se como uma aprendizagem do fazer teatral. Um conhecimento sensível que pode contribuir com as reflexões sobre teatro e educação.

  9. Anemia nos pacientes com insuficiência cardíaca avançada

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    Juliano Cardoso

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: Anemia está associada à pior evolução nos pacientes com insuficiência cardíaca (IC. Entretanto, há poucos estudos sobre a anemia nos pacientes com IC avançada. OBJETIVO: Avaliar as características da anemia na IC em fase avançada. MÉTODOS: Foram incluídos 99 pacientes hospitalizados para compensação de IC (CF IV/NYHA, com idade > 18 anos e FEVE 12 g/dl. A anemia foi marcador independente de mau prognóstico na análise multivariada (mortalidade 47% vs 24,6%, p = 0,016, risco relativo 2,54. CONCLUSÃO: Anemia acomete, aproximadamente, 1/3 dos pacientes com IC avançada, e a deficiência de ferro é uma importante etiologia. Pacientes anêmicos são mais idosos e apresentaram função renal mais deteriorada. A melhora da congestão não foi suficiente para melhorar a anemia na maioria dos casos. Nos pacientes com IC avançada, a anemia é marcador independente de mau prognóstico.

  10. Diagnosticos de enfermagem em pacientes classificados nos niveis I e II de prioridade do Protocolo Manchester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Chaves de Souza

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available O estudo objetivou identificar possíveis diagnósticos de enfermagem em pacientes classificados nos níveis I e II de prioridade do protocolo Manchester. Trata-se de estudo descritivo retrospectivo, cuja amostra foi de 40 prontuários de pacientes classificados nos níveis I e II de prioridade. Para identificação dos diagnósticos de enfermagem dois especialistas analisaram sinais e sintomas registrados nos prontuários dos pacientes no momento da classificação de risco. No nível I de prioridade, os diagnósticos de enfermagem mais frequentes foram: dor aguda (65,0%, padrão respiratório ineficaz (45,0% e troca de gases prejudicada (40,0%. No nível II de prioridade foram: dor aguda (80,0%, náusea (10,0% e risco de desequilíbrio eletrolítico (10,0%. Percebeu-se que a utilização do protocolo de Manchester favorece a identificação de características definidoras e fatores relacionados/fatores de risco que subsidiam a elaboração de diagnósticos de enfermagem na classificação de risco.

  11. Mormo em eqüídeos nos Estados de Pernambuco e Alagoas

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    Mota Rinaldo A.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Com base em aspectos clínico-patológicos, epidemiológicos e sorológicos, bem como pelo isolamento de Burkholderia mallei, diagnosticaram-se focos de mormo em eqüídeos na Zona da Mata dos Estados de Pernambuco e Alagoas. Clinicamente observaram-se hipertermia, respiração ruidosa, inapetência, emagrecimento progressivo até caquexia, congestão nasal e descarga mucopurulenta, erosões, úlceras e cicatrizes na mucosa nasal. Os linfonodos mandibulares e cervicais superficiais apresentavam-se aumentados de volume, com abscessos e fístulas exsudando material purulento. Na pele, ao longo dos vasos linfáticos, havia formação de nódulos firmes e abscessos que, nos casos crônicos, fistulavam e ulceravam deixando cicatrizes estrelares. A histopatologia dos nódulos de diversos sítios, tanto dos eqüídeos como dos cobaios utilizados na prova de Straus, revelou lesões granulomatosas e piogranulomas. Os dados deste estudo evidenciam a emergência da doença nesta área e permitem recomendar inquéritos soro-epidemiológicos nos Estados de ocorrência dos surtos e nos Estados limítrofes.

  12. Association of NOS3 gene variants and clinical contributors of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuzmanić Šamija, R. [Department of Pediatrics, University Hospital Split, Split (Croatia); Primorac, D. [School of Medicine Split, University of Split, Split (Croatia); Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, University of Osijek, Osijek (Croatia); Eberly College of Science, Penn State University, University Park, PA (United States); St. Catherine Speciality Hospital, Zabok (Croatia); Rešić, B. [School of Medicine Split, University of Split, Split (Croatia); Pavlov, V. [Department of Neonatology, University Hospital Split, Split (Croatia); Čapkun, V. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Split, Split (Croatia); Punda, H. [School of Medicine Split, University of Split, Split (Croatia); Lozić, B. [Department of Pediatrics, University Hospital Split, Split (Croatia); Zemunik, T. [Department of Medical Biology, School of Medicine Split, University of Split, Split (Croatia)

    2014-08-15

    The aim of this study was to analyze the association of different clinical contributors of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy with NOS3 gene polymorphisms. A total of 110 children with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy and 128 control children were selected for this study. Association of gender, gestational age, birth weight, Apgar score, cranial ultrasonography, and magnetic resonance imaging findings with genotypic data of six haplotype-tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms and the most commonly investigated rs1800779 and rs2070744 polymorphisms was analyzed. The TGT haplotype of rs1800783, rs1800779, and rs2070744 polymorphisms was associated with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Children with the TGT haplotype were infants below 32 weeks of gestation and they had the most severe brain damage. Increased incidence of the TT genotype of the NOS3 rs1808593 SNP was found in the group of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy patients with medium and severe brain damage. The probability of brain damage was twice as high in children with the TT genotype than in children with the TG genotype of the same polymorphism. Furthermore, the T allele of the same polymorphism was twice as frequent in children with lower Apgar scores. This study strongly suggests associations of NOS3 gene polymorphism with intensity of brain damage and severity of the clinical picture in affected children.

  13. NOS3 Variants, Physical Activity, and Blood Pressure in the European Youth Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøntved, Anders; Andersen, Lars Bo; Franks, Paul W

    2011-01-01

    habitual PA and NOS3 variants on BP.MethodsA cross-sectional, random sample of 8-10-year old children (n = 1,214) and 14-16-year old adolescents (n = 1,141) from Denmark and Estonia were genotyped for four NOS3 tagging polymorphisms (rs1800783, rs1799983 (Glu298Asp), rs3918227, rs743507). PA was measured.......d. (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.06; 0.13, P = 0.004) higher diastolic BP (DBP) and 0.25 s.d. (95% CI: 0.05; 0.46, P = 0.015) higher systolic BP (SBP), compared to Glu298 allele carriers. None of the three other single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were associated with BP in adolescents. In children...... in inactive individuals. However, none of the interactions persisted after correcting for multiple testing.ConclusionsThe NOS3 Glu298Asp variant may associate with resting BP in adolescence but not in childhood, an effect that could be modified by PA.American Journal of Hypertension (2011). doi:10.1038/ajh...

  14. Aortic eNOS expression and phosphorylation in Apo-E knockout mice: differing effects of rapamycin and simvastatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naoum, Joseph J; Zhang, Shu; Woodside, Kenneth J; Song, Wei; Guo, Qian; Belalcazar, Ligia M; Hunter, Glenn C

    2004-08-01

    The inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) by hypercholesterolemia may be mediated, in part, by interactions with caveolin-1 (Cav-1). Because of the facilitatory effects of statins on endothelial function and the adverse effects of rapamycin (RAPA) on plasma lipids, we compared the effects of simvastatin (SMV) and RAPA on endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) and Cav-1 protein expression and phosphorylation in the aortas of apolipoprotein E (Apo-E) knockout (-/-) mice. Apo-E -/- mice (n = 38) fed a high-cholesterol diet were given SMV (100 mg/kg/day po), RAPA (3 mg/kg/day ip), or no treatment for 10 weeks. Blood was drawn for serum lipid analysis, and protein was extracted for Western immunoblotting. Selected aortic specimens from 2 animals in each group were examined by histology and immunohistochemistry. The data are expressed as the mean +/- SEM and compared by the Student t test and ANOVA. Significance was established as P < .05. Lipid levels at 10 weeks were similar in the 3 groups except for higher triglyceride levels in RAPA-treated animals. eNOS expression was highest in RAPA-treated mice, but the p-eNOS to eNOS protein expression ratio was significantly greater in the SMV treatment group compared to both RAPA and controls (P < .05). Both Cav-1 and p-Cav-1 expression was significantly lower in the SMV-treated animals (P < .05) compared to mice treated with RAPA. Although eNOS expression was greatest in the RAPA-treated mice, the expression of p-eNOS was similar in the RAPA- and SMV-treated animals. The increase in eNOS induced by RAPA and the inverse relationship between p-eNOS and Cav-1 protein expression observed with SMV treatment suggest different mechanisms for the regulation of aortic eNOS expression in Apo-E mice by these 2 agents. Copyright 2004 Elsevier Inc.

  15. Engenho e temperamentos nos catálogos e no pensamento da Companhia de Jesus nos séculos XVII e XVIII

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    Marina Massimi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo visa entender as relações entre a potência psíquica do "engenho", algumas qualidades temperamentais específicas e as funções a serem exercidas pelo indivíduo possuidor destas características delineadas nos Catálogos da Companhia de Jesus ao longo dos séculos XVII e XVIII. Evidencia a presença destas associações como lugar-comum na literatura jesuítica da época, a importância do engenho como qualidade exigida para exercer ministérios relevantes na Ordem, e necessidade do indivíduo possuir uma complexão física adequada a estas exigências.

  16. KONSUMSI MIKRONUTRIEN DAN EKSPRESI GEN eNOS3 ALEL INTRO 4a4b PADA PENDERITA HIPERTENSI ETNIK MINANGKABAU

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    Delmi Sulastri

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakGen eNOS3 varian intron 4a4b merupakan salah satu gen yang berhubungan dengan kejadian hipertensi esensial. Kemampuan Gen eNOS3 varian ini untuk mensintesis enzim nitric oxide synthase (NOS berkurang sehingga sintesis Nitric oxide (NO menurun. Senyawa NO adalah suatu senyawa vasoaktif yang menyebabkan vasodilatasi pembuluh darah.Penelitian pada subjek hipertensi dan normotensi berusia 30-65 tahun bertujuan untuk melihat pengaruh mikronutrien terhadap ekspresi gen eNOS3 alel intron 4a4b. 130 subjek, diwawancara pola makannya lalu dilakukan analisis asupan mikronutrien, gen eNOS3, serta kadar NO plasma. Data yang diperoleh dianalisis menggunakan uji T dan chi-square.Kadar NO plasma penderita hipertensi adalah 26.91 + 15.40 μM/L dan normotensi 25.79 + 15.04 μM/L. 55.5% subjek hipertensi memiliki gen eNOS3 varian intron 4b dan 69% subjek normotensi mempunyai varian intron 4a4b. Kadar NO plasma rendah, (66.7% ditemukan pada subjek hipertensi dengan varian intron 4b. Tidak terdapat hubungan bermakna asupan mikronutrien dengan kadar NO plasma pada subjek hipertensi.Hasil ini tidak mendukung pengaruh konsumsi mikronutrien terhadap kadar NO plasma pada penderita hipertensi dengan gen eNOS3 varian intron 4a4b.Kata Kunci : hipertensi esensial, gen eNOS3, kadar NO plasmaAbstracteNOS 3 gene intron 4a4b allel is one of the important genes which is related to hypertesion essensial. This gene expresses the nitric oxide synthase (NOS enzyme which regulates the synthesis of Nitric oxide (NO in human body. NO causes vasodilatation, which decreases peripheral resistant and blood pressure.A research has been done based on cross sectional study on hypertension patients and those with normal blood pressure in the range of 30-65 years old. The main of this research is to evaluate the influence of micronutrient consumption on eNOS3 gene intron 4a4b allel expression in hypertension subjects in Minangkabau ethnicity. 130 subjects interviewed about micronutrient

  17. NOS-based biopolymers; towards novel thromboresistant NO-release materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou Diwan, Charbel

    Nitric Oxide releasing biopolymers have the potential to prolong vascular graft and stent potency without adverse systemic vasodilation. It was reported in literature that eNOS-overexpressing endothelial cell seeding of synthetic small diameter vascular grafts decreased human platelet aggregation by 46% and bovine aortic smooth muscle cell proliferation by 67.2% in vitro. We hypothesized that incorporating the enzyme nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in biocompatible polymeric matrix will provide a source of NO that utilizes endogenous compounds to maintain an unlimited supply of NO. To test this hypothesis, we have incorporated the enzyme nitric oxide synthase into a polyethyleneimine film using a layer-by-layer electrostatic deposition. This approach will provide a source of NO that utilizes endogenous compounds available in the blood matrix to maintain a constant supply of NO at the blood/device interface. When coated onto the surface of various blood-contacting implantable medical devices, it will provide NO fluxes at levels equal or greater than the normal endothelial cells, and for extended time periods. This configuration will help solve the issues of both thrombosis and stenosis that occur as side effects for several types of biomedical implants. Our results indicate a proof of principle of a new approach for making antithrombotic coatings for medical devices and implants based on NO release. We have demonstrated that NOS-based polymetric films successfully generate NO under physiologic conditions at small levels equal to and higher than those observed for endothelial cells. The level of NO release can be fine-tuned through varying the number of NOS layers in the film buildup. We have shown that NO fluxes from our NOS-based PEI films are sustained for prolonged periods of time, which has the potential of producing efficient, short and long-term, antithrombotic coatings for medical devices and blood-contacting tools such as stents and catheters. We also show that

  18. Aspirin prevents TNF-α-induced endothelial cell dysfunction by regulating the NF-κB-dependent miR-155/eNOS pathway: Role of a miR-155/eNOS axis in preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joohwan; Lee, Kyu-Sun; Kim, Ji-Hee; Lee, Dong-Keon; Park, Minsik; Choi, Seunghwan; Park, Wonjin; Kim, Suji; Choi, Yoon Kyung; Hwang, Jong Yun; Choe, Jongseon; Won, Moo-Ho; Jeoung, Dooil; Lee, Hansoo; Ryoo, Sungwoo; Ha, Kwon-Soo; Kwon, Young-Guen; Kim, Young-Myeong

    2017-03-01

    Preeclampsia is an inflammatory disease with endothelial cell dysfunction that occurs via decreased endothelial nitric oxide synthase/nitric oxide (eNOS/NO) activity. Aspirin reduces the incidence of hypertensive pregnancy complications. However, the underlying mechanism has not been clearly explained. Here, we found that tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, microRNA (miR)-155, and eNOS levels as well as endothelial redox phenotype were differentially regulated in preeclamptic patients, implying the involvement of TNF-α- and redox signal-mediated miR-155 biogenesis and eNOS downregulation in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. Aspirin prevented the TNF-α-mediated increase in miR-155 biogenesis and decreases in eNOS expression and NO/cGMP production in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Similar effects of aspirin were also observed in HUVECs treated with H2O2. The preventive effects of aspirin was associated with the inhibition of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB)-dependent MIR155HG (miR-155 host gene) expression. Aspirin recovered the TNF-α-mediated decrease in wild-type, but not mutant, eNOS 3'-untranslated region reporter activity, whose effect was blocked by miR-155 mimic. Moreover, aspirin prevented TNF-α-mediated endothelial cell dysfunction associated with impaired vasorelaxation, angiogenesis, and trophoblast invasion, and the preventive effects were blocked by miR-155 mimic or an eNOS inhibitor. Aspirin rescued TNF-α-mediated eNOS downregulation coupled with endothelial dysfunction by inhibiting NF-κB-dependent transcriptional miR-155 biogenesis. Thus, the redox-sensitive NF-κB/miR-155/eNOS axis may be crucial in the pathogenesis of vascular disorders including preeclampsia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. National Ocean Service (NOS) Cartographic Codes for Bottom Character in the Gulf of Maine region (NOSGOM shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data were collected by the National Ocean Service (NOS, formerly the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey) for the purpose of charting the coastal waters and...

  20. Stress-restress evokes sustained iNOS activity and altered GABA levels and NMDA receptors in rat hippocampus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harvey, Brian H; Oosthuizen, Frasia; Brand, Linda

    2004-01-01

    RATIONALE: Stress-related glucocorticoid and glutamate release have been implicated in hippocampal atrophy evident in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Glutamatergic mechanisms activate nitric oxide synthase (NOS), while gamma-amino-butyric acid (GABA) may inhibit both...... glutamatergic and nitrergic transmission. Animal studies support a role for NOS in stress. OBJECTIVES: We have studied the role of NOS and glucocorticoids, as well as inhibitory and excitatory transmitters, in a putative animal model of PTSD that emphasizes repeated trauma. METHODS: Hippocampal NOS activity, N......-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor binding characteristics and GABA levels were studied in Sprague-Dawley rats 21 days after exposure to a stress-restress paradigm, using radiometric analysis, radioligand studies and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis with electrochemical detection, respectively...

  1. Archive of information about geosamples curated by NMNH collected during NOAA/NOS and USCGS hydrographic surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Prior to August 2001, physical sediment samples collected by U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey (USCGS) and NOAA National Ocean Service (NOS) personnel during...

  2. Elementary school science teachers' reflection for nature of science: Workshop of NOS explicit and reflective on force and motion learning activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patho, Khanittha; Yuenyong, Chokchai; Chamrat, Suthida

    2018-01-01

    The nature of science has been part of Thailand's science education curriculum since 2008. However, teachers lack of understanding about the nature of science (NOS) and its teaching, particularly element school science teachers. In 2012, the Science Institute of Thailand MOE, started a project of Elementary Science Teacher Professional Development to enhance their thinking about the Nature of Science. The project aimed to enhance teachers' understanding of NOS, science teaching for explicit and reflective NOS, with the aim of extending their understanding of NOS to other teachers. This project selected 366 educational persons. The group was made up of a teacher and a teacher supervisor from 183 educational areas in 74 provinces all Thailand. The project provided a one week workshop and a year's follow up. The week-long workshop consisted of 11 activities of science teaching for explicit reflection on 8 aspects of NOS. Workshop of NOS explicit and reflective on force and motion learning activity is one of eight activities. This activity provided participants to learn force and motion and NOS from the traditional toy "Bang-Poh". The activity tried to enhance participants to explicit NOS for 5 aspects including empirical basis, subjectivity, creativity, observation and inference, and sociocultural embeddedness. The explicit NOS worksheet provided questions to ask participants to reflect their existing ideas about NOS. The paper examines elementary school science teachers' understanding of NOS from the force and motion learning activity which provided explicit reflection on 5 NOS aspects. An interpretive paradigm was used to analyse the teachers' reflections in a NOS worksheet. The findings indicated that majority of them could reflect about the empirical basis of science and creativity but few reflected on observation and inference, or sociocultural embeddedness. The paper will explain the teachers' NOS thinking and discuss the further enhancing of their understanding

  3. Hemoglobin α/eNOS coupling at myoendothelial junctions is required for nitric oxide scavenging during vasoconstriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Adam C; Butcher, Joshua T; Billaud, Marie; Mutchler, Stephanie M; Artamonov, Mykhaylo V; Nguyen, Anh T; Johnson, Tyler; Best, Angela K; Miller, Megan P; Palmer, Lisa A; Columbus, Linda; Somlyo, Avril V; Le, Thu H; Isakson, Brant E

    2014-12-01

    Hemoglobin α (Hb α) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) form a macromolecular complex at myoendothelial junctions; the functional role of this interaction remains undefined. To test if coupling of eNOS and Hb α regulates nitric oxide signaling, vascular reactivity, and blood pressure using a mimetic peptide of Hb α to disrupt this interaction. In silico modeling of Hb α and eNOS identified a conserved sequence of interaction. By mutating portions of Hb α, we identified a specific sequence that binds eNOS. A mimetic peptide of the Hb α sequence (Hb α X) was generated to disrupt this complex. Using in vitro binding assays with purified Hb α and eNOS and ex vivo proximity ligation assays on resistance arteries, we have demonstrated that Hb α X significantly decreased interaction between eNOS and Hb α. Fluorescein isothiocyanate labeling of Hb α X revealed localization to holes in the internal elastic lamina (ie, myoendothelial junctions). To test the functional effects of Hb α X, we measured cyclic guanosine monophosphate and vascular reactivity. Our results reveal augmented cyclic guanosine monophosphate production and altered vasoconstriction with Hb α X. To test the in vivo effects of these peptides on blood pressure, normotensive and hypertensive mice were injected with Hb α X, which caused a significant decrease in blood pressure; injection of Hb α X into eNOS(-/-) mice had no effect. These results identify a novel sequence on Hb α that is important for Hb α/eNOS complex formation and is critical for nitric oxide signaling at myoendothelial junctions. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. NOS2 expression in glioma cell lines and glioma primary cell cultures: correlation with neurosphere generation and SOX-2 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, Paola; Miconi, Gianfranca; Cinque, Benedetta; Lombardi, Francesca; La Torre, Cristina; Dehcordi, Soheila Raysi; Galzio, Renato; Cimini, Annamaria; Giordano, Antonio; Cifone, Maria Grazia

    2017-04-11

    Nitric oxide has been implicated in biology and progression of glioblastoma (GBM) being able to influence the cellular signal depending on the concentration and duration of cell exposure. NOS2 (inducible nitric oxide synthase) have been proposed as a component of molecular profile of several tumors, including glioma, one of the most aggressive primary brain tumor featuring local cancer stem cells responsible for enhanced resistance to therapies and for tumor recurrence. Here, we investigated the NOS2 mRNA expression by reverse transcription-PCR in human glioma primary cultures at several grade of malignancy and glioma stem cell (GSC) derived neurospheres. Glioma cell lines were used as positive controls both in terms of stemness marker expression that of capacity of generating neurospheres. NOS2 expression was detected at basal levels in cell lines and primary cultures and appeared significantly up-regulated in cultures kept in the specific medium for neurospheres. The immunofluorescence analysis of all cell cultures to evaluate the levels of SOX-2, a stemness marker aberrantly up-regulated in GBM, was also performed. The potential correlation between NOS2 expression and ability to generate neurospheres and between NOS2 and SOX-2 levels was also verified. The results show that the higher NOS2 expression is detected in all primary cultures able to arise neurosphere. A high and significant correlation between NOS2 expression and SOX-2 positive cells (%) in all cell cultures maintained in standard conditions has been observed. The results shed light on the potential relevance of NOS2 as a prognostic factor for glioma malignancy and recurrence.

  5. Homeostatic Sleep Pressure is the Primary Factor for Activation of Cortical nNOS/NK1 Neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Dittrich, Lars; Morairty, Stephen R.; Warrier, Deepti R.; Kilduff, Thomas S

    2014-01-01

    Cortical interneurons, immunoreactive for neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and the receptor NK1, express the functional activity marker Fos selectively during sleep. NREM sleep ‘pressure' is hypothesized to accumulate during waking and to dissipate during sleep. We reported previously that the proportion of Fos+ cortical nNOS/NK1 neurons is correlated with established electrophysiological markers of sleep pressure. As these markers covary with the amount of NREM sleep, it remained unclea...

  6. Effects of quercetin on apoptosis, NF-κB and NOS gene expression in renal ischemia/reperfusion injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    KINACI, M. KENAN; ERKASAP, NILUFER; KUCUK, AYSEGUL; KOKEN, TULAY; TOSUN, MURAT

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of quercetin on nitric oxide synthase (NOS), nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and apoptosis in renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in rats. A total of 42 Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups. The control, I/R and I/R+quercetin (I/R+Q) groups were treated with quercetin (50 mg/kg intraperitoneal) 1 h prior to the induction of ischemia. Tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) levels were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). p53, endothelial NOS (eNOS) and NF-κB expression were assessed immunohistochemically, and apoptosis assesment was performed using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) assay. The mRNA levels of inducible NOS (iNOS) in renal tissue were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). MDA levels were significantly decreased in the quercetin group compared to the I/R group. However, GSH levels were significantly increased with quercetin treatment in the I/R group. Histological results, the number of apoptotic and p53-positive cells, NF-κB and eNOS expression levels were significantly decreased in the quercetin treatment group compared to the I/R group. iNOS gene expression increased in the I/R group, but no significant difference was found between the I/R and quercetin treatment groups. Therefore, quercetin not only has antioxidant and anti-apoptotic activities, but also has an inhibitory effect on eNOS and NF-κB for renal tissue protection during I/R injury in rats. Therefore, quercetin may be a promising renoprotective therapeutic agent. PMID:22969877

  7. Expression dynamics of HSP90 and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isoforms during heat stress acclimation in Tharparkar cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharati, Jaya; Dangi, S. S.; Bag, S.; Maurya, V. P.; Singh, G.; Kumar, P.; Sarkar, M.

    2017-08-01

    Six male Tharparkar cattle of 2-3 years old were selected for the study. After 15-day acclimation at thermoneutral zone (TNZ) in psychrometric chamber, animals were exposed at 42 °C for 6 h up to 23 days followed by 12 days of recovery period. Blood samples were collected during control period at TNZ (days 1, 5, and 12), after heat stress exposure (day 1, immediate heat stress acclimation (IHSA); days 2 to 10, short-term heat stress acclimation (STHSA); days 15 to 23, long-term heat stress acclimation (LTHSA); days 7 and 12, recovery period), and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated for RNA and protein extraction. The messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression in PBMCs were determined by qPCR and western blot, respectively. Samples at TNZ were taken as control. The mRNA expression of HSP90, iNOS, and eNOS was significantly upregulated ( P culture study was conducted to study transcriptional abundance of HSP90, iNOS, and eNOS at different temperature-time combinations. The present findings indicate that HSP90, iNOS, and eNOS could possibly play an important role in mitigating thermal insults and confer thermotolerance during long-term heat stress exposure in Tharparkar cattle.

  8. Impact of Lifestyle Intervention on HDL-Induced eNOS Activation and Cholesterol Efflux Capacity in Obese Adolescent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Wesnigk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Endothelial dysfunction occurs in obese children and adolescent and is regarded as a key step in the development of atherosclerosis. Important components for the development of endothelial dysfunction are reduced activity of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS and an increase in cholesterol deposition in the vessel wall, due to reduced reverse cholesterol transport (RCT activity. High density lipoprotein (HDL exhibits antiatherosclerotic properties including modulation of eNOS activity and cholesterol efflux capacity. Lifestyle intervention programs can modify endothelial dysfunction in obese adolescents, but their impact on HDL-mediated eNOS activation and RCT is unknown so far. Methods. Obese adolescents (15±1 years, BMI > 35 kg/m2 where randomized either to an intervention group (IG, n=8; restricted diet and exercise or to a usual care group (UC, n=8. At the beginning and after 10 months of treatment HDL-mediated eNOS phosphorylation and cholesterol efflux capacity were evaluated. Results. Ten months of treatment resulted in a substantial weight loss (−31%, an improvement of endothelial function, and an increase in HDL-mediated eNOS-Ser1177 phosphorylation and RCT. A correlation between change in eNOS-Ser1177 phosphorylation or RCT and change in endothelial function was noted. Conclusion. A structured lifestyle intervention program improves antiatherosclerotic HDL functions, thereby positively influencing endothelial function.

  9. TNF-α antagonism with etanercept enhances penile NOS expression, cavernosal reactivity, and testosterone levels in aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirtaş Şahin, Tuğçe; Yazir, Yusufhan; Utkan, Tijen; Gacar, Gulcin; Furat Rençber, Selenay; Gocmez, Semil Selcen

    2018-02-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) has been reported to be associated with inflammation. This study investigated the effects of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) inhibitor etanercept on penile neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expressions, testosterone concentrations, neurogenic and endothelium-dependent relaxations of corpus cavernosum (CC), and circulating and cavernosal levels of inflammatory markers in aged rats. Animals were separated into control, aged, and etanercept-treated aged groups. Aged rats displayed significantly increased serum and cavernosal TNF-α, C-reactive protein (CRP), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1) levels, and decreased penile nNOS and eNOS expressions and serum testosterone levels compared with controls. In etanercept-treated aged group, NOS expressions were similar to that of the control group. The circulating and cavernosal concentrations of TNF-α, CRP, MCP-1, ICAM-1, and testosterone were also normalized by etanercept. Neurogenic and endothelium-dependent relaxant responses significantly decreased in aged rats and etanercept treatment markedly improved these relaxation responses. Our findings indicate that aging decreases penile NOS expression, neurogenic and endothelium-dependent relaxations of CC, and also suppresses serum testosterone levels by inducing inflammatory response that may contribute to the development of ED. TNF-α antagonism may be a novel strategy to treat aging-associated ED.

  10. New Findings in eNOS gene and Thalidomide Embryopathy Suggest pre-transcriptional effect variants as susceptibility factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Thayne Woycinck; Fraga, Lucas Rosa; Tovo-Rodrigues, Luciana; Sanseverino, Maria Teresa Vieira; Hutz, Mara Helena; Schuler-Faccini, Lavínia; Vianna, Fernanda Sales Luiz

    2016-03-23

    Antiangiogenic properties of thalidomide have created an interest in the use of the drug in treatment of cancer. However, thalidomide is responsible for thalidomide embryopathy (TE). A lack of knowledge regarding the mechanisms of thalidomide teratogenesis acts as a barrier in the aim to synthesize a safer analogue of thalidomide. Recently, our group detected a higher frequency of alleles that impair the pro-angiogenic mechanisms of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), coded by the NOS3 gene. In this study we evaluated variable number tandem repeats (VNTR) functional polymorphism in intron 4 of NOS3 in individuals with TE (38) and Brazilians without congenital anomalies (136). Haplotypes were estimated for this VNTR with previously analyzed polymorphisms, rs2070744 (-786C > T) and rs1799983 (894T > G), in promoter region and exon 7, respectively. Haplotypic distribution was different between the groups (p = 0.007). Alleles -786C (rs2070744) and 4b (VNTR), associated with decreased NOS3 expression, presented in higher frequency in TE individuals (p = 0.018; OR = 2.57; IC = 1.2-5.8). This association was not identified with polymorphism 894T > G (p = 0.079), which influences eNOS enzymatic activity. These results suggest variants in NOS3, with pre-transcriptional effects as susceptibility factors, influencing the risk TE development. This finding generates insight for a new approach to research that pursues a safer analogue.

  11. Homeostatic sleep pressure is the primary factor for activation of cortical nNOS/NK1 neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittrich, Lars; Morairty, Stephen R; Warrier, Deepti R; Kilduff, Thomas S

    2015-02-01

    Cortical interneurons, immunoreactive for neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and the receptor NK1, express the functional activity marker Fos selectively during sleep. NREM sleep 'pressure' is hypothesized to accumulate during waking and to dissipate during sleep. We reported previously that the proportion of Fos(+) cortical nNOS/NK1 neurons is correlated with established electrophysiological markers of sleep pressure. As these markers covary with the amount of NREM sleep, it remained unclear whether cortical nNOS/NK1 neurons are activated to the same degree throughout NREM sleep or whether the extent of their activation is related to the sleep pressure that accrued during the prior waking period. To distinguish between these possibilities, we used hypnotic medications to control the amount of NREM sleep in rats while we varied prior wake duration and the resultant sleep pressure. Drug administration was preceded by 6 h of sleep deprivation (SD) ('high sleep pressure') or undisturbed conditions ('low sleep pressure'). We find that the proportion of Fos(+) cortical nNOS/NK1 neurons was minimal when sleep pressure was low, irrespective of the amount of time spent in NREM sleep. In contrast, a large proportion of cortical nNOS/NK1 neurons was Fos(+) when an equivalent amount of sleep was preceded by SD. We conclude that, although sleep is necessary for cortical nNOS/NK1 neuron activation, the proportion of cells activated is dependent upon prior wake duration.

  12. Mesenchymal Stem Cells with eNOS Over-Expression Enhance Cardiac Repair in Rats with Myocardial Infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Leilei; Zhang, Yuan; Tao, Liangliang; Yang, Zhijian; Wang, Liansheng

    2017-02-01

    Transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is a promising therapeutic option for patients with acute myocardial infarction. We show here that the ectopic overexpression of endothelial nitric oxide synthases (eNOS), an endothelial form of NOS, could enhance the ability of MSCs in treating ischemic heart damage after the occlusion of the coronary artery. Adenoviral delivery of human eNOS gene into mouse bone marrow-derived MSCs (BM-MSCs) conferred resistance to oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD)-induced cell death in vitro, and elevated the bioavailability of nitric oxide when injected into the myocardium in vivo. In a rat model of acute myocardial infarction, the transplantation of eNOS-overexpressing BM-MSCs significantly reduced myocardial infarct size, corrected hemodynamic parameters and increased capillary density. We also found that the synergistic effects were consistently better than either treatment alone. These findings reveal a positive role of elevated eNOS expression in cardiac repair, and suggest the combination of eNOS and MSC transplant therapy as a potential approach for treating myocardial infarction.

  13. Vasoactive and radioprotective properties of isothiourea derivatives having NOS-inhibitory activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filimonova, Marina V.; Shevchenko, Ludmila I.; Ulyanenko, Stepan E.; Makarchuk, Victorya M.; Kuznetsova, Mary N.; Shevchuk, Aza S.; Lushnikova, Galina A.; Chesnakova, Ekaterina A. [Medical Radiological Research Center Health Ministry of Russia, 4, Korolev street, Obninsk, 249036, Kaluga region (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    We studied vasoactive and radioprotective properties of new original N-acyl, S-alkyl isothiourea derivatives which are potent inhibitors of nitric oxide synthases (preferably eNOS and iNOS). These compounds have a moderate toxicity (LD50 - 400-550 mg/kg), and are stable in aqueous solutions. In hemodynamic studies, these compounds exhibited high vasotropic activity. The use of these compounds in doses of 5-15 mg/kg (0,01-0,03 LD{sub 50}) in the experimental animals in a state of the severe hemorrhagic or endo-toxic shock causes a potent vasopressor effect, accompanied by a significant and continuous rise in blood pressure. The increasing of vascular tone developed over 2-5 min after injection and persisted for at least 60-90 minutes, excelling at least 3-5 times the duration of α1-adreno-mimetic vasopressor action. The rapid increase in vascular tone under the influence of these compounds in normo-tonic animals caused protective baroreflex to prevent high blood pressure. At doses of 10-15 mg/kg the reflex reaction was mild, but at higher doses (30-40 mg/kg) the reaction was fierce and prolonged, and was accompanied by severe bradycardia, decreasing of the cardiac output and a significant weakening of the peripheral blood flow. In all cases, the hemodynamic response was reflexive and easily eliminated by atropine. The ability of these compounds to induce circulatory hypoxia was the basis for the study of their radioprotective properties. The study of radioprotective effect on the survival of animals exposed to lethal doses of γ-radiation (10 Gy) and on the survival of hematopoietic clonogenic cells showed that these compounds in doses of 80-150 mg/kg (0,2-0,3 LD50) have considerable radioprotective action, which is comparable with the protective effect of the maximum tolerated dose of cystamine. The factor of change in dose for γ-radiation, estimated by the LD{sub 50}, was 1,42-1,58. We also investigated the ability of the test compounds, due to their hypoxic

  14. Detecting nitrous oxide reductase (NosZ) genes in soil metagenomes: method development and implications for the nitrogen cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orellana, L H; Rodriguez-R, L M; Higgins, S; Chee-Sanford, J C; Sanford, R A; Ritalahti, K M; Löffler, F E; Konstantinidis, K T

    2014-06-03

    Microbial activities in soils, such as (incomplete) denitrification, represent major sources of nitrous oxide (N2O), a potent greenhouse gas. The key enzyme for mitigating N2O emissions is NosZ, which catalyzes N2O reduction to N2. We recently described "atypical" functional NosZ proteins encoded by both denitrifiers and nondenitrifiers, which were missed in previous environmental surveys (R. A. Sanford et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 109:19709-19714, 2012, doi:10.1073/pnas.1211238109). Here, we analyzed the abundance and diversity of both nosZ types in whole-genome shotgun metagenomes from sandy and silty loam agricultural soils that typify the U.S. Midwest corn belt. First, different search algorithms and parameters for detecting nosZ metagenomic reads were evaluated based on in silico-generated (mock) metagenomes. Using the derived cutoffs, 71 distinct alleles (95% amino acid identity level) encoding typical or atypical NosZ proteins were detected in both soil types. Remarkably, more than 70% of the total nosZ reads in both soils were classified as atypical, emphasizing that prior surveys underestimated nosZ abundance. Approximately 15% of the total nosZ reads were taxonomically related to Anaeromyxobacter, which was the most abundant genus encoding atypical NosZ-type proteins in both soil types. Further analyses revealed that atypical nosZ genes outnumbered typical nosZ genes in most publicly available soil metagenomes, underscoring their potential role in mediating N2O consumption in soils. Therefore, this study provides a bioinformatics strategy to reliably detect target genes in complex short-read metagenomes and suggests that the analysis of both typical and atypical nosZ sequences is required to understand and predict N2O flux in soils. Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a potent greenhouse gas with ozone layer destruction potential. Microbial activities control both the production and the consumption of N2O, i.e., its conversion to innocuous dinitrogen gas (N

  15. Stable Sparse Classifiers Identify qEEG Signatures that Predict Learning Disabilities (NOS Severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Bosch-Bayard

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a novel methodology to solve the classification problem, based on sparse (data-driven regressions, combined with techniques for ensuring stability, especially useful for high-dimensional datasets and small samples number. The sensitivity and specificity of the classifiers are assessed by a stable ROC procedure, which uses a non-parametric algorithm for estimating the area under the ROC curve. This method allows assessing the performance of the classification by the ROC technique, when more than two groups are involved in the classification problem, i.e., when the gold standard is not binary. We apply this methodology to the EEG spectral signatures to find biomarkers that allow discriminating between (and predicting pertinence to different subgroups of children diagnosed as Not Otherwise Specified Learning Disabilities (LD-NOS disorder. Children with LD-NOS have notable learning difficulties, which affect education but are not able to be put into some specific category as reading (Dyslexia, Mathematics (Dyscalculia, or Writing (Dysgraphia. By using the EEG spectra, we aim to identify EEG patterns that may be related to specific learning disabilities in an individual case. This could be useful to develop subject-based methods of therapy, based on information provided by the EEG. Here we study 85 LD-NOS children, divided in three subgroups previously selected by a clustering technique over the scores of cognitive tests. The classification equation produced stable marginal areas under the ROC of 0.71 for discrimination between Group 1 vs. Group 2; 0.91 for Group 1 vs. Group 3; and 0.75 for Group 2 vs. Group1. A discussion of the EEG characteristics of each group related to the cognitive scores is also presented.

  16. A novel multiplex PCR-RFLP method for simultaneous detection of the MTHFR 677 C > T, eNOS +894 G > T and - eNOS -786 T > C variants among Malaysian Malays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loo Keat

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hyperhomocysteinemia as a consequence of the MTHFR 677 C > T variant is associated with cardiovascular disease and stroke. Another factor that can potentially contribute to these disorders is a depleted nitric oxide level, which can be due to the presence of eNOS +894 G > T and eNOS −786 T > C variants that make an individual more susceptible to endothelial dysfunction. A number of genotyping methods have been developed to investigate these variants. However, simultaneous detection methods using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP analysis are still lacking. In this study, a novel multiplex PCR-RFLP method for the simultaneous detection of MTHFR 677 C > T and eNOS +894 G > T and eNOS −786 T > C variants was developed. A total of 114 healthy Malay subjects were recruited. The MTHFR 677 C > T and eNOS +894 G > T and eNOS −786 T > C variants were genotyped using the novel multiplex PCR-RFLP and confirmed by DNA sequencing as well as snpBLAST. Allele frequencies of MTHFR 677 C > T and eNOS +894 G > T and eNOS −786 T > C were calculated using the Hardy Weinberg equation. Methods The 114 healthy volunteers were recruited for this study, and their DNA was extracted. Primer pair was designed using Primer 3 Software version 0.4.0 and validated against the BLAST database. The primer specificity, functionality and annealing temperature were tested using uniplex PCR methods that were later combined into a single multiplex PCR. Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP was performed in three separate tubes followed by agarose gel electrophoresis. PCR product residual was purified and sent for DNA sequencing. Results The allele frequencies for MTHFR 677 C > T were 0.89 (C allele and 0.11 (T allele; for eNOS +894 G > T, the allele frequencies were 0.58 (G allele and 0.43 (T allele; and for eNOS −786 T > C, the allele

  17. Conventional, but not remote ischemic preconditioning, reduces iNOS transcription in liver ischemia/reperfusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björnsson, Bergthor; Winbladh, Anders; Bojmar, Linda; Sundqvist, Tommy; Gullstrand, Per; Sandström, Per

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To study the effects of preconditioning on inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and interleukin 1 (IL-1) receptor transcription in rat liver ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI). METHODS: Seventy-two male rats were randomized into 3 groups: the one-hour segmental ischemia (IRI, n = 24) group, the ischemic preconditioning (IPC, n = 24) group or the remote ischemic preconditioning (R-IPC, n = 24) group. The IPC and R-IPC were performed as 10 min of ischemia and 10 min of reperfusion. The iNOS and the IL-1 receptor mRNA in the liver tissue was analyzed with real time PCR. The total Nitrite and Nitrate (NOx) in continuously sampled microdialysate (MD) from the liver was analyzed. In addition, the NOx levels in the serum were analyzed. RESULTS: After 4 h of reperfusion, the iNOS mRNA was significantly higher in the R-IPC (ΔCt: 3.44 ± 0.57) group than in the IPC (ΔCt: 5.86 ± 0.82) group (P = 0.025). The IL-1 receptor transcription activity was reduced in the IPC group (ΔCt: 1.88 ± 0.53 to 4.81 ± 0.21), but not in the R-IPC group, during reperfusion (P = 0.027). In the MD, a significant drop in the NOx levels was noted in the R-IPC group (12.3 ± 2.2 to 4.7 ± 1.2 μmol/L) at the end of ischemia compared with the levels in early ischemia (P = 0.008). A similar trend was observed in the IPC group (11.8 ± 2.1 to 6.4 ± 1.5 μmol/L), although this difference was not statistically significant. The levels of NOx rose quickly during reperfusion in both groups. CONCLUSION: IPC, but not R-IPC, reduces iNOS and IL-1 receptor transcription during early reperfusion, indicating a lower inflammatory reaction. NOx is consumed in the ischemic liver lobe. PMID:25071345

  18. A missão nos dois primeiros séculos do cristianismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corbellini, Vital

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo trata da missão como anúncio de Jesus Cristo aos povos num determinado tempo: os primeiros dois séculos. Esse período é importante, porque se colocaram as bases da missão que provinha do Oriente, mas que se espalhou pouco a pouco na Ásia, Europa e África do Norte. Diversos motivos porporcionaram a conversão à doutrina cristã nos povos, bem como muitas pessoas se empenharam em divulgar a pessoa de Jesus Cristo

  19. PANORAMA DA LITERATURA PNEUMATOLÓGICA PUBLICADA NO BRASIL NOS ÚLTIMOS TRINTA ANOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Nogueira

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available “À cristologia e, especialmente, à eclesiologia do Concílio, devem suceder um estudo e um culto novos do Espírito Santo, precisamente, como complemento indispensável do ensinamento conciliar”. Se bastante tímida na Igreja católica pré-conciliar, a pneumatologia granjeou, após a convocação de Paulo VI, notável desenvolvimento. Amostras disso são as numerosas publicações relativas ao Espírito nos últimos trinta anos, muitas delas de grande envergadura teológica.

  20. Sobre a contextualidade dos enviesamentos de sexo nos julgamentos sobre dor

    OpenAIRE

    Bernardes, Sónia Gomes da Costa Figueira

    2008-01-01

    Doutoramento em Psicologia Social e Organizacional. Especialidade em Psicologia Social / CÓDIGOS DE CLASSIFICAÇÃO (American Psychological Association): 2970 Papéis Sexuais e Estudos das Mulheres 3360 Psicologia da Saúde e Medicina A presente tese contribui para conceptualização do fenómeno dos enviesamentos de sexo nos julgamentos sobre dor, argumentando ser este dependente de variáveis contextuais relativas à pessoa com dor, à/o percipiente e/ou à situação. Primeiramente (secção I)...

  1. Reflexos da Responsabilidade Civil e Penal nos Casos de Violência Obstétrica

    OpenAIRE

    Veloso, Roberto Carvalho; Serra, Maiane Cibele de Mesquita

    2016-01-01

    A violência obstétrica é caracterizada pela imposição de intervenções danosas à integridade física e psicológica das parturientes, perpetrada pelos profissionais de saúde, bem como pelas instituições (públicas e privadas) nas quais tais mulheres são atendidas. O presente artigo tem por objetivo discutir a responsabilidade civil e penal nos casos dessa violência, utilizando a metodologia de análise dos acórdãos do Supremo Tribunal Federal (STF), do Superior Tribunal de Justiça (STJ) e dos Trib...

  2. O COMPORTAMENTO DA CAUSA PETENDI NOS RECURSOS DE ESTRITO DIREITO – BREVE OBSERVAÇÃO

    OpenAIRE

    Mendonça, João Josué Walmor de

    2008-01-01

    A causa de pedir (causa petendi) no ordenamento jurídico pátrio é fundamental na identificação da demanda e da pretensão do direito de ação do autor desta. Gravita esta causa de pedir em duas correntes doutrinárias que procuram dar relevo no elemento ao qual pugna por ser prevalente em detrimento do outro. Ao observar este instituto processual, aqui, nos recursos de estrito direito, a característica e natureza própria desses recursos, modificam a concepção ordinária do objeto observado, a inv...

  3. POLÍTICAS CURRICULARES NO BRASIL NOS GOVERNOS FHC E LULA: CONTINUIDADE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariclei Przylepa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo objetiva problematizar as políticas curriculares elaboradas e efetivadas nos governos FHC e Lula, a partir do contexto de reforma de Estado materializada na década de 1990. Nessa direção o estudo inicia abordando a política curricular no contexto da reforma de Estado, evidencia a proposta educacional do governo FHC, discute sua política curricular, via parâmetros curriculares nacionais, e finaliza analisando a política curricular implementada no primeiro ano do governo Lula.

  4. O abandono nos cursos de graduação da UFSC em 1997

    OpenAIRE

    Hotza, Maria Aparecida Silveira

    2000-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro de Filosofia e Ciências Humanas. Partindo de uma população de 1216 alunos-abandono na UFSC nos semestres 97-1 e 97-2, foram enviados 941 questionários àqueles que tinham endereço postal completo. Houve 80 respostas, 73 das quais consideradas válidas. Os resultados mostram que houve uma distribuição homogênea de respondentes dentre os vários cursos da universidade e uma concentração de abandono nas primeiras fases, que ...

  5. O impacto da liquidez nos retornos esperados das debêntures brasileiras

    OpenAIRE

    Giacomoni, Bruno Hofheinz; Sheng, Hsia Hua

    2013-01-01

    Neste trabalho, teve-se como objetivo identificar o impacto do risco de liquidez nos retornos excedentes esperados das debêntures no mercado secundário brasileiro. Foram realizadas análises de regressão em painel desbalanceado com dados semestrais de 101 debêntures ao longo de oito semestres (primeiro semestre de 2006 ao segundo semestre de 2009), totalizando 382 observações. Sete proxies (spread de compra e venda, %zero returns, idade, volume de emissão, valor nominal de emissão, quantidade ...

  6. Metáforas sobre el exilio en "Dios nos quiere contentos" de Griselda Gambarro.

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    Ariadna Castellarnau

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo analiza la novela Dios no nos quiere contentos, de la escritora argentina Griselda Gambaro, desde la perspectiva de la literatura de exilio. Esto significa trazar una lectura de la obra no tanto desde lo vivencial (como trasunto literario de la propia experiencia de la autora como desterrada durante el período de la última dictadura militar argentina como desde lo universal: analizando la experiencia del exilio como un hecho en abstracto, aplicable a cualquier contexto nacional e histórico, a través de las metáforas sobre las que trabaja Gambaro.

  7. The economic impact of Music festivals on the tourism economy. Nos Alice case study

    OpenAIRE

    Paolicelli, Michela

    2017-01-01

    In the recent times, music festivals are being used as relevant tools for tourism development and promotion thanks to their capacity to attract tourists in every moment of the year. For this reason, it becomes extremely important for policy-makers and festival organizers to quantify and examine the economic, social and cultural impact of these special events on the local economy. This paper is focused on NOS Alive, a famous music Festival held in the city of Lisbon. The main objective of this...

  8. Interações imunocerebrais e implicações nos transtornos psiquiátricos

    OpenAIRE

    Marques,Andrea H; Cizza,Giovanni; Sternberg,Esther

    2007-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Nesta revisão será focado o papel das citocinas no sistema nervoso central e suas implicações para o quadro depressivo. Posteriormente, serão discutidos os principais achados sobre medidas de citocinas em pacientes com depressão maior. MÉTODO: Foi realizada uma pesquisa no Pubmed selecionando estudos entre 1999-2007, utilizando as seguintes palavras-chave: "depression, cytokine"; "depressive disorder, cytokine". Focou-se nos estudos de medidas de citocinas pró-inflamatórias em pacie...

  9. Envolvimento nos direitos humanos e sistemas de valores Involvement in human rights and value systems

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    Cícero Pereira

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Com base no modelo da análise quantitativa das representações sociais, o estudo (N = 300 tratou do posicionamento de estudantes universitários em relação aos Direitos Humanos (DHs e à ancoragem social desse posicionamento nos sistemas de valores dos estudantes. Os resultados mostram que as representações dos estudantes sobre o envolvimento nos DHs envolvem quatro princípios organizadores: pessoal-abstrato; pessoal-concreto; governamental-abstrato; governamental-concreto. Em relação à ancoragem social dos princípios organizadores do envolvimento nos DHs, observou-se que os valores pós-materialistas se relacionaram positivamente com o envolvimento pessoal-abstrato, enquanto a adesão aos valores religiosos implicou maior envolvimento no princípio pessoal-concreto. Além disso, a adesão aos valores materialistas levou a uma avaliação mais positiva do envolvimento do Governo Brasileiro nos DHs, ao passo que os valores pós-materialistas contribuíram com uma avaliação mais crítica desse governo. As discussões abordam a centralidade dos valores na formação das representações sociais dos DHs.Based on the quantitative analysis model of social representations, a study (N=300 was carried out concerning the opinion of university students on Human Rights (HR, and the social link of this positioning in the students system of values. The results show that the students representations of the involvement in HR comprise four organizing principles: personal-abstract; personal-concrete; governmental-abstract; governmental-concrete. With regard to the social anchorage of the organizing principles of involvement in HR, it has been observed that post-materialist values were positively related to the involvement personal-abstract, whereas adherence to religious values implied a greater involvement in the personal-concrete principle. In addition, adherence to materialist values led to a more positive appraisal of the Brazilian Government

  10. Experiencias de trabalhadores nos caminhos de ferro da Bahia : trabalho, solidariedade e conflitos (1892-1909)

    OpenAIRE

    Roberio Santos Souza

    2007-01-01

    Resumo: A história da estrada de ferro da Bahia ao Francisco, desde a segunda metade do século, foi marcada por diversas experiências de trabalhadores. Naquele período, imigrantes, nacionais e escravos estiveram presentes no mundo de trabalho ferroviário. Enquanto alguns desses homens lutaram para garantir direitos, segundo suas tradições culturais, outros enfrentaram os domínios senhoriais em busca da liberdade de "viver por si". Nos anos que se seguiram à abolição, outros personagens, diant...

  11. IL-10 and NOS2 modulate antigen-specific reactivity and nerve infiltration by T cells in experimental leprosy.

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    Deanna A Hagge

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Although immunopathology dictates clinical outcome in leprosy, the dynamics of early and chronic infection are poorly defined. In the tuberculoid region of the spectrum, Mycobacterium leprae growth is restricted yet a severe granulomatous lesion can occur. The evolution and maintenance of chronic inflammatory processes like those observed in the leprosy granuloma involve an ongoing network of communications via cytokines. IL-10 has immunosuppressive properties and IL-10 genetic variants have been associated with leprosy development and reactions.The role of IL-10 in resistance and inflammation in leprosy was investigated using Mycobacterium leprae infection of mice deficient in IL-10 (IL-10-/-, as well as mice deficient in both inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2-/- and IL-10 (10NOS2-/-. Although a lack of IL-10 did not affect M. leprae multiplication in the footpads (FP, inflammation increased from C57Bl/6 (B6NOS2-/-<10NOS2-/-. While IL-10-/- mice exhibited modest FP induration compared to B6, NOS2-/- and 10NOS2-/- mice developed markedly enlarged FP marking distinct phases: early (1 month, peak (3-4 months, and chronic (8 months. IFN-γ-producing CD4+CD44+ cells responding to M. leprae cell wall, membrane, and cytosol antigens and ML2028 (Ag85B were significantly increased in the evolved granuloma in NOS2-/- FP compared to B6 and IL-10-/- during early and peak phases. In 10NOS2-/- FP, CD4+CD44+ and especially CD8+CD44+ responses were augmented even further to these antigens as well as to ML0380 (GroES, ML2038 (bacterioferritin, and ML1877 (EF-Tu. Moreover, fragmented nerves containing CD4+ cells were present in 10NOS2-/- FP.The 10NOS2-/- strain offers insight on the regulation of granuloma formation and maintenance by immune modulators in the resistant forms of leprosy and presents a new model for investigating the pathogenesis of neurological involvement.

  12. Thai primary students' understanding of nature of science (NOS) in learning about force and motion for explicit NOS through STS approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimakorn, Narakorn; Yuenyong, Chokchai

    2018-01-01

    This paper aimed to study of primary school students' understanding of nature of science in learning about force and motion for Explicit Nature of Science through science technology and society (STS) approach. Participants were 11 Grade 5 students who study in Baan Khongtaphet, Bothong, Chonburi, Thailand. This research regarded interpretive paradigm. The intervention of STS physics provided 4 weeks of teaching about force and motion through Yuenyong (2006) science technology and society (STS) approach. The issues of making skate board was brought into the class in order to enhance students learning about force and motion and applying knowledge for designing skate board. The intervention was also designed to allow students explicitly mentioning their ideas about nature of science related to learning activities of STS force and motion. Students' understanding of nature of science was interpreted through students' worksheets, participant observation, students' journal writing and informal interview. The findings revealed that majority of students could reflect their ideas related to many aspects of nature of science. This included Science demands and relies on empirical evidence; knowledge production in science shares many common factors and shared habits of mind, norms, logical thinking and methods; tentative of scientific knowledge; historical, cultural and social influences on science; historical, cultural and social influences on science; science and its methods cannot answer all questions. The study has implications for NOS teaching in Thailand primary school.

  13. Paradoxical regulation of ChAT and nNOS expression in animal models of Crohn's colitis and ulcerative colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, John H; Li, Qingjie; Sarna, Sushil K

    2013-08-15

    Morphological and functional changes in the enteric nervous system (ENS) have been reported in inflammatory bowel disease. We examined the effects of inflammation on the expression of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and nNOS in the muscularis externae of two models of colonic inflammation, trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis, which models Crohn's disease-like inflammation, and DSS-induced colitis, which models ulcerative Colitis-like inflammation. In TNBS colitis, we observed significant decline in ChAT, nNOS, and protein gene product (PGP) 9.5 protein and mRNA levels. In DSS colitis, ChAT and PGP9.5 were significantly upregulated while nNOS levels did not change. The nNOS dimer-to-monomer ratio decreased significantly in DSS- but not in TNBS-induced colitis. No differences were observed in the percentage of either ChAT (31 vs. 33%)- or nNOS (37 vs. 41%)-immunopositive neurons per ganglia or the mean number of neurons per ganglia (55 ± 5 vs. 59 ± 5, P > 0.05). Incubation of the distal colon muscularis externae in vitro with different types of inflammatory mediators showed that cytokines decreased ChAT and nNOS expression, whereas H₂O₂, a component of oxidative stress, increased their expression. NF-κB inhibitor MG-132 did not prevent the IL-1β-induced decline in either ChAT or nNOS expression. These findings showed that TNBS- and DSS-induced inflammation differentially regulates the expression of two critical proteins expressed in the colonic myenteric neurons. These differences are likely due to the exposure of the myenteric plexus neurons to different combinations of Th1-type inflammatory mediators and H₂O₂ in each model.

  14. Enhanced astrocytic nitric oxide production and neuronal modifications in the neocortex of a NOS2 mutant mouse.

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    Yossi Buskila

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It has been well accepted that glial cells in the central nervous system (CNS produce nitric oxide (NO through the induction of a nitric oxide synthase isoform (NOS2 only in response to various insults. Recently we described rapid astroglial, NOS2-dependent, NO production in the neocortex of healthy mice on a time scale relevant to neuronal activity. To explore a possible role for astroglial NOS2 in normal brain function we investigated a NOS2 knockout mouse (B6;129P2-Nos2(tm1Lau/J, Jackson Laboratory. Previous studies of this mouse strain revealed mainly altered immune responses, but no compensatory pathways and no CNS abnormalities have been reported. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To our surprise, using NO imaging in brain slices in combination with biochemical methods we uncovered robust NO production by neocortical astrocytes of the NOS2 mutant. These findings indicate the existence of an alternative pathway that increases basal NOS activity. In addition, the astroglial mutation instigated modifications of neuronal attributes, shown by changes in the membrane properties of pyramidal neurons, and revealed in distinct behavioral abnormalities characterized by an increase in stress-related parameters. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results strongly indicate the involvement of astrocytic-derived NO in modifying the activity of neuronal networks. In addition, the findings corroborate data linking NO signaling with stress-related behavior, and highlight the potential use of this genetic model for studies of stress-susceptibility. Lastly, our results beg re-examination of previous studies that used this mouse strain to examine the pathophysiology of brain insults, assuming lack of astrocytic nitrosative reaction.

  15. L-Citrulline Protects Skeletal Muscle Cells from Cachectic Stimuli through an iNOS-Dependent Mechanism.

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    Daniel J Ham

    Full Text Available Dietary L-citrulline is thought to modulate muscle protein turnover by increasing L-arginine availability. To date, the direct effects of increased L-citrulline concentrations in muscle have been completely neglected. Therefore, we determined the role of L-citrulline in regulating cell size during catabolic conditions by depriving mature C2C12 myotubes of growth factors (serum free; SF or growth factors and nutrients (HEPES buffered saline; HBS. Cells were treated with L-citrulline or equimolar concentrations of L-arginine (positive control or L-alanine (negative control and changes in cell size and protein turnover were assessed. In myotubes incubated in HBS or SF media, L-citrulline improved rates of protein synthesis (HBS: +63%, SF: +37% and myotube diameter (HBS: +18%, SF: +29%. L-citrulline treatment substantially increased iNOS mRNA expression (SF: 350%, HBS: 750%. The general NOS inhibitor L-NAME and the iNOS specific inhibitor aminoguanidine prevented these effects in both models. Depriving myotubes in SF media of L-arginine or L-leucine, exacerbated wasting which was not attenuated by L-citrulline. The increased iNOS mRNA expression was temporally associated with increases in mRNA of the endogenous antioxidants SOD1, SOD3 and catalase. Furthermore, L-citrulline prevented inflammation (LPS and oxidative stress (H2O2 induced muscle cell wasting. In conclusion, we demonstrate a novel direct protective effect of L-citrulline on skeletal muscle cell size independent of L-arginine that is mediated through induction of the inducible NOS (iNOS isoform. This discovery of a nutritional modulator of iNOS mRNA expression in skeletal muscle cells could have substantial implications for the treatment of muscle wasting conditions.

  16. Intoxicação experimental com frutos de Melia azedarach (Meliaceae em suínos

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    Méndez Maria del Carmen

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Frutos maduros, triturados, de Melia azedarach foram administrados misturados à ração a 8 suínos em doses únicas de 5-20g/kg. Diarréia passageira foi o único sinal nos 2 suínos que consumiram 5g/kg. Os sinais clínicos observados nos animais que ingeriram doses únicas de 10, 15 e 20g/kg caracterizaram-se por incoordenação, tremores musculares, dificuldade para manter-se de pé, relutância para levantar-se, decúbito esternal e hipotermia. Os 2 suínos que ingeriram 20g/kg morreram. Macroscopicamente observou-se congestão do intestino delgado e da mucosa do estômago. As alterações histológicas caracterizaram-se por discreta a moderada necrose do tecido linfático, necrose dos músculos esqueléticos, congestão e necrose da mucosa gástrica e do intestino delgado e alterações degenerativas moderadas no fígado e rim. Os níveis séricos de AST e CPK aumentaram após a ingestão do tóxico. Observaram-se valores altos de CPK nos animais que morreram, evidenciando a mionecrose. Os resultados obtidos demonstram que, para suínos, a ingestão de altas doses de frutos de Melia azedarach induz ao aparecimento de sinais clínicos da intoxicação e causa lesões em diversos órgãos, inclusive a morte.

  17. Control of Muscle Mitochondria by Insulin Entails Activation of Akt2-mtNOS Pathway: Implications for the Metabolic Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finocchietto, Paola; Barreyro, Fernando; Holod, Silvia; Peralta, Jorge; Franco, María C.; Méndez, Carlos; Converso, Daniela P.; Estévez, Alvaro; Carreras, Maria C.; Poderoso, Juan J.

    2008-01-01

    Background In the metabolic syndrome with hyperinsulinemia, mitochondrial inhibition facilitates muscle fat and glycogen accumulation and accelerates its progression. In the last decade, nitric oxide (NO) emerged as a typical mitochondrial modulator by reversibly inhibiting citochrome oxidase and oxygen utilization. We wondered whether insulin-operated signaling pathways modulate mitochondrial respiration via NO, to alternatively release complete glucose oxidation to CO2 and H2O or to drive glucose storage to glycogen. Methodology/Principal Findings We illustrate here that NO produced by translocated nNOS (mtNOS) is the insulin-signaling molecule that controls mitochondrial oxygen utilization. We evoke a hyperinsulinemic-normoglycemic non-invasive clamp by subcutaneously injecting adult male rats with long-lasting human insulin glargine that remains stable in plasma by several hours. At a precise concentration, insulin increased phospho-Akt2 that translocates to mitochondria and determines in situ phosphorylation and substantial cooperative mtNOS activation (+4–8 fold, Pinsulin metabolic effects on gastrocnemius muscles by direct electroporation of siRNA nNOS or empty vector in the two legs of the same animal, confirmed that in the silenced muscles disrupted mtNOS allows higher oxygen uptake and complete (U-14C)-glucose utilization respect to normal mtNOS in the vector-treated ones (respectively 37±3 vs 10±1 µmolO2/h.g tissue and 13±1 vs 7.2±1 µmol 3H2O/h.g tissue, Pinsulin depresses mitochondrial respiration in skeletal muscle via NO which permits substrates to be deposited as macromolecules; at discrete hyperinsulinemia, persistent mtNOS activation could contribute to mitochondrial dysfunction with insulin resistance and obesity and therefore, to the progression of the metabolic syndrome. PMID:18335029

  18. Effect of DDAH/ADMA/NOS regulation pathway on cavernae corporum cavernosorum rat penis of different age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J-H; Chen, D; Zhang, K-Q; Zhang, H; Fu, Q

    2016-04-01

    The effect of DDAH/ADMA/NOS pathway in penile tissue of rats of different age was investigated to better understand the mechanism of age-related erectile dysfunction (ED). The Sprague Dawley male rats were assigned as the young group (3 month old, n = 10) and the old group (18 month old, n = 10) respectively. Intracavernous pressure (ICP) was measured before and after papaverine intracavernous injection. Pathology structure of penile tissue was evaluated under transmission electron microscope. The expression amounts of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) in penile tissue were detected by ELISA; the expression levels of isoform-specific DDAH and NOS were assessed via Western blot. Compared with the young group, the ICP in the old group rat decreased significantly (33.46 ± 5.37 versus 39.71 ± 3.67 mmHg, P = 0.02) after papaverine injection. Diffused fibrosis and impairment of endothelial cell were observed in corpus cavernosum in the old group rats. Higher level of ADMA (10.83 ± 0.96 versus 7.51 ± 1.39 μmol per gpro, P = 3.14 × 10(-4) ) and lower level of cGMP (29.42 ± 3.84 versus 47.09 ± 6.07 nmol per gpro, P = 1.57 × 10(-6) ) were detected in penile tissue of the old group compared with those of the young group. Expression of DDAH1, DDAH2, endothelial NOS (eNOS) and neuronal NOS(nNOS) all decreased significantly in penile tissue of the old group rat. The DDAH/ADMA/NOS regulation pathway changes dramatically accompanying with lower ICP in old group rat compared with those of the young group. Such findings in rats are suggestive in understanding the mechanism of age-related ED in humans. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Abordagem da amamentação nos primeiros anos do ensino fundamental

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    Dulce Maria Pereira Garcia Galvão

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Para analisar os currículos e os livros escolares adotados nos primeiros cinco anos do Ensino Fundamental na disciplina de Ciências quanto à presença ou não de termos relacionados à prática da amamentação, realizamos um estudo descritivo analisando o currículo e 16 manuais de 25 escolas públicas de três municípios do interior paulista, de setembro/2010 a fevereiro/2011. Definimos previamente alguns conceitos considerados imprescindíveis para ensinar e explicar à criança noções de amamentação. Verificamos que nenhum bloco temático do currículo aborda explicitamente a temática amamentação. Nove dos 16 conteúdos definidos estavam presentes em oito dos 16 livros. Da análise emergiu a categoria apoio e ajuda da família. Três obras utilizavam ilustrações associadas à alimentação artificial. No programa e nos manuais escolares existem diversas oportunidades de incluir este tema. Aconselha-se a integração dos conteúdos em todos os manuais de Ciências dos primeiros anos do ensino fundamental.

  20. O INSÓLITO NOS CORDÉIS DE FRANKLIN MAXADO

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    Calila das Mercês Oliveira

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available O insólito nos cordéis de Franklin Maxadopropõe uma análise acerca de quatro livretos de cordel do escritor e poeta baiano Franklin Maxado, dis-cutindo quadros do elemento insólito recorrentes nos cordéis, aqui entendi-dos por fatos extraordinários, não habituais à realidade. Valorizada por al-guns estudiosos como a raiz da cultura luso-brasileira, ou da cultura popular, a literatura de cordel herda características da literatura oral dos antigos tro-vadores. Os livretos artesanais, por vezes acompanhados de xilogravuras, fo-ram distribuídos, inicialmente, em feiras livres, e tiveram em Feira de Santa-na, cidade do agreste da Bahia onde Franklin nasceu, um importante ponto de distribuição. É recorrente na literatura de cordel a utilização de narrações ritmadas e originais que abarcam o fantástico e o maravilhoso. Isto pode ser verificado neste estudo. As teorias presentes no artigo se baseiam em Tzve-tan Torodov, Italo Calvino, Câmara Cascudo, Remo Ceserani, IrlemarChiampi, entre outros.

  1. Ilusão das imagens: olhar psicossocial sobre fumar nos filmes brasileiros

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    Rosa Vargas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo amplia o olhar psicossocial sobre o tabagismo. Descreve um quadro de ocorrências de imagens de produtos de tabaco e de seu consumo em uma amostragem de vinte filmes de longa-metragem brasileiros para exibição comercial. Nos resultados foram observadas imagens com esse conteúdo em metade dos filmes da amostra, e, em 70% daqueles em que ocorreram essas cenas, havia também a exibição relevante de embalagens de produtos ou marcas comerciais. Como conclusão, a utilização da mídia de entretenimento aparece entre os dados pesquisados como importante conteúdo a ser avaliado nos filmes. A presença nas telas, não apenas de imagens de consumo de cigarros e embalagens de produtos, mas também de marcas comerciais, pode contribuir para influenciar crianças e jovens a experimentar cigarros e reforçar o ato de fumar como comportamento normativo ou padrão entre as pessoas.

  2. Examen quinquennal 2010 : confirmation de la dérive de nos salaires

    CERN Multimedia

    STAFF ASSOCIATION

    2010-01-01

    Examen quinquennal 2010 : confirmation de la dérive de nos salaires Un examen général de nos conditions financières et sociales a lieu tous les cinq ans : « l’examen quinquennal », dont l’annexe A1 des Statut et Règlement du personnel décrit les principes et la procédure. L’objet de l’examen quinquennal est d’assurer que les conditions financières et sociales offertes par l’Organisation permettent à celle-ci d’engager, dans tous ses Etats membres, et de retenir en son sein les titulaires de la plus haute compétence et de la plus grande intégrité nécessaires à l’exécution de sa mission. L’examen quinquennal inclut, à titre obligatoire, les traitements de base (les salaires de base des titulaires, les mens...

  3. Um mundo metafísico nos trópicos

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    Else Ribeiro Pires Vieira

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A fonte torna-se a estrela inatingível e pura que, sem se deixar contaminar, contamina, brilha para os artistas dos países da América Latina... ilumina os movimentos das mãos, mas ao mesmo tempo torna os artistas súditos do seu magnetismo superior.. Silviano Santiago, Uma literatura nos trópicos Afastando-me do discurso crítico em torno das influências e do caráter tributário a ele inerente, sobre o qual nos adverte Santiago já em ensaio de 1971,1 afastando-me, igualmente, de Polarizações hierarquizadas como fonte/alvo, situando-me na fronteira fluida do transformar de escritas/reescritas e nela privilegiando áreas de permeabilidade entre os discursos e o seu jogo relacional, ofereço, neste texto, reflexões em torno da poesia metafísica inglesa traduzida entre 1978 e 1991 na sua interseção com outras produções textuais brasileiras no período de início da abertura política, gestação e nascimento da Nova República2 . Traduzir a Inglaterra, ler o Brasil. O que se traduz? Quem se traduz? Por que se traduz? Como se traduz?

  4. Association between polymorphisms in NOS3 and KCNH2 and social memory

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    Susanne eHenningsson

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Social memory, including the ability to recognize faces and voices, is essential for social relationships. It has a large heritable component, but the knowledge about the contributing genes is sparse. The genetic variation underlying inter-individual differences in social memory was investigated in an exploratory sample (n=55, genotyped with a chip comprising approximately 200.000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, and in a validation sample (n=582, where 30 SNPs were targeted. In the exploratory study face identity recognition was measured. The validation study also measured vocal sound recognition, as well as recognition of faces and vocal sounds combined (multimodal condition. In the exploratory study, the 30 SNPs that were associated with face recognition at puncorrected<0.001 and located in genes, were chosen for further study. In the validation study two of the SNPs showed significant associations with recognition of faces, vocal sounds, and multimodal stimuli: rs1800779 in the gene encoding nitric oxide synthase 3 (NOS3 and rs3807370 in the gene encoding the voltage-gated channel, subfamily H, member 2 (KCNH2, in strong linkage disequilibrium with each other. The uncommon alleles were associated with superior performance, and the effects were present for men only (p<0.0002. The exploratory study also showed a weaker but significant association with (non-emotional word recognition, an effect that was independent of the effect on face recognition. This study demonstrates evidence for an association between NOS3 and KCNH2 SNPs and social memory.

  5. O uso da música nos cuidados paliativos: humanizando o cuidado e facilitando o adeus

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    Natalie Hidemi Seki

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O convívio com uma doença ameaçadora da vida pode afetar o sujeito e a família em diversas dimensões - física, emocional, espiritual, social e econômica - e demandar cuidados sensíveis e atentos de uma equipe multidisciplinar ao enfrentar tal situação única e delicada. O artigo tem como objetivo refletir sobre as contribuições do uso da música nos cuidados paliativos e na humanização do cuidado da pessoa fora de possibilidades terapêuticas de cura. Com esse propósito, foi realizada pesquisa bibliográfica, mediante busca eletrônica de artigos indexados em bases de dados e por varredura manual dos periódicos não indexados considerados relevantes. A pesquisa mostra que o uso da música nos processos saúde-doença-cuidado pode promover conforto e qualidade de vida para a pessoa adoecida e ser um recurso de ajuda na relação da família com a despedida de seu ente querido. Pode também auxiliar na manutenção de uma equipe de saúde saudável e integrada.

  6. Pobreza multidimensional nos municípios da Região Nordeste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaina Ottonelli

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Na abordagem das capacitações de Sen (1981, 1985, 2000, 2001, a pobreza significa privação em diferentes aspectos da vida. O objetivo deste estudo é mensurar a pobreza multidimensional nos municípios da Região Nordeste por meio da teoria dos conjuntos fuzzy e dados do Censo Demográfico (IBGE, 2010. São utilizados 19 indicadores (funcionamentos distribuídos em quatro dimensões: educação, saúde, condições habitacionais e renda. Os resultados indicam pobreza, com destaque nas dimensões da renda e da educação, principalmente nos estados de Maranhão, Alagoas, Piauí e Paraíba. Políticas de redução da pobreza precisam considerar quais são as privações sofridas pelas pessoas e as particularidades do local onde vivem.

  7. O paradoxo dos documentos de identidade: relato de uma experiência nos Estados Unidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariza Peirano

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available No mundo moderno, documentos são objetos indispensáveis, sem os quais não conseguimos demonstrar que somos quem dizemos que somos. Precisamos de provas materiais que atestem a veracidade da nossa autoidentificação. Este artigo relata a experiência de pesquisa sobre documentos de identidade nos Estados Unidos, por meio de dois eventos em que Eliot Spitzer, governador do estado de Nova Iorque de janeiro de 2007 a março de 2008, foi figura central, e nos quais os documentos foram um subtexto importante. Uma comparação com o caso brasileiro está presente ao longo do artigo, que termina examinando o fenômeno conhecido como ID theft.In the modern world, IDs are indispensable objects, without which we cannot prove that we are who we say we are. We need material substantiation that attests to the authenticity of our self-identification. This paper is an account of an ethnographic experience about IDs and identification processes in the US, based on the examination of two events in which Eliot Spitzer, the New York State governor from January 2007 to March 2008, was a central figure. A comparison with the Brazilian scenario is present throughout the paper, and it ends by focusing on the ID theft phenomenon.

  8. Ģimene Mārgaretas Atvudas romānos

    OpenAIRE

    Voitiņa, Laura

    2009-01-01

    Mūsdienās diskusijas par ģimeni, tās vērtībām, mainīgo uzbūvi un problēmām, kas ietekmē šo institūtu, ir sastopamas ne tikai mutvārdu runā, bet arī rakstos. Dotā pētījuma mērķis bija veikt saturisku analīzi par ģimenes aprakstiem Margaretas Atvudas romānos “Istabenes Stāsts” un “Oriksa un Kreiks”, lai identificētu romānos aprakstītos ģimenes modeļus, vērtības, paražas un notikumus, kas ietekmē šo institūtu. Tika izmantotas gan teorētiskas, gan empīriskas pētījuma metodes. Lai sniegtu teorētis...

  9. Participação efetiva do enfermeiro no planejamento: foco nos custos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Cristina Albano

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Trata-se de uma pesquisa que buscou verificar se os enfermeiros de uma instituição hospitalar privada da cidade de São Paulo-SP possuem visão de gerenciamento de custos e observar como ocorre a participação destes profissionais nos níveis de planejamento, com ênfase nos custos. Foram entrevistados 40 enfermeiros, durante seu turno de trabalho, através da aplicação de um questionário a respeito de gerenciamento de custos assistenciais e dos níveis de planejamento organizacional. Observou-se que 85% dos entrevistados afirmaram não participar do gerenciamento de custos assistenciais, sendo que 45% dos participantes não soube explicar a importância desse conhecimento. A maioria dos entrevistados (62,5% afirmou não participar do planejamento estratégico institucional e dentre os que participaram a maior parte não soube explicar sua participação.

  10. The Role of Rituximab in Lymphomas O papel do Rituximab nos linfomas

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    Bertrand Coiffier

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last years the treatment of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma underwent a great advance in relation to the diagnosis, classification, high-dose chemotherapy, and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Simultaneously with this, there was the development of new drugs and support therapy which enabled an improvement in the evolution and survival of the patients. The use of monoclonal antibodies against cancer cells is an old idea and in this report the results of the role of the anti-CD20-Rituximab in lymphomas is discussed.Nos últimos anos o tratamento do linfomas não Hodgkin apresentou um grande avanço no diagnóstico, classificação, quimioterapia com altas doses e o transplante de células percursoras hematopoiéticas. Simultaneamente houve o desenvolvimento de novas drogas e no tratamento de suporte o que possibilita um avanço na evolução e sobrevida dos pacientes. A idéia do emprego de anticorpos monoclonais no tratamento do câncer é antiga e neste relato são apresentados os resultados e o papel do anti-CD20-Rituximab nos linfomas.

  11. EFEITO RESIDUAL DO TARO CONSORCIADO COM LEGUMINOSAS NOS TEORES DOS PIGMENTOS FOTOSSINTETIZANTES DE BRASSICA OLERACEA

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    Rafael Costa de Sant'Ana

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito residual do consórcio taro e crotalarias sob duas posições de plantio nos teores dos pigmentos fotossintetizantes do repolho (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.. O experimento foi conduzido no Instituto Federal do Espírito Santo – campus Santa Teresa no período de agosto a novembro de 2015, dois meses após a colheita do cultivo anterior. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados, em esquema fatorial com dois fatores para posição (distribuição espacial nos sentidos norte-sul e leste-oeste e três fatores para a cultura (efeito residual do consórcio taro (Colocassia esculenta (L. Schott com a Crotalaria juncea, Crotalaria spectabilis, mais o taro solteiro correspondendo a 6 tratamentos com 4 repetições. Não foram observadas diferenças estatísticas entre os teores de pigmentos fotossintetizantes para os fatores consórcio e posição, provavelmente este resultado foi devido ao elevado vigor do hibrido utilizado, ASTRUS PLUS.

  12. Abordagem da amamentação nos primeiros anos do ensino fundamental

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    Dulce Maria Pereira Garcia Galvão

    Full Text Available Para analisar os currículos e os livros escolares adotados nos primeiros cinco anos do Ensino Fundamental na disciplina de Ciências quanto à presença ou não de termos relacionados à prática da amamentação, realizamos um estudo descritivo analisando o currículo e 16 manuais de 25 escolas públicas de três municípios do interior paulista, de setembro/2010 a fevereiro/2011. Definimos previamente alguns conceitos considerados imprescindíveis para ensinar e explicar à criança noções de amamentação. Verificamos que nenhum bloco temático do currículo aborda explicitamente a temática amamentação. Nove dos 16 conteúdos definidos estavam presentes em oito dos 16 livros. Da análise emergiu a categoria apoio e ajuda da família. Três obras utilizavam ilustrações associadas à alimentação artificial. No programa e nos manuais escolares existem diversas oportunidades de incluir este tema. Aconselha-se a integração dos conteúdos em todos os manuais de Ciências dos primeiros anos do ensino fundamental.

  13. The Development of In-Service Science Teachers' Understandings of and Orientations to Teaching the Nature of Science within a PCK-Based NOS Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faikhamta, Chatree

    2013-04-01

    The nature of science (NOS) has become a central goal of science education in many countries. This study sought an understanding of the extent to which a nature of science course (NOSC), designed according to the conceptualization of pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) for teaching nature of science (NOS), affects in-service science teachers' understanding and learning of NOS, and their orientations towards teaching it. A qualitative research approach was employed as a research methodology, drawing upon pre- and post-instruction NOS questionnaires, field notes, and in-service teachers' weekly journal entries and assignments. Open-ended NOS questionnaires, used to assess participants' understandings of NOS, were analysed and categorized as either informed, partially informed and naive. Other qualitative data were analysed through an inductive process to identify ways in-service teachers engaged and learned in the NOSC. The results indicate that at the beginning of the course, a majority of the in-service science teachers held naive understandings of NOS, particularly with respect to the definition of science, scientific inquiry, and differences between laws and theories. They viewed implicit project-based science and science process skills as goals of NOS instruction. By engaging in the course, the in-service science teachers developed an understanding of NOS and orientations to teaching NOS based on various elements, especially reflective and explicit instruction, role modelling, and content- and non-content embedded instruction. The aim of this study is to help science teacher educators, consider how to support and develop science teachers' understandings of NOS while being mindful of PCK for NOS, and develop methods for teaching NOS frameworks.

  14. Shear stress stimulates phosphorylation of eNOS at Ser(635) by a protein kinase A-dependent mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boo, Yong Chool; Hwang, Jinah; Sykes, Michelle; Michell, Belinda J.; Kemp, Bruce E.; Lum, Hazel; Jo, Hanjoong

    2002-01-01

    Shear stress stimulates nitric oxide (NO) production by phosphorylating endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) at Ser(1179) in a phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K)- and protein kinase A (PKA)-dependent manner. The eNOS has additional potential phosphorylation sites, including Ser(116), Thr(497), and Ser(635). Here, we studied these potential phosphorylation sites in response to shear, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and 8-bromocAMP (8-BRcAMP) in bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC). All three stimuli induced phosphorylation of eNOS at Ser(635), which was consistently slower than that at Ser(1179). Thr(497) was rapidly dephosphorylated by 8-BRcAMP but not by shear and VEGF. None of the stimuli phosphorylated Ser(116). Whereas shear-stimulated Ser(635) phosphorylation was not affected by phosphoinositide-3-kinase inhibitors wortmannin and LY-294002, it was blocked by either treating the cells with a PKA inhibitor H89 or infecting them with a recombinant adenovirus-expressing PKA inhibitor. These results suggest that shear stress stimulates eNOS by two different mechanisms: 1) PKA- and PI3K-dependent and 2) PKA-dependent but PI3K-independent pathways. Phosphorylation of Ser(635) may play an important role in chronic regulation of eNOS in response to mechanical and humoral stimuli.

  15. The NOS1 variant rs6490121 is associated with variation in prefrontal function and grey matter density in healthy individuals.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Rose, Emma J

    2012-03-01

    A common polymorphism within the nitric oxide sythanse-1 (NOS1) gene (rs6490121), initially identified as risk variant for schizophrenia, has been associated with variation in working memory and IQ. Here we investigated how this variation might be mediated at the level of brain structure and function. In healthy individuals (N=157), voxel based morphometry was used to compare grey matter (GM) volume between homozygous and heterozygous carriers of the \\'G\\' allele (i.e. the allele associated with impaired cognition and schizophrenia risk) and homozygous carriers of the non-risk \\'A\\' allele. Functional brain imaging data were also acquired from 48 participants during performance of a spatial working memory (SWM) task, and analysed to determine any effect of NOS1 risk status. An a priori region-of-interest analysis identified a significant reduction in ventromedial prefrontal GM volume in \\'G\\' allele carriers. Risk carriers also exhibited altered patterns of activation in the prefrontal cortex, caudate, and superior parietal lobe, which were characteristic of abnormal increases in activation in frontoparietal working memory networks and a failure to disengage regions of the default mode network. These functional changes suggest a NOS1-mediated processing inefficiency, which may contribute to cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia. While the mechanisms by which NOS1 may influence brain structure and\\/or function have not yet been well delineated, these data provide further evidence for a role of NOS1 in risk for schizophrenia via an impact upon cognitive function.

  16. Right Ventricular Adaptation Is Associated with the Glu298Asp Variant of the NOS3 Gene in Elite Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolossváry, Márton; Tóth, Attila; Vágó, Hajnalka; Lendvai, Zsuzsanna; Kiss, Loretta; Maurovich-Horvat, Pál; Bagyura, Zsolt; Merkely, Béla

    2015-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO), an important endogenous pulmonary vasodilator is synthetized by the endothelial NO synthase (NOS3). Reduced NO bioavailability and thus the Glu298Asp polymorphism of NOS3 may enhance right ventricular (RV) afterload and hypertrophic remodeling and influence athletic performance. To test this hypothesis world class level athletes (water polo players, kayakers, canoeists, rowers, swimmers, n = 126) with a VO2 maximum greater than 50ml/kg/min were compared with non-athletic volunteers (n = 155). Cardiopulmonary exercise tests and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (cMRI) were performed to determine structural or functional changes. Genotype distribution of the NOS3 Glu298Asp polymorphism was not affected by gender or physical performance. Cardiac MRI showed increased stroke volume with eccentric hypertrophy in all athletes regardless of their genotype. However, the Asp allelic variant carriers had increased RV mass index (32±6g versus 27±6g, pathletes with a Glu/Glu genotype. Genotype was not significantly associated with athletic performance. In the non-athletic group no genotype related differences were detected. The association between the NOS3 Glu298Asp polymorphism and RV structure and dimension in elite athletes emphasizes the importance of NOS3 gene function and NO bioavailability in sport related cardiac adaptation. PMID:26517550

  17. Exercise training enhanced myocardial endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS function in diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK rats

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    Kaminski Pawel M

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Different mechanisms of diabetic-induced NO dysfunction have been proposed and central to most of them are significant changes in eNOS function as the rate-limiting step in NO bioavailability. eNOS exists in both monomeric and dimeric conformations, with the dimeric form catalyzing the synthesis of nitric oxide, while the monomeric form catalyzes the synthesis of superoxide (O2-. Diabetic-induced shifts to decrease the dimer:monomer ratio is thought to contribute to the degradation of nitric oxide (NO bioavailability. Exercise has long been useful in the management of diabetes. Although exercise-induced increases expression of eNOS has been reported, it is unclear if exercise may alter the functional coupling of eNOS. Methods To investigate this question, Goto-Kakizaki rats (a model of type II diabetes were randomly assigned to a 9-week running program (train or sedentary (sed groups. Results Exercise training significantly (p 4, but not in the presence of exogenous BH4. Exercise training also significantly decreased NADPH-dependent O2- activity. Conclusion Exercise-induced increased eNOS dimerization resulted in an increased coupling of the enzyme to facilitate production of NO at the expense of ROS generation. This shift that could serve to decrease diabetic-related oxidative stress, which should serve to lessen diabetic-related complications.

  18. The Association between NOS3 Gene Polymorphisms and Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy Susceptibility and Symptoms in Chinese Han Population

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    Yongqin Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Endothelial NOS (NOS3 has a potential role in the prevention of neuronal injury in hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE. Thus, we aimed to explore the association between NOS3 gene polymorphisms and HIE susceptibility and symptoms in a Chinese Han population. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the NOS3 gene, rs1800783, rs1800779, and rs2070744, were detected in 226 children with HIE and 212 healthy children in a Chinese Han population. Apgar scores and magnetic resonance image scans were used to estimate the symptoms and brain damage. The association analyses were conducted by using SNPStats and SPSS 18.0 software. The genotype and allele distributions of rs1800779 and rs1799983 displayed no significant differences between the patients and the controls, while the rs2070744 allele distribution was significantly different (corrected P=0.009. For clinical characteristics, the rs2070744 genotype distribution was significantly different in patients with different Apgar scores (≤5, TT/TC/CC = 6/7/5; 6~7, TT/TC/CC = 17/0/0; 8~9, TT/TC/CC = 6/2/0; 10, TT/TC/CC = 7/1/0; corrected P=0.006 in the 1001 to 1449 g birth weight subgroup. The haplotype test did not show any associations with the risk and clinical characteristics of HIE. The results suggest that NOS3 gene SNP rs2070744 was significantly associated with HIE susceptibility and symptom expression in Chinese Han population.

  19. Substrate-Tuned Catalysis of the Radical S-Adenosyl-L-Methionine Enzyme NosL Involved in Nosiheptide Biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xinjian; Li, Yongzhen; Ding, Wei; Zhang, Qi

    2015-07-27

    NosL is a radical S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) enzyme that converts L-Trp to 3-methyl-2-indolic acid, a key intermediate in the biosynthesis of a thiopeptide antibiotic nosiheptide. In this work we investigated NosL catalysis by using a series of Trp analogues as the molecular probes. Using a benzofuran substrate 2-amino-3-(benzofuran-3-yl)propanoic acid (ABPA), we clearly demonstrated that the 5'-deoxyadenosyl (dAdo) radical-mediated hydrogen abstraction in NosL catalysis is not from the indole nitrogen but likely from the amino group of L-Trp. Unexpectedly, the major product of ABPA is a decarboxylated compound, indicating that NosL was transformed to a novel decarboxylase by an unnatural substrate. Furthermore, we showed that, for the first time to our knowledge, the dAdo radical-mediated hydrogen abstraction can occur from an alcohol hydroxy group. Our study demonstrates the intriguing promiscuity of NosL catalysis and highlights the potential of engineering radical SAM enzymes for novel activities. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Right Ventricular Adaptation Is Associated with the Glu298Asp Variant of the NOS3 Gene in Elite Athletes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsolt Szelid

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO, an important endogenous pulmonary vasodilator is synthetized by the endothelial NO synthase (NOS3. Reduced NO bioavailability and thus the Glu298Asp polymorphism of NOS3 may enhance right ventricular (RV afterload and hypertrophic remodeling and influence athletic performance. To test this hypothesis world class level athletes (water polo players, kayakers, canoeists, rowers, swimmers, n = 126 with a VO2 maximum greater than 50ml/kg/min were compared with non-athletic volunteers (n = 155. Cardiopulmonary exercise tests and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (cMRI were performed to determine structural or functional changes. Genotype distribution of the NOS3 Glu298Asp polymorphism was not affected by gender or physical performance. Cardiac MRI showed increased stroke volume with eccentric hypertrophy in all athletes regardless of their genotype. However, the Asp allelic variant carriers had increased RV mass index (32±6g versus 27±6g, p<0.01 and larger RV stroke volume index (71±10ml versus 64±10ml, p<0.01 than athletes with a Glu/Glu genotype. Genotype was not significantly associated with athletic performance. In the non-athletic group no genotype related differences were detected. The association between the NOS3 Glu298Asp polymorphism and RV structure and dimension in elite athletes emphasizes the importance of NOS3 gene function and NO bioavailability in sport related cardiac adaptation.

  1. Association of eNOS Gene Polymorphisms G894T and T-786C with Risk of Hepatorenal Syndrome

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    Yuksel Seckin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. There are no studies investigating the relationship between endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS gene polymorphisms and hepatorenal syndrome (HRS. Aim. The purpose of this study is to elucidate whether eNOS gene polymorphisms (G894T and T-786C play a role in the development of type-2 HRS. Methods. This study was carried out in a group of 92 patients with cirrhosis (44 patients with type-2 HRS and 48 without HRS and 50 healthy controls. Polymorphisms were determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR and melting curve analysis. Results. We did not find any significant difference in allele and genotype distributions of the eNOS -T-786C polymorphism among the groups (p=0.440. However, the frequency of GT (40.9% and TT (13.6% genotypes and mutant allele T (34.1% for the eNOS G894T polymorphism were significantly higher (p<0.001 and p<0.001, resp. in the HRS group than in both the stable cirrhosis (14.6%, 4.2%, and 11.5%, resp. and the control (22.0%, 2.0%, and 13.0%, resp. groups. Conclusion. The occurrence of mutant genotypes (GT/TT and mutant allele T in eNOS -G894T polymorphisms should be considered as a potential risk factor in cirrhotic patients with HRS.

  2. Acolhimento ao familiar da pessoa em sofrimento psíquico nos estudos de enfermagem

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    Cristiene Barbosa Lima

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Evidenciar o conhecimento publicado no campo da enfermagem sobre acolhimento aos familiares de pessoas em sofrimento psíquico nos serviços de saúde.Métodos: Revisão integrativa, realizada nos meses de junho e julho de 2012, nas bases de dados LILACS, BDENF, IBECS, MEDLINE e SciELO, com os descritores “saúde mental”, “acolhimento” e “família”. Atenderam à inclusão 14 textos, escritos por profissionais e acadêmicos de enfermagem, em idioma português, publicados entre 2007 e 2011. Os dados foram apresentados de forma sintética em quatro tabelas e uma figura, sendo analisados sob o referencial de acolhimento pela Política Nacional de Humanização. Resultados: Não se pode afirmar uma tendência relacionada a estudos sobre acolhimento. A maioria das publicações analisadas adota abordagem qualitativa e análise de conteúdo, sendo de evidência tipo III. Há predominância de pesquisas tendo como sujeitos profissionais de saúde, no entanto, a família e outros atores começam a ser envolvidos. Cuidar de modo análogo da família e da pessoa que sofre é destaque em todos os estudos analisados. Evidenciou-se necessidade de interação entre os serviços de saúde e a rede especializada em saúde mental, e de preparo da equipe para minimizar as dificuldades enfrentadas pela família. Conclusão: O acolhimento à família foi apontado com frequência como dispositivo facilitador da reabilitação. Há muito por fazer rumo ao seu acolhimento nos serviços de saúde, a fim de permitir que a família perceba que sua vida não é necessariamente a continuidade da dificuldade que o outro enfrenta.

  3. Análise quantitativa de fluoretos nos alginatos para uso odontológico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C.C. Spadaro

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Este trabalho teve como proposta analisar quantitativamente o conteúdo de fluoretos nos alginatos para uso odontológico e a liberação de fluoretos de moldes desses alginatos em água milliQ, saliva artificial e ácido clorídrico 0,1 mol/l. Foram investigadas sete marcas de alginatos disponíveis comercialmente no Brasil, sendo analisados dois lotes de cada material. As concentrações de fluoretos nas diferentes amostras foram determinadas por potenciometria direta, utilizando o eletrodo seletivo combinado de fluoreto. Os materiais que apresentaram maiores concentrações médias de fluoreto total foram Hydrogum (7052,87µg/g, Jeltrate Plus (6519,68µg/g e Orthoprint (6218,18µg/g. Apenas os materiais das marcas Hydrogum e Jeltrate apresentaram diferenças nas concentrações de fluoretos entre os lotes um e dois. Os materiais apresentaram diferenças na liberação de fluoretos dos moldes, cujas maiores concentrações médias foram liberadas pelas marcas Hydrogum e Orthoprint. O meio influenciou na liberação de fluoreto, sendo que na saliva foi menor que na água e nesta foi inferior ao ácido. Os moldes dos materiais que mais liberaram fluoretos nos três meios (saliva, água e ácido foram os do Hydrogum e Orthoprint. Considerando que as concentrações de fluoretos encontradas nos alginatos são altas e que existem diferentes fontes de exposição aos fluoretos, há necessidade de constante monitoramento dos alginatos para uso odontológico. Palavras chaves: Fluoretos, alginato, intoxicação, hidrocolóide irreversível, material dentário.

  4. Discovery of a natural product-like iNOS inhibitor by molecular docking with potential neuroprotective effects in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Hai-Jing; Liu, Li-Juan; Chong, Cheong-Meng; Lu, Lihua; Wang, Modi; Chan, Daniel Shiu-Hin; Chan, Philip Wai Hong; Lee, Simon Ming-Yuen; Ma, Dik-Lung; Leung, Chung-Hang

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we applied structure-based virtual screening techniques to identify natural product or natural product-like inhibitors of iNOS. The iNOS inhibitory activity of the hit compounds was characterized using cellular assays and an in vivo zebrafish larvae model. The natural product-like compound 1 inhibited NO production in LPS-stimulated Raw264.7 macrophages, without exerting cytotoxic effects on the cells. Significantly, compound 1 was able to reverse MPTP-induced locomotion deficiency and neurotoxicity in an in vivo zebrafish larval model. Hence, compound 1 could be considered as a scaffold for the further development of iNOS inhibitors for potential anti-inflammatory or anti-neurodegenerative applications.

  5. A sociologia da saúde nos Estados Unidos, Grã-Bretanha e França: panorama geral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everardo Duarte Nunes

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho tem como objetivo apresentar um panorama geral da sociologia médica/sociologia da saúde nos Estados Unidos, Grã-Bretanha e França, das suas origens até hoje, situando a produção científica mais expressiva desse campo nesses países. A moderna sociologia médica/saúde emerge em diferentes momentos: nos Estados Unidos logo após a Segunda Guerra; na Grã-Bretanha, nos anos 60; e na França, na década de 1970. O estudo dessas trajetórias nacionais mostra que, na atualidade, constitui um campo estabelecido e em franco desenvolvimento com uma temática bastante diversificada e uma pluralidade de abordagens teóricas.

  6. Metodologias de avaliação do valor nutricional do farelo de arroz desengordurado para suínos

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Antônio Kunrath; Alexandre de Mello Kessler; Andréa Machado Leal Ribeiro; Maitê de Moraes Vieira; Gabriel Luz da Silva; Felipe D'Ávila Peixoto

    2010-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar o método de substituição com o de análise de regressão, na determinação do valor nutricional do farelo de arroz desengordurado, em dietas para suínos, nas fases de crescimento e terminação. Foram conduzidos dois ensaios de digestibilidade com 16 suínos machos castrados na fase de crescimento, com peso vivo inicial de 50,0±3,1 kg, e 16 suínos machos castrados na fase de terminação, com peso vivo inicial de 95,0±3,8 kg, alojados em gaiolas metabólicas. Uti...

  7. Administrative Circulars Nos. 12 A and B (Rev. 1) – Education Fees

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    Administrative Circulars Nos. 12 A and B (Rev. 1) – "Education Fees" are now available on the intranet site of the Human Resources Department: http://https://hr-docs.web.cern.ch/hr-docs/admincirc/admincirc_fr.asp These circulars cancel and replace Administrative Circular No.12 – "Education Grant" of April 1981. Copies will shortly be available in Departmental secretariats. Administrative Circular No. 12 A is applicable to staff members (except former "local staff"), fellows and paid associates, recruited before 1st January 2007. It may be noted that, at the initiative of the Human Resources Department, a number of important simplifications have been introduced. These cover, in particular, lump sum payments to compensate for accommodation, meals and journey expenses. Administrative Circular No. 12 B is applicable to staff members, fellows, scientific associates recruited as of 1st January 2007, as well as to former "local staff" recruited prior to this date. If you requi...

  8. Administrative Circulars Nos. 12 A and B (Rev. 1) – Education Fees

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    Administrative Circulars Nos. 12 A and B (Rev. 1) – "Education Fees" are now available on the intranet site of the Human Resources Department: http://cern.ch/hr-docs/admincirc/admincirc.asp These Circulars cancel and replace Administrative Circular No.12 – "Education Grant" of April 1981. Copies will shortly be available in Departmental secretariats. Administrative Circular No. 12 A is applicable to staff members (except former "local staff"), fellows and paid associates, recruited before 1st January 2007. It may be noted that, at the initiative of the Human Resources Department, a number of important simplifications have been introduced. These cover in particular lump sum payments to compensate for accommodation, meals and journey expenses. Administrative Circular No. 12 B is applicable to staff members, fellows, scientific associates recruited as of 1st January 2007, as well as to former "local staff" recruited prior to this date. If you require any additional informa...

  9. Regional Transmission Planning: A review of practices following FERC Order Nos. 890 and 1000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eto, Joseph H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Gallo, Guilia [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-11-15

    Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) Order Nos. 890 and 10001 established requirements that transmission planning regions must follow in regional transmission planning and allocating the costs of new transmission facilities. Order No. 890, issued in 2007, outlined general requirements for local as well as regional transmission planning practices and procedures. Order No. 1000, issued in 2011, laid out specific requirements for: (1) regional transmission planning; (2) consideration of transmission needs driven by public policy requirements; (3) non-incumbent transmission development; (4) interregional transmission coordination; and (5) cost allocation for transmission facilities that have been selected in a regional transmission plan for purposes of cost allocation. This report reviews how these FERC orders are being implemented by the 12 transmission planning regions recognized by FERC.

  10. Impactos ambientais urbanos nos municípios do setor norte do litoral gaúcho

    OpenAIRE

    Aline Vicente Kunst

    2014-01-01

    Atualmente percebe-se, cada vez mais, a valorização e a ocupação das áreas costeiras do Rio Grande do Sul. A procura de espaços longe de grandes centros urbanos, no litoral, faz com que áreas de recente ocupação rarefeita tornem-se novos centros urbanos. Este tipo de ocupação não almeja domicílios de ocupação fixa por parte dos proprietários, mas sim uma segunda residência para o período de férias, principalmente nos meses de veraneio. A pesquisa realizada teve como grande objetivo a identifi...

  11. Nina Bouraoui’s Nos baisers sont des adieux: Ekphrasis and the Accumulation of Memories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Rocca

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to explore the function of the image and the purpose of the works of art in Franco-Algerian author Nina Bouraoui’s Nos baisers sont des adieux (2010. Similar to a scrapbook with short descriptions of people, places, and objects, the book itself does not contain any visual representations. In spite of this lack, the image—the latter intended as mental or physical picture that reproduces reality—is a central theme throughout the work. Because visual art is described and interpreted but not shown, I argue that, by means of ékphrasis , the word-image dialogue further enables the narrator to express the multiple aspects of her own subjectivity and the reader to participate in the emotional experience that visual art triggers. I also maintain that Bouraoui's decision to focus on the work of provocative, groundbreaking visual artists is a socio-political statement in and of itself.

  12. A Revolução Cubana nos documentários de Chris Marker

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    Carolina Amaral de Aguiar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nos anos 1960 a Revolução Cubana ocupou o centro do debate entre os intelectuais de esquerda na França. Por outro lado, o governo revolucionário convidou europeus para colaborar com o desenvolvimento de novas instituições, caso do ICAIC. Chris Marker, um dos convidados desse instituto, estabeleceu trocas com realizadores cubanos e montou dois documentários analisados neste artigo: Cuba si (1961 e La bataille des dix millions (1970. O primeiro visava a combater as críticas da imprensa conservadora a Fidel, enquanto o segundo se voltou para a própria esquerda que abandonava Cuba como um modelo.

  13. Grupos sangüíneos humanos nos livros didáticos de biologia

    OpenAIRE

    Pschisky, Alcionete

    2003-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro de Ciências da Educação. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Educação. O trabalho apresenta a análise do tema Grupos Sangüíneos nos livros didáticos de Biologia dos últimos 40 anos. Foram identificados 24 assuntos que mostram como a temática Grupos Sangüíneos, está sendo veiculada ao longo dos anos, com especial atenção às questões de saúde humana. A presença e a profundidade de tais assuntos oscilam nas obras examinadas. O t...

  14. Phytochemicals with NO inhibitory effects and interactions with iNOS protein from Trigonostemon howii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jun; Yang, Xueyuan; Wang, Peixia; Dong, Bangjian; Su, Guochen; Tuerhong, Muhetaer; Jin, Da-Qing; Xu, Jing; Lee, Dongho; Ohizumi, Yasushi; Lin, Jianping; Guo, Yuanqiang

    2017-12-01

    A phytochemical investigation to obtain new NO inhibitors led to the isolation of nine compounds including one new guaiane-type sesquiterpenoid (1) and two new cleistanthane diterpenoids (2 and 3) from the stems of Trigonostemon howii. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data analysis, and the absolute configurations of new compounds 1-3 were established via comparison of experimental and calculated electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra. Compounds 2 and 3 possess a rare 3,4-seco-cleistanthane diterpenoid skeleton. All of the compounds showed inhibitory effects on lipopolysaccharide-induced NO production in murine microglial BV-2 cells. The further molecular docking studies indicated the strong interactions between some bioactive compounds with the iNOS protein, which revealed the possible and potential mechanism of NO inhibition of bioactive compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. SENES SAPIENTES, SENHORES FUNDIÁRIOS, INTENDENTES E TRABALHADORES NOS CAMPOS ROMANOS

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    Matheus Trevizam

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, discutimos o tema dos atuantes na vida rural antiga tal qual descrita no Cato Maior, de Cícero, e no primeiro livro do De re rustica, de Varrão. Personagens como aquelas dos escravos, do senhor, do uillicus, dos trabalhadores livres (em suas terras ou nas terras alheias e do velho “agricultor”, conforme lemos no pequeno diálogo de Cícero, não participam igualmente quando consideramos as duas obras em conjunto. Cícero preferiu idealizar, concentrando suas descrições no idoso sábio nos campos (cujo modelo é Catão, o Velho, enquanto Varrão escolheu a via da documentação histórica, como convém a um texto que se identifica com o grupo dos escritos técnicos em Roma antiga.

  16. O cotidiano nos múltiplos espaços contemporâneos

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    Ana Maria Nicolaci-da-Costa

    Full Text Available Uma das características mais marcantes do período moderno foi a da concepção de um tempo longo, no qual eram possíveis a conquista do espaço e o planejamento do futuro. Já na contemporaneidade, a diacronia moderna dá lugar a um eterno presente. Neste presente, espaços sincrônicos se multiplicam. As novas tecnologias da informação e telecomunicação, principalmente a Internet e a telefonia celular, introduzem alterações nos espaços físicos e geram espaços alternativos a estes. Neste artigo é realizada uma revisão, forçosamente incompleta, da extensa literatura transdisciplinar sobre esses novos espaços contemporâneos e seus efeitos sobre os homens, mulheres e crianças que neles vivem.

  17. Religião e o discurso político neoconservador nos Estados Unidos

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    Leandro Ortunes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A relação entre religião e política por muitas vezes é encarada como antagônicas ou como termos sem relação. O apelo ao racionalismo e secularização do Estado esteve presente no mundo ocidental. No entanto, o que percebemos é que a religião ainda possui grande impacto na política. Descrevemos sobre a relação política e religião presente nos Estados Unidos, desde a era Reagan até a famosa doutrina Bush. Demonstraremos como na história o conservadorismo cristão protestante defendeu a politica externa dos Estados Unidos e apontaremos quais são os desafios propostos por essa linha de pensamento chamada neoconservadorismo.

  18. Orientação sexual nos parâmetros curriculares nacionais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALTMANN HELENA

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A sexualidade é atualmente vista como um problema de saúde pública, sendo a escola local privilegiado de implementação de políticas públicas que promovam a saúde de crianças e adolescentes. Assim, ela foi constituída, de acordo com os Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais (PCNs, em tema transversal, a fim de disseminar-se por todo campo pedagógico e irradiar seus efeitos em domínios os mais heterogêneos, dentre outros, na Educação Física. Esta pesquisa analisou o dispositivo da sexualidade nos PCNs, buscando identificar a concepção de sexualidade ali presente, a singularidade histórica desta proposta e seus possíveis efeitos na escola e, mais especificamente, na Educação Física.

  19. Margem crítica e legitimação nos estudos para a paz

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    José Manuel Pureza

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Os Estudos para a Paz, constituídos historicamente como conhecimento crítico e, portanto, alternativo à ciência normal em Relações Internacionais, vieram, nos anos noventa, a ser cooptados pelas estruturas de regulação do sistema internacional como fundamento de muitas das opções postas em prática sobretudo no quadro dos processos de reconstrução pós-bélica. Neste contexto, o resgate da linhagem crítica dos Estudos para a Paz implica hoje duas opções radicais. A primeira é a da qualificação da paz pretendida como paz sustentável. A segunda é a da descolonização epistemológica dos Estudos para a Paz.

  20. Possibilidades e limites da cura nos textos protoarqueológicos de Michel Foucault

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    Marcos Nalli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo tem por objetivo interpretar como Foucault concebe a possibilidade da cura nos discursos e práticas psicológicas, durante sua fase protoarqueológica. Para atingir tal fim, discorre sobre os dois textos mais importantes dessa fase - Maladie Mentale et Personnalité e a introdução à Le Rêve et l'Existence - evidenciando como nesses textos se desenha uma concepção psicopatológica que deve subsidiar uma prática psicoterápica. Constata-se, no entanto, que reina uma contradição inerente aos dois textos, em que ora se completam, ora conflitam no modo de conceber a doença mental. Terminamos assim por demarcar toda a intensidade dessa contradição, sublinhando a indecisão teórica de Foucault sobre o estatuto da psicologia.

  1. [Association of Schizophrenia and its Clinical Implications with the NOS1AP Gene in the Colombian Population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia, Jenny García; Duarte, Ana Victoria Valencia; Vila, Ana Lucía Páez; Kremeyer, Bárbara; Montoya, María Patricia Arbeláez; Linares, Andrés Ruiz; Acosta, Carlos Alberto Palacio; Duque, Jorge Ospina; Berrío, Gabriel Bedoya

    2012-06-01

    The nitric oxide synthase 1 adaptor protein (NOS1AP) gene is possibly implicated in schizophrenia etiopathogenesis. To determine the association of NOS1AP gene variants with schizophrenia and the relationship of variants with the clinical dimensions of the disorder in the Colombian population. It is a case-control study with 255 subjects per group. Markers within the NOS1AP gene were typified as well as other informative material of genetic origin so as to adjust by population stratification. A factorial analysis of the main components for each item in the Scales for Evaluating Negative Symptoms (SENS) together with the Scales for Evaluating Positive Symptoms (SEPS) to determine clinical dimensions. Association between the C/C genotype of the rs945713 marker with schizophrenia (OR = 1.79, 95% CI: 1.13 - 2.84) was found. The C/C genotype of the rs945713 was related to higher scores in the "affective flattening and alogia" dimension; and the A/A genotype of the rs4657181 marker was associated to lower scores in the same dimension. Significant associations of markers inside the NOS1AP gene with schizophrenia and the "affective flattening and alogia" clinical dimension were found. These results are consistent with previous studies and support the possibility that NOS1AP influences schizophrenia susceptibility. Furthermore, NOS1AP might be a modifier of schizophrenia clinical characteristics. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  2. Erythropoietin enhances mitochondrial biogenesis in cardiomyocytes exposed to chronic hypoxia through Akt/eNOS signalling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Chuan; Zhou, Shengkai; Xiao, Yingbin; Chen, Lin

    2014-03-01

    Adaptation of cardiomyocytes to chronic hypoxia in cyanotic patients remains unclear. Mitochondrial biogenesis is enhanced in myocardium from cyanotic patients, which is possibly an adaptive response. Erythropoietin (EPO) in blood and its receptor (EPOR) on cardiomyocytes are upregulated by chronic hypoxia, suggesting that EPO-EPOR interaction is increased, which is inferred to positively regulate mitochondrial biogenesis through protein kinase B (Akt)/endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) signalling pathway. H9c2 cardiomyocytes were exposed to hypoxia (1% O(2)) for 1 week and treated with different doses of recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO). Mitochondrial number, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma coactivator alpha (PGC-1α) mRNA expression increased in a dose-dependent manner induced by rhEPO. Akt and eNOS were significantly phosphorylated by rhEPO. Both blocking Akt with Wortmannin and silencing eNOS expression with shRNA plasmid decreased the mtDNA copy number and PGC-1α mRNA expression induced by rhEPO. Blocking Akt was associated with the decreased phosphorylation of Akt and eNOS. RNA interference led to a reduction in the total and phosphorylated proteins of eNOS. Thus EPO enhances mitochondrial biogenesis in cardiomyocytes exposed to chronic hypoxia, at least partly through Akt/eNOS signalling, which might be an adaptive mechanism of cardiomyocytes associated with the increased EPO-EPOR interaction in patients with cyanotic congenital heart disease (CCHD). © 2013 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  3. Sildenafil promotes eNOS activation and inhibits NADPH oxidase in the transgenic sickle cell mouse penis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musicki, Biljana; Bivalacqua, Trinity J; Champion, Hunter C; Burnett, Arthur L

    2014-02-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD)-associated vasculopathy in the penis is characterized by aberrant nitric oxide and phosphodiesterase (PDE) 5 signaling, and by increased oxidative stress. Preliminary clinical trials show that continuous treatment with PDE5 inhibitor sildenafil unassociated with sexual activity decreases priapic activity in patients with SCD. However, the mechanism of its vasculoprotective effect in the penis remains unclear. We evaluated whether continuous administration of PDE5 inhibitor sildenafil promotes eNOS function at posttranslational levels and decreases superoxide-producing enzyme NADPH oxidase activity in the sickle cell mouse penis. SCD transgenic mice were used as an animal model of SCD. WT mice served as controls. Mice received treatment with the PDE5 inhibitor sildenafil (100 mg/kg/day) or vehicle for 3 weeks. eNOS phosphorylation on Ser-1177 (positive regulatory site), eNOS interactions with heat-shock protein 90 (HSP90) (positive regulator), phosphorylated AKT (upstream mediator of eNOS phosphorylation on Ser-1177), an NADPH oxidase catalytic subunit gp91(phox), and a marker of oxidative stress (4-hydroxy-2-nonenal [HNE]) were measured by Western blot. Effect of continuous sildenafil treatment on eNOS posttranslational activation, NADPH oxidase catalytic subunit, and oxidative stress in the penis of the sickle cell mouse. Continuous treatment with sildenafil reversed (P penis. Sildenafil treatment of WT mice did not affect any of these parameters. Our findings that sildenafil enhances eNOS activation and inhibits NADPH oxidase function in the sickle cell mouse penis offers a vasculoprotective molecular basis for the therapeutic effect of sildenafil in the penis in association with SCD. © 2013 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  4. Direct evidence of iNOS-mediated in vivo free radical production and protein oxidation in acetone-induced ketosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadler, Krisztian; Bonini, Marcelo G.; Dallas, Shannon; Duma, Danielle; Mason, Ronald P.; Kadiiska, Maria B.

    2008-01-01

    Diabetic patients frequently encounter ketosis that is characterized by the breakdown of lipids with the consequent accumulation of ketone bodies. Several studies have demonstrated that reactive species are likely to induce tissue damage in diabetes, but the role of the ketone bodies in the process has not been fully investigated. In this study, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy combined with novel spin-trapping and immunological techniques has been used to investigate in vivo free radical formation in a murine model of acetone-induced ketosis. A six-line EPR spectrum consistent with the α-(4-pyridyl-1-oxide)-N-t-butylnitrone radical adduct of a carbon-centered lipid-derived radical was detected in the liver extracts. To investigate the possible enzymatic source of these radicals, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and NADPH oxidase knockout mice were used. Free radical production was unchanged in the NADPH oxidase knockout but much decreased in the iNOS knockout mice, suggesting a role for iNOS in free radical production. Longer-term exposure to acetone revealed iNOS overexpression in the liver together with protein radical formation, which was detected by confocal microscopy and a novel immunospin-trapping method. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed enhanced lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation as a consequence of persistent free radical generation after 21 days of acetone treatment in control and NADPH oxidase knockout but not in iNOS knockout mice. Taken together, our data demonstrate that acetone administration, a model of ketosis, can lead to protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation through a free radical-dependent mechanism driven mainly by iNOS overexpression. PMID:18559982

  5. Uncoupling of eNOS contributes to redox-sensitive leukocyte recruitment and microvascular leakage elicited by methylglyoxal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yang; Qadri, Syed M; Hossain, Mokarram; Wu, Lingyun; Liu, Lixin

    2013-12-15

    Elevated levels of the glycolysis metabolite methylglyoxal (MG) have been implicated in impaired leukocyte-endothelial interactions and vascular complications in diabetes, putative mechanisms of which remain elusive. Uncoupling of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) was shown to be involved in endothelial dysfunction in diabetes. Whether MG contributes to these effects has not been elucidated. By using intravital microscopy in vivo, we demonstrate that MG-triggered reduction in leukocyte rolling velocity and increases in rolling flux, adhesion, emigration and microvascular permeability were significantly abated by scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS). In murine cremaster muscle, MG treatment reduced tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4)/total biopterin ratio, increased arginase expression and stimulated ROS and superoxide production. The latter was significantly blunted by ROS scavengers Tempol (300μM) or MnTBAP (300μM), by BH4 supplementation (100μM) or by NOS inhibitor N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 20μM). In these tissues and cultured murine and human primary endothelial cells, MG increased eNOS monomerization and decreased BH4/total biopterin ratio, effects that were significantly mitigated by supplementation of BH4 or its precursor sepiapterin but not by L-NAME or tetrahydroneopterin, indicative of MG-triggered eNOS uncoupling. MG treatment further decreased the expression of guanosine triphosphate cyclohydrolase I in murine primary endothelial cells. MG-induced leukocyte recruitment was significantly attenuated by supplementation of BH4 or sepiapterin or suppression of superoxide by L-NAME confirming the role of eNOS uncoupling in MG-elicited leukocyte recruitment. Together, our study uncovers eNOS uncoupling as a pivotal mechanism in MG-induced oxidative stress, microvascular hyperpermeability and leukocyte recruitment in vivo. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Targeting the tumour vasculature: exploitation of low oxygenation and sensitivity to NOS inhibition by treatment with a hypoxic cytotoxin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer H E Baker

    Full Text Available Many cancer research efforts focus on exploiting genetic-level features that may be targeted for therapy. Tissue-level features of the tumour microenvironment also represent useful therapeutic targets. Here we investigate the presence of low oxygen tension and sensitivity to NOS inhibition of tumour vasculature as potential tumour-specific features that may be targeted by hypoxic cytotoxins, a class of therapeutics currently under investigation. We have previously demonstrated that tirapazamine (TPZ mediates central vascular dysfunction in tumours. TPZ is a hypoxic cytotoxin that is also a competitive inhibitor of NOS. Here we further investigated the vascular-targeting activity of TPZ by combining it with NOS inhibitor L-NNA, or with low oxygen content gas breathing. Tumours were analyzed via multiplex immunohistochemical staining that revealed irreversible loss of perfusion and enhanced tumour cell death when TPZ was combined with either low oxygen or a NOS inhibitor. Tumour growth rate was reduced by TPZ + NOS inhibition, and tumours previously resistant to TPZ-mediated vascular dysfunction were sensitized by low oxygen breathing. Additional mapping analysis suggests that tumours with reduced vascular-associated stroma may have greater sensitivity to these effects. These results indicate that poorly oxygenated tumour vessels, also being abnormally organized and with inadequate smooth muscle, may be successfully targeted for significant anti-cancer effects by inhibition of NOS and hypoxia-activated prodrug toxicity. This strategy illustrates a novel use of hypoxia-activated cytotoxic prodrugs as vascular targeting agents, and also represents a novel mechanism for targeting tumour vessels.

  7. Effect of exercise training on eNOS expression, NO production and oxygen metabolism in human placenta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robinson Ramírez-Vélez

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of combined aerobic and resistance exercise training during the second half of pregnancy on endothelial NOS expression (eNOS, nitric oxide (NO production and oxygen metabolism in human placenta. METHODS: The study included 20 nulliparous in gestational week 16-20, attending prenatal care at three tertiary hospitals in Colombia who were randomly assigned into one of two groups: The exercise group (n = 10 took part in an exercise session three times a week for 12 weeks which consisted of: aerobic exercise at an intensity of 55-75% of their maximum heart rate for 60 min and 25 mins. Resistance exercise included 5 exercise groups circuit training (50 repetitions of each using barbells (1-3 kg/exercise and low-to-medium resistance bands. The control group (n = 10 undertook their usual physical activity. Mitochondrial and cytosol fractions were isolated from human placental tissue by differential centrifugation. A spectrophotometric assay was used to measure NO production in cytosolic samples from placental tissue and Western Blot technique to determine eNOS expression. Mitochondrial superoxide levels and hydrogen peroxide were measured to determine oxygen metabolism. RESULTS: Combined aerobic and resistance exercise training during pregnancy leads to a 2-fold increase in eNOS expression and 4-fold increase in NO production in placental cytosol (p = 0.05. Mitochondrial superoxide levels and hydrogen peroxide production rate were decreased by 8% and 37% respectively in the placental mitochondria of exercising women (p = 0.05. CONCLUSION: Regular exercise training during the second half of pregnancy increases eNOS expression and NO production and decreases reactive oxygen species generation in human placenta. Collectively, these data demonstrate that chronic exercise increases eNOS/NO production, presumably by increasing endothelial shear stress. This adaptation may contribute to the beneficial effects of exercise on

  8. Artista docente: incursões e mutações nos modos de existência

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    Rosa C. Primo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available O texto que se segue tem como propósito discutir os processos nos quais o artista docente está enredado desde uma perspectiva centrada na arte e seus embates no plano institucional das universidades. Para tanto, nos aproximamos da educação tendo como foco os modos através dos quais ela se agencia à questão da subjetividade: constituição de identidades, maneiras de agir, sentir e pensar, normalizadas, sujeitadas, regulamentadas, cujo pensamento dar-se pelo viés da recognição e representação; e, por outra via, na qual a educação se encontra implicada na invenção de maneiras singulares de relação a si e com a alteridade – um pensar que traz consigo as composições de forças que engendram a corporeidade dançante. ABSTRACT The following text aims to discuss the processes in which the teaching artist is embroiled from a perspective centered on art and its clashes at the institutional level of universities. To do so, we approach education with a focus on the ways in which it touts the question of subjectivity: formation of identities, ways of acting, feeling and thinking, normalized, subjected, regulated, whose thought is given by the bias of recognition and representation; and, otherwise, in which education is implicated in the invention of singular ways of relation to oneself and to alterity - a way of thinking that brings the compositions of forces that engender the dance corporeality. KEYWORDS Teacher-artist, dance corporeality, subjectivity.

  9. COMPARAÇÃO DE DE SUÍNOS CONVENCIONAIS E SPF (Specific pathogen Free

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    Luiz Fernando de Oliveira e Silva Carvalho

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO O experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de qualificar e quantificar possíveis diferenças entre a produtividade de suínos convencionais e suínos SPF (Specific Pathogen Free. Foram mensurados e comparados, para tanto, a idade aos 100 quilos (IA, o ganho de peso diário (GPD, a conversão alimentar (CA e a espessura de toucinho (ET de um grupo com 42 machos, provenientes de granjas convencionais (grupo SC e outro com 113 machos, oriundos de granja SPF (grupo SPF. A média de peso corporal dos animais de ambos os grupos era de aproximadamente 30 quilos, ao início do experimento. A comparação entre as médias obtidas, para cada um dos parâmetros estudados, revelou produtividade estatisticamente significativa e superior em favor do grupo SPF. Assim, as IAs, os G PDs, as CAs e as ETs, obtidas para os grupos SPF e SC foram de, respectivamente, 150,49 e 156,4 dias, 897,78 e 955,19 gramas, 2,17:1 e 2,39:1 e 16,13 e 13,95mm. No grupo SPF, conforme evidenciado, observou-se um maior acúmulo de tecido adiposo, fato que sugere um menor dispêndio de energia para o combate a enfermidades crônicas, neste grupo de animais. Com base em projeção econômica dos resultados obtidos, os autores sugerem que a criação de animais SPF, embora possa exigir algum trabalho para sua implantação, é extremamente vantajosa, representando alternativa viável para a suinocultura brasileira.

  10. A TV COMUNITÁRIA NOS LIMITES DA FRAGILIZAÇÃO DA SOCIEDADE CIVIL

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    Sérgio Luiz Gadini

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A emergência de TVs comunitárias no Brasil, a partir de meados dos anos 1990, vem ao encontro de uma histórica demanda pela democratização da informação. Com base na legislação da TV a cabo brasileira (Lei 8.977/95, aprovada com o apoio do Fórum Nacional pela Democratização da Comunicação, movimentos, entidades sociais sem fins lucrativos, sindicatos, associações comunitárias e ONGs passaram a instituir associações de usuários dos canais comunitários de TV que surgiram em dezenas de cidades do Brasil. Num país marcado por grandes dificuldades de organização da sociedade civil, tal iniciativa representou, por muitos anos, uma alternativa que parecia indicar um outro horizonte de mobilização social por questões de interesse público (como é o caso das concessões e acesso à mídia. Mas, a eleição de um governo federal teoricamente identificado com demandas e problemas sociais forjados ao longo de séculos de exclusão (como ocorreu com a escolha do presidente Lula, eleito pelo PT acabou por indicar alguns limites nos projetos sociais envolvendo a luta pela democratização da comunicação. Tão logo o governo petista expressou sua política comunicacional, a fragilização da sociedade civil passou a expressar alguns dos limites e desafios para se pensar na execução de projetos de comunicação popular, o que também apresentou reflexos nos canais de TVs comunitárias de diversas regiões do País.

  11. Influencia do tabagismo isolado e associado a aspectos multifatoriais nos parametros acusticos vocais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Gomes Lustosa Pinto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: O fumo pode interferir negativamente na qualidade vocal e outros fatores associados, como o uso profissional da voz, hábitos, etilismo e refluxo gástrico-esofágico, podem potencializar essa interferência. O objetivo do estudo foi analisar a associação do tabagismo e dos demais fatores aos parâmetros acústicos vocais. Forma de estudo: Estudo de coorte contemporâneo com corte transversal. Materiais e métodos: Participaram do estudo 80 adultos, entre 35 e 60 anos, classificados nos grupos fumante (GF e controle (GC. Foi realizada aplicação de questionário e gravação das vozes. A avaliação acústica foi realizada com o software Praat. Foram utilizados os testes Mann-Whitney, qui-quadrado e regressão linear simples. Resultados: O GF apresentou maior prevalência de etilismo, tosse, hábito de pigarrear e uso profissional da voz, assim como apresentou valores aumentados para relação ruído-harmônico (NHR, jitter e shimmer. Foi estabelecida correlação entre o gênero feminino e todos os parâmetros acústicos, assim como entre o RGE, o aumento do jitter e o hábito de fumar, o agravamento da frequência fundamental, o aumento do jitter, o shimmer e a NHR. Conclusão: O fumo interfere nos parâmetros acústicos de modo isolado e/ou associado ao etilismo, tosse, hábito de pigarrear, RGE e uso profissional da voz.

  12. Gestão Social nos marcos neoliberais: única alternativa à democracia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Gonçalves Dal Bello

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho aqui apresentado tem como foco a gestão social nos marcos do neoliberalismo nos anos 1970, momento em que é colocada como estratégia para exaltar o mercado como instância de regulação econômica e política da vida social, em detrimento do cercear da participação da sociedade civil como instância participativa, tendo em vista a construção de uma gestão pública democrática. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho é tecer uma discussão sobre as distorções teóricas e práticas em torno do termo sociedade civil, a fim de elucidar o sentido de participação, como lócus de proposições e disputas que permeiam a construção democrática. Isso se contrapõe a ideia de sociedade civil como sinônimo de solidariedade, voluntariado ou terceiro setor. A metodologia do trabalho associou-se à revisão bibliográfica, cujos referenciais contribuíram para uma apresentação crítica sobre a gestão social. Os resultados aqui apresentados apontam para a necessidade de uma maior consolidação dos espaços públicos e da sociedade civil como atores de fundamental importância para a construção de uma gestão pública democrática.

  13. Spatiotemporal alterations of cortical network activity by selective loss of NOS-expressing interneurons .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan eShlosberg

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Deciphering the role of GABAergic neurons in large neuronal networks such as the neocortex forms a particularly complex task as they comprise a highly diverse population. The neuronal isoform of the enzyme nitric oxide synthase (nNOS is expressed in the neocortex by specific subsets of GABAergic neurons. These neurons can be identified in live brain slices by the nitric oxide (NO fluorescent indicator DAF-2DA. However, this indicator was found to be highly toxic to the stained neurons. We used this feature to induce acute phototoxic damage to NO-producing neurons in cortical slices, and measured subsequent alterations in parameters of cellular and network activity.Neocortical slices were briefly incubated in DAF-2DA and then illuminated through the 4X objective. Histochemistry for NADPH diaphorase, a marker for nNOS activity, revealed elimination of staining in the illuminated areas following treatment. Whole cell recordings from several neuronal types before, during and after illumination confirmed the selective damage to non fast-spiking interneurons. Treated slices displayed mild disinhibition. The reversal potential of compound synaptic events on pyramidal neurons became more positive, and their decay time constant was elongated, substantiating the removal of an inhibitory conductance. The horizontal decay of local field potentials (LFPs was significantly reduced at distances of 300-400 m from the stimulation, but not when inhibition was non-selectively weakened with the GABAA blocker picrotoxin. Finally, whereas the depression of LFPs along short trains of 40 Hz stimuli was linearly reduced with distance or initial amplitude in control slices, this ordered relationship was disrupted in DAF-treated slices. These results reveal that NO-producing interneurons in the neocortex convey lateral inhibition to neighboring columns, and shape the spatiotemporal dynamics of the network's activity.

  14. Increased ICP promotes CaMKII-mediated phosphorylation of neuronal NOS at Ser⁸⁴⁷ in the hippocampus immediately after subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makino, Kazushige; Osuka, Koji; Watanabe, Yasuo; Usuda, Nobuteru; Hara, Masahito; Aoyama, Masahiro; Takayasu, Masakazu; Wakabayashi, Toshihiko

    2015-08-07

    Early brain injury has recently been identified as an indicator of poor prognosis after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IIα (CaMKIIα) has been shown to phosphorylate neuronal NOS (nNOS) at Ser(847), resulting in a reduction in nNOS activity. In this study, we revealed chronological changes in the phosphorylation of nNOS at Ser(847) in the hippocampus and cortex immediately after SAH. In a rat single-hemorrhage model of SAH, the hippocampus and adjacent cortex were collected up to 24h after SAH. Samples from rats that were not injected with blood were used as controls. NOS was partially purified from the crude samples using ADP-agarose affinity chromatography. Western blot analysis revealed that nNOS phosphorylated (p-nNOS) at Ser(847) was significantly increased in the hippocampus, but not in the cortex, at 1h after SAH compared with that resulting from the control treatment. Immunoreactivity of p-nNOS at Ser(847) was observed in interneurons of the hippocampus at 1h after SAH. Injection of saline instead of blood also significantly induced p-nNOS at Ser(847) levels in the hippocampus at 1h after injection. The colocalization of CaMKIIα and nNOS was transiently increased in the hippocampus at 0.5h after SAH. Our data suggest that immediately after SAH, an increase in intracranial pressure might induce transient cerebral ischemia, potentially promoting the phosphorylation of nNOS at Ser(847) by CaMKIIα in the hippocampus. The activation of p-nNOS at Ser(847) in the hippocampus may alleviate ischemic insults immediately after SAH to exert a neuroprotective effect against early brain injury. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Contribution of Nitric Oxide Synthase (NOS) Activity in Blood-Brain Barrier Disruption and Edema after Acute Ischemia/ Reperfusion in Aortic Coarctation-Induced Hypertensive Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadi, Mohammad Taghi; Shid Moosavi, Seyed Mostafa; Dehghani, Gholam Abbas

    2011-01-01

    Background: Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity is increased during hypertension and cerebral ischemia. NOS inactivation reduces stroke-induced cerebral injuries, but little is known about its role in blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption and cerebral edema formation during stroke in acute hypertension. Here, we investigated the role of NOS inhibition in progression of edema formation and BBB disruptions provoked by ischemia/reperfusion injuries in acute hypertensive rats. Methods: Rats were ...

  16. TENSÃO ENTRE INDIVÍDUO E ESTADO NOS PRINCÍPIOS DO DIREITO DA GUERRA DE ROUSSEAU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano de Almeida Correia

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Nosso intuito nesse artigo é apresentar algumas facetas do pensamento do filósofo Jean-Jacques Rousseau, no que concerne às conflituosas relações que se estabelecem entre os indivíduos e os Estados. Pensamos que tais reflexões podem nos auxiliar a pensar nosso belicoso mundo contemporâneo. Para tanto, nos serviremos principalmente dos textos Do contrato social e Princípios do direito da guerra, de Rousseau.

  17. O sexo e a Cidade e as marcas: análise dos efeitos do product placement nos jovens portugueses

    OpenAIRE

    Lameira, Sofia Lourenço

    2016-01-01

    Dissertação de Mestrado em Comunicação Social Esta dissertação tem como objeto de estudo a série de televisão O Sexo e a Cidade, transmitida repetidamente entre 2013 e 2015 no canal temático Fox Life, e pretende analisar o fenómeno product placement e o seu impacto nos espetadores. Deste modo, pretende analisar os efeitos do product placement nos hábitos de compra e comportamentos de consumo dos jovens adultos portugueses, estudando uma amostra de estudantes universitários na cidade de Lis...

  18. Os conhecimentos docentes e a abordagem do relevo e suas dinâmicas nos anos finais do Ensino Fundamental

    OpenAIRE

    Valeria de Oliveira Roque Ascencao

    2009-01-01

    Este trabalho teve como objeto de investigação a identificação dos conhecimentos mobilizados pelos docentes geógrafos quando do trabalho com o conteúdo relevo e suas dinâmicas, nos anos finais do Ensino Fundamental. Trabalhos cujo tema central sejam os conhecimentos do professor enquadram-se no campo de estudos referentes à Formação Docente.Nos últimos vinte anos pôde-se observar a implementação de um conjunto de reformas voltadas para reorganização do sistema educacional brasileiro. Tais med...

  19. Et si nos déchets devenaient la source de nouveaux produits. Notion d'économie circulaire

    OpenAIRE

    Richel, Aurore; Jacquet, Nicolas; Berchem, Thomas; Istasse, Thibaut; Schmetz, Quentin

    2015-01-01

    Description et illustration de nos activités visant à utiliser les déchets agricoles et forestiers, les déchets végétaux et industriels et nos déchets ménagers pour produire une gamme de nouveaux produits, biocarburants ou molécules chimiques. Cette présentation se consacre aux nouveaux produits et polymères générés au départ de ces déchets dans une approche d'économie circulaire et de priorité des usages.

  20. Gastric cancer is associated with NOS2 -954G/C polymorphism and environmental factors in a Brazilian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Ana E

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gastric cancer can progress from a chronic inflammation of the gastric mucosa resulting from Helicobacter pylori infection that activates the inflammatory response of the host. Therefore, polymorphisms in genes involved in the inflammatory response, such as inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2, have been implicated in gastric carcinogenesis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of NOS2 polymorphisms Ser608Leu (rs2297518 in exon 16, -954G/C and -1173C/T, both in the promoter region, with gastric cancer and chronic gastritis and the association of cancer with risk factors such as smoking, alcohol intake and H. pylori infection. Methods We conducted a population-based case-control study in 474 Southeast Brazilian individuals (150 with gastric cancer, 160 with chronic gastritis, and 164 healthy individuals, in which we performed NOS2 genotyping by PCR-RFLP. Results SNP Ser608Leu was not associated with risk of chronic gastritis or gastric cancer. The polymorphic allele -1173T was not found in the studied population. However, the frequency of -954GC+CC genotypes was significantly higher (p NOS2 SNP -954G/C was associated with higher risk of gastric cancer (OR = 1.87; 95% CI = 1.12-3.13. We also observed an association with risk factors such as smoking and alcohol intake in both the gastric cancer (OR = 2.68; 95% CI = 1.58-4.53; OR = 3.60; 95% CI = 2.05-6.32, respectively and the chronic gastritis (OR = 1.93; 95% CI = 1.19-3.13; OR = 2.79; 95% CI = 1.55-5.02, respectively groups. This is the first report of increased risk of gastric cancer in association with the -954G/C polymorphism. These findings show that several polymorphisms in the promoter region of the NOS2 gene may contribute to the susceptibility to gastric cancer. Conclusions Polymorphism NOS2 -954 G/C, along with alcohol intake and tobacco smoking, is associated with gastric cancer. However, the NOS2 Ser608Leu polymorphism was not associated with

  1. Ética nos negócios e ética pessoal: uma questão de integridade

    OpenAIRE

    Ventura, Adriana Miguel

    2010-01-01

    Este trabalho aborda os conceitos de Ética nos Negócios e Ética Pessoal, usando como base a Ética das Virtudes de Robert Solomon, oriunda da abordagem Aristotélica. Discorre sobre conceitos como Valores, Atitudes e Comportamentos, bem como Dissonância Cognitiva e Tomada de Decisão. A coerência da Ética nos Negócios e da Ética Pessoal leva à integridade, a maior das virtudes. Com base no referencial teórico, foi realizada uma pesquisa que tinha por objetivo verificar a coerência entre os compo...

  2. Pitiose em ovinos nos estados de Pernambuco e Bahia Pythiosis in sheep from Pernambuco and Bahia States, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Carrera,Manuel V.; Peixoto,Rodolfo de M.; Gisele V. Gouveia; Pessoa,Clarice R.M; Jesus,Francielli P.K. de; Janio M. Santurio; Sônia A. Botton; Costa, Mateus M.

    2013-01-01

    A pitiose é uma doença infecciosa causada pelo oomiceto aquático P. insidiosum que acomete animais e o homem, especialmente habitantes de áreas úmidas. A enfermidade apresenta como característica principal a formação de lesões com aspecto granulomatoso nos hospedeiros. Neste trabalho, relatou-se a ocorrência da pitiose em ovinos nos estados de Pernambuco (PE) e Bahia (BA), Nordeste do Brasil, bem como foi avaliada a eficácia de um imunoterápico frente a esta enfermidade. Amostras de sangue de...

  3. Música, juventude, comportamento: nos embalos do Rock n Roll e da Jovem Guarda (Uberlândia , 1955-1968)

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Elmiro Lopes da

    2007-01-01

    A temática de discussão neste trabalho é a relação entre música e juventude, iniciada com o surgimento do Rock n Roll nos Estados Unidos, na década de 1950, e que se expandiu mundo afora, recebendo no Brasil a denominação de Jovem Guarda, nos anos 60. O primeiro capítulo enfoca as origens do Rock n Roll, com o intuito de trazer à tona os elementos que o definia como nova linguagem musical e comportamental de identificação jovem, chegando até o surgimento da Jovem Guarda, com...

  4. Brazilian directions for the structuration of the hydrogen economy; O roteiro brasileiro para a estruturacao da economia do hidrogenio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gosmann, Hugo Leonardo [Ministerio da Ciencia e Tecnologia, Brasilia, DF (Brazil). Secretaria de Petroleo, Gas Natural e Combustiveis Renovaveis]. E-mail: hugo.gosmann@mme.gov.br

    2006-07-01

    This paper briefly presents the major steps of the brazilian directions for the structuration of the hydrogen economy, as follows: policies and directives of the /energy matrix; rule of the Ministry for the Mines and Energy in the structuration of the hydrogen economy; development of the hydrogen economy in Brazil; international associations and participations in projects.

  5. Production of hydrogen for fuel cells from ethanol; Producao de hidrogenio para celulas a combustivel a partir do etanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noronha, Fabio Bellot; Mattos, Lisiane Veiga [Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia (INT), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    In this work, the effect of the nature of the support and of the metal on the partial oxidation of ethanol was studied. The results showed that the support and the metal plays an important role on the products distribution of the partial oxidation reaction. On Pt/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst, acetic acid was the main product whereas a high methane formation and low acetaldehyde production were detected on Pt supported on CeO{sub 2}, ZrO{sub 2} and CeZrO{sub 2} catalysts. Acetaldehyde was the only product observed on Co/CeO{sub 2} catalyst. Infrared spectroscopy analysis allowed to establish a reaction mechanism for the ethanol partial oxidation. According to this mechanism, ethanol is first dehydrogenated to acetaldehyde. A fraction of the dehydrogenated species can be decomposed on metallic sites, forming CH{sub 4}, H{sub 2} and CO, and another fraction reacts to form acetate species. These acetate species can be decomposed to CH{sub 4}, CO and CO{sub 2}. On Co/CeO{sub 2} and Pt/CeO{sub 2} catalysts, the higher amount of ethoxy species favored the acetaldehyde desorption whereas the low formation of methane on Pd/CeO{sub 2} is due to the higher quantity of acetate species. (author)

  6. Vasoinhibins Prevent Bradykinin-Stimulated Endothelial Cell Proliferation by Inactivating eNOS via Reduction of both Intracellular Ca2+ Levels and eNOS Phosphorylation at Ser1179

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thebault, Stéphanie; González, Carmen; García, Celina; Zamarripa, David Arredondo; Nava, Gabriel; Vaca, Luis; López-Casillas, Fernando; de la Escalera, Gonzalo Martínez; Clapp, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    Vasoinhibins, a family of antiangiogenic peptides derived from prolactin proteolysis, inhibit the vascular effects of several proangiogenic factors, including bradykinin (BK). Here, we report that vasoinhibins block the BK-induced proliferation of bovine umbilical vein endothelial cells. This effect is mediated by the inactivation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), as the NO donor DETA-NONOate reverted vasoinhibin action. It is an experimentally proven fact that the elevation of intracellular Ca2+ levels ([Ca2+]i) upon BK stimulation activates eNOS, and vasoinhibins blocked the BK-mediated activation of phospholipase C and the formation of inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate leading to a reduced release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores. The [Ca2+]i rise evoked by BK also involves the influx of extracellular Ca2+ via canonical transient receptor potential (TRPC) channels. Vasoinhibins likely interfere with TRPC-mediated Ca2+ entry since La3+, which is an enhancer of TRPC4 and TRPC5 channel activity, prevented vasoinhibins from blocking the stimulation by BK of endothelial cell NO production and proliferation, and vasoinhibins reduced the BK-induced increase of TRPC5 mRNA expression. Finally, vasoinhibins prevented the BK-induced phosphorylation of eNOS at Ser1179, a post-translational modification that facilitates Ca2+-calmodulin activation of eNOS. Together, our data show that vasoinhibins, by lowering NO production through the inhibition of both [Ca2+]i mobilization and eNOS phosphorylation, prevent the BK-induced stimulation of endothelial cell proliferation. Thus, vasoinhibins help to regulate BK effects on angiogenesis and vascular homeostasis.

  7. Vasoinhibins Prevent Bradykinin-Stimulated Endothelial Cell Proliferation by Inactivating eNOS via Reduction of both Intracellular Ca2+ Levels and eNOS Phosphorylation at Ser1179

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Clapp

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Vasoinhibins, a family of antiangiogenic peptides derived from prolactin proteolysis, inhibit the vascular effects of several proangiogenic factors, including bradykinin (BK. Here, we report that vasoinhibins block the BK-induced proliferation of bovine umbilical vein endothelial cells. This effect is mediated by the inactivation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS, as the NO donor DETA-NONOate reverted vasoinhibin action. It is an experimentally proven fact that the elevation of intracellular Ca2+ levels ([Ca2+]i upon BK stimulation activates eNOS, and vasoinhibins blocked the BK-mediated activation of phospholipase C and the formation of inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate leading to a reduced release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores. The [Ca2+]i rise evoked by BK also involves the influx of extracellular Ca2+ via canonical transient receptor potential (TRPC channels. Vasoinhibins likely interfere with TRPC-mediated Ca2+ entry since La3+, which is an enhancer of TRPC4 and TRPC5 channel activity, prevented vasoinhibins from blocking the stimulation by BK of endothelial cell NO production and proliferation, and vasoinhibins reduced the BK-induced increase of TRPC5 mRNA expression. Finally, vasoinhibins prevented the BK-induced phosphorylation of eNOS at Ser1179, a post-translational modification that facilitates Ca2+-calmodulin activation of eNOS. Together, our data show that vasoinhibins, by lowering NO production through the inhibition of both [Ca2+]i mobilization and eNOS phosphorylation, prevent the BK-induced stimulation of endothelial cell proliferation. Thus, vasoinhibins help to regulate BK effects on angiogenesis and vascular homeostasis.

  8. The Impact of the Social Norms of Education on Beginning Science Teachers' Understanding of NOS During their First Three Years in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firestone, Jonah B.

    An understanding of the Nature of Science (NOS) remains a fundamental goal of science education in the Unites States. A developed understanding of NOS provides a framework in which to situate science knowledge. Secondary science teachers play a critical role in providing students with an introduction to understanding NOS. Unfortunately, due to the high turnover rates of secondary science teachers in the United States, this critical role is often filled by relatively novice teachers. These beginning secondary science teachers make instructional decisions regarding science that are drawn from their emerging knowledge base, including a tentative understanding of NOS. This tentative knowledge can be affected by environment and culture of the classroom, school, and district in which beginning teachers find themselves. When examining NOS among preservice and beginning teachers the background and demographics of the teachers are often ignored. These teachers are treated as a homogenous block in terms of their initial understanding of NOS. This oversight potentially ignores interactions that may happen over time as teachers cross the border from college students, preservice teachers, and scientists into the classroom environment. Through Symbolic Interactionism we can explain how teachers change in order to adapt to their new surroundings and how this adaptation may be detrimental to their understanding of NOS and ultimately to their practice. 63 teachers drawn from a larger National Science Foundation (NSF) funded study were interviewed about their understanding of NOS over three years. Several demographic factors including college major, preservice program, number of History and Philosophy of Science classes, and highest academic degree achieve were shown to have an affect on the understanding of NOS over time. In addition, over time, the teachers tended to 'converge' in their understanding of NOS regardless of preservice experiences or induction support. Both the affect

  9. Polymorphisms in NOS3, MTHFR, APOB and TNF-α Genes and Risk of Coronary Atherosclerotic Lesions in Iranian Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari, Mohammad Mehdi; Khatami, Mehri; Hadadzadeh, Mehdi; Kazemi, Mahbobeh; Mahamed, Sahar; Malekzadeh, Pegah; Mirjalili, Massomeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Atherosclerosis is a complex multifocal arterial disease involving interactions between multiple genetic and environmental factors. Objectives: In the present study, we investigated the possible association between NOS3 (rs1799983), MTHFR (rs1801133), APOB (rs5742904) and TNF-α (rs361525) polymorphisms and the risk of coronary atherosclerotic lesions in Iranian patients. Patients and Methods: In the case-control study, 108 patients with coronary atherosclerosis disease and 95 control subjects with no family history of cardiovascular disease were enrolled. Genotypes for NOS3, MTHFR, APOB and TNF-α polymorphisms were identified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). Results: We specifically detected the NOS3 TT genotype in 12 patients (11.11%) and did not find the same genotype in any of the controls. The frequencies of T allele in patients and the controls were 24% and 17.8%, respectively. The prevalence of the MTHFR TT genotype was 16.7% in patients and 2.2% in control groups. The prevalence of the APOB-100 (R3500Q) mutation in this patient population was 0%. The frequency of the A allele in the TNF-α gene was 11.1% and 11% in patients and controls, respectively, and the AA genotype was undetected. Conclusions: Our results show a significant association of NOS3 and MTHFR gene polymorphisms with coronary atherosclerotic lesions. Therefore, these variants might influence the risk of coronary artery disease, specifically in the Iranian population. PMID:26878010

  10. Flavone inhibits nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity, nitric oxide production and protein S-nitrosylation in breast cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Wenzhen; Yang, Bingwu; Fu, Huiling; Ma, Long; Liu, Tingting; Chai, Rongfei; Zheng, Zhaodi [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Animal Resistant Biology, School of Life Sciences, Shandong Normal University, Jinan 250014 (China); Zhang, Qunye, E-mail: wz.zhangqy@sdu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Remodeling and Function Research Chinese Ministry of Education and Ministry of Public Health, Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong (China); Li, Guorong, E-mail: grli@sdnu.edu.cn [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Animal Resistant Biology, School of Life Sciences, Shandong Normal University, Jinan 250014 (China)

    2015-03-13

    As the core structure of flavonoids, flavone has been proved to possess anticancer effects. Flavone's growth inhibitory functions are related to NO. NO is synthesized by nitric oxide synthase (NOS), and generally increased in a variety of cancer cells. NO regulates multiple cellular responses by S-nitrosylation. In this study, we explored flavone-induced regulations on nitric oxide (NO)-related cellular processes in breast cancer cells. Our results showed that, flavone suppresses breast cancer cell proliferation and induces apoptosis. Flavone restrains NO synthesis by does-dependent inhibiting NOS enzymatic activity. The decrease of NO generation was detected by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. Flavone-induced inhibitory effect on NOS activity is dependent on intact cell structure. For the NO-induced protein modification, flavone treatment significantly down-regulated protein S-nitrosylation, which was detected by “Biotin-switch” method. The present study provides a novel, NO-related mechanism for the anticancer function of flavone. - Highlights: • Flavone inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in MCF-7 cells. • Flavone decreases nitric oxide production by inhibiting NOS enzymatic activity in breast cancer cells. • Flavone down-regulates protein S-nitrosylation.

  11. 75 FR 41237 - Public Land Order No. 7745; Partial Revocation of Power Site Reserve Nos. 510 and No. 515; Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management Public Land Order No. 7745; Partial Revocation of Power Site Reserve Nos. 510.... 6, lots 4, 5, and 6, and that portion of the NE\\1/4\\SW\\1/4\\ lying west of Highway 91. The areas...

  12. Pesquisa e Extensão em Saúde e a Aprendizagem nos Níveis Cognitivo e Afetivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Luiz Gurgel Calvet da Silveira

    Full Text Available RESUMO O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar a aprendizagem nos níveis cognitivo e afetivo entre alunos bolsistas do programa PET-Saúde e alunos que não tiveram experiência em atividades de pesquisa e extensão. O método utilizado foi um estudo exploratório comparativo com 14 estudantes dos cursos de Medicina, Medicina Veterinária, Odontologia, Nutrição, Fisioterapia, Enfermagem e Educação Física da Universidade Regional de Blumenau. Os temas abordados foram integralidade do cuidado em saúde, pesquisa e extensão. Utilizou-se abordagem qualitativa por meio da técnica de entrevista semiestruturada. A análise foi realizada por meio da taxonomia de Bloom.Os Alunos envolvidos com as atividades de pesquisa e extensão no programa PET-Saúde atingiram maiores níveis da taxonomia de Bloom nos domínios cognitivo e afetivo em comparação com os outros estudantes. A experiência dos estudantes nos grupos PET-Saúde parece contribuir para uma aprendizagem diferenciada nos cursos da saúde.

  13. 78 FR 35990 - All Operating Boiling-Water Reactor Licensees With Mark I And Mark II Containments; Docket Nos...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    ... COMMISSION All Operating Boiling-Water Reactor Licensees With Mark I And Mark II Containments; Docket Nos... Licensees operate boiling-water reactors (BWRs) with Mark I and Mark II containment designs. II. The events... Boiling Water Reactors with Mark I and Mark II Containments'' (November 26, 2012). Option 2 in SECY-12...

  14. Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in the trigeminal vascular system and other brain structures related to pain in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramachandran, Roshni; Ploug, Kenneth Beri; Hay-Schmidt, Anders

    2010-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is considered to be a key mediator in the pathophysiology of migraine but the localisation of NO synthesizing enzymes (NOS) throughout the pain pathways involved in migraine has not yet been fully investigated. We have used quantitative real-time PCR and Western blotting...

  15. The Development of Scientific Literacy through Nature of Science (NoS) within Inquiry Based Learning Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widowati, A.; Widodo, E.; Anjarsari, P.; Setuju

    2017-11-01

    Understanding of science instructional leading to the formation of student scientific literacy, seems not yet fully understood well by science teachers. Because of this, certainly needs to be reformed because science literacy is a major goal in science education for science education reform. Efforts of development science literacy can be done by help students develop an information conception of the Nature of Science (NoS) and apply inquiry approach. It is expected that students’ science literacy can develop more optimal by combining NoS within inquiry approach. The purpose of this research is to produce scientific literacy development model of NoS within inquiry-based learning. The preparation of learning tools will be maked through Research and Development (R & D) following the 4-D model (Define, Design, Develop, and Disseminate) and Borg & Gall. This study is a follow-up of preliminary research results about the inquiry profile of junior high school students indicating that most categories are quite good. The design of the model NoS within inquiry approach for developing scientific literacy is using MER Model in development educational reconstruction. This research will still proceed to the next stage that is Develop.

  16. The circadian deadenylase Nocturnin is necessary for stabilization of the iNOS mRNA in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Niu

    Full Text Available Nocturnin is a member of the CCR4 deadenylase family, and its expression is under circadian control with peak levels at night. Because it can remove poly(A tails from mRNAs, it is presumed to play a role in post-transcriptional control of circadian gene expression, but its target mRNAs are not known. Here we demonstrate that Nocturnin expression is acutely induced by the endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS. Mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs lacking Nocturnin exhibit normal patterns of acute induction of TNFα and iNOS mRNAs during the first three hours following LPS treatment, but by 24 hours, while TNFα mRNA levels are indistinguishable from WT cells, iNOS message is significantly reduced 20-fold. Accordingly, analysis of the stability of the mRNAs showed that loss of Nocturnin causes a significant decrease in the half-life of the iNOS mRNA (t(1/2 = 3.3 hours in Nocturnin knockout MEFs vs. 12.4 hours in wild type MEFs, while having no effect on the TNFα message. Furthermore, mice lacking Nocturnin lose the normal nighttime peak of hepatic iNOS mRNA, and have improved survival following LPS injection. These data suggest that Nocturnin has a novel stabilizing activity that plays an important role in the circadian response to inflammatory signals.

  17. Triterpenoic Acids from Apple Pomace Enhance the Activity of the Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase (eNOS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldbauer, Katharina; Seiringer, Günter; Nguyen, Dieu Linh; Winkler, Johannes; Blaschke, Michael; McKinnon, Ruxandra; Urban, Ernst; Ladurner, Angela; Dirsch, Verena M; Zehl, Martin; Kopp, Brigitte

    2016-01-13

    Pomace is an easy-accessible raw material for the isolation of fruit-derived compounds. Fruit consumption is associated with health-promoting effects, such as the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Increased vascular nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability, for example, due to an enhanced endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity, could be one molecular mechanism mediating this effect. To identify compounds from apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) pomace that have the potential to amplify NO bioavailability via eNOS activation, a bioassay-guided fractionation of the methanol/water (70:30) extract has been performed using the (14)C-L-arginine to (14)C-L-citrulline conversion assay (ACCA) in the human endothelium-derived cell line EA.hy926. Phytochemical characterization of the active fractions was performed using the spectrophotometric assessment of the total phenolic content, as well as TLC, HPLC-DAD-ELSD, and HPLC-MS analyses. Eleven triterpenoic acids, of which one is a newly discovered compound, were identified as the main constituents in the most active fraction, accompanied by only minor contents of phenolic compounds. When tested individually, none of the tested compounds exhibited significant eNOS activation. Nevertheless, cell stimulation with the reconstituted compound mixture restored eNOS activation, validating the potential of apple pomace as a source of bioactive components.

  18. Upregulation of BMSCs Osteogenesis by Positively-Charged Tertiary Amines on Polymeric Implants via Charge/iNOS Signaling Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Liu, Na; Shi, Haigang; Liu, Jun; Shi, Lianxin; Zhang, Bo; Wang, Huaiyu; Ji, Junhui; Chu, Paul K.

    2015-03-01

    Positively-charged surfaces on implants have a similar potential to upregulate osteogenesis of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) as electromagnetic therapy approved for bone regeneration. Generally, their osteogenesis functions are generally considered to stem from the charge-induced adhesion of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins without exploring the underlying surface charge/cell signaling molecule pathways. Herein, a positively-charged surface with controllable tertiary amines is produced on a polymer implant by plasma surface modification. In addition to inhibiting the TNF-α expression, the positively-charged surface with tertiary amines exhibits excellent cytocompatibility as well as remarkably upregulated osteogenesis-related gene/protein expressions and calcification of the contacted BMSCs. Stimulated by the charged surface, these BMSCs display high iNOS expressions among the three NOS isoforms. Meanwhile, downregulation of the iNOS by L-Can or siRNA inhibit osteogenic differentiation in the BMSCs. These findings suggest that a positively-charged surface with tertiary amines induces osteogenesis of BMSCs via the surface charge/iNOS signaling pathway in addition to elevated ECM protein adhesion. Therefore, creating a positively-charged surface with tertiary amines is a promising approach to promote osseointegration with bone tissues.

  19. WISC-R subtest but no overall VIQ-PIQ difference in Dutch children with PDD-NOS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruin, EI; Verheij, F; Ferdinand, RF

    VIQ-PIQ differences have been studied in children with autism and Asperger syndrome but have not been studied in a separate group of children with PDD-NO, although, PDD-NOS has a much higher prevalence rate than autism and deficits in communication and social interaction are severe. The Wechsler

  20. 75 FR 14639 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Indian Point Nuclear Generating Unit Nos. 1, 2, and 3...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-26

    ... COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Indian Point Nuclear Generating Unit Nos. 1, 2, and 3... Operation of Indian Point Generating Plant Unit No. 3,'' dated February 1975. Agencies and Persons Consulted..., DPR-26, and DPR-64, issued to Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc. (the licensee), for operation of Indian...

  1. Effect of resistance training on microvascular density and eNOS content in skeletal muscle of sedentary men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocks, Matthew; Shaw, Christopher S; Shepherd, Sam O; Fisher, James P; Ranasinghe, Aaron M; Barker, Thomas A; Tipton, Kevin D; Wagenmakers, Anton J M

    2014-11-01

    The effects of RT on muscle mass, strength, and insulin sensitivity are well established, but the underlying mechanisms are only partially understood. The main aim of this study was to investigate whether RT induces changes in endothelial enzymes of the muscle microvasculature, which would increase NO bioavailability and could contribute to improved insulin sensitivity. Eight previously sedentary males (age 20 ± 0.4 years, BMI 24.5 ± 0.9 kg/m(2) ) completed six weeks of RT 3x/week. Muscle biopsies were taken from the m. vastus lateralis and microvascular density; and endothelial-specific eNOS content, eNOS Ser(1177) phosphorylation, and NOX2 content were assessed pre- and post-RT using quantitative immunofluorescence microscopy. Whole-body insulin sensitivity (measured as Matsuda Index), microvascular Kf (functional measure of the total available endothelial surface area), and arterial stiffness (AIx, central, and pPWV) were also measured. Measures of microvascular density, microvascular Kf , microvascular eNOS content, basal eNOS phosphorylation, and endothelial NOX2 content did not change from pre-RT to post-RT. RT increased insulin sensitivity (p < 0.05) and reduced resting blood pressure and AIx (p < 0.05), but did not change central or pPWV. RT did not change any measure of muscle microvascular structure or function. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. 76 FR 1469 - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-10

    ... COMMISSION Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2... Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC, the licensee, for operation of the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant... for light-water nuclear power reactors,'' which requires that the calculated emergency core cooling...

  3. Nf1 Loss and Ras Hyperactivation in Oligodendrocytes Induce NOS-Driven Defects in Myelin and Vasculature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debra A. Mayes

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1 and Costello syndrome Rasopathy have behavioral deficits. In NF1 patients, these may correlate with white matter enlargement and aberrant myelin. To model these features, we induced Nf1 loss or HRas hyperactivation in mouse oligodendrocytes. Enlarged brain white matter tracts correlated with myelin decompaction, downregulation of claudin-11, and mislocalization of connexin-32. Surprisingly, non-cell-autonomous defects in perivascular astrocytes and the blood-brain barrier (BBB developed, implicating a soluble mediator. Nitric oxide (NO can disrupt tight junctions and gap junctions, and NO and NO synthases (NOS1–NOS3 were upregulated in mutant white matter. Treating mice with the NOS inhibitor NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester or the antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine corrected cellular phenotypes. CNP-HRasG12V mice also displayed locomotor hyperactivity, which could be rescued by antioxidant treatment. We conclude that Nf1/Ras regulates oligodendrocyte NOS and that dysregulated NO signaling in oligodendrocytes can alter the surrounding vasculature. The data suggest that antioxidants may improve some behavioral deficits in Rasopathy patients.

  4. Angiotensin II dependent cardiac remodeling in the eel Anguilla anguilla involves the NOS/NO system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filice, Mariacristina; Amelio, Daniela; Garofalo, Filippo

    2017-01-01

    of AT2 receptor and a negative modulation of the ERK1-2 pathway, together with a decrease in nitrite concentration, indicative of a reduced Nitric Oxide Synthase (NOS)-dependent NO production. Moreover, immunolocalization revealed, particularly on the endocardial endothelium (EE) of AngII-treated hearts...

  5. Association of polymorphisms in iNOS and NQO1 with bladder cancer risk in cigarette smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhon-Min Huang

    2014-02-01

    Conclusion: Our findings suggest that a significant combined effect of NQO1 C/T and T/T genotypes and the 12-repeat allele of iNOS (CCTTTn polymorphism on BC exists, especially in those with the habit of cigarette smoking.

  6. Significance of FAB subclassification of "acute myeloid leukemia, NOS" in the 2008 WHO classification: analysis of 5848 newly diagnosed patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Roland B; Othus, Megan; Burnett, Alan K; Löwenberg, Bob; Kantarjian, Hagop M; Ossenkoppele, Gert J; Hills, Robert K; van Montfort, Kees G M; Ravandi, Farhad; Evans, Anna; Pierce, Sherry R; Appelbaum, Frederick R; Estey, Elihu H

    2013-03-28

    The World Health Organization (WHO) classifies acute myeloid leukemia (AML) via genetic, immunophenotypic, biological, and clinical features. Still, "AML, not otherwise specified (NOS)" is further subdivided based on morphologic criteria similar to those of the French-American-British (FAB) classification. We analyzed the relevance of this practice in patients with newly diagnosed "AML, NOS" with available FAB information undergoing curative-intent therapy in trials of 3 cooperative study groups (Dutch-Belgian Cooperative Trial Group for Hematology/Oncology [HOVON], UK Medical Research Council/National Cancer Research Institute [MRC/NCRI], and the US cooperative group Southwest Oncology Group [SWOG]) or at MD Anderson Cancer Center. Ignoring information on NPM1 and CEBPA, 5848 patients met criteria for "AML, NOS." After multivariate adjustment, FAB M0 was independently associated with significantly lower likelihood of achieving complete remission and inferior relapse-free and overall survival as compared with FAB M1, M2, M4, M5, and M6, with inconclusive data regarding M7. However, restricting attention to known NPM1(neg) patients, FAB M0 was no longer associated with worse outcomes; restricting attention to patients known to be NPM1(neg)/CEPBA(neg) (ie, honoring the provisional entities of "AML with mutated NPM1" and "AML with mutated CEBPA") did not affect this result. In conclusion, in the 2008 WHO classification scheme, FAB subclassification does not provide prognostic information for "AML, NOS" cases if data on NPM1 and CEBPA mutations are available.

  7. Effects of hyperbaric oxygen therapy in enhancing expressions of e-NOS, TNF-α and VEGF in wound healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susilo, Imam; Devi, Anita; Purwandhono, Azham; Hadi Warsito, Sunaryo

    2017-05-01

    Wound healing is a physiological process that occurs progressively through overlapping phases. Tissue oxygenation is an important part of the complex regulation for wound healing. Hyperbaric Oxygen (HBO) therapy is a method of increasing oxygen delivery to tissues. The therapy improves tissue oxygenation and stimulates the formation of H2O2 as a secondary messenger for Tumour Necrosis Factor alpha (TNF α), e-NOS, VEGF and Nuclear Factor Kappa Beta phosphorylation (NF-Kb) which play an important role in the rapid transcription of a wide variety of genes in response to extracellular stimuli. This study aims to determine the effects of Hyperbaric Oxygen therapy in enhancing the expressions of e-NOS, TNF-α, VEGF and wound healing. This study is an animal study with a ‘randomized control group of pre-test and post test design’ on 28 Wistar rats. Randomly, the rats were divided into 4 groups with 7 rats in each group. The HBO treatment group 1 received 5 sessions of HBO 2.4 ATA in 3 × 30 minutes; the HBO treatment group 2 received 10 sessions of HBO 2.4 ATA in 3 × 30 minutes; and each of the control groups were without HBO. Each of the 28 male rats were given a full thickness excisional wound of 1 × 1cm. Examinations of e-NOS, TNF-α, VEGF expressions and wound healing were performed on day-0 (pre-HBO) and day-5 HBO or on day-0 (pre-HBO) and day-10 HBO. The resultsshowthat the Hyperbaric Oxygen therapy can improve e-NOS (p=0.02), TNF-α (p= 0.02), VEGF expression (p=0.02) and wound healing (p=0.002) significantly in the provision of HBO 2.4 ATA for 3 × 30 minutes in 5 sessions over 5 consecutive days. While the 10 sessions of HBO 2.4 ATA for 3 × 30 minutes over 10 consecutive days only increase e-NOS (p=0.02), TNF-α (p=0.04), VEGF expression significantly (p=0.03) but do not improve wound healing significantly (p=0.3) compared with no HBO. The study concludes that HBO can improve the expressions of e-NOS, TNF-α, VEGF and wound healing in the provision of HBO

  8. Construção da Identidade Feminina nos Cordéis Sul-Baianos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Batista Lins

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A história das mulheres nos últimos tempos tem conquistado relevante impulso no que concerne à descrição dos papéis do feminino no fórum privado. A ênfase dada à reconstituição da trajetória sócio-histórica de lutas pelos direitos, benefícios e vantagens que o público feminino buscou adquirir, na tentativa de romper com o estereótipo do sexo frágil, constitui ponto nodal nesse cenário. Tomando as disposições teóricas de Michelle Perrot (1998, 2005, Nelma Aguiar (1997, Joan Walach Scott (2002, Eduardo de Assis Duarte (2002, Simone de Beauvoir (2009, Judith Butler (2001, Helena Hirata et al. (2009, Roger Chartier (1991, dentre outros, o presente trabalho tem por escopo traçar o percurso do feminismo na história da humanidade, tendo como pano de fundo a leitura e análise de dois cordéis sul-baianos da autoria de Janete Lainha Coelho, ambos produzidos na última década do século XX: Os desafios da mulher tal e qual nos tempos da colher de pau e Eu também sou candidata. Pretende-se contribuir para uma melhor compreensão do papel e do modo como a mulher era vista ao longo da história, de modo a estabelecer uma nítida cronologia dos caminhos trilhados pelo feminismo e conhecer, com maior propriedade, as preceptivas que o acompanharam e o moldaram no decorrer do tempo. Para tanto, promover-se-á uma discussão delineada das três ondas do feminismo atrelada à análise dos cordéis supracitados, com destaque para as zonas limítrofes que distanciam e aproximam, ao mesmo tempo, dentro de um plano discursivo cada uma dessas ondas.

  9. O impacto da liquidez nos retornos esperados das debêntures brasileiras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Hofheinz Giacomoni

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, teve-se como objetivo identificar o impacto do risco de liquidez nos retornos excedentes esperados das debêntures no mercado secundário brasileiro. Foram realizadas análises de regressão em painel desbalanceado com dados semestrais de 101 debêntures ao longo de oito semestres (primeiro semestre de 2006 ao segundo semestre de 2009, totalizando 382 observações. Sete proxies (spread de compra e venda, %zero returns, idade, volume de emissão, valor nominal de emissão, quantidade emitida e %tempo foram utilizadas para testar o impacto do risco de liquidez nos yield spreads das debêntures. O yield spread foi controlado por até dez outras variáveis determinantes que não a liquidez (fator de juros, fator de crédito, taxa livre de risco, rating, duration, quatro variáveis contábeis e volatilidade de equity. A hipótese nula de que não há prêmio de liquidez para o mercado secundário de debêntures no Brasil foi rejeitada apenas para três das sete proxies (spread de compra e venda, valor nominal de emissão e quantidade emitida. Os prêmios encontrados são bastante baixos (1,9 basis point para cada 100 basis point de incremento no spread de compra e venda, 0,5 basis point para um aumento de 1% no valor do valor nominal de emissão e 0,17 basis point para cada menos 1.000 debêntures emitidas. De qualquer forma, houve perda na eficiência das proxies de liquidez após correção das autocorrelações e potenciais endogeneidades, seja por meio da inclusão de efeitos fixos, da análise de primeiras diferenças ou da utilização de um sistema de três equações. Esses resultados apontam para a suspeita de que o risco de liquidez não é um fator importante na composição das expectativas dos investidores no mercado secundário de debêntures.

  10. Determinantes do desenvolvimento do setor agropecuário nos municípios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio César de Medeiros Costa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Dada a importância do setor agropecuário para a economia brasileira, é fundamental conhecer os fatores determinantes do desenvolvimento agropecuário em seus municípios. Sob a luz de referencial teórico que aborda questões relacionadas aos fatores determinantes do desenvolvimento agropecuário e do desenvolvimento econômico local, neste estudo fez-se uso das metodologias de análise multivariada conhecidas como análise fatorial e análise de cluster. Utilizou-se o estado de Minas Gerais como recorte analítico. Foram selecionadas 22 variáveis para cada município, representando diferentes dimensões do desenvolvimento, visando verificar quais os fatores determinantes do desenvolvimento agropecuário. Após a análise fatorial, optou-se pela extração de seis fatores com raiz característica maior do que um e que respondem, em conjunto, por 62,25% da variância total dos dados: desenvolvimento econômico, investimento público, qualidade de vida, condições da atividade agropecuária, condições de meio ambiente e consumo, e condições de financiamento. Pela análise de cluster, foram criados cinco grupos, de acordo com o desempenho dos membros nos fatores. Os resultados corroboram os apontamentos literários em quase sua totalidade e, além disso, destaca-se e discute-se a existência de um ciclo positivo gerado pelo incremento dos fatores determinantes do desenvolvimento agropecuário e pelas vantagens competitivas. Neste estudo, aponta-se a importância do investimento público na promoção do desenvolvimento, reforçando o proposto por trabalhos anteriores de que o Estado desempenha papel fundamental para garantir condições que propiciem o desenvolvimento do setor agropecuário. Outra constatação factível é a de que fatores isolados, tais como as boas condições da agricultura e do meio ambiente, não são capazes de propiciar desenvolvimento para o setor nos municípios mineiros.

  11. Mortalidade de bovinos zebuínos por hipotermia em Mato Grosso do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethania S. Santos

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo descrever a ocorrência periódica de mortalidade de bovinos por hipotermia após inversão térmica no estado de Mato Grosso do Sul. São relatados 16 surtos encaminhados ao Laboratório de Patologia Animal da FAMEZ/UFMS, ocorridos de agosto de 2000 a julho de 2010, em 13 municípios do Estado. O diagnóstico de hipotermia baseou-se na ocorrência de mortes após queda brusca de temperatura acompanhada de chuvas e ventos, simultaneamente em diversas propriedades, nos sinais clínicos observados e na ausência de lesões macro e microscópicas significativas. Em todos os surtos houve uma queda brusca de temperatura, de até 29ºC, em intervalos de um a quatro dias associada a chuva e vento. Na maioria das vezes a morte dos bovinos ocorreu em locais onde havia escassez de pasto e ausência de abrigos naturais ou artificiais. Os bovinos afetados estavam magros, com baixo escore corporal, e, em grande parte dos casos, eram encontrados mortos nos cantos das invernadas e próximos a cercas no dia seguinte à queda brusca da temperatura. Foram afetados bovinos de diferentes idades. Os sinais clínicos se caracterizavam por cegueira, incoordenação, dismetria, fraqueza, decúbito esternal, movimentos de pedalagem, opistótono, tremores musculares, e dificuldade respiratória e morte. Em 30 bovinos necropsiados os principais achados macroscópicos foram edema subcutâneo, cavitário e pulmonar, e, em alguns casos, histologicamente havia eosinofilia neuronal. A hipotermia é uma importante causa de mortalidade quando bovinos com pobre estado nutricional, pouca disponibilidade e qualidade dos pastos e ausência de abrigos naturais, são submetidos a uma condição de mudança climática com queda brusca de temperatura combinada com ventos fortes e chuvas.

  12. Diabetes nos partos hospitalares em sistemas de saude publico e privado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Regina de Souza Teixeira

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar tendências da presença do diagnóstico de diabetes mellitus em partos hospitalares. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal com dados analisados de partos hospitalares de gestantes residentes em Ribeirão Preto, SP, no período de 1998 a 2007. Os dados foram obtidos no Centro de Processamento de Dados Hospitalares da Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto da Universidade de São Paulo, referentes à categoria diabetes mellitus na gravidez. Os dados analisados foram: faixa etária, tipo de parto (vaginal ou cirúrgico, duração da internação e tipo de assistência pública (SUS ou privada (saúde suplementar e particular. RESULTADOS: Houve aumento de 3,9 vezes na proporção de partos com menção de diabetes em relação ao total de partos (p = 0,01. Esse aumento foi de 4,5 vezes nos partos pela assistência pública (p = 0,01 e de 3 vezes na assistência privada (p = 0,01. Observou-se aumento da presença de diabetes em todas as faixas etárias, proporcionalmente mais acentuado nas mais baixas. A frequência de parto cirúrgico nas gestações com menção de diabetes diminuiu de 64,5% em 1998/1999 para 39,8% em 2006/2007 na assistência pública; e na privada a frequência se manteve sempre acima de 90%. CONCLUSÕES: Houve tendência crescente da presença de diabetes mellitus nos partos hospitalares ao longo dos biênios, apesar da tendência de diminuição do número de partos e aumento da população feminina em idade reprodutiva residente em Ribeirão Preto. Essa tendência necessita não só de sua identificação e tratamento, mas também de intervenções pré-gestacionais que possam revertê-la.

  13. A tuberculose nos contactos** Trabalho apresentado no 4° Congresso de Pnewnologia do Norte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Pascoal

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available RESUMOCom o objectivo de avaliar a importância da vigilância dos contactos no diagnóstico da tuberculose (TB e o tempo de aparecimento da tuberculose nos conractos, os autores procederam à revisão dos processos clinicos dos novos casos de TB registados no C DP de Gaia nos anos de 1995 e 1996. Dos 318 novos casos registados, 12 (3,8% foram diagnosticados por 'vigilância de contacto'.Dos 12 casos com TB apenas 2 (16,7% foram diagnosticados na primeira consulta, 3 (25% foram dignosticados cerca de 3 meses depois, 4 (33,3% até aos 6 meses e 3 (25% depois dos 6 meses.Em 64 casos havia referencia explicita a contacto prévio com TB, sendo este há menos de 1 a no em 13 (20,13%, entre 1 e 2 anos em 6 (9,4%; há mais de 2 anos em 13 (20,3% e não registado em 30 casos.Os resultados encontrados reforçam a importância do rastreio deste grupo de risco e levantam questões nomeada mente quanto ao tempo recomendado para a vigilânda dos contactos.REV PORT PNEUMOL 2000; VI (2: 123-128 ABSTRACT: The authors reviewed clinical charts of the new tuberculosis (TB cases registered between 1995 and 1996 in the CDP of Vila Nova de Gaia in order to evaluate the contacts surveillance interest in the diagnosis of TB and the amount of time to reach the TB diagnosis in the contacts.From the 318 new registered cases 12 (3.8% were diagnosed by 'contact surveillance'. Among them, 2 (16.7% were diagnosed in the first consultation, 3 (25% were diagnosed 3 months later, 4 others (33.3% until 6 months and 3 (25% later than 6 months.TB previous contact was registered in the clinical charts in 64 cases: in less than 1 year in 13 (20.3%, between 1 and 2 years in 6 (9.4%, in more than 2 years in 13 (20.3% and was not quantified in 30 cases.This results strength the high risk group surveilance importance and rises important questions related to recommended time for contacts surveilance.REV PORT PNEUMOL 2000; VI (2: 123-128 Palavras-chave: Tuberculose, Rastreio, Contactos

  14. Simvastatin induces a central hypotensive effect via Ras-mediated signalling to cause eNOS up-regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Wen-Han; Ho, Wen-Yu; Chang, Chien-Feng; Lu, Pei-Jung; Cheng, Pei-Wen; Yeh, Tung-Chen; Hong, Ling-Zong; Sun, Gwo-Ching; Hsiao, Michael; Tseng, Ching-Jiunn

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Clinical studies indicate that statins have a BP-lowering effect in hypercholesterolemic individuals with hypertension. Specifically, statins modulate BP through the up-regulation of endothelial NOS (eNOS) activation in the brain. However, the signalling mechanisms through which statins enhance eNOS activation remain unclear. Therefore, we examined the possible signalling pathways involved in statin-mediated BP regulation in the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS). EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH To investigate the involvement of Ras and other signalling pathways in simvastatin-induced effects on BP, BP and renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) were determined in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) before and after i.c.v. administration of simvastatin in the absence and presence of a Ras-specific inhibitor (farnesyl thiosalicylic acid, FTS), a geranylgeranyltransferase inhibitor (GGTI-2133), a PI3K inhibitor (LY294002) or a MAPK-ERK kinase (MEK) inhibitor (PD98059). KEY RESULTS FTS significantly attenuated the decrease in BP and increased NO evoked by simvastatin and reversed the decrease in basal RSNA induced by simvastatin. Immunoblotting and pharmacological studies showed that inhibition of Ras activity by FTS significantly abolished simvastatin-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2, ribosomal protein S6 kinase (RSK), Akt and decreased eNOS phosphorylation. Likewise, administration of Akt and ERK1/2 signalling inhibitors, LY294002 and PD98059, attenuated the reduction in BP evoked by simvastatin. Furthermore, i.c.v. simvastatin decreased Rac1 activation and the number of ROS-positive cells in the NTS. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Simvastatin modulates central BP control in the NTS of SHRs by increasing Ras-mediated activation of the PI3K-Akt and ERK1/2-RSK signalling pathways, which then up-regulates eNOS activation. PMID:23889671

  15. The normal distribution and projections of constitutive NADPH-d/NOS neurons in the brainstem vestibular complex of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxon, D W; Beitz, A J

    2000-09-11

    The vestibular system is a highly conserved sensory system in vertebrates that is largely responsible for maintenance of one's orientation in space, posture, and balance and for visual fixation of objects during motion. In light of the considerable literature indicating an involvement of nitric oxide (NO) in sensory systems, it is important to determine whether NO is associated with vestibular pathways. To study the relationship of NO to vestibular pathways, we first examined the normal distribution of constitutive NADPH-diaphorase (NADPH-d), a marker for nitric oxide synthase (NOS), in the vestibular complex (VC) and then examined its association with selected vestibular projection neurons. Survey of the four major vestibular nuclei revealed that only the medial vestibular nucleus contained significant numbers of perikarya stained for NADPH-d/NOS. By contrast, all the vestibular nuclei contained a network of fine processes that stained positive for NADPH-d, although the density of this network varied among the individual nuclei. To determine whether NADPH-d/NOS neurons project to vestibular efferent targets, injections of the retrograde tracer Fluoro-Gold were made into known targets of second-order vestibular neurons. Vestibular neurons containing constitutive NADPH-d/NOS were found to project predominantly to the oculomotor nucleus. A small number of neurons also participate in vestibulothalamic and intrinsic vestibular connections. These results indicate that NADPH-d/NOS neurons are prevalent in the MVN and that a subpopulation of these neurons project to the oculomotor complex. Nitric oxide is probably released locally from axons located throughout the vestibular complex but may play a particularly important role in vestibulo-ocular pathways. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Analysis of polymorphisms in Interleukin 10, NOS2A, and ESR2 genes in chronic and aggressive periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Virginia Régia Souza; Pigossi, Suzane Cristina; Scarel-Caminaga, Raquel Mantuaneli; Cirelli, Joni Augusto; Rêgo, Rodrigo; Nogueira, Nádia Accioly Pinto

    2016-10-10

    The objective of this study was to investigate the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the IL10, NOS2A, and ESR2 genes and chronic periodontitis (CP) and aggressive periodontitis (AgP). Three groups of patients underwent periodontal and radiographic evaluations: CP (n = 61), AgP (n = 50), and periodontally healthy (control group=61). Genomic DNA was extracted from oral epithelial cells and used for genotyping by real-time polymerase chain reaction using TaqMan® probes. The investigated SNPs were: -1087G > A, -819C > T and -592C > A in the IL10; +2087G > A in the NOS2A, and +1730G > A in the ESR2 gene. Differences in genotype and allele frequencies of each polymorphism and some individual characteristics were analyzed using the chi-square test and multivariate logistic regression analysis. Analysis of SNPs and haplotypes in the IL10 and SNP in the ESR2 gene did not present any significant association with AgP or CP. The +2087G allele of the NOS2A gene tended to be significantly associated with periodontal disease. Patients carrying the genotype +2087GG in the NOS2A gene were genetically protected against the development of CP (p = 0.05; OR = 0.44; 95%CI = 0.20-0.95). This result showed greater significance when patients with AgP and CP were combined (total PD) (p = 0.03; OR = 0.46; 95%CI = 0.23-0.92). In conclusion, the studied Brazilian population had a significantly higher frequency of the GG genotype for the +2087 SNP in the NOS2A gene in individuals without periodontitis, although statistical significance was not maintained after multiple logistic regression.

  17. Detrimental effect of combined exercise training and eNOS overexpression on cardiac function after myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Waard, Monique C; van der Velden, Jolanda; Boontje, Nicky M; Dekkers, Dick H W; van Haperen, Rien; Kuster, Diederik W D; Lamers, Jos M J; de Crom, Rini; Duncker, Dirk J

    2009-05-01

    It has been reported that exercise after myocardial infarction (MI) attenuates left ventricular (LV) pump dysfunction by normalization of myofilament function. This benefit could be due to an exercise-induced upregulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression and activity. Consequently, we first tested the hypothesis that the effects of exercise after MI can be mimicked by elevated eNOS expression using transgenic mice with overexpression of human eNOS (eNOSTg). Both exercise and eNOSTg attenuated LV remodeling and dysfunction after MI in mice and improved cardiomyocyte maximal force development (F(max)). However, only exercise training restored myofilament Ca(2+)-sensitivity and sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA)2a protein levels and improved the first derivative of LV pressure at 30 mmHg. Conversely, only eNOSTg improved survival. In view of these partly complementary actions, we subsequently tested the hypothesis that combining exercise and eNOSTg would provide additional protection against LV remodeling and dysfunction after MI. Unexpectedly, the combination of exercise and eNOSTg abolished the beneficial effects on LV remodeling and dysfunction of either treatment alone. The latter was likely due to perturbations in Ca(2+) homeostasis, as myofilament F(max) actually increased despite marked reductions in the phosphorylation status of several myofilament proteins, whereas the exercise-induced increases in SERCA2a protein levels were lost in eNOSTg mice. Antioxidant treatment with N-acetylcysteine or supplementation of tetrahydrobiopterin and l-arginine prevented these detrimental effects on LV function while partly restoring the phosphorylation status of myofilament proteins and further enhancing myofilament F(max). In conclusion, the combination of exercise and elevated eNOS expression abolished the cardioprotective effects of either treatment alone after MI, which appeared to be, at least in part, the result of increased

  18. What is going on (with us at university? ¿Qué (nos está pasando en la universidad?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Enrique Ema

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This text is an introduction to the monograph entitled “What is going on (with us at university? In it we explain the motivations and the process that lead us to write the articles that we present here. We could classify in three groups the topics that we discuss. In the first place, we ask ourselves about the nature and function that the university has had during its eight centuries of existence. In the second place, we concentrate on the analysis of certain forms of evaluation of teachers and students, its presuppositions and effects. Finally, we ask ourselves about the transformations, and the possible resistances and inventions that can take place when teaching.

    Este texto es una presentación del monográfico “¿Qué (nos está pasando en la universidad?”. En él damos cuenta de las motivaciones y el proceso que nos han llevado hasta la redacción final de los trabajos que aquí se presentan. Podríamos clasificar los temas que hemos tratado en tres grandes grupos. En primer lugar, nos preguntamos por la naturaleza y la función que la universidad ha tenido a lo largo de sus ocho siglos de existencia. En segundo, nos adentramos en el análisis de determinados dispositivos de evaluación del profesorado y de los estudiantes, sus presupuestos y sus efectos. Por último, nos preguntamos por las modificaciones, las posibles resistencias e invenciones en el territorio de las prácticas docentes.

  19. Rat vagus nerve stimulation model of seizure suppression: nNOS and ΔFos B changes in the brainstem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijkers, K; Majoie, H J M; Aalbers, M W; Philippens, M; Doenni, V M; Vles, J S H; Steinbusch, H M W; Moers-Hornikx, V M P; Hopkins, D A; Hoogland, G

    2012-12-01

    Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is a moderately effective treatment for intractable epilepsy. However, the mechanism of action is poorly understood. The effect of left VNS in amygdala kindled rats was investigated by studying changes in nNOS and ΔFos B expression in primary and secondary vagus nerve projection nuclei: the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve (DMV), parabrachial nucleus (PBN) and locus coeruleus (LC). Rats were fully kindled by stimulation of the amygdala. Subsequently, when the fully kindled state was reached and then maintained for ten days, rats received a single 3-min train of VNS starting 1min prior to the kindling stimulus and lasting for 2min afterwards. In control animals the vagus nerve was not stimulated. Animals were sacrificed 48h later. The brainstems were stained for neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and ΔFos B. VNS decreased seizure duration with more than 25% in 21% of rats. No VNS associated changes in nNOS immunoreactivity were observed in the NTS and no changes in ΔFos B were observed in the NTS, PBN, or LC. High nNOS immunopositive cell densities of >300cells/mm(2) were significantly more frequent in the left DMV than in the right (χ(2)(1)=26.2, pvagus nerve was stimulated. We conclude that the observed nNOS immunoreactivity in the DMV suggests surgery-induced axonal damage. A 3-min train of VNS in fully kindled rats does not affect ΔFos B expression in primary and secondary projection nuclei of the vagus nerve. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Metformin stimulates ischemia-induced revascularization through an eNOS dependent pathway in the ischemic hindlimb mice model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Noriko; Shibata, Rei; Ouchi, Noriyuki; Sugimoto, Masayuki; Murohara, Toyoaki; Komori, Kimihiro

    2015-02-01

    As first-line treatment for type 2 diabetes, metformin has gained a strong position. In addition, type 2 diabetics benefit from the fact that metformin is associated with a reduction in cardiovascular events. Nevertheless, there is a dearth of information concerning the functional role of metformin in regulating angiogenesis. Our present study explores whether metformin is involved in the modulation of the revascularization processes in vivo by employing a hindlimb mice model of ischemia-induced angiogenesis. For comparative purposes, randomly selected wild-type (WT) mice or endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) deficient mice were assigned to one of two groups. One group was orally administered a daily dose of metformin through a gastric tube whereas the other group served as a control with no metformin administered. Both groups were subjected to unilateral hindlimb ischemia. Laser Doppler analysis coupled with capillary density staining with CD31was the method employed to determine revascularization. Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and eNOS phosphorylation levels were assessed using Western blot analysis. Subsequent to hindlimb ischemic surgery, in comparison to the nontreated mice, metformin-treated WT mice showed accelerated limb perfusion, which was substantiated by laser Doppler blood-flow measurements and the presence of increased capillary density in the ischemic adductor muscle. Treatment with metformin significantly enhanced the increase in AMPK and eNOS phosphorylation levels of muscle tissues in WT mice induced by ischemia. In eNOS- deficient knockout mice, there was a significant increase in ischemic tissue AMPK phosphorylation induced by metformin; however, blood flow recovery in ischemic limb after surgery was unaffected. Metformin promoted revascularization in the presence of tissue ischemia through an AMPK/eNOS-related mechanism. Our study indicates that, in addition to its glucose-lowering effect, metformin fosters

  1. Differential Patterns of Abnormal Activity and Connectivity in the Amygdala-Prefrontal Circuitry in Bipolar-I and Bipolar-NOS Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladouceur, Cecile D.; Farchione, Tiffany; Diwadkar, Vaibhav; Pruitt, Patrick; Radwan, Jacqueline; Axelson, David A.; Birmaher, Boris; Phillips, Mary L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The functioning of neural systems supporting emotion processing and regulation in youth with bipolar disorder not otherwise specified (BP-NOS) remains poorly understood. We sought to examine patterns of activity and connectivity in youth with BP-NOS relative to youth with bipolar disorder type I (BP-I) and healthy controls (HC). Method:…

  2. Synthesis and evaluation of a fluorine-18 labeled antisense oligonucleotide as a potential PET tracer for NOS mRNA expression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, EFJ; Vroegh, J; Dijkstra, G; Moshage, H; Elsinga, PH; Jansen, PLM; Vaalburg, W

    Inducible NO synthase (iNOS) is overexpressed in inflammatory bowel diseases. An antisense oligonucleotide with good hybridization properties for iNOS mRNA was selected using RT-PCR. The oligonucleotide was reliably labeled with fluorine-18 using N-(4-[F-18]fluorobenzyl)-2-bromoacetamide. Cellular

  3. Psychometric properties of the Dutch version of the Health of the Nation Outcome Scales for older adults (HoNOS 65+) in daily care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veerbeek, M.A.; Oude Voshaar, R.C.; Pot, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Health of the Nation Outcome Scales (HoNOS) is widely used to evaluate mental health care outcomes. For appropriate use and interpretation in routine clinical practice, further validation of the adapted version for older clients (HoNOS 65+) is needed. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study

  4. Measuring Outcomes in Mental Health Services for Older People: An Evaluation of the Health of the Nation Outcome Scales for Elderly People (HoNOS65+)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, Susan B.; Croucher, Matthew J.; Beveridge, John

    2010-01-01

    The Health of the Nation Outcome Scales (HoNOS) family of measures is routinely used in mental health services in the New Zealand, Australia, and the United Kingdom. However, the psychometric properties of the HoNOS65+ for elderly people have not been extensively evaluated. The aim of the present study was to examine the validity, reliability, and…

  5. 77 FR 62346 - Holiday CVS, L.L.C., d/b/a CVS/Pharmacy Nos. 219 and 5195; Denial of Request for Redactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-12

    .../a CVS/Pharmacy Nos. 219 and 5195; Denial of Request for Redactions On August 31, 2012, I issued a... Holiday CVS, L.L.C., d/b/a CVS/Pharmacy Nos. 219 and 5195 (hereinafter, Respondents). Prior to publication... manner in which information was obtained for Respondents' pharmacy information management system...

  6. Professional Journals as a Source of Information about Teaching NOS: An Examination of Articles Published in Science & Children, 1996-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cite, S.; Hanuscin, D. L.

    2014-01-01

    Articles in the National Association for Science Teachers [NSTA] elementary journal "Science and Children" that describe an activity related to teaching nature of science [NOS] were analysed to ascertain the extent to which those activities align with research based suggestions for teaching NOS and the extent to which articles have…

  7. Partial deletion of eNOS gene causes hyperinsulinemic state, unbalance of cardiac insulin signaling pathways and coronary dysfunction independently of high fat diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Vecoli

    Full Text Available Abnormalities in eNOS gene, possibly interacting with high fat diet (HFD, affect peripheral vascular function and glucose metabolism. The relative role of eNOS gene, HFD and metabolic derangement on coronary function has not been fully elucidated. We test whether eNOS gene deficiency per se or in association with HFD modulates coronary function through mechanisms involving molecular pathways related to insulin signaling. Wild type (WT, eNOS-/- and eNOS+/- mice were studied. WT and eNOS+/- mice were fed with either standard or HF diet for 16 weeks and compared with standard diet fed eNOS-/-. Glucose and insulin tolerance tests were performed during the last week of diet. Coronary resistance (CR was measured at baseline and during infusions of acetylcholine (Ach or sodium-nitroprusside (SNP to evaluate endothelium-dependent or independent vasodilation, in the Langendorff isolated hearts. Cardiac expression of Akt and ERK genes as evaluation of two major insulin-regulated signaling pathways involved in the control of vascular tone were assessed by western blot. HFD-fed mice developed an overt diabetic state. Conversely, chow-fed genetically modified mice (in particular eNOS-/- showed a metabolic pattern characterized by normoglycemia and hyperinsulinemia with a limited degree of insulin resistance. CR was significantly higher in animals with eNOS gene deletions than in WT, independently of diet. Percent decrease in CR, during Ach infusion, was significantly lower in both eNOS-/- and eNOS+/- mice than in WT, independently of diet. SNP reduced CR in all groups except eNOS-/-. The cardiac ERK1-2/Akt ratio, increased in animals with eNOS gene deletions compared with WT, independently of diet. These results suggest that the eNOS genetic deficiency, associated or not with HFD, has a relevant effect on coronary vascular function, possibly mediated by increase in blood insulin levels and unbalance in insulin-dependent signaling in coronary vessels

  8. Ocorrência de pontes do miocárdio em suínos

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    Pedro Primo Bombonato

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se em 60 corações de suínos sem raça definida, a frequência, a largura, a posição, a topografia e a vasculotopia das pontes de miocárdio, mediante injeção das artérias coronárias com solução de Neoprene látex – 450, fixação em solução aquosa de formol e dissecção. Os resultados obtidos permitiram concluir que: -as pontes de miocárdio ocorrem em 36,36% das peças, em número de 1 a 3, tendo sido identificadas num total de 32; -a largura das pontes variou de 0,2 cm a 1,9 cm com média de 0,75 cm: -a topografia mais frequentemente observada foi na porção média (36,66%, dorsal (31,25% e ventral (31,25%; -as pontes de miocárdio ocorrem com maior frequência sobre os ramos da artéria coronária direita (65,62%, do que sobre os ramos da artéria coronária esquerda (34,37%.

  9. POTENCIALIDADES DA ANÁLISE HISTÓRICA NOS ESTUDOS ORGANIZACIONAIS BRASILEIROS

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    Fábio Vizeu Ferreira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Nos últimos anos, tem sido aguda a necessidade de se constituir pesquisa organizacional voltada para as especificidades locais.Isso também ocorre no caso brasileiro, onde se observa a distância entre o contexto nacional e o dos países de onde seimportam as tecnologias gerenciais aqui aplicadas. Uma das formas de se verificarem as peculiaridades da gestão e organizaçãobrasileiras é por meio da análise histórica desses modelos. Assim, este texto trata de aspectos epistemológicos e metodológicosque permitem visualizar os limites e possibilidades da pesquisa histórica no campo de Estudos Organizacionais, dandocerta ênfase àqueles empreendidos no Brasil. Construímos nossa análise em três seções: a primeira trata dos pressupostosque circundam a aproximação entre a perspectiva histórica e as ciências sociais; a segunda aborda questões historiográficasdiretamente relacionadas ao campo de Estudos Organizacionais; e a terceira trata de algumas contribuições da historiografiabrasileira aos Estudos Organizacionais. Por fim, apresentamos alguns temas para uma agenda de pesquisa.

  10. Nos réunions publiques d’octobre 2013 (première partie)

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2013-01-01

    Vous étiez plusieurs centaines à avoir participé à nos réunions publiques du 1 au 8 octobre 2013 et nous vous en remercions. La présentation principale était précédée d’un hommage à Philippe Defert, vice-président de l’Association du personnel, récemment décédé. Philippe a été un membre actif de l'Association du personnel et un délégué au Conseil du personnel depuis 1992 (voir hommage Écho n°182). Ces réunions se sont terminées avec des remerciements pour Marcel Aymon, membre du Conseil du personnel pendant 25 ans et membre du Comité exécutif pendant presque autant d’années. Marcel a occupé quasiment sans interruption la fonction de Secrétaire au ...

  11. Inhibitory effects of Euterpe oleracea Mart. on nitric oxide production and iNOS expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheus, Maria Eline; de Oliveira Fernandes, Sidnei Bessa; Silveira, Cristiane Silva; Rodrigues, Verônica Pinto; de Sousa Menezes, Fabio; Fernandes, Patricia Dias

    2006-09-19

    The palm Euterpe oleracea is a plant of great economic value in Brazil. Although the heart of palm extracted from its trunk is considered a delicacy the world over, its fruits are popular only among Brazilians. In some poor regions of Brazil, there are reports on the popular use of its juice in the treatment of several disorders, mainly those of oxidative onset as cardiovascular ones. Because of its wide utilization; because there are very few scientific studies of this species, and to discover if its use in folk medicine for problems related with oxidation is in fact justifiable, we decided, in this study, to evaluate the effects of Euterpe oleracea flowers, fruits and spikes fractions on: nitric oxide (NO) production, NO scavenger capacity, and on the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase enzyme, as well. Results showed that the fractions obtained from fruits were the most potent in inhibiting NO production, followed by those from flowers and spikes. Only in high doses, did some fractions reduce cell viability. Reduction on NO production was not due to NO scavenger activity. These results were accompanied by inhibition of iNOS expression. The more pronounced effect was observed in the fractions in which the concentration of cyanidin-3-O-glucoside and cyanidin-3-O-rhamnoside were higher. To sum up, our results indicate that fractions from Euterpe oleracea inhibits NO production by reducing the levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase expression.

  12. Formação para o SUS nos cursos de psicologia em Alagoas

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    Simone Maria Hüning

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo discute a formação do psicólogo em Alagoas e sua relação com o Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS, a partir da análise dos currículos dos quatro cursos de graduação em Psicologia do Estado. Construímos quatro eixos de análise das disciplinas a partir das ementas, conteúdos programáticos e bibliografias: 1 Clínica, psicopatologia e avaliação psicológica; 2 Biomédicas; 3 Interfaces socioculturais; 4 Fundamentos da pesquisa e atuação em Psicologia. Discutimos as formas de abordagem da saúde, problematizando sua relação com o princípio da integralidade do SUS. Os resultados indicam que na abordagem da saúde predominam conteúdos referentes à identificação e classificação de transtornos e psicopatologias, e uma concepção de sujeito individualista e fragmentada, baseada no modelo biomédico. Por sua vez, a abordagem da integralidade, quando presente nos currículos, possui o potencial de nortear mudanças na graduação, vinculando-se a cenários diversificados, como atuação multiprofissional e capacitação profissional generalista.

  13. AS DIFERENÇAS DE GÊNERO NOS RELACIONAMENTOS AMOROSOS HETEROSESUAIS

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    Alice Maria Soares da Silva

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available As diferenças de gênero são assunto que diz respeito a todos nós, visto que vivemos em um ambiente social onde lidar com tais diferenças torna-se imprescindível a todo momento. Dizer que as diferenças de gênero são construções sociais e variam de acordo com cada sociedade não é novidade. O presente estudo busca identificar através da literatura, como as diferenças entre homens e mulheres interfere nos relacionamentos afetivos heterossexuais, de forma a identificar quais são os comportamentos que mais colaboram para a manutenção de um bom relacionamento, e quais os comportamentos que prejudicam a relação entre os pares. Para isso, temos utilizado a metodologia de  revisão bibliográfica, através da qual buscamos artigos e bibliografias que apontem contribuições para a reflexão do tema proposto. Palavras-chave: Diferença; Gênero; Heterossexuais.

  14. OS IMPACTOS DA GESTÃO FAMILIAR NOS CONFLITOS E CULTURA ORGANIZACIONAL

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    Fabio Santarossa Dante

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Frente aos desafios em gestão de pessoas na década presente, os conflitos geracionais alimentam uma discussão sobre quais fatores definem as carreiras e motivam os profissionais. O objetivo central desse artigo é diagnosticar os impactos da gestão familiar nos conflitos e na construção da cultura organizacional em uma prestadora de serviço. Ao final do estudo, tais resultados identificados poderão ser trabalhados como insumos informacionais a empregadores, organizações e profissionais quanto ao entendimento de gestão familiar, conflitos organizacionais e cultura organizacional. Como método de estudo de coleta e análise dos resultados, utilizou-se um questionário desenvolvido para essa própria necessidade divido em 4 etapas, aplicado a 36 pessoas. Os dados foram analisados em forma quantitativa. O resultado é que a empresa é considerada profissional mesmo estando sob uma gestão familiar e que não há conflitos internos dos familiares mas sim conflitos internos organizacionais e que a cultura não é explanada aos funcionários.

  15. Nos réunions publiques d’octobre 2013 (deuxième partie)

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2013-01-01

    Dans ce deuxième article nous continuons la discussion des thèmes abordés lors de nos réunions publiques. Nous nous intéressons au système de mérite et d’avancement, le MARS, et concluons avec quelques informations générales. MARS Exercice MARS 2013 À l’introduction du MARS en 2007, le principe de base pour la détermination du budget d’avancement était que chaque titulaire éligible à l’avancement  générait deux échelons lorsqu’il était dans les bandes a, b, ou c, et un échelon lorsqu’il était en bande ECE (extension de carrière exceptionnelle). À plusieurs reprises, soit pour remercier le personnel pour son travail pour le LHC, soit, plus tard, en utilisant les économies réalis...

  16. Forma e função nos gêneros de discurso

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    Vera Lúcia Paredes Silva

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Este artigo apresenta reflexões sobre os gêneros do discurso e/ou tipos de texto. Em primeiro lugar, são discutidas as definições de discurso de acordo com os dois principais paradigmas correntes na lingüística - o formalista e o funcionalista. Em seguida, os conceitos de gênero do discurso (ou tipos de texto são relacionados a tais definições. Finalmente, oferece-se uma categorização de gênero em níveis, com base nos critérios estrutural e funcional. No primeiro nível, são examinados os traços lingüísticos dos textos, o que permite a identificação das estruturas do discurso; no segundo, considera-se o uso da estrutura em unidades comunicativas; e no terceiro, avalia-se o propósito comunicativo do autor.

  17. Prática alimentar nos dois primeiros anos de vida

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    Daniela Braga Lima

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se prática alimentar de crianças menores de dois anos. Estudo transversal desenvolvido em 2004-2005, a partir de dados do Estudo de Consumo Alimentar Populacional de Belo Horizonte/ECAP-BH. A amostra compreendeu 148 crianças menores de dois anos. Realizou-se entrevista em domicílio com mães/responsáveis e levantou-se os alimentos consumidos nas últimas 24 horas, incluindo leite materno e idade de introdução da alimentação complementar. Medianas de aleitamento materno exclusiva e total foram 60 e 150 dias, respectivamente. A introdução de outros tipos de leite e de alimentos não-lácteos ocorreu precocemente. Do ponto de vista nutricional, as dietas eram desbalanceadas e o ferro foi o nutriente mais deficiente no primeiro ano de vida. Os resultados evidenciam a necessidade da implementação de medidas de intervenção nos serviços de saúde do município para a promoção da alimentação complementar saudável.

  18. O Mastomys natalensis como modelo alternativo nos estudos da esquistossomose mansoni experimental

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    Carlos Alberto Moreira Campos

    1984-02-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados aspectos da infecção e da imunidade experimentais em um roedor — o Mastomys natalensis — inoculado com a cepa LE (Belo Horizonte do Schistosoma mansoni, comparando os resultados com os do camundongo albino, animal tido como melhor modelo experimental. Os parâmetros estudados ofereceram resultados em tudo semelhantes aos encontrados em camundongos, com o M. natalensis se mostrando bastante sensível à infecção pelo S. mansoni, sendo de grande utilidade para os estudos da biologia do parasito e/ou observações da imu-nologia advinda da infecção. Somando-se a tal fato a grande reprodutividade do animal em cativeiro, a criação fácil, o manejo e a manutenção simples em laboratório, sugere-se que seja o M. natalensis usado como modelo experimental alternativo nos diversos estudos da esquistossomose mansoni.

  19. Preferential expression of an AAV-2 construct in NOS-positive interneurons following intrastriatal injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sin, Mihaela; Walker, Paul D; Bouhamdan, Mohamad; Quinn, John P; Bannon, Michael J

    2005-11-18

    Most CNS studies using recombinant adeno-associated virus type 2 (rAAV-2) vectors have focused on gene delivery for the purpose of gene therapy. In the present study, we examined the feasibility of using rAAV-2 vectors to study the regulation of preprotachykinin-A (PPT-A) promoter activity in striatal medium spiny projection neurons. An rAAV-2 vector incorporating a PPT promoter fragment (shown previously to confer some cell-specificity of expression in vitro) coupled to a green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter gene was stereotaxically injected into the rat striatum. Since medium spiny projection neurons represent the predominant neuronal type (90-95%) in the striatum, we predicted that the vast majority of GFP-expressing cells would be of this phenotype. Surprisingly, the transgene was actually expressed in a similar number of medium spiny projection neurons and interneurons, while glial expression of GFP was not observed. A preponderance of GFP-expressing interneurons was immunoreactive for the marker neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS). Our results suggest that viral vector-related events that occur during transduction are the determining factor in the pattern of transgene expression observed, while the influence of the transgene promoter appears to be secondary, at least under the conditions employed.

  20. Idade: A manifestação de Cronos nos jornais paulistanos

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    Maria Helena Villas Bôas Concone

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A leitura dos recortes de jornais analisados nos trouxe à lembrança o pequeno livro O Papalagui. O livrinho traz as muitas reflexões de Tuiávii, dentre as quais aquelas sobre o modo pelo qual o “branco” (o Papalagui lida com o tempo. Os comentários do chefe de Tiavéa acusam a preocupação “ocidental” com o tempo, como uma espécie de compulsão e de urgência, quando não de loucura: o tempo é dividido, demarcado, contado, reificado, usado; de fato, Tuiávii faz uma distinção entre o usufruir do tempo e o usar o tempo num sentido utilitário. Palavras-chave: Tempo; Cronos; Jornais paulistas; Idade Age: The manifestation of Chronos in Sao Paulo newspapers ABSTRACT: The reading of newspaper clippings analyzed brought to our mind the small book The Papalagui. The book includes the many reflections of Tuiavii, among which there are those on the way in which the “white” (the Papalagui deals with time. The comments from the Tiavea chief accuse “western” concern with time as a kind of compulsion and urgency, if not madness: the time is divided, marked, counted, objectified, used actually. Tuiavii distinguishes between enjoying time and using time in a utilitarian sense. Keywords: Time; Chronos; Sao Paulo newspapers; Age

  1. Informação e Cidadania nos Espaços Livres Públicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarida Correia Lima

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo trata das diretrizes para elaboração de sistemas de informação para parques e praças, com a finalidade de dotar esses logradouros de elementos informativos: de orientação espacial, de difusão cultural, de educação ambiental, de preservação dos bens públicos, a partir da pesquisa desenvolvida no mestrado em Design, da UFPE, na cidade do Recife. As diretrizes foram definidas levando em conta aspectos teóricos sobre a vivência nos espaços livres públicos e da ergonomia informacional em parques e praças. A pesquisa realizada constatou a relevância de estudos dessa natureza, que enfoquem o espaço público, tendo como ponto norteador a qualidade de vida nas cidades contemporâneas, na intenção de relacionar os campos do design e da arquitetura da paisagem.

  2. Quem está motivado para aprender nos cursos oferecidos pelas empresas?

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    Luciana Mourão

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available O mercado de trabalho tem se tornado mais competitivo e as organizações têm realizado programas de treinamento e desenvolvimento, buscando resultados eficazes em relação aos recursos humanos. Esta investigação teve como objetivo principal verificar se as características da clientela, do treinamento e das organizações influenciam nos resultados da motivação para aprender. A amostra foi obtida por conveniência, com 220 trabalhadores que estavam iniciando ações de capacitação em sete empresas privadas do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Utilizaram-se escalas validadas para mensurar a motivação para aprender e as crenças sobre o sistema de treinamento. Foram realizadas análises descritivas e regressão múltipla padrão. Os resultados indicam que as crenças em relação ao sistema e tipo de treinamento, tipo de instrutor e tempo de empresa são preditoras da motivação para aprender. Foram discutidas implicações práticas dos resultados e sugerida agenda de pesquisa para a área.

  3. Finalidade ou linguagem: abordagens para o sentido da ação nos estudos organizacionais

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    Yeda Swirski de Souza

    Full Text Available Este artigo pretende explicitar diferentes concepções de ação e decisão nos estudos organizacionais, recorrendo a dois caminhos teóricos. O primeiro está baseado em referências a Weber e a Habermas e suas diferentes proposições quanto à ação humana. O segundo consiste em observações sobre a evolução do conceito de processo decisório a partir de Simon. O argumento é o de que esses dois caminhos teóricos apontam para uma mesma mudança nas concepções de ação e decisão. Da ação justificada pela finalidade e realizada por um ator racional passa-se para uma concepção de ação tributária, de um sentido social e coletivamente construído, realizada por um sujeito constituído através das redes de significado que marcam sua trajetória pessoal e social.

  4. CATEGORIAS DE INFORMAÇÕES EVIDENCIADAS NOS RELATÓRIOS ANUAIS

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    Clea Beatriz Macagnan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo teve como objetivo identificar as categorias e as subcategorias de informações evidenciadas nos relatórios anuais das empresas, classificadas como: nível 1, nível 2 e Novo Mercado de governança corporativa, no mercado de capitais brasileiro, pela BM&FBovespa. Desenvolveu-se uma análise de conteúdo, com base nas evidências qualitativas dos relatórios anuais das companhias, correspondente ao exercício encerrado de 31/12/07, publicados e coletados até o período de junho de 2008. Constatou-se que a maioria das empresas apresentam seus relatórios anuais com conteúdo claro, objetivo e adequado. Evidenciam itens obrigatórios, segundo a Lei nº 6.404/76 e os recomendados pela Comissão de Valores Mobiliários, conforme orientação nº 15/87. A pesquisa constatou que foram divulgadas informações de natureza voluntárias, o que indicaria comprometimento das companhias em informar a realidade do negócio e minimizar a problemática de assimetria de informação. Isso leva a inferir uma preocupação dos gestores em minimizar possíveis conflitos de agência entre esses e acionistas ou investidores.

  5. A questão nacional nos discursos do presidente Hugo Chávez

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    Eduardo Scheidt

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa representações de nação nos discursos do presidente venezuelano Hugo Chávez ao longo de seus mandatos como presidente da Venezuela, ente 1999 e 2012. Procuramos averiguar, durante o período, de que forma a questão nacional foi representada por Chávez em diferentes contextos do seu governo. Percebemos que o discurso nacionalista chavista centra-se numa redefinição da soberania popular fundamentada, por um lado, numa espécie de resgate da proposta de Simon Bolívar e dos artífices das independências latino-americanas, ao mesmo tempo em que se construíam novos mecanismos de inclusão e participação popular. O discurso chavista objetivava também angariar adeptos a suas propostas em meio às tensas disputas políticas, transformar a realidade e legitimar o fortalecimento do papel do Estado durante seus governos.

  6. MICRONUTRIENTES NOS SOLOS DO MUNICÍPIO DE SANTA CRUZ DO SUL, RS, BRASIL

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    Alcido Kirst

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo principal avaliar a fertilidade dos solos do município de Santa Cruz do Sul, RS, Brasil, em relação aos micronutrientes zinco, ferro, manganês, cobre e boro, baseado nos laudos técnicos de análise de solo realizados pelo Laboratório de Solos da Universidade de Santa Cruz do Sul, no período de 2001 a 2005. Ao todo, 3548 laudos de solo foram interpretados. As técnicas analíticas para a determinação destas variáveis seguiram a metodologia utilizada pela Rede Oficial de Laboratórios de Análises de Solos e Tecido Vegetal do Rio Grande do Sul e Santa Catarina (ROLAS. Os resultados indicaram que a avaliação da fertilidade dos solos do município apresentou altas concentrações  dos micronutrientes zinco, cobre, manganês e ferro e concentrações médias de boro, indicando adequadas condições de fertilidade para as culturas predominantes na região.

  7. The complex contribution of NOS interneurons in the physiology of cerebrovascular regulation

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    Sonia eDuchemin

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Following the discovery of the vasorelaxant properties of nitric oxide (NO by Furchgott and Ignarro, the finding by Bredt and coll. of a constitutively expressed NO synthase in neurons (nNOS led to the presumption that neuronal NO may control cerebrovascular functions. Consequently, numerous studies have sought to determine whether neuraly-derived NO is involved in the regulation of cerebral blood flow. Anatomically, axons, dendrites or somata of NO neurons have been found to contact the basement membrane of blood vessels or perivascular astrocytes in all segments of the cortical microcirculation. Functionally, various experimental approaches support a role of neuronal NO in the maintenance of resting cerebral blood flow as well as in the vascular response to neuronal activity. Since decades, it has been assumed that neuronal NO simply diffuses to the local blood vessels and produce vasodilation through a cGMP-PKG dependent mechanism. However, NO is not the sole mediator of vasodilation in the cerebral microcirculation and is known to interact with a myriad of signaling pathways also involved in vascular control. In addition, cerebrovascular regulation is the result of a complex orchestration between all components of the neurovascular unit (i.e. neuronal, glial and vascular cells also known to produce NO. In this review article, the role of NO interneuron in the regulation of cortical microcirculation will be discussed in the context of the neurovascular unit.

  8. PROTAGONISMO DOS ÍNDIOS NORTE-AMERICANOS NOS DESENHOS ANIMADOS DE WALTER LANTZ

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    RAFAEL DUARTE OLIVEIRA VENANCIO

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Condemned to a dubious media representation in early cinema through thenovels of the late nineteenth century, the North American Indians never had a high profile infilms of this period. However, an animator, Walter Lantz, has a high degree of characterizationof Native Americans in his work. The aim of this paper is to study the role of Native Americansin these cartoons and analyze the social implications of these choices, using the concepts ofapparatus and formula. Furthermore, the analysis will include a portrayal of the Americanmedia scene before and after Lantz, seeking disruptions and legacies.Condenados a uma duvidosa representação midiática no início do cinema graçasaos romances do final do século XIX, os índios norte-americanos nunca tiveram um grandedestaque nos filmes dessa época. No entanto, um realizador de desenhos animados, WalterLantz, possui um alto grau de caracterização de nativos norte-americanos em seus trabalhos. Oobjetivo do presente artigo é estudar o protagonismo dos índios norte-americanos nessesdesenhos animados, e analisar as implicações sociais dessas escolhas através do uso dosconceitos de dispositivo e fórmula. Além disso, a análise incluirá a retratação da cenamidiática norte-americana antes e depois de Lantz, buscando rupturas e legados.

  9. Sintonias e defasagens os parques públicos nos planos para São Paulo

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    Vladimir Bartalini

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho procura estabelecer relações entre as propostas formuladas para os parques e áreas verdes em São Paulo, no período compreendido entre o final do século 19 e o início dos anos 50, e as idéias correntes sobre o tema “parques públicos urbanos” nos países de industrialização avançada, notadamente Inglaterra e Estados Unidos. Expõe e comenta resumidamente as principais características das propostas inglesas e norte-americanas no referente aos parques e áreas verdes, e procura reconhecer sua presença nas propostas para São Paulo evidenciando também suas discrepâncias. Analisa, sob esta ótica, o plano de avenidas de Prestes Maia (1930 e o programa de melhoramentos de Robert Moses para São Paulo (1950, indagando sobre os motivos da sua não realização

  10. Estudo bibliométrico na base LISA: um enfoque nos artigos sobre os surdos

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    Romario Antunes da Silva

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O artigo apresenta uma análise bibliométrica de uma lista de referências de artigos de periódicos localizados na base de dados LISA e tem por objetivo verificar como a literatura na Ciência da Informação aborda aspectos relacionados às pessoas com deficiência, especialmente pessoas com diferentes condições sensoriais auditivas. Foram utilizados os softwares Microsoft Word, Infotrans, Dataview, Mainview e Microsoft Excel para a análise bibliométrica da lista de referências. Obteve-se como resultado uma lista com os descritores mais utilizados nos periódicos, a relação dos periódicos mais importantes, os autores com maior produção, a produção dos autores por ano de publicação, as fontes por ano de publicação e, por fim, foi elaborada uma rede de relacionamento com os principais descritores. Conclui-se que o descritor “deaf” (surdo ainda é pouco utilizado e o maior número de artigos apresenta o termo “disabled people” (pessoa deficiente, que também é empregado para designar outras limitações sensoriais ou cognitivas.

  11. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart nos ayuda a estudiar anatomía

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    Ma. Begoña Carretero-Gómez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Es bueno plantear las clases de Ciencias Naturales con un espíritu investigador, donde la presencia activa y participativa del alumnado fomente su autonomía, consiguiendo de esta forma un aprendizaje más significativo. Este curso celebramos el 250 aniversario del nacimiento de Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, razón por la cual planteamos al alumnado un trabajo de investigación sobre este compositor. En él tratamos de forma conjunta contenidos de historia, música, tecnología y anatomía. Hemos investigado temas tan diversos como: las enfermedades del músico, características del sonido, órganos de los sentidos del oído y del equilibrio y construcción de pequeños instrumentos. Además se han proyectado diversas películas de dibujos animados relacionadas con el tema que nos han servido para completar y afianzar nuestros conocimientos sobre la audición.

  12. A diversidade cultural presente nos vídeos em saúde

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    Alice Ferry de Moraes

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Os vídeos, cada vez mais, são utilizados como suportes informacionais nas ações de intervenção social na área da saúde. Conhecer os elementos culturais existentes nos vídeos em saúde foi o objetivo deste trabalho, pois eles são facilitadores da transferência da informação. Estudos sobre o uso da informação em saúde no país, a força das imagens no processo cognitivo dos indivíduos e a necessidade de contextualização das informações repassadas serviram de base para a análise dos vídeos finalistas da III Mostra de Vídeos em Saúde, promovida pela Fundação Oswaldo Cruz (Fiocruz e realizada no Rio de Janeiro, em 1998. Com base na observação de alguns dados das fichas técnicas desses vídeos, foi possível identificar o meio cultural no qual eles foram produzidos. A diversidade cultural presente nas ações comunicacionais em todos os âmbitos, inclusive na promoção da saúde e na prevenção de doenças, é um elemento essencial para o progresso social.

  13. Saberes sobre o trabalho: experiência e história nos canaviais

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    Marcela Sobreira Silva

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A agroindústria da cana no Brasil tem ampliado suas dimensões e seu domínio sobre seu território. Politicamente, tal aumento respalda-se na história que associa a produção da cana-de-açúcar ao desenvolvimento econômico e ao progresso nacional (Godoy, 2004. No presente artigo, interrogamos essa versão oficial a partir da história concreta, fruto da vida dos trabalhadores rurais e das experiências vividas nos canaviais. Trata-se de pesquisa desenvolvida durante o Mestrado em Psicologia da UFMG, que utilizou como instrumento metodológico o recolhimento de história de vida tal como proposto pela sociologia clínica, em diálogo com as abordagens teórico-metodológicas da psicossociologia do trabalho e ergologia. Mediante a narrativa de um trabalhador na lavoura de cana-de-açúcar, divisamos seus impactos no cotidiano dos sujeitos e na comunidade, revelando uma experiência que se constrói por meio do trabalho rural e traz para o centro dos acontecimentos as vidas e os dramas humanos omitidos na história oficial.

  14. NOS1AP genetic variation is associated with impaired healing of diabetic foot ulcers and diminished response to healing of circulating stem/progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, David J; Hampton, Michelle; Hoffstad, Ole; Mala, D Scot; Mirza, Ziad; Woltereck, Diana; Shannon, Steven; Troiano, Michael A; Mitra, Nandita; Yang, Ming; Bhopale, Veena M; Thom, Stephen R

    2017-07-29

    It is unclear why many with diabetes develop foot ulcers (DFU) and why some do not heal. It could be associated with genetic variation. We have previously shown that NOS1AP variation is associated with lower extremity amputation in those with diabetes and that circulating stem progenitor cell concentration (SPC) is associated with impaired foot ulcer healing in those with diabetes. The goal of this study was to determine if NOS1AP variation is associated with impaired wound healing and with SPC mobilization in those with DFU. In longitudinal cohort study we demonstrate that NOS1AP variants rs16849113 and rs19649113 are associated with impaired wound healing and with SPC mobilization in those with DFU. We believe that further study of NOS1AP is merited and that it NOS1AP might be associated with a functional impairment. © 2017 by the Wound Healing Society.

  15. Roles of apolipoprotein E (ApoE) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in inflammation and apoptosis in preeclampsia pathogenesis and progression.

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    Mao, Luyi; Zhou, Qiongjie; Zhou, Shufeng; Wilbur, Rhonda R; Li, Xiaotian

    2013-01-01

    To investigate potential roles of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and apolipoprotein (apoE) in inflammation and apoptosis promoting pathological changes in preeclampsia in pregnant mice with apoE and/or iNOS knock out. B6.129 mice were crossed to produce WT, apoE(-/-), apoE(+/-), iNOS(-/-), iNOS(+/-) and apoE(-/-)iNOS(-/-) groups. Variants were confirmed by PCR. Serum lipid parameters (triglycerides, TG; total cholesterol, TC; high density lipoprotein, HDL; and low density lipoprotein, LDL), NO levels and placental electronic microscopic ultrastructures were evaluated, and blood pressure (BP), 24-hour urine protein and pregnancy outcomes were recorded for pregnant F1 generation mice. Placental expressions of inflammatory (tumor necrosis factor-α, TNF-α; interleukin-6, IL-6; nuclear factor-κB, NF-κb) and apoptotic markers (Bcl-2 associated X protein, Bax, B-cell lymphoma/leukemia-2, Bcl-2, and Caspase-3) were evaluated via Western blot. Serum lipids, BP and 24-hour urine protein levels were shown to be significantly higher and parturition and placenta weights were lower in apoE(-/-) and apoE(-/-)iNOS(-/-) groups (papoptosis parameters, including TNF-α, IL-6, NF-κb, Bax, Bcl-2 and Caspase-3 in the apoE(-/-)iNOS(-/-) group (papoptosis parameters in the iNOS(+/-) and the apoE(+/-) groups (p>0.05) showed no differences. In addition, placenta vascular endothelial and trophoblast cell morphological changes were demonstrated in both the apoE(-/-)iNOS(-/-) and apoE(-/-) groups. Elevated lipid metabolism and inflammatory/apoptosis parameters suggest a potentially significant role of apoE in preeclampsia pathology, as well as a relationship between iNOS and preeclampsia progression.

  16. The Investigations of Nitric Oxide Influence on Lifespan of Fruit Fly D. melanogaster Transgenic Strain dNOS4

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    Mamura Begmanova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Aging and longevity control are among the greatest problems in biology and medicine. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is a nice model organism for longevity investigations because of its biological features. Many D. melanogaster genes have their orthologs, similar in other eukaryotes, including human. The role of nitric oxide (NO in the D. melanogaster lifespan has been analyzed.Methods. Virgin flies of dNOS4 transgenic strain were used for the experiment. This strain contains non-functional additional copies of nitric oxide synthase (NOS gene under heat shock promoter.  For promoter activation, transgenic flies on their second day of life were exposed to heat shock (37°C for an hour. After heat shock, flies were maintained on standard medium temperatures at 25°C, with females separate from males. Two types of control were used: Oregon R wild-type strain and Oregon R strain exposed to heat shock. The average lifespan was evaluated.Results. It was revealed that the longevity of females was significantly higher than males in each series of experiments (p < 0.05. The survival rate of females and males was similar in the first month of their life, but in the second month the mortality among males was much higher than among females in all series of experiments. The average lifespan of dNOS4 imago was 31 days (34 days for females and 28 days for males, maximum lifespan was 63 days. In controls, the average lifespan of Oregon R flies was 54 days (58 days for females and 50 days for males, and the maximum lifespan was 94 days. The average lifespan of Oregon R flies exposed to heat shock was 45 days (48 days for females and 41 days for males, and the maximum lifespan was 72 days. The difference between average lifespan in all studied groups is statistically significant (p < 0.05.Conclusion. Thus, NOS-transgene activation results in formation of non-functional  dNOS4-transcripts and NO deficiency. In turn, NO deficiency decreases dNOS

  17. Neuronal NOS Activates Spinal NADPH Oxidase 2 Contributing to Central Sigma-1 Receptor-Induced Pain Hypersensitivity in Mice.

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    Choi, Sheu-Ran; Kwon, Soon-Gu; Choi, Hoon-Seong; Han, Ho-Jae; Beitz, Alvin James; Lee, Jang-Hern

    2016-12-01

    We recently demonstrated that activation of spinal sigma-1 receptors (Sig-1Rs) induces pain hypersensitivity via the activation of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase 2 (Nox2). However, the potential direct interaction between nNOS-derived nitric oxide (NO) and Nox2-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) is poorly understood, particularly with respect to the potentiation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor activity in the spinal cord associated with the development of central sensitization. Thus, the main purpose of this study was to investigate whether Sig-1R-induced and nNOS-derived NO modulates spinal Nox2 activation leading to an increase in ROS production and ultimately to the potentiation of NMDA receptor activity and pain hypersensitivity. Intrathecal pretreatment with the nNOS inhibitor, 7-nitroindazole or with the Nox inhibitor, apocynin significantly inhibited the mechanical and thermal hypersensitivity induced by intrathecal administration of the Sig-1R agonist, 2-(4-morpholinethyl) 1-phenylcyclohexanecarboxylate hydrochloride (PRE084). Conversely, pretreatment with 5,10,15,20-tetrakis-(4-sulphonatophenyl)-porphyrinato iron(III) (FeTPPS; a scavenger of peroxynitrite, a toxic reaction product of NO and superoxide) had no effect on the PRE084-induced pain hypersensitivity. Pretreatment with 7-nitroindazole significantly reduced the PRE084-induced increase in Nox2 activity and concomitant ROS production in the lumbar spinal cord dorsal horn, whereas apocynin did not alter the PRE084-induced changes in nNOS phosphorylation. On the other hand pretreatment with apocynin suppressed the PRE084-induced increase in the protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent phosphorylation of NMDA receptor GluN1 subunit (pGluN1) at Ser896 site in the dorsal horn. These findings demonstrate that spinal Sig-1R-induced pain hypersensitivity is mediated by nNOS activation, which leads to an increase in Nox2 activity

  18. Genetic absence of nNOS worsens fetal alcohol effects in mice. II: microencephaly and neuronal losses.

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    Karacay, Bahri; Mahoney, Jo; Plume, Jeffrey; Bonthius, Daniel J

    2015-02-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure can kill developing neurons, leading to microencephaly and mental retardation. However, not all fetuses are equally vulnerable to alcohol's neurotoxic effects. While some fetuses are severely affected and are ultimately diagnosed with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), others have no evidence of neuropathology and are behaviorally normal. These widely different outcomes among alcohol-exposed fetuses are likely due, in part, to genetic differences. Some fetuses possess genotypes that make them much more vulnerable than others to alcohol's teratogenic effects. However, to date, only 1 gene has been identified whose mutation can worsen alcohol-induced behavioral deficits in an animal model of FAS. That gene is neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS). The purpose of this study was to determine whether mutation of nNOS can likewise worsen alcohol-induced microencephaly and lead to permanent neuronal deficits. Wild-type and nNOS(-/-) mice received alcohol (0.0, 2.2, or 4.4 mg/g) daily over postnatal days (PDs) 4 to 9. Beginning on PD 85, the mice underwent a series of behavioral tests; the results of which are reported in the companion paper. The brains were then weighed, and stereological cell counts were performed on the cerebral cortex and hippocampal formation, which are the brain regions that mediate the aforementioned behavioral tasks. Alcohol caused dose-dependent microencephaly, but only in the nNOS(-/-) mice and not in wild-type mice. Alcohol-induced neuronal losses were more severe in the nNOS(-/-) mice than in the wild-type mice in all of the brain regions examined, including the cerebral cortex, hippocampal CA3 subregion, hippocampal CA1 subregion, and dentate gyrus. Targeted mutation of the nNOS gene increases the vulnerability of the developing brain to alcohol-induced growth restriction and neuronal losses. This increased neuropathology is associated with worsened behavioral dysfunction. The results demonstrate the critical importance

  19. Inhibition of NLRP3 Inflammasome Prevents LPS-Induced Inflammatory Hyperalgesia in Mice: Contribution of NF-κB, Caspase-1/11, ASC, NOX, and NOS Isoforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolunay, Abdurrahman; Senol, Sefika Pinar; Temiz-Resitoglu, Meryem; Guden, Demet Sinem; Sari, Ayse Nihal; Sahan-Firat, Seyhan; Tunctan, Bahar

    2017-04-01

    The nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat protein 3 (NLRP3), an intracellular signaling molecule that senses many environmental- and pathogen/host-derived factors, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several diseases associated with inflammation. It has been suggested that NLRP3 inflammasome inhibitors may have a therapeutic potential in the treatment of NLRP3-related inflammatory diseases. The aim of this study was to determine whether inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome prevents inflammatory hyperalgesia induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in mice as well as changes in expression/activity of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), caspase-1/11, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (NOX), and endothelial/neuronal/inducible nitric oxide synthase (eNOS/nNOS/iNOS) that may regulate NLRP3/apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain (ASC)/pro-caspase-1 inflammasome formation and activity by using a selective NLRP3 inflammasome inhibitor, MCC950. Male mice received saline (10 ml/kg; i.p.), LPS (10 mg/kg; i.p.), and/or MCC950 (3 mg/kg; i.p.). Reaction time to thermal stimuli within 1 min was evaluated after 6 h. The mice were killed and the brains, hearts, and lungs were collected for measurement of NF-κB, caspase-1, caspase-11, NLRP3, ASC, NOX subunits (gp91 phox ; NOX2), and p47 phox ; NOXO2), nitrotyrosine, eNOS, nNOS, iNOS, and β-actin protein expression, NOS activity, and interleukin (IL)-1β levels. LPS-induced hyperalgesia was associated with a decrease in eNOS, nNOS, and iNOS protein expression and activity as well as an increase in expression of NF-κB p65, caspase-1 p20, caspase-11 p20, NLRP3, ASC, gp91 phox , p47 phox , and nitrotyrosine proteins in addition to elevated IL-1β levels. The LPS-induced changes were prevented by MCC950. The results suggest that inhibition of NLRP3/ASC/pro-caspase-1 inflammasome formation and activity prevents inflammatory hyperalgesia induced by LPS in mice as well as

  20. Ensino da Bioética Convergente de ricardo maliandi nos Cursos de medicina

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    Nalita Maria Hall Brum de Barros Mugayar

    Full Text Available RESUMO Este artigo sublinha a patente deficiência dos currículos de Medicina em relação às Ciências Humanas e defende que o estudo da Bioética — disciplina que procura integrar as Ciências Humanas às Ciências Biológicas — poderá ajudar a preencher essa nociva lacuna. Apresentamos a Bioética Convergente de Ricardo Maliandi e Oscar Thüer como um valioso arcabouço teórico capaz de auxiliar o médico a protagonizar a resolução dos conflitos éticos inerentes à sua prática profissional, sem incorrer em unilateralidade. Comparamos sua fundamentação teórica com a conhecida proposta, também principialista, de Beauchamp e Childress, apontando as vantagens daquela em relação a esta. Exemplificamos sua aplicabilidade com a análise de potenciais conflitos éticos inferidos de informações obtidas em prontuário de uma paciente internada no Centro de Terapia Intensiva do Hospital Universitário Antônio Pedro. Para a realização dessa análise, buscamos, na literatura médica, dados probabilísticos em relação ã doença em questão (neoplasia de esôfago com fístula traqueoesofageana complicada por choque séptico pulmonar, ressaltando que esses dados podem ajudar na melhor compreensão do prognóstico, sem que por isso possam ser utilizados como respaldo da equipe médica para decisões unilaterais de limitação terapêutica. A literatura médica também nos brindou com propostas de condução de casos difíceis do ponto de vista ético, como o da paciente em tela. Escolhemos uma delas (Azoulayet al.12, reconhecendo e demonstrando sua compatibilidade com a Bioética Convergente de Maliandi e Thüer. Trata-se de um ensaio teórico sobre limitação terapêutica, no qual procuramos unir a fundamentação da literatura à aplicabilidade em um caso real de paciente crítica. Acreditamos que este artigo poderá ser um ponto de partida para a difusão da Ética Convergente — trabalho de toda a vida do filósofo Ricardo

  1. A eletrencefalografia nos tumores intracranianos. Considerações sobre nove casos cirurgicamente verificados

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    Paulo Pinto Pupo

    1948-03-01

    aspecto do cérebro na craniotomia fronto-partietal, cujo exame histopatológico revelou tecido cerebral próximo a glioma maligno. Finalmente, as observações 8 a 9, com EEG normal, são respectivamente de um adenoma da hipófise e de um neurinoma do acústico, tumores que não afetam direta ou indiretamente os hemisférios cerebrais. O material eletrencefalográfico apresenta alterações focais do tipo de ondas lentas, ondas extremamente lentas com figuras de reversão de fases, ondas teta ou disritmias epilépticas de início e predominância localizadas, nos casos de tumores bem delimitados, ou alterações difusas por todo um hemisfério com predominância em determinadas áreas e repercussão para áreas simétricas do hemisfério oposto, nos casos de tumores difusos e infiltrativos. Tais elementos mostram que o EEG, além do diagnóstico e localização dos tumores intracranianos, pode também fornecer elementos sobre o próprio tipo do tumor. Com tais resultados, os AA. consideram a eletrencefalografia um método de alto valor na semiologia dos tumores intracranianos.

  2. PAQUIMETRIA ULTRA-SÔNICA DE CÓRNEAS DE CANINOS E SUÍNOS

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    Duvaldo Eurides

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Estudaram-se trinta olhos de caninos, adultos, machos e fêmeas, mestiços, submetidos a eutanásia e cedidos pela Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade Federal de Goiás (UFG e trinta de suínos, seis meses, machos e fêmeas, mestiços, abatidos no frigorífico Boa Sorte, no município de Goiânia. Os olhos enucleados pela técnica de exenteração foram acondicionados individualmente em câmaras úmidas (Filatov com solução fisiológica 0,9% e mantidos em caixa de isopor por um período máximo de seis horas. Dividiu-se a córnea de cada olho, para efeito das leituras, em cinco áreas (central, nasal superior, nasal inferior, temporal superior e temporal inferior. Procedeu-se às leituras digitais com o paquímetro ultra-sônico de Storz em três pontos para cada área, totalizando quinze vezes em cada olho. Os resultados obtidos das médias gerais foram, para caninos, de 704,21 ± 67,11 m. Os valores médios diferenciaram-se para cada ponto, sendo que a média obtida nas áreas centrais (670,70 ± 75,29 m foi a menos espessa e nas nasais inferiores (715,50 ± 79,52 m a mais espessa. Para os suínos, os resultados apontaram 700,31 ± 30,08 m. Os valores médios diferenciaram-se para cada ponto, sendo que a média obtida nas áreas nasais inferiores (669,63 ±85,79 m foi a menos espessa e nas temporais superiores(731,47m ± 64,06m a mais espessa. O método foi eficiente, seguro e simples. Os valores obtidos nas condições deste trabalho são inéditos, mas só servem como valores de referência para estas amostras, pois são dependentes da idade,do peso, do sexo, da raça, da dieta e até do horário do exame,variáveis estas que não se consideraram neste trabalho. PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Cão, paquimetria ultra-sônica, paquímetro de Störz, suíno.

  3. Úlceras tropicales: la que se nos viene encima Tropical ulcers: that is upon us

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    Manuel Gago Fornells

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Las úlceras en piel propias de las llamadas enfermedades del trópico se consideran como de baja prevalencia en nuestras sociedades desarrolladas. Pero la úlcera tropical o fagedénica, aquella propia de la lepra o las que se manifiestan en diferentes parasitosis, cada vez nos llaman más la atención; en parte, por la teórica influencia de la inmigración en nuestra civilización y el miedo a la enfermedad de afuera que lleva implícita, en parte por el turismo aventurero que muchas veces las incorpora como recuerdo del viaje a tierras lejanas. La realidad es que este tipo de lesiones merece, tanto por su gravedad como por su impacto en nuestra cultura, de los cuidados que hasta el día de hoy las veía como algo lejano y ajeno, un interés concreto que las defina, concretice y clasifique. En cuanto al comportamiento de la cura en ambiente húmedo de estas úlceras, poco sabemos por propia experiencia y aún menos en su uso como parte del tratamiento en países de esta zona del mundo, donde una pobreza extensiva condiciona la disponibilidad de recursos para el cuidado. Pero ponerse en sobre aviso con la información suficiente, nos permitirá casi siempre identificar precozmente estas lesiones y, de la misma forma, encauzar el tratamiento local más efectivo.The sores in skin own of the so called diseases of the tropic, they are considered like of fall prevalencia in our developed societies. But the tropical sore or fagedénica, proper that one of the leprosy or those who demonstrate in different parasitosis, every time they are called us more the attention; partly for the theoretical influence of the immigration in our civilization and the fear of the disease of out that implicit ride, partly for the adventurous tourism that often incorporates them as recollection of the trip to distant lands. The reality is that this type of injuries deserves so much for his your gravity, since for his your impact in our culture of the elegant ones, that

  4. Modelos de predição da natimortalidade em suínos

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    Santoro Kleber Régis

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Analisaram-se 335 dados de partos e leitegadas, pertencentes a 102 fêmeas Large White, nascidos entre 1985 e 1996, nas estações de setembro a fevereiro e março a agosto, na cidade do Recife, Estado de Pernambuco. O objetivo foi comparar equações de regressão para predição da natimortalidade. Utilizaram-se os modelos com transformação angular (TA, modelo linear generalizado (MLG com distribuição binomial e ligação logit (BL, MLG com distribuição Poisson e ligação log (PL, MLG misto com distribuição binomial e ligação logit (BLM e MLG misto com distribuição Poisson e ligação log (PLM. Foram considerados nos modelos os seguintes fatores: peso médio dos leitões ao nascimento em quilos (P, idade da mãe ao parto em anos (I, número de machos nascidos (M e fêmeas nascidas (F. Os critérios para a seleção do melhor modelo foram a capacidade de predição e a análise de resíduos. O melhor modelo foi o MLG com distribuição binomial e função de ligação logit com as variáveis idade da mãe em anos, número de machos nascidos e número de fêmeas nascidas.

  5. Experimental bovine schistosomiasis in zebu calves Esquistossomose bovina experimental em bezerros zebuínos

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    Imadeldin Elamin Aradaib

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Five calves were each experimentally infected with 30,000 cercariae of Schistosoma bovis and three calves were kept as controls. S. bovis eggs first appeared in feces of the infected animals by week 5 post infection and all animals were shedding by week 6 post infection. Between week 7 and 9 post infection, where fecal egg counts were highest, the infected animals developed mucoid and then hemorrhagic diarrhoea and they became dull and depressed. Packed cell volumes and hemoglobin concentrations of the infected animals showed progressive reductions compared to the uninfected control calves. The animals were necropsied and perfused at week 12 post infection and tissue egg densities and worm burden were determined.Cinco bezerros foram infectados experimentalmente com 30.000 cercarias de Schistosoma bovis e três bezerros foram usados como controle. Ovos de S. bovis apareceram inicialmente nas fezes dos animais infectados pela 5ª semana após infecção e todos os animais estavam eliminando ovos na 6ª semana após infecção. Entre as 7ª e 9ª semanas após infecção, nas quais a quantidade fecal de ovos era mais alta, os animais infectados manifestaram diarréia com muco seguida por disenteria e os animais apresentando-se morimbundos e depressivos. PCV e concentração da hemoglobina dos animais infectados demonstrou redução progressiva em comparação com os bezerros não infectados. Os animais foram necropsiados na 12ª semana para determinação da densidade de ovos nos tecidos e quantidade de parasitas.

  6. Presenas do sensvel nos processos interacionais Sensitive presences on interactional processes

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    Kati Eliane Caetano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O acionamento de componentes sensveis nas relaes comunicacionais, seja sob a ao de estratgias miditicas ou como decorrncia da estrutura interacional inerente s trocas em redes, reanima o debate sobre o papel da experincia esttica na comunicao, assim como, paradoxalmente, seu desdobramento na afirmao de uma crise da experincia esttica. Visando a superar uma oposio simplista entre sensao e cognio, o presente artigo retoma dois conceitos fundamentais de definio do esttico na comunicao, para redimension-los no mbito daquela polmica, quais sejam, o de estesia e, o de excepcionalidade, que passam a ser tratados nos termos de uma inteligibilidade do sensvel. Desse ponto de vista, a questo do sentido no se traduz em leituras de carter hermenutico; compreende, sim, formas de presena no mundo de que derivam regimes de significao que se manifestam sobre um modo musical e necessariamente interacional.The activation of sensitive components in communication relations, either under the action of mediatic strategies or as a result of the interactional structure inherent to network exchanges, reinvigorates the discussion about the role of aesthetic experience in Communication, as well as, paradoxically, its unfolding in the assertion of a crisis of the aesthetic experience. Aiming to overcome a simplistic opposition between sensation and cognition, the present study recaptures two fundamental concepts of the aesthetic definition in communication, in order to re-dimension them in the ambit of that polemic, may it the one of aesthesia or the one of exceptionality, which are then treated in terms of an intelligibility of the sensitive. From this point of view, the question of sense is not translated into hermeneutical character readings; it comprehends indeed forms of presence in the world from which regimes of signification derive, and which is manifested over a musical and necessarily interactional way.

  7. Plantas tóxicas para suínos Toxic plants for swine

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    Cláudio Dias Timm

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available Revisam-se as intoxicações por plantas que ocorrem em suínos no Brasil, Uruguai e Argentina. Descrevem-se a intoxicação por sementes de Senna occidentalis, que causa necrose muscular segmentar e lesões hepáticas, e a intoxicação por sementes de Aeschynomene sp., caracterizada por áreas de degeneração focais e simétricas na substância branca do cerebelo. Mencionam-se, também, a intoxicação por Wedelia glauca e Xantium spp., que causam necrose centrolobular no fígado; a intoxicação por Amaranthus spp., que produz necrose tubular tóxica; a intoxicação por Solanum malacoxylon, caracterizada por calcificação dos tecidos moles; a intoxicação por frutos maduros de Melia azedarach, que causa sinais nervosos, digestivos e musculares; e a intoxicação por Crotalaria spectabilis, estudada experimentalmente no Brasil como causa de hepatite crônica.Poisonous plants for swine in Brazil, Uruguay and Argentina are reviewed. Poisoning by seeds of Senna occidentalis, as a cause segmentar muscle necrosis, and by seeds of Aeschynomene sp., as a cause of symmetric focal degeneration in the white matter of the cerebellum, are described. Nefrosis due to Amaranthus spp., soft tissue calcification caused by Solanum malacoxylon, acute periacinar liver necrosis caused by Wedelia glauca and Xanthium spp., and nervous, digestive and muscular signs caused by the fruits of Melia azedarach, are also mentioned. The intoxication by Crotalaria spectabilis, studied experimentally in Brazil as a cause of chronic hepatitis, is also reveiwed.

  8. O Trabalho Reestruturado: Mudanças nos Rituais dos Bancários

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    António Óscar Santos Góes

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Esta comunicação é o fruto de uma investigação sobre a “preparação” dos bancários. O referencial teórico resgata os temas “competências” e “habilidades”. O estudo de caso ocorreu numa “agência” de médio porte. Pesquisa qualitativa, configurada como exploratória. Utilizaram-se um roteiro de entrevistas semi-estruturado e um questionário como técnicas de coleta de dados. Trabalhou-se com a análise de conteúdos. Os resultados revelaram uma dualidade na formação profissional. As tarefas efetuam-se pela qualificação tradicional, atuação mais eficiente, prática tecnicista; do outro lado, a dimensão do modelo de competência, quando o colaborador decide em situações não previstas nos regulamentos, e trabalha em várias atividades, um polivalente. Observou-se que as ferramentas de qualificação (programas de estímulo à educação formal e empresarial são disponibilizadas pela organização. Os empregados estão a praticar ações que elevem sua capacitação profissional, incentivados pelo plano de carreira que está na meta da empresa, também já assimilaram a noção de autodesenvolvimento.

  9. Estudo de caso controle para avaliar o impacto do abuso sexual infantil nos transtornos alimentares

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    Felipe Paraventi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar se antecedente de abuso sexual na infância (ASI está associado com transtornos alimentares na vida adulta. MÉTODOS: Realizou-se um estudo de caso controle (N = 120 comparando mulheres com transtornos alimentares tratadas em ambulatório universitário especializado com um grupo controle de pacientes de clínica não psiquiátrica (ambulatório de oftalmologia. RESULTADOS: Este estudo encontrou maior prevalência de ASI na anorexia nervosa (AN comparada ao grupo controle (50% versus 14,8%; OR = 5,8 IC 95% = 1,3-25,6; p < 0,05, entretanto não identificou diferença estatística entre os grupos comparando com casos de bulimia nervosa (BN (26,7% versus 27% no grupo controle; OR = 0,99; IC 95% = 0,24-4,1 e com transtorno de compulsão alimentar periódica (TCAP, apesar da maior prevalência de ASI observada neste último em relação ao grupo controle (43,7% versus 27,3%; OR = 2,1 IC 95% = 0,5- 8,1. Considerando-se a presença de dois ou mais episódios de ASI, observou-se também maior prevalência em AN (35,7% versus 3,7% nos controles; OR = 14,4 IC 95% = 1,5-140,8; p < 0,05. CONCLUSÃO: Este estudo mostrou forte associação da anorexia nervosa com antecedentes de abuso sexual na infância.

  10. Tecnicas de fisioterapia respiratoria: efeito nos parametros cardiorrespiratorios e na dor do neonato estavel em UTIN

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    Renata Martins

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: verificar os efeitos de técnicas de fisioterapia respiratória (TFR na dor e na função cardiorrespiratória de recém-nascidos (RN clinicamente estáveis com prescrição de TFR, internados em unidade de terapia intensiva neonatal. MÉTODOS: ensaio clínico randomizado cego. Os RN foram alocados em três grupos: G1-controle; G2- fisioterapia convencional; G3-reequilíbrio tóracoabdominal. Neonatos do G2 e G3 receberam intervenção em atendimento único. Todos foram avaliados antes, imediatamente após e 15 minutos após o término da intervenção/repouso quanto aos parâmetros cardiorrespiratórios (saturação periférica de oxigênio/SpO2, frequências cardíaca/fc e respiratória/fr e dor (escalas específicas: NIPS, NFCS e PIPP. Para análise dos dados foram aplicados: testes qui-quadrado, Friedman, Kruskal- Wallis e, posteriormente, análise de comparações múltiplas, com p0,05 e em relação à dor houve mudanças significativas nas escalas NIPS (G1 e G2, p=0,037 e p=0,011, respectivamente e PIPP (G2, p=0,005. CONCLUSÕES: técnicas de fisioterapia respiratória não desencadearam dor, nem instabilidade cardiorrespiratória nos RN estudados.

  11. Por uma Visão Crítica nos Estudos Turísticos

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    Alexandre Panosso Netto

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available ResumoO presente artigo parte da observação de que os estudos turísticos estão passando por uma revisão das teorias desenvolvidas até o momento e das novas propostas que têm sido criadas nos últimos anos. A pesquisa em turismo ainda não conseguiu construir marcos conceituais estáveis e há carência de continuidade e complementaridade entre os estudos realizados, sendo estes, em grande maioria, com viés positivista. Isso ocorre, entre outros motivos, pelo desconhecimento de estudos realizados nos primórdios do desenvolvimento do turismo enquanto objeto de investigação. Além disso, há o desprezo quase que generalizado, por parte da corrente intelectual dominante, por tudo o que não seja publicado em língua inglesa. Essa crise dos estudos do turismo é reflexo de uma crise maior, que se manifesta em quatro aspectos principais: 1 a crise da universidade, 2 a crise na filosofia, 3 a crise dos valores culturais, humanos, morais e éticos e 4 a crise dos valores históricos. Os autores concluem que para construir tal conhecimento crítico nos estudos turísticos, será necessário basear-se nos valores e alicerces da Filosofia e da Epistemologia, caso contrário o conhecimento pouco avançará e ficará limitado às vontades e desejos de grupos “proprietários” do conhecimento turístico.Palavras-chave: turismo; crise; estudos críticos; filosofia; epistemologia. AbstractDEMANDA E POLÍTICAS PÚBLICAS PARA O ENSINO SUPERIOR NOS BRICS

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    Simon Schwartzman

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa a expansão do ensino superior nos países chamados BRICS. A aspiração crescente pelo ensino superior obriga os governos a gerir os custos de funcionamento desse sistema. As respostas de cada país variam com sua história, cultura e regime político. Todos eles enfrentam problemas semelhantes, como escassez de recursos e o poder político de atores do sistema de ensino superior e fora dele. Cinco dilemas se apresentam aos países: 1 expansão, igualdade de acesso e diversificação das matrículas, taxas de participação, o número e os tipos de instituições; 2 limitações financeiras; 3 regulação do ensino superior privado; 4 como fazer com que as instituições de ensino superior prestem mais contas a seus alunos, funcionários e à sociedade como um todo; e 5 qualidade e relevância social da aprendizagem e pesquisa em instituições de ensino superior. Utilizando dados e evidências das pesquisas mais recentes, o artigo mostra respostas comuns, com algumas exceções em cada caso: diversificação institucional; políticas de ação afirmativa; crescimento das matrículas nas ciências sociais, humanidades, profissões sociais e Educação; pouco sucesso nas políticas de internacionalização.

  12. Levantamento etnobotânico de plantas medicinais nos quintais do Bairro Novo Horizonte, Ituiutaba, MG

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    H.S.N Liporacci

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Apesar da maioria dos estudos etnobotânicos serem focados em populações tradicionais, as populações de áreas urbanas também vêm sendo investigadas. O presente trabalho realizou um levantamento etnobotânico de plantas medicinais nos quintais de um bairro urbano, próximo à zona rural, no município de Ituiutaba, MG, visando resgatar e identificar o conhecimento local a respeito das plantas medicinais. Para isso, 40 residências foram visitadas e os dados coletados por meio de entrevistas semi-estruturadas realizadas com os moradores. Foram encontradas 72 espécies de plantas medicinais, distribuídas em 33 famílias botânicas, destacando-se Asteraceae e Lamiaceae pelo número de espécies. As cinco espécies mais citadas pelos moradores foram: Mentha sp., Cymbopogon citratus, Sedum dendroideum, Plectranthus barbatus, e Rosmarinus officinalis. O hábito herbáceo foi predominante, e a parte da planta mais usada foi a folha, enquanto a decocção foi o modo de preparo mais frequente. Por mais que existam particularidades entre os diversos costumes e culturas das comunidades locais no Brasil, foi observada similaridade entre os resultados encontrados neste trabalho com outros levantamentos realizados, reforçando a importância da preservação e divulgação do conhecimento popular.

  13. PIMENTA NOS OLHOS DOS OUTROS É... CHILLI BEANS! A PERSONALIDADE DA MARCA AOS "OLHOS" DOS CONSUMIDORES

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    André Luiz Maranhão de Souza Leão

    Full Text Available Cada vez mais as organizações buscam estabelecer vínculos entre suas marcas e os consumidores como estratégia para construção de valor de modo a estabelecer trocas. Na academia, esta questão aparece em estudos que se localizam na interseção entre as áreas de branding e de marketing de relacionamento. Neste intuito, a personalidade de marca, referente à atribuição de características humanas à mesma, se apresenta como uma noção primordial no fomento a esse elo. O presente estudo investiga a percepção dos consumidores da Chilli Beans, maior vendedora de óculos escuros da América Latina, sobre a marca. Desta forma, o objetivo desta pesquisa foi identificar e avaliar as características humanas que compõem a personalidade da marca Chilli Beans sob a ótica de seus consumidores. A investigação se caracteriza como um estudo qualitativo exploratório, realizado por meio de entrevistas em profundidade e analisadas mediante a análise de discurso funcional. Nossos achados indicam treze categorias que, em suas relações, nos levaram à identificação de três perfis que compõem as características ônticas da marca. Implicações teóricas e práticas, bem como indicações de futuras pesquisas são consideradas.

  14. Representação social do sexo nos jovens adultos portugueses

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    Alexandra Gomes

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Foi nosso objetivo medir a representação social do sexo através das evocações livres de 1138 jovens adultos portugueses, com idades entre os 18 e os 25 anos, explorando uma abordagem explicativa da possível influência desta representação social nos comportamentos sexuais de risco observados nesta faixa etária. As evocações foram recolhidas através de um questionário online, divulgado pelas universidades e escolas profissionais portuguesas. Foi realizada uma análise prototípica de representações sociais. Os resultados sugerem uma representação social do sexo romantizada, com um núcleo central baseado na ideia de amor e prazer, em que aspetos relacionados com o risco, como preservativo ou infeções sexualmente transmissíveis, pertencem apenas ao sistema periférico, considerando-se que aí são integrados como uma forma de preservar o núcleo central, mas sem interferir na forma como os participantes vivem as suas experiências sexuais. A associação entre a ideia de amor e preservativo parece estar mais associada à heurística de quem "ama protege" o que facilita a não utilização do preservativo, em vez de a aumentar. A representação social do sexo, centrada no amor e no prazer, poderá enquadrar as questões cognitivas, afetivas e comportamentais presentes na explicação e predição da utilização do preservativo, complementando os modelos sociocognitivos já conhecidos.

  15. Paradigmas do jogar: Interação, corpo e imersão nos videogames

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    Emmanoel Ferreira

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Nos últimos anos, produtores e desenvolvedores de videogames têm investido maciçamente na produção de jogos com imagens realistas, em alta definição. Pari passu, desde o surgimento dos videogames, a principal forma de interagir com um jogo eletrônico tem sido esta: jogador praticamente estático – exceto pelo movimento de seus olhos e suas mãos, que atuam no processo interativo a partir do controle de um gamepad, joystick, ou da combinação mouse/teclado – diante do monitor ou da TV. Este cenário, no entanto, tem sofrido importantes mudanças, a partir de acessórios que convidam o jogador a interagir com o dispositivo videogame não apenas com suas mãos, mas com todo o seu corpo, e a fazer maior uso do espaço físico ao seu redor, suscitando novas percepções e experiências por parte do jogador/usuário.

  16. A CONSTITUIÇÃO DO DISCURSO SOBRE O ENSINO DE LÍNGUA PORTUGUESA NOS ANOS 50

    OpenAIRE

    Caroline Mallmann Schneiders

    2011-01-01

    No presente estudo, procuramos desenvolver algumas considerações acerca do ensino de língua nos anos 50. Para tanto, buscamos fazer um estudo sobre um capítulo, em específico, denominado “Aspectos do ensino da língua”, pertencente à obra Introdução ao Estudo da Filologia Portuguêsa, 1ª edição, 1956, de Serafim da Silva Neto. O que nos interessa é a concepção de ensino de língua que permeia esse discurso científico que circulou no meio acadêmico de meados dos anos 50. Este recorte temporal foi...

  17. Padronização da anestesia em suínos para procedimentos cirúrgicos cardiovasculares experimentais

    OpenAIRE

    Geovanini, Glaucylara Reis; Pinna, Fábio R.; Prado, Flávio A. P.; Tamaki, Wagner Tetsuji; Marques, Euclides

    2008-01-01

    JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVO: Embora sejam os cães os animais mais utilizados em Cirurgia Experimental, nota-se crescente utilização de ovinos, bovinos e suínos como modelos para experimentação científica. Assim, faz-se necessário maior aprendizado de seu tratamento e padronizações básicas para os procedimentos cirúrgicos mais complexos em suínos. O objetivo foi avaliar a sedação e analgesia, obtidas pela injeção intramuscular de midazolam e cetamina e anestesia local com lidocaína a 2% sem vasoc...

  18. Inhibitory effect of di-catechol rooperol on VCAM-1 and iNOS expression in cytokine-stimulated endothelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bereta, J; Bereta, M; Allison, A C; Kruger, P B; Koj, A

    1997-01-01

    Induced expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is believed to play a role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, asthma, as well as other inflammatory disorders. In the current study we examined the effect of the di-catechol rooperol [(E)-1,5-bis (3',4'-dihydroxyphenyl) pent-4-en-1-yne] on the process of microvascular endothelial cell (MME) activation by TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma. We show that rooperol decreases VCAM-1 and iNOS mRNA levels in cytokine-activated MME with subsequent inhibition of VCAM-1 membrane expression as measured by adhesion of P815 cells to MME monolayers, and NO production, as reflected in the nitrite concentration in culture medium. The properties of rooperol now described suggest that rooperol may be an anti-inflammatory agent useful in the treatment of several inflammatory disorders.

  19. A new generation of MDR modulating agents with dual activity: P-gp inhibitor and iNOS inducer agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colabufo, Nicola Antonio; Contino, Marialessandra; Berardi, Francesco; Perrone, Roberto; Panaro, Maria Antonietta; Cianciulli, Antonia; Mitolo, Vincenzo; Azzariti, Amalia; Quatrale, Annelisa; Paradiso, Angelo

    2011-02-01

    MultiDrug Resistance (MDR) is due to the ability of some ATPase transporters to efflux chemotherapeutic agents out from tumor cells decreasing the endocellular concentration for the pharmacological effect, causing cancer cells chemoresistance. In the present work, a set of MDR modulating agents (MC89, MC70, PB28, IG9) able to modulate transmembrane ATP-dependent transporter, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), and also to induce inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression in a panel of tumor cell lines are presented. All selected compounds, known as potent P-gp modulating agents, stimulated nitric oxide (NO) via iNOS in U937, Caco-2 and MCF7-Adr cell lines. The results displayed a new pharmacological strategy to revert MDR and lead to develop a new class of MDR reverting agents devoid of the limits of P-gp inhibitors third generation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Melhoramento do milho: II - Germoplasma utilizado nos trabalhos de seleção

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    G. P. Viegas

    1952-09-01

    linhagens muito promissoras derivadas do mesmo milho. Cumpre ressaltar ainda que, em Viçosa, do milho Tuxpan, foi isolada a L. 94-956, cujo comportamento é muito satisfatório. De par com as variedades, foram introduzidas também linhagens puras. Em 1941 e 1942, houve oportunidade de conseguir amostras de 153 linhagens nos Estados Unidos, obtidas nos principais centros de melhoramento do cereal em Wisconsin, Iowa, Mississippi, Illinois, Connecticut e North Carolina. De todo êsse material, apenas as conhecidas linhagens norte-americanas 38-11 e Hy portaram-se de modo relativamente satisfatório, nas nossas condições. O milho de procedência norte-americana é, em geral, muito precoce e tem pouca palha, o que o torna muito sujeito ao ataque do caruncho e da traça. De outras procedências, como da Argentina, por exemplo, também foram obtidas algumas linhagens. Com exceção das recebidas de outros centros do próprio país, devotados ao melhoramento do milho, - notadamente Viçosa, Piracicaba e Ipanema - as demais linhagens recebidas não se portaram bem nas nossas condições. Foram introduzidas ainda amostras de sementes de híbridos. Queremos nos referir especialmente às remessas feitas dos Estados Unidos, diretamente, ou por intermédio de firmas locais, interessadas. Êstes híbridos portaram-se, todos êles, muito mal. Atualmente, está sendo observado o comportamento dos híbridos simples sintetizados no México e na Colômbia, cruzados com híbridos obtidos no Brasil.In order to diversify the maize germplasm utilized in the breeding work conducted at the Instituto Agronômico, at Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil, efforts were made to obtain corn samples from the most diversified origins. Seeds of numerous varieties, inbred lines and hybrids were introduced and their performance observed under local conditions. Until 1951, a total of 1405 samples were introduced, most of them being derived from various parts of Brazil. From the United States, Colombia, Peru, Bolivia

  2. Metodologia aplicada na avaliação de fetos suínos abortados e natimortos

    OpenAIRE

    Pescador,Caroline A.; Bandarra,Paulo Mota; Antoniassi,Nadia Aline Bobbi; Santos,Adriana da Silva; Oliveira,Eduardo Conceição de; Barcellos,David Emilio Santos Neves de; Driemeier,David

    2010-01-01

    Este artigo revisa dados relativos à realização de necropsia em fetos suínos abortados e natimortos. Aspectos descritos incluem coleta de material, procedimentos de necropsia, achados macroscópicos e histopatológicos alguns dos quais de pouco ou nenhum significado patológico são frequentemente observados numa rotina de diagnóstico e geralmente interpretados erroneamente como lesões reais ou de importância.

  3. Arctigenin promotes apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells via the iNOS/NO/STAT3/survivin signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ke; Li, Li-an; Meng, Yuan-guang; You, Yan-qin; Fu, Xiao-yu; Song, Lei

    2014-12-01

    Arctigenin is a biologically active lignan extracted from the seeds of Arctium lappa and shows anticancer activity against a variety of human cancers. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of arctigenin on ovarian cancer cell proliferation and survival and associated molecular mechanisms. Human ovarian cancer OVCAR3 and SKOV3 cells were treated with arctigenin, and cell proliferation and apoptosis were assessed. Western blot analysis was used to examine signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) phosphorylation and survivin and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression. The involvement of STAT3/survivin/iNOS/NO signalling in arctigenin action was checked. Arctigenin treatment resulted in a significant and dose-dependent inhibition of cell proliferation. Arctigenin-treated cells showed a 4-6 times increase in the percentage of apoptosis, compared with control cells. Pre-treatment with Ac-DEVD-CHO, a specific inhibitor of caspase-3, counteracted the induction of apoptosis by arctigenin. Arctigenin treatment significantly inhibited STAT3 phosphorylation and survivin and iNOS expression. Arctigenin-induced apoptosis was impaired by pre-transfection with survivin-expressing plasmid or addition of chemical nitric oxide (NO) donors. Additionally, exogenous NO prevented the suppression of STAT3 phosphorylation and survivin expression by arctigenin. Arctigenin treatment inhibits the proliferation and induces caspase-3-dependent apoptosis of ovarian cancer cells. Suppression of iNOS/NO/STAT3/survivin signalling is causally linked to the anticancer activity of arctigenin. Therefore, arctigenin may be applicable to anticancer therapy for ovarian cancer. © 2014 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society).

  4. Endothelial microparticles prevent lipid-induced endothelial damageviaAkt/eNOS signaling and reduced oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Ayman M; Wilkinson, Fiona L; McCarthy, Eoghan M; Moreno-Martinez, Daniel; Langford-Smith, Alexander; Romero, Miguel; Duarte, Juan; Alexander, M Yvonne

    2017-10-01

    Endothelial microparticles (EMPs) are endothelium-derived submicron vesicles that are released in response to diverse stimuli and are elevated in cardiovascular disease, which is correlated with risk factors. This study investigates the effect of EMPs on endothelial cell function and dysfunction in a model of free fatty acid (FFA) palmitate-induced oxidative stress. EMPs were generated from TNF-α-stimulated HUVECs and quantified by using flow cytometry. HUVECs were treated with and without palmitate in the presence or absence of EMPs. EMPs were found to carry functional eNOS and to protect against oxidative stress by positively regulating eNOS/Akt signaling, which restored NO production, increased superoxide dismutase and catalase, and suppressed NADPH oxidase and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, with the involvement of NF-erythroid 2-related factor 2 and heme oxygenase-1. Conversely, under normal conditions, EMPs reduced NO release and increased ROS and redox-sensitive marker expression. In addition, functional assays using EMP-treated mouse aortic rings that were performed under homeostatic conditions demonstrated a decline in endothelium-dependent vasodilatation, but restored the functional response under lipid-induced oxidative stress. These data indicate that EMPs harbor functional eNOS and potentially play a role in the feedback loop of damage and repair during homeostasis, but are also effective in protecting against FFA-induced oxidative stress; thus, EMP function is reflected by the microenvironment.-Mahmoud, A. M., Wilkinson, F. L., McCarthy, E. M., Moreno-Martinez, D., Langford-Smith, A., Romero, M., Duarte, J., Alexander, M. Y. Endothelial microparticles prevent lipid-induced endothelial damage via Akt/eNOS signaling and reduced oxidative stress. © FASEB.

  5. Expression of the nos operon proteins from Pseudomonas stutzeri in transgenic plants to assemble nitrous oxide reductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Shen; Mottiar, Yaseen; Johnson, Amanda M; Goto, Kagami; Altosaar, Illimar

    2012-06-01

    Nitrous oxide (N(2)O) is a stable greenhouse gas that plays a significant role in the destruction of the ozone layer. Soils are a significant source of atmospheric N(2)O. It is important to explore some innovative and effective biology-based strategies for N(2)O mitigation. The enzyme nitrous oxide reductase (N(2)OR), naturally found in soil bacteria, is responsible for catalysing the final step of the denitrification pathway, conversion of N(2)O to dintrogen gas (N(2)). To transfer this catalytic pathway from soil into plants and amplify the abundance of this essential mechanism (to reduce global warming), a mega-cassette of five coding sequences was assembled to produce transgenic plants heterologously expressing the bacterial nos operon in plant leaves. Both the single-gene transformants (nosZ) and the multi-gene transformants (nosFLZDY) produced active recombinant N(2)OR. Enzymatic activity was detected using the methyl viologen-linked enzyme assay, showing that extracts from both types of transgenic plants exhibited N(2)O-reducing activity. Remarkably, the single-gene strategy produced higher reductase capability than the whole-operon approach. The data indicate that bacterial N(2)OR expressed in plants could convert N(2)O into inert N(2) without involvement of other Nos proteins. Silencing by homologous signal sequences, or cryptic intracellular targeting are possible explanations for the low activities obtained. Expressing N(2)OR from Pseudomonas stutzeri in single-gene transgenic plants indicated that such ag-biotech solutions to climate change have the potential to be easily incorporated into existing genetically modified organism seed germplasm.

  6. CASUÍSTICA DE ALTE NUM HOSPITAL TERCIÁRIO – O QUE MUDOU NOS ÚLTIMOS 5 ANOS?

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    Daniel Meireles

    2016-07-01

    Conclusões: O ALTE cursa frequentemente com evolução favorável. Apesar de não haver recomendação ou consensos na literatura para a investigação etiológica, esta mantém-se uma prática comum, sem aparente modificação na abordagem nos últimos anos, em comparação com estudo prévio realizado em 2009.

  7. ASPECTOS PATOLÓGICOS DA INTOXICAÇÃO DE SUÍNOS POR SEMENTES DE Crotalaria spectabilis (Fabaceae

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    Souza Adriana Coelho de

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizados 24 suínos desmamados, distribuídos em quatro tratamentos, com seis animais em cada. Os suínos dos tratamentos 1, 2, 3 e 4 receberam, durante 90 dias, ração com respectivamente: 0,0, 0,2, 0,4 e 0,6% de sementes de Crotalaria spectabilis. Os animais que morreram durante o período experimental foram necropsiados logo após a morte. Os sobreviventes foram sacrificados no último dia do experimento. Durante as necropsias, foram colhidos fragmentos do fígado, rim, pulmão e estômago, para realização de exame histopatológico. Os principais sintomas da intoxicação foram edemas subcutâneos, principalmente nos membros, na face e região do pescoço, mucosas oral e ocular pálidas, cerdas eriçadas, caquexia e apatia. O hidropericárdio foi a lesão macroscópica mais comum, acometendo vários animais que receberam a ração contaminada. As principais lesões microscópicas foram fibrose, proliferação de ductos biliares e megalocitose no fígado, broncopneumonia e bronquite crônicas, megalocitose de células epiteliais tubulares renais, nefrose e nefrite crônica, bem como gastrite e ulceração gástrica. Os resultados destes experimentos indicam que ração contaminada com sementes de C. spectabilis, nas proporções utilizadas, foi tóxica para suínos.

  8. Ana Vaz Milheiro, Nos Trópicos Sem Le Corbusier: Arquitectura Luso-africana no Estado Novo

    OpenAIRE

    Agarez, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    Nos Trópicos Sem Le Corbusier: Arquitectura Luso-africana no Estado Novo examines the circulation of architectural cultures and actors in and between the historically-related contexts of Portugal, Brazil and the former Portuguese colonies in Africa, during the first three quarters of the twentieth century. This generously illustrated, Portuguese-language volume is a collection of ten essays written by Ana Vaz Milheiro between 2006 and 2011, and previously published either in the proceedings o...

  9. Intoxicação aguda com sementes de Crotalaria spectabilis (Leg. Papilionoideae em suínos

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    D.G. Ubiali

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se necrose hepatocelular em suínos após consumo de ração que continha grãos de sorgo-granífero (Sorghum bicolor acidentalmente contaminado com sementes de Crotalaria spectabilis. Morreram 76 suínos em quatro propriedades no município de Juscimeira, MT. Os sinais clínicos iniciaram-se 24-48 horas após o consumo da ração contaminada e foram caracterizados por depressão, letargia, apatia, inapetência, vômito, mucosas ictéricas ou pálidas, ascite, decúbito esternal, decúbito lateral com movimentos de pedalagem e convulsões, a evolução clínica foi de 48-60 horas seguida de morte. As Principais alterações macroscópicas foram fígado aumentado de tamanho com evidenciação do padrão lobular, ascite e hidrotórax com líquido de coloração amarelo avermelhado contendo filamentos com aspecto de fibrina, linfonodos aumentados e edema pulmonar interlobular. A doença foi reproduzida utilizando-se 16 suínos divididos em seis grupos que receberam sementes de C. spectabilis em diferentes doses. Necrose hepatocelular ocorreu em sete suínos, sendo dois que receberam doses diárias 2,5g/kg e cinco que receberam doses únicas de 5,0 e 9,5g/kg. Dez doses diárias de 0,5 e 1,25g/kg causaram fibrose hepática.

  10. NOS1 ex1f-VNTR polymorphism influences prefrontal brain oxygenation during a working memory task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopf, Juliane; Schecklmann, Martin; Hahn, Tim; Dresler, Thomas; Dieler, Alica C; Herrmann, Martin J; Fallgatter, Andreas J; Reif, Andreas

    2011-08-15

    Nitric oxide (NO) synthase produces NO, which serves as first and second messenger in neurons, where the protein is encoded by the NOS1 gene. A functional variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) polymorphism in the promoter region of the alternative first exon 1f of NOS1 is associated with various functions of human behavior, for example increased impulsivity, while another, non-functional variant was linked to decreased verbal working memory and a heightened risk for schizophrenia. We therefore investigated the influence of NOS1 ex 1f-VNTR on working memory function as reflected by both behavioral measures and prefrontal oxygenation. We hypothesized that homozygous short allele carriers exhibit altered brain oxygenation in task-related areas, namely the dorsolateral and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and the parietal cortex. To this end, 56 healthy subjects were stratified into a homozygous long allele group and a homozygous short allele group comparable for age, sex and intelligence. All subjects completed a letter n-back task (one-, two-, and three-back), while concentration changes of oxygenated (O(2)Hb) hemoglobin in the prefrontal cortex were measured with functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). We found load-associated O(2)Hb increases in the prefrontal and parts of the parietal cortex. Significant load-associated oxygenation differences between the two genotype groups could be shown for the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the parietal cortex. Specifically, short allele carriers showed a significantly larger increase in oxygenation in all three n-back tasks. This suggests a potential compensatory mechanism, with task-related brain regions being more active in short allele carriers to compensate for reduced NOS1 expression. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A democracia nas Américas: a situação nos países do Mercosul

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    Riberti Almeida Felisbino

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available

    O presente artigo objetiva analisar a situação da democracia nos países do Mercosul, tomando como referência as pesquisas do Latinobarómetro, Fundação Konrad Adenauer-Polilat e do Instituto Interuniversitario de Iberoamérica.

  12. iNOS-Derived Nitric Oxide Induces Integrin-Linked Kinase Endocytic Lysosome-Mediated Degradation in the Vascular Endothelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reventun, Paula; Alique, Matilde; Cuadrado, Irene; Márquez, Susana; Toro, Rocío; Zaragoza, Carlos; Saura, Marta

    2017-07-01

    ILK (integrin-linked kinase) plays a key role in controlling vasomotor tone and is decreased in atherosclerosis. The objective of this study is to test whether nitric oxide (NO) regulates ILK in vascular remodeling. We found a striking correlation between increased levels of inducible nitric oxide and decreased ILK levels in human atherosclerosis and in a mouse model of vascular remodeling (carotid artery ligation) comparing with iNOS (inducible NO synthase) knockout mice. iNOS induction produced the same result in mouse aortic endothelial cells, and these effects were mimicked by an NO donor in a time-dependent manner. We found that NO decreased ILK protein stability by promoting the dissociation of the complex ILK/Hsp90 (heat shock protein 90)/eNOS (endothelial NO synthase), leading to eNOS uncoupling. NO also destabilized ILK signaling platform and lead to decreased levels of paxillin and α-parvin. ILK phosphorylation of its downstream target GSK3-β (glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta) was decreased by NO. Mechanistically, NO increased ILK ubiquitination mediated by the E3 ubiquitin ligase CHIP (C terminus of HSC70-interacting protein), but ILK ubiquitination was not followed by proteasome degradation. Alternatively, NO drove ILK to degradation through the endocytic-lysosomal pathway. ILK colocalized with the lysosome marker LAMP-1 (lysosomal-associated membrane protein 1) in endothelial cells, and inhibition of lysosome activity with chloroquine reversed the effect of NO. Likewise, ILK colocalized with the early endosome marker EEA1 (early endosome antigen 1). ILK endocytosis proceeded via dynamin because a specific inhibitor of dynamin (Dyngo 4a) was able to reverse ILK endocytosis and its lysosome degradation. Endocytosis regulates ILK signaling in vascular remodeling where there is an overload of inducible NO, and thus its inhibition may represent a novel target to fight atherosclerotic disease. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. Inserção de disciplinas sobre competência informacional nos cursos de Biblioteconomia do Brasil

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    Marta Leandro da Mata

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available O bibliotecário é considerado um dos principais responsáveis por divulgar, às instituições educacionais e ao seu corpo de profissionais, a proposta da competência informacional, de modo a promovê-la como parte integrante do processo de ensino-aprendizagem. Neste âmbito, algumas questões sobre a formação deste profissional devem ser objeto de reflexão: será que os cursos de Biblioteconomia têm contemplado, em suas matrizes curriculares, disciplinas voltadas especificamente para a Competência informacional? Teve-se como objetivo verificar como as disciplinas de competência informacional têm sido abordadas nos cursos de Biblioteconomia no Brasil, descrevendo seus principais conteúdos, com ênfase no conceito, nos tipos de programas, nos locais de aplicação, na formação didática, nas habilidades informacionais, nos recursos de aprendizagem e no papel educacional do bibliotecário. Neste sentido, fez-se uma pesquisa de caráter de qualitativo, realizando-se análise de conteúdo dos currículos e dos planos de ensino dos cursos de graduação de Biblioteconomia. Constatou-se que 10 dos 39 cursos no Brasil possuem disciplinas de competência informacional, sendo que sete destes são disciplinas de caráter obrigatório e três são optativas, propiciando maior abrangência acerca do tema aos alunos, bem como possuem conteúdos significativos em suas ementas e no conteúdo programático, contribuindo para a formação de formadores/instrutores em programas de competência informacional.

  14. White matter alterations in antipsychotic- and mood stabilizer-na?ve individuals with bipolar II/NOS disorder ?

    OpenAIRE

    Yip, Sarah W.; Chandler, Rebecca A.; Rogers, Robert D.; Mackay, Clare E.; Goodwin, Guy M.

    2013-01-01

    Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) have been inconsistent in demonstrating impairments in gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) structures in bipolar disorder (BD). This may be a consequence of significant confounding effects of medication, illness history and selection of controls in existing studies. Study of bipolar II or not-otherwise-specified (BD II/NOS) disorder provides a solution to these ...

  15. White matter alterations in antipsychotic- and mood stabilizer-naïve individuals with bipolar II/NOS disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Sarah W; Chandler, Rebecca A; Rogers, Robert D; Mackay, Clare E; Goodwin, Guy M

    2013-01-01

    Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) have been inconsistent in demonstrating impairments in gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) structures in bipolar disorder (BD). This may be a consequence of significant confounding effects of medication, illness history and selection of controls in existing studies. Study of bipolar II or not-otherwise-specified (BD II/NOS) disorder provides a solution to these confounds and a bridge to unipolar cases across the affective spectrum. Thirty-eight euthymic, antipsychotic- and mood stabilizer-naïve young adults (mean age = 20.9 years) with BD II/NOS and 37 age-, cognitive ability- and gender-matched healthy controls (HCs) underwent MRI. Voxel-wise and regional gray matter volume comparisons were conducted using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) were used to assess whole-brain WM, as indexed using fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), parallel and perpendicular diffusion values. No between-group differences were observed for whole-brain VBM comparisons. By contrast, in comparison to HCs, participants with BD II/NOS had significant widespread reductions in FA and increased MD and perpendicular diffusion values in virtually all the major cortical white matter tracts. These data suggest pathophysiological involvement of WM microstructures - but not GM macrostructures - in high functioning BD II/NOS patients at an early age and before significant clinical adversity has been recorded. We propose that white matter development is a valid candidate target for understanding genetic and environmental antecedents to bipolar disorder and mood disorder more generally.

  16. [Effects of Tongluo Xingnao effervescent tablets on blood rheology, iNOS, VEGF and LDH-5 in MID rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiang-Yi; Hu, Yong; Wei, Jiang-Ping; Fu, Wen-Jun; Xu, Shi-Jun; Wang, Yong-Yan

    2016-03-01

    The study was to explore effects of Tongluo Xingnao effervescent tablets on the blood rheology, iNOS, VEGF and LDH-5 in multi-infarct dementia(MID) model rats. Establish MID model rats were induced by microthrombosis, from which 50 successful model rats were randomly divided into five groups, such as the model control group, the dihydroergotoxine mesylate tablets(hydergine) group(0.7 mg•kg⁻¹), Tongluo Xingnao effervescent tablets high-dose, medium-dose and low-dose groups(7.56, 3.78, 1.89 g•kg⁻¹). Another ten rats in the sham group were randomly selected as the parallel control group. Each group was orally administered with drugs for 90 days. The learning and memory ability was evaluated with the Morris water maze test, while the whole blood viscosity and the erythrocyte aggregation index derived from abdominal aorta were measured in different shear rates. In addition, the levels of VEGF and iNOS in the serum were determined by ELISA kits. The expression of LDH-5 in hippocampus of rats was measured with immunohistochemistry and image quantitative analysis. The result showed that Tongluo Xingnao effervescent tablets notably decreased the escape latency of MID model rats, increased times of entering into the escape platform and prolonged retention time in medium ring, meanwhile the whole blood viscosity in MID model rats was also notably reduced in four shear rates, i.e. 1, 5, 30, 200 S⁻¹, erythrocyte aggregation index, serum VEGF and iNOS, and average optical density value of LDH-5, with a statistically significant differences compared with the model control group (Peffervescent tablets could improve the ability of learning and memory of MID model rats and the blood rheology, reduce the level of iNOS, VEGF and the expression of LDH-5, and then improved the brain energy supply. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  17. ANÁLISE DE CRESCIMENTO EM BRAQUIÁRIA NOS SISTEMAS DE PLANTIO SOLTEIRO E CONSÓRCIO COM LEGUMINOSAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas de Aquino Portes Castro

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho avaliou-se o efeito da competição no crescimento da gramínea forrageira Urochloa brizantha cv Marandu em consórcio com as leguminosas forrageiras Stylosanthes guianensis cv Mineirão e Neonotonia wightii cv Comum, nos sistemas de plantio solteiro e em consórcio.O delineamento experimental foi o em blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições, cujos tratamentos foram os seguintes: Braquiária em sistema solteiro de plantio; braquiária em consórcio com soja perene e braquiária em consórcio com estilozantes. Para a análise de crescimento foram colhidas plantas ao nível do solo aleatoriamente na parcela e, posteriormente, encaminhadas ao Laboratório de Fisiologia Vegetal da Embrapa – CNPAF. As taxas de crescimento da cultura (TCC braquiária nos sistemas consorciados de plantio foram inferiores em relação ao sistema solteiro, sendo que o estilozante contribuiu de forma mais expressiva para a redução dessa taxa. Considerando-se que a TCC máxima (kg.ha-1.dia-1 do braquiária foi obtida aos 84 DAE e que o IAF observado nessa mesma data correspondente ao IAF ótimo,demonstra-se que os consórcios não afetaram o ciclo da gramínea, mas sim os valores obtidos para TCC e IAF. Isso pode levar a concluir que existe competição interespecífica nos cultivos consorciados, o que interfere de forma diferenciada nos parâmetros avaliados. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Índice de área foliar, Neonotonia wightii, Stylosanthes guianensis, taxa de crescimento da cultura,Urochloa brizantha.

  18. The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) induces FasL and reduces iNOS and Cox2 in primary monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettich, Christin; Wilker, Sebastian; Mentlein, Rolf; Lucius, Ralph; Roider, Johann; Klettner, Alexa

    2014-11-01

    Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells may alter the phenotype of monocytes by soluble factors that may be influenced by stimulation of the RPE. Since RPE cells carry the toll-like receptor-3 (TLR3) that detects and reacts to viral infection through binding of dsRNA we investigated the effects of RPE cells with or without TLR3 stimulation on blood-derived monocytes with respect to regulation of pro-/anti-inflammatory cytokines, anti-angiogenic factors and migratory properties. Primary RPE cells were prepared from porcine eyes; monocytes were prepared from porcine blood. TLR3 activation was induced by polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (Poly I:C). RPE cells were stimulated with Poly I:C in different concentrations for 24 hours and a cell culture supernatant was applied to the monocytes. Expression of CD14 and Fas ligand (FasL) was determined via flow cytometry. The expression of IL-6, IL-1ß, TNFα, Cox2, iNOS and IL-10 was determined via quantitative RT-PCR. Migration was determined using Boyden chamber experiments. The supernatant of RPE cells, irrespective of TLR3 activation, induced FasL expression in the monocytes. Expression of iNOS and Cox2 was reduced by RPE cells and the reduction of Cox2 but not if iNOS was lost under TLR3 activation. No induction of IL-6, IL-1ß, IL-10 or TNFα by the RPE was seen. TLR3-activated RPE cells induced monocyte migration. RPE cells induce an upregulation of FasL and a downregulation of iNOS and Cox2 without upregulating inflammatory cytokines, possibly inducing an anti-angiogenic phenotype in the monocytes. This phenotype is still upheld after challenging RPE cells with dsRNA, mimicking a viral infection.

  19. Aurantio-obtusin relaxes systemic arteries through endothelial PI3K/AKT/eNOS-dependent signaling pathway in rats

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    Shuzhen Li

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Aurantio-obtusin is a natural effective compound isolated from Semen Cassiae, which possesses hypotensive and hypolipidemic effects. Although its hypotensive effect have been clarified, mechanisms Aurantio-obtusin relaxes systemic arteries remain unclear. This study was to investigate effects and mechanisms of Aurantio-obtusin on isolated mesenteric arteries (MAs. We examined MAs relaxation induced by Aurantio-obtusin on rat isolated MAs, expression and activity of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS and protein kinase B (AKT, and nitric oxide (NO production in bovine artery endothelial cells (BAECs. Findings showed Aurantio-obtusin elicited dose-dependent vasorelaxation with phenylephrine (PE precontracted rat MA rings (diameter: 200–300 μm, which can be diminished by denudation of endothelium and inhibition of eNOS activity, while having no effect on rat isolated pulmonary artery (PA rings. Aurantio-obtusin increased NO production by promoting phosphorylations of eNOS at Ser-1177 and Thr-495 in endothelial cells. Aurantio-obtusin also promoted phosphorylations of Akt at Ser-473. PI3K inhibitor LY290042 could diminish vasorelaxation induced by Aurantio-obtusin. Moreover Aurantio-obtusin also elicited dose-dependent vasorelaxation effect with PE precontracted MA rings (diameter: 100–150 μm. Therefore, vasorelaxation induced by Aurantio-obtusin was dependent on endothelium integrity and NO production, which mediated by endothelial PI3K/Akt/eNOS pathway. Results suggest Aurantio-obtusin may offer therapeutic effects in hypertension, as a new potential vasodilator.

  20. Konsumsi Antioksidan dan Ekspresi Gen eNOS3 Alel -786T>C pada Penderita Hipertensi Etnik Minangkabau

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    Delmi Sulastri

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Gene of eNOS 3 allel -786T>C is one of the important genes which is related to the high prevalence of hypertension. Polymorphism of this gene decreases nitric oxide synthase (NOS enzyme synthesis result in reduction of nitric oxide (NO. Nitric oxide causes vasodilatation, which decreases peripheral resistant and blood pressure. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of an antioxidant consumption on eNOS3 gene -786T>C allel expression in hypertension patients with Minangkabau ethnicity. Cross sectional study was done on 130 hypertension and normotension subjects, 30–65 years old in 4 districts, Padang, Sumatera Barat during 2009. The interview about antioxidant consumption by food frequency questioner, the assessment of eNOS3 gene by polymerase chain reaction and NO plasma level by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay were done. The data were analyzed using t-test and chi-square. The results showed that the hypertensive’s and normotensive’s plasma NO concentration were 26.91±15.40 μM/L and 25.79±15.04 μM/L, respectively. There were thymine to cytosine substitution found at 786 position in 1.5% of the hypertensive subjects and 9.2% of the normotensive subjects. A low plasma NO levels (67.2% was found in subjects with heterozygote TC alleles.There was a significant relationship between consumption of antioxidant (vitamin E and NO plasma level in hypertension subjects with TC heterozygote allel. In conclusions, vitamin E influences NO plasma level in hypertension patients with heterozygote TC alleles.

  1. Immunomodulatory effects of royal jelly on aorta CD3, CD68 and eNOS expression in hypercholesterolaemic rats

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    Amal Attia El-Morsy Ibrahim

    2014-08-01

    RJ administration (300 mg/kg/day with CH, produced a counteractive effect, represented in recompense of biochemical alteration, CD4 and CD8 expression. RJ intake also amended the histological picture. The immunohistochemical picture revealed a decrease in CD3, CD86 and eNOS in the aortic tissue. These findings attributed to the significant immunomodulatory effect of RJ remedy suppress deleterious effects of hypercholesterolaemia.

  2. A20 functions as mediator in TNFα-induced injury of human umbilical vein endothelial cells through TAK1-dependent MAPK/eNOS pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lei; Huang, Bingqing; Song, Shiyang; Sohun, Hareshwaree; Rao, Zhiheng; Tao, Luyuan; Jin, Qike; Zeng, Jingjing; Wu, Rongzhou; Ji, Kangting; Lin, Jiafeng; Wu, Lianpin; Chu, Maoping

    2017-09-12

    A20, a negative regulator of nuclear factor κB signaling, has been shown to attenuate atherosclerotic events. Transforming growth factor beta-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) plays a critical role in TNFα-induced atherosclerosis via endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase (eNOS) uncoupling and NO reduction. In the study, we investigated the hypothesis that A20 protected endothelial cell injury induced by TNFα through modulating eNOS activity and TAK1 signalling. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were stimulated by TNFα. The impact of A20 on cell apoptosis, eNOS expression and NO production and related TAK1 pathway were detected. Both eNOS and NO production were remarkably reduced. TAK1, p38 MAPK phosphorylation and HUVECs apoptosis were enhanced after TNFα stimulation for 2 hrs. Inhibition of A20 significantly activated TAK1, p38 MAPK phosphorylation, and cell apoptosis, but blocked eNOS expression and NO production. Furthermore, p38 MAPK expression was suppressed by A20 over-expression, but re-enhanced by inhibiting A20 or activation of TAK1. Furtherly, TNFα-induced suppression of eNOS and NO production were largely prevented by silencing p38 MAPK. Collectively, our results suggested that A20-mediated TAK1 inactivation suppresses p38 MAPK and regulated MAPK/eNOS pathway, which contributes to endothelial cell survival and function preservation.

  3. DA Negatively Regulates IGF-I Actions Implicated in Cognitive Function via Interaction of PSD95 and nNOS in Minimal Hepatic Encephalopathy

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    Saidan Ding

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I has been positively correlated with cognitive ability. Cognitive decline in minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE was shown to be induced by elevated intracranial dopamine (DA. The beneficial effect of IGF-I signaling in MHE remains unknown. In this study, we found that IGF-I content was reduced in MHE rats and that IGF-I administration mitigated cognitive decline of MHE rats. A protective effect of IGF-I on the DA-induced interaction between postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD95 and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS was found in neurons. Ribosomal S6 protein kinase (RSK phosphorylated nNOS in response to IGF-I by recruiting extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2. In turn, DA inactivated the ERK1/2/RSK pathway and stimulated the PSD95–nNOS interaction by downregulating IGF-I. Inhibition of the interaction between PSD95 and nNOS ameliorated DA-induced memory impairment. As DA induced deficits in the ERK1/2/RSK pathway and the interaction between PSD95 and nNOS in MHE brains, IGF-I administration exerted a protective effect via interruption of the interaction between PSD95 and nNOS. These results suggest that IGF-I antagonizes DA-induced cognitive loss by disrupting PSD95–nNOS interactions in MHE.

  4. Molecular Analysis of rs2070744 and rs1799983 Polymorphisms of NOS3 Gene in Iranian Patients With Multiple Sclerosis.

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    Heidari, Mohammad Mehdi; Khatami, Mehri; Tahamtan, Yaser

    2017-01-01

    Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a disease of central nervous system that mainly causes lesions or plaques in the spinal cord and brain. The purpose of this study was to analyze the relation between c.-813C>T (rs2070744) and c.894G>T (rs1799983) polymorphisms of NOS3 gene and MS in Iranian patients. A total of 78 patients with MS and 80 healthy controls were screened for NOS3 (rs2070744 and rs1799983) Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) by tetra-primer multiplex ARMS-PCR and PCR-RFLP. Genotype frequencies of the c.-813C>T polymorphism in patients compared to controls were as follows: 53.8% to 80.0% for TT genotype, 41.0% to 18.8% for TC genotype, and 5.1% versus 1.2% for CC genotype (P=0.001). The frequencies of GG genotype was 57.7% and 78.8% and for GT genotype of c.894G>T polymorphism in patients compared to control subjects was 42.3% and 21.2%, respectively (P=0.004). Our results indicate that the studied NOS3 polymorphisms may be associated with MS in Iranian patients.

  5. O que bilíngues bimodais têm a nos dizer sobre desenvolvimento bilíngue?

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    de Quadros, Ronice Müller; Lillo-Martin, Diane; Pichler, Deborah Chen

    2013-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho é apresentar o que as pesquisas que estamos desenvolvendo com crianças ouvintes, filhas de pais surdos, adquirindo Língua Brasileira de Sinais (Libras) e Português e Língua de Sinais Americana (ASL) e Inglês (Lillo-Martin et al. 2010) têm a nos dizer sobre desenvolvimento bilíngue. Os dados deste estudo fazem parte de um banco de dados de interações espontâneas coletadas longitudinalmente, alternando contextos de aquisição da Libras e do português como língua alvo, no Brasil e dados coletados longitudinalmente. nos mesmos contextos, de crianças adquirindo ASL e inglês1. Além disso, há também dados do estudo experimental com testes aplicados nos dois pares de línguas que se agregam ao presente estudo. Uma visão geral dos estudos desenvolvidos sobre a aquisição bilíngue bimodal por crianças ouvintes, filhas de pais surdos, será apresentada e, então, serão expostos alguns aspectos linguísticos deste tipo de aquisição, considerando as discussões sobre aquisição bilíngue a partir da pesquisa realizada. PMID:24431480

  6. Enrique Dussel: contribuições para a crítica ética e radical nos Estudos Organizacionais

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    Maria Ceci Misoczky

    Full Text Available Nesse ensaio, vinculamo-nos ao esforço que alguns autores vêm realizando de elaborar uma crítica ética e radical nos Estudos Organizacionais (EO para libertar pelo menos algumas de suas partes da colonização pelo management. Nesse sentido, tomamos como referência as proposições criticamente situadas na América Latina da Filosofia da Libertação (FL elaboradas por Enrique Dussel. Na primeira parte, apresentamos uma visão abrangente desta vasta obra que se justifica pela apropriação parcial e mesmo incoerente que vem sendo realizada nos EO. Na segunda parte, discutimos algumas apropriações que vêm sendo feitas por autores vinculados aos EO no contexto latino-americano, com destaque para o brasileiro. Esse diálogo crítico é indispensável para que se libere o caminho para que a FL de Dussel contribua para o exercício de uma crítica que negue, lado a lado com as vítimas, a legitimidade de um sistema que explora e oprime e que, simultaneamente, se comprometa com a afirmação da vida humana em comunidade e, portanto, com a práxis da libertação.

  7. iNOS expression and biosynthesis of nitric oxide metabolites in the course of tumor growth of different histogenesis

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    V. P. Deryagina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of the production of nitric oxide (NO metabolites: nitrites, nitrates, volatile nitrosamines and iNOS expression was studied in mice with subcutaneous transplanted, spontaneous and chemical- induced tumors. Tumor growth was accompanied by increased production of nitrites + nitrates in tumors or their release with urine that not dependent on tumor histotype. The total concentration of nitrites and nitrates in tumors reached micromolar levels characteristic of nitrosative stress. The ability of peritoneal macrophages + monocytes to generates nitrites was suppressed at the stage of intensive growth of the Lewis lung carcinoma, which may indicate a decrease in the cytotoxic properties of immune cells. The possibility of formation in the Erlich carcinoma of volative N-nitrosodimethylamine and N-nitrosodiethylamine compounds with pronounced carcinogenic properties was demonstrated. A positive expression of iNOS was revealed in some areas of lung carcinoma at all investigated time points using the immunohistochemical method. The lungs metastases were not stain or weakly stained. This may indicate selection of the cells with a low activity of iNOS migrating in the lungs.

  8. Orientin Reduces Myocardial Infarction Size via eNOS/NO Signaling and Thus Mitigates Adverse Cardiac Remodeling

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    Fangfang Li

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Orientin is a flavonoid extracted from Chinese traditional herb, Polygonum orientale L. Previous study has reported that orientin protected myocardial from ischemia reperfusion injury. However, whether orientin could protect against cardiac remodeling after myocardial injury remains unclear. The aim of our study is to investigate the effects of orientin in the progression of cardiac remodeling after myocardial infarction (MI. Mice cardiac remodeling model was established by left coronary artery ligation surgery. Experimental groups were as follows: vehicle-sham, orientin-sham, vehicle-MI, and orientin-MI. Animals were treated with vehicle or orientin (40 mg/kg for 25 days starting 3 days after surgery. After 4 weeks of MI, mice with orientin treatment had decreased mortality and improved cardiac function. Significantly, at 4 weeks post-MI, orientin treatment decreased fibrosis, inflammatory response, and cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Furthermore, orientin treatment attenuated the hypoxia-induced neonatal rat cardiomyocyte apoptosis and increased cell viability. Additionally, orientin supplementation mitigated oxidative stress in remodeling heart tissue and cardiomyocytes exposed to hypoxia as measured by 2′,7′-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate fluorescent probe. Mechanistically, orientin promotes cardioprotection by activating the eNOS/NO signaling cascades, which was confirmed by eNOS inhibitor (L-NAME in vitro and in vivo. Inhibition of oxidative stress by orientin via eNOS/NO signaling cascades in the heart may represent a potential therapy for cardiac remodeling.

  9. Flavone inhibits nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity, nitric oxide production and protein S-nitrosylation in breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenzhen; Yang, Bingwu; Fu, Huiling; Ma, Long; Liu, Tingting; Chai, Rongfei; Zheng, Zhaodi; Zhang, Qunye; Li, Guorong

    2015-03-13

    As the core structure of flavonoids, flavone has been proved to possess anticancer effects. Flavone's growth inhibitory functions are related to NO. NO is synthesized by nitric oxide synthase (NOS), and generally increased in a variety of cancer cells. NO regulates multiple cellular responses by S-nitrosylation. In this study, we explored flavone-induced regulations on nitric oxide (NO)-related cellular processes in breast cancer cells. Our results showed that, flavone suppresses breast cancer cell proliferation and induces apoptosis. Flavone restrains NO synthesis by does-dependent inhibiting NOS enzymatic activity. The decrease of NO generation was detected by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. Flavone-induced inhibitory effect on NOS activity is dependent on intact cell structure. For the NO-induced protein modification, flavone treatment significantly down-regulated protein S-nitrosylation, which was detected by "Biotin-switch" method. The present study provides a novel, NO-related mechanism for the anticancer function of flavone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Autocríticas e Expurgos nos Círculos Revolucionários Paulistas na Era Vargas

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    Alzira Lobo de Arruda Campos

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available As dissensões ocorridas nos meios revolucionários paulistas, nos anos 30, pontuaram a história do Partido Comunista do Brasil e das demais correntes de esquerda, produzindo censuras e autocríticas dirigidas a muitos de seus membros. A determinação revolucionária dos camaradas, desenvolvida na cultura de gueto da subversão, propiciou a formação de estratégias de sobrevivência, das quais, a mais perversa, era a dúvida metódica lançada sobre a lealdade de companheiros de jornada. Nas reuniões do partido, traições supostas ou reais ocupavam boa parte da pauta. Impurezas teóricas, envolvimento com trotskistas, adesões pequeno-burguesas, colaboracionismo, lealdade à família antes que ao partido, envenenavam as relações dos comunistas. Informações provenientes de fontes diversas — cartas, atas de reuniões, circulares, prontuários policiais — permitem-nos analisar esse processo, submetido ao silêncio quase total da historiografia brasileira.

  11. SENTIDOS DE DIREITOS HUMANOS: (recontextualizações nos livros didáticos do ensino médio

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    Suzana Paula de Oliveira Pereira

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO: Este artigo objetiva analisar a discussão de temas relacionados aos Direitos Humanos nos livros didáticos do Ensino Médio. Metodologicamente, a pesquisa é de caráter documental e tem como fim verificar, através de expressões e palavras-chave extraídas de documentos oficiais, possíveis sentidos de conteúdos presentes naqueles livros referentes a área de Ciências Humanas. Teoricamente é embasado em Ball (2011, Ramos (2011 e Lopes (2011, que tratam, respectivamente, sobre o ciclo contínuo de políticas, principalmente nos contextos de produção de textos, as implicações da comunidade disciplinar na constituição da política curricular e as teorias de currículo, com ênfase no diálogo estabelecido com a Teoria do Discurso de Laclau (2006 - traduções diante de múltiplos contextos, os significantes vazios e a (recontextualização. Os resultados apontam que as temáticas são trabalhadas como conteúdos voltados às minorias, discutindo sobre questões de gênero, orientação sexual, racismo, igualdade, discriminação e diferença como sentidos arrolados aqueles Direitos, principalmente nos livros de Filosofia e Sociologia.

  12. Allicin protects traumatic spinal cord injury through regulating the HSP70/Akt/iNOS pathway in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shunyi; Ren, Dongliang

    2016-10-01

    Allicin is a major component of garlic, extracted as an oily liquid. The present study was designed to investigate the beneficial effects of allicin on traumatic spinal cord injury (TSCI) in mice, and whether the effects are mediated via regulation of the heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), v‑akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 1 (Akt) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) pathways. Adult BALB/c mice (30‑40 g) received a laminectomy at the T9 vertebral level as a model of TSCI. In the present study, treatment of the TSCI mice with allicin significantly increased their Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan (BBB) scores (Pallicin increased the protein levels of HSP70, increased the phosphorylation of Akt and reduced the iNOS protein expression levels in TSCI mice. Additionally, treatment with allicin significantly reduced the levels of ROS and enhanced the NADH levels in TSCI mice. Collectively, these data demonstrate that the effects of allicin on TSCI are mediated via regulation of the HSP70, Akt and iNOS pathways in mice.

  13. Role of the eNOS-NO System in Regulating the Antiproteinuric Effects of VEGF Receptor 2 Inhibition in Diabetes

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    Andrew Advani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Subtle perturbations in intraglomerular VEGF/VEGFR-2 signaling or in the influencing microenvironment can profoundly affect renal function, resulting in the apparently paradoxical observation that VEGF blockade attenuates proteinuria development in experimental diabetes despite exerting the opposite effect under other circumstances. In the present study, we sought to explore the role of eNOS-NO activity in regulating the differential response to VEGF blockade in the diabetic and nondiabetic settings. In a rodent model of accelerated renal injury, the transgenic (mRen-227 (Ren-2 rat, VEGFR-2 inhibition with the small molecule vandetanib resulted in an increase in urine protein excretion preceding a subsequent rise in systolic blood pressure. When compared to their normoglycaemic counterparts, diabetic Ren-2 rats exhibited an increase in the renal expression of eNOS and in urinary excretion of nitric oxide (NO metabolites. In contrast to the heavy proteinuria observed with vandetanib in nondiabetic TGR(mRen-227 rats, VEGFR-2 inhibition reduced urine protein excretion in diabetic animals, despite a comparable magnitude of histological injury. However, proteinuria was markedly increased by concomitant treatment of diabetic Ren-2 rats with vandetanib and the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-NAME. These observations highlight the pivotal role that the eNOS-NO system plays in regulating the biologic response to VEGF within the glomerulus.

  14. Role of the eNOS-NO system in regulating the antiproteinuric effects of VEGF receptor 2 inhibition in diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advani, Andrew; Connelly, Kim A; Advani, Suzanne L; Thai, Kerri; Zhang, Yuan; Kelly, Darren J; Gilbert, Richard E

    2013-01-01

    Subtle perturbations in intraglomerular VEGF/VEGFR-2 signaling or in the influencing microenvironment can profoundly affect renal function, resulting in the apparently paradoxical observation that VEGF blockade attenuates proteinuria development in experimental diabetes despite exerting the opposite effect under other circumstances. In the present study, we sought to explore the role of eNOS-NO activity in regulating the differential response to VEGF blockade in the diabetic and nondiabetic settings. In a rodent model of accelerated renal injury, the transgenic (mRen-2)27 (Ren-2) rat, VEGFR-2 inhibition with the small molecule vandetanib resulted in an increase in urine protein excretion preceding a subsequent rise in systolic blood pressure. When compared to their normoglycaemic counterparts, diabetic Ren-2 rats exhibited an increase in the renal expression of eNOS and in urinary excretion of nitric oxide (NO) metabolites. In contrast to the heavy proteinuria observed with vandetanib in nondiabetic TGR(mRen-2)27 rats, VEGFR-2 inhibition reduced urine protein excretion in diabetic animals, despite a comparable magnitude of histological injury. However, proteinuria was markedly increased by concomitant treatment of diabetic Ren-2 rats with vandetanib and the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-NAME. These observations highlight the pivotal role that the eNOS-NO system plays in regulating the biologic response to VEGF within the glomerulus.

  15. Eventos adversos e incidentes sem dano em recém-nascidos notificados no Brasil, nos anos 2007 a 2013

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    Luciana da Silva Lanzillotti

    Full Text Available Resumo: O estudo teve o objetivo de analisar os eventos adversos e outros incidentes que não causaram danos em recém-nascidos até 28 dias de vida, notificados no Sistema de Notificações para a Vigilância Sanitária (NOTIVISA nos anos de 2007 a 2013. Trata-se de estudo quantitativo, descritivo, retrospectivo, com análise de dados secundários. Foram notificados 355 incidentes, desses, 118 (33,3% relacionaram-se a artigos médicos, 4 (1,1% a equipamentos médicos, e 233 (65,6% a medicamentos. No que tange aos medicamentos, o nitrato de prata e os antibióticos foram os mais notificados, e nos artigos e equipamentos médicos, o uso de cateteres venosos como precursores de flebites, o evento adverso mais notificado. O estudo desvela notificações de eventos adversos e de incidentes que não causaram dano, provocando discussões do que efetivamente é considerado dano para aquele que faz a notificação. O desafio para o NOTIVISA é o seu aprimoramento que, como nos demais sistemas de informação, decorre de: uso, crítica e relação com os usuários - notificadores e interessados, tais como as instituições de pesquisa e ensino.

  16. Sildenafil (Viagra Protective Effects on Neuroinflammation: The Role of iNOS/NO System in an Inflammatory Demyelination Model

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    Catarina Raposo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We recently demonstrated that sildenafil reduces the expression of cytokines, COX-2, and GFAP in a demyelinating model induced in wild-type (WT mice. Herein, the understandings of the neuroprotective effect of sildenafil and the mediation of iNOS/NO system on inflammatory demyelination induced by cuprizone were investigated. The cerebella of iNOS−/− mice were examined after four weeks of treatment with cuprizone alone or combined with sildenafil. Cuprizone increased GFAP, Iba-1, TNF-α, COX-2, IL-1β, and IFN-γ expression, decreased expression of glutathione S-transferase pi (GSTpi, and damaged myelin in iNOS−/− mice. Sildenafil reduced Iba-1, IFN-γ, and IL-1β levels but had no effect on the expression of GFAP, TNF-α, and COX-2 compared to the cuprizone group. Sildenafil elevated GSTpi levels and improved the myelin structure/ultrastructure. iNOS−/− mice suffered from severe inflammation following treatment with cuprizone, while WT mice had milder inflammation, as found in the previous study. It is possible that inflammatory regulation through iNOS-feedback is absent in iNOS−/− mice, making them more susceptible to inflammation. Sildenafil has at least a partial anti-inflammatory effect through iNOS inhibition, as its effect on iNOS−/− mice was limited. Further studies are required to explain the underlying mechanism of the sildenafil effects.

  17. Upregulation of ANP and NPR-C mRNA in the kidney and heart of eNOS knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Kuichang; Kim, Sun Young; Oh, Young-Bin; Yu, Jiahua; Shah, Amin; Park, Byung Hyun; Kim, Suhn Hee

    2010-07-01

    The aim of the present studywas to examine the question of whether the atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) system is altered by endothelial nitric-oxide synthase (eNOS). Male eNOS-deficient mice (eNOS-/-) and wild type control mice (eNOS+/+, C57B1/6J) were used. Blood pressure was measured in anesthetized mice by tail cuff plethysmography and renal function was measured. Expression of ANP, natriuretic peptide receptor (NPR)-A, NPR-C, and tonicity-responsive enhancer binding protein (TonEBP) mRNA was determined by real-time PCR. Localization of (125)I-ANP binding sites was measured using in vitro autoradiography. In eNOS-/- mice, systolic blood pressure increased and left ventricular hypertrophy was observed. Urine volume and osmolarity did not change. Expression of ANP markedly increased in the heart and kidney of eNOS-/- mice. Expression of NPR-A and NPR-C increased in the heart and tended to increase in the kidney of eNOS-/- mice. In the renal medulla in particular, increased expression of NPR-C was more prominent. Expression of TonEBP mRNA was markedly decreased in the renal medulla, but not in the renal cortex. Maximum binding capacity (B(max)) of ANP and C-ANP increased in the renal medulla in eNOS-/- mice. These results suggest that the eNOS-NO system may be partly involved in regulation of ANP, NPR-A, -C, and TonEBP mRNA expression in the kidney. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Identificação dos agentes agressivos e das patologias em pisos industriais de frigorífico de suínos

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    Rocher, Wellington Tadeu Monteiro de

    2007-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro Tecnológico. Programa de Pós-graduação em Engenharia Civil Nos frigoríficos de suínos, observa-se a presença de muitos problemas existentes nos pisos, como buracos, rachaduras, desgastes acentuados, quebras, descolamentos de camadas, formação de pó, deterioração de juntas e outros que são formas de patologias ocasionadas por diferentes agentes agressivos como urina, fezes, sangue, gordura, sal, águas quente e fria, pro...

  19. Marine Cyclotripeptide X-13 Promotes Angiogenesis in Zebrafish and Human Endothelial Cells via PI3K/Akt/eNOS Signaling Pathways

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    Zhong Pei

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Cyclotripeptide X-13 is a core of novel marine compound xyloallenoide A isolated from mangrove fungus Xylaria sp. (no. 2508. We found that X-13 dose-dependently induced angiogenesis in zebrafish embryos and in human endothelial cells, which was accompanied by increased phosphorylation of eNOS and Akt and NO release. Inhibition of PI3K/Akt/eNOS by LY294002 or l-NAME suppressed X-13-induced angiogenesis. The present work demonstrates that X-13 promotes angiogenesis via PI3K/Akt/eNOS pathways.

  20. Nutrientes em compostos orgânicos de resíduos vegetais e dejeto de suínos

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    Sediyama Maria Aparecida Nogueira

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou avaliar a concentração de nutrientes de sete diferentes compostos orgânicos produzidos com bagaço de cana-de-açúcar, capim napier, palha de café e dejeto de suínos na forma líquida. Cada composto foi produzido com um ou mais resíduos vegetais associados ao dejeto de suínos, sendo o bagaço de cana-de-açúcar também associado ao gesso e ao superfosfato triplo. Foi utilizado o delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados, com três repetições e sete tratamentos. Aos 120 dias, as amostras foram coletadas e analisadas quimicamente, para quantificação, em espectrofotômetro de plasma, de macro e micronutrientes presentes nos compostos orgânicos. A presença do bagaço de cana-de-açúcar, como único resíduo vegetal, possibilitou a produção de compostos orgânicos com menor valor de K, Mg, B e pH. A adição de gesso e superfosfato triplo não proporcionou melhorias significativas na qualidade do composto produzido com bagaço de cana-de-açúcar e dejeto de suínos. Os compostos produzidos com palha de café apresentaram valores mais altos para K e pH. A combinação de bagaço de cana-de-açúcar com palha de café melhorou a qualidade dos compostos orgânicos e pode ser prática promissora para a Zona da Mata Mineira, pois estes são resíduos facilmente encontrados na região. A concentração de Cu, Fe e Zn, nos compostos produzidos não ultrapassaram os limites de segurança para sua utilização no solo.