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Sample records for hidradenitis sine neutrophils

  1. Leukocyte Profile in Peripheral Blood and Neutrophil-Lymphocyte Ratio in Hidradenitis Suppurativa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Iben Marie; Ring, Hans Christian; Prens, Errol P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a chronic, inflammatory skin disease. Increasing evidence suggests that HS involves dysfunctional immune responses in both the adaptive and the innate immune system. The recently proposed association of HS with metabolic syndrome may further add...

  2. SINEs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramerov, Dmitri A; Vassetzky, Nikita S

    2011-01-01

    Short interspersed elements (SINEs) are mobile genetic elements that invade the genomes of many eukaryotes. Since their discovery about 30 years ago, many gaps in our understanding of the biology and function of SINEs have been filled. This review summarizes the past and recent advances in the studies of SINEs. The structure and origin of SINEs as well as the processes involved in their amplification, transcription, RNA processing, reverse transcription, and integration of a SINE copy into the genome are considered. Then we focus on the significance of SINEs for the host genomes. While these genomic parasites can be deleterious to the cell, the long-term being in the genome has made SINEs a valuable source of genetic variation providing regulatory elements for gene expression, alternative splice sites, polyadenylation signals, and even functional RNA genes. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Hidradenitis suppurativa.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buimer, M.G.; Wobbes, T.; Klinkenbijl, J.H.G.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hidradenitis suppurativa is a chronic, recurrent, suppurative cutaneous disease. Despite its incidence, optimal medical or surgical treatment remains unclear. This review describes the disease, ranging from pathogenesis to treatment and prognosis. METHODS: Articles were sourced from

  4. Hidradenitis Suppurativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müzeyyen Gönül

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Hidradenitis suppurativa is a chronic inflammatory disorder of apocrine glands characterized by recurrent abscess, sinuses and scars. The disorder affects life quality significantly and usually involves axillae, groins, perineal and perianal regions. The etiology of the disease has been explained exactly. However follicular occlusion is thought to be the main cause. The treatment of the disorder is very difficult. The medical treatment is preferred for mild and modarate disease, whereas surgical treatment is suggested for severe disease. Among the medical treatment, there are systemic and topical antibiotics, intralesional steroid injection, systemic retinoids and hormonal therapy. The options of surgical treatment of disease change from drainage to radical excision, and the therapy should be choosen according to the severity of the disease. Whatever the therapeutic options are, recurrence is the most important causes of the morbidity of hidradenitis suppurativa.

  5. Comorbidities of hidradenitis suppurativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Martina L; Kimball, Alexa B

    2017-06-01

    Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is an inflammatory skin disorder with many associated comorbidities, including obesity, metabolic syndrome, smoking, depression, arthritis, autoinflammatory syndromes, inflammatory bowel disease, and genetic syndromes. In addition, HS patients can suffer from a variety of diseases related to the chronic inflammatory nature of their HS such as cardiovascular disease and anemia. An understanding of these comorbidities and associations is essential for the management of HS, and routine screening for these entities should be considered in all HS patients. ©2017 Frontline Medical Communications.

  6. Coagulation Status in Hidradenitis Suppurativa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Iben Marie; Johansen, Maria Egede; Mogensen, Ulla B

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic inflammatory diseases other than hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) have been associated with prothrombotic/hypercoagulable status. OBJECTIVE: To investigate a possible association between the chronic inflammatory skin disease HS and prothrombotic/hypercoagulable state. METHODS: We...

  7. Psychophysical Aspects of Hidradenitis Suppurativa

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Matusiak, Lukasz; Bieniek, Andrzej; Szepietowski, Jacek C

    2010-01-01

    Hidradenitis suppurativa is a recurrent, debilitating suppurative skin disease. The symptoms are much more than just physical, but studies of its impact on patients' psychological state and related quality of life are very limited...

  8. Hidradenitis Suppurativa/Acne Inversa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zouboulis, Christos C.; Del Marmol, Véronique; Mrowietz, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hidradenitis suppurativa/acne inversa (HS) is a chronic, inflammatory, recurrent, debilitating disease, which inflicts a significant burden on patients and is associated with comorbid disorders, such as significantly reduced quality of life, depression, stigmatization, inactivity...

  9. Genetics Home Reference: hidradenitis suppurativa

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... JN. γ-Secretase mutations in hidradenitis suppurativa: new insights into disease pathogenesis. J Invest Dermatol. 2013 Mar; ... healthcare professional . About Genetics Home Reference Site Map Customer Support Selection Criteria for Links USA.gov Copyright ...

  10. HiSCR (Hidradenitis Suppurativa Clinical Response)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kimball, B. A.; Sobell, J. M.; Zouboulis, C C

    2016-01-01

    Background: Determining treatment response for patients with hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) can be challenging due to limitations of current disease activity evaluations. Objective: Evaluate the novel, validated endpoint, Hidradenitis Suppurativa Clinical Response (HiSCR) and its utility as an out...

  11. The bacteriology of hidradenitis suppurativa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ring, Hans Christian; Riis Mikkelsen, Peter; Miller, Iben Marie

    2015-01-01

    Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a chronic inflammatory disabling skin disease consisting of recurrent nodules, sinuses, fistulas and scarring involving the intertriginous regions. HS is often a therapeutic challenge and most treatments are off-label. A better understanding of aetiology......, supports a microbial role in disease pathogenesis. However, these antibiotics also work as immunomodulators of especially T cells, and the underlying mechanisms may therefore be more complex. We performed a systematic review of previous studies investigating the bacterial flora in hidradenitis suppurativa...

  12. Treatments for hidradenitis suppurativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, R Kjærsgaard; Jemec, Gregor B E

    Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is not easily treated. Although not uncommon, HS is often misdiagnosed outside specialized clinics and inappropriately treated as a simple boil or abscess. In recent years, guidelines have been developed on the basis of expert opinion and the available literature. A multifaceted approach is necessary as HS lesions include both inflammation (amenable to medical treatment) as well as fibrosis (amenable to surgery only). The recommended antiinflammatory therapies encompass both antimicrobials and regular anti-inflammatory drugs. We have, therefore, reviewed treatments with the following agents: clindamycin, tetracycline, rifampicin, ertapenem, dapsone, triamcinolone, infliximab, adalimumab, and anakinra. The development of new medical treatments, however, is an ongoing effort, and important new data have been presented since the publication of the guideline. The current approach to the management of fibrotic lesions is surgery. It is important, as manifest fibrosis is generally not susceptible to medical treatment. Here minor excision, carbon dioxide-laser, and major surgery are discussed, and current evidence supporting their use is provided. A comprehensive three-pronged approach with adjuvant therapy, medical therapy, and surgery is recommended. The importance of adjuvant therapy, that is, pain management, wound care, and attention, is stressed. Adjuvant therapy not only plays a major role in patients' perception of a successful treatment but also is of practical importance to their coping and self-management. HS presents a significant unmet need, and this review provides a mechanistic update on the current real-world therapeutic option for the management of this distressing disease.

  13. Surgical Procedures in Hidradenitis Suppurativa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janse, Ineke; Bieniek, Andrzej; Horvath, Barbara; Matusiak, Lukasz

    2016-01-01

    Hidradenitis suppurativa is difficult to treat owing to its complex pathomechanism; besides the extensive inflammation with abscesses and inflammatory nodules, there is also an architectural loss with sinus tract formation and in severe cases with extensive scarring. Therefore, surgery is mandatory

  14. Surgical Procedures in Hidradenitis Suppurativa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janse, Ineke; Bieniek, Andrzej; Horvath, Barbara; Matusiak, Lukasz

    Hidradenitis suppurativa is difficult to treat owing to its complex pathomechanism; besides the extensive inflammation with abscesses and inflammatory nodules, there is also an architectural loss with sinus tract formation and in severe cases with extensive scarring. Therefore, surgery is mandatory

  15. Dapsone therapy for hidradenitis suppurativa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazdanyar, S.; Jemec, G.B.E.; Boer, J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is an inflammatory skin disease with a chronic intermittent course. HS is difficult to treat, and the evidence for the effect of most treatments consists of smaller open studies. The use of dapsone in the treatment of HS is based on a few published cases...

  16. [Ultrasound examination of hidradenitis suppurativa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martorell, A; Segura Palacios, J M

    2015-11-01

    Hidradenitis suppurativa is a debilitating chronic, recurrent, inflammatory cutaneous disease of the hair follicle that usually presents with painful, deep and inflamed lesions in the areas of the body with apocrine glands, most frequently the axillary, groin and anogenital regions. This entity is difficult to manage since it can be difficult to determine the true nature and extension of the lesions. Cutaneous ultrasound allows real-time visualization of the cutaneous structures under examination, defining the type of lesion, its anatomical extension, and the degree of inflammatory activity, which affects adequate patient management. The present review analyses the importance of ultrasound in the assessment of patients with hidradenitis suppurativa. Copyright © 2015 Academia Española de Dermatología y Venereología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Psychosocial impact of hidradenitis suppurativa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esmann, S.; Jemec, G.B.E.

    2011-01-01

    , especially in relation to smell and appearance, various emotional reactions, and feelings of lack of control. It was found that hidra-denitis suppurativa has a great emotional impact on patients and promotes isolation due to fear of stigmati-zation. Shame and irritation are frequent and relate to smell......, scars, itching and pain. Quality of life is adversely affected and professional support is needed.© 2011 The Authors....

  18. The Microbiology of Hidradenitis Suppurativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ring, Hans Christian; Emtestam, Lennart

    2016-01-01

    Although the clinical presentation of Hidradenitis Suppurativa (HS) is strongly reminiscent of bacterial infection, the role of bacteria remains controversial. Studies have isolated an array of different bacterial specimens as well as biofilm formation in lesional HS skin. Consistent findings of Gram-positive cocci and -rods including Staphylococus aureus, Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) and Corynebacterium species (spp) in deep tissue samples have been demonstrated in HS. Although efficacy of antibiotics, i.e., rifampicin, clindamycin or tetracycline may support a microbial role in disease pathogenesis, the most often isolated bacterial specimens are commensal bacteria (CoNS).

  19. Disutility in Patients with Hidradenitis Suppurativa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Peter Theut; Vinding, Gabrielle Randskov; Ring, Hans Christian

    2016-01-01

    values for the general population in Denmark. A significantly decreased utility in patients with hidradenitis suppurativa was found for all age group levels, except for 65–74-year-olds. The total index score in the cohort was 0.705 (population mean 0.887) and the VAS was 62.25 (population mean 82.......6). Multivariate analysis found significant associations between loss of utility and pain, malodour and pruritus (p hidradenitis suppurativa had a significantly decreased EQ-5D compared with the background population. Malodour and pruritus were found to be associated with low index values......Disutility reflects the disability caused by a disease. The EuroQoL-5D (EQ-5D) questionnaire is a measure of health-related overall utility. The questionnaire has only been applied previously to a small number of patients with hidradenitis. In this study a survey of 421 patients with hidradenitis...

  20. Is hidradenitis suppurativa associated with anaemia?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, I. M.; Johansen, M E; Mogensen, U. B.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic inflammatory diseases may be associated with anaemia of inflammation. Hidradenitis suppurativa is a chronic inflammatory dermatological disease associated with metabolic comorbidities, low quality of life and fatigue. Anaemia may cause fatigue, and it has been hypothesized...

  1. Psychosocial impact of hidradenitis suppurativa: a qualitative study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Esmann, Solveig; Jemec, Gregor B E

    2011-01-01

    Hidradenitis suppurativa influences patients' lives in many ways. It is therefore necessary to focus on the effects of the disease on daily life in order better to define patient-related outcomes in hidradenitis suppurativa studies...

  2. Hidradenitis Suppurativa and Wound Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dini, Valentina; Oranges, Teresa; Rotella, Luca; Romanelli, Marco

    2015-09-01

    Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a chronic, burdensome, debilitating disease of the hair follicle. It presents with recurrent painful inflamed and noninflamed lesions usually in specific body areas such as axillary, inguinal, perineal, and genital areas. It is associated with a large range of other diseases and conditions, such as obesity, arthropathy, inflammatory bowel diseases, and sqaumous cell carcinoma. Medical therapy may be systemic or topical, mainly based on antibiotics, retinoids, hormones and immunosuppressive drugs, including biological therapies. Surgical and laser therapies may be a valid therapeutic approach in order to treat locally recurring lesions. The aim of this article is to review the wound healing options after skin excision and laser treatments, with a focus on lesions left to heal by secondary intention, analyzing the efficacy of moist wound dressings, negative pressure wound therapy, bioactive dressings, such as platelet-rich plasma gel and hylarunoic acid scaffold, or autologous keratinocyte suspension in platelet concentrate and skin-grafting tecniques.

  3. Hidradenitis suppurativa successfully treated with adalimumab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iqbal A. Bukhari

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To discuss the new beneficial effect of adalimumab in the management of hidradenitis suppurativa(HS.Case: We report a 25-year-old arabic female with a 14-year history with long-standing poorly controlled active hidradenitis suppurativa who was successfully treated with adalimumab.Discussion: Hidradenitis suppurativa is a skin disorder characterized by the formation of multiple cysts, abscesses and sinus tracts in apocrine gland-bearing areas. The aetiology and pathogenesis of HS are unknown. Current medical and surgical therapies are only minimally effective at treating the disease. The biologic agent Adalimumab is a new promising agent for the treatment of HS.Conclusion: The biologic agent adalimumab is an effective treatment for HS

  4. New treatment strategies for hidradenitis suppurativa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, R.; Jemec, G. B.E.

    2016-01-01

    Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is difficult to treat. Official guidelines have only recently been developed, and suggest that patients should be provided with both adjuvant, medical and surgical therapy. The guidelines are the result of resurgent interest in this disease, in which etiology....... In this article recent trends in medical treatments are described following a systematic review. Searches were conducted in MEDLINE®, the Cochrane Library and Web of ScienceTM where specific treatments were combined with the search term "hidradenitis suppurativa" and references from 2010 to March 2016 were...

  5. Lithium induced hidradenitis suppurativa and acne conglobata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aithal Vijay

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Lithium is known to cause a variety of dermatological problems, common ones being acneiform eruptions, folliculitis and psoriasis including its pustular form. Hidradenitis suppurativa and acne conglobata are lesser known side effects, with only three reports so far. We report a patient, who had bipolar affective disorder, was on lithium for a long duration and developed hidradenitis suppurativa and acne conglobata during therapy, which subsequently decreased once lithium was stopped. We describe this case for its rarity and analyze its pathogenesis.

  6. Pyoderma gangrenosum, acne and suppurative hidradenitis syndrome following bowel bypass surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzano, Angelo V; Ishak, Rim S; Colombo, Antonella; Caroli, Francesco; Crosti, Carlo

    2012-01-01

    The clinical triad of pyoderma gangrenosum (PG), acne and suppurative hidradenitis (PASH) has recently been described as a new disease entity within the spectrum of autoinflammatory syndromes, which are an emerging group of inflammatory diseases distinct from autoimmune, allergic and infectious disorders. PASH syndrome is similar to PAPA (pyogenic arthritis, acne and PG), but it differs in lacking the associated arthritis and on a genetic basis. PAPA syndrome is caused by mutations in a gene involved in the regulation of innate immune responses, the PSTPIP1, while no mutations have been detected to date in patients with PASH syndrome. We report a young male patient who developed coexisting disseminated PG, typical suppurative hidradenitis and acneiform eruption on the face, after he had undergone bowel bypass surgery for obesity. The cutaneous manifestations associated with bowel bypass syndrome often mimic PG or other neutrophilic dermatoses, suggesting a pathogenesis related to neutrophil-mediated inflammation for this condition. This is the first report describing PASH syndrome after bariatric surgery, and we propose to include such neutrophilic dermatoses in the list of complications occurring after bowel bypass surgery. Extensive genetic studies may help to clarify the etiopathogenesis of PASH as well as of autoinflammatory diseases in general.

  7. Pain management in patients with hidradenitis suppurativa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horvath, Barbara; Janse, Ineke C.; Sibbald, Gary R.

    2015-01-01

    Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a chronic, relapsing, and painful inflammatory disease. HS patients' quality of life is severely impaired, and this impairment correlates strongly with their pain. Pain in HS can be acute or chronic and has both inflammatory and noninflammatory origins. The purpose o

  8. Cyclosporine treatment of severe Hidradenitis suppurativa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderson, Marianne D; Zauli, Stefania; Bettoli, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is an overlooked but common disease severely affecting both genders. HS is generally perceived as difficult to treat and although a number of treatments are available, the need for more effective treatment is apparent. Objectives: Cyclosporine A (CsA) has...

  9. Depression in patients with hidradenitis suppurativa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onderdijk, A. J.; van der Zee, H. H.; Esmann, S.; Lophaven, S.; Dufour, D. N.; Jemec, G. B. E.; Boer, J.

    Background Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a chronic recurrent inflammatory skin disease with abscess formation and scarring predominantly in the inverse areas. The disease is often difficult to treat and patients experience a decreased quality of life (QoL). It is hypothesized that depression is

  10. Pain management in patients with hidradenitis suppurativa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horvath, Barbara; Janse, Ineke C.; Sibbald, Gary R.

    2015-01-01

    Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a chronic, relapsing, and painful inflammatory disease. HS patients' quality of life is severely impaired, and this impairment correlates strongly with their pain. Pain in HS can be acute or chronic and has both inflammatory and noninflammatory origins. The purpose

  11. Hidradenitis Suppurativa in Children and Adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Peter Riis; Jemec, Gregor B E

    2014-01-01

    Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a burdensome disease and has the potential to affect the life course of patients. It is a rare disease in children, and the recorded literature is correspondingly scarce. This article reviews the therapeutic options for HS in children and adolescents, and highlights...

  12. Hidradenitis suppurativa and acne conglobata associated with spondyloarthropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leybishkis, B; Fasseas, P; Ryan, K F; Roy, R

    2001-03-01

    Hidradenitis suppurativa and acne conglobata are well-described chronic dermatologic diseases. Although the exact incidence of these disorders is unknown, both are relatively uncommon conditions. The incidence of spondyloarthropathy is less than 1% in the general population. Therefore, a triad of hidradenitis suppurativa, acne conglobata and spondyloarthropathy is a rare syndrome described only in a few case reports in the literature. We report a case of hidradenitis suppurativa and acne conglobata associated with spondyloarthropathy.

  13. Radiotherapy of hidradenitis suppurativa - indication today?; Strahlentherapie der Hidradenitis axillaris - heute noch aktuell?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froehlich, D.; Glatzel, M. [Zentralklinikum, Suhl (Germany). Klinik fuer Strahlentherapie; Baaske, D. [Klinikum Chemnitz (Germany). Klinik fuer Radiologie und Radioonkologie

    2000-06-01

    Purpose: In a retrospective analysis the efficacy of radiotherapy in the treatment of hidradenitis suppurativa was assessed. Patients and Methods: Data from 231 patients undergoing radiotherapy for hidradenitis suppurativa in the last years in 2 hospitals were analyzed. The patients were treated with an orthovoltage therapy unit with 175 kV, 0.5 mm copper-filtering. The single doses reached from 0.5 Gy to 1.5 Gy up to total doses between 3.0 Gy and 8.0 Gy in one series. In chronic recurrent disease 2 or more series with a total dose of more than 10.0 Gy were given. Results: Complete relief of symptoms at the end of radiotherapy was achieved in 89 patients (38%). In 92 patients (40%) there was clear improvement of symptoms. Only 2 patients did not react to radiotherapy. No side effects of radiotherapy occurred. Conclusions: Radiotherapy should be given more consideration as a treatment option for hidradenitis suppurativa. (orig.) [German] Hintergrund: Der Effekt der Strahlenbehandlung der Hidradenitis axillaris wurde am eigenen Patientengut ueberprueft. Patienten und Methode: Es erfolgte eine retrospektive Analyse der Daten von 231 Patienten, die in den letzten Jahren wegen einer Hidradenitis axillaris strahlentherapeutisch in zwei Kliniken behandelt wurden. Die Therapie erfolgte unter Tiefentherapiebedingungen mit Einzeldosen zwischen 0,5 und 1,5 Gy und Gesamtdosen zwischen 3,0 und 8,0 Gy in einer Serie. Nur bei chronisch rezidivierenden Formen wurden Gesamtdosen ueber 10,0 Gy in mehreren Serien eingestrahlt. Ergebnisse: Voellige Beschwerdefreiheit nach Strahlentherapie wurde bei 89 Patienten (38%) erreicht. Weitere 92 Patienten (40%) wiesen eine deutliche Besserung der Symptomatik auf. Eine Abszendierung der entzuendlichen Prozesse trat bei 48 Patienten (21%) ein. Nennenswerte Nebenwirkungen der Behandlung wurden nicht beobachtet. Schlussfolgerung: Die Strahlentherapie sollte auch weiterhin in der Differentialtherapie der Hidradenitis axillaris Beruecksichtigung

  14. Pathogenesis: common pathways between hidradenitis suppurativa and Crohn disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Martínez, F J; Menchén, L

    2016-09-01

    Both hidradenitis suppurativa and Crohn disease are considered chronic inflammatory diseases due to immune dysregulation. The high prevalence of Crohn disease patients diagnosed with hidradenitis suppurativa suggests the existence of common pathogenic links. The present literature review analyses the similarities and differences in the pathogenesis of the two diseases, in the search for new research and knowledge targets.

  15. Two phase 3 trials of adalimumab for hidradenitis suppurativa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kimball, Alexa Boer; Okun, Martin; Williams, David A

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Hidradenitis suppurativa is a painful, chronic inflammatory skin disease with few options for effective treatment. In a phase 2 trial, adalimumab, an antibody against tumor necrosis factor á, showed efficacy against hidradenitis suppurativa. METHODS PIONEER I and II were similarly desi...

  16. Adalimumab for the treatment of moderate to severe Hidradenitis suppurativa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kimball, Alexa B; Kerdel, Francisco; Adams, David

    2012-01-01

    Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a chronic, painful skin disease characterized by abscesses, nodules, and draining fistulas in the axilla and groin of young adults.......Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a chronic, painful skin disease characterized by abscesses, nodules, and draining fistulas in the axilla and groin of young adults....

  17. The Association between Hidradenitis Suppurativa and Crohn's Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Zee, Hessel H; Horvath, Barbara; Jemec, Gregor B E

    2016-01-01

    Hidradenitis suppurativa is a chronic, autoinflammatory skin disease. Shalom et al. demonstrate in a large cross-sectional study an association between Crohn's disease and hidradenitis suppurativa, but not with ulcerative colitis. This association supports the hypothesis that a similar pathogenic...

  18. Lasers and Intense Pulsed Light Hidradenitis Suppurativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunte, Ditte M; Lapins, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Lasers and intense pulsed light (IPL) treatment are useful for the treatment of hidradenitis suppurativa (HS). Carbon dioxide lasers are used for cutting or vaporization of the affected area. It is a effective therapy for the management of severe and recalcitrant HS with persistent sinus tract and scarring, and can be performed under local anesthesia. HS has a follicular pathogenesis. Lasers and IPL targeting the hair have been found useful in treating HS by reducing the numbers of hairs in areas with HS. The methods have few side effects, but the studies are preliminary and need to be repeated.

  19. Primary cutaneous plasmacytosis: Masquerading as hidradenitis suppurativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarang Goyal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Isolated cutaneous plasmacytosis (CP is a rare entity with few cases reported in world literature. CP masquerading as hidradenitis suppurativa like presentation is a unique case with some features differentiating it clinically from it which were further confirmed by histopathology and immunostaining. Our case showed hyperplasia of mature plasma cells and polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia, immunostaining for CD138 positivity and kappa: lambda ratio more than 3:1. Extensive clinical and laboratory investigations failed to reveal any underlying pathology, presence of any underlying disease accompanying the hypergammaglobulinemia and/or plasma cell proliferation.

  20. MetaSINEs: Broad Distribution of a Novel SINE Superfamily in Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Nishihara, Hidenori; Plazzi, Federico; Passamonti, Marco; Okada, Norihiro

    2016-01-01

    SINEs (short interspersed elements) are transposable elements that typically originate independently in each taxonomic clade (order/family). However, some SINE families share a highly similar central sequence and are thus categorized as a SINE superfamily. Although only four SINE superfamilies (CORE-SINEs, V-SINEs, DeuSINEs, and Ceph-SINEs) have been reported so far, it is expected that new SINE superfamilies would be discovered by deep exploration of new SINEs in metazoan genomes. Here we de...

  1. Hidradenitis suppurativa and perianal Crohn disease: differential diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassas-Vila, J; González Lama, Y

    2016-09-01

    The first description of perianal fistulas and complications in Crohn disease was made 75 years ago by Penner and Crohn. Published studies have subsequently confirmed that perianal fistulas are the most common manifestations of fistulising Crohn disease. Hidradenitis suppurativa was described in 1854 by a French surgeon, Aristide Verneuil. It is a chronic, inflammatory, recurrent and debilitating disease of the pilosebaceous follicle, that usually manifests after puberty with deep, painful and inflamed lesions in the areas of the body with apocrine glands, usually the axillary, inguinal and anogenital regions. The differential diagnosis between hidradenitis suppurativa and Crohn disease can be challenging, especially when the disease is primarily perianal. When they occur simultaneously, hidradenitis suppurativa and Crohn disease show severe phenotypes and patients can respond to anti-tumour necrosis factor therapy, although adalimumab is currently the only treatment with demonstrated efficacy in hidradenitis suppurativa and Crohn disease. In addition, there is sometimes a need for different complementary surgical procedures.

  2. Hidradenitis suppurativa in Down’s syndrome: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadeem Toodayan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Of the many dermatological conditions thought to be linked with Down’s syndrome, hidradenitis suppurativa presents a peculiar manifestation. This brief case report summarises the clinical features and possible genetic basis for this fascinating association.

  3. Intralesional triamcinolone for flares of hidradenitis suppurativa (HS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Peter Theut; Boer, Jurr; Prens, Errol P

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the hair follicle. Standard practice of managing acute flares with corticosteroid injection lacks scientific evidence. OBJECTIVE: We sought to assess the outcomes of routine treatment using intralesional triamcinolone...

  4. Body composition and basal metabolic rate in Hidradenitis Suppurativa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, I M; Rytgaard, Helene Charlotte; Mogensen, U B

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several studies have suggested an association between Hidradenitis Suppurativa (HS) and obesity. Obesity is often expressed as Body Mass Index (BMI). However, BMI lacks information on body composition. General obesity is a predictor of health status and cardiovascular risk, but body.......70-105.56) (P Hidradenitis Suppurativa is associated with a high fat percentage, high visceral fat, and low muscle percentage adding to the morbidity of HS. The higher predicted estimate of basal metabolic rate (BMR) in HS patients may reflect...

  5. Gallstones are associated with hidradenitis suppurativa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Iben M; Vindsand Naver, Astrid; Mogensen, Ulla B

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a chronic inflammatory dermatological disease that was recently linked to the metabolic syndrome (MetS). MetS has been associated with gallstones, and nonalcoholic fatty liver has been suggested to be the hepatic expression of MetS. OBJECTIVE: The obje......BACKGROUND: Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a chronic inflammatory dermatological disease that was recently linked to the metabolic syndrome (MetS). MetS has been associated with gallstones, and nonalcoholic fatty liver has been suggested to be the hepatic expression of MetS. OBJECTIVE......: The objective of the study was to investigate whether there was an association of HS with gallstones as well as with hepatic dysfunction. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study comparing a hospital-based HS group, a population-based HS group, and controls for self-reported gallstone and blood...... identified. The age-sex-smoking-adjusted analysis of gallstones revealed a significant OR of 1.72 (95% CI 1.23-2.42, P=0.0191) and a borderline significant OR of 3.28 (95% CI 1.24-8.74, P=0.0516) for the population HS group and hospital HS group versus controls, respectively. Furthermore, no clinically...

  6. Association of Metabolic Syndrome and Hidradenitis Suppurativa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Iben Marie; Ellervik, Christina; Vinding, Gabrielle Randskov

    2014-01-01

    ,predominantly female, and more often smokers compared with the non-HS group.EXPOSURE Hidradenitis suppurativa.MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Metabolic syndrome and its components of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and obesity.RESULTS When compared with the non-HS group, the odds ratios (ORs......IMPORTANCE An association between the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and chronic inflammatory diseases, such as psoriasis or rheumatoid arthritis, has been suggested.Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS), a more localized chronic inflammation of the skin, has been speculated to have a similar association......) for the hospital HS and population HS groups were 3.89 (95%CI, 1.90-7.98) and 2.08 (95%CI, 1.61-2.69),respectively, for MetS; 5.74 (95%CI, 1.91-17.24) and 2.44 (95%CI, 1.55-3.83), respectively, for diabetes mellitus; 6.38 (95%CI, 2.99-13.62) and 2.56 (95%CI, 2.00-3.28), respectively, for general obesity; and 3...

  7. Observational Study of the Genetic Architecture of Neutrophil-Mediated Inflammatory Skin Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-26

    Other Specified Inflammatory Disorders of Skin or Subcutaneous Tissue; Pyoderma Gangrenosum; Erosive Pustular Dermatosis of the Scalp; Sweet's Syndrome; Behcet's Disease; Bowel-associated Dermatosis-arthritis Syndrome; Pustular Psoriasis; Acute Generalized Exanthematous Pustulosis; Keratoderma Blenorrhagicum; Sneddon-Wilkinson Disease; IgA Pemphigus; Amicrobial Pustulosis of the Folds; Infantile Acropustulosis; Transient Neonatal Pustulosis; Neutrophilic Eccrine Hidradenitis; Rheumatoid Neutrophilic Dermatitis; Neutrophilic Urticaria; Still's Disease; Erythema Marginatum; Unclassified Periodic Fever Syndromes / Autoinflammatory Syndromes; Dermatitis Herpetiformis; Linear IgA Bullous Dermatosis; Bullous Systemic Lupus Erythematosus; Inflammatory Epidermolysis Bullosa Aquisita; Neutrophilic Dermatosis of the Dorsal Hands (Pustular Vasculitis); Small Vessel Vasculitis Including Urticarial Vasculitis; Erythema Elevatum Diutinum; Medium Vessel Vasculitis

  8. Pyoderma gangrenosum, acne, suppurative hidradenitis (PASH) and polycystic ovary syndrome: Coincidentally or aetiologically connected?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivanovic, Dubravka; Masirevic, Iva; Ruzicka, Thomas; Braun-Falco, Markus; Nikolic, Milos

    2016-02-02

    The clinical triad of pyoderma gangrenosum, acne conglobata and hidradenitis suppurativa has been named PASH syndrome. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with hyperandrogenism and inflammation. Hidradenitis suppurativa, like acne vulgaris, may be a feature of hyperandrogenism. Obesity may be associated with both hidradenitis suppurativa and PCOS. We describe a possible association between PASH syndrome and PCOS.

  9. Depression in patients with hidradenitis suppurativa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Onderdijk, A J; van der Zee, H H; Esmann, S

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a chronic recurrent inflammatory skin disease with abscess formation and scarring predominantly in the inverse areas. The disease is often difficult to treat and patients experience a decreased quality of life (QoL). It is hypothesized that depression...... is more common in HS patients than among other dermatological patients. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the prevalence of depression in patients with HS. METHODS: In total 211 HS patients were included in the study and 233 were dermatological control patients. Their QoL and depression scores were assessed using...... the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) and the Major Depression Inventory (MDI) questionnaires. HS severity was recorded with a questionnaire and Hurley stages were extracted from the case records. RESULTS: The DLQI was significantly higher for HS patients than for the control patients, 8.4 ± 7.5 vs. 4.3 ± 5...

  10. Imaging of Hidradenitis Suppurativa and Its Complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Poh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a 56-year-old man with known diabetes mellitus and a 10-year history of hidradenitis suppurativa (HS and highlight, through MR imaging findings, the relentless natural progression of the disease, characterized by recurrent exacerbations of abscesses and fistulae and complications of perianal fistulae and sacral osteomyelitis. We also demonstrate the appearance of this condition on PET-CT with F-18 FDG, which was performed for staging after postexcision tissue specimen revealed well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. The association of arthritis and possible dactylitis was also manifested in our patient. Discussion of HS in the radiology literature is limited and, to our knowledge, there has been no case report describing these imaging findings in the same patient.

  11. Compartmentalized Cytokine Responses in Hidradenitis Suppurativa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodora Kanni

    Full Text Available Favorable treatment outcomes with TNF blockade led us to explore cytokine responses in hidradenitis suppurativa (HS.Blood monocytes of 120 patients and 24 healthy volunteers were subtyped by flow cytometry. Isolated blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs were stimulated for cytokine production; this was repeated in 13 severe patients during treatment with etanercept. Cytokines in pus were measured.CD14brightCD16dim inflammatory monocytes and patrolling monocytes were increased in Hurley III patients. Cytokine production by stimulated PBMCs was low compared to controls but the cytokine gene copies did not differ, indicating post-translational inhibition. The low production of IL-17 was restored, when cells were incubated with adalimumab. In pus, high concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines were detected. Based on the patterns, six different cytokine profiles were discerned, which are potentially relevant for the choice of treatment. Clinical improvement with etanercept was predicted by increased production of IL-1β and IL-17 by PBMCs at week 8.Findings indicate compartmentalized cytokine expression in HS; high in pus but suppressed in PBMCs. This is modulated through blockade of TNF.

  12. Hidradenitis suppurativa : From pathogenesis to emerging treatment options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dickinson-Blok, Janine Louise

    2015-01-01

    Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a chronic skin disease that is characterized by inflammation of the hair follicles. The cause of HS is largely unknown and the disease remains difficult to treat. Mrs. Janine Dickinson-Blok studied the pathogenesis of HS and the efficacy of existing and emerging ther

  13. Biological and surgical treatment of severe hidradenitis suppurativa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rappard, D.C.

    2015-01-01

    Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a chronic, purulent, recurrent, devastating skin disease that affects approximately 1% of the general population. HS typically affects the flexural areas of the body such as the axilla, groin, and perianal area. HS is generally perceived as a difficult skin disease

  14. Renal amyloid A amyloidosis as a complication of hidradenitis suppurativa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schandorff, Kristine D; Miller, Iben M; Krustrup, Dorrit;

    2016-01-01

    Rheumatic disease is the dominant cause of amyloid A (AA) amyloidosis, but other chronic inflammatory diseases may have similar consequences. Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a relatively common, but little known skin disease characterized by chronic inflammation. Here we present a case of chroni...... HS leading to biopsy-verified severe renal AA amyloidosis and dialysis dependency....

  15. Hidradenitis suppurativa : Pathogenesis, burden of disease and surgical strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janse, Ineke Christina

    2016-01-01

    The general aim of this thesis was to gain more knowledge about the cause, burden and surgical treatment of hidradenitis suppurativa (HS). HS is a chronic, debilitating inflammatory skin disease affecting the inguinal, axillary and gluteal regions. The disease usually develops after puberty, and the

  16. What happens after a single surgical intervention for hidradenitis suppurativa?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jemec, Gregor B E; Guérin, Annie; Kaminsky, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Objective Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is often treated by surgery. The risk of recurrence after surgery is common and the consequences are substantial, but neither has been quantified using a claims database. This study aimed to estimate the burden associated with non-curative surgery in HS...

  17. New insights into the diagnosis of hidradenitis suppurativa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Zee, Hessel H; Jemec, Gregor B E

    2015-01-01

    Current classifications for hidradenitis suppurativa (HS), such as the Hurley staging system, are not very specific. The absence of rigorous classifications is incongruous with the clinical variability of the condition. There is no pathognomonic sign for HS that leads to a diagnosis...

  18. Hidradenitis suppurativa : Pathogenesis, burden of disease and surgical strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janse, Ineke Christina

    2016-01-01

    The general aim of this thesis was to gain more knowledge about the cause, burden and surgical treatment of hidradenitis suppurativa (HS). HS is a chronic, debilitating inflammatory skin disease affecting the inguinal, axillary and gluteal regions. The disease usually develops after puberty, and the

  19. Is mechanical stress an important pathogenic factor in hidradenitis suppurativa?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. de Winter (K.); H.H. van der Zee (Hessel); E.P. Prens (Errol)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractHidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a chronic of recurrent, inflammatory, follicular disease that usually presents after puberty with painful deep-seated, inflamed lesions in the inverse skin areas of the body. It has been hypothesized that mechanical pressure or friction is a risk factor f

  20. Improving quality of life in patients with hidradenitis suppurativa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dufour, D.N.; Esmann, S.; Jemec, G.B.

    2012-01-01

    Hidradenitis suppurativa is a chronic recurrent inflammatory skin disease with abscess formation and scarring predominantly in the inverse areas. The disease is often difficult to treat and patients experience a decreased quality of life (QoL) and related psychosocial morbidity. Current knowledge...

  1. Hidradenitis suppurativa: literature review and case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Mourthé de Alvim Andrade

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS is a chronic, recurrent and debilitating disease, affecting mainly women, especially in their second and third decades of life. Its most common incidence is in the axillary, inguinal, perianal and inframammary regions. Its complications include chronic fistulizing processes, with involvement of important adjacent structures, such as the sacrum and coccyx, the anal sphincter, urethra and great-caliber vessels, such as the groin vessels. The proportions of some cases of HS requiring extensive surgical procedures at several moments and the application of flaps and grafts, justify unusual cases reports, like this one. The authors present a case of extensive involvement of the perianal and gluteal regions, which required extended resection with flap in the first approach and fistulectomy in a second surgical moment, with good result for the patient.A hidradenite supurativa (HS é uma doença crônica, recorrente e debilitante, que afeta principalmente mulheres, sobretudo na segunda e terceira décadas de vida. Incide mais nas regiões axilar, inguinal, perianal e inframamária. Dentre suas complicações crônicas, são descritos processos fistulizantes com comprometimento de estruturas importantes, como o sacro e o cóccix, aparelho esfincteriano, uretra e vasos calibrosos, como os inguinais. As proporções de alguns casos de HS, exigindo intervenções alargadas, em vários tempos e com aplicação de retalhos e enxertos justificam relatos de casos que fogem da rotina, como o atual. Os autores apresentam um caso de comprometimento extenso da região glútea e perianal, que exigiu ressecção alargada com retalho e fistulectomia em um segundo tempo cirúrgico, com bom resultado para a paciente.

  2. The Association between Hidradenitis Suppurativa and Crohn's Disease : in Search of the Missing Pathogenic Link

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zee, Hessel H.; Horvath, Barbara; Jemec, Gregor B. E.; Prens, Errol P.

    Hidradenitis suppurativa is a chronic, autoinflammatory skin disease. Shalom et al. demonstrate in a large cross-sectional study an association between Crohn's disease and hidradenitis suppurativa, but not with ulcerative colitis. This association supports the hypothesis that a similar pathogenic

  3. Hidradenite supurativa tratada com infliximabe Hidradenitis suppurativa treated with infliximab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Lago Obadia

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A hidradenite supurativa é doença inflamatória de difícil tratamento. Recentemente, a terapia anti-TNF alfa, com anticorpos monoclonais ("terapia biológica", tem sido apontada como uma alternativa. No entanto, ensaios clínicos avaliando a eficácia destas drogas na hidradenite supurativa, ainda não foram publicados. Apresentamos um caso no qual o uso do infliximabe não resultou em melhora clínica expressiva.Hidradenitis suppurativa is an inflammatory disease with difficult treatment. Currently, the anti-TNF alfa therapy, with monoclonal antibodies ("biological therapy", has been shown as a new alternative. However, clinical trials assessing the efficacy of these drugs to treat hidradenitis suppurativa have not yet been published. A case in which the use of infliximab did not result in significant clinical improvement is described.

  4. Sines and Cosines. Part 1 of 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostol, Tom M. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    Applying the concept of similarities, the mathematical principles of circular motion and sine and cosine waves are presented utilizing both film footage and computer animation in this 'Project Mathematics' series video. Concepts presented include: the symmetry of sine waves; the cosine (complementary sine) and cosine waves; the use of sines and cosines on coordinate systems; the relationship they have to each other; the definitions and uses of periodic waves, square waves, sawtooth waves; the Gibbs phenomena; the use of sines and cosines as ratios; and the terminology related to sines and cosines (frequency, overtone, octave, intensity, and amplitude).

  5. Two Cases of Paradoxical Hidradenitis Suppurativa while on Adalimumab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn Harvin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS is a chronic, inflammatory skin disease characterized by recurring abscesses, nodules, and fistulas predominantly in the groin and axillae. The association between HS and Crohn’s disease (CD has been well documented. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF inhibitors have shown to be effective in treating both HS and CD. We report 2 patients who developed HS while on TNF inhibitor treatment for CD.

  6. A review of wide surgical excision of hidradenitis suppurativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alharbi Ziyad

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS is a chronic inflammatory cutaneous disorder that involves the infundibular terminal follicles in areas rich of apocrine glands. It can be associated with fistulating sinus, scarring and abscesses formation. Hidradenitis suppurativa is a challenging aspect and requires a proper treatment plan which may involve different specialties. We present herein the option of surgical treatment involving wide surgical excision and methods of reconstruction as well as the rate of recurrence. Furthermore, review of the literature regarding surgical treatment of hidradenitis suppurativa is provided. Methods A retrospective analysis reviewed 50 operative procedures for 32 patients in 5 anatomical sites. These anatomical sites have been divided to 23 sites involving the axilla, 17 sites involving the inguinal region and 8 sites involving the perianal/perineal area, 1 site involving the gluteal region and 1 site involving the trunk region. Results Twenty six patients (81, 25 % showed no recurrence after surgery and the average time of hospital stay period was 5 days. Recurrence was observed only in 6 patients (18, 75 %. Conclusion Elimination of the acute inflammatory process should occur in advance, including the use of antibiotics and minor surgeries such as abscess drainage with proper irrigations. After stabilizing the acute phase, wide surgical excision is recommended. Herein, planning of surgical reconstruction should be initiated to achieve the best outcome and consequently decreasing the risk of recurrence and complications after surgery.

  7. A 3D ultrasound study of sinus tract formation in hidradenitis suppurativa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wortsman, Ximena; Jemec, Gregor

    2013-01-01

    Imaging of hidradenitis suppurativa allows the study of both the lesion morphology and evolution. Hidradenitis lesions of different stages were studied using 3D ultrasound in a cross sectional pilot study. A total of 25 HS patients (18 female/ 7 male, aged 18-46 year-old) and 10 healthy controls (5...... and characterization of the morphological changes in hidradenitis, which include the variable degrees of involvement of the hair follicles and the appearance of fluid collections and sinus tracts. Knowledge of this anatomical information may allow the identification of lesions that can benefit from medical or surgical...

  8. Adalimumab for the treatment of moderate to severe hidradenitis suppurativa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kimball, A.B.; Kerdel, F.; Adams, D.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a chronic, painful skin disease characterized by abscesses, nodules, and draining fistulas in the axilla and groin of young adults. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of adalimumab, an anti-tumor necrosis factor-αantibody, in patients......Trials.gov: NCT00918255) Setting: 26 academic and private practice medical centers in the United States and Europe. Patients: 154 adult patients with moderate to severe HS who were unresponsive or intolerant to oral antibiotics. Intervention: Patients were assigned in a 1:1:1 ratio to adalimumab, 40 mg...

  9. Novel Technique for Management of Axillary Hidradenitis Suppurativa Using Setons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepehr Seyed Lajevardi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Management of hidradenitis suppurativa (HS of the axilla which is nonresponding to conservative management presents a significant therapeutic challenge. Most surgical treatment options are associated with significant morbidities and prolonged hospital stay. We present a technique of management of HS using setons which is simple and allows the ongoing treatment to be done on an outpatient basis. Given the fact that HS is a chronic relapsing condition each recurrence may again be managed using this technique. This will allow the patients to manage their recurrences with minimal impact on their activities of daily living.

  10. Generalized sine-Gordon solitons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, C dos [Centro de Fisica e Departamento de Fisica e Astronomia, Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade do Porto, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Rubiera-Garcia, D, E-mail: cssilva@fc.up.pt, E-mail: rubieradiego@gmail.com [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Oviedo, Avenida Calvo Sotelo 18, 33007 Oviedo, Asturias (Spain)

    2011-10-21

    In this paper, we construct analytical self-dual soliton solutions in (1+1) dimensions for two families of models which can be seen as generalizations of the sine-Gordon system but where the kinetic term is non-canonical. For that purpose we use a projection method applied to the sine-Gordon soliton. We focus our attention on the wall and lump-like soliton solutions of these k-field models. These solutions and their potentials reduce to those of the Klein-Gordon kink and the standard lump for the case of a canonical kinetic term. As we increase the nonlinearity on the kinetic term the corresponding potentials get modified and the nature of the soliton may change, in particular, undergoing a topology modification. The procedure constructed here is shown to be a sort of generalization of the deformation method for a specific class of k-field models. (paper)

  11. Boundary sine-Gordon model

    CERN Document Server

    Bajnok, Z; Takács, G

    2002-01-01

    We review our recent results on the on-shell description of sine-Gordon model with integrable boundary conditions. We determined the spectrum of boundary states together with their reflection factors by closing the boundary bootstrap and checked these results against WKB quantization and numerical finite volume spectra obtained from the truncated conformal space approach. The relation between a boundary resonance state and the semiclassical instability of a static classical solution is analyzed in detail.

  12. Neutrophil biology

    OpenAIRE

    Kobayashi, Yoshiro

    2015-01-01

    Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are involved in bacterial killing as well as autoimmunity, because NETs contain proteases, bactericidal peptides, DNA and ribonucleoprotein. NETs are formed via a novel type of cell death called NETosis. NETosis is distinct from apoptosis, but it resembles necrosis in that both membranes are not intact so that they allow intracellular proteins to leak outside of the cells. Removal of NETs and neutrophils undergoing NETosis by phagocytes and its subsequent...

  13. An Update on Hidradenitis Suppurativa (Part I): Epidemiology, Clinical Aspects, and Definition of Disease Severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martorell, A; García-Martínez, F J; Jiménez-Gallo, D; Pascual, J C; Pereyra-Rodriguez, J; Salgado, L; Vilarrasa, E

    2015-11-01

    Hidradenitis suppurativa is a chronic inflammatory disorder that has attracted increasing attention in recent years due to underestimations of prevalence and the considerable impact of the condition on interpersonal relationships, physical appearance, self-esteem, and body image. Although hidradenitis suppurative has a significant psychological impact on patients and can even cause physical limitations when thick scarring results in limb mobility limitation, until very recently little evidence was available relating to its epidemiology, etiology, or pathogenesis. In this review, we highlight the latest advances in our understanding of the epidemiological and clinical aspects of hidradenitis suppurativa. We will also look at the different classification systems for hidradenitis suppurativa and discuss the emergence of skin ultrasound as a promising technique for monitoring the course of this chronic inflammatory disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  14. Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is associated with low socioeconomic status (SES) : A cross-sectional reference study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deckers, Inge E.; Janse, Ineke C.; van der Zee, Hessel H.; Nijsten, Tamar; Boer, Jurr; Horvath, Barbara; Prens, Errol P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a chronic debilitating disease, whereby school attendance and employment can be disturbed. Objective: We sought to determine the socioeconomic status (SES) in patients with HS relative to other dermatologic patients, and whether specific clinical HS

  15. Preliminary findings suggest hidradenitis suppurativa may be due to defective follicular support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danby, F W; Jemec, G B E; Marsch, W Ch

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The initial pathology in hidradenitis suppurativa (HS)/acne inversa takes place in the folliculopilosebaceous unit (FPSU) and its surrounding tissue. The process involves follicular hyperkeratosis, inflammation and perifolliculitis. Identification of the exact origin of inflammation may...

  16. PCR-based approach to SINE isolation: simple and complex SINEs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borodulina, Olga R; Kramerov, Dmitri A

    2005-04-11

    Highly repeated copies of short interspersed elements (SINEs) occur in eukaryotic genomes. The distribution of each SINE family is usually restricted to some genera, families, or orders. SINEs have an RNA polymerase III internal promoter, which is composed of boxes A and B. Here we propose a method for isolation of novel SINE families based on genomic DNA PCR with oligonucleotide identical to box A as a primer. Cloning of the size-heterogeneous PCR-products and sequencing of their terminal regions allow determination of SINE structure. Using this approach, two novel SINE families, Rhin-1 and Das-1, from the genomes of great horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum) and nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus), respectively, were isolated and studied. The distribution of Rhin-1 is restricted to two of six bat families tested. Copies of this SINE are characterized by frequent internal insertions and significant length (200-270 bp). Das-1 being only 90 bp in length is one of the shortest SINEs known. Most of Das-1 nucleotide sequences demonstrate significant similarity to alanine tRNA which appears to be an evolutionary progenitor of this SINE. Together with three other known SINEs (ID, Vic-1, and CYN), Das-1 constitutes a group of simple SINEs. Interestingly, three SINE families of this group are alanine tRNA-derived. Most probably, this tRNA gave rise to short and simple but successful SINEs several times during mammalian evolution.

  17. Pyoderma gangrenosum, acne conglobata, suppurative hidradenitis, and axial spondyloarthritis: efficacy of anti-tumor necrosis factor α therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruzzese, Vincenzo

    2012-12-01

    We report the case of a patient with a simultaneous presence of pyoderma gangrenosum, acne conglobata, suppurative hidradenitis, and axial spondyloarthritis. This condition differs from both the PASH (pyoderma gangrenosum, acne, and suppurative hidradenitis) syndrome, in which arthritis is absent, and the PAPA (pyogenic arthritis, pyoderma gangrenosum, and acne) syndrome, in which suppurative hidradenitis is lacking. Our patient failed to respond to etanercept therapy, whereas all dermatologic and rheumatic manifestations completely regressed following infliximab infusion. We therefore propose that simultaneous presence of pyoderma gangrenosum, acne conglobata, suppurative hidradenitis, and seronegative spondyloarthritis might represent a distinct syndrome that could be termed the PASS syndrome. Tumor necrosis factor α therapies seem to play selective roles.

  18. Hidradenitis suppurativa: from pathogenesis to diagnosis and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Napolitano M

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Maddalena Napolitano,1 Matteo Megna,2 Elena A Timoshchuk,3 Cataldo Patruno,2 Nicola Balato,2 Gabriella Fabbrocini,2 Giuseppe Monfrecola2 1Dipartimento di Medicina e Scienze della Salute “Vincenzo Tiberio”, Università degli Studi del Molise, Campobasso, 2Section of Dermatology, Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, University of Naples Federico II, Naples, Italy; 3Department of Dermatovenereology, Saint Petersburg State Pediatric Medical University, Saint Petersburg, Russia Abstract: Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS is a chronic inflammatory skin disease primarily affecting apocrine gland-rich areas of the body and presenting with painful nodules, abscesses, sinus tracts, and scarring. HS is a multifactorial disease in which genetic and environmental factors play a key role. The primary defect in HS pathophysiology involves follicular occlusion of the folliculopilosebaceous unit, followed by follicular rupture, and immune responses (perifollicular lympho-histiocytic inflammation, finally leading to the development of clinical HS lesions. HS has a destructive impact on the patient’s quality of life, being a very challenging disease. Available treatments are limited, mostly off-label and with high variability in the reported efficacy. Fortunately, a monoclonal antibody against tumor necrosis factor alpha has been recently approved for treatment of moderate to severe HS, offering patients a promising new option. This review focuses on the main features of HS, including epidemiology, clinical aspects, pathogenesis, severity classifications, comorbidities, and currently available treatments. Keywords: hidradenitis suppurativa, pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment

  19. Evolutionary applications of MIRs and SINEs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buchanan, F; Crawford, A; Strobeck, C; Palsboll, P; Plante, Y

    It is believed that short interspersed elements (SINEs) are irreversibly inserted into genomes. We use this concept to try to deduce the evolution of whales using sequence and hybridization studies. The observation that microsatellites are associated with SINEs lead us to screen sequences

  20. Evolutionary applications of MIRs and SINEs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buchanan, F; Crawford, A; Strobeck, C; Palsboll, P; Plante, Y

    1999-01-01

    It is believed that short interspersed elements (SINEs) are irreversibly inserted into genomes. We use this concept to try to deduce the evolution of whales using sequence and hybridization studies. The observation that microsatellites are associated with SINEs lead us to screen sequences surroundin

  1. Disseminated Mycobacterium chelonae infection: Complicating a case of hidradenitis suppurativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyadarshi Patnaik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacteium chelonae is a rapidly growing atypical mycobacteria known to be pathogenic in humans. We report a case of Hidradenitis Suppurativa (HS with diabetes complicated by infection of the lesions with Staphylococcus aureus and M. chelonae leading to non-healing and discharging lesions. HS is a rare, insidious and debilitating disease characterized by swollen, painful, inflamed lesions in the axillae, groin, and other parts of the body that contain apocrine glands. Discharge from HS lesions are often found to be sterile, however, polymicrobial bacterial colonization commonly occurs within sinus tracts which can lead to offensive smelling discharge, infection, cellulitis, and superinfection. The incidence of HS is very low and the association with M. chelonae makes it a rare and interesting case.

  2. Scroto-perineal hidradenitis suppurativa complicated by giant scrotal elephantiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badr Alharbi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Scrotal elephantiasis has been a recognized complication of inguinal node irradiation, filarial infection, tumor involvement and surgical lymphatic destruction, but has rarely been reported in association with hidradenitis suppurativa (HS. HS, also known as acne inversa, is a chronic and often debilitating disease primarily affecting the axillae, inframammary regions and perineum. The location of the lesions may lead to social embarrassment and failure to seek medical treatment. Scroto-preineal HS complicated by scrotal elephantiasis is a distressing disease. Excisional surgery with reconstruction is the recommended treatment with a high likelihood of good outcome. We present a 38-year-old male patient with long-standing scroto-perineal HS complicated by giant scrotal elephantiasis.

  3. A Case of Relapsing Polyarthritis Associated With Hidradenitis Suppurativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avinash Adiga MD

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS is a chronic, inflammatory follicular skin disease with recurrent skin nodules, sinus tracts, and scarring. We observed a case of HS associated with relapsing polyarthritis. On presentation the patient had a flare of polyarthritis with an increase in the number and size of pustular nodules. He has had similar episodes 1 to 2 times yearly subsiding with antibiotic treatment. Radiographs revealed erosions and demineralization. Symptoms improved following institution of anti-inflammatory and antibiotic therapy. HS is associated with several inflammatory conditions, and dysregulation in innate immunity may play an important role in etiopathogenesis. Spondyloarthritis/sacroiliitis is the most common joint manifestation in HS and mechanism(s underlying arthropathy is unknown. Treatment of arthritis in HS is anecdotal.

  4. Hidradenitis suppurativa in a HIV-infected child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Prabhu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS, a painful and chronic condition, commonly occurs in women and coincides with post-pubertal increase in sex hormones. A 13-year-old pre-pubertal HIV-infected male child presented to our clinic with a discharging right axillary lymph node swelling. The biopsy of the lesion showed features of HS. The patient was treated with oral antibiotics, oral steroids, and local antibiotic wash. Though the patient responded to this treatment, the clinical response was not adequate and the lesion recurred. Subsequently, the child was started on antiretroviral therapy (zidovudine, lamivudine, and nevirapine. Following these medications, the lesions healed and had not recurred till we last examined the child. Thus, this is a rare presentation of a known condition in an HIV-infected pre-pubertal male child, which did not respond to usual modalities of treatment and had to be treated with antiretroviral therapy.

  5. Hidradenitis Suppurativa and Crohn’s Disease: A Case Series

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kirthi, S

    2017-09-01

    Hidradenitis Suppurativa (HS) is characterized by chronic recurrent abscesses, nodules and draining sinus tracts with scar formation. Cutaneous Crohn’s Disease (CD) may also present similarly. We wished to identify and describe an Irish cohort with combined HS and CD, with a view to a better recognition of clinical manifestations and understanding of the pathophysiology underlying these two overlapping conditions. Cases were identified using the HIPE Code at Tallaght Hospital from 1990-2014 and retrospective review was performed. Seven patients with both HS and CD were identified, 5(71%) female. The median age of diagnosis with both conditions was 37 years. In all cases, CD had preceded the diagnosis of HS. All patients smoked. Six had an increased BMI and 43% had additional autoimmune conditions. All patients required treatment with a TNF-alpha inhibitor for HS with 5 of 6 subjects having reduced frequency of flare ups and clinically less active HS on follow up

  6. Bacterial biofilm in chronic lesions of Hidradenitis Suppurativa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ring, H C; Bay, L; Nilsson, M

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic non-healing or recurrent inflammatory lesions, reminiscent of infection but recalcitrant to antibiotic therapy generally characterize biofilm driven-diseases. Chronic lesions of Hidradenitis Suppurativa (HS) exhibit several aspects, which are compatible with well-known biofilm...... Acid (PNA) - Fluorescence in situ Hybridization (FISH) in combination with Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (CLSM). In addition, corresponding histopathological analysis in hematoxylin and eosin slides were performed. RESULTS: Biofilms were seen in 67% of the samples of chronic lesions and in 75......% of the perilesional samples. The mean diameter of aggregates in lesional skin was significantly greater than in perilesional skin (p=0.01). Biofilms exceeding 50 μm in diameter were found in 42% of lesional samples and only in only 5% of the perilesional samples (p=0.009). The majority of the large biofilms...

  7. The Association between Hidradenitis Suppurativa and Crohn's Disease: in Search of the Missing Pathogenic Link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Zee, Hessel H; Horvath, Barbara; Jemec, Gregor B E; Prens, Errol P

    2016-09-01

    Hidradenitis suppurativa is a chronic, autoinflammatory skin disease. Shalom et al. demonstrate in a large cross-sectional study an association between Crohn's disease and hidradenitis suppurativa, but not with ulcerative colitis. This association supports the hypothesis that a similar pathogenic mechanism contributes to both diseases, providing new possibilities for functional studies and therapy development.

  8. Evidence-based approach to the treatment of hidradenitis suppurativa/acne inversa, based on the European guidelines for hidradenitis suppurativa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulliver, Wayne; Zouboulis, Christos C.; Prens, Errol

    2016-01-01

    Hidradenitis suppurativa/acne inversa (HS) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by painful, recurrent nodules and abscesses that rupture and lead to sinus tracts and scarring. To date, an evidence-based therapeutic approach has not been the standard of care and this is likely due ...

  9. Evidence-based approach to the treatment of hidradenitis suppurativa/acne inversa, based on the European guidelines for hidradenitis suppurativa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.P. Gulliver (Wayne P.); C.C. Zouboulis (Christos C.); E.P. Prens (Errol); G.B.E. Jemec (Gregor); T. Tzellos (Thrasivoulos)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractHidradenitis suppurativa/acne inversa (HS) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by painful, recurrent nodules and abscesses that rupture and lead to sinus tracts and scarring. To date, an evidence-based therapeutic approach has not been the standard of care and this is li

  10. Hedgehog pathway does not play a role in hidradenitis suppurativa pathogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mozeika, E.; Jemec, G.B.E.; Nürnberg, B.M.

    2011-01-01

    Hidradenitis suppurativa is a chronically relapsing skin disorder with onset after puberty and is characterized by inflammatory lesions in hair follicle and apocrine sweat gland-bearing skin that manifests as abscesses with formation of cysts and sinus tracts. Hedgehog family genes are required...... in normal embryonic skin, hair follicle, sebaceous and sweat gland development. Mutations of hedgehog pathway in adult skin have previously been found in basal cell carcinomas and in alopecia as well as in epidermal cysts and in odontogenic keratocysts. Therefore, we suggested that the hedgehog pathway...... might play a role in formation of sinus tracts and cysts as newly formed structures in hidradenitis suppurativa patients. None of the sinus tracts or cysts in 81 hidradenitis suppurativa histological slides from 34 patients showed positive finding for sonic hedgehog mutation. According to our findings...

  11. SINEs as driving forces in genome evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, J

    2012-01-01

    SINEs are short interspersed elements derived from cellular RNAs that repetitively retropose via RNA intermediates and integrate more or less randomly back into the genome. SINEs propagate almost entirely vertically within their host cells and, once established in the germline, are passed on from generation to generation. As non-autonomous elements, their reverse transcription (from RNA to cDNA) and genomic integration depends on the activity of the enzymatic machinery of autonomous retrotransposons, such as long interspersed elements (LINEs). SINEs are widely distributed in eukaryotes, but are especially effectively propagated in mammalian species. For example, more than a million Alu-SINE copies populate the human genome (approximately 13% of genomic space), and few master copies of them are still active. In the organisms where they occur, SINEs are a challenge to genomic integrity, but in the long term also can serve as beneficial building blocks for evolution, contributing to phenotypic heterogeneity and modifying gene regulatory networks. They substantially expand the genomic space and introduce structural variation to the genome. SINEs have the potential to mutate genes, to alter gene expression, and to generate new parts of genes. A balanced distribution and controlled activity of such properties is crucial to maintaining the organism's dynamic and thriving evolution.

  12. Successful Treatment of Recalcitrant Hidradenitis Suppurativa with Adalimumab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Gorovoy

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Hidradenitis suppurativa is a chronic disease that affects the apocrine gland-bearing regions of the body. The etiology of this disorder is poorly understood, but most likely is a complex process involving follicular apocrine occlusion with subsequent perifolliculitis. Many treatment options have been reported with varying degrees of success, including topical and oral therapy and surgical procedures. Recently, TNF-α antagonists have been reported as effective therapy in a few patients. We report here a patient who initially responded to infliximab but developed an infusion reaction to this medication. After subsequent treatment with adalimumab, the patient’s disease improved dramatically and has been maintained under excellent control for over 15 months. We propose that TNF-α inhibitors, particularly monoclonal antibody based agents, are a viable treatment option in patients with severe, recalcitrant HS and that a patient may be safely and successfully treated with the fully human monoclonal antibody adalimumab in cases in which the chimeric monoclonal antibody infliximab therapy is not tolerated.

  13. Review of Current Immunologic Therapies for Hidradenitis Suppurativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria K. Shanmugam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS is a chronic, recurrent, inflammatory disease of apocrine gland-bearing skin which affects approximately 1–4% of the population. The disease is more common in women and patients of African American descent and approximately one-third of patients report a family history. Obesity and smoking are known risk factors, but associations with other immune disorders, especially inflammatory bowel disease, are also recognized. The pathogenesis of HS is poorly understood and host innate or adaptive immune response, defective keratinocyte function, and the microbial environment in the hair follicle and apocrine gland have all been postulated to play a role in disease activity. While surgical interventions can be helpful to reduce disease burden, there is a high recurrence rate. Increasingly, data supports targeted immune therapy for HS, and longitudinal studies suggest benefit from these agents, both when used alone and as an adjunct to surgical treatments. The purpose of this review is to outline the current data supporting use of targeted immune therapy in HS management.

  14. SINEBase: a database and tool for SINE analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassetzky, Nikita S; Kramerov, Dmitri A

    2013-01-01

    SINEBase (http://sines.eimb.ru) integrates the revisited body of knowledge about short interspersed elements (SINEs). A set of formal definitions concerning SINEs was introduced. All available sequence data were screened through these definitions and the genetic elements misidentified as SINEs were discarded. As a result, 175 SINE families have been recognized in animals, flowering plants and green algae. These families were classified by the modular structure of their nucleotide sequences and the frequencies of different patterns were evaluated. These data formed the basis for the database of SINEs. The SINEBase website can be used in two ways: first, to explore the database of SINE families, and second, to analyse candidate SINE sequences using specifically developed tools. This article presents an overview of the database and the process of SINE identification and analysis.

  15. Functional noncoding sequences derived from SINEs in the mammalian genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishihara, Hidenori; Smit, Arian F A; Okada, Norihiro

    2006-07-01

    Recent comparative analyses of mammalian sequences have revealed that a large number of nonprotein-coding genomic regions are under strong selective constraint. Here, we report that some of these loci have been derived from a newly defined family of ancient SINEs (short interspersed repetitive elements). This is a surprising result, as SINEs and other transposable elements are commonly thought to be genomic parasites. We named the ancient SINE family AmnSINE1, for Amniota SINE1, because we found it to be present in mammals as well as in birds, and some copies predate the mammalian-bird split 310 million years ago (Mya). AmnSINE1 has a chimeric structure of a 5S rRNA and a tRNA-derived SINE, and is related to five tRNA-derived SINE families that we characterized here in the coelacanth, dogfish shark, hagfish, and amphioxus genomes. All of the newly described SINE families have a common central domain that is also shared by zebrafish SINE3, and we collectively name them the DeuSINE (Deuterostomia SINE) superfamily. Notably, of the approximately 1000 still identifiable copies of AmnSINE1 in the human genome, 105 correspond to loci phylogenetically highly conserved among mammalian orthologs. The conservation is strongest over the central domain. Thus, AmnSINE1 appears to be the best example of a transposable element of which a significant fraction of the copies have acquired genomic functionality.

  16. Risk of Major Adverse Cardiovascular Events and All-Cause Mortality in Patients With Hidradenitis Suppurativa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeberg, Alexander; Gislason, Gunnar H; Hansen, Peter R

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a common inflammatory skin disease. The disease has been associated with cardiovascular (CV) risk factors, but the risk of CV disease in patients with HS is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To investigate CV risk in patients with HS. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPAN...

  17. Identification of Clinical and Genetic Parameters Associated with Hidradenitis Suppurativa in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janse, Ineke C; Koldijk, Marjolein J; Spekhorst, Lieke M; Vila, Arnau Vich; Weersma, Rinse K; Dijkstra, Gerard; Horváth, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) has recently been associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The objective of this study is to investigate the prevalence of HS in IBD and to identify clinical and genetic parameters associated with HS in IBD. METHODS: A questionnaire, validated for H

  18. Prevalence and risk of inflammatory bowel disease in patients with hidradenitis suppurativa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeberg, Alexander; Jemec, Gregor B E; Kimball, Alexa B

    2017-01-01

    Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease. In small studies, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has been associated with increased prevalence of HS, but data on the concurrence of IBD in patients with HS is limited. We therefore investigated the prevalence and risk of IBD...

  19. A Population- and Hospital-based Cross-sectional Study of Renal Function in Hidradenitis Suppurativa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Iben M; Carlson, Nicholas; Mogensen, Ulla Brasch

    2016-01-01

    The chronic inflammatory skin diseases hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) and psoriasis have been linked to cardiovascular risk factors and the latter has also been linked to possible renal dysfunction. Since basement membrane thinning in the skin of HS patients has been described, we speculated whether...

  20. Ustekinumab in hidradenitis suppurativa : clinical results and a search for potential biomarkers in serum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, J. L.; Li, K.; Brodmerkel, C.; Horvatovich, P.; Jonkman, M. F.; Horvath, B.

    Background Treatment of hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is difficult and the search for effective therapies continues. Objectives To evaluate the efficacy of ustekinumab and to discover a potential biomarker for HS. Methods Seventeen patients were included in this open-label study and treated with 45

  1. Identification of Clinical and Genetic Parameters Associated with Hidradenitis Suppurativa in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janse, Ineke C.; Koldijk, Marjolein J.; Spekhorst, Lieke M.; Vila, Arnau Vich; Weersma, Rinse K.; Dijkstra, Gerard; Horvath, Barbara

    Background: Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) has recently been associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The objective of this study is to investigate the prevalence of HS in IBD and to identify clinical and genetic parameters associated with HS in IBD. Methods: A questionnaire, validated for

  2. Objective scoring of hidradenitis suppurativa reflecting the role of tobacco smoking and obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sartorius, K; Emtestam, L; Jemec, G B E

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a long-standing disease with abscess and often fistula formation, predominantly in the axillae and groins. The disease is difficult to treat and has a severe impact on quality of life. A clinically relevant system for scoring disease severity is lackin...

  3. Hidradenitis suppurativa : A disease of infundibular epidermis rather than pilosebaceous units?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janse, I. C.; Blok, J. L.; Diercks, G. F. H.; Horvath, B.; Jonkman, M. F.

    although the exact pathogenesis of hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is unknown, it is established that it is primarily an infundibulitis.(1,2) We consider infundibulum as epidermis and not as hair follicle according to Ackerman, as the type of epithelial tissue of infundibular epidermis is

  4. Clinical experience of the use of adalimumab in the management of hidradenitis suppurativa. Comparison of response rates with Crohn disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyano, B; Clemente, A; Marín-Jiménez, I; Martorell, A

    2016-09-01

    The recent approval of adalimumab as the first treatment to be approved for the management of hidradenitis suppurativa has represented a before and after in the control of this chronic inflammatory disease. Given the inflammatory burden of this cutaneous disease, in the last few years hidradenitis suppurativa has been compared with inflammatory bowel disease, particularly with Crohn disease, to the point of considering hidradenitis suppurativa as "Crohn disease of the skin". These two chronic inflammatory diseases show sufficient similarities to consider whether treatment response based on the inflammatory load could also be similar. The present article aims to analyse the efficacy of adalimumab in hidradenitis suppurativa in comparison with a truly comparable disease, Crohn disease, with a view to evaluating therapeutic response rates and to drawing conclusions on the therapeutic success obtained in this disabling cutaneous disease.

  5. Gravity localization in sine-Gordon braneworlds

    CERN Document Server

    Cruz, W T; Sousa, L J S; Almeida, C A S

    2016-01-01

    In this work we study two types of five-dimensional braneworld models given by sine-Gordon potentials. In both scenarios, the thick brane is generated by a real scalar field coupled to gravity. We focus our investigation on the localization of graviton field and the behaviour of the massive spectrum. In particular, we analyse the localization of massive modes by means of a relative probability method in a Quantum Mechanics context. Initially, considering a scalar field sine-Gordon potential, we find a resonance to the graviton at zero mode. However, when we consider a double sine-Gordon potential, the brane structure is changed allowing the existence of massless and massive resonant states. The new results show how the existence of an internal structure can aid in the emergence of massive resonant modes on the brane.

  6. Gravity localization in sine-Gordon braneworlds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz, W.T., E-mail: wilamicruz@gmail.com [Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia do Ceará (IFCE), Campus Juazeiro do Norte, 63040-540 Juazeiro do Norte, Ceará (Brazil); Maluf, R.V., E-mail: r.v.maluf@fisica.ufc.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Ceará (UFC), C.P. 6030, 60455-760 Fortaleza, Ceará (Brazil); Sousa, L.J.S., E-mail: luisjose@fisica.ufc.br [Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia do Ceará (IFCE), Campus Canindé, 62700-000 Canindé, Ceará (Brazil); Almeida, C.A.S., E-mail: carlos@fisica.ufc.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Ceará (UFC), C.P. 6030, 60455-760 Fortaleza, Ceará (Brazil)

    2016-01-15

    In this work we study two types of five-dimensional braneworld models given by sine-Gordon potentials. In both scenarios, the thick brane is generated by a real scalar field coupled to gravity. We focus our investigation on the localization of graviton field and the behaviour of the massive spectrum. In particular, we analyse the localization of massive modes by means of a relative probability method in a Quantum Mechanics context. Initially, considering a scalar field sine-Gordon potential, we find a localized state to the graviton at zero mode. However, when we consider a double sine-Gordon potential, the brane structure is changed allowing the existence of massive resonant states. The new results show how the existence of an internal structure can aid in the emergence of massive resonant modes on the brane.

  7. Identification of novel SINEs from Cyprinidae and their evolutionary significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Yawei; HE Shunping; CHEN Yiyu

    2007-01-01

    Short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs) are widespread among eukaryotic genomes. They are repetitive DNA sequences that have been amplified by retrotransposition. In this study, a class of SINEs were isolated from the Opsariichthys bidens genome, and named Opsar. Sequence analysis confirmed that Opsar is a new class of typical SINEs derived from tRNA molecules. With the tRNA-derived region of Opsar and through BLASTN search, we further identified Zb-SINEs from the zebrafish genome, which includes two groups: Zb-SINE-A and Zb-SINE-B. The Zb-SINE-A group comprises subfamilies of -A1-A5, and the Zb-SINE-B group is a dimer of the tRNAAla-derived region and shares a similar dimeric composition to Alu. Zb-SINEs are composed of three distinct regions:a 5' end tRNA-derived region, a tRNA-unrelated region and a 3' end AT-rich region. The flanking regions are AT rich. The average length of Zb-SINEs elements is about 340 bp. Zb-SINEs account for as much as 0.1% of the whole zebrafish genome. About 70 % of the Zb-SINEs are on chromosomes 11, 18, and 19. These Zb-SINEs were characterized by PCR and dot hybridization. The distribution pattern of Zb-SINEs in genome strongly supports the master genes model. The tRNA-derived regions of Opsar and Zb-SINEs were compared with the tRNAAla gene, and they showed 76 % similarity, indicating that Opsar and Zb-SINEs originated from an inactive tRNAAlasequence or a tRNAAla-like sequence. In view of the evolutionary status of zebrafish in the Cyprinidae, we deduced that Zb-SINEs were a very old class of interspersed sequences.

  8. Newly discovered young CORE-SINEs in marsupial genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munemasa, Maruo; Nikaido, Masato; Nishihara, Hidenori; Donnellan, Stephen; Austin, Christopher C; Okada, Norihiro

    2008-01-15

    Although recent mammalian genome projects have uncovered a large part of genomic component of various groups, several repetitive sequences still remain to be characterized and classified for particular groups. The short interspersed repetitive elements (SINEs) distributed among marsupial genomes are one example. We have identified and characterized two new SINEs from marsupial genomes that belong to the CORE-SINE family, characterized by a highly conserved "CORE" domain. PCR and genomic dot blot analyses revealed that the distribution of each SINE shows distinct patterns among the marsupial genomes, implying different timing of their retroposition during the evolution of marsupials. The members of Mar3 (Marsupialia 3) SINE are distributed throughout the genomes of all marsupials, whereas the Mac1 (Macropodoidea 1) SINE is distributed specifically in the genomes of kangaroos. Sequence alignment of the Mar3 SINEs revealed that they can be further divided into four subgroups, each of which has diagnostic nucleotides. The insertion patterns of each SINE at particular genomic loci, together with the distribution patterns of each SINE, suggest that the Mar3 SINEs have intensively amplified after the radiation of diprotodontians, whereas the Mac1 SINE has amplified only slightly after the divergence of hypsiprimnodons from other macropods. By compiling the information of CORE-SINEs characterized to date, we propose a comprehensive picture of how SINE evolution occurred in the genomes of marsupials.

  9. Carnivore-specific SINEs (Can-SINEs): distribution, evolution, and genomic impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters-Conte, Kathryn B; Johnson, Diana L E; Allard, Marc W; Pecon-Slattery, Jill

    2011-01-01

    Short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs) are a type of class 1 transposable element (retrotransposon) with features that allow investigators to resolve evolutionary relationships between populations and species while providing insight into genome composition and function. Characterization of a Carnivora-specific SINE family, Can-SINEs, has, has aided comparative genomic studies by providing rare genomic changes, and neutral sequence variants often needed to resolve difficult evolutionary questions. In addition, Can-SINEs constitute a significant source of functional diversity with Carnivora. Publication of the whole-genome sequence of domestic dog, domestic cat, and giant panda serves as a valuable resource in comparative genomic inferences gleaned from Can-SINEs. In anticipation of forthcoming studies bolstered by new genomic data, this review describes the discovery and characterization of Can-SINE motifs as well as describes composition, distribution, and effect on genome function. As the contribution of noncoding sequences to genomic diversity becomes more apparent, SINEs and other transposable elements will play an increasingly large role in mammalian comparative genomics.

  10. The Signal Generator of Triphase Sine Wave

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RAOMin; MAOSaofu

    2003-01-01

    In the process of developing and adjusting the product in this project, we need some signal sources, which usually afford square or sine wave. Generally the square ware is used for digit logic, but for the analog signal wave is used to judge the linearity's qualities and other functions of the electric circuit. However the common ready-made signal sourceis all unidirectional sine wave, the signal sources whose phase shift can arbitrarily be regulatedand which have precise phase are still not available one the current market.

  11. Sine-Bar Attachment For Machine Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Franklin D.

    1988-01-01

    Sine-bar attachment for collets, spindles, and chucks helps machinists set up quickly for precise angular cuts that require greater precision than provided by graduations of machine tools. Machinist uses attachment to index head, carriage of milling machine or lathe relative to table or turning axis of tool. Attachment accurate to 1 minute or arc depending on length of sine bar and precision of gauge blocks in setup. Attachment installs quickly and easily on almost any type of lathe or mill. Requires no special clamps or fixtures, and eliminates many trial-and-error measurements. More stable than improvised setups and not jarred out of position readily.

  12. Sines and Cosines. Part 3 of 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostol, Tom M. (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    In this 'Project Mathematics' series video, the addition formulas of sines and cosines are explained and their real life applications are demonstrated. Both film footage and computer animation is used. Several mathematical concepts are discussed and include: Ptolemy's theorem concerned with quadrilaterals; the difference between a central angle and an inscribed angle; sines and chord lengths; special angles; subtraction formulas; and a application to simple harmonic motion. A brief history of the city Alexandria, its mathematicians, and their contribution to the field of mathematics is shown.

  13. Sine-Bar Attachment For Machine Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Franklin D.

    1988-01-01

    Sine-bar attachment for collets, spindles, and chucks helps machinists set up quickly for precise angular cuts that require greater precision than provided by graduations of machine tools. Machinist uses attachment to index head, carriage of milling machine or lathe relative to table or turning axis of tool. Attachment accurate to 1 minute or arc depending on length of sine bar and precision of gauge blocks in setup. Attachment installs quickly and easily on almost any type of lathe or mill. Requires no special clamps or fixtures, and eliminates many trial-and-error measurements. More stable than improvised setups and not jarred out of position readily.

  14. Another Method to Find the Derivative of Sine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Yuanyi

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1 Introduction It is very important to find the derivative of sine in mathematics. For each derivative of trigonometric functions is begin with sine. The sketch of its proof is transforming two subtracted sine functions into the form of multiplication[1][2][3][4][5][6].But this method appears the form of fraction, so it is difficult for the beginners and the self - learners to understand the increment of the sine function △y[1

  15. Benjamin Banneker and the Law of Sines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, John F.

    2005-01-01

    Benjamin Banneker, a self-taught mathematician, surveyor and astronomer published annual almanacs containing his astronomical observations and predictions. Banneker who also used logarithms to apply the Law of Sines believed that the method used to solve a mathematical problem depends on the tools available.

  16. Dilogarithm Identities for Sine-Gordon and Reduced Sine-Gordon Y-Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoki Nakanishi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available We study the family of Y-systems and T-systems associated with the sine-Gordon models and the reduced sine-Gordon models for the parameter of continued fractions with two terms. We formulate these systems by cluster algebras, which turn out to be of finite type, and prove their periodicities and the associated dilogarithm identities which have been conjectured earlier. In particular, this provides new examples of periodicities of seeds.

  17. Short interspersed elements (SINEs) of the Geomyoidea superfamily rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogolevsky, Konstantin P; Kramerov, Dmitri A

    2006-05-24

    A new short interspersed element (SINE) was isolated from the genome of desert kangaroo rat (Dipodomys deserti) using single-primer PCR. This SINE consists of two monomers: the left monomer (IDL) resembles rodent ID element and other tRNAAla(CGC)-derived SINEs, whereas the right one (Geo) shows no similarity with known SINE sequences. PCR and hybridization analyses demonstrated that IDL-Geo SINE is restricted to the rodent superfamily Geomyoidea (families Geomyidea and Heteromyidea). Isolation and analysis of IDL-Geo from California pocket mouse (Chaetodipus californicus) and Botta's pocket gopher (Thomomys bottae) revealed some species-specific features of this SINE family. The structure and evolution of known dimeric SINEs are discussed.

  18. Improvement of overlapping hidradenitis suppurativa and ankylosing spondylitis after the introduction of adalimumab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubravka Bosnić

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Hidradenitis suppurativa is a chronic inflammatory disorder characterized by occlusion of the follicular pilosebaceous units of the skin. The treatment options are sometimes very limited and unpleasant odor and abundant drainage complicate the disease. Ankylosing spondylitis is a form of seronegative spondyloarthritis with predominantly axial but also peripheral joint involvement. Both of the conditions lower the patient’s quality of life and affect everyday activities. We describe a 39-year-old male patient with both diseases treated with different medications with only a modest result. After the initiation of a tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α inhibitor (adalimumab the patient experienced first the musculoskeletal and later on the skin improvement. The introduction of TNF- inhibitors should be considered early in the treatment of overlapping hidradenitis suppurativa and the spondyloarthritis spectrum of conditions. Available medical data confirm the positive results and beneficial effect on disease course, activity and, most importantly, quality of life.

  19. Improvement of overlapping hidradenitis suppurativa and ankylosing spondylitis after the introduction of adalimumab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosnić, Dubravka; Žarković, Branimir; Zarkovic, Maja; Anić, Branimir

    2016-01-01

    Hidradenitis suppurativa is a chronic inflammatory disorder characterized by occlusion of the follicular pilosebaceous units of the skin. The treatment options are sometimes very limited and unpleasant odor and abundant drainage complicate the disease. Ankylosing spondylitis is a form of seronegative spondyloarthritis with predominantly axial but also peripheral joint involvement. Both of the conditions lower the patient’s quality of life and affect everyday activities. We describe a 39-year-old male patient with both diseases treated with different medications with only a modest result. After the initiation of a tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) inhibitor (adalimumab) the patient experienced first the musculoskeletal and later on the skin improvement. The introduction of TNF-α inhibitors should be considered early in the treatment of overlapping hidradenitis suppurativa and the spondyloarthritis spectrum of conditions. Available medical data confirm the positive results and beneficial effect on disease course, activity and, most importantly, quality of life. PMID:28115784

  20. Improvement of overlapping hidradenitis suppurativa and ankylosing spondylitis after the introduction of adalimumab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosnić, Dubravka; Žarković, Branimir; Barešić, Marko; Zarkovic, Maja; Anić, Branimir

    2016-01-01

    Hidradenitis suppurativa is a chronic inflammatory disorder characterized by occlusion of the follicular pilosebaceous units of the skin. The treatment options are sometimes very limited and unpleasant odor and abundant drainage complicate the disease. Ankylosing spondylitis is a form of seronegative spondyloarthritis with predominantly axial but also peripheral joint involvement. Both of the conditions lower the patient's quality of life and affect everyday activities. We describe a 39-year-old male patient with both diseases treated with different medications with only a modest result. After the initiation of a tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) inhibitor (adalimumab) the patient experienced first the musculoskeletal and later on the skin improvement. The introduction of TNF-α inhibitors should be considered early in the treatment of overlapping hidradenitis suppurativa and the spondyloarthritis spectrum of conditions. Available medical data confirm the positive results and beneficial effect on disease course, activity and, most importantly, quality of life.

  1. Hidradenitis suppurativa presenting with a posterior neck mass: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Young; Jeon, Min Hee; Bae, Il Heon; Han, Gi Seok; Cha, Sang Hoo; Kim, Sung Jin; Park, Kil Sun [Chungbuk National University Hospital, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-06-15

    Hidradenitis suppurativa is a rare disorder that is characterized by recurrent chronic skin infections and the formation of sinus tracts and considerable scaring. A 37-year-old man presented with a hard posterior neck mass. Multiple pus-producing sinuses were detected in the skin covering the mass. MRI demonstrated an ill-defined, soft tissue mass with multiple variable sized cystic lesions. The soft tissue mass measured 12 x 10 x 4 cm in the subcutaneous fat layer, it contained multifocal cystic lesions that revealed higher signal intensity on both the T1-and T2-weighted images, as compared with the adjacent neck muscles. The mass was not enhanced on the post-contrast T1 weighted images. Some of the cystic lesions extended to the skin. The mass was removed surgically and confirmed to be hidradenitis suppurativa.

  2. The clinical pattern of axillary hidradenitis suppurativa among Saudi Arabians: Mode of presentation and treatment challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bader Hamza Shirah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hidradenitis suppurativa is a chronic follicular occlusive disease affecting the folliculopilosebaceous unit. The clinical course is variable, ranging from mild to severe cases. Definitive evidence-based guidelines for the management are lacking. In addition, the multifaceted clinical features and the unpredictable course of the disease make a uniform approach to treatment impractical. As a result, there are multiple therapeutic approaches. Therefore, in this study, we aim to analyze the results of management of axillary hidradenitis suppurativa among the local community in Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: A retrospective cohort database analysis of 1369 patients diagnosed and treated for axillary hidradenitis suppurativa between January 2004 and December 2013 was done. Seven hundred and forty-one (54.12% were females and 628 (45.87% were males. All patients with Stage I disease favored the conservative method while all patients with Stage II chose the surgical approach. Results: The mean age was 25.5 years. Nine hundred and seventy-four (71.15% patients were treated conservatively; the mean healing time was 5.5 weeks. Three hundred and ninety-five (28.85% patients were treated surgically. One hundred and fourteen (28.9% had incision and drainage, 281 (71.1% had complete excision; all wounds eventually healed without significant scarring. The recurrence rate was 12.5% (122 patients in the conservative method group and zero (0% in the surgical method group. Conclusions: Hidradenitis suppurativa remains a challenging clinical condition for patients and physicians. Further studies need to focus not only on the etiology of this disease but also on the optimal treatment regimen. Public awareness programs are necessary to avoid late presentation and complications.

  3. Neutrophils at work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nauseef, William M; Borregaard, Niels

    2014-01-01

    blood to tissues in models of blood-borne infections versus bacterial invasion through epithelial linings. We examine data on novel aspects of the activation of NADPH oxidase and the heterogeneity of phagosomes and, finally, consider the importance of two neutrophil-derived biological agents: neutrophil......In this Review we discuss data demonstrating recently recognized aspects of neutrophil homeostasis in the steady state, granulopoiesis in 'emergency' conditions and interactions of neutrophils with the adaptive immune system. We explore in vivo observations of the recruitment of neutrophils from...

  4. Synchronisation in Coupled Sine Circle Maps

    CERN Document Server

    Chatterjee, N; Chatterjee, Nandini; Gupte, Neelima

    1995-01-01

    We study the spatially synchronized and temporally periodic solutions of a 1-d lattice of coupled sine circle maps. We carry out an analytic stability analysis of this spatially synchronized and temporally periodic case and obtain the stability matrix in a neat block diagonal form. We find spatially synchronized behaviour over a substantial range of parameter space. We have also extended the analysis to higher spatial periods with similar results. Numerical simulations for various temporal periods of the synchronized solution, reveal that the entire structure of the Arnold tongues and the devil's staircase seen in the case of the single circle map can also be observed for the synchronized coupled sine circle map lattice. Our formalism should be useful in the study of spatially periodic behaviour in other coupled map lattices.

  5. Dermatomyositis Sine Myositis with Membranoproliferative Glomerulonephritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Bagher Owlia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dermatomyositis (DM is an autoimmune disease that is characterized by involvement of proximal musculature and skin. We report a 52-year-old woman with a 6-year history of dermatomyositis sine myositis, who developed lower extremity edema and proteinuria. Pathological examination of renal biopsy showed membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis. She received steroid, cyclophosphamide, and mycophenolate mofetil. Over the 9 to 10 months after the beginning of treatment, the proteinuria was improved.

  6. Exact renormalization group and Sine Gordon theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oak, Prafulla; Sathiapalan, B.

    2017-07-01

    The exact renormalization group is used to study the RG flow of quantities in field theories. The basic idea is to write an evolution operator for the flow and evaluate it in perturbation theory. This is easier than directly solving the differential equation. This is illustrated by reproducing known results in four dimensional ϕ 4 field theory and the two dimensional Sine-Gordon theory. It is shown that the calculation of beta function is somewhat simplified. The technique is also used to calculate the c-function in two dimensional Sine-Gordon theory. This agrees with other prescriptions for calculating c-functions in the literature. If one extrapolates the connection between central charge of a CFT and entanglement entropy in two dimensions, to the c-function of the perturbed CFT, then one gets a value for the entanglement entropy in Sine-Gordon theory that is in exact agreement with earlier calculations (including one using holography) in arXiv:1610.04233.

  7. Isolation of Mouse Neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swamydas, Muthulekha; Luo, Yi; Dorf, Martin E; Lionakis, Michail S

    2015-08-03

    Neutrophils represent the first line of defense against bacterial and fungal pathogens. Indeed, patients with inherited and acquired qualitative and quantitative neutrophil defects are at high risk for developing bacterial and fungal infections and suffering adverse outcomes from these infections. Therefore, research aiming at defining the molecular factors that modulate neutrophil effector function under homeostatic conditions and during infection is essential for devising strategies to augment neutrophil function and improve the outcome of infected individuals. This unit describes a reproducible density gradient centrifugation-based protocol that can be applied in any laboratory to harvest large numbers of highly enriched and highly viable neutrophils from the bone marrow of mice both at the steady state and following infection with Candida albicans as described in UNIT. In another protocol, we also present a method that combines gentle enzymatic tissue digestion with a positive immunomagnetic selection technique or Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) to harvest highly pure and highly viable preparations of neutrophils directly from mouse tissues such as the kidney, the liver or the spleen. Finally, methods for isolating neutrophils from mouse peritoneal fluid and peripheral blood are included. Mouse neutrophils isolated by these protocols can be used for examining several aspects of cellular function ex vivo including pathogen binding, phagocytosis and killing, neutrophil chemotaxis, oxidative burst, degranulation and cytokine production, and for performing neutrophil adoptive transfer experiments.

  8. Conserved domains and SINE diversity during animal evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchetti, Andrea; Mantovani, Barbara

    2013-10-01

    Eukaryotic genomes harbour a number of mobile genetic elements (MGEs); moving from one genomic location to another, they are known to impact on the host genome. Short interspersed elements (SINEs) are well-represented, non-autonomous retroelements and they are likely the most diversified MGEs. In some instances, sequence domains conserved across unrelated SINEs have been identified; remarkably, one of these, called Nin, has been conserved since the Radiata-Bilateria splitting. Here we report on two new domains: Inv, derived from Nin, identified in insects and in deuterostomes, and Pln, restricted to polyneopteran insects. The identification of Inv and Pln sequences allowed us to retrieve new SINEs, two in insects and one in a hemichordate. The diverse structural combination of the different domains in different SINE families, during metazoan evolution, offers a clearer view of SINE diversity and their frequent de novo emergence through module exchange, possibly underlying the high evolutionary success of SINEs. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Multiple sine, multiple elliptic gamma functions and rational cones

    CERN Document Server

    Tizzano, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    We define generalizations of the multiple elliptic gamma functions and the multiple sine functions, labelled by rational cones in $\\mathbb{R}^r$. For $r=2,3$ we prove that the generalized multiple elliptic gamma functions enjoy a modular property determined by the cone. This generalizes the modular properties of the elliptic gamma function studied by Felder and Varchenko. The generalized multiple sine enjoy a related infinite product representation, generalizing the results of Narukawa for the ordinary multiple sine functions.

  10. Neutrophilic dermatoses in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berk, David R; Bayliss, Susan J

    2008-01-01

    The neutrophilic dermatoses are rare disorders, especially in children, and are characterized by neutrophilic infiltrates in the skin and less commonly in extracutaneous tissue. The neutrophilic dermatoses share similar clinical appearances and associated conditions, including inflammatory bowel disease, malignancies, and medications. Overlap forms of disease demonstrating features of multiple neutrophilic dermatoses may be seen. The manuscript attempts to provide an up-to-date review of (i) classical neutrophilic dermatoses, focusing on distinctive features in children and (ii) neutrophilic dermatoses which may largely be pediatric or genodermatosis-associated (Majeed, SAPHO [synovitis, severe acne, sterile palmoplantar pustulosis, hyperostosis, and osteitis] syndrome, PAPA (pyogenic sterile arthritis, pyoderma gangrenosum, and acne), PFAPA (periodic fever with aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and cervical adenopathy), and other periodic fever syndromes, and congenital erosive and vesicular dermatosis healing with reticulated supple scarring).

  11. Bov-B-mobilized SINEs in vertebrate genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogolevsky, Konstantin P; Vassetzky, Nikita S; Kramerov, Dmitri A

    2008-01-15

    Two new short retroposon families (SINEs) have been found in the genome of springhare Pedetes capensis (Rodentia). One of them, Ped-1, originated from 5S rRNA, while the other one, Ped-2, originated from tRNA-derived SINE ID. In contrast to most currently active mammalian SINEs mobilized by L1 long retrotransposon (LINE), Ped-1 and Ped-2 are mobilized by Bov-B, a LINE family of the widely distributed RTE clade. The 3' part of these SINEs originates from two sequences in the 5' and 3' regions of Bov-B. Such bipartite structure of the LINE-derived part has been revealed in all Bov-B-mobilized SINEs known to date (AfroSINE, Bov-tA, Mar-1, and Ped-1/2), which distinguishes them from other SINEs with only a 3' LINE-derived part. Structural analysis and the distribution of Bov-B LINEs and partner SINEs supports the horizontal transfer of Bov-B, while the SINEs emerged independently in lineages with this LINE.

  12. Sines and Cosines. Part 2 of 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostol, Tom M. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    The Law of Sines and the Law of Cosines are introduced and demonstrated in this 'Project Mathematics' series video using both film footage and computer animation. This video deals primarily with the mathematical field of Trigonometry and explains how these laws were developed and their applications. One significant use is geographical and geological surveying. This includes both the triangulation method and the spirit leveling method. With these methods, it is shown how the height of the tallest mountain in the world, Mt. Everest, was determined.

  13. Boils at Frictional Locations in a Patient with Hidradenitis Suppurativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boer, Jurr; Mihajlovic, Dalibor

    2016-12-01

    Dear Editor, Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a chronic, recurrent, inflammatory skin disease. The primary clinical presentation are painful inflamed nodules or boils of inverse areas, i.e. the axillary and anogenito-crural regions, but it can also involve the infra- and inter-mammary regions (1,2). The etiology of HS is not clearly defined. Obesity, smoking, and genetic factors are considered important risk factors. In addition, it has also been suggested that friction may contribute to the development of HS, especially in the obese, but this is based on highly anecdotal reports (3-5). We describe a case with classic HS, obesity, and HS-like lesions at the position of the bra strap, suggesting that mechanical stress was an external pathogenic factor for HS development. A 33-year old woman presented with an 18-year history of chronic, recurrent, inflammatory nodules in the axillae, the groin, the pubic region, and to a lesser extent the abdomen and buttocks. She was obese with as result of 33.2 kg/m-2 of 33.2, had a positive family history of two first grade family members with HS, and was a smoker (19 Pack years). There were no other known comorbidities. The inflamed lesions had been treated with several courses of oral antibiotics (minocycline, erythromycin, and combination therapy of clindamycin and rifampicine) and surgical treatments: lancing, deroofing, and excisions (2,6). On examination, there were nodules, folliculitis, cysts, and depressed scars in the axillae and groins, including the inner thighs (Figure 1). On the chest, corresponding to where the lower edge of the patient's bra was usually located, a superficial nodule and follicular papules were observed, exactly coinciding with the red stripe caused by mechanical stress (friction and pressure) of the bra edge. There was no skin fold present on the location of the HS lesions, and there were no lesions observed in the intermammary region or on the side of the breasts in contact with the skin of the

  14. The Geometrodynamics of Sine-Gordon Solitons

    CERN Document Server

    Gegenberg, J

    1998-01-01

    The relationship between N-soliton solutions to the Euclidean sine-Gordon equation and Lorentzian black holes in Jackiw-Teitelboim dilaton gravity is investigated, with emphasis on the important role played by the dilaton in determining the black hole geometry. We show how an N-soliton solution can be used to construct ``sine-Gordon'' coordinates for a black hole of mass M, and construct the transformation to more standard ``Schwarzchild-like'' coordinates. For N=1 and 2, we find explicit closed form solutions to the dilaton equations of motion in soliton coordinates, and find the relationship between the soliton parameters and the black hole mass. Remarkably, the black hole mass is non-negative for arbitrary soliton parameters. In the one-soliton case the coordinates are shown to cover smoothly a region containing the whole interior of the black hole as well as a finite neighbourhood outside the horizon. A Hamiltonian analysis is performed for slicings that approach the soliton coordinates on the interior, a...

  15. Spotlight on adalimumab in the treatment of active moderate-to-severe hidradenitis suppurativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fotiadou C

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Christina Fotiadou, Efstratios Vakirlis, Dimitrios Ioannides First Department of Dermatology-Venereology, Aristotle University Medical School, Thessaloniki, Greece Abstract: Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS is a chronic, recurrent, inflammatory skin disease that affects the hair follicles of the aprocrine gland-bearing anatomical areas of the body. It is characterized by deep painful nodules and abscesses that rupture and contribute to the formation of sinus tracks and scarring. The management of HS is based on the assessment of disease severity and a combination of medical and surgical treatment according to the European Guidelines. Adalimumab, a recombinant, fully humanized, anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha (anti-TNF-α monoclonal antibody, is the only officially approved treatment for the management of moderate-to-severe HS. Case reports, concerning 42 patients who received adalimumab for severe HS (with the standard dose regimen for psoriasis, reported a cumulative response rate of 58% (≥50% in 23 patients with a relapse rate of 71% (10 out of 14 patients. The most recent and most well-powered phase III, randomized placebo-controlled trials for the evaluation of the efficacy and safety of adalimumab in treatment of moderate-to-severe HS (PIONEER studies I and II showed that the Hidradenitis Suppurativa Clinical Response (HiSCR rate at week 12 was significantly higher for patients randomized to adalimumab compared to placebo. Adverse events were comparable to placebo. In conclusion, adalimumab, to date, holds the most robust data regarding treatment efficacy in HS. Larger, registry-based studies are needed to further establish the efficacy and safety profile of this anti-TNF-α agent in HS. Keywords: hidradenitis suppurativa, adalimumab, treatment

  16. Myeloperoxidase Stimulates Neutrophil Degranulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigorieva, D V; Gorudko, I V; Sokolov, A V; Kostevich, V A; Vasilyev, V B; Cherenkevich, S N; Panasenko, O M

    2016-08-01

    Myeloperoxidase, heme enzyme of azurophilic granules in neutrophils, is released into the extracellular space in the inflammation foci. In neutrophils, it stimulates a dose-dependent release of lactoferrin (a protein of specific granules), lysozyme (a protein of specific and azurophilic granules), and elastase (a protein of azurophilic granules). 4-Aminobenzoic acid hydrazide, a potent inhibitor of peroxidase activity of myeloperoxidase, produced no effect on neutrophil degranulation. Using signal transduction inhibitors (genistein, methoxyverapamil, wortmannin, and NiCl2), we demonstrated that myeloperoxidase-induced degranulation of neutrophils resulted from enzyme interaction with the plasma membrane and depends on activation of tyrosine kinases, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3K), and calcium signaling. Myeloperoxidase modified by oxidative/halogenation stress (chlorinated and monomeric forms of the enzyme) lost the potency to activate neutrophil degranulation.

  17. Bunched soliton states in weakly coupled sine-Gordon systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbech-Jensen, N.; Samuelsen, Mogens Rugholm; Lomdahl, P. S.

    1990-01-01

    The interaction between solitons of two weakly coupled sine-Gordon systems is considered. In particular, the stability of bunched states is investigated, and perturbation results are compared with numerical results.......The interaction between solitons of two weakly coupled sine-Gordon systems is considered. In particular, the stability of bunched states is investigated, and perturbation results are compared with numerical results....

  18. Radial sine-Gordon kinks as sources of fast breathers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caputo, Jean Guy; Sørensen, Mads Peter

    2013-01-01

    We consider radial sine-Gordon kinks in two, three, and higher dimensions. A full two-dimensional simulation showing that azimuthal perturbations remain small allows us to reduce the problem to the one-dimensional radial sine-Gordon equation. We solve this equation on an interval [r, r1] and abso...

  19. Hidradenitis suppurativa: an update on connecting the tracts [version 1; referees: 3 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mallory K Smith

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS is a devastating disease involving abscesses, sinus tracts, and inflammation classically affecting the axilla, groin, and/or anogenital region. Although the disease pathogenesis is not fully understood, recent advances suggest that HS pathology runs much deeper than the cutaneous manifestations. It is now believed that HS is a systemic inflammatory disease that gives rise to the characteristic cutaneous manifestations. This disease is problematic for both patients and physicians to manage because of a variety of diagnostic and management difficulties. This article seeks to provide updates on the current understanding of HS to increase awareness and improve management.

  20. Hidradenitis suppurativa: retrospective study of 20 cases Hidradenite supurativa: estudo retrospectivo de 20 casos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurimar Conceição Fernandes

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, twenty cases of severe hidradenitis suppurativa are reported, mainly in non-white people and in axillary areas. Wide surgical excision has offered good results, although relapses have occurred at variable intervals in the follow-up period.São relatados 20 casos de hidradenite supurativa grave, com predomínio de não brancos e regiões axilares. A excisão cirúrgica ampla trouxe bons resultados, embora a recidiva ocorresse em intervalos variáveis no acompanhamento.

  1. Origin and evolution of SINEs in eukaryotic genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramerov, D A; Vassetzky, N S

    2011-12-01

    Short interspersed elements (SINEs) are one of the two most prolific mobile genomic elements in most of the higher eukaryotes. Although their biology is still not thoroughly understood, unusual life cycle of these simple elements amplified as genomic parasites makes their evolution unique in many ways. In contrast to most genetic elements including other transposons, SINEs emerged de novo many times in evolution from available molecules (for example, tRNA). The involvement of reverse transcription in their amplification cycle, huge number of genomic copies and modular structure allow variation mechanisms in SINEs uncommon or rare in other genetic elements (module exchange between SINE families, dimerization, and so on.). Overall, SINE evolution includes their emergence, progressive optimization and counteraction to the cell's defense against mobile genetic elements.

  2. Novel SINE families from salmons validate Parahucho (Salmonidae) as a distinct genus and give evidence that SINEs can incorporate LINE-related 3'-tails of other SINEs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matveev, Vitaliy; Nishihara, Hidenori; Okada, Norihiro

    2007-08-01

    Short interspersed elements (SINEs) constitute a group of retroposons propagating in the genome via a mechanism of reverse transcription, in which they depend on the enzymatic machinery of long retroposons (LINEs). Over 70 SINE families have been described to date from the genomes of various eukaryotes. Here, we characterize two novel SINEs from salmons (Actinopterygii: Salmonoidei). The first family, termed SlmI, was shown to be widespread among all genera of the suborder. These SINEs have a tRNA(Leu)-related promoter region at their 5'-end, a unique central conserved domain with a subfamily-specific region, and an end with RSg-1-LINE-derived 3'-terminus preceding the A/T-rich tail. The same LINE-related segment is also shared by two other salmonid SINEs: HpaI and OS-SINE1. The structural peculiarities and overall sequence identity of the SlmI 3'-terminus suggest that it has been acquired from HpaI SINEs but not directly from the partner LINE. This region plays a crucial role in the process of retrotransposition of short interspersed elements, and the case of its SINE-to-SINE transmission is the first recorded to date. Possible scenarios and potential evolutionary implications of the observed interaction between short retroposons are discussed. Apart from the above, we found a copy of the SlmI SINE in the GenBank entry for the blood fluke, Schistosoma japonicum (Trematoda: Strigeiformes) -- a trematode causing one of the most important human helminth infections, with its genome known to host other groups of salmonoid retroposons. In the present article, we suggest our views with regard to possible ways in which such an intensive horizontal transfer of salmonoid retroposons to the schistosomal genome occurs. The second novel SINE family, termed SlmII, originates from one of the SlmI subfamilies, with which it shares the same tRNA-related region, central domain, and a part of RSg-1-derived segment, but has a different 3'-tail of unidentified origin. Its distribution

  3. Recurrence rate and patient satisfaction of CO2 laser evaporation of lesions in patients with hidradenitis suppurativa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Peter Riis; Dufour, Deirde Nathalie; Zarchi, Kian

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a debilitating disease and is difficult to treat. Validation of surgical techniques is therefore of great importance in the management of HS. Carbon dioxide (CO2) laser evaporation has been shown effective, but larger-scale studies are scarce. OBJECTIVE...

  4. Ultradiscrete sine-Gordon Equation over Symmetrized Max-Plus Algebra, and Noncommutative Discrete and Ultradiscrete sine-Gordon Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Kenichi

    2013-11-01

    Ultradiscretization with negative values is a long-standing problem and several attempts have been made to solve it. Among others, we focus on the symmetrized max-plus algebra, with which we ultradiscretize the discrete sine-Gordon equation. Another ultradiscretization of the discrete sine-Gordon equation has already been proposed by previous studies, but the equation and the solutions obtained here are considered to directly correspond to the discrete counterpart. We also propose a noncommutative discrete analogue of the sine-Gordon equation, reveal its relations to other integrable systems including the noncommutative discrete KP equation, and construct multisoliton solutions by a repeated application of Darboux transformations. Moreover, we derive a noncommutative ultradiscrete analogue of the sine-Gordon equation and its 1-soliton and 2-soliton solutions, using the symmetrized max-plus algebra. As a result, we have a complete set of commutative and noncommutative versions of continuous, discrete, and ultradiscrete sine-Gordon equations.

  5. Ultradiscrete sine-Gordon Equation over Symmetrized Max-Plus Algebra, and Noncommutative Discrete and Ultradiscrete sine-Gordon Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenichi Kondo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Ultradiscretization with negative values is a long-standing problem and several attempts have been made to solve it. Among others, we focus on the symmetrized max-plus algebra, with which we ultradiscretize the discrete sine-Gordon equation. Another ultradiscretization of the discrete sine-Gordon equation has already been proposed by previous studies, but the equation and the solutions obtained here are considered to directly correspond to the discrete counterpart. We also propose a noncommutative discrete analogue of the sine-Gordon equation, reveal its relations to other integrable systems including the noncommutative discrete KP equation, and construct multisoliton solutions by a repeated application of Darboux transformations. Moreover, we derive a noncommutative ultradiscrete analogue of the sine-Gordon equation and its 1-soliton and 2-soliton solutions, using the symmetrized max-plus algebra. As a result, we have a complete set of commutative and noncommutative versions of continuous, discrete, and ultradiscrete sine-Gordon equations.

  6. Possible involvement of SINEs in mammalian-specific brain formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Takeshi; Nishihara, Hidenori; Hirakawa, Mika; Fujimura, Koji; Tanaka, Mikiko; Kokubo, Nobuhiro; Kimura-Yoshida, Chiharu; Matsuo, Isao; Sumiyama, Kenta; Saitou, Naruya; Shimogori, Tomomi; Okada, Norihiro

    2008-03-18

    Retroposons, such as short interspersed elements (SINEs) and long interspersed elements (LINEs), are the major constituents of higher vertebrate genomes. Although there are many examples of retroposons' acquiring function, none has been implicated in the morphological innovations specific to a certain taxonomic group. We previously characterized a SINE family, AmnSINE1, members of which constitute a part of conserved noncoding elements (CNEs) in mammalian genomes. We proposed that this family acquired genomic functionality or was exapted after retropositioning in a mammalian ancestor. Here we identified 53 new AmnSINE1 loci and refined 124 total loci, two of which were further analyzed. Using a mouse enhancer assay, we demonstrate that one SINE locus, AS071, 178 kbp from the gene FGF8 (fibroblast growth factor 8), is an enhancer that recapitulates FGF8 expression in two regions of the developing forebrain, namely the diencephalon and the hypothalamus. Our gain-of-function analysis revealed that FGF8 expression in the diencephalon controls patterning of thalamic nuclei, which act as a relay center of the neocortex, suggesting a role for FGF8 in mammalian-specific forebrain patterning. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the locus, AS021, 392 kbp from the gene SATB2, controls gene expression in the lateral telencephalon, which is thought to be a signaling center during development. These results suggest important roles for SINEs in the development of the mammalian neuronal network, a part of which was initiated with the exaptation of AmnSINE1 in a common mammalian ancestor.

  7. Comparative evolution history of SINEs in Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica oleracea: evidence for a high rate of SINE loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenoir, A; Pélissier, T; Bousquet-Antonelli, C; Deragon, J M

    2005-01-01

    Brassica oleracea and Arabidopsis thaliana belong to the Brassicaceae(Cruciferae) family and diverged 16 to 19 million years ago. Although the genome size of B. oleracea (approximately 600 million base pairs) is more than four times that of A. thaliana (approximately 130 million base pairs), their gene content is believed to be very similar with more than 85% sequence identity in the coding region. Therefore, this important difference in genome size is likely to reflect a different rate of non-coding DNA accumulation. Transposable elements (TEs) constitute a major fraction of non-coding DNA in plant species. A different rate in TE accumulation between two closely related species can result in significant genome size variations in a short evolutionary period. Short interspersed elements (SINEs) are non-autonomous retroposons that have invaded the genome of most eukaryote species. Several SINE families are present in B. oleracea and A. thaliana and we found that two of them (called RathE1 and RathE2) are present in both species. In this study, the tempo of evolution of RathE1 and RathE2 SINE families in both species was compared. We observed that most B. oleracea RathE2 SINEs are "young" (close to the consensus sequence) and abundant while elements from this family are more degenerated and much less abundant in A. thaliana. However, the situation is different for the RathE1 SINE family for which the youngest elements are found in A. thaliana. Surprisingly, no SINE was found to occupy the same (orthologous) genomic locus in both species suggesting that either these SINE families were not amplified at a significant rate in the common ancestor of the two species or that older elements were lost and only the recent (lineage-specific) insertions remain. To test this latter hypothesis, loci containing a recently inserted SINE in the A. thaliana col-0 ecotype were selected and characterized in several other A. thaliana ecotypes. In addition to the expected SINE containing

  8. SINEs, evolution and genome structure in the opossum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Wanjun; Ray, David A; Walker, Jerilyn A; Barnes, Erin W; Gentles, Andrew J; Samollow, Paul B; Jurka, Jerzy; Batzer, Mark A; Pollock, David D

    2007-07-01

    Short INterspersed Elements (SINEs) are non-autonomous retrotransposons, usually between 100 and 500 base pairs (bp) in length, which are ubiquitous components of eukaryotic genomes. Their activity, distribution, and evolution can be highly informative on genomic structure and evolutionary processes. To determine recent activity, we amplified more than one hundred SINE1 loci in a panel of 43 M. domestica individuals derived from five diverse geographic locations. The SINE1 family has expanded recently enough that many loci were polymorphic, and the SINE1 insertion-based genetic distances among populations reflected geographic distance. Genome-wide comparisons of SINE1 densities and GC content revealed that high SINE1 density is associated with high GC content in a few long and many short spans. Young SINE1s, whether fixed or polymorphic, showed an unbiased GC content preference for insertion, indicating that the GC preference accumulates over long time periods, possibly in periodic bursts. SINE1 evolution is thus broadly similar to human Alu evolution, although it has an independent origin. High GC content adjacent to SINE1s is strongly correlated with bias towards higher AT to GC substitutions and lower GC to AT substitutions. This is consistent with biased gene conversion, and also indicates that like chickens, but unlike eutherian mammals, GC content heterogeneity (isochore structure) is reinforced by substitution processes in the M. domestica genome. Nevertheless, both high and low GC content regions are apparently headed towards lower GC content equilibria, possibly due to a relative shift to lower recombination rates in the recent Monodelphis ancestral lineage. Like eutherians, metatherian (marsupial) mammals have evolved high CpG substitution rates, but this is apparently a convergence in process rather than a shared ancestral state.

  9. Neutrophils, from marrow to microbes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borregaard, Niels

    2010-01-01

    . Neutrophils circulate in the blood as dormant cells. At sites of infection, endothelial cells capture bypassing neutrophils and guide them through the endothelial cell lining whereby the neutrophils are activated and tuned for the subsequent interaction with microbes. Once in tissues, neutrophils kill...... microorganisms by microbicidal agents liberated from granules or generated by metabolic activation. As a final act, neutrophils can extrude stands of DNA with bactericidal proteins attached that act as extracellular traps for microorganisms....

  10. Neutrophil biology: an update

    OpenAIRE

    Kobayashi, Yoshiro

    2015-01-01

    Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are involved in bacterial killing as well as autoimmunity, because NETs contain proteases, bactericidal peptides, DNA and ribonucleoprotein. NETs are formed via a novel type of cell death called NETosis. NETosis is distinct from apoptosis, but it resembles necrosis in that both membranes are not intact so that they allow intracellular proteins to leak outside of the cells. Removal of NETs and neutrophils undergoing NETosis by phagocytes and its subsequent...

  11. SINE TRANSFORM MATRIX FOR SOLVING TOEPLITZ MATRIX PROBLEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-zhi Cheng

    2001-01-01

    In recent papers, some authors studied the solutions of symmetricpositive definite(SPD) Toeplitz systems Tn x = b by the conjugate gradient method(CG) with different sine trans- forms based preconditioners. In this paper, we first discuss the properties of eigenvalues for the main known circulant, skew circulant and sine transform based preconditioners. A counter example shows that E.Boman's preconditioner is only positive semi-definite for the banded Toeplitz matrix. To use preconditioner effectively, then we propose a modified Boman's preconditioner and a new Cesaro sum type sine transform based preconditioner. Finally, the results of numerical experimentation with these two preconditioners are pre- sented.

  12. Vortex Strings and Nonabelian sine-Gordon Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Q H

    1999-01-01

    We generalize the Lund-Regge model for vortex string dynamics in 4-dimensional Minkowski space to the arbitrary n-dimensional case. The n-dimensional vortex equation is identified with a nonabelian sine-Gordon equation and its integrability is proven by finding the associated linear equations of the inverse scattering. An explicit expression of vortex coordinates in terms of the variables of the nonabelian sine-Gordon system is derived. In particular, we obtain the n-dimensional vortex soliton solution of the Hasimoto-type from the one soliton solution of the nonabelian sine-Gordon equation.

  13. Autophagy Primes Neutrophils for Neutrophil Extracellular Trap Formation during Sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, So Young; Shrestha, Sanjeeb; Youn, Young-Jin; Kim, Jun-Kyu; Kim, Shin-Yeong; Kim, Hyun Jung; Park, So-Hee; Ahn, Won-Gyun; Kim, Shin; Lee, Myung Goo; Jung, Ki-Suck; Park, Yong Bum; Mo, Eun-Kyung; Ko, Yousang; Lee, Suh-Young; Koh, Younsuck; Park, Myung Jae; Song, Dong-Keun; Hong, Chang-Won

    2017-09-01

    Neutrophils are key effectors in the host's immune response to sepsis. Excessive stimulation or dysregulated neutrophil functions are believed to be responsible for sepsis pathogenesis. However, the mechanisms regulating functional plasticity of neutrophils during sepsis have not been fully determined. We investigated the role of autophagy in neutrophil functions during sepsis in patients with community-acquired pneumonia. Neutrophils were isolated from patients with sepsis and stimulated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). The levels of reactive oxygen species generation, neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation, and granule release, and the autophagic status were evaluated. The effect of neutrophil autophagy augmentation was further evaluated in a mouse model of sepsis. Neutrophils isolated from patients who survived sepsis showed an increase in autophagy induction, and were primed for NET formation in response to subsequent PMA stimulation. In contrast, neutrophils isolated from patients who did not survive sepsis showed dysregulated autophagy and a decreased response to PMA stimulation. The induction of autophagy primed healthy neutrophils for NET formation and vice versa. In a mouse model of sepsis, the augmentation of autophagy improved survival via a NET-dependent mechanism. These results indicate that neutrophil autophagy primes neutrophils for increased NET formation, which is important for proper neutrophil effector functions during sepsis. Our study provides important insights into the role of autophagy in neutrophils during sepsis.

  14. The Perception of "Sine-Wave Speech" by Adults with Developmental Dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosner, Burton S.; Talcott, Joel B.; Witton, Caroline; Hogg, James D.; Richardson, Alexandra J.; Hansen, Peter C.; Stein, John F.

    2003-01-01

    "Sine-wave speech" sentences contain only four frequency-modulated sine waves, lacking many acoustic cues present in natural speech. Adults with (n=19) and without (n=14) dyslexia were asked to reproduce orally sine-wave utterances in successive trials. Results suggest comprehension of sine-wave sentences is impaired in some adults with…

  15. Bunched soliton states in weakly coupled sine-Gordon systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gronbech-Jensen, N.; Samuelsen, M.R. (Physics Laboratory I, The Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark)); Lomdahl, P.S. (Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (USA)); Blackburn, J.A. (Department of Physics and Computing, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, Ontario (Canada))

    1990-09-01

    The interaction between solitons of two weakly coupled sine-Gordon systems is considered. In particular, the stability of bunched states is investigated, and perturbation results are compared with numerical results.

  16. Sine-wave speech recognition in a tonal language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yan-Mei; Xu, Li; Zhou, Ning; Yang, Guang; Yin, Shan-Kai

    2012-02-01

    It is hypothesized that in sine-wave replicas of natural speech, lexical tone recognition would be severely impaired due to the loss of F0 information, but the linguistic information at the sentence level could be retrieved even with limited tone information. Forty-one native Mandarin-Chinese-speaking listeners participated in the experiments. Results showed that sine-wave tone-recognition performance was on average only 32.7% correct. However, sine-wave sentence-recognition performance was very accurate, approximately 92% correct on average. Therefore the functional load of lexical tones on sentence recognition is limited, and the high-level recognition of sine-wave sentences is likely attributed to the perceptual organization that is influenced by top-down processes. © 2012 Acoustical Society of America

  17. Sine-Gordon Theory : Entanglement entropy and holography

    CERN Document Server

    Banerjee, Pinaki; Sathiapalan, B

    2016-01-01

    We compute entanglement entropy of sine-Gordon theory for a single interval using both field theoretic and holographic techniques. The results match for near-marginal perturbations up to leading order in the coupling.

  18. A unified approach in seeking the solitary wave solutions to sine-Gordon type equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie Yuan-Xi; Tang Jia-Shi

    2005-01-01

    By utilizing the solutions of an auxiliary ordinary differential equation introduced in this paper, we present a simple and direct method to uniformly construct the exact solitary wave solutions for sine-Gordon type equations.As illustrative examples, the exact solitary wave solutions of some physically significant sine-Gordon type equations,including the sine-Gordon equation, double sine-Gordon equation and mKdV-sine-Gordon equation, are investigated by means of this method.

  19. VIRTUAL REALITY HYPNOSIS FOR PAIN CONTROL IN A PATIENT WITH GLUTEAL HIDRADENITIS:A CASE REPORT().

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani, Maryam; Teeley, Aubriana M; Wiechman, Shelley A; Jensen, Mark P; Sharar, Sam R; Patterson, David R

    2011-01-01

    This case report describes the use of hypnotic analgesia induced through immersive three-dimensional computer-generated virtual reality, better known as virtual reality hypnosis (VRH), in the treatment of a patient with ongoing pain associated with gluteal hidradenitis, The patient participated in the study for two consecutive days white hospitalized at a regional trauma centre. At pretreatment, she reported severe pain intensity and unpleasantness as well as high levels of anxiety and nervousness. She was then administered two sessions of virtual reality hypnotic treatment for decreased pain and anxiety. The patient's ratings of 'time spent thinking about pain', pain intensity, 'unpleasantness of pain', and anxiety decreased from before to after each daily VRH session, as well as from Day One to Day Two. The findings indicate that VRH may benefit individuals with severe, ongoing pain from a chronic condition, and that a controlled clinical trial examining its efficacy is warranted.

  20. Acne Conglobata Associated with Hidradenitis Suppurativa, Disorders of Follicular Occlusion (Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pecova K.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The author is presenting the case of a 23-year-old female patient with a severe form of acne conglobata, with the first symptoms of the disease occurring as far back as the prepubertal age. In the past year the disease has combined with hidradenitis suppurativa (to be referred to henceforth as “HS”, Hurley stage I, in the axillae and both sides of the inguinal region, with a family history of acne conglobata (both her mother and brother were affected. Further examinations ruled out inflammatory bowel disease because of a lack of further associated symptoms, except for sideropenic anaemia (lesser form and lower serum values of vitamin D. Up until now the disease has been resistant to treatment, including the long-term treatment of methylprednisolone in combination with isotretinoid as well as dapsone and antibiotics.

  1. An interesting uncommon side effect of topical corticosteroids-hidradenitis suppurativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yugandar Inakanti

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available There are many local and systemic side-effects of topical corticosteroids. To the best of our Knowledge, Hidradenitis Supportive (HS due to topical corticosteroids has not been reported previously. We report a 39-year old, male patient who started himself a topical corticosteroid Pander Plus cream because of itching, scaly lesions over groins and buttocks since 6 months. After 4 months of topical treatment, he developed pus discharging sinuses over both groins and buttocks. Based on patient history, clinical and laboratory findings and the exclusion of other diagnoses, HS points out the use of topical corticosteroids. The case well highlights this unusual condition and represents the first case reported in India to our best of the knowledge. Having performed thorough literature search I would like to discuss in this report the evidence for this relation and stress the importance of appropriate usage of topical corticosteroids.

  2. Normal Skin Microbiota is Altered in Pre-clinical Hidradenitis Suppurativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ring, Hans Christian; Bay, Lene; Kallenbach, Klaus; Miller, Iben M; Prens, Errol; Saunte, Ditte M; Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Jemec, Gregor B E

    2017-02-08

    Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease defined by recurrent nodules, tunnels (sinus tracts) and scarring involving the intertriginous regions. The clinical course of HS is compatible with a biofilm-driven disease, and biofilm has been described in lesional HS skin. We therefore hypothesized that clinically unaffected HS skin would also have an increased presence of biofilm compared with that of healthy controls. We conducted a case-control study, investigating the morphology of the axillary skin microbiota. Peptide nucleic acid - fluorescence in situ hybridization probes were used in combination with confocal laser scanning microscopy. Significant differences were found in both distribution and quantity of the cutaneous microbiota in clinically non-affected axillary skin of patients with HS compared with healthy controls. Surprisingly, we detected fewer bacteria and less biofilm in patients with HS. The reduced microbiota in patients with HS may play an important role in the early course of the disease.

  3. Short interspersed elements (SINEs) from insectivores. Two classes of mammalian SINEs distinguished by A-rich tail structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borodulina, O R; Kramerov, D A

    2001-10-01

    Four tRNA-related SINE families were isolated from the genome of the shrew Sorex araneus (SOR element), mole Mogera robusta (TAL element), and hedgehog Mesechinus dauuricus (ERI-1 and ERI-2 elements). Each of these SINEs families is specific for a single Insectivora family: SOR, for Soricidae (shrews); TAL, for Talpidae (moles and desmans); ERI-1 and ERI-2, for Erinaceidae (hedgehogs). There is a long polypyrimidine region (TC-motif) in TAL, ERI-1, and ERI-2 elements located immediately upstream of an A-rich tail with polyadenylation signals (AATAAA) and an RNA polymerase III terminator (T(4-6)) or TCT(3-4)). Ten out of 14 analyzed mammalian tRNA-related SINE families have an A-rich tail similar to that of TAL, ERI-1, and ERI-2 elements. These elements were assigned to class T+. The other four SINEs including SOR element have no polyadenylation signal and transcription terminator in their A-rich tail and were assigned to class T-. Class T+ SINEs occur only in mammals, and most of them have a long polypyrimidine region. Possible models of retroposition of class T+ and T- SINEs are discussed.

  4. Treatment of hidradenitis suppurativa with intralesional photodynamic therapy with 5-aminolevulinic acid and 630nm laser beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez Valladares, María Jesús; Eiris Salvado, Noemi; Rodríguez Prieto, Manuel Angel

    2017-03-01

    Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a chronic relapsing inflammatory skin disease with multiple treatment options that have been used with mixed results. To evaluate the effectiveness, safety and tolerability of intralesional photodynamic therapy (I-PDT) in the management of HS. Also, to assess the effect of this technique on the different areas treated. Case series of 38 HS patients treated with I-PDT between 2011-2015 following a standardized protocol to assess response at the treated areas RESULTS: 29 patients achieved a complete response, while persistence was noted on 8 cases and only 1 suffered a recurrence. Difference between basal (median 28.5) and final (0) Hidradenitis Severity Score showed a significant reduction of 24.5 points (ptreatment option for localized HS lesions, achieving a high rate of remission with an adequate maintenance of response i and few complications. Copyright © 2016 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A study on the management of hidradenitis suppurativa with retinoids and surgical excision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neerja Puri

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hidradenitis suppurativa is a chronic skin condition involving the apocrine glandular zones. Affected patients may present with acute abscesses, but the condition often progresses to a chronic state with persistent pain, sepsis, sinus tract, fistula formation, purulent discharge, and dermal scarring. The treatment of patients with severe disease can be difficult and may require complex surgical intervention. Materials and Methods: For this study, we selected 30 patients from the outpatient department. The patients were divided into two groups of 15 patients each. In patients of group I, oral acitretin 0.5 mg/kg body weight was given alone. Oral acitretin was given for a period of 12 weeks, and follow-up of the patients was done every 4 weeks for a period of 6 months. In patients of group II, oral acitretin 0.5 mg/kg was given plus a wide surgical excision was done. Results and Discussion: In our study, the commonest site of involvement of hidradenitis suppurativa was axilla in 83.3% patients, perineum was involved in 13.3% patients, and periumbilical involvement was seen in 3.3% patients. The commonest clinical feature was nodules seen in 90% patients; pain was seen in 60% patients, dermal scarring in 73.3% patients, malodorous discharge in 33.3% patients, abscess in 30% patients, and fistulous tracts were seen in 20% patients. The recurrence rate was low (20% in group II patients in whom oral acitretin was given plus surgical excision was done as compared with group I (40% in whom oral acitretin was given alone.

  6. Neutrophils, from marrow to microbes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borregaard, Niels

    2010-01-01

    . Neutrophils circulate in the blood as dormant cells. At sites of infection, endothelial cells capture bypassing neutrophils and guide them through the endothelial cell lining whereby the neutrophils are activated and tuned for the subsequent interaction with microbes. Once in tissues, neutrophils kill......Neutrophils are produced in the bone marrow from stem cells that proliferate and differentiate to mature neutrophils fully equipped with an armory of granules. These contain proteins that enable the neutrophil to deliver lethal hits against microorganisms, but also to cause great tissue damage...... microorganisms by microbicidal agents liberated from granules or generated by metabolic activation. As a final act, neutrophils can extrude stands of DNA with bactericidal proteins attached that act as extracellular traps for microorganisms....

  7. Guinea pig ID-like families of SINEs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kass, David H; Schaetz, Brian A; Beitler, Lindsey; Bonney, Kevin M; Jamison, Nicole; Wiesner, Cathy

    2009-05-01

    Previous studies have indicated a paucity of SINEs within the genomes of the guinea pig and nutria, representatives of the Hystricognathi suborder of rodents. More recent work has shown that the guinea pig genome contains a large number of B1 elements, expanding to various levels among different rodents. In this work we utilized A-B PCR and screened GenBank with sequences from isolated clones to identify potentially uncharacterized SINEs within the guinea pig genome, and identified numerous sequences with a high degree of similarity (>92%) specific to the guinea pig. The presence of A-tails and flanking direct repeats associated with these sequences supported the identification of a full-length SINE, with a consensus sequence notably distinct from other rodent SINEs. Although most similar to the ID SINE, it clearly was not derived from the known ID master gene (BC1), hence we refer to this element as guinea pig ID-like (GPIDL). Using the consensus to screen the guinea pig genomic database (Assembly CavPor2) with Ensembl BlastView, we estimated at least 100,000 copies, which contrasts markedly to just over 100 copies of ID elements. Additionally we provided evidence of recent integrations of GPIDL as two of seven analyzed conserved GPIDL-containing loci demonstrated presence/absence variants in Cavia porcellus and C. aperea. Using intra-IDL PCR and sequence analyses we also provide evidence that GPIDL is derived from a hystricognath-specific SINE family. These results demonstrate that this SINE family continues to contribute to the dynamics of genomes of hystricognath rodents.

  8. Recombinant SINEs are formed at high frequency during induced retrotransposition in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Vijay Pal; Mandal, Prabhat Kumar; Bhattacharya, Alok; Bhattacharya, Sudha

    2012-05-22

    Non-long terminal repeat Retrotransposons are referred to as long interspersed nuclear elements (LINEs) and their non-autonomous partners are short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs). It is believed that an active SINE copy, upon retrotransposition, generates near identical copies of itself, which subsequently accumulate mutations resulting in sequence polymorphism. Here we show that when a retrotransposition-competent cell line of the parasitic protist Entamoeba histolytica, transfected with a marked SINE copy, is induced to retrotranspose, >20% of the newly retrotransposed copies are neither identical to the marked SINE nor to the mobilized resident SINEs. Rather they are recombinants of resident SINEs and the marked SINE. They are a consequence of retrotransposition and not DNA recombination, as they are absent in cells not expressing the retrotransposition functions. This high-frequency recombination provides a new explanation for the existence of mosaic SINEs, which may impact on genetic analysis of SINE lineages, and measurement of phylogenetic distances.

  9. Lagrangian formulation of symmetric space sine-Gordon models

    CERN Document Server

    Bakas, Ioannis; Shin, H J; Park, Q Han

    1996-01-01

    The symmetric space sine-Gordon models arise by conformal reduction of ordinary 2-dim \\sigma-models, and they are integrable exhibiting a black-hole type metric in target space. We provide a Lagrangian formulation of these systems by considering a triplet of Lie groups F \\supset G \\supset H. We show that for every symmetric space F/G, the generalized sine-Gordon models can be derived from the G/H WZW action, plus a potential term that is algebraically specified. Thus, the symmetric space sine-Gordon models describe certain integrable perturbations of coset conformal field theories at the classical level. We also briefly discuss their vacuum structure, Backlund transformations, and soliton solutions.

  10. Short interspersed elements (SINEs) in plants: origin, classification, and use as phylogenetic markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deragon, Jean-Marc; Zhang, Xiaoyu

    2006-12-01

    Short interspersed elements (SINEs) are a class of dispersed mobile sequences that use RNA as an intermediate in an amplification process called retroposition. The presence-absence of a SINE at a given locus has been used as a meaningful classification criterion to evaluate phylogenetic relations among species. We review here recent developments in the characterisation of plant SINEs and their use as molecular makers to retrace phylogenetic relations among wild and cultivated Oryza and Brassica species. In Brassicaceae, further use of SINE markers is limited by our partial knowledge of endogenous SINE families (their origin and evolution histories) and by the absence of a clear classification. To solve this problem, phylogenetic relations among all known Brassicaceae SINEs were analyzed and a new classification, grouping SINEs in 15 different families, is proposed. The relative age and size of each Brassicaceae SINE family was evaluated and new phylogenetically supported subfamilies were described. We also present evidence suggesting that new potentially active SINEs recently emerged in Brassica oleracea from the shuffling of preexisting SINE portions. Finally, the comparative evolution history of SINE families present in Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica oleracea revealed that SINEs were in general more active in the Brassica lineage. The importance of these new data for the use of Brassicaceae SINEs as molecular markers in future applications is discussed.

  11. SINE retrotransposons cause epigenetic reprogramming of adjacent gene promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estécio, Marcos R H; Gallegos, Juan; Dekmezian, Mhair; Lu, Yue; Liang, Shoudan; Issa, Jean-Pierre J

    2012-10-01

    Almost half of the human genome and as much as 40% of the mouse genome is composed of repetitive DNA sequences. The majority of these repeats are retrotransposons of the SINE and LINE families, and such repeats are generally repressed by epigenetic mechanisms. It has been proposed that these elements can act as methylation centers from which DNA methylation spreads into gene promoters in cancer. Contradictory to a methylation center function, we have found that retrotransposons are enriched near promoter CpG islands that stay methylation-free in cancer. Clearly, it is important to determine which influence, if any, these repetitive elements have on nearby gene promoters. Using an in vitro system, we confirm here that SINE B1 elements can influence the activity of downstream gene promoters, with acquisition of DNA methylation and loss of activating histone marks, thus resulting in a repressed state. SINE sequences themselves did not immediately acquire DNA methylation but were marked by H3K9me2 and H3K27me3. Moreover, our bisulfite sequencing data did not support that gain of DNA methylation in gene promoters occurred by methylation spreading from SINE B1 repeats. Genome-wide analysis of SINE repeats distribution showed that their enrichment is directly correlated with the presence of USF1, USF2, and CTCF binding, proteins with insulator function. In summary, our work supports the concept that SINE repeats interfere negatively with gene expression and that their presence near gene promoters is counter-selected, except when the promoter is protected by an insulator element.

  12. Sudden interaction quench in the quantum sine-Gordon model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabio, Javier [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid (CSIC), Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz 3, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Kehrein, Stefan, E-mail: javier.sabio@icmm.csic.e [Arnold-Sommerfeld-Center for Theoretical Physics, Center for NanoSciences and Department fuer Physik, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Theresienstrasse 37, 80333 Muenchen (Germany)

    2010-05-15

    We study a sudden interaction quench in the weak-coupling regime of the quantum sine-Gordon model. The real time dynamics of the bosonic mode occupation numbers is calculated using the flow equation method. While we cannot prove results for the asymptotic long-time limit, we can establish the existence of an extended regime in time where the mode occupation numbers relax to twice their equilibrium values. This factor two indicates a non-equilibrium distribution and is a universal feature of weak interaction quenches. The weak-coupling quantum sine-Gordon model therefore turns out to be on the borderline between thermalization and non-thermalization.

  13. Abundant Interaction Solutions of Sine-Gordon Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DaZhao Lü

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available With the help of computer symbolic computation software (e.g., Maple, abundant interaction solutions of sine-Gordon equation are obtained by means of a constructed Wronskian form expansion method. The method is based upon the forms and structures of Wronskian solutions of sine-Gordon equation, and the functions used in the Wronskian determinants do not satisfy linear partial differential equations. Such interaction solutions are difficultly obtained via other methods. And the method can be automatically carried out in computer.

  14. On the Stability of the Generalized Sine Functional Equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gwang Hui KIM

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to study the stability problem of the generalized sine functional equations as follows:g(x)f(y)=f(x+y/2)2-f(x-y/2)2,f(x)g(y)=f(x+y/2)2-f(x-y/2)2,g(x)g(y)=f(x+y/2)2-f(x-y/2)2.Namely, we have generalized the Hyers-Ulam stability of the (pexiderized) sine functional equation.

  15. 5S rRNA-derived and tRNA-derived SINEs in fruit bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogolevsky, Konstantin P; Vassetzky, Nikita S; Kramerov, Dmitri A

    2009-05-01

    Most short retroposons (SINEs) descend from cellular tRNA of 7SL RNA. Here, four new SINEs were found in megabats (Megachiroptera) but neither in microbats nor in other mammals. Two of them, MEG-RS and MEG-RL, descend from another cellular RNA, 5S rRNA; one (MEG-T2) is a tRNA-derived SINE; and MEG-TR is a hybrid tRNA/5S rRNA SINE. Insertion locus analysis suggests that these SINEs were active in the recent fruit bat evolution. Analysis of MEG-RS and MEG-RL in comparison with other few 5S rRNA-derived SINEs demonstrates that the internal RNA polymerase III promoter is their most invariant region, while the secondary structure is more variable. The mechanisms underlying the modular structure of these and other SINEs as well as their variation are discussed. The scenario of evolution of MEG SINEs is proposed.

  16. Hidradenitis suppurativa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dufour, Deirdre Nathalie; Emtestam, Lennart; Jemec, Gregor B

    2014-01-01

    pain, work disability and overall poor quality of life. Although the clinical signs of the disease can often be hidden by clothing, active HS is associated with a malodorous discharge that contributes to the disabling social stigma. Risk factors include smoking and obesity. Comorbidities include...

  17. Hidradenitis Suppurativa

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Boards study tools Online Learning Center Meetings and events Make a difference Career planning Media Relations Toolkit AAD apps Academy meeting Chronic urticaria—for members Chronic urticaria—for public Dermatology World Dialogues in Dermatology JAAD Mohs AUC ...

  18. Hidradenitis suppurativa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jemec, G.B.E.

    2012-01-01

    A 36-year-old woman has recurrent boils under both arms and in the groin. They flare premenstrually, causing pain, suppuration, and an offensive odor. Scarring has developed in the groin area, and chronically draining sinus tracts are interspersed with normal skin. Treatment with short courses of...

  19. Emotional intelligence : Sine qua non of leadership or folderol?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walter, Frank; Cole, Michael S.; Humphrey, Ronald H.

    Emotional intelligence (EI) is a divisive topic for many individuals interested in the subject of leadership. Whereas practitioner-oriented publications have claimed that EI is the sine qua non of leadership, academics continue to discuss EI's relevance for understanding leadership emergence,

  20. Nonlinear dynamics of a parametrically driven sine-Gordon system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbech-Jensen, Niels; Kivshar, Yuri S.; Samuelsen, Mogens Rugholm

    1993-01-01

    We consider a sine-Gordon system, driven by an ac parametric force in the presence of loss. It is demonstrated that a breather can be maintained in a steady state at half of the external frequency. In the small-amplitude limit the effect is described by an effective nonlinear Schrodinger equation...

  1. Prediction and phylogenetic analysis of mammalian short interspersed elements (SINEs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogozin, I B; Mayorov, V I; Lavrentieva, M V; Milanesi, L; Adkison, L R

    2000-09-01

    The presence of repetitive elements can create serious problems for sequence analysis, especially in the case of homology searches in nucleotide sequence databases. Repetitive elements should be treated carefully by using special programs and databases. In this paper, various aspects of SINE (short interspersed repetitive element) identification, analysis and evolution are discussed.

  2. Phonons and solitons in the "thermal" sine-Gordon system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salerno, Mario; Jørgensen, E.; Samuelsen, Mogens Rugholm

    1984-01-01

    Standard methods of stochastic processes are used to study the coupling of the sine-Gordon system with a heat reservoir. As a result we find thermal phonons with an average energy of kB T per mode. The translational mode (zero mode) is found to carry an average energy of 1 / 2kBT. This last value...

  3. The Sine Method: An Alternative Height Measurement Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Don C. Bragg; Lee E. Frelich; Robert T. Leverett; Will Blozan; Dale J. Luthringer

    2011-01-01

    Height is one of the most important dimensions of trees, but few observers are fully aware of the consequences of the misapplication of conventional height measurement techniques. A new approach, the sine method, can improve height measurement by being less sensitive to the requirements of conventional techniques (similar triangles and the tangent method). We studied...

  4. Soliton annihilation in the perturbed sine-Gordon system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Niels Falsig; Samuelsen, Mogens Rugholm; Welner, D.

    1984-01-01

    Fluxon-antifluxon annihilation in the perturbed sine-Gordon equation with loss and driving terms is investigated. For the infinite line we find a simple analytic expression for the threshold driving term corresponding to annihilation. With the application of the results to a Josephson junction...

  5. Perturbation analysis of a parametrically changed sine-Gordon equation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakai, S.; Samuelsen, Mogens Rugholm; Olsen, O. H.

    1987-01-01

    A long Josephson junction with a spatially varying inductance is a physical manifestation of a modified sine-Gordon equation with parametric perturbation. Soliton propagation in such Josephson junctions is discussed. First, for an adiabatic model where the inductance changes smoothly compared...

  6. Experimental Investigation of Trapped Sine-Gordon Solitons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidson, A.; Dueholm, B.; Kryger, B.

    1985-01-01

    We have observed for the first time a single sine-Gordon soliton trapped in an annular Josephson junction. This system offers a unique possibility to study undisturbed soliton motion. In the context of perturbation theory, the soliton may be viewed as a relativistic particle moving under a uniform...

  7. Rotationally symmetric numerical solutions to the sine-Gordon equation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, O. H.; Samuelsen, Mogens Rugholm

    1981-01-01

    We examine numerically the properties of solutions to the spherically symmetric sine-Gordon equation given an initial profile which coincides with the one-dimensional breather solution and refer to such solutions as ring waves. Expanding ring waves either exhibit a return effect or expand towards...

  8. Complex sine-Gordon Equation in Coherent Optical Pulse Propagation

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Q H

    1999-01-01

    It is shown that the McCall-Hahn theory of self-induced transparency in coherent optical pulse propagation can be identified with the complex sine-Gordon theory in the sharp line limit. We reformulate the theory in terms of the deformed gauged Wess-Zumino-Witten sigma model and address various new aspects of self-induced transparency.

  9. Sine-wave three phase resonance inverter for operation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    naeema

    Sine-wave three phase resonance inverter for operation of renewable energy systemsR .... performance in this application [8]. Also it was ... A circuit implementation of the three phase boost dc–ac converter with two switches, two diodes, two.

  10. A SINE-based dichotomous key for primate identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herke, Scott W; Xing, Jinchuan; Ray, David A; Zimmerman, Jacquelyn W; Cordaux, Richard; Batzer, Mark A

    2007-04-01

    For DNA samples or 'divorced' tissues, identifying the organism from which they were taken generally requires some type of analytical method. The ideal approach would be robust even in the hands of a novice, requiring minimal equipment, time, and effort. Genotyping SINEs (Short INterspersed Elements) is such an approach as it requires only PCR-related equipment, and the analysis consists solely of interpreting fragment sizes in agarose gels. Modern primate genomes are known to contain lineage-specific insertions of Alu elements (a primate-specific SINE); thus, to demonstrate the utility of this approach, we used members of the Alu family to identify DNA samples from evolutionarily divergent primate species. For each node of a combined phylogenetic tree (56 species; n=8 [Hominids]; 11 [New World monkeys]; 21 [Old World monkeys]; 2 [Tarsiformes]; and, 14 [Strepsirrhines]), we tested loci (>400 in total) from prior phylogenetic studies as well as newly identified elements for their ability to amplify in all 56 species. Ultimately, 195 loci were selected for inclusion in this Alu-based key for primate identification. This dichotomous SINE-based key is best used through hierarchical amplification, with the starting point determined by the level of initial uncertainty regarding sample origin. With newly emerging genome databases, finding informative retrotransposon insertions is becoming much more rapid; thus, the general principle of using SINEs to identify organisms is broadly applicable.

  11. Bidifferential Calculus, Matrix SIT and Sine-Gordon Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dimakis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We express a matrix version of the self-induced transparency (SIT equations in the bidifferential calculus framework. An infinite family of exact solutions is then obtained by application of a general result that generates exact solutions from solutions of a linear system of arbitrary matrix size. A side result is a solution formula for the sine-Gordon equation.

  12. Chaos Suppression in a Sine Square Map through Nonlinear Coupling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eduardo L. Brugnago; Paulo C. Rech

    2011-01-01

    We study a pair of nonlinearly coupled identical chaotic sine square maps.More specifically,we investigate the chaos suppression associated with the variation of two parameters.Two-dimensional parameter-space regions where the chaotic dynamics of the individual chaotic sine square map is driven towards regular dynamics are delimited.Additionally,the dynamics of the coupled system is numerically characterized as the parameters are changed.In recent years,many efforts have been devoted to chaos suppression in a nonlinear dynamics field.Iglesias et al.[1] reported a chaos suppression method through numerical truncation and rounding errors,with applications in discrete-time systems.Hénon map[2] and the Burgers map[3] were used to illustrate the method.A method of feedback impulsive chaos suppression was introduced by Osipov et al.[4]It is an algorithm of suppressing chaos in continuoustime dissipative systems with an external impulsive force,whose necessary condition is a reduction of the continuous flow to a discrete-time one-dimensional map.%We study a pair of nonlinearly coupled identical chaotic sine square maps. More specifically, we investigate the chaos suppression associated with the variation of two parameters. Two-dimensional parameter-space regions where the chaotic dynamics of the individual chaotic sine square map is driven towards regular dynamics are delimited. Additionally, the dynamics of the coupled system is numerically characterized as the parameters are changed.

  13. Emotional intelligence : Sine qua non of leadership or folderol?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walter, Frank; Cole, Michael S.; Humphrey, Ronald H.

    2011-01-01

    Emotional intelligence (EI) is a divisive topic for many individuals interested in the subject of leadership. Whereas practitioner-oriented publications have claimed that EI is the sine qua non of leadership, academics continue to discuss EI's relevance for understanding leadership emergence, behavi

  14. Bioinformatic analysis of Entamoeba histolytica SINE1 elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Butcher Sarah A

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Invasive amoebiasis, caused by infection with the human parasite Entamoeba histolytica remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in some less-developed countries. Genetically E. histolytica exhibits a number of unusual features including having approximately 20% of its genome comprised of repetitive elements. These include a number of families of SINEs - non-autonomous elements which can, however, move with the help of partner LINEs. In many eukaryotes SINE mobility has had a profound effect on gene expression; in this study we concentrated on one such element - EhSINE1, looking in particular for evidence of recent transposition. Results EhSINE1s were detected in the newly reassembled E. histolytica genome by searching with a Hidden Markov Model developed to encapsulate the key features of this element; 393 were detected. Examination of their sequences revealed that some had an internal structure showing one to four 26-27 nt repeats. Members of the different classes differ in a number of ways and in particular those with two internal repeats show the properties expected of fairly recently transposed SINEs - they are the most homogeneous in length and sequence, they have the longest (i.e. the least decayed target site duplications and are the most likely to show evidence (in a cDNA library of active transcription. Furthermore we were able to identify 15 EhSINE1s (6 pairs and one triplet which appeared to be identical or very nearly so but inserted into different sites in the genome; these provide good evidence that if mobility has now ceased it has only done so very recently. Conclusions Of the many families of repetitive elements present in the genome of E. histolytica we have examined in detail just one - EhSINE1. We have shown that there is evidence for waves of transposition at different points in the past and no evidence that mobility has entirely ceased. There are many aspects of the biology of this parasite which

  15. Hidradenitis suppurativa and inflammatory bowel disease: are they associated? Results of a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Zee, H H; van der Woude, C J; Florencia, E F; Prens, E P

    2010-01-01

    Background The co-occurrence of hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) and Crohn disease (CD) published in a few case reports resulted in the wide acceptance of an association between these two diseases. However, the combined prevalence of these diseases is currently unknown; furthermore, it is unknown whether this co-occurrence also applies for ulcerative colitis (UC). Objectives To estimate the prevalence of HS in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) living in the Southwest of the Netherlands. Methods During an IBD patient information meeting, randomly, 158 patients with IBD were interviewed about recurrent painful boils in the axillae and/or groin and were shown illustrative clinical pictures of the appearance of HS. Results Of the 158 patients interviewed, 102 (65%) had CD and 56 (35%) had UC. Twenty-five people (16%) responded that they had had or still experienced painful boils in the axillae and/or groin, of whom 17 were patients with CD (17%) and eight had UC (14%). Conclusions This pilot study shows for the first time that HS occurs in patients with CD or UC. More prospective studies are warranted to establish the association between HS and IBD and its underlying pathogenesis.

  16. Incidence of hidradenitis suppurativa in the United States: A sex- and age-adjusted population analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Amit; Lavian, Jonathan; Lin, Gloria; Strunk, Andrew; Alloo, Allireza

    2017-07-01

    The true incidence of hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is unknown. To determine standardized incidence estimates for HS in the United States. We used a retrospective cohort analysis, including incident HS cases identified using electronic health records data for a demographically heterogeneous population-based sample of >48 million unique patients across all 4 census regions. We calculated standardized 1- and 10-year cumulative incidences for the overall population and for sex-, age-, and race-specific groups. There were 5410 new HS diagnoses over a 1-year period, with an incidence of 11.4 (95% confidence interval [CI], 11.1-11.8) cases per 100,000 population. One-year incidence in women was 16.1 (95% CI, 15.5-16.6) per 100,000, more than twice that of men [6.8 (95% CI, 6.5-7.2) per 100,000; P 2.5 times that of whites [11.7 (95% CI, 11.3-12.2) per 100,000; P over 10 years was 8.6 (95% CI, 8.6-8.7) per 100,000 population. The use of deidentified claims prevented validation for a larger case subset. HS incidence has increased over the past decade and disproportionately involves women, young adults, and African Americans. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Should hidradenitis suppurativa/acne inversa best be renamed as "dissecting terminal hair folliculitis"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, WenChieh; Plewig, Gerd

    2016-09-13

    Hidradenitis suppurativa/acne inversa is a diverse, enigmatic and distressful disease that has aroused growing interest in specialists from different disciplines. Both names describe its classical manifestations in the intertriginous regions and reflect the historical view of the disease definition, but cause confusions in the understanding of its pathogenesis and classification. In the light of the advance in clinical, histopathological and pathophysiological findings, we propose the term "dissecting terminal hair folliculitis" (DTHF) to characterize its disease nature as folliculitis instead of acneiform disease or apocrine gland disorder. DTHF attacks exclusively the terminal hair follicles in an overwhelming majority of adults, initiating from the fragile acroinfundibulum leading to a non-infectious overreaction of innate immunity system with inflammation that may fiercely dissect and engulf all the surrounding tissues accompanied by secondary bacterial infections. Evidence indicates that perifolliculitis capitis abscedens et suffodiens and pilonidal disease are very likely regional variants of DTHF with the same pathogenesis. Treatment of DTHF remains frustrating. The benefit of biologics in targeting inflammation is so far non-specific, palliative and inconsistent. Hair epilation and photodynamic therapy in treatment of the disease is questionable in consideration of the pathogenesis. Genetic and translational research, especially on the Notch signalling pathways, will yield breakthrough in the development of novel treatment modalities.

  18. Radical Surgical Excision and Use of Lateral Thoracic Flap for Intractable Axillary Hidradenitis Suppurativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-Lin Teo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Current treatments for hidradenitis suppurativa (HS include prolonged courses of antibiotics,retinoids, immunosuppressants, and biologics. Severe cases that are resistant to prolongedmedical treatment pose a therapeutic challenge. We propose radical excision and lateral thoracicflap reconstruction as a treatment option for such cases. In our experience with two patients,good aesthetic and functional outcomes were achieved, with a high level of patient satisfaction.The availability of suitable flap coverage allows for wide resection of all of the hair-bearing skin,leading to a low incidence of residual disease and subsequent recurrence. Following excisionof the affected tissue, the ideal reconstructive method in the axilla provides suitable coveragewithout unacceptable donor site morbidity and also avoids axillary contractures. A long lateralthoracic flap with delay has excellent coverage with minimal donor tissue sacrifice. With asuitable flap coverage option, the management paradigm of intractable HS should shift fromprolonged medical treatment to allow decisive radical excision, which will improve the qualityof life for patients.

  19. The Influence of Body Weight on the Prevalence and Severity of Hidradenitis Suppurativa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kromann, Charles B; Ibler, Kristina S; Kristiansen, Viggo B

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) has been estimated to be 1% of the population. Obesity is considered a co-morbidity, but the prevalence of HS in obese population is not known. A retrospective questionnaire was distributed to 383 patients over 2 years after bariatric surgery. Data...... on pre- and post-surgery HS symptoms and disease severity were studied. Disease severity was assessed by number of involved sites. General skin problems rated numerically on an anchored 1-10 scale. Valid responses were obtained from 249/383 (65%). A point prevalence of 18.1% (45/249) HS was found....... The number of patients reporting HS symptoms after weight loss decreased by 35% and the mean number of involved sites was reduced from 1.93 to 1.22 following weight loss (p = 0.003). The prevalence of HS appears higher in the obese than in the background population, and a weight loss of more than 15...

  20. Association of hidradenitis suppurativa and familial Mediterranean fever: A case series of 6 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbara, Salam; Georgin-Lavialle, Sophie; Stankovic Stojanovic, Katia; Bachmeyer, Claude; Senet, Patricia; Buob, David; Audia, Sylvain; Delcey, Véronique; Fellahi, Soraya; Bastard, Jean-Philippe; Awad, Fawaz; Legendre, Marie; Amselem, Serge; Grateau, Gilles

    2017-03-01

    Familial mediterranean fever (FMF) is the most common monogenic autoinflammatory disease. Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is an inflammatory cutaneous disease. Those diseases can occur simultaneously among the same individual. Our objective was to describe the features of patients displaying both FMF and HS. We screened the French adult FMF reference center for FMF patients with HS. Six patients out of 151 (4%) with a median age of 36 years old were concerned. Among them, FMF was symptomatic at a median age of 11.5years old and colchicine was introduced at a median age of 20.5years old. HS was diagnosed at a median age of 31.5years old. An elderly patient displayed AA amyloidosis in the outcome of FMF, with a late diagnosis of HS, with response to anakinra. There was no temporal relation between FMF and HS attacks. Some patients had a persistent inflammatory syndrome under treatment. FMF and HS are both inflammatory diseases involving young patients, with HS possibly being an autoinflammatory disease. Although their association seems to be fortuitous, both can induce an important inflammation state that could lead to AA amyloidosis and require a close monitoring of clinical signs and acute-phase reactants. Anakinra was successful in treating the only patient with both HS, FMF and amyloidosis. Copyright © 2016 Société française de rhumatologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Axillary Reconstruction for Hidradenitis Suppurativa with an Inner-Arm Transposition Flap Creating a Brachioplasty Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel L. Ching

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundHidradenitis suppurativa (HS is a chronic skin condition that can affect any area with apocrine sweat glands and has the potential to involve multiple sites concurrently. Commonly affected sites include the axilla, groin, perineum and perianal areas. In this study we performed a literature review on the surgical methods for HS and describe an innovative technique for reconstructing axilla HS using an inner-arm transposition flap.MethodsWe reviewed all cases (5 cases from 4 patients of transposition flap reconstruction performed by the senior author at a single London tertiary hospital from 2008–2013. Patient related outcome measures were collected using the Derriford appearance scale (DAS 24 and a study specific questionnaire.ResultsAll patients were satisfied with their final result. One out of five cases had a complication but did not result in flap failure. There is no disease recurrence to date. DAS 24 scores collected demonstrated acceptable postoperative distress that did not deviate far from the norm tables while study specific questionnaire reveal desirable outcomes.ConclusionsWe have managed to achieve our aim through the use of the innovative inner-arm transposition flap. Our study hopes to provide an additional technique for axillary reconstruction. This technique offers the effective concealment of scars with the benefit of tightening of the arm tissue producing ‘brachioplasty like’ effects. All things considered it would be reasonable to conclude the innovative flap technique is a reliable, effective, and simple method that results in multiple benefits.

  2. Radical Surgical Excision and Use of Lateral Thoracic Flap for Intractable Axillary Hidradenitis Suppurativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-Lin Teo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Current treatments for hidradenitis suppurativa (HS include prolonged courses of antibiotics, retinoids, immunosuppressants, and biologics. Severe cases that are resistant to prolonged medical treatment pose a therapeutic challenge. We propose radical excision and lateral thoracic flap reconstruction as a treatment option for such cases. In our experience with two patients, good aesthetic and functional outcomes were achieved, with a high level of patient satisfaction. The availability of suitable flap coverage allows for wide resection of all of the hair-bearing skin, leading to a low incidence of residual disease and subsequent recurrence. Following excision of the affected tissue, the ideal reconstructive method in the axilla provides suitable coverage without unacceptable donor site morbidity and also avoids axillary contractures. A long lateral thoracic flap with delay has excellent coverage with minimal donor tissue sacrifice. With a suitable flap coverage option, the management paradigm of intractable HS should shift from prolonged medical treatment to allow decisive radical excision, which will improve the quality of life for patients.

  3. Reconstruction in extensive axillary Hidradenitis suppurativa with local fasciocutaneous V-Y advancement flaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Ramesh

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We present our experience with the use of local fasciocutaneous V-Y advancement flaps in the reconstruction of 10 axillae in 6 patients for large defects following wide excision of long-standing Hidradenitis suppurativa of the axilla. The defects were closed with local V-Y subcutaneous island flaps. A single flap from the chest wall was sufficient for moderate defects. However, for larger defects, an additional flap was taken from the medial side of the ipsilateral arm. The donor defects could be closed primarily in all the patients. The local areas of the lateral chest wall and the medial side of the arm have a plentiful supply of cutaneous perforators and the flaps can be designed in a V-Y fashion without resorting to preoperative marking of the perforator. The flaps were freed sufficiently to allow adequate movement for closure of the defects. Although no attempt was made to identify the perforators specifically, many perforators were seen entering the flap. Some perforators can be safely divided to increase reach of the flap. All the flaps survived completely. A follow up of 2.5 years is presented.

  4. Prevalence of Hidradenitis Suppurativa (HS): A Population-Based Study in Olmsted County, Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahi, Varun; Alikhan, Ali; Vazquez, Benjamin G.; Weaver, Amy L.; Davis, Mark D.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a follicular occlusion disorder occurring in apocrine-rich regions of the skin. Estimates of the prevalence of this disorder have not been population-based. We sought to provide population-based information on the prevalence of HS in Olmsted County, Minnesota as of 1/1/2009. METHODS Rochester Epidemiology Project, a unique infrastructure that combines and makes accessible all medical records in Olmsted County since the 1960s, was used to collect population-based data on the prevalence of HS. RESULTS We identified 178 confirmed cases of HS that included 135 females and 43 males, and estimated the total sex- and age-adjusted prevalence in Olmsted County to be 127.8 per 100,000 or 0.13%. The total prevalence was significantly higher among women than men. CONCLUSION This study represents the first population-based investigation on the prevalence of HS. In this population-based cohort, HS was less prevalent than previous reports have suggested. PMID:25228133

  5. A systematic review of the use of lasers for the treatment of hidradenitis suppurativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Hannah; Manoloudakis, Nikolaos; Stephen Sinclair, J

    2016-10-01

    To conduct a systematic review of the effectiveness of various types of lasers (and light based therapies) for the treatment of hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) and to establish recommendations based on our findings. MEDLINE, Cochrane and PubMed databases. English language studies describing the use of laser for the treatment of HS. Multiple reviewers performed independent extraction and identified 22 studies that met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Studies were categorised according to grading recommendations based on evidence quality guidelines for systematic reviews. Only 2 studies met criteria to be assigned the highest grade. Nd:YAG laser has been shown to be effective for the treatment of HS, as is intense pulsed light therapy (IPL) using the same principles of laser hair removal. There is weak evidence to recommend the use of carbon dioxide, diode or alexandrite lasers. The need for larger randomized controlled trials is highlighted. Copyright © 2016 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Human neutrophil alloantigens systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elyse Moritz

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Neutrophil alloantigens are involved in a variety of clinical conditions including immune neutropenias, transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI, refractoriness to granulocyte transfusions and febrile transfusion reactions. In the last decade, considerable progress has been made in the characterization of the implicated antigens. Currently, seven antigens are assigned to five human neutrophil antigen (HNA systems. The HNA-1a, HNA-1b and HNA-1c antigens have been identified as polymorphic forms of the neutrophil Fcγ receptor IIIb (CD16b, encoded by three alleles. Recently, the primary structure of the HNA-2a antigen was elucidated and the HNA-2a-bearing glycoprotein was identified as a member of the Ly-6/uPAR superfamily, which has been clustered as CD177. The HNA-3a antigen is located on a 70-95 kDa glycoprotein; however, its molecular basis is still unknown. Finally, the HNA-4a and HNA-5a antigens were found to be caused by single nucleotide mutations in the αM (CD11b and αL (CD11a subunits of the leucocyte adhesion molecules (β2 integrins. Molecular and biochemical characterization of neutrophil antigenshave expanded our diagnostic tools by the introduction of genotyping techniques and immunoassays for antibody identification. Further studies in the field of neutrophil immunology will facilitate the prevention and management of transfusion reactions and immune diseases caused by neutrophil antibodies.Os aloantígenos de neutrófilos estão associados a várias condições clínicas como neutropenias imunes, insuficiência pulmonar relacionada à transfusão (TRALI, refratariedade à transfusão de granulócitos, e reações transfusionais febris. Na última década, foi observado considerável progresso na caracterização dos aloantígenos envolvidos nestas condições clínicas. Atualmente sete antígenos estão incluídos em cinco sistemas de antígenos de neutrófilo humano (HNA. Os antígenos HNA-1a, HNA-1b e HNA-1c foram

  7. Remission of refractory pyoderma gangrenosum, severe acne, and hidradenitis suppurativa (PASH) syndrome using targeted antibiotic therapy in 4 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Join-Lambert, Olivier; Duchatelet, Sabine; Delage, Maïa; Miskinyte, Snaigune; Coignard, Hélène; Lemarchand, Nicolas; Alemy-Carreau, Murielle; Lortholary, Olivier; Nassif, Xavier; Hovnanian, Alain; Nassif, Aude

    2015-11-01

    Pyoderma gangrenosum, severe acne, and suppurative hidradenitis (PASH) syndrome can prove refractory to treatment and is characterized by relapses and recurrences. The combination of antibiotic therapy and surgery can produce success in the management of the syndrome. Acute treatment is required, but maintenance therapy is also necessary to prevent disease relapse. The response to antibiotic therapy is hypothesis generating, raising the issue of a modified host response. To date, anecdotal reports support the use of surgery and medical therapy, but controlled investigations with extended follow-up are necessary to substantiate preliminary data observed with individual cases.

  8. The Perils of a Defective Medical Communication: Fatal Neglected Squamous Cell Carcinoma Arising in Perineal Hidradenitis Suppurativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calogero Pagliarello

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS is a recurrent suppurative disease characterized by inflammatory nodules, abscesses, fistulas, and scarring. We report a case of squamous cell carcinoma arising in chronic HS. In our case the asymptomatic lesion was neglected by the patient for a long time, allowing the occurrence of advanced disease before treatment was sought, which resulted in a terminal outcome. In the context of HS, a painful lump or ulcer could easily be mistaken for an inflammatory lesion, and therefore a low threshold for biopsy is warranted.

  9. Sauria SINEs: Novel short interspersed retroposable elements that are widespread in reptile genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piskurek, Oliver; Austin, Christopher C; Okada, Norihiro

    2006-05-01

    SINEs are short interspersed retrotransposable elements that invade new genomic sites. Their retrotransposition depends on reverse transcriptase and endonuclease activities encoded by partner LINEs (long interspersed elements). Recent genomic research has demonstrated that retroposons account for at least 40% of the human genome. Hitherto, more than 30 families of SINEs have been characterized in mammalian genomes, comprising approximately 4600 extant species; the distribution and extent of SINEs in reptilian genomes, however, are poorly documented. With more than 7400 species of lizards and snakes, Squamata constitutes the largest and most diverse group of living reptiles. We have discovered and characterized a novel SINE family, Sauria SINEs, whose members are widely distributed among genomes of lizards, snakes, and tuataras. Sauria SINEs comprise a 5' tRNA-related region, a tRNA-unrelated region, and a 3' tail region (containing short tandem repeats) derived from LINEs. We distinguished eight Sauria SINE subfamilies in genomes of four major squamate lineages and investigated their evolutionary relationships. Our data illustrate the overall efficacy of Sauria SINEs as novel retrotransposable markers for elucidation of squamate evolutionary history. We show that all Sauria SINEs share an identical 3' sequence with Bov-B LINEs and propose that they utilize the enzymatic machinery of Bov-B LINEs for their own retrotransposition. This finding, along with the ubiquity of Bov-B LINEs previously demonstrated in squamate genomes, suggests that these LINEs have been an active partner of Sauria SINEs since this SINE family was generated more than 200 million years ago.

  10. Immunosenescence of Polymorphonuclear Neutrophils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga Wessels

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available All immune cells are affected by aging, contributing to the high susceptibility to infections and increased mortality observed in the elderly. The effect of aging on cells of the adaptive immune system is well documented. In contrast, knowledge concerning age-related defects of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN is limited. During the past decade, it has become evident that in addition to their traditional role as phagocytes, neutrophils are able to secrete a wide array of immunomodulating molecules. Their importance is underlined by the finding that genetic defects that lead to neutropenia increase susceptibility to infections. Whereas there is consistence about the constant circulating number of PMN throughout aging, the abilities of tissue infiltration, phagocytosis, and oxidative burst of PMN from aged donors are discussed controversially. Furthermore, there are numerous discrepancies between in vivo and in vitro results, as well as between results for murine and human PMN. Most of the reported functional changes can be explained by defective signaling pathways, but further research is required to get a detailed insight into the underlying molecular mechanisms. This could form the basis for drug development in order to prevent or treat age-related diseases, and thus to unburden the public health systems.

  11. Occupational Neutrophilic Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Leigh

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Occupational asthma is typically associated with an eosinophilic bronchitis. The case of a 41-year-old woman who developed symptoms of asthma after occupational exposure to metal working fluids is reported. The diagnosis of asthma was confirmed by an forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1 of 1.7 (59% predicted, with 11% reversibility after inhaled bronchodilator and a provocation concentration of methacholine to cause a fall in FEV1 of 20% (PC20 of 0.4 mg/mL. Induced sputum examination showed a marked neutrophilia. Over the next six months, serial sputum analyses confirmed the presence of a marked sterile neutrophilic bronchitis during periods of occupational exposure to metal working fluids, which resolved when the patient was away from work and recurred when she returned to work. The sputum findings were mirrored by corresponding changes in spirometry and PC20 methacholine. The findings indicate the occurrence of occupational asthma associated with an intense, sterile neutrophilic bronchitis after exposure to metal working fluids.

  12. Human neutrophil antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, E L; Lehrer, R I; Rest, R F

    1988-01-01

    Polymorphonuclear neutrophilic leukocytes (PMNs) take up opsonized microorganisms into phagosomes that fuse with secretory granules in the PMN cytoplasm to form phagolysosomes. Killing and digestion of microorganisms take place within phagolysosomes. Antimicrobial activities in phagolysosomes are divided into two classes. Oxygen (O2)-dependent mechanisms are expressed when PMNs undergo the "respiratory burst." An NADPH oxidase in the phagolysosome membrane is activated and reduces O2 to superoxide (O2-). O2 reduction is the first step in a series of reactions that produce toxic oxidants. For example, .O2- dismutases to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and the azurophil granule enzyme myeloperoxidase catalyzes the oxidation of Cl- by H2O2 to yield hypochlorous acid (HOCl). The reaction of HOCl with ammonia and amines modulates the toxicity of this oxidant. O2-independent antimicrobial mechanisms include the activities of lysosomal proteases, other hydrolytic enzymes, and proteins and peptides that bind to microorganisms and disrupt essential processes or structural components. For example, the bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein, cathepsin G, and the defensins are released into phagolysosomes from the azurophil granules. Proposed mechanisms of action of neutrophil antimicrobial agents, their range of microbial targets, and their possible interactions within phagolysosomes are discussed.

  13. High SINE RNA Expression Correlates with Post-Transcriptional Downregulation of BRCA1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Bosco

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Short Interspersed Nuclear Elements (SINEs are non-autonomous retrotransposons that comprise a large fraction of the human genome. SINEs are demethylated in human disease, but whether SINEs become transcriptionally induced and how the resulting transcripts may affect the expression of protein coding genes is unknown. Here, we show that downregulation of the mRNA of the tumor suppressor gene BRCA1 is associated with increased transcription of SINEs and production of sense and antisense SINE small RNAs. We find that BRCA1 mRNA is post-transcriptionally down-regulated in a Dicer and Drosha dependent manner and that expression of a SINE inverted repeat with sequence identity to a BRCA1 intron is sufficient for downregulation of BRCA1 mRNA. These observations suggest that transcriptional activation of SINEs could contribute to a novel mechanism of RNA mediated post-transcriptional silencing of human genes.

  14. SINE transcription by RNA polymerase III is suppressed by histone methylation but not by DNA methylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varshney, Dhaval; Vavrova-Anderson, Jana; Oler, Andrew J.; Cowling, Victoria H.; Cairns, Bradley R.; White, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs), such as Alu, spread by retrotransposition, which requires their transcripts to be copied into DNA and then inserted into new chromosomal sites. This can lead to genetic damage through insertional mutagenesis and chromosomal rearrangements between non-allelic SINEs at distinct loci. SINE DNA is heavily methylated and this was thought to suppress its accessibility and transcription, thereby protecting against retrotransposition. Here we provide several lines of evidence that methylated SINE DNA is occupied by RNA polymerase III, including the use of high-throughput bisulphite sequencing of ChIP DNA. We find that loss of DNA methylation has little effect on accessibility of SINEs to transcription machinery or their expression in vivo. In contrast, a histone methyltransferase inhibitor selectively promotes SINE expression and occupancy by RNA polymerase III. The data suggest that methylation of histones rather than DNA plays a dominant role in suppressing SINE transcription. PMID:25798578

  15. The role of pulse shape in motor cortex transcranial magnetic stimulation using full-sine stimuli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delvendahl, Igor; Gattinger, Norbert; Berger, Thomas;

    2014-01-01

    excitation. Preferential excitation of neuronal target cells in the posterior-anterior segment or targeting of different neuronal structures by the two half-segments can explain this result. Thus, our findings help understanding the mechanisms of neural stimulation by full-sine TMS.......A full-sine (biphasic) pulse waveform is most commonly used for repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), but little is known about how variations in duration or amplitude of distinct pulse segments influence the effectiveness of a single TMS pulse to elicit a corticomotor response. Using......) compared monophasic, half-sine, and full-sine pulses, (ii) applied two-segment pulses consisting of two identical half-sines, and (iii) manipulated amplitude, duration, and current direction of the first or second full-sine pulse half-segments. RMT was significantly higher using half-sine or monophasic...

  16. Skin-Tissue-sparing Excision with Electrosurgical Peeling (STEEP) : a surgical treatment option for severe hidradenitis suppurativa Hurley stage II/III

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, J. L.; Spoo, J. R.; Leeman, F. W. J.; Jonkman, M. F.; Horvath, B.

    2015-01-01

    BackgroundSurgery is the only curative treatment for removal of the persistent sinus tracts in the skin that are characteristic of severe hidradenitis suppurativa (HS). Complete resection of the affected tissue by wide excision is currently regarded as the preferred surgical technique in these cases

  17. Human Neutrophils Kill Bacillus anthracis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus anthracis spores cause natural infections and are used as biological weapons. Inhalation infection with B. anthracis, the etiological agent of anthrax, is almost always lethal, yet cutaneous infections usually remain localized and resolve spontaneously. Neutrophils are typically recruited to cutaneous but seldom to other forms of anthrax infections, raising the possibility that neutrophils kill B. anthracis. In this study we infected human neutrophils with either spores or vegetative bacteria of a wild-type strain, or strains, expressing only one of the two major virulence factors. The human neutrophils engulfed B. anthracis spores, which germinated intracellularly and were then efficiently killed. Interestingly, neutrophil killing was independent of reactive oxygen species production. We fractionated a human neutrophil granule extract by high-performance liquid chromatography and identified alpha-defensins as the component responsible for B. anthracis killing. These data suggest that the timely recruitment of neutrophils can control cutaneous infections and possibly other forms of B. anthracis infections, and that alpha-defensins play an important role in the potent anti-B. anthracis activity of neutrophils.

  18. Human neutrophils kill Bacillus anthracis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Mayer-Scholl

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus anthracis spores cause natural infections and are used as biological weapons. Inhalation infection with B. anthracis, the etiological agent of anthrax, is almost always lethal, yet cutaneous infections usually remain localized and resolve spontaneously. Neutrophils are typically recruited to cutaneous but seldom to other forms of anthrax infections, raising the possibility that neutrophils kill B. anthracis. In this study we infected human neutrophils with either spores or vegetative bacteria of a wild-type strain, or strains, expressing only one of the two major virulence factors. The human neutrophils engulfed B. anthracis spores, which germinated intracellularly and were then efficiently killed. Interestingly, neutrophil killing was independent of reactive oxygen species production. We fractionated a human neutrophil granule extract by high-performance liquid chromatography and identified alpha-defensins as the component responsible for B. anthracis killing. These data suggest that the timely recruitment of neutrophils can control cutaneous infections and possibly other forms of B. anthracis infections, and that alpha-defensins play an important role in the potent anti-B. anthracis activity of neutrophils.

  19. Human neutrophils kill Bacillus anthracis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer-Scholl, Anne; Hurwitz, Robert; Brinkmann, Volker; Schmid, Monika; Jungblut, Peter; Weinrauch, Yvette; Zychlinsky, Arturo

    2005-11-01

    Bacillus anthracis spores cause natural infections and are used as biological weapons. Inhalation infection with B. anthracis, the etiological agent of anthrax, is almost always lethal, yet cutaneous infections usually remain localized and resolve spontaneously. Neutrophils are typically recruited to cutaneous but seldom to other forms of anthrax infections, raising the possibility that neutrophils kill B. anthracis. In this study we infected human neutrophils with either spores or vegetative bacteria of a wild-type strain, or strains, expressing only one of the two major virulence factors. The human neutrophils engulfed B. anthracis spores, which germinated intracellularly and were then efficiently killed. Interestingly, neutrophil killing was independent of reactive oxygen species production. We fractionated a human neutrophil granule extract by high-performance liquid chromatography and identified alpha-defensins as the component responsible for B. anthracis killing. These data suggest that the timely recruitment of neutrophils can control cutaneous infections and possibly other forms of B. anthracis infections, and that alpha-defensins play an important role in the potent anti-B. anthracis activity of neutrophils.

  20. Static Properties of the Multiple-Sine-Gordon Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Peyravi, M; Montakhab, Afshin

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we examine some basic properties of the multiple-Sine-Gordon (MSG) systems, which constitute a generalization of the celebrated sine-Gordon (SG) system. We start by showing how MSG systems can be viewed as a general class of periodic functions. Next, periodic and step-like solutions of these systems are discussed in some details. In particular, we study the static properties of such systems by considering slope and phase diagrams. We also use concepts like energy density and pressure to characterize and distinguish such solutions. We interpret these solutions as an interacting many body system, in which kinks and antikinks behave as extended particles. Finally, we provide a linear stability analysis of periodic solutions which indicates short wavelength solutions to be stable.

  1. Multiresonance modes in sine-Gordon brane models

    CERN Document Server

    Cruz, W T; Almeida, C A S

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we study the localization of the vector gauge field in two five-dimensional braneworlds generated by scalar fields coupled to gravity. The sine-Gordon like potentials are employed to produce different thick brane setups. A zero mode localized is obtained, and we show the existence of reverberations with the wave solutions indicating a quasi-localized massive mode. More interesting results are achieved when we propose a double sine-Gordon potential to the scalar field. The resulting thick brane shows a more detailed topology with the presence of an internal structure composed by two kinks. The massive spectrum of the gauge field is revalued on this scenario revealing the existence of various resonant modes

  2. Multiresonance modes in sine-Gordon brane models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, W. T.; Maluf, R. V.; Dantas, D. M.; Almeida, C. A. S.

    2016-12-01

    In this work, we study the localization of the vector gauge field in two five-dimensional braneworlds generated by scalar fields coupled to gravity. The sine-Gordon like potentials are employed to produce different thick brane setups. A zero mode localized is obtained, and we show the existence of reverberations with the wave solutions indicating a quasi-localized massive mode. More interesting results are achieved when we propose a double sine-Gordon potential to the scalar field. The resulting thick brane shows a more detailed topology with the presence of an internal structure composed by two kinks. The massive spectrum of the gauge field is revalued on this scenario revealing the existence of various resonant modes. Furthermore, we compute the corrections to Coulomb law coming from these massive KK vector modes in these thick scenarios, which is concluded that the dilaton parameter regulates these corrections.

  3. The Quantum Sine-Gordon Model in Perturbative AQFT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahns, Dorothea; Rejzner, Kasia

    2017-08-01

    We study the Sine-Gordon model with Minkowski signature in the framework of perturbative algebraic quantum field theory. We calculate the vertex operator algebra braiding property. We prove that in the finite regime of the model, the expectation value—with respect to the vacuum or a Hadamard state—of the Epstein Glaser S-matrix and the interacting current or the field respectively converge, both given as formal power series.

  4. Breather Dynamics of the Sine-Gordon Equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stephen Johnson; Anjan Biswas

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the adiabatic dynamics of the breather soliton of the sine-Gordon equation.The integrals of motion are found and then used in soliton perturbation theory to derive the differential equation governing the soliton velocity.Time-dependent functions arise and their properties are studied.These functions are found to be bounded and periodic and affect the soliton velocity.The soliton velocity is numerically plotted against time for different combinations of initial velocities and perturbation terms.

  5. The Quantum Sine Gordon model in perturbative AQFT

    CERN Document Server

    Bahns, Dorothea

    2016-01-01

    We study the Sine Gordon model in the framework of perturbative algebraic quantum field theory, without making use of a representation on Fock space. In particular, we calculate the vertex operator algebra braiding property. We prove that in the finite regime of the model, the vacuum expectation value of the Epstein Glaser $S$-matrix and the interacting current, both given as formal power series, converge in a suitable topology on the space of functionals.

  6. Development and initial psychometric evaluation of patient-reported outcome questionnaires to evaluate the symptoms and impact of hidradenitis suppurativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, Alexa B; Sundaram, Murali; Banderas, Benjamin; Foley, Catherine; Shields, Alan L

    2017-07-04

    Two patient-reported outcome (PRO) questionnaires, the Hidradenitis Suppurativa Symptom Assessment (HSSA) and Hidradenitis Suppurativa Impact Assessment (HSIA), were developed to measure signs, symptoms and impacts of HS in treatment efficacy studies. In accordance with FDA guidelines and published best practices, four stages of research were conducted to create the questionnaires: concept elicitation, questionnaire construction, content evaluation and psychometric evaluation. Subjects (N = 20) who participated in the concept elicitation stage reported 15 unique HS-related signs and symptoms and 51 impacts. Following this, eight sign and symptom concepts and 21 impacts were selected for construction of the HSSA and HSIA, respectively. During content evaluation, cognitive debriefing interviews with HS subjects (N = 20) confirmed subjects could read, comprehend and meaningfully respond to both questionnaires. Modifications made after this stage of work resulted in a nine-item HSSA and a 17-item HSIA. The HSSA and HSIA were subsequently entered into a US-based observational study (N = 40), and the scores produced by each were found to be reliable, construct valid, and able to distinguish among clinically distinct groups. The HSSA and HSIA are content-valid, HS-specific, PRO questionnaires with demonstrated ability to generate reliable, valid scores when administered to patients with HS in a research setting.

  7. Risk factors for hidradenitis suppurativa: a pilot study Fatores de risco para hidradenite supurativa: um estudo piloto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Vilaverde Schmitt

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The hidradenitis suppurativa is a chronic debilitating inflammatory disease whose etiology is not fully understood. We conducted a pilot case-control study matched by sex and age with other dermatological patients to analyze possible risk factors associated with this disease. We included 15 cases and 45 controls, 67% were women. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis identified significant association with smoking, higher body mass index and family history. The use of hormonal contraceptives was less frequent in women with hidradenitis.A hidradenite supurativa é uma doença inflamatória crônica debilitante de etiologia parcialmente compreendida. Realizamos um estudo piloto tipo caso-controle pareado por sexo e idade com outros pacientes dermatológicos para analisar prováveis fatores de risco associados a esta doença. Incluímos 15 casos e 45 controles, sendo 67% mulheres. Análise bivariada e multivariada por regressão logística identificou associação significativa com tabagismo, índice de massa corporal mais elevado e história familiar. O uso de contraceptivos hormonais foi menos frequente nas portadoras de hidradenite.

  8. Kinematic analysis of tandem gait on a sine wave walkway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Shingo; Fujisawa, Hiroyuki; Tomizawa, Yoshiyuki; Murakami, Kenichi

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to ascertain the kinematic characteristics on a horizontal plane, including knee joint rotation, when walking with a tandem gait on a sine wave walkway. [Subjects and Methods] Eighteen healthy adults were enrolled as subjects in this study. They walked with a tandem gait on a sine wave walkway. A three-dimensional motion analysis system was used to record data and calculate the trunk, hip joint, and knee joint rotation angles. [Results] The rotation angle ranges for the trunk, hip joint, and knee joint were 23.3°, 53.3°, and 47.3°, respectively. The trunk generally rotated towards the direction of movement, and when turning left using the left leg as the pivot, the hip joint was internally rotated and the knee joint was externally rotated. In contrast, when making a directional change to the right using the left leg as the pivot, the hip joint was externally rotated and the knee joint was internally rotated. [Conclusion] Through tandem gait analysis on a sine wave walkway, knee joint rotation was found to be important in changes of direction. PMID:27799663

  9. Polypteridae (Actinopterygii: Cladistia) and DANA-SINEs insertions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morescalchi, Maria Alessandra; Barucca, Marco; Stingo, Vincenzo; Capriglione, Teresa

    2010-06-01

    SINE sequences are interspersed throughout virtually all eukaryotic genomes and greatly outnumber the other repetitive elements. These sequences are of increasing interest for phylogenetic studies because of their diagnostic power for establishing common ancestry among taxa, once properly characterized. We identified and characterized a peculiar family of composite tRNA-derived short interspersed SINEs, DANA-SINEs, associated with mutational activities in Danio rerio, in a group of species belonging to one of the most basal bony fish families, the Polypteridae, in order to investigate their own inner specific phylogenetic relationships. DANA sequences were identified, sequenced and then localized, by means of fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), in six Polypteridae species (Polypterus delhezi, P. ornatipinnis, P. palmas, P. buettikoferi P. senegalus and Erpetoichthys calabaricus) After cloning, the sequences obtained were aligned for phylogenetic analysis, comparing them with three Dipnoan lungfish species (Protopterus annectens, P. aethiopicus, Lepidosiren paradoxa), and Lethenteron reissneri (Petromyzontidae)was used as outgroup. The obtained overlapping MP, ML and NJ tree clustered together the species belonging to the two taxonomically different Osteichthyans groups: the Polypteridae, by one side, and the Protopteridae by the other, with the monotypic genus Erpetoichthys more distantly related to the Polypterus genus comprising three distinct groups: P. palmas and P. buettikoferi, P. delhezi and P. ornatipinnis and P. senegalus. In situ hybridization with DANA probes marked along the whole chromosome arms in the metaphases of all the Polypteridae species examined. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. [Non-LTR retrotransposons: LINEs and SINEs in plant genome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xu-Dong; Ling, Hong-Qing

    2006-06-01

    Retrotransposons are one of the drivers of genome evolution. They include LTR (long terminal repeat) retrotransposons, which widespread in Eukaryotagenomes, show structural similarity to retroviruses. Non-LTR retrotransposons were first discovered in animal genomes and then identified as ubiquitous components of nuclear genomes in many species across the plant kingdom. They constitute a large fraction of the repetitive DNA. Non-LTR retrotransposons are divided into LINEs (long interspersed nuclear elements) and SINEs (short interspersed nuclear elements). Transposition of non-LTR retrotransposons is rarely observed in plants indicating that most of them are inactive and/or under regulation of the host genome. Transposition is poorly understood, but experimental evidence from other genetic systems shows that LINEs are able to transpose autonomously while non-autonomous SINEs depend on the reverse transcription machinery of other retrotransposons. Phylogenic analysis shows LINEs are probably the most ancient class of retrotransposons in plant genomes, while the origin of SINEs is unknown. This review sums up the above data and wants to show readers a clear picture of non-LTR retrotransposons.

  11. Diseases associated with hidranitis suppurativa: part 2 of a series on hidradenitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheinfeld, Noah

    2013-06-15

    Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS), a pathologic follicular disease, impacts patients' lives profoundly and usually occurs in isolation. The diseases with the strongest association are obesity, depression, and pain. HS is associated with many diseases including acne conglobata (AC), dissecting cellulitis, pilonidal cysts, and obesity. Pyoderma fistulans sinifica (fox den disease) appears to be the same entity as Hurley Stage 2 of 3 HS. The rate of acne vulgaris in HS patients mirrors unaffected controls. The most common, albeit still uncommon, association is with seronegative, haplotype unlinked arthritis (most importantly B27), in particular spondolyarthritis. Crohn disease and HS occur together at a rate that varies from 0.6% to 38% in retrospective cases series. Ulcerative colitis occurred with HS in 14% of patients in one series. The next most common association is with pyoderma gangrenosum, but this association is likely under-reported. Synovitis-Acne-Pustulosis Hyperostosis-Osteitis (SAPHO) syndrome, which is rare, has more than 10 reports linking it to HS. Nine case reports have linked Dowling-Degos disease (DDD) to HS and two reports related HS to Fox-Fordyce disease (FF), but because both occur in the axilla this might be a mere coincidence. HS is rarely associated with ophthalmic pathology. Specifically, more than 5 reports link it to Keratitis-Ichthyosis-Deafness syndrome (KID); greater than10 cases link it to interstitial keratitis and 2 cases are linked to Behçet's disease. The presence of proteinuria and acute nephritis link HS to the kidney, especially since and reports have documented resolution of HS after renal transplant. Florid steatocystoma multiplex, Sjogren Syndrome, and HS have been linked and their reports likely underestimate their coincidence because all these entities involve occlusion (albeit by different mechanisms). Three reports link HS and amyloid, but both share some common genetic underpinnings and thus the coincidence of these

  12. V-SINEs: a new superfamily of vertebrate SINEs that are widespread in vertebrate genomes and retain a strongly conserved segment within each repetitive unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogiwara, Ikuo; Miya, Masaki; Ohshima, Kazuhiko; Okada, Norihiro

    2002-02-01

    We have identified a new superfamily of vertebrate short interspersed repetitive elements (SINEs), designated V-SINEs, that are widespread in fishes and frogs. Each V-SINE includes a central conserved domain preceded by a 5'-end tRNA-related region and followed by a potentially recombinogenic (TG)(n) tract, with a 3' tail derived from the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of the corresponding partner long interspersed repetitive element (LINE) that encodes a functional reverse transcriptase. The central domain is strongly conserved and is even found in SINEs in the lamprey genome, suggesting that V-SINEs might be approximately 550 Myr old or older in view of the timing of divergence of the lamprey lineage from the bony fish lineage. The central conserved domain might have been subject to some form of positive selection. Although the contemporary 3' tails of V-SINEs differ from one another, it is possible that the original 3' tail might have been replaced, via recombination, by the 3' tails of more active partner LINEs, thereby retaining retropositional activity and the ability to survive for long periods on the evolutionary time scale. It seems plausible that V-SINEs may have some function(s) that have been maintained by the coevolution of SINEs and LINEs during the evolution of vertebrates.

  13. Protocol for the development of a core domain set for hidradenitis suppurativa trial outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorlacius, Linnea; Garg, Amit; Villumsen, Bente; Esmann, Solveig; Kirby, Joslyn S; Gottlieb, Alice B; Merola, Joseph F; Dellavalle, Robert; Jemec, Gregor B E

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) should have well-defined primary and secondary outcomes to answer questions generated by the main hypotheses. However, for the chronic, inflammatory skin disease hidradenitis suppurativa (HS), the reported outcome measures are numerous and diverse. A recent systematic review found a total of 30 outcome measure instruments in 12 RCTs. This use of a broad range of outcome measures can increase difficulties in interpretation and comparison of results and may potentially obstruct appropriate evidence synthesis by causing reporting bias. One strategy for dealing with these problems is to develop a core outcome set (COS). A COS is a list of outcomes that are meant as mandatory and should be measured and reported in all clinical trials. The aim of this study is to develop a COS for the management of HS. Method and analysis An international steering group of researchers, clinicians and a patient research partner will guide the COS development. 6 stakeholder groups are involved: patients, dermatologists, surgeons, nurses, industry representatives and drug regulatory authorities. A 1:1 ratio of patients:healthcare professionals is aimed for. The initial list of candidate items will be obtained by combining three data sets: (1) a systematic review of the literature, (2) US and Danish qualitative interview studies involving patients with HS and (3) an online healthcare professional (HCP) item generation survey. To reach consensus on the COS, 4 anonymous online Delphi rounds are then planned together with 2 face-to-face consensus meetings (1 in Europe and 1 in the USA) to ensure global representation. Ethics and dissemination The study will be performed according to the Helsinki declaration. All results from the study, including inconclusive or negative results, will be published in peer-reviewed indexed journals. The study will involve different stakeholder groups to ensure that the developed COS will be suitable and well

  14. Neutrophil Functions in Periodontal Homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricarda Cortés-Vieyra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral tissues are constantly exposed to damage from the mechanical effort of eating and to microorganisms, mostly bacteria. In healthy gingiva tissue remodeling and a balance between bacteria and innate immune cells are maintained. However, excess of bacteria biofilm (plaque creates an inflammation state that recruits more immune cells, mainly neutrophils to the gingiva. Neutrophils create a barrier for bacteria to reach inside tissues. When neutrophils are insufficient, bacteria thrive causing more inflammation that has been associated with systemic effects on other conditions such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, and cancer. But paradoxically when neutrophils persist, they can also promote a chronic inflammatory state that leads to periodontitis, a condition that leads to damage of the bone-supporting tissues. In periodontitis, bone loss is a serious complication. How a neutrophil balance is needed for maintaining healthy oral tissues is the focus of this review. We present recent evidence on how alterations in neutrophil number and function can lead to inflammatory bone loss, and how some oral bacteria signal neutrophils to block their antimicrobial functions and promote an inflammatory state. Also, based on this new information, novel therapeutic approaches are discussed.

  15. Isolation and characterization of active LINE and SINEs from the eel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajikawa, Masaki; Ichiyanagi, Kenji; Tanaka, Nozomu; Okada, Norihiro

    2005-03-01

    Long interspersed elements (LINEs) and short interspersed elements (SINEs) are retrotransposons. These elements can mobilize by the "copy-and-paste" mechanism, in which their own RNA is reverse-transcribed into complementary DNA (cDNA). LINEs and SINEs not only are components of eukaryotic genomes but also drivers of genomic evolution. Thus, studies of the amplification mechanism of LINEs and SINEs are important for understanding eukaryotic genome evolution. Here we report the characterization of one LINE family (UnaL2) and two SINE families (UnaSINE1 and UnaSINE2) from the eel (Anguilla japonica) genome. UnaL2 is approximately 3.6 kilobases (kb) and encodes only one open reading frame (ORF). UnaL2 belongs to the stringent type--thought to be a major group of LINEs--and can mobilize in HeLa cells. We also show that UnaL2 and the two UnaSINEs have similar 3' tails, and that both UnaSINE1 and UnaSINE2 can be mobilized by UnaL2 in HeLa cells. These elements are thus useful for delineating the amplification mechanism of stringent type LINEs as well as that of SINEs.

  16. The Evolution of SINEs and LINEs in the genus Chironomus (Diptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papusheva, Ekaterina; Gruhl, Mary C; Berezikov, Eugene; Groudieva, Tatiana; Scherbik, Svetlana V; Martin, Jon; Blinov, Alexander; Bergtrom, Gerald

    2004-03-01

    Genomic DNA amplification from 51 species of the family Chironomidae shows that most contain relatives of NLRCth1 LINE and CTRT1 SINE retrotransposons first found in Chironomus thummi. More than 300 cloned PCR products were sequenced. The amplified region of the reverse transcriptase gene in the LINEs is intact and highly conserved, suggesting active elements. The SINEs are less conserved, consistent with minimal/no selection after transposition. A mitochondrial gene phylogeny resolves the Chironomus genus into six lineages (Guryev et al. 2001). LINE and SINE phylogenies resolve five of these lineages, indicating their monophyletic origin and vertical inheritance. However, both the LINE and the SINE tree topologies differ from the species phylogeny, resolving the elements into "clusters I-IV" and "cluster V" families. The data suggest a descent of all LINE and SINE subfamilies from two major families. Based on the species phylogeny, a few LINEs and a larger number of SINEs are cladisitically misplaced. Most misbranch with LINEs or SINEs from species with the same families of elements. From sequence comparisons, cladistically misplaced LINEs and several misplaced SINEs arose by convergent base substitutions. More diverged SINEs result from early transposition and some are derived from multiple source SINEs in the same species. SINEs from two species (C. dorsalis, C. pallidivittatus), expected to belong to the clusters I-IV family, branch instead with cluster V family SINEs; apparently both families predate separation of cluster V from clusters I-IV species. Correlation of the distribution of active SINEs and LINEs, as well as similar 3' sequence motifs in CTRT1 and NLRCth1, suggests coevolving retrotransposon pairs in which CTRT1 transposition depends on enzymes active during NLRCth1 LINE mobility.

  17. Neutrophilic dermatosis of dorsal hands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Kaur

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sweet′s syndrome is characterized by erythematous tender nodules and plaques over face and extremities. Fever, leukocytosis with neutrophilia, and a neutrophilic infiltrate in the dermis are characteristic features. Neutrophilic dermatosis of dorsal hands is a rare localized variant of Sweet′s syndrome occurring predominantly over dorsa of hands. Various degrees of vascular damage may be observed on histopathology of these lesions. Both Sweet′s syndrome and its dorsal hand variant have been reported in association with malignancies, inflammatory bowel diseases, and drugs. We report a patient with neutrophilic dermatoses of dorsal hands associated with erythema nodosum. He showed an excellent response to corticosteroids and dapsone.

  18. Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies stimulate release of neutrophil microparticles.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hong, Ying

    2012-01-01

    The mechanisms by which anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCAs) may contribute to the pathogenesis of ANCA-associated vasculitis are not well understood. In this study, both polyclonal ANCAs isolated from patients and chimeric proteinase 3-ANCA induced the release of neutrophil microparticles from primed neutrophils. These microparticles expressed a variety of markers, including the ANCA autoantigens proteinase 3 and myeloperoxidase. They bound endothelial cells via a CD18-mediated mechanism and induced an increase in endothelial intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression, production of endothelial reactive oxygen species, and release of endothelial IL-6 and IL-8. Removal of the neutrophil microparticles by filtration or inhibition of reactive oxygen species production with antioxidants abolished microparticle-mediated endothelial activation. In addition, these microparticles promoted the generation of thrombin. In vivo, we detected more neutrophil microparticles in the plasma of children with ANCA-associated vasculitis compared with that in healthy controls or those with inactive vasculitis. Taken together, these results support a role for neutrophil microparticles in the pathogenesis of ANCA-associated vasculitis, potentially providing a target for future therapeutics.

  19. The dynamic proliferation of CanSINEs mirrors the complex evolution of Feliforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Repetitive short interspersed elements (SINEs) are retrotransposons ubiquitous in mammalian genomes and are highly informative markers to identify species and phylogenetic associations. Of these, SINEs unique to the order Carnivora (CanSINEs) yield novel insights on genome evolution in domestic dogs and cats, but less is known about their role in related carnivores. In particular, genome-wide assessment of CanSINE evolution has yet to be completed across the Feliformia (cat-like) suborder of Carnivora. Within Feliformia, the cat family Felidae is composed of 37 species and numerous subspecies organized into eight monophyletic lineages that likely arose 10 million years ago. Using the Felidae family as a reference phylogeny, along with representative taxa from other families of Feliformia, the origin, proliferation and evolution of CanSINEs within the suborder were assessed. Results We identified 93 novel intergenic CanSINE loci in Feliformia. Sequence analyses separated Feliform CanSINEs into two subfamilies, each characterized by distinct RNA polymerase binding motifs and phylogenetic associations. Subfamily I CanSINEs arose early within Feliformia but are no longer under active proliferation. Subfamily II loci are more recent, exclusive to Felidae and show evidence for adaptation to extant RNA polymerase activity. Further, presence/absence distributions of CanSINE loci are largely congruent with taxonomic expectations within Feliformia and the less resolved nodes in the Felidae reference phylogeny present equally ambiguous CanSINE data. SINEs are thought to be nearly impervious to excision from the genome. However, we observed a nearly complete excision of a CanSINEs locus in puma (Puma concolor). In addition, we found that CanSINE proliferation in Felidae frequently targeted existing CanSINE loci for insertion sites, resulting in tandem arrays. Conclusions We demonstrate the existence of at least two SINE families within the Feliformia suborder, one

  20. Genomic distribution of SINEs in Entamoeba histolytica strains: implication for genotyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The major clinical manifestations of Entamoeba histolytica infection include amebic colitis and liver abscess. However the majority of infections remain asymptomatic. Earlier reports have shown that some E. histolytica isolates are more virulent than others, suggesting that virulence may be linked to genotype. Here we have looked at the genomic distribution of the retrotransposable short interspersed nuclear elements EhSINE1 and EhSINE2. Due to their mobile nature, some EhSINE copies may occupy different genomic locations among isolates of E. histolytica possibly affecting adjacent gene expression; this variability in location can be exploited to differentiate strains. Results We have looked for EhSINE1- and EhSINE2-occupied loci in the genome sequence of Entamoeba histolytica HM-1:IMSS and searched for homologous loci in other strains to determine the insertion status of these elements. A total of 393 EhSINE1 and 119 EhSINE2 loci were analyzed in the available sequenced strains (Rahman, DS4-868, HM1:CA, KU48, KU50, KU27 and MS96-3382. Seventeen loci (13 EhSINE1 and 4 EhSINE2) were identified where a EhSINE1/EhSINE2 sequence was missing from the corresponding locus of other strains. Most of these loci were unoccupied in more than one strain. Some of the loci were analyzed experimentally for SINE occupancy using DNA from strain Rahman. These data helped to correctly assemble the nucleotide sequence at three loci in Rahman. SINE occupancy was also checked at these three loci in 7 other axenically cultivated E. histolytica strains and 16 clinical isolates. Each locus gave a single, specific amplicon with the primer sets used, making this a suitable method for strain typing. Based on presence/absence of SINE and amplification with locus-specific primers, the 23 strains could be divided into eleven genotypes. The results obtained by our method correlated with the data from other typing methods. We also report a bioinformatic analysis of EhSINE2 copies

  1. Calcium signalling in human neutrophil cell lines is not affected by low-frequency electromagnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golbach, Lieke A; Philippi, John G M; Cuppen, Jan J M; Savelkoul, Huub F J; Verburg-van Kemenade, B M Lidy

    2015-09-01

    We are increasingly exposed to low-frequency electromagnetic fields (LF EMFs) by electrical devices and power lines, but if and how these fields interact with living cells remains a matter of debate. This study aimed to investigate the potential effect of LF EMF exposure on calcium signalling in neutrophils. In neutrophilic granulocytes, activation of G-protein coupled receptors leads to efflux of calcium from calcium stores and influx of extracellular calcium via specialised calcium channels. The cytoplasmic rise of calcium induces cytoskeleton rearrangements, modified gene expression patterns, and cell migration. If LF EMF modulates intracellular calcium signalling, this will influence cellular behaviour and may eventually lead to health problems. We found that calcium mobilisation upon chemotactic stimulation was not altered after a short 30 min or long-term LF EMF exposure in human neutrophil-like cell lines HL-60 or PLB-985. Neither of the two investigated wave forms (Immunent and 50 Hz sine wave) at three magnetic flux densities (5 μT, 300 μT, and 500 μT) altered calcium signalling in vitro. Gene-expression patterns of calcium-signalling related genes also did not show any significant changes after exposure. Furthermore, analysis of the phenotypical appearance of microvilli by scanning electron microscopy revealed no alterations induced by LF EMF exposure. The findings above indicate that exposure to 50 Hz sinusoidal or Immunent LF EMF will not affect calcium signalling in neutrophils in vitro.

  2. Study of models of the sine-Gordon type in flat and curved spacetime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazeia, D. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Instituto de Fisica, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Departamento de Fisica, Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Departamento de Fisica, Campina Grande, PB (Brazil); Losano, L. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Departamento de Fisica, Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Departamento de Fisica, Campina Grande, PB (Brazil); Menezes, R. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Departamento de Fisica, Campina Grande, PB (Brazil); Rocha, Roldao da [Universidade Federal do ABC, Centro de Matematica, Computacao e Cognicao, Santo Andre, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-15

    We study a new family of models of the sine-Gordon type, starting from the sine-Gordon model, including the double sine-Gordon, the triple one, and so on. The models appears as deformations of the starting model, with the deformation controlled by two parameters, one very small, used to control a linear expansion on it, and the other, which specifies the particular model in the family of models. We investigate the presence of topological defects, showing how the solutions can be constructed explicitly from the topological defects of the sine-Gordon model itself. In particular, we delve into the double sine-Gordon model in a braneworld scenario with a single extra dimension of infinite extent, showing that a stable gravity scenario is admissible. Also, we briefly show that the deformation procedure can be used iteratively, leading to a diversity of possibilities to construct families of models of the sine-Gordon type. (orig.)

  3. The role of pulse shape in motor cortex transcranial magnetic stimulation using full-sine stimuli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Delvendahl

    Full Text Available A full-sine (biphasic pulse waveform is most commonly used for repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS, but little is known about how variations in duration or amplitude of distinct pulse segments influence the effectiveness of a single TMS pulse to elicit a corticomotor response. Using a novel TMS device, we systematically varied the configuration of full-sine pulses to assess the impact of configuration changes on resting motor threshold (RMT as measure of stimulation effectiveness with single-pulse TMS of the non-dominant motor hand area (M1. In young healthy volunteers, we (i compared monophasic, half-sine, and full-sine pulses, (ii applied two-segment pulses consisting of two identical half-sines, and (iii manipulated amplitude, duration, and current direction of the first or second full-sine pulse half-segments. RMT was significantly higher using half-sine or monophasic pulses compared with full-sine. Pulses combining two half-sines of identical polarity and duration were also characterized by higher RMT than full-sine stimuli resulting. For full-sine stimuli, decreasing the amplitude of the half-segment inducing posterior-anterior oriented current in M1 resulted in considerably higher RMT, whereas varying the amplitude of the half-segment inducing anterior-posterior current had a smaller effect. These findings provide direct experimental evidence that the pulse segment inducing a posterior-anterior directed current in M1 contributes most to corticospinal pathway excitation. Preferential excitation of neuronal target cells in the posterior-anterior segment or targeting of different neuronal structures by the two half-segments can explain this result. Thus, our findings help understanding the mechanisms of neural stimulation by full-sine TMS.

  4. Evolutionary history of 7SL RNA-derived SINEs in Supraprimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriegs, Jan Ole; Churakov, Gennady; Jurka, Jerzy; Brosius, Jürgen; Schmitz, Jürgen

    2007-04-01

    The evolutionary relationships of 7SL RNA-derived SINEs such as the primate Alu or the rodent B1 elements have hitherto been obscure. We established an unambiguous phylogenetic tree for Supraprimates, and derived intraordinal relationships of the 7SL RNA-derived SINEs. As well as new elements in Tupaia and primates, we also found that the purported ancestral fossil Alu monomer was restricted to Primates, and provide here the first description of a potential chimeric promoter box region in SINEs.

  5. Mechanisms of Degranulation in Neutrophils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacy Paige

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Neutrophils are critical inflammatory cells that cause tissue damage in a range of diseases and disorders. Being bone marrow-derived white blood cells, they migrate from the bloodstream to sites of tissue inflammation in response to chemotactic signals and induce inflammation by undergoing receptor-mediated respiratory burst and degranulation. Degranulation from neutrophils has been implicated as a major causative factor in pulmonary disorders, including severe asphyxic episodes of asthma. However, the mechanisms that control neutrophil degranulation are not well understood. Recent observations indicate that granule release from neutrophils depends on activation of intracellular signalling pathways, including β-arrestins, the Rho guanosine triphosphatase Rac2, soluble NSF attachment protein (SNAP receptors, the src family of tyrosine kinases, and the tyrosine phosphatase MEG2. Some of these observations suggest that degranulation from neutrophils is selective and depends on nonredundant signalling pathways. This review focuses on new findings from the literature on the mechanisms that control the release of granule-derived mediators from neutrophils.

  6. AUTOINFLAMMATORY PUSTULAR NEUTROPHILIC DISEASES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Haley B.; Cowen, Edward W.

    2013-01-01

    SYNOPSIS The inflammatory pustular dermatoses constitute a spectrum of non-infectious conditions ranging from localized involvement to generalized disease with associated acute systemic inflammation and multi-organ involvement. Despite the variability in extent and severity of cutaneous presentation, each of these diseases is characterized by non-infectious neutrophilic intra-epidermal microabscesses. Many share systemic findings including fever, elevated inflammatory markers, inflammatory bowel disease and/or osteoarticular involvement, suggesting potential common pathogenic links (Figure 1). The recent discoveries of several genes responsible for heritable pustular diseases have revealed a distinct link between pustular skin disease and regulation of innate immunity. These genetic advances have led to a deeper exploration of common pathways in pustular skin disease and offer the potential for a new era of biologic therapy which targets these shared pathways. This chapter provides a new categorization of inflammatory pustular dermatoses in the context of recent genetic and biologic insights. We will discuss recently-described monogenic diseases with pustular phenotypes, including deficiency of IL-1 receptor antagonist (DIRA), deficiency of the IL-36 receptor antagonist (DITRA), CARD14-associated pustular psoriasis (CAMPS), and pyogenic arthritis, pyoderma gangrenosum, acne (PAPA). We will then discuss how these new genetic advancements may inform how we view previously described pustular diseases, including pustular psoriasis and its clinical variants, with a focus on historical classification by clinical phenotype. PMID:23827244

  7. SINE Retrotransposition: Evaluation of Alu Activity and Recovery of De Novo Inserts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ade, Catherine; Roy-Engel, Astrid M

    2016-01-01

    Mobile element activity is of great interest due to its impact on genomes. However, the types of mobile elements that inhabit any given genome are remarkably varied. Among the different varieties of mobile elements, the Short Interspersed Elements (SINEs) populate many genomes, including many mammalian species. Although SINEs are parasites of Long Interspersed Elements (LINEs), SINEs have been highly successful in both the primate and rodent genomes. When comparing copy numbers in mammals, SINEs have been vastly more successful than other nonautonomous elements, such as the retropseudogenes and SVA. Interestingly, in the human genome the copy number of Alu (a primate SINE) outnumbers LINE-1 (L1) copies 2 to 1. Estimates suggest that the retrotransposition rate for Alu is tenfold higher than LINE-1 with about 1 insert in every twenty births. Furthermore, Alu-induced mutagenesis is responsible for the majority of the documented instances of human retroelement insertion-induced disease. However, little is known on what contributes to these observed differences between SINEs and LINEs. The development of an assay to monitor SINE retrotransposition in culture has become an important tool for the elucidation of some of these differences. In this chapter, we present details of the SINE retrotransposition assay and the recovery of de novo inserts. We also focus on the nuances that are unique to the SINE assay.

  8. Limitations caused by distortion in room impulse response measurements by swept sine technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stojic, Branko; Ciric, Dejan; Markovic, Milos

    2011-01-01

    by the distortion in room impulse response measurements by swept sine technique are analyzed here by the simulations and measurements. For the investigation, both linear and exponential swept sines are used as an excitation signal. In the simulations, this signal is modified by the nonlinearity model in the time...... of a measured response can be limited in a similar way as in maximum length sequence technique, although the saturation level (maximum dynamic range) is higher for swept sine technique. Thus, swept sine technique is also vulnerable to a certain extent to distortion that limits the quality of measured impulse...

  9. Novel SINE Families from Salmons Validate Parahucho (Salmonidae) as a Distinct Genus and Give Evidence that SINEs Can Incorporate LINE-related 3′-Tails of Other SINEs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Matveev, Vitaliy; Nishihara, Hidenori; Okada, Norihiro

    2007-01-01

    Short interspersed elements (SINEs) constitute a group of retroposons propagating in the genome via a mechanism of reverse transcription, in which they depend on the enzymatic machinery of long retroposons (LINEs...

  10. Overlaps after quantum quenches in the sine-Gordon model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváth, D. X.; Takács, G.

    2017-08-01

    We present a numerical computation of overlaps in mass quenches in sine-Gordon quantum field theory using truncated conformal space approach (TCSA). To improve the cut-off dependence of the method, we use a novel running coupling definition which has a general applicability in free boson TCSA. The numerical results for the first breather overlaps are compared with the analytic continuation of a previously proposed analytical Ansatz for the initial state in a related sinh-Gordon quench, and good agreement is found between the numerical data and the analytical prediction in a large energy range.

  11. The Salmon Smai Family of Short Interspersed Repetitive Elements (Sines): Interspecific and Intraspecific Variation of the Insertion of Sines in the Genomes of Chum and Pink Salmon

    OpenAIRE

    Takasaki, N.; Yamaki, T.; Hamada, M.; Park, L; Okada, N

    1997-01-01

    The genomes of chum salmon and pink salmon contain a family of short interspersed repetitive elements (SINEs), designated the salmon SmaI family. It is restricted to these two species, a distribution that suggests that this SINE family might have been generated in their common ancestor. When insertions of the SmaI SINEs at 10 orthologous loci of these species were analyzed, however, it was found that there were no shared insertion sites between chum and pink salmon. Furthermore, at six loci w...

  12. Polyadenylation of RNA transcribed from mammalian SINEs by RNA polymerase III: Complex requirements for nucleotide sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borodulina, Olga R; Golubchikova, Julia S; Ustyantsev, Ilia G; Kramerov, Dmitri A

    2016-02-01

    It is generally accepted that only transcripts synthesized by RNA polymerase II (e.g., mRNA) were subject to AAUAAA-dependent polyadenylation. However, we previously showed that RNA transcribed by RNA polymerase III (pol III) from mouse B2 SINE could be polyadenylated in an AAUAAA-dependent manner. Many species of mammalian SINEs end with the pol III transcriptional terminator (TTTTT) and contain hexamers AATAAA in their A-rich tail. Such SINEs were united into Class T(+), whereas SINEs lacking the terminator and AATAAA sequences were classified as T(-). Here we studied the structural features of SINE pol III transcripts that are necessary for their polyadenylation. Eight and six SINE families from classes T(+) and T(-), respectively, were analyzed. The replacement of AATAAA with AACAAA in T(+) SINEs abolished the RNA polyadenylation. Interestingly, insertion of the polyadenylation signal (AATAAA) and pol III transcription terminator in T(-) SINEs did not result in polyadenylation. The detailed analysis of three T(+) SINEs (B2, DIP, and VES) revealed areas important for the polyadenylation of their pol III transcripts: the polyadenylation signal and terminator in A-rich tail, β region positioned immediately downstream of the box B of pol III promoter, and τ region located upstream of the tail. In DIP and VES (but not in B2), the τ region is a polypyrimidine motif which is also characteristic of many other T(+) SINEs. Most likely, SINEs of different mammals acquired these structural features independently as a result of parallel evolution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Pyogenic Arthritis, Pyoderma Gangrenosum, Acne, Suppurative Hidradenitis (PA-PASH) Syndrome: An Atypical Presentation of a Rare Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursani, Mohammad A.; Appleyard, Joan; Whiteru, Onome

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 44 Final Diagnosis: PAPASH syndrome Symptoms: Recurrent skin ulcers • diarrhea • inflammatory arthritis Medication: Prednisone • anti-tumor necrosis factor Clinical Procedure: N/A Specialty: Rheumatology Objective: Rare disease Background: Pyogenic arthritis, pyoderma gangrenosum (PG), acne, and suppurative hidradenitis (PA-PASH) syndrome has been linked to an auto-inflammatory pathway. We report a case that is an atypical presentation of a rare syndrome, which supports literature suggesting that different phenotypes of PG-related syndromes may be a variation of the same pathogenic spectrum. Interestingly, our patient displayed a positive proteinase-3 antibody (PR-3). The clinical relevance of this is unclear. In recent literature, antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies (ANCA) positivity has been reported in various inflammatory conditions other than ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV). Case Report: A 44-year-old African American male with history of pyogenic arthritis, acne, suppurative hidradenitis, and chronic diarrhea presented for evaluation of painful ulcers located on the bilateral lower extremities, bilateral proximal interphalangeal joints, buttocks, and scrotum, and chronic diarrhea. Infectious etiologies for the ulcers were ruled out. Biopsy of an ulcer revealed PG. Colonoscopy revealed inflammation and ulceration with biopsy consistent with ulcerative colitis (UC). After treatment with prednisone, the ulcers healed within 4 weeks, and the chronic diarrhea resolved. Conclusions: Our patient displayed a variation of PA-PASH syndrome and UC. Previously reported cases of similar phenotypes of PG-related syndromes have not presented in this fashion. Furthermore, the literature does not report cases of PG-related syndromes with an elevation in PR-3 antibody. Elevation in PR-3 has been reported in various inflammatory disorders aside from AAV. The relevance of this is currently unclear. It may be possible that the milieus of these various

  14. Golden Sine Algorithm: A Novel Math-Inspired Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TANYILDIZI, E.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Golden Sine Algorithm (Gold-SA is presented as a new metaheuristic method for solving optimization problems. Gold-SA has been developed as a new search algorithm based on population. This math-based algorithm is inspired by sine that is a trigonometric function. In the algorithm, random individuals are created as many as the number of search agents with uniform distribution for each dimension. The Gold-SA operator searches to achieve a better solution in each iteration by trying to bring the current situation closer to the target value. The solution space is narrowed by the golden section so that the areas that are supposed to give only good results are scanned instead of the whole solution space scan. In the tests performed, it is seen that Gold-SA has better results than other population based methods. In addition, Gold-SA has fewer algorithm-dependent parameters and operators than other metaheuristic methods, increasing the importance of this method by providing faster convergence of this new method.

  15. Construction Of 3phase Sine Waves Using Digital Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Madhavi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available All the real world parameters such as temperature, pressure etc., are analog in nature, In order to control these physical parameters using computers, which are digital in nature, high speed signal processing board is used. This mainly consists of devices such as analog to digital converter, digital to analog converters and timer which perform the interfacing function between analog and digital are known as data converters. By using Digital methods accuracy and precision of the equipment will be very high compared to analog method of sine wave generation. It provides highly stable and accurate Voltages, Currents and frequency of the 3 phase signals because it is having feedback mechanism. This work consists of DAC 8822[7], 8254 [6] Programmable Timer. This timer is programmed to generate an interrupt of 56µs time period which is fed to IRQ10 pin of PC 104 bus based single board computer [3]. A Device driver is written in Linux which is inserted into the Kernel. Then the processor communicates with 16- bit high speed DAC[7]which outputs the sine samples of 50Hz frequency.

  16. Standard Sine Fitting Algorithms Applied To Blade Tip Timing Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaźmierczak Krzysztof

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Blade Tip Timing (BTT is a non-intrusive method to measure blade vibration in turbomachinery. Time of Arrival (TOA is recorded when a blade is passing a stationary sensor. The measurement data, in form of undersampled (aliased tip-deflection signal, are difficult to analyze with standard signal processing methods like digital filters or Fourier Transform. Several indirect methods are applied to process TOA sequences, such as reconstruction of aliased spectrum and Least-Squares Fitting to harmonic oscillator model. We used standard sine fitting algorithms provided by IEEE-STD-1057 to estimate blade vibration parameters. Blade-tip displacement was simulated in time domain using SDOF model, sampled by stationary sensors and then processed by the sinefit.m toolkit. We evaluated several configurations of different sensor placement, noise level and number of data. Results of the linear sine fitting, performed with the frequency known a priori, were compared with the non-linear ones. Some of non-linear iterations were not convergent. The algorithms and testing results are aimed to be used in analysis of asynchronous blade vibration.

  17. Neutrophil extracellular traps - the dark side of neutrophils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ole E.; Borregaard, Niels

    2016-01-01

    Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) were discovered as extracellular strands of decondensed DNA in complex with histones and granule proteins, which were expelled from dying neutrophils to ensnare and kill microbes. NETs are formed during infection in vivo by mechanisms different from those...... originally described in vitro. Citrullination of histones by peptidyl arginine deiminase 4 (PAD4) is central for NET formation in vivo. NETs may spur formation of autoantibodies and may also serve as scaffolds for thrombosis, thereby providing a link among infection, autoimmunity, and thrombosis...

  18. Mobile Element Evolution Playing Jigsaw—SINEs in Gastropod and Bivalve Mollusks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matetovici, Irina; Sajgo, Szilard; Ianc, Bianca; Ochis, Cornelia; Bulzu, Paul; Popescu, Octavian; Damert, Annette

    2016-01-01

    SINEs (Short INterspersed Elements) are widely distributed among eukaryotes. Some SINE families are organized in superfamilies characterized by a shared central domain. These central domains are conserved across species, classes, and even phyla. Here we report the identification of two novel such superfamilies in the genomes of gastropod and bivalve mollusks. The central conserved domain of the first superfamily is present in SINEs in Caenogastropoda and Vetigastropoda as well as in all four subclasses of Bivalvia. We designated the domain MESC (Romanian for MElc—snail and SCoica—mussel) because it appears to be restricted to snails and mussels. The second superfamily is restricted to Caenogastropoda. Its central conserved domain—Snail—is related to the Nin-DC domain. Furthermore, we provide evidence that a 40-bp subdomain of the SINE V-domain is conserved in SINEs in mollusks and arthropods. It is predicted to form a stable stem-loop structure that is preserved in the context of the overall SINE RNA secondary structure in invertebrates. Our analysis also recovered short retrotransposons with a Long INterspersed Element (LINE)-derived 5′ end. These share the body and/or the tail with transfer RNA (tRNA)-derived SINEs within and across species. Finally, we identified CORE SINEs in gastropods and bivalves—extending the distribution range of this superfamily. PMID:26739168

  19. Novel SINEs families in Medicago truncatula and Lotus japonicus: bioinformatic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadzalski, Marek; Sakowicz, Tomasz

    2011-07-01

    Although short interspersed elements (SINEs) were discovered nearly 30 years ago, the studies of these genomic repeats were mostly limited to animal genomes. Very little is known about SINEs in legumes--one of the most important plant families. Here we report identification, genomic distribution and molecular features of six novel SINE elements in Lotus japonicus (named LJ_SINE-1, -2, -3) and Medicago truncatula (MT_SINE-1, -2, -3), model species of legume. They possess all the structural features commonly found in short interspersed elements including RNA polymerase III promoter, polyA tail and flanking repeats. SINEs described here are present in low to moderate copy numbers from 150 to 3000. Bioinformatic analyses were used to searched public databases, we have shown that three of new SINE elements from M. truncatula seem to be characteristic of Medicago and Trifolium genera. Two SINE families have been found in L. japonicus and one is present in both M. truncatula and L. japonicus. In addition, we are discussing potential activities of the described elements. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Inverse PCR-based method for isolating novel SINEs from genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yawei; Chen, Liping; Guan, Lihong; He, Shunping

    2014-04-01

    Short interspersed elements (SINEs) are moderately repetitive DNA sequences in eukaryotic genomes. Although eukaryotic genomes contain numerous SINEs copy, it is very difficult and laborious to isolate and identify them by the reported methods. In this study, the inverse PCR was successfully applied to isolate SINEs from Opsariichthys bidens genome in Eastern Asian Cyprinid. A group of SINEs derived from tRNA(Ala) molecular had been identified, which were named Opsar according to Opsariichthys. SINEs characteristics were exhibited in Opsar, which contained a tRNA(Ala)-derived region at the 5' end, a tRNA-unrelated region, and AT-rich region at the 3' end. The tRNA-derived region of Opsar shared 76 % sequence similarity with tRNA(Ala) gene. This result indicated that Opsar could derive from the inactive or pseudogene of tRNA(Ala). The reliability of method was tested by obtaining C-SINE, Ct-SINE, and M-SINEs from Ctenopharyngodon idellus, Megalobrama amblycephala, and Cyprinus carpio genomes. This method is simpler than the previously reported, which successfully omitted many steps, such as preparation of probes, construction of genomic libraries, and hybridization.

  1. Mobile Element Evolution Playing Jigsaw - SINEs in Gastropod and Bivalve Mollusks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matetovici, Irina; Sajgo, Szilard; Ianc, Bianca; Ochis, Cornelia; Bulzu, Paul; Popescu, Octavian; Damert, Annette

    2016-01-06

    SINEs (Short INterspersed Elements) are widely distributed among eukaryotes. Some SINE families are organized in superfamilies characterized by a shared central domain. These central domains are conserved across species, classes, and even phyla. Here we report the identification of two novel such superfamilies in the genomes of gastropod and bivalve mollusks. The central conserved domain of the first superfamily is present in SINEs in Caenogastropoda and Vetigastropoda as well as in all four subclasses of Bivalvia. We designated the domain MESC (Romanian for MElc-snail and SCoica-mussel) because it appears to be restricted to snails and mussels. The second superfamily is restricted to Caenogastropoda. Its central conserved domain-Snail-is related to the Nin-DC domain. Furthermore, we provide evidence that a 40-bp subdomain of the SINE V-domain is conserved in SINEs in mollusks and arthropods. It is predicted to form a stable stem-loop structure that is preserved in the context of the overall SINE RNA secondary structure in invertebrates. Our analysis also recovered short retrotransposons with a Long INterspersed Element (LINE)-derived 5' end. These share the body and/or the tail with transfer RNA (tRNA)-derived SINEs within and across species. Finally, we identified CORE SINEs in gastropods and bivalves-extending the distribution range of this superfamily. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  2. Functional Integrals and Free Energy in sine-Gordon-Thirring Model with Impurity Coupling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The free energy at low temperature in ID sine-Gordon-Thirring model with impurity coupling is studied by means of functional integrals method. For massive free sine-Gordon-Thirring model, free energy is obtained from perturbation expansion of functional determinant. Moreover, the free energy of massive model is calculated by use of an auxiliary Bose Geld method.

  3. Myeloperoxidase attracts neutrophils by physical forces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klinke, Anna; Nussbaum, Claudia; Kubala, Lukas; Friedrichs, Kai; Rudolph, Tanja K.; Rudolph, Volker; Paust, Hans-Joachim; Schroeder, Christine; Benten, Daniel; Lau, Denise; Szocs, Katalin; Furtmueller, Paul G.; Heeringa, Peter; Sydow, Karsten; Duchstein, Hans-Juergen; Ehmke, Heimo; Schumacher, Udo; Meinertz, Thomas; Sperandio, Markus; Baldus, Stephan

    2011-01-01

    Recruitment of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) remains a paramount prerequisite in innate immune defense and a critical cofounder in inflammatory vascular disease. Neutrophil recruitment comprises a cascade of concerted events allowing for capture, adhesion and extravasation of the leukocyte.

  4. Functional neutrophils from human ES cells

    OpenAIRE

    Sweeney, Colin L; Malech, Harry L.

    2009-01-01

    In this issue of Blood, Yokoyama and colleagues demonstrate in vitro differentiation of hESCs into mature neutrophils with functional capabilities (chemotaxis, phagocytosis, microbicidal oxidase activity, and bacterial killing) approaching or equal to that of normal peripheral blood neutrophils.

  5. Evolutionary modes of emergence of short interspersed nuclear element (SINE) families in grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kögler, Anja; Schmidt, Thomas; Wenke, Torsten

    2017-08-30

    Short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs) are non-autonomous transposable elements which are propagated by retrotransposition and constitute an inherent part of the genome of most eukaryotic species. Knowledge of heterogeneous and highly abundant SINEs is crucial for de novo (or improvement of) annotation of whole genome sequences. We scanned Poaceae genome sequences of six important cereals (Oryza sativa, Triticum aestivum, Hordeum vulgare, Panicum virgatum, Sorghum bicolor, Zea mays) and Brachypodium distachyon to examine the diversity and evolution of SINE populations. We comparatively analyzed the structural features, distribution, evolutionary relation and abundance of 32 SINE families and subfamilies within grasses, comprising 11 052 individual copies. The investigation of activity profiles within the Poaceae provides insights into their species-specific diversification and amplification. We found that Poaceae SINEs (PoaS) fall into two length categories: simple SINEs of up to 180 bp and dimeric SINEs larger than 240 bp. Detailed analysis at the nucleotide level revealed that multimerization of related and unrelated SINE copies is an important evolutionary mechanism of SINE formation. We conclude that PoaS families diversify by massive reshuffling between SINE families, likely caused by insertion of truncated copies, and provide a model for this evolutionary scenario. Twenty-eight of 32 PoaS families and subfamilies show significant conservation, in particular either in the 5' or 3' regions, across Poaceae species and share large sequence stretches with one or more other PoaS families. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. SINEs of progress: Mobile element applications to molecular ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, David A

    2007-01-01

    Mobile elements represent a unique and under-utilized set of tools for molecular ecologists. They are essentially homoplasy-free characters with the ability to be genotyped in a simple and efficient manner. Interpretation of the data generated using mobile elements can be simple compared to other genetic markers. They exist in a wide variety of taxa and are useful over a wide selection of temporal ranges within those taxa. Furthermore, their mode of evolution instills them with another advantage over other types of multilocus genotype data: the ability to determine loci applicable to a range of time spans in the history of a taxon. In this review, I discuss the application of mobile element markers, especially short interspersed elements (SINEs), to phylogenetic and population data, with an emphasis on potential applications to molecular ecology.

  7. Massless Boundary Sine-Gordon Model Coupled to External Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Kogetsu, H

    2005-01-01

    We investigate a generalization of the massless boundary sine-Gordon model with conformal invariance, which has been used to describe an array of D-branes (or rolling tachyon). We consider a similar action whose couplings are replaced with external fields depending on the boundary coordinate. Even in the presence of the external fields, this model is still solvable, though it does not maintain the whole conformal symmetry. We obtain, to all orders in perturbation theory in terms of the external fields, a simpler expression of the boundary state and the disc partition function. As a by-product, we fix the relation between the bare couplings and the renormalized couplings which has been appeared in papers on tachyon lump and rolling tachyon.

  8. The nullum crimen sine iure principle in contemporary International Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hector Olásolo Alonso

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the evolution and current content of the nullum crimen sine iure principle in international law. It analyses the development of the nullum crimen principle from its definition as a principle of justice at the end of Second World War, to its current definition as an individual right imposing a limitation upon States’ sovereignty. The article also explains that, nowadays, the nullum cri- men principle requires for the relevant conduct to be a crime at the time of its com- mission, according to any of the sources of criminal law in the relevant national or international legal system. No written law is necessarily required. As a result, accessibility and foreseability are the main elements of the nullum crimen principle in current international law.

  9. Characterization of Three Novel SINE Families with Unusual Features in Helicoverpa armigera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianjun; Wang, Aina; Han, Zhaojun; Zhang, Zan; Li, Fei; Li, Xianchun

    2012-01-01

    Although more than 120 families of short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs) have been isolated from the eukaryotic genomes, little is known about SINEs in insects. Here, we characterize three novel SINEs from the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera. Two of them, HaSE1 and HaSE2, share similar 5′ -structure including a tRNA-related region immediately followed by conserved central domain. The 3′ -tail of HaSE1 is significantly similar to that of one LINE retrotransposon element, HaRTE1.1, in H. armigera genome. The 3′ -region of HaSE2 showed high identity with one mariner-like element in H. armigera. The third family, termed HaSE3, is a 5S rRNA-derived SINE and shares both body part and 3′-tail with HaSE1, thus may represent the first example of a chimera generated by recombination between 5S rRNA and tRNA-derived SINE in insect species. Further database searches revealed the presence of these SINEs in several other related insect species, but not in the silkworm, Bombyx mori, indicating a relatively narrow distribution of these SINEs in Lepidopterans. Apart from above, we found a copy of HaSE2 in the GenBank EST entry for the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii, suggesting the occurrence of horizontal transfer. PMID:22319625

  10. Short interspersed transposable elements (SINEs) are excluded from imprinted regions in the human genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greally, John M

    2002-01-08

    To test whether regions undergoing genomic imprinting have unique genomic characteristics, imprinted and nonimprinted human loci were compared for nucleotide and retroelement composition. Maternally and paternally expressed subgroups of imprinted genes were found to differ in terms of guanine and cytosine, CpG, and retroelement content, indicating a segregation into distinct genomic compartments. Imprinted regions have been normally permissive to L1 long interspersed transposable element retroposition during mammalian evolution but universally and significantly lack short interspersed transposable elements (SINEs). The primate-specific Alu SINEs, as well as the more ancient mammalian-wide interspersed repeat SINEs, are found at significantly low densities in imprinted regions. The latter paleogenomic signature indicates that the sequence characteristics of currently imprinted regions existed before the mammalian radiation. Transitions from imprinted to nonimprinted genomic regions in cis are characterized by a sharp inflection in SINE content, demonstrating that this genomic characteristic can help predict the presence and extent of regions undergoing imprinting. During primate evolution, SINE accumulation in imprinted regions occurred at a decreased rate compared with control loci. The constraint on SINE accumulation in imprinted regions may be mediated by an active selection process. This selection could be because of SINEs attracting and spreading methylation, as has been found at other loci. Methylation-induced silencing could lead to deleterious consequences at imprinted loci, where inactivation of one allele is already established, and expression is often essential for embryonic growth and survival.

  11. Characterization of three novel SINE families with unusual features in Helicoverpa armigera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianjun Wang

    Full Text Available Although more than 120 families of short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs have been isolated from the eukaryotic genomes, little is known about SINEs in insects. Here, we characterize three novel SINEs from the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera. Two of them, HaSE1 and HaSE2, share similar 5' -structure including a tRNA-related region immediately followed by conserved central domain. The 3' -tail of HaSE1 is significantly similar to that of one LINE retrotransposon element, HaRTE1.1, in H. armigera genome. The 3' -region of HaSE2 showed high identity with one mariner-like element in H. armigera. The third family, termed HaSE3, is a 5S rRNA-derived SINE and shares both body part and 3'-tail with HaSE1, thus may represent the first example of a chimera generated by recombination between 5S rRNA and tRNA-derived SINE in insect species. Further database searches revealed the presence of these SINEs in several other related insect species, but not in the silkworm, Bombyx mori, indicating a relatively narrow distribution of these SINEs in Lepidopterans. Apart from above, we found a copy of HaSE2 in the GenBank EST entry for the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii, suggesting the occurrence of horizontal transfer.

  12. Epigenetic regulation of transcription and possible functions of mammalian short interspersed elements, SINEs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichiyanagi, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    Short interspersed elements (SINEs) are a class of retrotransposons, which amplify their copy numbers in their host genomes by retrotransposition. More than a million copies of SINEs are present in a mammalian genome, constituting over 10% of the total genomic sequence. In contrast to the other two classes of retrotransposons, long interspersed elements (LINEs) and long terminal repeat (LTR) elements, SINEs are transcribed by RNA polymerase III. However, like LINEs and LTR elements, the SINE transcription is likely regulated by epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation, at least for human Alu and mouse B1. Whereas SINEs and other transposable elements have long been thought as selfish or junk DNA, recent studies have revealed that they play functional roles at their genomic locations, for example, as distal enhancers, chromatin boundaries and binding sites of many transcription factors. These activities imply that SINE retrotransposition has shaped the regulatory network and chromatin landscape of their hosts. Whereas it is thought that the epigenetic mechanisms were originated as a host defense system against proliferation of parasitic elements, this review discusses a possibility that the same mechanisms are also used to regulate the SINE-derived functions.

  13. Kink propagation and trapping in a two dimensional curved sine-Gordon system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mads Peter

    The sine-Gordon equation is one of the three classical nonlinear partial differential equations possessing soliton solutions in the case of one spatial dimension. Extending the sine-Gordon equation to two spatial dimensions is relevant for applications to the dynamics of large area Josephson...... to investigate how kink shaped solitons of the sine-Gordon equation propagate through the bent section. We have found that the region with finite curvature acts as a potential barrier whose height and width depends on the radius of curvature of the waveguide. The kink transmission, reflection and trapping...

  14. Kink propagation and trapping in a two dimensional curved sine-Gordon system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mads Peter

    The sine-Gordon equation is one of the three classical nonlinear partial differential equations possessing soliton solutions in the case of one spatial dimension. Extending the sine-Gordon equation to two spatial dimensions is relevant for applications to the dynamics of large area Josephson...... to investigate how kink shaped solitons of the sine-Gordon equation propagate through the bent section. We have found that the region with finite curvature acts as a potential barrier whose height and width depends on the radius of curvature of the waveguide. The kink transmission, reflection and trapping...

  15. Occurrence of Can-SINEs and intron sequence evolution supports robust phylogeny of pinniped carnivores and their terrestrial relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Christiane; Bleidorn, Christoph; Hartmann, Stefanie; Tiedemann, Ralph

    2009-12-15

    Investigating the dog genome we found 178965 introns with a moderate length of 200-1000 bp. A screening of these sequences against 23 different repeat libraries to find insertions of short interspersed elements (SINEs) detected 45276 SINEs. Virtually all of these SINEs (98%) belong to the tRNA-derived Can-SINE family. Can-SINEs arose about 55 million years ago before Carnivora split into two basal groups, the Caniformia (dog-like carnivores) and the Feliformia (cat-like carnivores). Genome comparisons of dog and cat recovered 506 putatively informative SINE loci for caniformian phylogeny. In this study we show how to use such genome information of model organisms to research the phylogeny of related non-model species of interest. Investigating a dataset including representatives of all major caniformian lineages, we analysed 24 randomly chosen loci for 22 taxa. All loci were amplifiable and revealed 17 parsimony-informative SINE insertions. The screening for informative SINE insertions yields a large amount of sequence information, in particular of introns, which contain reliable phylogenetic information as well. A phylogenetic analysis of intron- and SINE sequence data provided a statistically robust phylogeny which is congruent with the absence/presence pattern of our SINE markers. This phylogeny strongly supports a sistergroup relationship of Musteloidea and Pinnipedia. Within Pinnipedia, we see strong support from bootstrapping and the presence of a SINE insertion for a sistergroup relationship of the walrus with the Otariidae.

  16. Activation of Neutrophils by Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Goncalves

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of nanoparticles (NPs has increased in the past few years in various fields, including defence, aerospace, electronics, biology, medicine, and so forth. and in applications such as diagnostic technology, bioimaging, and drug/gene delivery. Thus, human exposure to NPs and nanomaterials is unavoidable and will certainly expand in the future resulting in a growing interest in nanotoxicology, the study of toxicity of nanomaterials. A number of studies have reported the effects of NPs in respect to pulmonary inflammation by investigating in vitro activation of pulmonary cells with NPs and in vivo in a variety of models in which neutrophils appear to be the predominant leukocyte cell type in lungs and in bronchoalveolar lavages following inhalation or intratracheal instillation of NPs. Despite the fact that several studies have reported an increased number of neutrophils, the literature dealing with the direct activation of neutrophils by a given NP is poorly documented. This paper will summarize the current literature in this latter area of research and will end with a perspective view in which our laboratory will be involved in the following years.

  17. HEXIM1蛋白与Alu SINE RNA相互作用的研究%Study of the interaction between HEXIM1 protein and Alu SINE RNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田平平; 吴传芳; 欧阳劲; 秦岭

    2014-01-01

    为了探讨Alu SINE RNA和HEXIM1蛋白之间是否存在相互作用.本实验构建了带有FLAG标签的HEXIM1真核表达载体,转染人胚肾293(HEK293)细胞,做anti FLAG 的RNA免疫共沉淀(RIP)后运用免疫印记和逆转录PCR (reverse transcription PCR,RT PCR)等方法检测.证明了Alu SINE RNA和HEXIM1蛋白之间存在相互作用,表明AluSINE RNA和HEXIM1蛋白共同影响基因转录调控,以及细胞在应对外界刺激时能及时在基因水平做出有效反应的可能.

  18. Effect of sevoflurane on human neutrophil apoptosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tyther, R

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Both chronic occupational exposure to volatile anaesthetic agents and acute in vitro exposure of neutrophils to isoflurane have been shown to inhibit the rate of apoptosis of human neutrophils. It is possible that inhibition of neutrophil apoptosis arises through delaying mitochondrial membrane potential collapse. We assessed mitochondrial depolarization and apoptosis in unexposed neutrophils and neutrophils exposed to sevoflurane in vivo. METHODS: A total of 20 mL venous blood was withdrawn pre- and postinduction of anaesthesia, the neutrophils isolated and maintained in culture. At 1, 12 and 24 h in culture, the percentage of neutrophil apoptosis was assessed by dual staining with annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide. Mitochondrial depolarization was measured using the dual emission styryl dye JC-1. RESULTS: Apoptosis was significantly inhibited in neutrophils exposed to sevoflurane in vivo at 24 (exposed: 38 (12)% versus control: 28 (11)%, P = 0.001), but not at 1 or 12 h, in culture. Mitochondrial depolarization was not delayed in neutrophils exposed to sevoflurane. CONCLUSIONS: The most important findings are that sevoflurane inhibits neutrophil apoptosis in vivo and that inhibition is not mediated primarily by an effect on mitochondrial depolarization.

  19. Traveling Wave Solutions of ZK-BBM Equation Sine-Cosine Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadaf Bibi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Travelling wave solutions are obtained by using a relatively new technique which is called sine-cosine method for ZK-BBM equations. Solution procedure and obtained results re-confirm the efficiency of the proposed scheme.

  20. Limitations caused by distortion in room impulse response measurements by swept sine technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stojic, Branko; Ciric, Dejan; Markovic, Milos

    2011-01-01

    of a measured response can be limited in a similar way as in maximum length sequence technique, although the saturation level (maximum dynamic range) is higher for swept sine technique. Thus, swept sine technique is also vulnerable to a certain extent to distortion that limits the quality of measured impulse......The significance of a room impulse response implies the requirement that its measurement should have a high level of accuracy in certain applications. One of the common problems in a measurement process is nonlinearity leading to the distortion of a room impulse response. Limitations caused...... by the distortion in room impulse response measurements by swept sine technique are analyzed here by the simulations and measurements. For the investigation, both linear and exponential swept sines are used as an excitation signal. In the simulations, this signal is modified by the nonlinearity model in the time...

  1. Basicity of Systems of Sines with Linear Phase in Weighted Sobolev Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. F. Salmanov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The perturbed systems of sines, which appear when solving some partial differential equations by the Fourier method, are considered in this paper. Basis properties of these systems in weighted Sobolev spaces of functions are studied.

  2. Perish, then publish: Thomas Harriot and the sine law of refraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, R S

    2000-03-01

    A talented young scientist, Thomas Harriot, wrote the first English account of the New World, "A Briefe and True Report of the New Found Land of Virginia," distinguished by its serious effort to describe and understand the American Indian. Harriot went on to make innovations in mathematics and was one of the first astronomers to use the telescope. His largely unappreciated contribution to the history of ophthalmology was the first formulation of the sine law of refraction of light, found in his unpublished papers long after his death in 1621. Willebrord Snell discovered the sine law in Holland in 1621 but also died without formally publishing it. Rene Descartes first published the sine law in 1637. The sine law of refraction became not only the prime law of all lens systems but ushered in a new world of physical laws.

  3. Sine-Gordon solitons in networks: Scattering and transmission at vertices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobirov, Zarif; Babajanov, Doniyor; Matrasulov, Davron; Nakamura, Katsuhiro; Uecker, Hannes

    2016-09-01

    We consider the sine-Gordon equation on metric graphs with simple topologies and derive vertex boundary conditions from the fundamental conservation laws together with successive space-derivatives of sine-Gordon equation. We analytically obtain traveling-wave solutions in the form of standard sine-Gordon solitons such as kinks and antikinks for star and tree graphs. We show that for this case the sine-Gordon equation becomes completely integrable just as in case of a simple 1D chain. This simple analysis provides a cornerstone for the numerical solution of the general case, including a quantification of the vertex scattering. Applications of the obtained results to Josephson junction networks and DNA double helix are discussed.

  4. SINE polymorphism reveals distinct strains of Entamoeba histolytica from North India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shraddha; Banyal, Neha; Singh, Mukul; Mandal, A K; Bhattacharya, Sudha; Paul, Jaishree

    2017-04-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is an intestinal parasite causing significant morbidity and mortality in the developing world. More tools are needed to understand the epidemiology and molecular pathogenesis of amebiasis. Virulence pattern of E. histolytica could be linked with the genotype of a strain. Several loci showing insertion polymorphism of retrotransposable short interspersed nuclear elements EhSINE1 and EhSINE2 have been reported among laboratory strains of E. histolytica. The present study was undertaken to validate this observation in clinical isolates from north India. Our results indicate that the Indian samples show a different propensity of SINE retention or loss at two of the polymorphic loci compared with non-Indian samples. Statistical analysis of different loci revealed Locus 17 of EhSINE1as a potential geographical marker for distinguishing Indian isolates from non Indian isolates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Sine Rotation Vector Method for Attitude Estimation of an Underwater Robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Nak Yong; Jeong, Seokki; Bae, Youngchul

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a method for estimating the attitude of an underwater robot. The method employs a new concept of sine rotation vector and uses both an attitude heading and reference system (AHRS) and a Doppler velocity log (DVL) for the purpose of measurement. First, the acceleration and magnetic-field measurements are transformed into sine rotation vectors and combined. The combined sine rotation vector is then transformed into the differences between the Euler angles of the measured attitude and the predicted attitude; the differences are used to correct the predicted attitude. The method was evaluated according to field-test data and simulation data and compared to existing methods that calculate angular differences directly without a preceding sine rotation vector transformation. The comparison verifies that the proposed method improves the attitude estimation performance.

  6. THE DYNAMICS OF SINE-GORDON SYSTEM WITH DIRICHLET BOUNDARY CONDITION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Yingdong; Li Zhengyuan

    2000-01-01

    We prove the existence of the global attractor of Sine-Gordon system with Dirichlet boundary condition and show the attractor is the unique steady state when the damping constant and the diffusion constant are sufficiently large.

  7. Selective activation of primary afferent fibers evaluated by sine-wave electrical stimulation

    OpenAIRE

    Katafuchi Toshihiko; Takaki Atsushi; Rashid Md Harunor; Furue Hidemasa; Koga Kohei; Yoshimura Megumu

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Transcutaneous sine-wave stimuli at frequencies of 2000, 250 and 5 Hz (Neurometer) are thought to selectively activate Aβ, Aδ and C afferent fibers, respectively. However, there are few reports to test the selectivity of these stimuli at the cellular level. In the present study, we analyzed action potentials (APs) generated by sine-wave stimuli applied to the dorsal root in acutely isolated rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) preparations using intracellular recordings. We also measured e...

  8. Pi-kinks in a parametrically driven sine-Gordon chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kivshar, Yuri S.; Grønbech-Jensen, Niels; Samuelsen, Mogens Rugholm

    1992-01-01

    We consider the sine-Gordon chain driven by a high-frequency parametric force in the presence of loss. Using an analytical approach based on the method of averaging in fast oscillations, we predict that such a parametric force may support propagation of π kinks, which are unstable in the standard...... sine-Gordon model. The steady-state velocity of the π kinks is calculated, and the analytical results are in good agreement with direct numerical simulations....

  9. Experimental relationship between damping and stability of sine-Gordon solitons in Josephson junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidson, A.; Pedersen, Niels Falsig; Dueholm, B.

    1985-01-01

    We show some experimental results which suggest that total damping, including surface loss, plays a fundamental role in limiting the stability of high-velocity sine-Gordon solitons in real Josephson tunnel junctions.......We show some experimental results which suggest that total damping, including surface loss, plays a fundamental role in limiting the stability of high-velocity sine-Gordon solitons in real Josephson tunnel junctions....

  10. A Disease-Modifying Approach for Advanced Hidradenitis Suppurativa (Regimen with Metformin, Liraglutide, Dapsone, and Finasteride: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit N. Khandalavala

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS is a challenging skin disease with limited therapeutic options. Obesity and metabolic syndrome are being increasingly implicated and associated with younger ages and greater metabolic severity. A 19-year-old female with an 8-year history of progressively debilitating cicatricial HS disease presented with obesity, profound anemia, leukocytosis, increased platelet count, hypoalbuminemia, and elevated liver enzymes. A combination of metformin, liraglutide, levonorgestrel-ethinyl estradiol, dapsone, and finasteride was initiated. Acute antibiotic use for recurrences and flares could be slowly discontinued. Over the course of 3 years on this regimen, the liver enzymes normalized in 1 year, followed in2 years by complete resolution of the majority of the hematological and metabolic abnormalities. The sedimentation rate reduced from over 120 to 34 mm/h. She required 1 surgical intervention for perianal disease after 9 months on the regimen. Flares greatly diminished in intensity and duration, with none in the past 6 months. Right axillary lesions have completely healed with residual disease greatly reduced. Chiefly abdominal lesions are persistent. She was able to complete high school from home, start a job, and resume a normal life. Initial weight loss of 40 pounds was not maintained. The current regimen is being well tolerated and continued.

  11. Is hidradenitis suppurativa associated with anaemia?: a population-based and hospital-based cross-sectional study from Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, I M; Johansen, M E; Mogensen, U B; Zarchi, K; Ellervik, C; Jemec, G B

    2016-08-01

    Chronic inflammatory diseases may be associated with anaemia of inflammation. Hidradenitis suppurativa is a chronic inflammatory dermatological disease associated with metabolic comorbidities, low quality of life and fatigue. Anaemia may cause fatigue, and it has been hypothesized that HS-related fatigue may be partly due to anaemia. Our objective was to investigate a possible association between HS and anaemia. We performed a hospital-based and population-based cross-sectional study investigating the red blood cell profile, i.e. haemoglobin. We identified a total of 32 hospital HS individuals, 430 population HS individuals and 20,780 population non-HS control individuals. The age-sex-smoking-adjusted analyses showed no differences in the haemoglobin level of the HS groups vs. the control group. Analyses of the anaemic subgroup of HS individuals revealed that 60% had normocytic anaemia and 40% microcytic anaemia, in concordance with anaemia of inflammation. In contrast to our hypothesis, this study showed that HS is not associated with anaemia. Thus, anaemia may not be the cause of the described fatigue in HS patients. Furthermore, the results indicate that if an HS patient does suffer from anaemia it is most likely to be normocytic or microcytic and thus compatible with anaemia seen in other chronic inflammatory disorders. © 2015 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  12. Implementing the Law of Sines to solve SAS triangles

    CERN Document Server

    Zelator, Konstantine

    2010-01-01

    By "solving a triangle", one refers to determining the three sidelengths and the three angles, based on given information.Depending on the specific information, one or more triangles may satisfy the requirements of the given information.In the SAS case, two of sidelengths are given, as well as the angle contained by the two sides.According to Euclidean Geometry, such a triangle must be unique. In reference [1], and pretty much in standard trigonometry and precalculus texts,the Law of Cosines is employed in solving a SAS triangle. In this work we use an alternative approach by using the Law of Cosines.In Section 2, we list some basic trigonometric identities and in Section 3 we prove a lemma which is used in Section4. In Section4, we demonstrate the use of the Law of Sines in solving an SAS triangle. In Section 5 we offer three examples in detail; the last one being more general in nature.

  13. LINE-1 ORF1 protein enhances Alu SINE retrotransposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Nicholas; Wagstaff, Bradley J; Deininger, Prescott L; Roy-Engel, Astrid M

    2008-08-01

    Retroelements have contributed over one third of the human genome mass. The currently active LINE-1 (L1) codes for two proteins (ORF1p and ORF2p), both strictly required for retrotransposition. In contrast, the non-coding parasitic SINE (Alu) only appears to need the L1 ORF2p for its own amplification. This requirement was previously determined using a tissue culture assay system in human cells (HeLa). Because HeLa are likely to express functional L1 proteins, it is possible that low levels of endogenous ORF1p are necessary for the observed tagged Alu mobilization. By individually expressing ORF1 and ORF2 proteins from both human (L1RP and LRE3) and rodent (L1A102 and L1spa) L1 sources, we demonstrate that increasing amounts of ORF1 expressing vector enhances tagged Alu mobilization in HeLa cells. In addition, using chicken fibroblast cells as an alternate cell culture source, we confirmed that ORF1p is not strictly required for Alu mobilization in our assay. Supporting our observations in HeLa cells, we find that tagged Alu retrotransposition is improved by supplementation of ORF1p in the cultured chicken cells. We postulate that L1 ORF1p plays either a direct or indirect role in enhancing the interaction between the Alu RNA and the required factors needed for its retrotransposition.

  14. Spectral Target-Detecting System Using Sine-Wave Modulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Wei; ZHAO Chun-jiang; ZHANG Lu-da; CHENG Li-ping; Andrew Landers

    2011-01-01

    Target detection is one of the key technology of precision chemical application.Previously the digital coding modulation technique was commonly used to emit and receive the optical signal in the target detection systems previously in China.It was difficult to adjust the output power,and the anti-interference ability was weak in these systems.In order to resolve these problems,the target detection method based on analog sinewave modulation was studied.The spectral detecting system was set up in the aspects of working principle,electric circuit,and optical path.Lab testing was performed.The results showed that the reflected signal from the target varied inversely with detection distances.It indicated that it was feasible to establish the target detection system using analog sine-wave modulation technology.Furthermore,quantitative measurement of the reflected optical signal for near-infrared and visible light could be achieved by using this system.The research laid the foundation for the future development of the corresponding instrument.

  15. Identification of a Recently Active Mammalian SINE Derived from Ribosomal RNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Mark S.; Brown, Judy D.; Zhang, Chu; O’Neill, Michael J.; O’Neill, Rachel J.

    2015-01-01

    Complex eukaryotic genomes are riddled with repeated sequences whose derivation does not coincide with phylogenetic history and thus is often unknown. Among such sequences, the capacity for transcriptional activity coupled with the adaptive use of reverse transcription can lead to a diverse group of genomic elements across taxa, otherwise known as selfish elements or mobile elements. Short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs) are nonautonomous mobile elements found in eukaryotic genomes, typically derived from cellular RNAs such as tRNAs, 7SL or 5S rRNA. Here, we identify and characterize a previously unknown SINE derived from the 3′-end of the large ribosomal subunit (LSU or 28S rDNA) and transcribed via RNA polymerase III. This new element, SINE28, is represented in low-copy numbers in the human reference genome assembly, wherein we have identified 27 discrete loci. Phylogenetic analysis indicates these elements have been transpositionally active within primate lineages as recently as 6 MYA while modern humans still carry transcriptionally active copies. Moreover, we have identified SINE28s in all currently available assembled mammalian genome sequences. Phylogenetic comparisons indicate that these elements are frequently rederived from the highly conserved LSU rRNA sequences in a lineage-specific manner. We propose that this element has not been previously recognized as a SINE given its high identity to the canonical LSU, and that SINE28 likely represents one of possibly many unidentified, active transposable elements within mammalian genomes. PMID:25637222

  16. A New Class of SINEs with snRNA Gene-Derived Heads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Kenji K

    2015-05-27

    Eukaryotic genomes are colonized by various transposons including short interspersed elements (SINEs). The 5' region (head) of the majority of SINEs is derived from one of the three types of RNA genes--7SL RNA, transfer RNA (tRNA), or 5S ribosomal RNA (rRNA)--and the internal promoter inside the head promotes the transcription of the entire SINEs. Here I report a new group of SINEs whose heads originate from either the U1 or U2 small nuclear RNA gene. These SINEs, named SINEU, are distributed among crocodilians and classified into three families. The structures of the SINEU-1 subfamilies indicate the recurrent addition of a U1- or U2-derived sequence onto the 5' end of SINEU-1 elements. SINEU-1 and SINEU-3 are ancient and shared among alligators, crocodiles, and gharials, while SINEU-2 is absent in the alligator genome. SINEU-2 is the only SINE family that was active after the split of crocodiles and gharials. All SINEU families, especially SINEU-3, are preferentially inserted into a family of Mariner DNA transposon, Mariner-N4_AMi. A group of Tx1 non-long terminal repeat retrotransposons designated Tx1-Mar also show target preference for Mariner-N4_AMi, indicating that SINEU was mobilized by Tx1-Mar. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  17. Phylogenetic relationships among East African haplochromine fish as revealed by short interspersed elements (SINEs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terai, Yohey; Takezaki, Naoko; Mayer, Werner E; Tichy, Herbert; Takahata, Naoyuki; Klein, Jan; Okada, Norihiro

    2004-01-01

    Genomic DNA libraries were prepared from two endemic species of Lake Victoria haplochromine (cichlid) fish and used to isolate and characterize a set of short interspersed elements (SINEs). The distribution and sequences of the SINEs were used to infer phylogenetic relationships among East African haplochromines. The SINE-based classification divides the fish into four groups, which, in order of their divergence from a stem lineage, are the endemic Lake Tanganyika flock (group 1); fish of the nonendemic, monotypic, widely distributed genus Astatoreochromis (group 2); the endemic Lake Malawi flock (group 3); and group 4, which contains fish from widely dispersed East African localities including Lakes Victoria, Edward, George, Albert, and Rukwa, as well as many rivers. The group 4 haplochromines are characterized by a subset of polymorphic SINEs, each of which is present in some individuals and absent in others of the same population at a given locality, the same morphologically defined species, and the same mtDNA-defined haplogroup. SINE-defined group 4 contains six of the seven previously described mtDNA haplogroups. One of the polymorphic SINEs appears to be fixed in the endemic Lake Victoria flock; four others display the presence-or-absence polymorphism within the species of this flock. These findings have implications for the origin of Lake Victoria cichlids and for their founding population sizes.

  18. RNA-Mediated Gene Duplication and Retroposons: Retrogenes, LINEs, SINEs, and Sequence Specificity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    A substantial number of “retrogenes” that are derived from the mRNA of various intron-containing genes have been reported. A class of mammalian retroposons, long interspersed element-1 (LINE1, L1), has been shown to be involved in the reverse transcription of retrogenes (or processed pseudogenes) and non-autonomous short interspersed elements (SINEs). The 3′-end sequences of various SINEs originated from a corresponding LINE. As the 3′-untranslated regions of several LINEs are essential for retroposition, these LINEs presumably require “stringent” recognition of the 3′-end sequence of the RNA template. However, the 3′-ends of mammalian L1s do not exhibit any similarity to SINEs, except for the presence of 3′-poly(A) repeats. Since the 3′-poly(A) repeats of L1 and Alu SINE are critical for their retroposition, L1 probably recognizes the poly(A) repeats, thereby mobilizing not only Alu SINE but also cytosolic mRNA. Many flowering plants only harbor L1-clade LINEs and a significant number of SINEs with poly(A) repeats, but no homology to the LINEs. Moreover, processed pseudogenes have also been found in flowering plants. I propose that the ancestral L1-clade LINE in the common ancestor of green plants may have recognized a specific RNA template, with stringent recognition then becoming relaxed during the course of plant evolution. PMID:23984183

  19. RNA-Mediated Gene Duplication and Retroposons: Retrogenes, LINEs, SINEs, and Sequence Specificity

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    Kazuhiko Ohshima

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A substantial number of “retrogenes” that are derived from the mRNA of various intron-containing genes have been reported. A class of mammalian retroposons, long interspersed element-1 (LINE1, L1, has been shown to be involved in the reverse transcription of retrogenes (or processed pseudogenes and non-autonomous short interspersed elements (SINEs. The -end sequences of various SINEs originated from a corresponding LINE. As the -untranslated regions of several LINEs are essential for retroposition, these LINEs presumably require “stringent” recognition of the -end sequence of the RNA template. However, the -ends of mammalian L1s do not exhibit any similarity to SINEs, except for the presence of -poly(A repeats. Since the -poly(A repeats of L1 and Alu SINE are critical for their retroposition, L1 probably recognizes the poly(A repeats, thereby mobilizing not only Alu SINE but also cytosolic mRNA. Many flowering plants only harbor L1-clade LINEs and a significant number of SINEs with poly(A repeats, but no homology to the LINEs. Moreover, processed pseudogenes have also been found in flowering plants. I propose that the ancestral L1-clade LINE in the common ancestor of green plants may have recognized a specific RNA template, with stringent recognition then becoming relaxed during the course of plant evolution.

  20. Neutrophil Reverse Migration Becomes Transparent with Zebrafish

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    Taylor W. Starnes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The precise control of neutrophil-mediated inflammation is critical for both host defense and the prevention of immunopathology. In vivo imaging studies in zebrafish, and more recently in mice, have made the novel observation that neutrophils leave a site of inflammation through a process called neutrophil reverse migration. The application of advanced imaging techniques to the genetically tractable, optically transparent zebrafish larvae was critical for these advances. Still, the mechanisms underlying neutrophil reverse migration and its effects on the resolution or priming of immune responses remain unclear. Here, we review the current knowledge of neutrophil reverse migration, its potential roles in host immunity, and the live imaging tools that make zebrafish a valuable model for increasing our knowledge of neutrophil behavior in vivo.

  1. [Ambiguity role of neutrophils in oncogenesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mal'tseva, V N; Safronova, V G

    2009-01-01

    The review is focused on the participation of polymorphonuclear granulocytes (neutrophils) in development and spreading of a tumor. We consider both the well known functions of neutrophils (degranulation, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS)) and the recently shown one (presentation of an antigene). The special attention is focused on the ambiguity of the neutrophil role in oncogenesis. The dominant view is that neutrophils display exclusively antitumor properties. The update information testifies about protumoral activity of neutrophils: they migrate to a tumor and promote angiogenesis and metastasis at late stages of the tumor. It is interesting that certain components of neutrophil cytotoxic arsenal (ROS, cytokines, specific enzymes) participate both in antitumoral defenses of an organism and protumoral activity.

  2. Neutrophil Responses to Sterile Implant Materials.

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    Siddharth Jhunjhunwala

    Full Text Available In vivo implantation of sterile materials and devices results in a foreign body immune response leading to fibrosis of implanted material. Neutrophils, one of the first immune cells to be recruited to implantation sites, have been suggested to contribute to the establishment of the inflammatory microenvironment that initiates the fibrotic response. However, the precise numbers and roles of neutrophils in response to implanted devices remains unclear. Using a mouse model of peritoneal microcapsule implantation, we show 30-500 fold increased neutrophil presence in the peritoneal exudates in response to implants. We demonstrate that these neutrophils secrete increased amounts of a variety of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Further, we observe that they participate in the foreign body response through the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs on implant surfaces. Our results provide new insight into neutrophil function during a foreign body response to peritoneal implants which has implications for the development of biologically compatible medical devices.

  3. Genome-wide mapping of infection-induced SINE RNAs reveals a role in selective mRNA export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karijolich, John; Zhao, Yang; Alla, Ravi; Glaunsinger, Britt

    2017-06-02

    Short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs) are retrotransposons evolutionarily derived from endogenous RNA Polymerase III RNAs. Though SINE elements have undergone exaptation into gene regulatory elements, how transcribed SINE RNA impacts transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation is largely unknown. This is partly due to a lack of information regarding which of the loci have transcriptional potential. Here, we present an approach (short interspersed nuclear element sequencing, SINE-seq), which selectively profiles RNA Polymerase III-derived SINE RNA, thereby identifying transcriptionally active SINE loci. Applying SINE-seq to monitor murine B2 SINE expression during a gammaherpesvirus infection revealed transcription from 28 270 SINE loci, with ∼50% of active SINE elements residing within annotated RNA Polymerase II loci. Furthermore, B2 RNA can form intermolecular RNA-RNA interactions with complementary mRNAs, leading to nuclear retention of the targeted mRNA via a mechanism involving p54nrb. These findings illuminate a pathway for the selective regulation of mRNA export during stress via retrotransposon activation. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  4. Cryptococcus Neoformans Modulates Extracellular Killing by Neutrophils

    OpenAIRE

    Qureshi, Asfia; Grey, Angus; Rose, Kristie L; Schey, Kevin L.; Del Poeta, Maurizio

    2011-01-01

    We recently established a key role for host sphingomyelin synthase (SMS) in regulating the killing activity of neutrophils against Cryptococcus neoformans. In this paper, we studied the effect of C. neoformans on the killing activity of neutrophils and whether SMS would still be a player against C. neoformans in immunocompromised mice lacking T and natural killer (NK) cells (Tgε26 mice). To this end, we analyzed whether C. neoformans would have any effect on neutrophil survival and killing in...

  5. Bordetella parapertussis Circumvents Neutrophil Extracellular Bactericidal Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorgojo, Juan; Scharrig, Emilia; Gómez, Ricardo M.; Harvill, Eric T.; Rodríguez, Maria Eugenia

    2017-01-01

    B. parapertussis is a whooping cough etiological agent with the ability to evade the immune response induced by pertussis vaccines. We previously demonstrated that in the absence of opsonic antibodies B. parapertussis hampers phagocytosis by neutrophils and macrophages and, when phagocytosed, blocks intracellular killing by interfering with phagolysosomal fusion. But neutrophils can kill and/or immobilize extracellular bacteria through non-phagocytic mechanisms such as degranulation and neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). In this study we demonstrated that B. parapertussis also has the ability to circumvent these two neutrophil extracellular bactericidal activities. The lack of neutrophil degranulation was found dependent on the O antigen that targets the bacteria to cell lipid rafts, eventually avoiding the fusion of nascent phagosomes with specific and azurophilic granules. IgG opsonization overcame this inhibition of neutrophil degranulation. We further observed that B. parapertussis did not induce NETs release in resting neutrophils and inhibited NETs formation in response to phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) stimulation by a mechanism dependent on adenylate cyclase toxin (CyaA)-mediated inhibition of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Thus, B. parapertussis modulates neutrophil bactericidal activity through two different mechanisms, one related to the lack of proper NETs-inducer stimuli and the other one related to an active inhibitory mechanism. Together with previous results these data suggest that B. parapertussis has the ability to subvert the main neutrophil bactericidal functions, inhibiting efficient clearance in non-immune hosts. PMID:28095485

  6. Fungal and bacterial killing by neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermert, David; Zychlinsky, Arturo; Urban, Constantin

    2009-01-01

    Neutrophils are professional phagocytes of the innate immune system that are essential to control bacterial and fungal infections. These cells engulf and kill invading microbes. Additionally, activated neutrophils are able to release neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). These fibers consist of chromatin decorated with antimicrobial proteins to trap and kill microbes. Appropriate quantitative methods are required to understand the nature of interactions of neutrophils with pathogens. Here we present assays to measure killing mediated by phagocytosis, by NETs, by a combination of both, and by granular extract. As examples, we use Candida albicans for fungal and Shigella flexneri for bacterial pathogens.

  7. CFTR targeting during activation of human neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Hang Pong; Valentine, Vincent G; Wang, Guoshun

    2016-12-01

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), a cAMP-activated chloride channel, plays critical roles in phagocytic host defense. However, how activated neutrophils regulate CFTR channel distribution subcellularly is not well defined. To investigate, we tested multiple Abs against different CFTR domains, to examine CFTR expression in human peripheral blood neutrophils by flow cytometry. The data confirmed that resting neutrophils had pronounced CFTR expression. Activation of neutrophils with soluble or particulate agonists did not significantly increase CFTR expression level, but induced CFTR redistribution to cell surface. Such CFTR mobilization correlated with cell-surface recruitment of formyl-peptide receptor during secretory vesicle exocytosis. Intriguingly, neutrophils from patients with ΔF508-CF, despite expression of the mutant CFTR, showed little cell-surface mobilization upon stimulation. Although normal neutrophils effectively targeted CFTR to their phagosomes, ΔF508-CF neutrophils had impairment in that process, resulting in deficient hypochlorous acid production. Taken together, activated neutrophils regulate CFTR distribution by targeting this chloride channel to the subcellular sites of activation, and ΔF508-CF neutrophils fail to achieve such targeting, thus undermining their host defense function.

  8. Elevated mean neutrophil volume represents altered neutrophil composition and reflects damage after myocardial infarction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hout, G. P J; van Solinge, W. W.; Gijsberts, C. M.; Teuben, M. P J; Leliefeld, P. H C; Heeres, M.; Nijhoff, F.; de Jong, S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/341696706; Bosch, L.; de Jager, S. C A; Huisman, A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/255170653; Stella, P. R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304814717; Pasterkamp, G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/138488304; Koenderman, L. J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074929798; Hoefer, I. E.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/267105649

    2015-01-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) induces an inflammatory response in which neutrophils fulfill a prominent role. Mean neutrophil volume (MNV) represents the average size of the circulating neutrophil population. Our goal was to determine the effect of MI on MNV and investigate the mechanisms behind MNV

  9. Neonatal Sepsis and Neutrophil Insufficiencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvan, John Nicholas; Bagby, Gregory J.; Welsh, David A.; Nelson, Steve; Zhang, Ping

    2011-01-01

    Sepsis has continuously been a leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality despite current advances in chemotherapy and patient intensive care facilities. Neonates are at high risk for developing bacterial infections due to quantitative and qualitative insufficiencies of innate immunity, particularly granulocyte lineage development and response to infection. Although antibiotics remain the mainstay of treatment, adjuvant therapies enhancing immune function have shown promise in treating sepsis in neonates. This chapter reviews current strategies for the clinical management of neonatal sepsis and analyzes mechanisms underlying insufficiencies of neutrophil defense in neonates with emphasis on new directions for adjuvant therapy development. PMID:20521927

  10. Modulation of polymorphonuclear neutrophil functions by astrocytes

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    Xie Luokun

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neuroinflammation is a complex process involving cells from the immune system and the central nerve system (CNS. Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN are the most abundant class of white blood cells, and typically the first type of leukocyte recruited to sites of inflammation. In the CNS, astrocytes are the most abundant glial cell population and participate in the local innate immune response triggered by a variety of insults. In the present study, we investigated the impacts of astrocytes on PMN function. Methods Primary astrocyte cultures were derived from postnatal C57BL/6 mice and primary neutrophils were isolated from 8 to 12 weeks old C57BL/6 mice. PMNs respiratory burst was analyzed by H2DCFDA assay. For phagocytosis assay, neutrophils were incubated with FITC-labeled E. coli and the phagocytosis of E coli was determined by flow cytometer. PMNs degranulation was determined by myeloperoxidase assay. Cytokine expression was determined by real-time PCR. To determine the involvement of different signaling pathway, protein lysates were prepared and western blots were conducted to assess the activation of Akt, Erk1/2, and p38. Results Using ex vivo neutrophils and primary astrocyte cultures, our study demonstrated that astrocytes differentially regulate neutrophil functions, depending upon whether the interactions between the two cell types are direct or indirect. Upon direct cell-cell contact, astrocytes attenuate neutrophil apoptosis, respiratory bust, and degranulation, while enhancing neutrophil phagocytic capability and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression. Through indirect interaction with neutrophils, astrocytes attenuate apoptosis and enhance necrosis in neutrophils, augment neutrophil phagocytosis and respiratory burst, and inhibit neutrophil degranulation. In addition, astrocytes could augment Akt, Erk1/2, and p38 activation in neutrophils. Conclusions Astrocytes differentially regulate neutrophil functions through

  11. Nullum Crimen sine Lege in the International Criminal Court

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    Venus GHAREH BAGHI

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The Principles of legality in crimes and punishments refer to the fact that an act is not considered a crime and deserves no punishment, until the legislator determines and announces thecriminal title and its penalty. In Iranian legal system, before the Islamic Revolution and also after it, the Constitution and ordinary laws have explicitly emphasized the observance of the mentionedprinciple. When there is no text or in the case of the silence or lack of law, the criminal judge is bound to issue the verdict of innocence. According to the Rome statute the court shall exercisejurisdiction over the crime of aggressions once a provision is adopted. And, according to the article 121 and 123 defending the crime and setting out, the condition under which the Court shall exercise jurisdiction with respect to crimes such as provision shall be consisted of the head of the general principle the relevant provision of the charter of the United Nations. The principle of legality is set out in article 22 to 24 of the ICC statute. These norms are derived from the customary law and the national law. Article 15, International Covenant on Civil and Political rights, states that no one shall be found guilty of any criminal offence based on an act or omission which did not constitute a criminal offence under national or international laws at the time when it was committed. Yet, in the context of prosecuting mass atrocities, genocide, crimes against humanity, and war crimes, international criminal law appears to be resigned to such a principle, if not openly including it. fact, that it may be considered the poor cousin of nullum crimen sine lege (no crime without law which has attracted far greater consideration in scholarship and jurisprudence.

  12. Neutrophil-induced injury of rat pulmonary alveolar epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, R H; DeHart, P D; Todd, R F

    1986-11-01

    The damage to pulmonary alveolar epithelial cells that occurs in many inflammatory conditions is thought to be caused in part by phagocytic neutrophils. To investigate this process, we exposed monolayers of purified rat alveolar epithelial cells to stimulated human neutrophils and measured cytotoxicity using a 51Cr-release assay. We found that stimulated neutrophils killed epithelial cells by a process that did not require neutrophil-generated reactive oxygen metabolites. Pretreatment of neutrophils with an antibody (anti-Mo1) that reduced neutrophil adherence to epithelial cells limited killing. Although a variety of serine protease inhibitors partially inhibited cytotoxicity, we found that neutrophil cytoplasts, neutrophil lysates, neutrophil-conditioned medium, purified azurophilic or specific granule contents, and purified human neutrophil elastase did not duplicate the injury. We conclude that stimulated neutrophils can kill alveolar epithelial cells in an oxygen metabolite-independent manner. Tight adherence of stimulated neutrophils to epithelial cell monolayers appears to promote epithelial cell killing.

  13. Neutrophils are immuno-modulatory in rhinovirus infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, Francesca; Hansbro, Philip; Burgess, Janette; Baines, Katherine; Oliver, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Background: Neutrophils are important in controlling bacterial infections however; their role in viral infections remains unclear. Previously, we found that neutrophils respond to viral mimetics but not replication competent rhinovirus (RV). Aim: To investigate if neutrophils are activated when expo

  14. Neutrophils are immuno-modulatory in rhinovirus infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, Francesca; Hansbro, Philip; Burgess, Janette; Baines, Katherine; Oliver, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Background: Neutrophils are important in controlling bacterial infections however; their role in viral infections remains unclear. Previously, we found that neutrophils respond to viral mimetics but not replication competent rhinovirus (RV). Aim: To investigate if neutrophils are activated when

  15. Analyses of carnivore microsatellites and their intimate association with tRNA-derived SINEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bosch Montserrat

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The popularity of microsatellites has greatly increased in the last decade on account of their many applications. However, little is currently understood about the factors that influence their genesis and distribution among and within species genomes. In this work, we analyzed carnivore microsatellite clones from GenBank to study their association with interspersed repeats and elucidate the role of the latter in microsatellite genesis and distribution. Results We constructed a comprehensive carnivore microsatellite database comprising 1236 clones from GenBank. Thirty-three species of 11 out of 12 carnivore families were represented, although two distantly related species, the domestic dog and cat, were clearly overrepresented. Of these clones, 330 contained tRNALys-derived SINEs and 357 contained other interspersed repeats. Our rough estimates of tRNA SINE copies per haploid genome were much higher than published ones. Our results also revealed a distinct juxtaposition of AG and A-rich repeats and tRNALys-derived SINEs suggesting their coevolution. Both microsatellites arose repeatedly in two regions of the insterspersed repeat. Moreover, microsatellites associated with tRNALys-derived SINEs showed the highest complexity and less potential instability. Conclusion Our results suggest that tRNALys-derived SINEs are a significant source for microsatellite generation in carnivores, especially for AG and A-rich repeat motifs. These observations indicate two modes of microsatellite generation: the expansion and variation of pre-existing tandem repeats and the conversion of sequences with high cryptic simplicity into a repeat array; mechanisms which are not specific to tRNALys-derived SINEs. Microsatellite and interspersed repeat coevolution could also explain different distribution of repeat types among and within species genomes. Finally, due to their higher complexity and lower potential informative content of microsatellites

  16. Analyses of carnivore microsatellites and their intimate association with tRNA-derived SINEs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Giráldez, Francesc; Andrés, Olga; Domingo-Roura, Xavier; Bosch, Montserrat

    2006-10-23

    The popularity of microsatellites has greatly increased in the last decade on account of their many applications. However, little is currently understood about the factors that influence their genesis and distribution among and within species genomes. In this work, we analyzed carnivore microsatellite clones from GenBank to study their association with interspersed repeats and elucidate the role of the latter in microsatellite genesis and distribution. We constructed a comprehensive carnivore microsatellite database comprising 1236 clones from GenBank. Thirty-three species of 11 out of 12 carnivore families were represented, although two distantly related species, the domestic dog and cat, were clearly overrepresented. Of these clones, 330 contained tRNALys-derived SINEs and 357 contained other interspersed repeats. Our rough estimates of tRNA SINE copies per haploid genome were much higher than published ones. Our results also revealed a distinct juxtaposition of AG and A-rich repeats and tRNALys-derived SINEs suggesting their coevolution. Both microsatellites arose repeatedly in two regions of the interspersed repeat. Moreover, microsatellites associated with tRNALys-derived SINEs showed the highest complexity and less potential instability. Our results suggest that tRNALys-derived SINEs are a significant source for microsatellite generation in carnivores, especially for AG and A-rich repeat motifs. These observations indicate two modes of microsatellite generation: the expansion and variation of pre-existing tandem repeats and the conversion of sequences with high cryptic simplicity into a repeat array; mechanisms which are not specific to tRNALys-derived SINEs. Microsatellite and interspersed repeat coevolution could also explain different distribution of repeat types among and within species genomes.Finally, due to their higher complexity and lower potential informative content of microsatellites associated with tRNALys-derived SINEs, we recommend avoiding

  17. Short interspersed elements (SINEs) of squamate reptiles (Squam1 and Squam2): structure and phylogenetic significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grechko, Vernata V; Kosushkin, Sergei A; Borodulina, Olga R; Butaeva, Fatima G; Darevsky, Ilya S

    2011-05-15

    Short interspersed elements (SINEs) are important nuclear molecular markers of the evolution of many eukaryotes. However, the SINEs of squamate reptile genomes have been little studied. We first identified two families of SINEs, termed Squam1 and Squam2, in the DNA of meadow lizard Darevskia praticola (Lacertidae) by performing DNA hybridization and PCR. Later, the same families of retrotransposons were found using the same methods in members of another 25 lizard families (from Iguania, Scincomorpha, Gekkota, Varanoidea, and Diploglossa infraorders) and two snake families, but their abundances in these taxa varied greatly. Both SINEs were Squamata-specific and were absent from mammals, birds, crocodiles, turtles, amphibians, and fish. Squam1 possessed some characteristics common to tRNA-related SINEs from fish and mammals, while Squam2 belonged to the tRNA(Ala) group of SINEs and had a more unusual and divergent structure. Squam2-related sequences were found in several unannotated GenBank sequences of squamate reptiles. Squam1 abundance in the Polychrotidae, Agamidae, Leiolepididae, Chamaeleonidae, Scincidae, Lacertidae, Gekkonidae, Varanidae, Helodermatidae, and two snake families were 10(2) -10(4) times higher than those in other taxa (Corytophanidae, Iguanidae, Anguidae, Cordylidae, Gerrhosauridae, Pygopodidae, and Eublepharidae). A less dramatic degree of copy number variation was observed for Squam2 in different taxa. Several Squam1 copies from Lacertidae, Chamaeleonidae, Gekkonidae, Varanidae, and Colubridae were sequenced and found to have evident orthologous features, as well as taxa-specific autapomorphies. Squam1 from Lacertidae and Chamaeleonidae could be divided into several subgroups based on sequence differences. Possible applications of these SINEs as Squamata phylogeny markers are discussed. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  18. Neutrophils: potential therapeutic targets in tularemia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee-Ann H Allen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The central role of neutrophils in innate immunity and host defense has long been recognized, and the ability of these cells to efficiently engulf and kill invading bacteria has been extensively studied, as has the role of neutrophil apoptosis in resolution of the inflammatory response. In the past few years additional immunoregulatory properties of neutrophils were discovered, and it is now clear that these cells play a much greater role in control of the immune response than was previously appreciated. In this regard, it is noteworthy that Francisella tularensis is one of relatively few pathogens that can successfully parasitize neutrophils as well as macrophages, DC and epithelial cells. Herein we will review the mechanisms used by F. tularensis to evade elimination by neutrophils. We will also reprise effects of this pathogen on neutrophil migration and lifespan as compared with other infectious and inflammatory disease states. In addition, we will discuss the evidence which suggests that neutrophils contribute to disease progression rather than effective defense during tularemia, and consider whether manipulation of neutrophil migration or turnover may be suitable adjunctive therapeutic strategies.

  19. Proteases, neutrophils, and periodontitis: the NET effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauseef, William M

    2014-10-01

    Neutrophils exert potent antimicrobial activities in their role as first-line cellular defenders against infection. The synergistic and collective actions of oxidants and granule proteins, including serine proteases, support the microbial killing in phagosomes, where most neutrophil-mediated antimicrobial action occurs. In addition to phagocytosis, specific stimuli prompt neutrophils to extrude a matrix of DNA, histones, and granule proteins to produce neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), which can trap microbes. Mice lacking the serine proteases necessary for NET production are more susceptible to infection, an observation suggesting that functional NETs are required for host protection. In this issue of the JCI, Sørensen and colleagues characterize neutrophils from a patient with Papillon-Lefèvre syndrome. The patient has an inactivating mutation in the gene encoding dipeptidyl peptidase I, resulting in neutrophils lacking elastase, a serine protease required for NET production. Despite the inability to form NETS, neutrophils from this patient killed pathogens in vitro, and the patient did not exhibit evidence of an increased propensity toward bacterial infections. Together, these results suggest that proteases in human neutrophils are dispensable for protection against bacterial infection and that the ability to generate NETs in vitro does not compromise host defense.

  20. Neutrophil granules in health and disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Häger, M; Cowland, J B; Borregaard, N

    2010-01-01

    Neutrophil granules store proteins that are critically important for the neutrophil to move from the vascular bed to tissues and to kill microorganisms. This is illustrated in nature when individual proteins are deleted due to inherited mutations of their cognate genes, and such deficiencies resu...

  1. Transcriptome-wide effects of inverted SINEs on gene expression and their impact on RNA polymerase II activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajaddod, Mansoureh; Tanzer, Andrea; Licht, Konstantin; Wolfinger, Michael T; Badelt, Stefan; Huber, Florian; Pusch, Oliver; Schopoff, Sandy; Janisiw, Michael; Hofacker, Ivo; Jantsch, Michael F

    2016-10-25

    Short interspersed elements (SINEs) represent the most abundant group of non-long-terminal repeat transposable elements in mammalian genomes. In primates, Alu elements are the most prominent and homogenous representatives of SINEs. Due to their frequent insertion within or close to coding regions, SINEs have been suggested to play a crucial role during genome evolution. Moreover, Alu elements within mRNAs have also been reported to control gene expression at different levels. Here, we undertake a genome-wide analysis of insertion patterns of human Alus within transcribed portions of the genome. Multiple, nearby insertions of SINEs within one transcript are more abundant in tandem orientation than in inverted orientation. Indeed, analysis of transcriptome-wide expression levels of 15 ENCODE cell lines suggests a cis-repressive effect of inverted Alu elements on gene expression. Using reporter assays, we show that the negative effect of inverted SINEs on gene expression is independent of known sensors of double-stranded RNAs. Instead, transcriptional elongation seems impaired, leading to reduced mRNA levels. Our study suggests that there is a bias against multiple SINE insertions that can promote intramolecular base pairing within a transcript. Moreover, at a genome-wide level, mRNAs harboring inverted SINEs are less expressed than mRNAs harboring single or tandemly arranged SINEs. Finally, we demonstrate a novel mechanism by which inverted SINEs can impact on gene expression by interfering with RNA polymerase II.

  2. The Clinical Significance of Increased Serum Proinflammatory Cytokines, C-Reactive Protein, and Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate in Patients with Hidradenitis Suppurativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Jiménez-Gallo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To assess inflammatory serum markers including serum proinflammatory cytokines, C-reactive protein (CRP, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR according to the clinical inflammatory activity of patients with hidradenitis suppurativa (HS. Patients and Methods. Seventy-four patients with HS were studied based on the Hidradenitis Suppurativa-Physician Global Assessment (HS-PGA score and Hurley staging system. Proinflammatory cytokines were measured using a multiplex cytokine assay. Twenty-two healthy volunteers were recruited. Results. Serum interleukin- (IL- 6, IL-23, soluble tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α receptor I (sTNF-RI, CRP, and ESR were different in the patients with HS compared with those in the healthy controls (P0.25, P<0.05. The levels of IL-6 (r=0.53, P<0.001, CRP (r=0.54, P<0.001, and ESR (r=0.60, P<0.001 were especially well correlated with clinical inflammatory activity based on HS-PGA scores. The levels of IL-6, IL-8, sTNF-RI, sTNF-RII, CRP, and ESR were significantly elevated according to Hurley staging system. Conclusions. Serum proinflammatory cytokines, CRP, and ESR are increased in relation to the clinical inflammatory activity of patients with HS compared with healthy controls. Serum IL-6, CRP, and ESR are effective biomarkers for evaluating the severity of HS.

  3. Evasion of Neutrophil Killing by Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Will A. McGuinness

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus causes many types of infections, ranging from self-resolving skin infections to severe or fatal pneumonia. Human innate immune cells, called polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs or neutrophils, are essential for defense against S. aureus infections. Neutrophils are the most prominent cell type of the innate immune system and are capable of producing non-specific antimicrobial molecules that are effective at eliminating bacteria. Although significant progress has been made over the past few decades, our knowledge of S. aureus-host innate immune system interactions is incomplete. Most notably, S. aureus has the capacity to produce numerous molecules that are directed to protect the bacterium from neutrophils. Here we review in brief the role played by neutrophils in defense against S. aureus infection, and correspondingly, highlight selected S. aureus molecules that target key neutrophil functions.

  4. 3D Neutrophil Tractions in Changing Microenvironments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyjanova, Jennet; Flores, Estefany; Reichner, Jonathan; Franck, Christian

    2012-02-01

    Neutrophils are well-known as first responders to defend the body against life threatening bacterial diseases, infections and inflammation. The mechanical properties and the local topography of the surrounding microenvironment play a significant role in the regulating neutrophil behavior including cell adhesion, migration and generation of tractions. In navigating to the site of infection, neutrophils are exposed to changing microenvironments that differ in their composition, structure and mechanical properties. Our goal is to investigate neutrophil behavior, specifically migration and cellular tractions in a well-controlled 3D in vitro system. By utilizing an interchangeable 2D-3D sandwich gel structure system with tunable mechanical properties neutrophil migration and cell tractions can be computed as a function of gel stiffness and geometric dimensionality.

  5. Contribution of neutrophils to acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grommes, Jochen; Soehnlein, Oliver

    2011-01-01

    Treatment of acute lung injury (ALI) and its most severe form, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), remain unsolved problems of intensive care medicine. ALI/ARDS are characterized by lung edema due to increased permeability of the alveolar-capillary barrier and subsequent impairment of arterial oxygenation. Lung edema, endothelial and epithelial injury are accompanied by an influx of neutrophils into the interstitium and broncheoalveolar space. Hence, activation and recruitment of neutrophils are regarded to play a key role in progression of ALI/ARDS. Neutrophils are the first cells to be recruited to the site of inflammation and have a potent antimicrobial armour that includes oxidants, proteinases and cationic peptides. Under pathological circumstances, however, unregulated release of these microbicidal compounds into the extracellular space paradoxically can damage host tissues. This review focuses on the mechanisms of neutrophil recruitment into the lung and on the contribution of neutrophils to tissue damage in ALI.

  6. Topical 5-aminolevulinic acid photodynamic therapy improved refractory acne conglobata and perifolliculitis capitis abscedens et suffodiens rather than hidradenitis suppurativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linglin Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acne conglobata (AC, perifolliculitis capitis abscedens et suffodiens (PCAS and hidradenitis suppurativa (HS are uncommon refractory chronic, inflammatory, scarring diseases but cause serious damage to the quality of life. These three diseases are associated with follicular occlusion. Several studies indicated topical 5-aminolevulinic acid photodynamic therapy (ALA-PDT improved follicular occlusion besides acne treatment. So we attempted to apply ALA-PDT to medicine resistant AC, PCAS and HS. Topical ALA-PDT was applied to 10 patients with AC, seven patients with PCAS and three patients with HS for more than three sessions. All the patients completed the dermatology life quality index (DLQI questionnaire and were assessed for the efficacy at the baseline and on two weeks after each treatment. Adverse effects were recorded at each visit. The results showed 25.5% (5/20, two cases of AC and three cases of PCAS of patients achieved excellent improvement after three sessions of PDT and another 60.0% (12/20, eight cases of AC and four cases of PCAS of patients achieved good improvement. 15.0% (3/20, three cases of HS got poor response (< 20% lesions clearance. Another five cases (three cases of AC and two cases of PCAS also achieved excellent response after 5–7 sessions of PDT. We also found that papular/nodular, cyst/abscess showed higher clearance rate than sinus/fistula (88.5%, 86.1% versus 11.1%. DLQI was reduced after three sessions of PDT in AC and PCAS patients rather than HS patients. 5-ALA-PDT could improve refractory AC and PCAS but could not lead to improvement in late stage of HS. The efficacy increased with more treatment sessions.

  7. A prospective randomized controlled trial assessing the efficacy of adjunctive hyperbaric oxygen therapy in the treatment of hidradenitis suppurativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Hamza; Senol, Levent; Ercan, Erdinc; Bilgili, Memet Ersan; Karabudak Abuaf, Ozlem

    2016-02-01

    Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) appears to enhance wound healing, increase bactericidal activity, and act synergistically with a number of antibiotics. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of HBOT as an adjunctive therapy in patients with hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) treated with a combination of systemic rifampicin and clindamycin. The study was a prospective, single-center, single-dose, open-label, randomized controlled clinical study of HBOT in patients with moderate to severe HS. Efficacy was measured by modified Sartorius score (SS), HS Severity Index (HSSI), Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI), and a visual analog scale (VAS) before treatment and after the completion of 4 and 10 weeks of treatment. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were also measured. Forty-three patients were enrolled in the study. More patients in the HBOT than in the control group showed a decrease of ≥50% from baseline parameters at week 10 for SS (100%), HSSI (100%), DLQI (95.5%), VAS (100%), ESR (100%), and CRP (72.7%). Clinically and statistically significant improvements from baseline were observed at 4 and 10 weeks in HSSI (P = 0.009 at both), SS (P = 0.021 at both), and DLQI (P = 0.044 at week 4, P = 0.009 at week 10). Adjunctive HBOT was considered to be effective in significantly improving antibiotic treatment of HS. The treatment was well tolerated, and no unexpected safety issues were identified.

  8. Topical treatments of skin pain: a general review with a focus on hidradenitis suppurativa with topical agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheinfeld, Noah

    2014-07-15

    Hidradenitis Supprurativa (HS) is a painful chronic follicular disease. Few papers have addressed pain control for this debilitating condition. Possible topical agents include tricyclic antidepressants, opioids, anticonvulsants, NSAIDs, NMDA receptor antagonists, local anesthetics and other agents. The first line agents for the topical treatment of the cutaneous pain of HS are diclonefac gel 1% and liposomal xylocaine 4% and 5% cream or 5% ointment. The chief advantage of topical xylocaine is that is quick acting i.e. immediate however with a limited duration of effect 1-2 hours. The use of topical ketamine, which blocks n-methyl-D-aspartate receptors in a non-competitive fashion, might be a useful tool for the treatment of HS pain. Topical doxepin, which available in a 5% commercially preparation (Zonalon®) , makes patients drowsy and is not useful for controlling the pain of HS . Doxepin is available in a 3% or 3.3% concentration (which causes less drowsiness) from compounding pharmacies and can be used in compounded analgesic preparations with positive effect. Topical doxepin is preferred over use of topical amitriptyline because topical doxepin is more effective. Nevertheless, topical amitriptyline increase of the tactile and mechanical nociceptive thresholds and can be used for topical pain control in compound mixture of analgesics . Gabapentin and pregablin can also be used compounded with other agents in topical analgesic preparations with positive topical anesthetic effect. Capsaicin is not useful for topical treatment of the pain of HS. Sometimes compounded of anesthetics medications such as ketamine 10%, bupivacaine 1%, diclofenac 3%, doxepin 3% or 3.3%, and gabapentin 6% can extend the duration of effect so that medication only needs to be used 2 or 3 times a day. Still in my experience the easiest to get and most patient requested agent is topical diclonefac 1% gel.

  9. Utility of transperineal and anal ultrasonography in the diagnostics of hidradenitis suppurativa and its differentiation from a rectal fistula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kołodziejczak, Małgorzata; Sudoł-Szopińska, Iwona; Wilczyńska, Aleksandra; Bierca, Jacek

    2012-11-14

    The pathogenesis of hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is not fully understood. There exist several theories, in which mechanical factors, genetic factors, as well as immunological dysfunction of lymphocytes are suspected. Clinically, this entity is frequently mistaken for anal fistula with consequently wrong treatment. We aim to determine the utility of transperineal ultrasound (TPUS) and anal ultrasound (AUS) in the diagnosis of HS and its differentiation from an anal fistula. Retrospective analysis was performed on 51 patients (5 females, 46 males) aged 20-71 years (mean age 47.5), who were operated on in the years 2006-2011 for HS in the area of the anus and perineum, and pre-operatively had been imaged with TPUS and AUS. Sixty-seven operations were analyzed, as 11 patients were operated on more than once due to HS recurrence. In 66 out of 67 cases (98.5%), the pre-operative TPUS and AUS were in accordance with the intraoperative findings. Only in 1 patient was a pilonidal cyst diagnosed intraoperatively. In all 67 patients, the TPUS showed typical fluid-solid changes localized in the subcutaneous adipose tissue. In 6 out of 67 cases of HS (8.9%) AUS showed an anal fistula coexisting with the HS. In 2 cases (2.9%) a skin malignancy coexisting with HS was found. TPUS is an accessible imaging method, which confirms the typical localization of changes of HS, and together with AUS it allows for the proper differentiation of HS from an anal fistula or an abscess.

  10. Dynamic interactions of neutrophils and biofilms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefine Hirschfeld

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The majority of microbial infections in humans are biofilm-associated and difficult to treat, as biofilms are highly resistant to antimicrobial agents and protect themselves from external threats in various ways. Biofilms are tenaciously attached to surfaces and impede the ability of host defense molecules and cells to penetrate them. On the other hand, some biofilms are beneficial for the host and contain protective microorganisms. Microbes in biofilms express pathogen-associated molecular patterns and epitopes that can be recognized by innate immune cells and opsonins, leading to activation of neutrophils and other leukocytes. Neutrophils are part of the first line of defense and have multiple antimicrobial strategies allowing them to attack pathogenic biofilms. Objective/design: In this paper, interaction modes of neutrophils with biofilms are reviewed. Antimicrobial strategies of neutrophils and the counteractions of the biofilm communities, with special attention to oral biofilms, are presented. Moreover, possible adverse effects of neutrophil activity and their biofilm-promoting side effects are discussed. Results/conclusion: Biofilms are partially, but not entirely, protected against neutrophil assault, which include the processes of phagocytosis, degranulation, and formation of neutrophil extracellular traps. However, virulence factors of microorganisms, microbial composition, and properties of the extracellular matrix determine whether a biofilm and subsequent microbial spread can be controlled by neutrophils and other host defense factors. Besides, neutrophils may inadvertently contribute to the physical and ecological stability of biofilms by promoting selection of more resistant strains. Moreover, neutrophil enzymes can degrade collagen and other proteins and, as a result, cause harm to the host tissues. These parameters could be crucial factors in the onset of periodontal inflammation and the subsequent tissue breakdown.

  11. CORE-SINEs: eukaryotic short interspersed retroposing elements with common sequence motifs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, N; Labuda, D

    1999-03-16

    A 65-bp "core" sequence is dispersed in hundreds of thousands copies in the human genome. This sequence was found to constitute the central segment of a group of short interspersed elements (SINEs), referred to as mammalian-wide interspersed repeats, that proliferated before the radiation of placental mammals. Here, we propose that the core identifies an ancient tRNA-like SINE element, which survived in different lineages such as mammals, reptiles, birds, and fish, as well as mollusks, presumably for >550 million years. This element gave rise to a number of sequence families (CORE-SINEs), including mammalian-wide interspersed repeats, whose distinct 3' ends are shared with different families of long interspersed elements (LINEs). The evolutionary success of the generic CORE-SINE element can be related to the recruitment of the internal promoter from highly transcribed host RNA as well as to its capacity to adapt to changing retropositional opportunities by sequence exchange with actively amplifying LINEs. It reinforces the notion that the very existence of SINEs depends on the cohabitation with both LINEs and the host genome.

  12. BoS: a large and diverse family of short interspersed elements (SINEs) in Brassica oleracea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoyu; Wessler, Susan R

    2005-05-01

    Short interspersed elements (SINEs) are nonautonomous non-LTR retrotransposons that populate eukaryotic genomes. Numerous SINE families have been identified in animals, whereas only a few have been described in plants. Here we describe a new family of SINEs, named BoS, that is widespread in Brassicaceae and present at approximately 2000 copies in Brassica oleracea. In addition to sharing a modular structure and target site preference with previously described SINEs, BoS elements have several unusual features. First, the head regions of BoS RNAs can adopt a distinct hairpin-like secondary structure. Second, with 15 distinct subfamilies, BoS represents one of the most diverse SINE families described to date. Third, several of the subfamilies have a mosaic structure that has arisen through the exchange of sequences between existing subfamilies, possibly during retrotransposition. Analysis of BoS subfamilies indicate that they were active during various time periods through the evolution of Brassicaceae and that active elements may still reside in some Brassica species. As such, BoS elements may be a valuable tool as phylogenetic makers for resolving outstanding issues in the evolution of species in the Brassicaceae family.

  13. Eyeless initiates the expression of both sine oculis and eyes absent during Drosophila compound eye development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halder, G; Callaerts, P; Flister, S; Walldorf, U; Kloter, U; Gehring, W J

    1998-06-01

    The Drosophila Pax-6 gene eyeless acts high up in the genetic hierarchy involved in compound eye development and can direct the formation of extra eyes in ectopic locations. Here we identify sine oculis and eyes absent as two mediators of the eye-inducing activity of eyeless. We show that eyeless induces and requires the expression of both genes independently during extra eye development. During normal eye development, eyeless is expressed earlier than and is required for the expression of sine oculis and eyes absent, but not vice versa. Based on the results presented here and those of others, we propose a model in which eyeless induces the initial expression of both sine oculis and eyes absent in the eye disc. sine oculis and eyes absent then appear to participate in a positive feedback loop that regulates the expression of all three genes. In contrast to the regulatory interactions that occur in the developing eye disc, we also show that in the embryonic head, sine oculis acts in parallel to eyeless and twin of eyeless, a second Pax-6 gene from Drosophila. Recent studies in vertebrate systems indicate that the epistatic relationships among the corresponding vertebrate homologs are very similar to those observed in Drosophila.

  14. Neutrophil Extracellular Traps and Microcrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Neutrophil extracellular traps represent a fascinating mechanism by which PMNs entrap extracellular microbes. The primary purpose of this innate immune mechanism is thought to localize the infection at an early stage. Interestingly, the ability of different microcrystals to induce NET formation has been recently described. Microcrystals are insoluble crystals with a size of 1–100 micrometers that have different composition and shape. Microcrystals have it in common that they irritate phagocytes including PMNs and typically trigger an inflammatory response. This review is the first to summarize observations with regard to PMN activation and NET release induced by microcrystals. Gout-causing monosodium urate crystals, pseudogout-causing calcium pyrophosphate dehydrate crystals, cholesterol crystals associated with atherosclerosis, silicosis-causing silica crystals, and adjuvant alum crystals are discussed. PMID:28373994

  15. Neutrophil Extracellular Traps and Microcrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rada, Balázs

    2017-01-01

    Neutrophil extracellular traps represent a fascinating mechanism by which PMNs entrap extracellular microbes. The primary purpose of this innate immune mechanism is thought to localize the infection at an early stage. Interestingly, the ability of different microcrystals to induce NET formation has been recently described. Microcrystals are insoluble crystals with a size of 1-100 micrometers that have different composition and shape. Microcrystals have it in common that they irritate phagocytes including PMNs and typically trigger an inflammatory response. This review is the first to summarize observations with regard to PMN activation and NET release induced by microcrystals. Gout-causing monosodium urate crystals, pseudogout-causing calcium pyrophosphate dehydrate crystals, cholesterol crystals associated with atherosclerosis, silicosis-causing silica crystals, and adjuvant alum crystals are discussed.

  16. Neutrophil Extracellular Traps and Microcrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balázs Rada

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Neutrophil extracellular traps represent a fascinating mechanism by which PMNs entrap extracellular microbes. The primary purpose of this innate immune mechanism is thought to localize the infection at an early stage. Interestingly, the ability of different microcrystals to induce NET formation has been recently described. Microcrystals are insoluble crystals with a size of 1–100 micrometers that have different composition and shape. Microcrystals have it in common that they irritate phagocytes including PMNs and typically trigger an inflammatory response. This review is the first to summarize observations with regard to PMN activation and NET release induced by microcrystals. Gout-causing monosodium urate crystals, pseudogout-causing calcium pyrophosphate dehydrate crystals, cholesterol crystals associated with atherosclerosis, silicosis-causing silica crystals, and adjuvant alum crystals are discussed.

  17. Experimental Study of Turbulent Wake Behind a Sine Shaped Island in a Shallow-Water Layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玲; 李玉梁; 陈嘉范

    2002-01-01

    A series of experiments is conducted to study shallow-water flow in the wake of a sine shaped island. Digital particle imaging velocimetry (DPIV) is used to measure velocities in the turbulent wake behind a sine shaped island for different characteristic coefficients S. Flow streamlines are given for the wake flows. The measured results show that the characteristic coefficient S is uniquely related to the flow pattern around a sine shaped island in a shallow water layer. An S value of approximately 0.20 is the critical value for transition from a vortex street to unsteady flow and a value of approximately 0.40 is the critical value for transition from unsteady flow to steady flow.

  18. Non-minimally coupled bulk scalar fields in sine-Gordon braneworld models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moazzen, Masoumeh; Ghalenovi, Zahra

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, we investigate localization of bulk scalar fields in two types of five-dimensional braneworld models given by sine-Gordon potentials (SG). The sine-Gordon and Double sine-Gordon (DSG) branes are employed to produce different thick brane setups. In both scenarios, we include the bulk mass and non-minimally coupled terms in the global action and obtain some implications on the volcano-like potentials of the Kaluza-Klein modes associated to the corresponding Schrödinger-like equations. Also, we find that minimally and non-minimally coupled massive bulk scalar fields can be localized on SG and DSG branes if their bulk mass obeys an upper bound. Furthermore, it is shown that at the critical value of the non-minimal coupling constant the bulk scalar field cannot be localized on the branes.

  19. Cross-Correlation-Function-Based Multipath Mitigation Method for Sine-BOC Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. H. Chen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS positioning accuracy indoor and urban canyons environments are greatly affected by multipath due to distortions in its autocorrelation function. In this paper, a cross-correlation function between the received sine phased Binary Offset Carrier (sine-BOC modulation signal and the local signal is studied firstly, and a new multipath mitigation method based on cross-correlation function for sine-BOC signal is proposed. This method is implemented to create a cross-correlation function by designing the modulated symbols of the local signal. The theoretical analysis and simulation results indicate that the proposed method exhibits better multipath mitigation performance compared with the traditional Double Delta Correlator (DDC techniques, especially the medium/long delay multipath signals, and it is also convenient and flexible to implement by using only one correlator, which is the case of low-cost mass-market receivers.

  20. Activation of bovine neutrophils by Brucella spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keleher, Lauren L; Skyberg, Jerod A

    2016-09-01

    Brucellosis is a globally important zoonotic infectious disease caused by gram negative bacteria of the genus Brucella. While many species of Brucella exist, Brucella melitensis, Brucella abortus, and Brucella suis are the most common pathogens of humans and livestock. The virulence of Brucella is largely influenced by its ability to evade host factors, including phagocytic killing mechanisms, which are critical for the host response to infection. The aim of this study was to characterize the bovine neutrophil response to virulent Brucella spp. Here, we found that virulent strains of smooth B. abortus, B. melitensis, B. suis, and virulent, rough, strains of Brucella canis possess similar abilities to resist killing by resting, or IFN-γ-activated, bovine neutrophils. Bovine neutrophils responded to infection with a time-dependent oxidative burst that varied little between Brucella spp. Inhibition of TAK1, or SYK kinase blunted the oxidative burst of neutrophils in response to Brucella infection. Interestingly, Brucella spp. did not induce robust death of bovine neutrophils. These results indicate that bovine neutrophils respond similarly to virulent Brucella spp. In addition, virulent Brucella spp., including naturally rough strains of B. canis, have a conserved ability to resist killing by bovine neutrophils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Candida albicans escapes from mouse neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermert, David; Niemiec, Maria J; Röhm, Marc; Glenthøj, Andreas; Borregaard, Niels; Urban, Constantin F

    2013-08-01

    Candida albicans, the most commonly isolated human fungal pathogen, is able to grow as budding yeasts or filamentous forms, such as hyphae. The ability to switch morphology has been attributed a crucial role for the pathogenesis of C. albicans. To mimic disseminated candidiasis in humans, the mouse is the most widely used model organism. Neutrophils are essential immune cells to prevent opportunistic mycoses. To explore potential differences between the rodent infection model and the human host, we compared the interactions of C. albicans with neutrophil granulocytes from mice and humans. We revealed that murine neutrophils exhibited a significantly lower ability to kill C. albicans than their human counterparts. Strikingly, C. albicans yeast cells formed germ tubes upon internalization by murine neutrophils, eventually rupturing the neutrophil membrane and thereby, killing the phagocyte. On the contrary, growth and subsequent escape of C. albicans are blocked inside human neutrophils. According to our findings, this blockage in human neutrophils might be a result of higher levels of MPO activity and the presence of α-defensins. We therefore outline differences in antifungal immune defense between humans and mouse strains, which facilitates a more accurate interpretation of in vivo results.

  2. Functional differentiation of normal human neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasser, L; Fiederlein, R L

    1987-03-01

    In the past differentiation of human neutrophils has been defined by morphology, cytochemistry, or surface markers. In our experiments we have sequenced the various events that occur during the functional differentiation of the normal human neutrophil and have also examined some of the functional properties in relationship to surface markers and biochemical events. Granulocytes were obtained from the bone marrow and blood of hematologically normal individuals. Cells were separated into different stages of maturation by their physical properties using counterflow centrifugal elutriation and density gradient separation. Three cell fractions were obtained that were enriched for either immature myeloid cells, band neutrophils, or segmented neutrophils. Since the enriched fractions were not entirely pure, methodologies for functional assays were chosen that allowed cytologic evaluation of the functional capacity of each cell type. The criteria used to classify the stages of differentiation included both morphology by light microscopy and DNA labeling with tritiated thymidine. Various neutrophilic properties were studied: Fc receptors, complement receptors (CR1, CR3), phagocytosis of both live and dead opsonized Staphylococcus aureus, microbial killing of S aureus, NBT dye reduction after cellular stimulation with endotoxin, and chemotaxis. Our results indicate that the functional properties of the neutrophil appear in a distinct order. The sequence for the functional differentiation of the human neutrophil appears to be the following: Fc receptors----immune phagocytosis----complement receptors----oxygen-independent microbial killing----oxygen-dependent microbial killing----chemotaxis.

  3. Arbitrarily large numbers of kink internal modes in inhomogeneous sine-Gordon equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    González, J.A., E-mail: jalbertgonz@yahoo.es [Department of Physics, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33199 (United States); Department of Natural Sciences, Miami Dade College, 627 SW 27th Ave., Miami, FL 33135 (United States); Bellorín, A., E-mail: alberto.bellorin@ucv.ve [Escuela de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Central de Venezuela, Apartado Postal 47586, Caracas 1041-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); García-Ñustes, M.A., E-mail: monica.garcia@pucv.cl [Instituto de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Casilla 4059 (Chile); Guerrero, L.E., E-mail: lguerre@usb.ve [Departamento de Física, Universidad Simón Bolívar, Apartado Postal 89000, Caracas 1080-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Jiménez, S., E-mail: s.jimenez@upm.es [Departamento de Matemática Aplicada a las TT.II., E.T.S.I. Telecomunicación, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, 28040-Madrid (Spain); Vázquez, L., E-mail: lvazquez@fdi.ucm.es [Departamento de Matemática Aplicada, Facultad de Informática, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040-Madrid (Spain)

    2017-06-28

    We prove analytically the existence of an infinite number of internal (shape) modes of sine-Gordon solitons in the presence of some inhomogeneous long-range forces, provided some conditions are satisfied. - Highlights: • We have found exact kink solutions to the perturbed sine-Gordon equation. • We have been able to study analytically the kink stability problem. • A kink equilibrated by an exponentially-localized perturbation has a finite number of oscillation modes. • A sufficiently broad equilibrating perturbation supports an infinite number of soliton internal modes.

  4. Thermal sine-Gordon system in the presence of different types of dissipation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salerno, M.; Samuelsen, Mogens Rugholm; Svensmark, Henrik

    1988-01-01

    The effects of thermal fluctuations on solitons and phonons of the sine-Gordon system are investigated in the presence of a αφt-βφxxt dissipation. The analysis requires the assumption of a more general autocorrelation function for the noise than the one used in previous works. We verify that this......The effects of thermal fluctuations on solitons and phonons of the sine-Gordon system are investigated in the presence of a αφt-βφxxt dissipation. The analysis requires the assumption of a more general autocorrelation function for the noise than the one used in previous works. We verify...

  5. Development of a sine-dwell ground vibration test (GVT) system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Zyl, Lourens H

    2006-02-27

    Full Text Available stream_source_info VanZyl_2006.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 9765 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name VanZyl_2006.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 Development of a Sine-Dwell Ground... vibration testing? • Basics of sine-dwell testing Getting the structure to vibrate in phase, and what then? • Excitation hardware Exciters are similar to speakers • Measurement system Force and response as complex numbers • Excitation control...

  6. [SINEs in mammalian genomes can serve as additional signals in formation of facultative heterochromatin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usmanova, N M; Kazakov, V I; Tomilin, N V

    2008-01-01

    Using computer-based methods we determined the global distribution of short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs) in the human and mouse X chromosomes. It has been shown that this distributions is similar to the distributions of CpG islands and genes but is different from the distribution of LINE1 elements. Since SINEs (human Alu and mouse B2) may have binding sites for Polycomb protein YY1, we suggest that these repeats can serve as additional signals ("boosters") in Polycomb-dependent silencing of gene rich segments during X inactivation.

  7. Characterization of short interspersed elements (SINEs) in a red alga, Porphyra yezoensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenbo; Lin, Xiaofei; Peddigari, Suresh; Takechi, Katsuaki; Takano, Hiroyoshi; Takio, Susumu

    2007-02-01

    Short interspersed element (SINE)-like sequences referred to as PySN1 and PySN2 were identified in a red alga, Porphyra yezoensis. Both elements contained an internal promoter with motifs (A box and B box) recognized by RNA polymerase III, and target site duplications at both ends. Genomic Southern blot analysis revealed that both elements were widely and abundantly distributed on the genome. 3' and 5' RACE suggested that PySN1 was expressed as a chimera transcript with flanking SINE-unrelated sequences and possessed the poly-A tail at the same position near the 3' end of PySN1.

  8. Intermittent Switching between Soliton Dynamic States in a Perturbed Sine-Gordon Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mads Peter; Arley, N.; Christiansen, Peter Leth

    1983-01-01

    Chaotic intermittency between soliton dynamic states has been found in a perturbed sine-Gordon system in the absence of an external ac driving term. The system is a model of a long Josephson oscillator with constant loss and bias current in an external magnetic field. The results predict the exis......Chaotic intermittency between soliton dynamic states has been found in a perturbed sine-Gordon system in the absence of an external ac driving term. The system is a model of a long Josephson oscillator with constant loss and bias current in an external magnetic field. The results predict...

  9. On the Monge-Ampère equivalent of the sine-Gordon equation

    CERN Document Server

    Ferapontov, E V

    1994-01-01

    Surfaces of constant negative curvature in Euclidean space can be described by either the sine-Gordon equation for the angle between asymptotic directions, or a Monge-Ampère equation for the graph of the surface. We present the explicit form of the correspondence between these two integrable non-linear partial differential equations using their well-known properties in differential geometry. We find that the cotangent of the angle between asymptotic directions is directly related to the mean curvature of the surface. This is a Bäcklund-type transformation between the sine-Gordon and Monge-Ampère equations.

  10. Nonabelian sine-Gordon theory and its application to nonlinear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Q H; Park, Q Han

    1996-01-01

    Using a field theory generalization of the spinning top motion, we construct nonabelian generalizations of the sine-Gordon theory according to each symmetric spaces. A Lagrangian formulation of these generalized sine-Gordon theories is given in terms of a deformed gauged Wess-Zumino-Witten action which also accounts for integrably perturbed coset conformal field theories. As for physical applications, we show that they become precisely the effective field theories of self-induced transparency in nonlinear optics. This provides a dictionary between field theory and nonlinear optics.

  11. Neutrophil granules in health and disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Häger, M; Cowland, J B; Borregaard, N

    2010-01-01

    Neutrophil granules store proteins that are critically important for the neutrophil to move from the vascular bed to tissues and to kill microorganisms. This is illustrated in nature when individual proteins are deleted due to inherited mutations of their cognate genes, and such deficiencies result...... in the conditions leucocyte adhesion deficiency and chronic granulomatous disease. The granules of the neutrophil have traditionally been divided into two or three major types but are instead a continuum where several subtypes can be identified with differences in protein content and propensity for mobilization...

  12. LSJK - a C++ library for arbitrary-precision numeric evaluation of the generalized log-sine functions

    CERN Document Server

    Kalmykov, M Yu

    2004-01-01

    Generalized log-sine functions appear in higher order epsilon-expansion of different Feynman diagrams. We present an algorithm for numerical evaluation of these functions of real argument. This algorithm is implemented as C++ library with arbitrary-precision arithmetics for integer 0 1. Some new relations and representations for the generalized log-sine functions are given.

  13. Neutrophils recruited to sites of infection protect from virus challenge by releasing neutrophil extracellular traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenne, Craig N; Wong, Connie H Y; Zemp, Franz J; McDonald, Braedon; Rahman, Masmudur M; Forsyth, Peter A; McFadden, Grant; Kubes, Paul

    2013-02-13

    Neutrophils mediate bacterial clearance through various mechanisms, including the release of mesh-like DNA structures or neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) that capture bacteria. Although neutrophils are also recruited to sites of viral infection, their role in antiviral innate immunity is less clear. We show that systemic administration of virus analogs or poxvirus infection induces neutrophil recruitment to the liver microvasculature and the release of NETs that protect host cells from virus infection. After systemic intravenous poxvirus challenge, mice exhibit thrombocytopenia and the recruitment of both neutrophils and platelets to the liver vasculature. Circulating platelets interact with, roll along, and adhere to the surface of adherent neutrophils, forming large, dynamic aggregates. These interactions facilitate the release of NETs within the liver vasculature that are able to protect host cells from poxvirus infection. These findings highlight the role of NETs and early tissue-wide responses in preventing viral infection.

  14. Pleiotropic regulations of neutrophil receptors response to sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huafeng; Sun, Bingwei

    2017-03-01

    Sepsis is a complex clinical condition that causes a high mortality rate worldwide. Numerous studies on the pathophysiology of sepsis have revealed an imbalance in the inflammatory network, thus leading to tissue damage, organ failure, and ultimately death. The impairment of neu-trophil migration is associated with the outcome of sepsis. Literature review was performed on the roles of neutrophil recruitment and neutrophil receptors as pleiotropic regulators during sepsis. Additionally, we systematically classify neutrophil receptors with regard to the neutrophil response during sepsis and discuss the clinical implications of these receptors for the treatment of sepsis. Increasing evidence suggests that there is significant dysfunction in neutrophil recruitment during sepsis, characterized by the failure to migrate to the site of infection. Neutrophil receptors, as pleiotropic regulators, play important roles in the neutrophil response during sepsis. Neutrophil receptors play key roles in chemotactic neutrophil migration and may prove to be suitable targets in future pharmacological therapies for sepsis.

  15. Store-operated calcium signaling in neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, Regina A; Lowell, Clifford A

    2015-10-01

    Calcium signals in neutrophils are initiated by a variety of cell-surface receptors, including formyl peptide and other GPCRs, FcRs, and integrins. The predominant pathway by which calcium enters immune cells is termed SOCE, whereby plasma membrane CRAC channels allow influx of extracellular calcium into the cytoplasm when intracellular ER stores are depleted. The identification of 2 key families of SOCE regulators, STIM calcium "sensors" and ORAI calcium channels, has allowed for genetic manipulation of SOCE pathways and provided valuable insight into the molecular mechanism of calcium signaling in immune cells, including neutrophils. This review focuses on our current knowledge of the molecules involved in neutrophil SOCE and how study of these molecules has further informed our understanding of the role of calcium signaling in neutrophil activation.

  16. Neutrophil-mediated phagocytosis of Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jos A.G. Van Strijp

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available For invading staphylococci, phagocytosis an killing bij human neutrophils is the biggest threat. Neutrophils are the only cells that can effectively kill staphylococci by engulfment and subsequent bombardment with proteases, amidases, antimicrobial peptides and proteins in concert with reactive oxygen species that are generated during the metabolic burst.Both complement and antibodies are crucial for effective uptake and neutrophil activation. S. aureus is not an innocent bystander in this process. It actively secretes several proteins to impair every single step in this process from receptor modulation, to complement inhibition to neutrophil lysis to protease, antimicrobial peptide inhibition and resistance to reactive oxygen species. For the design of future novel antimicrobial strategies: therapeutic antibodies, vaccines, novel antibiotics, all this should be taken into account. Still the best way to treat diseases is to help to enhance the natural defence mechanism that are already in place.

  17. Clinical Microfluidics for Neutrophil Genomics and Proteomics

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Neutrophils play critical roles in modulating the immune response. We present a robust methodology for rapidly isolating neutrophils directly from whole blood and develop ‘on-chip’ processing for mRNA and protein isolation for genomics and proteomics. We validate this device with an ex vivo stimulation experiment and by comparison with standard bulk isolation methodologies. Lastly, we implement this tool as part of a near patient blood processing system within a multi-center clinical study of...

  18. Neutrophils in asthma--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciepiela, Olga; Ostafin, Magdalena; Demkow, Urszula

    2015-04-01

    Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease, with an array of cells involved in the pathogenesis of the disease. The role of neutrophils in the development of bronchial asthma is found to be complex, as they may trigger activation of immunocompetent cells and are a potent source of free oxygen radicals and enzymes participating in airway remodeling. The review highlights the role of neutrophils in bronchial asthma.

  19. Cryptococcus neoformans modulates extracellular killing by neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Asfia; Grey, Angus; Rose, Kristie L; Schey, Kevin L; Del Poeta, Maurizio

    2011-01-01

    We recently established a key role for host sphingomyelin synthase (SMS) in regulating the killing activity of neutrophils against Cryptococcus neoformans. In this paper, we studied the effect of C. neoformans on the killing activity of neutrophils and whether SMS would still be a player against C. neoformans in immunocompromised mice lacking T and natural killer (NK) cells (Tgε26 mice). To this end, we analyzed whether C. neoformans would have any effect on neutrophil survival and killing in vitro and in vivo. We show that unlike Candida albicans, neither the presence nor the capsule size of C. neoformans cells have any effect on neutrophil viability. Interestingly, melanized C. neoformans cells totally abrogated the killing activity of neutrophils. We monitored how exposure of neutrophils to C. neoformans cells would interfere with any further killing activity of the conditioned medium and found that pre-incubation with live but not "heat-killed" fungal cells significantly inhibits further killing activity of the medium. We then studied whether activation of SMS at the site of C. neoformans infection is dependent on T and NK cells. Using matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization tissue imaging in infected lung we found that similar to previous observations in the isogenic wild-type CBA/J mice, SM 16:0 levels are significantly elevated at the site of infection in mice lacking T and NK cells, but only at early time points. This study highlights that C. neoformans may negatively regulate the killing activity of neutrophils and that SMS activation in neutrophils appears to be partially independent of T and/or NK cells.

  20. Cryptococcus neoformans modulates extracellular killing by neutrophils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asfia eQureshi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We recently established a key role for host sphingomyelin synthase (SMS in the regulation of the killing activity of neutrophils against Cryptococcus neoformans. In this work, we studied the effect of C. neoformans on the killing activity of neutrophils and whether SMS would still be a player against C. neoformans in immunocompromised mice lacking T and NK cells (Tgε26 mice. To this end, we analyzed whether C. neoformans would have any effect on neutrophil survival and killing in vitro and in vivo. We show that unlike C. albicans, neither the presence nor the capsule size of C. neoformans cells have any effect on neutrophil viability. Interestingly, melanized C. neoformans cells totally abrogated the killing activity of neutrophils. Next, we monitored how exposure of neutrophils to C. neoformans cells would interfere with any further killing activity of the medium and found that pre-incubation with live but not heat-killed fungal cells significantly inhibits further killing activity of the medium. We next studied whether activation of SMS at the site of C. neoformans infection is dependent on T and NK cells. Using matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization (MALDI tissue imaging in infected lung we found that similarly to previous observations in the isogenic wild type CBA/J mice, SM 16:0 levels are significantly elevated at the site of infection in mice lacking T and NK cells but only at early time points. This study highlights that C. neoformans may negatively regulate the killing activity of neutrophils and that SMS activation in neutrophils appears to be partially independent of T and/or NK cells.

  1. Tumor Associated Neutrophils in Human Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Internet site(s) Penn Medicine News Site: ▪ http://www.uphs.upenn.edu/news/News_Releases/2016/07/eruslanov/ Technologies or techniques Nothing to...determine whether the tumor microenvironment stimu- lates trafficking of neutrophils, resting PBNs were assayed for tran- swell migration in the presence of...Ray, Neutrophilic inflammatory response and oxidative stress in premenopausal women chronically exposed to indoor air pollution from biomass burning

  2. Subproteome analysis of the neutrophil cytoskeleton

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Ping; Crawford, Mark; Way, Michael; Godovac-Zimmermann, Jasminka; Segal, Anthony W.; Radulovic, Marko

    2009-01-01

    Neutrophils play a key role in the early host-defense mechanisms due to their capacity to migrate into inflamed tissues and phagocytose microorganisms. The cytoskeleton has an essential role in these neutrophil functions, however, its composition is still poorly understood. We separately analyzed different cytoskeletal compartments: cytosolic skeleton, phagosome membrane skeleton, and plasma membrane skeleton. Using a proteomic approach, 138 nonredundant proteins were identified. Proteins not...

  3. Photothermal image cytometry of human neutrophils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapotko, Dmitry

    2001-07-01

    Photothermal imaging, when being applied to the study of living cells, provides morpho-functional information about the cell populations. In technical terms, the method is complementary to optical microscopy. The photothermal method was used for cell imaging and quantitative studies. Preliminary results of the studies on living human neutrophils are presented. Differences between normal and pathological neutrophil populations from blood of healthy donors and patients with saracoidosis and pleuritis are demonstrated.

  4. Neutrophil Responses to Sterile Implant Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Siddharth Jhunjhunwala; Stephanie Aresta-DaSilva; Katherine Tang; David Alvarez; Webber, Matthew J.; Tang, Benjamin C.; Lavin, Danya M.; Omid Veiseh; Doloff, Joshua C; Suman Bose; Arturo Vegas; Minglin Ma; Gaurav Sahay; Alan Chiu; Andrew Bader

    2015-01-01

    In vivo implantation of sterile materials and devices results in a foreign body immune response leading to fibrosis of implanted material. Neutrophils, one of the first immune cells to be recruited to implantation sites, have been suggested to contribute to the establishment of the inflammatory microenvironment that initiates the fibrotic response. However, the precise numbers and roles of neutrophils in response to implanted devices remains unclear. Using a mouse model of peritoneal microcap...

  5. NET amyloidogenic backbone in human activated neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulze, L; Bassani, B; Gini, E; D'Antona, P; Grimaldi, A; Luini, A; Marino, F; Noonan, D M; Tettamanti, G; Valvassori, R; de Eguileor, M

    2016-03-01

    Activated human neutrophils produce a fibrillar DNA network [neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs)] for entrapping and killing bacteria, fungi, protozoa and viruses. Our results suggest that the neutrophil extracellular traps show a resistant amyloidogenic backbone utilized for addressing reputed proteins and DNA against the non-self. The formation of amyloid fibrils in neutrophils is regulated by the imbalance of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the cytoplasm. The intensity and source of the ROS signal is determinant for promoting stress-associated responses such as amyloidogenesis and closely related events: autophagy, exosome release, activation of the adrenocorticotrophin hormone/α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (ACTH/α-MSH) loop and synthesis of specific cytokines. These interconnected responses in human activated neutrophils, that have been evaluated from a morphofunctional and quantitative viewpoint, represent primitive, but potent, innate defence mechanisms. In invertebrates, circulating phagocytic immune cells, when activated, show responses similar to those described previously for activated human neutrophils. Invertebrate cells within endoplasmic reticulum cisternae produce a fibrillar material which is then assembled into an amyloidogenic scaffold utilized to convey melanin close to the invader. These findings, in consideration to the critical role played by NET in the development of several pathologies, could explain the structural resistance of these scaffolds and could provide the basis for developing new diagnostic and therapeutic approaches in immunomediated diseases in which the innate branch of the immune system has a pivotal role.

  6. Abundant new travelling wave solutions for the (2 + 1)-dimensional Sine-Gordon equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Zhu [College of Mathematics and Information Science, Xinyang Normal University, Xinyang 464000 (China)], E-mail: lizhu1813@163.com; Dong Huanhe [College of Information Science and Engineering, Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266510 (China)

    2008-07-15

    Abundant new travelling wave solutions of the (2 + 1)-dimensional Sine-Gordon equation are obtained by the generalized Jacobi elliptic function method. The solutions obtained include the kink-shaped solutions, bell-shaped solutions, singular solutions and periodic solutions.

  7. A Classroom Note on Generating Examples for the Laws of Sines and Cosines from Pythagorean Triangles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sher, Lawrence; Sher, David

    2007-01-01

    By selecting certain special triangles, students can learn about the laws of sines and cosines without wrestling with long decimal representations or irrational numbers. Since the law of cosines requires only one of the three angles of a triangle, there are many examples of triangles with integral sides and a cosine that can be represented exactly…

  8. Breather kink-antikink-pair conversion in the driven sine-Gordon system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomdahl, P. S.; Olsen, O. H.; Samuelsen, Mogens Rugholm

    1984-01-01

    Breather excitations in the sine-Gordon equation influenced by constant driving forces are investigated—large driving forces cause the breather to split into a kk― (2π kink-2π antikink) pair while for small driving forces the breather excitations enter stationary modes. A perturbation method...

  9. Discovering Trigonometric Relationships Implied by the Law of Sines and the Law of Cosines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skurnick, Ronald; Javadi, Mohammad

    2006-01-01

    The Law of Sines and The Law of Cosines are of paramount importance in the field of trigonometry because these two theorems establish relationships satisfied by the three sides and the three angles of any triangle. In this article, the authors use these two laws to discover a host of other trigonometric relationships that exist within any…

  10. Sine-Gordon 2-pi-kink dynamics in the presence of small perturbations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, O. H.; Samuelsen, Mogens Rugholm

    1983-01-01

    The influence of external driving forces on the 2π-kink solution to the sine-Gordon equation is examined. The analysis is based on the approach that the solution to the problem can be divided into a 2π-kink part and a background or vacuum part. The behavior of the 2π kink depends strongly...

  11. Internal oscillation frequencies and anharmonic effects for the double sine-Gordon kink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salerno, M.; Samuelsen, Mogens Rugholm

    1989-01-01

    A simple derivation of the small oscillation frequency around 4π-kink solutions of the double sine-Gordon equation is presented. Small corrections to these frequencies due to anharmonic effects are also numerically and analytically investigated. The analysis is based on energetic considerations...

  12. Stabilization of breathers in a parametrically driven sine-Gordon system with loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbech-Jensen, N.; Kivshar, Yu. S.; Samuelsen, Mogens Rugholm

    1991-01-01

    We demonstrate that in a parametrically driven sine-Gordon system with loss, a breather, if driven, can be maintained in a steady state at half the external frequency. In the small-amplitude limit the system is described by the effective perturbed nonlinear Schrödinger equation. For an arbitrary...

  13. Stress induction of Bm1 RNA in silkworm larvae: SINEs, an unusual class of stress genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Richard H.; Choudary, Prabhakara V.; Stone, Koni K.; Schmid, Carl W.

    2001-01-01

    This study surveys the induction of RNA polymerase III (Pol III)–directed expression of short interspersed element (SINE) transcripts by various stresses in an animal model, silkworm larvae. Sublethal heat shock and exposure to several toxic compounds increase the level of Bm1 RNA, the silkworm SINE transcript, while also transiently increasing expression of a well-characterized stress-induced transcript, Hsp70 messenger RNA (mRNA). In certain cases, the Bm1 RNA response coincides with that of Hsp70 mRNA, but more often Bm1 RNA responds later in recovery. Baculovirus infection and exposure to certain toxic compounds increase Bm1 RNA but not Hsp70 mRNA, showing that SINE induction is not necessarily coupled to transcription of this particular heat shock gene. SINEs behave as an additional class of stress-inducible genes in living animals but are unusual as stress genes because of their high copy number, genomic dispersion, and Pol III–directed transcription. PMID:11599568

  14. The LINEs and SINEs of Entamoeba histolytica: comparative analysis and genomic distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakre, Abhijeet A; Rawal, Kamal; Ramaswamy, Ram; Bhattacharya, Alok; Bhattacharya, Sudha

    2005-07-01

    Autonomous non-long terminal repeat retrotransposons are commonly referred to as long interspersed elements (LINEs). Short non-autonomous elements that borrow the LINE machinery are called SINES. The Entamoeba histolytica genome contains three classes of LINEs and SINEs. Together the EhLINEs/SINEs account for about 6% of the genome. The recognizable functional domains in all three EhLINEs included reverse transcriptase and endonuclease. A novel feature was the presence of two types of members-some with a single long ORF (less frequent) and some with two ORFs (more frequent) in both EhLINE1 and 2. The two ORFs were generated by conserved changes leading to stop codon. Computational analysis of the immediate flanking sequences for each element showed that they inserted in AT-rich sequences, with a preponderance of Ts in the upstream site. The elements were very frequently located close to protein-coding genes and other EhLINEs/SINEs. The possible influence of these elements on expression of neighboring genes needs to be determined.

  15. Short interspersed CAN SINE elements as prognostic markers in canine mammary neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelaleti, Gabriela B; Granzotto, Adriana; Leonel, Camila; Jardim, Bruna V; Moschetta, Marina G; Carareto, Claudia M A; Zuccari, Debora Ap P C

    2014-01-01

    The genome of mammals is characterized by a large number of non-LTR retrotransposons, and among them, the CAN SINEs are characteristics of the canine species. Small amounts of DNA freely circulate in normal blood serum and high amounts are found in human patients with cancer, characterizing it as a candidate tumor-biomarker. The aim of this study was to estimate, through its absolute expression, the number of copies of CAN SINE sequences present in free circulating DNA of female dogs with mammary cancer, in order to correlate with the clinical and pathological characteristics and the follow-up period. The copy number of CAN SINE sequences was estimated by qPCR in 28 female dogs with mammary neoplasia. The univariate analysis showed an increased number of copies in female dogs with mammary tumor in female dogs >10 years old (p=0.02) and tumor time >18 months (pSINE fragments can be good markers for the detection of tumor DNA in blood and may characterize it as a marker of poor prognosis, being related to female dogs with shorter survival times. This estimate can be used as a prognostic marker in non-invasive breast cancer research and is useful in predicting tumor progression and patient monitoring.

  16. Fatigue Damage Spectrum calculation in a Mission Synthesis procedure for Sine-on-Random excitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeli, Andrea; Cornelis, Bram; Troncossi, Marco

    2016-09-01

    In many real-life environments, certain mechanical and electronic components may be subjected to Sine-on-Random vibrations, i.e. excitations composed of random vibrations superimposed on deterministic (sinusoidal) contributions, in particular sine tones due to some rotating parts of the system (e.g. helicopters, engine-mounted components,...). These components must be designed to withstand the fatigue damage induced by the “composed” vibration environment, and qualification tests are advisable for the most critical ones. In the case of an accelerated qualification test, a proper test tailoring which starts from the real environment (measured vibration signals) and which preserves not only the accumulated fatigue damage but also the “nature” of the excitation (i.e. sinusoidal components plus random process) is important to obtain reliable results. In this paper, the classic time domain approach is taken as a reference for the comparison of different methods for the Fatigue Damage Spectrum (FDS) calculation in case of Sine-on-Random vibration environments. Then, a methodology to compute a Sine-on-Random specification based on a mission FDS is proposed.

  17. Determinant representation for a quantum correlation function of the lattice sine-Gordon model

    CERN Document Server

    Essler, F H L; Korepin, V E

    1995-01-01

    We consider a completely integrable lattice regularization of the sine--Gordon model with discrete space and continuous time. We derive a determinant representation for a correlation function which in the continuum limit turns into the correlation function of local fields.

  18. Meshing Theoretical Study and Simulation on Cylindrical Tri-sine Oscillating Tooth Gear Drive

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李瑰贤; 孙瑜; 张欣

    2004-01-01

    The structure of cylindrical tri-sine oscillating tooth gear drive is presented. Based on the space meshing theory, equations of meshing and tooth profile are established and its meshing theory is studied. Using Pro/E, this system is modeled and simulated,which is compared with the above-established equations.

  19. The spectrum of boundary states in sine-Gordon model with integrable boundary conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Bajnok, Z; Takács, G; Tóth, G

    2002-01-01

    The bound state spectrum and the associated reflection factors are determined for the sine-Gordon model with arbitrary integrable boundary condition by closing the bootstrap. Comparing the symmetries of the bound state spectrum with that of the Lagrangian it is shown how one can "derive" the relationship between the UV and IR parameters conjectured earlier.

  20. Some semi-classical issues in boundary sine-Gordon model

    CERN Document Server

    Kormos, M

    2002-01-01

    The semi-classical quantisation of the two lowest energy static solutions of boundary sine-Gordon model is considered. A relation between the Lagrangian and bootstrap parameters is established by comparing their quantum corrected energy difference and the exact one. This relation is also confirmed by studying the semi-classical limit of soliton reflections on the boundary.

  1. Spectrum of boundary states in N=1 SUSY sine-Gordon theory

    CERN Document Server

    Bajnok, Z; Takács, G

    2002-01-01

    We consider N=1 supersymmetric sine-Gordon theory (SSG) with supersymmetric integrable boundary conditions (boundary SSG = BSSG). We find two possible ways to close the boundary bootstrap for this model, corresponding to two different choices for the boundary supercharge. We argue that these two bootstrap solutions should correspond to the two integrable Lagrangian boundary theories considered recently by Nepomechie.

  2. A generalized exp-function method for multiwave solutions of sine-Gordon equation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sheng Zhang; Jian Wang; Au-Xue Peng; Bin Cai

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, the exp-function method is generalized to sine-Gordon (sG) equation and single-, double- and three-wave solutions are obtained. It is shown that the generalized exp-function method combined with appropriate anstaz may provide a straightforward, effective and alternative method for constructing multiwave solutions of some nonlinear partial differential equations.

  3. Quantization of Sine-Gordon solitons on the circle: semiclassical vs. exact results

    CERN Document Server

    Pawellek, Michael

    2008-01-01

    We consider the semiclassical quantization of sine-Gordon solitons on the circle with periodic and anti-periodic boundary conditions. The 1-loop quantum corrections to the mass of the solitons are determined using zeta function regularization in the integral representation. We compare the semiclassical results with exact numerical calculations in the literature and find excellent agreement even outside the plain semiclassical regime.

  4. Emotional Intelligence: The Sine Qua Non for a Clinical Leadership Toolbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Paul R.

    2006-01-01

    Over the past decade, it has become increasingly clear that although IQ and technical skills are important, emotional intelligence is the Sine Qua Non of leadership. According to Goleman [Goleman, D. (1998). What makes a leader? "Harvard Business Review," 93-102] "effective leaders are alike in one crucial way: they all have a high degree of…

  5. Emotional Intelligence: The Sine Qua Non for a Clinical Leadership Toolbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Paul R.

    2006-01-01

    Over the past decade, it has become increasingly clear that although IQ and technical skills are important, emotional intelligence is the Sine Qua Non of leadership. According to Goleman [Goleman, D. (1998). What makes a leader? "Harvard Business Review," 93-102] "effective leaders are alike in one crucial way: they all have a high degree of…

  6. Short Interspersed Nuclear Element (SINE) Sequences in the Genome of the Human Pathogenic Fungus Aspergillus fumigatus Af293.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanhayuwa, Lakkhana; Coutts, Robert H A

    2016-01-01

    Novel families of short interspersed nuclear element (SINE) sequences in the human pathogenic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus, clinical isolate Af293, were identified and categorised into tRNA-related and 5S rRNA-related SINEs. Eight predicted tRNA-related SINE families originating from different tRNAs, and nominated as AfuSINE2 sequences, contained target site duplications of short direct repeat sequences (4-14 bp) flanking the elements, an extended tRNA-unrelated region and typical features of RNA polymerase III promoter sequences. The elements ranged in size from 140-493 bp and were present in low copy number in the genome and five out of eight were actively transcribed. One putative tRNAArg-derived sequence, AfuSINE2-1a possessed a unique feature of repeated trinucleotide ACT residues at its 3'-terminus. This element was similar in sequence to the I-4_AO element found in A. oryzae and an I-1_AF long nuclear interspersed element-like sequence identified in A. fumigatus Af293. Families of 5S rRNA-related SINE sequences, nominated as AfuSINE3, were also identified and their 5'-5S rRNA-related regions show 50-65% and 60-75% similarity to respectively A. fumigatus 5S rRNAs and SINE3-1_AO found in A. oryzae. A. fumigatus Af293 contains five copies of AfuSINE3 sequences ranging in size from 259-343 bp and two out of five AfuSINE3 sequences were actively transcribed. Investigations on AfuSINE distribution in the fungal genome revealed that the elements are enriched in pericentromeric and subtelomeric regions and inserted within gene-rich regions. We also demonstrated that some, but not all, AfuSINE sequences are targeted by host RNA silencing mechanisms. Finally, we demonstrated that infection of the fungus with mycoviruses had no apparent effects on SINE activity.

  7. Bacterial Colonization in Hidradenitis Suppurativa/Acne Inversa: A Cross-sectional Study of 50 Patients and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolakis, Georgios; Liakou, Aikaterini I; Bonovas, Stefanos; Seltmann, Holger; Bonitsis, Nikolaos; Join-Lambert, Olivier; Wild, Thomas; Karagiannidis, Ioannis; Zolke-Fischer, Silvia; Langner, Klaus; Zouboulis, Christos C

    2016-11-24

    It is unclear whether bacterial colonization in hidradenitis suppurativa/acne inversa (HS) comprises a primary cause, triggering factor or secondary phenomenon of the disease pathogenesis. Furthermore, the connection between certain bacterial species, the disease severity and its localization is unknown. Bacterial species were isolated from HS lesions to reveal a potential correlation with localization and disease severity. Ninety swab tests were prospectively obtained from 90 HS lesions of 50 consecutive patients. The material was cultured under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The identified species were statistically correlated with Hurley stage and localization of the lesions. The most prevalent isolates were reported. Hurley stage significantly correlated with disease localization. Particular bacterial species were associated with "extended" disease and Hurley III stage with the detection of both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and with a higher number of species. The presence of bacterial species is dependent on the local milieu, which correlates with the localization of the disease, its clinical manifestations and its extension.

  8. Hidradenitis suppurativa: guidelines of the Italian Society of Dermatology and Venereology (SIDeMaST) for the use of anti-TNF-α agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megna, M; Bettoli, V; Chimenti, S; Chiricozzi, A; Naldi, L; Virgili, A; Girolomoni, G; Monfrecola, G

    2015-12-01

    Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by nodules, abscesses and sinus tracts, primarily affecting the intertriginous areas. The occlusion of the upper part of the folliculopilosebaceous unit, leading to rupture of the sebofollicular canal with the consequent development of perifollicular lympho-histiocytic inflammation, is believed to be the initial pathogenic event in HS. Giving the chronic nature of HS, its destructive impact on social, working and daily life of patients, its management is often frustrating both for patients and physicians. The HS treatment choices are influenced by disease severity and its individual subjective impact. In this article, the Board of the Italian Society of Dermatology and Venereology (SIDeMaST) on HS has prepared a document focusing on the role of biologic drugs (anti-TNF-α) in HS management, providing also a flow-chart for HS handling and the inclusion and exclusion criteria for HS treatment with anti-TNF-α.

  9. Expansion of CORE-SINEs in the genome of the Tasmanian devil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilsson Maria A

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genome of the carnivorous marsupial, the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii, Order: Dasyuromorphia, was sequenced in the hopes of finding a cure for or gaining a better understanding of the contagious devil facial tumor disease that is threatening the species’ survival. To better understand the Tasmanian devil genome, we screened it for transposable elements and investigated the dynamics of short interspersed element (SINE retroposons. Results The temporal history of Tasmanian devil SINEs, elucidated using a transposition in transposition analysis, indicates that WSINE1, a CORE-SINE present in around 200,000 copies, is the most recently active element. Moreover, we discovered a new subtype of WSINE1 (WSINE1b that comprises at least 90% of all Tasmanian devil WSINE1s. The frequencies of WSINE1 subtypes differ in the genomes of two of the other Australian marsupial orders. A co-segregation analysis indicated that at least 66 subfamilies of WSINE1 evolved during the evolution of Dasyuromorphia. Using a substitution rate derived from WSINE1 insertions, the ages of the subfamilies were estimated and correlated with a newly established phylogeny of Dasyuromorphia. Phylogenetic analyses and divergence time estimates of mitochondrial genome data indicate a rapid radiation of the Tasmanian devil and the closest relative the quolls (Dasyurus around 14 million years ago. Conclusions The radiation and abundance of CORE-SINEs in marsupial genomes indicates that they may be a major player in the evolution of marsupials. It is evident that the early phases of evolution of the carnivorous marsupial order Dasyuromorphia was characterized by a burst of SINE activity. A correlation between a speciation event and a major burst of retroposon activity is for the first time shown in a marsupial genome.

  10. Expansion of CORE-SINEs in the genome of the Tasmanian devil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Maria A; Janke, Axel; Murchison, Elizabeth P; Ning, Zemin; Hallström, Björn M

    2012-05-06

    The genome of the carnivorous marsupial, the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii, Order: Dasyuromorphia), was sequenced in the hopes of finding a cure for or gaining a better understanding of the contagious devil facial tumor disease that is threatening the species' survival. To better understand the Tasmanian devil genome, we screened it for transposable elements and investigated the dynamics of short interspersed element (SINE) retroposons. The temporal history of Tasmanian devil SINEs, elucidated using a transposition in transposition analysis, indicates that WSINE1, a CORE-SINE present in around 200,000 copies, is the most recently active element. Moreover, we discovered a new subtype of WSINE1 (WSINE1b) that comprises at least 90% of all Tasmanian devil WSINE1s. The frequencies of WSINE1 subtypes differ in the genomes of two of the other Australian marsupial orders. A co-segregation analysis indicated that at least 66 subfamilies of WSINE1 evolved during the evolution of Dasyuromorphia. Using a substitution rate derived from WSINE1 insertions, the ages of the subfamilies were estimated and correlated with a newly established phylogeny of Dasyuromorphia. Phylogenetic analyses and divergence time estimates of mitochondrial genome data indicate a rapid radiation of the Tasmanian devil and the closest relative the quolls (Dasyurus) around 14 million years ago. The radiation and abundance of CORE-SINEs in marsupial genomes indicates that they may be a major player in the evolution of marsupials. It is evident that the early phases of evolution of the carnivorous marsupial order Dasyuromorphia was characterized by a burst of SINE activity. A correlation between a speciation event and a major burst of retroposon activity is for the first time shown in a marsupial genome.

  11. A SINE-derived element constitutes a unique modular enhancer for mammalian diencephalic Fgf8.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiko Nakanishi

    Full Text Available Transposable elements, including short interspersed repetitive elements (SINEs, comprise nearly half the mammalian genome. Moreover, they are a major source of conserved non-coding elements (CNEs, which play important functional roles in regulating development-related genes, such as enhancing and silencing, serving for the diversification of morphological and physiological features among species. We previously reported a novel SINE family, AmnSINE1, as part of mammalian-specific CNEs. One AmnSINE1 locus, named AS071, showed an enhancer property in the developing mouse diencephalon. Indeed, AS071 appears to recapitulate the expression of diencephalic fibroblast growth factor 8 (Fgf8. Here we established three independent lines of AS071-transgenic mice and performed detailed expression profiling of AS071-enhanced lacZ in comparison with that of Fgf8 across embryonic stages. We demonstrate that AS071 is a distal enhancer that directs Fgf8 expression in the developing diencephalon. Furthermore, enhancer assays with constructs encoding partially deleted AS071 sequence revealed a unique modular organization in which AS071 contains at least three functionally distinct sub-elements that cooperatively direct the enhancer activity in three diencephalic domains, namely the dorsal midline and the lateral wall of the diencephalon, and the ventral midline of the hypothalamus. Interestingly, the AmnSINE1-derived sub-element was found to specify the enhancer activity to the ventral midline of the hypothalamus. To our knowledge, this is the first discovery of an enhancer element that could be separated into respective sub-elements that determine regional specificity and/or the core enhancing activity. These results potentiate our understanding of the evolution of retroposon-derived cis-regulatory elements as well as the basis for future studies of the molecular mechanism underlying the determination of domain-specificity of an enhancer.

  12. Neutrophils in Cancer: Two Sides of the Same Coin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eileen Uribe-Querol

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neutrophils are the most abundant leukocytes in blood and are considered to be the first line of defense during inflammation and infections. In addition, neutrophils are also found infiltrating many types of tumors. Tumor-associated neutrophils (TANs have relevant roles in malignant disease. Indeed neutrophils may be potent antitumor effector cells. However, increasing clinical evidence shows TANs correlate with poor prognosis. The tumor microenvironment controls neutrophil recruitment and in turn TANs help tumor progression. Hence, TANs can be beneficial or detrimental to the host. It is the purpose of this review to highlight these two sides of the neutrophil coin in cancer and to describe recent studies that provide some light on the mechanisms for neutrophil recruitment to the tumor, for neutrophils supporting tumor progression, and for neutrophil activation to enhance their antitumor functions.

  13. Superoxide anion production by human neutrophils activated by Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hyun-Ouk; Ryu, Jae-Sook

    2013-08-01

    Neutrophils are the predominant inflammatory cells found in vaginal discharges of patients infected with Trichomonas vaginalis. In this study, we examined superoxide anion (O2 (.-)) production by neutrophils activated by T. vaginalis. Human neutrophils produced superoxide anions when stimulated with either a lysate of T. vaginalis, its membrane component (MC), or excretory-secretory product (ESP). To assess the role of trichomonad protease in production of superoxide anions by neutrophils, T. vaginalis lysate, ESP, and MC were each pretreated with a protease inhibitor cocktail before incubation with neutrophils. Superoxide anion production was significantly decreased by this treatment. Trichomonad growth was inhibited by preincubation with supernatants of neutrophils incubated for 3 hr with T. vaginalis lysate. Furthermore, myeloperoxidase (MPO) production by neutrophils was stimulated by live trichomonads. These results indicate that the production of superoxide anions and MPO by neutrophils stimulated with T. vaginalis may be a part of defense mechanisms of neutrophils in trichomoniasis.

  14. A novel abundant family of retroposed elements (DAS-SINEs) in the nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churakov, Gennady; Smit, Arian F A; Brosius, Jürgen; Schmitz, Jürgen

    2005-04-01

    About half of the mammalian genome is composed of retroposons. Long interspersed elements (LINEs) and short interspersed elements (SINEs) are the most abundant repetitive elements and account for about 21% and 13% of the human genome, respectively. SINEs have been detected in all major mammalian lineages, except for the South American order Xenarthra, also termed Edentata (armadillos, anteaters, and sloths). Investigating this order, we discovered a novel high-copy-number family of tRNA derived SINEs in the nine-banded armadillo Dasypus novemcinctus, a species that successfully crossed the Central American land bridge to North America in the Pliocene. A specific computer algorithm was developed, and we detected and extracted 687 specific SINEs from databases. Termed DAS-SINEs, we further divided them into six distinct subfamilies. We extracted tRNA(Ala)-derived monomers, two types of dimers, and three subfamilies of chimeric fusion products of a tRNA(Ala) domain and an approximately 180-nt sequence of thus far unidentified origin. Comparisons of secondary structures of the DAS-SINEs' tRNA domains suggest selective pressure to maintain a tRNA-like D-arm structure in the respective founder RNAs, as shown by compensatory mutations. By analysis of subfamily-specific genetic variability, comparison of the proportion of direct repeats, and analysis of self-integrations as well as key events of dimerization and deletions or insertions, we were able to delineate the evolutionary history of the DAS-SINE subfamilies.

  15. Surfaces of Constant negative Scalar Curvature and the Correpondence between the Liouvulle and the sine-Gordon Equations

    CERN Document Server

    Belich, H; Paunov, R R

    1999-01-01

    By studying the {\\it internal} Riemannian geometry of the surfaces of constant negative scalar curvature, we obtain a natural map between the Liouville, and the sine-Gordon equations. First, considering isometric immersions into the Lobachevskian plane, we obtain an uniform expression for the general (locally defined) solution of both the equations. Second, we prove that there is a Lie-Bäcklund transformation interpolating between Liouville and sine-Gordon. Third, we use isometric immersions into the Lobachevskian plane to describe sine-Gordon N-solitons explicitly.

  16. Dihydroxyoctadecamonoenoate esters inhibit the neutrophil respiratory burst

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    David Alan Thompson; Bruce D Hammock

    2007-03-01

    The leukotoxins [9(10)- and 12(13)-EpOME] are produced by activated inflammatory leukocytes such as neutrophils. High EpOME levels are observed in disorders such as acute respiratory distress syndrome and in patients with extensive burns. Although the physiological significance of the EpOMEs remains poorly understood, in some systems, the EpOMEs act as a protoxin, with their corresponding epoxide hydrolase metabolites, 9,10- and 12,13-DiHOME, specifically exerting toxicity. Both the EpOMEs and the DiHOMEs were also recently shown to have neutrophil chemotactic activity. We evaluated whether the neutrophil respiratory burst, a surge of oxidant production thought to play an important role in limiting certain bacterial and fungal infections, is modulated by members of the EpOME metabolic pathway. We present evidence that the DiHOMEs suppress the neutrophil respiratory burst by a mechanism distinct from that of respiratory burst inhibitors such as cyclosporin H or lipoxin A4, which inhibit multiple aspects of neutrophil activation.

  17. Insertion polymorphisms of SINE200 retrotransposons within speciation islands of Anopheles gambiae molecular forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tu Zhijian

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background SINEs (Short INterspersed Elements are homoplasy-free and co-dominant genetic markers which are considered to represent useful tools for population genetic studies, and could help clarifying the speciation processes ongoing within the major malaria vector in Africa, Anopheles gambiae s.s. Here, we report the results of the analysis of the insertion polymorphism of a nearly 200 bp-long SINE (SINE200 within genome areas of high differentiation (i.e. "speciation islands" of M and S A. gambiae molecular forms. Methods A SINE-PCR approach was carried out on thirteen SINE200 insertions in M and S females collected along the whole range of distribution of A. gambiae s.s. in sub-Saharan Africa. Ten specimens each for Anopheles arabiensis, Anopheles melas, Anopheles quadriannulatus A and 15 M/S hybrids from laboratory crosses were also analysed. Results Eight loci were successfully amplified and were found to be specific for A. gambiae s.s.: 5 on 2L chromosome and one on X chromosome resulted monomorphic, while two loci positioned respectively on 2R (i.e. S200 2R12D and X (i.e. S200 X6.1 chromosomes were found to be polymorphic. S200 2R12D was homozygote for the insertion in most S-form samples, while intermediate levels of polymorphism were shown in M-form, resulting in an overall high degree of genetic differentiation between molecular forms (Fst = 0.46 p S200 X6.1 was found to be fixed in all M- and absent in all S-specimens. This led to develop a novel easy-to-use PCR approach to straightforwardly identify A. gambiae molecular forms. This novel approach allows to overcome the constraints associated with markers on the rDNA region commonly used for M and S identification. In fact, it is based on a single copy and irreversible SINE200 insertion and, thus, is not subjected to peculiar evolutionary patterns affecting rDNA markers, e.g. incomplete homogenization of the arrays through concerted evolution and/or mixtures of M and S IGS

  18. Clinical microfluidics for neutrophil genomics and proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotz, Kenneth T; Xiao, Wenzong; Miller-Graziano, Carol; Qian, Wei-Jun; Russom, Aman; Warner, Elizabeth A; Moldawer, Lyle L; De, Asit; Bankey, Paul E; Petritis, Brianne O; Camp, David G; Rosenbach, Alan E; Goverman, Jeremy; Fagan, Shawn P; Brownstein, Bernard H; Irimia, Daniel; Xu, Weihong; Wilhelmy, Julie; Mindrinos, Michael N; Smith, Richard D; Davis, Ronald W; Tompkins, Ronald G; Toner, Mehmet

    2010-09-01

    Neutrophils have key roles in modulating the immune response. We present a robust methodology for rapidly isolating neutrophils directly from whole blood with 'on-chip' processing for mRNA and protein isolation for genomics and proteomics. We validate this device with an ex vivo stimulation experiment and by comparison with standard bulk isolation methodologies. Last, we implement this tool as part of a near-patient blood processing system within a multi-center clinical study of the immune response to severe trauma and burn injury. The preliminary results from a small cohort of subjects in our study and healthy controls show a unique time-dependent gene expression pattern clearly demonstrating the ability of this tool to discriminate temporal transcriptional events of neutrophils within a clinical setting.

  19. Granulopoiesis and granules of human neutrophils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cowland, Jack B; Borregaard, Niels

    2016-01-01

    Granules are essential for the ability of neutrophils to fulfill their role in innate immunity. Granule membranes contain proteins that react to environmental cues directing neutrophils to sites of infection and initiate generation of bactericidal oxygen species. Granules are densely packed...... with proteins that contribute to microbial killing when liberated to the phagosome or extracellularly. Granules are, however, highly heterogeneous and are traditionally subdivided into azurophil granules, specific granules, and gelatinase granules in addition to secretory vesicles. This review will address...... issues pertinent to formation of granules, which is a process intimately connected to maturation of neutrophils from their precursors in the bone marrow. We further discuss possible mechanisms by which decisions are made regarding sorting of proteins to constitutive secretion or storage in granules...

  20. Major neutrophil functions subverted by Porphyromonas gingivalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingar Olsen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (neutrophils constitute an integrated component of the innate host defense in the gingival sulcus/periodontal pocket. However, the keystone periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis has in the course of evolution developed a number of capacities to subvert this defense to its own advantage. The present review describes the major mechanisms that P. gingivalis uses to subvert neutrophil homeostasis, such as impaired recruitment and chemotaxis, resistance to granule-derived antimicrobial agents and to the oxidative burst, inhibition of phagocytic killing while promoting a nutritionally favorable inflammatory response, and delay of neutrophil apoptosis. Studies in animal models have shown that at least some of these mechanisms promote the dysbiotic transformation of the periodontal polymicrobial community, thereby leading to inflammation and bone loss. It is apparent that neutrophil–P. gingivalis interactions and subversion of innate immunity are key contributing factors to the pathogenesis of periodontal disease.

  1. Neutrophils in Homeostasis, Immunity, and Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolás-Ávila, José Ángel; Adrover, José M; Hidalgo, Andrés

    2017-01-17

    Neutrophils were among the first leukocytes described and visualized by early immunologists. Prominent effector functions during infection and sterile inflammation classically placed them low in the immune tree as rapid, mindless aggressors with poor regulatory functions. This view is currently under reassessment as we uncover new aspects of their life cycle and identify transcriptional and phenotypic diversity that endows them with regulatory properties that extend beyond their lifetime in the circulation. These properties are revealing unanticipated roles for neutrophils in supporting homeostasis, as well as complex disease states such as cancer. We focus this review on these emerging functions in order to define the true roles of neutrophils in homeostasis, immunity, and disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Quantitative proteomics reveals differential biological processes in healthy neonatal cord neutrophils and adult neutrophils

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Jiang

    2014-06-11

    Neonatal neutrophils are characterized by the immaturity of bactericidal mechanisms that contributes largely to neonatal mortality. However, underlying molecular mechanism associated with the immaturity remains incompletely understood. In this study, we performed comparative proteomic analysis on neonatal neutrophils derived from human cord blood and adult peripheral neutrophils. A total of 1332 proteins were identified and quantified, and 127 proteins were characterized as differentially expressed between adult and cord neutrophils. The differentially expressed proteins are mapped in KEGG pathways into five clusters and indicated impaired functions of neonatal neutrophils in proteasome, lysosome, phagosome, and leukocyte transendothelial migration. In particular, many proteins associated with NETosis, a critical mechanism for antimicrobial process and auto-clearance, were also found to be downregulated in cord neutrophils. This study represents a first comparative proteome profiling of neonatal and adult neutrophils, and provides a global view of differentially expressed proteome for enhancing our understanding of their various functional difference. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. [Ultrastructural location of enzymes in peripheral blood neutrophils and in cerebrospinal fluid neutrophils in neuroinfections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skotarczak, B

    1993-01-01

    Using cytochemical methods the location and activity were determined of alkaline phosphatase, ATP-ase and succinate dehydrogenase as representative enzymes for the metabolic processes in neutrophils isolated from blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with meningococcal meningoencephalitis as compared with peripheral blood neutrophils in a control group. The study showed presence of phosphatase on the membranes of many intracellular structures. The activity of the enzymes was higher than in the control group in the membranes of neutrophils in blood and CSF. This is explained as an effect of action of the chemotactic factor on the cell membrane and activation of the cell to movements and phagocytosis. ATP-ase activity in peripheral blood neutrophils in controls was found in all membranous structures in the cell. However, in peripheral blood neutrophils and CSF neutrophils in the acute stage of the disease the active enzyme was noted, in the first place, in cell membranes and digesting vacuoles, which reflected probably the direction of metabolic processes for phagocytosis and destroying of bacteria. The activity of succinate dehydrogenase was found in mitochondrial membranes. Peripheral blood and CSF neutrophils showed a high activity of the enzyme. In the CSF cells in acute phase atypical sites of succinate dehydrogenase activity were noted, which was explained as a sign of cell destruction.

  4. Metabolic requirements for neutrophil extracellular traps formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Espinosa, Oscar; Rojas-Espinosa, Oscar; Moreno-Altamirano, María Maximina Bertha; López-Villegas, Edgar Oliver; Sánchez-García, Francisco Javier

    2015-01-01

    As part of the innate immune response, neutrophils are at the forefront of defence against infection, resolution of inflammation and wound healing. They are the most abundant leucocytes in the peripheral blood, have a short lifespan and an estimated turnover of 1010 to 1011 cells per day. Neutrophils efficiently clear microbial infections by phagocytosis and by oxygen-dependent and oxygen-independent mechanisms. In 2004, a new neutrophil anti-microbial mechanism was described, the release of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) composed of DNA, histones and anti-microbial peptides. Several microorganisms, bacterial products, as well as pharmacological stimuli such as PMA, were shown to induce NETs. Neutrophils contain relatively few mitochondria, and derive most of their energy from glycolysis. In this scenario we aimed to analyse some of the metabolic requirements for NET formation. Here it is shown that NETs formation is strictly dependent on glucose and to a lesser extent on glutamine, that Glut-1, glucose uptake, and glycolysis rate increase upon PMA stimulation, and that NET formation is inhibited by the glycolysis inhibitor, 2-deoxy-glucose, and to a lesser extent by the ATP synthase inhibitor oligomycin. Moreover, when neutrophils were exposed to PMA in glucose-free medium for 3 hr, they lost their characteristic polymorphic nuclei but did not release NETs. However, if glucose (but not pyruvate) was added at this time, NET release took place within minutes, suggesting that NET formation could be metabolically divided into two phases; the first, independent from exogenous glucose (chromatin decondensation) and, the second (NET release), strictly dependent on exogenous glucose and glycolysis. PMID:25545227

  5. [Hypochondria sine materia as a psychosomatic problem: a model of hypochondriac disorders realized in the cutaneous sphere].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smulevich, A B; Dorozhenok, I Iu; Romanov, D V; L'vov, A N

    2012-01-01

    Hypochondria sine materia is a disorder with physical complains corresponding to no any somatic diagnosis. Hypochondria sine materia is a more complicated psychopathological condition compared to hypochondria cum materia. Hypochondria sine materia could be diagnosed not only in psychiatry, but mainly in general medicine. It is especially prevalent in dermatology. As a result of analysis of hypochondriac disorders involving cutaneous sphere in patients without dermatological diseases, a binary model of psychodermatological syndromes presenting with hypochondria sine materia in dermatology was developed. The binary structure of the psychodermatological syndromes includes secondary psychiatric symptoms based on primary coenesthesiopathic phenomena. The heterogeneous psychodermatological syndromes (cutaneous organ neurosis, impulsive excoriations syndrome, circumscripta hypochondria, coenesthesiopathic paranoia) could be arranged in a continuum of consecutively worsening conditions from neurotic to psychotic severity register. The syndromes differ in clinical and social prognosis requiring different approach to diagnosis and treatment.

  6. Sine wave gating silicon single-photon detectors for multiphoton entanglement experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Nan; Jiang, Wen-Hao; Chen, Luo-Kan; Fang, Yu-Qiang; Li, Zheng-Da; Liang, Hao; Chen, Yu-Ao; Zhang, Jun; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2017-08-01

    Silicon single-photon detectors (SPDs) are the key devices for detecting single photons in the visible wavelength range. Here we present high detection efficiency silicon SPDs dedicated to the generation of multiphoton entanglement based on the technique of high-frequency sine wave gating. The silicon single-photon avalanche diode components are acquired by disassembling 6 commercial single-photon counting modules (SPCMs). Using the new quenching electronics, the average detection efficiency of SPDs is increased from 68.6% to 73.1% at a wavelength of 785 nm. These sine wave gating SPDs are then applied in a four-photon entanglement experiment, and the four-fold coincidence count rate is increased by 30% without degrading its visibility compared with the original SPCMs.

  7. The long (LINEs) and the short (SINEs) of it: altered methylation as a precursor to toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnell, Ammie N; Goodman, Jay I

    2003-10-01

    Although once thought of as "junk" DNA, the importance of interspersed elements in the genome has become increasingly appreciated in recent years. In a broad sense these are collectively referred to as transposable elements, which encompass both transposons and retrotransposons. The latter include long interspersed nuclear elements (LINEs) and short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs). Expression of these elements leads to genetic instability. Therefore, it is important that they remain transcriptionally silenced, and DNA methylation plays a key role in this regard. A framework for understanding the possible interplay between altered DNA methylation, an epigenetic change, and mutational events is presented. A case is made as to how retrotransposable elements, specifically LINEs and SINEs, are likely to emerge as key players in furthering our understanding of mechanisms underlying a variety of toxicities, including carcinogenesis but not limited to this endpoint.

  8. Analysis, Synthesis, and Classification of Nonlinear Systems Using Synchronized Swept-Sine Method for Audio Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Antonin; Simon, Laurent; Lotton, Pierrick

    2010-12-01

    A new method of identification, based on an input synchronized exponential swept-sine signal, is used to analyze and synthesize nonlinear audio systems like overdrive pedals for guitar. Two different pedals are studied; the first one exhibiting a strong influence of the input signal level on its input/output law and the second one exhibiting a weak influence of this input signal level. The Synchronized Swept Sine method leads to a Generalized Polynomial Hammerstein model equivalent to the pedals under test. The behaviors of both pedals are illustrated through model-based resynthesized signals. Moreover, it is also shown that this method leads to a criterion allowing the classification of the nonlinear systems under test, according to the influence of the input signal levels on their input/output law.

  9. Generation and propagation of a sine-azimuthal wavefront modulated Gaussian beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lao, Guanming; Zhang, Zhaohui; Luo, Meilan; Zhao, Daomu

    2016-07-21

    We introduce a method for modulating the Gaussian beam by means of sine-azimuthal wavefront and carry out the experimental generation. The analytical propagation formula of such a beam passing through a paraxial ABCD optical system is derived, by which the intensity properties of the sine-azimuthal wavefront modulated Gaussian (SWMG) beam are examined both theoretically and experimentally. Both of the experimental and theoretical results show that the SWMG beam goes through the process from beam splitting to a Gaussian-like profile, which is closely determined by the phase factor and the propagation distance. Appropriate phase factor and short distance are helpful for the splitting of beam. However, in the cases of large phase factor and focal plane, the intensity distributions tend to take a Gaussian form. Such unique features may be of importance in particle trapping and medical applications.

  10. STIMA DE SINE – ELEMENT IMPORTANT ÎN PROIECTAREA CARIEREI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina PLATON

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Savanţii susţin că doar o persoană cu stimă de sine înaltă are şanse să-şi dea seama de propriul potenţial. În procesul de orientare în carieră stima de sine va ajuta persoana să ia decizii corecte, să se autoevalueze şi să acţioneze în sensul aspiraţiilor sale.SELF-ESTEEM – AN IMPORTANT ELEMENT IN THE CAREER PLANNING PROCESSThe scientists support the idea about the awakening that is happening throughout the world to the fact that a human being cannot realize his potential without a healthy self-esteem. A high self-esteem will help a person to make decisions, self-assessment and to act according to his aspirations in the career planning process.

  11. Analysis, Synthesis, and Classification of Nonlinear Systems Using Synchronized Swept-Sine Method for Audio Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novak Antonin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A new method of identification, based on an input synchronized exponential swept-sine signal, is used to analyze and synthesize nonlinear audio systems like overdrive pedals for guitar. Two different pedals are studied; the first one exhibiting a strong influence of the input signal level on its input/output law and the second one exhibiting a weak influence of this input signal level. The Synchronized Swept Sine method leads to a Generalized Polynomial Hammerstein model equivalent to the pedals under test. The behaviors of both pedals are illustrated through model-based resynthesized signals. Moreover, it is also shown that this method leads to a criterion allowing the classification of the nonlinear systems under test, according to the influence of the input signal levels on their input/output law.

  12. Correspondence between geometrical and differential definitions of the sine and cosine functions and connection with kinematics

    CERN Document Server

    Petrache, Horia I

    2011-01-01

    In classical physics, the familiar sine and cosine functions appear in two forms: (1) geometrical, in the treatment of vectors such as forces and velocities, and (2) differential, as solutions of oscillation and wave equations. These two forms correspond to two different definitions of trigonometric functions, one geometrical using right triangles and unit circles, and the other employing differential equations. Although the two definitions must be equivalent, this equivalence is not demonstrated in textbooks. In this manuscript, the equivalence between the geometrical and the differential definition is presented assuming no a priori knowledge of the properties of sine and cosine functions. We start with the usual length projections on the unit circle and use elementary geometry and elementary calculus to arrive to harmonic differential equations. This more general and abstract treatment not only reveals the equivalence of the two definitions but also provides an instructive perspective on circular and harmon...

  13. A framework for backbone experimental tracking : Piezoelectric actuators, stop-sine signal and Kalman filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyret, Nicolas; Dion, Jean-Luc; Chevallier, Gael

    2016-10-01

    This paper deals with the use of piezoelectric patches for nonlinear dynamic identification. The patches are glued on the structure to identify amplitude-dependent damping and natural frequency; their positions are defined in order to perform the excitation concentrated on the first bending mode. Their locations on the structure allow to perform "stop sines" tests, as, unlike electrodynamic shakers, piezos are embedded on structures and do not modify the studied structure after the excitation signal is switched off. Although, despite the piezo and the stop-sine, the signal is still modulated by other frequency components or polluted by random signals, a post processing with the extended Kalman Filter allows a very good determination of the modal damping and the natural frequency, especially when they depends on the free vibration amplitude.

  14. Research of sine waveguide slow-wave structure for a 220-GHz backward wave oscillator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Xiong; Wei Yan-Yu; Shen Fei; Huang Min-Zhi; Tang Tao; Duan Zhao-Yun; Gong Yu-Bin

    2012-01-01

    A watt-class backward wave oscillator is proposed,using the concise sine waveguide slow-wave structure combined with a pencil electron beam to operate at 220 GHz.Firstly,the dispersion curve of the sine waveguide is calculated,then,the oscillation frequency and operating voltage of the device are predicted and the circuit transmission loss is calculated.Finally,the particle-in-cell simulation method is used to forecast its radiation performance.The results show that this novel backward wave oscillator can produce over 1-W continuous wave power output in a frequency range from 210 GHz to 230 GHz.Therefore,it will be considered as a very promising high-power millimeter-wave to terahertz-wave radiation source.

  15. Advanced sine wave modulation of continuous wave laser system for atmospheric CO2 differential absorption measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Campbell, Joel F; Nehrir, Amin R

    2014-01-01

    A CW lidar system using sine waves modulated by ML pseudo random noise codes is described, which uses a time shifting approach to separate online and offline wavelength transmitted and received channels and make multiple, simultaneous online/offline differential absorption measurements. Unlike the pure ML sequence, this technique is useful in hardware that is band pass filtered as the IM sine wave carrier shifts the main power band. Both amplitude and Phase Shift Keying (PSK) modulated IM carriers are investigated that exibit optimal autocorrelation properties down to one cycle per code bit with zero off mainlobe values to within numerical precision. In addition, a method is presented to bandwidth limit the ML sequence based on a filter implemented in terms of Jacobi theta functions that does not significantly degrade the resolution or introduce side lobes as a means of reducing aliasing and IM carrier bandwidth.

  16. Efficient Sampling of Band-limited Signals from Sine Wave Crossings

    CERN Document Server

    Selva, J

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an efficient method for reconstructing a band-limited signal in the discrete domain from its crossings with a sine wave. The method makes it possible to design A/D converters that only deliver the crossing timings, which are then used to interpolate the input signal at arbitrary instants. Potentially, it may allow for reductions in power consumption and complexity, as well as for an increase in the achievable sampling bandwidth. The reconstruction in the discrete domain is based on a recently-proposed modification of the Lagrange interpolator, which is readily implementable with linear complexity and efficiently, given that it re-uses known schemes for variable fractional-delay (VFD) filters. As a spin-off, the method allows one to perform spectral analysis from sine wave crossings with the complexity of the FFT. Finally, the results in the paper are validated in a numerical example.

  17. Anti-neutrophil cytoplasm autoantibodies (ANCA) in autoimmune liver diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roozendaal, C.; Kallenberg, Cees

    1999-01-01

    Anti-neutrophil cytoplasm antibodies (ANCA) are autoantibodies directed against cytoplasmic constituents of neutrophil granulocytes and monocytes. ANCA have been detected in serum from patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (mainly ulcerative colitis) and autoimmune mediated liver diseases (mainl

  18. Neutrophils: important contributors to tumor progression and metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swierczak, Agnieszka; Mouchemore, Kellie A; Hamilton, John A; Anderson, Robin L

    2015-12-01

    The presence of neutrophils in tumors has traditionally been considered to be indicative of a failed immune response against cancers. However, there is now evidence showing that neutrophils can promote tumor growth, and increasingly, the data support an active role for neutrophils in tumor progression to distant metastasis. Neutrophils have been implicated in promoting metastasis in cancer patients, where neutrophil numbers and neutrophil-related factors and functions have been associated with progressive disease. Nevertheless, the role of neutrophils in tumors, both at the primary and secondary sites, remains controversial, with some studies reporting their anti-tumor functions. This review will focus on the data demonstrating a role for neutrophils in both tumor growth and metastasis and will attempt to clarify the discrepancies in the literature.

  19. Multiple source genes of HAmo SINE actively expanded and ongoing retroposition in cyprinid genomes relying on its partner LINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gan Xiaoni

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We recently characterized HAmo SINE and its partner LINE in silver carp and bighead carp based on hybridization capture of repetitive elements from digested genomic DNA in solution using a bead-probe 1. To reveal the distribution and evolutionary history of SINEs and LINEs in cyprinid genomes, we performed a multi-species search for HAmo SINE and its partner LINE using the bead-probe capture and internal-primer-SINE polymerase chain reaction (PCR techniques. Results Sixty-seven full-size and 125 internal-SINE sequences (as well as 34 full-size and 9 internal sequences previously reported in bighead carp and silver carp from 17 species of the family Cyprinidae were aligned as well as 14 new isolated HAmoL2 sequences. Four subfamilies (type I, II, III and IV, which were divided based on diagnostic nucleotides in the tRNA-unrelated region, expanded preferentially within a certain lineage or within the whole family of Cyprinidae as multiple active source genes. The copy numbers of HAmo SINEs were estimated to vary from 104 to 106 in cyprinid genomes by quantitative RT-PCR. Over one hundred type IV members were identified and characterized in the primitive cyprinid Danio rerio genome but only tens of sequences were found to be similar with type I, II and III since the type IV was the oldest subfamily and its members dispersed in almost all investigated cyprinid fishes. For determining the taxonomic distribution of HAmo SINE, inter-primer SINE PCR was conducted in other non-cyprinid fishes, the results shows that HAmo SINE- related sequences may disperse in other families of order Cypriniforms but absent in other orders of bony fishes: Siluriformes, Polypteriformes, Lepidosteiformes, Acipenseriformes and Osteoglossiforms. Conclusions Depending on HAmo LINE2, multiple source genes (subfamilies of HAmo SINE actively expanded and underwent retroposition in a certain lineage or within the whole family of Cyprinidae. From this

  20. Exact Travelling Solutions of Discrete sine-Gordon Equation via Extended Tanh-Function Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Chao-Qing; ZHANG Jie-Fang

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we generalize the extended tanh-function approach, which was used to find new exact travelling wave solutions of nonlinear partial differential equations or coupled nonlinear partial differential equations, to nonlinear differential-difference equations. As illustration, two series of exact travelling wave solutions of the discrete sine-Gordon equation are obtained by means of the extended tanh-function approach.

  1. UNIFORM ANALYTIC CONSTRUCTION OF WAVELET ANALYSIS FILTERS BASED ON SINE AND COSINE TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建平; 唐远炎; 严中洪; 张万萍

    2001-01-01

    Based on sine and cosine functions, the compactly supported orthogonal wavelet filter coefficients with arbitrary length are constructed for the first time. When/N = 2k- 1 and N = 2k , the unified analytic constructions of orthogonal wavelet filters are put forward,respectively. The famous Daubechies filter and some other well-known wavelet filters are tested by the proposed novel method which is very useful for wavelet theory research and many application areas such as pattern recognition.

  2. Interconnection between static regimes in the LJJs described by the double sine-Gordon equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanasova, P. Kh; Zemlyanaya, E. V.; Shukrinov, Yu M.

    2012-11-01

    The second harmonic contribution to the current-phase relation changes the properties of the static magnetic flux distributions in the long Josephson junction (LJJ) and inspires new homogenious and fluxon static states. We study stability properties and bifurcations of these static regimes within the frame of a model described by the double sine-Gordon equation. The critical curves behavior and the interconnection between different types of magnetic flux distributions are analyzed.

  3. [Short interspersed repetitive sequences (SINEs) and their use as a phylogenetic tool].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramerov, D A; Vasetskiĭ, N S

    2009-01-01

    The data on one of the most common repetitive elements of eukaryotic genomes, short interspersed elements (SINEs), are reviewed. Their structure, origin, and functioning in the genome are discussed. The variation and abundance of these neutral genomic markers makes them a convenient and reliable tool for phylogenetic analysis. The main methods of such analysis are presented, and the potential and limitations of this approach are discussed using specific examples.

  4. The RNA polymerase dictates ORF1 requirement and timing of LINE and SINE retrotransposition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily N Kroutter

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Mobile elements comprise close to one half of the mass of the human genome. Only LINE-1 (L1, an autonomous non-Long Terminal Repeat (LTR retrotransposon, and its non-autonomous partners-such as the retropseudogenes, SVA, and the SINE, Alu-are currently active human retroelements. Experimental evidence shows that Alu retrotransposition depends on L1 ORF2 protein, which has led to the presumption that LINEs and SINEs share the same basic insertional mechanism. Our data demonstrate clear differences in the time required to generate insertions between marked Alu and L1 elements. In our tissue culture system, the process of L1 insertion requires close to 48 hours. In contrast to the RNA pol II-driven L1, we find that pol III transcribed elements (Alu, the rodent SINE B2, and the 7SL, U6 and hY sequences can generate inserts within 24 hours or less. Our analyses demonstrate that the observed retrotransposition timing does not dictate insertion rate and is independent of the type of reporter cassette utilized. The additional time requirement by L1 cannot be directly attributed to differences in transcription, transcript length, splicing processes, ORF2 protein production, or the ability of functional ORF2p to reach the nucleus. However, the insertion rate of a marked Alu transcript drastically drops when driven by an RNA pol II promoter (CMV and the retrotransposition timing parallels that of L1. Furthermore, the "pol II Alu transcript" behaves like the processed pseudogenes in our retrotransposition assay, requiring supplementation with L1 ORF1p in addition to ORF2p. We postulate that the observed differences in retrotransposition kinetics of these elements are dictated by the type of RNA polymerase generating the transcript. We present a model that highlights the critical differences of LINE and SINE transcripts that likely define their retrotransposition timing.

  5. Hilbertian sine as an absolute measure of Bayesian inference in ISR, homeland security, medicine, and defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jannson, Tomasz; Wang, Wenjian; Hodelin, Juan; Forrester, Thomas; Romanov, Volodymyr; Kostrzewski, Andrew

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, Bayesian Binary Sensing (BBS) is discussed as an effective tool for Bayesian Inference (BI) evaluation in interdisciplinary areas such as ISR (and, C3I), Homeland Security, QC, medicine, defense, and many others. In particular, Hilbertian Sine (HS) as an absolute measure of BI, is introduced, while avoiding relativity of decision threshold identification, as in the case of traditional measures of BI, related to false positives and false negatives.

  6. Relation between Type-II Discrete Sine Transform and Type -I Discrete Hartley Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Narayan Murty

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a relation for finding type-II discrete sine transform (DST from type-I discrete Hartley transform (DHT has been derived. The transform length N is taken as even. Using this relation, the (N - 1 output components of DST can be realized from DHT. The DHT is one of the transforms used for converting data in time domain into frequency domain using only real values.

  7. A Family of Interesting Exact Solutions of the Sine-Gordon Equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG De-Bin; LIU Zeng-Rong; WANG Li-Lian

    2000-01-01

    By using AKNS [Phys. Rev. Lett. 31 (1973) 125] system and introducing the wave function, a family of interesting exact solutions of the sine-Gordon equation are constructed. These solutions seem to be some soliton, kink, and anti-kink ones respectively for the different choice of the spectrum, whereas due to the interaction between two traveling-waves they have some properties different from usual soliton, kink, and anti-kink solutions.

  8. Boundary states and finite size effects in sine-Gordon model with Neumann boundary condition

    CERN Document Server

    Bajnok, Z; Takács, G

    2001-01-01

    The sine-Gordon model with Neumann boundary condition is investigated. Using the bootstrap principle the spectrum of boundary bound states is established. Somewhat surprisingly it is found that Coleman-Thun diagrams and bound state creation may coexist. A framework to describe finite size effects in boundary integrable theories is developed and used together with the truncated conformal space approach to confirm the bound states and reflection factors derived by bootstrap.

  9. GROWTH ESTIMATES FOR SINE-TYPE-FUNCTIONS AND APPLICATIONS TO RIESZ BASES OF EXPONENTIALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alexander M. Lindner

    2002-01-01

    We present explicit estimates for the growth of sine-type-functions as well as for the derivatives at theirzero sets, thus obtaining explicit constants in a result of Levin. The estimates are then used to derive explicitlower bounds for exponential Riesz bases, as they arise in Avdonin's Theorem on 1/4 in the mean or in alower bounds of exponential Riesz bases is desirable.

  10. Transcranial magnetic stimulation with a half-sine wave pulse elicits direction-specific effects in human motor cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Nikolai H

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS commonly uses so-called monophasic pulses where the initial rapidly changing current flow is followed by a critically dampened return current. It has been shown that a monophasic TMS pulse preferentially excites different cortical circuits in the human motor hand area (M1-HAND, if the induced tissue current has a posterior-to-anterior (PA or anterior-to-posterior (AP direction. Here we tested whether similar direction-specific effects could be elicited in M1-HAND using TMS pulses with a half-sine wave configuration. Results In 10 young participants, we applied half-sine pulses to the right M1-HAND which elicited PA or AP currents with respect to the orientation of the central sulcus. Measurements of the motor evoked potential (MEP revealed that PA half-sine stimulation resulted in lower resting motor threshold (RMT than AP stimulation. When stimulus intensity (SI was gradually increased as percentage of maximal stimulator output, the stimulus–response curve (SRC of MEP amplitude showed a leftward shift for PA as opposed to AP half-sine stimulation. Further, MEP latencies were approximately 1 ms shorter for PA relative to AP half-sine stimulation across the entire SI range tested. When adjusting SI to the respective RMT of PA and AP stimulation, the direction-specific differences in MEP latencies persisted, while the gain function of MEP amplitudes was comparable for PA and AP stimulation. Conclusions Using half-sine pulse configuration, single-pulse TMS elicits consistent direction-specific effects in M1-HAND that are similar to TMS with monophasic pulses. The longer MEP latency for AP half-sine stimulation suggests that PA and AP half-sine stimulation preferentially activates different sets of cortical neurons that are involved in the generation of different corticospinal descending volleys.

  11. Phagocytosis and Killing of Staphylococcus aureus by Human Neutrophils

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Thea; Porter, Adeline R.; Kennedy, Adam D.; Kobayashi, Scott D.; Frank R DeLeo

    2014-01-01

    Neutrophils are essential for host defense against Staphylococcus aureus infections. Although significant progress has been made, our understanding of neutrophil interactions with S. aureus remains incomplete. To provide a more comprehensive view of this process, we investigated phagocytosis and killing of S. aureus by human neutrophils using varied assay conditions in vitro. A greater percentage of bacteria were internalized by adherent neutrophils compared to those in suspension, and unexpe...

  12. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis is resistant to killing by human neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laws, Thomas R; Davey, Martin S; Green, Christopher; Cooper, Ian A M; Titball, Richard W; Lukaszewski, Roman A

    2011-06-01

    The interaction between human neutrophils and the Gram negative gastrointestinal pathogen Yersinia pseudotuberculosis was investigated in vitro. Despite the wealth of data describing how Yersinia can affect the function of neutrophils, there are no published studies describing if neutrophil cells can affect the viability of Y. pseudotuberculosis. The wild-type IP32953 strain of Y. pseudotuberculosis was found to be resistant to killing by human neutrophils. Confocal examination and flow-cytometric analysis of this interaction revealed that bacteria were taken up.

  13. Neutrophil-induced injury of rat pulmonary alveolar epithelial cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Simon, R H; DeHart, P D; Todd, R F

    1986-01-01

    The damage to pulmonary alveolar epithelial cells that occurs in many inflammatory conditions is thought to be caused in part by phagocytic neutrophils. To investigate this process, we exposed monolayers of purified rat alveolar epithelial cells to stimulated human neutrophils and measured cytotoxicity using a 51Cr-release assay. We found that stimulated neutrophils killed epithelial cells by a process that did not require neutrophil-generated reactive oxygen metabolites. Pretreatment of neut...

  14. The Molecular Mechanisms of Glucocorticoids-Mediated Neutrophil Survival

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Neutrophil-dominated inflammation plays an important role in many airway diseases including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), bronchiolitis and cystic fibrosis. In cases of asthma where neutrophil-dominated inflammation is a major contributing factor to the disease, treatment with corticosteroids can be problematic as corticosteroids have been shown to promote neutrophil survival which, in turn, accentuates neutrophilic inflammation. In light of such cases, novel targeted ...

  15. Noncommutative (generalized) sine-Gordon/massive Thirring correspondence, integrability and solitons

    CERN Document Server

    Blas, H

    2010-01-01

    Some properties of the correspondence between the non-commutative versions of the (generalized) sine-Gordon (NCGSG$_{1,2}$) and the massive Thirring (NCGMT$_{1,2}$) models are studied. Our method relies on the master Lagrangian approach to deal with dual theories. The master Lagrangians turn out to be the NC versions of the so-called affine Toda model coupled to matter fields (NCATM$_{1,2}$), in which the Toda field $g$ belongs to certain subgroups of $ GL(3)$, and the matter fields lie in the higher grading directions of an affine Lie algebra. Depending on the form of $g$ one arrives at two different NC versions of the NCGSG$_{1,2}$/NCGMT$_{1,2}$ correspondence. In the NCGSG$_{1,2}$ sectors, through consistent reduction procedures, we find NC versions of some well-known models, such as the NC sine-Gordon (NCSG$_{1,2}$) (Lechtenfeld et al. and Grisaru-Penati proposals, respectively), NC (bosonized) Bukhvostov-Lipatov (NCbBL$_{1,2}$) and NC double sine-Gordon (NCDSG$_{1,2}$) models. The NCGMT$_{1,2}$ models co...

  16. Solitons, kinks and extended hadron model based on the generalized sine-Gordon theory

    CERN Document Server

    Blas, H

    2007-01-01

    The solitons and kinks of the generalized $sl(3, \\IC)$ sine-Gordon (GSG) model are explicitly obtained through the hybrid of the Hirota and dressing methods in which the {\\sl tau} functions play an important role. The various properties are investigated, such as the potential vacuum structure, the soliton and kink solutions, and the soliton masses formulae. As a reduced submodel we obtain the double sine-Gordon model. Moreover, we provide the algebraic construction of the $sl(3, \\IC)$ affine Toda model coupled to matter (Dirac spinor) (ATM) and through a gauge fixing procedure we obtain the classical version of the generalized $sl(3, \\IC)$ sine-Gordon model (cGSG) which completely decouples from the Dirac spinors. In the spinor sector we are left with Dirac fields coupled to cGSG fields. Based on the equivalence between the U(1) vector and topological currents it is shown the confinement of the spinors inside the solitons and kinks of the cGSG model providing an extended hadron model for "quark" confinement.

  17. Solitons, kinks and extended hadron model based on the generalized sine-Gordon theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blas, Harold [Departamentos de Matematica e Fisica - ICET, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, Av. Fernando Correa, s/n, Coxipo, 78060-900, Cuiaba - MT (Brazil); Carrion, Hector L. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Caixa Postal 66318, 05315-970, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2007-01-15

    The solitons and kinks of the generalized sl(3,C) sine-Gordon (GSG) model are explicitly obtained through the hybrid of the Hirota and dressing methods in which the tau functions play an important role. The various properties are investigated, such as the potential vacuum structure, the soliton and kink solutions, and the soliton masses formulae. As a reduced submodel we obtain the double sine-Gordon model. Moreover, we provide the algebraic construction of the sl(3,C) affine Toda model coupled to matter (Dirac spinor) (ATM) and through a gauge fixing procedure we obtain the classical version of the generalized sl(3,C) sine-Gordon model (cGSG) which completely decouples from the Dirac spinors. In the spinor sector we are left with Dirac fields coupled to cGSG fields. Based on the equivalence between the U(1) vector and topological currents it is shown the confinement of the spinors inside the solitons and kinks of the cGSG model providing an extended hadron model for 'quark' confinement.

  18. Plane wave holonomies in quantum gravity. II. A sine wave solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neville, Donald E.

    2015-08-01

    This paper constructs an approximate sinusoidal wave packet solution to the equations of canonical gravity. The theory uses holonomy-flux variables with support on a lattice (LHF =lattice-holonomy flux ). There is an SU(2) holonomy on each edge of the LHF simplex, and the goal is to study the behavior of these holonomies under the influence of a passing gravitational wave. The equations are solved in a small sine approximation: holonomies are expanded in powers of sines and terms beyond sin2 are dropped; also, fields vary slowly from vertex to vertex. The wave is unidirectional and linearly polarized. The Hilbert space is spanned by a set of coherent states tailored to the symmetry of the plane wave case. Fixing the spatial diffeomorphisms is equivalent to fixing the spatial interval between vertices of the loop quantum gravity lattice. This spacing can be chosen such that the eigenvalues of the triad operators are large, as required in the small sine limit, even though the holonomies are not large. Appendices compute the energy of the wave, estimate the lifetime of the coherent state packet, discuss circular polarization and coarse-graining, and determine the behavior of the spinors used in the U(N) SHO realization of LQG.

  19. Short interspersed elements (SINEs) are a major source of canine genomic diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Kirkness, Ewen F

    2005-12-01

    SINEs are retrotransposons that have enjoyed remarkable reproductive success during the course of mammalian evolution, and have played a major role in shaping mammalian genomes. Previously, an analysis of survey-sequence data from an individual dog (a poodle) indicated that canine genomes harbor a high frequency of alleles that differ only by the absence or presence of a SINEC_Cf repeat. Comparison of this survey-sequence data with a draft genome sequence of a distinct dog (a boxer) has confirmed this prediction, and revealed the chromosomal coordinates for >10,000 loci that are bimorphic for SINEC_Cf insertions. Analysis of SINE insertion sites from the genomes of nine additional dogs indicates that 3%-5% are absent from either the poodle or boxer genome sequences--suggesting that an additional 10,000 bimorphic loci could be readily identified in the general dog population. We describe a methodology that can be used to identify these loci, and could be adapted to exploit these bimorphic loci for genotyping purposes. Approximately half of all annotated canine genes contain SINEC_Cf repeats, and these elements are occasionally transcribed. When transcribed in the antisense orientation, they provide splice acceptor sites that can result in incorporation of novel exons. The high frequency of bimorphic SINE insertions in the dog population is predicted to provide numerous examples of allele-specific transcription patterns that will be valuable for the study of differential gene expression among multiple dog breeds.

  20. Retroelements (LINEs and SINEs) in vole genomes: differential distribution in the constitutive heterochromatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, M J; Marchal, J A; Fernández-Espartero, C H; Bullejos, M; Sánchez, A

    2008-01-01

    The chromosomal distribution of mobile genetic elements is scarcely known in Arvicolinae species, but could be of relevance to understand the origin and complex evolution of the sex chromosome heterochromatin. In this work we cloned two retrotransposon sequences, L1 and SINE-B1, from the genome of Chionomys nivalis and investigated their chromosomal distribution on several arvicoline species. Our results demonstrate first that both retroelements are the most abundant repeated DNA sequences in the genome of these species. L1 elements, in most species, are highly accumulated in the sex chromosomes compared to the autosomes. This favoured L1 insertion could have played an important role in the origin of the enlarged heterochromatic blocks existing in the sex chromosomes of some Microtus species. Also, we propose that L1 accumulation on the X heterochromatin could have been the consequence of different, independent and rapid amplification processes acting in each species. SINE elements, however, were completely lacking from the constitutive heterochromatin, either in autosomes or in the heterochromatic blocks of sex chromosomes. These data could indicate that some SINE elements are incompatible with the formation of heterochromatic complexes and hence are necessarily missing from the constitutive heterochromatin.

  1. L1-mediated retrotransposition of murine B1 and B2 SINEs recapitulated in cultured cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewannieux, Marie; Heidmann, Thierry

    2005-06-03

    SINEs are short interspersed nucleotide elements with transpositional activity, present at a high copy number (up to a million) in mammalian genomes. They are 80-400 bp long, non-coding sequences which derive either from the 7SL RNA (e.g. human Alus, murine B1s) or tRNA (e.g. murine B2s) polymerase III-driven genes. We have previously demonstrated that Alus very efficiently divert the enzymatic machinery of the autonomous L1 LINE (long interspersed nucleotide element) retrotransposons to transpose at a high rate. Here we show, using an ex vivo assay for transposition, that both B1 and B2 SINEs can be mobilized by murine LINEs, with the hallmarks of a bona fide retrotransposition process, including target site duplications of varying lengths and integrations into A-rich sequences. Despite different phylogenetic origins, transposition of the tRNA-derived B2 sequences is as efficient as that of the human Alus, whereas that of B1s is 20-100-fold lower despite a similar high copy number of these elements in the mouse genome. We provide evidence, via an appropriate nucleotide substitution within the B1 sequence in a domain essential for its intracellular targeting, that the current B1 SINEs are not optimal for transposition, a feature most probably selected for the host sake in the course of evolution.

  2. A SINE in the genome of the cephalochordate amphioxus is an Alu element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Linda Z.

    2006-01-01

    Transposable elements of about 300 bp, termed “short interspersed nucleotide elements or SINEs are common in eukaryotes. However, Alu elements, SINEs containing restriction sites for the AluI enzyme, have been known only from primates. Here I report the first SINE found in the genome of the cephalochordate, amphioxus. It is an Alu element of 375 bp that does not share substantial identity with any genomic sequences in vertebrates. It was identified because it was located in the FoxD regulatory region in a cosmid derived from one individual, but absent from the two FoxD alleles of BACs from a second individual. However, searches of sequences of BACs and genomic traces from this second individual gave an estimate of 50-100 copies in the amphioxus genome. The finding of an Alu element in amphioxus raises the question of whether Alu elements in amphioxus and primates arose by convergent evolution or by inheritance from a common ancestor. Genome-wide analyses of transposable elements in amphioxus and other chordates such as tunicates, agnathans and cartilaginous fishes could well provide the answer. PMID:16733535

  3. A specific family of interspersed repeats (SINEs facilitates meiotic synapsis in mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Matthew E

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Errors during meiosis that affect synapsis and recombination between homologous chromosomes contribute to aneuploidy and infertility in humans. Despite the clinical relevance of these defects, we know very little about the mechanisms by which homologous chromosomes interact with one another during mammalian meiotic prophase. Further, we remain ignorant of the way in which chromosomal DNA complexes with the meiosis-specific structure that tethers homologs, the synaptonemal complex (SC, and whether specific DNA elements are necessary for this interaction. Results In the present study we utilized chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP and DNA sequencing to demonstrate that the axial elements of the mammalian SC are markedly enriched for a specific family of interspersed repeats, short interspersed elements (SINEs. Further, we refine the role of the repeats to specific sub-families of SINEs, B1 in mouse and AluY in old world monkey (Macaca mulatta. Conclusions Because B1 and AluY elements are the most actively retrotransposing SINEs in mice and rhesus monkeys, respectively, our observations imply that they may serve a dual function in axial element binding; i.e., as the anchoring point for the SC but possibly also as a suppressor/regulator of retrotransposition.

  4. Phonetic matching of auditory and visual speech develops during childhood: evidence from sine-wave speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baart, Martijn; Bortfeld, Heather; Vroomen, Jean

    2015-01-01

    The correspondence between auditory speech and lip-read information can be detected based on a combination of temporal and phonetic cross-modal cues. Here, we determined the point in developmental time at which children start to effectively use phonetic information to match a speech sound with one of two articulating faces. We presented 4- to 11-year-olds (N=77) with three-syllabic sine-wave speech replicas of two pseudo-words that were perceived as non-speech and asked them to match the sounds with the corresponding lip-read video. At first, children had no phonetic knowledge about the sounds, and matching was thus based on the temporal cues that are fully retained in sine-wave speech. Next, we trained all children to perceive the phonetic identity of the sine-wave speech and repeated the audiovisual (AV) matching task. Only at around 6.5 years of age did the benefit of having phonetic knowledge about the stimuli become apparent, thereby indicating that AV matching based on phonetic cues presumably develops more slowly than AV matching based on temporal cues. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparison of renormalization group schemes for sine-Gordon type models

    CERN Document Server

    Nandori, I; Sailer, K; Trombettoni, A

    2009-01-01

    We consider the scheme-dependence of the renormalization group (RG) flow obtained in the local potential approximation for two-dimensional periodic, sine-Gordon type field-theoric models with possible inclusion of explicit mass terms. For sine-Gordon type models showing up a Kosterlitz-Thouless-Berezinskii type phase transition the Wegner-Houghton, the Polchinski, the functional Callan-Symanzik and the effective average action RG methods give qualitatively the same result and the critical frequency (temperature) can be obtained scheme-independently from the RG equations linearized around the Gaussian fixed point. For the massive sine-Gordon model which undergoes an Ising type phase transition, the Wegner-Houghton, the functional Callan-Symanzik and the effective average action RG methods provide the same scheme-independent phase structure and value for the critical ratio, in agreement with the results of lattice methods. It is also shown that RG equations linearized around the Gaussian fixed point produce sch...

  6. Exposure to Leishmania braziliensis triggers neutrophil activation and apoptosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A C Falcão

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Neutrophils are the first line of defense against invading pathogens and are rapidly recruited to the sites of Leishmania inoculation. During Leishmania braziliensis infection, depletion of inflammatory cells significantly increases the parasite load whereas co-inoculation of neutrophils plus L. braziliensis had an opposite effect. Moreover, the co-culture of infected macrophages and neutrophils also induced parasite killing leading us to ask how neutrophils alone respond to an L. braziliensis exposure. Herein we focused on understanding the interaction between neutrophils and L. braziliensis, exploring cell activation and apoptotic fate. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Inoculation of serum-opsonized L. braziliensis promastigotes in mice induced neutrophil accumulation in vivo, peaking at 24 h. In vitro, exposure of thyoglycollate-elicited inflammatory or bone marrow neutrophils to L. braziliensis modulated the expression of surface molecules such as CD18 and CD62L, and induced the oxidative burst. Using mCherry-expressing L. braziliensis, we determined that such effects were mainly observed in infected and not in bystander cells. Neutrophil activation following contact with L. braziliensis was also confirmed by the release of TNF-α and neutrophil elastase. Lastly, neutrophils infected with L. braziliensis but not with L. major displayed markers of early apoptosis. CONCLUSIONS: We show that L. braziliensis induces neutrophil recruitment in vivo and that neutrophils exposed to the parasite in vitro respond through activation and release of inflammatory mediators. This outcome may impact on parasite elimination, particularly at the early stages of infection.

  7. Labeling of rabbit neutrophils with (/sup 111/In)oxine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, T.A. (Veterans Administration Medical Center, San Diego, CA (USA). Dept. of Pathology); Bergum, P.W.; Lichter, J.P.; Spragg, R.G. (California Univ., San Diego, La Jolla (USA). School of Medicine)

    1982-06-25

    The successful labeling of rabbit peripheral blood neutrophils with (/sup 111/In)oxine is reported here. Standard techniques for preparation of rabbit neutrophils, while acceptable for maintenance of in vitro function, rendered the neutrophils ineffective for in vivo use after labeling with /sup 111/In. Specifically, rabbit neutrophils were sensitive to the use of hypotonic shock for red cell elimination, centrifugation into a button during preparation, and the presence of oxine during chemotaxis in vitro. Using a carefully modified method of neutrophil preparation and labeling, it was found that /sup 111/In-labeled rabbit neutrophils retained normal in vitro function, including chemotaxis. In addition, using this method, 34% +- 5% of labeled neutrophils were recoverable in peripheral blood 5 min after intravenous injection. The half-life of circulating radiolabeled neutrophils was 5.6 +- 2 h. Continuous external imaging of radiolabeled neutrophils after intravenous injection showed initial lung uptake, followed by rapid clearance of radioactivity in the lungs (50% clearance in 10.5 +- 3.3 min.). Hepatic radioactivity was maximal by 30 min after injection and thereafter slowly declined. Finally, it was found that /sup 111/In-labeled rabbit neutrophils migrated to sites of artificially induced inflammation. These findings indicate that /sup 111/In-labeled rabbit neutrophils, if prepared under optimal conditions, should provide a useful tool for investigating the fate of neutrophils in experimental inflammatory conditions in this animal.

  8. Hawthorn extract inhibits human isolated neutrophil functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalli, Ernesto; Milara, Javier; Cortijo, Julio; Morcillo, Esteban J; Cosín-Sales, Juan; Sotillo, José Francisco

    2008-06-01

    Hawthorn extract is a popular herbal medicine given as adjunctive treatment for chronic heart failure. In contrast to the cardiac properties of hawthorn extract, its anti-inflammatory effect has been scarcely investigated. This study examines the effects of a dry extract of leaves and flowers of Crataegus laevigata on various functional outputs of human neutrophils in vitro. Incubation of human neutrophils obtained from peripheral blood of healthy donors with C. laevigata extract (0.75-250 microg/ml) inhibited N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (FMLP)-induced superoxide anion generation, elastase release and chemotactic migration with potency values of 43.6, 21.9, and 31.6 microg/ml, respectively. By contrast, serum-opsonized zymosan-induced phagocytosis was unaltered by plant extract. C. laevigata extract (125 microg/ml) reduced FMLP-induced leukotriene B(4) production and lipopolysaccharide-induced generation of tumour necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-8. Extract inhibited FMLP-induced intracellular calcium signal with potency of 17.4 microg/ml. Extract also markedly inhibited the extracellular calcium entry into calcium-depleted neutrophils, and the thapsigargin-induced intracellular calcium response. In conclusion, C. laevigata extract inhibited various functional outputs of activated human neutrophils which may be relevant to the pathophysiology of cardiac failure.

  9. Ranitidine improves postoperative monocyte and neutrophil function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Nielsen, H; Jensen, S;

    1994-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The histamine H2-receptor antagonist ranitidine hydrochloride has been shown to improve trauma-, blood transfusion-, and sepsis-induced immunosuppression. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of ranitidine on postoperative impairment in monocyte and neutrophil function. METHODS: Twenty...... difference (P detected. There were no infectious complications in ranitidine-treated patients. CONCLUSION: These results support previous studies...

  10. Neutrophilic dermatoses and inflammatory bowel diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzano, A V; Menicanti, C; Crosti, C; Trevisan, V

    2013-04-01

    Pyoderma gangrenosum (PG) and Sweet's Syndrome (SS) are inflammatory skin diseases caused by the accumulation of neutrophils in the skin and, rarely, in internal organs, which led to coining the term of neutrophilic dermatoses (ND) to define these conditions. Recently, ND have been included among the autoinflammatory diseases, which are forms due to mutations of genes regulating the innate immune responses. Both PG and SS are frequently associated with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), a group of chronic intestinal disorders which comprises ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease and whose pathogenesis involves both the innate and adaptive immunity in genetically prone individuals. Patients with IBD develop PG in 1-3% of cases, while SS is rarer. PG presents with deep erythematous-to-violaceous painful ulcers with undermined borders, but bullous, pustular, and vegetative variants can also occur. SS, also known as acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis, is characterized by the abrupt onset of fever, peripheral neutrophilia, tender erythematous skin lesions and a diffuse neutrophilic dermal infiltrate. In this review that will be focused on PG and SS, we will describe also the aseptic abscesses syndrome, a new entity within the spectrum of ND which frequently occurs in association with IBD and is characterized by deep abscesses mainly involving the spleen and skin and by polymorphic cutaneous manifestations including PG- and SS-like lesions.

  11. Electronic cigarette exposure triggers neutrophil inflammatory responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higham, Andrew; Rattray, Nicholas J W; Dewhurst, Jennifer A; Trivedi, Drupad K; Fowler, Stephen J; Goodacre, Royston; Singh, Dave

    2016-05-17

    The use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) is increasing and there is widespread perception that e-cigs are safe. E-cigs contain harmful chemicals; more research is needed to evaluate the safety of e-cig use. Our aim was to investigate the effects of e-cigs on the inflammatory response of human neutrophils. Neutrophils were exposed to e-cig vapour extract (ECVE) and the expression of CD11b and CD66b was measured by flow cytometry and MMP-9 and CXCL8 by ELISA. We also measured the activity of neutrophil elastase (NE) and MMP-9, along with the activation of inflammatory signalling pathways. Finally we analysed the biochemical composition of ECVE by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. ECVE caused an increase in the expression of CD11b and CD66b, and increased the release of MMP-9 and CXCL8. Furthermore, there was an increase in NE and MMP-9 activity and an increase in p38 MAPK activation. We also identified several harmful chemicals in ECVE, including known carcinogens. ECVE causes a pro-inflammatory response from human neutrophils. This raises concerns over the safety of e-cig use.

  12. Autophagy regulation in macrophages and neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalache, Cristina C; Simon, Hans-Uwe

    2012-07-01

    Autophagy is a conserved proteolytic mechanism that degrades cytoplasmic material including cell organelles. Accumulating evidence exists that autophagy also plays a major role in immunity and inflammation. Specifically, it appears that autophagy protects against infections and inflammation. Here, we review recent work performed in macrophages and neutrophils, which both represent critical phagocytes in mammalians. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Modulation of neutrophil apoptosis by antimicrobial peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaoka, Isao; Suzuki, Kaori; Niyonsaba, François; Tamura, Hiroshi; Hirata, Michimasa

    2012-01-01

    Peptide antibiotics possess the potent antimicrobial activities against invading microorganisms and contribute to the innate host defense. Human antimicrobial peptides, α-defensins (human neutrophil peptides, HNPs), human β-defensins (hBDs), and cathelicidin (LL-37) not only exhibit potent bactericidal activities against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, but also function as immunomodulatory molecules by inducing cytokine and chemokine production, and inflammatory and immune cell activation. Neutrophil is a critical effector cell in host defense against microbial infection, and its lifespan is regulated by various pathogen- and host-derived substances. Here, we provided the evidence that HNP-1, hBD-3, and LL-37 cannot only destroy bacteria but also potently modulate (suppress) neutrophil apoptosis, accompanied with the phosphorylation of ERK-1/-2, the downregulation of tBid (an proapoptotic protein) and upregulation of Bcl-xL (an antiapoptotic protein), and the inhibition of mitochondrial membrane potential change and caspase 3 activity, possibly via the actions on the distinct receptors, the P2Y6 nucleotide receptor, the chemokine receptor CCR6, and the low-affinity formyl-peptide receptor FPRL1/the nucleotide receptor P2X7, respectively. Suppression of neutrophil apoptosis results in the prolongation of their lifespan and may be advantageous for the host defense against bacterial invasion.

  14. Ranitidine improves postoperative monocyte and neutrophil function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Nielsen, H; Jensen, S

    1994-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The histamine H2-receptor antagonist ranitidine hydrochloride has been shown to improve trauma-, blood transfusion-, and sepsis-induced immunosuppression. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of ranitidine on postoperative impairment in monocyte and neutrophil function. METHODS: Twenty...... difference (P detected. There were no infectious complications in ranitidine-treated patients. CONCLUSION: These results support previous studies...

  15. On the mechanism of oscillations in neutrophils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brasen, Jens Christian; Barington, Torben; Olsen, Lars Folke

    2010-01-01

    We have investigated the regulation of the oscillatory generation of H(2)O(2) and oscillations in shape and size in neutrophils in suspension. The oscillations are independent of cell density and hence do not represent a collective phenomena. Furthermore, the oscillations are independent of the e...

  16. Circulating platelet-neutrophil complexes are important for subsequent neutrophil activation and migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornerup, Kristin N; Salmon, Gary P; Pitchford, Simon C; Liu, Wai L; Page, Clive P

    2010-09-01

    Previous studies in our laboratory have shown that platelets are essential for the migration of eosinophils into the lungs of allergic mice, and that this is dependent on the functional expression of platelet P-selectin. We sought to investigate whether the same is true for nonallergic, acute inflammatory stimuli administered to distinct anatomic compartments. Neutrophil trafficking was induced in two models, namely zymosan-induced peritonitis and LPS-induced lung inflammation, and the platelet dependence of these responses investigated utilizing mice rendered thrombocytopenic. The relative contribution of selectins was also investigated. The results presented herein clearly show that platelet depletion (>90%) significantly inhibits neutrophil recruitment in both models. In addition, we show that P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1, but not P-selectin, is essential for neutrophil recruitment in mice in vivo, thus suggesting the existence of different regulatory mechanisms for the recruitment of leukocyte subsets in response to allergic and nonallergic stimuli. Further studies in human blood demonstrate that low-dose prothrombotic and pro-inflammatory stimuli (CCL17 or CCL22) synergize to induce platelet and neutrophil activation, as well as the formation of platelet-neutrophil conjugates. We conclude that adhesion between platelets and neutrophils in vivo is an important event in acute inflammatory responses. Targeting this interaction may be a successful strategy for inflammatory conditions where current therapy fails to provide adequate treatment.

  17. The cystic fibrosis neutrophil: a specialized yet potentially defective cell.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hayes, Elaine

    2011-04-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is one of the commonest genetically inherited diseases in the world. It is characterized by recurrent respiratory tract infections eventually leading to respiratory failure. One of the hallmarks of this disease is a persistent and predominantly neutrophil driven inflammation. Neutrophils provide the first line of defence by killing and digesting phagocytosed bacteria and fungi, yet despite advances in our understanding of the molecular and cellular basis of CF, there remains a paradox of why recruited CF neutrophils fail to eradicate bacterial infections in the lung. This review describes mechanisms involved in neutrophil migration, microbial killing and apoptosis leading to inflammatory resolution. We discuss dysregulated neutrophil activity and consider genetic versus inflammatory neutrophil reprogramming in CF and ultimately pharmacological modulation of the CF neutrophil for therapeutic intervention.

  18. The cystic fibrosis neutrophil: a specialized yet potentially defective cell.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hayes, Elaine

    2012-02-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is one of the commonest genetically inherited diseases in the world. It is characterized by recurrent respiratory tract infections eventually leading to respiratory failure. One of the hallmarks of this disease is a persistent and predominantly neutrophil driven inflammation. Neutrophils provide the first line of defence by killing and digesting phagocytosed bacteria and fungi, yet despite advances in our understanding of the molecular and cellular basis of CF, there remains a paradox of why recruited CF neutrophils fail to eradicate bacterial infections in the lung. This review describes mechanisms involved in neutrophil migration, microbial killing and apoptosis leading to inflammatory resolution. We discuss dysregulated neutrophil activity and consider genetic versus inflammatory neutrophil reprogramming in CF and ultimately pharmacological modulation of the CF neutrophil for therapeutic intervention.

  19. Escape of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from oxidative killing by neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corleis, Björn; Korbel, Daniel; Wilson, Robert; Bylund, Johan; Chee, Ronnie; Schaible, Ulrich E

    2012-07-01

    Neutrophils enter sites of infection, where they can eliminate pathogenic bacteria in an oxidative manner. Despite their predominance in active tuberculosis lesions, the function of neutrophils in this important human infection is still highly controversial. We observed that virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis survived inside human neutrophils despite prompt activation of these defence cells' microbicidal effectors. Survival of M. tuberculosis was accompanied by necrotic cell death of infected neutrophils. Necrotic cell death entirely depended on radical oxygen species production since chronic granulomatous disease neutrophils were protected from M. tuberculosis-triggered necrosis. More, importantly, the M. tuberculosis ΔRD1 mutant failed to induce neutrophil necrosis rendering this strain susceptible to radical oxygen species-mediated killing. We conclude that this virulence function is instrumental for M. tuberculosis to escape killing by neutrophils and contributes to pathogenesis in tuberculosis.

  20. Phagocytosis and killing of Streptococcus suis by porcine neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabot-Roy, Geneviève; Willson, Philip; Segura, Mariela; Lacouture, Sonia; Gottschalk, Marcelo

    2006-07-01

    Streptococcus suis serotype 2 is an important swine pathogen responsible for diverse infections, mainly meningitis. Virulence factors and the pathogenesis of infection are not well understood. Neutrophils may play an important role in the pathogenesis of infection given that infiltration by neutrophils and mononuclear cells are frequently observed in lesions caused by S. suis. The objective of this work was to study the interactions between S. suis serotype 2 and porcine neutrophils. Results showed that suilysin is toxic to neutrophils and this could help S. suis evade innate immunity. Moreover, suilysin appears to affect complement-dependent killing by decreasing the opsonization of S. suis and the bactericidal capacity of neutrophils. Our results confirm that capsule polysaccharide protects S. suis against killing and phagocytosis by neutrophils. We also showed that the presence of specific IgG against S. suis serotype 2 promoted killing by neutrophils, indicating that the induction of a strong humoral response is beneficial for clearance of this pathogen.

  1. Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells Regulate Apoptosis of Neutrophils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Ding, Gang; Xu, Xin

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) are promising cell resource for the cell-based therapy for periodontitis and regeneration of bio-root. In this study, we investigated the effect of PDLSCs on neutrophil, a critical constituent of innate immunity, and the underlying mechanisms. The effect of PDLSCs on the proliferation and apoptosis of resting neutrophils and IL-8 activated neutrophils was tested under cell-cell contact culture and Transwell culture, with or without anti-IL-6 neutralizing antibody. We found that PDLSCs could promote the proliferation and reduce the apoptosis of neutrophils whether under cell-cell contact or Transwell culture. Anti-IL-6 antibody reduced PDLSCs-mediated inhibition of neutrophil apoptosis. IL-6 at the concentration of 10ng/ml and 20ng/ml could inhibit neutrophil apoptosis statistically. Collectively, PDLSCs could reduce the apoptosis of neutrophils via IL-6.

  2. Bead-probe complex capture a couple of SINE and LINE family from genomes of two closely related species of East Asian cyprinid directly using magnetic separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Chaobo; Guo, Baocheng; He, Shunping

    2009-01-01

    Background Short and long interspersed elements (SINEs and LINEs, respectively), two types of retroposons, are active in shaping the architecture of genomes and powerful tools for studies of phylogeny and population biology. Here we developed special protocol to apply biotin-streptavidin bead system into isolation of interspersed repeated sequences rapidly and efficiently, in which SINEs and LINEs were captured directly from digested genomic DNA by hybridization to bead-probe complex in solution instead of traditional strategy including genomic library construction and screening. Results A new couple of SINEs and LINEs that shared an almost identical 3'tail was isolated and characterized in silver carp and bighead carp of two closely related species. These SINEs (34 members), designated HAmo SINE family, were little divergent in sequence and flanked by obvious TSD indicated that HAmo SINE was very young family. The copy numbers of this family was estimated to 2 × 105 and 1.7 × 105 per haploid genome by Real-Time qPCR, respectively. The LINEs, identified as the homologs of LINE2 in other fishes, had a conserved primary sequence and secondary structures of the 3'tail region that was almost identical to that of HAmo SINE. These evidences suggest that HAmo SINEs are active and amplified recently utilizing the enzymatic machinery for retroposition of HAmoL2 through the recognition of higher-order structures of the conserved 42-tail region. We analyzed the possible structures of HAmo SINE that lead to successful amplification in genome and then deduced that HAmo SINE, SmaI SINE and FokI SINE that were similar in sequence each other, were probably generated independently and created by LINE family within the same lineage of a LINE phylogeny in the genomes of different hosts. Conclusion The presented results show the advantage of the novel method for retroposons isolation and a pair of young SINE family and its partner LINE family in two carp fishes, which strengthened

  3. Bead-probe complex capture a couple of SINE and LINE family from genomes of two closely related species of East Asian cyprinid directly using magnetic separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Baocheng

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Short and long interspersed elements (SINEs and LINEs, respectively, two types of retroposons, are active in shaping the architecture of genomes and powerful tools for studies of phylogeny and population biology. Here we developed special protocol to apply biotin-streptavidin bead system into isolation of interspersed repeated sequences rapidly and efficiently, in which SINEs and LINEs were captured directly from digested genomic DNA by hybridization to bead-probe complex in solution instead of traditional strategy including genomic library construction and screening. Results A new couple of SINEs and LINEs that shared an almost identical 3'tail was isolated and characterized in silver carp and bighead carp of two closely related species. These SINEs (34 members, designated HAmo SINE family, were little divergent in sequence and flanked by obvious TSD indicated that HAmo SINE was very young family. The copy numbers of this family was estimated to 2 × 105 and 1.7 × 105 per haploid genome by Real-Time qPCR, respectively. The LINEs, identified as the homologs of LINE2 in other fishes, had a conserved primary sequence and secondary structures of the 3'tail region that was almost identical to that of HAmo SINE. These evidences suggest that HAmo SINEs are active and amplified recently utilizing the enzymatic machinery for retroposition of HAmoL2 through the recognition of higher-order structures of the conserved 42-tail region. We analyzed the possible structures of HAmo SINE that lead to successful amplification in genome and then deduced that HAmo SINE, SmaI SINE and FokI SINE that were similar in sequence each other, were probably generated independently and created by LINE family within the same lineage of a LINE phylogeny in the genomes of different hosts. Conclusion The presented results show the advantage of the novel method for retroposons isolation and a pair of young SINE family and its partner LINE family in two carp

  4. Short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs) are abundant in Solanaceae and have a family-specific impact on gene structure and genome organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibt, Kathrin M; Wenke, Torsten; Muders, Katja; Truberg, Bernd; Schmidt, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    Short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs) are highly abundant non-autonomous retrotransposons that are widespread in plants. They are short in size, non-coding, show high sequence diversity, and are therefore mostly not or not correctly annotated in plant genome sequences. Hence, comparative studies on genomic SINE populations are rare. To explore the structural organization and impact of SINEs, we comparatively investigated the genome sequences of the Solanaceae species potato (Solanum tuberosum), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), wild tomato (Solanum pennellii), and two pepper cultivars (Capsicum annuum). Based on 8.5 Gbp sequence data, we annotated 82 983 SINE copies belonging to 10 families and subfamilies on a base pair level. Solanaceae SINEs are dispersed over all chromosomes with enrichments in distal regions. Depending on the genome assemblies and gene predictions, 30% of all SINE copies are associated with genes, particularly frequent in introns and untranslated regions (UTRs). The close association with genes is family specific. More than 10% of all genes annotated in the Solanaceae species investigated contain at least one SINE insertion, and we found genes harbouring up to 16 SINE copies. We demonstrate the involvement of SINEs in gene and genome evolution including the donation of splice sites, start and stop codons and exons to genes, enlargement of introns and UTRs, generation of tandem-like duplications and transduction of adjacent sequence regions. © 2016 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Multiple Phenotypic Changes Define Neutrophil Priming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miralda, Irina; Uriarte, Silvia M.; McLeish, Kenneth R.

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, mitochondrial contents, and bacterial and viral products induces neutrophils to transition from a basal state into a primed one, which is currently defined as an enhanced response to activating stimuli. Although, typically associated with enhanced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by the NADPH oxidase, primed neutrophils show enhanced responsiveness of exocytosis, NET formation, and chemotaxis. Phenotypic changes associated with priming also include activation of a subset of functions, including adhesion, transcription, metabolism, and rate of apoptosis. This review summarizes the breadth of phenotypic changes associated with priming and reviews current knowledge of the molecular mechanisms behind those changes. We conclude that the current definition of priming is too restrictive. Priming represents a combination of enhanced responsiveness and activated functions that regulate both adaptive and innate immune responses. PMID:28611952

  6. Neutrophil extracellular traps in tissue pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa, Daigo; Kumar, Santosh; Desai, Jyaysi; Anders, Hans-Joachim

    2017-03-01

    Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are innate immune systems against invading pathogens. NETs are characterized as released DNA mixed with cytoplasmic antimicrobial proteins such as myeloperoxidase, proteinase3 and neutrophil elastase. While NETs are thought to have an important role in host defense, recent work has suggested that NETs contribute to tissue injury in non-infectious disease states. Uncontrolled NET formation in autoimmune diseases, metabolic disorders, cancers and thrombotic diseases can exacerbate a disease or even be a major initiator of tissue injury. But spotting NETs in tissues is not easy. Here we review the available histopathological evidence on the presence of NETs in a variety of diseases. We discuss technical difficulties and potential sources of misinterpretation while trying to detect NETs in tissue samples.

  7. Neutrophil myeloperoxidase destruction by ultraviolet irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanker, J.; Giammara, B.; Strauss, G.

    1988-01-01

    The peroxidase activity of enriched leukocyte preparations on coverslips was determined cytochemically with a newly developed method. The techniques utilizes diaminobenzidine medium and cupric nitrate intensification and is suitable for analysis with light microscopy, SEM, and TEM. Blood specimens from control individuals were studied with and without in vitro UV irradiation and compared with those from psoriasis patients exposed therapeutically to various types of UV in phototherapy. All UV irradiated samples showed diminished neutrophil myeloperoxidase (MP) activity although that of the principal eosinophil peroxidase was unaffected. The SEMs supported the contention that decreased neutrophil MP activity might be related to UV induced degranulation. It is believed to be possible, eventually, to equate the observed MP degranulation effect after UV irradiation with diminished ability to fight bacterial infections.

  8. Advanced Sine Wave Modulation of Continuous Wave Laser System for Atmospheric CO2 Differential Absorption Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Joel F.; Lin, Bing; Nehrir, Amin R.

    2014-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center in collaboration with ITT Exelis have been experimenting with Continuous Wave (CW) laser absorption spectrometer (LAS) as a means of performing atmospheric CO2 column measurements from space to support the Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) mission.Because range resolving Intensity Modulated (IM) CW lidar techniques presented here rely on matched filter correlations, autocorrelation properties without side lobes or other artifacts are highly desirable since the autocorrelation function is critical for the measurements of lidar return powers, laser path lengths, and CO2 column amounts. In this paper modulation techniques are investigated that improve autocorrelation properties. The modulation techniques investigated in this paper include sine waves modulated by maximum length (ML) sequences in various hardware configurations. A CW lidar system using sine waves modulated by ML pseudo random noise codes is described, which uses a time shifting approach to separate channels and make multiple, simultaneous online/offline differential absorption measurements. Unlike the pure ML sequence, this technique is useful in hardware that is band pass filtered as the IM sine wave carrier shifts the main power band. Both amplitude and Phase Shift Keying (PSK) modulated IM carriers are investigated that exibit perfect autocorrelation properties down to one cycle per code bit. In addition, a method is presented to bandwidth limit the ML sequence based on a Gaussian filter implemented in terms of Jacobi theta functions that does not seriously degrade the resolution or introduce side lobes as a means of reducing aliasing and IM carrier bandwidth.

  9. Deterministic approach for multiple-source tsunami hazard assessment for Sines, Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wronna, M.; Omira, R.; Baptista, M. A.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we present a deterministic approach to tsunami hazard assessment for the city and harbour of Sines, Portugal, one of the test sites of project ASTARTE (Assessment, STrategy And Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe). Sines has one of the most important deep-water ports, which has oil-bearing, petrochemical, liquid-bulk, coal, and container terminals. The port and its industrial infrastructures face the ocean southwest towards the main seismogenic sources. This work considers two different seismic zones: the Southwest Iberian Margin and the Gloria Fault. Within these two regions, we selected a total of six scenarios to assess the tsunami impact at the test site. The tsunami simulations are computed using NSWING, a Non-linear Shallow Water model wIth Nested Grids. In this study, the static effect of tides is analysed for three different tidal stages: MLLW (mean lower low water), MSL (mean sea level), and MHHW (mean higher high water). For each scenario, the tsunami hazard is described by maximum values of wave height, flow depth, drawback, maximum inundation area and run-up. Synthetic waveforms are computed at virtual tide gauges at specific locations outside and inside the harbour. The final results describe the impact at the Sines test site considering the single scenarios at mean sea level, the aggregate scenario, and the influence of the tide on the aggregate scenario. The results confirm the composite source of Horseshoe and Marques de Pombal faults as the worst-case scenario, with wave heights of over 10 m, which reach the coast approximately 22 min after the rupture. It dominates the aggregate scenario by about 60 % of the impact area at the test site, considering maximum wave height and maximum flow depth. The HSMPF scenario inundates a total area of 3.5 km2.

  10. Autophagy is induced by anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic Abs and promotes neutrophil extracellular traps formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, Li-Li; Wang, Huan; Wang, Chen; Peng, Hong-Ying; Chen, Min; Zhao, Ming-Hui

    2016-11-01

    Dysregulated neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) formation contributes to the pathogenesis of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic Ab (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV). Increasing evidence indicates that autophagy is involved in the process of NETs formation. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether ANCA could induce autophagy in the process of NETs formation. Autophagy was detected using live cell imaging, microtubule-associated protein light chain 3B (LC3B) accumulation and Western blotting. The results showed that autophagy vacuolization was detected in neutrophils treated with ANCA-positive IgG by live cell imaging. This effect was enhanced by rapamycin, the autophagy inducer, and weakened by 3-methyladenine (3-MA), the autophagy inhibitor. In line with these results, the autophagy marker, LC3B, showed a punctate distribution pattern in the neutrophils stimulated with ANCA-positive IgG. In the presence of rapamycin, LC3B accumulation was further increased; however, this effect was attenuated by 3-MA. Moreover, incubated with ANCA-positive IgG, the NETosis rate significantly increased compared with the unstimulated group. And, the rate significantly increased or decreased in the neutrophils pretreated with rapamycin or 3-MA, respectively, as compared with the cells incubated with ANCA-positive IgG. Overall, this study demonstrates that autophagy is induced by ANCA and promotes ANCA-induced NETs formation.

  11. Leukotriene B4-Neutrophil Elastase Axis Drives Neutrophil Reverse Transendothelial Cell Migration In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colom, Bartomeu; Bodkin, Jennifer V.; Beyrau, Martina; Woodfin, Abigail; Ody, Christiane; Rourke, Claire; Chavakis, Triantafyllos; Brohi, Karim; Imhof, Beat A.; Nourshargh, Sussan

    2015-01-01

    Summary Breaching endothelial cells (ECs) is a decisive step in the migration of leukocytes from the vascular lumen to the extravascular tissue, but fundamental aspects of this response remain largely unknown. We have previously shown that neutrophils can exhibit abluminal-to-luminal migration through EC junctions within mouse cremasteric venules and that this response is elicited following reduced expression and/or functionality of the EC junctional adhesion molecule-C (JAM-C). Here we demonstrate that the lipid chemoattractant leukotriene B4 (LTB4) was efficacious at causing loss of venular JAM-C and promoting neutrophil reverse transendothelial cell migration (rTEM) in vivo. Local proteolytic cleavage of EC JAM-C by neutrophil elastase (NE) drove this cascade of events as supported by presentation of NE to JAM-C via the neutrophil adhesion molecule Mac-1. The results identify local LTB4-NE axis as a promoter of neutrophil rTEM and provide evidence that this pathway can propagate a local sterile inflammatory response to become systemic. PMID:26047922

  12. Leukotriene B4-Neutrophil Elastase Axis Drives Neutrophil Reverse Transendothelial Cell Migration In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colom, Bartomeu; Bodkin, Jennifer V; Beyrau, Martina; Woodfin, Abigail; Ody, Christiane; Rourke, Claire; Chavakis, Triantafyllos; Brohi, Karim; Imhof, Beat A; Nourshargh, Sussan

    2015-06-16

    Breaching endothelial cells (ECs) is a decisive step in the migration of leukocytes from the vascular lumen to the extravascular tissue, but fundamental aspects of this response remain largely unknown. We have previously shown that neutrophils can exhibit abluminal-to-luminal migration through EC junctions within mouse cremasteric venules and that this response is elicited following reduced expression and/or functionality of the EC junctional adhesion molecule-C (JAM-C). Here we demonstrate that the lipid chemoattractant leukotriene B4 (LTB4) was efficacious at causing loss of venular JAM-C and promoting neutrophil reverse transendothelial cell migration (rTEM) in vivo. Local proteolytic cleavage of EC JAM-C by neutrophil elastase (NE) drove this cascade of events as supported by presentation of NE to JAM-C via the neutrophil adhesion molecule Mac-1. The results identify local LTB4-NE axis as a promoter of neutrophil rTEM and provide evidence that this pathway can propagate a local sterile inflammatory response to become systemic.

  13. Neutrophil activator of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (NAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollo, Ellen E; Hymowitz, Michelle; Schmidt, Cathleen E; Montana, Steve; Foda, Hussein; Zucker, Stanley

    2006-01-01

    We have isolated a novel soluble factor(s), neutrophil activator of matrix metalloproteinases (NAM), secreted by unstimulated normal human peripheral blood neutrophils that causes the activation of cell secreted promatrix metalloproteinase-2 (proMMP-2). Partially purified preparations of NAM have been isolated from the conditioned media of neutrophils employing gelatin-Sepharose chromatography and differential membrane filter centrifugation. NAM activity, as assessed by exposing primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) or HT1080 cells to NAM followed by gelatin zymography, was seen within one hour. Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2) and hydroxamic acid derived inhibitors of MMPs (CT1746 and BB94) abrogated the activation of proMMP-2 by NAM, while inhibitors of serine and cysteine proteases showed no effect. NAM also produced an increase in TIMP-2 binding to HUVEC and HT1080 cell surfaces that was inhibited by TIMP-2, CT1746, and BB94. Time-dependent increases in MT1-MMP protein and mRNA were seen following the addition of NAM to cells. These data support a role for NAM in cancer dissemination.

  14. Sexy again: the renaissance of neutrophils in psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schön, Michael P; Broekaert, Sigrid M C; Erpenbeck, Luise

    2017-04-01

    Notwithstanding their prominent presence in psoriatic skin, the functional role of neutrophilic granulocytes still remains somewhat enigmatic. Sparked by exciting scientific discoveries regarding neutrophil functions within the last years, the interest in these short-lived cells of the innate immune system has been boosted recently. While it had been known for some time that neutrophils produce and respond to a number of inflammatory mediators, recent research has linked neutrophils with the pathogenic functions of IL-17, possibly in conjunction with the formation of NETs (neutrophil extracellular traps). Antipsoriatic therapies exert their effects, at least in part, through interference with neutrophils. Neutrophils also appear to connect psoriasis with comorbid diseases. However, directly tampering with neutrophil functions is not trivial as evinced by the failure of therapeutic approaches targeting redundantly regulated cellular communication networks. It has also become apparent that neutrophils link important pathogenic functions of the innate and the adaptive immune system and that they are intricately involved in regulatory networks underlying the pathophysiology of psoriasis. In order to advocate intensified research into the role of this interesting cell population, we here highlight some features of neutrophils and put them into perspective with our current view of the pathophysiology of psoriasis. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Prevention of vascular inflammation by nanoparticle targeting of adherent neutrophils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenjia; Li, Jing; Cho, Jaehyung; Malik, Asrar B.

    2014-03-01

    Inflammatory diseases such as acute lung injury and ischaemic tissue injury are caused by the adhesion of a type of white blood cell--polymorphonuclear neutrophils--to the lining of the circulatory system or vascular endothelium and unchecked neutrophil transmigration. Nanoparticle-mediated targeting of activated neutrophils on vascular endothelial cells at the site of injury may be a useful means of directly inactivating neutrophil transmigration and hence mitigating vascular inflammation. Here, we report a method employing drug-loaded albumin nanoparticles, which efficiently deliver drugs into neutrophils adherent to the surface of the inflamed endothelium. Using intravital microscopy of tumour necrosis factor-α-challenged mouse cremaster post-capillary venules, we demonstrate that fluorescently tagged albumin nanoparticles are largely internalized by neutrophils adherent to the activated endothelium via cell surface Fcɣ receptors. Administration of albumin nanoparticles loaded with the spleen tyrosine kinase inhibitor, piceatannol, which blocks `outside-in' β2 integrin signalling in leukocytes, detached the adherent neutrophils and elicited their release into the circulation. Thus, internalization of drug-loaded albumin nanoparticles into neutrophils inactivates the pro-inflammatory function of activated neutrophils, thereby offering a promising approach for treating inflammatory diseases resulting from inappropriate neutrophil sequestration and activation.

  16. Transcriptome kinetics of circulating neutrophils during human experimental endotoxemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stan de Kleijn

    Full Text Available Polymorphonuclear cells (neutrophils play an important role in the systemic inflammatory response syndrome and the development of sepsis. These cells are essential for the defense against microorganisms, but may also cause tissue damage. Therefore, neutrophil numbers and activity are considered to be tightly regulated. Previous studies have investigated gene transcription during experimental endotoxemia in whole blood and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. However, the gene transcription response of the circulating pool of neutrophils to systemic inflammatory stimulation in vivo is currently unclear. We examined neutrophil gene transcription kinetics in healthy human subjects (n = 4 administered a single dose of endotoxin (LPS, 2 ng/kg iv. In addition, freshly isolated neutrophils were stimulated ex vivo with LPS, TNFα, G-CSF and GM-CSF to identify stimulus-specific gene transcription responses. Whole transcriptome microarray analysis of circulating neutrophils at 2, 4 and 6 hours after LPS infusion revealed activation of inflammatory networks which are involved in signaling of TNFα and IL-1α and IL-1β. The transcriptome profile of inflammatory activated neutrophils in vivo reflects extended survival and regulation of inflammatory responses. These changes in neutrophil transcriptome suggest a combination of early activation of circulating neutrophils by TNFα and G-CSF and a mobilization of young neutrophils from the bone marrow.

  17. Phagocytosis and killing of Staphylococcus aureus by human neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Thea; Porter, Adeline R; Kennedy, Adam D; Kobayashi, Scott D; DeLeo, Frank R

    2014-01-01

    Neutrophils are essential for host defense against Staphylococcus aureus infections. Although significant progress has been made, our understanding of neutrophil interactions with S. aureus remains incomplete. To provide a more comprehensive view of this process, we investigated phagocytosis and killing of S. aureus by human neutrophils using varied assay conditions in vitro. A greater percentage of bacteria were internalized by adherent neutrophils compared to those in suspension, and, unexpectedly, uptake of S. aureus by adherent neutrophils occurred efficiently in the absence of opsonins. An antibody specific for S. aureus promoted uptake of unopsonized bacteria in suspension, but had little or no capacity to enhance phagocytosis of S. aureus opsonized with normal human serum or by adherent neutrophils. Collectively, these results indicate that assay conditions can have a significant influence on the phagocytosis and killing of S. aureus by neutrophils. More importantly, the results suggest a vaccine approach directed to enhance opsonophagocytosis alone is not sufficient to promote increased killing of S. aureus by human neutrophils. With the emergence and reemergence of antibiotic-resistant microorganisms, establishing parameters that are optimal for studying neutrophil-S. aureus interactions will pave the way towards developing immune-directed strategies for anti-staphylococcal therapies.

  18. Radix-3 Algorithm for Realization of Type-II Discrete Sine Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Murty

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, radix-3 algorithm for computation of type-II discrete sine transform (DST-II of length N = 3 ( = 1,2, … . is presented. The DST-II of length N can be realized from three DST-II sequences, each of length N/3. A block diagram of for computation of the radix-3 DST-II algorithm is given. Signal flow graph for DST-II of length = 3 2 is shown to clarify the proposed algorithm.

  19. Amplitude estimation of a sine function based on confidence intervals and Bayes' theorem

    CERN Document Server

    Eversmann, Dennis; Rosenthal, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the amplitude estimation using data originating from a sine-like function as probability density function. If a simple least squares fit is used, a significant bias is observed for small amplitudes. It is shown that a proper treatment using the Feldman-Cousins algorithm of likelihood ratios allows one to construct improved confidence intervals. Using Bayes' theorem a probability density function is derived for the amplitude. It is used in an application to show that it leads to better estimates compared to a simple least squares fit.

  20. Discrete cosine and sine transforms general properties, fast algorithms and integer approximations

    CERN Document Server

    Britanak, Vladimir; Rao, K R; Rao, K R

    2006-01-01

    The Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) is used in many applications by the scientific, engineering and research communities and in data compression in particular. Fast algorithms and applications of the DCT Type II (DCT-II) have become the heart of many established international image/video coding standards. Since then other forms of the DCT and Discrete Sine Transform (DST) have been investigated in detail. This new edition presents the complete set of DCT and DST discrete trigonometric transforms, including their definitions, general mathematical properties, and relations to the optimal Karhune

  1. Implementing the sine transform of fermionic modes as a tensor network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epple, Hannes; Fries, Pascal; Hinrichsen, Haye

    2017-09-01

    Based on the algebraic theory of signal processing, we recursively decompose the discrete sine transform of the first kind (DST-I) into small orthogonal block operations. Using a diagrammatic language, we then second-quantize this decomposition to construct a tensor network implementing the DST-I for fermionic modes on a lattice. The complexity of the resulting network is shown to scale as 5/4 n logn (not considering swap gates), where n is the number of lattice sites. Our method provides a systematic approach of generalizing Ferris' spectral tensor network for nontrivial boundary conditions.

  2. Post-Gaussian Effective Potential of Double sine-Gordon Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Wei-Ran; LOU Sen-Yue

    2005-01-01

    In the framework of the functional integral formalism, we calculate the effective potential of the double sine-Gordon (DsG) model up to the second order with an optimized expansion and the Coleman's normal-ordering prescription. Within the range of convergence, we make a comparison among the classicaland the effective potential of the first and second order. The numerical analysis shows that the DsG post-Gaussian EP possesses some fine global properties and makes a substantial and a concordant quantum correction to the features of the classical potential.

  3. Determinant representation for a quantum correlation function of the lattice sine-Gordon model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Essler, Fabian H.L. [Department of Physics, Theoretical Physics, Oxford (United Kingdom); Frahm, Holger [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Hannover, Hannover (Germany); Its, Alexander R. [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Indiana University-Purdue University at Indianapolis (IUPUI), Indianapolis, IN (United States); Korepin, Vladimir E. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); St. Petersburg Department of Mathematical Institute of Academy of Sciences of Russia, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    1997-01-07

    We consider a completely integrable lattice regularization of the sine-Gordon model with discrete space and continuous time. We derive a determinant representation for a correlation function which in the continuum limit turns into the correlation function of local fields. The determinant is then embedded into a system of integrable integro-differential equations. The leading asymptotic behaviour of the correlation function is described in terms of the solution of a Riemann-Hilbert Problem (RHP) related to the system of integro-differential equations. The leading term in the asymptotical decomposition of the solution of the RHP is obtained. (author)

  4. The R and D of half-sine pulser for eddy-current septum magnet

    CERN Document Server

    Fu Lu Xin; Kang Wen

    2002-01-01

    The SSRF requires high-amplitude half-sine pulse current (10kA) and relatively narrow pulse width (approx 60 mu s) for its eddy-current septum magnets. Moreover the machine will need a very high level of performance from the pulsers, particularly in terms of pulse amplitude stability and regulating range. For the convenience of maintenance the pulsers will be installed in the power supply hall and cabled to their eddy-current septum magnets by RG220/U. The author presents the pulser design and R and D results

  5. Probabilistic signatures of spatiotemporal intermittency in the coupled sine circle map lattice

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Zahera Jabeen; Neelima Gupta

    2008-06-01

    The phase diagram of the coupled sine circle map system exhibits a variety of interesting phenomena including spreading regions with spatiotemporal intermittency, non-spreading regions with spatial intermittency, and coherent structures termed solitons. A spreading to non-spreading transition is seen in the system. A cellular automaton version of the coupled system maps the spreading to non-spreading transition to a transition from a probabilistic to a deterministic cellular automaton. The solitonic sector of the system shows spatiotemporal intermittency with soliton creation, propagation and absorption. A probabilistic cellular automaton mapping is set up for this sector which can identify each one of these phenomena.

  6. SUSY sine-Gordon theory as a perturbed conformal field theory and finite size effects

    CERN Document Server

    Bajnok, Z; Palla, L; Takács, G; Wagner, F

    2004-01-01

    We consider SUSY sine-Gordon theory in the framework of perturbed conformal field theory. Using an argument from Zamolodchikov, we obtain the vacuum structure and the kink adjacency diagram of the theory, which is cross-checked against the exact S matrix prediction, first-order perturbed conformal field theory (PCFT), the NLIE method and truncated conformal space approach. We provide evidence for consistency between the usual Lagrangian description and PCFT on the one hand, and between PCFT, NLIE and a massgap formula conjectured by Baseilhac and Fateev, on the other. In addition, we extend the NLIE description to all the vacua of the theory.

  7. Ultrashort light bullets described by the two-dimensional sine-Gordon equation

    CERN Document Server

    Leblond, Hervé; 10.1103/PHYSREVA.81.063815

    2011-01-01

    By using a reductive perturbation technique applied to a two-level model, this study puts forward a generic two-dimensional sine-Gordon evolution equation governing the propagation of femtosecond spatiotemporal optical solitons in Kerr media beyond the slowly varying envelope approximation. Direct numerical simulations show that, in contrast to the long-wave approximation, no collapse occurs, and that robust (2+1)-dimensional ultrashort light bullets may form from adequately chosen few-cycle input spatiotemporal wave forms. In contrast to the case of quadratic nonlinearity, the light bullets oscillate in both space and time and are therefore not steady-state lumps.

  8. A Time-Splitting and Sine Spectral Method for Dynamics of Dipolar Bose-Einstein Condensate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si-Qi Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A two-component Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC described by two coupled a three-dimension Gross-Pitaevskii (GP equations is considered, where one equation has dipole-dipole interaction while the other one has only the usual s-wave contact interaction, in a cigar trap. The time-splitting and sine spectral method in space is proposed to discretize the time-dependent equations for computing the dynamics of dipolar BEC. The singularity in the dipole-dipole interaction brings significant difficulties both in mathematical analysis and in numerical simulations. Numerical results are given to show the efficiency of this method.

  9. Extraction du thorium par la résine XAD16 modifiée.

    OpenAIRE

    Miraoui, Abdelkader

    2015-01-01

    l’extraction liquide-solide de Th (IV) est faite par une résine kimberlite XAD16, modifiée par l’imprégnation d'un acide phospholipidique (pentakidodécaèdre-diphonique) et une faible quantité de TBP. Des paramètres sont étudiés tels que: le temps d'équilibre, effet de la concentration initial, effet de PH, effet de la force ionique, température...etc.

  10. Characterization of Yersinia pestis Interactions with Human Neutrophils In vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophia C. Dudte

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Yersinia pestis is a gram-negative, zoonotic, bacterial pathogen, and the causative agent of plague. The bubonic form of plague occurs subsequent to deposition of bacteria in the skin by the bite of an infected flea. Neutrophils are recruited to the site of infection within the first few hours and interactions between neutrophils and Y. pestis have been demonstrated in vivo. In contrast to macrophages, neutrophils have been considered non-permissive to Y. pestis intracellular survival. Several studies have shown killing of the vast majority of Y. pestis ingested by human neutrophils. However, survival of 10–15% of Y. pestis after phagocytosis by neutrophils is consistently observed. Furthermore, these surviving bacteria eventually replicate within and escape from the neutrophils. We set out to further characterize the interactions between Y. pestis and human neutrophils by (1 determining the effects of known Y. pestis virulence factors on bacterial survival after uptake by neutrophils, (2 examining the mechanisms employed by the neutrophil to kill the majority of intracellular Y. pestis, (3 determining the activation phenotype of Y. pestis-infected neutrophils, and (4 characterizing the Y. pestis-containing phagosome in neutrophils. We infected human neutrophils in vitro with Y. pestis and assayed bacterial survival and uptake. Deletion of the caf1 gene responsible for F1 capsule production resulted in significantly increased uptake of Y. pestis. Surprisingly, while the two-component regulator PhoPQ system is important for survival of Y. pestis within neutrophils, pre-induction of this system prior to infection did not increase bacterial survival. We used an IPTG-inducible mCherry construct to distinguish viable from non-viable intracellular bacteria and determined the association of the Y. pestis-containing phagosome with neutrophil NADPH-oxidase and markers of primary, secondary and tertiary granules. Additionally, we show that inhibition of

  11. Genome-wide analysis of short interspersed nuclear elements SINES revealed high sequence conservation, gene association and retrotranspositional activity in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-David, Smadar; Yaakov, Beery; Kashkush, Khalil

    2013-10-01

    Short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs) are non-autonomous non-LTR retroelements that are present in most eukaryotic species. While SINEs have been intensively investigated in humans and other animal systems, they are poorly studied in plants, especially in wheat (Triticum aestivum). We used quantitative PCR of various wheat species to determine the copy number of a wheat SINE family, termed Au SINE, combined with computer-assisted analyses of the publicly available 454 pyrosequencing database of T. aestivum. In addition, we utilized site-specific PCR on 57 Au SINE insertions, transposon methylation display and transposon display on newly formed wheat polyploids to assess retrotranspositional activity, epigenetic status and genetic rearrangements in Au SINE, respectively. We retrieved 3706 different insertions of Au SINE from the 454 pyrosequencing database of T. aestivum, and found that most of the elements are inserted in A/T-rich regions, while approximately 38% of the insertions are associated with transcribed regions, including known wheat genes. We observed typical retrotransposition of Au SINE in the second generation of a newly formed wheat allohexaploid, and massive hypermethylation in CCGG sites surrounding Au SINE in the third generation. Finally, we observed huge differences in the copy numbers in diploid Triticum and Aegilops species, and a significant increase in the copy numbers in natural wheat polyploids, but no significant increase in the copy number of Au SINE in the first four generations for two of three newly formed allopolyploid species used in this study. Our data indicate that SINEs may play a prominent role in the genomic evolution of wheat through stress-induced activation. © 2013 Ben-Gurion University The Plant Journal © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Neutrophils and macrophages: The main partners of phagocyte cell systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel T. Silva

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Biological cellular systems are groups of cells sharing a set of characteristics, mainly key function and origin. Phagocytes are crucial in the host defense against microbial infection. The previously proposed phagocyte cell systems including the most recent and presently prevailing one, the Mononuclear Phagocyte System (MPS, grouped mononuclear cells but excluded neutrophils, creating an unacceptable situation. As neutrophils are archetypical phagocytes that must be members of comprehensive phagocyte systems, M. T. Silva recently proposed the creation of a Myeloid Phagocyte System (MYPS that adds neutrophils to the MPS. The phagocytes grouped in the MYPS include the leukocytes neutrophils, inflammatory monocytes, macrophages and immature myeloid DCs. Here the justifications behind the inclusion of neutrophils in a phagocyte system is expanded and the MYPS are further characterized as a group of dedicated phagocytic cells that function in an interacting and cooperative way in the host defense against microbial infection. Neutrophils and macrophages are considered the main arms of this system.

  13. Advanced Role of Neutrophils in Common Respiratory Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinping Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory diseases, always being a threat towards the health of people all over the world, are most tightly associated with immune system. Neutrophils serve as an important component of immune defense barrier linking innate and adaptive immunity. They participate in the clearance of exogenous pathogens and endogenous cell debris and play an essential role in the pathogenesis of many respiratory diseases. However, the pathological mechanism of neutrophils remains complex and obscure. The traditional roles of neutrophils in severe asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD, pneumonia, lung cancer, pulmonary fibrosis, bronchitis, and bronchiolitis had already been reviewed. With the development of scientific research, the involvement of neutrophils in respiratory diseases is being brought to light with emerging data on neutrophil subsets, trafficking, and cell death mechanism (e.g., NETosis, apoptosis in diseases. We reviewed all these recent studies here to provide you with the latest advances about the role of neutrophils in respiratory diseases.

  14. Method of Running Sines: Modeling Variability in Long-Period Variables

    CERN Document Server

    Andronov, Ivan L

    2013-01-01

    We review one of complementary methods for time series analysis - the method of "Running Sines". "Crash tests" of the method include signals with a large period variation and with a large trend. The method is most effective for "nearly periodic" signals, which exhibit "wavy shape" with a "cycle length" varying within few dozen per cent (i.e. oscillations of low coherence). This is a typical case for brightness variations of long-period pulsating variables and resembles QPO (Quasi-Periodic Oscillations) and TPO (Transient Periodic Oscillations) in interacting binary stars - cataclysmic variables, symbiotic variables, low-mass X-Ray binaries etc. General theory of "running approximations" was described by Andronov (1997A &AS..125..207A), one of realizations of which is the method of "running sines". The method is related to Morlet-type wavelet analysis improved for irregularly spaced data (Andronov, 1998KFNT...14..490A, 1999sss..conf...57A), as well as to a classical "running mean" (="moving average"). The ...

  15. Onset of spatiotemporal chaos in damped anharmonically driven sine-Gordon systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chacon, R. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Escuela de Ingenierias Industriales, Universidad de Extremadura, E-06071, Badajoz (Spain)], E-mail: rchacon@unex.es

    2008-08-15

    The onset is demonstrated of spatiotemporal chaos arising from the competition between sine-Gordon-breather and kink-antikink-pair solitons by reshaping of a sinusoidal force. After introducing soliton collective coordinates, Melnikov's method is applied to the resulting effective equation of motion to deduce the parameter-space regions of the ac force where chaotic instabilities are induced. The analysis reveals that the chaotic threshold amplitude when altering solely the pulse shape presents a minimum when the transmitted impulse is maximal, the remaining parameters being held constant. The universality of the results is shown by studying the behaviour of the Lyapunov exponent from a simple recursion relation which models an unstable limit cycle. Computer simulations of the sine-Gordon system show good agreement with the theoretical predictions. Additionally, it is found that the reshaping-induced order {r_reversible} chaos route is especially rich, including transitions from a two-breather state to a spatially uniform, periodic oscillatory state. The appearance of this spatially uniform state is explained by means of geometrical resonance analysis.

  16. A new compound control method for sine-on-random mixed vibration test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Buyun; Wang, Ruochen; Zeng, Falin

    2017-09-01

    Vibration environmental test (VET) is one of the important and effective methods to provide supports for the strength design, reliability and durability test of mechanical products. A new separation control strategy was proposed to apply in multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) sine on random (SOR) mixed mode vibration test, which is the advanced and intensive test type of VET. As the key problem of the strategy, correlation integral method was applied to separate the mixed signals which included random and sinusoidal components. The feedback control formula of MIMO linear random vibration system was systematically deduced in frequency domain, and Jacobi control algorithm was proposed in view of the elements, such as self-spectrum, coherence, and phase of power spectral density (PSD) matrix. Based on the excessive correction of excitation in sine vibration test, compression factor was introduced to reduce the excitation correction, avoiding the destruction to vibration table or other devices. The two methods were synthesized to be applied in MIMO SOR vibration test system. In the final, verification test system with the vibration of a cantilever beam as the control object was established to verify the reliability and effectiveness of the methods proposed in the paper. The test results show that the exceeding values can be controlled in the tolerance range of references accurately, and the method can supply theory and application supports for mechanical engineering.

  17. LINEs, SINEs and other retroelements: do birds of a feather flock together?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy-Engel, Astrid M

    2012-01-01

    Mobile elements account for almost half of the mass of the human genome. Only the retroelements from the non-LTR (long terminal repeat) retrotransposon family, which include the LINE-1 (L1) and its non-autonomous partners, are currently active and contributing to new insertions. Although these elements seem to share the same basic amplification mechanism, the activity and success of the different types of retroelements varies. For example, Alu-induced mutagenesis is responsible for the majority of the documented instances of human disease induced by insertion of retroelements. Using copy number in mammals as an indicator, some SINEs have been vastly more successful than other retroelements, such as the retropseudogenes and even L1, likely due to differences in post-insertion selection and ability to overcome cellular controls. SINE and LINE integration can be differentially influenced by cellular factors, indicating some differences between in their amplification mechanisms. We focus on the known aspects of this group of retroelements and highlight their similarities and differences that may significantly influence their biological impact.

  18. Identification of an active ID-like group of SINEs in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kass, David H; Jamison, Nicole

    2007-09-01

    The mouse genome consists of five known families of SINEs: B1, B2, B4/RSINE, ID, and MIR. Using RT-PCR we identified a germ-line transcript that demonstrates 92.7% sequence identity to ID (excluding primer sequence), yet a BLAST search identified numerous matches of 100% sequence identity. We analyzed four of these elements for their presence in orthologous genes in strains and subspecies of Mus musculus as well as other species of Mus using a PCR-based assay. All four analyzed elements were identified either only in M. musculus or exclusively in both M. musculus and M. domesticus, indicative of recent integrations. In conjunction with the identification of transcripts, we present an active ID-like group of elements that is not derived from the proposed BC1 master gene of ID elements. A BLAST of the rat genome indicated that these elements were not in the rat. Therefore, this family of SINEs has recently evolved, and since it has thus far been observed mainly in M. musculus, we refer to this family as MMIDL.

  19. Circuitry implementation of a novel nonautonomous hyperchaotic Liu system based on sine input

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luo Xiao-Hua

    2009-01-01

    Based on the three-dimensional Liu system with a nonlinear term of square,this paper appends a state variable to the system,and further adds a driving signal of the sine signal to construct a novel 4-demensional nonautonomous hyperchaotic Liu system.The appended variable is formed by the product of the nonlinear quadratic term of the original state variables and the driving signal.Through adjusting the frequency of the driving signal,the system can be controlled to show some different dynamic behaviors.By numerical simulations,the Lyapunov exponent spectrums,bifurcation diagrams and phase diagrams of the novel systems are analyzed.Furthermore,the corresponding hardware circuits are implemented.Both the experimental results and the simulation results confirm that the method is feasible.The method,which adjusts the frequency of the input sine signal to control the system to show different dynamic behaviors,can make the dynamic property of the system become more complex,but easier to be controlled accurately as well.

  20. Quantum sine-Gordon dynamics on analogue curved spacetime in a weakly imperfect scalar Bose gas

    CERN Document Server

    Volkoff, T J

    2016-01-01

    Using the coherent state functional integral formulation of the partition function, we show that the sine-Gordon model on an analogue curved spacetime arises as the effective quantum field theory for phase fluctuations of a weakly imperfect Bose gas on an incompressible background superfluid flow, when these fluctuations are restricted to a subspace of the single-particle Hilbert space. We consider bipartitions of the single-particle Hilbert space relevant to experiments on ultracold bosonic atomic or molecular gases, including, e.g., restriction to high or low energy sectors of the dynamics, and spatial bipartition corresponding to tunnel-coupled planar Bose gases. By assuming full unitary quantum control in the low energy subspace of a trapped gas, we show that: 1) appropriately tuning the particle number statistics of the lowest energy mode partially decouples the low and high energy sectors, allowing any low-energy single-particle wavefunction to define a background for sine-Gordon dynamics on curved spac...