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Sample records for hide show additional

  1. Efficient blind decoders for additive spread spectrum embedding based data hiding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valizadeh, Amir; Wang, Z. Jane

    2012-12-01

    This article investigates efficient blind watermark decoding approaches for hidden messages embedded into host images, within the framework of additive spread spectrum (SS) embedding based for data hiding. We study SS embedding in both the discrete cosine transform and the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) domains. The contributions of this article are multiple-fold: first, we show that the conventional SS scheme could not be applied directly into the magnitudes of the DFT, and thus we present a modified SS scheme and the optimal maximum likelihood (ML) decoder based on the Weibull distribution is derived. Secondly, we investigate the improved spread spectrum (ISS) embedding, an improved technique of the traditional additive SS, and propose the modified ISS scheme for information hiding in the magnitudes of the DFT coefficients and the optimal ML decoders for ISS embedding are derived. We also provide thorough theoretical error probability analysis for the aforementioned decoders. Thirdly, sub-optimal decoders, including local optimum decoder (LOD), generalized maximum likelihood (GML) decoder, and linear minimum mean square error (LMMSE) decoder, are investigated to reduce the required prior information at the receiver side, and their theoretical decoding performances are derived. Based on decoding performances and the required prior information for decoding, we discuss the preferred host domain and the preferred decoder for additive SS-based data hiding under different situations. Extensive simulations are conducted to illustrate the decoding performances of the presented decoders.

  2. Reversible Data Hiding Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhananjay Yadav

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Reversible data hiding is a technique that is used to hide data inside an image. The data is hidden in such a way that the exact or original data is not visible. The hidden data can be retrieved as and when required. There are several methods that are used in reversible data hiding techniques like Watermarking, Lossless embedding and encryption. In this paper we present a review of reversible watermarking techniques and show different methods that are used to get reversible data hiding technique with higher embedding capacity and invisible objects. Watermark need not be hidden. Watermarking can be applied to 1. Images, 2. Text, 3. Audio/video, 4. Software.

  3. Hiding Information under Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-12-12

    as it arrives in real time, and it disappears as fast as it arrives. Furthermore, our cognitive process for translating audio sounds to the meaning... steganography , whose goal is to make the embedded data completely undetectable. In addi- tion, we must dismiss the idea of hiding data by using any...therefore, an image has more room to hide data; and (2) speech steganography has not led to many money-making commercial businesses. For these two

  4. HIDE: HI Data Emulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akeret, Joel; Seehars, Sebastian; Chang, Chihway; Monstein, Christian; Amara, Adam; Refregier, Alexandre

    2016-07-01

    HIDE (HI Data Emulator) forward-models the process of collecting astronomical radio signals in a single dish radio telescope instrument and outputs pixel-level time-ordered-data. Written in Python, HIDE models the noise and RFI modeling of the data and with its companion code SEEK (ascl:1607.020) provides end-to-end simulation and processing of radio survey data.

  5. Minimax eigenvector decomposition for data hiding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Jennifer

    2005-09-01

    Steganography is the study of hiding information within a covert channel in order to transmit a secret message. Any public media such as image data, audio data, or even file packets, can be used as a covert channel. This paper presents an embedding algorithm that hides a message in an image using a technique based on a nonlinear matrix transform called the minimax eigenvector decomposition (MED). The MED is a minimax algebra version of the well-known singular value decomposition (SVD). Minimax algebra is a matrix algebra based on the algebraic operations of maximum and addition, developed initially for use in operations research and extended later to represent a class of nonlinear image processing operations. The discrete mathematical morphology operations of dilation and erosion, for example, are contained within minimax algebra. The MED is much quicker to compute than the SVD and avoids the numerical computational issues of the SVD because the operations involved only integer addition, subtraction, and compare. We present the algorithm to embed data using the MED, show examples applied to image data, and discuss limitations and advantages as compared with another similar algorithm.

  6. Short term preservation of hide using vacuum: influence on properties of hide and of processed leather.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudro, Ilze; Valeika, Virgilijus; Sirvaitytė, Justa

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate vacuum influence on hide preservation time and how it affects hide structure. It was established that vacuum prolongs the storage time without hide tissue putrefaction up to 21 days when the storage temperature is 4°C. The microorganisms act for all storage times, but the action is weak and has no observable influence on the quality of hide during the time period mentioned. The hide shrinkage temperature decrease is negligible, which shows that breaking of intermolecular bonds does not occur. Optical microscopy, infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry also did not show any structural changes which can influence the quality of leather produced from such hide. The qualitative indexes of wet blue processed under laboratory conditions and of leather produced during industrial trials are presented. Indexes such as chromium compounds exhaustion, content of chromium in leather, content of soluble matter in dichloromethane, strength properties, and shrinkage temperature were determined. Properties of the leather produced from vacuumed hide under industrial conditions conformed to the requirements of shoe upper leather.

  7. Meta-GWAS Accuracy and Power (MetaGAP) Calculator Shows that Hiding Heritability Is Partially Due to Imperfect Genetic Correlations across Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rietveld, Cornelius A.; Johannesson, Magnus; Magnusson, Patrik K. E.; Uitterlinden, André G.; van Rooij, Frank J. A.; Hofman, Albert

    2017-01-01

    Large-scale genome-wide association results are typically obtained from a fixed-effects meta-analysis of GWAS summary statistics from multiple studies spanning different regions and/or time periods. This approach averages the estimated effects of genetic variants across studies. In case genetic effects are heterogeneous across studies, the statistical power of a GWAS and the predictive accuracy of polygenic scores are attenuated, contributing to the so-called ‘missing heritability’. Here, we describe the online Meta-GWAS Accuracy and Power (MetaGAP) calculator (available at www.devlaming.eu) which quantifies this attenuation based on a novel multi-study framework. By means of simulation studies, we show that under a wide range of genetic architectures, the statistical power and predictive accuracy provided by this calculator are accurate. We compare the predictions from the MetaGAP calculator with actual results obtained in the GWAS literature. Specifically, we use genomic-relatedness-matrix restricted maximum likelihood to estimate the SNP heritability and cross-study genetic correlation of height, BMI, years of education, and self-rated health in three large samples. These estimates are used as input parameters for the MetaGAP calculator. Results from the calculator suggest that cross-study heterogeneity has led to attenuation of statistical power and predictive accuracy in recent large-scale GWAS efforts on these traits (e.g., for years of education, we estimate a relative loss of 51–62% in the number of genome-wide significant loci and a relative loss in polygenic score R2 of 36–38%). Hence, cross-study heterogeneity contributes to the missing heritability. PMID:28095416

  8. Optical image hiding based on computational ghost imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Le; Zhao, Shengmei; Cheng, Weiwen; Gong, Longyan; Chen, Hanwu

    2016-05-01

    Imaging hiding schemes play important roles in now big data times. They provide copyright protections of digital images. In the paper, we propose a novel image hiding scheme based on computational ghost imaging to have strong robustness and high security. The watermark is encrypted with the configuration of a computational ghost imaging system, and the random speckle patterns compose a secret key. Least significant bit algorithm is adopted to embed the watermark and both the second-order correlation algorithm and the compressed sensing (CS) algorithm are used to extract the watermark. The experimental and simulation results show that the authorized users can get the watermark with the secret key. The watermark image could not be retrieved when the eavesdropping ratio is less than 45% with the second-order correlation algorithm, whereas it is less than 20% with the TVAL3 CS reconstructed algorithm. In addition, the proposed scheme is robust against the 'salt and pepper' noise and image cropping degradations.

  9. Hiding dependence-discovery of F-hiding laws and system laws

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Houyong; Huang Shunliang; Shi Kaiquan

    2009-01-01

    Function one direction S-rough sets have dynamic characteristics and law characteristics. By using the function one direction S-rough sets, this article presents the concepts of the f-hiding law, F-hiding law, f-hiding law dependence and F-hiding law dependence. Based on the concepts above, this article proposes the hiding-dependence theorem of f-hiding laws, the hiding-dependence theorem of F-hiding laws, the hiding-dependence separation theorem, the hiding dependencs-discovery principle of unknown laws. Finally, the application of the hiding dependence of hiding laws in the discovery of system laws is given.

  10. Reversible Data Hiding Based on DNA Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Biocomputing, especially DNA, computing has got great development. It is widely used in information security. In this paper, a novel algorithm of reversible data hiding based on DNA computing is proposed. Inspired by the algorithm of histogram modification, which is a classical algorithm for reversible data hiding, we combine it with DNA computing to realize this algorithm based on biological technology. Compared with previous results, our experimental results have significantly improved the ER (Embedding Rate. Furthermore, some PSNR (peak signal-to-noise ratios of test images are also improved. Experimental results show that it is suitable for protecting the copyright of cover image in DNA-based information security.

  11. Hide receives the Bowie Medal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickey, Jean O.; Hide, Raymond

    The 1997 William Bowie Medal, given by AGU for outstanding contributions to fundamental geophysics and for unselfish cooperation in research, was presented to Raymond Hide at the AGU Spring Meeting Honor Ceremony on May 28 in Baltimore. The award citation and Hide's response are given here.

  12. An Approach to Hide Secret Speech Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Zhi-jun; DUAN Hai-xin; LI Xing

    2006-01-01

    This paper presented an approach to hide secret speech information in code excited linear prediction(CELP)-based speech coding scheme by adopting the analysis-by-synthesis (ABS)-based algorithm of speech information hiding and extracting for the purpose of secure speech communication. The secret speech is coded in 2.4Kb/s mixed excitation linear prediction (MELP), which is embedded in CELP type public speech. The ABS algorithm adopts speech synthesizer in speech coder. Speech embedding and coding are synchronous, i.e. a fusion of speech information data of public and secret. The experiment of embedding 2.4 Kb/s MELP secret speech in G.728 scheme coded public speech transmitted via public switched telephone network (PSTN) shows that the proposed approach satisfies the requirements of information hiding, meets the secure communication speech quality constraints, and achieves high hiding capacity of average 3.2 Kb/s with an excellent speech quality and complicating speakers' recognition.

  13. Joint data-hiding and rate-distortion optimization for H.264/AVC videos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yih-Chuan; Li, Jung-Hong

    2012-07-01

    We address video data-hiding on the context-adaptive variable-length coding domain of the H.264/AVC standard. It is challenging to maintain a minimum variation of rate-distortion performance when hiding data in compressed videos by slightly modifying one or more transform coefficients of prediction residual data. The fluctuant variation of rate-distortion performance is especially serious in the case of hiding data in H.264/AVC compressed videos due to the thorough use of various prediction modes. Most current video data-hiding schemes concentrate on hiding messages in video intra (I)-frames to mitigate performance degradation at the expense of limited hiding capacity and applicability. Unlike most previous video data-hiding schemes, this paper considers data-hiding schemes on both I- and predicted (P)-frames of videos. We first investigate the possible ways used to suppress the significant degradation of the rate-distortion performance for hiding data in H.264/AVC videos. Based on the investigation, a hybrid video data-hiding scheme is designed to perform the classification of 4×4 residual blocks according to the characteristics of each block and to hide message data differently in each classified block in order to reduce the performance degradation caused by the data-hiding process. The block classification is based on the magnitude of the last non-zero coefficient and the coefficient difference energy of each block to select suitable blocks that are capable of contributing less degradation of coding performance for hiding additional messages. Moreover, the proposed data-hiding algorithm is incorporated with the rate-distortion optimization loop of the H.264/AVC encoder to provide further degradation suppression on the output bit-rate and decoded quality. From experiments on several well-known test videos, it can be seen that the proposed data-hiding scheme demonstrates improved efficiency on video quality and output bit-rate compared to other similar methods.

  14. A Data-reversible Hiding Algorithm in WSNs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia CHEN

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In view of the phenomenon that data-hiding algorithm is easy to be detected by inspecting tool SPAM when carrying information, random insertion and histogram modification are adapted in the data hiding. A data-reversible hiding algorithm in WSNs is put forward. By collecting and referring sub-graph, calculating data fusion algorithm that can protect the data’s completion and privacy and analyzing the reversible hiding data algorithm research, the inspection of SPAM. Finally MATLAB7.0 exploitation is adopted to stimulate the analysis of experiment. The result shows that compared with Kim algorithm, the algorithm is safer to prevent the SPAM inspection and is more suitable for information transfer.

  15. Information Hiding Techniques: A Tutorial Review

    CERN Document Server

    Thampi, Sabu M

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this tutorial is to present an overview of various information hiding techniques. A brief history of steganography is provided along with techniques that were used to hide information. Text, image and audio based information hiding techniques are discussed. This paper also provides a basic introduction to digital watermarking.

  16. Integrated Association Rules Complete Hiding Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Refaat Abdellah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents database security approach for complete hiding of sensitive association rules by using six novel algorithms. These algorithms utilize three new weights to reduce the needed database modifications and support complete hiding, as well as they reduce the knowledge distortion and the data distortions. Complete weighted hiding algorithms enhance the hiding failure by 100%; these algorithms have the advantage of performing only a single scan for the database to gather the required information to form the hiding process. These proposed algorithms are built within the database structure which enables the sanitized database to be generated on run time as needed.

  17. Parallel steganography framework for hiding a color image inside stereo images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz-Ramirez, David O.; Ponomaryov, Volodymyr I.; Reyes-Reyes, Rogelio; Cruz-Ramos, Clara

    2017-05-01

    In this work, a robust steganography framework to hide a color image into a stereo images is proposed. The embedding algorithm is performed via Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) and Quantization Index Modulation-Dither Modulation (QIM-DM) hiding the secret data. Additionally, the Arnold's Cat Map Transform is applied in order to scramble the secret color image, guaranteeing better security and robustness of the proposed system. Novel framework has demonstrated better performance against JPEG compression attacks among other existing approaches. Besides, the proposed algorithm is developed taking into account the parallel paradigm in order to be implemented in multi-core CPU increasing the processing speed. The results obtained by the proposed framework show high values of PSNR and SSIM, which demonstrate imperceptibility and sufficient robustness against JPEG compression attacks.

  18. Capacity bounds and constructions for reversible data-hiding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalker, Ton; Willems, Frans M. J.

    2003-06-01

    An undesirable side effect of many watermarking and data-hiding schemes is that the host signal into which auxiliary data is embedded is distorted. Finding an optimal balance between the amount of information embedded and the induced distortion is therefore an active field of research. In recent years, with the rediscovery of Costa's seminal paper Writing on Dirty Paper, there has been considerable progress in understanding the fundamental limits of the capacity versus distortion of watermarking and data-hiding schemes. For some applications, however, no distortion resulting from auxiliary data, however small, is allowed. In these cases the use of reversible data-hiding methods provide a way out. A reversible data-hiding scheme is defined as a scheme that allows complete and blind restoration (i.e. without additional signaling) of the original host data. Practical reversible data-hiding schemes have been proposed by Fridrich et al., but little attention has been paid to the theoretical limits. Some first results on the capacity of reversible watermarking schemes have been derived. The reversible schemes considered in most previous papers have a highly fragile nature: in those schemes, changing a single bit in the watermarked data would prohibit recovery of both the original host signal as well as the embedded auxiliary data. It is the purpose of this paper to repair this situation and to provide some first results on the limits of robust reversible data-hiding. Admittedly, the examples provided in this paper are toy examples, but they are indicative of more practical schemes that will be presented in subsequent papers.

  19. Spread spectrum image data hiding in the encrypted discrete cosine transform coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoqiang; Wang, Z. Jane

    2013-10-01

    Digital watermarking and data hiding are important tools for digital rights protection of media data. Spread spectrum (SS)-based watermarking and data-hiding approaches are popular due to their outstanding robustness, but their security might not be sufficient. To improve the security of SS, a SS-based image data-hiding approach is proposed by encrypting the discrete cosine transform coefficients of the host image with the piecewise linear chaotic map, before the operation of watermark embedding. To evaluate the performance of the proposed approach, simulations and analyses of its robustness and security are carried out. The average bit-error-rate values on 100 real images from the Berkeley segmentation dataset under the JPEG compression, additive Gaussian noise, salt and pepper noise, and cropping attacks are reported. Experimental results show that the proposed approach can maintain the high robustness of traditional SS schemes and, meanwhile, also improve the security. The proposed approach can extend the key space of traditional SS schemes from 10 to 10 and thus can resist brute-force attack and unauthorized detection watermark attack.

  20. A Block Based Adaptive Video Data Hiding Method Using Forbidden Zone Data Hiding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banoth, Rajkumar

    2013-01-01

    -Data hiding is a process of embedding information into some sort of host media. Especially video data hiding has become an important research topic as it is complex when compared data hiding process in other media. This paper proposes a new method based on erasure correction capability of RA codes...... using forbidden zone data hiding. This method finds suitable host signals that are useful for data hiding. The proposed method also overcomes the problems of frame drop and inserts attacks. The simulation results reveal that this video data hiding framework can be used in data hiding applications...... of the real world. Key Words – RA codes, selective embedding, watermarking, forbidden zone data hiding, simulation, selective embedding, erasure handling, block partitioning...

  1. Hiding Quantum Information in the Perfect Code

    CERN Document Server

    Shaw, Bilal A

    2010-01-01

    We present and analyze a protocol for quantum steganography where the sender (Alice) encodes her steganographic information into the error syndromes of the perfect (five-qubit) quantum error-correcting code, and sends it to the receiver (Bob) over a depolarizing channel. Alice and Bob share a classical secret key, and hide quantum information in such a way that to an eavesdropper (Eve) without access to the secret key, the quantum message looks like an innocent codeword with a typical sequence of quantum errors. We calculate the average rate of key consumption, and show how the protocol improves in performance as information is spread over multiple codeword blocks. Alice and Bob utilize different encodings to optimize the average number of steganographic bits that they can send to each other while matching the error statistics of the depolarizing channel.

  2. Military Deception: Hiding the Real - Showing the Fake

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-26

    his breakfast while reading his morning paper and listening to the international news channel. Hearing the Balkans mentioned—his area of...online renders the United States susceptible to deception. In the rush to be the first with late-breaking coverage, news networks sometimes skip analysis...has a fighting chance against future deception operations. As the general got up from his breakfast to respond to his pager, he knew it would not be

  3. Linear and Nonlinear Oblivious Data Hiding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akansu Ali N

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The majority of the existing data hiding schemes are based on the direct-sequence (DS modulation where a low-power random sequence is embedded into the original cover signal to represent hidden information. In this paper, we investigate linear and nonlinear modulation approaches in digital data hiding. One typical DS modulation algorithm is explored and its optimal oblivious detector is derived. The results expose its poor cover noise suppression as the hiding signature signal always has much lower energy than the cover signal. A simple nonlinear algorithm, called set partitioning, is proposed and its performance is analyzed. Analysis and simulation studies further demonstrate improvements over the existing schemes.

  4. Recent Advances in Information Hiding and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Hsiang-Cheh; Jain, Lakhmi; Zhao, Yao

    2013-01-01

    This research book presents a sample of recent advances in information hiding techniques and their applications. It includes:   Image data hiding scheme based on vector quantization and image graph coloring The copyright protection system for Android platform Reversible data hiding ICA-based image and video watermarking Content-based invariant image watermarking Single bitmap block truncation coding of color images using cat swarm optimization Genetic-based wavelet packet watermarking for copyright protection Lossless text steganography in compression coding Fast and low-distortion capacity acoustic synchronized acoustic-to-acoustic steganography scheme Video watermarking with shot detection

  5. Sensitive plant (Mimosa pudica) hiding time depends on individual and state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed-Guy, Sarah; Gehris, Connor; Shi, Meng; Blumstein, Daniel T

    2017-01-01

    The decisions animals make to adjust their antipredator behavior to rapidly changing conditions have been well studied. Inducible defenses in plants are an antipredator behavior that acts on a longer time scale, but sensitive plants, Mimosa pudica, have a much more rapid antipredator response; they temporarily close their leaves when touched. The time they remain closed is defined as hiding time. We studied hiding time in sensitive plants and found that individual plants differed significantly in their hiding times. We then showed that the effect of individual explained substantial variation in hiding time on a short time scale. Finally, on a longer time scale, individuality persisted but the amount of variation attributed to individual decreased. We hypothesized that variation in plant condition might explain this change. We therefore manipulated sunlight availability and quantified hiding time. When deprived of light for 6 h, sensitive plants significantly shortened their hiding times. But when only half a plant was deprived of light, hiding times on the deprived half and light exposed half were not significantly different. This suggests that overall condition best explains variation in sensitive plant antipredator behavior. Just like in animals, sensitive plant antipredator behavior is condition dependent, and, just like in animals, a substantial amount of the remaining variation is explained by individual differences between plants. Thus, models designed to predict plasticity in animal behavior may be successfully applied to understand behavior in other organisms, including plants.

  6. Sensitive plant (Mimosa pudica hiding time depends on individual and state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Reed-Guy

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The decisions animals make to adjust their antipredator behavior to rapidly changing conditions have been well studied. Inducible defenses in plants are an antipredator behavior that acts on a longer time scale, but sensitive plants, Mimosa pudica, have a much more rapid antipredator response; they temporarily close their leaves when touched. The time they remain closed is defined as hiding time. We studied hiding time in sensitive plants and found that individual plants differed significantly in their hiding times. We then showed that the effect of individual explained substantial variation in hiding time on a short time scale. Finally, on a longer time scale, individuality persisted but the amount of variation attributed to individual decreased. We hypothesized that variation in plant condition might explain this change. We therefore manipulated sunlight availability and quantified hiding time. When deprived of light for 6 h, sensitive plants significantly shortened their hiding times. But when only half a plant was deprived of light, hiding times on the deprived half and light exposed half were not significantly different. This suggests that overall condition best explains variation in sensitive plant antipredator behavior. Just like in animals, sensitive plant antipredator behavior is condition dependent, and, just like in animals, a substantial amount of the remaining variation is explained by individual differences between plants. Thus, models designed to predict plasticity in animal behavior may be successfully applied to understand behavior in other organisms, including plants.

  7. A Game of Hide and Seek: Expectations of Clumpy Resources Influence Hiding and Searching Patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Wilke

    Full Text Available Resources are often distributed in clumps or patches in space, unless an agent is trying to protect them from discovery and theft using a dispersed distribution. We uncover human expectations of such spatial resource patterns in collaborative and competitive settings via a sequential multi-person game in which participants hid resources for the next participant to seek. When collaborating, resources were mostly hidden in clumpy distributions, but when competing, resources were hidden in more dispersed (random or hyperdispersed patterns to increase the searching difficulty for the other player. More dispersed resource distributions came at the cost of higher overall hiding (as well as searching times, decreased payoffs, and an increased difficulty when the hider had to recall earlier hiding locations at the end of the experiment. Participants' search strategies were also affected by their underlying expectations, using a win-stay lose-shift strategy appropriate for clumpy resources when searching for collaboratively-hidden items, but moving equally far after finding or not finding an item in competitive settings, as appropriate for dispersed resources. Thus participants showed expectations for clumpy versus dispersed spatial resources that matched the distributions commonly found in collaborative versus competitive foraging settings.

  8. A Game of Hide and Seek: Expectations of Clumpy Resources Influence Hiding and Searching Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilke, Andreas; Minich, Steven; Panis, Megane; Langen, Tom A; Skufca, Joseph D; Todd, Peter M

    2015-01-01

    Resources are often distributed in clumps or patches in space, unless an agent is trying to protect them from discovery and theft using a dispersed distribution. We uncover human expectations of such spatial resource patterns in collaborative and competitive settings via a sequential multi-person game in which participants hid resources for the next participant to seek. When collaborating, resources were mostly hidden in clumpy distributions, but when competing, resources were hidden in more dispersed (random or hyperdispersed) patterns to increase the searching difficulty for the other player. More dispersed resource distributions came at the cost of higher overall hiding (as well as searching) times, decreased payoffs, and an increased difficulty when the hider had to recall earlier hiding locations at the end of the experiment. Participants' search strategies were also affected by their underlying expectations, using a win-stay lose-shift strategy appropriate for clumpy resources when searching for collaboratively-hidden items, but moving equally far after finding or not finding an item in competitive settings, as appropriate for dispersed resources. Thus participants showed expectations for clumpy versus dispersed spatial resources that matched the distributions commonly found in collaborative versus competitive foraging settings.

  9. Hiding Information into Palette-Based Image

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Hong-tao; ZHU Bo-cheng; YANG Yi-xian

    2005-01-01

    After pointing out the weakness of the known palette-based image information hiding by palette matrix,a new spacial effective robust information hiding algorithm is proposed,which can resist the operation of ‘select all’,‘copy’,‘paste’ from cover to original,and can resist gently modification the palette matrix,and can resist the image format changed between true color image and palette-based image.The hiding capacity can reach 25% of the number of pixel index matrix.Due to the advisement of information hiding security an update algorithm is proposed at the end of the paper,with the capacity reduced and vision effect increased.

  10. 'Medical Tattoos' Help Hide Surgical Scars

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161132.html 'Medical Tattoos' Help Hide Surgical Scars Pigments can restore more ... scars from cancer surgeries may benefit from "medical tattoos" that can help restore some of the skin's ...

  11. Hiding robot inertia using resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallery, Heike; Duschau-Wicke, Alexander; Riener, Robert

    2010-01-01

    To enable compliant training modes with a rehabilitation robot, an important prerequisite is that any undesired human-robot interaction forces caused by robot dynamics must be avoided, either by an appropriate mechanical design or by compensating control strategies. Our recently proposed control scheme of "Generalized Elasticities" employs potential fields to compensate for robot dynamics, including inertia, beyond what can be done using closed-loop force control. In this paper, we give a simple mechanical equivalent using the example of the gait rehabilitation robot Lokomat. The robot consists of an exoskeleton that is attached to a frame around the patient's pelvis. This frame is suspended by a springloaded parallelogram structure. The mechanism allows vertical displacement while providing almost constant robot gravity compensation. However, inertia of the device when the patient's pelvis moves up and down remains a source of large interaction forces, which are reflected in increased ground reaction forces. Here, we investigate an alternative suspension: To hide not only gravity, but also robot inertia during vertical pelvis motion, we suspend the robot frame by a stiff linear spring that allows the robot to oscillate vertically at an eigenfrequency close to the natural gait frequency. This mechanism reduces human-robot interaction forces, which is demonstrated in pilot experimental results.

  12. Fully Traversable Wormholes Hiding Charge

    CERN Document Server

    Guendelman, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    The charge-hiding effect by a wormhole, which was studied for the case where gravity/gauge-field system is self-consistently interacting with a charged lightlike brane (LLB) as a matter source, is now studied for the case of a time like brane. From the demand that no surfaces of infinite coordinate time redshift appear in the problem we are lead now to a completly traversable wormhole space, according to not only the traveller that goes through the wormhole (as was the case for the LLB), but also to a static external observer, this requires negative surface energy density for the shell sitting at the throat of the wormhole. We study a gauge field subsystem which is of a special non-linear form containing a square-root of the Maxwell term and which previously has been shown to produce a QCD-like confining gauge field dynamics in flat space-time. The condition of finite energy of the system or asymptotic flatness on one side of the wormhole implies that the charged object sitting at the wormhole throat expels a...

  13. A Blind High-Capacity Wavelet-Based Steganography Technique for Hiding Images into other Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAMAD, S.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The flourishing field of Steganography is providing effective techniques to hide data into different types of digital media. In this paper, a novel technique is proposed to hide large amounts of image data into true colored images. The proposed method employs wavelet transforms to decompose images in a way similar to the Human Visual System (HVS for more secure and effective data hiding. The designed model can blindly extract the embedded message without the need to refer to the original cover image. Experimental results showed that the proposed method outperformed all of the existing techniques not only imperceptibility but also in terms of capacity. In fact, the proposed technique showed an outstanding performance on hiding a secret image whose size equals 100% of the cover image while maintaining excellent visual quality of the resultant stego-images.

  14. STUDY ON AUDIO INFORMATION HIDING METHOD BASED ON MODIFIED PHASE PARTITION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tong Ming; Hao Chongyang; Liu Xiaojun; Chen Yanpu

    2005-01-01

    Hiding efficiency of traditional audio information hiding methods is always low since the sentience similarity cannot be guaranteed. A new audio information hiding method is proposed in this letter which can impose the insensitivity with the audio phase for auditory and realize the information hiding through specific algorithm in order to modify local phase within the auditory perception. The algorithm is to introduce the operation of "set 1" and "set 0" for every phase vectors, then the phases must lie on the boundary of a phase area after modified. If it lies on "1" boundary, it comes by set 1 operation. If it lies on "0" boundary, it comes by set 0 operation. The results show that, compared with the legacy method, the proposed method has better auditory similarity, larger information embedding capacity and lower code error rate. As a kind of blind detect method, it fits for application scenario without channel interference.

  15. Data Hiding in JPEG Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushil Kumar

    2009-07-01

    perceptibility [5, 1].We shall use digital images as the cover object in this paper inwhich we embed the hidden information. The challenge ofusing steganography in cover images is to hide as much data aspossible with the least noticeable difference in the stego-image.Steganographic algorithms operate on basically three types ofimages: Raw images (i.e., bmp format, Palette based images(i.e., GIF images and JPEG images. JPEG images areroutinely used in Steganographic algorithms due to the mostpopular lossy image compression method. Usually it is foundthat an algorithm used to hide large amounts of informationtypically result in lower perceptibility (i.e., greater change tothe image appearance and a more robust algorithm result intolower embedding capacity. The JPEG image generation firstdecomposed the input image into a number of 8 x 8 blocks.Then DCT of each block are computed and the resultant DCTcoefficient matrix is quantized using a standard quantizationtable. Finally the inverse DCT of quantized coefficient matrixare evaluated and the final JPEG image is obtained afterrounding the values.

  16. The effect of media on knowledge hiding in entrepreneurial firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Labafi, Somayeh; Khajeheian, Datis; Williams, Idongesit

    2017-01-01

    in a qualitative study. Thematic analysis is used to analyze transcribed interview data from employees in a software company in Iran. The findings of the analysis show that media richness significantly impacts on organizational learning and influences on knowledge hiding behavior in employees. This article...... suggests that entrepreneurs and managers of small firms should provide employees’ access to rich media content as well as established organizational learning as part of their organizational culture........ For this reason, factors that influence on the tendency of employees to expose and use their knowledge would be appreciated by managers of organizations. This paper investigates the effect of the media on knowledge hiding in organizations. The investigation is done with the aid of a conceptual framework...

  17. Robust color image hiding method in DCT domain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Qing-zhong; YU Chen; CHU Dong-sheng

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a robust color image hiding method based on YCbCr color system in discrete cosine transform (DCT) domain,which can hide a secret color image behind a public color cover image and is compatible with the international image compression standard of JPEG.To overcome the grave distortion problem in the restored secret image,this paper proposes a new embedding scheme consisting of reasonable partition of a pixel value and sign embedding.Moreover,based on human visual system (HVS) and fuzzy theory,this paper also presents a fuzzy classification method for DCT sub-blocks to realize the adaptive selection of embedding strength.The experimental results show that the maximum distortion error in pixel value for the extracted secret image is ±1.And the color cover image can provide good quality after embedding large amount of data.

  18. DNA-based cryptographic methods for data hiding in DNA media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwan, Samiha; Shawish, Ahmed; Nagaty, Khaled

    2016-12-01

    Information security can be achieved using cryptography, steganography or a combination of them, where data is firstly encrypted using any of the available cryptography techniques and then hid into any hiding medium. Recently, the famous genomic DNA has been introduced as a hiding medium, known as DNA steganography, due to its notable ability to hide huge data sets with a high level of randomness and hence security. Despite the numerous cryptography techniques, to our knowledge only the vigenere cipher and the DNA-based playfair cipher have been combined with the DNA steganography, which keeps space for investigation of other techniques and coming up with new improvements. This paper presents a comprehensive analysis between the DNA-based playfair, vigenere, RSA and the AES ciphers, each combined with a DNA hiding technique. The conducted analysis reports the performance diversity of each combined technique in terms of security, speed, hiding capacity in addition to both key size and data size. Moreover, this paper proposes a modification of the current combined DNA-based playfair cipher technique, which makes it not only simple and fast but also provides a significantly higher hiding capacity and security. The conducted extensive experimental studies confirm such outstanding performance in comparison with all the discussed combined techniques. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Hiding effort to gain a competitive advantage: Evidence from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Li; Heyman, Gail D

    2016-06-06

    Previous studies with Western populations have shown that adolescents' tendency to downplay their academic effort is affected by two kinds of motives: ability-related motives (e.g., to appear competent) and social approval motives (e.g., to be popular). In this research, we test for the presence of additional competition-related motives in China, a culture placing strong emphasis on academic competition. Study 1 (N = 150) showed that, in response to a scenario in which a hard-working high-school junior hid effort from classmates, the most highly endorsed explanation was "to influence others to work less hard to maintain a competitive advantage." Study 2 (N = 174) revealed that competition-related explanations were endorsed relatively more often when the speaker and audience had similar academic rankings. This tendency was most evident when both speaker and audience were top performers, and when this was the case, participants' desire to demonstrate superiority over others was a positive predictor of endorsement of competition-related motives. Study 3 (N = 137) verified that competition-related motives were more strongly endorsed among Chinese participants than U.S. These results suggest that at least in cultures that emphasize academic competition and in contexts where competition is salient, hiding effort is often about attempting to gain strategic advantage. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.

  20. INDICATOR AND PATHOGENIC MICROORGANISMS CONTAMINATION OF HIDE OF CATTLE PRESENTED TO FOR SLAUGHTER AND CONTAMINATION OF THE RESULTANT CARCASSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Liuzzo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Foodborne pathogens including Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp., can enter the meat chain at multiple points. Animals with excessively dirty hides will represent a risk of cross-contaminations during transport, in the slaughtered house environment and during dressing procedures. The aim of this work was to investigate the relationship among hygiene indicator microorganisms (Enterobacteriaceae and Escherichia coli count, in hide and carcass of cattle presented for slaughter, and different hide cleanliness level in two abattoir (R and F and estimate the prevalence of pathogens Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella spp and Campylobacter spp. in hide and carcass of dirty animals. The results showed that hide Escherichia coli and Enterobacteriaceae count were significantly higher in dirty animals than in clean animals (P<0,05, but carcass contamination were significantly higher in dirty animals than in clean animals only in R abattoir. Escherichia coli O 157:H7 was detected in 19 samples of hide (40,4%, and 2 samples of carcass. Campylobacter jejuni was isolated in 13 samples of hide (25,5% and one sample of carcass. Salmonella spp. were not found in all the samples of hide and carcass.

  1. Unitary embedding for data hiding with the SVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Clifford; Davidson, Jennifer

    2005-03-01

    Steganography is the study of data hiding for the purpose of covert communication. A secret message is inserted into a cover file so that the very existence of the message is not apparent. Most current steganography algorithms insert data in the spatial or transform domains; common transforms include the discrete cosine transform, the discrete Fourier transform, and discrete wavelet transform. In this paper, we present a data-hiding algorithm that exploits a decomposition representation of the data instead of a frequency-based transformation of the data. The decomposition transform used is the singular value decomposition (SVD). The SVD of a matrix A is a decomposition A= USV' in which S is a nonnegative diagonal matrix and U and V are orthogonal matrices. We show how to use the orthogonal matrices in the SVD as a vessel in which to embed information. Several challenges were presented in order to accomplish this, and we give effective information-hiding using the SVD can be just as effective as using transform-based techniques. Furthermore, different problems arise when using the SVD than using a transform-based technique. We have applied the SVD to image data, but the technique can be formulated for other data types such as audio and video.

  2. Steganography An Art of Hiding Data

    CERN Document Server

    Channalli, Shashikala

    2009-01-01

    In today's world the art of sending & displaying the hidden information especially in public places, has received more attention and faced many challenges. Therefore, different methods have been proposed so far for hiding information in different cover media. In this paper a method for hiding of information on the billboard display is presented. It is well known that encryption provides secure channels for communicating entities. However, due to lack of covertness on these channels, an eavesdropper can identify encrypted streams through statistical tests and capture them for further cryptanalysis. In this paper we propose a new form of steganography, on-line hiding of information on the output screens of the instrument. This method can be used for announcing a secret message in public place. It can be extended to other means such as electronic advertising board around sports stadium, railway station or airport. This method of steganography is very similar to image steganography and video steganography. Pr...

  3. Preparation of biobased sponges from un-tanned hides

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of our research endeavors to address ongoing challenges faced by the U.S. hide and leather industries is to develop innovative uses and novel biobased products from hides to improve prospective markets and to secure a viable future for hides and leather industries. We had previously investigate...

  4. Hiding an Inconvenient Truth : Lies and Vagueness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serra Garcia, M.; van Damme, E.E.C.; Potters, J.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    When truth conflicts with e¢ ciency, can verbal communication destroy efficiency? Or are lies or vagueness used to hide inconvenient truths? We consider a sequential 2-player public good game in which the leader has private information about the value of the public good. This value can be low, high,

  5. Hiding levitating objects above a ground plane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jingjing; Luo, Yu; Mortensen, Asger

    2010-01-01

    An approach to hiding objects levitating above a conducting sheet is suggested in this paper. The proposed device makes use of isotropic negative-refractive-index materials without extreme material parameters, and creates an illusion of a remote conducting sheet. Numerical simulations are perform...

  6. Understanding Information Hiding in iOS

    OpenAIRE

    Caviglione, Luca; Mazurczyk, Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    The Apple operating system (iOS) has so far proved resistant to information-hiding techniques, which help attackers covertly communicate. However, Siri - a native iOS service that controls iPhones and iPads via voice commands - could change this trend.

  7. An Approach for Message Hiding using Substitution Techniques and Audio Hiding in Steganography

    CERN Document Server

    Mukhopadhyay, Debajyoti; Ghosh, Surjya; Biswas, Sudipto; Chakraborty, Poulami

    2011-01-01

    A crypto system can be used to encrypt messages sent between two communicating parties so that an eavesdropper who overhears the encrypted messages will not be able to decode them. The paper mainly concentrates on the method in which the substitution technique of steganography can been used to hide data in a 24-bit bitmap file. Popular audio hiding techniques based on methods of steganography is also discussed here.

  8. Partitioning and Scheduling DSP Applications with Maximal Memory Access Hiding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sha Edwin Hsing-Mean

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an iteration space partitioning scheme to reduce the CPU idle time due to the long memory access latency. We take into consideration both the data accesses of intermediate and initial data. An algorithm is proposed to find the largest overlap for initial data to reduce the entire memory traffic. In order to efficiently hide the memory latency, another algorithm is developed to balance the ALU and memory schedules. The experiments on DSP benchmarks show that the algorithms significantly outperform the known existing methods.

  9. A New Images Hiding Scheme Based on Chaotic Sequences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Nian-sheng; GUO Dong-hui; WU Bo-xi; Parr G

    2005-01-01

    We propose a data hidding technique in a still image. This technique is based on chaotic sequence in the transform domain of covert image. We use different chaotic random sequences multiplied by multiple sensitive images, respectively, to spread the spectrum of sensitive images. Multiple sensitive images are hidden in a covert image as a form of noise. The results of theoretical analysis and computer simulation show the new hiding technique have better properties with high security, imperceptibility and capacity for hidden information in comparison with the conventional scheme such as LSB (Least Significance Bit).

  10. Information Hiding Using Improper Frame Padding

    CERN Document Server

    Jankowski, Bartosz; Szczypiorski, Krzysztof

    2010-01-01

    Hiding information in network traffic may lead to leakage of confidential information. In this paper we introduce a new steganographic system: the PadSteg (Padding Steganography). To authors' best knowledge it is the first information hiding solution which represents interprotocol steganography i.e. usage of relation between two or more protocols from the TCP/IP stack to enable secret communication. PadSteg utilizes ARP and TCP protocols together with an Etherleak vulnerability (improper Ethernet frame padding) to facilitate secret communication for hidden groups in LANs (Local Area Networks). Basing on real network traces we confirm that PadSteg is feasible in today's networks and we estimate what steganographic bandwidth is achievable while limiting the chance of disclosure. We also point at possible countermeasures against PadSteg.

  11. The Costs of Hiding and Faking Emotions: The Case of Extraverts and Introverts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seger-Guttmann, Tali; Medler-Liraz, Hana

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the moderation effects of extraversion on the relationships between hiding and faking emotions, perceived satisfaction from intimate relationships, and reported physical health concerns. Four hundred and four Israeli participants, who were all involved in intimate relationships at the time of the study, responded to the Extraversion scale from the Big-Five Inventory, the DEELS to measure hiding and faking emotions, the SELF to assess physical health concerns, and the short version of the ENRICH to evaluate perceived satisfaction with intimate relationships. The mean age was 32.3 years (SD = 8.2); and the average length of time as a couple was 7.8 years (SD = 8.2). Of the participants, 198 were married (48.5%). The findings indicate that the effect of hiding negative emotions was stronger for perceived satisfaction with intimate relationships and physical health concerns than that for faking positive emotions. Extraverts who showed a higher frequency of hiding their negative emotions were significantly less satisfied with their relationships than introverts and they also tended to report more concerns with their physical health. These results were not found when extraverts reported a high frequency of faking positive emotions. These results are discussed in the context of the trait-behavior-concordance model and stress the importance of distinguishing faking from hiding.

  12. Combined exposure to lead, inorganic mercury and methylmercury shows deviation from additivity for cardiovascular toxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildemann, Tanja M; Weber, Lynn P; Siciliano, Steven D

    2015-08-01

    Environmental exposure to metal mixtures in the human population is common. Mixture risk assessments are often challenging because of a lack of suitable data on the relevant mixture. A growing number of studies show an association between lead or mercury exposure and cardiovascular effects. We investigated the cardiovascular effects of single metal exposure or co-exposure to methylmercury [MeHg(I)], inorganic mercury [Hg(II)] and lead [Pb(II)]. Male Wistar rats received four different metal mixtures for 28 days through the drinking water. The ratios of the metals were based on reference and environmental exposure values. Blood and pulse pressure, cardiac output and electrical activity of the heart were selected as end-points. While exposure to only MeHg(I) increased the systolic blood pressure and decreased cardiac output, the effects were reversed with combined exposures (antagonism). In contrast to these effects, combined exposures negatively affected the electrical activity of the heart (synergism). Thus, it appears that estimates of blood total Hg levels need to be paired with estimates of what species of mercury dominate exposure as well as whether lead co-exposure is present to link total blood Hg levels to cardiovascular effects. Based on current human exposure data and our results, there may be an increased risk of cardiac events as a result of combined exposures to Hg(II), MeHg(I) and Pb(II). This increased risk needs to be clarified by analyzing lead and Hg exposure data in relation to cardiac electrical activity in epidemiological studies.

  13. Estimation of Information Hiding Algorithms and Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-02-21

    growing false positives. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Information hiding, reverse-engineering, steganography , steganalysis, watermarking 16. SECURITY...specialist in breaking a covert communication system given very little information. Since it is likely for steganography to be used on very large...multimedia files, e.g. audio and video, there are substantial issues to be addressed on the implementation end of such a system as well as the theoretical

  14. A secure and robust information hiding technique for covert communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parah, S. A.; Sheikh, J. A.; Hafiz, A. M.; Bhat, G. M.

    2015-08-01

    The unprecedented advancement of multimedia and growth of the internet has made it possible to reproduce and distribute digital media easier and faster. This has given birth to information security issues, especially when the information pertains to national security, e-banking transactions, etc. The disguised form of encrypted data makes an adversary suspicious and increases the chance of attack. Information hiding overcomes this inherent problem of cryptographic systems and is emerging as an effective means of securing sensitive data being transmitted over insecure channels. In this paper, a secure and robust information hiding technique referred to as Intermediate Significant Bit Plane Embedding (ISBPE) is presented. The data to be embedded is scrambled and embedding is carried out using the concept of Pseudorandom Address Vector (PAV) and Complementary Address Vector (CAV) to enhance the security of the embedded data. The proposed ISBPE technique is fully immune to Least Significant Bit (LSB) removal/replacement attack. Experimental investigations reveal that the proposed technique is more robust to various image processing attacks like JPEG compression, Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN), low pass filtering, etc. compared to conventional LSB techniques. The various advantages offered by ISBPE technique make it a good candidate for covert communication.

  15. Managing Communication Latency-Hiding at Runtime for Parallel Programming Languages and Libraries

    CERN Document Server

    Kristensen, Mads Ruben Burgdorff

    2012-01-01

    This work introduces a runtime model for managing communication with support for latency-hiding. The model enables non-computer science researchers to exploit communication latency-hiding techniques seamlessly. For compiled languages, it is often possible to create efficient schedules for communication, but this is not the case for interpreted languages. By maintaining data dependencies between scheduled operations, it is possible to aggressively initiate communication and lazily evaluate tasks to allow maximal time for the communication to finish before entering a wait state. We implement a heuristic of this model in DistNumPy, an auto-parallelizing version of numerical Python that allows sequential NumPy programs to run on distributed memory architectures. Furthermore, we present performance comparisons for eight benchmarks with and without automatic latency-hiding. The results shows that our model reduces the time spent on waiting for communication as much as 27 times, from a maximum of 54% to only 2% of t...

  16. A statistical hiding algorithm based on self-similar network traffic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHA Xue-jun; XU Yu-bin; QIANG Wei

    2008-01-01

    Although the encryption of network packets significantly increases privacy, the density of the traffic can still provide useful information to the observer, and maybe results in the breach of confidentiality. In this paper, we address issues related to hiding information in self-similar network, which is proved to be similar with modem communication network. And a statistical hiding algorithm is proposed for traffic padding. The figures and the comparison of Hurst Parameters before and after traffic padding, show the effective performance of the algorithm.

  17. Reliable Transmission of Audio Streams in Lossy Channels Using Application Level Data Hiding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parag Agarwal

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper improves the reliability of audio streams in a lossy channel. The mechanism groups audio data samples into source and carrier sets. The carrier set carry the information about the source set which is encoded using data hiding methodology - quantization index modulation. At the receiver side, a missing source data sample can be reconstructed using the carrier set and the remaining source set. Based on reliability constraints a hybrid design combining interleaving and data hiding is presented. Experiments show an improved reliability as compared to forward error correction and interleaving.

  18. S-rough sets and the discovery of F-hiding knowledge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Singular rough sets (S-rough sets) have three classes of forms: one-directional S-rough sets, dual of one-directional S-rough sets, and two-directional S-rough sets. Dynamic, hereditary, mnemonic, and hiding properties are the basic characteristics of S-rough sets. By using the S-rough sets, the concepts of f-hiding knowledge, F-hiding knowledge, hiding degree, and hiding dependence degree are given. Then, both the hiding theorem and the hiding dependence theorem of hiding knowledge are proposed. Finally, an application of hiding knowledge is discussed.

  19. Error Concealment using Data Hiding in Wireless Image Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Akbari

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The transmission of image/video over unreliable medium like wireless networks generally results in receiving a damaged image/video. In this paper, a novel image error concealment scheme based on the idea of data hiding and Set Partitioning In Hierarchical Trees (SPIHT coding is investigated. In the encoder side, the coefficients of wavelet decomposed image are partitioned into “perfect trees”. The SPIHT coder is applied to encode each per-fect tree independently and generate an efficiently compressed reference code. This code is then embedded into the coefficients of another perfect tree which is located in a different place, using a robust data hiding scheme based on Quantization Index Modulation (QIM. In the decoder side, if a part of the image is lost, the algorithm extracts the embedded code for reference trees related to this part to reconstruct the lost information. Performance results show that for an error prone transmission, the proposed technique is promising to efficiently conceal the lost areas of the transmitted image.

  20. Abdominal mass hiding rib osteomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffaeli, Genny; Borzani, Irene; Pinzani, Raffaella; Giannitto, Caterina; Principi, Nicola; Esposito, Susanna

    2016-04-12

    Rib osteomyelitis is a rare entity, occurring in approximately 1 % or less of all cases of haematogenous osteomyelitis. Given its rarity and clinical heterogeneity, the diagnosis of rib osteomyelitis can be challenging and requires a high index of suspicion. We present a case of acute osteomyelitis of the rib due to community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), which occurred in an otherwise healthy 3-month-old infant and mimicked an epigastric hernia at first. An otherwise healthy 3-month-old female infant was sent by her primary care paediatrician to the paediatric emergency department for possible incarcerated epigastric hernia because for 2 days, she had suffered from mild to moderate fever, irritability, poor feeding, and tender epigastric swelling. Ultrasonographic imaging excluded epigastric hernia, and transthoracic echocardiography ruled out endocarditis. However, clinical assessment combined with laboratory criteria classified the child into the high-risk group for having severe bacterial infection. Consequently, awaiting the definitive diagnosis, she was immediately treated with a broad-spectrum regimen of intravenous antibiotic therapy based on vancomycin (40 mg/kg/die in 3 doses) and meropenem (100 mg/kg/die in 3 doses). Three days after admission, the blood culture result was positive for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and vancomycin remained as antibiotic therapy. On day 3, a second swelling appeared at the level of the seventh left rib, 2 cm-wide, non-erythematous, mildly painful. Ultrasonography of the left chest wall on this occasion showed an image consistent with an acute osteomyelitis of the anterior osteo-chondral region of the 7th rib and associated adjacent periosteal and soft tissue collection and magnetic resonance imaging confirmed the osteomyelitis of the anterior middle-distal part of the 7th left rib, near the costochondral junction. Vancomycin was continued up to a total of 6 weeks of therapy

  1. A Security Enhanced Robust Steganography Algorithm for Data Hiding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddharth Singh

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new robust steganography algorithm based on discrete cosine transform (DCT, Arnold transform and chaotic system is proposed. The chaotic system is used to generate a random sequence to be used for spreading data in the middle frequency band DCT coefficient of the cover image. The security is further enhanced by scrambling the secret data using Arnold Cat map before embedding. The recovery process is blind. A series of experiments is conducted to prove the security and robustness of the proposed algorithm. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm achieves higher security and robustness against JPEG compression, addition of noise, low pass filtering and cropping attacks as compared to other existing algorithms for data hiding in the DCT domain.

  2. Accountable Metadata-Hiding Escrow: A Group Signature Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohlweiss Markulf

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A common approach to demands for lawful access to encrypted data is to allow a trusted third party (TTP to gain access to private data. However, there is no way to verify that this trust is well placed as the TTP may open all messages indiscriminately. Moreover, existing approaches do not scale well when, in addition to the content of the conversation, one wishes to hide one’s identity. Given the importance of metadata this is a major problem. We propose a new approach in which users can retroactively verify cryptographically whether they were wiretapped. As a case study, we propose a new signature scheme that can act as an accountable replacement for group signatures, accountable forward and backward tracing signatures.

  3. Augmented Reality Marker Hiding with Texture Deformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Norihiko; Sato, Tomokazu; Nakashima, Yuta; Yokoya, Naokazu

    2016-10-19

    Augmented reality (AR) marker hiding is a technique to visually remove AR markers in a real-time video stream. A conventional approach transforms a background image with a homography matrix calculated on the basis of a camera pose and overlays the transformed image on an AR marker region in a real-time frame, assuming that the AR marker is on a planar surface. However, this approach may cause discontinuities in textures around the boundary between the marker and its surrounding area when the planar surface assumption is not satisfied. This paper proposes a method for AR marker hiding without discontinuities around texture boundaries even under nonplanar background geometry without measuring it. For doing this, our method estimates the dense motion in the marker's background by analyzing the motion of sparse feature points around it, together with a smooth motion assumption, and deforms the background image according to it. Our experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method in various environments with different background geometries and textures.

  4. Enhancement of LSB based Steganography for Hiding Image in Audio

    OpenAIRE

    Pradeep Kumar Singh; R.K.Aggrawal

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we will take an in-depth look on steganography by proposing a new method of Audio Steganography. Emphasize will be on the proposed scheme of image hiding in audio and its comparison with simple Least Significant Bit insertion method for data hiding in audio.

  5. Mother-young recognition in goitered gazelle during hiding period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, D A; Yang, W

    2017-09-01

    The mother-young recognition process is crucial for the growth and survival of progeny. In "follower" ungulate species, vocal and visual cues have been found to play a leading role in the mother-young identification process from the first days postpartum, with olfactory cues also important in establishing the initial selective mother-young bond immediately after birth. In "hider" species, however, much less has been documented of mother-young recognition behaviors, especially in their natural habitat. In this paper, we investigated this process in goitered gazelle (Gazella subgutturosa), a typical hider species, in its native environment in Kazakhstan. Over the course of our study period, we investigated the behaviors of 257 females with twins and 158 females with singles through visual observations. We found that within the first month after birth, when females spend only a short time with their young, mothers recognized their fawns using mostly olfactory cues, while vision was used to locate their hiding offspring. Fawns vocalized very rarely, producing only distress calls that did not seem intended for individual identification. Licking of young by their mothers was observed frequently, not only during the first week after birth, when this action was very important for fawn stimulation for a number of physiological functions, but for several weeks after (until one month of age), when licking lost its physiological importance and likely became more of a recognition procedure. Fawns did not recognize their mothers at all, either through vision or vocalizations, since during their first weeks after birth, they responded to any gazelle that approached their hiding area. By a month after birth, when mothers and fawns began to stay together for longer periods of time, their recognition process became more enhanced, and in addition to olfactory cues, the mother and her young began to use more and more visual cues for longer distance identification, as well as

  6. Selective Redundancy Removal: A Framework for Data Hiding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugo Fiore

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Data hiding techniques have so far concentrated on adding or modifying irrelevant information in order to hide a message. However, files in widespread use, such as HTML documents, usually exhibit high redundancy levels, caused by code-generation programs. Such redundancy may be removed by means of optimization software. Redundancy removal, if applied selectively, enables information hiding. This work introduces Selective Redundancy Removal (SRR as a framework for hiding data. An example application of the framework is given in terms of hiding information in HTML documents. Non-uniformity across documents may raise alarms. Nevertheless, selective application of optimization techniques might be due to the legitimate use of optimization software not supporting all the optimization methods, or configured to not use all of them.

  7. Information hiding in communication networks fundamentals, mechanisms, applications, and countermeasures

    CERN Document Server

    Mazurczyk, Wojciech; Zander, Sebastian; Houmansadr, Amir; Szczypiorski, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    Describes Information Hiding in communication networks, and highlights their important issues, challenges, trends, and applications. This book provides the fundamental concepts, terminology, and classifications of information hiding in communication networks along with its historical background. Information Hiding In Communication Networks: Fundamentals, Mechanisms, Applications, and Countermeasures begins with introducing data concealment methods and their evolution. Chapter two discusses the existing terminology and describes the model for hidden communication and related communication scenarios. Chapters three to five present the main classes of information hiding in communication networks accompanied by a discussion of their robustness and undetectability. The book concludes with a discussion of potential countermeasures against information hiding techniques, which includes different types of mechanisms for the detection, limitation and prevention of covert co munication channels.

  8. Efficiently Hiding Sensitive Itemsets with Transaction Deletion Based on Genetic Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Wei Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Data mining is used to mine meaningful and useful information or knowledge from a very large database. Some secure or private information can be discovered by data mining techniques, thus resulting in an inherent risk of threats to privacy. Privacy-preserving data mining (PPDM has thus arisen in recent years to sanitize the original database for hiding sensitive information, which can be concerned as an NP-hard problem in sanitization process. In this paper, a compact prelarge GA-based (cpGA2DT algorithm to delete transactions for hiding sensitive itemsets is thus proposed. It solves the limitations of the evolutionary process by adopting both the compact GA-based (cGA mechanism and the prelarge concept. A flexible fitness function with three adjustable weights is thus designed to find the appropriate transactions to be deleted in order to hide sensitive itemsets with minimal side effects of hiding failure, missing cost, and artificial cost. Experiments are conducted to show the performance of the proposed cpGA2DT algorithm compared to the simple GA-based (sGA2DT algorithm and the greedy approach in terms of execution time and three side effects.

  9. Steganographic optical image encryption system based on reversible data hiding and double random phase encoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Cheng-Hung; Chen, Yen-Lin

    2013-02-01

    This study presents a steganographic optical image encryption system based on reversible data hiding and double random phase encoding (DRPE) techniques. Conventional optical image encryption systems can securely transmit valuable images using an encryption method for possible application in optical transmission systems. The steganographic optical image encryption system based on the DRPE technique has been investigated to hide secret data in encrypted images. However, the DRPE techniques vulnerable to attacks and many of the data hiding methods in the DRPE system can distort the decrypted images. The proposed system, based on reversible data hiding, uses a JBIG2 compression scheme to achieve lossless decrypted image quality and perform a prior encryption process. Thus, the DRPE technique enables a more secured optical encryption process. The proposed method extracts and compresses the bit planes of the original image using the lossless JBIG2 technique. The secret data are embedded in the remaining storage space. The RSA algorithm can cipher the compressed binary bits and secret data for advanced security. Experimental results show that the proposed system achieves a high data embedding capacity and lossless reconstruction of the original images.

  10. Universal Steganalysis of Data Hiding in Grayscale Images

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Ji-feng; LIN Jia-jun

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposed an universal steganalysis program based on quantification attack which can detect several kinds of data hiding algorithms for grayscale images. In practice, most techniques produce stego images that are perceptually identical to the cover images but exhibit statistical irregularities that distinguish them from cover images. Attacking the suspicious images using the quantization method, we can obtain statistically different from embedded-and-quantization attacked images and from quantization attacked-but-not-embedded sources. We have developed a technique based on one-class SVM for discriminating between cover-images and stego-images. Simulation results show our approach is able to distinguish between cover and stego images with reasonable accuracy.

  11. Where is hbar Hiding in Entropic Gravity?

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Pisin

    2011-01-01

    The entropic gravity scenario recently proposed by Erik Verlinde reproduced the Newton's law of purely classical gravity yet the key assumptions of this approach all have quantum mechanical origins. This is atypical for emergent phenomena in physics, where the underlying, more fundamental physics often reveals itself as corrections to the leading classical behavior. So one naturally wonders: where is hbar hiding in entropic gravity? To address this question, we first revisit the idea of holographic screen as well as entropy and its variation law in order to obtain a self-consistent approach to the problem. Next we argue that when dealing with quantum gravity issues the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP) should be the more appropriate foundation. Indeed based on GUP it has been demonstrated that the black hole Bekenstein entropy area law must be modified not only in the strong but also in the weak gravity regime. In the weak gravity limit, such a GUP modified entropy exhibits a logarithmic correction term...

  12. Hiding secret data into a carrier image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu COSMA

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The object of steganography is embedding hidden information in an appropriate multimedia carrier, e.g., image, audio, or video. There are several known methods of solving this problem, which operate either in the space domain or in the frequency domain, and are distinguished by the following characteristics: payload, robustness and strength. The payload is the amount of secret data that can be embedded in the carrier without inducing suspicious artefacts, robustness indicates the degree in which the secret data is affected by the normal processing of the carrier e.g., compression, and the strength indicate how easy the presence of hidden data can be detected by steganalysis techniques. This paper presents a new method of hiding secret data into a digital image compressed by a technique based on the Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT [2] and the Set Partitioning In Hierarchical Trees (SPIHT subband coding algorithm [6]. The proposed method admits huge payloads and has considerable strength.

  13. Multimedia Data Hiding and Authentication via Halftoning and Coordinate Projection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Chai Wah

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available We present image data hiding and authentication schemes based on halftoning and coordinate projection. The proposed data hiding scheme can embed images of the same size and similar bit depth into the cover image and robustness against compression is demonstrated. The image authentication scheme is based on the data hiding scheme and can detect, localize, and repair the tampered area of the image. Furthermore, the self-repairing feature of the authentication scheme has a hologram-like quality; any portion of the image can be used to reconstruct the entire image, with a greater quality of reconstruction as the portion size increases.

  14. Mechanical properties of biobased films prepared from collagen solutions derived from bovine hides

    Science.gov (United States)

    The most valuable byproducts of the meat packing industry are hides. The U.S. is the world’s 3rd largest hide producing country and currently produces approximately 35 million cattle hides annually. Due to fierce competition in global markets, the American leather and hides industry is facing chal...

  15. Comparison of methods for the enumeration of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli from veal hides and carcasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon E Luedtke

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The increased association of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC with veal calves has led the United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service to report results of veal meat contaminated with the Top 7 serogroups separately from beef cattle. However, detection methods that can also provide concentration for determining the prevalence and abundance of EHEC associated with veal are lacking. Here we compared the ability of qPCR and a molecular based most probable number assay (MPN to detect and enumerate EHEC from veal hides at the abattoir and the resulting pre-intervention carcasses. In addition, digital PCR (dPCR was used to analyze select samples. The qPCR assay was able to enumerate total EHEC in 32% of the hide samples with a range of approximately 34 to 91,412 CFUs/100 cm2 (95% CI 4-113,460 CFUs/100 cm2. Using the MPN assay, total EHEC was enumerable in 48% of the hide samples and ranged from approximately 1 to greater than 17,022 CFUs/100 cm2 (95% CI 0.4-72,000 CFUs/100 cm2. The carcass samples had lower amounts of EHEC with a range of approximately 4 to 275 CFUs/100 cm2 (95% CI 3-953 CFUs/100 cm2 from 17% of samples with an enumerable amount of EHEC by qPCR. For the MPN assay, the carcass samples ranged from 0.1 to 1 CFUs/100 cm2 (95% CI 0.02-4 CFUs/100 cm2 from 29% of the samples. The correlation coefficient between the qPCR and MPN enumeration methods indicated a moderate relation (R2=0.39 for the hide samples while the carcass samples had no relation (R2=0.002, which was likely due to most samples having an amount of total EHEC below the reliable limit of quantification for qPCR. Interestingly, after enrichment, 81% of the hide samples and 94% of the carcass samples had a detectable amount of total EHEC by qPCR. From our analysis, the MPN assay provided a higher percentage of enumerable hide and carcass samples, however determining an appropriate dilution range and the limited throughput offer additional

  16. Hide and New in the Pi-Calculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Giunti

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we enrich the pi-calculus with an operator for confidentiality (hide, whose main effect is to restrict the access to the object of the communication, thus representing confidentiality in a natural way. The hide operator is meant for local communication, and it differs from new in that it forbids the extrusion of the name and hence has a static scope. Consequently, a communication channel in the scope of a hide can be implemented as a dedicated channel, and it is more secure than one in the scope of a new. To emphasize the difference, we introduce a spy context that represents a side-channel attack and breaks some of the standard security equations for new. To formally reason on the security guarantees provided by the hide construct, we introduce an observational theory and establish stronger equivalences by relying on a proof technique based on bisimulation semantics.

  17. Legionnaires' Hiding in Hospital, Nursing Home Plumbing Systems: CDC

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/news/fullstory_166302.html Legionnaires' Hiding in Hospital, Nursing Home Plumbing Systems: CDC Effective water management, sanitation programs can reduce the risk of exposure to this deadly bacteria To use the sharing ...

  18. A Simple Image Encoding Method with Data Lossless Information Hiding

    OpenAIRE

    Zhi-Hui Wang; Chin-Chen Chang; Ming-Chu Li; Tzu-Chuen Lu

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a simple reversible data hiding method in the spatial domain for block truncation coding (BTC) compressed grayscale images. The BTC method compresses a block of a grayscale image to a bitmap and a pair of quantization numbers. The proposed method first embeds secret bits into a block by changing the order of those two quantization numbers. The compression rate is not enlarged by this embedding scheme. To further improve the hiding capacity, the proposed method embeds...

  19. Information hiding techniques for steganography and digital watermarking

    CERN Document Server

    Katzenbeisser, Stefan

    2000-01-01

    Steganography, a means by which two or more parties may communicate using ""invisible"" or ""subliminal"" communication, and watermarking, a means of hiding copyright data in images, are becoming necessary components of commercial multimedia applications that are subject to illegal use. This new book is the first comprehensive survey of steganography and watermarking and their application to modern communications and multimedia.Handbook of Information Hiding: Steganography and Watermarking helps you understand steganography, the history of this previously neglected element of cryptography, the

  20. A chaos-based approach for information hiding security

    OpenAIRE

    Bahi, Jacques M.; Guyeux, Christophe

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a new framework for data hiding security. Contrary to the existing ones, the approach introduced here is not based on probability theory. In this paper, a scheme is considered as secure if its behavior is proven unpredictable. The objective of this study is to enrich the existing notions of data hiding security with a new rigorous and practicable one. This new definition of security is based on the notion of topological chaos. It could be used to reinforce the confidence...

  1. Reversible Data Hiding Based on Two-level HDWT Coefficient Histograms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu-Ren Luo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, reversible data hiding has attracted much more attention than before. Reversibilitysignifies that the original media can be recovered without any loss from the marked media afterextracting the embedded message. This paper presents a new method that adopts two-level wavelettransform and exploits the feature of large wavelet coefficient variance to achieve the goal of highcapacity with imperceptibility. Our method differs from those of previous ones in which the waveletcoefficients histogram not gray-level histogram is manipulated. Besides, clever shifting rules areintroduced into histogram to avoid the decimal problem in pixel values after recovery to achievereversibility. With small alteration of the wavelet coefficients in the embedding process, and therefore lowvisual distortion is obtained in the marked image. In addition, an important feature of our design is thatthe use of threshold is much different from previous studies. The results indicate that our design issuperior to many other state-of-the-art reversible data hiding schemes.

  2. Let’s play hide and seek!

    CERN Multimedia

    Computer Security Team

    2012-01-01

    This week, we would like you to play a small online game called “Virtual Hide & Seek”. The rules are simple: some of our colleagues have published some sensitive or confidential documents on CERN’s central services like Indico, CDS, EDMS or TWiki, as well as on our many websites. Your mission, should you choose to accept it: find them!   If you provide us with documents marked “confidential”, “classified”, “sensitive”, or containing plain text operational passwords, you can win a book on computer security. There are only few conditions: these documents must be visible from outside CERN, must not require a CERN account in order to access them, and must not belong to you or have a direct link with your work. Have fun! But seriously, are you sure that your documents are really properly protected? We regularly find confidential documents stored on one of the CERN central  services and w...

  3. Book Review: No Place To Hide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Kessler

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available O'Harrow, R., Jr. (2006. No Place To Hide. New York: Free Press. 352 pages, ISBN: 0-7432-8705-3 (paper, US$26Reviewed by Gary C. Kessler (gary.kessler@champlain.eduPersonal privacy and the protection of personal identifying information are of concern to all of us. Innumerable articles and conferences address our loss of privacy, either through the sale of consumer databases or our own inattention. Opinions vary from "You have no privacy; get over it" to "This is the end of civil liberties as we know them." We teach people to safely maneuver on the Internet and minimize their exposure to bogus sites set up to steal their identity, warn users about the dangers of phishing and posting personal information on social network sites, use firewalls to protect our databases, and enact laws such as the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA and the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA to protect information.(see PDF for full review

  4. A Novel Approach for Arabic Text Steganography Based on the “BloodGroup” Text Hiding Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Malalla,

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Steganography is the science of hiding certain messages (data in groups of irrelevant data possibly of other form. The purpose of steganography is covert communication to hide the existence of a message from an intermediary. Text Steganography is the process of embedding secret message (text in another text (cover text so that the existence of secret message cannot be detected by a third party. This paper presents a novel approach for text steganography using the Blood Group (BG method based on the behavior of blood group. Experimentally it is found that the proposed method got good results in capacity, hiding capacity, time complexity, robustness, visibility, and similarity which shows its superiority as compared to most several existing methods.

  5. Application of Modified Digital Halftoning Techniques to Data Hiding in Personalized Stamps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hsi-Chun Wang; Chi-Ming Lian; Pei-Chi Hsiao

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this research is to embed information in personalized stamps by modified digital halftoning techniques. The displaced and deformed halftone dots are used to encode data in the personalized stamps. Hidden information can be retrieved by either an optical decoder or digital image processing techniques.The results show that personalized stamps with value-added features like data hiding or digital watermarking can be successfully implemented.

  6. Suitability of the RGB Channels for a Pixel Manipulation in a Spatial Domain Data Hiding Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ante Poljicak

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to determine which channel in rgb color space is the most suitable (regarding perceptibility for a pixel manipulation in a spatial domain data  hiding techniques. For this purpose three custom test targets were generated. The research also shows the behavior of two closely related colors in the ps (Print-Scan process. The results are interpreted using both a quantitative method (statistical comparison and a qualitative method (visual comparison.

  7. Suitability of the rgb Channels for a Pixel Manipulation in a Spatial Domain Data Hiding Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidija Mandić

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to determine which channel in rgb color space is the most suitable (regarding perceptibility for a pixel manipulation in a spatial domain data hiding techniques. For this purpose three custom test targets were generated. The research also shows the behavior of two closely related colors in the ps (Print-Scan process. The results are interpreted using both a quantitative method (statistical comparison and a qualitative method (visual comparison.

  8. [Rapid quantification of total nitrogen and end-point determination of hide melting in manufacturing of donkey-hide gelatin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hai-Fan; Zhang, Lu; Zhang, Yan; Li, Wen-Long; Qu, Hai-Bin

    2014-03-01

    Hide melting presents itself as one of the most critical processes in the production of donkey-hide gelatin. Here a NIR-based method was established for the rapid analysis of in-process hide melting solutions as well as for end-point determination of this process. Near infrared (NIR) spectra of hide melting solutions were collected in transflective mode. With the contents of total nitrogen determined by the Kjeldahl method as reference values, partial least squares regression (PLSR) was employed to build calibration models between NIR spectra and total nitrogen. Model parameters including wavelength range and PLS factors were optimized to achieve best model performance. Based on the contents of total nitrogen predicted by calibration model, end point of hide melting was determined. The constructed PLS model gave a high correlation coefficient (R2) of 0.991 3 and a root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 0.807 g x L(-1). With the predicted total nitrogen and predefined limit, decisions concerning the proper times of melting were made. This research demonstrated that NIR transflectance spectroscopy could be used to expeditiously determine the contents of total nitrogen which was subsequently chosen as the indictor for determining the end-point of hide melting. The proposed procedure may help avoid unnecessary raw material or energy consumption.

  9. The potency of plant extracts as antimicrobials for the skin or hide preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suparno, Ono; Afifah, Amalia; Panandita, Tania; Marimin, Purnawati, Rini

    2017-03-01

    Preservation of skin or hide uses antimicrobial that will be disposed in wastewater in the skin or hide processing resulting in the environmental pollution. Extracts of some types of plants contain some antimicrobial substances which are potential to be used as biocides for the preservation of skin or hide and are more environmentally friendly. The objectives of this study were to determine the phytochemical contents of moringa, cucumber tree or wuluh starfruit, cherry, and white leadtree or lamtoro leaves and to analyse the antibacterial activities of the plant extracts against microorganisms that cause spoilage of skin or hide. Phytochemical constituents of the dried plant leaves were extracted by 70% ethanol. The resulting extracts were analysed their phytochemical contents and antimicrobial activities against gram negative and gram positive bacteria (inhibition zone test) by well diffusion method, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). Phytochemical test showed that the four leaf extracts contained alkaloids, saponins, tannins, flavonoids, steroids, and glycosides. The inhibition zones of the extracts against Escherichia coli were 5 mm for moringa leaf, 6 mm for cucumber tree leaf, 12 mm for cherry leaf, and 17 mm for white leadtree leaf. Inhibition zone of the extracts against Staphylococcus aureus were 2.5 mm for moringa leaf, 7 mm for cucumber tree leaf, 7.3 mm for cherry leaf, and 13 mm for white leadtree leaf. Inhibition zones of the extracts against Bacillus subtilis were 8 mm for moringa leaf, 9 mm for cucumber tree starfruit leaf, 14 mm for cherry leaf, and 15 mm for white leadtree leaf. The best MIC and MBC tests were demonstrated by white leadtree leaf extract against E. coli found at concentration of 1500 µg/ml, against S. aureus at concentration of 3000 µg/ml, and against B. subtilis at concentration of 3000 µg/ml. The ethanol extract of white leadtree leaf had the best antibacterial activity

  10. Cannabinoid receptor 1 antagonist treatment induces glucagon release and shows an additive therapeutic effect with GLP-1 agonist in diet-induced obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Kartikkumar Navinchandra; Joharapurkar, Amit Arvind; Patel, Vishal; Kshirsagar, Samadhan Govind; Bahekar, Rajesh; Srivastava, Brijesh Kumar; Jain, Mukul R

    2014-12-01

    Cannabinoid 1 (CB1) receptor antagonists reduce body weight and improve insulin sensitivity. Preclinical data indicates that an acute dose of CB1 antagonist rimonabant causes an increase in blood glucose. A stable analog of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), exendin-4 improves glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in pancreas, and reduces appetite through activation of GLP-1 receptors in the central nervous system and liver. We hypothesized that the insulin secretagogue effect of GLP-1 agonist exendin-4 may synergize with the insulin-sensitizing action of rimonabant. Intraperitoneal as well as intracerebroventricular administration of rimonabant increased serum glucose upon glucose challenge in overnight fasted, diet-induced obese C57 mice, with concomitant rise in serum glucagon levels. Exendin-4 reversed the acute hyperglycemia induced by rimonabant. The combination of exendin-4 and rimonabant showed an additive effect in the food intake, and sustained body weight reduction upon repeated dosing. The acute efficacy of both the compounds was additive for inducing nausea-like symptoms in conditioned aversion test in mice, whereas exendin-4 treatment antagonized the effect of rimonabant on forced swim test upon chronic dosing. Thus, the addition of exendin-4 to rimonabant produces greater reduction in food intake owing to increased aversion, but reduces the other central nervous system side effects of rimonabant. The hyperglucagonemia induced by rimonabant is partially responsible for enhancing the antiobesity effect of exendin-4.

  11. Recursive histogram modification: establishing equivalency between reversible data hiding and lossless data compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weiming; Hu, Xiaocheng; Li, Xiaolong; Yu, Nenghai

    2013-07-01

    State-of-the-art schemes for reversible data hiding (RDH) usually consist of two steps: first construct a host sequence with a sharp histogram via prediction errors, and then embed messages by modifying the histogram with methods, such as difference expansion and histogram shift. In this paper, we focus on the second stage, and propose a histogram modification method for RDH, which embeds the message by recursively utilizing the decompression and compression processes of an entropy coder. We prove that, for independent identically distributed (i.i.d.) gray-scale host signals, the proposed method asymptotically approaches the rate-distortion bound of RDH as long as perfect compression can be realized, i.e., the entropy coder can approach entropy. Therefore, this method establishes the equivalency between reversible data hiding and lossless data compression. Experiments show that this coding method can be used to improve the performance of previous RDH schemes and the improvements are more significant for larger images.

  12. Authentication and data hiding using a hybrid ROI-based watermarking scheme for DICOM images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Qershi, Osamah M; Khoo, Bee Ee

    2011-02-01

    Authenticating medical images using watermarking techniques has become a very popular area of research, and some works in this area have been reported worldwide recently. Besides authentication, many data-hiding techniques have been proposed to conceal patient's data into medical images aiming to reduce the cost needed to store data and the time needed to transmit data when required. In this paper, we present a new hybrid watermarking scheme for DICOM images. In our scheme, two well-known techniques are combined to gain the advantages of both and fulfill the requirements of authentication and data hiding. The scheme divides the images into two parts, the region of interest (ROI) and the region of non-interest (RONI). Patient's data are embedded into ROI using a reversible technique based on difference expansion, while tamper detection and recovery data are embedded into RONI using a robust technique based on discrete wavelet transform. The experimental results show the ability of hiding patient's data with a very good visual quality, while ROI, the most important area for diagnosis, is retrieved exactly at the receiver side. The scheme also shows some robustness against certain levels of salt and pepper and cropping noise.

  13. Alkali-free method of hide preparation for tanning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Valeika

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Usually, beamhouse processes are carried out by varying a medium from strongly alkaline (unhairing-liming up to strongly acid (pickling. This study is designed to develop a preparation of hide for tanning via processes that avoid a sharp change of hide pH. Enzymes active in acid medium are employed for hide unhairing in a buffer system containing 2.5% acetic acid and 0.3% sodium acetate. An oxidative treatment with peracetic acid then allows the complete removal of residual hair and scud. During both processes, unhairing and oxidative treatment, the opening of the derma structure occurs: 13.3-14.6g of non-collagen proteins are removed and amount of dermatan sulphate decreases by 35%. The hide obtained can be chromed directly after the above processes and subsequent treatment with sodium chloride solution omitted conventional pickling. The pH of the hide varies in the range of 8.3-3.7 during the processes of preparation for tanning.

  14. Aortic arch calcification on chest X-ray combined with coronary calcium score show additional benefit for diagnosis and outcome in patients with angina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Jong Shin; Kim, Weon; Kwon, Se Hwan; Youn, Hyo Chul; Kim, Hyun Soo; Kim, Jin Bae; Kim, Soo Joong; Kim, Woo-Shik; Kim, Kwon Sam

    2016-01-01

    Background The coronary artery calcium (CAC) and aortic arch calcification (AoAC) are individually associated with cardiovascular disease and outcome. This study investigated the predictive value of AoAC combined with CAC for cardiovascular diagnosis and outcome in patients with angina. Methods A total of 2018 stable angina patients who underwent chest X-ray and cardiac multi-detector computed tomography were followed up for four years to assess adverse events, which were categorized as cardiac death, stroke, myocardial infarction, or repeated revascularization. The extent of AoAC on chest X-ray was graded on a scale from 0 to 3. Results During the four years of follow-up, 620 patients were treated by coronary stenting and 153 (7%) adverse events occurred. A higher grade of AoAC was associated with a higher CAC score. Cox regression showed that the CAC score, but not AoAC, were associated with adverse events. In patients with CAC score AoAC showed an additive predictive value in detecting significant coronary artery disease (CAD). A gradual increases in the risk of adverse events were noted if AoAC was present in patients with similar CAC score. Conclusions As AoAC is strongly correlated with the CAC score regardless of age or gender, careful evaluation of CAD would be required in patients with AoAC on conventional chest X-rays. PMID:27103916

  15. A High-Capacity Image Data Hiding Scheme Using Adaptive LSB Substitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Yang

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Many existing steganographic methods hide more secret data into edged areas than smooth areas in the host image, which does not differentiate textures from edges and causes serious degradation in actual edge areas. To avoid abrupt changes in image edge areas, as well as to achieve better quality of the stego-image, a novel image data hiding technique by adaptive Least Significant Bits (LSBs substitution is proposed in this paper. The scheme exploits the brightness, edges, and texture masking of the host image to estimate the number k of LSBs for data hiding. Pixels in the noise non-sensitive regions are embedded by a k-bit LSB substitution with a lager value of k than that of the pixels in noise sensitive regions. Moreover, an optimal pixel adjustment process is used to enhance stego-image visual quality obtained by simple LSB substitution method. To ensure that the adaptive number k of LSBs remains unchanged after pixel modification, the LSBs number is computed by the high-order bits rather than all the bits of the image pixel value. The theoretical analyses and experiment results show that the proposed method achieves higher embedding capacity and better stegoimage quality compared with some existing LSB methods.

  16. Information Hiding Method Using Best DCT and Wavelet Coefficients and ItsWatermark Competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunho Kang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, information hiding and its evaluation criteria have been developed by the IHC (Information Hiding and its Criteria Committee of Japan. This committee was established in 2011 with the aim of establishing standard evaluation criteria for robust watermarks. In this study, we developed an information hiding method that satisfies the IHC evaluation criteria. The proposed method uses the difference of the frequency coefficients derived from a discrete cosine transform or a discrete wavelet transform. The algorithm employs a statistical analysis to find the best positions in the frequency domains for watermark insertion. In particular, we use the BCH (Bose-Chaudhuri-Hocquenghem (511,31,109 code to error correct the watermark bits and the BCH (63,16,11 code as the sync signal to withstand JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group compression and cropping attacks. Our experimental results showed that there were no errors in 10 HDTV-size areas after the second decompression. It should be noted that after the second compression, the file size should be less than 1 25 of the original size to satisfy the IHC evaluation criteria.

  17. Hiding image to video: A new approach of LSB replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Singh,

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Steganography has become great area of interest for researchers as need for secure transaction of information is increasing day by day. Information may be text, image, audio or video. Steganography is a technique in which required information is hided in any other information such that the second information does not change significantly and it appears the same as original. This paper presents a novel approach of hiding image in a video. The proposed algorithm is replacing one LSB of each pixel in video frames. It becomes very difficult for intruder to guess that an image is hidden in the video as individual frames are very difficult to analyze in a video running at 30 frames per second. The process of analysis has been made more difficult by hiding each row of image pixels in multiple frames of the video, so intruder cannot even try to unhide image until he get full video.

  18. EFFICIENT METHOD FOR HIDING DATA BY PIXEL INTENSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Shobana

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Data communication substructure has become more universal that there is absolutely no favoritism between different types of data in the carry plane of communication with each and every one skilled to carry it through the public data networks. Steganography technique is used to hide or embed data into an image or audio or video. Here the cover object used is an image. In the existing method for hiding and extraction of information from the given image three kinds of algorithm are used, based on its data and index channel of an image. In the proposed system, three kinds of hiding technique are implemented with some modifications in the logic level. Third algorithm is designed using color channels, based on its intensity. This technique would boost up the number of bits embedding in the image. The accomplishment of all the three algorithms are analyzed and the efficient one is taken into consideration while implementing in FPGA.

  19. Gefitinib, an epidermal growth factor receptor blockade agent, shows additional or synergistic effects on the radiosensitivity of esophageal cancer cells in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taira,Naruto

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Human esophageal cancers have been shown to express high levels of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR and a relationship between high EGFR expression and local advance, the number of lymph node metastases, life expectancy, and sensitivity to chemo-radiotherapy has been demonstrated. We examined the use of gefitinib, an orally active EGFR-selective tyrosine kinase inhibitor, as a new strategy for treatment of esophageal carcinoma. The effects of gefitinib were evaluated in monotherapy and in combination with radiotherapy in human esophageal carcinoma cell lines. Gefitinib produced a dose-dependent inhibition of cellular proliferation in all of the 8 esophageal carcinoma cell lines examined, with IC50 values ranging from 5.7 microM to 36.9 microM. In combination, gefitinib and radiotherapy showed a synergistic effect in 2 human esophageal carcinoma cell lines and an additive effect in 5 cell lines. Western blotting demonstrated that gefitinib blocked activation of the EGFR-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk pathway and the EGFR-phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K-Akt pathway after irradiation. These results suggest that further evaluation of EGFR blockade as a treatment for esophageal cancer should be performed, and that radiotherapy combined with EGFR blockade may enhance the response of esophageal carcinoma to therapy.

  20. Selective adsorption of tannins onto hide collagen fibres

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAO; Xuepin(廖学品); LU; Zhongbing(陆忠兵); SHI; Bi(石碧)

    2003-01-01

    Hide collagen of animals is used to prepare adsorbent material and its adsorption properties to tannins are investigated. It is indicated that the collagen fibres has excellent adsorption selectivity and high adsorption capacity to tannins. The adsorption rate of tannins is more than 90% whilst less than 10% of functional components are retained by the adsorbent. The adsorption mechanism of tannins onto hide collagen fibres is hydrogen-bonding association. Freundlich model can be used to describe the adsorption isotherms, and the pseudo-second-order rate model can be used to describe adsorption kinetics.

  1. Competitively coupled maps for hiding secret visual information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidelys, M.; Ziaukas, P.; Ragulskis, M.

    2016-02-01

    A novel digital image hiding scheme based on competitively coupled maps is presented in this paper. Self-organizing patterns produced by an array of non-diffusively coupled nonlinear maps are exploited to conceal the secret. The secret image is represented in the form of a dot-skeleton representation and is embedded into a spatially homogeneous initial state far below the noise level. Self-organizing patterns leak the secret image at a predefined set of system parameters. Computational experiments are used to demonstrate the effectiveness and the security of the proposed image hiding scheme.

  2. 9 CFR 95.6 - Untanned hides and skins; importations permitted subject to restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Untanned hides and skins; importations... ENTRY INTO THE UNITED STATES § 95.6 Untanned hides and skins; importations permitted subject to restrictions. Hides or skins offered for importation which do not meet the conditions or requirements of §...

  3. 9 CFR 95.5 - Untanned hides and skins; requirements for unrestricted entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Untanned hides and skins; requirements... ENTRY INTO THE UNITED STATES § 95.5 Untanned hides and skins; requirements for unrestricted entry. Untanned hides and/or skins of cattle, buffalo, sheep, goats, other ruminants, and swine which do not...

  4. The physical properties, morphology and viscoelasticity of biobased sponges prepared from un-tanned hides

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of our research endeavors to address ongoing challenges faced by the U.S. hide and leather industries is to develop innovative uses and novel biobased products from hides to improve prospective markets and to secure a viable future for hides and leather industries. We had previously investigate...

  5. The prediction of leather mechanical properties from airborne ultrasonic testing of hides

    Science.gov (United States)

    High quality, clean, and well-preserved hides are paramount for competitiveness in both domestic and export markets. Currently, hides are visually inspected and ranked for quality and sale price, which is not reliable when hair is present on the hides. Advanced technologies are needed to nondestru...

  6. Performance Analysis of Data Hiding in MPEG-4 AAC Audio

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Shuzheng; ZHANG Peng; WANG Pengjun; YANG Huazhong

    2009-01-01

    A high capacity data hiding technique was developed for compressed digital audio.As perceptual audio coding has become the accepted technology for storage and transmission of audio signals,compressed audio information hiding enables robust,imperceptible transmission of data within audio signals,thus allowing valuable information to be attached to the content,such as the song title,lyrics,composer's name,and artist or property rights related data.This paper describes simultaneous low bitrate encoding and information hiding for highly compressed audio signals.The information hiding is implemented in the quantization process of the audio content which improves robustness,signal quality,and security.The imperceptibility of the embedded data is ensured based on the masking property of the human auditory system (HAS).The robustness and security are evaluated by various attacking algorithms.Tests with an extended MPEG4 advanced audio coding (AAC) encoder confirm that the method is robust to the regular and singular groups method (RS) and sample pair analysis (SPA) attacks as well as other statistical steganalysis method attacks.

  7. DCT Based Secret Image Hiding In Video Sequence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Suresh Kumar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Internet which is ever more accessible to interference by not with authority people over the World. It is important to bring down a chance of Information being sensed while Transmitting is the major issue these days. To overcome these problems one of the solution is cryptography. There will be no solitude once it is decoded. So hiding data to make it confidential. Copyright is one of the ways for hiding data and it is security for digital media. Its significance and techniques used in executing hiding of data let us see in brief. The existing LSB modification technique as in this approach the bits are randomly distributes the bits of message in image so which will becomes complex for anonymous persons to extract original message information, it opens the gates for loosing important hidden information. Here hiding and extraction method is used for AVI (Audio Video Interleave. As Higher order coefficients maintains Secret message bits. The hidden information will be in the form of gray scale image pixel values. Grayscale value then converted into binary values .The resultant binary values will be assigned to the higher order coefficient values of DCT of AVI video frames. These experiments were successful. We can analyze the results using Mat lab simulation software.

  8. Video Steganography: Text Hiding In Video By LSB Substitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamred Udham Singh

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The development of high speed computer networks and Internet has increased the easiness of Information Communication. In contrast with Analog media and Digital media provide several different advantages such as high quality, simple editing, high loyalty copying and authenticity. But in the field of data communication this type of development has increased the fear of sneaking the data while sending data from the sender to the receiver. Due to this reason Information Security is main problem of Data Communication. Steganography plays an important role in field of Information Security. Video and images are very common choice for hiding data. It is very important for effective and successful embedding process to select appropriate pixels in the video frames, which are used to store the secret data. We use video based Steganography because of large size and memory requirements. Hiding information in a carrier file we use least significant bit (LSB insertion technique. In Least significant bit (LSB insertion technique, for hiding information we change LSB of video file with the information bits .This paper will focus on hiding information in specific frames of the video and in specific position of the frame by LSB substitution.

  9. Hide And Seek GPS And Geocaching In The Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lary, Lynn M.

    2004-01-01

    In short, geocaching is a high-tech, worldwide treasure hunt (geocaches can now be found in more than 180 countries) where a person hides a cache for others to find. Generally, the cache is some type of waterproof container that contains a log book and an assortment of goodies, such as lottery tickets, toys, photo books for cachers to fill with…

  10. Powdered hide model for vegetable tanning II. hydrolyzable tannin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vegetable tannages employ both condensed and hydrolyzable tannins. As part of our exploration of tanning mechanisms, we reported last year on interactions of the condensed tannin, quebracho, with powdered hide. In this study, the interactions of chestnut extract, a hydrolyzable tannin, with powdere...

  11. Near Reversible Data Hiding Scheme for images using DCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Bhaskar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Certain level of modifications to the original content can be acceptable. These schemes are called nearreversible. It has emerging application in remote sensing. In remote sensing application the image is captured while monitoring the damaged regions in the natural disasters such as tsunami, volcanic eruption, etc. Instead of more alterations to the pixels or coefficients here we go for less alterations , low hiding capacity and complexity that exhibit while reversible data hiding. There exist a few near reversible hiding schemes which address the limitations to the triangular trade-off that exists between capacity, robustness and visual quality characteristics. However, for achieving better vision of image, there is a need for near reversible data hiding schemes. Therefore, the traditional metric PSNR are not sufficient to assess the distorted image when the data is embedded in image for assessing the better visual quality of the image with hidden data we present a HVS based metrics like PSNR-HVS, MSSIM. Using DCT evaluates the overall image quality

  12. PALM and STORM: what hides beyond the Rayleigh limit?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Henriques, R

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available -1 Biotechnol. J. 2009, 4, 846?857 Review PALM and STORM: What hides beyond the Rayleigh limit? Ricardo Henriques1 and Musa M. Mhlanga1,2 1 Gene Expression and Biophysics Unit, Instituto de Medicina Molecular, Faculdade de Medicina Universidade de...

  13. Video Data Hiding for Managing Privacy Information in Surveillance Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hail MichaelW

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available From copyright protection to error concealment, video data hiding has found usage in a great number of applications. In this work, we introduce the detailed framework of using data hiding for privacy information preservation in a video surveillance environment. To protect the privacy of individuals in a surveillance video, the images of selected individuals need to be erased, blurred, or re-rendered. Such video modifications, however, destroy the authenticity of the surveillance video. We propose a new rate-distortion-based compression-domain video data hiding algorithm for the purpose of storing that privacy information. Using this algorithm, we can safeguard the original video as we can reverse the modification process if proper authorization can be established. The proposed data hiding algorithm embeds the privacy information in optimal locations that minimize the perceptual distortion and bandwidth expansion due to the embedding of privacy data in the compressed domain. Both reversible and irreversible embedding techniques are considered within the proposed framework and extensive experiments are performed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the techniques.

  14. Quiz Games as a model for Information Hiding

    OpenAIRE

    Bank, Bernd; Heintz, Joos; Matera, Guillermo; Montana, Jose L.; Pardo, Luis M.; Paredes, Andres Rojas

    2015-01-01

    We present a general computation model inspired in the notion of information hiding in software engineering. This model has the form of a game which we call quiz game. It allows in a uniform way to prove exponential lower bounds for several complexity problems of elimination theory.

  15. Frequent Itemset Hiding Algorithm Using Frequent Pattern Tree Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnatsheh, Rami

    2012-01-01

    A problem that has been the focus of much recent research in privacy preserving data-mining is the frequent itemset hiding (FIH) problem. Identifying itemsets that appear together frequently in customer transactions is a common task in association rule mining. Organizations that share data with business partners may consider some of the frequent…

  16. Frequent Itemset Hiding Algorithm Using Frequent Pattern Tree Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnatsheh, Rami

    2012-01-01

    A problem that has been the focus of much recent research in privacy preserving data-mining is the frequent itemset hiding (FIH) problem. Identifying itemsets that appear together frequently in customer transactions is a common task in association rule mining. Organizations that share data with business partners may consider some of the frequent…

  17. A physical analysis of the Y chromosome shows no additional deletions, other than Gr/Gr, associated with testicular germ cell tumour

    OpenAIRE

    Linger, R; Dudakia, D; Huddart, R; Easton, D; Bishop, D. T.; Stratton, M.R.; Rapley, E A

    2007-01-01

    Testicular germ cell tumour (TGCT) is the most common malignancy in men aged 15–45 years. A small deletion on the Y chromosome known as ‘gr/gr' was shown to be associated with a two-fold increased risk of TGCT, increasing to three-fold in cases with a family history of TGCT. Additional deletions of the Y chromosome, known as AZFa, AZFb and AZFc, are described in patients with infertility; however, complete deletions of these regions have not been identified in TGCT patients. We screened the Y...

  18. Sensor and Actuator Fault-Hiding Reconfigurable Control Design for a Four-Tank System Benchmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hameed, Ibrahim; El-Madbouly, Esam I; Abdo, Mohamed I

    2015-01-01

    Fault detection and compensation plays a key role to fulfill high demands for performance and security in today's technological systems. In this paper, a fault-hiding (i.e., tolerant) control scheme that detects and compensates for actuator and sensor faults in a four-tank system benchmark...... Invariant (LTI) system where virtual sensors and virtual actuators are used to correct faulty performance through the use of a pre-fault performance. Simulation results showed that the developed approach can handle different types of faults and able to completely and instantly recover the original system...

  19. Information hiding techniques for infrared images: exploring the state-of-the art and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomponiu, Victor; Cavagnino, Davide; Botta, Marco; Nejati, Hossein

    2015-10-01

    The proliferation of Infrared technology and imaging systems enables a different perspective to tackle many computer vision problems in defense and security applications. Infrared images are widely used by the law enforcement, Homeland Security and military organizations to achieve a significant advantage or situational awareness, and thus is vital to protect these data against malicious attacks. Concurrently, sophisticated malware are developed which are able to disrupt the security and integrity of these digital media. For instance, illegal distribution and manipulation are possible malicious attacks to the digital objects. In this paper we explore the use of a new layer of defense for the integrity of the infrared images through the aid of information hiding techniques such as watermarking. In this context, we analyze the efficiency of several optimal decoding schemes for the watermark inserted into the Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) domain of the IR images using an additive spread spectrum (SS) embedding framework. In order to use the singular values (SVs) of the IR images with the SS embedding we adopt several restrictions that ensure that the values of the SVs will maintain their statistics. For both the optimal maximum likelihood decoder and sub-optimal decoders we assume that the PDF of SVs can be modeled by the Weibull distribution. Furthermore, we investigate the challenges involved in protecting and assuring the integrity of IR images such as data complexity and the error probability behavior, i.e., the probability of detection and the probability of false detection, for the applied optimal decoders. By taking into account the efficiency and the necessary auxiliary information for decoding the watermark, we discuss the suitable decoder for various operating situations. Experimental results are carried out on a large dataset of IR images to show the imperceptibility and efficiency of the proposed scheme against various attack scenarios.

  20. Hiding a Realistic Object Using a Broadband Terahertz Invisibility Cloak

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Fan; Cao, Wei; Stuart, Colin T; Gu, Jianqiang; Zhang, Weili; Sun, Cheng

    2011-01-01

    The invisibility cloak has been a long-standing dream for many researchers over the decades. The introduction of transformational optics has revitalized this field by providing a general method to design material distributions to hide the subject from detection. By transforming space and light propagation, a three-dimensional (3D) object is perceived as having a reduced number of dimensions, in the form of points, lines, and thin sheets, making it "undetectable" judging from the scattered field. Although a variety of cloaking devices have been reported at microwave and optical frequencies, the spectroscopically important Terahertz (THz) domain remains unexplored. Moreover, due to the difficulties in fabricating cloaking devices that are optically large in all three dimensions, hiding realistic 3D objects has yet to be demonstrated. Here, we report the first experimental demonstration of a 3D THz cloaking device fabricated using a scalable Projection Microstereolithography process. The cloak operates at a broa...

  1. Steganography Algorithm to Hide Secret Message inside an Image

    CERN Document Server

    Ibrahim, Rosziati

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the authors propose a new algorithm to hide data inside image using steganography technique. The proposed algorithm uses binary codes and pixels inside an image. The zipped file is used before it is converted to binary codes to maximize the storage of data inside the image. By applying the proposed algorithm, a system called Steganography Imaging System (SIS) is developed. The system is then tested to see the viability of the proposed algorithm. Various sizes of data are stored inside the images and the PSNR (Peak signal-to-noise ratio) is also captured for each of the images tested. Based on the PSNR value of each images, the stego image has a higher PSNR value. Hence this new steganography algorithm is very efficient to hide the data inside the image.

  2. Hiding an image in cascaded Fresnel digital holograms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shaogeng Deng; Liren Liu; Haitao Lang; Weiqing Pan; Dong Zhao

    2006-01-01

    @@ A system of two separated computer-generated holograms termed cascaded Fresnel digital holography (CFDH) is proposed and its application to hiding information is demonstrated by a computer simulation experiment. The technique is that the reconstructed image is the result of the wave Fresnel diffractionof two sub-holograms located at different distances from the imaging plane along the illuminating beam. The two sub-holograms are generated by an iterative algorithm based on the projection onto convex sets. In the application to the hiding of optical information, the information to be hidden is encoded into thesub-hologram which is multiplied by the host image in the input plane, the other sub-hologram in the filterplane is used for the deciphering key, the hidden image can be reconstructed in the imaging plane of the CFDH setup.

  3. A NEW APPROACH FOR HIDING DATA USING B-BOX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Saad Abdual azize AL_ani

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Digital Images and video encryption play an important role in today’s multimedia world. Many encryption schemes have been proposed to provide a security for digital images. This paper designs an efficient cryptosystem for video. Our method can achieve two goals; the first goal is to design a height security for hiding a data in video, the second goal is to design a computational complexity cryptosystem.

  4. Steganographic Techniques of Data Hiding Using Digital Images (Review Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babloo Saha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Steganography is an art that involves communication of secret data in an appropriate carrier, e.g., image, audio, video or TCP/IP header file. Steganography’s goal is to hide the very existence of embedded data so as not to arouse an eavesdropper’s suspicion. For hiding secret data in digital images, large varieties of steganographic techniques are available, some are more complex than others, and all of them have their respective pros and cons. Steganography has various useful applications and the technique employed depends on the requirements of the application to be designed for. For instance. applications may require absolute invisibility of the secret data, larger secret data to be hidden or high degree of robustness of the carrier. This paper intends to give thorough understanding and evolution of different existing digital image steganography techniques of data hiding in spatial, transform and compression domains. It covers and integrates recent research work without going in to much detail of steganalysis, which is the art and science of defeating steganography.Defence Science Journal, 2012, 62(1, pp.11-18, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.62.1436

  5. High Capacity data hiding using LSB Steganography and Encryption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamim Ahmed Laskar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The network provides a method of communication to distribute information to the masses. With the growthof data communication over computer network, the security of information has become a major issue.Steganography and cryptography are two different data hiding techniques. Steganography hides messagesinside some other digital media. Cryptography, on the other hand obscures the content of the message. Wepropose a high capacity data embedding approach by the combination of Steganography andcryptography. In the process a message is first encrypted using transposition cipher method and then theencrypted message is embedded inside an image using LSB insertion method. The combination of these twomethods will enhance the security of the data embedded. This combinational methodology will satisfy therequirements such as capacity, security and robustness for secure data transmission over an open channel.A comparative analysis is made to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method by computingMean square error (MSE and Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR. We analyzed the data hiding techniqueusing the image performance parameters like Entropy, Mean and Standard Deviation. The stego imagesare tested by transmitting them and the embedded data are successfully extracted by the receiver. The mainobjective in this paper is to provide resistance against visual and statistical attacks as well as highcapacity.

  6. Data Hiding Techniques Using Prime and Natural Numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Dey, Sandipan; Bandyopadhyay, Bijoy; Sanyal, Sugata

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a few novel data hiding techniques are proposed. These techniques are improvements over the classical LSB data hiding technique and the Fibonacci LSB data-hiding technique proposed by Battisti et al. \\cite{r1}. The classical LSB technique is the simplest, but using this technique it is possible to embed only in first few bit-planes, since image quality becomes drastically distorted when embedding in higher bit-planes. Battisti et al. \\cite{r1} proposed an improvement over this by using Fibonacci decomposition technique and generating a different set of virtual bit-planes all together, thereby increasing the number of bit-planes. In this paper, first we mathematically model and generalize this particular approach of virtual bit-plane generation. Then we propose two novel embedding techniques, both of which are special-cases of our generalized model. The first embedding scheme is based on decomposition of a number (pixel-value) in sum of prime numbers, while the second one is based on decompositi...

  7. Hiding Data in Images Using New Random Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obaida Mohammad Awad Al-Hazaimeh

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Steganography is the art of hiding the fact that communication is taking place by hiding information in other information. In the field of Data Communication, Steganography play a major role. The transmission of information via the Internet may expose it to detect and theft. Some solution to be discussed is how to passing information in a manner that the very existence of the message is unknown in order to repel attention of the potential attacker. We focus on the Least Significant Bit (LSB technique which is the most common Steganographic technique is employed in this paper. An improvement to this technique is suggested by randomly inserting the bits of the message in the image to produce more secured system. In this paper, the security goals were enhanced via a proposed cryptosystems to maintain the security on the Cover-image. The proposed solution consists of a simple, but strong to hiding the text data and the human eye would be unable to notice the hidden data in the Stego-image.

  8. An Advancement To The Security Level Through Galois Field In The Existing Password Based Technique Of Hiding Classified Information In Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mita Kosode

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper we are using the existing passcode based approach of hiding classified information in images with addition of the Galois field theorywhich is advancing the security level to make this combination method extremely difficult to intercept and useful for open channel communication while maintaining the losses and high speed transmission.

  9. An r-Hiding Revocable Group Signature Scheme: Group Signatures with the Property of Hiding the Number of Revoked Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keita Emura

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available If there are many displaced workers in a company, then a person who goes for job hunting might not select this company. That is, the number of members who quit is quite negative information. Similarly, in revocable group signature schemes, if one knows (or guesses the number of revoked users (say r, then one may guess the reason behind such circumstances, and it may lead to harmful rumors. However, no previous revocation procedure can achieve hiding r. In this paper, we propose the first revocable group signature scheme, where r is kept hidden, which we call r-hiding revocable group signature. To handle this property, we newly define the security notion called anonymity with respect to the revocation which guarantees the unlinkability of revoked users.

  10. Towards fraud-proof ID documents using multiple data hiding technologies and biometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard, Justin; Vielhauer, Claus; Thorwirth, Niels

    2004-06-01

    Identity documents, such as ID cards, passports, and driver's licenses, contain textual information, a portrait of the legitimate holder, and eventually some other biometric characteristics such as a fingerprint or handwritten signature. As prices for digital imaging technologies fall, making them more widely available, we have seen an exponential increase in the ease and the number of counterfeiters that can effectively forge documents. Today, with only limited knowledge of technology and a small amount of money, a counterfeiter can effortlessly replace a photo or modify identity information on a legitimate document to the extent that it is very diffcult to differentiate from the original. This paper proposes a virtually fraud-proof ID document based on a combination of three different data hiding technologies: digital watermarking, 2-D bar codes, and Copy Detection Pattern, plus additional biometric protection. As will be shown, that combination of data hiding technologies protects the document against any forgery, in principle without any requirement for other security features. To prevent a genuine document to be used by an illegitimate user,biometric information is also covertly stored in the ID document, to be used for identification at the detector.

  11. Image Hiding Technology Based on DCT and Chaos%基于DCT和混沌的图像隐藏技术①

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

      提出一种基于 DCT 和混沌的图像隐藏算法。首先利用混沌系统产生混沌序列对秘密图像进行加密,然后利用DCT变换与混沌序列把秘密图像隐藏到载体图像中。实验结果表明,该算法具有良好的安全性和隐藏效果。%An improved image hiding technology based on DCT and chaos is presented. We use chaotic system to generate one chaotic sequence which is utilized to encrypt the secret image, and then we use DCT and chaotic sequence to realize the secret image hiding in the host image. Simulation results show that the algorithm has good security and hiding effect.

  12. Hide unhairing and characterization of commercial enzymes used in leather manufacture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Dettmer

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The enzymatic treatment of hides in tannery processes is a promising technology. However, the reaction kinetics of commercial enzymes available to the leather industry are not fully understood and their activities have been mainly determined with model proteins such as casein as substrate, which are not of direct relevance for cattle hides. Therefore, it is important to determine their activities on collagen and keratin, the main proteins of skin, in order to use these enzymes in leather processing. This work describes the study of five proteases, used commercially in tanneries, to assess their ability to act upon collagen and keratin and to determine their unhairing. Results showed that all commercial enzymes tested had more activity on collagen than on keratin. Unhairing was also tested and four out of the five enzymes tested showed some unhairing activity. Optima of the temperature and pH of the enzymes were very similar for all five enzymes, with maximal activities around 55ºC and pH 9 to 12, respectively.

  13. Hiding Single Photons With Spread Spectrum Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Belthangady, Chinmay; Yu, Ite A; Yin, G Y; Kahn, J M; Harris, S E

    2010-01-01

    We describe a proof-of-principal experiment demonstrating the use of spread spectrum technology at the single photon level. We show how single photons with a prescribed temporal shape, in the presence of interfering noise, may be hidden and recovered.

  14. Understanding Pupils' Hiding Techniques in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyngstad, Idar; Hagen, Per-Magnus; Aune, Ola

    2016-01-01

    Previous research shows that some pupils find physical education (PE) demanding and difficult. Some pupils use strategies to avoid participation in PE when it is demanding and difficult. The present study aims to illuminate and describe strategies used by pupils to avoid negative self-perception in difficult situations and activities in PE…

  15. Approximate Public Key Authentication with Information Hiding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    THOMAS,EDWARD V.; DRAELOS,TIMOTHY J.

    2000-10-01

    This paper describes a solution for the problem of authenticating the shapes of statistically variant gamma spectra while simultaneously concealing the shapes and magnitudes of the sensitive spectra. The shape of a spectrum is given by the relative magnitudes and positions of the individual spectral elements. Class-specific linear orthonormal transformations of the measured spectra are used to produce output that meet both the authentication and concealment requirements. For purposes of concealment, the n-dimensional gamma spectra are transformed into n-dimensional output spectra that are effectively indistinguishable from Gaussian white noise (independent of the class). In addition, the proposed transformations are such that statistical authentication metrics computed on the transformed spectra are identical to those computed on the original spectra.

  16. Function S-rough sets and security-authentication of hiding law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI KaiQuan; ZHAO JianLi

    2008-01-01

    Function S-rough sets are defined by R-function equivalence class,which have dynamic characteristic.Function S-rough sets have dynamic characteristic,law characteristic and law-hiding characteristic.Function S-rough sets can generate f-hiding law and f-hiding law.By engrafting,crossing,and penetrating between the information security theory and function S-rough sets,the security hiding and the authentication of f-hiding law and f-hiding law are given respectively in this paper.The fusion and share between function S-rough sets and information secu-rity theory is a new research direction of the application of information law in in-formation system.

  17. Hiding Secret Text in Quick Response Code and Transforming the Position of the Secret Data using Rotation Transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Ramya

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to provide high security and safety in the field of information hiding, this study proposes a novel technology using Steganography. An exotic steganographic algorithm, is used in this study, which Hides the secret text data in a 2D plane (Here, in our case let the 2D plane be the QR code, after encryption and the position of the secret data will be changed using rotation transformation. The proposed algorithm has been tested under various imperceptibility characters such as PSNR, MSE, Human Vision Quality Metrics and Histograms are compared to both cover image and the stego image. This novel algorithm shows Lower MSE, higher PSNR values and it is evident that the proposed algorithm is robust to JPEG attacks.

  18. Hiding Scalar Higgs Portal Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Chao, Wei

    2016-01-01

    We investigate a Higgs portal dark matter model by extending the Standard model (SM) with a complex singlet, $S=(s+ia )/\\sqrt{2}$, where $a $ is a dark matter candidate and $S$ gets no vacuum expectation value but $s$ mixies with the SM Higgs via a trilinear interaction. We point out an interesting scenario, where only quartic coupling contributes to the dark matter relic abundance and there is no tree level contribution to the direct detection. Numerical analysis shows that the direction detection cross section, which arises at the one-loop level, is about $2\\sim 5$ orders below the current LUX bound. Constraints from Higgs measurements as well as collider signatures of the model at the LHC are studied.

  19. Hiding Malicious Content in PDF Documents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Sabin Popescu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a proof-of-concept demonstration for a specific digital signatures vulnerability that shows the ineffectiveness of the WYSIWYS (What You See Is What You Sign concept. The algorithm is fairly simple: the attacker generates a polymorphic file that has two different types of content (text, as a PDF document for example, and image: TIFF – two of the most widely used file formats. When the victim signs the dual content file, he/ she only sees a PDF document and is unaware of the hidden content inside the file. After obtaining the legally signed document from the victim, the attacker simply has to change the extension to the other file format. This will not invalidate the digital signature, as no bits were altered. The destructive potential of the attack is considerable, as the Portable Document Format (PDF is widely used in e-government and in e-business contexts.

  20. Hiding message into DNA sequence through DNA coding and chaotic maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guoyan; Liu, Hongjun; Kadir, Abdurahman

    2014-09-01

    The paper proposes an improved reversible substitution method to hide data into deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequence, and four measures have been taken to enhance the robustness and enlarge the hiding capacity, such as encode the secret message by DNA coding, encrypt it by pseudo-random sequence, generate the relative hiding locations by piecewise linear chaotic map, and embed the encoded and encrypted message into a randomly selected DNA sequence using the complementary rule. The key space and the hiding capacity are analyzed. Experimental results indicate that the proposed method has a better performance compared with the competing methods with respect to robustness and capacity.

  1. Text Hiding Based on True Color Image Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Shahd Abdul-Rhman Hasso

    2012-01-01

    In this work a new approach was built to apply k-means algorithm on true colored images (24bit images) which are usually treated by researchers as three image (RGB) that are classified to 15 class maximum only. We find the true image as 24 bit and classify it to more than 15 classes. As we know k-means algorithm classify images to many independent classes or features and we could increase the class number therefore we could hide information in the classes or features that have minimum number ...

  2. Approaches to Computer Modeling of Phosphate Hide-Out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-06-28

    phosphate acts as a buffer to keep pH at a value above which acid corrosion occurs . and below which caustic corrosion becomes significant. Difficulties are...ionization of dihydrogen phosphate : HIPO - + + 1PO, K (B-7) H+ + - £Iao 1/1, (B-8) H , PO4 - + O- - H0 4 + H20 K/Kw (0-9) 19 * Such zero heat...OF STANDARDS-1963-A +. .0 0 0 9t~ - 4 NRL Memorandum Report 5361 4 Approaches to Computer Modeling of Phosphate Hide-Out K. A. S. HARDY AND J. C

  3. Hiding a Heavy Higgs Boson at the 7 TeV LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Yang; Fan, JiJi; Hewett, JoAnne L.

    2012-03-20

    A heavy Standard Model Higgs boson is not only disfavored by electroweak precision observables but is also excluded by direct searches at the 7 TeV LHC for a wide range of masses. Here, we examine scenarios where a heavy Higgs boson can be made consistent with both the indirect constraints and the direct null searches by adding only one new particle beyond the Standard Model. This new particle should be a weak multiplet in order to have additional contributions to the oblique parameters. If it is a color singlet, we find that a heavy Higgs with an intermediate mass of 200-300 GeV can decay into the new states, suppressing the branching ratios for the standard model modes, and thus hiding a heavy Higgs at the LHC. If the new particle is also charged under QCD, the Higgs production cross section from gluon fusion can be reduced significantly due to the new colored particle one-loop contribution. Current collider constraints on the new particles allow for viable parameter space to exist in order to hide a heavy Higgs boson. We categorize the general signatures of these new particles, identify favored regions of their parameter space and point out that discovering or excluding them at the LHC can provide important indirect information for a heavy Higgs. Finally, for a very heavy Higgs boson, beyond the search limit at the 7 TeV LHC, we discuss three additional scenarios where models would be consistent with electroweak precision tests: including an additional vector-like fermion mixing with the top quark, adding another U(1) gauge boson and modifying triple-gauge boson couplings.

  4. A place to hide in the home-cage decreases yolk androgen levels and offspring emotional reactivity in Japanese quail.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Guesdon

    Full Text Available An animal's emotional responses are the result of its cognitive appraisal of a situation. This appraisal is notably influenced by the possibility of an individual to exert control over an aversive event. Although the fact that environment controllability decreases emotional responses in animals is well established, far less is known about its potential trans-generational effects. As the levels of avian yolk hormones can vary according to the mother's environment, we hypothesized that housing environment of mothers would modulate the quality of her eggs and in turn her offspring's behaviour. Two groups of female Japanese quail were constituted: a group that had access to a place to hide in their home-cage (Hd, n = 20 and a group that had nowhere to hide (NoHd, n = 20 when stressed. Both groups were submitted to daily human disturbances for a twenty-day-period. Hd females produced eggs with both less testosterone and androstenedione than did NoHd females. The emotional and social reactivity of Hd females' offspring were lower and their growth was slower than those of NoHd females' offspring. Our results show that a minor difference in housing environment had substantial effects on eggs and offspring. The presence of a shelter probably helped quail to cope with daily human disturbances, producing less reactive offspring. This transgenerational effect caused by an opportunity to hide could lead to applications in care of laboratory animals, conservation biology and animal welfare.

  5. Use of steam condensing at subatmospheric pressures to reduce Escherichia coli O157:H7 numbers on bovine hide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvoy, J M; Doherty, A M; Sheridan, J J; Blair, I S; McDowell, D A

    2001-11-01

    This study used a laboratory-scale apparatus to apply subatmospheric steam to bovine hide pieces inoculated with Escherichia coli O157:H7 in maximum recovery diluent (MRD) and in high-liquid content and low-liquid content fecal suspensions (HLC fecal and LLC fecal, respectively). The survival of the organism in fecal clods, which were stored for 24 days in a desiccated state, was assessed. Inoculated fecal clods were also treated with subatmospheric steam. Steam treatment at 80 +/- 2 degrees C for 20 s reduced E. coli O157:H7 concentrations on hide inoculated to initial concentrations of approximately 7 log10 CFU/g by 5.46 (MRD inoculum), 4.17 (HLC fecal inoculum), and 5.99 (LLC fecal inoculum) log10 CFU/g. The reductions achieved in samples inoculated with LLC feces were larger than in samples inoculated with HLC feces (P Steam treatment (20 s) of 3-day-old clods reduced surviving E. coli O157:H7 numbers from 4.20 log10 CFU/g to below the limit of detection of the assay used (1.20 log10 CFU/g). This study shows that steam condensing at or below 80 +/- 2 degrees C can reduce E. coli O157:H7 when present on bovine hide, reducing the risk of cross contamination to the carcass during slaughter and dressing.

  6. An improved algorithm for information hiding based on features of Arabic text: A Unicode approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Mohamed

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Steganography means how to hide secret information in a cover media, so that other individuals fail to realize their existence. Due to the lack of data redundancy in the text file in comparison with other carrier files, text steganography is a difficult problem to solve. In this paper, we proposed a new promised steganographic algorithm for Arabic text based on features of Arabic text. The focus is on more secure algorithm and high capacity of the carrier. Our extensive experiments using the proposed algorithm resulted in a high capacity of the carrier media. The embedding capacity rate ratio of the proposed algorithm is high. In addition, our algorithm can resist traditional attacking methods since it makes the changes in carrier text as minimum as possible.

  7. Separable and Error-Free Reversible Data Hiding in Encrypted Image with High Payload

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoxia Yin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a separable reversible data-hiding scheme in encrypted image which offers high payload and error-free data extraction. The cover image is partitioned into nonoverlapping blocks and multigranularity encryption is applied to obtain the encrypted image. The data hider preprocesses the encrypted image and randomly selects two basic pixels in each block to estimate the block smoothness and indicate peak points. Additional data are embedded into blocks in the sorted order of block smoothness by using local histogram shifting under the guidance of the peak points. At the receiver side, image decryption and data extraction are separable and can be free to choose. Compared to previous approaches, the proposed method is simpler in calculation while offering better performance: larger payload, better embedding quality, and error-free data extraction, as well as image recovery.

  8. Data Security by Preprocessing the Text with Secret Hiding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajit Singh

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of the Internet, an open forum, the massive increase in the data travel across networkmake an issue for secure transmission. Cryptography is the term that involves many encryption method to make data secure. But the transmission of the secure data is an intricate task. Steganography here comes with effect of transmission without revealing the secure data. The research paper provide the mechanism which enhance the security of data by using a crypto+stegano combination to increase the security level without knowing the fact that some secret data is sharing across networks. In the firstphase data is encrypted by manipulating the text using the ASCII codes and some random generated strings for the codes by taking some parameters. Steganography related to cryptography forms the basisfor many data hiding techniques. The data is encrypted using a proposed approach and then hide the message in random N images with the help of perfect hashing scheme which increase the security of the message before sending across the medium. Thus the sending and receiving of message will be safe and secure with an increased confidentiality.

  9. A Study of Various Steganographic Techniques Used for Information Hiding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.P.Sumathi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The art of information hiding has received much att ention in the recent years as security of informati on has become a big concern in this internet era. As shari ng of sensitive information via a common communicat ion channel has become inevitable, Steganography – the art and science of hiding information has gained much attention. We are also surrounded by a world of secret communi cation, where people of all types are transmitting information as innocent as an encrypte d credit card number to an online-store and as insidious as a terrorist plot to hijackers. Stegano graphy derives from the Greek word steganos, meanin g covered or secret, and graphy (writing or drawing [1]. Steganography is a technology where modern da ta compression, information theory, spread spectrum, a nd cryptography technologies are brought together t o satisfy the need for privacy on the Internet. This paper is an attempt to analyse the various tec hniques used in steganography and to identify areas in which thi s technique can be applied, so that the human race can be benefited at large

  10. A Novel Image Data Hiding Scheme with Diamond Encoding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Hsien-Chu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel data hiding scheme in digital images with the diamond encoding by pixel value adjustment is proposed. The proposed method is the extension of the exploiting modification direction (EMD embedding scheme. First, the process of embedding partitions the cover image into nonoverlapping blocks of two consecutive pixels and transforms the secret messages to a series of -ary digits. For each block, the diamond encoding technique is applied to calculate the diamond characteristic value, and one secret -ary digit is concealed into the diamond characteristic value. The diamond characteristic value is modified to secret digit and it can be obtained by adjusting pixel values in a block. This scheme is designed in such a way that the distortion of each block after diamond encoding is never out of the embedding parameter , and the block capacity is equal to . The diamond encoding provides an easy way to produce a more perceptible result than those yielded by simple least-significant-bit substitution methods. The embedded secret data can be extracted without the original cover image. Experimental results have demonstrated that the proposed method is capable of hiding more secret data while keeping the stego-image quality degradation imperceptible.

  11. Cryptographic Path Hardening: Hiding Vulnerabilities in Software through Cryptography

    CERN Document Server

    Ganesh, Vijay; Rinard, Martin

    2012-01-01

    We propose a novel approach to improving software security called Cryptographic Path Hardening, which is aimed at hiding security vulnerabilities in software from attackers through the use of provably secure and obfuscated cryptographic devices to harden paths in programs. By "harden" we mean that certain error-checking if-conditionals in a given program P are replaced by equivalent" we mean that adversaries cannot use semi-automatic program analysis techniques to reason about the hardened program paths and thus cannot discover as-yet-unknown errors along those paths, except perhaps through black-box dictionary attacks or random testing (which we can never prevent). Other than these unpreventable attack methods, we can make program analysis aimed at error-finding "provably hard" for a resource-bounded attacker, in the same sense that cryptographic schemes are hard to break. Unlike security-through-obscurity, in Cryptographic Path Hardening we use provably-secure crypto devices to hide errors and our mathemati...

  12. HIDES spectroscopy of bright detached eclipsing binaries from the $Kepler$ field - I. Single-lined objects

    CERN Document Server

    Hełminiak, K G; Kambe, E; Kozłowski, S K; Sybilski, P; Ratajczak, M; Maehara, H; Konacki, M

    2016-01-01

    We present results of our spectroscopic observations of nine detached eclipsing binaries (DEBs), selected from the $Kepler$ Eclipsing Binary Catalog, that only show one set of spectral lines. Radial velocities (RVs) were calculated from the high resolution spectra obtained with the HIDES instrument, attached to the 1.88-m telescope at the Okayama Astrophysical Observatory, and from the public APOGEE archive. In our sample we found five single-lined binaries, with one component dominating the spectrum. The orbital and light curve solutions were found for four of them, and compared with isochrones, in order to estimate absolute physical parameters and evolutionary status of the components. For the fifth case we only update the orbital parameters, and estimate the properties of the unseen star. Two other systems show orbital motion with a period known from the eclipse timing variations (ETVs). For these we obtained parameters of outer orbits, by translating the ETVs to RVs of the centre of mass of the eclipsing ...

  13. 9 CFR 95.24 - Methods for disinfection of hides, skins, and other materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Methods for disinfection of hides... ENTRY INTO THE UNITED STATES § 95.24 Methods for disinfection of hides, skins, and other materials... subjected to disinfection by methods found satisfactory and approved from time to time by the Deputy...

  14. A method for removing adobe-type manure from hides using an oxidizing agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adobe-type (hardened) manure attached to bovine hair is a major source of meat contamination, hide quality deterioration, and devalued leather products. Therefore, it is important to develop cleaning solutions that can rapidly remove adobe-type manure to improve the quality of hides delivered to tan...

  15. Tactical deception to hide sexual behaviour : macaques use distance, not visibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overduin-de Vries, A. M.; Spruijt, B. M.; de Vries, H.; Sterck, E. H. M.

    2015-01-01

    Although tactical deception (TD) may be employed to hide sexual behaviour, there is as yet no firm evidence for it. Hiding may be guided by cognitive mechanisms consistent with either no, low or high level TD, such as exploiting male peripheral positions (no TD), creating distance (TD level 1) or hi

  16. A Review on Reversible Data Hiding Scheme by Image Contrast Enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khushboo Lapa Patwari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In present world demand of high quality images, security of the information on internet is one of the most important issues of research. Data hiding is a method of hiding a useful information by embedding it on another image (cover image to provide security and only the authorize person is able to extract the original information from the embedding data. This paper is a review which describes several different algorithms for Reversible Data Hiding (RDH. Previous literature has shown that histogram modification, histogram equalization (HE and interpolation are the most common methods for data hiding. To improve security these methods are used in encrypted images. This paper is a comprehensive study of all the major reversible data hiding approaches implemented as found in the literature.

  17. Proposed System for data hiding using Cryptography and Steganography Proposed System for data hiding using Cryptography and Steganography

    CERN Document Server

    Sarmah, Dipti Kapoor

    2010-01-01

    Steganography and Cryptography are two popular ways of sending vital information in a secret way. One hides the existence of the message and the other distorts the message itself. There are many cryptography techniques available; among them AES is one of the most powerful techniques. In Steganography we have various techniques in different domains like spatial domain, frequency domain etc. to hide the message. It is very difficult to detect hidden message in frequency domain and for this domain we use various transformations like DCT, FFT and Wavelets etc. In this project we are developing a system where we develop a new technique in which Cryptography and Steganography are used as integrated part along with newly developed enhanced security module. In Cryptography we are using AES algorithm to encrypt a message and a part of the message is hidden in DCT of an image; remaining part of the message is used to generate two secret keys which make this system highly secured. Keyword: Cryptography, Steganography, S...

  18. Costly hide and seek pays: Unexpected consequences of deceit in a social dilemma

    CERN Document Server

    Szolnoki, Attila

    2014-01-01

    Deliberate deceptiveness intended to gain an advantage is commonplace in human and animal societies. In a social dilemma, an individual may only pretend to be a cooperator to elicit cooperation from others, while in reality he is a defector. With this as motivation, we study a simple variant of the evolutionary prisoner's dilemma game entailing deceitful defectors and conditional cooperators that lifts the veil on the impact of such two-faced behavior. Defectors are able to hide their true intentions at a personal cost, while conditional cooperators are probabilistically successful at identifying defectors and act accordingly. By focusing on the evolutionary outcomes in structured populations, we observe a number of unexpected and counterintuitive phenomena. We show that deceitful behavior may fare better if it is costly, and that a higher success rate of identifying defectors does not necessarily favor cooperative behavior. These results are rooted in the spontaneous emergence of cycling dominance and spatia...

  19. High-Performance Region-of-Interest Image Error Concealment with Hiding Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Chang Hsia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently region-of-interest (ROI based image coding is a popular topic. Since ROI area contains much more important information for an image, it must be prevented from error decoding while suffering from channel lost or unexpected attack. This paper presents an efficient error concealment method to recover ROI information with a hiding technique. Based on the progressive transformation, the low-frequency components of ROI are encoded to disperse its information into the high-frequency bank of original image. The capability of protection is carried out with extracting the ROI coefficients from the damaged image without increasing extra information. Simulation results show that the proposed method can efficiently reconstruct the ROI image when ROI bit-stream occurs errors, and the measurement of PSNR result outperforms the conventional error concealment techniques by 2 to 5 dB.

  20. Perfectly secure steganography: Hiding information in the quantum noise of a photograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanguinetti, Bruno; Traverso, Giulia; Lavoie, Jonathan; Martin, Anthony; Zbinden, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    We show that it is possible to hide information perfectly within a photograph. The proposed protocol works by selecting each pixel value from two images that differ only by shot noise. Pixel values are never modified, but only selected, making the resulting stego image provably indistinguishable from an untampered image, and the protocol provably secure. We demonstrate that a perfect steganographic protocol is also a perfectly secure cryptographic protocol, and therefore has at least the same requirements: a truly random key as long as the message. In our system, we use a second image as the key, satisfying length requirements, and the randomness is provided by the naturally occurring quantum noise which is dominant in images taken with modern sensors. We conclude that, given a photograph, it is impossible to tell whether it contains any hidden information.

  1. Hiding Secret Information in Movie Clip: A Steganographic Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Sahoo, G

    2011-01-01

    Establishing hidden communication is an important subject of discussion that has gained increasing importance nowadays with the development of the internet. One of the key methods for establishing hidden communication is steganography. Modern day steganography mainly deals with hiding information within files like image, text, html, binary files etc. These file contains small irrelevant information that can be substituted for small secret data. To store a high capacity secret data these carrier files are not very supportive. To overcome the problem of storing the high capacity secret data with the utmost security fence, we have proposed a novel methodology for concealing a voluminous data with high levels of security wall by using movie clip as a carrier file.

  2. An efficient steganography method for hiding patient confidential information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dmour, Hayat; Al-Ani, Ahmed; Nguyen, Hung

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the important issue of security and confidentiality of patient information when exchanging or storing medical images. Steganography has recently been viewed as an alternative or complement to cryptography, as existing cryptographic systems are not perfect due to their vulnerability to certain types of attack. We propose in this paper a new steganography algorithm for hiding patient confidential information. It utilizes Pixel Value Differencing (PVD) to identify contrast regions in the image and a Hamming code that embeds 3 secret message bits into 4 bits of the cover image. In order to preserve the content of the region of interest (ROI), the embedding is only performed using the Region of Non-Interest (RONI).

  3. Analysis Of Aspects Of Messages Hiding In Text Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afanasyeva Olesya

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the work are researched problems, which arise during hiding of messages in text environments, being transmitted by electronic communication channels and the Internet. The analysis of selection of places in text environment (TE, which can be replaced by word from the message is performed. Selection and replacement of words in the text environment is implemented basing on semantic analysis of text fragment, consisting of the inserted word, and its environment in TE. For implementation of such analysis is used concept of semantic parameters of words coordination and semantic value of separate word. Are used well-known methods of determination of values of these parameters. This allows moving from quality level to quantitative level analysis of text fragments semantics during their modification by word substitution. Invisibility of embedded messages is ensured by providing preset values of the semantic cooperation parameter deviations.

  4. Reversible Data Hiding In Encrypted Images Using Improved Encryption Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balika J. Chelliah

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Recently more and more attention is paid to reversible data hiding (RDH in encrypted images, since it maintains the excellent property that the original cover can be losslessly recovered after embedded data is extracted while protecting the image content‟s confidentiality. All previous methods embed data by reversibly vacating room from the encrypted images, which may be some errors on data extraction and/or image restoration. In this paper we propose a different scheme which attains real reversibility by reserving room before encryption with a traditional RDH algorithm, and then encrypting the data and embedding the data in the encrypted image, which is encrypted using a new proposed algorithm. The proposed method can achieve real reversibility that is data extraction and image recoveries are free of any error.

  5. Reversible Data Hiding In Encrypted Images Using Improved Encryption Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Balika J. Chelliah

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently more and more attention is paid to reversible data hiding (RDH in encrypted images, since it maintains the excellent property that the original cover can be losslessly recovered after embedded data is extracted while protecting the image content‟s confidentiality. All previous methods embed data by reversibly vacating room from the encrypted images, which may be some errors on data extraction and/or image restoration. In this paper we propose a different scheme which attains real reversibility by reserving room before encryption with a traditional RDH algorithm, and then encrypting the data and embedding the data in the encrypted image, which is encrypted using a new proposed algorithm. The proposed method can achieve real reversibility that is data extraction and image recoveries are free of any error.

  6. Statistical Hiding Fuzzy Commitment Scheme for Securing Biometric Templates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alawi A. Al-Saggaf

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available By considering the security flaws in cryptographic hash functions, any commitment scheme designed straight through hash function usage in general terms is insecure. In this paper, we develop a general fuzzy commitment scheme called an ordinary fuzzy commitment scheme (OFCS, in which many fuzzy commitment schemes with variety complexity assumptions is constructed. The scheme is provably statistical hiding (the advisory gets almost no statistically advantages about the secret message. The efficiency of our scheme offers different security assurance, and the trusted third party is not involved in the exchange of commitment.The characteristic of our scheme makes it useful for biometrics systems. If the biometrics template is compromised, then there is no way to use it directly again even in secure biometrics systems. This paper combines biometrics and OFCS to achieve biometric protection scheme using smart cards with renewability of protected biometrics template property.

  7. A Lossless Data Hiding Technique based on AES-DWT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Fernandaacute;ndez Torres2

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose a new data hiding technique. The new technique uses steganography and cryptography on images with a size of 256x256 pixels and an 8-bit grayscale format. There are design restrictions such as a fixed-size cover image, and reconstruction without error of the hidden image. The steganography technique uses a Haar-DWT (Discrete Wavelet Transform with hard thresholding and LSB (Less Significant Bit technique on the cover image. The algorithms used for compressing and ciphering the secret image are lossless JPG and AES, respectively. The proposed technique is used to generate a stego image which provides a double type of security that is robust against attacks. Results are reported for different thresholds levels in terms of PSNR.

  8. Multi-Bit Data Hiding Scheme for Compressing Secret Messages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Chung Kuo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The goal of data hiding techniques usually considers two issues, embedding capacity and image quality. Consequently, in order to achieve high embedding capacity and good image quality, a data hiding scheme combining run-length encoding (RLE with multi-bit embedding is proposed in this paper. This work has three major contributions. First, the embedding capacity is increased 62% because the secret message is compressed before embedding into the cover image. Secondly, the proposed scheme keeps the multi-bit generalized exploiting modification direction (MGEMD characteristics, which are effective to reduce modified pixels in the cover image and to maintain good stego image quality. Finally, the proposed scheme can prevent modern steganalysis methods, such as RS steganalysis and SPAM (subtractive pixel adjacency matrix, and is compared to MiPOD (minimizing the power of the optimal detector scheme. From our simulation results and security discussions, we have the following results: First, there are no perceivable differences between the cover images and stego images from human inspection. For example, the average PSNR of stego images is about 44.61 dB when the secret message (80,000 bits is embedded for test cover images (such as airplane, baboon, Lena of size 512×512. Secondly, Appl. Sci. 2015, 5 1034 on average, 222,087 pixels were not modified after embedding for the cover image. That is to say, 12% less pixels are modified as compared to the MGEMD method. From the performance discussions, the proposed scheme achieves high embedding capacity and good image quality, but also maintains stego image security.

  9. Adaptive and non-adaptive data hiding methods for grayscale images based on modulus function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najme Maleki

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents two adaptive and non-adaptive data hiding methods for grayscale images based on modulus function. Our adaptive scheme is based on the concept of human vision sensitivity, so the pixels in edge areas than to smooth areas can tolerate much more changes without making visible distortion for human eyes. In our adaptive scheme, the average differencing value of four neighborhood pixels into a block via a threshold secret key determines whether current block is located in edge or smooth area. Pixels in the edge areas are embedded by Q-bit of secret data with a larger value of Q than that of pixels placed in smooth areas. Also in this scholar, we represent one non-adaptive data hiding algorithm. Our non-adaptive scheme, via an error reduction procedure, produces a high visual quality for stego-image. The proposed schemes present several advantages. 1-of aspects the embedding capacity and visual quality of stego-image are scalable. In other words, the embedding rate as well as the image quality can be scaled for practical applications 2-the high embedding capacity with minimal visual distortion can be achieved, 3-our methods require little memory space for secret data embedding and extracting phases, 4-secret keys have used to protect of the embedded secret data. Thus, level of security is high, 5-the problem of overflow or underflow does not occur. Experimental results indicated that the proposed adaptive scheme significantly is superior to the currently existing scheme, in terms of stego-image visual quality, embedding capacity and level of security and also our non-adaptive method is better than other non-adaptive methods, in view of stego-image quality. Results show which our adaptive algorithm can resist against the RS steganalysis attack.

  10. Show Time

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正> Story: Show Time!The whole class presents the story"Under the Sea".Everyone is so excited and happy.Both Leo and Kathy show their parentsthe characters of the play."Who’s he?"asks Kathy’s mom."He’s the prince."Kathy replies."Who’s she?"asks Leo’s dad."She’s the queen."Leo replieswith a smile.

  11. Snobbish Show

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN PUMIN

    2010-01-01

    @@ The State Administration of Radio,Film and Television (SARFT),China's media watchdog,issued a new set of mles on June 9 that strictly regulate TV match-making shows,which have been sweeping the country's primetime programming. "Improper social and love values such as money worship should not be presented in these shows.Humiliation,verbal attacks and sex-implied vulgar content are not allowed" the new roles said.

  12. EROBATIC SHOW

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    Visitors look at plane models of the Commercial Aircraft Corp. of China, developer of the count,s first homegrown large passenger jet C919, during the Singapore Airshow on February 16. The biennial event is the largest airshow in Asia and one of the most important aviation and defense shows worldwide. A number of Chinese companies took part in the event during which Okay Airways, the first privately owned aidine in China, signed a deal to acquire 12 Boeing 737 jets.

  13. An evaluation of selected methods for the decontamination of cattle hides prior to skinning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, A; Wells-Burr, B; Buncic, S

    2005-02-01

    The effectiveness of different decontamination treatments in reducing microbial loads on cattle hides was assessed. The 10-s hide treatments were conducted using a wet-and-dry vacuum cleaner filled with one of the liquids (heated to 50 °C) indicated below, followed or not by 10-min drying in the air. Also, the hide was clipped, followed or not by 10-s singeing using a hand-held blowtorch. Before and after each decontamination treatment, the hide was sampled (100 cm(2) areas) by a sponge-swabbing method to compare the total viable counts of bacteria (TVC). The largest bacterial reduction (Psanitizer solution (10% Betane Plus) resulted in significant reductions of 1.80 (Pefficacy of these treatments in the reduction of specific pathogens under commercial conditions.

  14. Motivation to hide emotion and children's understanding of the distinction between real and apparent emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosselin, Pierre; Warren, Madeleine; Diotte, Michèle

    2002-12-01

    The authors investigated the extent to which children's understanding of the distinction between real and apparent emotions varied according to the motivation to hide emotions. Children, aged 6-7 and 10-11 years, were read stories designed to elicit either prosocial or self-protective motivated display rules and were asked to predict the facial expressions the protagonists would make to hide felt emotions. Children were found to understand the distinction between real and apparent emotions very well, independently of the type of motivation. Contrary to predictions, boys understood this distinction better than did girls when the motivation to hide positive emotions was prosocial. Children perceived neutralization as the most appropriate strategy to hide felt emotions, followed by masking.

  15. Insight into error hiding: exploration of nursing students' achievement goal orientations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Karee E

    2014-02-01

    An estimated 50% of medication errors go unreported, and error hiding is costly to hospitals and patients. This study explored one issue that may facilitate error hiding. Descriptive statistics were used to examine nursing students' achievement goal orientations in a high-fidelity simulation course. Results indicated that although this sample of nursing students held high mastery goal orientations, they also held moderate levels of performance-approach and performance-avoidance goal orientations. These goal orientations indicate that this sample is at high risk for error hiding, which places the benefits that are typically gleaned from a strong mastery orientation at risk. Understanding variables, such as goal orientation, that can be addressed in nursing education to reduce error hiding is an area of research that needs to be further explored. This article discusses the study results and evidence-based instructional practices for this sample's achievement goal orientation profile.

  16. 16 CFR 1630.61 - Hide carpets and rugs-alternative washing procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... natural “lay” of the hair structure for ten complete strokes. (8) Place test specimen in a circulating... wool or hair attached to the hide with no synthetic fibers and (2) have been treated with a fire...

  17. 16 CFR 1631.61 - Hide carpets and rugs-alternative washing procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... natural “lay” of the hair structure for ten complete strokes. (8) Place test specimen in a circulating... wool or hair attached to the hide with no synthetic fibers and (2) have been treated with a fire...

  18. Steganographic Approach for Data Hiding using LSB Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baluram Nagaria , Ashish Parikh ,Sandeep Mandliya ,Neeraj shrivastav

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Today’s all the multimedia work done via internet so it’s an urgent need to protect the data from malicious attacks. This lead to the research in the area of Digital watermarking and cryptography which intends to protect the copyright information of the intellectuals. In this paper a DCT based steganography scheme is proposed which provides higher resistance to image processing attacks such as JPEG compression, noise, rotation, translation etc Steganography has been implemented In MATLAB7.6 using basic image processing techniques. Steganography is the technique of hiding confidential information within any media. Steganography is often confused with cryptography because the two are similar in the way that they both are used to protect confidential information But we have design a simulator in which we have transmit our data via mail or LAN. For securing the data, this will be password protected. For design this simulator we have encrypted our data and after that without password we will not decrypted the data. Our all conclusion is that we will secure our information. The difference between the two is in the appearance in the processed output; the output of Steganography operation is not apparently visible but in cryptography the output is scrambled so that it can draw attention. In this paper, we have tried to elucidate the different approaches towards implementation of Steganography using ‘multimedia’ file (text, static image, audio and video and Network IP datagram as cover.

  19. Experimental Test of Quantum No-Hiding Theorem

    CERN Document Server

    Samal, Jharana Rani; Kumar, Anil

    2010-01-01

    Linearity and unitarity are two fundamental tenets of quantum theory. Any consequence that follows from these must be respected in the quantum world. The no-cloning theorem and the no-deleting theorem are the consequences of the linearity and the unitarity. Together with the stronger no-cloning theorem they provide permanence to quantum information, thus, suggesting that in the quantum world information can neither be created nor be destroyed. In this sense quantum information is robust, but at the same time it is also fragile because any interaction with the environment may lead to loss of information. Recently, another fundamental theorem was proved, namely, the no-hiding theorem that addresses precisely the issue of information loss. It says that if any physical process leads to bleaching of quantum information from the original system, then it must reside in the rest of the universe with no information being hidden in the correlation between these two subsystems. This has applications in quantum teleporta...

  20. Confidential Data Hiding Using Wavlet Based Ecg Stegnography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malashree K S

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available With the growing number of aging population and a significant portion of that suffering from cardiac diseases, it is conceivable that remote ECG patient monitoring systems are expected to be widely used as Point-of-Care (PoC applications in hospitals around the world. Therefore, huge amount of ECG signal collected by Body Sensor Networks (BSNs from remote patients at homes will be transmitted along with other physiological readings such as blood pressure, temperature, glucose level etc. and diagnosed by those remote patient monitoring systems. It is utterly important that patient confidentiality is protected while data is being transmitted over the public network as well as when they are stored in hospital servers used by remote monitoring systems. In this project, a wavelet based steganography technique has been introduced which combines encryption and scrambling technique to protect patient confidential data. The proposed method allows ECG signal to hide its corresponding patient confidential data and other physiological information thus guaranteeing the integration between ECG and the rest.

  1. A Note On the Bounds for the Generalized Fibonacci-p-Sequence and its Application in Data-Hiding

    CERN Document Server

    Dey, Sandipan; Sane, Suneeta; Sanyal, Sugata

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we suggest a lower and an upper bound for the Generalized Fibonacci-p-Sequence, for ?different values of p. The Fibonacci-p-Sequence is a generalization of the Classical Fibonacci Sequence. We ?first show that the ratio of two consecutive terms in generalized Fibonacci sequence converges to a p-degree polynomial and then use this result to prove the bounds for generalized Fibonacci-p sequence, thereby generalizing the exponential bounds for classical Fibonacci Sequence. Then we show how these results can be used to prove efficiency for data hiding techniques using generalized Fibonacci sequence. These steganographic techniques use generalized Fibonacci-p-Sequence for increasing number available of bit-planes to hide data, so that more and more data can be hidden into the higher bit-planes of any pixel without causing much distortion of the cover image. This bound can be used as a theoretical proof for efficiency of those techniques, for instance it explains why more and more data can be hidden ...

  2. Context adaptive binary arithmetic coding-based data hiding in partially encrypted H.264/AVC videos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dawen; Wang, Rangding

    2015-05-01

    A scheme of data hiding directly in a partially encrypted version of H.264/AVC videos is proposed which includes three parts, i.e., selective encryption, data embedding and data extraction. Selective encryption is performed on context adaptive binary arithmetic coding (CABAC) bin-strings via stream ciphers. By careful selection of CABAC entropy coder syntax elements for selective encryption, the encrypted bitstream is format-compliant and has exactly the same bit rate. Then a data-hider embeds the additional data into partially encrypted H.264/AVC videos using a CABAC bin-string substitution technique without accessing the plaintext of the video content. Since bin-string substitution is carried out on those residual coefficients with approximately the same magnitude, the quality of the decrypted video is satisfactory. Video file size is strictly preserved even after data embedding. In order to adapt to different application scenarios, data extraction can be done either in the encrypted domain or in the decrypted domain. Experimental results have demonstrated the feasibility and efficiency of the proposed scheme.

  3. New approach for ensuring cloud computing security: using data hiding methods

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MURAT YESILYURT; YILDIRAY YALMAN

    2016-11-01

    Cloud computing is one of the largest developments occurred in the field of information technology during recent years. This model has become more desirable for all institutions, organizations and also for personal use thanks to the storage of ‘valuable information’ at low costs, access to such information from anywhere in the world as well as its ease of use and low cost. In this paper, the services constituting the cloud architecture and deployment models are examined, and the main factors in the provision of security requirements of all those models as well as points to be taken into consideration are described in detail. In addition, the methods and tools considering how security, confidentiality and integrity of the information or data that formsthe basis of modern technology are implemented in cloud computing architecture are examined. Finally, it is proposed in the paper that the use of data hiding methods in terms of access security in cloud computing architecture and the security of the stored data would be very effective in securing information.

  4. Information Hiding and Countermeasures%信息隐藏技术及其攻击方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴树峰; 黄刘生; 卢继军; 陈国良

    2003-01-01

    Information Hiding Technology has a long history. With the development of Digital Technology,it has become a newly evolved discipline and a hot research area. Since the first Information Hiding Workshop held in 1996 ,thetechnology has been widely applied to areas such as multimedia ,signal processing and protection of software Intellectual Property,but the research work in secure communication is relatively fewer. Based on success of developing asteganography tool for communication,this article summarizes the current progress in the research of InformationHiding Technology systematically, and analyzes possible countermeasures against various Information Hiding techniques.

  5. Delegateable signatures based on non-interactive witness indistinguishable and non-interactive witness hiding proofs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG ChunMing; PEI DingYi; WANG XiaoFeng; LIU ZhuoJun

    2008-01-01

    A delegateable signature scheme (DSS) which was first introduced by Barak is mainly based on the non-interactive zero-knowledge proof (NIZK) for preventing the signing verifier from telling which witness (i.e., restricted subset) is being used. However, the scheme is not significantly efficient due to the difficulty of constructing NIZK. We first show that a non-Interactive witness indistinguishable (NIWI) proof sys-tern and a non-interactive witness hiding (NIWH) proof system are easier and more efficient proof models than NIZK in some cases. Furthermore, the witnesses em-ployed in these two protocols (NIWI and NIWT) cannot also be distinguished by the verifiers. Combined with the Σ-protocol, we then construct NlWl and NIWH proofs for any NP statement under the existence of one-way functions and show that each proof is different from those under the existence of trapdoor permutations. Finally, based on our NIWI and NIWH proofs, we construct delegateable signature schemes under the existence of one-way functions, which are more efficient than Barak's scheme under the existence of trapdoor permutations.

  6. HIDES spectroscopy of bright detached eclipsing binaries from the Kepler field - I. Single-lined objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hełminiak, K. G.; Ukita, N.; Kambe, E.; Kozłowski, S. K.; Sybilski, P.; Ratajczak, M.; Maehara, H.; Konacki, M.

    2016-09-01

    We present results of our spectroscopic observations of nine detached eclipsing binaries (DEBs), selected from the Kepler Eclipsing Binary Catalog, that only show one set of spectral lines. Radial velocities (RVs) were calculated from the high-resolution spectra obtained with the HIgh-Dispersion Echelle Spectrograph (HIDES) instrument, attached to the 1.88-m telescope at the Okayama Astrophysical Observatory, and from the public Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment archive. In our sample, we found five single-lined binaries, with one component dominating the spectrum. The orbital and light-curve solutions were found for four of them, and compared with isochrones, in order to estimate absolute physical parameters and evolutionary status of the components. For the fifth case, we only update the orbital parameters, and estimate the properties of the unseen star. Two other systems show orbital motion with a period known from the eclipse timing variations (ETVs). For these we obtained parameters of outer orbits, by translating the ETVs to RVs of the centre of mass of the eclipsing binary, and combining with the RVs of the outer star. Of the two remaining ones, one is most likely a blend of a faint background DEB with a bright foreground star, which lines we see in the spectra, and the last case is possibly a quadruple bearing a sub-stellar mass object. Where possible, we compare our results with literature, especially with results from asteroseismology. We also report possible detections of solar-like oscillations in our RVs.

  7. Association Rule Hiding Techniques for Privacy Preserving Data Mining: A Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayathiri P

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Association rule mining is an efficient data mining technique that recognizes the frequent items and associative rule based on a market basket data analysis for large set of transactional databases. The probability of most frequent data item occurrence of the transactional data items are calculated to present the associative rule that represents the habits of buying products of the customers in demand. Identifying associative rules of a transactional database in data mining may expose the confidentiality and privacy of an organization and individual. Privacy Preserving Data Mining (PPDM is a solution for privacy threats in data mining. This issue is solved using Association Rule Hiding (ARH techniques in Privacy Preserving Data Mining (PPDM. This research work on Association Rule Hiding technique in data mining performs the generation of sensitive association rules by the way of hiding based on the transactional data items. The property of hiding rules not the data makes the sensitive rule hiding process is a minimal side effects and higher data utility technique.

  8. Novel serine keratinase from Caldicoprobacter algeriensis exhibiting outstanding hide dehairing abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouacem, Khelifa; Bouanane-Darenfed, Amel; Zaraî Jaouadi, Nadia; Joseph, Manon; Hacene, Hocine; Ollivier, Bernard; Fardeau, Marie-Laure; Bejar, Samir; Jaouadi, Bassem

    2016-05-01

    The current paper reports on the purification of an extracellular thermostable keratinase (KERCA) produced from Caldicoprobacter algeriensis strain TH7C1(T), a thermophilic, anaerobic bacterium isolated from a hydrothermal hot spring in Algeria. The maximum keratinase activity recorded after 24-h of incubation at 50 °C was 21000 U/ml. The enzyme was purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation-dialysis and heat treatment (2h at 50 °C) followed by UNO Q-6 FPLC anion exchange chromatography, and submitted to biochemical characterization assays. Matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS) analysis revealed that the purified enzyme was a monomer with a molecular mass of 33246.10 Da. The sequence of the 23 N-terminal residues of KERCA showed high homology with those of bacterial keratinases. Optimal activity was achieved at pH 7 and 50 °C. The enzyme was completely inhibited by phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride (PMSF) and diiodopropyl fluorophosphates (DFP), which suggests that it belongs to the serine keratinase family. KERCA displayed higher levels of hydrolysis and catalytic efficiency than keratinase KERQ7 from Bacillus tequilensis strain Q7. These properties make KERCA a potential promising and eco-friendly alternative to the conventional chemicals used for the dehairing of goat, sheep, and bovine hides in the leather processing industry.

  9. Performance evaluation of information hiding%信息隐藏性能评价方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马秀莹; 林家骏

    2011-01-01

    It is necessary to establish a benchmark for information hiding. Imperceptibility is an important index to evaluate the performance of steganography. Based on HVS model, a new imperceptibility measure CHD for color stego image was proposed. Experimental results show that the quality of stego image calculated by CHD reflects the luminance masking, texture masking and color masking of HVS, and CHD can be used to evaluate the imperceptibility of steganography tools.%建立信息隐藏技术的评价标准十分必要.隐写术的视觉不可感知性是评价隐写术性能的重要指标之一.基于HVS模型,给出不可感知性评价指标CHD.实验结果表明,CHD的判定结果反映了人类视觉的亮度,对比度和色彩掩蔽特性,可以作为隐写术的不可感知性评价指标.

  10. The significance of anisotropic signals hiding in the type Ia supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Hai-Nan; Chang, Zhe

    2016-01-01

    We use two different methods, i.e., dipole-fitting (DF) and hemisphere comparison (HC), to search for the anisotropic signals hiding in the Union2.1 data set. We find that the directions of maximum matter density derived using these two methods are about $114^{\\circ}$ away from each other. We construct four Union2.1-like mock samples to test the statistical significance of these two methods. It is shown that DF method is statistically significant, while HC method is strongly biased by the distribution of data points in the sky. Then we assume that the anisotropy of distance modulus is mainly induced by the anisotropy of matter density, which is modeled to be the dipole form $\\Omega_M=\\Omega_{M0}(1-\\cos\\theta)$. We fit our model to Union2.1, and find that the direction of maximum matter density is well consistent with the direction derived using DF method, but it is very different from the direction previously claimed. Monte Carlo simulations show that our method is statistically more significant than HC metho...

  11. Hiding the word: examining the relationship between a new measure of religiosity and sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Michael; Denny, George; Penhollow, Tina; Palacios, Rebecca; Morris, Duston

    2015-06-01

    The relationship between religiosity and sexual behavior has been previously investigated, but researchers have not examined the relationship between the intellectual dimension of religiosity and sexual behavior. In this study, we developed an intellectual measure of religiosity, Hiding the Word (HTW), and examined whether it accounted for variation in the sexual behavior of college students, beyond that for which age and a generic measure of religiosity could account. Results showed, after accounting for age and generic religiosity, HTW made a significant contribution to distinguishing between students who had, and those who had not, engaged in various sexual behaviors. For females, this was the case in three of the five behaviors examined (all except receiving oral sex and participating in unprotected penile-vaginal intercourse at most recent sexual encounter), and for males, two of the four behaviors (sexual intercourse and anal intercourse). HTW was less of a factor in accounting for variation in the frequency of participation. For males, HTW was significant for the frequency of participation in penile-vaginal intercourse, receiving oral sex, and the number of sexual partners in the last month. For females, HTW was significant only for the number of sexual partners in the last month. Thus, religiosity, and specifically HTW, seems to play more of a role in determining whether or not a person has participated in behavior, rather than in the frequency of participation.

  12. Hiding Sensitive Association Rules without Altering the Support of Sensitive Item(s)

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, Dhyanendra

    2012-01-01

    Association rule mining is an important data-mining technique that finds interesting association among a large set of data items. Since it may disclose patterns and various kinds of sensitive knowledge that are difficult to find otherwise, it may pose a threat to the privacy of discovered confidential information. Such information is to be protected against unauthorized access. Many strategies had been proposed to hide the information. Some use distributed databases over several sites, data perturbation, clustering, and data distortion techniques. Hiding sensitive rules problem, and still not sufficiently investigated, is the requirement to balance the confidentiality of the disclosed data with the legitimate needs of the user. The proposed approach uses the data distortion technique where the position of the sensitive items is altered but its support is never changed. The size of the database remains the same. It uses the idea of representative rules to prune the rules first and then hides the sensitive rule...

  13. The study results steganography hiding messages in image files as vehicle security software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. O. Navrotskyi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Synergetics of steganographic and cryptographic encryption algorithms, which provide a solid security foundation, is presented in this paper. Hiding messages systems in spatial and frequency domain image are compared and studied by the author. The following questions: Compression scheme JPEG , JPEG – transformation structure, Practical recommendations for hiding data to image files, The method of least significant bits (spatial domain and the DCT coefficients values relative replacement method (frequency domain, Packing and unpacking the hidden message, Visual distortion image changing system parameters are considered.

  14. A New Information Hiding Way Based on Word XML%一种基于Word XML的信息隐藏新方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董艳; 徐江峰

    2015-01-01

    It is of great significance to hide some secret information in a Word document. Based on analyzing the"revision identifiers" in document. xml of Word 2007 document, propose a new information hiding method. According to a pseudo-random binary sequence which is produced by logistic pseudo-random sequence generator,extract certain attributes of"revision identifiers" in document. xml,and change the last six attributes values with the hexadecimal secret information,achieving the purpose of hiding secret information. The ex-perimental result show that compared with the previous hiding ways based on Word,the new hiding way based on the "revision identi-fiers" is better in robustness and safety and so on.%在应用广泛的Word文档中隐藏秘密信息意义巨大,在对Word 2007中document. xml文件的“修改标识”特性分析的基础上,提出了一种的新的信息隐藏方法。该方法首先根据logistic方程伪随机序列生成器产生的伪随机二进制序列,去抽取载体文件document. xml中特定的“修改标识”属性值,而后用秘密信息的十六进制码替换抽取的属性值后六位,从而达到隐藏秘密信息的目的。实验结果表明,基于document. xml文件中“修改标识”属性值的信息隐藏新方法,与既有的基于Word的信息隐藏方法相比,具有安全性更高、隐蔽性更强等优点。

  15. Analysis of Information Hiding Capacity in the Multiple Antennas Coding Channel System%多天线编码信道系统中的信息隐藏容量分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢苗; 陈立全

    2012-01-01

    在分析信道编码和信息隐藏技术相结合的基础上,提出了Alamouti编码多天线系统中的基于LDPC码的信息隐藏方案,理论推导了单天线编码信道及多天线编码信道系统中的信息隐藏容量上限,并进行数值验算和MATLAB仿真验证.实验结果表明,较之单天线编码信道,基于多天线编码信道的信息隐藏容量有明显的提高.%Based on analysis of the combination between channel coding technologies and information hiding technologies, an information hiding scheme based on LDPC codes is proposed, which is implemented in Alamouti coding MIMO system. A theoretical analysis about information hiding capacities of the coding channel system and multi-antennas coding channel system is presented. Then,it evaluates the proposed scheme by numerical analyses and MATLAB simulations. Compared with the single antenna channel coding system experimental results show that the information hiding capacity based on multiple antenna channel coding system is improved significant.

  16. Hiding an Inconvenient Truth : Lies and Vagueness (Revision of DP 2008-107)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serra Garcia, M.; van Damme, E.E.C.; Potters, J.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    When truth conflicts with efficiency, can verbal communication destroy efficiency? Or are lies or vagueness used to hide inconvenient truths? We consider a sequential 2-player public good game in which the leader has private information about the value of the public good. This value can be low, high

  17. Random Traversing Based Reversible Data Hiding Technique Using PE and LSB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhythm Katira

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The rise in the use of internet, secure transmission of the data has become an utmost priority. Steganography makes the data invisible by hiding it in the multimedia such as image, audio or video file and thereby covering for its existence. In this project we use prediction error (PE technique steganography and Least Significant Bit (LSB substitution method to hide data in the image. As we do PE expansion method it can lead to expansion of pixels like it can lead to pixel value above 255. In order to solve this problem, we restricted the pixel values between 15 and 240.The PSNR was high at low threshold values. The hiding capacity increased with increase in threshold with a reasonable decrease in PSNR. There was 2dB difference then other methods because of high data hiding capacity. Also we have used knight’s tour for increasing the security of data hidden. In comparison to other methodology, this methodology proves to be better and more effective.

  18. A NOVEL APPROACH OF SECURE COMMUNICATION BASED ON THE TECHNIQUE OF SPEECH INFORMATION HIDING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The proposed secure communication approach adopts the proposed algorithm of Analysis-BySynthesis (ABS) speech information hiding to establish a Secret Speech Subliminal Channel (SSSC) for speech secure communication over PSTN (Public Switched Telephone Network), and employs the algorithm of ABS speech information extracting to recovery the secret information. This approach is more reliable, covert and securable than traditional and chaotic secure communication.

  19. Effect of hiding places, straw and territory on agression in group-housed rabbit does

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rommers, J.M.; Reuvekamp, B.F.J.; Gunnink, H.; Jong, de I.C.

    2014-01-01

    Group-housing of rabbit does may be preferred from welfare point of view. However, group-housing causes agonistic behaviour which may cause severe injuries. Severe injuries may be prevented by offering hiding places for attacked does. Providing enrichment (straw) may reduce agonistic behaviour by at

  20. Surprising structures hiding in Penrose’s future null infinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Ezra T.

    2017-07-01

    Since the late1950s, almost all discussions of asymptotically flat (Einstein-Maxwell) space-times have taken place in the context of Penrose’s null infinity, I+. In addition, almost all calculations have used the Bondi coordinate and tetrad systems. Beginning with a known asymptotically flat solution to the Einstein-Maxwell equations, we show first, that there are other natural coordinate systems, near I+, (analogous to light-cones in flat-space) that are based on (asymptotically) shear-free null geodesic congruences (analogous to the flat-space case). Using these new coordinates and their associated tetrad, we define the complex dipole moment, (the mass dipole plus i times angular momentum), from the l  =  1 harmonic coefficient of a component of the asymptotic Weyl tensor. Second, from this definition, from the Bianchi identities and from the Bondi-Sachs mass and linear momentum, we show that there exists a large number of results—identifications and dynamics—identical to those of classical mechanics and electrodynamics. They include, among many others, {P}=M{v}+..., {L}= {r} × {P} , spin, Newton’s second law with the rocket force term (\\dotM v) and radiation reaction, angular momentum conservation and others. All these relations take place in the rather mysterious H-space rather than in space-time. This leads to the enigma: ‘why do these well known relations of classical mechanics take place in H-space?’ and ‘What is the physical meaning of H-space?’

  1. Assessing theory of mind nonverbally in those with intellectual disability and ASD: the penny hiding game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San José Cáceres, Antonia; Keren, Noa; Booth, Rhonda; Happé, Francesca

    2014-10-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and low intellectual/language abilities are often omitted from experimental studies because of the challenges of testing these individuals. It is vital to develop appropriate and accessible tasks so that this significant part of the spectrum is not neglected. The theory of mind (ToM) has been extensively assessed in ASD, predominantly in relatively high-functioning individuals with reasonable language skills. This study aims to assess the ToM abilities of a sample of 132 participants with intellectual disability (ID) with and without ASD, matched in verbal mental age (VMA) and chronological age, using a naturalistic and nonverbal deception task: the Penny Hiding Game (PHG). The relationship between performance on the PHG and everyday adaptation was also studied. The PHG proved accessible to most participants, suggesting its suitability for use with individuals with low cognitive skills, attentional problems, and limited language. The ASD + ID group showed significantly more PHG errors, and fewer tricks, than the ID group. PHG performance correlated with Vineland adaptation scores for both groups. VMA was a major predictor of passing the task in both groups, and participants with ASD + ID required, on average, 2 years higher VMA than those with ID only, to achieve the same level of PHG success. VMA moderated the association between PHG performance and real-life social skills for the ASD + ID more than the ID group, suggesting that severely impaired individuals with ASD may rely on verbal ability to overcome their social difficulties, whereas individuals with ID alone may use more intuitive social understanding both in the PHG and everyday situations. © 2014 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Research on the methods of optical image hiding based on double random phase encoding and digital holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hongsheng; Sang, Nong

    2011-12-01

    Optical information hiding system has many features such as high processing speed, high parallel, high encryption dimension and high speed of optical transformation and related operations, more advantages than digital method in some way. But it has not adequate security, and enough combination with techniques of digital image processing. So on basis of analyzing existing image hiding and analyzing techniques, we give out the idea. We should adopt idea of virtual optics on the way of all-digital simulation to do research of optical image hiding and analyzing methods based on optical image processing technique especially technique of double random phase encoding and digital holography.

  3. A VoIP Privacy Mechanism and its Application in VoIP Peering for Voice Service Provider Topology and Identity Hiding

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Charles

    2008-01-01

    Voice Service Providers (VSPs) participating in VoIP peering frequently want to withhold their identity and related privacy-sensitive information from other parties during the VoIP communication. A number of existing documents on VoIP privacy exist, but most of them focus on end user privacy. By summarizing and extending existing work, we present a unified privacy mechanism for both VoIP users and service providers. We also show a case study on how VSPs can use this mechanism for identity and topology hiding in VoIP peering.

  4. Data Hiding by LSB Substitution Using Genetic Optimal Key-Permutation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marghny Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The least significant bit (LSB embedding method is one of the most commonly used techniques; it targets the LSB'sof the host image to hide the data. This paper deals with three main steganography challenges (i.e. capacity, imperceptibility,and security. This is achieved by hybrid data hiding scheme incorporates LSB technique with a key-permutation method. Thepaper also proposes an optimal key permutation method using genetic algorithms for best key selection. Both normal andoptimized methods are tested with standard images, varying both data size as well as key space. Final experimental resultsshow decrement in computation time when increasing number of keys, at the same time system security improves.

  5. Stegano-Crypto Hiding Encrypted Data in Encrypted Image Using Advanced Encryption Standard and Lossy Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari Shawakat Tahir

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Steganography is an art and science of hiding information by embedding messages within other, seemingly harmless messages and lots of researches are working in it. Proposed system is using AES Algorithm and Lossy technique to overcome the limitation of previous work and increasing the process’s speed. The sender uses AES Algorithm to encrypt message and image, then using LSB technique to hide encrypted data in encrypted message. The receive get the original data using the keys that had been used in encryption process. The proposed system has been implemented in NetBeans 7.3 software uses image and data in different size to find the system’s speed.

  6. An Attribute-Based Signcryption Scheme and Its Application in Information Hiding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Changgen; WANG Weiru; TIAN Youliang; YUAN Zhilong

    2016-01-01

    In order to provide a secure, reliable and flexible way to hide information, a new attribute-based signcryption scheme based on ciphertext-policy and its se-curity proof are presented. This scheme not only can simul-taneously fulfil both authentication and confidentiality in an efficient way, but also implements a hierarchical decryp-tion in one group and also between different groups accord-ing to user’s authority (different users satisfying the same access structure can be considered as a group). We provide a solution to information hiding using our proposed scheme which can embed ciphertext into a carrier. Because the hi-erarchical decryption property, different users will obtain different message from the same carrier. Illegal user can not get any information without private key because mes-sage existed in the carrier is ciphertext. Such solution can be applied in sharing important message under the public network.

  7. A data hiding approach for the self-security of iris recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Attacks to biometric data are the primary danger to the self-security of biometrics.To improve the iris feature template data security,a data hiding approach based on bit streams is proposed,in which an iris feature template is embedded into a face image. The proposed approach is applicable to present dominant techniques of iris recognition.With the low computation cost and the zero decoding-error-rate,this data hiding approach,embedding target biometric data into other biometric data for improving the security of target data in identity recognition,data storage and transmission,can deceive attackers more effectively.Furthermore,it does not degrade the iris recognition performances.Experimental results prove that the proposed approach can be used to protect iris feature templates and enhance the security of the iris recognition system itself.

  8. New Classification Methods for Hiding Information into Two Parts: Multimedia Files and Non Multimedia Files

    CERN Document Server

    Alanazi, Hamdan O; Zaidan, B B; Jalab, Hamid A; AL-Ani, Zaidoon Kh

    2010-01-01

    With the rapid development of various multimedia technologies, more and more multimedia data are generated and transmitted in the medical, commercial, and military fields, which may include some sensitive information which should not be accessed by or can only be partially exposed to the general users. Therefore, security and privacy has become an important, Another problem with digital document and video is that undetectable modifications can be made with very simple and widely available equipment, which put the digital material for evidential purposes under question .With the large flood of information and the development of the digital format Information hiding considers one of the techniques which used to protect the important information. The main goals for this paper, provides a general overview of the New Classification Methods for Hiding Information into Two Parts: Multimedia Files and Non Multimedia Files.

  9. 12th International Conference on Intelligent Information Hiding and Multimedia Signal Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Tsai, Pei-Wei; Huang, Hsiang-Cheh

    2017-01-01

    This volume of Smart Innovation, Systems and Technologies contains accepted papers presented in IIH-MSP-2016, the 12th International Conference on Intelligent Information Hiding and Multimedia Signal Processing. The conference this year was technically co-sponsored by Tainan Chapter of IEEE Signal Processing Society, Fujian University of Technology, Chaoyang University of Technology, Taiwan Association for Web Intelligence Consortium, Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Big Data Mining and Applications (Fujian University of Technology), and Harbin Institute of Technology Shenzhen Graduate School. IIH-MSP 2016 is held in 21-23, November, 2016 in Kaohsiung, Taiwan. The conference is an international forum for the researchers and professionals in all areas of information hiding and multimedia signal processing. .

  10. A new method for high-capacity information hiding in video robust against temporal desynchronization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitekin, Vitaly; Fedoseev, Victor A.

    2015-02-01

    This paper presents a new method for high-capacity information hiding in digital video and algorithms of embedding and extraction of hidden information based on this method. These algorithms do not require temporal synchronization to provide robustness against both malicious and non-malicious frame dropping (temporal desynchronization). At the same time, due to randomized distribution of hidden information bits across the video frames, the proposed method allows to increase the hiding capacity proportionally to the number of frames used for information embedding. The proposed method is also robust against "watermark estimation" attack aimed at estimation of hidden information without knowing the embedding key or non-watermarked video. Presented experimental results demonstrate declared features of this method.

  11. C#实现窗口自动隐藏%Form Automatically Hide with C#

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    涂显政

    2012-01-01

      该文介绍了如何利用C#语言,实现靠屏边窗口自动隐藏及鼠标指向后自动弹出。%  Mark a form with C#, the form can automatically hide when it close the edge of screen and it can recover to nor⁃mal when mouse point on it.

  12. Hiding Two Binary Images in Grayscale BMP Image via Five Modulus Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firas A. Jassim

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to hide two binary BMP images in a single BMP grayscale image. The widespread technique in image steganography is to hide one image (stego image into another (cover image. The proposed novel method is to hide two binary images into one grayscale bitmap cover image. First of all, the proposed technique starts with transforming all grayscale cover image pixels into multiples of five using Five Modulus Method (FMM. Clearly, any modulus of five is either 0, 1, 2, 3, or 4. The transformed FMM cover image could be treated as a good host for carrying data. Obviously, it is known that the pixel value for the binary image is either 0 or 1. Therefore, by concatenating the two binary images, the composite results are 00, 01, 10 and 11. In fact, these concatenated values could be mapped using simple mapping that assigns a positive integer value such as 1 for 00, 2 for 01, 3 for 10 and 4 for 11. Consequently, a new matrix will be constructed that contains a number varying from 1 to 4 only. Fortunately, the four integer values are the same as the previously mentioned reminders of division by 5, hence, adding these four integers to the transformed FMM cover image. On the recipient side, a reverse process will be implemented to extract the two binary images. In terms of PSNR values, the cover image and the two extracted stego images have acceptable PSNR values, which yields that the proposed method is very efficient in information hiding.

  13. Salimicrobium salexigens sp. nov., a moderately halophilic bacterium from salted hides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Haba, Rafael R; Yilmaz, Pinar; Sánchez-Porro, Cristina; Birbir, Meral; Ventosa, Antonio

    2011-09-01

    Two Gram-positive, moderately halophilic bacteria, designated strains 29CMI(T) and 53CMI, were isolated from salted hides. Both strains were non-motile, strictly aerobic cocci, growing in the presence of 3-25% (w/v) NaCl (optimal growth at 7.5-12.5% [w/v] NaCl), between pH 5.0 and 10.0 (optimal growth at pH 7.5) and at temperatures between 15 and 40°C (optimal growth at 37°C). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence comparison showed that both strains showed a similarity of 98.7% and were closely related to species of the genus Salimicrobium, within the phylum Firmicutes. Strains 29CMI(T) and 53CMI exhibited 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity values of 97.9-97.6% with Salimicrobium album DSM 20748(T), Salimicrobium halophilum DSM 4771(T), Salimicrobium flavidum ISL-25(T) and Salimicrobium luteum BY-5(T). The DNA G+C content was 50.7mol% and 51.5mol% for strains 29CMI(T) and 53CMI, respectively. The DNA-DNA hybridization between both strains was 98%, whereas the values between strain 29CMI(T) and the species S. album CCM 3517(T), S. luteum BY-5(T), S. flavidum ISL-25(T) and S. halophilum CCM 4074(T) were 45%, 28%, 15% and 10%, respectively, showing unequivocally that strains 29CMI(T) and 53CMI constitute a new genospecies. The major cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C(15:0), anteiso-C(17:0), iso-C(15:0) and iso-C(14:0). The main respiratory isoprenoid quinone was MK-7, although small amounts of MK-6 were also found. The polar lipids of the type strain consist of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, one unidentified phospholipid and one glycolipid. The peptidoglycan type is A1γ, with meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid. On the basis of the phylogenetic analysis, and phenotypic, genotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics, we propose strains 29CMI(T) and 53CMI as a novel species of the genus Salimicrobium, with the name Salimicrobium salexigens sp. nov. The type strain is 29CMI(T) (=CECT 7568(T)=JCM 16414(T)=LMG 25386(T)).

  14. Steganography and Hiding Data with Indicators-based LSB Using a Secret Key

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Saqer

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Steganography is the field of science concerned with hiding secret data inside other innocent-looking data, called the container, carrier or cover, in a way that no one apart from the meant parties can suspect the existence of the secret data. There are many algorithms and techniques of concealing data. Each of which has its own way of hiding and its own advantages and limitations. In our research we introduce a new algorithm of hiding data. The algorithm uses the same technique used by the Least Significant Bit (LSB algorithm which is embedding secret data in the least significant bit(s of the bytes of the carrier. It differs from the LSB algorithm in that it does not embed the bytes of the cover data sequentially but it embeds into one bit or two bits at once. Actually it depends on indicators to determine where and how many bits to embed at a time. These indicators are two bits of each cover byte after the least two significant bits. The advantage of this algorithm over the LSB algorithm is the randomness used to confuse intruders as it does not use fixed sequential bytes and it does not always embed one bit at a time. This aims to increase the security of the technique. Also, the amount of cover data consumed is less because it sometimes embeds two bits at once.

  15. Pengaruh hide poison dan formalin terhadap sifat kulit dalam pengawet kulit kambing secara dikeringkan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignatius Sunaryo

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is know the effect of ide poison and formaline in the dried curing of goat skin. This study used 199 goat skins that were devided into seven groups od curing. Each group consisted of 17 goat skins. Those groups were : 3 groups of dried curing by hide poison of 0,1%, 0,3% and 0,5%; 3 groups of dried curing by formaline of 1%, 3% and 5%; and 1 groups of dried curing without any preserevation agent as control. After having stored for about 4 months, those skins then to be analized. Physical and chemical analysis werw carried out to evaluate the quality of the skin. Completely randomized design by Duncan’s test was used to analyze the dta. Based on this statistical analysis we can know that: the effect of hide poson in the dried curing of goat skins was the best. The quality of goat skins that were cured by hide poison was as follows : - the average tensile strength was the highest (886,30 kg/CM2, - the average of stretch was the lowest (14,50%, - the average iof hardness was the highest (201,90 kg/2,54 Cm, - the water content was the lowest (20%, and the damage was the smallest (10%.

  16. Design a Weight Based sorting distortion algorithm using Association rule Hiding for Privacy Preserving Data mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.Sugumar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The security of the large database that contains certain crucial information, it will become a serious issue when sharing data to the network against unauthorized access. Privacy preserving data mining is a new research trend in privacy data for data mining and statistical database. Association analysis is a powerful tool for discovering relationships which are hidden in large database. Association rules hiding algorithms get strong an efficient performance for protecting confidential and crucial data. Data modification and rule hiding is one of the most important approaches for secure data. The objective of the proposed Weight Based Sorting Distortion (WBSD algorithm is to distort certain data which satisfies a particular sensitive rule. Then hide those transactions which support a sensitive rule and assigns them a priority and sorts them in ascending order according to the priority value of each rule. Then it uses these weights to compute the priority value for each transaction according to how weak the rule is that a transaction supports. Data distortion is one of the important methods to avoid this kind of scalability issues

  17. HIDE & SEEK: End-to-end packages to simulate and process radio survey data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akeret, J.; Seehars, S.; Chang, C.; Monstein, C.; Amara, A.; Refregier, A.

    2017-01-01

    As several large single-dish radio surveys begin operation within the coming decade, a wealth of radio data will become available and provide a new window to the Universe. In order to fully exploit the potential of these datasets, it is important to understand the systematic effects associated with the instrument and the analysis pipeline. A common approach to tackle this is to forward-model the entire system-from the hardware to the analysis of the data products. For this purpose, we introduce two newly developed, open-source Python packages: the HI Data Emulator (HIDE) and the Signal Extraction and Emission Kartographer (SEEK) for simulating and processing single-dish radio survey data. HIDE forward-models the process of collecting astronomical radio signals in a single-dish radio telescope instrument and outputs pixel-level time-ordered-data. SEEK processes the time-ordered-data, removes artifacts from Radio Frequency Interference (RFI), automatically applies flux calibration, and aims to recover the astronomical radio signal. The two packages can be used separately or together depending on the application. Their modular and flexible nature allows easy adaptation to other instruments and datasets. We describe the basic architecture of the two packages and examine in detail the noise and RFI modeling in HIDE, as well as the implementation of gain calibration and RFI mitigation in SEEK. We then apply HIDE &SEEK to forward-model a Galactic survey in the frequency range 990-1260 MHz based on data taken at the Bleien Observatory. For this survey, we expect to cover 70% of the full sky and achieve a median signal-to-noise ratio of approximately 5-6 in the cleanest channels including systematic uncertainties. However, we also point out the potential challenges of high RFI contamination and baseline removal when examining the early data from the Bleien Observatory. The fully documented HIDE &SEEK packages are available at http://hideseek.phys.ethz.ch/ and are published

  18. Secure Oblivious Hiding, Authentication, Tamper Proofing, and Verification Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-08-01

    information can be stored either in a separate file, in the image header, or embedded in the image itself utilizing the modern concepts of steganography ...have an object X represented in a discrete form using bits. For example, X could be a complex multimedia object, an audio file, a digitized hologram... steganography , steganalysis, image authentication, watermarking, and some unique special image tools. Figure 21 shows the interface of the SecureStego

  19. Uric Acid for Cardiovascular Risk: Dr. Jekyll or Mr. Hide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassalle, Cristina; Mazzone, Annamaria; Sabatino, Laura; Carpeggiani, Clara

    2016-02-26

    Uric acid (UA) is a potent endogenous antioxidant. However, high concentrations of this molecule have been associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and renal dysfunction, involving mechanisms that include oxidative stress, inflammatory processes, and endothelial injury. Experimental and in vitro results suggest that this biomarker behaves like other antioxidants, which can shift from the physiological antioxidant action to a pro-oxidizing effect according to their level and to microenvironment conditions. However, data on patients (general population or CAD cohorts) are controversial, so the debate on the role of hyperuricemia as a causative factor for CVD is still ongoing. Increasing evidence indicates UA as more meaningful to assess CVD in women, even though this aspect needs deeper investigation. It will be important to identify thresholds responsible for UA "biological shift" from protective to harmful effects in different pathological conditions, and according to possible gender-related differences. In any case, UA is a low-tech and inexpensive biomarker, generally performed at patient's hospitalization and, therefore, easily accessible information for clinicians. For these reasons, UA might represent a useful additive tool as much as a CV risk marker. Thus, in view of available evidence, progressive UA elevation with levels higher than 6 mg/dL could be considered an "alarm" for increased CV risk.

  20. Interevent Correlations from Avalanches Hiding Below the Detection Threshold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janićević, Sanja; Laurson, Lasse; Mâløy, Knut Jørgen; Santucci, Stéphane; Alava, Mikko J.

    2016-12-01

    Numerous systems ranging from deformation of materials to earthquakes exhibit bursty dynamics, which consist of a sequence of events with a broad event size distribution. Very often these events are observed to be temporally correlated or clustered, evidenced by power-law-distributed waiting times separating two consecutive activity bursts. We show how such interevent correlations arise simply because of a finite detection threshold, created by the limited sensitivity of the measurement apparatus, or used to subtract background activity or noise from the activity signal. Data from crack-propagation experiments and numerical simulations of a nonequilibrium crack-line model demonstrate how thresholding leads to correlated bursts of activity by separating the avalanche events into subavalanches. The resulting temporal subavalanche correlations are well described by our general scaling description of thresholding-induced correlations in crackling noise.

  1. Hiding its age: the case for a younger bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Haywood, M; Snaith, O; Calamida, A

    2016-01-01

    The determination of the age of the bulge has led to two contradictory results. On the one side, the color-magnitude diagrams in different bulge fields seem to indicate a uniformly old ($>$10 Gyr) population. On the other side, individual ages derived from dwarfs observed through microlensing events seem to indicate a large spread, from $\\sim$ 2 to $\\sim$ 13 Gyr. Because the bulge is now recognised as being mainly a boxy peanut-shaped bar, it is suggested that disk stars are one of its main constituents, and therefore also stars with ages significantly younger than 10 Gyr. Other arguments as well point to the fact that the bulge cannot be exclusively old, and in particular cannot be a burst population, as it is usually expected if the bulge was the fossil remnant of a merger phase in the early Galaxy. In the present study, we show that given the range of metallicities observed in the bulge, a uniformly old population would be reflected into a significant spread in color at the turn-off which is not observed. ...

  2. Hiding in the Shadows II: Collisional Dust as Exoplanet Markers

    CERN Document Server

    Dobinson, Jack; Lines, Stefan; Carter, Philip J; Dodson-Robinson, Sarah E; Teanby, Nick A

    2016-01-01

    Observations of the youngest planets ($\\sim$1-10 Myr for a transitional disk) will increase the accuracy of our planet formation models. Unfortunately, observations of such planets are challenging and time-consuming to undertake even in ideal circumstances. Therefore, we propose the determination of a set of markers that can pre-select promising exoplanet-hosting candidate disks. To this end, N-body simulations were conducted to investigate the effect of an embedded Jupiter mass planet on the dynamics of the surrounding planetesimal disk and the resulting creation of second generation collisional dust. We use a new collision model that allows fragmentation and erosion of planetesimals, and dust-sized fragments are simulated in a post process step including non-gravitational forces due to stellar radiation and a gaseous protoplanetary disk. Synthetic images from our numerical simulations show a bright double ring at 850 $\\mu$m for a low eccentricity planet, whereas a high eccentricity planet would produce a ch...

  3. Another language, another place: to hide or be found?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antinucci, Giuseppina

    2004-10-01

    The author examines some specific features of the analytic encounter when both patient and analyst are émigrés from the same cultural and linguistic background. This can result in splitting processes that operate silently and are difficult to reach, but can also provide rich material, as they offer the couple the opportunity to work through the pain and the guilt over what is lost--ultimately the lost mother--murdered and betrayed. Working through the split faces the analyst with important technical considerations, bearing in mind that the shared cultural identity can conceal itself in the more undifferentiated features of the couple's psyche and be projected on to the setting. As such, it needs to be put to analytic scrutiny if the treatment is to avoid a stalemate. These are specific cultural defences deployed in the problematic existential encounter with the foreigner/other within oneself. Using clinical material from two cases, the author shows how the couple's access to a dual linguistic signifying system can enrich the analytic dialogue, but can also result in enactment. Careful monitoring of the transference-countertransference relationship is essential to the progress of the analytic work.

  4. HIDING IN THE SHADOWS. II. COLLISIONAL DUST AS EXOPLANET MARKERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobinson, Jack; Leinhardt, Zoë M.; Lines, Stefan; Carter, Philip J. [University of Bristol, School of Physics, H. H. Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Dodson-Robinson, Sarah E. [University of Delaware, Department of Physics and Astronomy, 217 Sharp Lab, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Teanby, Nick A. [University of Bristol, School of Earth Sciences, H. H. Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom)

    2016-03-20

    Observations of the youngest planets (∼1–10 Myr for a transitional disk) will increase the accuracy of our planet formation models. Unfortunately, observations of such planets are challenging and time-consuming to undertake, even in ideal circumstances. Therefore, we propose the determination of a set of markers that can preselect promising exoplanet-hosting candidate disks. To this end, N-body simulations were conducted to investigate the effect of an embedded Jupiter-mass planet on the dynamics of the surrounding planetesimal disk and the resulting creation of second-generation collisional dust. We use a new collision model that allows fragmentation and erosion of planetesimals, and dust-sized fragments are simulated in a post-process step including non-gravitational forces due to stellar radiation and a gaseous protoplanetary disk. Synthetic images from our numerical simulations show a bright double ring at 850 μm for a low-eccentricity planet, whereas a high-eccentricity planet would produce a characteristic inner ring with asymmetries in the disk. In the presence of first-generation primordial dust these markers would be difficult to detect far from the orbit of the embedded planet, but would be detectable inside a gap of planetary origin in a transitional disk.

  5. Are mammal olfactory signals hiding right under our noses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apps, Peter James

    2013-06-01

    Chemical communication via olfactory semiochemicals plays a central role in the social behaviour and reproduction of mammals, but even after four decades of research, only a few mammal semiochemicals have been chemically characterized. Expectations that mammal chemical signals are coded by quantitative relationships among multiple components have persisted since the earliest studies of mammal semiochemistry, and continue to direct research strategies. Nonetheless, the chemistry of mammal excretions and secretions and the characteristics of those semiochemicals that have been identified show that mammal semiochemicals are as likely to be single compounds as to be mixtures, and are as likely to be coded by the presence and absence of chemical compounds as by their quantities. There is very scant support for the view that mammal semiochemicals code signals as specific ratios between components, and no evidence that they depend on a Gestalt or a chemical image. Of 31 semiochemicals whose chemical composition is known, 15 have a single component and 16 are coded by presence/absence, one may depend on a ratio between two compounds and none of them are chemical images. The expectation that mammal chemical signals have multiple components underpins the use of multivariate statistical analyses of chromatographic data, but the ways in which multivariate statistics are commonly used to search for active mixtures leads to single messenger compounds and signals that are sent by the presence and absence of compounds being overlooked. Research on mammal semiochemicals needs to accommodate the possibility that simple qualitative differences are no less likely than complex quantitative differences to encode chemical signals.

  6. Are mammal olfactory signals hiding right under our noses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apps, Peter James

    2013-06-01

    Chemical communication via olfactory semiochemicals plays a central role in the social behaviour and reproduction of mammals, but even after four decades of research, only a few mammal semiochemicals have been chemically characterized. Expectations that mammal chemical signals are coded by quantitative relationships among multiple components have persisted since the earliest studies of mammal semiochemistry, and continue to direct research strategies. Nonetheless, the chemistry of mammal excretions and secretions and the characteristics of those semiochemicals that have been identified show that mammal semiochemicals are as likely to be single compounds as to be mixtures, and are as likely to be coded by the presence and absence of chemical compounds as by their quantities. There is very scant support for the view that mammal semiochemicals code signals as specific ratios between components, and no evidence that they depend on a Gestalt or a chemical image. Of 31 semiochemicals whose chemical composition is known, 15 have a single component and 16 are coded by presence/absence, one may depend on a ratio between two compounds and none of them are chemical images. The expectation that mammal chemical signals have multiple components underpins the use of multivariate statistical analyses of chromatographic data, but the ways in which multivariate statistics are commonly used to search for active mixtures leads to single messenger compounds and signals that are sent by the presence and absence of compounds being overlooked. Research on mammal semiochemicals needs to accommodate the possibility that simple qualitative differences are no less likely than complex quantitative differences to encode chemical signals.

  7. Information hiding based on double random-phase encoding and public-key cryptography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Yuan; Xin, Zhou; Alam, Mohammed S; Xi, Lu; Xiao-Feng, Li

    2009-03-01

    A novel information hiding method based on double random-phase encoding (DRPE) and Rivest-Shamir-Adleman (RSA) public-key cryptosystem is proposed. In the proposed technique, the inherent diffusion property of DRPE is cleverly utilized to make up the diffusion insufficiency of RSA public-key cryptography, while the RSA cryptosystem is utilized for simultaneous transmission of the cipher text and the two phase-masks, which is not possible under the DRPE technique. This technique combines the complementary advantages of the DPRE and RSA encryption techniques and brings security and convenience for efficient information transmission. Extensive numerical simulation results are presented to verify the performance of the proposed technique.

  8. 进口皮毛集中加工地炭疽污染情况调查%Investigation of Anthrax Contamination at Imported Raw Hides and Wool Centralized Processing Place

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾志军; 朱磊; 沈炜; 沈涛

    2015-01-01

    随着我国生皮、羊毛进口量的逐年增加,国外炭疽疫情随皮毛传入我国的风险也在不断加大。为掌握炭疽随进口皮毛传入的情况,采集进口皮毛集中加工地区最有可能感染炭疽的土壤、水和从业人员血清样本进行检测。结果显示,土壤样本和水样均呈阴性;从业人员血清样本阳性率为23.9%,显著高于普通人群的阳性率(1.6%),表明进口皮毛加工从业人员存在感染炭疽的可能。本文针对上述情况提出了防控炭疽的建议。%While the import volume of raw hides and wool increased year by year in China,the risk of anthrax spread-ing into China is increasing. To grasp the introduction of anthrax with imported raw hides,the samples of soil,water and personal serum of the workers on raw hides and wool processing places with high risk of anthrax contamination were collected and tested. The results showed all soil samples and water samples were negative,and the positive rate of serum samples from workers was 23.9% which was significantly higher than the general population(1.6%). It indicated that it was possible for the workers who processed imported raw hide and wool to be infected with anthrax. Based on the above situation,some prevention and control suggestions of anthrax were proposed.

  9. 一种抗DA/AD转换攻击的音频信息隐藏算法%An Audio Information Hiding Algorithm Against Attacks from D/A and A/D Conversions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑玉婷; 梁猛; 曹雅萍; 王春河; 刘继红

    2016-01-01

    在经历播放和转录的音频信息隐藏应用系统中,DA/AD变换引起的攻击是限制其性能的主要因素之一。通过分析DA/AD转换过程中音频信号线性伸缩、文件大小变化引起的失同步,提出了一种基于DCT域逐项定位的音频信息隐藏算法,实验结果表明,该算法能够有效抵抗DA/AD转换过程中的攻击,具有良好的鲁棒性。%A DA/AD transform attack resistance of audio information hiding is to pick a transcribed to the digital audio broadcast after complex DA/AD conversion process, general audio information hiding algorithm is difficult to resist the process of attack, and poor practicability. Paper analyzed before and after the audio DA/AD conversion impact and put forward relevant solutions, is presented based on the positioning of the audio frequency DCT domain audio information hiding algorithm was proposed. The experimental results show that the algorithm can effectively resist attacks from DA/AD conversion, with strong robustness.

  10. A Novel Steganography Method for Hiding BW Images into Gray Bitmap Images via k-Modulus Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firas A. Jassim

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is to create a pragmatic steganographic implementation to hide black and white image which is known as stego image inside another gray bitmap image that known as cover image. First of all, the proposed technique uses k-Modulus Method (K-MM to convert all pixels within the cover image into multiples of positive integer named k. Since the black and white images can be represented using binary representation, i.e. 0 or 1. Then, in this article, the suitable value for the positive integer k is two. Therefore, each pixel inside the cover image is divisible by two and this produces a reminder which is either 0 or 1. Subsequently, the black and white representation of the stego image could be hidden inside the cover image. The ocular differences between the cover image before and after adding the stego image are insignificant. The experimental results show that the PSNR values for the cover image are very high with very small Mean Square Error.

  11. Bovine viral diarrhea virus antigen detection across whole cattle hides using two antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Ley, Brian L; Ridpath, Julia F; Sweiger, Shaun H

    2012-05-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus is a costly disease of cattle that can be controlled by vaccination, biosecurity, and removal of persistently infected cattle. Development and proficiency testing of assays to identify persistently infected cattle requires substantial quantities of known positive- and negative-sample material. The objective of this study was to determine what sections of bovine skin contained Bovine viral diarrhea virus antigen. Two commercially available antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunoassays were used to test subsamples representing the entire skin of 3 persistently infected calves. Both assays detected Bovine viral diarrhea virus antigen in the samples indicated for use by assay protocol. However, one assay identified all subsamples as positive, while the second assay identified 64.4% of subsamples as positive. These results show that use of samples other than those specified by the assay protocol must be validated for each individual assay. In this study, alternative sample sites and use of the entire hide for proficiency testing would be acceptable for only one of the assays tested.

  12. Pre-slaughter, slaughter and post-slaughter defects of skins and hides at the Sheba Tannery and Leather Industry, Tigray region, northern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahsay, Tesfay; Negash, Guesh; Hagos, Yohannes; Hadush, Birhanu

    2015-08-21

    Skins and hides are perishable resources that can be damaged by parasitic diseases and human error, which result in downgrading or rejection. This study was conducted to identify defect types and to determine their prevalence in pickled sheep and wet blue goat skins and wet blue hides. Each selected skin or hide was examined for defects in natural light and the defects were graded according to established quality criteria in Ethiopian standard manuals. Major defects were captured by digital photography. The major pre-slaughter defects included scratches (64.2%), cockle (ekek) (32.8%), wounds or scars (12.6%), lesions from pox or lumpy skin disease (6.1%), poor substance (5%), branding marks (2.3%) and tick bites (1.5%). The presence of grain scratches in wet blue hides (76.3%) was significantly higher than in pickled sheep (67.2%) and wet blue goat (59.1%) skins. The major slaughter defects included flay cuts or scores, holes, poor pattern and vein marks, with a higher occurrence in wet blue goat skins (28.7%; P < 0.001) than in wet blue hides (22.8%) and pickled sheep skins (11.1%). The most prevalent postslaughter defects were grain cracks (14.9%), hide beetle damage (8%), damage caused by heat or putrefaction (3.7%) and machine-induced defects (0.5%). Grain cracks (27.04%) and hide beetle damage (13.9%) in wet blue goat skins were significantly more common than in wet blue hides and pickled sheep skins. These defects cause depreciation in the value of the hides and skins. Statistically significant (P < 0.001) higher rejection rates were recorded for wet blue hides (82.9%) than for pickled sheep skins (18.3%) and wet blue goat skins (8.5%). Improved animal health service delivery, effective disease control strategies and strong collaboration between stakeholders are suggested to enhance the quality of skins and hides.

  13. Privacy-Aware Image Encryption Based on Logistic Map and Data Hiding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jianglin; Liao, Xiaofeng; Chen, Xin; Guo, Shangwei

    The increasing need for image communication and storage has created a great necessity for securely transforming and storing images over a network. Whereas traditional image encryption algorithms usually consider the security of the whole plain image, region of interest (ROI) encryption schemes, which are of great importance in practical applications, protect the privacy regions of plain images. Existing ROI encryption schemes usually adopt approximate techniques to detect the privacy region and measure the quality of encrypted images; however, their performance is usually inconsistent with a human visual system (HVS) and is sensitive to statistical attacks. In this paper, we propose a novel privacy-aware ROI image encryption (PRIE) scheme based on logistical mapping and data hiding. The proposed scheme utilizes salient object detection to automatically, adaptively and accurately detect the privacy region of a given plain image. After private pixels have been encrypted using chaotic cryptography, the significant bits are embedded into the nonprivacy region of the plain image using data hiding. Extensive experiments are conducted to illustrate the consistency between our automatic ROI detection and HVS. Our experimental results also demonstrate that the proposed scheme exhibits satisfactory security performance.

  14. Directionally hiding objects and creating illusions above a carpet-like device by reflection holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Qiluan; Wu, Kedi; Shi, Yile; Wang, Hui; Wang, Guo Ping

    2015-02-01

    Realization of a perfect invisibility cloak still challenges the current fabricating technologies. Most experiments, if not all, are hence focused on carpet cloaks because of their relatively low requirements to material properties. Nevertheless, present invisibility carpets are used to hide beneath objects. Here, we report a carpet-like device to directionally conceal objects and further to create illusions above it. The device is fabricated through recording a reflection hologram of objects and is used to produce a time-reversed signal to compensate for the information of the objects and further to create light field of another object so as to realize both functions of hiding the objects and creating illusions, respectively. The carpet-like device can work for macroscopic objects at visible wavelength as the distance between objects and device is at decimeter scale. Our carpet-like device to realizing invisibility and creating illusions may provide a robust way for crucial applications of magic camouflaging and anti-detection etc.

  15. Reversible Data Hiding Using Two Marked Images Based on Adaptive Coefficient-Shifting Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Yu Yang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel form of reversible data hiding using two marked images by employing the adaptive coefficient-shifting (ACS algorithm. The proposed ACS algorithm consists of three parts: the minimum-preserved scheme, the minimum-preserved with squeezing scheme, and the base-value embedding scheme. More specifically, each input block of a host image can be encoded to two stego-blocks according to three predetermined rules by the above three schemes. Simulations validate that the proposed method not only completely recovers the host medium but also losslessly extracts the hidden message. The proposed method can handle various kinds of images without any occurrence of overflow/underflow. Moreover, the payload and peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR performance of the proposed method is superior to that of the conventional invertible data hiding schemes. Furthermore, the number of shadows required by the proposed method is less than that required by the approaches which are based upon secret image sharing with reversible steganography.

  16. Evaluating Quality of Chaotic Pseudo-Random Generators: Application to Information Hiding

    CERN Document Server

    Bahi, Jacques M; Guyeux, Christophe; Wang, Qianxue

    2011-01-01

    Guaranteeing the security of information transmitted through the Internet, against passive or active attacks, is a major concern. The discovery of new pseudo-random number generators with a strong level of security is a field of research in full expansion, due to the fact that numerous cryptosystems and data hiding schemes are directly dependent on the quality of these generators. At the conference Internet`09, we described a generator based on chaotic iterations which behaves chaotically as defined by Devaney. In this paper which is an extension of the work presented at the conference Internet`10, the proposal is to improve the speed, the security, and the evaluation of this generator, to make its use more relevant in the Internet security context. In order to do so, a comparative study between various generators is carried out and statistical results are improved. Finally, an application in the information hiding framework is presented with details, to give an illustrative example of the use of such a gener...

  17. HIDE & SEEK: End-to-End Packages to Simulate and Process Radio Survey Data

    CERN Document Server

    Akeret, Joel; Chang, Chihway; Monstein, Christian; Amara, Adam; Refregier, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    As several large radio surveys begin operation within the coming decade, a wealth of radio data will become available and provide a new window to the Universe. In order to fully exploit the potential of these data sets, it is important to understand the systematic effects associated with the instrument and the analysis pipeline. A common approach to tackle this is to forward-model the entire system - from the hardware to the analysis of the data products. For this purpose, we introduce two newly developed, open-source Python packages: the HI Data Emulator (HIDE) and the Signal Extraction and Emission Kartographer (SEEK) for simulating and processing radio survey data. HIDE forward-models the process of collecting astronomical radio signals in a single dish radio telescope instrument and outputs pixel-level time-ordered-data. SEEK processes the time-ordered-data, removes artifacts from Radio Frequency Interference (RFI), automatically applies flux calibration, and aims to recover the astronomical radio signal....

  18. Secure Reversible Data Hiding in Encrypted Images by Allocating Memory before Encryption via Security keys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Jambhulkar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Digital image and information embedding system have number of important multimedia applications. Recently, attention is paid to reversible data hiding (RDH in encrypted images is more, since it maintains the excellent property that the original cover can be lossless recovered after embedded data is extracted while protecting the image content’s confidentiality. RDH is a technique used to hide data inside image for high security in such a way that original data is not visible. All previous methods embed data by reversibly vacating room from the encrypted images, which may be subject to some errors on data extraction and/or image restoration. In this paper, we propose another method in which we simply encrypt an image without its header by using our own algorithm. And thus it is easy for the data hider to reversibly embed data in the encrypted image. The proposed method can achieve real reversibility, that is, data extraction and image recovery are free of any error.

  19. Temporal cloak with large fractional hiding window at telecommunication data rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Feng; Dong, Jianji; Yan, Siqi; Yang, Ting

    2017-04-01

    We design and experimentally investigate a temporal cloak scheme using ultrashort pulse compression and time-domain Fraunhofer diffraction. An input continuous-wave probe beam is compressed to ultrashort pulse train based on self-phase modulation effect and chirp compensation using single mode fiber. Accordingly, wide temporal gaps appear to act as the cloaking windows. The train of ultrashort pulses can be converted to continuous wave after experiencing enough dispersion, indicating that the temporal gaps are closed. Thus, any time events will be hidden in the temporal gaps from observers. In our study, we demonstrated a temporal cloak system, which is able to hide 88% of the whole time period and cloak pseudorandom digital data at a bitrate of 10 Gbit/s. The relationships of cloaking window fraction versus pump power and the condition of cloaking off are also investigated. These results present a new feasible way towards obtaining a high-fractional cloaking window at telecommunication data rate and hiding real-world messages.

  20. Modified Approach for Hiding Sensitive Association Rules for Preserving Privacy in Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Banerjee

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Data mining is the process of analyzing large database to find useful patterns. The term pattern refers to the items which are frequently occurring in set of transaction. The frequent patterns are used to find association between sets of item. The efficiency of mining association rules and confidentiality of association rule is becoming one of important area of knowledge discovery in database. This paper is organized into two sections. In the system Apriori algorithm is being presented that efficiently generates association rules. These reduces unnecessary database scan at time of forming frequent large item sets .We have tried to give contribution to improved Apriori algorithm by hiding sensitive association rules which are generated by applying improved Apriori algorithm on supermarket database. In this paper we have used novel approach that strategically modifies few transactions in transaction database to decrease support and confidence of sensitive rule without producing any side effects. Thus in the paper we have efficiently generated frequent item set sets by applying Improved Apriori algorithm and generated association rules by applying minimum support and minimum confidence and then we went one step further to identify sensitive rules and tried to hide them without any side effects to maintain integrity of data without generating spurious rules.

  1. Double Hiding Information in Color Image File Based on Classical LSB Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aymen Mudheher Badr

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a two principles, Cryptography and Steganography, each tow methods work separately from the other to ensure a secure content. We are developed an algorithm to increase the safety and reliability of the copyrights of the images or books (etc. that published on the internet by providing a watermark image (as logo hiding inside the original file that we want product it. Firstly reading image (the logo image, convert it to binary and encrypted it by using EX-OR with a secret key and embedding it inside a gray image in the LSB (in the 1st and hiding first key in the 2nd bit and the second key in the 3rd bit, then we embedding them in the LSB of Original image in RGB to be protected. The two secret keys, first one as an encryption key and the second key using as signature (data that have been taken from the cover image (original to make sure the reliability of the image transmitted via the Internet.

  2. A one-time pad encryption method combining full-phase image encryption and hiding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiaosheng; Xiong, Jiaxiang; Zhang, Qinnan; Zhong, Liyun; Zhou, Yunfei; Li, Jun; Lu, Xiaoxu

    2017-08-01

    A one-time pad encryption method combining full-phase image encryption and hiding is proposed. Firstly, original images are encoded in the phase and encrypted by phase keys loaded on the phase-only liquid crystal spatial light modulator, where the phase keys can be distributed using a quantum key distribution method. Subsequently, a host image is introduced to produce a reference wave, and overlap with an object wave to form an interferogram. Finally, based on phase-shifting interferometry, we can achieve the above encrypted image hiding. Both the simulation and experiment research demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method, meanwhile the key and the encrypted image can be changed randomly, so the proposed system reveals the high flexibility, anti-attack ability and can be used to implement the one-time pad to achieve absolute secure transmission with the quantum key distribution method. Moreover, system security will be improved due to the fact that encryption information hidden in the host image can be treated as background noise, which does not attract the attention of the attacker.

  3. A REVIEW ON HEAVY METALS CONTENTS IN HIDE, SKIN AND PROCESSED LEATHERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KOIZHAIGANOVA Meruyert

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals are metals with high atomic weight which can be deposited in soil, water, plants and animals. It is generally known that mammal tissues are good bioindicators of trace elements, including heavy metals. Heavy metal analysis serves to identify and quantify the elements that are a potential hazard to the consumer after varying levels of contact. Usage area of leather is increasingly expanding in these days and it has also become a material requested and demanded by effect of fashion. Leather must protect its appearance and physical stability and also be problem-free in ecological terms and harmless to human health. There is a lack of data concerning the content of toxic elements in raw hide and skin of animals. Mainly information concerning metals content, including toxic ones, in processed leathers may be found in the literature. The aim of the present study was to review and compare the content of some heavy metals in raw hide, skin and the processed leathers in order to evaluate their accumulation and transition to the end-up product.

  4. Efficacy of octenidine hydrochloride for reducing Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella spp., and Listeria monocytogenes on cattle hides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskaran, Sangeetha Ananda; Upadhyay, Abhinav; Upadhyaya, Indu; Bhattaram, Varunkumar; Venkitanarayanan, Kumar

    2012-06-01

    The efficacy of octenidine hydrochloride (OH; 0.025, 0.15, and 0.25%) for inactivating Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella spp., and Listeria monocytogenes on cattle hides was investigated at 23°C in the presence and absence of bovine feces. All tested concentrations of OH were effective in decreasing more than 5.0 log CFU of bacteria/cm(2) in 5 min (P < 0.01). The results suggest that OH could be used to decontaminate cattle hides; however, further studies under commercial settings are necessary to validate these results.

  5. Evaluation of bacteriophage application to cattle in lairage at beef processing plants to reduce Escherichia coli O157:H7 prevalence on hides and carcasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a major food safety concern for the beef industry. Several studies have provided evidence that cattle hides are the main source of beef carcass contamination during processing and that reductions in the E. coli O157:H7 load on the hides of cattle entering processing faci...

  6. 预处理对皮粉微观形貌和热稳定性的影响%Influence of Pretreatment on the Microstructure and Thermal Stability of Hide Powder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞津斌; 邬宁昆; 王亚娟

    2012-01-01

    The physicochemical properties of raw hide powder pretreated with organic solvents, different protonating agents, hydrogen bonding disrupting agent and deaminated treatment were characterized. The results show that the influence of consistence of urea on the mirco-structure of hide collagen is different. When the consistence is lower than 4mol/L, the fiber is dispersive. And if the consistence is higher than 4mol/L, the fiber bundle will began to collapse. And the decomposition and denaturation temperature of hide powder can be decreased remarkably by the urea solution, the higher of consistence, the lower temperature, which means that the hydrogen bond play an important role on the stability of collagen. The acid hydrolysis degree is more obvious for the organic acid and sulfate acid than for hydrochloric acid, and the denaturation temperature of hide powder pre-treated with sulfate acid is lower. The thermal behavior of deaminated hide powder does not change too much.%对极性溶剂、非极性溶剂、不同质子化程度、破坏氢键度及去氨基等预处理后的白皮粉的理化性能进行了表征。结果表明:尿素浓度在1~4mol/L范围内,皮粉纤维由未经任何处理的束状到表面粘连聚集再到纤维束分散,皮胶原的热变性温度急剧下降,浓度超过4mol/L后,纤维束则开始溃散,热稳定性随尿素浓度的增加呈缓慢降低趋势;有机酸及硫酸对胶原纤维的酸解、溶胀影响比盐酸的明显,甲酸处理后皮胶原的热稳定性降低较小,而硫酸对其酸解程度明显,热稳定性下降明显;去氨基后皮粉的纤维束也有一定程度的聚集,且在纤维表面有晶体析出,热分解温度变化甚微,而热变性温度降低显著。

  7. Non-blind Data hiding for RGB images using DCT-based fusion and H.264 compression concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safwat Hamad

    Full Text Available Steganography is the field of research that provides innovative solutions to the problem of secure data communication. In this paper, a non-blind data hiding technique is proposed which is based on data fusion between both the cover and the secret images. ...

  8. Image fusion using wavelet transform and its application to asymmetric cryptosystem and hiding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehra, Isha; Nishchal, Naveen K

    2014-03-10

    Image fusion is a popular method which provides better quality fused image for interpreting the image data. In this paper, color image fusion using wavelet transform is applied for securing data through asymmetric encryption scheme and image hiding. The components of a color image corresponding to different wavelengths (red, green, and blue) are fused together using discrete wavelet transform for obtaining a better quality retrieved color image. The fused color components are encrypted using amplitude- and phase-truncation approach in Fresnel transform domain. Also, the individual color components are transformed into different cover images in order to result disguising information of input image to an attacker. Asymmetric keys, Fresnel propagation parameters, weighing factor, and three cover images provide enlarged key space and hence enhanced security. Computer simulation results support the idea of the proposed fused color image encryption scheme.

  9. ENTROPY BASED DATA HIDING ON DOCUMENT IMAGES APPLIED ON DRDM APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadia Aslam

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a data hiding application for document images providing security. Document images should be in bitmap format as well as grayscale in nature otherwise the developed system will automatically change it to grayscale. The system accepts any grayscale document image as an input and applies the developed technique on it. Developed technique is based on Entropy Based that selects the suitable areas in an image for that data insertion purpose. Output produced by the system is the processed document that is data embedded. Processed document should not look different from the original image means its visual quality should be high. The system is successfully tested for the test cases generated to check the effectiveness, quality and validation of the system. The system is developed using Matlab 7.7.0 (R2008b for the development of front end as well as the back end.

  10. An Improved FPGA Implementation of the Modified Hybrid Hiding Encryption Algorithm (MHHEA) for Data Communication Security

    CERN Document Server

    Farouk, Hala A

    2011-01-01

    The hybrid hiding encryption algorithm, as its name implies, embraces concepts from both steganography and cryptography. In this exertion, an improved micro-architecture Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) implementation of this algorithm is presented. This design overcomes the observed limitations of a previously-designed micro-architecture. These observed limitations are: no exploitation of the possibility of parallel bit replacement, and the fact that the input plaintext was encrypted serially, which caused a dependency between the throughput and the nature of the used secret key. This dependency can be viewed by some as vulnerability in the security of the implemented micro-architecture. The proposed modified micro-architecture is constructed using five basic modules. These modules are; the message cache, the message alignment module, the key cache, the comparator, and at last the encryption module. In this work, we provide comprehensive simulation and implementation results. These are: the timing diagra...

  11. Information Hiding in CSS : A Secure Scheme Text-Steganography using Public Key Cryptosystem

    CERN Document Server

    Kabetta, Herman; Suyoto,

    2012-01-01

    In many recent years, the programming world has been introduced about a new programming language for designing websites, it is CSS that can be be used together with HTML to develop a web interface. And now, these two programming languages as if inseparably from each other. As a client-side scripting, CSS is visible by all users as the original script, but it can not be granted changed. Website is a tool of information disseminator throughout the world, this is certainly can be used to a secret communication by using CSS as a message hider. This paper proposed a new scheme using web tools like CSS for hiding informations. This is a secret communication mechanism using text steganography techniques that is embedded messages on CSS files and is further encrypted using RSA as a public key cryptographic algorithm.

  12. A GA-Based Approach to Hide Sensitive High Utility Itemsets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Wei Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A GA-based privacy preserving utility mining method is proposed to find appropriate transactions to be inserted into the database for hiding sensitive high utility itemsets. It maintains the low information loss while providing information to the data demanders and protects the high-risk information in the database. A flexible evaluation function with three factors is designed in the proposed approach to evaluate whether the processed transactions are required to be inserted. Three different weights are, respectively, assigned to the three factors according to users. Moreover, the downward closure property and the prelarge concept are adopted in the proposed approach to reduce the cost of rescanning database, thus speeding up the evaluation process of chromosomes.

  13. Reversible Data Hiding In Encrypted Images by Reserving Room before Encryption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harish G, Smitha Shekar B, Prajwal R, Sunil S Shetty

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Recently, more and more attention is paid to reversible data hiding (RDH in encrypted images, since it maintains the excellent property that the original cover can be losslessly recovered after embedded data is extracted while protecting the image content’s confidentiality. All previous methods embed data by reversibly vacating room from the encrypted images, which may subject to some errors on data extraction and/or image restoration. Here, a novel method is proposed so as to reserve room before encryption with a traditional RDH algorithm, and thus it is easy for the data hider to reversibly embed data in the encrypted image. The proposed method can achieve real reversibility, i.e., data extraction and image recovery are free of any error.

  14. Block Based Information Hiding using Cosine, Hartley, Walsh and Haar Wavelets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. B. Ke kre

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Steganography is the art of hiding informationwithin other information in such a way that it ishard or even impossible to tell that it is there. Thereare many different carriers for steganography butthe most popular is digital images. Typically, themessage is embedded within another image knownas a cover image, by tweaking its properties. Theresulting output, known as astego-image isengineered such that it is a near identicalperceptual model of the cover image, but it will alsocontain the hiddenmessage.It is this stego-imagethat is sent between the sender and the receiver.Steganography is a science for invisiblecommunication and play vital role on the networksecurity.To improve the embedding capacity as wellas to have minimum distortion tocarrier media, we

  15. On the implementation of IP protection using biometrics based information hiding and firewall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Abhishek; Nandy, Kingshuk; Banerjee, Avishek; Giri, Supratick; Sarkar, Souvik; Sarkar, Subir Kumar

    2016-02-01

    System-on-chip-based design style creates a revolution in very large scale integration industry with design efficiency, operating speed and development time. To support this process, reuse and exchange of components are essential in electronic form called intellectual property (IP). This, however, increases the possibility of encroachment of IP of the design. So copyright protection of IP against piracy is the most important concern for IP vendors. The existing solutions for IP protection are still not secure enough with flexibility, cost, etc. This paper proposes an information-hiding-based solution for IP protection by embedding a biometric copyright information and firewall inside an IP in the form of a finite state machine with unique configuration. The scheme first introduces biometric signature-based copyright as ownership proof. Second, firewall interrupts the normal functionality of IP at the end of the user time period. The experimental outcomes of field-programmable-gate-array implementation illustrate the efficiency of the proposed method.

  16. Optical image hiding based on dual-channel simultaneous phase-shifting interferometry and compressive sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiaosheng; Zhong, Liyun; Zhang, Qinnan; Zhou, Yunfei; Xiong, Jiaxiang; Tian, Jindong; Lu, Xiaoxu

    2017-01-01

    We propose an optical image hiding method based on dual-channel simultaneous phase-shifting interferometry (DCSPSI) and compressive sensing (CS) in all-optical domain. In the DCSPSI architecture, a secret image is firstly embedded in the host image without destroying the original host's form, and a pair of interferograms with the phase shifts of π/2 is simultaneously generated by the polarization components and captured by two CCDs. Then, the holograms are further compressed sampling to the less data by CS. The proposed strategy will provide a useful solution for the real-time optical image security transmission and largely reducing data volume of interferogram. The experimental result demonstrates the validity and feasibility of the proposed method.

  17. A New Method for Text Hiding in the Image by Using LSB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza tavoli

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available an important topic in the exchange of confidential messages over the internet is the security of information conveyance. For instance, the producers and consumers of digital products are keen to know that their products are authentic and can be differentiated from those that are invalid. The science of encryption is the art of embedding data in audio files, images, videos or content in a way that would meet the above security needs. Steganography is a branch of data-hiding science which aims to reach a desirable level of security in the exchange of private military and commercial data which is not clear. These approaches can be used as complementary methods of encryption in the exchange of private data.

  18. Alien invasions and the game of hide and seek in Patagonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Lindegren

    Full Text Available The introduction, establishment and spread of alien species is a major threat to biodiversity and the provision of ecosystem services for human wellbeing. In order to reduce further loss of biodiversity and maintain productive and sustainable ecosystems, understanding the ecological mechanisms underlying species invasions and avoiding potentially harmful effects on native communities is urgently needed, but largely lacking. We here demonstrate, by means of hydroacoustics and advanced spatial modelling, how native fish species as a result of previous exposure to native predators may successfully respond to invasive novel predators through a complicated game of hide and seek, minimizing spatio-temporal overlap with predators, and potentially facilitating coexistence between native prey species (Galaxiids and introduced novel predators (Salmonids in a deep Andean lake, Patagonia.

  19. Study of information hiding algorithm based on GHM and color transfer theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Shuai; MU De-jun; ZHANG Tao; HU Wei

    2009-01-01

    Taking the feature that the energy of the image would gather and spread on four components (LL2, LH2, HL2 and HH2) in the sub-image atfer first-order GHM multi-wavelet-transform. And by using the color control ability oflαβ color space in color transfer theory (CTT), an information hiding algorithm based on GHM-CTT is proposed. In this way, the robust parameters are embedded in the LL2, the hidden information is set in LH2 and HL2 with RAID4, and fragile sign is set in HH2. The consistence between the embedded data bits' order and the embedded code of the sub-image is improved by using the chaotic mapping and the genetic algorithm. Experimental results indicate that the GHM-CTT can increase the imperceptibility by 15.72% averagely and robustness by 18.89% at least.

  20. Showing Value (Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Koufogiannakis

    2009-06-01

    librarians on student achievement. Todd notes, “If we do not show value, we will not have a future. Evidence-based practice is not about the survival of school librarians, it’s about the survival of our students” (40. In this issue we feature school libraries and their connection to evidence based practice. Former Editor-in-Chief, Lindsay Glynn, began putting the wheels in motion for this feature almost a year ago. She invited Carol Gordon and Ross Todd to act as guest editors of the section, drawing upon their contacts and previous work in this field. The result is an issue with five feature articles exploring different aspects of the connection between school libraries and evidence based practice, from the theoretical to the practical. In addition, there is a thought-provoking Commentary by David Loertscher, asking whether we need the evolutionary model of evidence based practice, or something more revolutionary!In addition to the Feature section, we have a well-rounded issue with articles on the topics of library human resources, and the development of a scholars’ portal. As well, there are a record 10 evidence summaries and our educational EBL101 column. I hope there is something for everyone in this issue of EBLIP – enjoy, and see you soon in Stockholm!

  1. Selective Jamming Attack Prevention Based on Packet Hiding Methods and Wormholes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Ann Luke

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The wireless networks are more sensitive to the Denial-of-Service (DoS attacks. The existing system is based on Spread Spectrum (SS. This technique mainly focuses on an external threat model. In wireless network the communications between nodes take place through broadcast communication. That is why, if an attacker present within the network can easily eavesdrop the message sent by any node. The main attack present in the wireless network is the selective jamming attack. This type of attack mainly focuses a single node termed as target node. Attacker always tries to block the message sent by the target node. This leads to the Denial-of-Service attack. We are proposing a new method to prevent the selective jamming attack in an internalthreat model. A wormhole is used, which will generate an alarm to indicate the presence of jammer and sent IP address of jammer node to all other nodes in the network. Using a method called packet hiding, we can send message through the network even though a jammer is present. This method is based on the technique called Strong Hiding Commitment Scheme (SHCS. Here, the access point in a network region becomes the wormhole whenever it finds out any node that violates the rules in a particular network region. That node is then considered as a jammer node. The wormhole send s IP address of jammer to all other nodes. Wormhole then prevents the jamming activity of the jammer by encrypting the source ID of message along with the message packet.So that the jammer is unable to identify its target node and the source can forward its message safely through jammer node itself

  2. An Improved Quantum Information Hiding Protocol Based on Entanglement Swapping of χ-type Quantum States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shu-Jiang; Chen, Xiu-Bo; Wang, Lian-Hai; Ding, Qing-Yan; Zhang, Shu-Hui

    2016-06-01

    In 2011, Qu et al. proposed a quantum information hiding protocol based on the entanglement swapping of χ-type quantum states. Because a χ-type state can be described by the 4-particle cat states which have good symmetry, the possible output results of the entanglement swapping between a given χ-type state and all of the 16 χ-type states are divided into 8 groups instead of 16 groups of different results when the global phase is not considered. So it is difficult to read out the secret messages since each result occurs twice in each line (column) of the secret messages encoding rule for the original protocol. In fact, a 3-bit instead of a 4-bit secret message can be encoded by performing two unitary transformations on 2 particles of a χ-type quantum state in the original protocol. To overcome this defect, we propose an improved quantum information hiding protocol based on the general term formulas of the entanglement swapping among χ-type states. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 61572297, 61303199, 61272514, and 61373131, the Shandong Provincial Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. ZR2013FM025, ZR2013FQ001, ZR2014FM003, and ZY2015YL018, the Shandong Provincial Outstanding Research Award Fund for Young Scientists of China under Grant Nos. BS2015DX006 and BS2014DX007, the National Development Foundation for Cryptological Research, China under Grant No. MMJJ201401012, the Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions and Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center on Atmospheric Environment and Equipment Technology Funds, and the Shandong Academy of Sciences Youth Fund Project, China under Grant Nos. 2015QN003 and 2013QN007

  3. 通信信息隐藏技术研究%A Research on Communication Information Hiding Technologies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张松; 冯祺

    2016-01-01

    网络的技术的迅速发展使得通信信息的传输变得更加快捷、方便,与此同时,也为攻击者截获通信信息带来了便利,通信的安全和隐蔽成为一个亟需解决的问题。信息隐藏技术为保证通信的隐蔽性提供了一种新的思路。论文对信息隐藏技术进行分类介绍,给出了信息隐藏技术的模型和基本特征,并分析了信息隐藏技术与隐藏分析技术和密码学之间的关系,最后给出了总结与展望。%The rapid development of network technology enables the transmission of communication information to be ‐come faster and more convenient ,at the same time ,it also makes it easier for attackers to intercept communication informa‐tion .Security and covert communication has become an urgent problem ,information hiding technology provides a new way of thinking to ensure the covert communication .This paper describes the classification of information hiding technology ,and gives the model and the basic characteristics of information hiding ,and analyzes the relationship between information hiding and steganalysis as well as the relationship between information hiding and cryptography ,finally ,gives the summary and outlook future development .

  4. Additivity dominance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Rozin

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Judgments of naturalness of foods tend to be more influenced by the process history of a food, rather than its actual constituents. Two types of processing of a ``natural'' food are to add something or to remove something. We report in this study, based on a large random sample of individuals from six countries (France, Germany, Italy, Switzerland, UK and USA that additives are considered defining features of what makes a food not natural, whereas ``subtractives'' are almost never mentioned. In support of this, skim milk (with major subtraction of fat is rated as more natural than whole milk with a small amount of natural vitamin D added. It is also noted that ``additives'' is a common word, with a synonym reported by a native speaker in 17 of 18 languages, whereas ``subtractive'' is lexicalized in only 1 of the 18 languages. We consider reasons for additivity dominance, relating it to omission bias, feature positive bias, and notions of purity.

  5. Planning a Successful Tech Show

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikirk, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Tech shows are a great way to introduce prospective students, parents, and local business and industry to a technology and engineering or career and technical education program. In addition to showcasing instructional programs, a tech show allows students to demonstrate their professionalism and skills, practice public presentations, and interact…

  6. Potlining Additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  7. Additivity dominance

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Judgments of naturalness of foods tend to be more influenced by the process history of a food, rather than its actual constituents. Two types of processing of a ``natural'' food are to add something or to remove something. We report in this study, based on a large random sample of individuals from six countries (France, Germany, Italy, Switzerland, UK and USA) that additives are considered defining features of what makes a food not natural, whereas ``subtractives'' are almost never mentioned....

  8. Sulfite Additives

    OpenAIRE

    1988-01-01

    The CMA recommends that sulfites be banned as food preservatives when satisfactory and safe alternatives are available. When there is no suitable substitute strict labelling requirements on foods should be imposed for sulfite additives. The association supports the efforts of the Health Protection Branch of the Department of National Health and Welfare to regulate sulfites in the food and drug industry to prevent adverse reactions in people sensitive to sulfites. The CMA recommends that the D...

  9. "Show and Tell" Persuasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Virgil R.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To engage in the process of formulating compelling persuasive arguments. Type of speech: Persuasive. Point value: Incorporated into participation points. Requirements: (a) References: 0; (b) Length: 1-2 minutes; (c) Visual aid: No; (d) Outline: No; (e) Prerequisite reading: Chapter 19 (DeVito, 2003); (f) Additional requirements: None.…

  10. Phenotypic mixing and hiding may contribute to memory in viral quasispecies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novella Isabel S

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In a number of recent experiments with food-and-mouth disease virus, a deleterious mutant, RED, was found to avoid extinction and remain in the population for long periods of time. Since RED characterizes the past evolutionary history of the population, this observation was called quasispecies memory. While the quasispecies theory predicts the existence of these memory genomes, there is a disagreement between the expected and observed mutant frequency values. Therefore, the origin of quasispecies memory is not fully understood. Results We propose and analyze a simple model of complementation between the wild type virus and a mutant that has an impaired ability of cell entry, the likely cause of fitness differences between wild type and RED mutants. The mutant will go extinct unless it is recreated from the wild type through mutations. However, under phenotypic mixing-and-hiding as a mechanism of complementation, the time to extinction in the absence of mutations increases with increasing multiplicity of infection (m.o.i.. If the RED mutant is constantly recreated by mutations, then its frequency at equilibrium under selection-mutation balance also increases with increasing m.o.i. At high m.o.i., a large fraction of mutant genomes are encapsidated with wild-type protein, which enables them to infect cells as efficiently as the wild type virions, and thus increases their fitness to the wild-type level. Moreover, even at low m.o.i. the equilibrium frequency of the mutant is higher than predicted by the standard quasispecies model, because a fraction of mutant virions generated from wild-type parents will also be encapsidated by wild-type protein. Conclusions Our model predicts that phenotypic hiding will strongly influence the population dynamics of viruses, particularly at high m.o.i., and will also have important effects on the mutation-selection balance at low m.o.i. The delay in mutant extinction and increase in mutant

  11. Pre-slaughter, slaughter and post-slaughter defects of skins and hides at the Sheba Tannery and Leather Industry, Tigray region, northern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tesfay Kahsay

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Skins and hides are perishable resources that can be damaged by parasitic diseases and human error, which result in downgrading or rejection. This study was conducted to identify defect types and to determine their prevalence in pickled sheep and wet blue goat skins and wet blue hides. Each selected skin or hide was examined for defects in natural light and the defects were graded according to established quality criteria in Ethiopian standard manuals. Major defects were captured by digital photography. The major pre-slaughter defects included scratches (64.2%, cockle (ekek (32.8%, wounds or scars (12.6%, lesions from pox or lumpy skin disease (6.1%, poor substance (5%, branding marks (2.3% and tick bites (1.5%. The presence of grain scratches in wet blue hides (76.3% was significantly higher than in pickled sheep (67.2% and wet blue goat (59.1% skins. The major slaughter defects included flay cuts or scores, holes, poor pattern and vein marks, with a higher occurrence in wet blue goat skins (28.7%; P < 0.001 than in wet blue hides (22.8% and pickled sheep skins (11.1%. The most prevalent postslaughter defects were grain cracks (14.9%, hide beetle damage (8%, damage caused by heat or putrefaction (3.7% and machine-induced defects (0.5%. Grain cracks (27.04% and hide beetle damage (13.9% in wet blue goat skins were significantly more common than in wet blue hides and pickled sheep skins. These defects cause depreciation in the value of the hides and skins. Statistically significant (P < 0.001 higher rejection rates were recorded for wet blue hides (82.9% than for pickled sheep skins (18.3% and wet blue goat skins (8.5%. Improved animal health service delivery, effective disease control strategies and strong collaboration between stakeholders are suggested to enhance the quality of skins and hides.

  12. Asymmetric information hiding and noise-free recovery based on rotating analyzer ellipsometry and quick-response code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chao; Shen, Xueju; Wang, Zhisong

    2014-08-01

    We report an asymmetric optical information hiding method based on a rotating analyzer ellipsometry technique. This asymmetric hiding architecture not only avoids the interception of keys during transmission or distribution but also makes the cyphertext more inconspicuous for attackers. A new kind of one-way optical trapdoor function is constructed based on the fact that the state of polarization (SOP) of elliptical polarized light cannot be recovered with only the knowledge of intensity captured after passing through a linear polarizer. Meanwhile, the SOP of a polarization ellipse could be calculated by rotating the polarizer to record two scenes of intensity after it. Introduction of a quick response code as a container leads to noise-free recovery for original information and enhances practicality of the proposed cryptosystem with versatile key sensitivity and fault tolerance capability. Numerical simulation results that support theoretical analysis are presented. Analysis on the relationship between hiding effect or quality of decryption and parameters of the algorithm also is provided.

  13. The Health Show

    OpenAIRE

    Swann, David

    2011-01-01

    Dr David Swann interviewed on The Health Show, Series 1, Episode 5, 2011 for BBC World about the award-winning 21st Century Nursing Bag. BBC World News reaches 241million people every week, available in 296 million homes, 1.8 million hotel rooms and has the highest average viewership on a weekday of any international news channel. The Health Show is a new 26-part series for BBC World News covering the most important news stories from around the world.

  14. Phenotypic mixing and hiding may contribute to memory in viral quasispecies

    CERN Document Server

    Wilke, C O; Wilke, Claus O.; Novella, Isabel S.

    2003-01-01

    Background. In a number of recent experiments with food-and-mouth disease virus, a deleterious mutant, was found to avoid extinction and remain in the population for long periods of time. This observation was called quasispecies memory. The origin of quasispecies memory is not fully understood. Results. We propose and analyze a simple model of complementation between the wild type virus and a mutant that has an impaired ability of cell entry. The mutant will go extinct unless it is recreated from the wild type through mutations. However, under phenotypic mixing-and-hiding as a mechanism of complementation, the time to extinction in the absence of mutations increases with increasing multiplicity of infection (m.o.i.). The mutant's frequency at equilibrium under selection-mutation balance also increases with increasing m.o.i. At high m.o.i., a large fraction of mutant genomes are encapsidated with wild-type protein, which enables them to infect cells as efficiently as the wild type virions, and thus increases t...

  15. Hiding the system from the user: Moving from complex mental models to elegant metaphors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis W. Nielsen; David J. Bruemmer

    2007-08-01

    In previous work, increased complexity of robot behaviors and the accompanying interface design often led to operator confusion and/or a fight for control between the robot and operator. We believe the reason for the conflict was that the design of the interface and interactions presented too much of the underlying robot design model to the operator. Since the design model includes the implementation of sensors, behaviors, and sophisticated algorithms, the result was that the operator’s cognitive efforts were focused on understanding the design of the robot system as opposed to focusing on the task at hand. This paper illustrates how this very problem emerged at the INL and how the implementation of new metaphors for interaction has allowed us to hide the design model from the user and allow the user to focus more on the task at hand. Supporting the user’s focus on the task rather than on the design model allows increased use of the system and significant performance improvement in a search task with novice users.

  16. A simple method to hide data loggers safely in observation wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzen, Gunnar; Sprenger, Christoph; Pekdeger, Asaf

    2011-01-01

    Submersible data loggers are widely used for groundwater monitoring, but their application often runs the risk of hardware and data loss through vandalism or theft. During a field study in India, the authors of this article experienced that well locks attract the attention of unauthorized persons and do not provide secure protection in unattended areas. To minimize the risk of losing data loggers, a cheap and simple solution has been invented to hide the instruments and associated attachments below the ground surface, inside observation wells. It relies on attaching the logger to a length of small-diameter pipe that is submerged at the bottom of the well, instead of attaching it to the top of the well. The small-diameter pipe with the logger is connected to a small bottle containing a magnet that floats on the water surface of the well and can be recovered using another bottle also with a magnet. A logger that is concealed in this way is difficult to detect and access without knowledge of the method and adequate removal tools. The system was tested and successfully applied for monitoring shallow observation wells at three field sites in Greater Delhi, India. Copyright © 2010 The Author(s). Journal compilation © 2010 National Ground Water Association.

  17. A novel quantum information hiding protocol based on entanglement swapping of high-level Bell states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shu-Jiang; Chen, Xiu-Bo; Wang, Lian-Hai; Niu, Xin-Xin; Yang, Yi-Xian

    2015-05-01

    Using entanglement swapping of high-level Bell states, we first derive a covert layer between the secret message and the possible output results of the entanglement swapping between any two generalized Bell states, and then propose a novel high-efficiency quantum information hiding protocol based on the covert layer. In the proposed scheme, a covert channel can be built up under the cover of a high-level quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) channel for securely transmitting secret messages without consuming any auxiliary quantum state or any extra communication resource. It is shown that this protocol not only has a high embedding efficiency but also achieves a good imperceptibility as well as a high security. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61303199, 61272514, 61170272, 61121061, and 61411146001), the Shandong Provincial Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. ZR2013FM025, ZR2013FQ001, and ZR2014FM003), the Shandong Provincial Outstanding Research Award Fund for Young Scientists of China (Grant Nos. BS2013DX010 and BS2014DX007), the Program for New Century Excellent Talents in Universities, China (Grant No. NCET-13-0681), the National Development Foundation for Cryptological Research, China (Grant No. MMJJ201401012), the Fok Ying Tong Education Foundation, China (Grant No. 131067), and the Shandong Academy of Sciences Youth Fund Project, China (Grant No. 2013QN007).

  18. The Core Extrusion Schema-Revised: Hiding Oneself Predicts Severity of Social Interaction Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinson, Cheri A; Rodebaugh, Thomas L; Lim, Michelle H; Fernandez, Katya C

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive behavioral models of social anxiety disorder (SAD) suggest that fear of negative evaluation is a core fear or vulnerability for SAD. However, why negative evaluation is feared is not fully understood. It is possible that core beliefs contribute to the relationship between fear of negative evaluation and SAD. One of these beliefs may be a core extrusion schema: a constellation of beliefs that one's true self will be rejected by others and therefore one should hide one's true self. In the current study (N = 699), we extended research on the Core Extrusion Schema and created a shortened and revised version of the measure called the Core Extrusion Schema-Revised The Core Extrusion Schema-Revised demonstrated good factor fit for its two subscales (Hidden Self and Rejection of the True Self) and was invariant across gender and ethnicity. The Hidden Self subscale demonstrated excellent incremental validity within the full sample as well as in participants diagnosed with generalized SAD. Specifically, the Hidden Self subscale may help explain severity of social interaction anxiety. This measure could be used with individuals diagnosed with generalized SAD to design exposures targeting these core beliefs.

  19. A Fashion Show

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    <正>Story: The yearly fashion show day.The children take turns to walk on the stage and show the class their favorite clothes.Now it’s Joe’s and Phoebe’s turn.Joe walks on the stage and says,“My shorts are blue.Do you like my blue shorts?”On the other side of the stage, Phoebe is wearing her favorite pink skirt.“My skirt is pink.Do you like my pink skirt?”asks

  20. No Place to Hide: Missing Primitive Stars Outside Milky Way Uncovered

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    After years of successful concealment, the most primitive stars outside our Milky Way galaxy have finally been unmasked. New observations using ESO's Very Large Telescope have been used to solve an important astrophysical puzzle concerning the oldest stars in our galactic neighbourhood - which is crucial for our understanding of the earliest stars in the Universe. "We have, in effect, found a flaw in the forensic methods used until now," says Else Starkenburg, lead author of the paper reporting the study. "Our improved approach allows us to uncover the primitive stars hidden among all the other, more common stars." Primitive stars are thought to have formed from material forged shortly after the Big Bang, 13.7 billion years ago. They typically have less than one thousandth the amount of chemical elements heavier than hydrogen and helium found in the Sun and are called "extremely metal-poor stars" [1]. They belong to one of the first generations of stars in the nearby Universe. Such stars are extremely rare and mainly observed in the Milky Way. Cosmologists think that larger galaxies like the Milky Way formed from the merger of smaller galaxies. Our Milky Way's population of extremely metal-poor or "primitive" stars should already have been present in the dwarf galaxies from which it formed, and similar populations should be present in other dwarf galaxies. "So far, evidence for them has been scarce," says co-author Giuseppina Battaglia. "Large surveys conducted in the last few years kept showing that the most ancient populations of stars in the Milky Way and dwarf galaxies did not match, which was not at all expected from cosmological models." Element abundances are measured from spectra, which provide the chemical fingerprints of stars [2]. The Dwarf galaxies Abundances and Radial-velocities Team [3] used the FLAMES instrument on ESO's Very Large Telescope to measure the spectra of over 2000 individual giant stars in four of our galactic neighbours, the Fornax

  1. On not showing scalps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marselis, Randi Lorenz

    2016-01-01

    proposed by Janet Marstine, the editor of the Routledge Companion to Museum Ethics, I show how the museum succeeded in engaging users in questions of museum ethics. However, this specific debate on human remains in museums developed into an encounter between a global, museological discourse...

  2. Violence and TV Shows

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZTÜRK, Yrd. Doç. Dr. Şinasi

    2008-01-01

    This study aims to discuss theories on theviolent effects of TV shows on viewers, especiallyon children. Therefore, this study includes a briefdiscussion of definitions of violence, discussionof violence theories, main results of researcheson televised violence, measuring TV violence,perception of televised violence, individualdifferences and reactions to TV violence,aggressiveness and preferences for TV violence.

  3. Honored Teacher Shows Commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratte, Kathy

    1987-01-01

    Part of the acceptance speech of the 1985 National Council for the Social Studies Teacher of the Year, this article describes the censorship experience of this honored social studies teacher. The incident involved the showing of a videotape version of the feature film entitled "The Seduction of Joe Tynan." (JDH)

  4. A Visionary Show

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Seduction. Distinction. Relax. Pulsation. These are the "style universes" on display at Première Vision, heralded as "The World’s Premiere Fabric Show." Started more than 35 years ago by 15 French weavers, Première Vision has expanded beyond its

  5. Honored Teacher Shows Commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratte, Kathy

    1987-01-01

    Part of the acceptance speech of the 1985 National Council for the Social Studies Teacher of the Year, this article describes the censorship experience of this honored social studies teacher. The incident involved the showing of a videotape version of the feature film entitled "The Seduction of Joe Tynan." (JDH)

  6. Shanghai Shows Its Heart

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The city known as China’s economic powerhouse showed a more caring face as host of the Special Olympic Games Between October 2 and 11,the Special Olympics Summer Games were hosted in Shanghai,the first time the 40-year-old athletic com- petition for people with intellectual disabilities came to a developing country. This Special Olympics was also larger than all previous games in temps of the number of athletes.

  7. Not a "reality" show.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrong, Terence; Baumgart, Erica

    2013-01-01

    The authors of the preceding articles raise legitimate questions about patient and staff rights and the unintended consequences of allowing ABC News to film inside teaching hospitals. We explain why we regard their fears as baseless and not supported by what we heard from individuals portrayed in the filming, our decade-long experience making medical documentaries, and the full un-aired context of the scenes shown in the broadcast. The authors don't and can't know what conversations we had, what documents we reviewed, and what protections we put in place in each televised scene. Finally, we hope to correct several misleading examples cited by the authors as well as their offhand mischaracterization of our program as a "reality" show.

  8. Probing the crucial role of Leu31 and Thr33 of the Bacillus pumilus CBS alkaline protease in substrate recognition and enzymatic depilation of animal hide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Zaraî Jaouadi

    Full Text Available The sapB gene, encoding Bacillus pumilus CBS protease, and seven mutated genes (sapB-L31I, sapB-T33S, sapB-N99Y, sapB-L31I/T33S, sapB-L31I/N99Y, sapB-T33S/N99Y, and sapB-L31I/T33S/N99Y were overexpressed in protease-deficient Bacillus subtilis DB430 and purified to homogeneity. SAPB-N99Y and rSAPB displayed the highest levels of keratinolytic activity, hydrolysis efficiency, and enzymatic depilation. Interestingly, and at the semi-industrial scale, rSAPB efficiently removed the hair of goat hides within a short time interval of 8 h, thus offering a promising opportunity for the attainment of a lime and sulphide-free depilation process. The efficacy of the process was supported by submitting depilated pelts and dyed crusts to scanning electron microscopic analysis, and the results showed well opened fibre bundles and no apparent damage to the collagen layer. The findings also revealed better physico-chemical properties and less effluent loads, which further confirmed the potential candidacy of the rSAPB enzyme for application in the leather industry to attain an ecofriendly process of animal hide depilation. More interestingly, the findings on the substrate specificity and kinetic properties of the enzyme using the synthetic peptide para-nitroanilide revealed strong preferences for an aliphatic amino-acid (valine at position P1 for keratinases and an aromatic amino-acid (phenylalanine at positions P1/P4 for subtilisins. Molecular modeling suggested the potential involvement of a Leu31 residue in a network of hydrophobic interactions, which could have shaped the S4 substrate binding site. The latter could be enlarged by mutating L31I, fitting more easily in position P4 than a phenylalanine residue. The molecular modeling of SAPB-T33S showed a potential S2 subside widening by a T33S mutation, thus suggesting its importance in substrate specificity.

  9. Probing the crucial role of Leu31 and Thr33 of the Bacillus pumilus CBS alkaline protease in substrate recognition and enzymatic depilation of animal hide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaraî Jaouadi, Nadia; Jaouadi, Bassem; Ben Hlima, Hajer; Rekik, Hatem; Belhoul, Mouna; Hmidi, Maher; Ben Aicha, Houda Slimene; Hila, Chiraz Gorgi; Toumi, Abdessatar; Aghajari, Nushin; Bejar, Samir

    2014-01-01

    The sapB gene, encoding Bacillus pumilus CBS protease, and seven mutated genes (sapB-L31I, sapB-T33S, sapB-N99Y, sapB-L31I/T33S, sapB-L31I/N99Y, sapB-T33S/N99Y, and sapB-L31I/T33S/N99Y) were overexpressed in protease-deficient Bacillus subtilis DB430 and purified to homogeneity. SAPB-N99Y and rSAPB displayed the highest levels of keratinolytic activity, hydrolysis efficiency, and enzymatic depilation. Interestingly, and at the semi-industrial scale, rSAPB efficiently removed the hair of goat hides within a short time interval of 8 h, thus offering a promising opportunity for the attainment of a lime and sulphide-free depilation process. The efficacy of the process was supported by submitting depilated pelts and dyed crusts to scanning electron microscopic analysis, and the results showed well opened fibre bundles and no apparent damage to the collagen layer. The findings also revealed better physico-chemical properties and less effluent loads, which further confirmed the potential candidacy of the rSAPB enzyme for application in the leather industry to attain an ecofriendly process of animal hide depilation. More interestingly, the findings on the substrate specificity and kinetic properties of the enzyme using the synthetic peptide para-nitroanilide revealed strong preferences for an aliphatic amino-acid (valine) at position P1 for keratinases and an aromatic amino-acid (phenylalanine) at positions P1/P4 for subtilisins. Molecular modeling suggested the potential involvement of a Leu31 residue in a network of hydrophobic interactions, which could have shaped the S4 substrate binding site. The latter could be enlarged by mutating L31I, fitting more easily in position P4 than a phenylalanine residue. The molecular modeling of SAPB-T33S showed a potential S2 subside widening by a T33S mutation, thus suggesting its importance in substrate specificity.

  10. 破坏性领导与研发人员知识藏匿:基于本土高新技术企业的实证研究%Destructive Leadership and R & D Worker's Knowledge Hiding in High-Tech Enterprises:An Empirical Study Based on High-tech Enterprises in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵红丹; 夏青

    2016-01-01

    As a pervasive workplace phenomenon ,knowledge hiding can cause serious economic losses to companies .Based on the reciprocity theory ,this paper built the concept model of destructive leadership and R&D worker's knowledge hiding of high‐tech enterprise from the perspective of interpersonal interaction .It tests it by means of 253 samples from local high‐tech firms .Results of the analyses suggest that destructive leadership has a positive impact on knowledge hiding .In addition ,negative reciprocity has obvious function of adjusting the effect of destructive leadership on know ledge hiding .%知识藏匿现象在组织中普遍存在,而且会给组织造成严重的经济损失。基于互惠理论,从人际互动视角探讨了破坏性领导对研发人员知识藏匿的影响,尤其是消极互惠在其中的调节作用。选取253个本土高新技术企业作为研究样本进行了实证研究,结果发现:破坏性领导会导致研发人员知识藏匿的发生,但对消极互惠规范倾向高的研发人员而言,二者关系较强;对消极互惠规范倾向低的研发人员而言,二者关系较弱。

  11. Public medical shows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walusinski, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    In the second half of the 19th century, Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-1893) became famous for the quality of his teaching and his innovative neurological discoveries, bringing many French and foreign students to Paris. A hunger for recognition, together with progressive and anticlerical ideals, led Charcot to invite writers, journalists, and politicians to his lessons, during which he presented the results of his work on hysteria. These events became public performances, for which physicians and patients were transformed into actors. Major newspapers ran accounts of these consultations, more like theatrical shows in some respects. The resultant enthusiasm prompted other physicians in Paris and throughout France to try and imitate them. We will compare the form and substance of Charcot's lessons with those given by Jules-Bernard Luys (1828-1897), Victor Dumontpallier (1826-1899), Ambroise-Auguste Liébault (1823-1904), Hippolyte Bernheim (1840-1919), Joseph Grasset (1849-1918), and Albert Pitres (1848-1928). We will also note their impact on contemporary cinema and theatre.

  12. The Great Cometary Show

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    its high spatial and spectral resolution, it was possible to zoom into the very heart of this very massive star. In this innermost region, the observations are dominated by the extremely dense stellar wind that totally obscures the underlying central star. The AMBER observations show that this dense stellar wind is not spherically symmetric, but exhibits a clearly elongated structure. Overall, the AMBER observations confirm that the extremely high mass loss of Eta Carinae's massive central star is non-spherical and much stronger along the poles than in the equatorial plane. This is in agreement with theoretical models that predict such an enhanced polar mass-loss in the case of rapidly rotating stars. ESO PR Photo 06c/07 ESO PR Photo 06c/07 RS Ophiuchi in Outburst Several papers from this special feature focus on the later stages in a star's life. One looks at the binary system Gamma 2 Velorum, which contains the closest example of a star known as a Wolf-Rayet. A single AMBER observation allowed the astronomers to separate the spectra of the two components, offering new insights in the modeling of Wolf-Rayet stars, but made it also possible to measure the separation between the two stars. This led to a new determination of the distance of the system, showing that previous estimates were incorrect. The observations also revealed information on the region where the winds from the two stars collide. The famous binary system RS Ophiuchi, an example of a recurrent nova, was observed just 5 days after it was discovered to be in outburst on 12 February 2006, an event that has been expected for 21 years. AMBER was able to detect the extension of the expanding nova emission. These observations show a complex geometry and kinematics, far from the simple interpretation of a spherical fireball in extension. AMBER has detected a high velocity jet probably perpendicular to the orbital plane of the binary system, and allowed a precise and careful study of the wind and the shockwave

  13. 基于二值图像的信息隐藏算法%Information Hiding Algorithm Based on Binary Image

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘九芬; 付磊; 张卫明

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a new information hiding algorithm used for binary image with a small distortion, aiming at the feature that the changing trace is obvious in binary image. The selection criteria of turning point is presented and the set of pixels suitable for turning is denoted. Considering the visual features, the method for computing the scores of the turning pixels is presented. An image block containing the turning pixel can be viewed as a cover block containing the hidden data after the threshold of choosing the turning point is set up. The binary image is divided into blocks, and the STC(Syndrome-trellis Codes) encoding is used to choose the optimal path in the sequence of cover blocks for hiding message. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can reduce the distortion of the cover image, and the stego image has good visual effect, while the statistical properties of the variance of L-type in a binary image can be maintained. Therefore, it can be effective against the related steganalysis.%针对二值图像修改痕迹明显的特点,提出一种失真较小的二值图像信息隐藏算法.给出翻转点选择标准,定义二值图像所有适合翻转的像索点集合.考虑视觉特性,提出可翻转像素点修改得分的计算方法,设定可翻转点选取的门限值,将含有可修改像素点的图像块视为隐藏消息的载体块.对二值图像进行分块,利用STC编码,在载体块序列中选择一条信息嵌入的最佳修改路径,实现信息的嵌入.实验结果表明,该隐藏算法能够减小载密图像的失真度,提高视觉隐蔽性,保持二值图像中L型的方差统计特性,抵抗相关的隐写检测.

  14. Analysis of the bacterial diversity existing on animal hide and wool: development of a preliminary PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism fingerprint database for identifying isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Gao, Hongwei; Zhang, Yanming; Deng, Mingjun; Wu, Zhenxing; Zhu, Laihua; Duan, Qing; Xu, Biao; Liang, Chengzhu; Yue, Zhiqin; Xiao, Xizhi

    2012-01-01

    Twenty-one bacterial strains were isolated from imported cattle hide and rabbit wool using two types of media, nutrient broth, and nutrient broth with serum. The bacteria identified were Brevibacillus laterosporus, Leclercia adecarboxylata, Peptococcus niger, Bacillus circulans, Raoultella ornithinolytica, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus thermobacillus, Bacillus choshinensis, Bacillus sphaericus, Acinetobacter haemolyticus, Sphingomonas paucimobilis, Bacillus thuringiensis, Staphylococcus intermedius, Mycobacteria, Moraxella, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Ralstonia pickettii, Staphylococcus chromogenes, Comamonas testosteroni, and Cupriavidus pauculus. The 16s rDNA gene of each bacterium was amplified using the universal primers 27f and 1492r. The amplicons were digested with AvaI, BamHI, BgII, DraI, EcoRI, EcoRV, HindIII, HinfI, HpaI, PstI, SmaI, TaqII, XbaI, XmaI, AluI, XhoI, and PvuI individually. A specific fingerprint from the PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism method based on 16s rDNA was obtained for each bacterium. The results showed that the method developed was useful not only for bacterial identification but also for the etiological investigation of pathogens in imported animal hair and wool.

  15. 图像隐藏算法的MATLAB实现%Realization of image hiding algorithm based on MATLAB

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宫海梅

    2016-01-01

    根据HVS的特性,人类视觉系统对高位信号敏感,去掉图像最低几个位并不会造成画面质量的明显下降,视觉系统就无法感觉到信号的存在,提出了四比特图像信息替换算法实现图像隐藏,运用MATLAB软件进行算法实现,嵌入信息后的载体图像与原始图像视觉效果基本一致,有效解决了图像信息隐藏问题。%According to the characteristics of HVS, The human visual system is sensitive to the high signal. To remove the image of the least number of bits does not cause a significant decline in the quality of picture, the visual system can not feel the existence of the signal. In this paper, four bit image information replacement algorithm is proposed to realize the image hiding, MATLAB software is used to realize the algorithm. The carrier image after embedding information is basically consistent with the original image, effectively solve the problem of image information hiding.

  16. An Internal Data Non-hiding Type Real-time Kernel and its Application to the Mechatronics Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Toshio

    For the mechatronics equipment controller that controls robots and machine tools, high-speed motion control processing is essential. The software system of the controller like other embedded systems is composed of three layers software such as real-time kernel layer, middleware layer, and application software layer on the dedicated hardware. The application layer in the top layer is composed of many numbers of tasks, and application function of the system is realized by the cooperation between these tasks. In this paper we propose an internal data non-hiding type real-time kernel in which customizing the task control is possible only by change in the program code of the task side without any changes in the program code of real-time kernel. It is necessary to reduce the overhead caused by the real-time kernel task control for the speed-up of the motion control of the mechatronics equipment. For this, customizing the task control function is needed. We developed internal data non-cryptic type real-time kernel ZRK to evaluate this method, and applied to the control of the multi system automatic lathe. The effect of the speed-up of the task cooperation processing was able to be confirmed by combined task control processing on the task side program code using an internal data non-hiding type real-time kernel ZRK.

  17. Hide Tanning and Its Use in Taiga: The Case of the Orochen-Evenki Reindeer Herders and Hunters of Zabaikalye (East Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatas Brandišauskas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article documents the way in which the Orochen-Evenki hunters and herders in northern part of Zabaikalye tan hides and produce gear in the post-Soviet era. Here, I wish to present the argument that it is difficult to understand the reviving of hide tanning in remote villages and the taiga without understanding how hunters and herders in this region adapt to the unstable post-Soviet environment. I suggest that hunters and herders aim to maintain their autonomy from goods and resources imported from cities, and, in spending little effort connecting with state powers in this way, securing their lives from socio-economic constraints.

  18. Improving the microbiological safety of veal: validation of hot water rinse plus lactic acid spray in combination with scalding for hide-on carcasses to control Shiga-toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bob veal calves (n=6) were assigned to six hide-on carcass treatments for each of 5 replications. Primary treatments were no-scald, scald, or scalding with chemical; secondary treatments were no-treatment control or lactic acid. Hides were inoculated with non-pathogenic rifampicin-resistant Escheric...

  19. High Capacity and Resistance to Additive Noise Audio Steganography Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haider Ismael Shahadi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Steganography is the art of message hiding in a cover signal without attracting attention. The requirements of the good steganography algorithm are security, capacity, robustness and imperceptibility, all them are contradictory, therefore, satisfying all together is not easy especially in audio cover signal because human auditory system (HAS has high sensitivity to audio modification. In this paper, we proposed a high capacity audio steganography algorithm with good resistance to additive noise. The proposed algorithm is based on wavelet packet transform and blocks matching. It has capacity above 35% of the input audio file size with acceptable signal to noise ratio. Also, it is resistance to additive Gaussian noise to about 25 db. Furthermore, the reconstruction of actual secret messages does not require the original cover audio signal.

  20. 二值图像中的数据隐藏算法%Data Hiding in Binary Images

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭萌; 张鸿宾; 魏磊

    2009-01-01

    本文证明了在一个m×n的二值图像块中至多改变1个像素时所能隐藏的比特数的上界为[(log_2(mn+1)],并实际构造了达到此上界的信息隐藏算法.文中归纳了一些选择修改像素位置的规则,较好地保持了数据嵌入后图像的质量.对算法的鲁棒性和安全性进行了分析.用3个例子一数字手写签名中认证信息的嵌入、二值电子文档的窜改检测和卡通图像中注释信息的嵌入说明了本文算法可能的应用.%This paper proposes a method to embed data in binary images with high embedding capacity. It is proved that,given an m × n image block of the host image, the upper bound of the amount of bits that can be embedded in that block is L[(log_2(mn + 1)] ]by changing at most 1 pixel in the block. An algorithm whose embedding capacity can reach the bound is then constructed. We also summarize some rules for selecting pixels to be changed in order to maintain higher quality of the host image after data hiding. The robustness and security of the proposed algorithm is analyzed. Three examples,data hiding in digital handwritten signature, temper detection of digital binary documents, and invisible annotation for cartoon image are tested to illustrate the potential applications.

  1. Nothing to hide: An X-ray survey for young stellar objects in the Pipe Nebula

    CERN Document Server

    Forbrich, Jan; Covey, Kevin R; Lada, Charles J

    2010-01-01

    We have previously analyzed sensitive mid-infrared observations to establish that the Pipe Nebula has a very low star-formation efficiency. That study focused on YSOs with excess infrared emission (i.e, protostars and pre-main sequence stars with disks), however, and could have missed a population of more evolved pre-main sequence stars or Class III objects (i.e., young stars with dissipated disks that no longer show excess infrared emission). Evolved pre-main sequence stars are X-ray bright, so we have used ROSAT All-Sky Survey data to search for diskless pre-main sequence stars throughout the Pipe Nebula. We have also analyzed archival XMM-Newton observations of three prominent areas within the Pipe: Barnard 59, containing a known cluster of young stellar objects; Barnard 68, a dense core that has yet to form stars; and the Pipe molecular ring, a high-extinction region in the bowl of the Pipe. We additionally characterize the X-ray properties of YSOs in Barnard 59. The ROSAT and XMM-Newton data provide no i...

  2. Security Scheme Based on Parameter Hiding Technic for Mobile Communication in a Secure Cyber World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Hyuk Park

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Long Term Evolution (LTE and Long Term Evolution-Advanced (LTE-A support a better data transmission service than 3G dose and are globally commercialized technologies in a cyber world that is essential for constructing a future mobile environment, since network traffics have exponentially increased as people have started to use more than just one mobile device. However, when User Equipment (UE is executing initial attach processes to access LTE networks, there is a vulnerability in which identification parameters like International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI and Radio Network Temporary Identities (RNTI are transmitted as plain texts. It can threat various services that are commercialized therewith in a cyber world. Therefore, a security scheme is proposed in this paper where identification parameters can be securely transmitted and hidden in four cases where initial attach occurs between UE and Mobility Management Entity (MME. The proposed security scheme not only supports encrypted transmission of identification parameters but also mutual authentication between Evolved Node B (eNB and MME to make a secure cyber world. Additionally, performance analysis results using an OPNET simulator showed the satisfaction of the average delay rate that is specified in LTE standards.

  3. 伦理型领导对员工知识隐藏的影响机制研究%The Influence Mechanism of Ethical Leadership on Employee Knowledge Hiding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张笑峰; 席酉民

    2016-01-01

    基于社会交换、社会学习和调节焦点理论视角探讨了伦理型领导对员工知识隐藏的影响机制。结果发现:伦理型领导的道德人与道德管理者角色分别促进“员工—领导”和“员工—员工”积极互惠的形成,进而抑制员工知识隐藏;树立角色模范和沟通强化等领导活动有助于员工心理安全感和道德认同的提升;伦理型领导通过唤起员工促进型的调节焦点对员工知识隐藏产生影响,员工个体特质调节焦点调节了这一影响过程。%This paper analyses the influence mechanism of ethical leadership on employee knowledge hiding from the view of social exchange , social learning and regulatory focuses theory .Results show that , moral person and moral manager dimen-sion respectively promote “employee-leader” and“employee-employee” positive reciprocity .Role modeling and reinforce-ment activities elevate employee psychological safety and moral identification .By motivating employee work promotion regu-latory focus, knowledge hiding is suppressed and employee chronic regulatory focus moderates this process .

  4. 基于网络聊天环境的秘密信息隐蔽通信研究%Secret Information Hiding Communication Research Based on Network Chat Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王东; 熊世桓

    2014-01-01

    针对网络聊天环境中独有的语言特点,提出一种基于聊天环境的秘密信息隐蔽通信新方法,用聊天语句中每个汉字笔画数的奇偶性嵌入秘密信息,利用聊天环境中经常使用的表情符号标识秘密信息嵌入位置,将秘密信息分块嵌入到多个聊天语句中传输,达到信息隐蔽通信的目的。实验表明,该方法简单易用,隐蔽性、安全性也较为理想。%For the unique linguistic features of the language environment for chatting in network,a new method of secret information hiding communication is proposed based on the network chatting environment.According to the parity of strokes of each Chinese character,secret information is embedded into the chat statement.The emoticon icons often used in chat environment are used to represent the secret information embedding position.Secret information is embedded into multiple chat statement,so as to achieve the purpose of information hiding communication.Experiments show that the method is simple and easy to use,and concealment and security are also ideal.

  5. An Error Recovery Approach for H.264 Video Transmission Based on Data Hiding%基于数据隐藏的H.264视频传输抗误码方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈海波; 董育宁

    2012-01-01

    In order to improve the quality of H. 264 video transmission,this paper proposed an I frame error recovery approach for H. 264 video transmission based on data hiding. At the encoder, for an H. 264 intra-coded I frame, the important data for each macroblock (MB ) are extracted adaptively and hidden into the RTP header of the next frame by the proposed data hiding mehod. At the decoder,if the important data for a corrupted MB can be correctly extracted, the extracted important data will be used for error recovery ; Otherwise,a simple algorithm is used to recover the corrupted MB. Simulation results show that the performance of the proposed approach is better than existing approaches.%针对如何改善H.264无线视频传输抗误码性能,提出了一种基于数据隐藏的H.264视频传输Ⅰ帧误码恢复方法.该方法在编码端自适应地提取Ⅰ帧宏块的重要数据,并将提取的重要数据隐藏到下一帧RTP报文的扩展头部,然后在解码端提取重要数据并采用空时自适应算法对Ⅰ帧进行误码恢复.实验结果表明,该方法相比于同类方法显著提高了Ⅰ帧的误码恢复效果.

  6. 拓扑隐藏的MANET安全多路径路由协议%Topology-Hiding Secure Multipath Routing Protocol for MANET

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡琪; 张娇; 张玉军; 李忠诚

    2011-01-01

    分析了移动自组网(mobile ad hoc network,简称MANET)暴露拓扑带来的安全问题,提出了一种拓扑隐藏的安全多路径路由协议.在路由发现过程中,不在路由包中携带任何路径信息,从而有效隐藏网络拓扑.通过按需的邻居发现进行身份认证并建立路由表项,最终采用排除节点的方法实现多路径的选取;在路由维护过程中,设计了专门的错误发现机制以检验所选路径的有效性和安全性.该协议综合考虑时间因素和路径长度因素,实现了安全的最短路径确定.安全分析表明,该方案可以抵御黑洞攻击、虫洞攻击、rushing攻击和sybil等典型攻击,同时对一般类型的攻击也具有抵御能力.仿真结果表明,与SRP(secure routing protocol)这种典型的安全多路径方案相比,该方案能够找到更多节点不相交的多路径;在普通场景中,该方案没有对协议性能带来额外影响;在黑洞攻击场景中,该方案只需付出一定的信令开销即可大幅度提高数据包转发率,可有效抵御黑洞攻击.%This paper provides a detailed ana. lysis on the threats of topology-exposure in Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET) and proposes a secure topology-hiding multipath routing protocol based on the analysis. In Route Discovery, the new protocol exposes no routing information in packets to hide the network topology and adopts a node-excluded mechanism to find multiple paths. During this process, this protocol implements on-demand Neighbor Discovery to verify node identities. In Route Maintenance, a fault detection mechanism is designed to provide assurance that the selected paths are available and secure. Considering the factors of both reaction time and the path length, the scheme aims to find the shortest secure path. The security analysis shows that this scheme can resist the black hole attack, the wormhole attack, the rushing attack, the sybil attack, and other types of common attacks. Through extensive

  7. Alcohols as gasoline additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jawetz, P.

    1982-12-01

    This paper showed that, when using alcohol octane-boosting additives to gasoline, one attains several goals at the same time: (a) there is an increased saving in petroleum crude, since the alcohol is not merely a substitute for gasoline but rather a substitute for the octane-boosting additives used in the manufacture of unleaded gasoline; and (b) the production of fermentation ethanol for a fuel purpose can help revitalize the agricultural sector in different economics systems, thus becoming a road to economic development.

  8. "Hiding Our Snickers": "Weekly Mail" Journalists' Indirect Resistance in Apartheid South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabold, Bryan

    2006-01-01

    In the mid- to late 1980s, the challenges facing the editors and journalists working for the South African antiapartheid newspaper, the "Weekly Mail," were formidable. In addition to the more than one hundred censorship laws already in place, the apartheid government had declared a series of states of emergency in a final and desperate attempt to…

  9. 计算机系统信息隐藏反取证技术%Data Hiding and Anti-Forensic on Modern Computer System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李佟鸿; 王宁; 刘志军

    2013-01-01

    研究了现代计算机系统信息隐藏的各种可能方式.运用HPA和DCO、隐藏分区等技术分析了磁盘驱动的数据隐藏,运用簇分配、Slack空间等技术分析了NTFS文件系统的各种信息隐藏方法,以及各种方法可能的检测手段.分析各种隐藏技术作为计算机反取证手段,给计算机取证带来的巨大影响.%This paper discusses some of the possible ways to hide data on modern computer systems.Using HPA and DCO,hidden partition and other technical analysis of the disk drive data hidden.Using the cluster distribution,Slack space and so on technical discusses some of the methods that can be used to hide data in NTFS and analysis techniques that can be used to detect and recover hidden data.The exploration of the different hiding technology can be used as computer anti-forensics means,to the great impacts of computer forensics.

  10. Digital image hiding technology based on information%基于数字图像的信息隐藏技术探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任师迁

    2013-01-01

    In the process of information society,information has become an important resource for social development.With the rapid development of Internet,more and more information is transmitted through the network,the confidentiality,authenticity,the integrity of the information has become a research focus. Introduces the technologies of information hiding in the image concept,classification and development of information hiding technology,vector quantization is analyzed in detail,and points out the development trend of information hiding technology.%  在社会信息化的进程中,信息已经成为社会发展的重要资源。随着互联网的快速发展,越来越多的信息通过网络进行传播,信息的保密性、真实性、完整性逐渐成为研究焦点。介绍了图像中信息隐藏技术的概念、分类和发展,对矢量量化信息隐藏技术进行了重点分析,指出了信息隐藏技术的发展趋势。

  11. An eco-friendly method for short term preservation of skins/hides using Semecarpus anacardium nut extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyappan, Kuttalam; Ponrasu, Thangavel; Sangeethapriya, Vilvanathan; Gayathri, Vinaya Subramani; Suguna, Lonchin

    2013-09-01

    Preservation or curing of hides and skins is performed as the primary step of leather processing. Common salt is employed as the conventional agent for curing purpose. Use of salt enhances the pollution load of tannery effluent which becomes highly contaminated with increased total dissolved solids and chlorides. To overcome this hurdle, researchers are in constant search of alternative preservation techniques which are either totally void of salt or use only a meager amount of salt. In the present study, we had explored the possibility of using Semecarpus anacardium nut extract as an alternative to salt for the curing process by assessing different parameters like hair slip, putrefaction odor, volatile nitrogen content, moisture content, bacterial count, and shrinkage temperature in comparison to the salt curing method. The antibacterial property of the plant extract was also investigated. The results obtained substantiated that the nut extract of S. anacardium effectively could preserve the skins for more than a month, by its antibacterial activity along with the dehydrating property of acetone.

  12. Can organic matter hide from decomposers in the labyrinth of soil aggregates? Micro-engineered Soil Chips challenging foraging fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Edith C.; Aleklett, Kristin; Arellano Caicedo, Carlos G.; Bengtsson, Martin; Micaela Mafla Endara, Paola; Ohlsson, Pelle

    2017-04-01

    From the point of view of microorganisms, the soil environment is an enormously complex labyrinth with paths and dead-end streets, where resources and shelters are unevenly distributed. We study foraging strategies of soil organisms, especially fungi, and the possibility of physio-spatial stabilization of organic matter by "hiding" in occluded soil spaces. We manipulate growth habitat microstructure with lab-on-a-chip techniques, where we designed complex environments with channels and obstacle at dimensions of the size of hyphae, and construct them in the transparent, gas-permeable polymer PDMS. We fill those with different nutrient solutions or combine with mineral nutrient gradients, and inoculate them with soil organisms. We analyze organisms and substrates with microscopy, fluorescence microscopy and analytical chemistry. We compared different soil litter decomposers and an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus for their ability to forage through complex air-gap structures and attempt to classify them into functional traits concerning their mycelium directionality, space-exploring approach and ability to grow through acute angles and narrow constrictions. We identified structures which are very difficult to penetrate for most species, and compounds located behind such features may thus be spatially unavailable for decomposers. We discuss our approach in comparison to soil pore space tomographic analyses and findings we made in the pore space of colonized wood biochar.

  13. 'Hide-then-hit' to explain the importance of genotypic polymorphism of DNA repair genes in determining susceptibility to cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pei-Ei Wu; Chen-Yang Shen

    2011-01-01

    Interindividual variations in DNA repair capacity/efficiency linked to the presence of polymorphisms in DNA repair-related genes have been suggested to account for different risk of developing cancers. In this review article, on the basis of breast cancer formation as a model, we propose a 'hide-then-hit' hypothesis indicating the importance of escaping checkpoint surveillance for sub-optimal DNA repair variants to cause cancer. Therefore, only cells with subtle defects in repair capacity arising from low-penetrance variants of DNA repair genes would have the opportunity to grow and accumulate the genetic changes needed for cancer formation, without triggering cell-cycle checkpoint surveillance. Furthermore, distinct from high-penetrance alleles, these polymorphic alleles of DNA repair genes would predispose carriers to a higher risk of developing cancer but would not necessarily cause cancer. To examine this,we simultaneously genotyped multiple SNPs of cell-cycle checkpoint genes and the DNA repair genes. Support for the hypothesis came from observations that breast cancer risk associated with variant genotypes of DNA repair genes became more significant in be confirmed by biological evidence in which a cause-effect relationship has to be established. However, based on this, possible gene-gene interaction is considered to play an important role in modifying the cancer risk associated with genotypic polymorphism of DNA repair gene in different study populations.

  14. Hybrid Data Hiding Scheme Using Right-Most Digit Replacement and Adaptive Least Significant Bit for Digital Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Hussain

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The goal of image steganographic methods considers three main key issues: high embedding capacity, good visual symmetry/quality, and security. In this paper, a hybrid data hiding method combining the right-most digit replacement (RMDR with an adaptive least significant bit (ALSB is proposed to provide not only high embedding capacity but also maintain a good visual symmetry. The cover-image is divided into lower texture (symmetry patterns and higher texture (asymmetry patterns areas and these textures determine the selection of RMDR and ALSB methods, respectively, according to pixel symmetry. This paper has three major contributions. First, the proposed hybrid method enhanced the embedding capacity due to efficient ALSB utilization in the higher texture areas of cover images. Second, the proposed hybrid method maintains the high visual quality because RMDR has the closest selection process to generate the symmetry between stego and cover pixels. Finally, the proposed hybrid method is secure against statistical regular or singular (RS steganalysis and pixel difference histogram steganalysis because RMDR is capable of evading the risk of RS detection attacks due to pixel digits replacement instead of bits. Extensive experimental tests (over 1500+ cover images are conducted with recent least significant bit (LSB-based hybrid methods and it is demonstrated that the proposed hybrid method has a high embedding capacity (800,019 bits while maintaining good visual symmetry (39.00% peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR.

  15. Purification and Partial Characterization of a Collagenolytic Enzyme Produced by Pseudomonas aeraginosa SCU Screened from Rotten Hides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Guangyao(杨光垚); Zhang Yizheng

    2004-01-01

    Strain Pseudomonas Aeraginosa SCU isolated from rotten hides is shown to produce various gelatinolytic enzymes with molecular masses ranging from ~50 to ~200 kD. A gelatinolytic enzyme called PAC exhibiting collagenolytic activity is purified by SP sepharose fast flow, Sephadex G-200 gel filtration and native PAGE cutting method. The purified enzyme has an apparent molecular weight of about 110 kD by SDS PAGE without β-mercaptoethanol. Treatment withβ-Me suggests that PAC is dissociated into three subunits approximately 33 kD,25 kD and 20 kD with a ratio of 2∶1∶1, named sub A, sub B and sub C repectively. EDTA and EGTA display a significant inhibitory effect on the enzyme activity while PMSF, leupeptin and pepstain do not appreciably inhibit it. The first 15 amino acid residues of the major subunit (subA) are determined and the sequence is Ala-Glu-Ala-Gly-Gly-Pro-Gly-Gly-Asn-Gln-Lys-Ile-Gly -Lys-Tyr. This sequence is identical to that of elastase of P.aeruginosa. The fragment of encoding mature sub A is cloned and its sequence is determined, which has a high homology with the gene of elastase. These results indicate that PAC is a novel collagenolytic metalloprotease composed of three kinds of subunits, of which elastase is the major one.

  16. Hiding a Higgs width enhancement from off-shell gg (--> h*) --> ZZ

    CERN Document Server

    Logan, Heather E

    2014-01-01

    Measurements of the off-shell Higgs boson production cross section in gg (--> h*) --> ZZ have recently been used by the CMS and ATLAS collaborations to indirectly constrain the total width of the Higgs boson. I point out that the interpretation of these measurements as a Higgs width constraint can be invalidated if additional neutral Higgs boson(s) are present with masses below about 350 GeV.

  17. Authenticity of identification and processing experience of donkey hide gelatin%阿胶的真伪鉴别以及炮制经验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张萍

    2015-01-01

    阿胶是有改善男女生育、调节月经、恢复元气等功效,能够促进造血功能,升高白细胞,提高自身免疫力等功能,对免疫力低下患者或癌症患者有着重要的作用,还可以促进凝血和降低血管通透性,提高对钙的吸收,预防骨质疏松疾病,是骨折患者较佳的补品。由于阿胶的应用范围较广,有些不法商贩弄虚作假,严重扰乱了阿胶市场,给消费者带来了较大伤害,因此,掌握阿胶的真伪鉴别方法至关重要,本文对阿胶的真伪鉴别以及炮制经验进行总结。%Donkey hide gelatin has the function of improving male and female fertility,regulating menstruation,recovering vitality and so on.It can promote the hematopoietic function,elevate the white blood cells,improve the autoimmunity,and it plays an important role on the immunocompromised patients or cancer patients.On the side,it can promote coagulation and reduce vascular permeability,enhance the absorption of calcium,prevent osteoporosis.It is a better tonic for patients with fracture.Because the application range of donkey hide gelatin is wide,some unscrupulous traders have falsification and seriously disrupte the donkey hide gelatin market to bring a greater harm on consumers.Therefore,it is great importance to grasp the authenticity of identification method of donkey hide gelatin.In this paper,the author summarizes the authenticity of identification and processing experience of donkey hide gelatin.

  18. Comparison between generalized linear modelling and additive Bayesian network; identification of factors associated with the incidence of antibodies against Leptospira interrogans sv Pomona in meat workers in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittavino, M; Dreyfus, A; Heuer, C; Benschop, J; Wilson, P; Collins-Emerson, J; Torgerson, P R; Furrer, R

    2017-09-01

    Additive Bayesian Network (ABN) is a graphical model which extends Generalized Linear Modelling (GLM) to multiple dependent variables. The present study compares results from GLM with those from ABN analysis used to identify factors associated with Leptospira interrogans sv Pomona (Pomona) infection by exploring the advantages and disadvantages of these two methodologies, to corroborate inferences informing health and safety measures at abattoirs in New Zealand (NZ). In a cohort study in four sheep slaughtering abattoirs in NZ, sera were collected twice a year from 384 meat workers and tested by Microscopic Agglutination with a 91% sensitivity and 94% specificity for Pomona. The study primarily addressed the effect of work position, personal protective equipment (PPE) and non-work related exposures such as hunting on a new infection with Pomona. Significantly associated with Pomona were "Work position" and two "Abattoirs" (GLM), and "Work position" (ABN). The odds of Pomona infection (OR, [95% CI]) was highest at stunning and hide removal (ABN 41.0, [6.9-1044.2]; GLM 57.0, [6.9-473.3]), followed by removal of intestines, bladder, and kidneys (ABN 30.7, [4.9-788.4]; GLM 33.8, [4.2-271.1]). Wearing a facemask, glasses or gloves (PPE) did not result as a protective factor in GLM or ABN. The odds of Pomona infection was highest at stunning and hide removal. PPE did not show any indication of being protective in GLM or ABN. In ABN all relationships between variables are modelled; hence it has an advantage over GLM due to its capacity to capture the natural complexity of data more effectively. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Risk Aversion in Game Shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    We review the use of behavior from television game shows to infer risk attitudes. These shows provide evidence when contestants are making decisions over very large stakes, and in a replicated, structured way. Inferences are generally confounded by the subjective assessment of skill in some games......, and the dynamic nature of the task in most games. We consider the game shows Card Sharks, Jeopardy!, Lingo, and finally Deal Or No Deal. We provide a detailed case study of the analyses of Deal Or No Deal, since it is suitable for inference about risk attitudes and has attracted considerable attention....

  20. Measuring performance at trade shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kåre

    2004-01-01

    Trade shows is an increasingly important marketing activity to many companies, but current measures of trade show performance do not adequately capture dimensions important to exhibitors. Based on the marketing literature's outcome and behavior-based control system taxonomy, a model is built...... that captures a outcome-based sales dimension and four behavior-based dimensions (i.e. information-gathering, relationship building, image building, and motivation activities). A 16-item instrument is developed for assessing exhibitors perceptions of their trade show performance. The paper presents evidence...

  1. Directionally Hiding Objects and Creating Illusions at Visible Wavelengths by Holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Qiluan; Wu, Kedi; Shi, Yile; Wang, Hui; Wang, Guo Ping

    2013-06-01

    Invisibility devices have attracted considerable attentions in the last decade. In addition to invisibility cloaks, unidirectional invisibility systems such as carpet-like cloaks and parity-time symmetric structures are also inspiring some specific researching interests due to their relatively simplifying design. However, unidirectional invisibility systems worked generally in just one certain illumination direction. Here, based on time-reversal principle, we present the design and fabrication of a kind of all-dielectric device that could directionally cancel objects and create illusions as the illuminating light was from different directions. Our devices were experimentally realized through holographic technology and could work for macroscopic objects with any reasonable size at visible wavelengths, and hence may take directional invisibility technology a big step towards interesting applications ranging from magic camouflaging, directional detection to super-resolution biomedical imaging.

  2. A Secure & Optimized Data Hiding Technique Using DWT With PSNR Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farheen Fatima

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Multimedia applications are becoming increasingly significant in modern world. The mushroom growth of multimedia data of these applications, particularly over the web has increased the demand for protection of copyright. Digital watermarking is much more acceptable as a solution to the problem of copyright protection and authentication of multimedia data while working in a networked environment. In this paper, a DWT based watermarking scheme is proposed. We have used Genetic Algorithm (GA in order to make an optimum tradeoff between imperceptibility and robustness by choosing an optimum watermarking level for each coefficient of the cover image. In addition to the suitable watermarking strength, the selection of best block size is also necessary for superior perceptual shaping functions. To achieve this goal we have trained and used GA to pick the best block size to tailor the watermark in one of the coefficients of the DWT. The fitness function criterion for the genetic algorithm decision making is based on PSNR values.

  3. IP时间隐通道的信息隐藏算法及其性能分析%Information Hiding Algorithm of IP Covert Timing Channels and Its Performance Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王昌达; 黄磊; 刘志锋

    2016-01-01

    Covert channel analysis is one of the mandatory requirements of high-level trust evaluations .That IP covert timing channels utilize “time” as media to carry messages makes the eradication of IP covert timing channels on packets-switched networks ,which is almost impossible . Hitherto ,lack of a general mathematical model makes IP covert timing channels to be a tough job by which implement anonymous communication or information hiding among packets flows .As a result , in the past a few years ,most of related works depended on the experiments and observations only . Based on the physical definition of time ,IP covert timing channels are categorized as three types according to their different working methods .Furthermore ,the mathematical models of IP covert timing channels of fixed-length time slots and inter-packets delays are built through the probability theory ,respectively . In addition , the bandwidth function and error rate function of the network parameters for IP covert timing channels are derived .Experimental results show the correctness of the mathematical models as well as the theoretical analysis conclusions in the paper .The models of IP covert timing channels have formed a base on which some of researches in this area can be done through the formal analysis instead of the experimental observations only .%隐通道(亦称隐蔽信道)是高等级可信系统评估的重要指标,而以时间作为信息传输载体的工作方式决定了 IP 时间隐通道在包交换网络中几乎不能被根除。目前,利用 IP 时间隐通道在网络中实施信息的隐蔽传输没有统一的数学模型,对其研究主要还是依靠实验方式。首先根据时间的物理定义,将 IP时间隐通道按工作方式的差异分成不同类别;然后以随机过程为工具,建立了基于定长时隙与包间延迟2种 IP 时间隐通道的信息隐藏算法模型;最后在此基础上,推导出了其带宽和误码率与相关网

  4. An indirect watermark hiding in discrete cosine transform–singular value decomposition domain for copyright protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Arup Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Digital image watermarking has emerged as a promising solution for copyright protection. In this paper, a discrete cosine transform (DCT) and singular value decomposition (SVD) based hybrid robust image watermarking method using Arnold scrambling is proposed and simulated to protect the copyright of natural images. In this proposed scheme, before embedding, watermark is scrambled with Arnold scrambling. Then, the greyscale cover image and encrypted watermark logo are decomposed into non-overlapping blocks and subsequently some selected image blocks are transformed into the DCT domain for inserting the watermark blocks permanently. For better imperceptibility and effectiveness, in this proposed algorithm, watermark image blocks are embedded into singular values of selected blocks by multiplying with a feasible scaling factor. Simulation result demonstrates that robustness is achieved by recovering satisfactory watermark data from the reconstructed cover image after applying common geometric transformation attacks (such as rotation, flip operation, cropping, scaling, shearing and deletion of lines or columns operation), common enhancement technique attacks (such as low-pass filtering, histogram equalization, sharpening, gamma correction, noise addition) and jpeg compression attacks. PMID:28680684

  5. Hiding data selected topics : Rudolf Ahlswede’s lectures on information theory 3

    CERN Document Server

    Althöfer, Ingo; Deppe, Christian; Tamm, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Devoted to information security, this volume begins with a short course on cryptography, mainly based on lectures given by Rudolf Ahlswede at the University of Bielefeld in the mid 1990s. It was the second of his cycle of lectures on information theory which opened with an introductory course on basic coding theorems, as covered in Volume 1 of this series. In this third volume, Shannon’s historical work on secrecy systems is detailed, followed by an introduction to an information-theoretic model of wiretap channels, and such important concepts as homophonic coding and authentication. Once the theoretical arguments have been presented, comprehensive technical details of AES are given. Furthermore, a short introduction to the history of public-key cryptology, RSA and El Gamal cryptosystems is provided, followed by a look at the basic theory of elliptic curves, and algorithms for efficient addition in elliptic curves. Lastly, the important topic of “oblivious transfer” is discussed, which is strongly conne...

  6. How the leopard hides its spots: ASIP mutations and melanism in wild cats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexsandra Schneider

    Full Text Available The occurrence of melanism (darkening of the background coloration is documented in 13 felid species, in some cases reaching high frequencies at the population level. Recent analyses have indicated that it arose multiple times in the Felidae, with three different species exhibiting unique mutations associated with this trait. The causative mutations in the remaining species have so far not been identified, precluding a broader assessment of the evolutionary dynamics of melanism in the Felidae. Among these, the leopard (Panthera pardus is a particularly important target for research, given the iconic status of the 'black panther' and the extremely high frequency of melanism observed in some Asian populations. Another felid species from the same region, the Asian golden cat (Pardofelis temminckii, also exhibits frequent records of melanism in some areas. We have sequenced the coding region of the Agouti Signaling Protein (ASIP gene in multiple leopard and Asian golden cat individuals, and identified distinct mutations strongly associated with melanism in each of them. The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP detected among the P. pardus individuals was caused by a nonsense mutation predicted to completely ablate ASIP function. A different SNP was identified in P. temminckii, causing a predicted amino acid change that should also induce loss of function. Our results reveal two additional cases of species-specific mutations implicated in melanism in the Felidae, and indicate that ASIP mutations may play an important role in naturally-occurring coloration polymorphism.

  7. High-Rate Data-Hiding Robust to Linear Filtering for Colored Hosts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez-González Fernando

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The discrete Fourier transform-rational dither modulation (DFT-RDM has been proposed as a way to provide robustness to linear-time-invariant (LTI filtering for quantization-based watermarking systems. This scheme has been proven to provide high rates for white Gaussian hosts but those rates considerably decrease for nonwhite hosts. In this paper the theoretical analysis of DFT-RDM is generalized to colored Gaussian hosts supplied with an explanation of the performance degradation with respect to white Gaussian hosts. Moreover the characterization of the watermark-to-noise ratio in the frequency domain is shown as an useful tool to give a simple and intuitive measure of performance. Afterwards an extension of DFT-RDM is proposed to improve its performance for colored hosts without assuming any additional knowledge on the attack filter. Our analysis is validated by experiments and the results of several simulations for different attack filters confirm the performance improvement afforded by the whitening operation for both Gaussian colored hosts and audio tracks.

  8. Planets and Stellar Activity: Hide and Seek in the CoRoT-7 system

    CERN Document Server

    Haywood, R D; Queloz, D; Barros, S C C; Deleuil, M; Fares, R; Gillon, M; Lanza, A F; Lovis, C; Moutou, C; Pepe, F; Pollacco, D; Santerne, A; Segransan, D; Unruh, Y C

    2014-01-01

    Since the discovery of the transiting super-Earth CoRoT-7b, several investigations have yielded different results for the number and masses of planets present in the system, mainly owing to the star's high level of activity. We re-observed CoRoT-7 in January 2012 with both HARPS and CoRoT, so that we now have the benefit of simultaneous radial-velocity and photometric data. This allows us to use the off-transit variations in the star's light curve to estimate the radial-velocity variations induced by the suppression of convective blueshift and the flux blocked by starspots. To account for activity-related effects in the radial-velocities which do not have a photometric signature, we also include an additional activity term in the radial-velocity model, which we treat as a Gaussian process with the same covariance properties (and hence the same frequency structure) as the light curve. Our model was incorporated into a Monte Carlo Markov Chain in order to make a precise determination of the orbits of CoRoT-7b a...

  9. Tokyo Motor Show 2003; Tokyo Motor Show 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joly, E.

    2004-01-01

    The text which follows present the different techniques exposed during the 37. Tokyo Motor Show. The report points out the great tendencies of developments of the Japanese automobile industry. The hybrid electric-powered vehicles or those equipped with fuel cells have been highlighted by the Japanese manufacturers which allow considerable budgets in the research of less polluting vehicles. The exposed models, although being all different according to the manufacturer, use always a hybrid system: fuel cell/battery. The manufacturers have stressed too on the intelligent systems for navigation and safety as well as on the design and comfort. (O.M.)

  10. On the masked mycotoxin zearalenone-14-glucoside. Does the mask truly hide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellafiora, Luca; Perotti, Alessio; Galaverna, Gianni; Buschini, Annamaria; Dall'Asta, Chiara

    2016-03-01

    In the matter of foodborne mycotoxins, beside a number of regulated compounds, regulations are totally missing for phase-II plant metabolites--the toxicological knowledge of which is still in its infancy. Currently, zearalenone-14-glucoside is in the pipeline and its toxicological role is under a glowing scientific debate. In our work it clearly showed high toxicological concerns as it is prone to conversion to well-known toxic compounds (i.e. zearalenone and both zearalenol isomers) when exposed to breast cancer cells culture. The need of future risk assessment studies has been pointed out accordingly. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. On the "ozone deficit problem": what are Ox and HOx catalytic cycles for ozone depletion hiding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varandas, António J C

    2002-05-17

    Studies on the role of vibrational excitation in the reactants for the O2 + O2, OH + O2, and HO2 + O2 reactions show that they can be important sources of ozone in the stratosphere, particularly at conditions of local thermodynamic disequilibrium. The results suggest that the Ox and HOx cycles commonly viewed as catalytic sinks of ozone may actually lead to its production, and hence help to clarify the "ozone deficit problem". This paper also presents an explanation for the general overestimation of the OH abundance in the upper stratosphere and lower mesosphere through standard HOx chemistry.

  12. Risk Aversion in Game Shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Lau, Morten I.; Rutström, E. Elisabet

    2008-01-01

    , and the dynamic nature of the task in most games. We consider the game shows Card Sharks, Jeopardy!, Lingo, and finally Deal Or No Deal. We provide a detailed case study of the analyses of Deal Or No Deal, since it is suitable for inference about risk attitudes and has attracted considerable attention....

  13. Phyllodes tumor showing intraductal growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makidono, Akari; Tsunoda, Hiroko; Mori, Miki; Yagata, Hiroshi; Onoda, Yui; Kikuchi, Mari; Nozaki, Taiki; Saida, Yukihisa; Nakamura, Seigo; Suzuki, Koyu

    2013-07-01

    Phyllodes tumor of the breast is a rare fibroepithelial lesion and particularly uncommon in adolescent girls. It is thought to arise from the periductal rather than intralobular stroma. Usually, it is seen as a well-defined mass. Phyllodes tumor showing intraductal growth is extremely rare. Here we report a girl who has a phyllodes tumor with intraductal growth.

  14. Pembrolizumab Shows Promise for NSCLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Data from the KEYNOTE-001 trial show that pembrolizumab improves clinical outcomes for patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer, and is well tolerated. PD-L1 expression in at least 50% of tumor cells correlated with improved efficacy.

  15. Create a Polarized Light Show.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, William H.

    1992-01-01

    Presents a lesson that introduces students to polarized light using a problem-solving approach. After illustrating the concept using a slinky and poster board with a vertical slot, students solve the problem of creating a polarized light show using Polya's problem-solving methods. (MDH)

  16. An Image Hiding Scheme Using 3D Sawtooth Map and Discrete Wavelet Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruisong Ye

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available An image encryption scheme based on the 3D sawtooth map is proposed in this paper. The 3D sawtooth map is utilized to generate chaotic orbits to permute the pixel positions and to generate pseudo-random gray value sequences to change the pixel gray values. The image encryption scheme is then applied to encrypt the secret image which will be imbedded in one host image. The encrypted secret image and the host image are transformed by the wavelet transform and then are merged in the frequency domain. Experimental results show that the stego-image looks visually identical to the original host one and the secret image can be effectively extracted upon image processing attacks, which demonstrates strong robustness against a variety of attacks.

  17. Chikotsa--secrets, silence, and hiding: social risk and reproductive vulnerability in central Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Rachel R

    2006-12-01

    In this article, I examine pregnancy narratives and patterns of reproductive health seeking among women of fertile age in central Mozambique. I map the interplay between gendered economic marginalization, maternal risk perceptions, and pregnancy management strategies. By interpreting my data in light of Shona illness theories, I illuminate the ways that embodied experiences of reproductive vulnerability, risk perceptions, and social inequalities are linked: women attribute the most serious maternal complications to human- or spirit-induced reproductive threats of witchcraft and sorcery. This construction of reproductive vulnerability as social threats related to material and social competition significantly influences prenatal health seeking. Data reveal the structural and cognitive gap between biomedical constructions of risk and lay social threat perceptions. Plural health care systems are strategically utilized by women seeking to minimize both social and biological harm. On-the-ground ethnography shows that maternal health initiatives must take this plurality into full and accommodative account to achieve viable improvements in reproductive care and outcomes.

  18. Hiding inside? Intracellular expression of non-glycosylated c-kit protein in cardiac progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Huilin; Drummond, Christopher A; Fan, Xiaoming; Haller, Steven T; Liu, Jiang; Malhotra, Deepak; Tian, Jiang

    2016-05-01

    Cardiac progenitor cells including c-kit(+) cells and cardiosphere-derived cells (CDCs) play important roles in cardiac repair and regeneration. CDCs were reported to contain only small subpopulations of c-kit(+) cells and recent publications suggested that depletion of the c-kit(+) subpopulation of cells has no effect on regenerative properties of CDCs. However, our current study showed that the vast majority of CDCs from murine heart actually express c-kit, albeit, in an intracellular and non-glycosylated form. Immunostaining and flow cytometry showed that the fluorescent signal indicative of c-kit immunostaining significantly increased when cell membranes were permeabilized. Western blots further demonstrated that glycosylation of c-kit was increased during endothelial differentiation in a time dependent manner. Glycosylation inhibition by 1-deoxymannojirimycin hydrochloride (1-DMM) blocked c-kit glycosylation and reduced expression of endothelial cell markers such as Flk-1 and CD31 during differentiation. Pretreatment of these cells with a c-kit kinase inhibitor (imatinib mesylate) also attenuated Flk-1 and CD31 expression. These results suggest that c-kit glycosylation and its kinase activity are likely needed for these cells to differentiate into an endothelial lineage. In vivo, we found that intracellular c-kit expressing cells are located in the wall of cardiac blood vessels in mice subjected to myocardial infarction. In summary, our work demonstrated for the first time that c-kit is not only expressed in CDCs but may also directly participate in CDC differentiation into an endothelial lineage.

  19. Hide and seek: a comparative autoradiographic in vitro investigation of the adenosine A3 receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haeusler, D.; Fuchshuber, F.; Girschele, F.; Hacker, M.; Wadsak, W.; Mitterhauser, Markus [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Vienna (Austria); Grassinger, L. [University of Applied Sciences Wiener Neustadt, Department of Biomedical Analytics, Wiener Neustadt (Austria); Hoerleinsberger, W.J. [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Vienna (Austria); University of Vienna, Cognitive Science Research Platform, Vienna (Austria); Hoeftberger, R.; Leisser, I. [Medical University of Vienna, Institute of Neurology, Vienna (Austria); Shanab, K.; Spreitzer, H. [University of Vienna, Department of Drug and Natural Product Synthesis, Vienna (Austria); Gerdenitsch, W. [Medical University of Vienna, Institute of Biomedicinal Research, Vienna (Austria)

    2015-05-01

    Since the adenosine A3 receptor (A3R) is considered to be of high clinical importance in the diagnosis and treatment of ischaemic conditions (heart and brain), glaucoma, asthma, arthritis, cancer and inflammation, a suitable and selective A3R PET tracer such as [{sup 18}F]FE rate at SUPPY would be of high clinical value for clinicians as well as patients. A3R was discovered in the late 1990s, but there is still little known regarding its distribution in the CNS and periphery. Hence, in autoradiographic experiments the distribution of A3R in human brain and rat tissues was investigated and the specific binding of the A3R antagonist FE rate at SUPPY and MRS1523 compared. Immunohistochemical staining (IHC) experiments were also performed to validate the autoradiographic findings. For autoradiographic competition experiments human post-mortem brain and rat tissues were incubated with [{sup 125}I]AB-MECA and highly selective compounds to block the other adenosine receptor subtypes. Additionally, IHC was performed with an A3 antibody. Specific A3R binding of MRS1523 and FE rate at SUPPY was found in all rat peripheral tissues examined with the highest amounts in the spleen (44.0 % and 46.4 %), lung (44.5 % and 45.0 %), heart (39.9 % and 42.9 %) and testes (27.4 % and 29.5 %, respectively). Low amounts of A3R were found in rat brain tissues (5.9 % and 5.6 %, respectively) and human brain tissues (thalamus 8.0 % and 9.1 %, putamen 7.8 % and 8.2 %, cerebellum 6.0 % and 7.8 %, hippocampus 5.7 % and 5.6 %, caudate nucleus 4.9 % and 6.4 %, cortex 4.9 % and 6.3 %, respectively). The outcome of the A3 antibody staining experiments complemented the results of the autoradiographic experiments. The presence of A3R protein was verified in central and peripheral tissues by autoradiography and IHC. The specificity and selectivity of FE rate at SUPPY was confirmed by direct comparison with MRS1523, providing further evidence that [{sup 18}F]FE rate at SUPPY may be a suitable A3 PET

  20. A Reversible Image Watermarking Algorithm Using Linear Space Hiding Model%基于线性空间隐藏模型的可逆图像水印算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜传贤; 杨铁军; 董明刚; 程小辉; 李智

    2014-01-01

    提出一种基于线性空间隐藏模型的可逆图像水印算法。通过对原始图像载体互不重叠的划分形成图像块序列,对其进行整数小波变换,获取待嵌水印子带。根据0/1水印序列和线性空间隐藏模型,将水印不可感知地嵌入到图像的小波域中,提高水印鲁棒性和不可见性。只需判断奇偶性提取水印,并且通过简单逆向平移恢复原始。线性空间隐藏模型的提出实现了水印间相互独立,从而使该算法能扩展到多著作权的无损水印领域。投票原则的使用又进一步提高水印的鲁棒性和降低了误检率。在无外界干扰的条件下,拥有密钥和其他秘密参数的用户能够无损恢复原始图像。仿真实验表明,与相关工作比较该算法能应对一定程度的有损压缩和高斯噪声攻击,表现出较高的鲁棒性、安全性和不可见性。%This paper presents a reversible image watermarking algorithm using linear space hiding model. The proposed algorithm divides an orginal image into a number of non-overlapping blocks, applies an integer wavelet transform to these blocks, respectively, and gains the carrier to embed the watermarking. According to the 0/1 watermarking sequence and the linear space hiding model, the watermark is imperceptibly embedded into the wavelet domain of the image, which improves the robustness and invisibility of the watermarking. According to the parity, we extract the watermarking is extracted and the original carrier is covered by a simple reverse translation. The linear space hiding model allows multiple watermarks to remain independent, so that the algorithm can be extended to the field of multi-copyright lossless watermarking. Furthermore, the ma jority voting is used to improve the robustness of watermarking and reduce the probability of false positives. The original data can be recovered losslessly from the unmodified watermarked image by users who own the private

  1. Reality show: um paradoxo nietzschiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilana Feldman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available

    O fenômeno dos reality shows - e a subseqüente relação entre imagem e verdade - assenta-se sobre uma série de paradoxos. Tais paradoxos podem ser compreendidos à luz do pensamento do filósofo alemão Friedrich Nietzsche, que, através dos usos de formulações paradoxais, concebia a realidade como um mundo de pura aparência e a verdade como um acréscimo ficcional, como um efeito. A ficção é então tomada, na filosofia de Nietzsche, não em seu aspecto falsificante e desrealizador - como sempre pleiteou nossa tradição metafísica -, mas como condição necessária para que certa espécie de invenção possa operar como verdade. Sendo assim, a própria expressão reality show, através de sua formulação paradoxal, engendra explicitamente um mundo de pura aparência, em que a verdade, a parte reality da proposição, é da ordem do suplemento, daquilo que se acrescenta ficcionalmente - como um adjetivo - a show. O ornamento, nesse caso, passa a ocupar o lugar central, apontando para o efeito produzido: o efeito-de-verdade. Seguindo, então, o pensamento nietzschiano e sua atualização na contemporaneidade, investigaremos de que forma os televisivos “shows de realidade” operam paradoxalmente, em consonância com nossas paradoxais práticas culturais.

  2. Nothing to Hide: An X-ray Survey for Young Stellar Objects in the Pipe Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbrich, Jan; Posselt, Bettina; Covey, Kevin R.; Lada, Charles J.

    2010-08-01

    We have previously analyzed sensitive mid-infrared observations to establish that the Pipe Nebula (PiN) has a very low star formation efficiency. That study focused on young stellar objects (YSOs) with excess infrared emission (i.e., protostars and pre-main-sequence stars with disks), however, and could have missed a population of more evolved pre-main-sequence stars or Class III objects (i.e., young stars with dissipated disks that no longer show excess infrared emission). Evolved pre-main-sequence stars are X-ray bright, so we have used ROSAT All-Sky Survey data to search for diskless pre-main-sequence stars throughout the PiN. We have also analyzed archival XMM-Newton observations of three prominent areas within the Pipe: Barnard 59 (B 59), containing a known cluster of YSOs; Barnard 68, a dense core that has yet to form stars; and the Pipe molecular ring, a high-extinction region in the bowl of the Pipe. We also characterize the X-ray properties of YSOs in B 59. The ROSAT and XMM-Newton data provide no indication of a significant population of more evolved pre-main-sequence stars within the Pipe, reinforcing our previous measurement of the Pipe's very low star formation efficiency.

  3. Multispectral information hiding in RGB image using bit-plane-based watermarking and its application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinoda, Kazuma; Watanabe, Aya; Hasegawa, Madoka; Kato, Shigeo

    2015-06-01

    Although it was expected that multispectral images would be implemented in many applications, such as remote sensing and medical imaging, their use has not been widely diffused in these fields. The development of a compact multispectral camera and display will be needed for practical use, but the format compatibility between multispectral and RGB images is also important for reducing the introduction cost and having high usability. We propose a method of embedding the spectral information into an RGB image by watermarking. The RGB image is calculated from the multispectral image, and then, the original multispectral image is estimated from the RGB image using Wiener estimation. The residual data between the original and the estimated multispectral image are compressed and embedded in the lower bit planes of the RGB image. The experimental results show that, as compared with Wiener estimation, the proposed method leads to more than a 10 dB gain in the peak signal-to-noise ratio of the reconstructed multispectral image, while there are almost no significant perceptual differences in the watermarked RGB image.

  4. Hiding in Plain Sight: The Bimetallic Magnesium Covalent Bond in Enzyme Active Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Lalith; Beard, William A; Pedersen, Lee G; Wilson, Samuel H

    2017-01-03

    The transfer of phosphate groups is an essential function of many intracellular biological enzymes. The transfer is in many cases facilitated by a protein scaffold involving two closely spaced magnesium "ions". It has long been a mystery how these "ions" can retain their closely spaced positions throughout enzymatic phosphate transfer: Coulomb's law would dictate large repulsive forces between these ions at the observed distances. Here we show, however, that the electron density can be borrowed from nearby electron-rich oxygens to populate a bonding molecular orbital that is largely localized between the magnesium "ions". The result is that the Mg-Mg core of these phosphate transfer enzymes is surprisingly similar to a metastable [Mg2](2+) ion in the gas phase, an ion that has been identified experimentally and studied with high-level quantum-mechanical calculations. This similarity is confirmed by comparative computations of the electron densities of [Mg2](2+) in the gas phase and the Mg-Mg core in the structures derived from QM/MM studies of high-resolution X-ray crystal structures. That there is a level of covalent bonding between the two Mg "ions" at the core of these enzymes is a novel concept that enables an improved vision of how these enzymes function at the molecular level. The concept is broader than magnesium-other biologically relevant metals (e.g., Mn and Zn) can also form similar stabilizing covalent Me-Me bonds in both organometallic and inorganic crystals.

  5. Face it or hide it: parental socialization of reappraisal and response suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunzenhauser, Catherine; Fäsche, Anika; Friedlmeier, Wolfgang; von Suchodoletz, Antje

    2014-01-01

    Mastery of cognitive emotion regulation strategies is an important developmental task. This paper focuses on two strategies that occur from preschool age onwards (Stegge and Meerum Terwogt, 2007): reappraisal and response suppression. Parental socialization of these strategies was investigated in a sample of N = 219 parents and their children. Informed by the tripartite model of family impact on children's emotion regulation, direct relations of emotion socialization components (modeling and reactions to the child's negative emotions) and indirect relations of parental emotion-related beliefs (such as parental emotion regulation self-efficacy) were examined. Data on emotion socialization components and parental beliefs on emotion regulation were collected via self-report. Data on children's emotion regulation strategies were collected via parent report. Findings showed direct effects of parental modeling and parenting practices on children's emotion regulation strategies, with distinct socialization paths for reappraisal and response suppression. An indirect effect of parental emotion regulation self-efficacy on children's reappraisal was found. These associations were not moderated by parent sex. Findings highlight the importance of both socialization components and parental emotion-related beliefs for the socialization of cognitive emotion regulation strategies and suggest a domain-specific approach to the socialization of emotion regulation strategies.

  6. Hiding in Fresh Fruits and Vegetables: Opportunistic Pathogens May Cross Geographical Barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra S. Al-Kharousi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Different microbial groups of the microbiome of fresh produce can have diverse effects on human health. This study was aimed at identifying some microbial communities of fresh produce by analyzing 105 samples of imported fresh fruits and vegetables originated from different countries in the world including local samples (Oman for aerobic plate count and the counts of Enterobacteriaceae, Enterococcus, and Staphylococcus aureus. The isolated bacteria were identified by molecular (PCR and biochemical methods (VITEK 2. Enterobacteriaceae occurred in 60% of fruits and 91% of vegetables. Enterococcus was isolated from 20% of fruits and 42% of vegetables. E. coli and S. aureus were isolated from 22% and 7% of vegetables, respectively. Ninety-seven bacteria comprising 21 species were similarly identified by VITEK 2 and PCR to species level. E. coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterococcus casseliflavus, and Enterobacter cloacae were the most abundant species; many are known as opportunistic pathogens which may raise concern to improve the microbial quality of fresh produce. Phylogenetic trees showed no relationship between clustering of the isolates based on the 16S rRNA gene and the original countries of fresh produce. Intercountry passage of opportunistic pathogens in fresh produce cannot be ruled out, which requires better management.

  7. Face it or hide it: Parental socialization of reappraisal and response suppression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine eGunzenhauser

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mastery of cognitive emotion regulation strategies is an important developmental task. This paper focuses on two strategies that occur from preschool age onwards (Stegge & Meerum Terwogt, 2007: reappraisal and response suppression. Parental socialization of these strategies was investigated in a sample of N = 219 parents and their children. Informed by the tripartite model of family impact on children’s emotion regulation, direct relations of emotion socialization components (modeling and reactions to the child’s negative emotions and indirect relations of parental emotion-related beliefs (such as parental emotion regulation self-efficacy were examined. Data on emotion socialization components and parental beliefs on emotion regulation were collected via self-report. Data on children’s emotion regulation strategies were collected via parent report. Findings showed direct effects of parental modeling and parenting practices on children’s emotion regulation strategies, with distinct socialization paths for reappraisal and response suppression. An indirect effect of parental emotion regulation self-efficacy on children’s reappraisal was found. These associations were not moderated by parent sex. Findings highlight the importance of both socialization components and parental emotion-related beliefs for the socialization of cognitive emotion regulation strategies and suggest a domain-specific approach to the socialization of emotion regulation strategies.

  8. Can R-parity violation hide vanilla supersymmetry at the LHC?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asano, Masaki [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Rolbiecki, Krzysztof; Sakurai, Kazuki [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-09-15

    Current experimental constraints on a large parameter space in supersymmetric models rely on the large missing energy signature. This is usually provided by the lightest neutralino which stability is ensured by the R-parity. However, if the R-parity is violated, the lightest neutralino decays into the standard model particles and the missing energy cut is not efficient anymore. In particular, the UDD type R-parity violation induces the neutralino decay to three quarks which potentially leads to the most difficult signal to be searched at hadron colliders. In this paper, we study the constraints on the R-parity violating supersymmetric models using a same-sign dilepton and a multijet signatures. We show that the gluino and squarks lighter than a TeV are already excluded in constrained minimal supersymmetric standard model with R-parity violation if their masses are approximately equal. We also analyze constraints in a simplified model with R-parity violation. We compare how R-parity violation changes some of the observables typically used to distinguish a supersymmetric signal from standard model backgrounds.

  9. Hiding in plain sight: record-breaking compact stellar systems in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Sandoval, Michael A; Romanowsky, Aaron J; Strader, Jay; Choi, Jieun; Jennings, Zachary G; Conroy, Charlie; Brodie, Jean P; Foster, Caroline; Villaume, Alexa; Norris, Mark A; Janz, Joachim; Forbes, Duncan A

    2015-01-01

    Motivated by the recent, serendipitous discovery of the densest known galaxy, M60-UCD1, we present two initial findings from a follow-up search, using the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, Subaru/Suprime-Cam and Hubble Space Telescope imaging, and SOAR/Goodman spectroscopy. The first object discovered, M59-UCD3, has a similar size to M60-UCD1 (half-light radius of r_h ~ 20 pc) but is 40% more luminous (M_V ~ -14.6), making it the new densest-known galaxy. The second, M85-HCC1, has a size like a typical globular cluster r_h ~ 1.8 pc) but is much more luminous (M_V ~ -12.5). This hypercompact cluster is by far the densest confirmed free-floating stellar system, and is equivalent to the densest known nuclear star clusters. From spectroscopy, we find that both objects are relatively young (~9 Gyr and ~3 Gyr, respectively), with metal-abundances that resemble those of galaxy centers. Their host galaxies show clear signs of large-scale disturbances, and we conclude that these dense objects are the remnant nuclei of recentl...

  10. A new anti-forensic scheme--hiding the single JPEG compression trace for digital image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yanjun; Gao, Tiegang; Sheng, Guorui; Fan, Li; Gao, Lin

    2015-01-01

    To prevent image forgeries, a number of forensic techniques for digital image have been developed that can detect an image's origin, trace its processing history, and can also locate the position of tampering. Especially, the statistical footprint left by JPEG compression operation can be a valuable source of information for the forensic analyst, and some image forensic algorithm have been raised based on the image statistics in the DCT domain. Recently, it has been shown that footprints can be removed by adding a suitable anti-forensic dithering signal to the image in the DCT domain, this results in invalid for some image forensic algorithms. In this paper, a novel anti-forensic algorithm is proposed, which is capable of concealing the quantization artifacts that left in the single JPEG compressed image. In the scheme, a chaos-based dither is added to an image's DCT coefficients to remove such artifacts. Effectiveness of both the scheme and the loss of image quality are evaluated through the experiments. The simulation results show that the proposed anti-forensic scheme can verify the reliability of the JPEG forensic tools.

  11. 一种使用四叉树分割的分形信息隐藏算法%A FRACTAL INFORMATION HIDING ALGORITHM BASED ON QUAD-TREE PARTITION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂道聪; 郑洪源

    2015-01-01

    Existing information hiding algorithms of orthogonal fractal always divide original image into average partition when carrying out orthogonal fractal coding,which are not image-adaptive and are time consuming.What’s more,they fail to consider the correlation among components and the collage error in colour image processing,therefore the robustness is poor.We propose an improved orthogonal fractal information hiding algorithm which uses quad-tree partition.The algorithm can realise quad-tree partition on original image according image feature,and takes into account the correlation of three components (R,G,B)of colour image,as well as extracts the luminance component for fractal coding.Moreover,the algorithm uses collage error characteristics to dynamically regulate the modifying value of fractal parameters for embedding secret image.Experiments and applications show that the improved algorithm has short encoding time,good transparency and is robust to JPEG image compression,noise,filtering and geometric distortion.%目前的正交分形信息隐藏算法在进行正交分形编码时都是等分割原始图像,这样无法自适应图像内容且耗时,并且在处理彩色图像时没能考虑分量之间的相关性以及拼贴误差,因此鲁棒性较差。提出一种采用四叉树分割的正交分形信息隐藏算法。该算法能够根据图像特征实现原始图像的四叉树分割,同时考虑彩色图像 R、G、B 三个分量的相关性,提取亮度分量进行分形编码,并利用拼贴误差特性,动态调整分型参数的修改量来嵌入秘密图像。实验及应用表明,该算法编码时间短、具有很好的透明性以及对 JPEG 压缩、加噪、滤波、几何形变等具有较好的鲁棒性。

  12. 加密医学图像中的视觉无损信息隐藏算法%A Visual Lossless Data Hiding Method in Encrypted Medical Images

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑洪英; 彭钟贤; 肖迪

    2014-01-01

    提出了一种医学图像加密域的视觉无损信息隐藏算法,其结合了密码与信息隐藏技术,保护了图像的机密性,可验证图像的真实性。算法首先利用边缘检测技术获得医学图像主要信息作为无损区域,再对图像加密,并将设计的头部嵌入加密医学图像中。水印嵌入者获得加密图像后,提取头部,再在非主要区域嵌入水印。接收方可以根据密钥类型进行相应的操作。实验结果表明,该算法具有较高的嵌入容量和峰值信噪比值。%A visual lossless data hiding method in encrypted medical images is proposed in this paper , which effectively combines the encryption and the data hiding methods to achieve confidence and integrity of the medical images .First ,the main information of a medical image is detected by an edge detection tech‐nique and taken as a lossless and important region .Then ,the medical image is encrypted ,and the head composed of the edge information is embedded into it .When the data‐hider gets the encrypted medical im‐age ,the head is first extracted ,then the binary embedding information is embedded into the unimportant region ,and the main information of the medical image is unchanged to complete diagnosis .For the receiv‐er ,there are four operations according to the keys which he owns .An experiment shows that the informa‐tion capacity and PSNR values are improved .

  13. Picasso on Show in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    A staff member of the National Picasso Museum of France checks one of the great Spanish artist Pablo Picasso’s works at the China Pavilion inside the site of the 2010 World Expo in Shanghai on October 12.Sixty-two priceless paintings and statues selected from the works of the renowned artist have been brought to the pavilion for an upcoming exhibition to premiere on October 18.Besides these representative masterpieces,50 valuable photographs showing the artist’s whole life will also be presented.The exhibition’s estimated value is 678 million euros ($934 million).It will be held until January 10,2012.

  14. Hide, keep quiet, and keep low: properties that make Aspergillus fumigatus a successful lung pathogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia eEscobar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Representatives of the genus Aspergillus are opportunistic fungal pathogens. Their conidia can reach the alveoli by inhalation and can give rise to infections in immunocompromised individuals. Aspergillus fumigatus is the causal agent of invasive aspergillosis in nearly 90 % of the cases. It is not yet well established what makes this fungus more pathogenic than other aspergilli such as Aspergillus niger. Here, we show that A. fumigatus and A. niger conidia adhere with similar efficiency to lung epithelial A549 cells but A. fumigatus conidia internalized 17% more efficiently. Conidia of both aspergilli were taken up in phagolysosomes 8 h after the challenge. These organelles only acidified in the case of A. niger, which is probably due to the type of melanin coating of the conidia. Viability of both types of conidia was not affected after uptake in the phagolysosomes. Germination of A. fumigatus and A. niger conidia in the presence of epithelial cells was delayed when compared to conidia in the medium. However, germination of A. niger conidia was still higher than that of A. fumigatus 10 h after exposure to A549 cells. Remarkably, A. fumigatus hyphae grew mainly parallel to the epithelium, while growth direction of A. niger hyphae was predominantly perpendicular to the plane of the cells. Neutrophils reduced germination and hyphal growth of A. niger, but not of A fumigatus, in presence of epithelial cells. Taken together, efficient internalization, delayed germination, and hyphal growth parallel to the epithelium gives a new insight into what could be the causes for the success of A. fumigatus compared to A. niger as an opportunistic pathogen in the lung.

  15. HIDING IN PLAIN SIGHT: RECORD-BREAKING COMPACT STELLAR SYSTEMS IN THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandoval, Michael A.; Vo, Richard P.; Romanowsky, Aaron J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, San José State University, One Washington Square, San Jose, CA 95192 (United States); Strader, Jay [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Choi, Jieun; Conroy, Charlie [Harvard–Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Jennings, Zachary G.; Villaume, Alexa [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Brodie, Jean P. [University of California Observatories, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Foster, Caroline [Australian Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 915, North Ryde, NSW 1670 (Australia); Norris, Mark A. [Max Planck Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117, Heidelberg (Germany); Janz, Joachim; Forbes, Duncan A. [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University, Hawthorn, VIC 3122 (Australia)

    2015-07-20

    Motivated by the recent, serendipitous discovery of the densest known galaxy, M60-UCD1, we present two initial findings from a follow-up search, using the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, Subaru/Suprime-Cam, and Hubble Space Telescope imaging, and SOuthern Astrophysical Research (SOAR)/Goodman spectroscopy. The first object discovered, M59-UCD3, has a similar size to M60-UCD1 (half-light radius of r{sub h} ∼ 20 pc) but is 40% more luminous (M{sub V} ∼ −14.6), making it the new densest-known galaxy. The second, M85-HCC1, has a size like a typical globular cluster (GC; r{sub h} ∼ 1.8 pc) but is much more luminous (M{sub V} ∼ −12.5). This hypercompact cluster is by far the densest confirmed free-floating stellar system, and is equivalent to the densest known nuclear star clusters. From spectroscopy, we find that both objects are relatively young (∼9 and ∼3 Gyr, respectively), with metal-abundances that resemble those of galaxy centers. Their host galaxies show clear signs of large-scale disturbances, and we conclude that these dense objects are the remnant nuclei of recently accreted galaxies. M59-UCD3 is an ideal target for follow-up with high-resolution imaging and spectroscopy to search for an overweight central supermassive black hole as was discovered in M60-UCD1. These findings also emphasize the potential value of ultra-compact dwarfs and massive GCs as tracers of the assembly histories of galaxies.

  16. Emperors in hiding: when ice-breakers and satellites complement each other in Antarctic exploration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Ancel

    Full Text Available Evaluating the demographic trends of marine top predators is critical to understanding the processes involved in the ongoing rapid changes in Antarctic ecosystems. However, the remoteness and logistical complexity of operating in Antarctica, especially during winter, make such an assessment difficult. Satellite imaging is increasingly recognised as a valuable method for remote animal population monitoring, yet its accuracy and reliability are still to be fully evaluated. We report here the first ground visit of an emperor penguin colony first discovered by satellite, but also the discovery of a second one not indicated by satellite survey at that time. Several successive remote surveys in this coastal region of East Antarctica, both before and after sudden local changes, had indeed only identified one colony. These two colonies (with a total of ca. 7,400 breeding pairs are located near the Mertz Glacier in an area that underwent tremendous habitat change after the glacier tongue broke off in February 2010. Our findings therefore suggest that a satellite survey, although offering a major advance since it allows a global imaging of emperor penguin colonies, may miss certain colony locations when challenged by certain features of polar ecosystems, such as snow cover, evolving ice topology, and rapidly changing habitat. Moreover our survey shows that this large seabird has considerable potential for rapid adaptation to sudden habitat loss, as the colony detected in 2009 may have moved and settled on new breeding grounds. Overall, the ability of emperor penguin colonies to relocate following habitat modification underlines the continued need for a mix of remote sensing and field surveys (aerial photography and ground counts, especially in the less-frequented parts of Antarctica, to gain reliable knowledge about the population demography and dynamics of this flagship species of the Antarctic ecosystem.

  17. Emperors in hiding: when ice-breakers and satellites complement each other in Antarctic exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancel, André; Cristofari, Robin; Fretwell, Peter T; Trathan, Phil N; Wienecke, Barbara; Boureau, Matthieu; Morinay, Jennifer; Blanc, Stéphane; Le Maho, Yvon; Le Bohec, Céline

    2014-01-01

    Evaluating the demographic trends of marine top predators is critical to understanding the processes involved in the ongoing rapid changes in Antarctic ecosystems. However, the remoteness and logistical complexity of operating in Antarctica, especially during winter, make such an assessment difficult. Satellite imaging is increasingly recognised as a valuable method for remote animal population monitoring, yet its accuracy and reliability are still to be fully evaluated. We report here the first ground visit of an emperor penguin colony first discovered by satellite, but also the discovery of a second one not indicated by satellite survey at that time. Several successive remote surveys in this coastal region of East Antarctica, both before and after sudden local changes, had indeed only identified one colony. These two colonies (with a total of ca. 7,400 breeding pairs) are located near the Mertz Glacier in an area that underwent tremendous habitat change after the glacier tongue broke off in February 2010. Our findings therefore suggest that a satellite survey, although offering a major advance since it allows a global imaging of emperor penguin colonies, may miss certain colony locations when challenged by certain features of polar ecosystems, such as snow cover, evolving ice topology, and rapidly changing habitat. Moreover our survey shows that this large seabird has considerable potential for rapid adaptation to sudden habitat loss, as the colony detected in 2009 may have moved and settled on new breeding grounds. Overall, the ability of emperor penguin colonies to relocate following habitat modification underlines the continued need for a mix of remote sensing and field surveys (aerial photography and ground counts), especially in the less-frequented parts of Antarctica, to gain reliable knowledge about the population demography and dynamics of this flagship species of the Antarctic ecosystem.

  18. Reality shows: uma abordagem psicossocial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Pereira Bueno Millan

    Full Text Available Desde os primórdios da civilização, o ser humano mostra necessidade de representar cenicamente seus dramas pessoais e vicissitudes existenciais. O "reality show" é uma das versões pós-modernas da encenação da vida humana. Este artigo, por meio de uma pesquisa bibliográfica, analisa criticamente as relações existentes entre o "reality show" e aspectos psicossociais do comportamento humano. Conclui-se que tais programas televisivos são o retrato da contemporaneidade, ou seja, revelam a morte do sujeito, a fugacidade das experiências vividas, a desvalorização da história e o culto à imagem e à superficialidade. Por meio da sedução do espectador, mobilizam-se aspectos primitivos de seu psiquismo, fazendo com que ele se sinta narcisicamente poderoso e onipotente e se acredite dono do destino dos participantes do programa. Sugerem-se novos estudos que contribuam para a reflexão crítica e maior conscientização.

  19. "Medicine show." Alice in Doctorland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    This is an excerpt from the script of a 1939 play provided to the Institute of Social Medicine and Community Health by the Library of Congress Federal Theater Project Collection at George Mason University Library, Fairfax, Virginia, pages 2-1-8 thru 2-1-14. The Federal Theatre Project (FTP) was part of the New Deal program for the arts 1935-1939. Funded by the Works Progress Administration (WPA) its goal was to employ theater professionals from the relief rolls. A number of FTP plays deal with aspects of medicine and public health. Pageants, puppet shows and documentary plays celebrated progress in medical science while examining social controversies in medical services and the public health movement. "Medicine Show" sharply contrasts technological wonders with social backwardness. The play was rehearsed by the FTP but never opened because funding ended. A revised version ran on Broadway in 1940. The preceding comments are adapted from an excellent, well-illustrated review of five of these plays by Barabara Melosh: "The New Deal's Federal Theatre Project," Medical Heritage, Vol. 2, No. 1 (Jan/Feb 1986), pp. 36-47.

  20. 针对Ghost还原的木马隐蔽驻留技术研究%Research on Trojan Horse Hiding and Residence Technology According to Ghost Restoration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑成; 王轶骏; 薛质

    2012-01-01

    Ghost reduction system is widely used in the computer system restoration, this technology is easy to use while contains certain safety hidden trouble. This paper first describes Ghost image file format, and tells of its analytical process and principles. And on this basis, this paper draws out the Trojan hiding and residence technology of the Ghost image reduction system, and analyzes the realization of command line tool which can penetrate the Ghost image file. This tool reads and analyzes Ghost image file, and then writes in the back door to their files, thus to realize the Trojan horse hiding and residence. This paper finally puts forth how to prevent and detect the hiding and residing Trojan by this method, and thus to ensure the integrity and safety of restored system.%Ghost还原系统已经被广泛应用于计算机的系统还原,该技术在使用方便的同时,也存在着安全隐患。文中首先介绍了Ghost映像文件的格式,并阐述其解析的过程和原理。然后在此基础上引出针对Ghost还原系统映像的木马隐蔽驻留技术,并剖析了所实现的Ghost映像文件穿越的命令行工具。该工具读取解析Ghost映像文件,然后往其中写入后门文件来实现木马的隐蔽驻留。最后提出了如何预防和检测利用该方法隐蔽驻留的木马,确保系统还原后的完整和安全。

  1. Casimir experiments showing saturation effects

    CERN Document Server

    Sernelius, Bo E

    2009-01-01

    We address several different Casimir experiments where theory and experiment disagree. First out is the classical Casimir force measurement between two metal half spaces; here both in the form of the torsion pendulum experiment by Lamoreaux and in the form of the Casimir pressure measurement between a gold sphere and a gold plate as performed by Decca et al.; theory predicts a large negative thermal correction, absent in the high precision experiments. The third experiment is the measurement of the Casimir force between a metal plate and a laser irradiated semiconductor membrane as performed by Chen et al.; the change in force with laser intensity is larger than predicted by theory. The fourth experiment is the measurement of the Casimir force between an atom and a wall in the form of the measurement by Obrecht et al. of the change in oscillation frequency of a 87 Rb Bose-Einstein condensate trapped to a fused silica wall; the change is smaller than predicted by theory. We show that saturation effects can exp...

  2. Hackers in Hiding:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ejvind

    2016-01-01

    . In this paper, I will analyse the conflict between the hacker movement and the field of corporate interests. I argue that the introduction of graphical user interfaces and the maintaining of copyright interests are the contingent background of the ongoing conflict. By bracketing the analyses of hidden...

  3. The aliens are hiding

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    In reply to the physicsworld.com news story “Trail goes cold on alien hotspots, for now” (28 April, http://ow.ly/MeOpZ; see also p5), which described the results of a survey that looked for unexplained pockets of infrared radiation that could have been produced by advanced alien civilizations.

  4. Jekyll and Hide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proft, Juliane; Weiss, Norbert

    2012-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases are a burden of our century. Although significant efforts were made to find a cure or relief to this scourge, their pathophysiology remains vague and the cellular function of the key involved proteins is still unclear. However, in the case of amyloid β (Aβ), a key protein concerned in Alzheimer disease, we are now a step closer in the unscrambling of its cellular functions. Interestingly, whereas the exact role of Aβ in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer disease is still unresolved, a recent study revealed a neuroprotective function of Aβ in multiple sclerosis with possibly promising therapeutic benefits. PMID:23181153

  5. Hide and seek

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radel, Dietrich; Sand, Andreas; Steel, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Finding optimal evolutionary trees from sequence data is typically an intractable problem, and there is usually no way of knowing how close to optimal the best tree from some search truly is. The problem would seem to be particularly acute when we have many taxa and when that data has high levels...

  6. [Food additives and healthiness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinonen, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Additives are used for improving food structure or preventing its spoilage, for example. Many substances used as additives are also naturally present in food. The safety of additives is evaluated according to commonly agreed principles. If high concentrations of an additive cause adverse health effects for humans, a limit of acceptable daily intake (ADI) is set for it. An additive is a risk only when ADI is exceeded. The healthiness of food is measured on the basis of nutrient density and scientifically proven effects.

  7. File Hide Method Based on Drive Stack Unit%基于驱动堆栈单元的文件隐藏方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何耀彬; 李祥和; 孙岩

    2011-01-01

    为能在操作系统的驱动级实现新的文件隐藏点,对传统的文件系统过滤驱动原理和驱动数据堆栈单元结构进行分析.通过修改驱动堆栈单元的结构和完成例程,配合修改I/O请求包的传递方法,实现2种驱动级文件隐藏的方法.使用该2种方法的文件可以在系统中实现深度隐藏,使得操作系统无法查询,也不能通过正常途径访问.%In order to get new file hidden points in drive-level of system, the principle of File System Filter Driver(FSFD) and the structure of driver stack location are analyzed. Through making some changes in driver stack location's structure and CompletionRoutine, besides modifying the I/O Requst Packet(IRP) delivery method, two methods to hide files are implemented. Hidden files using these methods achieve depth hide. They can not be queried by system or be accessed through normal channels.

  8. Additives in yoghurt production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milna Tudor

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available In yoghurt production, mainly because of sensory characteristics, different types of additives are used. Each group, and also each substance from the same group has different characteristics and properties. For that reason, for improvement of yoghurt sensory characteristics apart from addition selection, the quantity of the additive is very important. The same substance added in optimal amount improves yoghurt sensory attributes, but too small or too big addition can reduce yoghurt sensory attributes. In this paper, characteristics and properties of mostly used additives in yoghurt production are described; skimmed milk powder, whey powder, concentrated whey powder, sugars and artificial sweeteners, fruits, stabilizers, casein powder, inulin and vitamins. Also the impact of each additive on sensory and physical properties of yoghurt, syneresis and viscosity, are described, depending on used amount added in yoghurt production.

  9. Wire + Arc Additive Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Stewart W.; Martina, Filomeno; Addison, Adrian C.; Ding, Jialuo; Pardal, Goncalo; Colegrove, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    Depositing large components (>10 kg) in titanium, aluminium, steel and other metals is possible using Wire + Arc Additive Manufacturing. This technology adopts arc welding tools and wire as feedstock for additive manufacturing purposes. High deposition rates, low material and equipment costs, and good structural integrity make Wire+Arc Additive Manufacturing a suitable candidate for replacing the current method of manufacturing from solid billets or large forgings, especially with regards to ...

  10. Additive Manufactured Product Integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Jess; Wells, Doug; James, Steve; Nichols, Charles

    2017-01-01

    NASA is providing key leadership in an international effort linking NASA and non-NASA resources to speed adoption of additive manufacturing (AM) to meet NASA's mission goals. Participants include industry, NASA's space partners, other government agencies, standards organizations and academia. Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) is identified as a universal need for all aspects of additive manufacturing.

  11. Polylactides in additive biomanufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poh, Patrina S P; Chhaya, Mohit P; Wunner, Felix M; De-Juan-Pardo, Elena M; Schilling, Arndt F; Schantz, Jan-Thorsten; van Griensven, Martijn; Hutmacher, Dietmar W

    2016-12-15

    New advanced manufacturing technologies under the alias of additive biomanufacturing allow the design and fabrication of a range of products from pre-operative models, cutting guides and medical devices to scaffolds. The process of printing in 3 dimensions of cells, extracellular matrix (ECM) and biomaterials (bioinks, powders, etc.) to generate in vitro and/or in vivo tissue analogue structures has been termed bioprinting. To further advance in additive biomanufacturing, there are many aspects that we can learn from the wider additive manufacturing (AM) industry, which have progressed tremendously since its introduction into the manufacturing sector. First, this review gives an overview of additive manufacturing and both industry and academia efforts in addressing specific challenges in the AM technologies to drive toward AM-enabled industrial revolution. After which, considerations of poly(lactides) as a biomaterial in additive biomanufacturing are discussed. Challenges in wider additive biomanufacturing field are discussed in terms of (a) biomaterials; (b) computer-aided design, engineering and manufacturing; (c) AM and additive biomanufacturing printers hardware; and (d) system integration. Finally, the outlook for additive biomanufacturing was discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Additive Gaussian Processes

    CERN Document Server

    Duvenaud, David; Rasmussen, Carl Edward

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a Gaussian process model of functions which are additive. An additive function is one which decomposes into a sum of low-dimensional functions, each depending on only a subset of the input variables. Additive GPs generalize both Generalized Additive Models, and the standard GP models which use squared-exponential kernels. Hyperparameter learning in this model can be seen as Bayesian Hierarchical Kernel Learning (HKL). We introduce an expressive but tractable parameterization of the kernel function, which allows efficient evaluation of all input interaction terms, whose number is exponential in the input dimension. The additional structure discoverable by this model results in increased interpretability, as well as state-of-the-art predictive power in regression tasks.

  13. Dual-emissive nanoarchitecture of lanthanide-complex-modified silica particles for in vivo ratiometric time-gated luminescence imaging of hypochlorous acid† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Characterization of the new compounds, Fig. S1–S12 and a video showing the real-time uptake and accumulation of HClO in living Daphnia magna using the RTLNP as a probe. See DOI: 10.1039/c6sc02243j Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hua; Wang, Yuanxiu; Cong, Deyuan; Jiang, Yufei

    2017-01-01

    We have developed a ratiometric time-gated luminescence sensory system for in vivo imaging of hypochlorous acid (HClO) by preparing a dual-emissive nanoarchitecture of europium- and terbium-complex-modified silica nanoparticles. The design of this nanoarchitecture is based on our new finding that the strong, long-lived luminescence of the β-diketonate–Eu3+ complex can be rapidly and selectively quenched by HClO. Therefore, the β-diketonate–Eu3+ complex was decorated on the surface of the silica nanoparticles for responding to HClO, while a HClO-insensitive luminescent terbium complex was immobilized in the inner solid core of the nanoparticles to serve as an internal standard. This nanosensing probe combines the advantages of both ratiometric and time-gated detection modes to afford high accuracy and sensitivity. Upon exposure to HClO, the nanoprobe displayed a remarkable luminescence color change from red to green, and the intensity ratio of the green over the red luminescence (I 539/I 607) showed a rapid, sensitive and selective response to HClO. Additionally, the feasibility of using the nanoprobe for intracellular detection of exogenous and endogenous HClO and for real-time mapping of HClO in small laboratory animals has been demonstrated via ratiometric time-gated luminescence imaging microscopy. The results reveal that the constructed nanoarchitecture cloud is a favorable and useful sensing probe for the real-time imaging of HClO in vivo with high specificity and contrast. PMID:28451159

  14. Additive and polynomial representations

    CERN Document Server

    Krantz, David H; Suppes, Patrick

    1971-01-01

    Additive and Polynomial Representations deals with major representation theorems in which the qualitative structure is reflected as some polynomial function of one or more numerical functions defined on the basic entities. Examples are additive expressions of a single measure (such as the probability of disjoint events being the sum of their probabilities), and additive expressions of two measures (such as the logarithm of momentum being the sum of log mass and log velocity terms). The book describes the three basic procedures of fundamental measurement as the mathematical pivot, as the utiliz

  15. Food additives data book

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, Jim; Hong-Shum, Lily

    2011-01-01

    .... Compiled by food industry experts with a proven track record of producing high quality reference work, this volume is the definitive resource for technologists using food additives"-- "The use...

  16. Groups – Additive Notation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coghetto Roland

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We translate the articles covering group theory already available in the Mizar Mathematical Library from multiplicative into additive notation. We adapt the works of Wojciech A. Trybulec [41, 42, 43] and Artur Korniłowicz [25].

  17. Food Additives and Hyperkinesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wender, Ester H.

    1977-01-01

    The hypothesis that food additives are causally associated with hyperkinesis and learning disabilities in children is reviewed, and available data are summarized. Available from: American Medical Association 535 North Dearborn Street Chicago, Illinois 60610. (JG)

  18. Additively Manufactured Propulsion System

    OpenAIRE

    Dushku, Matthew; Mueller, Paul

    2012-01-01

    New high-performance, carbon-fiber reinforced polymer material allows additive manufacturing to produce pressure vessels capable of high pressures (thousands of pounds per square inch). This advancement in turn allows integral hybrid propulsion which is revolutionary for both CubeSats and additively-manufactured spacecraft. Hybrid propulsion offers simplicity as compared to bipropellant liquid propulsion, significantly better safety compared to solid or monopropellant hydrazine propulsion, an...

  19. Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddy, Darrell

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing is a rapid prototyping technology that allows parts to be built in a series of thin layers from plastic, ceramics, and metallics. Metallic additive manufacturing is an emerging form of rapid prototyping that allows complex structures to be built using various metallic powders. Significant time and cost savings have also been observed using the metallic additive manufacturing compared with traditional techniques. Development of the metallic additive manufacturing technology has advanced significantly over the last decade, although many of the techniques to inspect parts made from these processes have not advanced significantly or have limitations. Several external geometry inspection techniques exist such as Coordinate Measurement Machines (CMM), Laser Scanners, Structured Light Scanning Systems, or even traditional calipers and gages. All of the aforementioned techniques are limited to external geometry and contours or must use a contact probe to inspect limited internal dimensions. This presentation will document the development of a process for real-time dimensional inspection technique and digital quality record of the additive manufacturing process using Infrared camera imaging and processing techniques.

  20. Alternative additives; Alternative additiver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-08-15

    In this project a number of industrial and agricultural waste products have been characterised and evaluated in terms of alkali-getter performance. The intended use is for biomass-fired power stations aiming at reducing corrosion or slagging related problems. The following products have been obtained, characterised and evaluated: 1) Brewery draff 2) Danish de-gassed manure 3) Paper sludge 4) Moulding sand 5) Spent bleaching earth 6) Anorthosite 7) Sand 8) Clay-sludge. Most of the above alternative additive candidates are deemed unsuitable due to insufficient chemical effect and/or expensive requirements for pre-treatment (such as drying and transportation). 3 products were selected for full-scale testing: de-gassed manure, spent bleaching earth and clay slugde. The full scale tests were undertaken at the biomass-fired power stations in Koege, Slagelse and Ensted. Spent bleaching earth (SBE) and clay sludge were the only tested additive candidates that had a proven ability to react with KCl, to thereby reduce Cl-concentrations in deposits, and reduce the deposit flux to superheater tubes. Their performance was shown to nearly as good as commercial additives. De-gassed manure, however, did not evaluate positively due to inhibiting effects of Ca in the manure. Furthermore, de-gassed manure has a high concentration of heavy metals, which imposes a financial burden with regard to proper disposal of the ash by-products. Clay-sludge is a wet clay slurring, and drying and transportation of this product entails substantial costs. Spent bleaching does not require much pre-treatment and is therefore the most promising alternative additive. On the other hand, bleaching earth contains residual plant oil which means that a range of legislation relating to waste combustion comes into play. Not least a waste combustion fee of 330 DKK/tonne. For all alternative (and commercial) additives disposal costs of the increase ash by-products represents a significant cost. This is

  1. From additivity to synergism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritz, Christian; Streibig, Jens Carl

    2014-01-01

    Interest in synergistic or antagonistic effects through mixture experiments has grown immensely over the past two decades, not the least within in pharmacology and toxicology. Several definitions of reference models exist; one commonly used reference model is concentration or dose addition, which...... assumes compounds, when administrated simultaneously, do not interfere with each other at the site of action. We focus on statistical modelling that allows evaluation of dose addition. We will describe several statistical approaches that are suitable for analysis mixture data where synergistic...... or antagonistic effects may be present. The statistical models are defined and explained and some of the approaches exemplified. Code in open-source software is provided....

  2. Additives for the Axe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On May 1,China will begin to ban the production and use of two food additives commonly used to "bleach" flour,benzoyl peroxide and calcium peroxide.The decision was made after 10 years of wrangling between the policy makers,manufacturers,scientists and consumers.The Ministry of Health said in a statement it was applying the ban in response to consumers’ concerns about chemical substances in food,and technical improvements that had made the two additives unnecessary in flour processing.Minister of Health Chen Zhu has also said

  3. 信息隐藏技术在HTML标签中的应用%Application of Information Hiding Technology to HTML Tags

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈莉莉

    2011-01-01

    为了解决网页程序的安全问题,针对网页程序中的HTML代码提出了一种基于不可见字符和字母大小写变化无关的信息隐藏方法,该方法具有较大的信息隐藏量和较好的隐蔽性.%Aiming at HTML code,this paper proposes information hiding methods based on invisible characters and irrelevant letter case changes in order to ensure the safety of web page pragram.The method has a relatively large hidden information capacity and concealment.

  4. Biobased lubricant additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fully biobased lubricants are those formulated using all biobased ingredients, i.e. biobased base oils and biobased additives. Such formulations provide the maximum environmental, safety, and economic benefits expected from a biobased product. Currently, there are a number of biobased base oils that...

  5. The attraction of virgin female hide beetles (Dermestes maculatus to cadavers by a combination of decomposition odour and male sex pheromones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    von Hoermann Christian

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The hide beetle Dermestes maculatus (Coleoptera: Dermestidae feeds as an adult and larva on decomposing animal remains and can also be found on human corpses. Therefore, forensic entomological questions with regard to when and how the first receptive females appear on carcasses are important, as the developmental stages of their larvae can be used to calculate the post-mortem interval. To date, we know that freshly emerged males respond to the cadaver odour of post-bloated carcasses (approximately 9 days after death at Tmean = 27°C, being attracted by benzyl butyrate. This component occurs at its highest concentration at this stage of decay. The aim of our study was to determine the principle of attraction of virgin females to the feeding and breeding substrate. For this purpose, we tested the response of these females to headspace samples of piglet cadavers and male sex pheromones [(Z9-unsaturated fatty acid isopropyl esters] in a Y-olfactometer. Because we expected that such an odour combination is of importance for virgin female attraction, we tested the following two questions: 1 Are virgin female hide beetles attracted by a combination of cadaver odour and male sex pheromones? 2 During which decomposition stage do the first virgin females respond to cadaver odour when combined with male sex pheromones? Results We found that young virgin females were attracted to the cadaver by a combination of cadaver odour and male sex pheromones. Neither cadaver odour alone nor male sex pheromones alone was significantly more attractive than a solvent control. Our results also gave a weak indication that the first young virgin females respond as early as the post-bloating stage to its associated decomposition odour when combined with male sex pheromones. Conclusions Our results indicate that freshly emerged males possibly respond to cadaver odour and visit carcasses before virgin females. Being attracted to cadavers when male sex

  6. Why Do Listed Companies Hide Their Good Earnings Information? A Study of the Motive for the Violation of Mandatory Earnings Guidance Based on Market Value Management%上市公司为何隐瞒利好的业绩?)基于市值管理的业绩不预告动机研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆蓉; 潘宏

    2012-01-01

    Based on the actual execution data of earnings forecast, this paper studies the behavior of hiding good earnings information from the perspective of market value manage- ment of listed companies. The empirical results show that earnings forecast leads to the quick decrease in investors~ opinion divergence and the stock prices will rapidly reduce ac- cording to the assumption raised by Miller in 1977. In order to achieve the goal of maximi- zing the market value, managers have incentives to hide good earnings information. It enri- ches researches on earnings forecast and earnings announcement and provides reference for the regulation over information disclosure and investment decision-making.%本文利用业绩预告实际执行数据,从上市公司市值管理角度对上市公司隐瞒利好业绩这一行为的动机和原理进行了研究。实证结果显示,业绩预告会导致投资者意见分歧迅速减少,根据Miller(1977)假说,股价将会迅速降低。为实现市值最大化的目标,管理者有动力不预告利好的业绩信息。本文的研究丰富了业绩预告、盈余公告研究的相关理论,研究结论对于信息披露的监管和投资决策提供了参考。

  7. Ancient bacteria show evidence of DNA repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, Sarah Stewart; Hebsgaard, Martin B; Christensen, Torben R

    2007-01-01

    Recent claims of cultivable ancient bacteria within sealed environments highlight our limited understanding of the mechanisms behind long-term cell survival. It remains unclear how dormancy, a favored explanation for extended cellular persistence, can cope with spontaneous genomic decay over......-term survival of bacteria sealed in frozen conditions for up to one million years. Our results show evidence of bacterial survival in samples up to half a million years in age, making this the oldest independently authenticated DNA to date obtained from viable cells. Additionally, we find strong evidence...... that this long-term survival is closely tied to cellular metabolic activity and DNA repair that over time proves to be superior to dormancy as a mechanism in sustaining bacteria viability....

  8. Additive Manufacturing of Hybrid Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarobol, Pylin; Cook, Adam; Clem, Paul G.; Keicher, David; Hirschfeld, Deidre; Hall, Aaron C.; Bell, Nelson S.

    2016-07-01

    There is a rising interest in developing functional electronics using additively manufactured components. Considerations in materials selection and pathways to forming hybrid circuits and devices must demonstrate useful electronic function; must enable integration; and must complement the complex shape, low cost, high volume, and high functionality of structural but generally electronically passive additively manufactured components. This article reviews several emerging technologies being used in industry and research/development to provide integration advantages of fabricating multilayer hybrid circuits or devices. First, we review a maskless, noncontact, direct write (DW) technology that excels in the deposition of metallic colloid inks for electrical interconnects. Second, we review a complementary technology, aerosol deposition (AD), which excels in the deposition of metallic and ceramic powder as consolidated, thick conformal coatings and is additionally patternable through masking. Finally, we show examples of hybrid circuits/devices integrated beyond 2-D planes, using combinations of DW or AD processes and conventional, established processes.

  9. Additive manufacturing of tunable lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlichting, Katja; Novak, Tobias; Heinrich, Andreas

    2017-02-01

    Individual additive manufacturing of optical systems based on 3D Printing offers varied possibilities in design and usage. In addition to the additive manufacturing procedure, the usage of tunable lenses allows further advantages for intelligent optical systems. Our goal is to bring the advantages of additive manufacturing together with the huge potential of tunable lenses. We produced tunable lenses as a bundle without any further processing steps, like polishing. The lenses were designed and directly printed with a 3D Printer as a package. The design contains the membrane as an optical part as well as the mechanical parts of the lens, like the attachments for the sleeves which contain the oil. The dynamic optical lenses were filled with an oil. The focal length of the lenses changes due to a change of the radius of curvature. This change is caused by changing the pressure in the inside of the lens. In addition to that, we designed lenses with special structures to obtain different areas with an individual optical power. We want to discuss the huge potential of this technology for several applications. Further, an appropriate controlling system is needed. Wéll show the possibilities to control and regulate the optical power of the lenses. The lenses could be used for illumination tasks, and in the future, for individual measurement tasks. The main advantage is the individuality and the possibility to create an individual design which completely fulfills the requirements for any specific application.

  10. Sarks as additional fermions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Jyoti; Frampton, Paul H.; Jack Ng, Y.; Nishino, Hitoshi; Yasuda, Osamu

    1991-03-01

    An extension of the standard model is proposed. The gauge group is SU(2) X ⊗ SU(3) C ⊗ SU(2) S ⊗ U(1) Q, where all gauge symmetries are unbroken. The colour and electric charge are combined with SU(2) S which becomes strongly coupled at approximately 500 GeV and binds preons to form fermionic and vector bound states. The usual quarks and leptons are singlets under SU(2) X but additional fermions, called sarks. transform under it and the electroweak group. The present model explains why no more than three light quark-lepton families can exist. Neutral sark baryons, called narks, are candidates for the cosmological dark matter having the characteristics designed for WIMPS. Further phenomenological implications of sarks are analyzed i including electron-positron annihilation. Z 0 decay, flavor-changing neutral currents. baryon-number non-conservation, sarkonium and the neutron electric dipole moment.

  11. Perspectives on Additive Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourell, David L.

    2016-07-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has skyrocketed in visibility commercially and in the public sector. This article describes the development of this field from early layered manufacturing approaches of photosculpture, topography, and material deposition. Certain precursors to modern AM processes are also briefly described. The growth of the field over the last 30 years is presented. Included is the standard delineation of AM technologies into seven broad categories. The economics of AM part generation is considered, and the impacts of the economics on application sectors are described. On the basis of current trends, the future outlook will include a convergence of AM fabricators, mass-produced AM fabricators, enabling of topology optimization designs, and specialization in the AM legal arena. Long-term developments with huge impact are organ printing and volume-based printing.

  12. When ontogeny reveals what phylogeny hides: gain and loss of horns during development and evolution of horned beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moczek, Armin P; Cruickshank, Tami E; Shelby, Andrew

    2006-11-01

    How ecological, developmental and genetic mechanisms interact in the genesis and subsequent diversification of morphological novelties is unknown for the vast majority of traits and organisms. Here we explore the ecological, developmental, and genetic underpinnings of a class of traits that is both novel and highly diverse: beetle horns. Specifically, we focus on the origin and diversification of a particular horn type, those protruding from the pronotum, in the genus Onthophagus, a particularly speciose and morphologically diverse genus of horned beetles. We begin by documenting immature development of nine Onthophagus species and show that all of these species express pronotal horns in a developmentally transient fashion in at least one or both sexes. Similar to species that retain their horns to adulthood, transient horns grow during late larval development and are clearly visible in pupae. However, unlike species that express horns as adults, transient horns are resorbed during pupal development. In a large number of species this mechanisms allows fully horned pupae to molt into entirely hornless adults. Consequently, far more Onthophagus species appear to possess the ability to develop pronotal horns than is indicated by their adult phenotypes. We use our data to expand a recent phylogeny of the genus Onthophagus to explore how the widespread existence of developmentally transient horns alters our understanding of the origin and dynamics of morphological innovation and diversification in this genus. We find that including transient horn development into the phylogeny dramatically reduces the number of independent origins required to explain extant diversity patters and suggest that pronotal horns may have originated only a few times, or possibly only once, during early Onthophagus evolution. We then propose a new and previously undescribed function for pronotal horns during immature development. We provide histological as well as experimental data that

  13. Tweaking Synchronisation by Link Addition

    CERN Document Server

    Schultz, Paul; Eroglu, Deniz; Stemler, Thomas; Ávila, G Marcelo Ramírez; Rodrigues, Francisco A; Kurths, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Natural and man-made networks often possess locally tree-like sub-structures. Taking such tree networks as our starting point, we show how the addition of links changes the synchronization properties of the network. We focus on two different methods of link addition. The first method adds single links that create cycles of a well-defined length. Following a topological approach we introduce cycles of varying length and analyze how this feature, as well as the position in the network, alters the synchronous behaviour. We show that in particular short cycles can lead to a maximum change of the Laplacian's eigenvalue spectrum, dictating the synchronization properties of such networks. The second method connects a certain proportion of the initially unconnected nodes. We simulate dynamical systems on these network topologies, with the nodes' local dynamics being either a discrete or continuous. Here our main result is that a certain amount of additional links, with the relative position in the network being cruci...

  14. The earliest published electrocardiogram showing ventricular preexcitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Knorre, Georg H

    2005-03-01

    When in 1930, Wolff, Parkinson, and White published what is today known as the WPW, or preexcitation syndrome, they, and subsequently others, found few comparable cases in the preceding literature. Among these the report of Cohn and Fraser, published in 1913, was the earliest. However, another even earlier documentation in a 1909 article by Hoffmann escaped notice till now. The ECG of a patient with paroxysmal tachycardia reveals a short PR interval and a delta-wave-induced widening of the QRS complex, even though the reproduced tachycardia was not preexcitation related. The interpretation of this poorly reproduced ECG can be confirmed by another and more detailed description of the patient in an electrocardiography textbook published in 1914 by the same author. Thus, the earliest publication of an ECG showing ventricular preexcitation now can be dated back to 1909. Moreover, the Hoffmann monograph contains two additional examples of the WPW syndrome not noticed until now. All three cases published by Hoffmann had their first ECG recordings in 1912 or earlier.

  15. Use of model super-shedders to define the role of pen floor and hide contamination in the transmission of Escherichia coli O157:H7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, K; Stephens, T P; McAllister, T A

    2011-01-01

    Super-shedders, cattle shedding at least 10(4) cfu of Escherichia coli O157:H7 per gram of feces, increase the risks of contaminating the food chain and disseminating the organism through cattle populations. Because detecting super-shedders in cattle populations is laborious and time-consuming, a study was conducted to evaluate the role of hide and pen-floor contamination by model super shedders (MSS) in transmission of E. coli O157:H7. Steers (n = 48) negative for E. coli O157:H7 were allocated to 6 pens, with 2 replicate pens per treatment. Treatment A consisted of 3,000 g of feces inoculated with 10(6) cfu/g of a 5-strain mixture of nalidixic acid-resistant E. coli O157:H7 and spread in simulated fecal pats on the pen floor for d 0 through 4 and d 14 through 18. For treatment B, 100 g of the feces per day was spread on the perineum of 1 MSS per pen, and the remaining feces was placed on the pen floor as fecal pats similar to treatment A. Treatment C differed from B in that 50 g of feces was spread on the perineum and 50 g on the brisket of the MSS steer. Fecal samples, perineal swabs (500-cm(2) area around the anus), freshly voided fecal pats and manila rope samples were collected during a 56-d experimental period. More positive rope samples were found in treatments B and C compared with A (P = 0.05), and steers within treatments B and C were 1.3 times more likely (P = 0.05) to shed E. coli O157:H7 in their feces than steers in treatment A. Even though the number of E. coli O157:H7 introduced into pens was similar, results indicate an increased importance of hide compared with pen-floor contamination for transmission of this organism to cattle. Because cattle within treatment B were persistently colonized with E. coli O157:H7, this design should prove suitable for future studies investigating the role of super-shedders in the transmission of E. coli O157:H7.

  16. Playing Hide and Seek: How Glycosylation of the Influenza Virus Hemagglutinin Can Modulate the Immune Response to Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle D. Tate

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal influenza A viruses (IAV originate from pandemic IAV and have undergone changes in antigenic structure, including addition of glycans to the hemagglutinin (HA glycoprotein. The viral HA is the major target recognized by neutralizing antibodies and glycans have been proposed to shield antigenic sites on HA, thereby promoting virus survival in the face of widespread vaccination and/or infection. However, addition of glycans can also interfere with the receptor binding properties of HA and this must be compensated for by additional mutations, creating a fitness barrier to accumulation of glycosylation sites. In addition, glycans on HA are also recognized by phylogenetically ancient lectins of the innate immune system and the benefit provided by evasion of humoral immunity is balanced by attenuation of infection. Therefore, a fine balance must exist regarding the optimal pattern of HA glycosylation to offset competing pressures associated with recognition by innate defenses, evasion of humoral immunity and maintenance of virus fitness. In this review, we examine HA glycosylation patterns of IAV associated with pandemic and seasonal influenza and discuss recent advancements in our understanding of interactions between IAV glycans and components of innate and adaptive immunity.

  17. 基于超文本标记语言的信息隐藏方法研究与实现%Research and Implementation of the Information Hiding Technology Based on Hypertext Markup Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴大胜

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes the structure of the hypertext files,proposes a new information hiding technology based on hypertext markup language,and analyze the algorithm.%通过分析超文本的文件结构,提出了一种基于超文本标记语言的信息隐藏方法,并对该算法进行了分析。

  18. Show Horse Welfare: Horse Show Competitors' Understanding, Awareness, and Perceptions of Equine Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Melissa A; Hiney, Kristina; Richardson, Jennifer C; Waite, Karen; Borron, Abigail; Brady, Colleen M

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of stock-type horse show competitors' understanding of welfare and level of concern for stock-type show horses' welfare. Data were collected through an online questionnaire that included questions relating to (a) interest and general understanding of horse welfare, (b) welfare concerns of the horse show industry and specifically the stock-type horse show industry, (c) decision-making influences, and (d) level of empathic characteristics. The majority of respondents indicated they agree or strongly agree that physical metrics should be a factor when assessing horse welfare, while fewer agreed that behavioral and mental metrics should be a factor. Respondent empathy levels were moderate to high and were positively correlated with the belief that mental and behavioral metrics should be a factor in assessing horse welfare. Respondents indicated the inhumane practices that most often occur at stock-type shows include excessive jerking on reins, excessive spurring, and induced excessive unnatural movement. Additionally, respondents indicated association rules, hired trainers, and hired riding instructors are the most influential regarding the decisions they make related to their horses' care and treatment.

  19. Individualized additional instruction for calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takata, Ken

    2010-10-01

    College students enrolling in the calculus sequence have a wide variance in their preparation and abilities, yet they are usually taught from the same lecture. We describe another pedagogical model of Individualized Additional Instruction (IAI) that assesses each student frequently and prescribes further instruction and homework based on the student's performance. Our study compares two calculus classes, one taught with mandatory remedial IAI and the other without. The class with mandatory remedial IAI did significantly better on comprehensive multiple-choice exams, participated more frequently in classroom discussion and showed greater interest in theorem-proving and other advanced topics.

  20. 阿胶红枣黄芪山楂糕制作复合裱花蛋糕研究%Donkey Hide Gelatin Jujube Astragalus Haw Jelly Research Making Decorated Cake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王广峰

    2014-01-01

    以阿胶红枣、黄芪为原料生产出阿胶、黄芪山楂糕,以此为基础制作复合裱花蛋糕,不仅研制开发了阿胶红枣、黄芪山楂糕裱花蛋糕新产品,而且该产品具有较高的营养价值、保健价值、食用价值。运用模糊数学法对不同生产方法生产的裱花蛋糕进行质量评判。%Donkey hide gelatin jujube、astragalus membranaceus as raw material to produce donkey hide gelatin , astragalus membranaceus haw jelly, on this basis, making Decorated cake, not only developed the donkey hide gelatin jujube、astragalus membranaceus decorating haw jelly cake of new products, and the product has high nutritive value、health care value and edible value. Using the fuzzy mathematics method to different production methods of decorating cakes for quality evaluation.

  1. Audio Information Hiding Algorithm Based on Knapsack Public-key%一种基于背包公钥的语音信息隐藏算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付喜辉; 丁文龙

    2011-01-01

    针对在传榆语音秘密信息过程中存在破坏或窃取的问题,提出一种鲁棒性较强的信息隐藏方法.把一段语言作为秘密信息隐藏到宿主音频中,在公共信道中传递秘密信息.该算法是根据人类听觉系统在小波域中嵌入秘密信息,并且利用背包公钥可以使隐藏的信息具有加密功能.对于外界的噪声、压缩、滤波干扰有很强的抗干扰能力.%Secret audio message has to experience all kinds of attacks during transporting. This paper presents a steganography algorithm with strong robustness. It embeds a speech as the secret message into original audio signal, and transmits the secret message in the public channel. The algorithm makes use of Human Auditory System (HAS) characteristics and embeds secret message in the wavelet domain. With knapsack public-key, the algorithm not only encrypts the hiding information but also encrypting the information. It also has strong anti-disturbance ability against noise, compression and filter.

  2. 基于文本特征的信息隐藏策略%Characteristics of Text-based Information Hiding Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨棉绒

    2011-01-01

    Information hiding technology occupy an increasingly important position in today's war and confidential business, and text messages are the primary means of electronic information dissemination because of its less redundancy, easy to spread, easy to check and so on. Considering the text messages can be set as various text formats, we put forward a embedding and extraction strategies by using the characteristic of text.%信息隐藏技术在如今信息战争与商业机密传递中占据了越来越重要的地位,而文本信息由于其冗余较少、便于传播、易于校验等特点是目前电子信息传播的主要手段。利用字处理软件书写文本时可对文本信息设置各种文本格式这一特点,提出了一种利用文本特征进行信息隐藏的嵌入和提取策略。

  3. Run, hide, or fight: anti-predation strategies in endangered red-nosed cuxiú (Chiropotes albinasus, Pitheciidae) in southeastern Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Adrian A; Silla, João M; de Oliveira, Tadeu; Boyle, Sarah A; Bezerra, Bruna M; Spironello, Wilson R; Setz, Eleonore Z F; da Silva, Rafaela F Soares; de Albuquerque Teixeira, Samara; Todd, Lucy M; Pinto, Liliam P

    2017-01-23

    Although primate predation is rarely observed, a series of primate anti-predation strategies have been described. Energetic costs of such strategies can vary from high-cost mobbing, via less costly alarm calling, to low-cost furtive concealment. Here we report the anti-predation strategies of red-nosed cuxiú, Chiropotes albinasus, based on direct observations from four study sites in southeastern Brazilian Amazonia. Over a collective period of 1255 fieldwork hours, we observed nine direct interactions between raptors (all potential predators) and red-nosed cuxiús. Of these, one (11%) resulted in predation. Raptors involved were: Harpia harpyja (four events), Leucopternis sp. (two events), Spizaëtus tyrannus (one event), and unidentified large raptors (two events). Predation attempts occurred in flooded-forest and terra firme rainforest, were directed at both adult and non-adult cuxiús, and involved both adult and juvenile raptors. Anti-predation strategies adopted by the cuxiús included: (1) group defence and mobbing behaviour (two occasions), (2) dropping into dense sub-canopy (seven occasions), (3) alarm calling (eight occasions), and (4) fleeing to, and hiding in, dense vegetation (eight occasions). During each encounter at least two of these behaviours were recorded. These are the first published records of predation, predation attempts, and anti-predator behaviour involving red-nosed cuxiú.

  4. Effect of glutathione addition in sparkling wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Vanessa; Dutra, Sandra Valduga; Spinelli, Fernanda Rodrigues; Marcon, Ângela Rossi; Carnieli, Gilberto João; Vanderlinde, Regina

    2014-09-15

    This study aims to evaluate the effect of the addition of glutathione (GSH) on secondary aromas and on the phenolic compounds of sparkling wine elaborated by traditional method. It was added 10 and 20 mg L(-1) of GSH to must and to base wine. The determination of aroma compounds was performed by gas chromatography. Phenolic compounds and glutathione content were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. Sparkling wines with addition of GSH to must showed lower levels of total phenolic compounds and hydroxycinnamic acids. Furthermore, the sparkling wine with addition of GSH to must showed higher levels of 2-phenylethanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol and diethyl succinate, and lower concentrations of ethyl decanoate, octanoic and decanoic acids. The GSH addition to the must show a greater influence on sparkling wine than to base wine, however GSH addition to base wine seems retain higher SO2 free levels. The concentration of GSH added showed no significant difference.

  5. Additive-driven assembly of block copolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ying; Daga, Vikram; Anderson, Eric; Watkins, James

    2011-03-01

    One challenge to the formation of well ordered hybrid materials is the incorporation of nanoscale additives including metal, semiconductor and dielectric nanoparticles at high loadings while maintaining strong segregation. Here we describe the molecular and functional design of small molecule and nanoparticle additives that enhance phase segregation in their block copolymer host and enable high additive loadings. Our approach includes the use of hydrogen bond interactions between the functional groups on the additive or particle that serve as hydrogen bond donors and one segment of the block copolymer containing hydrogen bond acceptors. Further, the additives show strong selectively towards the targeted domains, leading to enhancements in contrast between properties of the phases. In addition to structural changes, we explore how large changes in the thermal and mechanical properties occur upon incorporation of the additives. Generalization of this additive-induced ordering strategy to various block copolymers will be discussed.

  6. Why Do Oncologists Hide the Truth? Disclosure of Cancer Diagnoses to Patients in China: A Multisource Assessment using Mixed Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Yiqun; Zheng, Lei; Yu, Nancy Xiaonan; Zhou, Guanyu; Miao, Miao; Lu, Qian

    2017-08-23

    In the USA and most European countries, cancer diagnoses are disclosed to patients. In China, however, the trend towards full disclosure has progressed slowly. The present study aimed to explore attitudes toward truth-telling practice among physicians, patients, patients' family members, and the general population, and reasons for non-disclosure. We administered a short survey to 212 physicians, 143 patients with cancer, 413 family members of patients with cancer, and 1,415 members of the general population. A MANOVA was performed to examine group differences in attitudes toward cancer disclosure. In addition, we interviewed 20 oncologists. Interview data was analyzed using NVivo10. After the interview, we administered another short survey to 143 patients with cancer. Quantitative data indicated that physicians were the least, and patients the most, in favor of disclosure. Qualitative data among physicians and follow-up surveys among cancer patients revealed five reasons for the concealment of cancer diagnoses by physicians, including lack of awareness of patients' right to knowledge, cultural influences, insufficient medical resources and training, families' financial concerns, and the need to protect doctors from violence. There is a discrepancy between the needs of patients and those in medical practice. These results deepen our understanding regarding the reasons for oncologists' attitudes towards non-disclosure. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  7. Do You Have Anything to Hide? Infidelity-Related Behaviors on Social Media Sites and Marital Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Brandon T; Drouin, Michelle; Cravens, Jaclyn D

    2017-01-01

    Social media provides one route to behaviors that may be potentially harmful to romantic relationships, such as communicating with alternative partners, which can sometimes create relationship conflict, breakups, or divorce. Limited empirical evidence exists concerning social media infidelity-related behaviors and marital relationships. This study examined whether married/cohabiting individuals are using social media sites to engage in online infidelity-related behaviors and to what extent this related to relationship satisfaction, ambivalence, and relational attachment characteristics as reported by 338 married/cohabiting individuals from 176 families. Only a small percentage of married/cohabiting couples reported engaging in social media infidelity-related behaviors; however, more engagement in infidelity-related behaviors on social media was significantly related to lower relationship satisfaction, higher relationship ambivalence, and greater attachment avoidance and anxiety in both women and men. Additionally, attachment anxiety and gender interacted with relationship satisfaction in predicting online infidelity-related behaviors when controlling for other variables. Implications are discussed.

  8. Playing hide-and-seek with host macrophages through the use of mycobacterial cell envelope phthiocerol dimycocerosates and phenolic glycolipids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ainhoa eARBUES

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterial pathogens, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the etiological agent of tuberculosis (TB, have evolved a remarkable ability to evade the immune system in order to survive and to colonize the host. Among the most important evasion strategies is the capacity of these bacilli to parasitize host macrophages, since these are major effector cells against intracellular pathogens that can be used as long-term cellular reservoirs. Mycobacterial pathogens employ an array of virulence factors that manipulate macrophage function to survive and establish infection. Until recently, however, the role of mycobacterial cell envelope lipids as virulence factors in macrophage subversion has remained elusive. Here, we will address exclusively the proposed role for phthiocerol dimycocerosates (DIM in the modulation of the resident macrophage response and that of phenolic glycolipids (PGL in the regulation of the recruitment and phenotype of incoming macrophage precursors to the site of infection. We will provide a unique perspective of potential additional functions for these lipids, and highlight obstacles and opportunities to further understand their role in the pathogenesis of TB and other mycobacterial diseases.

  9. 'Just can't hide it': a behavioral and lesion study on emotional response modulation after right prefrontal damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Christian E; Castro, Osvaldo; Yuen, Kenneth Sl; Radovic, Darinka; d'Avossa, Giovanni; Turnbull, Oliver H

    2016-10-01

    Historically, emotion regulation problems have been reported as a common consequence of right prefrontal cortex (rPFC) damage. It has been proposed that the rPFC, particularly the rIFG, has a key role inhibiting prepotent reflexive actions, thus contributing to emotion regulation and self-regulation. This study is the first to directly explore this hypothesis, by testing whether damage to the rIFG compromises the voluntary modulation of emotional responses, and whether performance on inhibition tasks is associated with emotion regulation. 10 individuals with unilateral right prefrontal damage and 15 matched healthy controls were compared on a well-known response modulation task. During the task participants had to amplify and suppress their facial emotional expressions, while watching film clips eliciting amusement. Measures of executive control, emotion regulation strategies usage and symptomatology were also collected. As a group, individuals with rPFC damage presented a significantly reduced range of response modulation compared with controls. In addition, performance in the suppression task was associated with measures of cognitive inhibition and suppression usage. Interestingly, these effects were driven primarily by a subgroup of individuals with rPFC damage, all of whom also had damage to the right posterior insula, and who presented a marked impairment in suppressing facial emotional expressions. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. The Use of Data Hiding technology in IOT Security%数据隐藏技术在物联网安全中的应用探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金洪颖

    2014-01-01

    由于物联网感知前端射频识别系统的工作环境是完全开放的,因此应答器和读写器之间的通信是在完全没有保护的情况下进行的。这就使得物联网用户的信息安全和个人隐私面对着各种各样的威胁。使用高级加密算法的应答器和读写器双向认证协议由于硬件实现成本高而限制了它在物联网中的应用范围。该文通过在应答器和读写器的双向认证过程中引入数据隐藏算法来确保信息传输过程中的安全性,并对其应用的可行性进行分析。%Due to the fully open working environment of Radio frequency identification system ,the communication between tag and reader is exposed to all kinds of threats. Further, IOT user’s information and their personal privacy are dangerous. Because of the high cost of hardware implementation, using advanced encryption algorithm to carry out two-way authentication among readers and tags limits its application in the IOT. In this paper, we introduce data hiding algorithm to ensure the security of infor-mation transmission among readers and tags through the whole tow-way authentication process. Finally, the feasibility of the scheme was analyzed.

  11. Cincinnati Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duty, Chad E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Love, Lonnie J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-03-04

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) worked with Cincinnati Incorporated (CI) to demonstrate Big Area Additive Manufacturing which increases the speed of the additive manufacturing (AM) process by over 1000X, increases the size of parts by over 10X and shows a cost reduction of over 100X. ORNL worked with CI to transition the Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) technology from a proof-of-principle (TRL 2-3) demonstration to a prototype product stage (TRL 7-8).

  12. Fabrics China Creation Show Hold in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ On August 5-6th.the 3rd Fabrics China Creation Show(one series events of Reach & Touch),organized by China National Textile & Apparel Council and National Textile Development Center,was held in Shanghai,aiming to providing textile producers and designers a platform to show their inspirations and creative ideas in fabric design.

  13. Serving Up Activities for TV Cooking Shows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katchen, Johanna E.

    This paper documents a presentation given on the use of English-language television cooking shows in English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) and English-as-a-Foreign-Language (EFL) classrooms in Taiwan. Such shows can be ideal for classroom use, since they have a predictable structure consisting of short segments, are of interest to most students,…

  14. Nature's Late-Night Light Shows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Carolyn Collins

    2002-09-01

    In addition to stars and planets, there are other interesting lights to be seen in the night sky. The northern and southern lights, called the aurora borealis and aurora australis, are created by charged particles from the Sun reacting in Earth's magnetic field. Night-shining clouds or noctilucent clouds appear at evening twilight as a result of water vapor in the polar mesosphere. Zodiacal light can be seen stretching up from the horizon after sunset or before sunrise.

  15. Oophorectomy did not show any additional effect on bone density and mineral content in thyroxine treated mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broulik, P D; Pacovský, V; Límanová, Z

    1989-03-01

    Experimental hyperthyroidism (thyroxine administration for 21 days) caused a significant decrease in ash mass, bone density and mineral content in the femora of mice, the same degree of reduction in individual measures of bone mass being found in oophorectomized and intact mice treated with thyroxine. It may be suggested that estrogens did not protect the skeleton against the resorbing action of thyroxine or triiodothyronine.

  16. Voyeurismo Televisivo, Reality Shows e Brasilidade Televisiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Kilpp

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last years we watched a boom of reality shows in the media and also in the academic production specialized in this subject. It remains, however, a epistemological gap related to the aesthetic and techniques (which are related to the televisions grammars that TV uses in these programs to enunciate ethics directions to its own voyeurism, that goes far beyond reality shows, having repercussions on social imaginary of transparency and surveillance, and the redesign of public and private spaces. In this gap, the article points out the debate of Brazilian reality shows in the perspective of the televisions grammars.

  17. Hiding or sharing knowledge? Strategic success factor for the knowledge competition; Wissen teilen oder Wissen verstecken. Strategische Erfolgsfaktoren im Wissenswettbewerb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henning, K. [RWTH Aachen (Germany). ZLW/IMA; Arbeitsgemeinschaft Betriebliche Weiterbildungsforschung e.V., Berlin (Germany); Hees, F.; Backhaus, W. [RWTH Aachen (Germany). ZLW/IMA

    2007-07-01

    Germany is world champion in exports. The quality label ''Made in Germany'' refers especially to one occupational group: engineers. Their capability of innovation and their know-how stand for the economic success of the technology sector in Germany. Though, the classical image of the engineer is changing due to developments best described as the knowledge society. The solitary puzzler will have to act with a stronger focus to the market and will have to cooperate with other actors, if he wants to remain successfully. It will be crucial for Germany as a leading technology and knowledge place, how engineers will handle their knowledge in future and to what extent they are in a position to think and act in economic dimensions. The article highlights the actual behaviour of engineers towards knowledge and shows, which demands occur for organisational frameworks and which tools are suitable for the implementation of knowledge management focusing the needs of engineers as knowledge workers. (orig.)

  18. A Cluster of Galaxies hiding behind M31: XMM-Newton observations of RX J0046.4+4204

    CERN Document Server

    Kotov, O V; Vestrand, W T; Kotov, Oleg V.; Trudolyubov, Sergey

    2003-01-01

    We report on our serendipitous discovery with the XMM-Newton Observatory of a luminous x-ray emitting cluster of galaxies that is located behind the Andromeda galaxy (M31). X-ray emission from the cluster was detected previously by ROSAT, and catalogued as RX J0046.4+4204, but it was not recognized as a galaxy cluster. The much greater sensitivity of our XMM-Newton observations revealed diffuse x-ray emission that extends at least 3 arcmin and has a surface brightness profile that is well fit by a standard beta-model with beta~0.58. A joint spectral fit of the EPIC/MOS2 and EPIC/PN observations with the Raymond-Smith thermal model gives a cluster temperature of 4.3 +/- 0.3 keV. The observed spectra also show high significance iron emission lines that yield a measured cluster redshift of z = 0.293 with a 2% accuracy. For a cosmological model with H_0 = 50 km s^{-1} Mpc^{-1}, Omega_M = 0.3 and Omega_{Lambda} = 0.7 we derive a bolometric luminosity of 1.6*10^{45} erg/s. These measurements support the idea that t...

  19. The Additive Hazard Mixing Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping LI; Xiao-liang LING

    2012-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the aging and dependence properties in the additive hazard mixing models including some stochastic comparisons.Further,some useful bounds of reliability functions in additive hazard mixing models are obtained.

  20. Fecal Transplant Shows Early Promise Against Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 163263.html Fecal Transplant Shows Early Promise Against Autism Small study found giving healthy gut bacteria to ... study suggests a novel treatment for kids with autism: Give these young patients a fresh supply of ...

  1. Poverty Harder on Women's Hearts, Research Shows

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163168.html Poverty Harder on Women's Hearts, Research Shows Poor females ... reduce the burden of cardiovascular disease around the world," Peters said. The study findings were published online ...

  2. Diabetes Drug Shows Promise Against Parkinson's

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_167612.html Diabetes Drug Shows Promise Against Parkinson's Byetta improved symptoms of motor disease in small, ... may do double duty as a treatment for Parkinson's disease, a new study suggests. "This is a ...

  3. UV Photography Shows Hidden Sun Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mcat1=de12", ]; for (var c = 0; c UV photography shows hidden sun damage A UV photograph gives ... developing skin cancer and prematurely aged skin. Normal photography UV photography 18 months of age: This boy's ...

  4. Study Shows How Zika Attacks Infant Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/news/fullstory_162514.html Study Shows How Zika Attacks Infant Brain Virus can copy itself thousands ... New research paints a chilling portrait of how Zika ravages the infant brain. Scientists from the U.S. ...

  5. Fabrics China Creation Show Held in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    On August 5-6th,the 3rd Fabrics China Creation Show (one series events of Reach & Touch),organized by China National Textile & Apparel Council and National Textile Development Center,was held in Shanghai,

  6. Voyeurismo Televisivo, Reality Shows e Brasilidade Televisiva

    OpenAIRE

    Suzana Kilpp

    2008-01-01

    In the last years we watched a boom of reality shows in the media and also in the academic production specialized in this subject. It remains, however, a epistemological gap related to the aesthetic and techniques (which are related to the televisions grammars) that TV uses in these programs to enunciate ethics directions to its own voyeurism, that goes far beyond reality shows, having repercussions on social imaginary of transparency and surveillance, and the redesign of public and private s...

  7. ADDITIVES USED TO OBTAIN FOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorina Ardelean

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of food additives in food is determined by the growth of contemporary food needs of the world population. Additives used in food, both natural and artificial ones, contribute to: improving the organoleptic characteristics and to preserve the food longer, but we must not forget that all these additives should not be found naturally in food products. Some of these additives are not harmful and human pests in small quantities, but others may have harmful effects on health.

  8. Detergent Additive for Lubricating Oils,

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Russian patent pertains to a method of producing additives for lubricating oils . A method is known for producing an antiwear additive for... lubricating oils by processing phenols with phosphorus oxychloride, phosphoric acid esters are obtained. In order to give the additive detergent properties

  9. Research on the Relationship between Knowledge-based Psychological Ownership and Knowledge Hiding:The Empirical Analysis from Intellectual Organization%知识心理所有权对知识隐藏的影响机制研究--基于智力型组织的实证调研

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜荣萍; 何亦名

    2014-01-01

    员工知识分享对智力型组织的成功至关重要,而智力型组织中却普遍存在知识隐藏行为。以160名知识型员工为调查对象,对知识心理所有权、领地行为与知识隐藏之间的关系进行了实证分析,构建并验证了知识心理所有权-领地行为-知识隐藏作用机制模型。结果发现,心理所有权对知识隐藏和领地行为有显著正向影响,领地行为在心理所有权与知识隐藏之间中介效应显著。因此,组织可采用知识管理、团队合作及开放工作场所等方式降低员工的知识隐藏行为,实现组织内部知识分享。%The employee's knowledge sharing is crucial to the success of intellectual organization,but knowledge hiding be-havior is universal in intellectual group.Why employees usually hide knowledge faced with the knowledge request of the colleagues? What factors can affect knowledge hiding behavior,and what is the mechanism? And that is a new research perspective of knowledge hiding to answer the question from the perspective of knowledge-based psychological ownership. Using the data from 160knowledge-based employees,we test the relationship among knowledge-based psychological own-ership,territoriality and knowledge hiding,establish and verify the mechanism model of territoriality on knowledge-based psychological ownership and knowledge hiding.The results indicate:knowledge-based psychological ownership has posi-tive impacts on knowledge hiding and territoriality;and territoriality plays a mediating effect on the relationship between knowledge-based psychological ownership and knowledge hiding.Thus,organization can adopt knowledge management tools,raise the level of teamwork and adopt open work spaces to decrease employees'knowledge hiding behavior,which can help achieving knowledge sharing within the organization.

  10. Application of the donkey-hide gelatin in gynecology diseases in the Qian Jin Fang%阿胶在《千金方》妇科疾病中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王静; 王晓明; 田思胜

    2012-01-01

    Woman has the special physiological function, which determines different cure methods when they are ill. Catamenia, pregnancy, childbearing and lactation are all related with blood. The donkey-hide gelatin is regularly used in clinical practice with its function of regulating blood. It is a common gynecological herb in treatment of gynecological diseases, for the good effect of nourishing blood for moistening dryness and nourishing blood for preventing miscarriage. Because it is the sentient flesh thing, the donkey-hide gelatin can nourish Qi and blood, consolidate Chong vessel well in postpartum. This paper discusses the usage of donkey-hide gelatin in Qian Jin Fang which was written by SUN Si-miao for providing reference and inspiration in modern clinical and medical research.%妇人特殊的生理现象,决定了其治疗时立方有别.妇女经、孕、产、乳的生理活动均以血为用,而阿胶是治疗或调养时常用理血之药,同时为妇科疾病常用药,是养血润燥佳品,是养血安胎圣药,是产后调养气血,血肉有情之物,为养血固冲之上品.文章通过对阿胶在《千金方》中的运用浅析,以期阿胶在现代临床应用和医学研究中提供借鉴和启迪.

  11. Online Italian fandoms of American TV shows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Benecchi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Internet has changed media fandom in two main ways: it helps fans connect with each other despite physical distance, leading to the formation of international fan communities; and it helps fans connect with the creators of the TV show, deepening the relationship between TV producers and international fandoms. To assess whether Italian fan communities active online are indeed part of transnational online communities and whether the Internet has actually altered their relationship with the creators of the original text they are devoted to, qualitative analysis and narrative interviews of 26 Italian fans of American TV shows were conducted to explore the fan-producer relationship. Results indicated that the online Italian fans surveyed preferred to stay local, rather than using geography-leveling online tools. Further, the sampled Italian fans' relationships with the show runners were mediated or even absent.

  12. 2008 LHC Open Days Physics: the show

    CERN Document Server

    2008-01-01

    A host of events and activities await visitors to the LHC Open Days on 5 and 6 April. A highlight will be the physics shows funded by the European Physical Society (EPS), which are set to surprise and challenge children and adults alike! School children use their experience of riding a bicycle to understand how planets move around the sun (Copyright : Circus Naturally) Participating in the Circus Naturally show could leave a strange taste in your mouth! (Copyright : Circus Naturally) The Rino Foundation’s experiments with liquid nitrogen can be pretty exciting! (Copyright: The Rino Foundation)What does a bicycle have in common with the solar system? Have you ever tried to weigh air or visualise sound? Ever heard of a vacuum bazooka? If you want to discover the answers to these questions and more then come to the Physics Shows taking place at the CERN O...

  13. Liquid Crystal Research Shows Deformation By Drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    These images, from David Weitz's liquid crystal research, show ordered uniform sized droplets (upper left) before they are dried from their solution. After the droplets are dried (upper right), they are viewed with crossed polarizers that show the deformation caused by drying, a process that orients the bipolar structure of the liquid crystal within the droplets. When an electric field is applied to the dried droplets (lower left), and then increased (lower right), the liquid crystal within the droplets switches its alignment, thereby reducing the amount of light that can be scattered by the droplets when a beam is shone through them.

  14. Dynamics of ultrasonic additive manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hehr, Adam; Dapino, Marcelo J

    2017-01-01

    Ultrasonic additive manufacturing (UAM) is a solid-state technology for joining similar and dissimilar metal foils near room temperature by scrubbing them together with ultrasonic vibrations under pressure. Structural dynamics of the welding assembly and work piece influence how energy is transferred during the process and ultimately, part quality. To understand the effect of structural dynamics during UAM, a linear time-invariant model is proposed to relate the inputs of shear force and electric current to resultant welder velocity and voltage. Measured frequency response and operating performance of the welder under no load is used to identify model parameters. Using this model and in-situ measurements, shear force and welder efficiency are estimated to be near 2000N and 80% when welding Al 6061-H18 weld foil, respectively. Shear force and welder efficiency have never been estimated before in UAM. The influence of processing conditions, i.e., welder amplitude, normal force, and weld speed, on shear force and welder efficiency are investigated. Welder velocity was found to strongly influence the shear force magnitude and efficiency while normal force and weld speed showed little to no influence. The proposed model is used to describe high frequency harmonic content in the velocity response of the welder during welding operations and coupling of the UAM build with the welder. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Dimensionless numbers in additive manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, T.; Manvatkar, V.; De, A.; DebRoy, T.

    2017-02-01

    The effects of many process variables and alloy properties on the structure and properties of additively manufactured parts are examined using four dimensionless numbers. The structure and properties of components made from 316 Stainless steel, Ti-6Al-4V, and Inconel 718 powders for various dimensionless heat inputs, Peclet numbers, Marangoni numbers, and Fourier numbers are studied. Temperature fields, cooling rates, solidification parameters, lack of fusion defects, and thermal strains are examined using a well-tested three-dimensional transient heat transfer and fluid flow model. The results show that lack of fusion defects in the fabricated parts can be minimized by strengthening interlayer bonding using high values of dimensionless heat input. The formation of harmful intermetallics such as laves phases in Inconel 718 can be suppressed using low heat input that results in a small molten pool, a steep temperature gradient, and a fast cooling rate. Improved interlayer bonding can be achieved at high Marangoni numbers, which results in vigorous circulation of liquid metal, larger pool dimensions, and greater depth of penetration. A high Fourier number ensures rapid cooling, low thermal distortion, and a high ratio of temperature gradient to the solidification growth rate with a greater tendency of plane front solidification.

  16. Formal approaches to information hiding: An analysis of interactive systems, statistical disclosure control, and refinement of specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armijo, Kenneth Miguel

    an optimal value that would enhance heat transport performance by maximizing the critical heat flux (CHF) condition, while reducing the evaporator wall superheat. A 45% fill ratio was found to have the lowest overall superheat and highest thermal conductance by as much as 7.5W/K, as well as an enhanced CHF condition of 114.8W/cm2. A heat pipe analytical model, that characterizes binary mixture pool boiling is also presented, which was developed based on modeling efforts presented in studies 1 and 2. Model results with a 45% liquid charge ratio were found to provide good correspondence with the experimental data with an average rms evaporator vaporization heat flux deviation of 6.5%. The final study of this investigation assesses the cooling of single and dual-junction solar cells with the inclined, gravity-assisted, brass heat pipe, with a 0.05M 2-propanol/water mixture. Thermal behavior of this heat pipe solar collector system was investigated theoretically and semi-empirically through experimentation of varying input heat loads from attached strip-heaters to simulate waste heat production of single-junction monocrystalline silicon (Si), and tandem multijunction GaInP/GaAs solar cells. It was also found that the 45% liquid charge was capable of achieving the lowest superheat levels and highest critical heat flux (CHF) condition of 114.8 W/cm2, at a predicted solar concentration of 162 suns. Solar cell semiconductor theory was employed to evaluate the effects of increasing temperature and solar concentration on solar cell performance. Results showed that a combined PV/heat pipe system had a 1.7% higher electrical efficiency, at a concentration ratio 132 suns higher than a stand-alone PV system. The dual-junction system also exhibited enhanced performance at elevated system temperatures with a 2.1% greater electrical efficiency, at an operational concentration level of 560 suns higher than a stand-alone PV system. Waste heat recovery analysis of the silicon solar cell

  17. A Talk Show from the Past.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Arlene F.

    1991-01-01

    Describes a two-day activity in which elementary students examine voting rights, the right to assemble, and women's suffrage. Explains the game, "Assemble, Reassemble," and a student-produced talk show with five students playing the roles of leaders of the women's suffrage movement. Profiles Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Lucretia Mott, Susan…

  18. The Last Great American Picture Show

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsaesser, Thomas; King, Noel; Horwath, Alexander

    2004-01-01

    The Last Great American Picture Show brings together essays by scholars and writers who chart the changing evaluations of the American cinema of the 1970s, sometimes referred to as the decade of the lost generation, but now more and more recognized as the first New Hollywood, without which the cinem

  19. Gene Therapy Shows Promise for Aggressive Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163824.html Gene Therapy Shows Promise for Aggressive Lymphoma Over one-third ... TUESDAY, Feb. 28, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- An experimental gene therapy for aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma beat back more ...

  20. Development, management and economy of show caves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cigna Arrigo A.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The problems concerning the development of show caves are here considered by taking into account different aspects of the problem. A procedure to carry out an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA has been established in the last decade and it is now currently applied. Such an assessment starts with a pre-operational phase to obtain sufficient information on the undisturbed status of a cave to be developed into a show cave. Successively a programme for its development is established with the scope to optimise the intervention on the cave at the condition that its basic environmental parameters are not irreversibly modified. The last phase of the assessment is focussed to assure a feedback through a monitoring network in order to detect any unforeseen difference or anomaly between the project and the effective situation achieved after the cave development. Some data on some of the most important show caves in the world are reported and a tentative evaluation of the economy in connection with the show caves business is eventually made.

  1. Show Them You Really Want the Job

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlmutter, David D.

    2012-01-01

    Showing that one really "wants" the job entails more than just really wanting the job. An interview is part Broadway casting call, part intellectual dating game, part personality test, and part, well, job interview. When there are 300 applicants for a position, many of them will "fit" the required (and even the preferred) skills listed in the job…

  2. TV-Show Retrieval and Classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Musto, C.; Narducci, F.; Lops, P.; Semeraro G.; Gemmis, M. de; Barbieri, M.; Korst, J.H.M.; Pronk, S.P.P.; Clout, R.A.W.

    2012-01-01

    Recommender systems are becoming popular tools to aid users in finding interesting and relevant TV-shows and other digital video assets,based on implicitly learned user preferences. In this context, a common assumption is that user preferences can be specified by program types (movie, sports, ...) a

  3. The British Show in Australia, 1985

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Bond

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In 1984–85, The British Show, an exhibition largely made up of New British Sculpture, was curated for Australia and New Zealand. This essay discusses the context and effects of the exhibition on art in Australia. It also seeks to define the sources of originality and innovation of the artists included.

  4. Laser entertainment and light shows in education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabaratnam, Andrew T.; Symons, Charles

    2002-05-01

    Laser shows and beam effects have been a source of entertainment since its first public performance May 9, 1969, at Mills College in Oakland, California. Since 1997, the Photonics Center, NgeeAnn Polytechnic, Singapore, has been using laser shows as a teaching tool. Students are able to exhibit their creative skills and learn at the same time how lasers are used in the entertainment industry. Students will acquire a number of skills including handling three- phase power supply, operation of cooling system, and laser alignment. Students also acquire an appreciation of the arts, learning about shapes and contours as they develop graphics for the shows. After holography, laser show animation provides a combination of the arts and technology. This paper aims to briefly describe how a krypton-argon laser, galvanometer scanners, a polychromatic acousto-optic modulator and related electronics are put together to develop a laser projector. The paper also describes how students are trained to make their own laser animation and beam effects with music, and at the same time have an appreciation of the operation of a Class IV laser and the handling of optical components.

  5. [Keeping of horses in circus and show businesses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollmann, U

    2002-03-01

    The conditions under which horses are kept and the performance of acts in the circus ring may give rise to animal protection-relevant aspects for circus and show horses. A number of intolerable conditions under which horses are kept and procedures adopted for the work with circus and show horses are described. In addition, attention is drawn to monitoring methods capable of exposing the deplorable shortcomings of these businesses.

  6. A lossless data coding and hiding scheme for fingerprint templates%针对指纹模板的可逆信息隐藏编码方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡校成; 张卫明; 俞能海

    2011-01-01

    通过融合指纹、人脸、口令等用户身份信息来进行多模态认证可以提高身份认证系统的安全性.而利用信息隐藏技术,可以将几种身份信息嵌入到某一种生物模板中实现安全存储.本文介绍了一种以指纹模板为隐藏栽体的多模态认证技术,该技术的关键问题是要保证嵌入信息后的指纹图片的质量,以确保匹配的精度.为此,提出了一种将二元信息稀疏化的数据嵌入编码方法,利用这种编码可以有效降低数据嵌入过程中对指纹图片的修改,从而改善载密图片的质量,以达到提高匹配精度的目的.该方法嵌入脆弱水印,用于指纹模板的完整性认证.%By merging several kinds of user authentication information such as fingerprints, faces, passwords etc. , multi-modal authentication can improve the security of traditional identify authentication systems. Furthermore, via data hiding technology, specific user identities can be imbedded into their biologic templates to ensure safe storage A multi-modal authentication scheme was introduced, which uses fingerprint templates as the cover. The key problem of this technology is to ensure the quality of the template picture after embedding, which is important for the matching precision afterwards. Both theoretical analysis and experimental results demonstrate that by adopting a coding method which increases the sparseness of the original binary data before embedding, modification of the fingerprint template is lowers effectively, thus ensuring the image quality and matching precision. The method embeds fragile watermarks for the integrity authentication of the fingerprint template.

  7. La mujer, en los talk shows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antrop. José Gamboa Cetina

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Dentro de los medios de comunicación, uno de los que más ha impactado a la población latinoamericana ha sido la televisión, y en la barra programática de las televisoras ha surgido un tipo de programas denominados talk shows. En los últimos meses, la sociedad mexicana ha vivido el "boom" de los talk shows, que en poco tiempo han saturado la barra de la programación vespertina de las dos principales empresas televisivas de la república mexicana. Este fenómeno puede estudiarse desde diversas perspectivas. Sin embargo, por motivos de espacio, en esta ocasión analizaremos su impacto en las mujeres, desde diferentes dimensiones.

  8. 2009 Hands Across Pacific Show Held

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>The 2009 Hands Across the Pacific Show co-sponsored by the Canadian International Cultural Exchanges (CICEX) and Hunan Provincial People’s Association for Friendship with Foreign Countries(HPPAFFC) was held respectively in the Tower Hall of Tokyo,Japan from July 2 to 7 and in the Hunan Provincial Museum from August 1 to 5.Jing Dunquan,Vice President of the

  9. The People's Show: A Critical Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Robin Francis

    1996-01-01

    The 1990s heralded a new form of museum exhibition: "The People's Show." A light-hearted celebration of popular culture, the concept has had phenomenal success throughout the United Kingdom. Beneath the humour, however, are more complex and radical agendas relating to cultural rights. The paper explores the issues associated with the rise and possible wane of this museum-based popular cultural phenomenon.

  10. Reality, ficción o show

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Ruíz Moreno

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Para tener un punto de vista claro y objetivo frente a la polémica establecida en torno al programa “Protagonistas de novela” y la tendiente proliferación de los reality show en las parrillas de programación de la televisión colombiana, se realizó un análisis de texto y contenido de dicho programa, intentando definirlo desde sus posibilidades de realidad, ficción y show. Las unidades de análisis y el estudio de su tratamiento arrojaron un alto contenido que gira en torno a las emociones del ser humano relacionadas con la convivencia, tratadas a manera de show y con algunos aportes textuales de ficción, pero sin su elemento mediador básico, el actor, quitándole toda la posibilidad de tener un tratamiento con la profundidad, distancia y ética que requieren los temas de esta índole. El resultado es un formato que sólo busca altos índices de sintonía y que pertenece más a la denominada televisión “trash”, que a una búsqueda de realidad del hombre y mucho menos de sociedad.

  11. Information Hiding: an Annotated Bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-04-13

    here refer to preproceedings. At Eurocrypt’93, Park, Itoh, and Kurosawa presented two efficient designs for an anonymous channel based on Chaum’s mix...064437, ‘Fault Tolerant Anonymous Channel’ W. Ogata, K. Kurosawa , K. Sako, K. Takatani, in Information and Communications Security — First International

  12. Hiding Crimes in Cyberspace (PREPRINT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-07-01

    enforcement agencies have encountered encrypted e-mail and files in investigations of pedophiles and child pornography, including the FBI’s Innocent Images...for sexually assaulting minors and distributing child pornography (Akdeniz). The priest was part of an international pedophile ring that

  13. Cryptographically enforced search pattern hiding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bösch, Christoph Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Searchable encryption is a cryptographic primitive that allows a client to out- source encrypted data to an untrusted storage provider, while still being able to query the data without decrypting. To allow the server to perform the search on the encrypted data, a so-called trapdoor is generated by t

  14. Immunogenomics: Molecular hide and seek

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miretti Marcos M

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Similar to other classical science disciplines, immunology has been embracing novel technologies and approaches giving rise to specialised sub-disciplines such as immunogenetics and, more recently, immunogenomics, which, in many ways, is the genome-wide application of immunogenetic approaches. Here, recent progress in the understanding of the immune sub-genome will be reviewed, and the ways in which immunogenomic datasets consisting of genetic and epigenetic variation, linkage disequilibrium and recombination can be harnessed for disease association and evolutionary studies will be discussed. The discussion will focus on data available for the major histocompatibility complex and the leukocyte receptor complex, the two most polymorphic regions of the human immune sub-genome.

  15. Data Hiding in JPEG Images

    OpenAIRE

    Sushil Kumar; S. K. Muttoo

    2009-01-01

    Steganography has been an important subject since peoplestarted communicating in writing. Steganography meanshiding a secret message (the embedded message)within a larger one (source cover) in such a way that anobserver cannot detect the presence of contents of thehidden message. Today the growth in the informationtechnology, especially in computer networks such asInternet, Mobile communication, and Digital Multimediaapplications such as Digital camera, handset video etc. hasopened new opport...

  16. "Pointless to Try to Hide"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrostoski, Eric W. M.

    2012-01-01

    Superintendents whose young children attend public schools in their school district face a special challenge. This article shares the author's experience as the son of a superintendent. Throughout his years in primary and secondary school, his mother, Jean Chrostoski, served as the superintendent of the schools he attended in the small Illinois…

  17. Bite my art to show your love

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hye yeon

    2012-01-01

    Two years ago, I came to the States for MFA program in UCSD. At first, I started making instructions for performance to communicate with people in my clumsy English, but it soon became my general process of working. In this show, I present a room surrounded by five video projections and drawings. They are documentation of performances concerning the balance of relationship. I performed two with Josh Aaron, other two with Josh Tonies, and one by myself. The performance done by myself reveals t...

  18. Showing and Saying. An Aesthetic Difference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Sanfélix Vidarte

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Wittgenstein’s distinction between saying and showing and the associated thesis, what can be shown cannot be said, were crucial to his first philosophy, persisted throughout the evolution of his whole thought and played a key role in his views on aesthetics. The objective of art is access to the mystical, forcing us to become aware of the uniqueness of our own experience and life. When art is good is a perfect expression and the work of art becomes like a tautology. An important consequence of this understanding of art is the irreducibility of the aesthetic to the scientific perspective.

  19. Latest European coelacanth shows Gondwanan affinities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavin, Lionel; Forey, Peter L; Buffetaut, Eric; Tong, Haiyan

    2005-06-22

    The last European fossil occurrence of a coelacanth is from the Mid-Cretaceous of the English Chalk (Turonian, 90 million years ago). Here, we report the discovery of a coelacanth from Late Cretaceous non-marine rocks in southern France. It consists of a left angular bone showing structures that imply close phylogenetic affinities with some extinct Mawsoniidae. The closest relatives are otherwise known from Cretaceous continental deposits of southern continents and suggest that the dispersal of freshwater organisms from Africa to Europe occurred in the Late Cretaceous.

  20. Additive interaction in survival analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rod, Naja Hulvej; Lange, Theis; Andersen, Ingelise

    2012-01-01

    It is a widely held belief in public health and clinical decision-making that interventions or preventive strategies should be aimed at patients or population subgroups where most cases could potentially be prevented. To identify such subgroups, deviation from additivity of absolute effects...... implementation guide of the additive hazards model is provided in the appendix....

  1. Additive Effects on Asymmetric Catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Liang; Sun, Wangsheng; Yang, Dongxu; Li, Guofeng; Wang, Rui

    2016-03-23

    This review highlights a number of additives that can be used to make asymmetric reactions perfect. Without changing other reaction conditions, simply adding additives can lead to improved asymmetric catalysis, such as reduced reaction time, improved yield, or/and increased selectivity.

  2. Density measures and additive property

    OpenAIRE

    Kunisada, Ryoichi

    2015-01-01

    We deal with finitely additive measures defined on all subsets of natural numbers which extend the asymptotic density (density measures). We consider a class of density measures which are constructed from free ultrafilters on natural numbers and study a certain additivity property of such density measures.

  3. Enantioselective Michael Addition of Water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, B.S.; Resch, V.; Otten, L.G.; Hanefeld, U.

    2014-01-01

    The enantioselective Michael addition using water as both nucleophile and solvent has to date proved beyond the ability of synthetic chemists. Herein, the direct, enantioselective Michael addition of water in water to prepare important β-hydroxy carbonyl compounds using whole cells of Rhodococcus st

  4. Density measures and additive property

    OpenAIRE

    Kunisada, Ryoichi

    2015-01-01

    We deal with finitely additive measures defined on all subsets of natural numbers which extend the asymptotic density (density measures). We consider a class of density measures which are constructed from free ultrafilters on natural numbers and study a certain additivity property of such density measures.

  5. Color Addition and Subtraction Apps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Frances; Ruiz, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Color addition and subtraction apps in HTML5 have been developed for students as an online hands-on experience so that they can more easily master principles introduced through traditional classroom demonstrations. The evolution of the additive RGB color model is traced through the early IBM color adapters so that students can proceed step by step…

  6. Color Addition and Subtraction Apps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Frances; Ruiz, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Color addition and subtraction apps in HTML5 have been developed for students as an online hands-on experience so that they can more easily master principles introduced through traditional classroom demonstrations. The evolution of the additive RGB color model is traced through the early IBM color adapters so that students can proceed step by step…

  7. Calcium addition in straw gasification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risnes, H.; Fjellerup, Jan Søren; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk

    2003-01-01

    The present work focuses on the influence of calcium addition in gasification. The inorganic¿organic element interaction as well as the detailed inorganic¿inorganic elements interaction has been studied. The effect of calcium addition as calcium sugar/molasses solutions to straw significantly...

  8. Showing Emulsion Properties with Common Dairy Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo-Diaz, Carlos; Gonzalez-Romero, Elisa

    1996-09-01

    Foods are mixtures of different chemical compounds, and the quality we sense (taste, texture, color, etc.) are all manifestations of its chemical properties. Some of them can be visualized with the aid of simple, safe and inexpensive experiments using dairy products that can be found in any kitchen and using almost exclusively kitchen utensils. In this paper we propose some of them related with food emulsions. Food emulsions cover an extremely wide area of daily-life applications such as milk, sauces, dressings and beverages. Experimentation with some culinary recipes to prepare them and the analyisis of the observed results is close to ideal subject for the introduction of chemical principles, allowing to discuss about the nature and composition of foods, the effects of additives, etc. At the same time it allows to get insights into the scientific reasons that underlie on the recipes (something that it is not usually found in most cookbooks). For example, when making an emulsion like mayonnaise, why the egg yolks and water are the first materials in the bowl , and the oil is added to them rather than in the other way around? How you can "rescue" separate emulsions (mayonnaise)? Which parameters affect emulsion stability? Since safety, in its broad sense, is the first requisite for any food, concerns about food exist throughout the world and the more we are aware of our everyday life, the more likely we will be to deal productively with the consequences. On the other hand, understanding what foods are and how cooking works destroys no delightful mystery of the art of cuisine, instead the mystery expands.

  9. Figure of Beijing ABP Showing up

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Last year, there were many good news from Beijing Advanced Business Park(ABP): on October 29, 2005, Xu Weiping, Chairman of the Board of ABP, was chosen as the"2005 Ten Major Chinese Administrative Person in News";On November 8,2005,CCIM (American Certified Commercial Investment Member) invited 40 world famous real estate investors to visit ABS and they showed will to cooperate; On November 22, 2005, Johnson Controls, Inc., one of World Top 500, signed the contract with Zhongguan Village Fengtai Garden that the headquarter of JCI energy administration China Branch will move to ABP to improve the energy administration and radiate all the nation; on December 10,2005, "CEO Salon" co-organized by Phoenix Satellite Television and ABP, was held in the meeting room of ABP, over 120CEOs met here to discuss the trend of China economic development and the development opportunities brought by 11th Five-Year Plan for enterprises.

  10. Lemurs and macaques show similar numerical sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sarah M.; Pearson, John; DeWind, Nicholas K.; Paulsen, David; Tenekedjieva, Ana-Maria; Brannon, Elizabeth M.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the precision of the approximate number system (ANS) in three lemur species (Lemur catta, Eulemur mongoz, and Eulemur macaco flavifrons), one Old World monkey species (Macaca mulatta) and humans (Homo sapiens). In Experiment 1, four individuals of each nonhuman primate species were trained to select the numerically larger of two visual arrays on a touchscreen. We estimated numerical acuity by modeling Weber fractions (w) and found quantitatively equivalent performance among all four nonhuman primate species. In Experiment 2, we tested adult humans in a similar procedure, and they outperformed the four nonhuman species but showed qualitatively similar performance. These results indicate that the ANS is conserved over the primate order. PMID:24068469

  11. Star Shows It Has The Right Stuff

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Astronomers have used an observation by NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory to make the best case yet that a star can be engulfed by its companion star and survive. This discovery will help astronomers better understand how closely coupled stars, and perhaps even stars and planets, evolve when one of the stars expands enormously in its red giant phase. The binary star system known as V471 Tauri comprises a white dwarf star (the primary) in a close orbit -- one thirtieth of the distance between Mercury and the Sun -- with a normal Sun-like star (the secondary). Chandra's data showed that the hot upper atmosphere of the secondary star has a deficit of carbon atoms relative to nitrogen atoms. "This deficit of carbon atoms is the first clear observational evidence that the normal star was engulfed by its companion in the past," according to Jeremy Drake of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory in Cambridge, MA, who coauthored an article on V471 in The Astrophysical Journal Letters with Marek Sarna of the N. Copernicus Astronomical Center in Poland. The white dwarf star was once a star several times as massive as the Sun. Nuclear fusion reactions in the core of such a star convert carbon into nitrogen over a period of about a billion years. When the fuel in the core of the star is exhausted, the core collapses, triggering more energetic nuclear reactions that cause the star to expand and transform into a red giant before eventually collapsing to become a white dwarf. The carbon-poor material in the core of the red giant is mixed with outer part of the star, so its atmosphere shows a deficit of carbon, as compared with Sun-like stars. The X-ray spectra of a red giant star (top panel) and a Sun-like star (bottom panel) show the large difference in the peaks due to carbon atoms in the two stars. Theoretical calculations indicate that a red giant in a binary system can completely envelop its companion star and dramatically affect its evolution. During this common envelope

  12. Anaerobic sludge digestion with a biocatalytic additive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, S.; Henry, M.P.; Fedde, P.A.

    1982-01-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of a lactobacillus additive an anaerobic sludge digestion under normal, variable, and overload operating conditions. The additive was a whey fermentation product of an acid-tolerant strain of Lactobacillus acidophilus fortified with CaCO/sub 3/, (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/HPO/sub 4/, ferrous lactate, and lactic acid. The lactobacillus additive is multifunctional in nature and provides growth factors, metabolic intermediates, and enzymes needed for substrate degradation and cellular synthesis. The experimental work consisted of several pairs of parallel mesophilic (35/sup 0/C) digestion runs (control and test) conducted in five experimental phases. Baseline runs without the additive showed that the two experimental digesters had the same methane content, gas production rate (GPR), and ethane yield. The effect of the additive was to increase methane yield and GPR by about 5% (which was statistically significant) during digester operation at a loading rate (LR) of 3.2 kg VS/m/sup 3/-day and a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 14 days. Data collected from the various experimental phases showed that the biochemical additive increased methane yield, gas production rate, and VS reduction, and decreased volatile acids accumulation. In addition, it enhanced digester buffer capacity and improved the fertilizer value and dewatering characteristics of the digested residue.

  13. 阿胶及其为主的组方在妇科出血性疾病中的应用%Donkey-hide gelatin-based group in gynecological bleeding disorders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海琳; 李莉

    2012-01-01

    Donkey-hide gelatin, also known as animal skin glue, lo pay caused by glue, is a valuable medicine, said "Chinese ginseng, deer horn Sambo" . Its sweel nature, into the lungs, liver and kidney meridians, yin blood, moistening hemostasis, the role of tocolysis. Compendium ot' Materia Medica, the blood "holy medicine" . "Women with blood-based . Therefore, donkey-hide gelatin was promoted as the "gynecological medicine" . In this paper, its clinical application in gynecological bleeding disorders are summarized below.%阿胶,又名驴皮胶、付致胶,是名贵中药,与人参、鹿茸并称“中药三宝”.其味甘、性平,入肺、肝、肾经,有滋阴补血、润燥止血、安胎的作用.《本草纲目》中有补血“圣药”之称.“女子以血为本”,故阿胶被推崇为“妇科要药”.文章就其在妇科出血性疾病的临床应用情况综述如下.

  14. Electricity show and related educational programming. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-19

    The on-site version of Balance of Power reached a total audience of 21,331 between November 10, 1994 and January 31, 1996; in addition, the Physics on Wheels van offered exhibits and programs to an additional 30,000 students in the 1995-1996 school year. The program provided a groundbreaking new approach to informal science education, combining a dynamic demonstration with an intensely interactive game show. Between the on-site programming and the Physics on Wheels van programs, 51,331 students were impacted by the activities, exhibits and energy-conservation message of Balance of Power.

  15. Color Addition and Subtraction Apps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Frances; Ruiz, Michael J.

    2015-10-01

    Color addition and subtraction apps in HTML5 have been developed for students as an online hands-on experience so that they can more easily master principles introduced through traditional classroom demonstrations. The evolution of the additive RGB color model is traced through the early IBM color adapters so that students can proceed step by step in understanding mathematical representations of RGB color. Finally, color addition and subtraction are presented for the X11 colors from web design to illustrate yet another real-life application of color mixing.

  16. Dolphin shows and interaction programs: benefits for conservation education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, L J; Zeigler-Hill, V; Mellen, J; Koeppel, J; Greer, T; Kuczaj, S

    2013-01-01

    Dolphin shows and dolphin interaction programs are two types of education programs within zoological institutions used to educate visitors about dolphins and the marine environment. The current study examined the short- and long-term effects of these programs on visitors' conservation-related knowledge, attitude, and behavior. Participants of both dolphin shows and interaction programs demonstrated a significant short-term increase in knowledge, attitudes, and behavioral intentions. Three months following the experience, participants of both dolphin shows and interaction programs retained the knowledge learned during their experience and reported engaging in more conservation-related behaviors. Additionally, the number of dolphin shows attended in the past was a significant predictor of recent conservation-related behavior suggesting that repetition of these types of experiences may be important in inspiring people to conservation action. These results suggest that both dolphin shows and dolphin interaction programs can be an important part of a conservation education program for visitors of zoological facilities.

  17. NASA GIBS Use in Live Planetarium Shows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmart, C. B.

    2015-12-01

    The American Museum of Natural History's Hayden Planetarium was rebuilt in year 2000 as an immersive theater for scientific data visualization to show the universe in context to our planet. Specific astrophysical movie productions provide the main daily programming, but interactive control software, developed at AMNH allows immersive presentation within a data aggregation of astronomical catalogs called the Digital Universe 3D Atlas. Since 2006, WMS globe browsing capabilities have been built into a software development collaboration with Sweden's Linkoping University (LiU). The resulting Uniview software, now a product of the company SCISS, is operated by about fifty planetariums around that world with ability to network amongst the sites for global presentations. Public presentation of NASA GIBS has allowed authoritative narratives to be presented within the range of data available in context to other sources such as Science on a Sphere, NASA Earth Observatory and Google Earth KML resources. Specifically, the NOAA supported World Views Network conducted a series of presentations across the US that focused on local ecological issues that could then be expanded in the course of presentation to national and global scales of examination. NASA support of for GIBS resources in an easy access multi scale streaming format like WMS has tremendously enabled particularly facile presentations of global monitoring like never before. Global networking of theaters for distributed presentations broadens out the potential for impact of this medium. Archiving and refinement of these presentations has already begun to inform new types of documentary productions that examine pertinent, global interdependency topics.

  18. The great American medicine show revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomes, Nancy

    2005-01-01

    Since the late 1800s, changes in the advertising and marketing of medicinal drugs have produced heated debates in the United States. With the emergence of the modern prescription drug between 1938 and 1951, concerns that once focused primarily on patients' use of over-the-counter drugs were broadened to include physicians and their "doctors' drugs" as well. The medical profession's growing control over their patients' drug choices inevitably heightened the scrutiny of their own performance as consumers. Although deeply divided over issues of the patient's role in medical decision making, consumer activists and physician reformers expressed similar concerns about the impact of aggressive pharmaceutical marketing and advertising on the doctor-patient relationship, and starting in the late 1950s they employed strikingly similar strategies to counter the new corporate "medicine show." Yet their efforts to promote a more rational use of prescription drugs have usually been too little and too late to offset the effectiveness of pharmaceutical advertising and mar-keting activities.

  19. Tetrahydrobiopterin shows chaperone activity for tyrosine hydroxylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thöny, Beat; Calvo, Ana C; Scherer, Tanja; Svebak, Randi M; Haavik, Jan; Blau, Nenad; Martinez, Aurora

    2008-07-01

    Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of catecholamine neurotransmitters. Primary inherited defects in TH have been associated with l-DOPA responsive and non-responsive dystonia and infantile parkinsonism. In this study, we show that both the cofactor (6R)-l-erythro-5,6,7,8-tetrahydrobiopterin (BH(4)) and the feedback inhibitor and catecholamine product dopamine increase the kinetic stability of human TH isoform 1 in vitro. Activity measurements and synthesis of the enzyme by in vitro transcription-translation revealed a complex regulation by the cofactor including both enzyme inactivation and conformational stabilization. Oral BH(4) supplementation to mice increased TH activity and protein levels in brain extracts, while the Th-mRNA level was not affected. All together our results indicate that the molecular mechanisms for the stabilization are a primary folding-aid effect of BH(4) and a secondary effect by increased synthesis and binding of catecholamine ligands. Our results also establish that orally administered BH(4) crosses the blood-brain barrier and therapeutic regimes based on BH(4) supplementation should thus consider the effect on TH. Furthermore, BH(4) supplementation arises as a putative therapeutic agent in the treatment of brain disorders associated with TH misfolding, such as for the human TH isoform 1 mutation L205P.

  20. Ribavirin shows immunomodulatory effects on activated microglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savic, Danijela; Stojiljkovic, Mirjana; Lavrnja, Irena; Parabucki, Ana; Bjelobaba, Ivana; Nedeljkovic, Nadezda; Herdegen, Thomas; Pekovic, Sanja

    2014-12-01

    Abstract Ribavirin (RBV) is synthetic purine nucleoside analogue, licensed as anti-viral drug that displays immunomodulatory actions on various immune cells. Our previous ex vivo studies have demonstrated immunosuppressive effects of RBV on reactive T-lymphocytes in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Here, we examined the effects of RBV on inflammatory response of microglia. RBV potency to down-regulate microglia inflammatory response was assessed by measuring microglia cell body size, and the production of nitric oxide (NO) and pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. RBV exerted cytotoxic effects on LPS-stimulated microglia, leaving non-stimulated microglia unaffected. The exposure of activated microglia to RBV led to: decrease in the level of NO as a result of decreased cell number, lower average cell surface, the reduction of membrane ruffling, the suppression of interleukin-6 release and promoted interleukin-10 production. On the other hand, RBV promoted LPS-induced interleukin-1 beta release. Our results imply that RBV is a complex immunomodulator showing both anti- and pro-inflammatory effects on activated microglia.

  1. Prevalence of Food Additive Intolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard

    1994-01-01

    estimates are questionable but may be less than 0.15%. In adults and children with reproducible, and with more subjective symptoms, such as headache and behavioural/mood change the prevalence is even lower (0.026%). Food additive intolerance is primarily found in atopic children with cutaneous symptoms.......026%. The challenged population is 81 children and adults with a history of reproducible clinical symptoms after ingestion of food additives. 4 In the Danish population study a prevalence of 1-2% is found in children age 5-16. In this study a total of 606 children mainly with atopic disease have been challenged. 5...... where the additive is aggravating an existing disease. The prevalence of food additive intolerance in children age 5-16 is 1-2%....

  2. Adverse reactions to drug additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, R A

    1984-10-01

    There is a long list of additives used by the pharmaceutical industry. Most of the agents used have not been implicated in hypersensitivity reactions. Among those that have, only reactions to parabens and sulfites have been well established. Parabens have been shown to be responsible for rare immunoglobulin E-mediated reactions that occur after the use of local anesthetics. Sulfites, which are present in many drugs, including agents commonly used to treat asthma, have been shown to provoke severe asthmatic attacks in sensitive individuals. Recent studies indicate that additives do not play a significant role in "hyperactivity." The role of additives in urticaria is not well established and therefore the incidence of adverse reactions in this patient population is simply not known. In double-blind, placebo-controlled studies, reactions to tartrazine or additives other than sulfites, if they occur at all, are indeed quite rare for the asthmatic population, even for the aspirin-sensitive subpopulation.

  3. Wide and High Additive Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Post, Brian K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Roschli, Alex C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-03-01

    The goal of this project is to develop and demonstrate the enabling technologies for Wide and High Additive Manufacturing (WHAM). WHAM will open up new areas of U.S. manufacturing for very large tooling in support of the transportation and energy industries, significantly reducing cost and lead time. As with Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM), the initial focus is on the deposition of composite materials.

  4. Addition on a Quantum Computer

    CERN Document Server

    Draper, Thomas G

    2000-01-01

    A new method for computing sums on a quantum computer is introduced. This technique uses the quantum Fourier transform and reduces the number of qubits necessary for addition by removing the need for temporary carry bits. This approach also allows the addition of a classical number to a quantum superposition without encoding the classical number in the quantum register. This method also allows for massive parallelization in its execution.

  5. Food additives and preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyn, Danika M; McNulty, Breige A; Nugent, Anne P; Gibney, Michael J

    2013-02-01

    Food additives have been used throughout history to perform specific functions in foods. A comprehensive framework of legislation is in place within Europe to control the use of additives in the food supply and ensure they pose no risk to human health. Further to this, exposure assessments are regularly carried out to monitor population intakes and verify that intakes are not above acceptable levels (acceptable daily intakes). Young children may have a higher dietary exposure to chemicals than adults due to a combination of rapid growth rates and distinct food intake patterns. For this reason, exposure assessments are particularly important in this age group. The paper will review the use of additives and exposure assessment methods and examine factors that affect dietary exposure by young children. One of the most widely investigated unfavourable health effects associated with food additive intake in preschool-aged children are suggested adverse behavioural effects. Research that has examined this relationship has reported a variety of responses, with many noting an increase in hyperactivity as reported by parents but not when assessed using objective examiners. This review has examined the experimental approaches used in such studies and suggests that efforts are needed to standardise objective methods of measuring behaviour in preschool children. Further to this, a more holistic approach to examining food additive intakes by preschool children is advisable, where overall exposure is considered rather than focusing solely on behavioural effects and possibly examining intakes of food additives other than food colours.

  6. DAST in Flight Showing Diverging Wingtip Oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    normal stiffness. This was done because stiffness requires structural weight but ensures freedom from flutter-an uncontrolled, divergent oscillation of the structure, driven by aerodynamic forces and resulting in structural failure. The program used refined theoretical tools to predict at what speed flutter would occur. It then designed a high-response control system to counteract the motion and permit a much lighter wing structure. The wing had, in effect, 'electronic stiffness.' Flight research with this concept was extremely hazardous because an error in either the flutter prediction or control system implementation would result in wing structural failure and the loss of the vehicle. Because of this, flight demonstration of a sub-scale vehicle made sense from the standpoint of both safety and cost. The program anticipated structural failure during the course of the flight research. The Firebee II was a supersonic drone selected as the DAST testbed because its wing could be easily replaced, it used only tail-mounted control surfaces, and it was available as surplus from the U. S. Air Force. It was capable of 5-g turns (that is, turns producing acceleration equal to 5 times that of gravity). Langley outfitted a drone with an aeroelastic, supercritical research wing suitable for a Mach 0.98 cruise transport with a predicted flutter speed of Mach 0.95 at an altitude of 25,000 feet. Dryden and Langley, in conjunction with Boeing, designed and fabricated a digital flutter suppression system (FSS). Dryden developed an RPRV (remotely piloted research vehicle) flight control system; integrated the wing, FSS, and vehicle systems; and conducted the flight program. In addition to a digital flight control system and aeroelastic wings, each DAST drone had research equipment mounted in its nose and a mid-air retrieval system in its tail. The drones were originally launched from the NASA B-52 bomber and later from a DC-130. The DAST vehicle's flight was monitored from the sky by an F

  7. A novel block-classification and difference-expansion based reversible data hiding algorithm%一种基于块分类和差值扩展的可逆数据隐藏算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋伟; 侯建军; 李赵红

    2011-01-01

    The good statistical character of image blocks was used to present a novel digital reversible data hiding algorithm based on block-classification and difference-expansion. The host image was divided into data embedded area and auxiliary information area. In the former area, the types of image block were determined by the statistical relationship between the surrounding image blocks and the target image blocks, thus different amount of data information was embedded according to the different types. At the same time, the data were embedded in the less impact direction by the direction determined criterion, and the problem of image distortion due to single embed direction was solved. In auxiliary information embedded area, modified prediction-error was used to embed the location map and other auxiliary information for its zero overflow performance, and the new location map generated by auxiliary information embedded was avoided. Simulation of the algorithm was performed on different type images, and the results were compared with those of the exiting algorithms. The results show that the proposed algorithm has good performance, which can not only increase the amount of the embedded data, but also improve the embedded images' quality.%利用图像块的统计特性,描述一种新的基于差值扩展和块分类技术的可逆数据隐藏算法.首先,将图像分为数据嵌入区域和辅助信息嵌入区域.在数据嵌入区域,将分块后的图像利用周围图像块与目标图像块间的统计关系判断图像块的类型,从而根据类型差异嵌入不同数据量的信息,实现图像内容复杂度对数据嵌入量的控制.同时,利用方向判断准则选择对图像影响较小的方向嵌入,解决了单一嵌入方向对图像造成较大失真的问题.在辅助信息嵌入区域,采用MPE零溢出的特性嵌入位图辅助信息,避免嵌入辅助信息带来新的位图信息.对不同纹理图像进行实验测试以

  8. MRI shows clodronate-liposomes attenuating liverinjuryinratswithsevereacutepancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Xin Zhang; Sheng-Chun Dang; Yong Zhang; Xin Sha; Li-Rong Zhang; Chuan-She Wei; Min Chen; De-Li Jiang

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies have revealed that macrophages play an important role in the development of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). Activated macrophages can lead to a systemic inlfammatory response, induce lipid peroxidation, impair membrane structure, result in injury to the liver and the other extrahepatic organs, and eventually result in multiple organ dysfunction syndrome by promoting excessive secretion of cytokines. Liver injury can further aggravate the systemic inlfammatory response and increase mortality by affecting the metabolism of toxins and the release of excessive inlfammatory mediators. Clodronate is a synthetic bisphosphonate, which is often used for treating bone changes caused by osteoporosis and other factors. In the current study, we created liposomes containing superparamagnetic iron oxide particles (SPIOs) for macrophage labeling and magnetic resonance imaging, using a novel method that can bind the clodronate to induce apoptosis and deplete macrophages. METHODS: Superparamagnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles were prepared by chemical coprecipitation. SPIO-containing liposomes and SPIO-clodronate-containing liposomes were prepared by the thin iflm method. SAP models were prepared by injection of sodium taurocholate (2 ml/kg body weight) into the subcapsular space of the pancreas. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into a control group, a SAP plus SPIO-liposome group, and a SAP plus SPIO-clodronate-containing group. Two and six hours after SAP models were available, T2-weighted MRI scans (in the same plane) of the livers of rats in each group were performed. At the end of the scans, 2 ml of blood was taken from the superior mesenteric vein to measure the levels of serum amylase, ALT, AST, TNF-α, and IL-6. Pathological changes in the liver and pancreas were assessed. RESULTS: Transmission electron microscopy showed that the liposomes had a uniform size. No pathological changes in the pancreata of rats in the control group were noted. The

  9. Clinical effects of sulphite additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vally, H; Misso, N L A; Madan, V

    2009-11-01

    Sulphites are widely used as preservative and antioxidant additives in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Topical, oral or parenteral exposure to sulphites has been reported to induce a range of adverse clinical effects in sensitive individuals, ranging from dermatitis, urticaria, flushing, hypotension, abdominal pain and diarrhoea to life-threatening anaphylactic and asthmatic reactions. Exposure to the sulphites arises mainly from the consumption of foods and drinks that contain these additives; however, exposure may also occur through the use of pharmaceutical products, as well as in occupational settings. While contact sensitivity to sulphite additives in topical medications is increasingly being recognized, skin reactions also occur after ingestion of or parenteral exposure to sulphites. Most studies report a 3-10% prevalence of sulphite sensitivity among asthmatic subjects following ingestion of these additives. However, the severity of these reactions varies, and steroid-dependent asthmatics, those with marked airway hyperresponsiveness, and children with chronic asthma, appear to be at greater risk. In addition to episodic and acute symptoms, sulphites may also contribute to chronic skin and respiratory symptoms. To date, the mechanisms underlying sulphite sensitivity remain unclear, although a number of potential mechanisms have been proposed. Physicians should be aware of the range of clinical manifestations of sulphite sensitivity, as well as the potential sources of exposure. Minor modifications to diet or behaviour lead to excellent clinical outcomes for sulphite-sensitive individuals.

  10. Evaluation of certain food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, and to prepare specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation of and assessment of dietary exposure to food additives, including flavouring agents. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and dietary exposure data for eight food additives (Benzoe tonkinensis; carrageenan; citric and fatty acid esters of glycerol; gardenia yellow; lutein esters from Tagetes erecta; octenyl succinic acid-modified gum arabic; octenyl succinic acid-modified starch; paprika extract; and pectin) and eight groups of flavouring agents (aliphatic and alicyclic hydrocarbons; aliphatic and aromatic ethers; ionones and structurally related substances; miscellaneous nitrogen-containing substances; monocyclic and bicyclic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; phenol and phenol derivatives; phenyl-substituted aliphatic alcohols and related aldehydes and esters; and sulfur-containing heterocyclic compounds). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: citric acid; gellan gum; polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monostearate; potassium aluminium silicate; and Quillaia extract (Type 2). Annexed to the report are tables summarizing the Committee's recommendations for dietary exposures to and toxicological evaluations of all of the food additives and flavouring agents considered at this meeting.

  11. [INVITED] Lasers in additive manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkerton, Andrew J.

    2016-04-01

    Additive manufacturing is a topic of considerable ongoing interest, with forecasts predicting it to have major impact on industry in the future. This paper focusses on the current status and potential future development of the technology, with particular reference to the role of lasers within it. It begins by making clear the types and roles of lasers in the different categories of additive manufacturing. This is followed by concise reviews of the economic benefits and disadvantages of the technology, current state of the market and use of additive manufacturing in different industries. Details of these fields are referenced rather than expanded in detail. The paper continues, focusing on current indicators to the future of additive manufacturing. Barriers to its development, trends and opportunities in major industrial sectors, and wider opportunities for its development are covered. Evidence indicates that additive manufacturing may not become the dominant manufacturing technology in all industries, but represents an excellent opportunity for lasers to increase their influence in manufacturing as a whole.

  12. Quantitative Relationships Involving Additive Differences: Numerical Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramful, Ajay; Ho, Siew Yin

    2014-01-01

    This case study describes the ways in which problems involving additive differences with unknown starting quantities, constrain the problem solver in articulating the inherent quantitative relationship. It gives empirical evidence to show how numerical reasoning takes over as a Grade 6 student instantiates the quantitative relation by resorting to…

  13. Topology Optimization for Additive Manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Anders

    This PhD thesis deals with the combination of topology optimization and additive man-ufacturing (AM, also known as 3D-printing). In addition to my own works, the thesis contains a broader review and assessment of the literature within the field. The thesis first presents a classification...... of the various AM technologies, a review of relevant manufacturing materials, the properties of these materials in the additively manufactured part, as well as manufacturing constraints with a potential for design optimization. Subsequently, specific topology optimization formulations relevant for the most im......-portant AM-related manufacturing constraints are presented. These constraints are di-vided into directional and non-directional constraints. Non-directional constraints include minimum/uniform length scale and a cavity constraint. It is shown that modified filter boundary conditions are required in order...

  14. Ruzsa's Constant on Additive Functions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Hui FANG; Yong Gao CHEN

    2013-01-01

    A function f:N → R is called additive if f(mn) =f(m)+f(n) for all m,n with (m,n) =1.Let μ(x) =maxn≤x(f(n)-f(n + 1)) and v(x) =maxn≤x(f(n + 1)-f(n)).In 1979,Ruzsa proved that there exists a constant c such that for any additive function f,μ(x) ≤ cv(x2) + cf,where cf is a constant depending only on f.Denote by Raf the least such constant c.We call Raf Ruzsa's constant on additive functions.In this paper,we prove that Raf ≤ 20.

  15. Search for additional Higgs bosons

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Jochen; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Standard Model of particle physics is one of the most well-established theories in physics. However, it has some flaws which cannot be explained without physics beyond the Standard Model. Most of the theoretically explored extensions which provide potential solutions include further Higgs bosons in addition to the discovered resonance with the mass of about 125 GeV. This talk summarizes current efforts carried out by the ATLAS and CMS collaborations targeting at the discovery of further resonances. A variety of observables in multiple final states is studied and interpreted in terms of additional Higgs bosons predicted by selected models. Those additional bosons are not necessarily neutral, but could also be charged.

  16. Additional disulfide bonds in insulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Tine N; Pettersson, Ingrid; Huus, Kasper

    2015-01-01

    The structure of insulin, a glucose homeostasis-controlling hormone, is highly conserved in all vertebrates and stabilized by three disulfide bonds. Recently, we designed a novel insulin analogue containing a fourth disulfide bond located between positions A10-B4. The N-terminus of insulin's B......-chain is flexible and can adapt multiple conformations. We examined how well disulfide bond predictions algorithms could identify disulfide bonds in this region of insulin. In order to identify stable insulin analogues with additional disulfide bonds, which could be expressed, the Cβ cut-off distance had...... in comparison to analogues with additional disulfide bonds that were more difficult to predict. In contrast, addition of the fourth disulfide bond rendered all analogues resistant to fibrillation under stress conditions and all stable analogues bound to the insulin receptor with picomolar affinities. Thus...

  17. The selective addition of water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Resch, V.; Hanefeld, U.

    2014-01-01

    Water is omnipresent and essential. Yet at the same time it is a rather unreactive molecule. The direct addition of water to C[double bond, length as m-dash]C double bonds is therefore a challenge not answered convincingly. In this perspective we critically evaluate the selectivity and the applicabi

  18. Pragmatics in Court Interpreting: Additions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Bente

    2003-01-01

    Danish court interpreters are expected to follow ethical guidelines, which instruct them to deliver exact verbatim versions of source texts. However, this requirement often clashes with the reality of the interpreting situation in the courtroom. This paper presents and discusses the findings of a...... of an investigation regarding one kind of interpreter modification in particular: additions. The investigation was undertaken for a doctoral thesis....

  19. Additively manufactured porous tantalum implants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wauthle, Ruben; Van Der Stok, Johan; Yavari, Saber Amin; Van Humbeeck, Jan; Kruth, Jean Pierre; Zadpoor, Amir Abbas; Weinans, Harrie; Mulier, Michiel; Schrooten, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The medical device industry's interest in open porous, metallic biomaterials has increased in response to additive manufacturing techniques enabling the production of complex shapes that cannot be produced with conventional techniques. Tantalum is an important metal for medical devices because of it

  20. Discussion on the Clinical Effects of Anemia Treated by Compound Donkey-hide Gelatin Slurry%复方阿胶浆治疗贫血的临床疗效

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓南

    2015-01-01

    Objective To discuss the clinical effects and the safety of anemia treated by compound donkey-hide gelatin slurry.Methods 100 cases of patients with anemia were selected as the study objects.They were patients treated in our hospital during January 2013 to December 2013.These 100 patients were divided into control group and observation group based on the difference of therapeutic methods.The patients in control group were given regular treatment,while patients in the observation group were given regular treatment combine with treatment of compound donkey-hide gelatin slurry.Observe and compare both groups’ clinical effects.Results Patients in the observation group treatment effect significantly better than the control group,the difference was statisticaly significant(P<0.05). Conclusion Compound donkey-hide gelatin slurry plays an important role in treating anemia with outstanding clinical effects and high safety.%目的:探讨复方阿胶浆治疗贫血的临床效果及安全性。方法收集2013年1月至2013年12月期间我院收治的100例贫血患者资料,将患者按照治疗方法的不同分为观察组与对照组。对照组患者进行常规治疗,观察组患者在此基础上联合复方阿胶浆进行治疗,对两组患者的临床治疗效果进行观察比较。结果观察组患者的治疗效果明显优于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论复方阿胶浆治疗贫血临床效果明显,且安全性较高。