WorldWideScience

Sample records for hide beetle dermestes

  1. Aggregation pheromone compounds of the black larder beetle Dermestes haemorrhoidalis Kuster (Coleoptera: Dermestidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korada, R.R.; Griepink, F.C.

    2011-01-01

    Gas chromatography with simultaneous flame ionisation and electroantennographic detection (GCEAD) and gas chromatography with mass spectrometry analysis (GCMS) of abdominal extracts of adult male Dermestes haemorrhoidalis Kuster (Coleoptera: Dermestidae) revealed the presence of

  2. Effect of some pulverised plant materials on the developmental stages of fish beetle, Dermestes maculatus Degeer in smoked catfish (Clarias gariepinus) during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasakin, E A; Aberejo, B A

    2002-11-01

    The effectiveness of pulverised plant materials; Tithonium diversifolia, Afromomum melegueta, Nicotiana tabacum, Monodora myristica and Piper guineense as ovicidal, larvicidal and adult deterents of fish beetle (Dermestes maculatus) in smoked catfish (Clarias gariepinus) during storage were evaluated. Leaves of T. diversifolia, N. tabacum and seeds of A. melegueta, M. myristica and P. guineese were dried and pulverised into powder. Adults and larvae of third generation (F3) of D. maculatus were introduced into Kilner jars containing disinfested fish samples. Pulverised plant materials were applied to the surface of the fish samples at 10% (w/w) and monitored for 40 days, while egg hatchability of the insects was monitored for seven days. The result showed that all the plant materials had varying degree of insecticidal activities. Pulverised powder of P. guineense and A. melegueta were the most effective and significantly (P 0.05) affected by the plant materials. The percentage weight loss in fish treated with P. guineense and A. melegueta were minimal compared with the untreated fish sample. The result of this study showed that pulverised plant materials obtained from P. guineense and A. melegueta could be used to deter egg hatchability and adult emergence of D. maculatus in smoked catfish during storage. This could also reduce percentage losses due to insect infestation on smoked fish during storage.

  3. Effect of gamma radiation on the metamorphic stages of Dermestes maculatus DeGeer (Coleoptera: Dermestidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seal, D.R.; Tilton, E.W.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of γ-radiation on all stages of the hide beetle Dermestes maculatus, DeGeer were studied. Eggs of D. maculatus were more susceptible to γ radiation than other stages. Egg radiosensitivity decreased with increasing embryonic development. An absorbed dose of 200 Gy killed the 1st, 6th and 7th instar larvae, but the 4th and 5th instar larvae were more resistant. The developmental period increased in treated larvae. Pupae (24 h) treated with 150 Gy failed to eclose, but eclosion was not affected in older pupae. Adults from female pupae irradiated at 72 h with 150 Gy were infertile, but male pupae required more than 200 Gy for sterilization. The average number of eggs per female decreased with increasing doses when either the male or female of the pair was irradiated as pupae or adults. Adult males were sterile after irradiation 300 Gy and adult females treated with the same dose failed to lay eggs. Newly emerged irradiated adults or female adults from irradiated 72-h-old pupae recovered some fertility after treatment with doses as high as 150 Gy. Adult males from irradiated 72-h-old pupae were treated at doses of 50 and 100 Gy showed a higher reproductive capacity at 60 days than at 15 days post-treatment. A dose between 200 and 300 Gy was necessary to provide complete sterility of 24-h-old adults. (author)

  4. Effect of Dermestes maculatus on the nutritional qualities of two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to assess the effect on nutritional composition of two 'Edible Insects' (Larva of Oryctes boas and Rhynchophorus phoenicis) after infestation by Dermestes maculatus. The study was done over a period of six weeks by subjecting these edible insects to different conditions of storage (using pepper and salt).

  5. EFFECT OF INFESTATION OF Dermestes maculatus on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Olusola Fasunwon

    2011-12-07

    Dec 7, 2011 ... nutrition in Africa, Asia and Latin American. Some of the most important groups of the hundreds of insect species that have been used as human food include: Grasshoppers, Rhinoceros beetles, Caterpillars, Termites, Bees, Wasps, .... grams of Oryctes boas were introduced into each container, respectively.

  6. Dermestes peruvianus Laporte (Coleoptera, Dermestidae: primeiro registro para o Nordeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wellington Santos

    2012-12-01

    Abstract. Dermestes peruvianus Laporte is a species with records in South America from Peru, Bolivia, Chile, Argentina and Brazil (Southeastern region. During a survey of insect fauna associated with pig carcasses in an area of Caatinga, in São José dos Cordeiros, state of Paraíba, Brazil (7°28’19’’S; 36°53’40”W, in October 2010 and February 2011 were collected three specimens of D. peruvianus being the first record of the species to the Northeastern Brazil.

  7. Susceptibility of selected stored product insects to a combination treatment of pyriproxyfen and novaluron

    Science.gov (United States)

    A series of tests was conducted to evaluate susceptibility of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), the red flour beetle, Trogoderma variabile (Ballion), the warehouse beetle, and Dermestes maculatus (DeGeer), the hide beetle, to a new insecticide (Tekko®) which contained the IGR pyreproxyfen and the chiten...

  8. Hackers in Hiding:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ejvind

    2016-01-01

    On several occasions Michel Foucault advocated a methodological turn towards what he called a ‘happy positivism’. Foucault’s emphasis on the surface does not deny the importance of structures of hiding, but understands it as a game in which the structures of hiding are viewed as contingently given....... In this paper, I will analyse the conflict between the hacker movement and the field of corporate interests. I argue that the introduction of graphical user interfaces and the maintaining of copyright interests are the contingent background of the ongoing conflict. By bracketing the analyses of hidden...

  9. Asparagus Beetle and Spotted Asparagus Beetle

    OpenAIRE

    Hodgson, Erin W.; Drost, Dan

    2007-01-01

    Asparagus beetle, Crioceris asparagi, and spotted asparagus beetle, C. duodecimpunctata are leaf beetles in the family Chrysomelidae. These beetles feed exclusively on asparagus and are native to Europe. Asparagus beetle is the more economically injurious of the two species.

  10. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE TOXICITY OF OILS FROM SEEDS OF Citrullus colocynthis AND Citrullus vulgaris ON LARVAE OF Dermestes Maculatus

    OpenAIRE

    Akpotu, Onoriode Joseph; Oniye, Sonnie Johnson; Abolude, David; Yusuf, Abdullateef

    2016-01-01

    Studywas carried out in the Fisheries Research Laboratory, Ahmadu Bello Universityto evaluate the effect of Citrulluscolocynthis (Eguisi) and Citrullusvulgaris (Watermelon) seed oils on the larvae of Dermestes maculatus, an important pest of smoke-dried Clarias gariepinus (African catfish).The effect of the oils at different tested concentrations against the larvae ofD. maculatus was dose dependent as3.33% and 81.11% mortality for C.colocynthis while 2.22% and 91.11% for C.vulgaris were recor...

  11. Necrophagous beetles associated with carcasses in a semi-arid environment in northeastern Brazil: implications for forensic entomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Ana C G; Vasconcelos, Simão D

    2013-03-10

    Data on the ecology and bionomics of necrophagous beetles are scarce in tropical countries despite their relevance in forensic investigations. We performed a survey on the diversity and temporal pattern of colonization of beetles on pig carcasses in a fragment of dry forest in northeastern Brazil. We collected 1550 adults of diverse feeding habits from 12 families, of which 96% had necrophagous and/or copro-necrophagous habits and belonged to four families: Dermestidae, Scarabaeidae, Cleridae and Trogidae. Three species, Dermestes maculatus, Necrobia rufipes and Omorgus suberosus are reported for the first time with an expanded geographical distribution that includes the semi-arid region in Brazil. Adult beetles were collected as early as 24h after death. One endemic species, Deltochilum verruciferum, stood out in terms of numerical dominance and temporal occurrence during different stages of decomposition. Its intimate association with carrion emphasizes their potential role in forensic entomology in the region. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Information hiding technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younger, Michael; Budulas, Peter P.; Young, Stuart H.

    2002-08-01

    Spread spectrum communication techniques have been recognized as a viable method to gain an advantage in interference environments. Many military-oriented systems have been initiated, and some civil systems have been attempted. Spread spectrum allows the ability to hide the signal of interest below or in the noise floor, so as not to be detected. A spread spectrum system is one in which the transmitted signal is spread over a wide frequency band, much wider, in fact, than the minimum bandwidth required to transmit the information being sent. We at Army Research Lab (ARL) are proposing using the same technique on the Internet with port hopping. The information would be transmitted in data packets over multiple ports. The port used would vary per packet or per session basis. This port hopping gives you and the recipients the ability to take datagram's and spread them out over a multitude of ports. This will hide information among the Internet noise. This will allow trusted communications between the transmitter and receiver because of the port coding sequence. There are 64K possible ports to span datagram. Jamming of transmission would be limiting the ability of the sniffer/listener. Also, the listener will find it difficult to use a man in the middle attach, since the data will be spread over multiple ports and only the receiver and transmitter will know the specific port sequencing for the datagram.

  13. Observations on the Cave-Associated Beetles (Coleoptera of Nova Scotia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moseley M.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The cave-associated invertebrates of Nova Scotia constitute a fauna at a very early stage of post-glacial recolonization. TheColeoptera are characterized by low species diversity. A staphylinid Quedius spelaeus spelaeus, a predator, is the only regularlyencountered beetle. Ten other terrestrial species registered from cave environments in the province are collected infrequently. Theyinclude three other rove-beetles: Brathinus nitidus, Gennadota canadensis and Atheta annexa. The latter two together with Catopsgratiosus (Leiodidae constitute a small group of cave-associated beetles found in decompositional situations. Quedius s. spelaeusand a small suite of other guanophiles live in accumulations of porcupine dung: Agolinus leopardus (Scarabaeidae, Corticariaserrata (Latrididae, and Acrotrichis castanea (Ptilidae. Two adventive weevils Otiorhynchus ligneus and Barypeithes pellucidus(Curculionidae collected in shallow cave passages are seasonal transients; Dermestes lardarius (Dermestidae, recorded fromone cave, was probably an accidental (stray. Five of the terrestrial beetles are adventive Palaearctic species. Aquatic beetles arecollected infrequently. Four taxa have been recorded: Agabus larsoni (Dytiscidae may be habitual in regional caves; another Agabussp. (probably semivittatus, Dytiscus sp. (Dytiscidae, and Crenitis digesta (Hydrophilidae are accidentals. The distribution andecology of recorded species are discussed, and attention is drawn to the association of beetles found in a Nova Scotia “ice cave”.

  14. Beneficial Insects: Beetles

    OpenAIRE

    Hodgson, Erin W.; Patterson, Ron

    2007-01-01

    There are many beneficial beetles in Utah besides lady beetles or ladybugs. Beetles can significantly reduce common insect and weed problems and in some cases eliminate the need for chemical control. Examples of beneficial beetles include: ground beetles, rove beetles, tiger beetles and tortoise beetles. Many of these beetles are native to Utah, while others have been purposely introduced to help control damage from exotic insect and weed pests.

  15. Image hiding using optical interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Wang, Weining

    2010-09-01

    Optical image encryption technology has attracted a lot of attentions due to its large capacitance and fast speed. In conventional image encryption methods, the random phase masks are used as encryption keys to encode the images into white noise distribution. Therefore, this kind of methods requires interference technology to record complex amplitude and is vulnerable to attack techniques. The image hiding methods which employ the phase retrieve algorithm to encode the images into two or more phase masks are proposed, the hiding process is carried out within a computer using iterative algorithm. But the iterative algorithms are time consumed. All method mentioned above are based on the optical diffraction of the phase masks. In this presentation, a new optical image hiding method based on optical interference is proposed. The coherence lights which pass through two phase masks are combined by a beam splitter. Two beams interfere with each other and the desired image appears at the pre-designed plane. Two phase distribution masks are design analytically; therefore, the hiding speed can be obviously improved. Simulation results are carried out to demonstrate the novelty of the new proposed methods. This method can be expanded for double images hiding.

  16. Optical hiding with visual cryptography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yishi; Yang, Xiubo

    2017-11-01

    We propose an optical hiding method based on visual cryptography. In the hiding process, we convert the secret information into a set of fabricated phase-keys, which are completely independent of each other, intensity-detected-proof and image-covered, leading to the high security. During the extraction process, the covered phase-keys are illuminated with laser beams and then incoherently superimposed to extract the hidden information directly by human vision, without complicated optical implementations and any additional computation, resulting in the convenience of extraction. Also, the phase-keys are manufactured as the diffractive optical elements that are robust to the attacks, such as the blocking and the phase-noise. Optical experiments verify that the high security, the easy extraction and the strong robustness are all obtainable in the visual-cryptography-based optical hiding.

  17. Family networks and income hiding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekman, Gonne; Gatto, Marcel; Nillesen, Eleonora

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between family network density and income hiding in rural Liberia. We link people's behaviour in a modified lottery experiment and a time preference game to detailed information about their family networks. We find that individuals with a dense family

  18. NEW CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE KNOWLEDGE OF THE BEETLES FAUNA OF PLUM ORCHARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nela Tălmaciu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Observations were made in 2015 in a plum fruit tree orchards of Pietrărie stationary from Bârnova belonging Iasi County. For the collection were used the soil traps Barber, the wet type. Six traps have been used in which was placed a solution of formalin concentrate 3-4%. They were made a total of seven harvests of traps on the following dates: 28.05; 30.05; 15.06; 12.07; 26.07; 10.08 and 23.08. For each collection were selected and then identified species of beetles collected. The determination was made by using manuals for the determination wrote by Panin S and Ritter E. or the Internet sources. Biggest species abundance were: Dermestes laniarius L., Cyaninis cyanea L., Polydrosus sericeus Schall., Coccinella septempunctata L. and Amara aenea Dejean.

  19. Integrated Association Rules Complete Hiding Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Refaat Abdellah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents database security approach for complete hiding of sensitive association rules by using six novel algorithms. These algorithms utilize three new weights to reduce the needed database modifications and support complete hiding, as well as they reduce the knowledge distortion and the data distortions. Complete weighted hiding algorithms enhance the hiding failure by 100%; these algorithms have the advantage of performing only a single scan for the database to gather the required information to form the hiding process. These proposed algorithms are built within the database structure which enables the sanitized database to be generated on run time as needed.

  20. Reflections on Quantum Data Hiding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Andreas

    Quantum data hiding, originally invented as a limitation on local operations and classical communications (LOCC) in distinguishing globally orthogonal states, is actually a phenomenon arising generically in statistics whenever comparing a `strong' set of measurements (i.e., decision rules) with a `weak' one. The classical statistical analogue of this would be secret sharing, in which two perfectly distinguishable multi-partite hypotheses appear to be indistinguishable when accessing only a marginal. The quantum versions are richer in that for example LOCC allows for state tomography, so the states cannot be come perfectly indistinguishable but only nearly so, and hence the question is one of efficiency. I will discuss two concrete examples and associated sets of problems: 1. Gaussian operations and classical computation (GOCC): Not very surprisingly, GOCC cannot distinguish optimally even two coherent states of a single mode. Here we find states, each a mixture of multi-mode coherent states, which are almost perfectly distinguishable by suitable measurements, by when restricted to GOCC, i.e. linear optics and post-processing, the states appear almost identical. The construction is random and relies on coding arguments. Open questions include whether there one can give a constructive version of the argument, and whether for instance even thermal states can be used, or how efficient the hiding is. 2. Local operation and classical communication (LOCC): It is well-known that in a bipartite dxd-system, asymptotically logd bits can be hidden. Here we show for the first time, using the calculus of min-entropies, that this is asymptotically optimal. In fact, we get bounds on the data hiding capacity of any preparation system; these are however not always tight. While it is known that data hiding by separable states is possible (i.e. the state preparation can be done by LOCC), it is open whether the optimal information efficiency of (asymptotically) log d bits can be

  1. Recent Advances in Information Hiding and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Hsiang-Cheh; Jain, Lakhmi; Zhao, Yao

    2013-01-01

    This research book presents a sample of recent advances in information hiding techniques and their applications. It includes:   Image data hiding scheme based on vector quantization and image graph coloring The copyright protection system for Android platform Reversible data hiding ICA-based image and video watermarking Content-based invariant image watermarking Single bitmap block truncation coding of color images using cat swarm optimization Genetic-based wavelet packet watermarking for copyright protection Lossless text steganography in compression coding Fast and low-distortion capacity acoustic synchronized acoustic-to-acoustic steganography scheme Video watermarking with shot detection

  2. Optical image hiding based on interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Wang, Bo

    2009-11-01

    Optical image processing has been paid a lot of attentions recently due to its large capacitance and fast speed. Many image encryption and hiding technologies have been proposed based on the optical technology. In conventional image encryption methods, the random phase masks are usually used as encryption keys to encode the images into random white noise distribution. However, this kind of methods requires interference technology such as holography to record complex amplitude. Furthermore, it is vulnerable to attack techniques. The image hiding methods employ the phase retrieve algorithm to encode the images into two or more phase masks. The hiding process is carried out within a computer and the images are reconstructed optically. But the iterative algorithms need a lot of time to hide the image into the masks. All methods mentioned above are based on the optical diffraction of the phase masks. In this presentation, we will propose a new optical image hiding method based on interference. The coherence lights pass through two phase masks and are combined by a beam splitter. Two beams interfere with each other and the desired image appears at the pre-designed plane. Two phase distribution masks are designed analytically; therefore, the hiding speed can be obviously improved. Simulation results are carried out to demonstrate the validity of the new proposed methods.

  3. Short term preservation of hide using vacuum: influence on properties of hide and of processed leather.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudro, Ilze; Valeika, Virgilijus; Sirvaitytė, Justa

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate vacuum influence on hide preservation time and how it affects hide structure. It was established that vacuum prolongs the storage time without hide tissue putrefaction up to 21 days when the storage temperature is 4°C. The microorganisms act for all storage times, but the action is weak and has no observable influence on the quality of hide during the time period mentioned. The hide shrinkage temperature decrease is negligible, which shows that breaking of intermolecular bonds does not occur. Optical microscopy, infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry also did not show any structural changes which can influence the quality of leather produced from such hide. The qualitative indexes of wet blue processed under laboratory conditions and of leather produced during industrial trials are presented. Indexes such as chromium compounds exhaustion, content of chromium in leather, content of soluble matter in dichloromethane, strength properties, and shrinkage temperature were determined. Properties of the leather produced from vacuumed hide under industrial conditions conformed to the requirements of shoe upper leather.

  4. Perception of Stakeholders to the Proposed Ban on Cow Hide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Keywords: Cow hide consumption, cow hide value chain, ponmo .... value chain;. 2. identify sources of information of the respondents on the proposed ban; ..... the health risk associated with the consumption of ponmo may favour its proposed.

  5. Understanding Information Hiding in iOS

    OpenAIRE

    Caviglione, Luca; Mazurczyk, Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    The Apple operating system (iOS) has so far proved resistant to information-hiding techniques, which help attackers covertly communicate. However, Siri - a native iOS service that controls iPhones and iPads via voice commands - could change this trend.

  6. Hiding levitating objects above a ground plane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jingjing; Luo, Yu; Mortensen, Asger

    2010-01-01

    An approach to hiding objects levitating above a conducting sheet is suggested in this paper. The proposed device makes use of isotropic negative-refractive-index materials without extreme material parameters, and creates an illusion of a remote conducting sheet. Numerical simulations are perform...

  7. HIDE working groups: synchrotron based system: summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, M.Q.

    1978-01-01

    A brief overview is given of the work resulting from a one-week workshop on the use of synchrotrons in heavy ion fusion, i.e., a Heavy Ion Demonstration Experiment (HIDE). Topics discussed concerned the number of beams on target, space charge limitations, choice of ion charge state, and areas identified as needing further work

  8. Matryoshka: Hiding Secret Communication in Plain Sight

    OpenAIRE

    Safaka, Iris; Fragouli, Christina; Argyraki, Katerina

    2016-01-01

    We want to enable a pair of communicating users to exchange secret messages while hiding the fact that secret communication is taking place. We propose a linguistic steganography approach, where each human message is hidden in another human-like message. A hard open question is how to keep the steganographic message small -- existing related tools tend to blow up its size, thereby revealing the use of steganography. We encrypt by compressing each message, mapping it to a plausible sequence of...

  9. Children and Robots Learning to Play Hide and Seek

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Trafton, J. G; Schultz, Alan C; Perznowski, Dennis; Bugajska, Magdalena D; Adams, William; Cassimatis, Nicholas L; Brock, Derek P

    2006-01-01

    ...., containment, under) and use that information to play a credible game of hide and seek. They model this hypothesis within the ACT-R cognitive architecture and put the model on a robot, which is able to mimic the child's hiding behavior. They also take the "hiding" model and use it as the basis for a "seeking" model. They suggest that using the same representations and procedures that a person uses allows better interaction between the human and robotic system.

  10. An Image Encryption Method Based on Bit Plane Hiding Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Bin; LI Zhitang; TU Hao

    2006-01-01

    A novel image hiding method based on the correlation analysis of bit plane is described in this paper. Firstly, based on the correlation analysis, different bit plane of a secret image is hided in different bit plane of several different open images. And then a new hiding image is acquired by a nesting "Exclusive-OR" operation on those images obtained from the first step. At last, by employing image fusion technique, the final hiding result is achieved. The experimental result shows that the method proposed in this paper is effective.

  11. red flour beetle

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-12-01

    Dec 1, 2009 ... 2Institute of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan. 3Department of ... most important energy source around the globe ... T. castaneum (red flour beetle) samples were collected from rice.

  12. Hiding Information Using different lighting Color images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majead, Ahlam; Awad, Rash; Salman, Salema S.

    2018-05-01

    The host medium for the secret message is one of the important principles for the designers of steganography method. In this study, the best color image was studied to carrying any secret image.The steganography approach based Lifting Wavelet Transform (LWT) and Least Significant Bits (LSBs) substitution. The proposed method offers lossless and unnoticeable changes in the contrast carrier color image and imperceptible by human visual system (HVS), especially the host images which was captured in dark lighting conditions. The aim of the study was to study the process of masking the data in colored images with different light intensities. The effect of the masking process was examined on the images that are classified by a minimum distance and the amount of noise and distortion in the image. The histogram and statistical characteristics of the cover image the results showed the efficient use of images taken with different light intensities in hiding data using the least important bit substitution method. This method succeeded in concealing textual data without distorting the original image (low light) Lire developments due to the concealment process.The digital image segmentation technique was used to distinguish small areas with masking. The result is that smooth homogeneous areas are less affected as a result of hiding comparing with high light areas. It is possible to use dark color images to send any secret message between two persons for the purpose of secret communication with good security.

  13. Dynamics and driving forces of hides, skins, leather and leather ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Footwear and leather goods are constrained by lack of factories, competition from used goods, synthetic plastics and uninformed market. Investment in hides, skins and leather industry supported by training programmes has potential to generate great monetary revenue. Keywords: Hides, skin, leather, value chain, slaughter ...

  14. Wrapped up in Covers: Preschoolers' Secrets and Secret Hiding Places

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corson, Kimberly; Colwell, Malinda J.; Bell, Nancy J.; Trejos-Castillo, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    In this qualitative study, interviews about children's secret hiding places were conducted with 3-5-year-olds (n?=?17) in a university sponsored preschool programme using art narratives. Since prior studies indicate that children understand the concept of a secret as early as five and that they associate secrets with hiding places, the purpose of…

  15. Efficient Information Hiding Based on Theory of Numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanjun Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Data hiding is an efficient technique that conceals secret data into a digital medium. In 2006, Zhang and Wang proposed a data hiding scheme called exploiting modification direction (EMD which has become a milestone in the field of data hiding. In recent years, many EMD-type data hiding schemes have been developed, but their embedding capacity remains restricted. In this paper, a novel data hiding scheme based on the combination of Chinese remainder theorem (CRT and a new extraction function is proposed. By the proposed scheme, the cover image is divided into non-overlapping pixel groups for embedding to increase the embedding capacity. Experimental results show that the embedding capacity of the proposed scheme is significantly higher (greater than 2.5 bpp than previously proposed schemes while ensuring very good visual quality of the stego image. In addition, security analysis is given to show that the proposed scheme can resist visual attack.

  16. Selective Redundancy Removal: A Framework for Data Hiding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugo Fiore

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Data hiding techniques have so far concentrated on adding or modifying irrelevant information in order to hide a message. However, files in widespread use, such as HTML documents, usually exhibit high redundancy levels, caused by code-generation programs. Such redundancy may be removed by means of optimization software. Redundancy removal, if applied selectively, enables information hiding. This work introduces Selective Redundancy Removal (SRR as a framework for hiding data. An example application of the framework is given in terms of hiding information in HTML documents. Non-uniformity across documents may raise alarms. Nevertheless, selective application of optimization techniques might be due to the legitimate use of optimization software not supporting all the optimization methods, or configured to not use all of them.

  17. Hiding Critical Targets in Smart Grid Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, Wei [Univ. of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR (United States); Li, Qinghua

    2017-10-23

    With the integration of advanced communication technologies, the power grid is expected to greatly enhance efficiency and reliability of future power systems. However, since most electrical devices in power grid substations are connected via communication networks, cyber security of these communication networks becomes a critical issue. Real-World incidents such as Stuxnet have shown the feasibility of compromising a device in the power grid network to further launch more sophisticated attacks. To deal with security attacks of this spirit, this paper aims to hide critical targets from compromised internal nodes and hence protect them from further attacks launched by those compromised nodes. In particular, we consider substation networks and propose to add carefully-controlled dummy traffic to a substation network to make critical target nodes indistinguishable from other nodes in network traffic patterns. This paper describes the design and evaluation of such a scheme. Evaluations show that the scheme can effectively protect critical nodes with acceptable communication cost.

  18. Hiding secret data into a carrier image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu COSMA

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The object of steganography is embedding hidden information in an appropriate multimedia carrier, e.g., image, audio, or video. There are several known methods of solving this problem, which operate either in the space domain or in the frequency domain, and are distinguished by the following characteristics: payload, robustness and strength. The payload is the amount of secret data that can be embedded in the carrier without inducing suspicious artefacts, robustness indicates the degree in which the secret data is affected by the normal processing of the carrier e.g., compression, and the strength indicate how easy the presence of hidden data can be detected by steganalysis techniques. This paper presents a new method of hiding secret data into a digital image compressed by a technique based on the Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT [2] and the Set Partitioning In Hierarchical Trees (SPIHT subband coding algorithm [6]. The proposed method admits huge payloads and has considerable strength.

  19. Alkali-free method of hide preparation for tanning

    OpenAIRE

    Valeika, V.; Beleska, K.; Sirvaityte, J.

    2012-01-01

    Usually, beamhouse processes are carried out by varying a medium from strongly alkaline (unhairing-liming) up to strongly acid (pickling). This study is designed to develop a preparation of hide for tanning via processes that avoid a sharp change of hide pH. Enzymes active in acid medium are employed for hide unhairing in a buffer system containing 2.5% acetic acid and 0.3% sodium acetate. An oxidative treatment with peracetic acid then allows the complete removal of residual hair and scud. D...

  20. Mechanical properties of biobased films prepared from collagen solutions derived from bovine hides

    Science.gov (United States)

    The most valuable byproducts of the meat packing industry are hides. The U.S. is the world’s 3rd largest hide producing country and currently produces approximately 35 million cattle hides annually. Due to fierce competition in global markets, the American leather and hides industry is facing chal...

  1. Hiding information in open auctions with jump bids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ettinger, D.; Michelucci, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 126, č. 594 (2016), s. 1484-1502 ISSN 0013-0133 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : hiding information * open auctions * jump bids Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 2.608, year: 2016

  2. Hiding information in open auctions with jump bids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ettinger, D.; Michelucci, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 126, č. 594 (2016), s. 1484-1502 ISSN 0013-0133 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : hiding information * open auctions * jump bids Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 2.608, year: 2016

  3. Let’s play hide and seek!

    CERN Multimedia

    Computer Security Team

    2012-01-01

    This week, we would like you to play a small online game called “Virtual Hide & Seek”. The rules are simple: some of our colleagues have published some sensitive or confidential documents on CERN’s central services like Indico, CDS, EDMS or TWiki, as well as on our many websites. Your mission, should you choose to accept it: find them!   If you provide us with documents marked “confidential”, “classified”, “sensitive”, or containing plain text operational passwords, you can win a book on computer security. There are only few conditions: these documents must be visible from outside CERN, must not require a CERN account in order to access them, and must not belong to you or have a direct link with your work. Have fun! But seriously, are you sure that your documents are really properly protected? We regularly find confidential documents stored on one of the CERN central  services and w...

  4. Book Review: No Place To Hide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Kessler

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available O'Harrow, R., Jr. (2006. No Place To Hide. New York: Free Press. 352 pages, ISBN: 0-7432-8705-3 (paper, US$26Reviewed by Gary C. Kessler (gary.kessler@champlain.eduPersonal privacy and the protection of personal identifying information are of concern to all of us. Innumerable articles and conferences address our loss of privacy, either through the sale of consumer databases or our own inattention. Opinions vary from "You have no privacy; get over it" to "This is the end of civil liberties as we know them." We teach people to safely maneuver on the Internet and minimize their exposure to bogus sites set up to steal their identity, warn users about the dangers of phishing and posting personal information on social network sites, use firewalls to protect our databases, and enact laws such as the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA and the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA to protect information.(see PDF for full review

  5. Information hiding techniques for steganography and digital watermarking

    CERN Document Server

    Katzenbeisser, Stefan

    2000-01-01

    Steganography, a means by which two or more parties may communicate using ""invisible"" or ""subliminal"" communication, and watermarking, a means of hiding copyright data in images, are becoming necessary components of commercial multimedia applications that are subject to illegal use. This new book is the first comprehensive survey of steganography and watermarking and their application to modern communications and multimedia.Handbook of Information Hiding: Steganography and Watermarking helps you understand steganography, the history of this previously neglected element of cryptography, the

  6. A Game of Hide and Seek: Expectations of Clumpy Resources Influence Hiding and Searching Patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Wilke

    Full Text Available Resources are often distributed in clumps or patches in space, unless an agent is trying to protect them from discovery and theft using a dispersed distribution. We uncover human expectations of such spatial resource patterns in collaborative and competitive settings via a sequential multi-person game in which participants hid resources for the next participant to seek. When collaborating, resources were mostly hidden in clumpy distributions, but when competing, resources were hidden in more dispersed (random or hyperdispersed patterns to increase the searching difficulty for the other player. More dispersed resource distributions came at the cost of higher overall hiding (as well as searching times, decreased payoffs, and an increased difficulty when the hider had to recall earlier hiding locations at the end of the experiment. Participants' search strategies were also affected by their underlying expectations, using a win-stay lose-shift strategy appropriate for clumpy resources when searching for collaboratively-hidden items, but moving equally far after finding or not finding an item in competitive settings, as appropriate for dispersed resources. Thus participants showed expectations for clumpy versus dispersed spatial resources that matched the distributions commonly found in collaborative versus competitive foraging settings.

  7. Alkali-free method of hide preparation for tanning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Valeika

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Usually, beamhouse processes are carried out by varying a medium from strongly alkaline (unhairing-liming up to strongly acid (pickling. This study is designed to develop a preparation of hide for tanning via processes that avoid a sharp change of hide pH. Enzymes active in acid medium are employed for hide unhairing in a buffer system containing 2.5% acetic acid and 0.3% sodium acetate. An oxidative treatment with peracetic acid then allows the complete removal of residual hair and scud. During both processes, unhairing and oxidative treatment, the opening of the derma structure occurs: 13.3-14.6g of non-collagen proteins are removed and amount of dermatan sulphate decreases by 35%. The hide obtained can be chromed directly after the above processes and subsequent treatment with sodium chloride solution omitted conventional pickling. The pH of the hide varies in the range of 8.3-3.7 during the processes of preparation for tanning.

  8. Perspective taking and theory of mind in hide and seek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Chris N H; Bischof, Walter F; Kingstone, Alan

    2018-01-01

    Does theory of mind play a significant role in where people choose to hide an item or where they search for an item that has been hidden? Adapting Anderson's "Hide-Find Paradigm" Anderson et al. (Action, Perception and Performance, 76, 907-913, 2014) participants viewed homogenous or popout visual arrays on a touchscreen table. Their task was to indicate where in the array they would hide an item, or to search for an item that had been hidden, by either a friend or a foe. Critically, participants believed that their sitting location at the touchtable was the same as-or opposite to-their partner's location. Replicating Anderson et al., participants tended to (1) select items nearer to themselves on homogenous displays, and this bias was stronger for a friend than foe; and (2) select popout items, and again, more for a friend than foe. These biases were observed only when participants believed that they shared the same physical perspective as their partner. Collectively, the data indicate that theory of mind plays a significant role in hiding and finding, and demonstrate that the hide-find paradigm is a powerful tool for investigating theory of mind in adults.

  9. Market structure and performance of value chain actors in hides and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Market structure and performance of value chain actors in hides and skins processing and marketing in Nigeria. ... There was high performance in hides and skins processing and marketing in Nigeria. ... EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  10. Probability of error in information-hiding protocols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chatzikokolakis, K.; Palamidessi, C.; Panangaden, P.

    2007-01-01

    Randomized protocols for hiding private information can fruitfully be regarded as noisy channels in the information-theoretic sense, and the inference of the concealed information can be regarded as a hypothesis-testing problem. We consider the Bayesian approach to the problem, and investigate the

  11. On the Bayes risk in information-hiding protocols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chatzikokolakis, K.; Palamidessi, C.; Panangaden, P.

    2008-01-01

    Randomized protocols for hiding private information can be regarded as noisy channels in the information-theoretic sense, and the inference of the concealed information can be regarded as a hypothesis-testing problem. We consider the Bayesian approach to the problem, and investigate the probability

  12. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) Content in Cattle Hides ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Vol. 21 (6) 1105-1110. Full-text Available Online at www.ajol.info and ... Keywords: Cattle hide, meat, tyre, singeing, hydrocarbons ... on the substance used as fuel for meat processing. .... through the centrifuge at 200 rpm for 5 min. The.

  13. Intersectional Analysis in Critical Mathematics Education Research: A Response to Figure Hiding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, Erika C.

    2018-01-01

    In this chapter, I use figure hiding as a metaphor representing the processes of exclusion and suppression that critical mathematics education (CME) seeks to address. Figure hiding renders identities and modes of thought in mathematics education and mathematics education research invisible. CME has a commitment to addressing figure hiding by…

  14. Hiding and Searching Strategies of Adult Humans in a Virtual and a Real-Space Room

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Katherine J.; Legge, Eric L. G.; Bulitko, Vadim; Spetch, Marcia L.

    2009-01-01

    Adults searched for or cached three objects in nine hiding locations in a virtual room or a real-space room. In both rooms, the locations selected by participants differed systematically between searching and hiding. Specifically, participants moved farther from origin and dispersed their choices more when hiding objects than when searching for…

  15. Effects of dehydration methods on the characteristics of fibrous networks from un-tanned hides

    Science.gov (United States)

    To improve prospective markets and to secure a viable future for the hides and leather industries, it is important to develop new uses and novel biobased products from hides. We hypothesize collagen fiber networks derived from un-tanned hides can be utilized to prepare high performance green compos...

  16. Effects of dehydration methods on characteristics of fibrous networks from un-tanned hides

    Science.gov (United States)

    To improve prospective markets and to secure a viable future for the hides and leather industries, it is important to develop new uses and novel biobased products from hides. We hypothesize collagen fiber networks derived from un-tanned hides can be utilized to prepare high performance green compos...

  17. Beetle wings are inflatable origami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rui; Ren, Jing; Ge, Siqin; Hu, David

    2015-11-01

    Beetles keep their wings folded and protected under a hard shell. In times of danger, they must unfold them rapidly in order for them to fly to escape. Moreover, they must do so across a range of body mass, from 1 mg to 10 grams. How can they unfold their wings so quickly? We use high-speed videography to record wing unfolding times, which we relate to the geometry of the network of blood vessels in the wing. Larger beetles have longer unfolding times. Modeling of the flow of blood through the veins successfully accounts for the wing unfolding speed of large beetles. However, smaller beetles have anomalously short unfolding times, suggesting they have lower blood viscosity or higher driving pressure. The use of hydraulics to unfold complex objects may have implications in the design of micro-flying air vehicles.

  18. Charles Darwin, beetles and phylogenetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beutel, Rolf G.; Friedrich, Frank; Leschen, Richard A. B.

    2009-11-01

    Here, we review Charles Darwin’s relation to beetles and developments in coleopteran systematics in the last two centuries. Darwin was an enthusiastic beetle collector. He used beetles to illustrate different evolutionary phenomena in his major works, and astonishingly, an entire sub-chapter is dedicated to beetles in “The Descent of Man”. During his voyage on the Beagle, Darwin was impressed by the high diversity of beetles in the tropics, and he remarked that, to his surprise, the majority of species were small and inconspicuous. However, despite his obvious interest in the group, he did not get involved in beetle taxonomy, and his theoretical work had little immediate impact on beetle classification. The development of taxonomy and classification in the late nineteenth and earlier twentieth century was mainly characterised by the exploration of new character systems (e.g. larval features and wing venation). In the mid-twentieth century, Hennig’s new methodology to group lineages by derived characters revolutionised systematics of Coleoptera and other organisms. As envisioned by Darwin and Ernst Haeckel, the new Hennigian approach enabled systematists to establish classifications truly reflecting evolution. Roy A. Crowson and Howard E. Hinton, who both made tremendous contributions to coleopterology, had an ambivalent attitude towards the Hennigian ideas. The Mickoleit school combined detailed anatomical work with a classical Hennigian character evaluation, with stepwise tree building, comparatively few characters and a priori polarity assessment without explicit use of the outgroup comparison method. The rise of cladistic methods in the 1970s had a strong impact on beetle systematics. Cladistic computer programs facilitated parsimony analyses of large data matrices, mostly morphological characters not requiring detailed anatomical investigations. Molecular studies on beetle phylogeny started in the 1990s with modest taxon sampling and limited DNA data

  19. Charles Darwin, beetles and phylogenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beutel, Rolf G; Friedrich, Frank; Leschen, Richard A B

    2009-11-01

    Here, we review Charles Darwin's relation to beetles and developments in coleopteran systematics in the last two centuries. Darwin was an enthusiastic beetle collector. He used beetles to illustrate different evolutionary phenomena in his major works, and astonishingly, an entire sub-chapter is dedicated to beetles in "The Descent of Man". During his voyage on the Beagle, Darwin was impressed by the high diversity of beetles in the tropics, and he remarked that, to his surprise, the majority of species were small and inconspicuous. However, despite his obvious interest in the group, he did not get involved in beetle taxonomy, and his theoretical work had little immediate impact on beetle classification. The development of taxonomy and classification in the late nineteenth and earlier twentieth century was mainly characterised by the exploration of new character systems (e.g. larval features and wing venation). In the mid-twentieth century, Hennig's new methodology to group lineages by derived characters revolutionised systematics of Coleoptera and other organisms. As envisioned by Darwin and Ernst Haeckel, the new Hennigian approach enabled systematists to establish classifications truly reflecting evolution. Roy A. Crowson and Howard E. Hinton, who both made tremendous contributions to coleopterology, had an ambivalent attitude towards the Hennigian ideas. The Mickoleit school combined detailed anatomical work with a classical Hennigian character evaluation, with stepwise tree building, comparatively few characters and a priori polarity assessment without explicit use of the outgroup comparison method. The rise of cladistic methods in the 1970s had a strong impact on beetle systematics. Cladistic computer programs facilitated parsimony analyses of large data matrices, mostly morphological characters not requiring detailed anatomical investigations. Molecular studies on beetle phylogeny started in the 1990s with modest taxon sampling and limited DNA data. This has

  20. Ground beetle populations near a kraft mill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitag, R.; Hastings, L.; Mercer, W.R.; Smith, A.

    1973-02-01

    Twenty species of ground beetles (Family Carabidae) and one species of carrion beetle (Family Silphidae) were collected in six stations east of a kraft paper mill in Thunder Bay, Ontario, from May to August, 1971. The beetle population decreased markedly towards the mill. There was no apparent statistical difference in size variation of specimens near the mill and those further away.

  1. Southern Pine Beetle Information System (SPBIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valli Peacher

    2011-01-01

    The southern pine beetle (SPB) is the most destructive forest insect in the South. The SPB attacks all species of southern pine, but loblolly and shortleaf are most susceptible. The Southern Pine Beetle Information System (SPBIS) is the computerized database used by the national forests in the Southern Region for tracking individual southern pine beetle infestations....

  2. Applying Information Hiding in VANETs to Covertly Report Misbehaving Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    de Fuentes, Jose Maria; Blasco, Jorge; González-Tablas, Ana Isabel; González-Manzano, Lorena

    2014-01-01

    Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) are a new communication scenario in which vehicles take an active part. Real-time reporting of misbehaving vehicles by surrounding ones is enabled by in-vehicle sensors and VANETs. Thus, sensors allow detecting the misbehavior whereas VANETs allow sending the report to the authority. Nevertheless, these reports should pass unnoticed by the reported driver to avoid his/her potential reprisals. Information hiding techniques could be used to allow vehicles to t...

  3. Unitary embedding for data hiding with the SVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Clifford; Davidson, Jennifer

    2005-03-01

    Steganography is the study of data hiding for the purpose of covert communication. A secret message is inserted into a cover file so that the very existence of the message is not apparent. Most current steganography algorithms insert data in the spatial or transform domains; common transforms include the discrete cosine transform, the discrete Fourier transform, and discrete wavelet transform. In this paper, we present a data-hiding algorithm that exploits a decomposition representation of the data instead of a frequency-based transformation of the data. The decomposition transform used is the singular value decomposition (SVD). The SVD of a matrix A is a decomposition A= USV' in which S is a nonnegative diagonal matrix and U and V are orthogonal matrices. We show how to use the orthogonal matrices in the SVD as a vessel in which to embed information. Several challenges were presented in order to accomplish this, and we give effective information-hiding using the SVD can be just as effective as using transform-based techniques. Furthermore, different problems arise when using the SVD than using a transform-based technique. We have applied the SVD to image data, but the technique can be formulated for other data types such as audio and video.

  4. Efficient reversible data hiding in encrypted H.264/AVC videos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dawen; Wang, Rangding

    2014-09-01

    Due to the security and privacy-preserving requirements for cloud data management, it is sometimes desired that video content is accessible in an encrypted form. Reversible data hiding in the encrypted domain is an emerging technology, as it can perform data hiding in encrypted videos without decryption, which preserves the confidentiality of the content. Furthermore, the original cover can be losslessly restored after decryption and data extraction. An efficient reversible data hiding scheme for encrypted H.264/AVC videos is proposed. During H.264/AVC encoding, the intraprediction mode, motion vector difference, and the sign bits of the residue coefficients are encrypted using a standard stream cipher. Then, the data-hider who does not know the original video content, may reversibly embed secret data into the encrypted H.264/AVC video by using a modified version of the histogram shifting technique. A scale factor is utilized for selecting the embedding zone, which is scalable for different capacity requirements. With an encrypted video containing hidden data, data extraction can be carried out either in the encrypted or decrypted domain. In addition, real reversibility is realized so that data extraction and video recovery are free of any error. Experimental results demonstrate the feasibility and efficiency of the proposed scheme.

  5. Hiding Techniques for Dynamic Encryption Text based on Corner Point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullatif, Firas A.; Abdullatif, Alaa A.; al-Saffar, Amna

    2018-05-01

    Hiding technique for dynamic encryption text using encoding table and symmetric encryption method (AES algorithm) is presented in this paper. The encoding table is generated dynamically from MSB of the cover image points that used as the first phase of encryption. The Harris corner point algorithm is applied on cover image to generate the corner points which are used to generate dynamic AES key to second phase of text encryption. The embedded process in the LSB for the image pixels except the Harris corner points for more robust. Experimental results have demonstrated that the proposed scheme have embedding quality, error-free text recovery, and high value in PSNR.

  6. A New Images Hiding Scheme Based on Chaotic Sequences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Nian-sheng; GUO Dong-hui; WU Bo-xi; Parr G

    2005-01-01

    We propose a data hidding technique in a still image. This technique is based on chaotic sequence in the transform domain of covert image. We use different chaotic random sequences multiplied by multiple sensitive images, respectively, to spread the spectrum of sensitive images. Multiple sensitive images are hidden in a covert image as a form of noise. The results of theoretical analysis and computer simulation show the new hiding technique have better properties with high security, imperceptibility and capacity for hidden information in comparison with the conventional scheme such as LSB (Least Significance Bit).

  7. Partitioning and Scheduling DSP Applications with Maximal Memory Access Hiding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sha Edwin Hsing-Mean

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an iteration space partitioning scheme to reduce the CPU idle time due to the long memory access latency. We take into consideration both the data accesses of intermediate and initial data. An algorithm is proposed to find the largest overlap for initial data to reduce the entire memory traffic. In order to efficiently hide the memory latency, another algorithm is developed to balance the ALU and memory schedules. The experiments on DSP benchmarks show that the algorithms significantly outperform the known existing methods.

  8. Tree physiology and bark beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael G. Ryan; Gerard Sapes; Anna Sala; Sharon Hood

    2015-01-01

    Irruptive bark beetles usually co-occur with their co-evolved tree hosts at very low (endemic) population densities. However, recent droughts and higher temperatures have promoted widespread tree mortality with consequences for forest carbon, fire and ecosystem services (Kurz et al., 2008; Raffa et al., 2008; Jenkins et al., 2012). In this issue of New Phytologist,...

  9. DATA HIDING IN ENCRYPTED IMAGES USING ARNOLD TRANSFORM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Siva Shankar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Digital image steganography has several applications in information security and communication. Data hiding in encrypted images ensure that both the cover image and the secret message can be recovered at the receiver end. This work presents a novel data hiding and image encryption scheme using random diffusion and Two dimensional Arnold cat mapping transform. The secret message bits are placed in the least significant bit positions of the cover image. Then a shared key is used to generate random 8 bit random integer stream and is added to the stego image in the random diffusion step. Arnold cat mapping transformation is done to scramble the pixels. The two steps of random diffusion and Arnold transform mapping are done alternatively several times to completely encrypt the image contents. The process is reversed at the receiver end to get both the secret message and the cover image with little loss. The random diffusion step overcomes the limited period of the Arnold transform. The embedding capacity of one bit per pixel is achieved. Security analysis is carried out which shows that the encryption is highly secure. The number of collisions is low thus preventing brute force attacks. The original cover image is recoverable with minimal losses.

  10. Error Concealment using Data Hiding in Wireless Image Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Akbari

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The transmission of image/video over unreliable medium like wireless networks generally results in receiving a damaged image/video. In this paper, a novel image error concealment scheme based on the idea of data hiding and Set Partitioning In Hierarchical Trees (SPIHT coding is investigated. In the encoder side, the coefficients of wavelet decomposed image are partitioned into “perfect trees”. The SPIHT coder is applied to encode each per-fect tree independently and generate an efficiently compressed reference code. This code is then embedded into the coefficients of another perfect tree which is located in a different place, using a robust data hiding scheme based on Quantization Index Modulation (QIM. In the decoder side, if a part of the image is lost, the algorithm extracts the embedded code for reference trees related to this part to reconstruct the lost information. Performance results show that for an error prone transmission, the proposed technique is promising to efficiently conceal the lost areas of the transmitted image.

  11. Radiosensitivity of red flour beetle tribolium castaneum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sattar, A.; Khattak, S.; Hamed, M.

    1992-07-01

    In this report radiosensitivity of red beetle has been discussed. Red flour beetle is the most injurious pest causing great losses to stored grain. Radiation is one of the best tools of insect control. Different radiation doses (50 to 200 krads) were employed for different age groups from 1 to 60 days. It is concluded from these results that 200 krad radiation dose caused 100% mortality in red beetle in all age group. (A.B.)

  12. Reversible data hiding for image based on histogram modification of wavelet coefficients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liang, Xiaoping; Wu, Xiaoyun; Huang, Jiwu; Hao, Y.; Liu, J.; Wang, Y.; Cheung, Y.; Yin, H.; Jiao, L.; Ma, J.; Jiao, Y.C.

    2005-01-01

    Reversible data hiding has drawn intensive attention recently. Reversibility means to embed data into digital media and restore the original media from marked media losslessly. Reversible data hiding technique is desired in sensitive applications that require no permanent loss of signal fidelity. In

  13. A method for removing adobe-type manure from hides using an oxidizing agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adobe-type (hardened) manure attached to bovine hair is a major source of meat contamination, hide quality deterioration, and devalued leather products. Therefore, it is important to develop cleaning solutions that can rapidly remove adobe-type manure to improve the quality of hides delivered to tan...

  14. 9 CFR 310.10 - Carcasses with skin or hide on; cleaning before evisceration; removal of larvae of Hypodermae...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION... pathological skin conditions. When a carcass is to be dressed with the skin or hide left on, the skin or hide...

  15. Effect of Some Sudanese Traditional Hot Iron Branding on Cattle Hide Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehab Eltejani Abdelkarim

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed in order to assess and evaluate the effect of hot iron branding on cattle hide quality. 62 shapes of hot iron branding were detected and classified. Branding damage was evaluated depending on: purpose of application, location in the animal body, branding area, tribe which applied and hide degree. The results showed that, Baggara tribes branding were causing the greater damage on cattle hides; where 71.4% of its brands placed in the abdominal and animal back area (middle of the hide; in proportion to Misseriya Zuraq tribes (68.4%. According to the location of branding, the less tribe that causing damages to the cattle hides were Darfur tribes (14.3%. In terms of branding area Darfur tribes were causing the most branding damages where 42.8% of its brands on cattle hides were between 20-30cm, followed by Baggara tribes where 57.1% of its brands were between 10-20cm then Misseriya Zuraq tribes by 52.6%, and finally North Kordofan tribes of 37.5%. grading of cattle hides depending on the presence of the brand marks the study revealed that, Misseriya Zuraq tribe's brands were obtained the highest percentage (89.4% of the rejected hides (Scarto= 4 and 5 grades, when compared with North Kordofan tribes (87.5%. For commercial reason brand's were mostly done in the area of 5-10cm but, their effect on cattle hide quality was greater, where 81% of the hides were classified as Scarto.

  16. What do dung beetles eat?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holter, Peter; Scholtz, Clarke H.

    2007-01-01

    Most adult coprophagous beetles feed on fresh dung of mammalian herbivores, confining ingestion to small particles with measured maximum diameters from 2-5 to 130 µm, according to body size and kind of beetle. This study explores benefits and costs of selective feeding in a ‘typical' dung beetle...... that of elephant and rhino (40-58%) was available to selective feeders. 3. Nitrogen concentrations were high - and C/N ratios low - in most types of bulk dung compared with the average food of terrestrial detritivores or herbivores. Exceptions were elephant and rhino dung with low nitrogen concentrations and high...... C/N ratios. 4. Estimated C/N ratios of 13-39 in bulk dung (sheep-elephant) were decreased by selective feeding to 7.3-12.6 in the ingested material. In assimilated food, ratios are probably only 5-7, as most assimilable nitrogen and carbon may be of microbial origin. If so, the assimilable food...

  17. No place to hide: when shame causes proselfs to cooperate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Declerck, Carolyn Henriette; Boone, Christophe; Kiyonari, Toko

    2014-01-01

    Shame is considered a social emotion with action tendencies that elicit socially beneficial behavior. Yet, unlike other social emotions, prior experimental studies do not indicate that incidental shame boosts prosocial behavior. Based on the affect as information theory, we hypothesize that incidental feelings of shame can increase cooperation, but only for self-interested individuals, and only in a context where shame is relevant with regards to its action tendency. To test this hypothesis, cooperation levels are compared between a simultaneous prisoner's dilemma (where "defect" may result from multiple motives) and a sequential prisoner's dilemma (where "second player defect" is the result of intentional greediness). As hypothesized, shame positively affected proselfs in a sequential prisoner's dilemma. Hence ashamed proselfs become inclined to cooperate when they believe they have no way to hide their greediness, and not necessarily because they want to make up for earlier wrong-doing.

  18. Universal Steganalysis of Data Hiding in Grayscale Images

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Ji-feng; LIN Jia-jun

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposed an universal steganalysis program based on quantification attack which can detect several kinds of data hiding algorithms for grayscale images. In practice, most techniques produce stego images that are perceptually identical to the cover images but exhibit statistical irregularities that distinguish them from cover images. Attacking the suspicious images using the quantization method, we can obtain statistically different from embedded-and-quantization attacked images and from quantization attacked-but-not-embedded sources. We have developed a technique based on one-class SVM for discriminating between cover-images and stego-images. Simulation results show our approach is able to distinguish between cover and stego images with reasonable accuracy.

  19. Unconventional thermal cloak hiding an object outside the cloak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Y.; Huang, J. P.

    2013-11-01

    All the thermal cloaks reported in the literature can be used to thermally hide an object inside the cloak. However, a common limitation of this kind of thermal cloaks is that the cloaked object cannot feel the external heat flow since it is located inside the cloak; thus we call these cloaks “conventional thermal cloaks”. Here we manage to overcome this limitation by exploiting a class of unconventional thermal cloaks that enable the cloaked object to feel the external heat flow. Our finite-element simulations in two dimensions show the desired cloaking effect. The underlying mechanism originates from the complementary effect of thermal metamaterials with negative thermal conductivities. This work suggests a different method to design thermal devices where heat conduction can be controlled at will.

  20. Analysis Of Aspects Of Messages Hiding In Text Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afanasyeva Olesya

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the work are researched problems, which arise during hiding of messages in text environments, being transmitted by electronic communication channels and the Internet. The analysis of selection of places in text environment (TE, which can be replaced by word from the message is performed. Selection and replacement of words in the text environment is implemented basing on semantic analysis of text fragment, consisting of the inserted word, and its environment in TE. For implementation of such analysis is used concept of semantic parameters of words coordination and semantic value of separate word. Are used well-known methods of determination of values of these parameters. This allows moving from quality level to quantitative level analysis of text fragments semantics during their modification by word substitution. Invisibility of embedded messages is ensured by providing preset values of the semantic cooperation parameter deviations.

  1. Some ecological, economic, and social consequences of bark beetle infestations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert A. Progar; Adris Eglitis; John E. Lundquist

    2009-01-01

    Bark beetles are powerful agents of change in dynamic forest ecosystems. Most assessments of the effects of bark beetle outbreaks have been based on negative impacts on timber production. The positive effects of bark beetle activities are much less well understood. Bark beetles perform vital functions at all levels of scale in forest ecosystems. At the landscape...

  2. Monitoring Asian longhorned beetles in Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maya Nehme; Melody Keena; Aijun Zhang; Alan Sawyer; Kelli. Hoover

    2011-01-01

    An operationally effective trap to monitor the Asian longhorned beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis or ALB) has been a goal of the ALB eradication program since the first beetle was found in New York in 1996. Ground surveying is only ~20 percent effective at identifying infested trees and, although tree climbing is more effective, it is also...

  3. Biological pest control in beetle agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aanen, D.K.; Slippers, B.; Wingfield, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    Bark beetles are among the most destructive tree pests on the planet. Their symbiosis with fungi has consequently been studied extensively for more than a century. A recent study has identified actinomycete bacteria that are associated with the southern pine beetle and produce specific antibiotics

  4. Acoustic characteristics of rhinoceros beetle stridulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stridulation behavior has been reported for adults and larvae of many dynastids. This report describes acoustic recordings and analyses of stridulations by larvae of two Southeastern Asia rhinoceros beetle species and by adults of the coconut rhinoceros beetle. The behavioral context of the strid...

  5. Efficient hiding of confidential high-utility itemsets with minimal side effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jerry Chun-Wei; Hong, Tzung-Pei; Fournier-Viger, Philippe; Liu, Qiankun; Wong, Jia-Wei; Zhan, Justin

    2017-11-01

    Privacy preserving data mining (PPDM) is an emerging research problem that has become critical in the last decades. PPDM consists of hiding sensitive information to ensure that it cannot be discovered by data mining algorithms. Several PPDM algorithms have been developed. Most of them are designed for hiding sensitive frequent itemsets or association rules. Hiding sensitive information in a database can have several side effects such as hiding other non-sensitive information and introducing redundant information. Finding the set of itemsets or transactions to be sanitised that minimises side effects is an NP-hard problem. In this paper, a genetic algorithm (GA) using transaction deletion is designed to hide sensitive high-utility itemsets for PPUM. A flexible fitness function with three adjustable weights is used to evaluate the goodness of each chromosome for hiding sensitive high-utility itemsets. To speed up the evolution process, the pre-large concept is adopted in the designed algorithm. It reduces the number of database scans required for verifying the goodness of an evaluated chromosome. Substantial experiments are conducted to compare the performance of the designed GA approach (with/without the pre-large concept), with a GA-based approach relying on transaction insertion and a non-evolutionary algorithm, in terms of execution time, side effects, database integrity and utility integrity. Results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm hides sensitive high-utility itemsets with fewer side effects than previous studies, while preserving high database and utility integrity.

  6. Sensitive plant (Mimosa pudica hiding time depends on individual and state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Reed-Guy

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The decisions animals make to adjust their antipredator behavior to rapidly changing conditions have been well studied. Inducible defenses in plants are an antipredator behavior that acts on a longer time scale, but sensitive plants, Mimosa pudica, have a much more rapid antipredator response; they temporarily close their leaves when touched. The time they remain closed is defined as hiding time. We studied hiding time in sensitive plants and found that individual plants differed significantly in their hiding times. We then showed that the effect of individual explained substantial variation in hiding time on a short time scale. Finally, on a longer time scale, individuality persisted but the amount of variation attributed to individual decreased. We hypothesized that variation in plant condition might explain this change. We therefore manipulated sunlight availability and quantified hiding time. When deprived of light for 6 h, sensitive plants significantly shortened their hiding times. But when only half a plant was deprived of light, hiding times on the deprived half and light exposed half were not significantly different. This suggests that overall condition best explains variation in sensitive plant antipredator behavior. Just like in animals, sensitive plant antipredator behavior is condition dependent, and, just like in animals, a substantial amount of the remaining variation is explained by individual differences between plants. Thus, models designed to predict plasticity in animal behavior may be successfully applied to understand behavior in other organisms, including plants.

  7. Motivation to hide emotion and children's understanding of the distinction between real and apparent emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosselin, Pierre; Warren, Madeleine; Diotte, Michèle

    2002-12-01

    The authors investigated the extent to which children's understanding of the distinction between real and apparent emotions varied according to the motivation to hide emotions. Children, aged 6-7 and 10-11 years, were read stories designed to elicit either prosocial or self-protective motivated display rules and were asked to predict the facial expressions the protagonists would make to hide felt emotions. Children were found to understand the distinction between real and apparent emotions very well, independently of the type of motivation. Contrary to predictions, boys understood this distinction better than did girls when the motivation to hide positive emotions was prosocial. Children perceived neutralization as the most appropriate strategy to hide felt emotions, followed by masking.

  8. Livestock and Hides and Skins Marketing in Kenya: Problems and investment needs

    OpenAIRE

    Jabbar, Mohammad A.

    2002-01-01

    The paper briefly summarises the historical perspective on the development of livestock marketing in Kenya, current problems of livestock and hides and skins marketing, and recommends investment opportunities to improve the situation.

  9. A Blind High-Capacity Wavelet-Based Steganography Technique for Hiding Images into other Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAMAD, S.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The flourishing field of Steganography is providing effective techniques to hide data into different types of digital media. In this paper, a novel technique is proposed to hide large amounts of image data into true colored images. The proposed method employs wavelet transforms to decompose images in a way similar to the Human Visual System (HVS for more secure and effective data hiding. The designed model can blindly extract the embedded message without the need to refer to the original cover image. Experimental results showed that the proposed method outperformed all of the existing techniques not only imperceptibility but also in terms of capacity. In fact, the proposed technique showed an outstanding performance on hiding a secret image whose size equals 100% of the cover image while maintaining excellent visual quality of the resultant stego-images.

  10. An Improved Information Hiding Method Based on Sparse Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minghai Yao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel biometric authentication information hiding method based on the sparse representation is proposed for enhancing the security of biometric information transmitted in the network. In order to make good use of abundant information of the cover image, the sparse representation method is adopted to exploit the correlation between the cover and biometric images. Thus, the biometric image is divided into two parts. The first part is the reconstructed image, and the other part is the residual image. The biometric authentication image cannot be restored by any one part. The residual image and sparse representation coefficients are embedded into the cover image. Then, for the sake of causing much less attention of attackers, the visual attention mechanism is employed to select embedding location and embedding sequence of secret information. Finally, the reversible watermarking algorithm based on histogram is utilized for embedding the secret information. For verifying the validity of the algorithm, the PolyU multispectral palmprint and the CASIA iris databases are used as biometric information. The experimental results show that the proposed method exhibits good security, invisibility, and high capacity.

  11. Hiding effort to gain a competitive advantage: Evidence from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Li; Heyman, Gail D

    2018-06-01

    Previous studies with Western populations have shown that adolescents' tendency to downplay their academic effort is affected by two kinds of motives: ability-related motives (e.g., to appear competent) and social approval motives (e.g., to be popular). In this research, we test for the presence of additional competition-related motives in China, a culture placing strong emphasis on academic competition. Study 1 (N = 150) showed that, in response to a scenario in which a hard-working high-school junior hid effort from classmates, the most highly endorsed explanation was "to influence others to work less hard to maintain a competitive advantage." Study 2 (N = 174) revealed that competition-related explanations were endorsed relatively more often when the speaker and audience had similar academic rankings. This tendency was most evident when both speaker and audience were top performers, and when this was the case, participants' desire to demonstrate superiority over others was a positive predictor of endorsement of competition-related motives. Study 3 (N = 137) verified that competition-related motives were more strongly endorsed among Chinese participants than U.S. These results suggest that at least in cultures that emphasize academic competition and in contexts where competition is salient, hiding effort is often about attempting to gain strategic advantage. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.

  12. Strategie del patetico e interludi circensi in Hide and Seek di Wilkie Collins

    OpenAIRE

    De Giovanni, Flora

    2013-01-01

    Starting from Victor Turner’s definitions of cultural performance and liminoid phenomena, the essay aims to analyse Wilkie Collins’s third novel, Hide and Seek (1854), which seems to be a sort of survey of the pastimes Victorian England allowed itself in the age of the increasing commodification of leisure. Though not a proper sensation novel (the genre for which Collins became famous in the 1860s), Hide and Seek draws on the conventions of melodrama, which, as Peter Brook conv...

  13. An information hiding method based on LSB and tent chaotic map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jianhua; Ding, Qun

    2011-06-01

    In order to protect information security more effectively, a novel information hiding method based on LSB and Tent chaotic map was proposed, first the secret message is Tent chaotic encrypted, and then LSB steganography is executed for the encrypted message in the cover-image. Compared to the traditional image information hiding method, the simulation results indicate that the method greatly improved in imperceptibility and security, and acquired good results.

  14. Effects of gamma rays on the physical and mechanical properties of hide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutrisno Puspodikoro.

    1976-01-01

    The effect of gamma rays on the physical and mechanical properties of hide has been studied, using Gammacell 220 as an irradiator. The determination of the physical and mechanical properties of the irradiated hide was carried out by Balai Penelitian Kulit (Leather Research Institute) at Yogyakarta. Experiments show that up to a certain dose of irradiation, favourable effects can be obtained, while higher doses impair the physical and mechanical properties of the leather raw materials. (author)

  15. An evaluation of selected methods for the decontamination of cattle hides prior to skinning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, A; Wells-Burr, B; Buncic, S

    2005-02-01

    The effectiveness of different decontamination treatments in reducing microbial loads on cattle hides was assessed. The 10-s hide treatments were conducted using a wet-and-dry vacuum cleaner filled with one of the liquids (heated to 50 °C) indicated below, followed or not by 10-min drying in the air. Also, the hide was clipped, followed or not by 10-s singeing using a hand-held blowtorch. Before and after each decontamination treatment, the hide was sampled (100 cm(2) areas) by a sponge-swabbing method to compare the total viable counts of bacteria (TVC). The largest bacterial reduction (Psanitizer solution (10% Betane Plus) resulted in significant reductions of 1.80 (Peffects. Since hide contamination is associated with microbial contamination of the carcasses, the results indicate that post-killing/pre-skinning hide decontamination (used alone, or in combination with carcass decontamination) has a potential to improve microbial meat safety. Nevertheless, further research is required to optimise the efficacy of these treatments in the reduction of specific pathogens under commercial conditions.

  16. Asian longhorned beetle complicates the relationship ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban foresters routinely emphasise the importance of taxonomic diversity to reduce the vulnerability of tree assemblages to invasive pests, but it is unclear to what extent diversity reduces vulnerability to polyphagous (i.e. generalist) pests. Drawing on field data from seven communities in metropolitan Cincinnati, Ohio, USA, we tested the hypothesis that communities with higher diversity would exhibit lower vulnerability to the polyphagous Asian longhorned beetle, which currently threatens the region. Based on street tree compositions and the beetle?s host preferences, Asian longhorned beetle threatened up to 35.6% of individual street trees and 47.5% of the total basal area across the study area, but we did not see clear connections between taxonomic diversity and beetle vulnerability among study communities. For example, the city of Fairfield was among the least diverse communities but had the lowest proportion of trees vulnerable to Asian longhorned beetle, whereas the city of Wyoming exhibited high diversity and high vulnerability. On the other hand, Forest Park aligned with our original hypothesis, as it was characterised by low diversity and high vulnerability. Our results demonstrate that relatively high taxonomic diversity in street tree assemblages does not necessarily lead to reduced vulnerability to a polyphagous pest. Considering the threats posed by polyphagous pests, selecting a set of relatively pest resistant trees known to perform well in urb

  17. Symbiont diversification in ambrosia beetles: Diversity of fungi associated with exotic scolytine beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    In virtually every forest habitat, ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae, Platypodinae) plant and maintain symbiotic fungus gardens inside dead or dying wood. Some introduced ambrosia beetles aggressively attack live trees and can damage tree crops, lumber, and native woody plant t...

  18. Pheromone biosynthesis in bark beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tittiger, Claus; Blomquist, Gary J

    2017-12-01

    Pine bark beetles rely on aggregation pheromones to coordinate mass attacks and thus reproduce in host trees. The structural similarity between many pheromone components and those of defensive tree resin led to early suggestions that pheromone components are metabolic derivatives of ingested precursors. This model has given way to our current understanding that most pheromone components are synthesized de novo. Their synthesis involves enzymes that modify products from endogenous metabolic pathways; some of these enzymes have been identified and characterized. Pheromone production is regulated in a complex way involving multiple signals, including JH III. This brief review summarizes progress in our understanding of this highly specialized metabolic process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Hiding in plain sight: communication theory in implementation science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manojlovich, Milisa; Squires, Janet E; Davies, Barbara; Graham, Ian D

    2015-04-23

    ignoring a key contributor to implementation intervention success. When conceptualized as a transformational process, the focus of communication moves to shared understanding and is grounded in human interactions and the way we go about constructing knowledge. Instead of hiding in plain sight, we suggest explicitly acknowledging the role that communication plays in our implementation efforts. By using both paradigms, we can investigate when communication facilitates implementation, when it does not, and how to improve it so that our implementation and clinical interventions are embraced by clinicians and patients alike.

  20. The Costs of Hiding and Faking Emotions: The Case of Extraverts and Introverts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seger-Guttmann, Tali; Medler-Liraz, Hana

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the moderation effects of extraversion on the relationships between hiding and faking emotions, perceived satisfaction from intimate relationships, and reported physical health concerns. Four hundred and four Israeli participants, who were all involved in intimate relationships at the time of the study, responded to the Extraversion scale from the Big-Five Inventory, the DEELS to measure hiding and faking emotions, the SELF to assess physical health concerns, and the short version of the ENRICH to evaluate perceived satisfaction with intimate relationships. The mean age was 32.3 years (SD = 8.2); and the average length of time as a couple was 7.8 years (SD = 8.2). Of the participants, 198 were married (48.5%). The findings indicate that the effect of hiding negative emotions was stronger for perceived satisfaction with intimate relationships and physical health concerns than that for faking positive emotions. Extraverts who showed a higher frequency of hiding their negative emotions were significantly less satisfied with their relationships than introverts and they also tended to report more concerns with their physical health. These results were not found when extraverts reported a high frequency of faking positive emotions. These results are discussed in the context of the trait-behavior-concordance model and stress the importance of distinguishing faking from hiding.

  1. Best Hiding Capacity Scheme for Variable Length Messages Using Particle Swarm Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajaj, Ruchika; Bedi, Punam; Pal, S. K.

    Steganography is an art of hiding information in such a way that prevents the detection of hidden messages. Besides security of data, the quantity of data that can be hidden in a single cover medium, is also very important. We present a secure data hiding scheme with high embedding capacity for messages of variable length based on Particle Swarm Optimization. This technique gives the best pixel positions in the cover image, which can be used to hide the secret data. In the proposed scheme, k bits of the secret message are substituted into k least significant bits of the image pixel, where k varies from 1 to 4 depending on the message length. The proposed scheme is tested and results compared with simple LSB substitution, uniform 4-bit LSB hiding (with PSO) for the test images Nature, Baboon, Lena and Kitty. The experimental study confirms that the proposed method achieves high data hiding capacity and maintains imperceptibility and minimizes the distortion between the cover image and the obtained stego image.

  2. The ground-beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae) of Nukatlinskiy watershed

    OpenAIRE

    G. M. Nahibasheva; Sh. M. Imanaliev

    2008-01-01

    The article is devoted to studying of ground-beetles fauna of Nukatlinskiy watershed of Republic Dagestan. For the first time the specific structure of ground-beetles this area, the numbering 109 kinds concerning 31 sort is resulted. The analysis of sexual structure of populations and seasonal dynamics of activity ground-beetles is lead.

  3. Dosage response mortality of Japanese beetle, masked chafer, and June beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) adults when exposed to experimental and commercially available granules containing Metarhizium brunneum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adult beetles of three different white grub species, Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica, June beetle, Phyllophaga spp., and masked chafer, Cyclocephala spp. were exposed to experimental and commercially available granules containing Metarhizium brunneum (Petch) strain F52, to determine susceptibilit...

  4. Long-horned Beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae and Tortoise Beetles (Chrysomelidae: Cassidinae of Tripura, northeastern India with some new additions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.K. Agarwala

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the occurrence of nineteen species of Long-horned Beetles (Cerambycidae and eleven species of Tortoise Beetles (Cassidinae from Tripura state, northeastern India. These include 11 species of Cerambycidae and seven species of Cassidinae, respectively, as new records from the state. Distribution of these beetles in different parts of the state are provided.

  5. Multiple-image hiding using super resolution reconstruction in high-frequency domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Wei; Zhao, Wu-Xiang; Wang, Jun; Wang, Qiong-Hua

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, a robust multiple-image hiding method using the computer-generated integral imaging and the modified super-resolution reconstruction algorithm is proposed. In our work, the host image is first transformed into frequency domains by cellular automata (CA), to assure the quality of the stego-image, the secret images are embedded into the CA high-frequency domains. The proposed method has the following advantages: (1) robustness to geometric attacks because of the memory-distributed property of elemental images, (2) increasing quality of the reconstructed secret images as the scheme utilizes the modified super-resolution reconstruction algorithm. The simulation results show that the proposed multiple-image hiding method outperforms other similar hiding methods and is robust to some geometric attacks, e.g., Gaussian noise and JPEG compression attacks.

  6. Separable Reversible Data Hiding in Encrypted Signals with Public Key Cryptography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Liang Tai

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose separable reversible data hiding in an encrypted signal with public key cryptography. In our separable framework, the image owner encrypts the original image by using a public key. On receipt of the encrypted signal, the data-hider embeds data in it by using a data-hiding key. The image decryption and data extraction are independent and separable at the receiver side. Even though the receiver, who has only the data-hiding key, does not learn about the decrypted content, he can extract data from the received marked encrypted signal. However, the receiver who has only the private key cannot extract the embedded data, but he can directly decrypt the received marked encrypted signal to obtain the original image without any error. Compared with other schemes using a cipher stream to encrypt the image, the proposed scheme is more appropriate for cloud services without degrading the security level.

  7. Hiding a Covert Digital Image by Assembling the RSA Encryption Method and the Binary Encoding Method

    OpenAIRE

    Kuang Tsan Lin; Sheng Lih Yeh

    2014-01-01

    The Rivest-Shamir-Adleman (RSA) encryption method and the binary encoding method are assembled to form a hybrid hiding method to hide a covert digital image into a dot-matrix holographic image. First, the RSA encryption method is used to transform the covert image to form a RSA encryption data string. Then, all the elements of the RSA encryption data string are transferred into binary data. Finally, the binary data are encoded into the dot-matrix holographic image. The pixels of the dot-matri...

  8. Ground beetles of the Ukraine (Coleoptera, Carabidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putchkov, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    A review of the ground beetles of the Ukrainian fauna is given. Almost 750 species from 117 genera of Carabidae are known to occur in the Ukraine. Approximately 450 species of ground beetles are registered in the Carpathian region. No less than 300 species of ground beetles are found in the forest zone. Approximately 400 species of Carabidae present in the forest-steppe zone are relatively similar in species composition to those in the forest territories. Some 450 species of Carabidae are inhabitants of the steppe zone. Representatives of many other regions of heterogeneous biotopes such as forest, semi desert, intrazonal, etc. can be found in the steppe areas. The fauna of Carabidae (ca. 100 species) of the lowlands of southern Ukraine (sandy biotopes), situated mostly in the Kherson region, is very peculiar. The fauna of the Crimean mountains contains about 300 species. Conservation measures for the Carabidae are discussed.

  9. Ground beetles of the Ukraine (Coleoptera, Carabidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Putchkov

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A review of the ground beetles of the Ukrainian fauna is given. Almost 750 species from 117 genera of Carabidae are known to occur in the Ukraine. Approximately 450 species of ground beetles are registered in the Carpathian region. No less than 300 species of ground beetles are found in the forest zone. Approximately 400 species of Carabidae present in the forest-steppe zone are relatively similar in species composition to those in the forest territories. Some 450 species of Carabidae are inhabitants of the steppe zone. Representatives of many other regions of heterogeneous biotopes such as forest, semi desert, intrazonal, etc. can be found in the steppe areas. The fauna of Carabidae (ca. 100 species of the lowlands of southern Ukraine (sandy biotopes, situated mostly in the Kherson region, is very peculiar. The fauna of the Crimean mountains contains about 300 species. Conservation measures for the Carabidae are discussed.

  10. Preservation of bovine hide using less salt with low concentration of antiseptic, part I: effectiveness of developed formulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine raw hides are commercially cured either with high salt concentration of about half the weight of actual hide or 95% saturated brine solution. This conventional technique is very popular due to the availability of common salt (sodium chloride) and its cost effective procedure but it generates ...

  11. Studies on tiger beetles : 84. Additions to the tiger beetle fauna of Sulawesi, Indonesia (Coleoptera: Cicindelidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cassola, F.

    1996-01-01

    Distributional new data are provided for several interesting or poorly known tiger beetle species from Sulawesi, Indonesia. The generic attribution of Wallacedela brendelli Cassola, 1991, is confirmed, and moreover two new species, Wallacedela? problematica spec. nov. and Wallacedela butonensis

  12. Variation in the Level of Grain Defect Light Flecks and Spots on Cattle Hides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafstad, O; Grønstøl, H

    2001-01-01

    The occurrence of hide damage light flecks and spots was determined on tanned hides from 28 herds during a period of 8 to 12 months. Light flecks and spots are described as small areas of grain loss up to 3 mm in diameter that are seen on dyed crust cattle leather. Damage was found on 75.8% of all hides. The neck and shoulders were the anatomical region with the highest prevalence of damage. Sixty-eight per cent of all hides had light flecks and spots in this region. The forelimbs and dewlap were the anatomical region with the second highest occurrence with a prevalence of 39.1%. This distribution corresponded to the known distribution of lice in cattle. No significant differences were observed in age, sex, prevalence of lice in the herd assessed in March or infestations with different lice species. The frequency of light flecks and spots varied significantly during the year. The frequency was highest in the late winter and early spring, decreased significantly during the summer and was lowest in the autumn. This variation supported the importance of lice in the development of light flecks and spots and suggested a relatively long healing period for the damages induced by lice. PMID:11455905

  13. The impact of a gender and business training on income hiding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulte, Erwin H.; Lensink, Robert; Winkel, Anne B.

    2018-01-01

    We use a randomized controlled trial and behavioral game to study the extent and determinants of income hiding in rural Vietnam. We focus on a training program that aims to promote gender equality and entrepreneurship among women in poverty who are engaged in running a small business. In one

  14. Effect of hiding places, straw and territory on agression in group-housed rabbit does

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rommers, J.M.; Reuvekamp, B.F.J.; Gunnink, H.; Jong, de I.C.

    2014-01-01

    Group-housing of rabbit does may be preferred from welfare point of view. However, group-housing causes agonistic behaviour which may cause severe injuries. Severe injuries may be prevented by offering hiding places for attacked does. Providing enrichment (straw) may reduce agonistic behaviour by

  15. Steganographic optical image encryption system based on reversible data hiding and double random phase encoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Cheng-Hung; Chen, Yen-Lin

    2013-02-01

    This study presents a steganographic optical image encryption system based on reversible data hiding and double random phase encoding (DRPE) techniques. Conventional optical image encryption systems can securely transmit valuable images using an encryption method for possible application in optical transmission systems. The steganographic optical image encryption system based on the DRPE technique has been investigated to hide secret data in encrypted images. However, the DRPE techniques vulnerable to attacks and many of the data hiding methods in the DRPE system can distort the decrypted images. The proposed system, based on reversible data hiding, uses a JBIG2 compression scheme to achieve lossless decrypted image quality and perform a prior encryption process. Thus, the DRPE technique enables a more secured optical encryption process. The proposed method extracts and compresses the bit planes of the original image using the lossless JBIG2 technique. The secret data are embedded in the remaining storage space. The RSA algorithm can cipher the compressed binary bits and secret data for advanced security. Experimental results show that the proposed system achieves a high data embedding capacity and lossless reconstruction of the original images.

  16. Synergistic effects in the short-term preservation of hides with antiseptics and gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du Plessis, T.A.; Russell, A.E.; Stevens, R.C.B.; Galloway, A.C. (Iso-Ster (Pty) Ltd., Kempton Park (South Africa))

    1983-01-01

    The normal time lapse between the skinning and tanning processes of green hides necessitates the need for a short-term preservation technique to be employed. The most common method of bringing about such preservation is the coarse salting of the flesh side of hides. More recently the antiseptic treatment of hides was introduced to overcome the serious environmental pollution brought about by the salting process. The antiseptic treatment, however, must also be carefully controlled to avoid upsetting the biological breakdown processes in effluent plants. The gamma sterilization of such hides presents a non-polluting alternative to these methods. As the nature of this product demands excessively high radiation doses to be effective, which negatively influences the economics of the process and the physical properties of the resultant leather, a combination process employing radiation and antiseptics was investigated. It was observed that the radiation dose could be lowered from 50 kGy to 8 kGy in combination with certain antiseptics, whilst the required antiseptic concentration could be substantially lowered in the presence of radiation. The resultant leather was of an excellent quality whilst minimizing the environmental pollution problem.

  17. Synergistic effects in the short-term preservation of hides with antiseptics and gamma radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Plessis, TA; Russell, AE; Stevens, RCB; Galloway, AC

    The normal time lapse between the skinning and tanning processes of green hides necessitates the need for a short-term preservation technique to be employed. The most common method of bringing about such preservation is the coarse salting of the flesh side of hides. More recently the antiseptic treatment of hides was introduced to overcome the serious environmental pollution brought about by the salting process. The antiseptic treatment, however, must also be carefully controlled to avoid upsetting the biological breakdown processes in effluent plants. The gamma sterilization of such hides presents a non-polluting alternative to these methods. As the nature of this product demands excessively high radiation doses to be effective, which negatively influences the economics of the process and the physical properties of the resultant leather, a combination process employing radiation and antiseptics was investigated. It was observed that the radiation dose could be lowered from 50 kGy to 8 kGy in combination with certain antiseptics, whilst the required antiseptic concentration could be substantially lowered in the presence of radiation. The resultant leather was of an excellent quality whilst minimizing the environmental pollution problem.

  18. Synergistic effects in the short-term preservation of hides with antiseptics and gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Plessis, T.A.; Russell, A.E.; Stevens, R.C.B.; Galloway, A.C.

    1983-01-01

    The normal time lapse between the skinning and tanning processes of green hides necessitates the need for a short-term preservation technique to be employed. The most common method of bringing about such preservation is the coarse salting of the flesh side of hides. More recently the antiseptic treatment of hides was introduced to overcome the serious environmental pollution brought about by the salting process. The antiseptic treatment, however, must also be carefully controlled to avoid upsetting the biological breakdown processes in effluent plants. The gamma sterilization of such hides presents a non-polluting alternative to these methods. As the nature of this product demands excessively high radiation doses to be effective, which negatively influences the economics of the process and the physical properties of the resultant leather, a combination process employing radiation and antiseptics was investigated. It was observed that the radiation dose could be lowered from 50 kGy to 8 kGy in combination with certain antiseptics, whilst the required antiseptic concentration could be substantially lowered in the presence of radiation. The resultant leather was of an excellent quality whilst minimizing the environmental pollution problem. (author)

  19. Entry points to stimulation of expansion in hides and skins processing

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Only 3.4% of respondents add value to hides and skins by processing. ... For this status of the chain, it was proposed that a workable intervention model has to encompass placement of tanneries and slaughter slabs in the chain as new actors, linking chain actors, improving livestock services especially dipping, and ...

  20. Succession of hide-seek and pursuit-evasion at heterogeneous locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gal, Shmuel; Casas, Jérôme

    2014-05-06

    Many interactions between searching agents and their elusive targets are composed of a succession of steps, whether in the context of immune systems, predation or counterterrorism. In the simplest case, a two-step process starts with a search-and-hide phase, also called a hide-and-seek phase, followed by a round of pursuit-escape. Our aim is to link these two processes, usually analysed separately and with different models, in a single game theory context. We define a matrix game in which a searcher looks at a fixed number of discrete locations only once each searching for a hider, which can escape with varying probabilities according to its location. The value of the game is the overall probability of capture after k looks. The optimal search and hide strategies are described. If a searcher looks only once into any of the locations, an optimal hider chooses it's hiding place so as to make all locations equally attractive. This optimal strategy remains true as long as the number of looks is below an easily calculated threshold; however, above this threshold, the optimal position for the hider is where it has the highest probability of escaping once spotted.

  1. Efficiently Hiding Sensitive Itemsets with Transaction Deletion Based on Genetic Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Wei Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Data mining is used to mine meaningful and useful information or knowledge from a very large database. Some secure or private information can be discovered by data mining techniques, thus resulting in an inherent risk of threats to privacy. Privacy-preserving data mining (PPDM has thus arisen in recent years to sanitize the original database for hiding sensitive information, which can be concerned as an NP-hard problem in sanitization process. In this paper, a compact prelarge GA-based (cpGA2DT algorithm to delete transactions for hiding sensitive itemsets is thus proposed. It solves the limitations of the evolutionary process by adopting both the compact GA-based (cGA mechanism and the prelarge concept. A flexible fitness function with three adjustable weights is thus designed to find the appropriate transactions to be deleted in order to hide sensitive itemsets with minimal side effects of hiding failure, missing cost, and artificial cost. Experiments are conducted to show the performance of the proposed cpGA2DT algorithm compared to the simple GA-based (sGA2DT algorithm and the greedy approach in terms of execution time and three side effects.

  2. The Use of Polymerized Genipin for the Stabilization of the Collagen Structure of Animal Hides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animal hides are the major byproduct of meat industry and the collagen fibers is the main constituent. Crosslinkers play a key role in stabilizing the collagen structure for useful applications. Genipin is widely used as an ideal biological protein crosslinking agent due to its low toxicity compare...

  3. Overwintering biology and tests of trap and relocate as a conservation measure for burying beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Burying beetles are carrion beetles and utilize dead animal carcasses for feeding : and reproductive efforts. They assist with decomposition, prevent the spread of disease, : and reduce the number of pest species. The largest species of carrion beetl...

  4. Efficacy of citrilow™ and cecure™ spray wash on the levels and prevalence of aerobic bacterials and enterobacteriaceae bacteria on cattle hides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacterial cross-contamination from the haired outer surface of cattle skins to the inner meat and hide quality detrition from bacteria is recognized as a severe hygienic problem for commercial beef and hide processing facilities. To circumvent bacterial contamination, cattle are washed during hide p...

  5. Economic Impacts of the Southern Pine Beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    John M. Pye; Thomas P. Holmes; Jeffrey P. Prestemon; David N. Wear

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the timber economic impacts of the southern pine beetle (SPB). Although we anticipate that SPB outbreaks cause substantial economic losses to households that consume the nonmarket economic services provided by healthy forests, we have narrowly focused our attention here on changes in values to timber growers and wood-products...

  6. BEETLE - A modular electronics family for robotics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dickens, J

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available of applications. A family of modular electronic elements is proposed to address this need. The Beautiful Embedded Electronic Logic Element (BEETLE) family of boards is designed to be compact, low cost, robust, reusable and easy to program. This allows the boards...

  7. Feeding stimulants for the colorado beetle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ritter, F.J.

    1967-01-01

    Potato leaf extract was fractionated and the fractions obtained were tested for their activity as feeding stimulants for Colorado beetle larvae. Also leaves and leaf extracts of different kinds of plants, as well as a number of known pure compounds and mixtures of them, were tested for this

  8. Bark beetle responses to vegetation management practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joel D. McMillin; Christopher J. Fettig

    2009-01-01

    Native tree-killing bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) are a natural component of forest ecosystems. Eradication is neither possible nor desirable and periodic outbreaks will occur as long as susceptible forests and favorable climatic conditions co-exist. Recent changes in forest structure and tree composition by natural processes and management...

  9. Risk Assessment for the Southern Pine Beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew Birt

    2011-01-01

    The southern pine beetle (SPB) causes significant damage (tree mortality) to pine forests. Although this tree mortality has characteristic temporal and spatial patterns, the precise location and timing of damage is to some extent unpredictable. Consequently, although forest managers are able to identify stands that are predisposed to SPB damage, they are unable to...

  10. A dynamical model for bark beetle outbreaks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křivan, Vlastimil; Lewis, M.; Bentz, B. J.; Bewick, S.; Lenhart, S. M.; Liebhold, A.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 407, OCT 21 (2016), s. 25-37 ISSN 0022-5193 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : bistability * bark beetle * Dendroctonus ponderosae Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.113, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022519316301928

  11. Floral associations of cyclocephaline scarab beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Matthew Robert; Jameson, Mary Liz

    2013-01-01

    The scarab beetle tribe Cyclocephalini (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae) is the second largest tribe of rhinoceros beetles, with nearly 500 described species. This diverse group is most closely associated with early diverging angiosperm groups (the family Nymphaeaceae, magnoliid clade, and monocots), where they feed, mate, and receive the benefit of thermal rewards from the host plant. Cyclocephaline floral association data have never been synthesized, and a comprehensive review of this ecological interaction was necessary to promote research by updating nomenclature, identifying inconsistencies in the data, and reporting previously unpublished data. Based on the most specific data, at least 97 cyclocephaline beetle species have been reported from the flowers of 58 plant genera representing 17 families and 15 orders. Thirteen new cyclocephaline floral associations are reported herein. Six cyclocephaline and 25 plant synonyms were reported in the literature and on beetle voucher specimen labels, and these were updated to reflect current nomenclature. The valid names of three unavailable plant host names were identified. We review the cyclocephaline floral associations with respect to inferred relationships of angiosperm orders. Ten genera of cyclocephaline beetles have been recorded from flowers of early diverging angiosperm groups. In contrast, only one genus, Cyclocephala, has been recorded from dicot flowers. Cyclocephaline visitation of dicot flowers is limited to the New World, and it is unknown whether this is evolutionary meaningful or the result of sampling bias and incomplete data. The most important areas for future research include: (1) elucidating the factors that attract cyclocephalines to flowers including floral scent chemistry and thermogenesis, (2) determining whether cyclocephaline dicot visitation is truly limited to the New World, and (3) inferring evolutionary relationships within the Cyclocephalini to rigorously test vicarance hypotheses

  12. Zombie soldier beetles: Epizootics in the goldenrod soldier beetle, Chauliognathus pensylvanicus (Coleoptera: Cantharidae) caused by Eryniopsis lampyridarum (Entomophthoromycotina: Entomophthoraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinkraus, Donald C; Hajek, Ann E; Liebherr, Jim K

    2017-09-01

    Adult goldenrod soldier beetles, Chauliognathus pensylvanicus, were found infected by the fungus Eryniopsis lampyridarum (Entomophthoromycotina) in Arkansas during September - October (1996, 2001, 2015 and 2016). Living and dead infected beetles were found on flowering frost aster, Symphyotrichum pilosum, common boneset, Eupatorium perfoliatum, and Canada goldenrod, Solidago canadensis. Live and dead beetles (n=446) were collected in 1996 from S. pilosum flowers and held individually in the laboratory for determination of fungal prevalence. Of the beetles collected, 281 (63%) were males and 165 (37%) were females. A total of 90 beetles were infected with E. lampyridarum, an overall prevalence of 20.2%. Prevalence in males was 19.6% (n=55 infected/281 males total) and prevalence in females was 21.2% (n=35 infected /165 females total). Conidia were produced from 57% of the infected beetles, 23% of the infected beetles produced resting spores, and 20% contained the hyphal body stage. Infected beetles produced either conidia or resting spores but never both in the same host. Post-mortem morphological changes in the hosts due to E. lampyridarum were observed periodically for 24h. Shortly before death, by unknown mechanisms, dying infected beetles tightly clamped their mandibles into flower heads and ca. 15-22h later (between 2400 and 0700h) the fungus caused dead beetles to raise their elytra and expand their metathoracic wings. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. The Effect of Eradication of Lice on the Occurrence of the Grain Defect Light Flecks and Spots on Cattle Hides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafstad, O; Grønstøl, H

    2001-01-01

    The influence of an eradication programme for lice on the prevalence of light flecks and spots on cattle hides was studied in 33 dairy cattle herds during a period of two and a half years. Lice were eradicated from the main group of herds after 9 to 12 months and the quality of the hides before and after treatment was compared. Hides from slaughtered animals were collected during the study period, tanned and examined with special emphasis on the occurrence of the grain damage light flecks and spots. The prevalence of hides without light flecks and spots increased from 24.2% before treatment to 61.6% after treatment. The prevalence of hides free from the damage increased significantly in all examined anatomical regions. The improvement in hide quality was most marked in the shoulders and neck region which corresponded to the major predilection site of cattle lice. The prevalence of hides with light flecks and spots started to decrease in the first period (2–40 days) after eradication. The changes after treatment suggested that most healing process took place over a period of about 4 months. The eradication programme eliminated the seasonal variation in the prevalence of light flecks and spots which was present before treatment. PMID:11455906

  14. The Effect of Eradication of Lice on the Occurrence of the Grain Defect Light Flecks and Spots on Cattle Hides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grønstøl H

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of an eradication programme for lice on the prevalence of light flecks and spots on cattle hides was studied in 33 dairy cattle herds during a period of two and a half years. Lice were eradicated from the main group of herds after 9 to 12 months and the quality of the hides before and after treatment was compared. Hides from slaughtered animals were collected during the study period, tanned and examined with special emphasis on the occurrence of the grain damage light flecks and spots. The prevalence of hides without light flecks and spots increased from 24.2% before treatment to 61.6% after treatment. The prevalence of hides free from the damage increased significantly in all examined anatomical regions. The improvement in hide quality was most marked in the shoulders and neck region which corresponded to the major predilection site of cattle lice. The prevalence of hides with light flecks and spots started to decrease in the first period (2–40 days after eradication. The changes after treatment suggested that most healing process took place over a period of about 4 months. The eradication programme eliminated the seasonal variation in the prevalence of light flecks and spots which was present before treatment.

  15. Cross-sectional study to estimate the prevalence of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli on hides of market beef cows at harvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, L G; Stromberg, Z R; Lewis, G L; Moxley, R A; Smith, D R

    2018-03-25

    Cattle hides are an important source of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) carcass contamination at slaughter. Seven EHEC serogroups are adulterants in raw, non-intact beef: EHEC O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, O145 and O157. The objective of this study was to estimate the probability for hide contamination with EHEC among US market beef cows at slaughter and to test the effects of season and geographic region on prevalence of hide contamination. Hides (n = 800) of market cows were swabbed at slaughter immediately after exsanguination, prior to hide removal. Cows were sampled from two geographically distinct beef packing plants during four seasons of 2015. Cattle source was categorized by northern or southern region. Samples were tested for EHEC by a molecular screening assay. The effects of region, season and their interaction on the probability of hide contamination by each EHEC serogroup were tested in separate multilevel multivariable logistic regression models, accounting for the random effect of clustering by plant. Statistical significance was set α = .05. Of 800 total samples, at least one EHEC was detected on 630 (79%) hides. Enterohaemorrhagic E. coli O26 was detected on 129 (16%) of all hides sampled, EHEC O45 on 437 (55%), EHEC O103 on 289 (36%), EHEC O111 on 189 (24%), EHEC O121 on 140 (18%), EHEC O145 on 171 (21%) and EHEC O157 on 89 (11%). Detection of EHEC O26 and EHEC O121 was associated with season. Season and region were associated with detecting EHEC O45 and EHEC O157. Season-by-region interactions were associated with the outcome of detecting EHEC O103, EHEC O111 and EHEC O145. Season, region of origin and the interaction of these factors affect hide contamination of market beef cattle at slaughter by EHEC, and each serogroup responds to these factors uniquely. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Spectral information as an orientation cue in dung beetles

    OpenAIRE

    el Jundi, Basil; Foster, James J.; Byrne, Marcus J.; Baird, Emily; Dacke, Marie

    2015-01-01

    During the day, a non-uniform distribution of long and short wavelength light generates a colour gradient across the sky. This gradient could be used as a compass cue, particularly by animals such as dung beetles that rely primarily on celestial cues for orientation. Here, we tested if dung beetles can use spectral cues for orientation by presenting them with monochromatic (green and UV) light spots in an indoor arena. Beetles kept their original bearing when presented with a single light cue...

  17. The bacterial community of entomophilic nematodes and host beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koneru, Sneha L; Salinas, Heilly; Flores, Gilberto E; Hong, Ray L

    2016-05-01

    Insects form the most species-rich lineage of Eukaryotes and each is a potential host for organisms from multiple phyla, including fungi, protozoa, mites, bacteria and nematodes. In particular, beetles are known to be associated with distinct bacterial communities and entomophilic nematodes. While entomopathogenic nematodes require symbiotic bacteria to kill and reproduce inside their insect hosts, the microbial ecology that facilitates other types of nematode-insect associations is largely unknown. To illuminate detailed patterns of the tritrophic beetle-nematode-bacteria relationship, we surveyed the nematode infestation profiles of scarab beetles in the greater Los Angeles area over a five-year period and found distinct nematode infestation patterns for certain beetle hosts. Over a single season, we characterized the bacterial communities of beetles and their associated nematodes using high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. We found significant differences in bacterial community composition among the five prevalent beetle host species, independent of geographical origin. Anaerobes Synergistaceae and sulphate-reducing Desulfovibrionaceae were most abundant in Amblonoxia beetles, while Enterobacteriaceae and Lachnospiraceae were common in Cyclocephala beetles. Unlike entomopathogenic nematodes that carry bacterial symbionts, insect-associated nematodes do not alter the beetles' native bacterial communities, nor do their microbiomes differ according to nematode or beetle host species. The conservation of Diplogastrid nematodes associations with Melolonthinae beetles and sulphate-reducing bacteria suggests a possible link between beetle-bacterial communities and their associated nematodes. Our results establish a starting point towards understanding the dynamic interactions between soil macroinvertebrates and their microbiota in a highly accessible urban environment. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. iBeetle-Base: a database for RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dönitz, Jürgen; Schmitt-Engel, Christian; Grossmann, Daniela; Gerischer, Lizzy; Tech, Maike; Schoppmeier, Michael; Klingler, Martin; Bucher, Gregor

    2015-01-01

    The iBeetle-Base (http://ibeetle-base.uni-goettingen.de) makes available annotations of RNAi phenotypes, which were gathered in a large scale RNAi screen in the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (iBeetle screen). In addition, it provides access to sequence information and links for all Tribolium castaneum genes. The iBeetle-Base contains the annotations of phenotypes of several thousands of genes knocked down during embryonic and metamorphic epidermis and muscle development in addition to phenotypes linked to oogenesis and stink gland biology. The phenotypes are described according to the EQM (entity, quality, modifier) system using controlled vocabularies and the Tribolium morphological ontology (TrOn). Furthermore, images linked to the respective annotations are provided. The data are searchable either for specific phenotypes using a complex 'search for morphological defects' or a 'quick search' for gene names and IDs. The red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum has become an important model system for insect functional genetics and is a representative of the most species rich taxon, the Coleoptera, which comprise several devastating pests. It is used for studying insect typical development, the evolution of development and for research on metabolism and pest control. Besides Drosophila, Tribolium is the first insect model organism where large scale unbiased screens have been performed. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  19. The Mexican bean beetle (Epilachna varivestis regurgitome and insights into beetle-borne virus specificity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassidy R Gedling

    Full Text Available For nearly 400 million years, insects and plants have been embattled in an evolutionary arms race. Insects have developed diverse feeding strategies and behaviors in an effort to circumvent and overcome an extensive collection of plant defense tactics. Sap-sucking insects often inject saliva into hosts plants, which contains a suite of effector proteins and even microbial communities that can alter the plant's defenses. Lacking salivary glands, leaf-feeding beetles represent an interesting group of phytophagous insects. Feeding beetles regurgitate onto leaf surfaces and it is thought that these oral secretions influence insect-plant interactions and even play a role in virus-vector specificity. Since the molecular and biological makeup of the regurgitant is virtually unknown, we carried out RNA sequencing and 16S rDNA analysis on a major soybean pest, Epilachna varivestis, to generate the first ever beetle "regurgitome" and characterize its microbiome. Interestingly, the regurgitant is comprised of a rich molecular assortment of genes encoding putative extracellular proteins involved in digestion, molting, immune defense, and detoxification. By carrying out plant inoculation assays, we reinforced the fundamental role of the regurgitant in beetle-borne virus specificity. Ultimately, these studies begin to characterize the importance of regurgitant in virus transmission and beetle-plant interactions.

  20. Optical multiple-image hiding based on interference and grating modulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Wenqi; Peng, Xiang; Meng, Xiangfeng

    2012-01-01

    We present a method for multiple-image hiding on the basis of interference-based encryption architecture and grating modulation. By using a modified phase retrieval algorithm, we can separately hide a number of secret images into one arbitrarily preselected host image associated with a set of phase-only masks (POMs), which are regarded as secret keys. Thereafter, a grating modulation operation is introduced to multiplex and store the different POMs into a single key mask, which is then assigned to the authorized users in privacy. For recovery, after an appropriate demultiplexing process, one can reconstruct the distributions of all the secret keys and then recover the corresponding hidden images with suppressed crosstalk. Computer simulation results are presented to validate the feasibility of our approach. (paper)

  1. Hiding a Covert Digital Image by Assembling the RSA Encryption Method and the Binary Encoding Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuang Tsan Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Rivest-Shamir-Adleman (RSA encryption method and the binary encoding method are assembled to form a hybrid hiding method to hide a covert digital image into a dot-matrix holographic image. First, the RSA encryption method is used to transform the covert image to form a RSA encryption data string. Then, all the elements of the RSA encryption data string are transferred into binary data. Finally, the binary data are encoded into the dot-matrix holographic image. The pixels of the dot-matrix holographic image contain seven groups of codes used for reconstructing the covert image. The seven groups of codes are identification codes, covert-image dimension codes, covert-image graylevel codes, pre-RSA bit number codes, RSA key codes, post-RSA bit number codes, and information codes. The reconstructed covert image derived from the dot-matrix holographic image and the original covert image are exactly the same.

  2. Information hiding technology and application analysis based on decimal expansion of irrational numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoyong; Lu, Pei; Shao, Jianxin; Cao, Haibin; Zhu, Zhenmin

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, an information hiding method using decimal expansion of irrational numbers to generate random phase mask is proposed. Firstly, the decimal expansion parts of irrational numbers generate pseudo-random sequences using a new coding schemed, the irrational number and start and end bit numbers were used as keys in image information hiding. Secondly, we apply the coding schemed to the double phase encoding system, the pseudo-random sequences are taken to generate random phase masks. The mean square error is used to calculate the quality of the recovered image information. Finally, two tests had been carried out to verify the security of our method; the experimental results demonstrate that the cipher image has such features, strong robustness, key sensitivity, and resistance to brute force attack.

  3. Stegano-Crypto Hiding Encrypted Data in Encrypted Image Using Advanced Encryption Standard and Lossy Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari Shawakat Tahir

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Steganography is an art and science of hiding information by embedding messages within other, seemingly harmless messages and lots of researches are working in it. Proposed system is using AES Algorithm and Lossy technique to overcome the limitation of previous work and increasing the process’s speed. The sender uses AES Algorithm to encrypt message and image, then using LSB technique to hide encrypted data in encrypted message. The receive get the original data using the keys that had been used in encryption process. The proposed system has been implemented in NetBeans 7.3 software uses image and data in different size to find the system’s speed.

  4. Impact of Media Richness on Reduction of Knowledge-Hiding Behavior in Enterprises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Labafi, Somayeh; Khajeheian, Datis; Williams, Idongesit

    2018-01-01

    in a qualitative study. Thematic analysis is used to analyze transcribed interview data from employees in a software company in Iran. The findings of the analysis show that media richness significantly impacts on organizational learning and influences on knowledge hiding behavior in employees. This article...... suggests that entrepreneurs and managers of small firms should provide employees’ access to rich media content as well as established organizational learning as part of their organizational culture.......Knowledge hiding is one of the major obstacles in the progression of organizations that hinder the use of tacit knowledge of employees. The negative impact of this behavior is more significant in enterprises and small firms because they are more reliant on knowledge of their employees...

  5. 12th International Conference on Intelligent Information Hiding and Multimedia Signal Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Tsai, Pei-Wei; Huang, Hsiang-Cheh

    2017-01-01

    This volume of Smart Innovation, Systems and Technologies contains accepted papers presented in IIH-MSP-2016, the 12th International Conference on Intelligent Information Hiding and Multimedia Signal Processing. The conference this year was technically co-sponsored by Tainan Chapter of IEEE Signal Processing Society, Fujian University of Technology, Chaoyang University of Technology, Taiwan Association for Web Intelligence Consortium, Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Big Data Mining and Applications (Fujian University of Technology), and Harbin Institute of Technology Shenzhen Graduate School. IIH-MSP 2016 is held in 21-23, November, 2016 in Kaohsiung, Taiwan. The conference is an international forum for the researchers and professionals in all areas of information hiding and multimedia signal processing. .

  6. Hiding objects and creating illusions above a carpet filter using a Fourier optics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kedi; Wang, Guo Ping

    2010-09-13

    Invisibility carpet cloaks are usually used to hide an object beneath carpet. In this paper we propose and demonstrate a carpet filter to hide objects and create illusions above the filter by using a Fourier optics method. Instead of using transformation optics, we get electromagnetic parameters of the filter by optical transfer functions, which play the role of modulating the propagation of the scattering angular spectrum directly from an object above the filter. By further adding a functional layer onto the filter, we can even camouflage the object so that it appears to be a different object. The analytical results are confirmed by numerical simulations. Our method is completely different from the current coordinate transfer method and may provide another point of view to more clearly understand the mechanism of invisibility cloaks.

  7. Hide depilation and feather disintegration studies with keratinolytic serine protease from a novel Bacillus subtilis isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Priya; Archana, G

    2008-03-01

    Keratinases play an important role in biotechnological applications such as improvement of feather meal, enzymatic dehairing and production of amino acids or peptides from high molecular weight substrates. Bacillus subtilis P13, isolated from Vajreshwari hot spring (45-50 degrees C) near Mumbai, India, produces a neutral serine protease and has an optimum temperature of 65 degrees C. This enzyme preparation was keratinolytic in nature and could disintegrate whole chicken feathers, except for the remnants of shafts. The enzyme preparation also exhibited depilation of goat hides with the recovery of intact animal hair. The enzyme preparation could release peptides from ground feathers and bring about their weight reduction; however, similar action on hair was relatively weak. A single major PMSF-sensitive protease band could be detected upon zymogram analysis, indicating that a single enzyme may be responsible for feather degradation and hide depilation. The importance of these findings in the biotechnological application for feather and leather industries is discussed.

  8. Atlas of Iberian water beetles (ESACIB database).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Fernández, David; Millán, Andrés; Abellán, Pedro; Picazo, Félix; Carbonell, José A; Ribera, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    The ESACIB ('EScarabajos ACuáticos IBéricos') database is provided, including all available distributional data of Iberian and Balearic water beetles from the literature up to 2013, as well as from museum and private collections, PhD theses, and other unpublished sources. The database contains 62,015 records with associated geographic data (10×10 km UTM squares) for 488 species and subspecies of water beetles, 120 of them endemic to the Iberian Peninsula and eight to the Balearic Islands. This database was used for the elaboration of the "Atlas de los Coleópteros Acuáticos de España Peninsular". In this dataset data of 15 additional species has been added: 11 that occur in the Balearic Islands or mainland Portugal but not in peninsular Spain and an other four with mainly terrestrial habits within the genus Helophorus (for taxonomic coherence). The complete dataset is provided in Darwin Core Archive format.

  9. A dehydration process for ovine hide to obtain a new collagenous material

    OpenAIRE

    Ollé Otero, Lluís; Sorolla, Silvia; Casas Solé, Concepció; Bacardit Dalmases, Anna

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to develop a dehydration process for ovine hide to obtain a new collagenous material for use in the leather industry. What is obtained through this new process is a dry and very porous collagenous substrate which allows the application of tanning chemicals by immersion in aqueous solutions. When compared to existing, traditional processes, economic and environmental advantages are obtained from the use of this new material. More specifically, the new process ...

  10. An Efficient Association Rule Hiding Algorithm for Privacy Preserving Data Mining

    OpenAIRE

    Yogendra Kumar Jain,; Vinod Kumar Yadav,; Geetika S. Panday

    2011-01-01

    The security of the large database that contains certain crucial information, it will become a serious issue when sharing data to the network against unauthorized access. Privacy preserving data mining is a new research trend in privacy data for data mining and statistical database. Association analysis is a powerful toolfor discovering relationships which are hidden in large database. Association rules hiding algorithms get strong and efficient performance for protecting confidential and cru...

  11. Suitability of the RGB Channels for a Pixel Manipulation in a Spatial Domain Data Hiding Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ante Poljicak

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to determine which channel in rgb color space is the most suitable (regarding perceptibility for a pixel manipulation in a spatial domain data  hiding techniques. For this purpose three custom test targets were generated. The research also shows the behavior of two closely related colors in the ps (Print-Scan process. The results are interpreted using both a quantitative method (statistical comparison and a qualitative method (visual comparison.

  12. Optical image hiding based on chaotic vibration of deformable moiré grating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Guangqing; Saunoriene, Loreta; Aleksiene, Sandra; Ragulskis, Minvydas

    2018-03-01

    Image hiding technique based on chaotic vibration of deformable moiré grating is presented in this paper. The embedded secret digital image is leaked in a form of a pattern of time-averaged moiré fringes when the deformable cover grating vibrates according to a chaotic law of motion with a predefined set of parameters. Computational experiments are used to demonstrate the features and the applicability of the proposed scheme.

  13. Application of Modified Digital Halftoning Techniques to Data Hiding in Personalized Stamps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hsi-Chun Wang; Chi-Ming Lian; Pei-Chi Hsiao

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this research is to embed information in personalized stamps by modified digital halftoning techniques. The displaced and deformed halftone dots are used to encode data in the personalized stamps. Hidden information can be retrieved by either an optical decoder or digital image processing techniques.The results show that personalized stamps with value-added features like data hiding or digital watermarking can be successfully implemented.

  14. Ground beetle habitat templets and riverbank integrity

    OpenAIRE

    Van Looy, Kris; Vanacker, Stijn; Jochems, Hans; De Blust, Geert; Dufrêne, M

    2006-01-01

    The habitat templet approach was used in a scale-sensitive bioindicator assessment for the ecological integrity of riverbanks and for specific responses to river management. Ground beetle habitat templets were derived from a catchment scale sampling, integrating the overall variety of bank types. This coarse-filter analysis was integrated in the reach scale fine-filtering approaches of community responses to habitat integrity and river management impacts. Higher species diversity was associat...

  15. Prey should hide more randomly when a predator attacks more persistently.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gal, Shmuel; Alpern, Steve; Casas, Jérôme

    2015-12-06

    When being searched for and then (if found) pursued by a predator, a prey animal has a choice between choosing very randomly among hiding locations so as to be hard to find or alternatively choosing a location from which it is more likely to successfully flee if found. That is, the prey can choose to be hard to find or hard to catch, if found. In our model, capture of prey requires both finding it and successfully pursuing it. We model this dilemma as a zero-sum repeated game between predator and prey, with the eventual capture probability as the pay-off to the predator. We find that the more random hiding strategy is better when the chances of repeated pursuit, which are known to be related to area topography, are high. Our results extend earlier results of Gal and Casas, where there was at most only a single pursuit. In that model, hiding randomly was preferred by the prey when the predator has only a few looks. Thus, our new multistage model shows that the effect of more potential looks is opposite. Our results can be viewed as a generalization of search games to the repeated game context and are in accordance with observed escape behaviour of different animals. © 2015 The Author(s).

  16. Improved Encrypted-Signals-Based Reversible Data Hiding Using Code Division Multiplexing and Value Expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianyi Chen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Compared to the encrypted-image-based reversible data hiding (EIRDH method, the encrypted-signals-based reversible data hiding (ESRDH technique is a novel way to achieve a greater embedding rate and better quality of the decrypted signals. Motivated by ESRDH using signal energy transfer, we propose an improved ESRDH method using code division multiplexing and value expansion. At the beginning, each pixel of the original image is divided into several parts containing a little signal and multiple equal signals. Next, all signals are encrypted by Paillier encryption. And then a large number of secret bits are embedded into the encrypted signals using code division multiplexing and value expansion. Since the sum of elements in any spreading sequence is equal to 0, lossless quality of directly decrypted signals can be achieved using code division multiplexing on the encrypted equal signals. Although the visual quality is reduced, high-capacity data hiding can be accomplished by conducting value expansion on the encrypted little signal. The experimental results show that our method is better than other methods in terms of the embedding rate and average PSNR.

  17. Efficient Text Encryption and Hiding with Double-Random Phase-Encoding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad S. Alam

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a double-random phase-encoding technique-based text encryption and hiding method is proposed. First, the secret text is transformed into a 2-dimensional array and the higher bits of the elements in the transformed array are used to store the bit stream of the secret text, while the lower bits are filled with specific values. Then, the transformed array is encoded with double-random phase-encoding technique. Finally, the encoded array is superimposed on an expanded host image to obtain the image embedded with hidden data. The performance of the proposed technique, including the hiding capacity, the recovery accuracy of the secret text, and the quality of the image embedded with hidden data, is tested via analytical modeling and test data stream. Experimental results show that the secret text can be recovered either accurately or almost accurately, while maintaining the quality of the host image embedded with hidden data by properly selecting the method of transforming the secret text into an array and the superimposition coefficient. By using optical information processing techniques, the proposed method has been found to significantly improve the security of text information transmission, while ensuring hiding capacity at a prescribed level.

  18. Spread spectrum image data hiding in the encrypted discrete cosine transform coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoqiang; Wang, Z. Jane

    2013-10-01

    Digital watermarking and data hiding are important tools for digital rights protection of media data. Spread spectrum (SS)-based watermarking and data-hiding approaches are popular due to their outstanding robustness, but their security might not be sufficient. To improve the security of SS, a SS-based image data-hiding approach is proposed by encrypting the discrete cosine transform coefficients of the host image with the piecewise linear chaotic map, before the operation of watermark embedding. To evaluate the performance of the proposed approach, simulations and analyses of its robustness and security are carried out. The average bit-error-rate values on 100 real images from the Berkeley segmentation dataset under the JPEG compression, additive Gaussian noise, salt and pepper noise, and cropping attacks are reported. Experimental results show that the proposed approach can maintain the high robustness of traditional SS schemes and, meanwhile, also improve the security. The proposed approach can extend the key space of traditional SS schemes from 10 to 10 and thus can resist brute-force attack and unauthorized detection watermark attack.

  19. High-capacity method for hiding data in the discrete cosine transform domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qazanfari, Kazem; Safabakhsh, Reza

    2013-10-01

    Steganography is the art and science of hiding data in different media such as texts, audios, images, and videos. Data hiding techniques are generally divided into two groups: spatial and frequency domain techniques. Spatial domain methods generally have low security and, as a result, are less attractive to researchers. Discrete cosine transform (DCT) is the most common transform domain used in steganography and JPEG compression. Since a large number of the DCT coefficients of JPEG images are zero, the capacity of DCT domain-based steganography methods is not very high. We present a high-capacity method for hiding messages in the DCT domain. We describe the method in two classes where the receiver has and where the receiver does not have the cover image. In each class, we consider three cases for each coefficient. By considering n coefficients, there are 3n different situations. The method embeds ⌊log2 3n⌋ bits in these n coefficients. We show that the maximum reachable capacity by our method is 58% higher than the other general steganography methods. Experimental results show that the histogram-based steganalysis methods cannot detect the stego images produced by the proposed method while the capacity is increased significantly.

  20. A High-Capacity Image Data Hiding Scheme Using Adaptive LSB Substitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Yang

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Many existing steganographic methods hide more secret data into edged areas than smooth areas in the host image, which does not differentiate textures from edges and causes serious degradation in actual edge areas. To avoid abrupt changes in image edge areas, as well as to achieve better quality of the stego-image, a novel image data hiding technique by adaptive Least Significant Bits (LSBs substitution is proposed in this paper. The scheme exploits the brightness, edges, and texture masking of the host image to estimate the number k of LSBs for data hiding. Pixels in the noise non-sensitive regions are embedded by a k-bit LSB substitution with a lager value of k than that of the pixels in noise sensitive regions. Moreover, an optimal pixel adjustment process is used to enhance stego-image visual quality obtained by simple LSB substitution method. To ensure that the adaptive number k of LSBs remains unchanged after pixel modification, the LSBs number is computed by the high-order bits rather than all the bits of the image pixel value. The theoretical analyses and experiment results show that the proposed method achieves higher embedding capacity and better stegoimage quality compared with some existing LSB methods.

  1. Data Hiding Based on a Two-Layer Turtle Shell Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Zhu Xie

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Data hiding is a technology that embeds data into a cover carrier in an imperceptible way while still allowing the hidden data to be extracted accurately from the stego-carrier, which is one important branch of computer science and has drawn attention of scholars in the last decade. Turtle shell-based (TSB schemes have become popular in recent years due to their higher embedding capacity (EC and better visual quality of the stego-image than most of the none magic matrices based (MMB schemes. This paper proposes a two-layer turtle shell matrix-based (TTSMB scheme for data hiding, in which an extra attribute presented by a 4-ary digit is assigned to each element of the turtle shell matrix with symmetrical distribution. Therefore, compared with the original TSB scheme, two more bits are embedded into each pixel pair to obtain a higher EC up to 2.5 bits per pixel (bpp. The experimental results reveal that under the condition of the same visual quality, the EC of the proposed scheme outperforms state-of-the-art data hiding schemes.

  2. Steganography and Hiding Data with Indicators-based LSB Using a Secret Key

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Saqer

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Steganography is the field of science concerned with hiding secret data inside other innocent-looking data, called the container, carrier or cover, in a way that no one apart from the meant parties can suspect the existence of the secret data. There are many algorithms and techniques of concealing data. Each of which has its own way of hiding and its own advantages and limitations. In our research we introduce a new algorithm of hiding data. The algorithm uses the same technique used by the Least Significant Bit (LSB algorithm which is embedding secret data in the least significant bit(s of the bytes of the carrier. It differs from the LSB algorithm in that it does not embed the bytes of the cover data sequentially but it embeds into one bit or two bits at once. Actually it depends on indicators to determine where and how many bits to embed at a time. These indicators are two bits of each cover byte after the least two significant bits. The advantage of this algorithm over the LSB algorithm is the randomness used to confuse intruders as it does not use fixed sequential bytes and it does not always embed one bit at a time. This aims to increase the security of the technique. Also, the amount of cover data consumed is less because it sometimes embeds two bits at once.

  3. Information Hiding In Digital Video Using DCT, DWT and CvT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abed Shukur, Wisam; Najah Abdullah, Wathiq; Kareem Qurban, Luheb

    2018-05-01

    The type of video that used in this proposed hiding a secret information technique is .AVI; the proposed technique of a data hiding to embed a secret information into video frames by using Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT), Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) and Curvelet Transform (CvT). An individual pixel consists of three color components (RGB), the secret information is embedded in Red (R) color channel. On the receiver side, the secret information is extracted from received video. After extracting secret information, robustness of proposed hiding a secret information technique is measured and obtained by computing the degradation of the extracted secret information by comparing it with the original secret information via calculating the Normalized cross Correlation (NC). The experiments shows the error ratio of the proposed technique is (8%) while accuracy ratio is (92%) when the Curvelet Transform (CvT) is used, but compared with Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) and Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT), the error rates are 11% and 14% respectively, while the accuracy ratios are (89%) and (86%) respectively. So, the experiments shows the Poisson noise gives better results than other types of noises, while the speckle noise gives worst results compared with other types of noises. The proposed technique has been established by using MATLAB R2016a programming language.

  4. Physicochemical Properties of Gelatin Extracted from Buffalo Hide Pretreated with Different Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulyani, Sri; Setyabudi, Francis M C Sigit; Pranoto, Yudi; Santoso, Umar

    2017-01-01

    The acid pretreatment of collagen molecules disrupts their crosslinks and assists in the release of acid-soluble proteins, fats, and other components. Generally, to achieve optimum extraction efficiency, strong acids may be used at a lower acid concentration compared to weak acids. This study aimed to determine the yield and physicochemical properties of gelatins extracted from buffalo hides pretreated with different acids. Hides were extracted with hydrochloric, citric, and acetic acids at concentrations of 0.3, 0.6, 0.9, 1.2, and 1.5 M. A completely randomized design and the least significant difference test were used in the experimental design, and all measurements were performed in triplicate. The highest yield (29.17%) was obtained from pretreatment with 0.9 M HCl. The gel strength did not differ significantly ( p >0.05) according to acid type (280.26-259.62 g Bloom), and the highest viscosity was obtained from the 0.6 M citric acid pretreatment. All the gelatins contained α- and β-chain components and several degraded peptides (24-66 kDa). The color and Fourier-transform infrared spectrum of the gelatin extracted using 0.9 M HCl were similar to those of commercial bovine skin gelatin. In general, the physicochemical properties of the gelatin complied with the industry standard set by the Gelatin Manufacturers Institute of America, revealing that buffalo hide could serve as a potential alternative source of gelatin.

  5. Traceability System Model for Quality Gelatin Raw Material of Cattle Hides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Nur

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Several criteria must be accomplished within the provision of quality products in terms of the types of materials, the processing methods and effort to get it. Traceability system involves various parties that have different needs and goals in the process of supplying raw materials. Hence, there is a need for institutional systems engineering that can organize and manage the tracking process, the procurement of raw materials that guarantee the origin of gelatin raw materials, and facilitate the industry and customer to create a standardized quality of product. The purpose of the study formulates the institutional tracking models of gelatin raw material from cattle hide based on various criteria and assessment of the expert opinion. The methods used in this study were Interpretative structural modeling to formulate a representation of institutional tracking efficiently and analytical hierarchy process to determine the tracking strategy of industrial gelatin raw materials from cowhide. The results obtained from the study were some key elements of institutional tracking model for industrial gelatin raw materials from cowhide and the traceability strategies for industrial raw materials from cattle hide gelatin Indonesia. (Animal Production 12(3: 190-198 (2010 Key Words: traceability, institutional model, cattle hide, gelatin

  6. Content-based Image Hiding Method for Secure Network Biometric Verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangjiu Che

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available For secure biometric verification, most existing methods embed biometric information directly into the cover image, but content correlation analysis between the biometric image and the cover image is often ignored. In this paper, we propose a novel biometric image hiding approach based on the content correlation analysis to protect the network-based transmitted image. By using principal component analysis (PCA, the content correlation between the biometric image and the cover image is firstly analyzed. Then based on particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm, some regions of the cover image are selected to represent the biometric image, in which the cover image can carry partial content of the biometric image. As a result of the correlation analysis, the unrepresented part of the biometric image is embedded into the cover image by using the discrete wavelet transform (DWT. Combined with human visual system (HVS model, this approach makes the hiding result perceptually invisible. The extensive experimental results demonstrate that the proposed hiding approach is robust against some common frequency and geometric attacks; it also provides an effective protection for the secure biometric verification.

  7. Tenebrio beetles use magnetic inclination compass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vácha, Martin; Drštková, Dana; Půžová, Tereza

    2008-08-01

    Animals that guide directions of their locomotion or their migration routes by the lines of the geomagnetic field use either polarity or inclination compasses to determine the field polarity (the north or south direction). Distinguishing the two compass types is a guideline for estimation of the molecular principle of reception and has been achieved for a number of animal groups, with the exception of insects. A standard diagnostic method to distinguish a compass type is based on reversing the vertical component of the geomagnetic field, which leads to the opposite reactions of animals with two different compass types. In the present study, adults of the mealworm beetle Tenebrio molitor were tested by means of a two-step laboratory test of magnetoreception. Beetles that were initially trained to memorize the magnetic position of the light source preferred, during the subsequent test, this same direction, pursuant geomagnetic cues only. In the following step, the vertical component was reversed between the training and the test. The beetles significantly turned their preferred direction by 180°. Our results brought until then unknown original findings that insects, represented here by the T. molitor species, use—in contrast to another previously researched Arthropod, spiny lobster—the inclination compass.

  8. Asymmetric hindwing foldings in rove beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Kazuya; Yamamoto, Shuhei; Maruyama, Munetoshi; Okabe, Yoji

    2014-11-18

    Foldable wings of insects are the ultimate deployable structures and have attracted the interest of aerospace engineering scientists as well as entomologists. Rove beetles are known to fold their wings in the most sophisticated ways that have right-left asymmetric patterns. However, the specific folding process and the reason for this asymmetry remain unclear. This study reveals how these asymmetric patterns emerge as a result of the folding process of rove beetles. A high-speed camera was used to reveal the details of the wing-folding movement. The results show that these characteristic asymmetrical patterns emerge as a result of simultaneous folding of overlapped wings. The revealed folding mechanisms can achieve not only highly compact wing storage but also immediate deployment. In addition, the right and left crease patterns are interchangeable, and thus each wing internalizes two crease patterns and can be folded in two different ways. This two-way folding gives freedom of choice for the folding direction to a rove beetle. The use of asymmetric patterns and the capability of two-way folding are unique features not found in artificial structures. These features have great potential to extend the design possibilities for all deployable structures, from space structures to articles of daily use.

  9. HIDE & SEEK: End-to-end packages to simulate and process radio survey data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akeret, J.; Seehars, S.; Chang, C.; Monstein, C.; Amara, A.; Refregier, A.

    2017-01-01

    As several large single-dish radio surveys begin operation within the coming decade, a wealth of radio data will become available and provide a new window to the Universe. In order to fully exploit the potential of these datasets, it is important to understand the systematic effects associated with the instrument and the analysis pipeline. A common approach to tackle this is to forward-model the entire system-from the hardware to the analysis of the data products. For this purpose, we introduce two newly developed, open-source Python packages: the HI Data Emulator (HIDE) and the Signal Extraction and Emission Kartographer (SEEK) for simulating and processing single-dish radio survey data. HIDE forward-models the process of collecting astronomical radio signals in a single-dish radio telescope instrument and outputs pixel-level time-ordered-data. SEEK processes the time-ordered-data, removes artifacts from Radio Frequency Interference (RFI), automatically applies flux calibration, and aims to recover the astronomical radio signal. The two packages can be used separately or together depending on the application. Their modular and flexible nature allows easy adaptation to other instruments and datasets. We describe the basic architecture of the two packages and examine in detail the noise and RFI modeling in HIDE, as well as the implementation of gain calibration and RFI mitigation in SEEK. We then apply HIDE &SEEK to forward-model a Galactic survey in the frequency range 990-1260 MHz based on data taken at the Bleien Observatory. For this survey, we expect to cover 70% of the full sky and achieve a median signal-to-noise ratio of approximately 5-6 in the cleanest channels including systematic uncertainties. However, we also point out the potential challenges of high RFI contamination and baseline removal when examining the early data from the Bleien Observatory. The fully documented HIDE &SEEK packages are available at http://hideseek.phys.ethz.ch/ and are published

  10. Asteraceae - an evaluation of hutchinsons beetle-daisy hypothesis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Midgley, JJ

    1993-05-01

    Full Text Available repel the beetles. However in this review of plant mimicry worldwide, it is considered an exceptionally intriguing example of Batesian mimicry. Despite the fact there still appears to be a dearth of information on the interaction between beetle...

  11. Efficacy of plant extracts against the cowpea beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeke, S.J.; Barnaud, B.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Kossou, D.K.; Huis, van A.; Dicke, M.

    2004-01-01

    Traditionally used African plant powders, with a known effect against the cowpea beetle Callosobruchus maculatus in stored cowpea, were extracted with water. The extracts, 13 volatile oils, 2 non-volatile oils and 8 slurries, were evaluated for their toxic and repellent effects against the beetle.

  12. Mountain pine beetle infestations in relation to lodgepole pine diameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter E. Cole; Gene D. Amman

    1969-01-01

    Tree losses resulting from infestation by the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) were measured in two stands of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl.) where the beetle population had previously been epidemic. Measurement data showed that larger diameter trees were infested and killed first. Tree losses...

  13. Book review of advances in insect physiology: pine bark beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    If not the most destructive forest pest, bark beetles are probably a close second in their culpability for killing millions of trees in the Northern Hemisphere. This volume provides an aptly-timed interdisciplinary review on aspects of bark beetle physiology, especially how it relates to selecting, ...

  14. Hidden in Plain sight: synthetic pheromone misleads beetles, protects trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul Meznarich; Robert Progar

    2015-01-01

    In the last decade, pine forests throughout much of the western United States have been ravaged by the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae). This bark beetle is native to the United States and has been responsible for massive tree kills in the past. The current outbreak, however, has been notably severe and wide ranging and the effects have been more dramatic...

  15. Ecological interactions of bark beetles with host trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Certain species of bark beetles in the insect order Coleoptera, family Curculionidae (formerly Scolytidae) are keystone species in forest ecosystems. However, the tree-killing and woodboring bark and ambrosia beetles are also among the most damaging insects of forest products including lumber, paper...

  16. Bark beetle outbreaks in western North America: Causes and consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentz, Barbara; Logan, Jesse; MacMahon, James A.; Allen, Craig D.; Ayres, Matt; Berg, Edward E; Carroll, Allan; Hansen, Matt; Hicke, Jeff H.; Joyce, Linda A.; Macfarlane, Wallace; Munson, Steve; Negron, Jose; Paine, Tim; Powell, Jim; Raffa, Kenneth; Regniere, Jacques; Reid, Mary; Romme, Bill; Seybold, Steven J.; Six, Diana; Vandygriff, Jim; Veblen, Tom; White, Mike; Witcosky, Jeff; Wood, David J. A.

    2005-01-01

    Since 1990, native bark beetles have killed billions of trees across millions of acres of forest from Alaska to northern Mexico. Although bark beetle infestations are a regular force of natural change in forested ecosystems, several of the current outbreaks, which are occurring simultaneously across western North America, are the largest and most severe in recorded history.

  17. 78 FR 27853 - Asian Longhorned Beetle; Quarantined Areas in Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-13

    ...-0004] Asian Longhorned Beetle; Quarantined Areas in Ohio AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Interim rule and request for comments. SUMMARY: We are amending the Asian... to prevent the artificial spread of the Asian longhorned beetle to noninfested areas of the United...

  18. Formulating entompathogens for control of boring beetles in avocado orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    A foam formulation of Beauveria bassiana was adapted to control boring beetles in avocado orchards. The two geographically independent avocado growing areas in the United States are threatened by emerging diseases vectored by boring beetles. In the California growing region, Fusarium dieback is vect...

  19. Influence of predators and parisitoids on bark beetle productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan Weslien

    1991-01-01

    In an earlier field experiment, natural enemies of the bark beetle, Ips typographus (L) were estimated to have reduced bark beetle productivity by more than 80 percent. To test this hypothesis, spruce logs (Picea abies) were placed in the forest in the spring, prior to commencement of flight by I. typographus....

  20. Chemical ecology and lure development for redbay ambrosia beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    The exotic redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff, has become a serious invasive pest in the U.S., currently established in nine southeastern states. Female beetles are the primary vectors of a pathogenic fungus (Raffaelea lauricola) that causes laurel wilt. This lethal vascular dise...

  1. Endocrine control of exaggerated traits in rhinoceros beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvenile hormone (JH) is a key insect growth regulator involved in modulating phenotypically plastic traits in insects such as caste determination in eusocial species, wing polymorphisms in aphids, and mandible size in stag beetle. Male stag beetles have sexually-dimorphic, condition-dependent expre...

  2. Niche separation of pollen beetle parasitoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef eBerger

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Species with similar resource requirements are commonly assumed to competitively exclude each other, unless they differentiate their ecological niches. Hence, parasitoid wasps that use the same host species need to find some way to avoid competition. The aim of this study was to identify the role of volatile cues from oilseed rape plants and the larval host in niche separation between three coexisting parasitoid species. We examined how Phradis interstitialis, Phradis morionellus and Tersilochus heterocerus, sympatric parasitoids of Brassicogethes aeneus, differ in their abundances, distribution on buds and flowers, and oviposition behavior in the field. Furthermore, we tested their preferences for odours from uninfested and infested oilseed rape plants in the bud and flowering stage, and their preferences for odours from three developmental stages of pollen beetle larvae in a two-choice olfactometer bioassay.P. interstitialis was active in the field early in the season, preferred odours of infested buds versus uninfested, and oviposited into buds which contained only pollen beetle eggs, while P. morionellus was active late in the season, preferred odours of infested buds as well as odours of infested flowers over uninfested, and oviposited into buds which contained only larvae. T. heterocerus was active throughout the season, and preferred odours of infested flowers over uninfested. Neither Phradis species were attracted to larval odours, whereas T. heterocerus was attracted to odours from first-instar pollen beetle larvae both in the absence of plant odours, and when presented simultaneously with uninfested plant odour.This suggests that the two Phradis species are separated on a temporal scale and that they parasitize different host stages, while the larval parasitoids P. morionellus and T. heterocerus are separated by choice of microhabitat. The former oviposits into larvae in buds, and the latter in flowers.

  3. Experimental porcine cysticercosis using infected beetles with Taenia solium eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Puerta, Luis A; Garcia, Hector H; Gonzalez, Armando E

    2018-07-01

    Beetles are intermediate hosts for human and animal parasites, and several beetle species have been shown to carry Taenia eggs. An experimental porcine cysticercosis infection model was developed using beetles (Ammophorus rubripes) infected with Taenia solium eggs and then using these beetles for oral pig challenge. A total of 18 three months-old Landrace pigs were divided in four groups. Pigs from groups 1, 2, and 3 (n = 6 pigs per group) were challenged with one, three, and six beetles infected with T. solium eggs, containing approximately 52, 156 or 312 eggs respectively. Pigs were necropsied 12 weeks after infection to assess the presence of T. solium metacestode. Porcine cysticercosis by T. solium was produced in 17 out of 18 pigs (94.4%) challenged with infected beetles, all infected pigs had viable cysts. Only one pig from group 1 was negative to the presence of cysts. The median number of metacestodes per pig in groups 1, 2, and 3 were 2 (range 0-71), 26 (range 5-33) and 40 cysts (range 4-111), respectively. Experimental porcine cysticercosis infection is consistently obtained using beetles as mechanical vectors for T. solium eggs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Importance of Secondary Metabolites for Leaf Beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. EKİZ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Leaf beetles (Chrysomelidae are one of the most diverse families of herbivorous insects. Many of them are important agricultural pests and cause remarkable loss of crop and money as well. Plant leaves and roots are primary food source of both larva and adults of leaf beetles. Plants produce many secondary metabolites in reaction to herbivore insects. It is a well-known phenomenon that quantity and variety of secondary metabolites in plant leaves may change in response to insect attacks. Herbivore insects have to deal with such defensive secondary chemicals and overcome either by detoxifying or storing them. Accordingly, many specialist herbivores coevolved with their host plant. Certain phenolic glycosides may reduce leaf beetle feeding. Condensed tannins are anti-herbivore defenses against leaf chewing beetles, including leaf beetles. Flavonoid compounds are feeding deterrents for many flea leaf beetles. Cinnamic acid derivatives are other known feeding deterrents for leaf beetles. Secondary metabolites quantity and nutritional quality of host plants are not only important for feeding but also for providing enemy-free space and suitable oviposition sites.

  5. Effect of acanthocephalan parasites on hiding behaviour in two species of shore crabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, A D M; Poulin, R

    2002-12-01

    The effect of acanthocephalan parasites (Profilicollis spp.) on the hiding behaviour during low tide of two species of shore crabs (intermediate hosts), Macrophthalmus hirtipes (Brachyura: Ocypodidae) and Hemigrapsus crenulatus (Brachyura: Grapsidae), was examined at Blueskin Bay, South Island, New Zealand. Exposed M. hirtipes were found to have significantly higher infection levels than did hidden conspecifics. This pattern was not observed for H. crenulatus. Mean cystacanth numbers were found to be considerably higher in M. hirtipes than H. crenulatus. Crabs exposed at low tide are at a greater risk of predation by definitive shorebird hosts than are hidden conspecifics. Preferential manipulation of one intermediate host species over another could influence diversity within ecosystems.

  6. A Statistically-Hiding Integer Commitment Scheme Based on Groups with Hidden Order

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Fujisaki, Eiichiro

    2002-01-01

    We present a statistically-hiding commitment scheme allowing commitment to arbitrary size integers, based on any (Abelian) group with certain properties, most importantly, that it is hard for the committer to compute its order. We also give efficient zero-knowledge protocols for proving knowledge...... input is chosen by the (possibly cheating) prover. -  - Our results apply to any group with suitable properties. In particular, they apply to a much larger class of RSA moduli than the safe prime products proposed in [14] - Potential examples include RSA moduli, class groups and, with a slight...

  7. Characterization of biofilms produced by Escherichia coli O157 isolated from cattle hides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milojević, L.; Velebit, B.; Baltić, T.; Nikolić, A.; Mitrović, R.; Đorđević, V.

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to investigate possibility E. coli O157 from cattle hides to produced biofilms. We had 28 suspect primoisolates and 17 were confirmed to be E. coli O157. Biofilm production test showed that more than 50% of this isolates did not produce biofilm. From the other half of the isolates, 5 of them were weakly adherent, 3 were moderately adherent. Since E. coli O157 are one of the main foodborne hazards in meat processing industry and the discovery that some of them can produce moderately adherent biofilms, request necessity of strict implementation of HACCP procedures to prevent further expansion this pathogen.

  8. Information hiding based on double random-phase encoding and public-key cryptography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Yuan; Xin, Zhou; Alam, Mohammed S; Xi, Lu; Xiao-Feng, Li

    2009-03-02

    A novel information hiding method based on double random-phase encoding (DRPE) and Rivest-Shamir-Adleman (RSA) public-key cryptosystem is proposed. In the proposed technique, the inherent diffusion property of DRPE is cleverly utilized to make up the diffusion insufficiency of RSA public-key cryptography, while the RSA cryptosystem is utilized for simultaneous transmission of the cipher text and the two phase-masks, which is not possible under the DRPE technique. This technique combines the complementary advantages of the DPRE and RSA encryption techniques and brings security and convenience for efficient information transmission. Extensive numerical simulation results are presented to verify the performance of the proposed technique.

  9. Private States, Quantum Data Hiding, and the Swapping of Perfect Secrecy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christandl, Matthias; Ferrara, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    An important contribution to the understanding of quantum key distribution has been the discovery of entangled states from which secret bits, but no maximally entangled states, can be extracted [Horodecki et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 200501 (2005)]. The construction of those states was based...... on an intuition that the quantum mechanical phenomena of data hiding and privacy might be related. In this Letter we firmly connect these two phenomena and highlight three aspects of this result. First, we simplify the definition of the secret key rate. Second, we give a formula for the one-way distillable...

  10. What Hides Behind an Umemployment Rate: Comparing Portuguese and U.S. Unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Olivier Blanchard; Pedro Portugal

    1998-01-01

    Over the last 15 years, Portugal and the United States have had the same average unemployment rate, about 6.5%. But behind these similar rates hide two very different labor markets. Unemployment duration in Portugal is more than three times that of the United States. Symmetrically, the flow of workers into unemployment in Portugal is, in proportion to the labor force, less than a third of what it is in the United States. Relying on evidence from Portuguese and U.S. micro data sets, we show th...

  11. Prediction-error of Prediction Error (PPE)-based Reversible Data Hiding

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Han-Zhou; Wang, Hong-Xia; Shi, Yun-Qing

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a novel reversible data hiding (RDH) algorithm for gray-scaled images, in which the prediction-error of prediction error (PPE) of a pixel is used to carry the secret data. In the proposed method, the pixels to be embedded are firstly predicted with their neighboring pixels to obtain the corresponding prediction errors (PEs). Then, by exploiting the PEs of the neighboring pixels, the prediction of the PEs of the pixels can be determined. And, a sorting technique based on th...

  12. Sensor and Actuator Fault-Hiding Reconfigurable Control Design for a Four-Tank System Benchmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hameed, Ibrahim; El-Madbouly, Esam I; Abdo, Mohamed I

    2015-01-01

    Invariant (LTI) system where virtual sensors and virtual actuators are used to correct faulty performance through the use of a pre-fault performance. Simulation results showed that the developed approach can handle different types of faults and able to completely and instantly recover the original system......Fault detection and compensation plays a key role to fulfill high demands for performance and security in today's technological systems. In this paper, a fault-hiding (i.e., tolerant) control scheme that detects and compensates for actuator and sensor faults in a four-tank system benchmark...

  13. Phylogeny of world stag beetles (Coleoptera: Lucanidae) reveals a Gondwanan origin of Darwin's stag beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Il; Farrell, Brian D

    2015-05-01

    Stag beetles (family Lucanidae Latreille, 1804) are one of the earliest branching lineages of scarab beetles that are characterized by the striking development of the male mandibles. Despite stag beetles' popularity among traditional taxonomists and amateur collectors, there has been almost no study of lucanid relationships and evolution. Entomologists, including Jeannel (1942), have long recognized resemblance between the austral stag beetles of the tribes Chiasognathini, Colophonini, Lamprimini, Pholidotini, Rhyssonotini, and Streptocerini, but this hypothesis of their close relationship across the continents has never been tested. To gain further insight into lucanid phylogeny and biogeography, we reconstructed the first molecular phylogeny of world stag beetles using DNA sequences from mitochondrial 16S rDNA, nuclear 18S and 28S rDNA, and the nuclear protein-coding (NPC) gene wingless for 93 lucanid species representing all extant subfamilies and 24 out of the 27 tribes, together with 14 representative samples of other early branching scarabaeoid families and two staphyliniform beetle families as outgroups. Both Bayesian inference (BI) and maximum likelihood inference (MLI) strongly supported the monophyly of Lucanidae sensu lato that includes Diphyllostomatidae. Within Lucanidae sensu stricto, the subfamilies Lucaninae and Lampriminae appeared monophyletic under both methods of phylogenetic inferences; however, Aesalinae and Syndesinae were found to be polyphyletic. A time-calibrated phylogeny based on five fossil data estimated the origin of crown group Lucanidae as circa 160 million years ago (MYA). Divergence between the Neotropical and Australasian groups of the Chiasognathini was estimated to be circa 47MYA, with the South African Colophonini branching off from the ancient Chiasognathini lineage around 87MYA. Another Gondwanan relationship was recovered between the Australasian Eucarteria and the Neotropical Casignetus, which diverged circa 58MYA. Lastly

  14. Ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae agrocenoses of spring and winter wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luboš Purchart

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available On two monitoring areas of the Central Institute for Supervising and Testing in Agriculture (ÚKZÚZ loaded with risk elements we carried out investigations of beetles of the family Carabidae (Coleoptera in agricultural stands of winter and spring wheat. The focus of the present study is on synecological characteristics and in some extent on the impact of agricultural practise on the population and seasonal dynamics of the most important representatives of ground beetles. This paper precedes the following article aimed to contents of heavy metals in ground beetles.

  15. Photonic nanoarchitectures of biologic origin in butterflies and beetles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biro, L.P.

    2010-01-01

    Photonic nanoarchitectures occurring in butterflies and beetles, which produce structural color in the visible range of the electromagnetic spectrum by the selective reflection of light, are investigated under the aspect of being used as possible 'blueprints' for artificial, bioinspired nanoarchitectures. The role of order and disorder and of regularity/irregularity in photonic nanoarchitectures of biologic origin is discussed. Three recent case studies are briefly reviewed for butterflies (Albulina metallica, Cyanophrys remus, Troides magellanus) and three for beetles (Hoeplia coerulea, Chrysochroa vittata, Charidotella egregia). The practical realization of bioinspired artificial structures is discussed for the A. metallica butterfly and for the C. vittata beetle.

  16. Photonic nanoarchitectures of biologic origin in butterflies and beetles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biro, L.P., E-mail: biro@mfa.kfki.h [Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, H-1525 Budapest, POB 49 (Hungary)

    2010-05-25

    Photonic nanoarchitectures occurring in butterflies and beetles, which produce structural color in the visible range of the electromagnetic spectrum by the selective reflection of light, are investigated under the aspect of being used as possible 'blueprints' for artificial, bioinspired nanoarchitectures. The role of order and disorder and of regularity/irregularity in photonic nanoarchitectures of biologic origin is discussed. Three recent case studies are briefly reviewed for butterflies (Albulina metallica, Cyanophrys remus, Troides magellanus) and three for beetles (Hoeplia coerulea, Chrysochroa vittata, Charidotella egregia). The practical realization of bioinspired artificial structures is discussed for the A. metallica butterfly and for the C. vittata beetle.

  17. Quantifying sources of variation in the frequency of fungi associated with spruce beetles: implications for hypothesis testing and sampling methodology in bark beetle-symbiont relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian H. Aukema; Richard A. Werner; Kirsten E. Haberkern; Barbara L. Illman; Murray K. Clayton; Kenneth F. Raffa

    2005-01-01

    The spruce beetle, Dendroctonus rufipennis (Kirby), causes landscape level mortality to mature spruce (Picea spp.) throughout western and northern North America. As with other bark beetles, this beetle is associated with a variety of fungi, whose ecological functions are largely unknown. It has been proposed that the relative...

  18. Cuticle hydrocarbons in saline aquatic beetles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Botella-Cruz

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Hydrocarbons are the principal component of insect cuticle and play an important role in maintaining water balance. Cuticular impermeability could be an adaptative response to salinity and desiccation in aquatic insects; however, cuticular hydrocarbons have been poorly explored in this group and there are no previous data on saline species. We characterized cuticular hydrocarbons of adults and larvae of two saline aquatic beetles, namely Nebrioporus baeticus (Dytiscidae and Enochrus jesusarribasi (Hydrophilidae, using a gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer. The CHC profile of adults of both species, characterized by a high abundance of branched alkanes and low of unsaturated alkenes, seems to be more similar to that of some terrestrial beetles (e.g., desert Tenebrionidae compared with other aquatic Coleoptera (freshwater Dytiscidae. Adults of E. jesusarribasi had longer chain compounds than N. baeticus, in agreement with their higher resistance to salinity and desiccation. The more permeable cuticle of larvae was characterized by a lower diversity in compounds, shorter carbon chain length and a higher proportion of unsaturated hydrocarbons compared with that of the adults. These results suggest that osmotic stress on aquatic insects could exert a selection pressure on CHC profile similar to aridity in terrestrial species.

  19. Patterns of movement of radioactive carabid beetles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baars, M.A.

    1980-01-01

    Tracking of individual 192 Ir-labelled ground beetles released in the field revealed that both the day-active and night-active species studied showed periods of small distances covered per day in random directions, alternating with periods of directed movement with large distances covered per day. This pattern occurred not only in the reproductive period but outside the breeding season as well in juvenile Pterostichus versicolor and spent Calathus melanocephalus. Although mean locomotory activity increased with temperature, great daily differences occurred between individuals, pointing to asynchronous behaviour. In an unfavorable habitat directed movement occurred both more frequently and more extremely, sometimes resulting in escape to more favorable areas. Most of the radioactive beetles died within 7 weeks due to radiation effects, but independent field experiments and simulations showed that the recorded patterns were valid. Simulated individuals of P. versicolor living on 1 ha spread over 49 ha, whereas simulated C. melanocephalus covered only 9 ha after one activity season. Normal locomotory activities lead to both exchange of individuals between subpopulations and dispersal out of the habitat. The significance of these phenomena for population stability and for the survival of the species is discussed. (orig.) [de

  20. Atlas of Iberian water beetles (ESACIB database)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Fernández, David; Millán, Andrés; Abellán, Pedro; Picazo, Félix; Carbonell, José A.; Ribera, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The ESACIB (‘EScarabajos ACuáticos IBéricos’) database is provided, including all available distributional data of Iberian and Balearic water beetles from the literature up to 2013, as well as from museum and private collections, PhD theses, and other unpublished sources. The database contains 62,015 records with associated geographic data (10×10 km UTM squares) for 488 species and subspecies of water beetles, 120 of them endemic to the Iberian Peninsula and eight to the Balearic Islands. This database was used for the elaboration of the “Atlas de los Coleópteros Acuáticos de España Peninsular”. In this dataset data of 15 additional species has been added: 11 that occur in the Balearic Islands or mainland Portugal but not in peninsular Spain and an other four with mainly terrestrial habits within the genus Helophorus (for taxonomic coherence). The complete dataset is provided in Darwin Core Archive format. PMID:26448717

  1. Mesostigmatic Mites (Acari) Associated with Ground, Burying, Roving Carrion and Dung Beetles (Coleoptera) in Sapporo and Tomakomai, Hokkaido, Northern Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Takaku, Gen; Katakura, Haruo; Yoshida, Nobuyo

    1994-01-01

    A total of 19 species belonging to 5 families of mesostigmatic mites were collected in Sapporo and Tomakomai, northern Japan, on four groups of beetles, i.e., ground beetles (Carabinae, Carabidae), burying beetles (Nicrophorini, Silphinae, Silphidae), roving carrion beetles (Silphini, Silphinae, Silphidae) and dung beetles (Scarabaeidae and Geotrupidae), all of which mainly forage on the ground surface. No mite species was found on more than one group of beetles except for Poecilochirus carab...

  2. Mesostigmatic Mites (Acari) Associated with Ground, Burying, Roving Carrion and Dung Beetles (Coleoptera) in Sapporo and Tomakomai, Hokkaido, Northern Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Gen, Takaku; Haruo, Katakura; Nobuyo, Yoshida; Division of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Science, Hokkaido University; Division of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Science, Hokkaido University; Tohoku Agricultural Experiment Station

    1994-01-01

    A total of 19 species belonging to 5 families of mesostigmatic mites were collected in Sapporo and Tomakomai, northern Japan, on four groups of beetles, i. e. , ground beetles (Carabinae, Carabidae), burying beetles (Nicrophorini, Silphinae, Silphidae), roving carrion beetles (Silphini, Silphinae, Silphidae) and dung beetles (Scarabaeidae and Geotrupidae), all of which mainly forage on the ground surface. No mite species was found on more than one group of beetles except for Poecilochirus car...

  3. A Novel Approach for Arabic Text Steganography Based on the “BloodGroup” Text Hiding Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Malalla,

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Steganography is the science of hiding certain messages (data in groups of irrelevant data possibly of other form. The purpose of steganography is covert communication to hide the existence of a message from an intermediary. Text Steganography is the process of embedding secret message (text in another text (cover text so that the existence of secret message cannot be detected by a third party. This paper presents a novel approach for text steganography using the Blood Group (BG method based on the behavior of blood group. Experimentally it is found that the proposed method got good results in capacity, hiding capacity, time complexity, robustness, visibility, and similarity which shows its superiority as compared to most several existing methods.

  4. Privacy-Aware Image Encryption Based on Logistic Map and Data Hiding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jianglin; Liao, Xiaofeng; Chen, Xin; Guo, Shangwei

    The increasing need for image communication and storage has created a great necessity for securely transforming and storing images over a network. Whereas traditional image encryption algorithms usually consider the security of the whole plain image, region of interest (ROI) encryption schemes, which are of great importance in practical applications, protect the privacy regions of plain images. Existing ROI encryption schemes usually adopt approximate techniques to detect the privacy region and measure the quality of encrypted images; however, their performance is usually inconsistent with a human visual system (HVS) and is sensitive to statistical attacks. In this paper, we propose a novel privacy-aware ROI image encryption (PRIE) scheme based on logistical mapping and data hiding. The proposed scheme utilizes salient object detection to automatically, adaptively and accurately detect the privacy region of a given plain image. After private pixels have been encrypted using chaotic cryptography, the significant bits are embedded into the nonprivacy region of the plain image using data hiding. Extensive experiments are conducted to illustrate the consistency between our automatic ROI detection and HVS. Our experimental results also demonstrate that the proposed scheme exhibits satisfactory security performance.

  5. Towards fraud-proof ID documents using multiple data hiding technologies and biometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard, Justin; Vielhauer, Claus; Thorwirth, Niels

    2004-06-01

    Identity documents, such as ID cards, passports, and driver's licenses, contain textual information, a portrait of the legitimate holder, and eventually some other biometric characteristics such as a fingerprint or handwritten signature. As prices for digital imaging technologies fall, making them more widely available, we have seen an exponential increase in the ease and the number of counterfeiters that can effectively forge documents. Today, with only limited knowledge of technology and a small amount of money, a counterfeiter can effortlessly replace a photo or modify identity information on a legitimate document to the extent that it is very diffcult to differentiate from the original. This paper proposes a virtually fraud-proof ID document based on a combination of three different data hiding technologies: digital watermarking, 2-D bar codes, and Copy Detection Pattern, plus additional biometric protection. As will be shown, that combination of data hiding technologies protects the document against any forgery, in principle without any requirement for other security features. To prevent a genuine document to be used by an illegitimate user,biometric information is also covertly stored in the ID document, to be used for identification at the detector.

  6. An image hiding method based on cascaded iterative Fourier transform and public-key encryption algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, B.; Sang, Jun; Alam, Mohammad S.

    2013-03-01

    An image hiding method based on cascaded iterative Fourier transform and public-key encryption algorithm was proposed. Firstly, the original secret image was encrypted into two phase-only masks M1 and M2 via cascaded iterative Fourier transform (CIFT) algorithm. Then, the public-key encryption algorithm RSA was adopted to encrypt M2 into M2' . Finally, a host image was enlarged by extending one pixel into 2×2 pixels and each element in M1 and M2' was multiplied with a superimposition coefficient and added to or subtracted from two different elements in the 2×2 pixels of the enlarged host image. To recover the secret image from the stego-image, the two masks were extracted from the stego-image without the original host image. By applying public-key encryption algorithm, the key distribution was facilitated, and also compared with the image hiding method based on optical interference, the proposed method may reach higher robustness by employing the characteristics of the CIFT algorithm. Computer simulations show that this method has good robustness against image processing.

  7. A REVIEW ON HEAVY METALS CONTENTS IN HIDE, SKIN AND PROCESSED LEATHERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KOIZHAIGANOVA Meruyert

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals are metals with high atomic weight which can be deposited in soil, water, plants and animals. It is generally known that mammal tissues are good bioindicators of trace elements, including heavy metals. Heavy metal analysis serves to identify and quantify the elements that are a potential hazard to the consumer after varying levels of contact. Usage area of leather is increasingly expanding in these days and it has also become a material requested and demanded by effect of fashion. Leather must protect its appearance and physical stability and also be problem-free in ecological terms and harmless to human health. There is a lack of data concerning the content of toxic elements in raw hide and skin of animals. Mainly information concerning metals content, including toxic ones, in processed leathers may be found in the literature. The aim of the present study was to review and compare the content of some heavy metals in raw hide, skin and the processed leathers in order to evaluate their accumulation and transition to the end-up product.

  8. Hide unhairing and characterization of commercial enzymes used in leather manufacture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Dettmer

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The enzymatic treatment of hides in tannery processes is a promising technology. However, the reaction kinetics of commercial enzymes available to the leather industry are not fully understood and their activities have been mainly determined with model proteins such as casein as substrate, which are not of direct relevance for cattle hides. Therefore, it is important to determine their activities on collagen and keratin, the main proteins of skin, in order to use these enzymes in leather processing. This work describes the study of five proteases, used commercially in tanneries, to assess their ability to act upon collagen and keratin and to determine their unhairing. Results showed that all commercial enzymes tested had more activity on collagen than on keratin. Unhairing was also tested and four out of the five enzymes tested showed some unhairing activity. Optima of the temperature and pH of the enzymes were very similar for all five enzymes, with maximal activities around 55ºC and pH 9 to 12, respectively.

  9. An Improved Quantum Information Hiding Protocol Based on Entanglement Swapping of χ-type Quantum States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Shu-Jiang; Wang Lian-Hai; Ding Qing-Yan; Zhang Shu-Hui; Chen Xiu-Bo

    2016-01-01

    In 2011, Qu et al. proposed a quantum information hiding protocol based on the entanglement swapping of χ-type quantum states. Because a χ-type state can be described by the 4-particle cat states which have good symmetry, the possible output results of the entanglement swapping between a given χ-type state and all of the 16 χ-type states are divided into 8 groups instead of 16 groups of different results when the global phase is not considered. So it is difficult to read out the secret messages since each result occurs twice in each line (column) of the secret messages encoding rule for the original protocol. In fact, a 3-bit instead of a 4-bit secret message can be encoded by performing two unitary transformations on 2 particles of a χ-type quantum state in the original protocol. To overcome this defect, we propose an improved quantum information hiding protocol based on the general term formulas of the entanglement swapping among χ-type states. (paper)

  10. Suggested Method for Encryption and Hiding ‎Image using LCG and LSB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atheer Hussein Zyara

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Maintaining the confidentiality of the data of the very important areas in computer applications , Where many researchers work in the fields of concealment and encryption . So in this research we are working on the combining of the two methods , where confidential data is encrypted by using  a proposed method , Then the cover is encrypted (regular image by LCG algorithm (which generates a series of random numbers to generate the encrypted cover (irregular image , After that ,we hide the encrypted data in encrypted cover by depending on the LSB technique, then we convert the irregular image into regular image and thereby getting  hidden data in random locations in the  cover image  , This method is characterized by flexibility in terms of the possibility of hiding the different  types of confidential data in different types of media , and durability as that data be hidden in random locations and this  what distinguishes the proposed algorithm , and the results showed high security, because the data is hidden in random locations in encrypted image then convert to the original regular image For clarification of the proposed algorithm , it has been applied on a digital image of the gray type using MATLAB language  by using the efficiency scales PSNR and MSE

  11. HIDING TEXT IN DIGITAL IMAGES USING PERMUTATION ORDERING AND COMPACT KEY BASED DICTIONARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagalinga Rajan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Digital image steganography is an emerging technique in secure communication for the modern connected world. It protects the content of the message without arousing suspicion in a passive observer. A novel steganography method is presented to hide text in digital images. A compact dictionary is designed to efficiently communicate all types of secret messages. The sorting order of pixels in image blocks are chosen as the carrier of embedded information. The high correlation in image pixel values means reordering within image blocks do not cause high distortion. The image is divided into blocks and perturbed to create non repeating sequences of intensity values. These values are then sorted according to the message. At the receiver end, the message is read from the sorting order of the pixels in image blocks. Only those image blocks with standard deviation lesser than a given threshold are chosen for embedding to alleviate visual distortion. Information Security is provided by shuffling the dictionary according to a shared key. Experimental Results and Analysis show that the method is capable of hiding text with more than 4000 words in a 512×512 grayscale image with a peak signal to noise ratio above 40 decibels.

  12. Reversible Data Hiding Using Two Marked Images Based on Adaptive Coefficient-Shifting Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Yu Yang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel form of reversible data hiding using two marked images by employing the adaptive coefficient-shifting (ACS algorithm. The proposed ACS algorithm consists of three parts: the minimum-preserved scheme, the minimum-preserved with squeezing scheme, and the base-value embedding scheme. More specifically, each input block of a host image can be encoded to two stego-blocks according to three predetermined rules by the above three schemes. Simulations validate that the proposed method not only completely recovers the host medium but also losslessly extracts the hidden message. The proposed method can handle various kinds of images without any occurrence of overflow/underflow. Moreover, the payload and peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR performance of the proposed method is superior to that of the conventional invertible data hiding schemes. Furthermore, the number of shadows required by the proposed method is less than that required by the approaches which are based upon secret image sharing with reversible steganography.

  13. The artificial beetle, or a brief manifesto for engineered biomimicry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartl, Michael H.; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh

    2015-03-01

    The artificial beetle is possibly the Holy Grail for practitioners of engineered biomimicry. An artificial beetle could gather and relay data and images from compromised environments on earth and other planets to decision makers. It could also be used for surveillance of foes and friends alike, and will require ethical foresight and oversight. What would it take to develop an artificial beetle? Several biotemplating techniques can be harnessed for the replication of external structural features of beetle bodies, and thus preserve functionalities such as coloration of the exoskeleton and the hydrophobicity of wings. The body cavity must host a power supply, motors to move the wings for flight, sensors to capture ambient conditions and images, and data transmitters and receivers to communicate with a remote command center. All of these devices must be very small and reliable.

  14. Mechanical properties of the beetle elytron, a biological composite material

    Science.gov (United States)

    We determined the relationship between composition and mechanical properties of elytral (modified forewing) cuticle of the beetles Tribolium castaneum and Tenebrio molitor. Elytra of both species have similar mechanical properties at comparable stages of maturation (tanning). Shortly after adult ecl...

  15. Effect of food factor on microevolution of Colorado beetle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. А. Ryabchenko

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Many-sided research of interaction of Colorado beetle and fodder plant (potato, nightshade sweetly-bitter defines the role of the plants as guiding factor of microevolutional processes in pest population.

  16. A new soldier beetle from Eocene Baltic amber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Fanti

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The family Cantharidae is a worldwide distributed group of flattened and soft-bodied beetles displaying aposematic colouration. These beetles, commonly known as soldier beetles, have an extensive fossil record dating back to the Lower Cretaceous. The majority of fossil material, referred to Cantharidae, is known from amber inclusions. In this paper we describe and illustrate a new soldier beetle Kuskaella macroptera gen. et sp. nov. from the Baltic amber. It is characterised by pronotum of the male parallel-sided in basal third and abruptly narrowed towards apex, and of the female gradually and steadily narrowing from the basal margin to the apex; globular head; unequal maxillary palpomeres with the last segment elongated-globular and pointed; long elytra slightly surpassing the last abdominal segment. This finding is the first described species of both sexes preserved in a single amber piece.

  17. Identifying ponderosa pines infested with mountain pine beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    William F. McCambridge

    1974-01-01

    Trees successfully and unsuccessfully attacked by mountain pine beetles have several symptoms in common, so that proper diagnosis is not always easy. Guidelines presented here enable the observer to correctly distinguish nearly all attacked trees.

  18. Log bioassay of residual effectiveness of insecticides against bark beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard H. Smith

    1982-01-01

    Residual effectiveness of nine insecticides applied to bark was tested against western, mountain, and Jeffrey pine beetles. Ponderosa and Jeffrey pine trees were treated and logs cut from them 2 to 13 months later, and bioassayed with the three beetles. The insecticides were sprayed at the rate of 1 gal (3.8 l) per 40- or 80-ft² (3.6 or 7.2 m²) bark surface at varying...

  19. Fungal associates of the lodgepole pine beetle, Dendroctonus murrayanae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Six, Diana L; de Beer, Z Wilhelm; Duong, Tuan A; Carroll, Allan L; Wingfield, Michael J

    2011-08-01

    Bark beetles are well known vectors of ophiostomatoid fungi including species of Ophiostoma, Grosmannia and Ceratocystis. In this study, the most common ophiostomatoid fungi associated with the lodgepole pine beetle, Dendroctonus murrayanae, were characterized. Pre-emergent and post-attack adult beetles were collected from lodgepole pines at four sites in British Columbia, Canada. Fungi were isolated from these beetles and identified using a combination of morphology and DNA sequence comparisons of five gene regions. In all four populations, Grosmannia aurea was the most common associate (74-100% of all beetles) followed closely by Ophiostoma abietinum (29-75%). Other fungi isolated, in order of their relative prevalence with individual beetles were an undescribed Leptographium sp. (0-13%), Ophiostoma ips (0-15%), Ophiostoma piliferum (0-11%), a Pesotum sp. (0-11%) and Ophiostoma floccosum (0-1%). Comparisons of the DNA sequences of Leptographium strains isolated in this study, with ex-type isolates of G. aurea, Grosmannia robusta, Leptographium longiclavatum, and Leptographium terebrantis, as well as with sequences from GenBank, revealed a novel lineage within the Grosmannia clavigera complex. This lineage included some of the D. murrayane isolates as well as several isolates from previous studies referred to as L. terebrantis. However, the monophyly of this lineage is not well supported and a more comprehensive study will be needed to resolve its taxonomic status as one or more novel taxa.

  20. Spectral information as an orientation cue in dung beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Jundi, Basil; Foster, James J; Byrne, Marcus J; Baird, Emily; Dacke, Marie

    2015-11-01

    During the day, a non-uniform distribution of long and short wavelength light generates a colour gradient across the sky. This gradient could be used as a compass cue, particularly by animals such as dung beetles that rely primarily on celestial cues for orientation. Here, we tested if dung beetles can use spectral cues for orientation by presenting them with monochromatic (green and UV) light spots in an indoor arena. Beetles kept their original bearing when presented with a single light cue, green or UV, or when presented with both light cues set 180° apart. When either the UV or the green light was turned off after the beetles had set their bearing in the presence of both cues, they were still able to maintain their original bearing to the remaining light. However, if the beetles were presented with two identical green light spots set 180° apart, their ability to maintain their original bearing was impaired. In summary, our data show that ball-rolling beetles could potentially use the celestial chromatic gradient as a reference for orientation. © 2015 The Author(s).

  1. Efficacy of Citrilow® and Cecure® spray wash on the prevalence of aerobic and enterobacteriaceae/gram negative enteric bacilli and cattle hide quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacterial cross-contamination from the haired outer surface of cattle to the inner meat as well as hide quality deterioration from bacteria are hygienic problems for meat and hide processing facilities. This study investigated spray wash treatments independently with two antimicrobials used in the ...

  2. Weathering the storm: how lodgepole pine trees survive mountain pine beetle outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbilgin, Nadir; Cale, Jonathan A; Hussain, Altaf; Ishangulyyeva, Guncha; Klutsch, Jennifer G; Najar, Ahmed; Zhao, Shiyang

    2017-06-01

    Recent mountain pine beetle outbreaks in western North America killed millions of lodgepole pine trees, leaving few survivors. However, the mechanism underlying the ability of trees to survive bark beetle outbreaks is unknown, but likely involve phytochemicals such as monoterpenes and fatty acids that can drive beetle aggregation and colonization on their hosts. Thus, we conducted a field survey of beetle-resistant lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) trees to retrospectively deduce whether these phytochemicals underlie their survival by comparing their chemistry to that of non-attacked trees in the same stands. We also compared beetle attack characteristics between resistant and beetle-killed trees. Beetle-killed trees had more beetle attacks and longer ovipositional galleries than resistant trees, which also lacked the larval establishment found in beetle-killed trees. Resistant trees contained high amounts of toxic and attraction-inhibitive compounds and low amounts of pheromone-precursor and synergist compounds. During beetle host aggregation and colonization, these compounds likely served three critical roles in tree survival. First, low amounts of pheromone-precursor (α-pinene) and synergist (mycrene, terpinolene) compounds reduced or prevented beetles from attracting conspecifics to residual trees. Second, high amounts of 4-allyanisole further inhibited beetle attraction to its pheromone. Finally, high amounts of toxic limonene, 3-carene, 4-allyanisole, α-linolenic acid, and linoleic acid inhibited beetle gallery establishment and oviposition. We conclude that the variation of chemotypic expression of local plant populations can have profound ecological consequences including survival during insect outbreaks.

  3. Evolution of the carabid ground beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osawa, S; Su, Z H; Kim, C G; Okamoto, M; Tominaga, O; Imura, Y

    1999-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of the carabid ground beetles have been estimated by analysing a large part of the ND5 gene sequences of more than 1,000 specimens consisting of the representative species and geographic races covering most of the genera and subgenera known in the world. From the phylogenetic analyses in conjunction with the mtDNA-based dating, a scenario of the establishment of the present habitats of the respective Japanese carabids has been constructed. The carabid diversification took place ca. 40 MYA as an explosive radiation of the major genera. During evolution, occasional small or single bangs also took place, sometimes accompanied by parallel morphological evolution in phylogenetically remote as well as close lineages. The existence of silent periods, in which few morphological changes took place, has been recognized during evolution. Thus, the carabid evolution is discontinuous, alternatively having a phase of rapid morphological change and a silent phase.

  4. Comparison of chemical attractants against dung beetles and application for rangeland and animal health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) play a major role in nutrient cycling, soil aeration, and biological control of pests and parasites that breed in manure. Habitat fragmentation, pesticide usage, and conventional agricultural practices threaten dung beetle diversity, and their conservation is ...

  5. Interaction of insecticide and media moisture on ambrosia beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) attacks on ornamental trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exotic ambrosia beetles, particularly Xylosandrus crassiusculus (Motschulsky) and Xylosandrus germanus (Blandford), are among the most economically damaging pests of ornamental trees in nurseries. Growers have had few tactics besides insecticide applications to reduce ambrosia beetle attacks but rec...

  6. Strategies for managing rival bacterial communities: Lessons from burying beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Ana; Welch, Martin; Swannack, Chris; Wagner, Josef; Kilner, Rebecca M

    2018-03-01

    The role of bacteria in animal development, ecology and evolution is increasingly well understood, yet little is known of how animal behaviour affects bacterial communities. Animals that benefit from defending a key resource from microbial competitors are likely to evolve behaviours to control or manipulate the animal's associated external microbiota. We describe four possible mechanisms by which animals could gain a competitive edge by disrupting a rival bacterial community: "weeding," "seeding," "replanting" and "preserving." By combining detailed behavioural observations with molecular and bioinformatic analyses, we then test which of these mechanisms best explains how burying beetles, Nicrophorus vespilloides, manipulate the bacterial communities on their carcass breeding resource. Burying beetles are a suitable species to study how animals manage external microbiota because reproduction revolves around a small vertebrate carcass. Parents shave a carcass and apply antimicrobial exudates on its surface, shaping it into an edible nest for their offspring. We compared bacterial communities in mice carcasses that were either fresh, prepared by beetles or unprepared but buried underground for the same length of time. We also analysed bacterial communities in the burying beetle's gut, during and after breeding, to understand whether beetles could be "seeding" the carcass with particular microbes. We show that burying beetles do not "preserve" the carcass by reducing bacterial load, as is commonly supposed. Instead, our results suggest they "seed" the carcass with bacterial groups which are part of the Nicrophorus core microbiome. They may also "replant" other bacteria from the carcass gut onto the surface of their carrion nest. Both these processes may lead to the observed increase in bacterial load on the carcass surface in the presence of beetles. Beetles may also "weed" the bacterial community by eliminating some groups of bacteria on the carcass, perhaps through

  7. Hiding the interior region of core-shell nanoparticles with quantum invisible cloaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeng Yi; Lee, Ray-Kuang

    2014-04-01

    Based on the scattering cancellation, we provide a method not only making a nanoparticle nearly invisible, but also hiding its interior region from the outside probing matter wave. By applying the interplay among the nodal points of partial waves along with the concept of streamline in fluid dynamics for probability flux, a quantum invisible cloak to the electron transport in a host semiconductor is demonstrated by simultaneously guiding the probability flux outside a hidden region and keeping the total scattering cross section negligible. As the probability flux vanishes in the interior region, one can embed any materials inside a multiple core-shell nanoparticle without affecting physical observables from the outside. Our results reveal the possibility to design a protection shield layer for fragile interior parts from the impact of transport electrons.

  8. On the implementation of IP protection using biometrics based information hiding and firewall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Abhishek; Nandy, Kingshuk; Banerjee, Avishek; Giri, Supratick; Sarkar, Souvik; Sarkar, Subir Kumar

    2016-02-01

    System-on-chip-based design style creates a revolution in very large scale integration industry with design efficiency, operating speed and development time. To support this process, reuse and exchange of components are essential in electronic form called intellectual property (IP). This, however, increases the possibility of encroachment of IP of the design. So copyright protection of IP against piracy is the most important concern for IP vendors. The existing solutions for IP protection are still not secure enough with flexibility, cost, etc. This paper proposes an information-hiding-based solution for IP protection by embedding a biometric copyright information and firewall inside an IP in the form of a finite state machine with unique configuration. The scheme first introduces biometric signature-based copyright as ownership proof. Second, firewall interrupts the normal functionality of IP at the end of the user time period. The experimental outcomes of field-programmable-gate-array implementation illustrate the efficiency of the proposed method.

  9. High-Performance Region-of-Interest Image Error Concealment with Hiding Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Chang Hsia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently region-of-interest (ROI based image coding is a popular topic. Since ROI area contains much more important information for an image, it must be prevented from error decoding while suffering from channel lost or unexpected attack. This paper presents an efficient error concealment method to recover ROI information with a hiding technique. Based on the progressive transformation, the low-frequency components of ROI are encoded to disperse its information into the high-frequency bank of original image. The capability of protection is carried out with extracting the ROI coefficients from the damaged image without increasing extra information. Simulation results show that the proposed method can efficiently reconstruct the ROI image when ROI bit-stream occurs errors, and the measurement of PSNR result outperforms the conventional error concealment techniques by 2 to 5 dB.

  10. A novel quantum information hiding protocol based on entanglement swapping of high-level Bell states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Shu-Jiang; Wang Lian-Hai; Chen Xiu-Bo; Niu Xin-Xin; Yang Yi-Xian

    2015-01-01

    Using entanglement swapping of high-level Bell states, we first derive a covert layer between the secret message and the possible output results of the entanglement swapping between any two generalized Bell states, and then propose a novel high-efficiency quantum information hiding protocol based on the covert layer. In the proposed scheme, a covert channel can be built up under the cover of a high-level quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) channel for securely transmitting secret messages without consuming any auxiliary quantum state or any extra communication resource. It is shown that this protocol not only has a high embedding efficiency but also achieves a good imperceptibility as well as a high security. (paper)

  11. A GA-Based Approach to Hide Sensitive High Utility Itemsets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Wei Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A GA-based privacy preserving utility mining method is proposed to find appropriate transactions to be inserted into the database for hiding sensitive high utility itemsets. It maintains the low information loss while providing information to the data demanders and protects the high-risk information in the database. A flexible evaluation function with three factors is designed in the proposed approach to evaluate whether the processed transactions are required to be inserted. Three different weights are, respectively, assigned to the three factors according to users. Moreover, the downward closure property and the prelarge concept are adopted in the proposed approach to reduce the cost of rescanning database, thus speeding up the evaluation process of chromosomes.

  12. Separable and Error-Free Reversible Data Hiding in Encrypted Image with High Payload

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoxia Yin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a separable reversible data-hiding scheme in encrypted image which offers high payload and error-free data extraction. The cover image is partitioned into nonoverlapping blocks and multigranularity encryption is applied to obtain the encrypted image. The data hider preprocesses the encrypted image and randomly selects two basic pixels in each block to estimate the block smoothness and indicate peak points. Additional data are embedded into blocks in the sorted order of block smoothness by using local histogram shifting under the guidance of the peak points. At the receiver side, image decryption and data extraction are separable and can be free to choose. Compared to previous approaches, the proposed method is simpler in calculation while offering better performance: larger payload, better embedding quality, and error-free data extraction, as well as image recovery.

  13. An Algorithm for Data Hiding in Radiographic Images and ePHI/R Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aqsa Rashid

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Telemedicine is the use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT for clinical health care from a distance. The exchange of radiographic images and electronic patient health information/records (ePHI/R for diagnostic purposes has the risk of confidentiality, ownership identity, and authenticity. In this paper, a data hiding technique for ePHI/R is proposed. The color information in the cover image is used for key generation, and stego-images are produced with ideal case. As a result, the whole stego-system is perfectly secure. This method includes the features of watermarking and steganography techniques. The method is applied to radiographic images. For the radiographic images, this method resembles watermarking, which is an ePHI/R data system. Experiments show promising results for the application of this method to radiographic images in ePHI/R for both transmission and storage purpose.

  14. An improved algorithm for information hiding based on features of Arabic text: A Unicode approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Mohamed

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Steganography means how to hide secret information in a cover media, so that other individuals fail to realize their existence. Due to the lack of data redundancy in the text file in comparison with other carrier files, text steganography is a difficult problem to solve. In this paper, we proposed a new promised steganographic algorithm for Arabic text based on features of Arabic text. The focus is on more secure algorithm and high capacity of the carrier. Our extensive experiments using the proposed algorithm resulted in a high capacity of the carrier media. The embedding capacity rate ratio of the proposed algorithm is high. In addition, our algorithm can resist traditional attacking methods since it makes the changes in carrier text as minimum as possible.

  15. A novel attack method about double-random-phase-encoding-based image hiding method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hongsheng; Xiao, Zhijun; Zhu, Xianchen

    2018-03-01

    By using optical image processing techniques, a novel text encryption and hiding method applied by double-random phase-encoding technique is proposed in the paper. The first step is that the secret message is transformed into a 2-dimension array. The higher bits of the elements in the array are used to fill with the bit stream of the secret text, while the lower bits are stored specific values. Then, the transformed array is encoded by double random phase encoding technique. Last, the encoded array is embedded on a public host image to obtain the image embedded with hidden text. The performance of the proposed technique is tested via analytical modeling and test data stream. Experimental results show that the secret text can be recovered either accurately or almost accurately, while maintaining the quality of the host image embedded with hidden data by properly selecting the method of transforming the secret text into an array and the superimposition coefficient.

  16. Alien invasions and the game of hide and seek in Patagonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Lindegren

    Full Text Available The introduction, establishment and spread of alien species is a major threat to biodiversity and the provision of ecosystem services for human wellbeing. In order to reduce further loss of biodiversity and maintain productive and sustainable ecosystems, understanding the ecological mechanisms underlying species invasions and avoiding potentially harmful effects on native communities is urgently needed, but largely lacking. We here demonstrate, by means of hydroacoustics and advanced spatial modelling, how native fish species as a result of previous exposure to native predators may successfully respond to invasive novel predators through a complicated game of hide and seek, minimizing spatio-temporal overlap with predators, and potentially facilitating coexistence between native prey species (Galaxiids and introduced novel predators (Salmonids in a deep Andean lake, Patagonia.

  17. Antibacterial activities of leave extracts as bactericides for soaking of skin or hide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suparno, Ono; Panandita, Tania; Afifah, Amalia; Marimin; Purnawati, Rini

    2018-03-01

    Antibacteria, a subtance inhibiting the growth of bacteria, can be obtained from tropical-almond (Terminalia catappa), morinda (Morinda citrifolia), and white leadtree (Leucaena leucocephala) plants, since the plants have phytochemical content functioning as antibacterial agent. Commonly, part of plant that contains higher antibacterial substances is its leaf. The objectives of this study were to determine antibacterial activity of tropical-almond, morinda, and white leadtree leaves extracts, and to analyse the potency of the three extracts as natural bactericide for soaking of skin or hide. The responses measured in this study were phytochemical contents, total flavonoid, tannin content, the inhibition zone, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). Phytochemical contents containing the three leaves extracts were alkaloid, flavonoid, tannin, saponin, phenolic, and glycoside. Total flavonoid and tannin contents of the three extracts were tropical-almond extract of 1.14 % and 1.51 %, respectively; morinda extract of 0.61 % and 0.36 %, respectively; and white leadtree extract of 0.60 % and 4.82 %, respectively. White leadtree leaf extract gave the highest inhibition zone against B. subtilis, S. aureus and E. coli, i.e. 1.50, 1.3, and 1.65 cm, respectively; and the lowest MIC and MBC against B. subtilis, S. aureus and E. coli, i.e. 1500, 3000, and 1500 μg/ml, respectively. Therefore, the white leadtree leave extract had more potential as bactericide for soaking of skin or hide compared to those of the tropical-almond and morinda leaves extracts.

  18. Adaptive and non-adaptive data hiding methods for grayscale images based on modulus function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najme Maleki

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents two adaptive and non-adaptive data hiding methods for grayscale images based on modulus function. Our adaptive scheme is based on the concept of human vision sensitivity, so the pixels in edge areas than to smooth areas can tolerate much more changes without making visible distortion for human eyes. In our adaptive scheme, the average differencing value of four neighborhood pixels into a block via a threshold secret key determines whether current block is located in edge or smooth area. Pixels in the edge areas are embedded by Q-bit of secret data with a larger value of Q than that of pixels placed in smooth areas. Also in this scholar, we represent one non-adaptive data hiding algorithm. Our non-adaptive scheme, via an error reduction procedure, produces a high visual quality for stego-image. The proposed schemes present several advantages. 1-of aspects the embedding capacity and visual quality of stego-image are scalable. In other words, the embedding rate as well as the image quality can be scaled for practical applications 2-the high embedding capacity with minimal visual distortion can be achieved, 3-our methods require little memory space for secret data embedding and extracting phases, 4-secret keys have used to protect of the embedded secret data. Thus, level of security is high, 5-the problem of overflow or underflow does not occur. Experimental results indicated that the proposed adaptive scheme significantly is superior to the currently existing scheme, in terms of stego-image visual quality, embedding capacity and level of security and also our non-adaptive method is better than other non-adaptive methods, in view of stego-image quality. Results show which our adaptive algorithm can resist against the RS steganalysis attack.

  19. Hiding a Heavy Higgs Boson at the 7 TeV LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Yang; Fan, JiJi; Hewett, JoAnne L.

    2012-03-20

    A heavy Standard Model Higgs boson is not only disfavored by electroweak precision observables but is also excluded by direct searches at the 7 TeV LHC for a wide range of masses. Here, we examine scenarios where a heavy Higgs boson can be made consistent with both the indirect constraints and the direct null searches by adding only one new particle beyond the Standard Model. This new particle should be a weak multiplet in order to have additional contributions to the oblique parameters. If it is a color singlet, we find that a heavy Higgs with an intermediate mass of 200-300 GeV can decay into the new states, suppressing the branching ratios for the standard model modes, and thus hiding a heavy Higgs at the LHC. If the new particle is also charged under QCD, the Higgs production cross section from gluon fusion can be reduced significantly due to the new colored particle one-loop contribution. Current collider constraints on the new particles allow for viable parameter space to exist in order to hide a heavy Higgs boson. We categorize the general signatures of these new particles, identify favored regions of their parameter space and point out that discovering or excluding them at the LHC can provide important indirect information for a heavy Higgs. Finally, for a very heavy Higgs boson, beyond the search limit at the 7 TeV LHC, we discuss three additional scenarios where models would be consistent with electroweak precision tests: including an additional vector-like fermion mixing with the top quark, adding another U(1) gauge boson and modifying triple-gauge boson couplings.

  20. Low host-tree preferences among saproxylic beetles : acomparison of four deciduous species

    OpenAIRE

    Milberg, Per; Bergman, Karl-Olof; Johansson, Helena; Jansson, Nicklas

    2014-01-01

    Many wood-dwelling beetles rely on old hollow trees. In Europe, oaks are known to harbour a species-rich saproxylic beetle fauna, while less is known regarding other broad-leaved tree species. Furthermore, the extent to which saproxylic insect species have specialised on different tree species remains unknown. In this study, we sampled beetles through pitfall traps and window traps in four different tree species in a landscape with many old oaks. We recorded 242 saproxylic beetle species of w...

  1. Structure of domination and dynamics of activity of ground-beetles in agroecosistems of Derbent area

    OpenAIRE

    G. M. Nahibasheva; A. A. Bagomaev; R. A. Musaeva

    2008-01-01

    For the first time for area of research 61 kind of ground-beetles, concerning to 28 sorts and 13 vital  structure of ground-beetles of agroecosistems are studied. New data about structure and character biotopical are obtained distributions, seasonal dynamics of activity of ground-beetles. Phenological change prepotent of ground-beetles ofagroecosistems of Derbent area is revealed.

  2. Structure of domination and dynamics of activity of ground-beetles in agroecosistems of Derbent area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Nahibasheva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available For the first time for area of research 61 kind of ground-beetles, concerning to 28 sorts and 13 vital  structure of ground-beetles of agroecosistems are studied. New data about structure and character biotopical are obtained distributions, seasonal dynamics of activity of ground-beetles. Phenological change prepotent of ground-beetles ofagroecosistems of Derbent area is revealed.

  3. Significantly higher Carabid beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) catch in conventionally than in organically managed Christmas tree plantations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagge, Søren; Lund, Malthe; Rønn, Regin

    2012-01-01

    Carabid beetles play an important role as consumers of pest organisms in forestry and agriculture. Application of pesticides may negatively affect abundance and activity of carabid beetles, thus reducing their potential beneficial effect. We investigated how abundance and diversity of pitfall...... trapped carabid beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae) varied between conventionally and organically managed Caucasian Fir (Abies nordmanniana (Stev.)) plantations, in northern Zealand, Denmark. We recorded significantly higher numbers of carabid beetle specimens and species at conventionally than at organically...

  4. Distance and sex determine host plant choice by herbivorous beetles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Ballhorn

    Full Text Available Plants respond to herbivore damage with the release of volatile organic compounds (VOCs. This indirect defense can cause ecological costs when herbivores themselves use VOCs as cues to localize suitable host plants. Can VOCs reliably indicate food plant quality to herbivores?We determined the choice behavior of herbivorous beetles (Chrysomelidae: Gynandrobrotica guerreroensis and Cerotoma ruficornis when facing lima bean plants (Fabaceae: Phaseolus lunatus with different cyanogenic potential, which is an important constitutive direct defense. Expression of inducible indirect defenses was experimentally manipulated by jasmonic acid treatment at different concentrations. The long-distance responses of male and female beetles to the resulting induced plant volatiles were investigated in olfactometer and free-flight experiments and compared to the short-distance decisions of the same beetles in feeding trials.Female beetles of both species were repelled by VOCs released from all induced plants independent of the level of induction. In contrast, male beetles were repelled by strongly induced plants, showed no significant differences in choice behavior towards moderately induced plants, but responded positively to VOCs released from little induced plants. Thus, beetle sex and plant VOCs had a significant effect on host searching behavior. By contrast, feeding behavior of both sexes was strongly determined by the cyanogenic potential of leaves, although females again responded more sensitively than males. Apparently, VOCs mainly provide information to these beetles that are not directly related to food quality. Being induced by herbivory and involved in indirect plant defense, such VOCs might indicate the presence of competitors and predators to herbivores. We conclude that plant quality as a food source and finding a potentially enemy-free space is more important for female than for male insect herbivores, whereas the presence of a slightly damaged

  5. Semiochemical sabotage: behavioral chemicals for protection of western conifers from bark beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancy. E. Gillette; A. Steve Munson

    2009-01-01

    The discovery and elucidation of volatile behavioral chemicals used by bark beetles to locate hosts and mates has revealed a rich potential for humans to sabotage beetle host-finding and reproduction. Here, we present a description of currently available semiochemical methods for use in monitoring and controlling bark beetle pests in western conifer forests. Delivery...

  6. Entomopathogenic fungi in predatory beetles (Col: Carabidae and Staphylinidae) from agricultural fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenberg, T; Langer, V; Esbjerg, P

    1995-01-01

    Prevalence of entomopathogenic fungi was studied in overwintering ground beetles (Col.: Carabidae) and rove beetles (Col.: Staphylinidae) collected from fields of lucerne, white cabbage and white cabbage undersown with white clover. In general infection levels in adult ground beetles and rove bee...

  7. Effects of an increase in population of sika deer on beetle communities in deciduous forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taichi Iida

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The overabundance of large herbivores is now recognized as a serious ecological problem. However, the resulting ecological consequences remain poorly understood. The ecological effects of an increase in sika deer, Cervus nippon Temminck (Cervidae, on three insect groups of beetles was investigated: ground beetles (Carabidae, carrion beetles (Silphidae, and dung beetles (Scarabaeidae and Geotrupidae on Nakanoshima Island, Hokkaido, northern Japan. We collected beetles on Nakanoshima Island (experimental site and lakeshore areas (control site and compared the species richness, abundance, diversity index, and community composition of beetles between the sites. Results showed that although both species diversity and abundance of carabid beetles were significantly higher at the lakeshore site, those of dung and carrion beetles were higher at the island site. It was additionally observed that abundance of larger carabid beetles was higher at the lakeshore site, whereas that of small-sized carabid beetles did not differ between the lakeshore and island sites. For dung beetles, abundance of smaller species was higher at the island site, whereas that of large species did not differ between the lakeshore and island sites. Abundance of two body sizes (small and large of carrion beetles were both higher at the island site. Overall, the findings of this study demonstrated that an increase in deer population altered the insect assemblages at an island scale, suggesting further changes in ecosystem functions and services in this region.

  8. 75 FR 81832 - Asian Longhorned Beetle; Quarantined Area and Regulated Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    .... APHIS-2010-0004] Asian Longhorned Beetle; Quarantined Area and Regulated Articles AGENCY: Animal and... are adopting as a final rule, without change, an interim rule that amended the Asian longhorned beetle... prevent the artificial spread of Asian longhorned beetle to noninfested areas of the United States. As a...

  9. 77 FR 22663 - Asian Longhorned Beetle; Additions to Quarantined Areas in Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    ...-0128] Asian Longhorned Beetle; Additions to Quarantined Areas in Massachusetts AGENCY: Animal and Plant... adopting as a final rule, without change, an interim rule that amended the Asian longhorned beetle (ALB... INFORMATION: Background The Asian longhorned beetle (ALB, Anoplophora glabripennis), an insect native to China...

  10. 77 FR 31720 - Asian Longhorned Beetle; Quarantined Areas in Massachusetts, Ohio, and New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-30

    .... APHIS-2012-0003] Asian Longhorned Beetle; Quarantined Areas in Massachusetts, Ohio, and New York AGENCY...: We are amending the Asian longhorned beetle regulations to make changes to the list of quarantined... the artificial spread of Asian longhorned beetle to noninfested areas of the United States and to...

  11. The importance of streamside sandbars to ground beetle (Coleoptera, Carabidae) communities in a deciduous forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Horn; M.D. Ulyshen

    2009-01-01

    We used pitfall traps to sample ground beetles on sandbars along a small woodland stream and in the adjacent floodplain forest (Oglethorpe Co., GA, USA). We captured a total of 1,477 ground beetles representing 41 species. Twenty-two species were exclusive to sandbars, while eight were found only in the forested habitat. Ground beetles...

  12. Effects of available water on growth and competition of southern pine beetle associated fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kier D. Klepzig; J. Flores-Otero; R.W. Hofstetter; M.P. Ayers

    2004-01-01

    Competitive interactions among bark beetle associated fungi are potentially influenced by abiotic factors. Water potential, in particular, undergoes marked changes over the course of beetle colonization of tree hosts. To investigate the impact of water potential on competition among three southern pine beetle associated fungi, Ophiostoma minus,

  13. 7 CFR 301.48-6 - Movement of live Japanese beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Movement of live Japanese beetles. 301.48-6 Section... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Japanese Beetle Quarantine and Regulations § 301.48-6 Movement of live Japanese beetles. Regulations requiring a permit for and otherwise...

  14. Dutch elm disease pathogen transmission by the banded elm bark beetle Scolytus schevyrewi

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. R. Jacobi; R. D. Koski; J. F. Negron

    2013-01-01

    Dutch Elm Disease (DED) is a vascular wilt disease of Ulmus species (elms) incited in North America primarily by the exotic fungus Ophiostoma novo-ulmi. The pathogen is transmitted via root grafts and elm bark beetle vectors, including the native North American elm bark beetle, Hylurgopinus rufipes and the exotic smaller European elm bark beetle, Scolytus multistriatus...

  15. DNA barcoding of Japanese click beetles (Coleoptera, Elateridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oba, Yuichi; Ôhira, Hitoo; Murase, Yukio; Moriyama, Akihiko; Kumazawa, Yoshinori

    2015-01-01

    Click beetles (Coleoptera: Elateridae) represent one of the largest groups of beetle insects. Some click beetles in larval form, known as wireworms, are destructive agricultural pests. Morphological identification of click beetles is generally difficult and requires taxonomic expertise. This study reports on the DNA barcoding of Japanese click beetles to enable their rapid and accurate identification. We collected and assembled 762 cytochrome oxidase subunit I barcode sequences from 275 species, which cover approximately 75% of the common species found on the Japanese main island, Honshu. This barcode library also contains 20 out of the 21 potential pest species recorded in Japan. Our analysis shows that most morphologically identified species form distinct phylogenetic clusters separated from each other by large molecular distances. This supports the general usefulness of the DNA barcoding approach for quick and reliable identification of Japanese elaterid species for environmental impact assessment, agricultural pest control, and biodiversity analysis. On the other hand, the taxonomic boundary in dozens of species did not agree with the boundary of barcode index numbers (a criterion for sequence-based species delimitation). These findings urge taxonomic reinvestigation of these mismatched taxa.

  16. DNA barcoding of Japanese click beetles (Coleoptera, Elateridae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichi Oba

    Full Text Available Click beetles (Coleoptera: Elateridae represent one of the largest groups of beetle insects. Some click beetles in larval form, known as wireworms, are destructive agricultural pests. Morphological identification of click beetles is generally difficult and requires taxonomic expertise. This study reports on the DNA barcoding of Japanese click beetles to enable their rapid and accurate identification. We collected and assembled 762 cytochrome oxidase subunit I barcode sequences from 275 species, which cover approximately 75% of the common species found on the Japanese main island, Honshu. This barcode library also contains 20 out of the 21 potential pest species recorded in Japan. Our analysis shows that most morphologically identified species form distinct phylogenetic clusters separated from each other by large molecular distances. This supports the general usefulness of the DNA barcoding approach for quick and reliable identification of Japanese elaterid species for environmental impact assessment, agricultural pest control, and biodiversity analysis. On the other hand, the taxonomic boundary in dozens of species did not agree with the boundary of barcode index numbers (a criterion for sequence-based species delimitation. These findings urge taxonomic reinvestigation of these mismatched taxa.

  17. Origin and Diversification of Dung Beetles in Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia Miraldo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Madagascar has a rich fauna of dung beetles (Scarabaeinae and Aphodiinae withalmost 300 species described to date. Like most other taxa in Madagascar, dung beetles exhibit an exceptionally high level of endemism (96% of the species. Here,we review the current knowledge of the origin and diversification of Malagasy dung beetles. Based on molecular phylogenies, the extant dung beetles originate from eight colonizations, of which four have given rise to extensive radiations. These radiations have occurred in wet forests, while the few extant species in the less successfulradiations occur in open and semi-open habitats. We discuss the likely mechanisms of speciation and the ecological characteristics of the extant communities, emphasizing the role of adaptation along environmental gradients and allopatric speciation in generating the exceptionally high beta diversity in Malagasy dung beetles. Phylogeographic analyses of selected species reveal complex patterns with evidence for genetic introgression between old taxa. The introduction of cattle to Madagascar 1500 years ago created a new abundant resource, onto which a few species haveshifted and thereby been able to greatly expand their geographical ranges.

  18. Ancient symbiosis confers desiccation resistance to stored grain pest beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engl, Tobias; Eberl, Nadia; Gorse, Carla; Krüger, Theresa; Schmidt, Thorsten H P; Plarre, Rudy; Adler, Cornel; Kaltenpoth, Martin

    2017-11-08

    Microbial symbionts of insects provide a range of ecological traits to their hosts that are beneficial in the context of biotic interactions. However, little is known about insect symbiont-mediated adaptation to the abiotic environment, for example, temperature and humidity. Here, we report on an ancient clade of intracellular, bacteriome-located Bacteroidetes symbionts that are associated with grain and wood pest beetles of the phylogenetically distant families Silvanidae and Bostrichidae. In the saw-toothed grain beetle Oryzaephilus surinamensis, we demonstrate that the symbionts affect cuticle thickness, melanization and hydrocarbon profile, enhancing desiccation resistance and thereby strongly improving fitness under dry conditions. Together with earlier observations on symbiont contributions to cuticle biosynthesis in weevils, our findings indicate that convergent acquisitions of bacterial mutualists represented key adaptations enabling diverse pest beetle groups to survive and proliferate under the low ambient humidity that characterizes dry grain storage facilities. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Changes in food resources and conservation of scarab beetles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carpaneto, Giuseppe Maria; Mazziotta, Adriano; Piattella, Emanuele

    2005-01-01

    to dog dung, an impoverishment of the total richness was observed (from 19 to 9 species) together with an increase of individuals (by 7 times). Dog dung harboured 20% of the current scarab dung beetle fauna of Rome, probably as a consequence of the dog mixed diet, rich in cellulose. Both the communities...... showed a high percentage of tunnellers, probably because of the food shortage and, for dog scats, of the high dehydration rate. A comparison with other Roman scarab communities enhanced that: (1) the change in food resource determined a higher difference in species composition respect to other parameters......The aim of the research was to show how a change in land use influences the structure of a dung beetle assemblage and affect its conservation. In the Pineto Urban Regional Park (Rome), dog dung is the sole food resource currently available for scarab dung beetles, after the recent removal of wild...

  20. The alternative Pharaoh approach: stingless bees mummify beetle parasites alive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Mark K.; Hoffmann, Dorothee; Dollin, Anne; Duncan, Michael; Spooner-Hart, Robert; Neumann, Peter

    2010-03-01

    Workers from social insect colonies use different defence strategies to combat invaders. Nevertheless, some parasitic species are able to bypass colony defences. In particular, some beetle nest invaders cannot be killed or removed by workers of social bees, thus creating the need for alternative social defence strategies to ensure colony survival. Here we show, using diagnostic radioentomology, that stingless bee workers ( Trigona carbonaria) immediately mummify invading adult small hive beetles ( Aethina tumida) alive by coating them with a mixture of resin, wax and mud, thereby preventing severe damage to the colony. In sharp contrast to the responses of honeybee and bumblebee colonies, the rapid live mummification strategy of T. carbonaria effectively prevents beetle advancements and removes their ability to reproduce. The convergent evolution of mummification in stingless bees and encapsulation in honeybees is another striking example of co-evolution between insect societies and their parasites.

  1. Streetlights attract a broad array of beetle species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Augusto Souza de Medeiros

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Light pollution on ecosystems is a growing concern, and knowledge about the effects of outdoor lighting on organisms is crucial to understand and mitigate impacts. Here we build up on a previous study to characterize the diversity of all beetles attracted to different commonly used streetlight set ups. We find that lights attract beetles from a broad taxonomic and ecological spectrum. Lights that attract a large number of insect individuals draw an equally high number of insect species. While there is some evidence for heterogeneity in the preference of beetle species to different kinds of light, all species are more attracted to some light radiating ultraviolet. The functional basis of this heterogeneity, however, is not clear. Our results highlight that control of ultraviolet radiation in public lighting is important to reduce the number and diversity of insects attracted to lights. Keywords: Lighting, Coleoptera, Light pollution, Insects, Ultraviolet

  2. The original colours of fossil beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Maria E; Briggs, Derek E G; Orr, Patrick J; Noh, Heeso; Cao, Hui

    2012-03-22

    Structural colours, the most intense, reflective and pure colours in nature, are generated when light is scattered by complex nanostructures. Metallic structural colours are widespread among modern insects and can be preserved in their fossil counterparts, but it is unclear whether the colours have been altered during fossilization, and whether the absence of colours is always real. To resolve these issues, we investigated fossil beetles from five Cenozoic biotas. Metallic colours in these specimens are generated by an epicuticular multi-layer reflector; the fidelity of its preservation correlates with that of other key cuticular ultrastructures. Where these other ultrastructures are well preserved in non-metallic fossil specimens, we can infer that the original cuticle lacked a multi-layer reflector; its absence in the fossil is not a preservational artefact. Reconstructions of the original colours of the fossils based on the structure of the multi-layer reflector show that the preserved colours are offset systematically to longer wavelengths; this probably reflects alteration of the refractive index of the epicuticle during fossilization. These findings will allow the former presence, and original hue, of metallic structural colours to be identified in diverse fossil insects, thus providing critical evidence of the evolution of structural colour in this group.

  3. Evaluating leaf litter beetle data sampled by Winkler extraction from Atlantic forest sites in southern Brazil

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    Philipp Werner Hopp

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Evaluating leaf litter beetle data sampled by Winkler extraction from Atlantic forest sites in southern Brazil. To evaluate the reliability of data obtained by Winkler extraction in Atlantic forest sites in southern Brazil, we studied litter beetle assemblages in secondary forests (5 to 55 years after abandonment and old-growth forests at two seasonally different points in time. For all regeneration stages, species density and abundance were lower in April compared to August; but, assemblage composition of the corresponding forest stages was similar in both months. We suggest that sampling of small litter inhabiting beetles at different points in time using the Winkler technique reveals identical ecological patterns, which are more likely to be influenced by sample incompleteness than by differences in their assemblage composition. A strong relationship between litter quantity and beetle occurrences indicates the importance of this variable for the temporal species density pattern. Additionally, the sampled beetle material was compared with beetle data obtained with pitfall traps in one old-growth forest. Over 60% of the focal species captured with pitfall traps were also sampled by Winkler extraction in different forest stages. Few beetles with a body size too large to be sampled by Winkler extraction were only sampled with pitfall traps. This indicates that the local litter beetle fauna is dominated by small species. Hence, being aware of the exclusion of large beetles and beetle species occurring during the wet season, the Winkler method reveals a reliable picture of the local leaf litter beetle community.

  4. Rain forest provides pollinating beetles for atemoya crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanche, Rosalind; Cunningham, Saul A

    2005-08-01

    Small beetles, usually species of Nitidulidae, are the natural pollinators of atemoya (Annona squamosa L. x A. cherimola Mill. hybrids; custard apple) flowers but commercial atemoya growers often need to carry out labor-intensive hand pollination to produce enough high-quality fruit. Because Australian rain forest has plant species in the same family as atemoya (Annonaceae) and because many rain forest plants are beetle pollinated, we set out to discover whether tropical rain forest in far north Queensland harbors beetles that could provide this ecosystem service for atemoya crops. Orchards were chosen along a gradient of increasing distance from tropical rain forest (0.1-24 km). We sampled 100 flowers from each of nine atemoya orchards and determined the identity and abundance of insects within each flower. To assess the amount of pollination due to insects, we bagged six flowers per tree and left another six flowers per tree accessible to insects on 10 trees at an orchard near rain forest. Results indicated that atemoya orchards pollinators that are likely to originate in tropical rain forest. These native beetles occurred reliably enough in crops near rain forest to have a positive effect on the quantity of fruit produced but their contribution was not great enough to satisfy commercial production needs. Management changes, aimed at increasing native beetle abundance in crops, are required before these beetles could eliminate the need for growers to hand pollinate atemoya flowers. Appreciation of the value of this resource is necessary if we are to develop landscapes that both conserve native biodiversity and support agricultural production.

  5. Hide out return test and blowndown crud composition under ETA chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chocron, Mauricio; Rodriguez, Ivanna; Saucedo, Ramona; Rodriguez-Aliciardi, Matias; Montes, Juan

    2012-09-01

    Among the techniques recommended for the surveillance of the Steam Generators (SGs) are (i) the follow-up of the corrosion products in the Feed Water and Blown down water and the corresponding accumulation mass balance and (ii) The follow-up of ionic impurities normally present in the main condensate and feed water that can enter the cycle either by condenser leakages or even by the make-up water. This is so, no matter how well the the cycle is constructed or the make-up water plant behaves given the continuous phase change present in it and the subsequent concentration. A synergistic effect exists between both, corrosion products and impurities, (i) and (ii), because impurities concentrate in the deposits creating a potentially risky environment for the steam generator tubes. Hide out return determination consists in the measurement of the concentration of ions, anions and cations, present in the blown-down water which are eluted during the shutdown along with the reduction of power and temperature. The integrated value provides figures to perform several evaluations like: (i) how well the make-up water plant has performed during the cycle, (ii) presence of condenser in leakages, (iii) amount of deposits present in the steam generator and (iv) it allows to estimate the chemistry in operation inside the steam generator liquid phase inside the sludge pile. Embalse, a CANDU 6 pressurized heavy water reactor located in Cordoba Province, Argentina, is close to reach the end-of-design-life and a project of life extension is currently ongoing. There, also the chemistry in the BOP has been modified from Morpholine to Ethanolamine chemistry (Fernandez et. al, NPC'2010, October 3-7, Quebec City, Canada) to enhance protection of steam generator internals and new steam generators will be installed. It is of interest then to set up a hide-out return procedure and analysis of blown down crud collected during the shut down as a base line for the second period of operation

  6. Phenotypic mixing and hiding may contribute to memory in viral quasispecies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novella Isabel S

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In a number of recent experiments with food-and-mouth disease virus, a deleterious mutant, RED, was found to avoid extinction and remain in the population for long periods of time. Since RED characterizes the past evolutionary history of the population, this observation was called quasispecies memory. While the quasispecies theory predicts the existence of these memory genomes, there is a disagreement between the expected and observed mutant frequency values. Therefore, the origin of quasispecies memory is not fully understood. Results We propose and analyze a simple model of complementation between the wild type virus and a mutant that has an impaired ability of cell entry, the likely cause of fitness differences between wild type and RED mutants. The mutant will go extinct unless it is recreated from the wild type through mutations. However, under phenotypic mixing-and-hiding as a mechanism of complementation, the time to extinction in the absence of mutations increases with increasing multiplicity of infection (m.o.i.. If the RED mutant is constantly recreated by mutations, then its frequency at equilibrium under selection-mutation balance also increases with increasing m.o.i. At high m.o.i., a large fraction of mutant genomes are encapsidated with wild-type protein, which enables them to infect cells as efficiently as the wild type virions, and thus increases their fitness to the wild-type level. Moreover, even at low m.o.i. the equilibrium frequency of the mutant is higher than predicted by the standard quasispecies model, because a fraction of mutant virions generated from wild-type parents will also be encapsidated by wild-type protein. Conclusions Our model predicts that phenotypic hiding will strongly influence the population dynamics of viruses, particularly at high m.o.i., and will also have important effects on the mutation-selection balance at low m.o.i. The delay in mutant extinction and increase in mutant

  7. Patterns of functional enzyme activity in fungus farming ambrosia beetles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Fine Licht Henrik H

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction In wood-dwelling fungus-farming weevils, the so-called ambrosia beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae and Platypodinae, wood in the excavated tunnels is used as a medium for cultivating fungi by the combined action of digging larvae (which create more space for the fungi to grow and of adults sowing and pruning the fungus. The beetles are obligately dependent on the fungus that provides essential vitamins, amino acids and sterols. However, to what extent microbial enzymes support fungus farming in ambrosia beetles is unknown. Here we measure (i 13 plant cell-wall degrading enzymes in the fungus garden microbial consortium of the ambrosia beetle Xyleborinus saxesenii, including its primary fungal symbionts, in three compartments of laboratory maintained nests, at different time points after gallery foundation and (ii four specific enzymes that may be either insect or microbially derived in X. saxesenii adult and larval individuals. Results We discovered that the activity of cellulases in ambrosia fungus gardens is relatively small compared to the activities of other cellulolytic enzymes. Enzyme activity in all compartments of the garden was mainly directed towards hemicellulose carbohydrates such as xylan, glucomannan and callose. Hemicellulolytic enzyme activity within the brood chamber increased with gallery age, whereas irrespective of the age of the gallery, the highest overall enzyme activity were detected in the gallery dump material expelled by the beetles. Interestingly endo-β-1,3(4-glucanase activity capable of callose degradation was identified in whole-body extracts of both larvae and adult X. saxesenii, whereas endo-β-1,4-xylanase activity was exclusively detected in larvae. Conclusion Similar to closely related fungi associated with bark beetles in phloem, the microbial symbionts of ambrosia beetles hardly degrade cellulose. Instead, their enzyme activity is directed mainly towards comparatively more easily

  8. Patterns of functional enzyme activity in fungus farming ambrosia beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Fine Licht, Henrik H; Biedermann, Peter H W

    2012-06-06

    In wood-dwelling fungus-farming weevils, the so-called ambrosia beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae and Platypodinae), wood in the excavated tunnels is used as a medium for cultivating fungi by the combined action of digging larvae (which create more space for the fungi to grow) and of adults sowing and pruning the fungus. The beetles are obligately dependent on the fungus that provides essential vitamins, amino acids and sterols. However, to what extent microbial enzymes support fungus farming in ambrosia beetles is unknown. Here we measure (i) 13 plant cell-wall degrading enzymes in the fungus garden microbial consortium of the ambrosia beetle Xyleborinus saxesenii, including its primary fungal symbionts, in three compartments of laboratory maintained nests, at different time points after gallery foundation and (ii) four specific enzymes that may be either insect or microbially derived in X. saxesenii adult and larval individuals. We discovered that the activity of cellulases in ambrosia fungus gardens is relatively small compared to the activities of other cellulolytic enzymes. Enzyme activity in all compartments of the garden was mainly directed towards hemicellulose carbohydrates such as xylan, glucomannan and callose. Hemicellulolytic enzyme activity within the brood chamber increased with gallery age, whereas irrespective of the age of the gallery, the highest overall enzyme activity were detected in the gallery dump material expelled by the beetles. Interestingly endo-β-1,3(4)-glucanase activity capable of callose degradation was identified in whole-body extracts of both larvae and adult X. saxesenii, whereas endo-β-1,4-xylanase activity was exclusively detected in larvae. Similar to closely related fungi associated with bark beetles in phloem, the microbial symbionts of ambrosia beetles hardly degrade cellulose. Instead, their enzyme activity is directed mainly towards comparatively more easily accessible hemicellulose components of the ray

  9. TROPHIC RELATIONS OF LADY BEETLES (COLEOPTERA, COCCINELLIDAE OF THE URALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. I. Tyumaseva

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article contains the study of the trophic relations of the lady beetles living in the Urals. The study allocates three ecological groups depending on the peculiarities of the beetles and larvae nutrition: phytophages, micetophages, and entomophages-predators. We have revealed 66 species of lady birds-predators and two species-phytophages: Subcoccinella vigintiquatuorpunctata (Linnaeus, 1758 and Bulaea lichatschovii (Hummel, 1827. In the group of obligatory micetophages in the Urals we registered the representatives of the tribe Halyziini, it is Halyzia sedecimguttata (Linnaeus, 1758 and Psyllobora vigintiduopunctata (Linnaeus, 1758.

  10. Fractional Fourier domain optical image hiding using phase retrieval algorithm based on iterative nonlinear double random phase encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaogang; Chen, Wen; Chen, Xudong

    2014-09-22

    We present a novel image hiding method based on phase retrieval algorithm under the framework of nonlinear double random phase encoding in fractional Fourier domain. Two phase-only masks (POMs) are efficiently determined by using the phase retrieval algorithm, in which two cascaded phase-truncated fractional Fourier transforms (FrFTs) are involved. No undesired information disclosure, post-processing of the POMs or digital inverse computation appears in our proposed method. In order to achieve the reduction in key transmission, a modified image hiding method based on the modified phase retrieval algorithm and logistic map is further proposed in this paper, in which the fractional orders and the parameters with respect to the logistic map are regarded as encryption keys. Numerical results have demonstrated the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed algorithms.

  11. A Comparative Analysis of Information Hiding Techniques for Copyright Protection of Text Documents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milad Taleby Ahvanooey

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available With the ceaseless usage of web and other online services, it has turned out that copying, sharing, and transmitting digital media over the Internet are amazingly simple. Since the text is one of the main available data sources and most widely used digital media on the Internet, the significant part of websites, books, articles, daily papers, and so on is just the plain text. Therefore, copyrights protection of plain texts is still a remaining issue that must be improved in order to provide proof of ownership and obtain the desired accuracy. During the last decade, digital watermarking and steganography techniques have been used as alternatives to prevent tampering, distortion, and media forgery and also to protect both copyright and authentication. This paper presents a comparative analysis of information hiding techniques, especially on those ones which are focused on modifying the structure and content of digital texts. Herein, various text watermarking and text steganography techniques characteristics are highlighted along with their applications. In addition, various types of attacks are described and their effects are analyzed in order to highlight the advantages and weaknesses of current techniques. Finally, some guidelines and directions are suggested for future works.

  12. Context adaptive binary arithmetic coding-based data hiding in partially encrypted H.264/AVC videos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dawen; Wang, Rangding

    2015-05-01

    A scheme of data hiding directly in a partially encrypted version of H.264/AVC videos is proposed which includes three parts, i.e., selective encryption, data embedding and data extraction. Selective encryption is performed on context adaptive binary arithmetic coding (CABAC) bin-strings via stream ciphers. By careful selection of CABAC entropy coder syntax elements for selective encryption, the encrypted bitstream is format-compliant and has exactly the same bit rate. Then a data-hider embeds the additional data into partially encrypted H.264/AVC videos using a CABAC bin-string substitution technique without accessing the plaintext of the video content. Since bin-string substitution is carried out on those residual coefficients with approximately the same magnitude, the quality of the decrypted video is satisfactory. Video file size is strictly preserved even after data embedding. In order to adapt to different application scenarios, data extraction can be done either in the encrypted domain or in the decrypted domain. Experimental results have demonstrated the feasibility and efficiency of the proposed scheme.

  13. Costly hide and seek pays: unexpected consequences of deceit in a social dilemma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szolnoki, Attila; Perc, Matjaž

    2014-01-01

    Deliberate deceptiveness intended to gain an advantage is commonplace in human and animal societies. In a social dilemma, an individual may only pretend to be a cooperator to elicit cooperation from others, while in reality he is a defector. With this as motivation, we study a simple variant of the evolutionary prisoner's dilemma game entailing deceitful defectors and conditional cooperators that lifts the veil on the impact of such two-faced behavior. Defectors are able to hide their true intentions at a personal cost, while conditional cooperators are probabilistically successful at identifying defectors and act accordingly. By focusing on the evolutionary outcomes in structured populations, we observe a number of unexpected and counterintuitive phenomena. We show that deceitful behavior may fare better if it is costly, and that a higher success rate of identifying defectors does not necessarily favor cooperative behavior. These results are rooted in the spontaneous emergence of cycling dominance and spatial patterns that give rise to fascinating phase transitions, which in turn reveal the hidden complexity behind the evolution of deception. (paper)

  14. What is hiding behind ontogenic d13C variations in mollusk shells: New insights from scallops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauvaud, L.; Lorrain, A.; Gillikin, D. P.; Thebault, J.; Paulet, Y.; Strand, O.; Blamart, D.; Guarini, J.; Clavier, J.

    2008-12-01

    We examined d13Ccalcite variations along scallop shells (Pecten maximus) sampled in Norway, France and Spain. Time series of shell calcite d13C show a consistent pattern of decreasing d13C with age. This almost linear d13C trend reflects an increasing contribution of metabolic CO2 to skeletal carbonate throughout ontogeny. We have removed this ontogenic trend to try to extract other information from our shell calcite d13C dataset. Scallops from the Bay of Brest (western Brittany, France) were then used to interpret the data as many environmental parameters were available for this site. d13Ccalcite variations were compared to d13C of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and Chl a. The detrended calcite d13C profiles seem to follow a seasonal pattern, but surprisingly are inversely related to the d13C DIC and chlorophyll a concentrations measured within the water column. Theses results suggest that shell d13C variations are not controlled by isotopic variation of DIC. Since scallops eat phytoplankton and microphytobenthos cells, and, as a consequence respire organic mater largely depleted in 13C, we therefore suggest that in mollusk suspension feeders the shell d13Ccalcite might still be used to track the annual number of phytoplankton blooms when d13C values of calcite are detrended. We must consider this trend as a potential biological filter hiding precious environmental records.

  15. Reversible Dual-Image-Based Hiding Scheme Using Block Folding Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Chuen Lu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The concept of a dual-image based scheme in information sharing consists of concealing secret messages in two cover images; only someone who has both stego-images can extract the secret messages. In 2015, Lu et al. proposed a center-folding strategy where each secret symbol is folded into the reduced digit to reduce the distortion of the stego-image. Then, in 2016, Lu et al. used a frequency-based encoding strategy to reduce the distortion of the frequency of occurrence of the maximum absolute value. Because the folding strategy can obviously reduce the value, the proposed scheme includes the folding operation twice to further decrease the reduced digit. We use a frequency-based encoding strategy to encode a secret message and then use the block folding technique by performing the center-folding operation twice to embed secret messages. An indicator is needed to identify the sequence number of the folding operation. The proposed scheme collects several indicators to produce a combined code and hides the code in a pixel to reduce the size of the indicators. The experimental results show that the proposed method can achieve higher image quality under the same embedding rate or higher payload, which is better than other methods.

  16. Private States, Quantum Data Hiding, and the Swapping of Perfect Secrecy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christandl, Matthias; Ferrara, Roberto

    2017-12-01

    An important contribution to the understanding of quantum key distribution has been the discovery of entangled states from which secret bits, but no maximally entangled states, can be extracted [Horodecki et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 200501 (2005), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.94.200501]. The construction of those states was based on an intuition that the quantum mechanical phenomena of data hiding and privacy might be related. In this Letter we firmly connect these two phenomena and highlight three aspects of this result. First, we simplify the definition of the secret key rate. Second, we give a formula for the one-way distillable entanglement of certain private states. Third, we consider the problem of extending the distance of quantum key distribution with help of intermediate stations, a setting called the quantum key repeater. We show that for protocols that first distill private states, it is essentially optimal to use the standard quantum repeater protocol based on entanglement distillation and entanglement swapping.

  17. Chlamydia pneumoniae hides inside apoptotic neutrophils to silently infect and propagate in macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Rupp

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intracellular pathogens have developed elaborate strategies for silent infection of preferred host cells. Chlamydia pneumoniae is a common pathogen in acute infections of the respiratory tract (e.g. pneumonia and associated with chronic lung sequelae in adults and children. Within the lung, alveolar macrophages and polymorph nuclear neutrophils (PMN are the first line of defense against bacteria, but also preferred host phagocytes of chlamydiae. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We could show that C. pneumoniae easily infect and hide inside neutrophil granulocytes until these cells become apoptotic and are subsequently taken up by macrophages. C. pneumoniae infection of macrophages via apoptotic PMN results in enhanced replicative activity of chlamydiae when compared to direct infection of macrophages, which results in persistence of the pathogen. Inhibition of the apoptotic recognition of C. pneumoniae infected PMN using PS- masking Annexin A5 significantly lowered the transmission of chlamydial infection to macrophages. Transfer of apoptotic C. pneumoniae infected PMN to macrophages resulted in an increased TGF-ss production, whereas direct infection of macrophages with chlamydiae was characterized by an enhanced TNF-alpha response. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Taken together, our data suggest that C. pneumoniae uses neutrophil granulocytes to be silently taken up by long-lived macrophages, which allows for efficient propagation and immune protection within the human host.

  18. Synthesis of Citric-Acrylate Oligomer and its in-Situ Reaction with Chrome Tanned Collagen (hide powder)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haroun, A.A.; Masoud, R.A.; Bronco, S.; Ciardelli, F.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to formulate the new combined system of acrylic and citric acids, which has been prepared by free radical polymerization and esterification reaction at the same time to form citric acrylate (CAC) oligomer through ester linkage and low molecular weight (Mw 2241), in compared with polyacrylic acid. The chemical structure and the reaction mechanism of this oligomer were confirmed by different spectroscopic tools (1 H , 13 C-NMR, ATR-IR), gel permeation chromatography and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA/DTA). The problem of the effect of the masking agents in the chrome tanning of the collagen and the pickling of the hide has been approached from the study of the hydrothermal and mechanical properties, using this new eco-friendly oligomer, which was carried out in-situ treated/grafted chrome tanned collagen (hide powder), and pickled hide. The microemulsion grafting copolymerization of (CAC) using 2.2-azo-bis isobutyronitrile (ABIN), via direct coupling reaction, onto the chrome tanned collagen showed that the free amino groups of the collagen were considered to be a potential site for the in-situ reaction with (CAC) oligomer. Also, using of citric-acrylate (CAC) oligomer, during chrome tanning of leather, instead of the traditional strong acids (sulfuric, hydrochloric and formic) resulted in significant improvement in chrome exhaustion and physical properties

  19. A Data Hiding Technique to Synchronously Embed Physiological Signals in H.264/AVC Encoded Video for Medicine Healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, Raul; Ávila, Alfonso; Muñoz, David; Lavariega, Juan

    2015-01-01

    The recognition of clinical manifestations in both video images and physiological-signal waveforms is an important aid to improve the safety and effectiveness in medical care. Physicians can rely on video-waveform (VW) observations to recognize difficult-to-spot signs and symptoms. The VW observations can also reduce the number of false positive incidents and expand the recognition coverage to abnormal health conditions. The synchronization between the video images and the physiological-signal waveforms is fundamental for the successful recognition of the clinical manifestations. The use of conventional equipment to synchronously acquire and display the video-waveform information involves complex tasks such as the video capture/compression, the acquisition/compression of each physiological signal, and the video-waveform synchronization based on timestamps. This paper introduces a data hiding technique capable of both enabling embedding channels and synchronously hiding samples of physiological signals into encoded video sequences. Our data hiding technique offers large data capacity and simplifies the complexity of the video-waveform acquisition and reproduction. The experimental results revealed successful embedding and full restoration of signal's samples. Our results also demonstrated a small distortion in the video objective quality, a small increment in bit-rate, and embedded cost savings of -2.6196% for high and medium motion video sequences.

  20. Spatio-Temporal Distribution of Bark and Ambrosia Beetles in a Brazilian Tropical Dry Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo-Reis, Luiz Eduardo; Novais, Samuel Matos Antunes de; Monteiro, Graziela França; Flechtmann, Carlos Alberto Hector; Faria, Maurício Lopes de; Neves, Frederico de Siqueira

    2016-01-01

    Bark and the ambrosia beetles dig into host plants and live most of their lives in concealed tunnels. We assessed beetle community dynamics in tropical dry forest sites in early, intermediate, and late successional stages, evaluating the influence of resource availability and seasonal variations in guild structure. We collected a total of 763 beetles from 23 species, including 14 bark beetle species, and 9 ambrosia beetle species. Local richness of bark and ambrosia beetles was estimated at 31 species. Bark and ambrosia composition was similar over the successional stages gradient, and beta diversity among sites was primarily determined by species turnover, mainly in the bark beetle community. Bark beetle richness and abundance were higher at intermediate stages; availability of wood was the main spatial mechanism. Climate factors were effectively non-seasonal. Ambrosia beetles were not influenced by successional stages, however the increase in wood resulted in increased abundance. We found higher richness at the end of the dry and wet seasons, and abundance increased with air moisture and decreased with higher temperatures and greater rainfall. In summary, bark beetle species accumulation was higher at sites with better wood production, while the needs of fungi (host and air moisture), resulted in a favorable conditions for species accumulation of ambrosia. The overall biological pattern among guilds differed from tropical rain forests, showing patterns similar to dry forest areas. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  1. Absence of endothermy in flightless dung beetles from southern Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1987-06-19

    Jun 19, 1987 ... Bartholomew & Heinrich (1978) found that when the diurnal species were rolling dung balls their Tmth was increased by endothermic means and then further elevated by solar radiation. However, these beetles still. Table 1 Metathoracic temperatures of Circe/lium bacchus during various activities. Activity.

  2. Chemical ecology of sudden oak death/ambrosia beetle interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frances S. Ockels; Pierluigi Bonello; Brice McPherson; David L. Wood

    2006-01-01

    Coast live oaks, Quercus agrifolia, infected with Phytophthora ramorum in California produce a characteristic sequence of symptoms and signs. Ambrosia beetles consistently tunnel into the bark of bleeding cankers in naturally infected trees. In field monitoring conducted since 2000, every bleeding coast live oak that subsequently...

  3. Applied chemical ecology of the mountain pine beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert A. Progar; Nancy Gillette; Christopher J. Fettig; Kathryn Hrinkevich

    2014-01-01

    Mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, is a primary agent of forest disturbance in western North America. Episodic outbreaks occur at the convergence of favorable forest age and size class structure and climate patterns. Recent outbreaks have exceeded the historic range of variability of D. ponderosae-caused tree mortality affecting ecosystem goods and...

  4. The Pied Piper: A Parasitic Beetle's Melodies Modulate Ant Behaviours.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Di Giulio

    Full Text Available Ants use various communication channels to regulate their social organisation. The main channel that drives almost all the ants' activities and behaviours is the chemical one, but it is long acknowledged that the acoustic channel also plays an important role. However, very little is known regarding exploitation of the acoustical channel by myrmecophile parasites to infiltrate the ant society. Among social parasites, the ant nest beetles (Paussus are obligate myrmecophiles able to move throughout the colony at will and prey on the ants, surprisingly never eliciting aggression from the colonies. It has been recently postulated that stridulatory organs in Paussus might be evolved as an acoustic mechanism to interact with ants. Here, we survey the role of acoustic signals employed in the Paussus beetle-Pheidole ant system. Ants parasitised by Paussus beetles produce caste-specific stridulations. We found that Paussus can "speak" three different "languages", each similar to sounds produced by different ant castes (workers, soldiers, queen. Playback experiments were used to test how host ants respond to the sounds emitted by Paussus. Our data suggest that, by mimicking the stridulations of the queen, Paussus is able to dupe the workers of its host and to be treated as royalty. This is the first report of acoustic mimicry in a beetle parasite of ants.

  5. an assessment of methods for sampling carabid beetles

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    collection of epigaeic (ground-dwelling) invertebrates (Southwood and Henderson,. 2000). It has been widely used for sampling carabid beetles in biodiversity inventories. (Niemela et al. 1994, Davies 2000, Nyundo. 2002), population and community ecology. (Greenslade 1968, Refseth, 1980,. Niemela1988, Niemela et al.

  6. Forest development and carbon dynamics after mountain pine beetle outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Matthew. Hansen

    2014-01-01

    Mountain pine beetles periodically infest pine forests in western North America, killing many or most overstory pine stems. The surviving secondary stand structure, along with recruited seedlings, will form the future canopy. Thus, even-aged pine stands become multiaged and multistoried. The species composition of affected stands will depend on the presence of nonpines...

  7. "Sea Turtles" and "Ground Beetles" [Land Turtles] Should Shake Hands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Da

    2004-01-01

    This article talks about those who come back to China after studies abroad, characterized as "sea turtles" and those scholars who have remained in China to arduously pursue their studies, characterized as "ground beetles". " Sea turtles" are those foreign MBAs and Ph.D.s who are objects of praise, admiration and are…

  8. Elytra boost lift, but reduce aerodynamic efficiency in flying beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, L Christoffer; Engel, Sophia; Baird, Emily; Dacke, Marie; Muijres, Florian T; Hedenström, Anders

    2012-10-07

    Flying insects typically possess two pairs of wings. In beetles, the front pair has evolved into short, hardened structures, the elytra, which protect the second pair of wings and the abdomen. This allows beetles to exploit habitats that would otherwise cause damage to the wings and body. Many beetles fly with the elytra extended, suggesting that they influence aerodynamic performance, but little is known about their role in flight. Using quantitative measurements of the beetle's wake, we show that the presence of the elytra increases vertical force production by approximately 40 per cent, indicating that they contribute to weight support. The wing-elytra combination creates a complex wake compared with previously studied animal wakes. At mid-downstroke, multiple vortices are visible behind each wing. These include a wingtip and an elytron vortex with the same sense of rotation, a body vortex and an additional vortex of the opposite sense of rotation. This latter vortex reflects a negative interaction between the wing and the elytron, resulting in a single wing span efficiency of approximately 0.77 at mid downstroke. This is lower than that found in birds and bats, suggesting that the extra weight support of the elytra comes at the price of reduced efficiency.

  9. Transgenic resistance of eggplants to the Colorado potato beetle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arpaia, S.

    1999-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is the use of transgenic plant resistance as a method to control the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say in eggplant. The gene conferring resistance is coding for a Cry3B toxin and it is a synthetic version of a wild-type

  10. Social and Political Impact of the Southern Pine Beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert N. Coulson; James R. Meeker

    2011-01-01

    Impact is defined broadly to mean any effect on the forest environment resulting from the activities of the southern pine beetle (SPB). In this chapter we focus on social and political impact. Social impact deals with effects of the SPB on aesthetic, moral, and metaphysical values associated with forests. Two aspects of social impact are investigated: how the SPB...

  11. Use of infochemicals to attract carrion beetles into pitfall traps

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Podskalská, H.; Růžička, J.; Hoskovec, Michal; Šálek, M.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 132, č. 1 (2009), s. 59-64 ISSN 0013-8703 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : burying beetles * dimethylsulfide * dimethyldisulfide * dimethyltrisulfide Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.568, year: 2009

  12. Gut bacteria of bark and wood boring beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archana Vasanthakumar; Yasmin Cardoza; Italo Delalibera; Patrick Schloss; Jo Handelsman; Kier Klepzig; Kenneth Raffa

    2007-01-01

    Bark beetles are known to have complex associations with a variety of microorganisms (Paine and others 1987; Ayres and others 2000; Six and Klepzig 2004). However, most of our knowledge involves fungi, particularly external species. In contrast, we know very little about their associations with bacterial gut symbionts (Bridges 1981). Similarly, work with wood...

  13. Performance of Asian longhorned beetle among tree species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelli Hoover; Scott Ludwig; James Sellmer; Deborah McCullough; Laura Lazarus

    2003-01-01

    Two procedures were evaluated for assessing susceptibility of a variety of tree species to Anoplophora glabripennis. In the first procedure, adult beetles were caged with a section of sugar maple, northern red oak, white oak, honeylocust, eastern cottonwood, sycamore or tulip poplar wood and allowed to oviposit.

  14. Historic forests and endemic mountain pine beetle and dwarf mistletoe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose Negron

    2012-01-01

    Mountain pine beetle has always been a significant disturbance agent in ponderosa and lodgepole pine forests in Colorado. Most studies have examined the impacts to forest structure associated with epidemic populations of a single disturbance agent. In this paper we address the role of endemic populations of mountain pine and their interactions with dwarf mistletoe...

  15. Evaluation of resistance of the groundnut seed beetle, Caryedon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: This study aimed to determine the level of resistance of different strains of the groundnut seed beetle, Caryedon serratus against some synthetic insecticides formulas and to compare their biodemographic parameters. Methodology and results: The insecticides tests were done in three localities of Senegal (Mpal, ...

  16. Using Malaise traps to sample ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael D. Ulyshen; James L. Hanula; Scott Horn

    2005-01-01

    Pitfall traps provide an easy and inexpensive way to sample ground-dwelling arthropods (Spence and Niemela 1994; Spence et al. 1997; Abildsnes and Tommeras 2000) and have been used exclusively in many studies of the abundance and diversity of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Despite the popularity of this trapping technique, pitfall traps have many disadvantages...

  17. Checklist of the Iranian Ground Beetles (Coleoptera; Carabidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azadbakhsh, Saeed; Nozari, Jamasb

    2015-09-30

    An up-to-date checklist of the ground beetles of Iran is presented. Altogether 955 species and subspecies in 155 genera belonging to 26 subfamilies of Carabidae are reported; 25 taxa are recorded for Iran for the fist time. New localities are listed and some previous distributional records are discussed.

  18. Bark beetle management after a mass attack - some Swiss experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    B. Forster; F. Meier; R. Gall

    2003-01-01

    In 1990 and 1999, heavy storms accompanied by the worst gales ever recorded in Switzerland, struck Europe and left millions of cubic metres of windthrown Norway spruce trees; this provided breeding material for the eight-toothed spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus L.) and led to mass attacks in subsequent years which resulted in the additional loss...

  19. Ambrosia beetles associated with laurel wilt of avocado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, is an exotic wood-boring pest first detected in 2002 near Savannah, Georgia. The beetle’s dominant fungal symbiont, Raffaelea lauricola, is the pathogen that causes laurel wilt, a lethal disease of trees in the family Lauraceae. Laurel wilt has since spr...

  20. Molecular genetic pathway analysis of Asian longhorned beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evan. Braswell

    2011-01-01

    The Asian longhorned beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis, is a destructive pest of hardwood trees. Historically, A. glabripennis was geographically restricted within China and Korea and not of economic importance. However, as a result of massive reforestation programs designed to combat desertification, the species emerged as a pest...

  1. Management strategies for bark beetles in conifer forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher Fettig; Jacek  Hilszczański

    2015-01-01

    Several species of bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) are capable of causing significant amounts of tree mortality in conifer forests throughout much of the world.  In most cases, these events are part of the ecology of conifer forests and positively influence many ecological processes, but the economic and social implications can be...

  2. Quantifying beetle-macrofungal associations in a temperate biodiversity hot spot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epps, Mary Jane; Arnold, A Elizabeth

    2018-01-29

    Beetles (Coleoptera) are often among the most abundant and diverse insects that feed on sporocarps of macrofungi, but little is known regarding their relative specialism or generalism in most communities. We surveyed >9000 sporocarps in montane hardwood forest in the Appalachian Mountains (USA) to characterize associations of mycophagous beetles and macrofungi. We used traditional metrics and network analyses to quantify relationships between sporocarp traits (mass, age, persistence, and toughness) and assemblages of adult beetles, drawing from >50 000 beetles collected over two survey years. Strict-sense specificity was rare in these associations: most beetle species were found on multiple fungal genera, and most fungi hosted multiple beetle species. Sporocarp age and fresh mass were positively associated with beetle diversity in fungi with ephemeral sporocarps (here including 12 genera of Agaricales and Russulales), but sporocarp persistence was not. In Polyporales, beetle diversity was greater in softer sporocarps than in tough or woody sporocarps. The increase of beetle diversity in aging sporocarps could not be attributed to increases in sporocarp mass or sampling point in the growing season, suggesting that age-related changes in chemistry or structure may support increasingly diverse beetle communities. Interaction networks differed as a function of sporocarp age, revealing that community-wide measures of generalism (i.e., network connectance) and evenness (i.e., variance in normalized degree) change as sporocarps mature and senesce. Beetles observed on Agaricales and Russulales with more persistent sporocarps had narrower interaction breadth (i.e., were more host-specific) than those on less persistent sporocarps, and beetles on Polyporales with tougher sporocarps had narrower interaction breadth than those on soft sporocarps. In addition to providing a large-scale evaluation of sporocarp use by adult beetles in this temperate biodiversity hot spot, this

  3. Fire severity unaffected by spruce beetle outbreak in spruce-fir forests in southwestern Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrus, Robert A; Veblen, Thomas T; Harvey, Brian J; Hart, Sarah J

    2016-04-01

    Recent large and severe outbreaks of native bark beetles have raised concern among the general public and land managers about potential for amplified fire activity in western North America. To date, the majority of studies examining bark beetle outbreaks and subsequent fire severity in the U.S. Rocky Mountains have focused on outbreaks of mountain pine beetle (MPB; Dendroctonus ponderosae) in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) forests, but few studies, particularly field studies, have addressed the effects of the severity of spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis Kirby) infestation on subsequent fire severity in subalpine Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii) and subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa) forests. In Colorado, the annual area infested by spruce beetle outbreaks is rapidly rising, while MPB outbreaks are subsiding; therefore understanding this relationship is of growing importance. We collected extensive field data in subalpine forests in the eastern San Juan Mountains, southwestern Colorado, USA, to investigate whether a gray-stage (fire) spruce beetle infestation affected fire severity. Contrary to the expectation that bark beetle infestation alters subsequent fire severity, correlation and multivariate generalized linear regression analysis revealed no influence of pre-fire spruce beetle severity on nearly all field or remotely sensed measurements of fire severity. Findings were consistent across moderate and extreme burning conditions. In comparison to severity of the pre-fire beetle outbreak, we found that topography, pre-outbreak basal area, and weather conditions exerted a stronger effect on fire severity. Our finding that beetle infestation did not alter fire severity is consistent with previous retrospective studies examining fire activity following other bark beetle outbreaks and reiterates the overriding influence of climate that creates conditions conducive to large, high-severity fires in the subalpine zone of Colorado. Both bark beetle outbreaks and

  4. Endocrine Control of Exaggerated Trait Growth in Rhinoceros Beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinna, R; Gotoh, H; Brent, C S; Dolezal, A; Kraus, A; Niimi, T; Emlen, D; Lavine, L C

    2016-08-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) is a key insect growth regulator frequently involved in modulating phenotypically plastic traits such as caste determination in eusocial species, wing polymorphisms in aphids, and mandible size in stag beetles. The jaw morphology of stag beetles is sexually-dimorphic and condition-dependent; males have larger jaws than females and those developing under optimum conditions are larger in overall body size and have disproportionately larger jaws than males raised under poor conditions. We have previously shown that large males have higher JH titers than small males during development, and ectopic application of fenoxycarb (JH analog) to small males can induce mandibular growth similar to that of larger males. What remains unknown is whether JH regulates condition-dependent trait growth in other insects with extreme sexually selected structures. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that JH mediates the condition-dependent expression of the elaborate horns of the Asian rhinoceros beetle, Trypoxylus dichotomus. The sexually dimorphic head horn of this beetle is sensitive to nutritional state during larval development. Like stag beetles, male rhinoceros beetles receiving copious food produce disproportionately large horns for their body size compared with males under restricted diets. We show that JH titers are correlated with body size during the late feeding and early prepupal periods, but this correlation disappears by the late prepupal period, the period of maximum horn growth. While ectopic application of fenoxycarb during the third larval instar significantly delayed pupation, it had no effect on adult horn size relative to body size. Fenoxycarb application to late prepupae also had at most a marginal effect on relative horn size. We discuss our results in context of other endocrine signals of condition-dependent trait exaggeration and suggest that different beetle lineages may have co-opted different physiological signaling mechanisms to

  5. Urban soil biomonitoring by beetle and earthworm populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janossy, L.; Bitto, A. [ELTE Univ., Budapest (Hungary)

    1995-12-31

    Two macro invertebrate groups were chosen for biomonitoring environmental changes. The beetle population was pitfall trapped (five month in 1994) at five downtown sites (parks) of Budapest and in a hilly original woodland as a control site 33km NW of Budapest. Earthworms were collected by using formol solution. Five heavy metals were measured (Pb, Co, Hg, Zn, Cu) in the upper soil layer at the same sampling sites. Pb, Hg, Zn and Cu was over the tolerable limit in a park near the railway, extreme high Pb (530 mg/kg dry soil) and Zn content was measured in one park. Roads are also salted in wintertime. The number of beetle species in the downtown parks varied 10 to 22 (226--462 specimen). Near to the edge of the city up to 45 beetle species were found in a park with 1,027 specimen. In the woodland area 52 beetle species with 1,061 specimen were found. Less dominance and higher specific diversity showed the direction from downtown to woodland. Only 2 or 3 cosmopolitan earthworm species existed in downtown parks with 30--35 specimen/m{sup 2}, in the control woodland area 7 mostly endemic earthworm species were found with 74 specimens/m{sup 2}. But earthworm biomass was higher in three well fertilized parks (43--157 g/m{sup 2}), than in the original woodland (25-g/m{sup 2}). The beetle populations seem to be good tools for biomonitoring. Earthworms are susceptible to environmental changes but they also strongly depend on the leaf litter and the organic matter of the soil. The change in the animal populations is the result of summarized environmental impacts in such a big city like Budapest.

  6. Impacts of silvicultural thinning treatments on beetle trap captures and tree attacks during low bark beetle populations in ponderosa pine forests of northern Arizona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaylord, M L; Hofstetter, R W; Wagner, M R

    2010-10-01

    Our research used a combination of passive traps, funnel traps with lures, baited trees, and surveys of long-term thinning plots to assess the impacts of different levels of stand basal area (BA) on bark beetle tree attack and on trap captures of Ips spp., Dendroctonus spp., and their predators. The study occurred at two sites in ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws., forests, from 2004 to 2007 during low bark beetle populations. Residual stand BA ranged from 9.0 to 37.0 m2/ha. More predators and bark beetles were collected in passive traps in stands of lower BA than in stands of higher BA; however, significance varied by species and site, and total number of beetles collected was low. Height of the clear panel passive traps affected trap catches for some species at some sites and years. When pheromone lures were used with funnel traps [Ips pini (Say) lure: lanierone, +03/-97 ipsdienol], we found no significant difference in trap catches among basal area treatments for bark beetles and their predators. Similarly, when trees were baited (Dendroctonus brevicomis LeConte lure: myrcene, exo-brevicomin and frontalin), we found no significant difference for days to first bark beetle attack. Surveys of long-term thinning treatments found evidence of bark beetle attacks only in unthinned plots (approximately 37 m2/ha basal area). We discuss our results in terms of management implications for bark beetle trapping and control.

  7. Southern pine beetle infestations in relation to forest stand conditions, previous thinning, and prescribed burning: evaluation of the Southern Pine Beetle Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    John T. Nowak; James R. Meeker; David R. Coyle; Chris A. Steiner; Cavell Brownie

    2015-01-01

    Since 2003, the Southern Pine Beetle Prevention Program (SPBPP) (a joint effort of the USDA Forest Service and Southern Group of State Foresters) has encouraged and provided cost-share assistance for silvicultural treatments to reduce stand/forest susceptibility to the southern pine beetle (SPB)(Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann) in the southeastern United States....

  8. A Multiplex PCR Assay for Differentiating Coconut Rhinoceros Beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) From Oriental Flower Beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in Early Life Stages and Excrement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, S; Melzer, M J

    2017-04-01

    The coconut rhinoceros beetle, Oryctes rhinoceros (L.), is a major pest of coconut and other palm trees. An incipient coconut rhinoceros beetle population was recently discovered on the island of Oahu, Hawaii and is currently the target of a large, mutiagency eradication program. Confounding this program is the widespread presence of another scarab beetle on Oahu, the oriental flower beetle, Protaetia orientalis (Gory and Percheron 1833). Eggs, early life stages, and fecal excrement of coconut rhinoceros beetle and oriental flower beetle are morphologically indistinguishable, thereby creating uncertainty when such specimens are discovered in the field. Here, we report the development of a multiplex PCR assay targeting cytochrome oxidase I of coconut rhinoceros beetle and oriental flower beetle that can rapidly detect and distinguish between these insects. This assay also features an internal positive control to ensure DNA of sufficient quantity and quality is used in the assay, increasing its reliability and reducing the chances of false negative results. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Assessing theory of mind nonverbally in those with intellectual disability and ASD: the penny hiding game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San José Cáceres, Antonia; Keren, Noa; Booth, Rhonda; Happé, Francesca

    2014-10-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and low intellectual/language abilities are often omitted from experimental studies because of the challenges of testing these individuals. It is vital to develop appropriate and accessible tasks so that this significant part of the spectrum is not neglected. The theory of mind (ToM) has been extensively assessed in ASD, predominantly in relatively high-functioning individuals with reasonable language skills. This study aims to assess the ToM abilities of a sample of 132 participants with intellectual disability (ID) with and without ASD, matched in verbal mental age (VMA) and chronological age, using a naturalistic and nonverbal deception task: the Penny Hiding Game (PHG). The relationship between performance on the PHG and everyday adaptation was also studied. The PHG proved accessible to most participants, suggesting its suitability for use with individuals with low cognitive skills, attentional problems, and limited language. The ASD + ID group showed significantly more PHG errors, and fewer tricks, than the ID group. PHG performance correlated with Vineland adaptation scores for both groups. VMA was a major predictor of passing the task in both groups, and participants with ASD + ID required, on average, 2 years higher VMA than those with ID only, to achieve the same level of PHG success. VMA moderated the association between PHG performance and real-life social skills for the ASD + ID more than the ID group, suggesting that severely impaired individuals with ASD may rely on verbal ability to overcome their social difficulties, whereas individuals with ID alone may use more intuitive social understanding both in the PHG and everyday situations. © 2014 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Information hiding techniques for infrared images: exploring the state-of-the art and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomponiu, Victor; Cavagnino, Davide; Botta, Marco; Nejati, Hossein

    2015-10-01

    The proliferation of Infrared technology and imaging systems enables a different perspective to tackle many computer vision problems in defense and security applications. Infrared images are widely used by the law enforcement, Homeland Security and military organizations to achieve a significant advantage or situational awareness, and thus is vital to protect these data against malicious attacks. Concurrently, sophisticated malware are developed which are able to disrupt the security and integrity of these digital media. For instance, illegal distribution and manipulation are possible malicious attacks to the digital objects. In this paper we explore the use of a new layer of defense for the integrity of the infrared images through the aid of information hiding techniques such as watermarking. In this context, we analyze the efficiency of several optimal decoding schemes for the watermark inserted into the Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) domain of the IR images using an additive spread spectrum (SS) embedding framework. In order to use the singular values (SVs) of the IR images with the SS embedding we adopt several restrictions that ensure that the values of the SVs will maintain their statistics. For both the optimal maximum likelihood decoder and sub-optimal decoders we assume that the PDF of SVs can be modeled by the Weibull distribution. Furthermore, we investigate the challenges involved in protecting and assuring the integrity of IR images such as data complexity and the error probability behavior, i.e., the probability of detection and the probability of false detection, for the applied optimal decoders. By taking into account the efficiency and the necessary auxiliary information for decoding the watermark, we discuss the suitable decoder for various operating situations. Experimental results are carried out on a large dataset of IR images to show the imperceptibility and efficiency of the proposed scheme against various attack scenarios.

  11. Heavy metal concentrations in ground beetles, leaf litter, and soil of a forest ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelaska, Lucija Serić; Blanusa, Maja; Durbesić, Paula; Jelaska, Sven D

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify the relationships between heavy metal concentrations in soil, leaf litter, and ground beetles at four sampling sites of a forest ecosystem in Medvednica Nature Park, Croatia. Ground beetles were sampled by pitfall trapping. Specimens were dry-ashed and soil and beetle samples digested with nitric acid. Lead, cadmium, copper, zinc, manganese, and iron were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrometry. Statistically significant differences between plots were found for lead, cadmium, and iron in ground beetles. Correlations between ground beetles and soil or leaf litter were positive for lead and cadmium concentrations and negative for iron concentration. Differences in species metal concentrations were recorded. Higher concentrations of all studied metals were found in female beetles. However, a significant difference between sexes was found only for manganese. Significant differences in species metal concentrations were found for species that differ in feeding strategies and age based on breeding season and emergence of young adults.

  12. Fog-basking behaviour and water collection efficiency in Namib Desert Darkling beetles

    OpenAIRE

    Dacke Marie; Nørgaard Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background In the Namib Desert fog represents an alternative water source. This is utilised by Darkling beetles (Tenebrionidae) that employ different strategies for obtaining the fog water. Some dig trenches in the sand, while others use their own bodies as fog collectors assuming a characteristic fog-basking stance. Two beetle species from the genus Onymacris have been observed to fog-bask on the ridges of the sand dunes. These beetles all have smooth elytra surfaces, while another ...

  13. Mountain Pine Beetle Fecundity and Offspring Size Differ Among Lodgepole Pine and Whitebark Pine Hosts

    OpenAIRE

    Gross, Donovan

    2008-01-01

    Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis Engelmann) is a treeline species in the central Rocky Mountains. Its occupation of high elevations previously protected whitebark pine from long-term mountain pine beetle outbreaks. The mountain pine beetle, however, is currently reaching outbreaks of record magnitude in high-elevation whitebark pine. We used a factorial laboratory experiment to compare mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) life history characteristics between a typical host, ...

  14. Solar radiation as a factor influencing the raid spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus) during spring swarming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mezei, P.

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring of spruce bark beetle in nature reserve Fabova hola Mountain in the Slovenske Rudohorie Mountains at an altitude of 1.100-1.440 meters was conducted from 2006 to 2009. Slovenske Rudohorie Mountains was affected by two windstorms (2004 and 2007) followed by a gradation of bark beetles. This article has examined the dependence between amount of solar radiation and trapping of spruce bark beetle into pheromone traps.

  15. Seasonal flight patterns of the Spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus) in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Öhrn, Petter

    2012-01-01

    The major bark beetle threat to Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) in Eurasia is the spruce bark beetle Ips typographus. Beetles cause damage after population build-up in defenseless trees. To minimize attacks, timely removal of these trees is important. This is practiced by clearing of wind throws and sanitation felling. Thus, knowledge about the region-specific flight pattern and voltinism of I. typographus is necessary for efficient pest management. This thesis focuses on the ...

  16. Greenhouse gas emissions from dung pats vary with dung beetle species and with assemblage composition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Piccini

    Full Text Available Cattle farming is a major source of greenhouse gases (GHGs. Recent research suggests that GHG fluxes from dung pats could be affected by biotic interactions involving dung beetles. Whether and how these effects vary among beetle species and with assemblage composition is yet to be established. To examine the link between GHGs and different dung beetle species assemblages, we used a closed chamber system to measure fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2, methane (CH4 and nitrous oxide (N2O from cattle dung pats. Targeting a total of four dung beetle species (a pat-dwelling species, a roller of dung balls, a large and a small tunnelling species, we ran six experimental treatments (four monospecific and two mixed and two controls (one with dung but without beetles, and one with neither dung nor beetles. In this setting, the overall presence of beetles significantly affected the gas fluxes, but different species contributed unequally to GHG emissions. When compared to the control with dung, we detected an overall reduction in the total cumulative CO2 flux from all treatments with beetles and a reduction in N2O flux from the treatments with the three most abundant dung beetle species. These reductions can be seen as beneficial ecosystem services. Nonetheless, we also observed a disservice provided by the large tunneler, Copris lunaris, which significantly increased the CH4 flux-an effect potentially traceable to the species' nesting strategy involving the construction of large brood balls. When fluxes were summed into CO2-equivalents across individual GHG compounds, dung with beetles proved to emit less GHGs than did beetle-free dung, with the mix of the three most abundant species providing the highest reduction (-32%. As the mix of multiple species proved the most effective in reducing CO2-equivalents, the conservation of diverse assemblages of dung beetles emerges as a priority in agro-pastoral ecosystems.

  17. Induced terpene accumulation in Norway spruce inhibits bark beetle colonization in a dose-dependent manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Zhao

    Full Text Available Tree-killing bark beetles (Coleoptera, Scolytinae are among the most economically and ecologically important forest pests in the northern hemisphere. Induction of terpenoid-based oleoresin has long been considered important in conifer defense against bark beetles, but it has been difficult to demonstrate a direct correlation between terpene levels and resistance to bark beetle colonization.To test for inhibitory effects of induced terpenes on colonization by the spruce bark beetle Ips typographus (L. we inoculated 20 mature Norway spruce Picea abies (L. Karsten trees with a virulent fungus associated with the beetle, Ceratocystis polonica (Siem. C. Moreau, and investigated induced terpene levels and beetle colonization in the bark.Fungal inoculation induced very strong and highly variable terpene accumulation 35 days after inoculation. Trees with high induced terpene levels (n = 7 had only 4.9% as many beetle attacks (5.1 vs. 103.5 attacks m(-2 and 2.6% as much gallery length (0.029 m m(-2 vs. 1.11 m m(-2 as trees with low terpene levels (n = 6. There was a highly significant rank correlation between terpene levels at day 35 and beetle colonization in individual trees. The relationship between induced terpene levels and beetle colonization was not linear but thresholded: above a low threshold concentration of ∼100 mg terpene g(-1 dry phloem trees suffered only moderate beetle colonization, and above a high threshold of ∼200 mg terpene g(-1 dry phloem trees were virtually unattacked.This is the first study demonstrating a dose-dependent relationship between induced terpenes and tree resistance to bark beetle colonization under field conditions, indicating that terpene induction may be instrumental in tree resistance. This knowledge could be useful for developing management strategies that decrease the impact of tree-killing bark beetles.

  18. Anatomical organization of the brain of a diurnal and a nocturnal dung beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immonen, Esa-Ville; Dacke, Marie; Heinze, Stanley; El Jundi, Basil

    2017-06-01

    To avoid the fierce competition for food, South African ball-rolling dung beetles carve a piece of dung off a dung-pile, shape it into a ball and roll it away along a straight line path. For this unidirectional exit from the busy dung pile, at night and day, the beetles use a wide repertoire of celestial compass cues. This robust and relatively easily measurable orientation behavior has made ball-rolling dung beetles an attractive model organism for the study of the neuroethology behind insect orientation and sensory ecology. Although there is already some knowledge emerging concerning how celestial cues are processed in the dung beetle brain, little is known about its general neural layout. Mapping the neuropils of the dung beetle brain is thus a prerequisite to understand the neuronal network that underlies celestial compass orientation. Here, we describe and compare the brains of a day-active and a night-active dung beetle species based on immunostainings against synapsin and serotonin. We also provide 3D reconstructions for all brain areas and many of the fiber bundles in the brain of the day-active dung beetle. Comparison of neuropil structures between the two dung beetle species revealed differences that reflect adaptations to different light conditions. Altogether, our results provide a reference framework for future studies on the neuroethology of insects in general and dung beetles in particular. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Identification of Hymenolepis diminuta Cysticercoid Larvae in Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) Beetles from Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makki, Mahsa Sadat; Mowlavi, Gholamreza; Shahbazi, Farideh; Abai, Mohammad Reza; Najafi, Faezeh; Hosseini-Farash, Bibi Razieh; Teimoori, Salma; Hasanpour, Hamid; Naddaf, Saied Reza

    2017-06-01

    Hymenolepis diminuta is a cestod of rodents and rarely infects humans. Infection in humans is via ingestion of infected insects. This study was aimed to detect H. diminuta cysticercoids in red flour beetles, Tribolium castaneum, and cockroaches originated from different regions of Iran. The red flour beetles and cockroaches were collected from local bakeries in five cities including Tehran, Ahvaz, Kazerun, and Sabzevar during 2010-2011. Some beetles and cockroaches were colonized in insectary and adults from F1 generation were fed on H. diminuta eggs. Both laboratory-infected and field-collected samples were dissected and examined for cysticercoids. Detection of H. diminuta DNA in T. castaneum beetles was performed by targeting a partial sequence of Ribosomal gene. Except the beetles from Ahvaz, all specimens were negative for cysticercoid by microscopy. Of the four dissected beetles from Ahvaz, one harbored 12 cysticercoids. Also, 110 (52%) of laboratory-infected beetles showed infection with an average of 12-14 larvae. None of the cockroaches was infected. Two beetles from Ahvaz, including the remainder of the microscopic positive specimen, yielded the expected amplicon in PCR assay. The H. diminuta DNA sequences generated in this study were identical and matched 97-100% with similar sequences from GenBank database. Lack of infection in the majority of beetles may reflect a low rat infestation rate in those areas, alternatively, the examined specimens might not have been the representative samples of the T. castaneum populations.

  20. Evidence of an aggregation pheromone in the flea beetle,Phyllotreta Cruciferae (Goeze) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, C; Weiss, M J

    1992-06-01

    Laboratory olfactometer bioassays and field trapping experiments showed that the flea beetle,Phyllotreta cruciferae (Goeze), was highly attracted by oilseed rape(Brassica napus L.) when flea beetles were on the plant. This attraction was mediated by a flea beetle-produced aggregation pheromone based upon: (1) Oilseed rape damaged mechanically, or byP. cruciferae, or by diamondback moth,Plutella xylostella (L.), did not attractP. cruciferae. (2) Contact with the plants or feeding was required for the production of aggregation pheromone because oilseed rape alone was not attractive when separated from flea beetles by a screen. (3) Equal numbers of males and females were attracted.

  1. Improvement of Secret Image Invisibility in Circulation Image with Dyadic Wavelet Based Data Hiding with Run-Length Coded Secret Images of Which Location of Codes are Determined with Random Number

    OpenAIRE

    Kohei Arai; Yuji Yamada

    2011-01-01

    An attempt is made for improvement of secret image invisibility in circulation images with dyadic wavelet based data hiding with run-length coded secret images of which location of codes are determined by random number. Through experiments, it is confirmed that secret images are almost invisible in circulation images. Also robustness of the proposed data hiding method against data compression of circulation images is discussed. Data hiding performance in terms of invisibility of secret images...

  2. A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF SPECIES COMPOSITION OF GROUND BEETLES OF COASTAL AND ISLAND ECOSYSTEMS OF THE WESTERN CASPIAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Abdurakhmanov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available For the first time studied the species composition of ground beetles of coastal and island ecosystems of the Western Caspian. The article provides a comparative analysis of species composition of ground beetles and adjacent areas.

  3. Effect of gamma irradiation on khapra beetle Trogoderma granarium everts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makee, H.; Saour, G.

    2002-09-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation on all developmental stages of khapra beetle was examined. The results showed that when higher doses were applied and immature stages were treated the developmental time, larval and pupal mortality and adults' deformation were increased. Whereas, the fecundity and fertility of the emerged adults resulted from the treatment of immature stages, were increased when old eggs, larvae and pupae were treated with low doses. When newly emerged adults were irradiated the longevity of the male and the female was not affected, while the fecundity and fertility were declined especially when high doses were applied. The female of khapra beetle was more radiosensitive than the male, regardless of the applied dose or/and the treated developmental stage. (author)

  4. The Japanese jewel beetle: a painter's challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schenk, Franziska; Wilts, Bodo D; Stavenga, Doekele G

    2013-01-01

    Colours as dynamic as the metallic-like hues adorning the Japanese jewel beetle have never been captured on canvas before. Unlike, and unmatched by, the chemical pigments of the artist's palette, the effect is generated by layered microstructures that refract and reflect light to make colour visible. Exclusive to nature for millions of years, such jewel-like colouration is only now being introduced to art. Sustained scientific research into nature's iridescent multilayer reflectors has recently led to the development and manufacture of analogous synthetic structures, notably innovative light interference flakes. For the first time this novel technology offers artists the exciting, yet challenging, potential to accurately depict nature's iridescence. Mimicking the Japanese jewel beetle by using paints with embedded flakes, we demonstrate that the resulting painting, just like the model, displays iridescent colours that shift with minute variation of the angle of light and viewing. (paper)

  5. Ecology and behavior of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lövei, G L; Sunderland, K D

    1996-01-01

    The ground beetles from the speciose beetle family Carabidae and, since their emergence in the Tertiary, have populated all habitats except deserts. Our knowledge about carabids is biased toward species living in north-temperate regions. Most carabids are predatory, consume a wide range of food types, and experience food shortages in the field. Feeding on both plant and animal material and scavenging are probably more significant than currently acknowledged. The most important mortality sources are abiotic factors and predators; pathogens and parasites can be important for some developmental stages. Although competition among larvae and adults does occur, the importance of competition as a community organization is not proven. Carabids are abundant in agricultural fields all over the world and may be important natural enemies of agricultural pests.

  6. Synopsis of the cyclocephaline scarab beetles (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Dynastinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew R. Moore

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The cyclocephaline scarabs (Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae: Cyclocephalini are a speciose tribe of beetles that include species that are ecologically and economically important as pollinators and pests of agriculture and turf. We provide an overview and synopsis of the 14 genera of Cyclocephalini that includes information on: 1 the taxonomic and nomenclatural history of the group; 2 diagnosis and identification of immature life-stages; 3 economic importance in agroecosystems; 4 natural enemies of these beetles; 5 use as food by humans; 6 the importance of adults as pollination mutualists; 7 fossil cyclocephalines and the evolution of the group; 8 generic-level identification of adults. We provide an expanded identification key to genera of world Cyclocephalini and diagnoses for each genus. Character illustrations and generic-level distribution maps are provided along with discussions on the relationships of the tribe’s genera.

  7. Mechanisms of Wing Beat Sound in Flapping Wings of Beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, John

    2017-11-01

    While the aerodynamic aspects of insect flight have received recent attention, the mechanisms of sound production by flapping wings is not well understood. Though the harmonic structure of wing beat frequency modulation has been reported with respect to biological implications, few studies have rigorously quantified it with respect directionality, phase coupling and vortex tip scattering. Moreover, the acoustic detection and classification of invasive species is both of practical as well scientific interest. In this study, the acoustics of the tethered flight of the Coconut Rhinoceros Beetle (Oryctes rhinoceros) is investigated with four element microphone array in conjunction with complementary optical sensors and high speed video. The different experimental methods for wing beat determination are compared in both the time and frequency domain. Flow visualization is used to examine the vortex and sound generation due to the torsional mode of the wing rotation. Results are compared with related experimental studies of the Oriental Flower Beetle. USDA, State of Hawaii.

  8. Synopsis of the cyclocephaline scarab beetles (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Dynastinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Matthew R; Cave, Ronald D; Branham, Marc A

    2018-01-01

    The cyclocephaline scarabs (Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae: Cyclocephalini) are a speciose tribe of beetles that include species that are ecologically and economically important as pollinators and pests of agriculture and turf. We provide an overview and synopsis of the 14 genera of Cyclocephalini that includes information on: 1) the taxonomic and nomenclatural history of the group; 2) diagnosis and identification of immature life-stages; 3) economic importance in agroecosystems; 4) natural enemies of these beetles; 5) use as food by humans; 6) the importance of adults as pollination mutualists; 7) fossil cyclocephalines and the evolution of the group; 8) generic-level identification of adults. We provide an expanded identification key to genera of world Cyclocephalini and diagnoses for each genus. Character illustrations and generic-level distribution maps are provided along with discussions on the relationships of the tribe's genera.

  9. Genome of the Asian longhorned beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis), a globally significant invasive species, reveals key functional and evolutionary innovations at the beetle-plant interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Duane D; Scully, Erin D; Pauchet, Yannick; Hoover, Kelli; Kirsch, Roy; Geib, Scott M; Mitchell, Robert F; Waterhouse, Robert M; Ahn, Seung-Joon; Arsala, Deanna; Benoit, Joshua B; Blackmon, Heath; Bledsoe, Tiffany; Bowsher, Julia H; Busch, André; Calla, Bernarda; Chao, Hsu; Childers, Anna K; Childers, Christopher; Clarke, Dave J; Cohen, Lorna; Demuth, Jeffery P; Dinh, Huyen; Doddapaneni, HarshaVardhan; Dolan, Amanda; Duan, Jian J; Dugan, Shannon; Friedrich, Markus; Glastad, Karl M; Goodisman, Michael A D; Haddad, Stephanie; Han, Yi; Hughes, Daniel S T; Ioannidis, Panagiotis; Johnston, J Spencer; Jones, Jeffery W; Kuhn, Leslie A; Lance, David R; Lee, Chien-Yueh; Lee, Sandra L; Lin, Han; Lynch, Jeremy A; Moczek, Armin P; Murali, Shwetha C; Muzny, Donna M; Nelson, David R; Palli, Subba R; Panfilio, Kristen A; Pers, Dan; Poelchau, Monica F; Quan, Honghu; Qu, Jiaxin; Ray, Ann M; Rinehart, Joseph P; Robertson, Hugh M; Roehrdanz, Richard; Rosendale, Andrew J; Shin, Seunggwan; Silva, Christian; Torson, Alex S; Jentzsch, Iris M Vargas; Werren, John H; Worley, Kim C; Yocum, George; Zdobnov, Evgeny M; Gibbs, Richard A; Richards, Stephen

    2016-11-11

    Relatively little is known about the genomic basis and evolution of wood-feeding in beetles. We undertook genome sequencing and annotation, gene expression assays, studies of plant cell wall degrading enzymes, and other functional and comparative studies of the Asian longhorned beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis, a globally significant invasive species capable of inflicting severe feeding damage on many important tree species. Complementary studies of genes encoding enzymes involved in digestion of woody plant tissues or detoxification of plant allelochemicals were undertaken with the genomes of 14 additional insects, including the newly sequenced emerald ash borer and bull-headed dung beetle. The Asian longhorned beetle genome encodes a uniquely diverse arsenal of enzymes that can degrade the main polysaccharide networks in plant cell walls, detoxify plant allelochemicals, and otherwise facilitate feeding on woody plants. It has the metabolic plasticity needed to feed on diverse plant species, contributing to its highly invasive nature. Large expansions of chemosensory genes involved in the reception of pheromones and plant kairomones are consistent with the complexity of chemical cues it uses to find host plants and mates. Amplification and functional divergence of genes associated with specialized feeding on plants, including genes originally obtained via horizontal gene transfer from fungi and bacteria, contributed to the addition, expansion, and enhancement of the metabolic repertoire of the Asian longhorned beetle, certain other phytophagous beetles, and to a lesser degree, other phytophagous insects. Our results thus begin to establish a genomic basis for the evolutionary success of beetles on plants.

  10. Ponderosa pine mortality resulting from a mountain pine beetle outbreak

    Science.gov (United States)

    William F. McCambridge; Frank G. Hawksworth; Carleton B. Edminster; John G. Laut

    1982-01-01

    From 1965 to 1978, mountain pine beetles killed 25% of the pines taller than 4.5 feet in a study area in north-central Colorado. Average basal area was reduced from 92 to 58 square feet per acre. Mortality increased with tree diameter up to about 9 inches d.b.h. Larger trees appeared to be killed at random. Mortality was directly related to number of trees per acre and...

  11. Using malaise traps to sample ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulyshen, Michael D., James L. Hanula, and Scott Horn

    2005-01-01

    Pitfall traps provide an easy and inexpensive way to sample ground-dwelling arthropods (Spence and Niemela 1994; Spence et al. 1997; Abildsnes and Tommeras 2000) and have been used exclusively in many studies of the abundance and diversity of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Despite the popularity of this trapping technique, pitfall traps have many disadvantages. For example, they often fail to collect both small (Spence and Niemela 1994) and trap-shy species (Benest 1989), eventually deplete the local carabid population (Digweed et al. 1995), require a species to be ground-dwelling in order to be captured (Liebherr and Mahar 1979), and produce different results depending on trap diameter and material, type of preservative used, and trap placement (Greenslade 1964; Luff 1975; Work et al. 2002). Further complications arise from seasonal patterns of movement among the beetles themselves (Maelfait and Desender 1990), as well as numerous climatic factors, differences in plant cover, and variable surface conditions (Adis 1979). Because of these limitations, pitfall trap data give an incomplete picture of the carabid community and should be interpreted carefully. Additional methods, such as use of Berlese funnels and litter washing (Spence and Niemela 1994), collection from lights (Usis and MacLean 1998), and deployment of flight intercept devices (Liebherr and Mahar 1979; Paarmann and Stork 1987), should be incorporated in surveys to better ascertain the species composition and relative numbers of ground beetles. Flight intercept devices, like pitfall traps, have the advantage of being easy to use and replicate, but their value to carabid surveys is largely unknown. Here we demonstrate the effectiveness of Malaise traps for sampling ground beetles in a bottomland hardwood forest.

  12. Using malaise traps to sample ground beetles (Coleoptera. Carabidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulyshen, Michael D. [USDA Forest Service, Savannah River, New Ellenton, SC (United States); Hanula, James L. [USDA Forest Service, Savannah River, New Ellenton, SC (United States); Horn, Scott [USDA Forest Service, Savannah River, New Ellenton, SC (United States)

    2012-04-02

    Pitfall traps provide an easy and inexpensive way to sample ground-dwelling arthropods (Spence and Niemela 1994; Spence et al. 1997; Abildsnes and Tommeras 2000) and have been used exclusively in many studies of the abundance and diversity of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Despite the popularity of this trapping technique, pitfall traps have many disadvantages. For example, they often fail to collect both small (Spence and Niemela 1994) and trap-shy species (Benest 1989), eventually deplete the local carabid population (Digweed et al. 1995), require a species to be ground-dwelling in order to be captured (Liebherr and Mahar 1979), and produce different results depending on trap diameter and material, type of preservative used, and trap placement (Greenslade 1964; Luff 1975; Work et al. 2002). Further complications arise from seasonal patterns of movement among the beetles themselves (Maelfait and Desender 1990), as well as numerous climatic factors, differences in plant cover, and variable surface conditions (Adis 1979). Because of these limitations, pitfall trap data give an incomplete picture of the carabid community and should be interpreted carefully. Additional methods, such as use of Berlese funnels and litter washing (Spence and Niemela 1994), collection from lights (Usis and MacLean 1998), and deployment of flight intercept devices (Liebherr and Mahar 1979; Paarmann and Stork 1987), should be incorporated in surveys to better ascertain the species composition and relative numbers of ground beetles. Flight intercept devices, like pitfall traps, have the advantage of being easy to use and replicate, but their value to carabid surveys is largely unknown. Here we demonstrate the effectiveness of Malaise traps for sampling ground beetles in a bottomland hardwood forest.

  13. Impact of planting date on sunflower beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) infestation, damage, and parasitism in cultivated sunflower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlet, Laurence D; Knodel, Janet J

    2003-06-01

    The sunflower beetle, Zygogramma exclamationis (F.), is the major defoliating pest of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Planting date was evaluated as a potential management tool in a variety of production regions throughout North Dakota from 1997 to 1999, for its impact on sunflower beetle population density of both adults and larvae, defoliation caused by both feeding stages, seed yield, oil content, and larval parasitism in cultivated sunflower. Results from this 3-yr study revealed that sunflower beetle adult and larval populations decreased as planting date was delayed. Delayed planting also reduced defoliation from adult and larval feeding, which is consistent with the lower numbers of the beetles present in the later seeded plots. Even a planting delay of only 1 wk was sufficient to significantly reduce feeding damage to the sunflower plant. Yield reduction caused by leaf destruction of the sunflower beetle adults and larvae was clearly evident in the first year of the study. The other component of sunflower yield, oil content, did not appear to be influenced by beetle feeding. The tachinid parasitoid, Myiopharus macellus (Rheinhard), appeared to be a significant mortality factor of sunflower beetle larvae at most locations regardless of the dates of planting, and was able to attack and parasitize the beetle at various larval densities. The results of this investigation showed the potential of delayed planting date as an effective integrated pest management tactic to reduce sunflower beetle adults, larvae, and their resulting defoliation. In addition, altering planting dates was compatible with biological control of the beetle, because delaying the planting date did not reduce the effectiveness of the parasitic fly, M. macellus, which attacks the sunflower beetle larvae.

  14. Decreases in beetle body size linked to climate change and warming temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Michelle; Kaur, Katrina M; Soleimani Pari, Sina; Sarai, Karnjit; Chan, Denessa; Yao, Christine H; Porto, Paula; Toor, Anmol; Toor, Harpawantaj S; Fograscher, Katrina

    2018-05-01

    Body size is a fundamental ecological trait and is correlated with population dynamics, community structure and function, and ecosystem fluxes. Laboratory data from broad taxonomic groups suggest that a widespread response to a warming world may be an overall decrease in organism body size. However, given the myriad of biotic and abiotic factors that can also influence organism body size in the wild, it is unclear whether results from these laboratory assays hold in nature. Here we use datasets spanning 30 to 100 years to examine whether the body size of wild-caught beetles has changed over time, whether body size changes are correlated with increased temperatures, and we frame these results using predictions derived from a quantitative review of laboratory responses of 22 beetle species to temperature. We found that 95% of laboratory-reared beetles decreased in size with increased rearing temperature, with larger-bodied species shrinking disproportionately more than smaller-bodied beetles. In addition, the museum datasets revealed that larger-bodied beetle species have decreased in size over time, that mean beetle body size explains much of the interspecific variation in beetle responses to temperature, and that long-term beetle size changes are explained by increases in autumn temperature and decreases in spring temperature in this region. Our data demonstrate that the relationship between body size and temperature of wild-caught beetles matches relatively well with results from laboratory studies, and that variation in this relationship is largely explained by interspecific variation in mean beetle body size. This long-term beetle dataset is one of the most comprehensive arthropod body size datasets compiled to date, it improves predictions regarding the shrinking of organisms with global climate change, and together with the meta-analysis data, call for new hypotheses to explain why larger-bodied organisms may be more sensitive to temperature. © 2018 The

  15. Assemblages of saproxylic beetles on large downed trunks of oak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milberg, Per; Bergman, Karl-Olof; Sancak, Kerem; Jansson, Nicklas

    2016-03-01

    Old living oaks (Quercus robur) are known as a very species-rich habitat for saproxylic beetles, but it is less clear to what extent such veteran trees differ from an even rarer feature: downed trunks of large oaks. In this study, we set out to sample this habitat, using window traps, with two aims: (1) to describe the variation of assemblages among downed trunks of different type and (2) to compare beetles on downed oaks with data from veteran standing trees. The results showed that trunk volume and sun exposure better explained assemblages as well as species numbers on downed trunks than did decay stage. Furthermore, species classified as facultative saproxylic species showed weak or no differentiation among downed trunks. Species with different feeding habits showed no apparent differentiation among downed trunks. Furthermore, species composition on dead, downed oak trunks differed sharply from that of living, veteran oaks. Wood or bark feeders were more common on veterans than downed trunks, but there was no difference for those species feeding on fungi or those feeding on insects and their remains. In conclusion, for a successful conservation of the saproxylic beetle fauna it is important to keep downed oak trunks, and particularly large ones, in forest and pastures as they constitute a saproxylic habitat that differs from that of living trees.

  16. Coffee Berry Borer Joins Bark Beetles in Coffee Klatch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, Juliana; Torto, Baldwyn; Mwenda, Dickson; Troeger, Armin; Borgemeister, Christian; Poehling, Hans-Michael; Francke, Wittko

    2013-01-01

    Unanswered key questions in bark beetle-plant interactions concern host finding in species attacking angiosperms in tropical zones and whether management strategies based on chemical signaling used for their conifer-attacking temperate relatives may also be applied in the tropics. We hypothesized that there should be a common link in chemical signaling mediating host location by these Scolytids. Using laboratory behavioral assays and chemical analysis we demonstrate that the yellow-orange exocarp stage of coffee berries, which attracts the coffee berry borer, releases relatively high amounts of volatiles including conophthorin, chalcogran, frontalin and sulcatone that are typically associated with Scolytinae chemical ecology. The green stage of the berry produces a much less complex bouquet containing small amounts of conophthorin but no other compounds known as bark beetle semiochemicals. In behavioral assays, the coffee berry borer was attracted to the spiroacetals conophthorin and chalcogran, but avoided the monoterpenes verbenone and α-pinene, demonstrating that, as in their conifer-attacking relatives in temperate zones, the use of host and non-host volatiles is also critical in host finding by tropical species. We speculate that microorganisms formed a common basis for the establishment of crucial chemical signals comprising inter- and intraspecific communication systems in both temperate- and tropical-occurring bark beetles attacking gymnosperms and angiosperms. PMID:24073204

  17. DETECTION OF DRUGSTORE BEETLES IN 9975 PACKAGES USING ACOUSTIC EMISSIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shull, D.

    2013-03-04

    This report documents the initial feasibility tests performed using a commercial acoustic emission instrument for the purpose of detecting beetles in Department of Energy 9975 shipping packages. The device selected for this testing was a commercial handheld instrument and probe developed for the detection of termites, weevils, beetles and other insect infestations in wooden structures, trees, plants and soil. The results of two rounds of testing are presented. The first tests were performed by the vendor using only the hand-held instrument’s indications and real-time operator analysis of the audio signal content. The second tests included hands-free positioning of the instrument probe and post-collection analysis of the recorded audio signal content including audio background comparisons. The test results indicate that the system is promising for detecting the presence of drugstore beetles, however, additional work would be needed to improve the ease of detection and to automate the signal processing to eliminate the need for human interpretation. Mechanisms for hands-free positioning of the probe and audio background discrimination are also necessary for reliable detection and to reduce potential operator dose in radiation environments.

  18. Antibiotic-producing bacteria from stag beetle mycangia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyashita, Atsushi; Hirai, Yuuki; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa; Kaito, Chikara

    2015-02-01

    The search for new antibiotics or antifungal agents is crucial for the chemotherapies of infectious diseases. The limited resource of soil bacteria makes it difficult to discover such new drug candidate. We, therefore, focused on another bacterial resource than soil bacteria, the microbial flora of insect species. In the present study, we isolated 40 strains of bacteria and fungi from the mycangia of three species of stag beetle, Dorcus hopei binodulosus, Dorcus rectus, and Dorcus titanus pilifer. We identified those species with their ribosomal DNA sequences, and revealed that Klebsiella spp. are the most frequent symbiont in the stag beetle mycangia. We examined whether these microorganisms produce antibiotics against a Gram-negative bacterium, Escherichia coli, a Gram-positive bacterium, Staphylococcus aureus, or a fungus, Cryptococcus neoformans. Culture supernatants from 33, 29, or 18 strains showed antimicrobial activity against E. coli, S. aureus, or C. neoformans, respectively. These findings suggest that bacteria present in the mycangia of stag beetles are useful resources for screening novel antibiotics.

  19. Rove beetles of medical importance in Brazil (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Paederinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana S. Vieira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Rove beetles of medical importance in Brazil (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Paederinae. The rove beetles of the genus Paederus Fabricius, 1775 are the most important group within Coleoptera causing dermatitis around the world. The medical importance of Paederus depends on its toxic hemolymph released when these beetles are crushed on human skin. The effects are mainly dermatitis linearis and some sporadic cases of conjunctivitis. In Brazil seven species of Paederus are known to cause dermatitis: P. amazonicus Sharp, 1876, P. brasiliensis Erichson, 1840, P. columbinus Laporte, 1835, P. ferus Erichson, 1840, P. mutans Sharp, 1876, P. protensus Sharp, 1876 stat. rev., and Paederus rutilicornis Erichson, 1840. Paederus mutans and P. protensus are for the first time recorded as of medical importance, whereas the record of P. rutilicornis in Brazil is doubtful. All seven species are redescribed and a dichotomous key is provided. The geographic distributions of all species are documented. The results provided here include the most recent and relevant taxonomic revision of Paederus of the Neotropical region, the first identification key for Brazilian species and the increase of recorded species of medical importance in the world.

  20. Activity of male pheromone of Melanesian rhinoceros beetle Scapanes australis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochat, Didier; Morin, Jean-Paul; Kakul, Titus; Beaudoin-Ollivier, Laurence; Prior, Robert; Renou, Michel; Malosse, Isabelle; Stathers, Tanya; Embupa, Sebastian; Laup, Samson

    2002-03-01

    Laboratory and field investigations were carried out to investigate the nature and role of the male pheromone emitted by the Dynast beetle Scapanes australis and to develop a mass trapping technique against this major coconut pest in Papua New Guinea. We report the biological data obtained from natural and synthetic pheromone, previously described as an 84:12:4 (w/w) mixture of 2-butanol (1), 3-hydoxy-2-butanone (2), and 2,3-butanediol (3). EAG recordings from natural and synthetic pheromone and a pitfall olfactometer were poorly informative. In contrast, extensive field trapping trials with various synthetic pheromone mixtures and doses showed that 1 and 2 (formulated in polyethylene sachets in 90:5 v/v ratio) were necessary and sufficient for optimum long-range attraction. Beetles were captured in traps baited with racemic 1 plus 2, with or without a stereoisomer mixture of 3 (2.5- to 2500-mg/day doses). Plant pieces, either sugarcane or coconut, enhanced captures by the synthetic pheromone, which was active alone. Traps with the pheromone caught both sexes in a 3:2 female-male ratio. A pheromone-based mass trapping led to the capture of 2173 beetles in 14 traps surrounding 40 ha of a cocoa-coconut plantation. The captures followed a log-linear decrease during the 125-week trapping program. The role of the male pheromone and its potential for crop protection are discussed.

  1. Predicting live and dead basal area in bark beetle-affected forests from discrete-return LiDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew T. Hudak; Ben Bright; Jose Negron; Robert McGaughey; Hans-Erik Andersen; Jeffrey A. Hicke

    2012-01-01

    Recent bark beetle outbreaks in western North America have been widespread and severe. High tree mortality due to bark beetles affects the fundamental ecosystem processes of primary production and decomposition that largely determine carbon balance (Kurz et al. 2008, Pfeifer et al. 2011, Hicke et al. 2012). Forest managers need accurate data on beetle-induced tree...

  2. Changes in transpiration and foliage growth in lodgepole pine trees following mountain pine beetle attack and mechanical girdling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert M. Hubbard; Charles C. Rhoades; Kelly Elder; Jose Negron

    2013-01-01

    The recent mountain pine beetle outbreak in North American lodgepole pine forests demonstrates the importance of insect related disturbances in changing forest structure and ecosystem processes. Phloem feeding by beetles disrupts transport of photosynthate from tree canopies and fungi introduced to the tree's vascular system by the bark beetles inhibit water...

  3. An Internal Data Non-hiding Type Real-time Kernel and its Application to the Mechatronics Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Toshio

    For the mechatronics equipment controller that controls robots and machine tools, high-speed motion control processing is essential. The software system of the controller like other embedded systems is composed of three layers software such as real-time kernel layer, middleware layer, and application software layer on the dedicated hardware. The application layer in the top layer is composed of many numbers of tasks, and application function of the system is realized by the cooperation between these tasks. In this paper we propose an internal data non-hiding type real-time kernel in which customizing the task control is possible only by change in the program code of the task side without any changes in the program code of real-time kernel. It is necessary to reduce the overhead caused by the real-time kernel task control for the speed-up of the motion control of the mechatronics equipment. For this, customizing the task control function is needed. We developed internal data non-cryptic type real-time kernel ZRK to evaluate this method, and applied to the control of the multi system automatic lathe. The effect of the speed-up of the task cooperation processing was able to be confirmed by combined task control processing on the task side program code using an internal data non-hiding type real-time kernel ZRK.

  4. Radiation disinfestation studies on sun dried fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, M.; Bhuiya, A.D.; Alam, M.S.; Huda, S.M.S.

    1989-01-01

    A large quantity of dried fish is lost in Bangladesh due to infestation by earwigs, hide beetles and copra beetles in storage godowns. The most destructive pest is the hide beetle, Dermestes maculatus Deg. Earwigs of different developmental stages were exposed to 0.10, 0.20 or 0.30 kGy of gamma rays for disinfestation. There was apparent damage to the control but all treated samples were in good condition and no live insect was observed 3 weeks after starting the experiment. Disinfestation studies of dried mackerel showed that eggs, larval and pupal stages of hide beetles could be inactivated at a dose of 0.20 kGy. A dose of 0.30 kGy killed all adults 2 weeks after irradiation. In the packaging studies, dried mackerel was packed in polythene pouches of different thicknesses. Two controls were maintained, i.e. dried fish with no treatment, control, and dried fish disinfested with heat at 60 deg. C, disinfested control. In experiments with 50 μm thick polythene pouches, the dried fish of irradiation treatments with 0.10 to 1.0 kGy doses and the controls had around 20% moisture content with the exception of disinfested controls which had 13% moisture content. All irradiated samples were free from insect damage. There was heavy damage in the controls due to insects. However, all these treated fish had heavy fungal growth with the exception of the disinfested control. Similar results were obtained with pouches made of 75 μm thick polythene irradiated at doses of 0.50, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 kGy. In the final experiments pouches were made of 50, 75 and 100 μm thick polythene and exposed to similar radiation as in the previous experiment. In all the treatments, moisture content was reduced to 13%. heavy insect damage was observed in the control, while all the treated samples were in excellent condition after 5 months of storage. (author). 20 refs, 2 figs, 5 tabs

  5. Assessing meteorological key factors influencing crop invasion by pollen beetle (

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Junk

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The pollen beetle, Meligethes aeneus F. (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae, is a severe pest of winter oilseed rape. A phenological model to forecast the first spring invasion of crops in Luxembourg by M. aeneus was developed in order to provide a tool for improving pest management and for assessing the potential effects of climate change on this pest. The model was derived using long-term, multi-site observational datasets of pollen beetle migration and meteorological data, as the timing of crop invasion is determined mainly by meteorological variables. Daily values of mean air and soil temperature, accumulated sunshine duration and precipitation were used to create a threshold-based model to forecast crop invasion. Minimising of the root mean squared error (RMSE of predicted versus observed migration dates was used as the quality criterion for selecting the optimum combination of threshold values for meteorological variables. We identified mean air temperature 8.0 °C, mean soil temperature 4.6 °C, and sunshine duration of 3.4 h as the best threshold values, with a cut-off of 1 mm precipitation and with no need for persistence of those conditions for more than one day (RMSE=9.3days$RMSE=9.3\\,\\text{days}$. Only in six out of 30 cases, differences between observed and predicted immigration dates were >5$>5$ days. In the future, crop invasion by pollen beetles will probably be strongly affected by changes in air temperature and precipitation related to climate change. We used a multi-model ensemble of 15 regional climate models driven by the A1B emission scenario to assess meteorological changes in two 30‑year future periods, near future (2021–2050 and far future (2069–2098 in comparison with the reference period (1971–2000. Air temperature and precipitation were predicted to increase in the first three months of each year, both in the near future and the far future. The pollen beetle migration model indicated that this change would

  6. Pheromones in White Pine Cone Beetle, Conophthorus coniperdu (Schwarz) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goran Birgersson; Gary L. DeBarr; Peter de Groot; Mark J. Dalusky; Harold D. Pierce; John H. Borden; Holger Meyer; Wittko Francke; Karl E. Espelie; C. Wayne Berisford

    1995-01-01

    Female white pine cone beetles, Conophrhorus coniperda, attacking second-year cones of eastern white pine, Pinus strobus L., produced a sex-specific pheromone that attracted conspecific males in laboratory bioassays and to field traps. Beetle response was enhanced by host monoterpenes. The female-produced compound was identified in...

  7. Ethanol accumulation during severe drought may signal tree vulnerability to detection and attack by bark beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rick G. Kelsey; D. Gallego; F.J. Sánchez-Garcia; J.A. Pajares

    2014-01-01

    Tree mortality from temperature-driven drought is occurring in forests around the world, often in conjunction with bark beetle outbreaks when carbon allocation to tree defense declines. Physiological metrics for detecting stressed trees with enhanced vulnerability prior to bark beetle attacks remain elusive. Ethanol, water, monoterpene concentrations, and composition...

  8. Climate influences on whitebark pine mortality from mountain pine beetle in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polly C. Buotte; Jeffrey A. Hicke; Haiganoush K. Preisler; John T. Abatzoglou; Kenneth F. Raffa; Jesse A. Logan

    2016-01-01

    Extensive mortality of whitebark pine, beginning in the early to mid-2000s, occurred in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) of the western USA, primarily from mountain pine beetle but also from other threats such as white pine blister rust. The climatic drivers of this recent mortality and the potential for future whitebark pine mortality from mountain pine beetle...

  9. Effects of Japanese beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) and silk clipping in field corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steckel, Sandy; Stewart, S D; Tindall, K V

    2013-10-01

    Japanese beetle (Popillia japonica Newman) is an emerging silk-feeding insect found in fields in the lower Corn Belt and Midsouthern United States. Studies were conducted in 2010 and 2011 to evaluate how silk clipping in corn affects pollination and yield parameters. Manually clipping silks once daily had modest effects on yield parameters. Sustained clipping by either manually clipping silks three times per day or by caging Japanese beetles onto ears affected total kernel weight if it occurred during early silking (R1 growth stage). Manually clipping silks three times per day for the first 5 d of silking affected the number of kernels per ear, total kernel weight, and the weight of individual kernels. Caged beetles fed on silks and, depending on the number of beetles caged per ear, reduced the number of kernels per ear. Caging eight beetles per ear significantly reduced total kernel weight compared with noninfested ears. Drought stress before anthesis appeared to magnify the impact of silk clipping by Japanese beetles. There was evidence of some compensation for reduced pollination by increasing the size of pollinated kernels within the ear. Our results showed that it requires sustained silk clipping during the first week of silking to have substantial impacts on pollination and yield parameters, at least under good growing conditions. Some states recommend treating for Japanese beetle when three Japanese beetles per ear are found, silks are clipped to < 13 mm, and pollination is < 50% complete, and that recommendation appears to be adequate.

  10. Electrophysiological and olfactometer responses of two histerid predators to three pine bark beetle pheromones

    Science.gov (United States)

    William P. Shepherd; Brian T. Sullivan; Richard A. Goyer; Kier D. Klepzig

    2005-01-01

    We measured electrophysiological responses in the antennae of two predaceous hister beetles, Platysoma parallelum and Plegaderus transversus, exposes to racemic mixtures of primary aggregation pheromones of scolytid bark beetle prey, ipsenol, ipsdienol, and frontalin. No significant differences were found for either histerid...

  11. Trophic habits of mesostigmatid mites associated with bark beetles in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Patricia Chaires-Grijalva; Edith G. Estrada-Venegas; Armando Equihua-Martinez; John C. Moser; Stacy R. Blomquist

    2016-01-01

    Samples of bark and logs damaged by bark beetles were collected from 16 states of Mexico from 2007 to 2012. Fifteen bark beetle species were found within the bark and log samples and were examined for phoretic mites and arthropod associates. Thirty-three species of mesostigmatid mites were discovered within the samples. They were identified in several trophic guilds...

  12. The mountain pine beetle and whitebark pine waltz: Has the music changed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara J. Bentz; Greta Schen-Langenheim

    2007-01-01

    The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) (MPB), is a bark beetle native to western North American forests, spanning wide latitudinal and elevational gradients. MPB infest and reproduce within the phloem of most Pinus species from northern Baja California in Mexico to central British Columbia in...

  13. The effect of Beetle leaves (Piper Betle Linn for dental caries formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adi Kurniawan

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries is still the main problem in dental and oral health. Caries is caused by several factors working simultaneously. The main principle of management caries is by prioritizing preventive action and avoiding invasive action. Beetle leaves are medicamentous plant which are widely cultivated and very beneficial for Indonesian people. Its active content enable beetle leaves to be used as antimicrobial, antiseptic, antifungal, antioxidant, and disinfectant. The government of Indonesia and WHO greatly support the utilization of natural resources as medical cure. Currently we can find a lot of toothpaste and mouthwash products which use beetle leaves as additional ingredient. Various researches have proved that the use of beetle leaves extract as mouthwash, toothpaste and chewing beetle leaves may decrease plaque score. Chavicol and chavibetol content enable beetle leaves to function as very good antimicrobial. Beetle leaves also contain charvacrol, eugenol, methyl eugenol, cadinene, and seskuiterpene, which can function as antiseptic. Beetle leaves may effect salivary function and secretion and also impede the forming of dental caries.

  14. Field Tests of Pine Oil as a Repellent for Southern Pine Bark Beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.C. Nod; F.L. Hastings; A.S. Jones

    1990-01-01

    An experimental mixture of terpene hydrocarbons derived from wood pulping, BBR-2, sprayed on the lower 6 m of widely separated southern pine trees did not protect nearby trees from southern pine beetle attacks. Whether treated trees were protected from southern pine beetle was inconclusive. The pine oil mixture did not repellpsfrom treated trees or nearby untreated...

  15. Nitrogen cycling following mountain pine beetle disturbance in lodgepole pine forests of Greater Yellowstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob M. Griffin; Monica G. Turner; Martin Simard

    2011-01-01

    Widespread bark beetle outbreaks are currently affecting multiple conifer forest types throughout western North America, yet many ecosystem-level consequences of this disturbance are poorly understood. We quantified the effect of mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) outbreak on nitrogen (N) cycling through litter, soil, and vegetation in...

  16. Alternative timing of carbaryl treatments for protecting lodgepole pine from mortality attributed to mountain pine beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher J. Fettig; A.Steve Munson; Kenneth E. Gibson

    2015-01-01

    Carbaryl is regarded among the most effective, economically viable, and ecologically-compatible insecticides available for protecting conifers from bark beetle attack in the western United States. Treatments are typically applied in spring prior to initiation of bark beetle flight for that year. We evaluated the efficacy of spring and fall applications for protecting...

  17. Bearing selection in ball-rolling dung beetles: is it constant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Emily; Byrne, Marcus J; Scholtz, Clarke H; Warrant, Eric J; Dacke, Marie

    2010-11-01

    Ball rolling in dung beetles is thought to have evolved as a means to escape intense inter- and intra-specific competition at the dung pile. Accordingly, dung beetles typically roll along a straight-line path away from the pile, this being the most effective escape strategy for transporting dung to a suitable burial site. In this study, we investigate how individual diurnal dung beetles, Scarabaeus (Kheper) nigroaeneus, select the compass bearing of their straight-line rolls. In particular, we examine whether roll bearings are constant with respect to geographic cues, celestial cues, or other environmental cues (such as wind direction). Our results reveal that the roll bearings taken by individual beetles are not constant with respect to geographic or celestial references. Environmental cues appear to have some influence over bearing selection, although the relationship is not strong. Furthermore, the variance in roll bearing that we observe is not affected by the presence or absence of other beetles. Thus, rather than being constant for individual beetles, bearing selection varies each time a beetle makes a ball and rolls it away from the dung pile. This strategy allows beetles to make an efficient escape from the dung pile while minimizing the chance of encountering competition.

  18. Residue age and tree attractiveness influence efficacy of insecticide treatments against ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Management of ambrosia beetles in ornamental nurseries relies, in part, on treatments of insecticides to prevent beetles from boring into trees emitting stress-induced ethanol. However, data on residual efficacy of commonly used pyrethroid insecticides is warranted to gauge the duration that trees ...

  19. Influence of temperature on spring flight initiation for southwestern ponderosa pine bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. L. Gaylord; K. K. Williams; R. W. Hofstetter; J. D. McMillin; T. E. Degomez; M. R. Wagner

    2008-01-01

    Determination of temperature requirements for many economically important insects is a cornerstone of pest management. For bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae), this information can facilitate timing of management strategies. Our goals were to determine temperature predictors for flight initiation of three species of Ips bark beetles...

  20. Effect of gamma irradiation on the cigarette beetles reared on cayenne pepper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imamura, Taro; Miyanoshita, Akihiro; Todoriki, Setsuko

    2009-01-01

    Effect of gamma irradiation on the survival of the cigarette beetles reared on cayenne pepper was investigated. Gamma ray at a dose of 62 Gy completely killed eggs and larvae of the beetles. Some pupae survived at 540 Gy, but all pupae were killed at 1076 Gy. (author)

  1. Species Richness and Phenology of Cerambycid Beetles in Urban Forest Fragments of Northern Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. Handley; J. Hough-Goldstein; L.M. Hanks; J.G. Millar; V. D' amico

    2015-01-01

    Cerambycid beetles are abundant and diverse in forests, but much about their host relationships and adult behavior remains unknown. Generic blends of synthetic pheromones were used as lures in traps, to assess the species richness, and phenology of cerambycids in forest fragments in northern Delaware. More than 15,000 cerambycid beetles of 69 species were trapped over...

  2. Effectiveness of insecticide-incorporated bags to control stored-product beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adults of seven stored-product beetle species were exposed on the inside and outside surfaces of polypropylene polymer bags incorporated with the insecticide deltamethrin (approx. concentration of 3,000 ppm; ZeroFly® Storage Bags (3g/kg). Beetles were exposed for 60, 120, and 180 min, and 1, 3 and 5...

  3. Inquiry-based Investigation in Biology Laboratories: Does Neem Provide Bioprotection against Bean Beetles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Amy R.; Sale, Amanda Lovelace; Srivatsan, Malathi; Beck, Christopher W.; Blumer, Lawrence S.; Grippo, Anne A.

    2013-01-01

    We developed an inquiry-based biology laboratory exercise in which undergraduate students designed experiments addressing whether material from the neem tree ("Azadirachta indica") altered bean beetle ("Callosobruchus maculatus") movements and oviposition. Students were introduced to the bean beetle life cycle, experimental…

  4. Analysis of cellulase and polyphenol oxidase production by southern pine beetle associated fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abduvali Valiev; Zumrut B. Ogel; Dier D. Klepzig

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the production of extracellular enzymes by fungi associated with southern pine beetle was investigated for the first time. Cellulase and polyphenol oxidase production were analyzed for three beetle associated fungi. Only the mutualistic symbiont Entomocorticium sp. A was found to produce cellulases and polyphenol oxidase....

  5. A foam formulation of an entomopathogenic fungus for control of boring beetles in avocado orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    A foam formulation of Beauveria bassiana was adapted to control boring beetles in avocado orchards. The two geographically independent avocado growing areas in the United States are threatened by emerging diseases vectored by boring beetles. In the California growing region, Fusarium dieback is vect...

  6. Elevational shifts in thermal suitability for mountain pine beetle population growth in a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara J. Bentz; Jacob P. Duncan; James A. Powell

    2016-01-01

    Future forests are being shaped by changing climate and disturbances. Climate change is causing large-scale forest declines globally, in addition to distributional shifts of many tree species. Because environmental cues dictate insect seasonality and population success, climate change is also influencing tree-killing bark beetles. The mountain pine beetle,...

  7. Fungus cultivation by ambrosia beetles: Behavior and laboratory breeding success in three Xyleborine species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter Biedermann; Kier Klepzig; Taborsky Michael

    2009-01-01

    Fungus cultivation by ambrosia beetles is one of the four independently evolved cases of agriculture known in animals. Such cultivation is most advanced in the highly social subtribe Xyleborina (Scolytinae), which is characterized by haplodiploidy and extreme levels of inbreeding. Despite their ubiquity in forests worldwide, the behavior of these beetles remains poorly...

  8. Bark beetle-caused mortality in a drought-affected ponderosa pine landscape in Arizona, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose F. Negron; Joel D. McMillin; John A. Anhold; Dave Coulson

    2009-01-01

    Extensive ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) mortality associated with a widespread severe drought and increased bark beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) populations occurred in Arizona from 2001 to 2004. A complex of Ips beetles including: the Arizona fivespined ips, Ips lecontei Swaine...

  9. 76 FR 1337 - Asian Longhorned Beetle; Additions to Quarantined Areas in Massachusetts and New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-10

    .... APHIS-2009-0014] Asian Longhorned Beetle; Additions to Quarantined Areas in Massachusetts and New York... rule. SUMMARY: We are adopting as a final rule, without change, an interim rule that amended the Asian..., MD 20737-1231; (301) 734-5705. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background The Asian longhorned beetle (ALB...

  10. BIOECOLOGICAL FEATURES OF GROUND BEETLES OF GUMBETOVSKY DISTRICT OF DAGHESTAN REPUBLIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. NAKHIBASHEVA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ground beetles of the Gumbetovskiy area are studied. For the first time for the territory there are defined 95 species of the beetles related to 28 genus. Bioecological features of the species are presented and the analysis of the received materials is lead.

  11. Agricultural Land Use Determines the Trait Composition of Ground Beetle Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Helena I; Palmu, Erkki; Birkhofer, Klaus; Smith, Henrik G; Hedlund, Katarina

    2016-01-01

    In order to improve biological control of agricultural pests, it is fundamental to understand which factors influence the composition of natural enemies in agricultural landscapes. In this study, we aimed to understand how agricultural land use affects a number of different traits in ground beetle communities to better predict potential consequences of land-use change for ecosystem functioning. We studied ground beetles in fields with different agricultural land use ranging from frequently managed sugar beet fields, winter wheat fields to less intensively managed grasslands. The ground beetles were collected in emergence tents that catch individuals overwintering locally in different life stages and with pitfall traps that catch individuals that could have a local origin or may have dispersed into the field. Community weighted mean values for ground beetle traits such as body size, flight ability and feeding preference were estimated for each land-use type and sampling method. In fields with high land-use intensity the average body length of emerging ground beetle communities was lower than in the grasslands while the average body length of actively moving communities did not differ between the land-use types. The proportion of ground beetles with good flight ability or a carnivorous diet was higher in the crop fields as compared to the grasslands. Our study highlights that increasing management intensity reduces the average body size of emerging ground beetles and the proportion of mixed feeders. Our results also suggest that the dispersal ability of ground beetles enables them to compensate for local management intensities.

  12. Effects of insecticides intended for Ceutorhynchus napi Gyll. control in oilseed rape on ground beetles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivčev Lazar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of insecticides that are commonly used for conventional and integrated oilseed rape (OSR management on ground beetles were studied. Monitoring of harmful species showed that only insecticides intended against Ceutorhynchus napi should be applied. There were no differences in beetle numbers and phenology of settling of C. napi in the OSR fields that received different management practices. The type of OSR management has a primary and significant impact on ground beetles abundance. Early in the spring, ground beetles settled more massively on the non-tilled OSR field with abundant weed cover and mulch on soil surface. However, there were no significant differences in species richness between the OSR fields managed differently. A total of 22 species were recorded. Early in the spring, the granivorous ground beetles Amara aenea (47.3% and Harpalus distinguendus (32.5% were dominant. When insecticides were applied, immigration of ground beetles began, so that their adverse effect was minimal. In both management systems the number of ground beetles and their diversity increased after spraying. In conclusion, no significant harmful effects of the insecticides on ground beetles were detected in OSR fields managed in two different ways.

  13. Chemical ecology and serendipity: Developing attractants for Florida ambrosia beetle pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two exotic ambrosia beetles have become established in southern Florida: Xyleborus glabratus, the redbay ambrosia beetle (RAB), and Euwallacea fornicatus, the tea shot hole borer (TSHB). Both pests vector pathogenic fungal symbionts; the former for laurel wilt and the latter for Fusarium dieback d...

  14. A trial of direct control of pine engraver beetles on a small logging unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. L. Jackson

    1960-01-01

    Laboratory tests and small-scale field trials have shown the insecticide lindane to be highly toxic to pine engraver beetles. On the basis of that information, the insecticide was applied to fresh logging slash heavily infested with pine engraver beetles at Challenge Experimental Forest in 1959. Costs were reasonable and no insurmountable problems were encountered....

  15. Approaches to control diseases vectored by ambrosia beetles in avocado and other American Lauraceae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Invasive ambrosia beetles and the plant pathogenic fungi they vector represent a significant challenge to North American agriculture, native and landscape trees. Ambrosia beetles encompass a range of insect species and they vector a diverse set of plant pathogenic fungi. Our lab has taken several bi...

  16. Cloning and characterization of luciferase from a Fijian luminous click beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitani, Yasuo; Futahashi, Ryo; Niwa, Kazuki; Ohba, Nobuyoshi; Ohmiya, Yoshihiro

    2013-01-01

    Luminous click beetle is distributed almost exclusively in Central and South America with a single genus in Melanesia. Among these click beetles, the description of Melanesian species has been fragmentary, and its luciferase gene and phylogenetic relation to other click beetles still remain uncertain. We collected a living luminous click beetle, Photophorus jansonii in Fiji. It emits green-yellow light from two spots on the pronotum and has no ventral luminous organ. Here, we cloned a luciferase gene from this insect by RT-PCR. The deduced amino acid sequence showed high identity of ~85% to the luciferases derived from other click beetle species. The luciferase of the Fijian click beetle was produced as a recombinant protein to characterize its biochemical properties. The Km for D-luciferin and ATP were 173 and 270 μm, respectively. The luciferase was pH-insensitive and the spectrum measured at pH 8.0 showed a peak at 559 nm, which was in the range of green-yellow light as seen in the luminous spot of the living Fijian click beetle. The Fijian click beetle luciferase was assigned to the Elateridae clade by a phylogenetic analysis, but it made a clearly different branch from Pyrophorus group examined in this study. © 2013 The American Society of Photobiology.

  17. Diesel fuel oil for increasing mountain pine beetle mortality in felled logs

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. A. Mata; J. M. Schmid; D. A. Leatherman

    2002-01-01

    Diesel fuel oil was applied to mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) infested bolts of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Lawson) in early June. Just prior to the fuel oil application and 6 weeks later, 0.5 ft2 bark samples were removed from each bolt and the numbers of live beetles counted....

  18. Hide Tanning and Its Use in Taiga: The Case of the Orochen-Evenki Reindeer Herders and Hunters of Zabaikalye (East Siberia)

    OpenAIRE

    Donatas Brandišauskas

    2010-01-01

    This article documents the way in which the Orochen-Evenki hunters and herders in northern part of Zabaikalye tan hides and produce gear in the post-Soviet era. Here, I wish to present the argument that it is difficult to understand the reviving of hide tanning in remote villages and the taiga without understanding how hunters and herders in this region adapt to the unstable post-Soviet environment. I suggest that hunters and herders aim to maintain their autonomy from goods and resources imp...

  19. Hide Tanning and Its Use in Taiga: The Case of the Orochen-Evenki Reindeer Herders and Hunters of Zabaikalye (East Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatas Brandišauskas

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This article documents the way in which the Orochen-Evenki hunters and herders in northern part of Zabaikalye tan hides and produce gear in the post-Soviet era. Here, I wish to present the argument that it is difficult to understand the reviving of hide tanning in remote villages and the taiga without understanding how hunters and herders in this region adapt to the unstable post-Soviet environment. I suggest that hunters and herders aim to maintain their autonomy from goods and resources imported from cities, and, in spending little effort connecting with state powers in this way, securing their lives from socio-economic constraints.

  20. Hide Tanning and Its Use in Taiga: The Case of the Orochen-Evenki Reindeer Herders and Hunters of Zabaikalye (East Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatas Brandišauskas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article documents the way in which the Orochen-Evenki hunters and herders in northern part of Zabaikalye tan hides and produce gear in the post-Soviet era. Here, I wish to present the argument that it is difficult to understand the reviving of hide tanning in remote villages and the taiga without understanding how hunters and herders in this region adapt to the unstable post-Soviet environment. I suggest that hunters and herders aim to maintain their autonomy from goods and resources imported from cities, and, in spending little effort connecting with state powers in this way, securing their lives from socio-economic constraints.

  1. New records of water beetles (Coleoptera: Haliplidae, Dytiscidae, Gyrinidae from Montenegro (SE Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pešić Vladimir M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The water beetle fauna of Montenegro is still poorly known. In the catalog dealing with water beetles (Hydrochantares and Palpicornia in Yugoslavia Gueorguiev (1971 gives a list of 116 water beetle species from Montenegro. Mikšić (1977 reported the presence of six water beetles species from the Ulcinj area. In the present paper, 19 water beetle species (Coleoptera Hydradephaga are reported, five of which are new for the fauna of Montenegro. All specimens have been deposited in the zoological collection of the department of Biology (Podgorica. In list of the species, we give the locality, the date of sampling, the total number of individuals and the names of collectors.

  2. Sapwood Stored Resources Decline in Whitebark and Lodgepole Pines Attacked by Mountain Pine Beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahr, Eleanor C; Sala, Anna

    2016-12-01

    Recent outbreaks of forest insects have been directly linked to climate change-induced warming and drought, but effects of tree stored resources on insects have received less attention. We asked whether tree stored resources changed following mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) attack and whether they affected beetle development. We compared initial concentrations of stored resources in the sapwood of whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis Engelmann) and lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Douglas ex. Louden) with resource concentrations one year later, in trees that were naturally attacked by beetles and trees that remained unattacked. Beetles did not select host trees based on sapwood resources-there were no consistent a priori differences between attacked versus unattacked trees-but concentrations of nonstructural carbohydrate (NSC), lipids, and phosphorus declined in attacked trees, relative to initial concentrations and unattacked trees. Whitebark pine experienced greater resource declines than lodgepole pine; however, sapwood resources were not correlated with beetle success in either species. Experimental manipulation confirmed that the negative effect of beetles on sapwood and phloem NSC was not due to girdling. Instead, changes in sapwood resources were related to the percentage of sapwood with fungal blue-stain. Overall, mountain pine beetle attack affected sapwood resources, but sapwood resources did not contribute directly to beetle success; instead, sapwood resources may support colonization by beetle-vectored fungi that potentially accelerate tree mortality. Closer attention to stored resource dynamics will improve our understanding of the interaction between mountain pine beetles, fungi, and host trees, an issue that is relevant to our understanding of insect range expansion under climate change. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions

  3. A comparison of outbreak dynamics of the spruce bark beetle in Sweden and the mountain pine beetle in Canada (Curculionidae: Scolytinae)

    OpenAIRE

    Kärvemo, Simon; Schroeder, Leif Martin

    2010-01-01

    The European spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus) and the North American mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) may kill millions of trees during outbreak periods. Both species have also experienced large outbreaks in recent years. But the magnitude of the outbreaks of D. ponderosae is much larger. In this review we compare the outbreak history of I. typographus in Sweden with D. ponderosae in British Columbia in Canada. We also discuss some possible explanations for the difference in...

  4. Young Stars in Old Galaxies - a Cosmic Hide and Seek Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-05-01

    of its stars are found in large elliptical galaxies (this refers to their form) whose overall appearance has so far led us to believe that they, and their stars as well, are very old, indeed among the oldest objects in the Universe. These elliptical galaxies do shine with the diffuse, reddish glow normally associated with stars that are many billions of years old. However, what is really the underlying mix of stars that produces this elderly appearance? Could perhaps a significant number of much younger stars be "hiding" among the older ones? Whatever the case, this question must obviously be looked into, before it is possible to claim understanding of the evolution of these old galaxies. It is a very challenging investigation and it is only now that new and more detailed observations with the world's premier telescopes have been obtained that cast more light on this central question and thus on the true behaviour of some of the major building blocks of the Universe. Cosmic archaeology In order to identify the constitutents of the stellar "cocktail" in elliptical galaxies, a team of European and American astronomers [2] observed massive stellar clusters in and around several nearby galaxies. These clusters, referred to as "globular" because of their shape, are present in large numbers around most galaxies and together they form a kind of "skeleton" within their host galaxies. These "bones" receive an imprint for every episode of star formation they undergo. Thus, by reading the ages of the globular clusters in a galaxy, it is possible to identify the past epoch(s) of active star formation in that galaxy. This is like digging into the ruins of an ancient archaeological city site and to find those layers and establish those times when the city underwent bursts of building activity. In this way, by the study of the distribution and ages of the globular clusters in an elliptical galaxy, astronomers can reveal when many of its stars were formed. A surprise discovery ESO

  5. EST and microarray analysis of horn development in Onthophagus beetles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Zuojian

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The origin of novel traits and their subsequent diversification represent central themes in evo-devo and evolutionary ecology. Here we explore the genetic and genomic basis of a class of traits that is both novel and highly diverse, in a group of organisms that is ecologically complex and experimentally tractable: horned beetles. Results We developed two high quality, normalized cDNA libraries for larval and pupal Onthophagus taurus and sequenced 3,488 ESTs that assembled into 451 contigs and 2,330 singletons. We present the annotation and a comparative analysis of the conservation of the sequences. Microarrays developed from the combined libraries were then used to contrast the transcriptome of developing primordia of head horns, prothoracic horns, and legs. Our experiments identify a first comprehensive list of candidate genes for the evolution and diversification of beetle horns. We find that developing horns and legs show many similarities as well as important differences in their transcription profiles, suggesting that the origin of horns was mediated partly, but not entirely, by the recruitment of genes involved in the formation of more traditional appendages such as legs. Furthermore, we find that horns developing from the head and prothorax differ in their transcription profiles to a degree that suggests that head and prothoracic horns are not serial homologs, but instead may have evolved independently from each other. Conclusion We have laid the foundation for a systematic analysis of the genetic basis of horned beetle development and diversification with the potential to contribute significantly to several major frontiers in evolutionary developmental biology.

  6. Hide-Scrapers from Arukhlo I Settlement in Georgia (on correspondence of the shape and function of prehistoric implements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esakia Ketevan M.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses one of the primary categories of the implement complex discovered at Arukhlo I Neolithic settlement (Georgia, Kvemo Kartli Region. The stone implements discovered at the site are characterized by their great variety. Comprehensive functional research conducted by the authors demonstrated that the typological and morphological characteristics of the various categories of stone implements do not always correspond to their functions. Thus, the shapes and functions of the hide-scrapers were fully identical for 18 of 39 implements only, whereas the other tools were used for different purposes and did not feature traces of utilization. A microanalysis of their working parts allowed to determine the types of processed raw material, means of processing, and in certain cases the type of obtained articles as well. The authors made a conclusion on the importance of the comprehensive research of production inventory for the reconstruction of the characteristic features of prehistoric economy.

  7. Occurrence of the hermit beetle (Osmoderma eremita), in Sweden.

    OpenAIRE

    Antonsson, Kjell; Hedin, Jonas; Jansson, Niklas; Nilsson, Sven; Ranius, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    We have compiled data on the occurrence of a threatened beetle, Osmoderma eremita, in Sweden. The species inhabits tree hollows with wood mould. The data were compiled from field surveys conducted in 1993-2003, using pitfall traps at 401 localities and using wood mould sampling at 104 localities. We have also gone through published data and all larger Swedish museums and registered old records. O. eremita was recorded at about 30% of the field surveys. In Sweden, oak is by far the most import...

  8. The genome of the model beetle and pest Tribolium castaneum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richards, Stephen; Gibbs, Richard A; Weinstock, George M

    2008-01-01

    Tribolium castaneum is a member of the most species-rich eukaryotic order, a powerful model organism for the study of generalized insect development, and an important pest of stored agricultural products. We describe its genome sequence here. This omnivorous beetle has evolved the ability...... to interact with a diverse chemical environment, as shown by large expansions in odorant and gustatory receptors, as well as P450 and other detoxification enzymes. Development in Tribolium is more representative of other insects than is Drosophila, a fact reflected in gene content and function. For example...

  9. Fluorescence of the 'fire-chaser' beetle Melanophila acuminata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Israelowitz, Meir; Rizvi, Syed H.W.; Schroeder, Herbert P. von

    2007-01-01

    Melanophila acuminata beetles are attracted to forest fires over long distances by a pair of specialized infrared sensory organs. To date, there is no knowledge of their ability to detect or emit fluorescent radiation. We studied the Melanophila acuminata infrared sensory organs histologically and by using fluorescent microscopy, acoustic-optic tunable filter microscopy, and two-photon microscopy to identify fluorescence. We found fluorescent absorption at radiation wavelengths of 480 nm and emission at 570 nm. The functional role of this novel fluorescence is, as of yet, unknown but may be applied to species classification, identification and behavioral studies

  10. Ground beetles from Sǎlaj county (Romania (coleoptera: carabidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kutasi Cs

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During a faunistical exploration of Sǎlaj county carried out in 2014 and 2015, 207 ground beetle (Carabidae species were recorded from the area. Considering the earlier literature data the total number of carabid species known from the county is 246. Carabus variolosus Fabricius, 1787 is a Natura 2000 species, Pterostichus bielzii Fuss, 1878 is a species endemic to the Western Apuseni Mountains. Further rare species from the area: Dromius quadraticollis A. Morawitz, 1862, Elaphropus parvulus (Dejean, 1831, Lebia marginata (Geoffroy, 1785, Ophonus ardosiacus (Lučnik, 1922, Trechus amplicollis Fairmaire, 1859.

  11. Trilobite spines and beetle horns: sexual selection in the Palaeozoic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knell, Robert J; Fortey, Richard A

    2005-06-22

    Raphiophorid trilobites commonly bore median cephalic protuberances such as spines or bulbs, showing a remarkable variety of form. It is unlikely that their primary function was for protection or in hydrodynamics. A case is made that they were secondary sexual features, by comparison with similar morphological structures developed on rhinoceros beetles and other arthropods. This interpretation is supported by four lines of evidence: their ontogeny, their diversity, the existence of plausible examples of sexual dimorphs in some cases and the fact that they show positive allometry.

  12. [Missed diagnosis of hiding posterior marginal fracture of ankle with pronation-external rotation type and its treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia; Zhang, Yun-Tong; Zhang, Chun-Cai; Tang, Yang

    2014-01-01

    To analyze causes of missed diagnosis of hiding post-malleolar fractures in treating ankle joint fractures of pronation-external rotation type according to Lauge-Hansen classification and assess its medium-term outcomes. Among 103 patients with ankle joint fracture of pronation-external rotation type treated from March 2002 to June 2010,9 patients were missed diagnosis,including 6 males and 3 females,with a mean age of 35.2 years old (ranged, 18 to 55 years old) . Four patients were diagnosed during operation, 2 patients were diagnosed 2 or 3 days after first surgery and 3 patients came from other hospital. All the patients were treated remedially with lag screws and lock plates internal fixation. After operation,ankle joint function was evaluated according to American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS). All the 9 patients were followed up, and the duration ranged from 14 to 30 months (averaged, 17 months). No incision infection was found, and all incision healed at the first stage. At the latest follow-up, AOFAS was 83.0 +/- 4.4, the score of 4 patients diagnosed during operation was 85.0 +/- 2.9, and the score of 5 patients treated by secondary operation was 81.0 +/- 5.3. All the patients got fracture union observed by X-ray at a mean time of 2.2 months after operation. There were no complications such as internal fixation loosing, broken and vascular or nerve injuries. Ankle joint fracture of pronation-external rotation type may be combined with hiding post-malleolar fractures. So to patients with ankle joint fracture of pronation-external rotation type, lateral X-ray should be read carefully, and if necessary, CT or MRI examination should be performed. If adding lateral X-ray examination after reduction of exterior and interior ankle joint fixation, the missed diagnosis may be avoided.

  13. Landscape-scale analysis of aboveground tree carbon stocks affected by mountain pine beetles in Idaho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bright, B C; Hicke, J A; Hudak, A T

    2012-01-01

    Bark beetle outbreaks kill billions of trees in western North America, and the resulting tree mortality can significantly impact local and regional carbon cycling. However, substantial variability in mortality occurs within outbreak areas. Our objective was to quantify landscape-scale effects of beetle infestations on aboveground carbon (AGC) stocks using field observations and remotely sensed data across a 5054 ha study area that had experienced a mountain pine beetle outbreak. Tree mortality was classified using multispectral imagery that separated green, red, and gray trees, and models relating field observations of AGC to LiDAR data were used to map AGC. We combined mortality and AGC maps to quantify AGC in beetle-killed trees. Thirty-nine per cent of the forested area was killed by beetles, with large spatial variability in mortality severity. For the entire study area, 40–50% of AGC was contained in beetle-killed trees. When considered on a per-hectare basis, 75–89% of the study area had >25% AGC in killed trees and 3–6% of the study area had >75% of the AGC in killed trees. Our results show that despite high variability in tree mortality within an outbreak area, bark beetle epidemics can have a large impact on AGC stocks at the landscape scale. (letter)

  14. Chemical Strategies of the Beetle Metoecus Paradoxus, Social Parasite of the Wasp Vespula Vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Oystaeyen, Annette; van Zweden, Jelle S; Huyghe, Hilde; Drijfhout, Falko; Bonckaert, Wim; Wenseleers, Tom

    2015-12-01

    The parasitoid beetle Metoecus paradoxus frequently parasitizes colonies of the common wasp, Vespula vulgaris. It penetrates a host colony as a larva that attaches itself onto a foraging wasp's body and, once inside the nest, it feeds on a wasp larva inside a brood cell and then pupates. Avoiding detection by the wasp host is crucial when the beetle emerges. Here, we tested whether adult M. paradoxus beetles avoid detection by mimicking the cuticular hydrocarbon profile of their host. The beetles appear to be chemically adapted to their main host species, the common wasp, because they share more hydrocarbon compounds with it than they do with the related German wasp, V. germanica. In addition, aggression tests showed that adult beetles were attacked less by common wasp workers than by German wasp workers. Our results further indicated that the host-specific compounds were, at least partially, produced through recycling of the prey's hydrocarbons, and were not acquired through contact with the adult host. Moreover, the chemical profile of the beetles shows overproduction of the wasp queen pheromone, nonacosane (n-C29), suggesting that beetles might mimic the queen's pheromonal bouquet.

  15. Diurnal dung beetles use the intensity gradient and the polarization pattern of the sky for orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el Jundi, Basil; Smolka, Jochen; Baird, Emily; Byrne, Marcus J; Dacke, Marie

    2014-07-01

    To escape competition at the dung pile, a ball-rolling dung beetle forms a piece of dung into a ball and rolls it away. To ensure their efficient escape from the dung pile, beetles rely on a 'celestial compass' to move along a straight path. Here, we analyzed the reliability of different skylight cues for this compass and found that dung beetles rely not only on the sun but also on the skylight polarization pattern. Moreover, we show the first evidence of an insect using the celestial light-intensity gradient for orientation. Using a polarizer, we manipulated skylight so that the polarization pattern appeared to turn by 90 deg. The beetles then changed their bearing close to the expected 90 deg. This behavior was abolished if the sun was visible to the beetle, suggesting that polarized light is hierarchically subordinate to the sun. When the sky was depolarized and the sun was invisible, the beetles could still move along straight paths. Therefore, we analyzed the use of the celestial light-intensity gradient for orientation. Artificial rotation of the intensity pattern by 180 deg caused beetles to orient in the opposite direction. This light-intensity cue was also found to be subordinate to the sun and could play a role in disambiguating the polarization signal, especially at low sun elevations. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  16. Longevity and viability of Taenia solium eggs in the digestive system of the beetle Ammophorus rubripes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Puerta, Luis Antonio; Lopez-Urbina, Maria Teresa; Garcia, Hector Hugo; Gonzalez, Armando Emiliano

    2014-03-01

    The present study evaluated the capacity of Ammophorus rubripes beetles to carry Taenia solium eggs, in terms of duration and viability of eggs in their digestive system. One hundred beetles were distributed into five polyethylene boxes, and then they were infected with T. solium eggs. Gravid proglottids of T. solium were crushed and then mixed with cattle feces. One gram of this mixture was placed in each box for 24 hours, after which each group of beetles was transferred into a new clean box. Then, five beetles were dissected every three days. Time was strongly associated with viability (r=0.89; PTaenia solium eggs were present in the beetle's digestive system for up to 39 days (13th sampling day out of 20), gradually reducing in numbers and viability, which was 0 on day 36 post-infection. Egg viability was around 40% up to day 24 post-infection, with a median number of eggs of 11 per beetle at this time. Dung beetles may potentially contribute towards dispersing T. solium eggs in endemic areas.

  17. Management of Chinese Rose Beetle (Adoretus sinicus) Adults Feeding on Cacao (Theobroma cacao) Using Insecticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spafford, Helen; Ching, Alexander; Manley, Megan; Hardin, Chelsea; Bittenbender, Harry

    2016-01-01

    The Chinese rose beetle (Adoretus sinicus Burmeister (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae)) is an introduced, widely-established pest in Hawai’i. The adult beetles feed on the leaves of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.), which can lead to defoliation and even death of young trees. We evaluated the impact of five commercially available products with different active ingredients (imidacloprid, azadirachtin, Beauveria bassiana (Bals.-Criv.) Vuill., kaolin clay, and pyrethrin) and the presence or absence of weed mat cover in reducing adult beetle feeding on sapling cacao in the field. The use of weed mat cover reduced feeding damage compared to the untreated control, as did foliar application of imidacloprid, azadirachtin, and B. bassiana. In the laboratory, field-collected adult beetles were presented cacao leaf samples dipped in one of the five products and compared to a control. Beetles exposed to pyrethrin died rapidly. Among the other treatments, only exposure to imidacloprid significantly reduced survival relative to the control. Beetles fed very little on leaf samples with azadirachtin but their longevity was not significantly reduced. Imidacloprid, azadirachtin, and weed mat application had the most promise for reducing adult Chinese rose beetle feeding damage in young cacao and deserve further investigation for successful management of this significant pest. PMID:27348004

  18. Development of a Dung Beetle Robot and Investigation of Its Dung-Rolling Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen-Wei Wang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a bio-inspired dung beetle robot was developed that emulated the dung rolling motion of the dung beetle. Dung beetles, which can roll objects up to 1000 times their own body weight, are one of the strongest insect species in the world. While the locomotion of many insects, such as cockroaches, inchworms, and butterflies, has been studied widely, the locomotion of dung beetles has rarely been given attention. Here, we report on the development of a dung beetle robot made specifically to investigate dung-rolling behavior and to determine and understand the underlying mechanism. Two versions of the robot were built, and the leg trajectories were carefully designed based on kinematic analysis. Cylinder and ball rolling experiments were conducted, and the results showed that the dung beetle robot could successfully and reliably roll objects. This further suggests that the dung beetle robot, with its current morphology, is capable of reliably rolling dung without the need for complex control strategies.

  19. Influence of shifting cultivation practices on soil-plant-beetle interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Kalibulla Syed; Momin, Marcy D; Lalrotluanga, R; Rosangliana, David; Ghatak, Souvik; Zothansanga, R; Kumar, Nachimuthu Senthil; Gurusubramanian, Guruswami

    2016-08-01

    Shifting cultivation (jhum) is a major land use practice in Mizoram. It was considered as an eco-friendly and efficient method when the cycle duration was long (15-30 years), but it poses the problem of land degradation and threat to ecology when shortened (4-5 years) due to increased intensification of farming systems. Studying beetle community structure is very helpful in understanding how shifting cultivation affects the biodiversity features compared to natural forest system. The present study examines the beetle species diversity and estimates the effects of shifting cultivation practices on the beetle assemblages in relation to change in tree species composition and soil nutrients. Scarabaeidae and Carabidae were observed to be the dominant families in the land use systems studied. Shifting cultivation practice significantly (P PERMANOVA), permutational multivariate analysis of dispersion (PERMDISP)) statistical analyses. Besides changing the tree species composition and affecting the soil fertility, shifting cultivation provides less suitable habitat conditions for the beetle species. Bioindicator analysis categorized the beetle species into forest specialists, anthropogenic specialists (shifting cultivation habitat specialist), and habitat generalists. Molecular analysis of bioindicator beetle species was done using mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) marker to validate the beetle species and describe genetic variation among them in relation to heterogeneity, transition/transversion bias, codon usage bias, evolutionary distance, and substitution pattern. The present study revealed the fact that shifting cultivation practice significantly affects the beetle species in terms of biodiversity pattern as well as evolutionary features. Spatiotemporal assessment of soil-plant-beetle interactions in shifting cultivation system and their influence in land degradation and ecology will be helpful in making biodiversity conservation decisions in the

  20. Identification of Hymenolepis diminuta Cysticercoid Larvae in Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera:Tenebrionidae Beetles from Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa Sadat Makki

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hymenolepis diminuta is a cestod of rodents and rarely infects humans. Infection in humans is via ingestion of infected insects. This study was aimed to detect H. diminuta cysticercoids in red flour beetles, Tribolium castaneum, and cockroaches originated from different regions of Iran.Methods: The red flour beetles and cockroaches were collected from local bakeries in five cities including Tehran, Ahvaz, Kazerun, and Sabzevar during 2010–2011. Some beetles and cockroaches were colonized in insectary and adults from F1 generation were fed on H. diminuta eggs. Both laboratory-infected and field-collected samples were dissected and examined for cysticercoids. Detection of H. diminuta DNA in T. castaneum beetles was performed by targeting a partial sequence of Ribosomal gene.Results: Except the beetles from Ahvaz, all specimens were negative for cysticercoid by microscopy. Of the four dissected beetles from Ahvaz, one harbored 12 cysticercoids. Also, 110 (52% of laboratory-infected beetles showed infection with an average of 12–14 larvae. None of the cockroaches was infected. Two beetles from Ahvaz, includ­ing the remainder of the microscopic positive specimen, yielded the expected amplicon in PCR assay. The H. diminuta DNA sequences generated in this study were identical and matched 97–100% with similar sequences from GenBank database.Conclusion: Lack of infection in the majority of beetles may reflect a low rat infestation rate in those areas, alternatively, the examined specimens might not have been the representative samples of the T. castaneum populations.

  1. Occurrence of spruce bark beetles in forest stands at different levels of air pollution stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grodzki, Wojciech; McManus, Michael; Knizek, Milos; Meshkova, Valentina; Mihalciuc, Vasile; Novotny, Julius; Turcani, Marek; Slobodyan, Yaroslav

    2004-01-01

    The spruce bark beetle, Ips typographus (L.) is the most serious pest of mature spruce stands, mainly Norway spruce, Picea abies (L.) Karst. throughout Eurasia. A complex of weather-related events and other environmental stresses are reported to predispose spruce stands to bark beetle attack and subsequent tree mortality; however the possible role of industrial pollution as a predisposing factor to attack by this species is poorly understood. The abundance and dynamics of I. typographus populations was evaluated in 60-80 year old Norway spruce stands occurring on 10x50 ha sites in five countries within the Carpathian range that were selected in proximity to established ozone measurement sites. Data were recorded on several parameters including the volume of infested trees, captures of adult beetles in pheromone traps, number of attacks, and the presence and relative abundance of associated bark beetle species. In several cases, stands adjacent to sites with higher ozone values were associated with higher bark beetle populations. The volume of sanitary cuttings, a reflection of tree mortality, and the mean daily capture of beetles in pheromone traps were significantly higher at sites where the O 3 level was higher. However, the mean infestation density on trees was higher in plots associated with lower O 3 levels. Captures of beetles in pheromone traps and infestation densities were higher in the zone above 800 m. However, none of the relationships was conclusive, suggesting that spruce bark beetle dynamics are driven by a complex interaction of biotic and abiotic factors and not by a single parameter such as air pollution. - Air pollution (ozone) can be one of predisposing factors that increases the susceptibility of mountain Norway spruce stands to attack by Ips typographus and associated bark beetle species

  2. No Place to Hide: Missing Primitive Stars Outside Milky Way Uncovered

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    , Sculptor, Sextans and Carina dwarf galaxies. Since the dwarf galaxies are typically 300 000 light years away - which is about three times the size of our Milky Way - only strong features in the spectrum could be measured, like a vague, smeared fingerprint. The team found that none of their large collection of spectral fingerprints actually seemed to belong to the class of stars they were after, the rare, extremely metal-poor stars found in the Milky Way. The team of astronomers around Starkenburg has now shed new light on the problem through careful comparison of spectra to computer-based models. They found that only subtle differences distinguish the chemical fingerprint of a normal metal-poor star from that of an extremely metal-poor star, explaining why previous methods did not succeed in making the identification. The astronomers also confirmed the almost pristine status of several extremely metal-poor stars thanks to much more detailed spectra obtained with the UVES instrument on ESO's Very Large Telescope. "Compared to the vague fingerprints we had before, this would be as if we looked at the fingerprint through a microscope," explains team member Vanessa Hill. "Unfortunately, just a small number of stars can be observed this way because it is very time consuming." "Among the new extremely metal-poor stars discovered in these dwarf galaxies, three have a relative amount of heavy chemical elements between only 1/3000 and 1/10 000 of what is observed in our Sun, including the current record holder of the most primitive star found outside the Milky Way," says team member Martin Tafelmeyer. "Not only has our work revealed some of the very interesting, first stars in these galaxies, but it also provides a new, powerful technique to uncover more such stars," concludes Starkenburg. "From now on there is no place left to hide!" Notes [1] According to the definition used in astronomy, "metals" are all the elements other than hydrogen and helium. Such metals, except for a very

  3. Fog-basking behaviour and water collection efficiency in Namib Desert Darkling beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nørgaard, Thomas; Dacke, Marie

    2010-07-16

    In the Namib Desert fog represents an alternative water source. This is utilised by Darkling beetles (Tenebrionidae) that employ different strategies for obtaining the fog water. Some dig trenches in the sand, while others use their own bodies as fog collectors assuming a characteristic fog-basking stance. Two beetle species from the genus Onymacris have been observed to fog-bask on the ridges of the sand dunes. These beetles all have smooth elytra surfaces, while another species with elytra covered in bumps is reported to have specialised adaptations facilitating water capture by fog-basking. To resolve if these other beetles also fog-bask, and if an elytra covered in bumps is a more efficient fog water collector than a smooth one, we examined four Namib Desert beetles; the smooth Onymacris unguicularis and O. laeviceps and the bumpy Stenocara gracilipes and Physasterna cribripes. Here we describe the beetles' fog-basking behaviour, the details of their elytra structures, and determine how efficient their dorsal surface areas are at harvesting water from fog. The beetles differ greatly in size. The largest P. cribripes has a dorsal surface area that is 1.39, 1.56, and 2.52 times larger than O. unguicularis, O. laeviceps, and S. gracilipes, respectively. In accordance with earlier reports, we found that the second largest O. unguicularis is the only one of the four beetles that assumes the head standing fog-basking behaviour, and that fog is necessary to trigger this behaviour. No differences were seen in the absolute amounts of fog water collected on the dorsal surface areas of the different beetles. However, data corrected according to the sizes of the beetles revealed differences. The better fog water harvesters were S. gracilipes and O. unguicularis while the large P. cribripes was the poorest. Examination of the elytra microstructures showed clear structural differences, but the elytra of all beetles were found to be completely hydrophobic. The differences in

  4. Plant cells which aid in pollen digestion within a beetle's gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickson, Fred R; Cresti, M; Beach, James H

    1990-03-01

    The peach palm, Bactris gasipaes H.B.K., in Costa Rica, possesses unusual trichomes on the inflorescence epidermal surface. Certain cells of the trichome possess a thick, highly lignified cell wall and are consumed by the beetle Cyclocephala amazona L. before it ingests pollen from the same inflorescence. Chemical analyses show the trichome to possess no nutritive value. The thick-walled trichome cells pass intact through the beetle's digestive system, while ingested pollen is crushed. We suggest that the specialized plant cells function as gastroliths in the beetle's digestive tract.

  5. 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance of Lodgepole Pine Wood Chips Affected by the Mountain Pine Beetle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartwig Peemoeller

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, wood-water interactions of mountain pine beetle affected lodgepole pine were found to vary with time since death. Based on an analysis of magnetization components and spin-spin relaxation times from 1H NMR, it was determined that the mountain pine beetle attack does not affect the crystalline structure of the wood. Both the amorphous structure and the water components vary with time since death, which could be due to the fungi present after a mountain pine beetle attack, as well as the fact that wood from the grey-stage of attack cycles seasonally through adsorption and desorption in the stand.

  6. 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance of Lodgepole Pine Wood Chips Affected by the Mountain Pine Beetle

    OpenAIRE

    Todoruk, Tara M.; Hartley, Ian D.; Teymoori, Roshanak; Liang, Jianzhen; Peemoeller, Hartwig

    2010-01-01

    In this study, wood-water interactions of mountain pine beetle affected lodgepole pine were found to vary with time since death. Based on an analysis of magnetization components and spin-spin relaxation times from 1H NMR, it was determined that the mountain pine beetle attack does not affect the crystalline structure of the wood. Both the amorphous structure and the water components vary with time since death, which could be due to the fungi present after a mountain pine beetle attack, as wel...

  7. Heterorhabditis sp. (Nematoda: Heterorhabditidae): A Nematode Parasite Isolated from the Banded Cucumber Beetle Diabrotica balteata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creighton, C. S.; Fassuliotis, G.

    1985-01-01

    A nematode identified as Heterorhabditis sp. was discovered in June 1982 in larval cadavers of the banded cucumber beetle, Diabrotica balteata, in soil on wooded land. Effective beetle control (over 95%) was obtained when larvae were exposed to potted soil containing infective stage nematode juveniles or infected larval cadavers. The nematode was propagated in vivo on larvae of D. balteata, Diaphania nitidalis (the pickleworm), and Galleria mellonella (the greater wax moth). This Heterorhabditis sp. has promising potential as a biocontrol agent for the banded cucumber beetle. PMID:19294074

  8. [Histological structure of tripartite mushroom bodies in ground beetles (Insecta, Coleoptera: Carabidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panov, A A

    2013-01-01

    Contrary to members of the suborder Polyphaga; ground beetles have been found to possess tripartite mushroom bodies, which are poorly developed in members of basal taxa and maximally elaborated in evolutionarily advanced groups. Nevertheless, they do not reach the developmental stage, which has been previously found in particular families of beetles. It has been pointed out that anew formation of the Kenyon cells occurs during at least the first months of adult life, and inactive neuroblasts are found even in one-year-old beetles. It has been suggested that there is a relation between the Kenyon cell number and development of the centers of Kenyon cell new-formation.

  9. Quantitative separation of bone and muscle radioactivity in small rodents using Dermestid beetles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walburg, H.E.; Eisele, G.R.; Mraz, F.R.

    1979-01-01

    The use of Dermestid beetles, which feed on dead animals, to separate muscle and bone radioactivity in small rodent carcasses was studied. Eviscerated carcasses of mice injected with 1μCi 95 Nb 48hr before killing were placed in jars with adult beetle larvae. Within 3 weeks the skeletons were completely free of muscle. Losses of radioactivity were acceptably small. The actual muscle activity was measured by counting activity in beetles, larvae and excreta, and compared with estimated values. Dermestid digestion has proved to be effective for small carcasses, where size precludes other methods of separation, and is in current use in studies of tissue localization of radionuclides. (author)

  10. Fog-basking behaviour and water collection efficiency in Namib Desert Darkling beetles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dacke Marie

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the Namib Desert fog represents an alternative water source. This is utilised by Darkling beetles (Tenebrionidae that employ different strategies for obtaining the fog water. Some dig trenches in the sand, while others use their own bodies as fog collectors assuming a characteristic fog-basking stance. Two beetle species from the genus Onymacris have been observed to fog-bask on the ridges of the sand dunes. These beetles all have smooth elytra surfaces, while another species with elytra covered in bumps is reported to have specialised adaptations facilitating water capture by fog-basking. To resolve if these other beetles also fog-bask, and if an elytra covered in bumps is a more efficient fog water collector than a smooth one, we examined four Namib Desert beetles; the smooth Onymacris unguicularis and O. laeviceps and the bumpy Stenocara gracilipes and Physasterna cribripes. Here we describe the beetles' fog-basking behaviour, the details of their elytra structures, and determine how efficient their dorsal surface areas are at harvesting water from fog. Results The beetles differ greatly in size. The largest P. cribripes has a dorsal surface area that is 1.39, 1.56, and 2.52 times larger than O. unguicularis, O. laeviceps, and S. gracilipes, respectively. In accordance with earlier reports, we found that the second largest O. unguicularis is the only one of the four beetles that assumes the head standing fog-basking behaviour, and that fog is necessary to trigger this behaviour. No differences were seen in the absolute amounts of fog water collected on the dorsal surface areas of the different beetles. However, data corrected according to the sizes of the beetles revealed differences. The better fog water harvesters were S. gracilipes and O. unguicularis while the large P. cribripes was the poorest. Examination of the elytra microstructures showed clear structural differences, but the elytra of all beetles were found to

  11. Predation of Ladybird Beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) by Amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloggett, John J

    2012-07-18

    Studies of predation of ladybird beetles (Coccinellidae) have focused on a limited number of predator taxa, such as birds and ants, while other potential predators have received limited attention. I here consider amphibians as predators of ladybirds. Published amphibian gut analyses show that ladybirds are quite often eaten by frogs and toads (Anura), with recorded frequencies reaching up to 15% of dietary items. Salamanders (Caudata) eat ladybirds less frequently, probably as their habits less often bring them into contact with the beetles. Amphibians do not appear to be deleteriously affected by the potentially toxic alkaloids that ladybirds possess. Amphibians, especially frogs and toads, use primarily prey movement as a release cue to attack their food; it is thus likely that their ability to discriminate against ladybirds and other chemically defended prey is limited. Because of this poor discriminatory power, amphibians have apparently evolved non-specific resistance to prey defensive chemicals, including ladybird alkaloids. Although amphibian-related ladybird mortality is limited, in certain habitats it could outweigh mortality from more frequently studied predators, notably birds. The gut analyses from the herpetological literature used in this study, suggest that in studying predation of insects, entomologists should consider specialized literature on other animal groups.

  12. Biological factors contributing to bark and ambrosia beetle species diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohli, Jostein; Kirkendall, Lawrence R; Smith, Sarah M; Cognato, Anthony I; Hulcr, Jiri; Jordal, Bjarte H

    2017-05-01

    The study of species diversification can identify the processes that shape patterns of species richness across the tree of life. Here, we perform comparative analyses of species diversification using a large dataset of bark beetles. Three examined covariates-permanent inbreeding (sibling mating), fungus farming, and major host type-represent a range of factors that may be important for speciation. We studied the association of these covariates with species diversification while controlling for evolutionary lag on adaptation. All three covariates were significantly associated with diversification, but fungus farming showed conflicting patterns between different analyses. Genera that exhibited interspecific variation in host type had higher rates of species diversification, which may suggest that host switching is a driver of species diversification or that certain host types or forest compositions facilitate colonization and thus allopatric speciation. Because permanent inbreeding is thought to facilitate dispersal, the positive association between permanent inbreeding and diversification rates suggests that dispersal ability may contribute to species richness. Bark beetles are ecologically unique; however, our results indicate that their impressive species diversity is largely driven by mechanisms shown to be important for many organism groups. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  13. Parental care improves offspring survival and growth in burying beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggert; Reinking; MULLER

    1998-01-01

    Burying beetles (genus Nicrophorus) provide elaborate parental care to their offspring. Parental beetles defend a small vertebrate carcass, which constitutes the sole food source for the larvae. They also manipulate the carcass in various ways and directly regurgitate pre-digested carrion to the young. The benefits of carcass manipulation and regurgitation have been the subject of a few small-scale studies that have yielded conflicting results. In this study, we investigated the benefits of these behaviours and tested for possible beneficial effects on larval survival rates and final body mass in N. vespilloides. In this species: (1) larval survival and mass were significantly higher in broods receiving parental care throughout larval development on the carcass than in broods developing in the absence of adults; (2) parental presence immediately subsequent to larval hatching greatly improved larval survival rates; (3) continued parental presence for several days further improved larval growth, leading to a greater final mass of individual larvae; (4) larval survival and growth were improved by parental preparation of carcasses and by an excision made in the integument of the carcass surface by the parents that allows the larvae ready access to their food; (5) positive effects of parental feeding on larval survival and growth were not mediated by the transfer of symbionts. Copyright 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  14. Fungal volatiles: Semiochemicals for stored-product beetles (Coleoptera: Cucujidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, A M; Pierce, H D; Borden, J H; Oehlschlager, A C

    1991-03-01

    Responses by five species of cucujid grain beetles (mixed-sex adults) to various volatiles were assessed by means of a two-choice, pitfall olfactometer. The test volatiles were short-chain alcohols and ketones known to be produced by fungi. Both racemic and chiral 1-octen-3-ols were strong attractants forCryptolestes ferrugineus (Stephens), as had been found previously forOryzaephilus surinamensis (L.),O. mercator (Fauvel), andAhasverus advena (Waltl). 3-Methylbutanol was another good attractant for these four cucujids, and it was the only test compound to whichCathartus quadricollis (Guér.) responded positively. 1-Octen-3-one, racemic 3-octanol, and 3-octanone showed various degrees of attractiveness for the former four species of cucujids.O. surinamensis was the only species of test beetle to show much positive response to 2-phenylethanol and ethanol. ForO. mercator andO. surinamensis, 3-methylbutanol enhanced positive response to their respective cucujolide aggregation pheromones.

  15. The Evolution of Functionally Redundant Species; Evidence from Beetles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marten Scheffer

    Full Text Available While species fulfill many different roles in ecosystems, it has been suggested that numerous species might actually share the same function in a near neutral way. So-far, however, it is unclear whether such functional redundancy really exists. We scrutinize this question using extensive data on the world's 4168 species of diving beetles. We show that across the globe these animals have evolved towards a small number of regularly-spaced body sizes, and that locally co-existing species are either very similar in size or differ by at least 35%. Surprisingly, intermediate size differences (10-20% are rare. As body-size strongly reflects functional aspects such as the food that these generalist predators can eat, these beetles thus form relatively distinct groups of functional look-a-likes. The striking global regularity of these patterns support the idea that a self-organizing process drives such species-rich groups to self-organize evolutionary into clusters where functional redundancy ensures resilience through an insurance effect.

  16. Hypogean carabid beetles as indicators of global warming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandmayr, Pietro; Giorgi, Filippo; Casale, Achille; Colombetta, Giorgio; Mariotti, Laura; Vigna Taglianti, Augusto; Weber, Friedrich; Pizzolotto, Roberto

    2013-12-01

    Climate change has been shown to impact the geographical and altitudinal distribution of animals and plants, and to especially affect range-restricted polar and mountaintop species. However, little is known about the impact on the relict lineages of cave animals. Ground beetles (carabids) show a wide variety of evolutionary pathways, from soil-surface (epigean) predatory habits to life in caves and in other subterranean (hypogean) compartments. We reconstructed an unprecedented set of species/time accumulation curves of the largest carabid genera in Europe, selected by their degree of ‘underground’ adaptation, from true epigean predators to eyeless highly specialized hypogean beetles. The data show that in recent periods an unexpectedly large number of new cave species were found lying in well established European hotspots; the first peak of new species, especially in the most evolved underground taxa, occurred in the 1920-30s and a second burst after the 70s. Temperature data show large warming rates in both periods, suggesting that the temperature increase in the past century might have induced cave species to expand their habitats into large well-aired cavities and superficial underground compartments, where they can be easily sampled. An alternative hypothesis, based on increased sampling intensity, is less supported by available datasets.

  17. Hypogean carabid beetles as indicators of global warming?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandmayr, Pietro; Pizzolotto, Roberto; Giorgi, Filippo; Mariotti, Laura; Casale, Achille; Colombetta, Giorgio; Taglianti, Augusto Vigna; Weber, Friedrich

    2013-01-01

    Climate change has been shown to impact the geographical and altitudinal distribution of animals and plants, and to especially affect range-restricted polar and mountaintop species. However, little is known about the impact on the relict lineages of cave animals. Ground beetles (carabids) show a wide variety of evolutionary pathways, from soil-surface (epigean) predatory habits to life in caves and in other subterranean (hypogean) compartments. We reconstructed an unprecedented set of species/time accumulation curves of the largest carabid genera in Europe, selected by their degree of ‘underground’ adaptation, from true epigean predators to eyeless highly specialized hypogean beetles. The data show that in recent periods an unexpectedly large number of new cave species were found lying in well established European hotspots; the first peak of new species, especially in the most evolved underground taxa, occurred in the 1920–30s and a second burst after the 70s. Temperature data show large warming rates in both periods, suggesting that the temperature increase in the past century might have induced cave species to expand their habitats into large well-aired cavities and superficial underground compartments, where they can be easily sampled. An alternative hypothesis, based on increased sampling intensity, is less supported by available datasets. (letter)

  18. A survey of beetles (Coleoptera from the tundra surrounding the Nunalleq archaeological site, Quinhagak, southwestern Alaska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Véronique Forbes

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a survey of beetles conducted in the vicinity of the archaeological site of Nunalleq, a pre-contact (16th-17th century AD indigenous forager settlement located near the modern Yup’ik village of Quinhagak, in the Yukon-Kuskokwim delta, southwestern Alaska. Records and habitat data are reported for 74 beetle taxa collected in tundra, riparian, aquatic and anthropogenic environments from a region of Alaska that has been poorly studied by entomologists. This includes the first mainland Alaskan record for the byrrhid Simplocaria metallica (Sturm. Beyond improving our knowledge of the local beetle fauna’s diversity and ecology, this survey provides the basis for comparisons between modern and sub-fossil beetle assemblages from Nunalleq and Quinhagak.

  19. Cantharidin biosynthesis in a blister beetle: inhibition by 6-fluoromevalonate causes chemical disarmament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrel, J E; Doom, J P; McCormick, J P

    1986-07-15

    Biosynthesis of cantharidin in a blister beetle, Lytta polita, is effectively inhibited by 6-fluoromevalonate. Inhibition is attributed specifically to the fluorine substituent. Biochemical inhibition has not been demonstrated previously for an arthropod's defensive substance.

  20. Evaluation of Metarhizium brunneum F52 (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) for control of Japanese beetle larvae in turfgrass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Experimental and commercial preparations of Metarhizium brunneum strain F52 were evaluated for control of Japanese beetle Popillia japonica Newman (Coleoptera: Scarbaeidae) larvae (white grubs) in the laboratory and under field conditions. Experimental preparations consisted of granule and liquid f...

  1. Biannual monitoring of pyrethroid and neonicotinoid susceptibility in Danish pollen beetle (Meligethes aeneus F.) populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Caroline; Kristensen, Michael; Jensen, Karl-Martin Vagn

    2015-01-01

    ) were used. Pollen beetle populations were collected from 47 locations of Denmark with the help of the consultants and the farmers of the various regions in 2014. Further six populations were tested from Sweden and one from Germany. In the following year 2015, the monitoring continued to find out......The pollen beetle (Meligethes aeneus F.) is a serious pest in the northern countries in oilseed rape. To determine the present level of pyrethroid and neonicotinoid susceptibility of Danish pollen beetle populations, standardized methods recommended by IRAC (Insecticide Resistance Action Committee......, if the resistance level which was determined in 2014 was stable in selected regions. Therefore pollen beetle populations from 14 locations in Denmark and five locations in Germany have been tested. For all tests the standardised methods for pyrethroids, the Adult-vial-test No. 11 and the Adult-vials-test No. 21...

  2. Biological control of saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) by saltcedar leaf beetles (Diorhabda spp.): effects on small mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    The spread of introduced saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) throughout many riparian systems across the western United States motivated the introduction of biological control agents that are specific to saltcedar, saltcedar leaf beetles (Diorhabda carinulata, D. elongata; Chrysomelidae). I monitored small mam...

  3. Reproductive isolation between populations from Northern and Central Europe of the leaf beetle Chrysomela lapponica L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fatouros, N.E.; Hilker, M.; Gross, J.

    2006-01-01

    Allopatric populations of the leaf beetle Chrysomela lapponica are known to feed upon either willow (Salicaceae) or birch (Betulaceae). This study aimed to elucidate the differentiation process of these allopatric populations. We investigated whether these allopatric populations specialized on

  4. Diversity of forensic rove beetles (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae) associated with decaying pig carcass in a forest biotope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekeirsschieter, Jessica; Frederick, Christine; Verheggen, Francois J; Drugmand, Didier; Haubruge, Eric

    2013-07-01

    Most forensic studies are focused on Diptera pattern colonization while neglecting Coleoptera succession. So far, little information is available on the postmortem colonization by beetles and the decomposition process they initiate under temperate biogeoclimatic countries. These beetles have, however, been referred to as being part of the entomofaunal colonization of a dead body. Forensic entomologists need increased databases detailing the distribution, ecology, and phenology of necrophagous insects, including staphylinids (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae). While pig carcasses are commonly used in forensic entomology studies to surrogate human decomposition and to investigate the entomofaunal succession, very few works have been conducted in Europe on large carcasses. Our work reports the monitoring of the presence of adult rove beetles (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae) on decaying pig carcasses in a forest biotope during four seasons (spring, summer, fall, and winter). A total of 23 genera comprising 60 species of rove beetles were collected from pig carcasses. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  5. Incorporating a Sorghum Habitat for Enhancing Lady Beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae in Cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. G. Tillman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae prey on insect pests in cotton. The objective of this 2 yr on-farm study was to document the impact of a grain sorghum trap crop on the density of Coccinellidae on nearby cotton. Scymnus spp., Coccinella septempunctata (L., Hippodamia convergens Guérin-Méneville, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas, Coleomegilla maculata (De Geer, Cycloneda munda (Say, and Olla v-nigrum (Mulsant were found in sorghum over both years. Lady beetle compositions in sorghum and cotton and in yellow pyramidal traps were similar. For both years, density of lady beetles generally was higher on cotton with sorghum than on control cotton. Our results indicate that sorghum was a source of lady beetles in cotton, and thus incorporation of a sorghum habitat in farmscapes with cotton has great potential to enhance biocontrol of insect pests in cotton.

  6. Phoretic mites of three bark beetles (Pityokteines spp.) on silver fir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milan Pernek; Boris Hrasovec; Dinka Matosevic; Ivan Pilas; Thomas Kirisits; John C. Moser

    2008-01-01

    The species composition and abundance of phoretic mites of the bark beetles Pityokteines curvidens P. spinidens, and P. vorontzowi on Silver fir (Abies alba) were investigated in 2003 at two locations (Trakoscan and Litoric) in Croatia. Stem sections and...

  7. Rove beetles (Coleoptera Staphylilnidae) in neotropical riverine landscapes: characterising their distribution.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutierrez Chacon, C.; Del Carmen Zuniga, M.; van Bodegom, P.M.; Chara, J.; Giraldo, L.M.

    2009-01-01

    1. The diversity and ecology of Staphylinidae in the Neotropical region has been poorly investigated, especially in riverine landscapes where these beetles are among the dominant organisms. Therefore, the relation between the occurrence of Staphylinidae and environmental variables was investigated

  8. Immunocytochemical studies on peptidergic neurons in the Colorado potato beetle and some other insect species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenstra, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    This thesis describes the distribution, numbers, and morphology of peptidergic neurons and neurosecretory cells in the Colorado potato beetle, as detected with immunocytochemistry with antisera to various regulatory peptides from vertebrates, as well as to the molluscan cardioexcitatory peptide

  9. Spatial-temporal modeling of forest gaps generated by colonization from below- and above-ground bark beetle species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Jun; Rasmussen, Jakob Gulddahl; Møller, Jesper

    2008-01-01

    red turpentine beetle colonization, pine engraver bark beetle colonization, and mortality of red pine trees while accounting for correlation across space and over time. We extend traditional Markov random-field models to include temporal terms and multiple-response variables aimed at developing...... as well as posterior predictive distributions. In particular, we implement path sampling combined with perfect simulation for autologistic models while formally addressing the posterior propriety under an improper uniform prior. Our data analysis results suggest that red turpentine beetle colonization...... is associated with a higher likelihood of pine engraver bark beetle colonization and that pine engraver bark beetle colonization is associated with higher likelihood of red pine tree mortality, whereas there is no direct association between red turpentine beetle colonization and red pine tree mortality...

  10. Japanese beetle Popillia japonica Newman : foliar feeding on wine grapes in Virginia

    OpenAIRE

    Boucher, T. Jude

    1986-01-01

    The natural infestation level for 1985 of the Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica Newman, in the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia failed to reduce berry quality, yield or shoot growth in a commercial vineyard. Intensive postveraison foliage feeding by Japanese beetle resulted 1n fruit with lower soluble solids and higher total titratable acidity at harvest, but did not affect pH, sugar per berry, berry weight, yield, leaves per vine or shoot length. Intensive previraison feeding a...

  11. Bark and Ambrosia Beetles Show Different Invasion Patterns in the USA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Rassati

    Full Text Available Non-native bark and ambrosia beetles represent a threat to forests worldwide. Their invasion patterns are, however, still unclear. Here we investigated first, if the spread of non-native bark and ambrosia beetles is a gradual or a discontinuous process; second, which are the main correlates of their community structure; third, whether those correlates correspond to those of native species. We used data on species distribution of non-native and native scolytines in the continental 48 USA states. These data were analyzed through a beta-diversity index, partitioned into species richness differences and species replacement, using Mantel correlograms and non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS ordination for identifying spatial patterns, and regression on distance matrices to test the association of climate (temperature, rainfall, forest (cover area, composition, geographical (distance, and human-related (import variables with β-diversity components. For both non-native bark and ambrosia beetles, β-diversity was mainly composed of species richness difference than species replacement. For non-native bark beetles, a discontinuous invasion process composed of long distance jumps or multiple introduction events was apparent. Species richness differences were primarily correlated with differences in import values while temperature was the main correlate of species replacement. For non-native ambrosia beetles, a more continuous invasion process was apparent, with the pool of non-native species arriving in the coastal areas that tended to be filtered as they spread to interior portions of the continental USA. Species richness differences were mainly correlated with differences in rainfall among states, while rainfall and temperature were the main correlates of species replacement. Our study suggests that the different ecology of bark and ambrosia beetles influences their invasion process in new environments. The lower dependency that bark beetles have

  12. Lack of nucleotide variability in a beetle pest with extreme inbreeding

    OpenAIRE

    Andreev, D.; Breilid, H.; Kirkendall, L.; Brun, Luc-Olivier; French-Constant, R.H.

    1998-01-01

    The coffee berry borer beetle #Hypothenemus hampei$ (Ferrari) (#Curculionidae$ : #Scolytinae$) is the major insect pest of coffee and has spread to most of the coffee-growing countries of the world. This beetle also displays an usual life cycle, with regular sibling mating. This regular inbreeding and the population bottlenecks occuring on colonization of new regions should lead to low levels of genetic diversity. We were therefore interested in determining the level of nucleotide variation i...

  13. Isoprene emission by poplar is not important for the feeding behaviour of poplar leaf beetles

    OpenAIRE

    M?ller, Anna; Kaling, Moritz; Faubert, Patrick; Gort, Gerrit; Smid, Hans M; Van Loon, Joop JA; Dicke, Marcel; Kanawati, Basem; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Polle, Andrea; Schnitzler, J?rg-Peter; Rosenkranz, Maaria

    2015-01-01

    Background Chrysomela populi (poplar leaf beetle) is a common herbivore in poplar plantations whose infestation causes major economic losses. Because plant volatiles act as infochemicals, we tested whether isoprene, the main volatile organic compound (VOC) produced by poplars (Populus x canescens), affects the performance of C. populi employing isoprene emitting (IE) and transgenic isoprene non-emitting (NE) plants. Our hypothesis was that isoprene is sensed and affects beetle orientation or ...

  14. Mountain pine beetles and emerging issues in the management of woodland caribou in Westcentral British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Cichowski

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The Tweedsmuir—Entiako caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou herd summers in mountainous terrain in the North Tweedsmuir Park area and winters mainly in low elevation forests in the Entiako area of Westcentral British Columbia. During winter, caribou select mature lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta forests on poor sites and forage primarily by cratering through snow to obtain terrestrial lichens. These forests are subject to frequent large-scale natural disturbance by fire and forest insects. Fire suppression has been effective in reducing large-scale fires in the Entiako area for the last 40—50 years, resulting in a landscape consisting primarily of older lodgepole pine forests, which are susceptible to mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae attack. In 1994, mountain pine beetles were detected in northern Tweedsmuir Park and adjacent managed forests. To date, mountain pine beetles have attacked several hundred thousand hectares of caribou summer and winter range in the vicinity of Tweedsmuir Park, and Entiako Park and Protected Area. Because an attack of this scale is unprecedented on woodland caribou ranges, there is no information available on the effects of mountain pine beetles on caribou movements, habitat use or terrestrial forage lichen abundance. Implications of the mountain pine beetle epidemic to the Tweedsmuir—Entiako woodland caribou population include effects on terrestrial lichen abundance, effects on caribou movement (reduced snow interception, blowdown, and increased forest harvesting outside protected areas for mountain pine beetle salvage. In 2001 we initiated a study to investigate the effects of mountain pine beetles and forest harvesting on terrestrial caribou forage lichens. Preliminary results suggest that the abundance of Cladina spp. has decreased with a corresponding increase in kinnikinnick (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi and other herbaceous plants. Additional studies are required to determine caribou movement and

  15. Agricultural Land Use Determines the Trait Composition of Ground Beetle Communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena I Hanson

    Full Text Available In order to improve biological control of agricultural pests, it is fundamental to understand which factors influence the composition of natural enemies in agricultural landscapes. In this study, we aimed to understand how agricultural land use affects a number of different traits in ground beetle communities to better predict potential consequences of land-use change for ecosystem functioning. We studied ground beetles in fields with different agricultural land use ranging from frequently managed sugar beet fields, winter wheat fields to less intensively managed grasslands. The ground beetles were collected in emergence tents that catch individuals overwintering locally in different life stages and with pitfall traps that catch individuals that could have a local origin or may have dispersed into the field. Community weighted mean values for ground beetle traits such as body size, flight ability and feeding preference were estimated for each land-use type and sampling method. In fields with high land-use intensity the average body length of emerging ground beetle communities was lower than in the grasslands while the average body length of actively moving communities did not differ between the land-use types. The proportion of ground beetles with good flight ability or a carnivorous diet was higher in the crop fields as compared to the grasslands. Our study highlights that increasing management intensity reduces the average body size of emerging ground beetles and the proportion of mixed feeders. Our results also suggest that the dispersal ability of ground beetles enables them to compensate for local management intensities.

  16. [Characteristics of wintering in ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae) in forest ecosystems of the East European Plain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griuntal', S Iu

    2000-01-01

    Specific features of wintering of the ground beetles in three habitats (litter, soil, and bark of fallen trees and stumps) were comparatively studied in the forests of forest-steppe (Voronezh District) and subzone of broad-leaved-spruce forests (Moscow District). The main mass of ground beetles is concentrated in the upper 10-cm soil layer, irrespective of the type of watering (automorphous or hydromorphous soils). Wintering under the bark is a facultative feature of the most species occurring in these biocoenoses.

  17. Current knowledge on exocrine glands in carabid beetles: structure, function and chemical compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Giglio

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Many exocrine products used by ground beetles are pheromones and allomones that regulate intra- and interspecific interactions and contribute to their success in terrestrial ecosystems. This mini-review attempts to unify major themes related to the exocrine glands of carabid beetles. Here we report on both glandular structures and the role of secretions in carabid adults, and that little information is available on the ecological significance of glandular secretions in pre-imaginal stages.

  18. Occurrence of cavernicolous ground beetles in Anhui Province, eastern China (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Trechinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jie; Li, Wenbo; Tian, Mingyi

    2016-01-01

    Two new species of anophthalmic ground beetles belonging to the subfamily Trechinae are described: Cimmeritodes (Zhecimmerites) parvus Tian & Li, sp. n. and Wanoblemus wui Tian & Fang, gen. n., sp. n. Both were discovered in the limestone caves of Anhui Province in eastern China. Cimmeritodes (Zhecimmerites) parvus was found in caves Ziwei Dong, Xianren Dong and Qingtai Dong, whereas Wanoblemus wui was discovered in cave Baiyun Dong. This is the first record of cavernicolous ground beetles in Anhui Province, eastern China.

  19. Occurrence of cavernicolous ground beetles in Anhui Province, eastern China (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Trechinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Fang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of anophthalmic ground beetles belonging to the subfamily Trechinae are described: Cimmeritodes (Zhecimmerites parvus Tian & Li, sp. n. and Wanoblemus wui Tian & Fang, gen. n., sp. n. Both were discovered in the limestone caves of Anhui Province in eastern China. C. (Z. parvus was found in caves Ziwei Dong, Xianren Dong and Qingtai Dong, whereas W. wui was discovered in cave Baiyun Dong. This is the first record of cavernicolous ground beetles in Anhui Province, eastern China.

  20. The diversity of beetle assemblages in different habitat types in Sabah, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, A Y; Eggleton, P; Speight, M R; Hammond, P M; Chey, V K

    2000-12-01

    The diversity of beetle assemblages in different habitat types (primary forest, logged forest, acacia plantation and oil palm plantation) in Sabah, Malaysia was investigated using three different methods based on habitat levels (Winkler sampling, flight-interception-trapping and mist-blowing). The overall diversity was extremely high, with 1711 species recorded from only 8028 individuals and 81 families (115 family and subfamily groups). Different degrees of environmental changes had varying effects on the beetle species richness and abundance, with oil palm plantation assemblage being most severely affected, followed by acacia plantation and then logged forest. A few species became numerically dominant in the oil palm plantation. In terms of beetle species composition, the acacia fauna showed much similarity with the logged forest fauna, and the oil palm fauna was very different from the rest. The effects of environmental variables (number of plant species, sapling and tree densities, amount of leaf litter, ground cover, canopy cover, soil pH and compaction) on the beetle assemblage were also investigated. Leaf litter correlated with species richness, abundance and composition of subterranean beetles. Plant species richness, tree and sapling densities correlated with species richness, abundance and composition of understorey beetles while ground cover correlated only with the species richness and abundance of these beetles. Canopy cover correlated only with arboreal beetles. In trophic structure, predators represented more than 40% of the species and individuals. Environmental changes affected the trophic structure with proportionally more herbivores (abundance) but fewer predators (species richness and abundance) in the oil palm plantation. Biodiversity, conservation and practical aspects of pest management were also highlighted in this study.

  1. Habitat disturbance and hydrological parameters determine the body size and reproduction strategy of alluvial ground beetles

    OpenAIRE

    Gerisch, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Environmental variability is the main driver for the variation of biological characteristics (life-history traits) of species. Therefore, life-history traits are particularly suited to identify mechanistic linkages between environmental variability and species occurrence and can help in explaining ecological patterns. For ground beetles, few studies directly related species traits to environmental variables. This study aims to analyse how life-history traits of alluvial ground beetle...

  2. The Role of the Beetle Hypocryphalus mangiferae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in the Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Mango Wilt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galdino, Tarcísio Visintin da Silva; Ferreira, Dalton de Oliveira; Santana Júnior, Paulo Antônio; Arcanjo, Lucas de Paulo; Queiroz, Elenir Aparecida; Sarmento, Renato Almeida; Picanço, Marcelo Coutinho

    2017-06-01

    The knowledge of the spatiotemporal dynamics of pathogens and their vectors is an important step in determining the pathogen dispersion pattern and the role of vectors in disease dynamics. However, in the case of mango wilt little is known about its spatiotemporal dynamics and the relationship of its vector [the beetle Hypocryphalus mangiferae (Stebbing 1914)] to these dynamics. The aim of this work was to determine the spatial-seasonal dynamic of H. mangiferae attacks and mango wilt in mango orchards and to verify the importance of H. mangiferae in the spatiotemporal dynamics of the disease. Two mango orchards were monitored during a period of 3 yr. The plants in these orchards were georeferenced and inspected monthly to quantify the number of plants attacked by beetles and the fungus. In these orchards, the percentage of mango trees attacked by beetles was always higher than the percentage infected by the fungus. The colonization of mango trees by beetles and the fungus occurred by colonization of trees both distant and proximal to previously attacked trees. The new plants attacked by the fungus emerged in places where the beetles had previously begun their attack. This phenomenon led to a large overlap in sites of beetle and fungal occurrence, indicating that establishment by the beetle was followed by establishment by the fungus. This information can be used by farmers to predict disease infection, and to control bark beetle infestation in mango orchards. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Contrasting needs of grassland dwellers: habitat preferences of endangered steppe beetles (Coleoptera)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čížek, Lukáš; Hauck, David; Pokluda, Pavel

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 2 (2012), s. 281-293 ISSN 1366-638X R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : blister beetle * carpathian basin * darkling beetle Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.801, year: 2012 http://www.springerlink.com/content/h7523m513164v7l3/

  4. Current knowledge on exocrine glands in carabid beetles: structure, function and chemical compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giglio, Anita; Brandmayr, Pietro; Talarico, Federica; Brandmayr, Tullia Zetto

    2011-01-01

    Many exocrine products used by ground beetles are pheromones and allomones that regulate intra- and interspecific interactions and contribute to their success in terrestrial ecosystems. This mini-review attempts to unify major themes related to the exocrine glands of carabid beetles. Here we report on both glandular structures and the role of secretions in carabid adults, and that little information is available on the ecological significance of glandular secretions in pre-imaginal stages.

  5. Analysis of hide-out return and the composition of the steam generators' combined blowdown under ethanolamine chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Aliciardi, M; Belloni, M; Croatto, F; Ferrari, F; Herrera, C; Mendizabal, M; Montes, J; Saucedo, R; Rodriguez, I; Chocron, M

    2012-01-01

    Among the techniques recommended for the surveillance of the steam generators (SG's) are (i) the follow-up of the corrosion products in the feed water and blown-down water and the corresponding accumulation mass balance and (ii) the follow-up of the ionic impurities normally present in the main condensate and feed water that can enter in the cycle either through condenser leakages or even with the make-up water. This is, no matter how well the cycle is constructed or the make-up water plant behaves, given the continuous phase change present in the cycle, a concentration equilibrium is established. Moreover, a synergistic effect exists between both, corrosion products and impurities, (i) and (ii), because impurities concentrate in crevices and deposits creating a potentially corrosion risky environment for the SG's tubes. Hide-out return determination consists in the measurement of ions' concentrations, present in the blown-down water which are eluted in the shutdown during the power and temperature reduction. The integrated values allow graphical representations for performing several evaluations like: (i) the performance make-up water plant during a period, (ii) the presence of condenser in-leakages, (iii) the SG's deposits estimation and (iv) the internal chemistry of the SG's liquid phase inside the sludge pile. CNE, a CANDU 6 pressurized heavy-water reactor (PHWR) located in Embalse, Cordoba Province, Argentina, is close to reach the end-of-design-life and a life extension project is currently ongoing. In the plant also the chemistry of the BOP has been modified from a morpholine to an ethanolamine chemistry (Fernandez et. al, NPC'2010, October 3-7, Quebec City, Canada) to enhance protection of SG's internals and new SG's will be installed. Then, it is of interest to set up a hide-out return procedure and analysis of the combined blown-down crud collected during the shut down as a base line for the second period of

  6. Low offspring survival in mountain pine beetle infesting the resistant Great Basin bristlecone pine supports the preference-performance hypothesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika L Eidson

    Full Text Available The preference-performance hypothesis states that ovipositing phytophagous insects will select host plants that are well-suited for their offspring and avoid host plants that do not support offspring performance (survival, development and fitness. The mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae, a native insect herbivore in western North America, can successfully attack and reproduce in most species of Pinus throughout its native range. However, mountain pine beetles avoid attacking Great Basin bristlecone pine (Pinus longaeva, despite recent climate-driven increases in mountain pine beetle populations at the high elevations where Great Basin bristlecone pine grows. Low preference for a potential host plant species may not persist if the plant supports favorable insect offspring performance, and Great Basin bristlecone pine suitability for mountain pine beetle offspring performance is unclear. We infested cut bolts of Great Basin bristlecone pine and two susceptible host tree species, limber (P. flexilis and lodgepole (P. contorta pines with adult mountain pine beetles and compared offspring performance. To investigate the potential for variation in offspring performance among mountain pine beetles from different areas, we tested beetles from geographically-separated populations within and outside the current range of Great Basin bristlecone pine. Although mountain pine beetles constructed galleries and laid viable eggs in all three tree species, extremely few offspring emerged from Great Basin bristlecone pine, regardless of the beetle population. Our observed low offspring performance in Great Basin bristlecone pine corresponds with previously documented low mountain pine beetle attack preference. A low preference-low performance relationship suggests that Great Basin bristlecone pine resistance to mountain pine beetle is likely to be retained through climate-driven high-elevation mountain pine beetle outbreaks.

  7. Saproxylic community, guild and species responses to varying pheromone components of a pine bark beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etxebeste, Iñaki; Lencina, José L; Pajares, Juan

    2013-10-01

    Some bark beetle species (Coleoptera: Scolytinae) produce aggregation pheromones that allow coordinated attack on their conifer hosts. As a new saproxylic habitat is founded, an assemblage of associated beetles kairomonally respond to bark beetle infochemicals. Ips sexdentatus is one of the major damaging insects of Pinus spp. in Southern Europe. Its response to varying ipsenol (Ie) percentages in relation to ipsdienol (Id) was studied in northwestern Spain, along with the entire saproxylic beetle assemblage captured at multiple-funnel traps. Response profile modeling was undertaken for I. sexdentatus sexes and sex-ratios, associated species and for selected trophic groups using a reference Gaussian model. In addition, the effects on the saproxylic assemblages were analyzed. I. sexdentatus response curve peaked at 22.7% Ie content, while remaining taxa that could be modeled, peaked above ca. 40% Ie. Predator guilds showed a linear relationship with Ie proportion, while competitors showed a delayed response peak. Consequently, species assemblages differed markedly between varying pheromone component mixtures. Given that the evaluated pheromonal proportions mimicked that of logs being colonized by I. sexdentatus, results suggested that the registered differential responses at different levels might provide I. sexdentatus with a temporal window that maximizes conspecific attraction while reducing interference with competitor and predatory guilds. Described responses might help improve the monitoring of the population status of target bark beetles and their associates, but also point toward the by-catch of many natural enemies, as well as rare saproxylic beetle species, interfering with the aims of sustainable forest management.

  8. Plant signals during beetle (Scolytus multistriatus) feeding in American elm (Ulmus americana Planch).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saremba, Brett M; Tymm, Fiona J M; Baethke, Kathy; Rheault, Mark R; Sherif, Sherif M; Saxena, Praveen K; Murch, Susan J

    2017-05-04

    American Elms were devastated by an outbreak of Dutch Elm Disease is caused by the fungus Ophiostoma novo-ulmi Brasier that originated in Asia and arrived in the early 1900s. In spite of decades of study, the specific mechanisms and disease resistance in some trees is not well understood. the fungus is spread by several species of bark beetles in the genus Scolytus, during their dispersal and feeding. Our objective was to understand elm responses to beetle feeding in the absence of the fungus to identify potential resistance mechanisms. A colony of Scolytus multistriatus was established from wild-caught beetles and beetles were co-incubated with susceptible or resistant American elm varieties in a controlled environment chamber. Beetles burrowed into the auxillary meristems of the young elm shoots. The trees responded to the beetle damage by a series of spikes in the concentration of plant growth regulating compounds, melatonin, serotonin, and jasmonic acid. Spikes in melatonin and serotonin represented a 7,000-fold increase over resting levels. Spikes in jasmonic acid were about 10-fold higher than resting levels with one very large spike observed. Differences were noted between susceptible and resistant elms that provide new understanding of plant defenses.

  9. Specialized proteinine rove beetles shed light on insect-fungal associations in the Cretaceous.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Chenyang; Newton, Alfred F; Thayer, Margaret K; Leschen, Richard A B; Huang, Diying

    2016-12-28

    Insects and fungi have a long history of association in shared habitats. Fungus-feeding, or mycophagy, is remarkably widespread in beetles (Coleoptera) and appears to be a primitive feeding habit that preceded feeding on plant tissues. Numerous Mesozoic beetles belonging to extant fungus-associated families are known, but direct fossil evidence elucidating mycophagy in insects has remained elusive. Here, we report a remarkable genus and species, Vetuproteinus cretaceus gen. et sp. nov., belonging to a new tribe (Vetuproteinini trib. nov.) of the extant rove beetle subfamily Proteininae (Staphylinidae) in Mid-Cretaceous Burmese amber. The mouthparts of this beetle have a markedly enlarged protruding galea bearing an apparent spore brush, a specialized structure we infer was used to scrape spores off surfaces and direct them into the mouth, as in multiple modern spore-feeding beetles. Considering the long evolutionary history of Fungi, the Mid-Cretaceous beetles likely fed on ancient Basidiomycota and/or Ascomycota fungi or spore-producing organisms such as slime moulds (Myxomycetes). The discovery of the first Mesozoic proteinine illustrates the antiquity of the subfamily, and suggests that ancestral Proteininae were already diverse and widespread in Pangaea before the supercontinent broke up. © 2016 The Author(s).

  10. Treating cattle with antibiotics affects greenhouse gas emissions, and microbiota in dung and dung beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Tobin J; Fierer, Noah; Hardwick, Bess; Simojoki, Asko; Slade, Eleanor; Taponen, Juhani; Viljanen, Heidi; Roslin, Tomas

    2016-05-25

    Antibiotics are routinely used to improve livestock health and growth. However, this practice may have unintended environmental impacts mediated by interactions among the wide range of micro- and macroorganisms found in agroecosystems. For example, antibiotics may alter microbial emissions of greenhouse gases by affecting livestock gut microbiota. Furthermore, antibiotics may affect the microbiota of non-target animals that rely on dung, such as dung beetles, and the ecosystem services they provide. To examine these interactions, we treated cattle with a commonly used broad-spectrum antibiotic and assessed downstream effects on microbiota in dung and dung beetles, greenhouse gas fluxes from dung, and beetle size, survival and reproduction. We found that antibiotic treatment restructured microbiota in dung beetles, which harboured a microbial community distinct from those in the dung they were consuming. The antibiotic effect on beetle microbiota was not associated with smaller size or lower numbers. Unexpectedly, antibiotic treatment raised methane fluxes from dung, possibly by altering the interactions between methanogenic archaea and bacteria in rumen and dung environments. Our findings that antibiotics restructure dung beetle microbiota and modify greenhouse gas emissions from dung indicate that antibiotic treatment may have unintended, cascading ecological effects that extend beyond the target animal. © 2016 The Author(s).

  11. The role of dung beetles in reducing greenhouse gas emissions from cattle farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, Eleanor M; Riutta, Terhi; Roslin, Tomas; Tuomisto, Hanna L

    2016-01-05

    Agriculture is one of the largest anthropogenic sources of greenhouse gases (GHGs), with dairy and beef production accounting for nearly two-thirds of emissions. Several recent papers suggest that dung beetles may affect fluxes of GHGs from cattle farming. Here, we put these previous findings into context. Using Finland as an example, we assessed GHG emissions at three scales: the dung pat, pasture ecosystem, and whole lifecycle of milk or beef production. At the first two levels, dung beetles reduced GHG emissions by up to 7% and 12% respectively, mainly through large reductions in methane (CH4) emissions. However, at the lifecycle level, dung beetles accounted for only a 0.05-0.13% reduction of overall GHG emissions. This mismatch derives from the fact that in intensive production systems, only a limited fraction of all cow pats end up on pastures, offering limited scope for dung beetle mitigation of GHG fluxes. In contrast, we suggest that the effects of dung beetles may be accentuated in tropical countries, where more manure is left on pastures, and dung beetles remove and aerate dung faster, and that this is thus a key area for future research. These considerations give a new perspective on previous results, [corrected] and suggest that studies of biotic effects on GHG emissions from dung pats on a global scale are a priority for current research.

  12. Habitat preferences of ground beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) species in the northern Black Hills of South Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, David J; Brandenburg, Dylan; Petit, Samantha; Gabel, Mark

    2012-10-01

    Ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) are a major component of terrestrial invertebrate communities and have been used as bioindicators of habitat change and disturbance. The Black Hills of South Dakota is a small area with a high biodiversity, but the ground beetles of this region are little studied. The habitat preferences of ground beetles in the Black Hills are unknown, and baseline data must be collected if these beetles are to be used in the future as bioindicators. Ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) were collected from pitfall traps at two sites in each of five kinds of habitats (grassland, bur oak-ironwood forests, ponderosa pine-common juniper forests, aspen-pine forests, and a spruce forest) from which habitat structure characteristics and plant abundance data also were collected. In total, 27 species of ground beetles were identified. Although some species, such as Dicaelus sculptilis Say were found in most habitats, other species showed distinct habitat preferences: Poecilus lucublandus (Say) preferred oak forests, Pasimachus elongatus LeConte preferred grasslands, and Calathus ingratus Dejean preferred high-elevation aspen-pine forests. Pterostichus adstrictus Escholtz was found only in woodlands, and Carabus taedatus Say strictly in higher elevation (over 1,500 m) aspen or coniferous woods, and may represent relict populations of boreal species. Elevation, exposure to sunlight, and cover of woody plants strongly influence the structure of carabid communities in the Black Hills.

  13. The role of dung beetles in reducing greenhouse gas emissions from cattle farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, Eleanor M.; Riutta, Terhi; Roslin, Tomas; Tuomisto, Hanna L.

    2016-01-01

    Agriculture is one of the largest anthropogenic sources of greenhouse gases (GHGs), with dairy and beef production accounting for nearly two-thirds of emissions. Several recent papers suggest that dung beetles may affect fluxes of GHGs from cattle farming. Here, we put these previous findings into context. Using Finland as an example, we assessed GHG emissions at three scales: the dung pat, pasture ecosystem, and whole lifecycle of milk or beef production. At the first two levels, dung beetles reduced GHG emissions by up to 7% and 12% respectively, mainly through large reductions in methane (CH4) emissions. However, at the lifecycle level, dung beetles accounted for only a 0.05-0.13% reduction of overall GHG emissions. This mismatch derives from the fact that in intensive production systems, only a limited fraction of all cow pats end up on pastures, offering limited scope for dung beetle mitigation of GHG fluxes. In contrast, we suggest that the effects of dung beetles may be accentuated in tropical countries, where more manure is left on pastures, and dung beetles remove and aerate dung faster, and that this is thus a key area for future research. These considerations give a new perspective on previous results perspective, and suggest that studies of biotic effects on GHG emissions from dung pats on a global scale are a priority for current research.

  14. Treating cattle with antibiotics affects greenhouse gas emissions, and microbiota in dung and dung beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierer, Noah; Hardwick, Bess; Simojoki, Asko; Slade, Eleanor; Taponen, Juhani; Viljanen, Heidi; Roslin, Tomas

    2016-01-01

    Antibiotics are routinely used to improve livestock health and growth. However, this practice may have unintended environmental impacts mediated by interactions among the wide range of micro- and macroorganisms found in agroecosystems. For example, antibiotics may alter microbial emissions of greenhouse gases by affecting livestock gut microbiota. Furthermore, antibiotics may affect the microbiota of non-target animals that rely on dung, such as dung beetles, and the ecosystem services they provide. To examine these interactions, we treated cattle with a commonly used broad-spectrum antibiotic and assessed downstream effects on microbiota in dung and dung beetles, greenhouse gas fluxes from dung, and beetle size, survival and reproduction. We found that antibiotic treatment restructured microbiota in dung beetles, which harboured a microbial community distinct from those in the dung they were consuming. The antibiotic effect on beetle microbiota was not associated with smaller size or lower numbers. Unexpectedly, antibiotic treatment raised methane fluxes from dung, possibly by altering the interactions between methanogenic archaea and bacteria in rumen and dung environments. Our findings that antibiotics restructure dung beetle microbiota and modify greenhouse gas emissions from dung indicate that antibiotic treatment may have unintended, cascading ecological effects that extend beyond the target animal. PMID:27226475

  15. Acorn consumption improves the immune response of the dung beetle Thorectes lusitanicus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José R Verdú

    Full Text Available Thorectes lusitanicus, a typically coprophagous species is also actively attracted to oak acorns, consuming, burying them, and conferring ecophysiological and reproductive advantages to both the beetle and the tree. In this study, we explored the possible relation between diet shift and the health status of T. lusitanicus using a generalist entomopathogenic fungus (Metarhizium anisopliae as a natural pathogen. To measure the health condition and immune response of beetles, we analysed the protein content in the haemolymph, prophenoloxidase (proPO content, phenoloxidase (PO activity and mortality of beetles with diets based on either acorns or cow dung. Protein content, proPO levels and PO levels in the haemolymph of T. lusitanicus were found to be dependent on the type of diet. Furthermore, the beetles fed with acorns developed a more effective proPO-PO system than the beetles fed with cow dung. Furthermore, a significant decrease in mortality was observed when infected individuals were submitted to an acorn-based diet. In addition to enhancing an understanding of the relevance of dietary change to the evolutionary biology of dung beetles, these results provide a more general understanding of the ecophysiological implications of differential dietary selection in the context of fitness.

  16. Confirmation of bean leaf beetle, Cerotoma trifurcata, feeding on cucurbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.L. Koch

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of these studies was to assess the degree to which bean leaf beetle, Cerotoma trifurcata (Forster, will feed on cucurbits. In 2003, we documented an infestation of C. trifurcata in a commercial pumpkin field near Rosemount, MN, USA. To evaluate C. trifurcata feeding on cucurbits, we conducted laboratory no-choice and choice test feeding studies. In the laboratory, C. trifurcata fed most heavily on cotyledon-stage cucumber plants, followed by pumpkin and squash. With soybean plants present, C. trifurcata still fed on cucumber plants. However, C. trifurcata appeared to prefer soybeans until the quality of the soybean plants was diminished through feeding damage. This is the first known report of C. trifurcata feeding on cucurbits. The pest potential of C. trifurcata in cucurbit cropping systems should be further evaluated.

  17. Body volume in ground beetles (Carabidae reflects biotope disturbance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langraf Vladimír

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Changes in body size of living organisms can indicate changes in environmental quality. The family Carabidae is frequently used as an indicator of environmental status. We collected ground beetles in 9 Slovakian localities (in the Veporské vrchy Mts and the Juhoslovenská kotlina Basin of various levels of disturbance, and evaluated the volume of individuals. The lowest average body volumes of individual were found for an intensively grazed pasture (locality 5 and a nitrophilous waterside vegetation (locality 6 (1,298 mm3–4,648 mm3 with predominantly macropterous species. We have confirmed the significantly higher average biovolume value of individual Carabidae in less disturbed habitats: a Picea abies plantation (locality 1, a Carpathian oak-hornbeam forest (locality 4 and a Carpathian turkey oak forest (locality 7 (from 9,837 mm3 to 13,038 mm3, where apterous and brachypterous species dominated.

  18. Fungal farming in a non-social beetle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wataru Toki

    Full Text Available Culturing of microbes for food production, called cultivation mutualism, has been well-documented from eusocial and subsocial insects such as ants, termites and ambrosia beetles, but poorly described from solitary, non-social insects. Here we report a fungal farming in a non-social lizard beetle Doubledaya bucculenta (Coleoptera: Erotylidae: Languriinae, which entails development of a special female structure for fungal storage/inoculation, so-called mycangium, and also obligate dependence of the insect on the fungal associate. Adult females of D. bucculenta bore a hole on a recently-dead bamboo culm with their specialized mandibles, lay an egg into the internode cavity, and plug the hole with bamboo fibres. We found that the inner wall of the bamboo internode harboring a larva is always covered with a white fungal layer. A specific Saccharomycetes yeast, Wickerhamomyces anomalus ( = Pichia anomala, was consistently isolated from the inner wall of the bamboo internodes and also from the body surface of the larvae. Histological examination of the ovipositor of adult females revealed an exoskeletal pocket on the eighth abdominal segment. The putative mycangium contained yeast cells, and W. anomalus was repeatedly detected from the symbiotic organ. When first instar larvae were placed on culture media inoculated with W. anomalus, they grew and developed normally to adulthood. By contrast, first instar larvae placed on either sterile culture media or autoclaved strips of bamboo inner wall exhibited arrested growth at the second instar, and addition of W. anomalus to the media resumed growth and development of the larvae. These results strongly suggest a mutualistic nature of the D. bucculenta-W. anomalus association with morphological specialization and physiological dependence. Based on these results, we compare the fungal farming of D. bucculenta with those of social and subsocial insects, and discuss ecological factors relevant to the

  19. Nano-emulsion based on acrylic acid ester co-polymer derivatives as an efficient pre-tanning agent for buffalo hide

    OpenAIRE

    El-Monem, Farouk Abd; Hussain, Ahmed I.; Nashy, EL-Shahat H.A.; El-Wahhab, Hamada Abd; Naser, Abd El-Rahman M.

    2014-01-01

    Acrylic copolymer nanoemulsions were prepared based on methyl methacrylate (MMA) and butyl acrylate (BA). The prepared acrylic copolymer emulsions were characterized using solid content, rheological properties, molecular weight, MFFT and TEM. The prepared polymers were used as pre-tanning of the depickled hide to enhance the physico-mechanical properties of tanned leather. The key parameters which affect exhaustion and fixation of chrome tan as well as shrinkage temperature of the tanned leat...

  20. Prevalence and relatedness of Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains in the feces and on the hides and carcasses of U.S. meat goats at slaughter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, M E; Foster, D M; Rogers, A T; Balcomb, C C; Sanderson, M W

    2013-07-01

    We determined the prevalences of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in feces, hide, and carcasses of meat goats at a U.S. processing plant. Prevalences were 11.1%, 2.7%, and 2.7%, respectively. Sixteen pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) subtypes were identified among 49 E. coli O157:H7 isolates, some of which were present on multiple sample types or collection days.

  1. Novel Variants of a Histogram Shift-Based Reversible Watermarking Technique for Medical Images to Improve Hiding Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishakha Kelkar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In telemedicine systems, critical medical data is shared on a public communication channel. This increases the risk of unauthorised access to patient’s information. This underlines the importance of secrecy and authentication for the medical data. This paper presents two innovative variations of classical histogram shift methods to increase the hiding capacity. The first technique divides the image into nonoverlapping blocks and embeds the watermark individually using the histogram method. The second method separates the region of interest and embeds the watermark only in the region of noninterest. This approach preserves the medical information intact. This method finds its use in critical medical cases. The high PSNR (above 45 dB obtained for both techniques indicates imperceptibility of the approaches. Experimental results illustrate superiority of the proposed approaches when compared with other methods based on histogram shifting techniques. These techniques improve embedding capacity by 5–15% depending on the image type, without affecting the quality of the watermarked image. Both techniques also enable lossless reconstruction of the watermark and the host medical image. A higher embedding capacity makes the proposed approaches attractive for medical image watermarking applications without compromising the quality of the image.

  2. Can organic matter hide from decomposers in the labyrinth of soil aggregates? Micro-engineered Soil Chips challenging foraging fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Edith C.; Aleklett, Kristin; Arellano Caicedo, Carlos G.; Bengtsson, Martin; Micaela Mafla Endara, Paola; Ohlsson, Pelle

    2017-04-01

    From the point of view of microorganisms, the soil environment is an enormously complex labyrinth with paths and dead-end streets, where resources and shelters are unevenly distributed. We study foraging strategies of soil organisms, especially fungi, and the possibility of physio-spatial stabilization of organic matter by "hiding" in occluded soil spaces. We manipulate growth habitat microstructure with lab-on-a-chip techniques, where we designed complex environments with channels and obstacle at dimensions of the size of hyphae, and construct them in the transparent, gas-permeable polymer PDMS. We fill those with different nutrient solutions or combine with mineral nutrient gradients, and inoculate them with soil organisms. We analyze organisms and substrates with microscopy, fluorescence microscopy and analytical chemistry. We compared different soil litter decomposers and an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus for their ability to forage through complex air-gap structures and attempt to classify them into functional traits concerning their mycelium directionality, space-exploring approach and ability to grow through acute angles and narrow constrictions. We identified structures which are very difficult to penetrate for most species, and compounds located behind such features may thus be spatially unavailable for decomposers. We discuss our approach in comparison to soil pore space tomographic analyses and findings we made in the pore space of colonized wood biochar.

  3. Novel Variants of a Histogram Shift-Based Reversible Watermarking Technique for Medical Images to Improve Hiding Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuckley, Kushal

    2017-01-01

    In telemedicine systems, critical medical data is shared on a public communication channel. This increases the risk of unauthorised access to patient's information. This underlines the importance of secrecy and authentication for the medical data. This paper presents two innovative variations of classical histogram shift methods to increase the hiding capacity. The first technique divides the image into nonoverlapping blocks and embeds the watermark individually using the histogram method. The second method separates the region of interest and embeds the watermark only in the region of noninterest. This approach preserves the medical information intact. This method finds its use in critical medical cases. The high PSNR (above 45 dB) obtained for both techniques indicates imperceptibility of the approaches. Experimental results illustrate superiority of the proposed approaches when compared with other methods based on histogram shifting techniques. These techniques improve embedding capacity by 5–15% depending on the image type, without affecting the quality of the watermarked image. Both techniques also enable lossless reconstruction of the watermark and the host medical image. A higher embedding capacity makes the proposed approaches attractive for medical image watermarking applications without compromising the quality of the image. PMID:29104744

  4. Hybrid Data Hiding Scheme Using Right-Most Digit Replacement and Adaptive Least Significant Bit for Digital Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Hussain

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The goal of image steganographic methods considers three main key issues: high embedding capacity, good visual symmetry/quality, and security. In this paper, a hybrid data hiding method combining the right-most digit replacement (RMDR with an adaptive least significant bit (ALSB is proposed to provide not only high embedding capacity but also maintain a good visual symmetry. The cover-image is divided into lower texture (symmetry patterns and higher texture (asymmetry patterns areas and these textures determine the selection of RMDR and ALSB methods, respectively, according to pixel symmetry. This paper has three major contributions. First, the proposed hybrid method enhanced the embedding capacity due to efficient ALSB utilization in the higher texture areas of cover images. Second, the proposed hybrid method maintains the high visual quality because RMDR has the closest selection process to generate the symmetry between stego and cover pixels. Finally, the proposed hybrid method is secure against statistical regular or singular (RS steganalysis and pixel difference histogram steganalysis because RMDR is capable of evading the risk of RS detection attacks due to pixel digits replacement instead of bits. Extensive experimental tests (over 1500+ cover images are conducted with recent least significant bit (LSB-based hybrid methods and it is demonstrated that the proposed hybrid method has a high embedding capacity (800,019 bits while maintaining good visual symmetry (39.00% peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR.

  5. Hiding Electronic Patient Record (EPR) in medical images: A high capacity and computationally efficient technique for e-healthcare applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loan, Nazir A; Parah, Shabir A; Sheikh, Javaid A; Akhoon, Jahangir A; Bhat, Ghulam M

    2017-09-01

    A high capacity and semi-reversible data hiding scheme based on Pixel Repetition Method (PRM) and hybrid edge detection for scalable medical images has been proposed in this paper. PRM has been used to scale up the small sized image (seed image) and hybrid edge detection ensures that no important edge information is missed. The scaled up version of seed image has been divided into 2×2 non overlapping blocks. In each block there is one seed pixel whose status decides the number of bits to be embedded in the remaining three pixels of that block. The Electronic Patient Record (EPR)/data have been embedded by using Least Significant and Intermediate Significant Bit Substitution (ISBS). The RC4 encryption has been used to add an additional security layer for embedded EPR/data. The proposed scheme has been tested for various medical and general images and compared with some state of art techniques in the field. The experimental results reveal that the proposed scheme besides being semi-reversible and computationally efficient is capable of handling high payload and as such can be used effectively for electronic healthcare applications. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Dung Beetles Associated with Agroecosystems of Southern Brazil: Relationship with Soil Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Menegaz de Farias

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Knowing the biodiversity of dung beetles in agricultural and livestock environments is the basis for understanding the contribution that these organisms make in nutrient cycling and ecosystem functions. The aim of the present study was to investigate the structure of copronecrophagous dung beetle communities inhabiting the main agroecosystems in southern Brazil and correlate the presence of these organisms with soil properties. From December 2012 to April 2013, samples of dung beetles were taken in the municipality of Tubarão, Santa Catarina, Brazil (28° 28’ S; 48° 56’ W in corn, bean, and sugarcane crops, and in cattle pastures. Beetles were captured in 16 sampling sites, four from each agroecosystem, following a standardized methodology: 10 baited pitfall traps (feces and rotting meat at a spacing of 50 m with exposure for 48 h. The beetles were identified, weighed, and measured. Soil analyses were performed in order to correlate data on organic matter, texture, macro and micronutrients, and pH with data on the abundance of beetle species using canonical correspondence analysis. A total of 110 individuals belonging to 10 species of dung beetles was found. Twenty-four individuals from seven species (with total biomass of 2.4 g were found in the corn crop; five individuals from three species (1.8 g were found in the bean crop; 81 individuals from nine species (30.3 g were found in cattle pasture areas; and lastly, there were no dung beetles recorded in the sugarcane crop. In areas of cattle grazing, the tunnelers Dichotomius nisus and Trichillum externepunctatum correlated positively with organic matter content, whereas the roller species Canthon chalybaeus correlated positively with soil texture, preferring sandier soils. In corn crop areas, D. nisus was again correlated with organic matter content. Paracoprid dung beetle species were correlated with organic matter content in the soil, and species belonging to the roller

  7. The impact of bark beetle infestations on monoterpene emissions and secondary organic aerosol formation in western North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Berg

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, extensive beetle outbreaks in western North America have destroyed over 100 000 km2 of forest throughout British Columbia and the western United States. Beetle infestations impact monoterpene emissions through both decreased emissions as trees are killed (mortality effect and increased emissions in trees under attack (attack effect. We use 14 yr of beetle-induced tree mortality data together with beetle-induced monoterpene emission data in the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR Community Earth System Model (CESM to investigate the impact of beetle-induced tree mortality and attack on monoterpene emissions and secondary organic aerosol (SOA formation in western North America. Regionally, beetle infestations may have a significant impact on monoterpene emissions and SOA concentrations, with up to a 4-fold increase in monoterpene emissions and up to a 40% increase in SOA concentrations in some years (in a scenario where the attack effect is based on observed lodgepole pine response. Responses to beetle attack depend on the extent of previous mortality and the number of trees under attack in a given year, which can vary greatly over space and time. Simulated enhancements peak in 2004 (British Columbia and 2008 (US. Responses to beetle attack are shown to be substantially larger (up to a 3-fold localized increase in summertime SOA concentrations in a scenario based on bark-beetle attack in spruce trees. Placed in the context of observations from the IMPROVE network, the changes in SOA concentrations due to beetle attack are in most cases small compared to the large annual and interannual variability in total organic aerosol which is driven by wildfire activity in western North America. This indicates that most beetle-induced SOA changes are not likely detectable in current observation networks; however, these changes may impede efforts to achieve natural visibility conditions in the national parks and wilderness

  8. Reflective Polyethylene Mulch Reduces Mexican Bean Beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) Densities and Damage in Snap Beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nottingham, L B; Kuhar, T P

    2016-08-01

    Mexican bean beetle, Epilachna varivestis Mulsant, is a serious pest of snap beans, Phaseolus vulgaris L., in the eastern United States. These beetles are intolerant to direct sunlight, explaining why individuals are typically found on the undersides of leaves and in the lower portion of the plant canopy. We hypothesized that snap beans grown on reflective, agricultural polyethylene (plastic mulch) would have fewer Mexican bean beetles and less injury than those grown on black plastic or bare soil. In 2014 and 2015, beans were seeded into beds of metallized, white, and black plastic, and bare soil, in field plots near Blacksburg, VA. Mexican bean beetle density, feeding injury, predatory arthropods, and snap bean yield were sampled. Reflected light intensity, temperature, and humidity were monitored using data loggers. Pyranometer readings showed that reflected light intensity was highest over metallized plastic and second highest over white plastic; black plastic and bare soil were similarly low. Temperature and humidity were unaffected by treatments. Significant reductions in Mexican bean beetle densities and feeding injury were observed in both metallized and white plastic plots compared to black plastic and bare soil, with metallized plastic having the fewest Mexican bean beetle life stages and injury. Predatory arthropod densities were not reduced by reflective plastic. Metallized plots produced the highest yields, followed by white. The results of this study suggest that growing snap beans on reflective plastic mulch can suppress the incidence and damage of Mexican bean beetle, and increase yield in snap beans. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Nitrogen cycling responses to mountain pine beetle disturbance in a high elevation whitebark pine ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keville, Megan P; Reed, Sasha C; Cleveland, Cory C

    2013-01-01

    Ecological disturbances can significantly affect biogeochemical cycles in terrestrial ecosystems, but the biogeochemical consequences of the extensive mountain pine beetle outbreak in high elevation whitebark pine (WbP) (Pinus albicaulis) ecosystems of western North America have not been previously investigated. Mountain pine beetle attack has driven widespread WbP mortality, which could drive shifts in both the pools and fluxes of nitrogen (N) within these ecosystems. Because N availability can limit forest regrowth, understanding how beetle-induced mortality affects N cycling in WbP stands may be critical to understanding the trajectory of ecosystem recovery. Thus, we measured above- and belowground N pools and fluxes for trees representing three different times since beetle attack, including unattacked trees. Litterfall N inputs were more than ten times higher under recently attacked trees compared to unattacked trees. Soil inorganic N concentrations also increased following beetle attack, potentially driven by a more than two-fold increase in ammonium (NH₄⁺) concentrations in the surface soil organic horizon. However, there were no significant differences in mineral soil inorganic N or soil microbial biomass N concentrations between attacked and unattacked trees, implying that short-term changes in N cycling in response to the initial stages of WbP attack were restricted to the organic horizon. Our results suggest that while mountain pine beetle attack drives a pulse of N from the canopy to the forest floor, changes in litterfall quality and quantity do not have profound effects on soil biogeochemical cycling, at least in the short-term. However, continuous observation of these important ecosystems will be crucial to determining the long-term biogeochemical effects of mountain pine beetle outbreaks.

  10. Origin of Pest Lineages of the Colorado Potato Beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izzo, Victor M; Chen, Yolanda H; Schoville, Sean D; Wang, Cong; Hawthorne, David J

    2018-04-02

    Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say [Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae]) is a pest of potato throughout the Northern Hemisphere, but little is known about the beetle's origins as a pest. We sampled the beetle from uncultivated Solanum host plants in Mexico, and from pest and non-pest populations in the United States and used mitochondrial DNA and nuclear loci to examine three hypotheses on the origin of the pest lineages: 1) the pest beetles originated from Mexican populations, 2) they descended from hybridization between previously divergent populations, or 3) they descended from populations that are native to the Plains states in the United States. Mitochondrial haplotypes of non-pest populations from Mexico and Arizona differed substantially from beetles collected from the southern plains and potato fields in the United States, indicating that beetles from Mexico and Arizona did not contribute to founding the pest lineages. Similar results were observed for AFLP and microsatellite data . In contrast, non-pest populations from the states of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, and Texas were genetically similar to U.S. pest populations, indicating that they contributed to the founding of the pest lineages. Most of the pest populations do not show a significant reduction in genetic diversity compared to the plains populations in the United States. We conclude that genetically heterogeneous beetle populations expanded onto potato from native Solanum hosts. This mode of host range expansion may have contributed to the abundant genetic diversity of contemporary populations, perhaps contributing to the rapid evolution of climate tolerance, host range, and insecticide resistance.

  11. Nitrogen cycling responses to mountain pine beetle disturbance in a high elevation whitebark pine ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keville, Megan P.; Reed, Sasha C.; Cleveland, Cory C.

    2013-01-01

    Ecological disturbances can significantly affect biogeochemical cycles in terrestrial ecosystems, but the biogeochemical consequences of the extensive mountain pine beetle outbreak in high elevation whitebark pine (WbP) (Pinus albicaulis) ecosystems of western North America have not been previously investigated. Mountain pine beetle attack has driven widespread WbP mortality, which could drive shifts in both the pools and fluxes of nitrogen (N) within these ecosystems. Because N availability can limit forest regrowth, understanding how beetle-induced mortality affects N cycling in WbP stands may be critical to understanding the trajectory of ecosystem recovery. Thus, we measured above- and belowground N pools and fluxes for trees representing three different times since beetle attack, including unattacked trees. Litterfall N inputs were more than ten times higher under recently attacked trees compared to unattacked trees. Soil inorganic N concentrations also increased following beetle attack, potentially driven by a more than two-fold increase in ammonium (NH4+) concentrations in the surface soil organic horizon. However, there were no significant differences in mineral soil inorganic N or soil microbial biomass N concentrations between attacked and unattacked trees, implying that short-term changes in N cycling in response to the initial stages of WbP attack were restricted to the organic horizon. Our results suggest that while mountain pine beetle attack drives a pulse of N from the canopy to the forest floor, changes in litterfall quality and quantity do not have profound effects on soil biogeochemical cycling, at least in the short-term. However, continuous observation of these important ecosystems will be crucial to determining the long-term biogeochemical effects of mountain pine beetle outbreaks.

  12. Scarab Beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae Fauna in Ardabil Province, North West Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Mowlavi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Dung beetles of Coleoptera associated to undisturbed cattle droppings in pastures present great diver¬sity and abundance. Dung beetles also play an important role for transmission of some helminthes to human and cat¬tle. This study was made to survey the biodiversity and abundance of these beetles in Ardebil Province, western Iran."nMethods: According to the field study all beetles attracted to fresh cow dung in five areas of Ardebil Province in¬cluding Namin, Ardabil, Meshkinshahr, Neer and Sarein were collected and identified. They were collected during summer 2007 from June to September, with general peaks appearing to be correlated with temperature mainly at 11 a.m to 15 p.m. The samples were identified using appropriate systematic key "nResults: A total of 231 specimens belonging to 9 beetle genera and at least 15 species were identified as Euoniticel¬lus fulvus, Sisyphus schaffaer, Euonthophagus taurus, Copris lunaris, Chironitis pamphilus, Gymnopleurus coriarus, Euonthophagus amyntas, Caccobius schreberi, Onthophagus speculifer, Onthophagus furcatus, Aphodius, lugens, Apho¬dius fimetarius, A. scrutator, Geotrupes spiniger and G. stercorarius"nThe most abundant and diverse subfamilies were Coprinae, Geotrupinae, and Aphodiinae. "nConclusion: We found 15 species of dung beetles occurred in the region. The prevalence of each species is varied depending on location. Some of them play an important role for helminths transmission of veterinary and public health importance. The finding will provide a clue for pasture management as well as public health monitoring and surveillance of the disease transmitted by dung beetles

  13. Dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea in three landscapes in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MM. Rodrigues

    Full Text Available Dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea in three landscapes in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Dung Beetles are important for biological control of intestinal worms and dipterans of economic importance to cattle, because they feed and breed in dung, killing parasites inside it. They are also very useful as bioindicators of species diversity in agricultural or natural environments. The aims of this paper were to study the species richness, and abundance of dung beetles, helping to answer the question: are there differences in the patterns of dung beetle diversity in three environments (pasture, agriculture and forest in the municipality of Dourados, in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul. A total of 105 samplings were carried out weekly, from November 2005 to November 2007, using three pitfall traps in each environment. The traps were baited with fresh bovine dung, and 44,355 adult dung beetles from 54 species were captured: two from Hyborosidae and 52 from Scarabaeidae. Five species were constant, very abundant and dominant on the pasture, two in the agricultural environment, and two in the environment of Semideciduous forest. Most of the species were characterised as accessories, common and not-dominant. The species with higher abundance was Ataenius platensis Blanchard, 1844. The indexes of Shannon-Wiener diversity were: 2.90 in the pasture, 2.84 in the agricultural environment and 2.66 in the area of native forest. The medium positive presence of dung beetles in the traps in each environment were: 36.88, 42.73 and 20.18 individuals per trap, in the pasture, agricultural environment and in the native forest, respectively. The pasture environment presented a higher diversity index. The species diversity of dung beetles was superior where there was higher abundance and regularity of resource (bovine dung.

  14. Limonene: attractant kairomone for white pine cone beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) in an Eastern white pine seed orchard in Western North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel R. Miller

    2007-01-01

    I report on the attraction of the white pine cone beetle, Canophthorus coniperda (Schwarz) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), to traps baited with the host monoterpene limonene in western North Carolina. Both (+)- and (-)-limonene attracted male and female cone beetles to Japenese beetle traps in an eastern white pine, Pinus strobus L. seed...

  15. Emergence of Buprestidae, Cerambycidae, and Scolytinae (Coleoptera) from mountain pine beetle-killed and fire-killed ponderosa pines in the Black Hills, South Dakota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheryl L. Costello; William R. Jacobi; Jose F. Negron

    2013-01-01

    Wood borers (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae and Buprestidae) and bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) infest ponderosa pines, Pinus ponderosa P. Lawson and C. Lawson, killed by mountain pine beetle (MPB), Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, and fire. No data is available comparing wood borer and bark beetle densities or species guilds associated with MPB-killed or fire-...

  16. Association of the symbiotic fungi Fusarium euwallaceae, Graphium sp. and Acremonium sp., with the ambrosia beetle Euwallacea nr. fornicatus in avocado

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ambrosia beetle, Euwallacea nr. fornicatus (Coleoptera:Scolytinae), is a new invasive species to Israel. To date, the beetle has been recorded from 48 tree species representing 25 plant families. Amongst the most affected are avocado, castor-bean and box elder. Isolations from beetle heads revea...

  17. Lethal Effects of Lambda-Cyhalothrin and Demand® CS on Asian Longhorned Beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae): Implications for Population Suppression, Tree Protection, Eradication and Containment

    Science.gov (United States)

    We evaluated the 24h contact toxicity of lambda-cyhalothrin for adult Asian longhorned beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis Motschulsky, using topical application. Results showed that beetles are sensitive to lambda-cyhalothrin: the LD50 and LD90 were 0.13639 and 0.78461µg/beetle, respectively. Residual...

  18. Evaluation of the antiaggregation pheromone, 3-methylcyclohex-2-en-1-one (MCH), to protect live spruce from spruce beetle (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) infestation in sourthern Utah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrell W. Ross; Gary E. Daterman; A. Steven Munson

    2004-01-01

    The spruce beetle, Dendroctonus rufipennis (Kirby), produces the antiaggregation pheromone 3-methylcyclohex-2-en- 1-one (MCH) (Rudinsky et al. 1974). MCH has reduced the numbers of spruce beetles attracted to infested logs and synthetic semiochemical lures or reduced colonization rates throughout the beetles range (Kline

  19. The role of beetle and host volatiles in host colonization in the European oak bark beetle, Scolytus intricatus (Ratzeburg) (Col., Scolytidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hovorka, Oldřich; Kindl, Jiří; Kalinová, Blanka; Knížek, M.; Vrkočová, Pavlína; Koutek, Bohumír

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 129, č. 4 (2005), 221-226 ISSN 0931-2048 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA203/97/0037; GA MZe(CZ) QD0332 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : bark beetles * host colonization * pheromones Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 0.703, year: 2005

  20. Suitability of California bay laurel and other species as hosts for the non-native redbay ambrosia beetle and granulate ambrosia beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert (Bud) Mayfield; Martin MacKenzie; Philip G. Cannon; Steve Oak; Scott Horn; Jaesoon Hwang; Paul E. Kendra

    2013-01-01

    The redbay ambrosia beetle Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff is a non-native vector of the pathogen that causes laurel wilt, a deadly disease of trees in the family Lauraceae in the southeastern U.S.A.Concern exists that X. glabratus and its fungal symbiont could be transported to the western U....

  1. Why Mountain Pine Beetle Exacerbates a Principal-agent Relationship: Exploring Strategic Policy Responses to Beetle Attack in a Mixed Species Forest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogle, T.; Kooten, van G.C.

    2012-01-01

    The management of public forestland is often carried out by private forest companies, in which case the landowner needs to exercise care in dealing with catastrophic natural disturbance. We use the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, 1902) damage in British Columbia to explore how

  2. Effect of tree species and end seal on attractiveness and utility of cut bolts to the redbay Ambrosia beetle and granulate Ambrosia beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert E. Mayfield; James L. Hanula

    2012-01-01

    The redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff, is a non-native invasive pest and vector of the fungus that causes laurel wilt disease in certain trees of the family Lauraceae. This study assessed the relative attractiveness and suitability of cut bolts of several tree species to X. glabratus. In 2009, female X. glabratus were equally attracted to traps...

  3. Attraction of the southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis, to pheromone components of the western pine beetle, Dendroctonus brevicomis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), in an allopatric zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deepa S. Pureswaran; Richard W. Hofstetter; Brian T. Sullivan

    2008-01-01

    Subtle differences in pheromone components of sympatric species should be attractive only to the producing species and unattractive or repellent to the nonproducing species, and thereby maintain reproductive isolation and reduce competition between species. Bark beetles Dendroctonus brevicomis and D. frontalis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) are known to...

  4. Interaction of an invasive bark beetle with a native forest pathogen: Potential effect of dwarf mistletoe on range expansion of mountain pine beetle in jack pine forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer Klutsch; Nadir Erbilgin

    2012-01-01

    In recent decades, climate change has facilitated shifts in species ranges that have the potential to significantly affect ecosystem dynamics and resilience. Mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) is expanding east from British Columbia, where it has killed millions of pine trees, primarily lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta...

  5. Pheromone Production by an Invasive Bark Beetle Varies with Monoterpene Composition of its Naïve Host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taft, Spencer; Najar, Ahmed; Erbilgin, Nadir

    2015-06-01

    The secondary chemistry of host plants can have cascading impacts on the establishment of new insect herbivore populations, their long-term population dynamics, and their invasion potential in novel habitats. Mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) has recently expanded its range into forests of jack pine, Pinus banksiana Lamb., in western Canada. We investigated whether variations in jack pine monoterpenes affect beetle pheromone production, as the primary components of the beetle's aggregation pheromone, (-)-trans-verbenol and anti-aggregation pheromone (-)-verbenone, are biosynthesized from the host monoterpene α-pinene. Jack pine bolts were collected from five Canadian provinces east of the beetle's current range, live D. ponderosae were introduced into them, and their monoterpene compositions were characterized. Production of (-)-trans-verbenol and (-)-verbenone emitted by beetles was measured to determine whether pheromone production varies with monoterpene composition of jack pines. Depending on particular ratios of major monoterpenes in host phloem, jack pine could be classified into three monoterpenoid groups characterized by high amounts of (+)-α-pinene, 3-carene, or a more moderate blend of monoterpenes, and beetle pheromone production varied among these groups. Specifically, beetles reared in trees characterized by high (+)-α-pinene produced the most (-)-trans-verbenol and (-)-verbenone, while beetles in trees characterized by high 3-carene produced the least. Our results indicate that pheromone production by D. ponderosae will remain a significant aspect and important predictor of its survival and persistence in the boreal forest.

  6. Invasive Asian Fusarium – Euwallacea ambrosia beetle mutualists pose a serious threat to forests, urban landscapes and the avocado industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several species of the ambrosia beetle Euwallacea (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) cultivate Ambrosia Fusarium Clade (AFC) species in their galleries as a source of food. Like all other scolytine beetles in the tribe Xyleborini, Euwallacea are thought to be obligate mutualists with their fung...

  7. Flight periodicity of the Douglas-fir beetle, Dendroctonus pseudotsugae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) in Colorado, U.S.A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose F. Negron; Willis C. Schaupp; Lee Pederson

    2011-01-01

    There are about 500 species of bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) in the United States (Wood 1982). A number of them are important disturbance agents in forested ecosystems, occasionally creating large tracts of dead trees. One eruptive species is the Douglas-fir beetle, Dendroctonus pseudotsugae Hopkins, which utilizes Douglas-fir, Pseudotsuga...

  8. Predicting live and dead tree basal area of bark beetle affected forests from discrete-return lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin C. Bright; Andrew T. Hudak; Robert McGaughey; Hans-Erik Andersen; Jose Negron

    2013-01-01

    Bark beetle outbreaks have killed large numbers of trees across North America in recent years. Lidar remote sensing can be used to effectively estimate forest biomass, but prediction of both live and dead standing biomass in beetle-affected forests using lidar alone has not been demonstrated. We developed Random Forest (RF) models predicting total, live, dead, and...

  9. Estimating aboveground tree biomass for beetle-killed lodgepole pine in the Rocky Mountains of northern Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodam Chung; Paul Evangelista; Nathaniel Anderson; Anthony Vorster; Hee Han; Krishna Poudel; Robert Sturtevant

    2017-01-01

    The recent mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) epidemic has affected millions of hectares of conifer forests in the Rocky Mountains. Land managers are interested in using biomass from beetle-killed trees for bioenergy and biobased products, but they lack adequate information to accurately estimate biomass in stands with heavy mortality. We...

  10. Effects of bark beetle attack on canopy fuel flammability and crown fire potential in lodgepole pine and Engelmann spruce forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesley G. Page; Martin E. Alexander; Michael J. Jenkins

    2015-01-01

    Large wildland fires in conifer forests typically involve some degree of crowning, with their initiation and propagation dependent upon several characteristics of the canopy fuels. Recent outbreaks of mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. var. latifolia E ngelm.) forests and spruce beetle (Dendroctonus...

  11. Mountain pine beetle in lodgepole pine: mortality and fire implications (Project INT-F-07-03)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer G. Klutsch; Daniel R. West; Mike A Battaglia; Sheryl L. Costello; José F. Negrón; Charles C. Rhoades; John Popp; Rick Caissie

    2013-01-01

    Mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) has infested over 2 million acres of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud.) forest since an outbreak began approximately in 2000 in north central Colorado. The tree mortality from mountain pine beetle outbreaks has the potential to alter stand composition and stand...

  12. Probability of infestation and extent of mortality models for mountain pine beetle in lodgepole pine forests in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose F. Negron; Jennifer G. Klutsch

    2017-01-01

    The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, is a significant agent of tree mortality in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud.) forests throughout western North America. A large outbreak of mountain pine beetle caused extensive tree mortality in north-central Colorado beginning in the late 1990s. We use data from a network of plots established in...

  13. Exploring the role of wood waste landfills in early detection of non-native alien wood-boring beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davide Rassati; Massimo Faccoli; Lorenzo Marini; Robert A. Haack; Andrea Battisti; Edoardo. Petrucco Toffolo

    2015-01-01

    Non-native wood-boring beetles (Coleoptera) represent one of the most commonly intercepted groups of insects at ports worldwide. The development of early detection methods is a crucial step when implementing rapid response programs so that non-native wood-boring beetles can be quickly detected and a timely action plan can be produced. However, due to the limited...

  14. Old lower stem bark lesions apparently caused by unsuccessful spruce beetle attacks still evident on live spruce trees years later

    Science.gov (United States)

    John S. Hard; Ken P. Zogas

    2010-01-01

    We examined old bark lesions on Lutz spruce in young stands on the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska, to determine their cause. Distribution of these lesions along lower stems was similar to the distribution of spruce beetle attacks during epidemics. These lesions apparently resulted from unsuccessful attacks by spruce beetles during the late 1980s and early 1990s and appear to...

  15. Leptographium tereforme, sp. nov. and other Ophiostomatales isolated from the redhaired pine bark beetle, Hylurgus ligniperda, in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Kim; T.C. Harrington; J. C. Lee; S. J. Seybold

    2011-01-01

    The redhaired pine bark beetle Hylurgus ligniperda (F.) is native to Europe but was discovered in Los Angeles, California, in 2003. This root- and stump-feeding beetle is a common vector of Ophiostomatales, which are potential tree pathogens or causes of blue stain of conifer sapwood. In this study Ophiostomatales were isolated on a...

  16. An observational and modeling study of impacts of bark beetle-caused tree mortality on surface energy and hydrological cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei Chen; Guo Zhang; Michael Barlage; Ying Zhang; Jeffrey A. Hicke; Arjan Meddens; Guangsheng Zhou; William J. Massman; John Frank

    2015-01-01

    Bark beetle outbreaks have killed billions of trees and affected millions of hectares of forest during recent decades. The objective of this study was to quantify responses of surface energy and hydrologic fluxes 2-3 yr following a spruce beetle outbreak using measurements and modeling. The authors used observations at the Rocky Mountains Glacier Lakes Ecosystem...

  17. Intra-annual variation in responses by flying southern pine beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) to pheromone component endo-brevicomin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian T. Sullivan; Cavell Brownie; JoAnne P. Barrett

    2016-01-01

    The southern pine beetle Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) is attracted to an aggregation pheromone that includes the multifunctional pheromone component endobrevicomin. The effect of endo-brevicomin on attractive lures varies from strong enhancement to reduction of beetle attraction depending upon release rate, lure component...

  18. Effects of hydrogen fluoride fumigation of bean plants on the growth, development, and reproduction of the Mexican bean beetle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinstein, L H; McCune, D C; Mancini, J F; van Leuken, P

    1973-01-01

    The growth and behavior of Mexican bean beetle populations on control and hydrogen fluoride-fumigated bean plants (P. vulgaris L.) were investigated to assess the effects of such fumigation on beetle growth, development and reproduction. Beetles that were cultured on HF-fumigated plants were generally lighter than controls, although the occurrence and magnitude of this effect depended upon stage of development, age, and sex of the adult beetle and the number of generations of culture on HF-fumigated plants. A consistently decreased mass of larvae cultured on HF-fumigated tissue pupated and enclosed three to six days later than controls, and the adults commenced reproductive activity with the same lag in time. Beetles cultured on the fumigated plants also contained greater amounts of fluoride than the controls, and the fluoride content of females was greater than that of males on both HF-fumigated and control plants. Beetles raised on fumigated plants laid fewer egg masses and fewer eggs per mass, although when the first generation was repeated at a later date there was no significant effect. Feeding activity was reduced in both larval and adult stages in beetles cultured on the fumigated plants, and adults showed less flight activity than controls. A difference in color of the elytra was also noted; beetles on HF-fumigated plants were paler than controls.

  19. Efficient ethanol production from beetle-killed lodgepole pine using SPORL technology and Saccharomyces cerevisiae without detoxification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junyong Zhu; Xiaolin Luo; Shen Tian; Roland Gleisner; Jose Negron; Eric Horn

    2011-01-01

    This study applied Sulfite Pretreatment to Overcome Recalcitrance of Lignocelluloses (SPORL) to evaluate the potential of mountain pine beetle-killed lodgepole pine for ethanol production using conventional Saccharomyces cerevisiae without hydrolysate detoxification. The results indicate that the beetle-killed trees are more susceptible to SPORL pretreatment than live...

  20. Technoeconomic and policy drivers of project performance for bioenergy alternatives using biomass from beetle-killed trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert M. Campbell; Nathaniel M. Anderson; Daren E. Daugaard; Helen T. Naughton

    2018-01-01

    As a result of widespread mortality from beetle infestation in the forests of the western United States, there are substantial stocks of biomass suitable as a feedstock for energy production. This study explored the financial viability of four production pathway scenarios for the conversion of beetle-killed pine to bioenergy and bioproducts in the Rocky Mountains....