WorldWideScience

Sample records for hidden young carers

  1. Young carer awareness, identification and referral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprung, Sally; Laing, Michelle

    2017-08-02

    Young carers often provide care because they have always done so for the people they care about, and because they believe that the care recipient could not manage without them. For many young carers, looking after their own health, combining caring with schoolwork, getting access to training or having time off from carer duties can be a major challenge ( Department of Health [DH], 2008 ). This paper presents evidence from a literature review that builds a substantial body of knowledge to suggest that community nursing teams must develop supportive approaches towards increasing an awareness of young carers' needs. Identification of young carers by community nurses will encourage referral to appropriate services and agencies. The aim of this study was to appraise, for the Queen's Nursing Institute, the published evidence base to explore young carers' needs and how community nurses could support young carers' needs in England. Databases were systematically searched. Title and abstract reviews found 606 potential studies (see Figure 1 ), which were identified around topics corresponding to the headings of three distinct categories: mental health and wellbeing; education needs and resilience; and development of coping strategies. Full-text review resulted in 26 publications that met the study's inclusion criteria. The results of this work show that there is a scarcity of publications around the community nursing needs of young carers. However, studies consistently report young carers are hidden from view and have a significant requirement for support and information. Therefore, effective ways of delivering community nursing support and information to young carers needs to be developed by service providers as a matter of priority, and implemented to give the support that young carers need.

  2. Supporting 'Young Carers' in Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovdal, Morten; Campbell, C.; Onyango, V.

    2013-01-01

    as community recommendations on how they and external service providers can work together in supporting children faced with excessive caregiving and income-generation responsibilities. We use our findings to call for less restrictive regulations of children's work and to develop a plan for policy and action...... for young carers that identifies key actors, their roles and responsibilities, and how they might best collaborate-in a way that is sensitive both to concerns about child labour as well as community strengths, resources and apprehensions about the stigmatisation of children targeted by agencies. © 2013...

  3. The importance of respite in everyday life of young carers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Sanne Ellegaard; Michelsen, Susan Ishøy; Due, Pernille

    carers' well-being. Material and methods: The analysis will be based on data from a large representative survey among Danish 13-19 year olds, conducted in October 2016. Data will be collected by electronic questionnaires completed during a school lesson. Serious parental illness will be measured by self......Objective: In this presentation, we will focus on the opportunity of respite for young carers created by the environment, e.g. through organized leisure activities. Furthermore, the objective of this study is to analyze the association between the opportunity of respite in everyday life and young...

  4. A randomized controlled trial of bibliotherapy for carers of young people with first-episode psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Terence V; Lubman, Dan I; Cotton, Sue M; Murphy, Brendan; Crisp, Kingsley; Catania, Lisa; Marck, Claudia; Gleeson, John F M

    2013-11-01

    Caring for young people with first-episode psychosis (FEP) is challenging and can adversely affect carer well-being, with limited evidence-based support materials available. We aimed to examine whether completion of a self-directed problem-solving bibliotherapy among carers of young people with FEP led to a better experience of caring, less distress and expressed emotion, and better general health than carers who only received treatment as usual (TAU). A randomized controlled trial was conducted across two early-intervention psychosis services in Melbourne, Australia. A total of 124 carers were randomized to problem-solving bibliotherapy intervention (PSBI) or TAU and assessed at baseline, 6-week and 16-week follow-up. Intent-to-treat analyses were carried out and indicated that recipients of PSBI had a more favorable experience of caring than those receiving TAU, and these effects were sustained at both follow-up time points. Across the other measures, both groups demonstrated improvements by week 16, although the PBSI group tended to improve earlier. The PSBI group experienced a greater reduction in negative emotional evaluations of the need to provide additional support to young people with FEP than the TAU group by week 6, while the level of psychological distress decreased at a greater rate from baseline to 6 weeks in the PSBI compared with the TAU group. These findings support the use of problem-solving bibliotherapy for first-time carers, particularly as a cost-effective adjunct to TAU.

  5. Supporting "Young Carers" in Kenya: From Policy Paralysis to Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skovdal, Morten; Campbell, Catherine; Onyango, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    African children who care for sick or dying adults are receiving less than optimal support due to confusion about whether or not young caregiving constitutes a form of child labour and the tendency of the authorities to play it "safe" and side with more abolitionist approaches to children's work, avoiding engagement with support…

  6. Supporting "Young Carers" in Kenya: From Policy Paralysis to Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skovdal, Morten; Campbell, Catherine; Onyango, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    African children who care for sick or dying adults are receiving less than optimal support due to confusion about whether or not young caregiving constitutes a form of child labour and the tendency of the authorities to play it "safe" and side with more abolitionist approaches to children's work, avoiding engagement with support…

  7. Supporting "Young Carers" in Kenya: From Policy Paralysis to Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skovdal, Morten; Campbell, Catherine; Onyango, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    African children who care for sick or dying adults are receiving less than optimal support due to confusion about whether or not young caregiving constitutes a form of child labour and the tendency of the authorities to play it "safe" and side with more abolitionist approaches to children's work, avoiding engagement with support…

  8. Experiences of being a former young carer: effects in the transition into adulthood and in the present life situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Nagl-Cupal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative study aims to describe the experiences of adults with caring responsibilities during their childhood. 16 semi-structured interviews with former young carers were conducted and analyzed using open and axial coding procedures and constant comparison techniques. Being responsible as a child in terms of caregiving has an impact on every person concerned. When entering adulthood, most former young carers maintain the responsibility for the ill person. They feel torn between the effort of trying to arrange their life in a different way and holding on to a life where responsibility is still a dominant concern. They remain silent about caregiving due to the fear of painful memories, or the inability to recognize themselves as former young carers. Knowledge of former young carers’ situation can improve the understanding of how caring shapes the transition into adulthood and can help to prevent an inappropriate caring role of actual caregiving children.

  9. Young carers as social actors: coping strategies of children caring for ailing or ageing guardians in Western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skovdal, Morten; Ogutu, Vincent O; Aoro, Cellestine; Campbell, Catherine

    2009-08-01

    There is a vast body of research on the impact of HIV/AIDS on children, but little which acknowledges the role of children in providing care and support for ailing parents or ageing guardians. There has been a tendency to downplay the active role and agency of young carers, with young carers often represented as victims of damaging circumstances that compromise their psychosocial well-being. To counter-balance this tendency, and to develop the critical trend that views children as social actors, we explore how young carers cope with challenging circumstances, often with skill and ingenuity, drawing on data collected in Western Kenya in 2007. Forty-eight young carers (aged 11-17) used photography and drawing to provide accounts of their coping strategies. They described 240 of the resulting photographs and drawings in writing. In addition, 34 individual interviews and 2 group discussions were conducted with children to explore the findings further and 10 individual interviews with local adults were conducted to elucidate the dynamics between adults and children. Our data revealed that young carers cope by mobilising social support, engaging in income generating activities and constructing positive social identities around their caring roles. We conclude that children's ability to cope is determined by the extent to which they are able to participate in their community and negotiate support from it.

  10. Young foster children and their carers: an approach to assessing relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mares, Sarah; Torres, Marianne

    2014-07-01

    This article outlines an approach to assessing the quality of relationships between young foster children and their carers. These children are at high risk of disorganised attachment relationships and of developmental psychopathology given their relational experiences prior to and in care. During a semi-structured play interaction the emphasis is on identifying behaviours of clinical interest. This can be complex given the likelihood of atypical or unexpected behaviours expressed within relationships. The paper draws on literature on the clinical application of attachment theory to the assessment of relationships and on the authors' experience of developing and delivering an assessment and intervention service for children aged 0 to 5-years-old within a mental health service for children in foster care. Clinical material is used to illustrate and develop the issues. The case for including a semi-structured observational procedure as part of a comprehensive assessment of foster children and their carers is outlined. This is argued to have more clinical utility than formal approaches to attachment classification. The benefits of including a semi-structured and relational approach to clinical assessment of foster children are outlined along with the need to be cautious in the use of attachment related terminology when formal assessments have not been undertaken. © The Author(s) 2013.

  11. Young carers in Germany: to live on as normal as possible – a grounded theory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schnepp Wilfried

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In contrast to a growing body of research on the situation of adult family care givers, in Germany hardly anything is known about the situation of children and teenagers who are involved in the care of their relatives. Methods In this Grounded Theory study 81 semi structured interviews have been carried out with children and their parents in 34 families, in which one member is chronically ill. 41 children and 41 parents participated and the sample is heterogeneous and diverse. Results On the one hand, there is the phenomenon 'keeping the family together", which describes how families themselves cope with the chronic illness and also, which tasks to what extent are being shifted and redistributed within the family in order to manage daily life. Influencing factors, the children's motives as well as the impact on the children also belong to this phenomenon. The second phenomenon 'to live a normal course of life' describes concrete wishes and expectations of support for the family to manage the hindered daily life. These two phenomena linked together constitute the 'model of experience and construction of familial care, in which children take over an active role'. Conclusion It will be discussed, that the more families are in dire need of support, the more their distress becomes invisible, furthermore, that management of chronic illness is a process, in which the entire family is involved, and thus needs to be considered, and finally, that young carer's relief is not possible without relief of their parents.

  12. The Mutual Benefits of Listening to Young People in Care, with a Particular Focus on Grief and Loss: An Irish Foster Carer's Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Deirdre; Jenkinson, Hilary

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the mutual benefits for social workers and young people of active listening within a collaborative partnership incorporating foster carers, allowing the possibility to create a virtuous circle. The benefits for young people of increased self-esteem, positive identity and resilience among others are explored. The benefits for…

  13. Aligning Body and World: Stable Reference Frames Improve Young Children's Search for Hidden Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Lynn K.; Samuelson, Larissa K.; Spencer, John P.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated how young children's increasingly flexible use of spatial reference frames enables accurate search for hidden objects by using a task that 3-year-olds have been shown to perform with great accuracy and 2-year-olds have been shown to perform inaccurately. Children watched as an object was rolled down a ramp, behind a panel…

  14. The use of health-related quality of life (HRQOL in children and adolescents as an outcome criterion to evaluate family oriented support for young carers in Germany: an integrative review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schnepp Wilfried

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Young people below the age of 18, whose lives are affected by looking after a relative with a disability or long-term illness, are called young carers. Evidence based family oriented support for young carers and their families in Germany is currently being developed. To allow for scientific evaluation, an outcome criterion needs to be chosen. Until today, there are no assessment instruments available, which focus on young carer's specific demands and needs. As HRQOL seems to be an adequate alternative outcome criterion, an integrative review of the literature was carried out to verify this assumption. Methods The aim of the integrative review was to get information about a the concept and the common definition of HRQOL in children, b preferable HRQOL assessment techniques in children, and c the relevance of HRQOL measures for the population of young carers. An additional aim of the review was to give advice on which instrument fits best to assess young carer's HRQOL in Germany. Searches were conducted in PubMed in order to obtain papers reporting about a the development or psychometric assessment of instruments measuring HRQOL in children and adolescents up to the age of 18, and b on the conceptual framework of HRQOL in children. Results HRQOL is a multidimensional construct covering physical, emotional, mental, social, and behavioural components of well-being and functioning as subjective perceived by a person depending on the cultural context and value system one is living in. Young carer's problems and needs are well covered by these common domains of HRQOL. Since no specific HRQOL-measures are available to address young carers, a generic one has to be chosen which a has been created for use in children, b allows self- and proxy-report, and c has good psychometric testing results. Comparing four generic measures with currently best published psychometric testing results, items of the KIDSCREEN cover young carer's specific

  15. Experiences and Preferences for End-of-Life Care for Young Adults with Cancer and Their Informal Carers: A Narrative Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngwenya, Nothando; Kenten, Charlotte; Jones, Louise; Gibson, Faith; Pearce, Susie; Flatley, Mary; Hough, Rachael; Stirling, L Caroline; Taylor, Rachel M; Wong, Geoff; Whelan, Jeremy

    2017-01-11

    To review the qualitative literature on experiences of and preferences for end-of-life care of people with cancer aged 16-40 years (young adults) and their informal carers. A systematic review using narrative synthesis of qualitative studies using the 2006 UK Economic and Social Research Council research methods program guidance. Seven electronic bibliographic databases, two clinical trials databases, and three relevant theses databases were searched from January 2004 to October 2015. Eighteen articles were included from twelve countries. The selected studies included at least 5% of their patient sample within the age range 16-40 years. The studies were heterogeneous in their aims, focus, and sample, but described different aspects of end-of-life care for people with cancer. Positive experiences included facilitating adaptive coping and receiving palliative home care, while negative experiences were loss of "self" and nonfacilitative services and environment. Preferences included a family-centered approach to care, honest conversations about end of life, and facilitating normality. There is little evidence focused on the end-of-life needs of young adults. Analysis of reports including some young adults does not explore experience or preferences by age; therefore, it is difficult to identify age-specific issues clearly. From this review, we suggest that supportive interventions and education are needed to facilitate open and honest communication at an appropriate level with young people. Future research should focus on age-specific evidence about the end-of-life experiences and preferences for young adults with cancer and their informal carers.

  16. Supporting 'Young Carers' in Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovdal, Morten; Campbell, C.; Onyango, V.

    2013-01-01

    , avoiding engagement with support strategies that could be seen as support of child labour. To challenge this view, and move from policy paralysis to action, we present a study from western Kenya that explores community perceptions of children's work and caregiving as well as opportunities for support....... The study draws on 17 community group conversations and 10 individual interviews, involving 283 members of a Luo community in the Bondo District of western Kenya. We provide a detailed account of how integral children's work is to household survival in the context of poverty, HIV and AIDS as well...

  17. Telepsychiatry and carer education for schizophrenia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Haley, C

    2011-01-01

    Despite the scientific evidence, most families of people with schizophrenia in Europe never receive a carer education programme. We evaluated whether a carer education course delivered by telepsychiatry was as effective as a carer education course delivered in situ.

  18. Hidden behind the gunfire: young women's experiences of gang-related violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Juanjo; Ralphs, Robert; Aldridge, Judith

    2012-06-01

    This article uses data from a 3-year multisite ethnographic research study of gangs within an English city, to explore the different ways that "gang culture" shapes the victimization experiences and everyday lives of (young) women. Victims of lethal gang violence in Research City are almost exclusively young men, rendering invisible the ways in which gangs have an impact on the lives of women living in neighborhoods with a gang presence. The article also discusses how the adoption of a transdisciplinary approach could be useful in developing a holistic picture of the impact of gang-related violence on the lives of women.

  19. Hidden prevalence of lower urinary tract symptoms in healthy nulligravid young women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Breda, Hendrikje M. K.; Bosch, J. L. H. Ruud; de Kort, Laetitia M. O.

    2015-01-01

    Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and urinary incontinence (UI) may have a major impact on quality of life. However, not all individuals with urological complaints seek medical advice. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of LUTS in young otherwise healthy nulligravid women and

  20. The hidden face of income transfer programs for young people in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilia Pontes Sposito

    Full Text Available Based on a broader analysis of the nature of recent public policies directed at youths in Brazil and on the conflicting orientations inherent in this field, this paper discusses the presuppositions contained in three public programs currently being implemented in the country: the Young Agent Project, the Voluntary Civil Service Program and the Work-Income Allowance Program. After an overview of each of these programs, including various aspects where they diverge, the analysis focuses on the paradoxes and ambiguities underlining their common format: the transfer of income linked to some kind of return commitment by the youngsters, usually a return to or continuation of schooling and the realization of socioeducational or community-type activities. While acknowledging the beneficial side of access to income, the paper warns of the possibility of disseminating new forms of domination based on the adoption of this model in public policies directed at youngsters.

  1. Children, adolescents and their carers' expectations of child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronzoni, Pablo; Dogra, Nisha

    2012-05-01

    The use of service users' views as performance indicators highlights the trend to make services more responsive to patients' needs. However, recent research indicates that there is a lack of clear understanding about specialist CAMHS and the outcomes that children, adolescents and their parents hope to achieve from treatment differ. To explore children/young people's and parents/carers' expectations of CAMHS in Leicestershire, England. Sixty children/young people and their parents/carers were asked to identify goals they want to achieve following contact with CAMHS. Qualitative thematic analysis in relation to Hoagwood's SFCES model (Symptoms, Functional, Consumer perspectives, Environment and Systems) was used. The question was answered by 46.7% of children and young people and 60% of carers. Overall, children, young people and parents/carers agreed that symptomatic modification and functional aspects were the most important goals. However, internalising items seemed more important for parents/carers than children and adolescents, who in contrast hoped for improvement in externalising factors. Goals outside the scope of CAMHS were also noted for both groups. Attention to children/young people and their parents/carers' expectations of services is needed to improve therapeutic relationships and engagement. Improvement in mental health literacy and practitioners' guidance is required to allow service users to set realistic and achievable treatment goals.

  2. General practitioners and carers: a questionnaire survey of attitudes, awareness of issues, barriers and enablers to provision of services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atkins Christine

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Approximately one in ten of the UK population are unpaid carers supporting a family member or friend who could not manage without their help, saving the UK economy an estimated £87 billion. This role is known to sometimes have a negative impact on carers and to require support both informally and from statutory services. General practice is a first point of contact for carers but research investigating general practitioners' (GPs' attitudes towards carers and awareness of issues facing carers is rare. This study therefore aimed to identify GPs' attitudes, awareness of issues, and perceptions of the barriers and enablers to provision of services. Methods Using a self-completion questionnaire distributed at a series of workshops, this study investigates GPs' attitudes to carers; awareness and knowledge of carers' issues; services offered in general practice and barriers to supporting carers. Results Seventy eight out of a total of 95 GPs (82% response rate from a variety of areas in England completed the questionnaires. The GPs identified time, resources and lack of knowledge as barriers, but only 9% agreed with the statement that there is little support they can offer carers. However, nine in ten GPs (89% feel they have insufficient training here and approximately half of them (47% lack confidence that they are meeting carers' needs. Confidence in identifying carers is also low (45%. Issues that GPs would look out for amongst carers include emotional and physical health problems and financial and isolation difficulties. GPs specifically highlighted educational and isolation issues for young carers. Few services were described that targeted carers. Conclusions GPs recognise that they have an important role to play in supporting carers but would like training and support. Further investigation is needed both to determine how best to train and facilitate GPs and general practice teams in their role in supporting carers and to

  3. Supporting family carers using interative multimedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, E J; Tetley, J; Shewan, J

    ACTION (Assisting Carers using Telematic Interventions to meet Older persons' Needs) is a nursing led Pan-European project (1997-2000). Its primary aim is to maintain the autonomy, independence and quality of life of frail older and disabled persons and their family carers by the application of telematic technology. This article describes the development of two multimedia programmes created as part of the ACTION project. Programme 1 'Planning ahead' helps family carers and frail older people to think about and plan for the future. Programme 2 'Break from caring' assists carers and older people to explore the range of respite care options available. Both programmes have been developed using a multimethod, user-centred approach. Preliminary evaluation data have indicated that frail older people and their carers have used the programmes to assist them when making difficult decisions such as selecting a nursing home, or exploring the use of respite care facilities.

  4. Young Money

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roelsgaard Obling, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Book review of: Kevin Roose: "Young Money: Inside the Hidden World of Wall Street's Post-Crash Recruits". New York: Grand Central Publishing, 2014. 320 pp.......Book review of: Kevin Roose: "Young Money: Inside the Hidden World of Wall Street's Post-Crash Recruits". New York: Grand Central Publishing, 2014. 320 pp....

  5. Carers and the digital divide: factors affecting Internet use among carers in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Clare; Read, Janet; Hughes, Nathan

    2005-05-01

    This paper presents data from a cross-sectional survey of 3014 adult carers, examining use of the Internet and factors associated with it. Carers recruited from the databases of three local authorities and other carer organisations within their geographical boundaries and that of Carers UK, a national carers organisation, were sent a postal questionnaire (response rate: 40%). A comparison of our data with national data on carers suggests some under-representation of men and younger adult carers and some over-representation of those who had been caring for long periods and those with substantial caring responsibilities. Two measures of Internet use were used and are presented in this analysis: previous use (ever used vs never previously used) and frequency (less than once a week vs once a week or more). Bivariate analyses identified patterns of Internet use and socio-demographic and socio-economic factors and caring circumstances associated with them. Factors significantly associated with each measure of Internet use were entered into direct logistic regression analyses to identify factors significantly associated with each measure. Half (50%) of all carers had previously used the Internet. Of this group, 61% had used it once a week or more frequently. Factors significantly associated with having previously used the Internet were carer's age, employment status, housing tenure and number of hours per week they spent caring. Frequency of Internet use was significantly associated with carer's age, sex, employment status and number of hours spent caring. Our study suggests that a significant number of carers may not currently be Internet users and that age, gender, socio-economic status and caring responsibilities shape Internet use in particular ways. Given the targets set by government for the development of online services, it is important to address the digital divide among carers and to continue to develop other services and information systems to meet the needs of

  6. Helping infants and toddlers in Foster family care : The evidence base of the Foster carer − Foster child Intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Andel, Hans

    2015-01-01

    The Foster carer- Foster child Intervention (FFI) helps very young foster children to feel safe in their new foster-environment. After placement young children often adapt to their new environment with avoidant behaviour. Evidence exist they do not feel safe, for example because they do not ask for

  7. Hidden loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kieffer-Kristensen, Rikke; Johansen, Karen Lise Gaardsvig

    2013-01-01

    to participate. RESULTS: All children were affected by their parents' ABI and the altered family situation. The children's expressions led the authors to identify six themes, including fear of losing the parent, distress and estrangement, chores and responsibilities, hidden loss, coping and support. The main...... the ill parent. These findings contribute to a deeper understanding of the traumatic process of parental ABI that some children experience and emphasize the importance of family-centred interventions that include the children....

  8. Effect of perceived stigmatization on the quality of life among ageing female family carers: a comparison of carers of adults with intellectual disability and carers of adults with mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Y C; Pu, C Y; Lee, Y C; Lin, L C; Kröger, T

    2009-07-01

    Little account has been taken of quality of life (QoL) among family carers of adults with an intellectual disability (ID) and family carers of adults with a mental illness (MI), particularly the female ageing carers' perceived stigma. We explore whether there are differences in the significant predictors of female ageing family carers' QoL between family carers of adults with ID and family carers of adults with MI and aim to examine the effect of these differences in stigma on carer QoL between the two groups. A structural survey interview was administered to 350 female family carers supporting persons with ID and 66 female carers supporting persons with MI; the carers were aged 55 years and older, and the interviews were carried between July 2006 and April 2007 at the carers' homes in a county in Taiwan. The survey package contained standardised scales to measure the carer's stigma, social support, QoL and health as well as adult and carer socio-demographic data. The results highlight that in both groups the ageing female family carers' health and social support were strongly associated with the level of their QoL even though there was also a strong effect of carers' perceived stigma on their QoL. Contrary to previous findings, ageing female family carers of adults with MI had a higher level of QoL compared with the carers of adults with ID. Hierarchical regressions show a stronger effect of perceived stigma on the carer QoL among the family carers of adults with MI than among the carers of adults with ID. This study suggests that attempts to improve these female older family carers' health and social support must include their lifelong unmet needs in terms of how to cope with the perceived stigma associated with their position.

  9. Effect of Perceived Stigmatisation on the Quality of Life among Ageing Female Family Carers: A Comparison of Carers of Adults with Intellectual Disability and Carers of Adults with Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Y. C.; Pu, C. Y.; Lee, Y. C.; Lin, L. C.; Kroger, T.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Little account has been taken of quality of life (QoL) among family carers of adults with an intellectual disability (ID) and family carers of adults with a mental illness (MI), particularly the female ageing carers' perceived stigma. We explore whether there are differences in the significant predictors of female ageing family carers'…

  10. Service use among school leavers with severe learning difficulties: the views of carers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ineichen, B

    1993-02-01

    School leaving is a time when difficult decisions have to be taken. Difficulties are likely to be particularly complex when the school leaver has severe learning difficulties. Carers of 61 young people living in one East London Health District were interviewed about their child's experience of service use at around the time of school leaving. The timing of school leaving appears to have been well handled, and the experience of those who went on to further education was positive. The school social work service was greatly appreciated. On the debit side, many informants were critical of the quality of short-term residential care. The commonest concern was for the prompt availability of day care. As in the few other studies of this subject, the impression that services appeared uncoordinated was given by carers.

  11. β2-adrenoceptor stimulation restores frontal cortex plasticity and improves visuospatial performance in hidden-prenatally-malnourished young-adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáez-Briones, Patricio; Soto-Moyano, Rubén; Burgos, Héctor; Castillo, Amparo; Valladares, Luis; Morgan, Carlos; Pérez, Hernán; Barra, Rafael; Constandil, Luis; Laurido, Claudio; Hernández, Alejandro

    2015-03-01

    Moderate reduction in dietary protein composition of pregnant rats from 25% to 8% casein, calorically compensated by carbohydrates, has been described as a "hidden malnutrition" because it does not alter body and brain weights of pups at birth. However, this dietary treatment leads to altered central noradrenergic systems, impaired cortical long-term potentiation (LTP) and worsened visuo-spatial memory performance. Given the increasing interest on the role played by β2-adrenoceptors (β2-ARs) on brain plasticity, the present study aimed to address the following in hidden-malnourished and eutrophic control rats: (i) the expression levels of β2-ARs in the frontal cortex determined by immunohistochemistry, and (ii) the effect of the β2 selective agonist clenbuterol on both LTP elicited in vivo in the prefrontal cortex and visuospatial performance measured in an eight-arm radial maze. Our results showed that, prenatally malnourished rats exhibited a significant reduction of neocortical β2-AR expression in adulthood. Concomitantly, they were unable to elicit and maintain prefrontal cortex LTP and exhibited lower visuospatial learning performance. Administration of clenbuterol (0.019, 0.038 and 0.075 mg/kg i.p.) enhanced LTP in malnourished and control animals and restored visuospatial learning performance in malnourished but not in normal rats, in a dose-dependent manner. The results suggest that decreased density of neocortical β2-ARs during postnatal life, subsequent to hidden prenatal malnutrition might affect some synaptic networks required to elicit neocortical LTP and form visuospatial memory, since those neuroplastic deficits were counteracted by β2-AR stimulation.

  12. Effectiveness of START psychological intervention in reducing abuse by dementia family carers: randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, C.; Barber, J; Griffin, M.; Rapaport, P.; Livingston, G.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Family carers of people with dementia frequently report acting abusively toward them and carer psychological morbidity predicts this. We investigated whether START (STrAtegies for RelaTives), a psychological intervention which reduces depression and anxiety in family carers also reduces abusive behavior in carers of people living in their own homes. We also explored the longitudinal course of carer abusive behavior over two year. METHODS: We included self-identified family carers ...

  13. The emotional overlay: older person and carer perspectives on negotiating aging and care in rural Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herron, Rachel V; Skinner, Mark W

    2013-08-01

    This paper extends the burgeoning interest in emotion, health and place by investigating the emotionally complex experiences of aging and care in rural settings. Featuring a thematic analysis of 44 semi-structured interviews and two focus groups with older people and their carers in rural Ontario (Canada) we examine the importance and implications of emotions within and across multiple scales at which care relationships, expectations and responsibilities are negotiated. With the aim of broadening the discussion surrounding geographical dimensions of ethical care, our approach draws on feminist care ethics to understand the multifaceted ways in which emotions shape and are shaped by experiences of aging and caring at the interpersonal, household and community scales. The findings reveal how emotions are central, yet often-overlooked and even hidden within care relationships among older rural people and their carers. We argue that ethical care is contingent on recognizing and valuing the situated emotions involved in doing care work, sustaining care relationships and asking for care. In doing so, we demonstrate how qualitative research on the emotional geographies of care can contribute to the development of informed policies that are contextually sensitive and, ultimately, have the potential to build more ethical rural conditions of care.

  14. 'It's the system working for the system': carers' experiences of learning disability services in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Andrew

    2009-02-01

    The aim of this article is to examine the experiences of families with young adults with learning disabilities trying to access services. The landscape of disability services for this group is made up of day care, special vocational training and respite places. It aims to identify the extent of an implementation gap between government rhetoric and the degree to which services are characterised as being non-supportive interactions on the ground. Using Ireland as a case study, during a time when the economy is booming and government rhetoric claims unparalleled developments in allocating resources and extra respite 'places', this article identifies the main challenges faced by family carers associated with accessing appropriate services for their disabled adult child, in their attempt to achieve greater independence. This article reports the findings of a qualitative study in which individual semistructured interviews were held with family carers (n = 25) and representatives from national carer organisations (n = 6) in Ireland. These were people caring for an adult (18-30 years) with a learning disability and their experiences were also useful in cross-checking the carer organisation interviews. The findings show that there is limited flexibility, choice and availability in meeting the preferences of the service-users, and throughout the study, services were characterised as being non-supportive interactions. This is not simply symptomatic of a lack of resources. Despite improved funding, supportive attitudes and flexibility are still crucial in meeting user requirements at the level of delivery; thus highlighting that often the system works for the system, not for the user.

  15. Informal and formal reconciliation strategies of older peoples’ working carers: the European carers@work project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Hoff

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Faced with a historically unprecedented process of demographic ageing, many European societies implemented pension reforms in recent years to extend working lives. Although aimed at rebalancing public pension systems, this approach has the unintended side effect that it also extends the number of years in which working carers have to juggle the conflicting demands of employment and caregiving. This not only impinges on working carers’ well-being and ability to continue providing care but also affects European enterprises’ capacity to generate growth which increasingly relies on ageing workforces. The focus of this paper will thus be a cross-national comparison of individual reconciliation strategies and workplace-related company policies aimed at enabling working carers to reconcile both conflicting roles in four different European welfare states: Germany, Italy, Poland, and the United Kingdom.

  16. Further explorations of illness uncertainty: carers' experiences of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurt, Catherine S; Cleanthous, Sophie; Newman, Stanton P

    2017-05-01

    Dominant models of illness uncertainty define uncertainty as 'an inability to determine the meaning of illness-related events'. Recent research has shown patient uncertainty to be multidimensional encompassing personal issues indirectly affected by illness. The nature of carer uncertainty has yet to be fully explored. The present study aimed to investigate the nature of illness uncertainty in the carers of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Eighteen carers of a spouse with PD participated in semistructured interviews. Transcripts were thematically analysed, statements were coded as uncertain if they reflected 'a lack of certainty, or a state of limited knowledge, understanding or worry regarding an existing or future outcome'. The domains of uncertainty expressed by carers closely fitted the five domain framework of patient uncertainty: symptoms and prognosis, medical management, self-management, social functioning and impact. An additional 'carer-role' domain was identified. Carer uncertainty about PD went beyond issues directly related to the illness. The findings have implications for research into uncertainty suggesting that widely used measures may not be accurately capturing the nature of carer uncertainty about chronic illness. The breadth of uncertainty reported has implications for the provision of appropriate support to improve caregiver well-being.

  17. Partially Hidden Markov Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren Otto; Rissanen, Jorma

    1996-01-01

    Partially Hidden Markov Models (PHMM) are introduced. They differ from the ordinary HMM's in that both the transition probabilities of the hidden states and the output probabilities are conditioned on past observations. As an illustration they are applied to black and white image compression wher...

  18. Addressing the mental health needs of looked after children in foster care: the experiences of foster carers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, W; Jones, J

    2017-03-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: In the UK and internationally, the number of looked after children is increasing year on year. Mental health problems among looked after children are significantly higher than in the general population, and the uptake of mental health services for these children is low. There is a poor prognosis for children with untreated mental health problems; this is further compounded if the child is within the care system. WHAT DOES THIS PAPER ADD TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: This study adds to our understanding of foster carers' experiences of the mental health needs of looked after children and demonstrates some of the challenges associated with accessing appropriate and timely mental health services. New knowledge derived from this research is that the barriers to accessing Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS) are not at the time of initial referral as previously reported, but later, once within the mental health system with long waiting times experienced particularly for specialist services. This study provides new insights into the experience of being a foster carer and the levels of support and resources needed that directly relate to the viability of the placement. The majority of the foster carers interviewed were from a Black and Minority Ethnic (BME) background, previously under-represented in this research area. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: A number of areas in current CAMHS provision need addressing with a focus on accessibility, consultation and support for foster carers. Waiting times need to be addressed, and improved communication with other agencies is also highlighted. CAMHS nurses are well placed to develop and deliver a comprehensive care package to foster carers, offering more tailored support to them whilst enabling the children and young people in their care to access and engage more effectively with mental health services. Introduction Despite well-documented vulnerabilities to mental health problems

  19. Cognitive reframing for carers of people with dementia (Review)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vernooij-Dassen, M.J.F.J.; Draskovic, I.; McCleery, J.; Downs, M.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The balance of evidence about whether psychosocial interventions for caregivers of people with dementia could reduce carers' psychological morbidity and delay their relatives' institutionalisation is now widely regarded as moderately positive (Brodaty 2003; Spijker 2008). Multi-component

  20. Cognitive reframing for carers of people with dementia (Review)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vernooij-Dassen, M.J.F.J.; Draskovic, I.; McCleery, J.; Downs, M.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The balance of evidence about whether psychosocial interventions for caregivers of people with dementia could reduce carers' psychological morbidity and delay their relatives' institutionalisation is now widely regarded as moderately positive (Brodaty 2003; Spijker 2008). Multi-component

  1. How Much Care is Enough? Carer's Guilt and Bergsonian Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johncock, Will

    2016-09-02

    Despite devoting their time to another person's needs, many carers paradoxically experience guilt during their caregiving tenure concerning whether they are providing enough care. When discussing the "enough" of anything, what is at stake is that thing's quantification. Given that there are seemingly no quantifiable units of care by which to measure the role, concerns regarding whether enough care is being provided often focus on what constitutes enough time as a carer. In exploring this aspect of the carer's experience, two key parameters emerge; (1) guilt, and, (2) quantified time. The guilt that carers report regarding whether they devote "enough time" to their caring responsibilities can be examined through Henri Bergson's philosophical conception of quantification. By integrating contemporary analyses of carers' guilt from the social sciences, most significantly via the sociology of Rebecca Olson, the relationship between quantified time and guilt becomes apparent. A quantified conception of time frames the assumption that spending more time on caregiving will reduce the amount of guilt felt by a carer. However, whilst care is structured according to quantified, clocked and calendared time, there are not comparable, quantifiable parameters for guilt. This means that suppositions of an inverse relationship between how much time one spends giving care, and how much guilt they will feel in terms of their caregiving, are problematic. These insights become relevant to health care policies via a coherence with calls to make the role of unpaid, caregiving, labour time more visible, and by explaining how understanding quantified time can help policies guide how caregivers negotiate guilt.

  2. Entanglement without hidden nonlocality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Flavien; Túlio Quintino, Marco; Bowles, Joseph; Vértesi, Tamás; Brunner, Nicolas

    2016-11-01

    We consider Bell tests in which the distant observers can perform local filtering before testing a Bell inequality. Notably, in this setup, certain entangled states admitting a local hidden variable model in the standard Bell scenario can nevertheless violate a Bell inequality after filtering, displaying so-called hidden nonlocality. Here we ask whether all entangled states can violate a Bell inequality after well-chosen local filtering. We answer this question in the negative by showing that there exist entangled states without hidden nonlocality. Specifically, we prove that some two-qubit Werner states still admit a local hidden variable model after any possible local filtering on a single copy of the state.

  3. Hidden circuits and argumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinonen, Risto; Kesonen, Mikko H. P.; Hirvonen, Pekka E.

    2016-11-01

    Despite the relevance of DC circuits in everyday life and schools, they have been shown to cause numerous learning difficulties at various school levels. In the course of this article, we present a flexible method for teaching DC circuits at lower secondary level. The method is labelled as hidden circuits, and the essential idea underlying hidden circuits is in hiding the actual wiring of DC circuits, but to make their behaviour evident for pupils. Pupils are expected to find out the wiring of the circuit which should enhance their learning of DC circuits. We present two possible ways to utilise hidden circuits in a classroom. First, they can be used to test and enhance pupils’ conceptual understanding when pupils are expected to find out which one of the offered circuit diagram options corresponds to the actual circuit shown. This method aims to get pupils to evaluate the circuits holistically rather than locally, and as a part of that aim this method highlights any learning difficulties of pupils. Second, hidden circuits can be used to enhance pupils’ argumentation skills with the aid of argumentation sheet that illustrates the main elements of an argument. Based on the findings from our co-operating teachers and our own experiences, hidden circuits offer a flexible and motivating way to supplement teaching of DC circuits.

  4. How Hidden Can Be Even More Hidden?

    CERN Document Server

    Fraczek, Wojciech; Szczypiorski, Krzysztof

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents Deep Hiding Techniques (DHTs) that define general techniques that can be applied to every network steganography method to improve its undetectability and make steganogram extraction harder to perform. We define five groups of techniques that can make steganogram less susceptible to detection and extraction. For each of the presented group, examples of the usage are provided based on existing network steganography methods. To authors' best knowledge presented approach is the first attempt in the state of the art to systematically describe general solutions that can make steganographic communication more hidden and steganogram extraction harder to perform.

  5. Search for Hidden Particles

    CERN Multimedia

    The SHiP Experiment is a new general-purpose fixed target facility at the SPS to search for hidden particles as predicted by a very large number of recently elaborated models of Hidden Sectors which are capable of accommodating dark matter, neutrino oscillations, and the origin of the full baryon asymmetry in the Universe. Specifically, the experiment is aimed at searching for very weakly interacting long lived particles including Heavy Neutral Leptons - right-handed partners of the active neutrinos; light supersymmetric particles - sgoldstinos, etc.; scalar, axion and vector portals to the hidden sector. The high intensity of the SPS and in particular the large production of charm mesons with the 400 GeV beam allow accessing a wide variety of light long-lived exotic particles of such models and of SUSY. Moreover, the facility is ideally suited to study the interactions of tau neutrinos.

  6. The Prostate Care Questionnaire for Carers (PCQ-C): reliability, validity and acceptability

    OpenAIRE

    Steward William; Colman Andrew M; Agarwal Shona; Tarrant Carolyn; Baker Richard; Sinfield Paul; Kockelbergh Roger; Mellon John K

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Patient experience is commonly monitored in evaluating and improving health care, but the experience of carers (partners/relatives/friends) is rarely monitored even though the role of carers can often be substantial. For carers to fulfil their role it is necessary to address their needs. This paper describes an evaluation of the reliability, validity and acceptability of the PCQ-C, a newly developed instrument designed to measure the experiences of carers of men with prost...

  7. Solar Hidden Photon Search

    CERN Document Server

    Schwarz, Matthias; Redondo, Javier; Ringwald, Andreas; Wiedemann, Guenter

    2011-01-01

    The Solar Hidden Photon Search (SHIPS) is a joint astroparticle project of the Hamburger Sternwarte and DESY. The main target is to detect the solar emission of a new species of particles, so called Hidden Photons (HPs). Due to kinetic mixing, photons and HPs can convert into each other as they propagate. A small number of solar HPs - originating from photon to HP oscillations in the interior of the Sun - can be converted into photons in a long vacuum pipe pointing to the Sun - the SHIPS helioscope.

  8. Solar Hidden Photon Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarz, Matthias; Wiedemann, Guenter [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Sternwarte; Lindner, Axel; Ringwald, Andreas [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Redondo, Javier [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik und Astrophysik, Muenchen (Germany)

    2011-11-15

    The Solar Hidden Photon Search (SHIPS) is a joint astroparticle project of the Hamburger Sternwarte and DESY. The main target is to detect the solar emission of a new species of particles, so called Hidden Photons (HPs). Due to kinetic mixing, photons and HPs can convert into each other as they propagate. A small number of solar HPs - originating from photon to HP oscillations in the interior of the Sun - can be converted into photons in a long vacuum pipe pointing to the Sun - the SHIPS helioscope. (orig.)

  9. Carer Knowledge and Perceptions of Healthy Lifestyles for Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melville, Craig A.; Hamilton, Sarah; Miller, Susan; Boyle, Susan; Robinson, Nicola; Pert, Carol; Hankey, Catherine R.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Carers can have a significant impact supporting people with intellectual disabilities to make healthy lifestyle choices. This study examines carers' training needs on diet and physical activity. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was undertaken of the knowledge and perceptions of carers supporting adults with intellectual disabilities.…

  10. "It's All Changed:" Carers' Experiences of Caring for Adults Who Have Down's Syndrome and Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Katrina; Jones, Aled

    2011-01-01

    A qualitative interview study was undertaken to determine the information and support needs of carers of adults who have Down's syndrome and dementia. The data were analysed thematically. Carers' information and support needs were seen to change at pre-diagnosis, diagnosis and post-diagnosis. Helping carers to manage the changing nature of the…

  11. Staff Carers' Understanding of End of Life Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Sandra L.; Choueiri, Roula; Gilmore, Dana

    2008-01-01

    Staff carers in pediatric skilled nursing facilities (PSNF) deal directly with dying residents, and are on the forefront of communication with families. These providers have expressed misunderstandings regarding the meaning of resuscitation status and redirection of care. This descriptive study evaluated perceptions and understanding of end of…

  12. Views of family carers and older people of information technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Nils-Bertil; Hanson, Elizabeth; Magnusson, Lennart

    This article is the second in a series of four describing recent developments in Sweden aimed at promoting partnerships between older people, their families and formal service providers. The last article (Vol 11(11): 759-63) described the development of an information and communication technology (ICT) project ACTION -- Assisting Carers using Telematics Interventions to meet Older persons' Needs -- and focused on the use of CT to help family carers to be more prepared for their caregiving role. This article focuses on the concept of usability within the ACTION project and the importance of working closely with participants in order to create an information and communication service that is both acceptable and of direct benefit to family members in their everyday caring situations. Nielsen's (1993) Model of Usability is described within the overall context of the project and is used as a framework for the cycle of development and testing that underpin ACTION. A variety of research methods are highlighted, with a central theme being that of user involvement, with particular reference to the USERfit approach (Poulson et al, 1996). The education and training of older people and their family carers to use the ACTION technology is outlined and examples are given of the empowering effects of the use of the service and its user-driven focus. Recommendations for the further technical development of ACTION are firmly based on the comments and suggestions provided by older people and the family carers themselves.

  13. Understanding the needs of people with dementia and family carers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Jennifer; Evans, Simon; Thompson, Rachel; Bruce, Mary; Carter, Christine; Brooker, Dawn; Milosevic, Sarah; Coleman, Helen; McSherry, Wilf

    2015-09-01

    This is the first in a short series that presents case study examples of the positive work achieved by trusts who participated in the Royal College of Nursing's development programme to improve dementia care in acute hospitals. When a person with dementia is in hospital, poor understanding of individual needs and preferences can contribute to a lack of person-centred care. Similarly, the needs of family carers can often be overlooked and staff do not always appreciate these needs at such a stressful time. This article illustrates how three NHS trusts have addressed these issues. To help staff get to know patients with dementia, Salford Royal NHS Foundation Trust has implemented a patient passport. Similarly, The Shrewsbury and Telford Hospital NHS Trust has implemented a carer passport that overcomes the restrictions imposed by hospital visiting hours. Royal Devon and Exeter NHS Foundation Trust also focused on carers, holding a workshop to elicit feedback on what was important to them. This was a useful means of engaging with carers and helped staff to realise that even simple changes can have a significant effect.

  14. Burden and happiness in head and neck cancer carers: the role of supportive care needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanly, Paul; Maguire, Rebecca; Balfe, Myles; Hyland, Philip; Timmons, Aileen; O'Sullivan, Eleanor; Butow, Phyllis; Sharp, Linda

    2016-10-01

    Our study aimed to investigate the relationship between unmet supportive care needs and carer burden and happiness, in head and neck cancer (HNC). Two hundred eighty-five HNC informal carers were sent a postal questionnaire between January and June 2014, which included the supportive care needs survey for partners and caregivers of cancer survivors (SCNS-P&C) and the CarerQol, which assesses burden and happiness. Multiple regression analysis was conducted to examine the association of (i) carer characteristics, (ii) carer situation, and (iii) unmet supportive care needs, with carer burden and happiness One hundred ninety-seven carers completed the questionnaire (response rate = 69 %), 180 of whom were included in the analysis. The majority were female (76 %), not in paid employment (68 %) and caring for their spouse (67 %). On average, carers reported relatively low levels of burden and relatively high levels of happiness. Carer factors explained 42 % of variance in levels of burden and 24 % of variance in levels of happiness. Healthcare service needs were associated with carer burden (β = .28, p = .04), while psychological needs (β = -.38, p = .028), health care service needs (β = -.30, p = .049), information needs (β = .29, p = .028), carer comorbidity (β = -.18, p = .030), and gender (β = -.16, p = .045) were associated with happiness. Our results indicate that different aspects of carer characteristics and unmet needs are associated with carer burden and happiness. Efforts directed at reducing unmet healthcare service needs in particular are merited given their associations with both aspects of carer quality of life.

  15. Hidden neural networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Anders Stærmose; Riis, Søren Kamaric

    1999-01-01

    A general framework for hybrids of hidden Markov models (HMMs) and neural networks (NNs) called hidden neural networks (HNNs) is described. The article begins by reviewing standard HMMs and estimation by conditional maximum likelihood, which is used by the HNN. In the HNN, the usual HMM probability...... parameters are replaced by the outputs of state-specific neural networks. As opposed to many other hybrids, the HNN is normalized globally and therefore has a valid probabilistic interpretation. All parameters in the HNN are estimated simultaneously according to the discriminative conditional maximum...... likelihood criterion. The HNN can be viewed as an undirected probabilistic independence network (a graphical model), where the neural networks provide a compact representation of the clique functions. An evaluation of the HNN on the task of recognizing broad phoneme classes in the TIMIT database shows clear...

  16. Coupling of Hidden Sector

    CERN Document Server

    Królikowski, Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    A hypothetic Hidden Sector of the Universe, consisting of sterile fermions ("sterinos") and sterile mediating bosons ("sterons") of mass dimension 1 (not 2!) - the last described by an antisymmetric tensor field - requires to exist also a scalar isovector and scalar isoscalar in order to be able to construct electroweak invariant coupling (before spontaneously breaking its symmetry). The introduced scalar isoscalar might be a resonant source for the diphoton excess of 750 GeV, suggested recently by experiment.

  17. Hidden variables and hidden time in quantum theory

    OpenAIRE

    Kurakin, Pavel V.

    2005-01-01

    Bell's theorem proves only that hidden variables evolving in true physical time can't exist; still the theorem's meaning is usually interpreted intolerably wide. The concept of hidden time (and, in general, hidden space-time) is introduced. Such concept provides a whole new class of physical theories, fully compatible with current knowledge, but giving new tremendous possibilities. Those theories do not violate Bell's theorem.

  18. Die Beharrlichkeit im Verborgenen Hidden Persistence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula-Irene Villa

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Karin Flaake geht in ihrer psychoanalytischen Interpretation innerfamilialer Konstellationen der Frage nach, wie das Zur-Frau-Werden von jungen Frauen erlebt wird. Dabei kommt den körperliche Wandlungsprozessen der Pubertät und den darin eingelagerten expliziten sowie verborgenen Deutungen des Weiblichen – vor allem des weiblichen Körpers – durch die Eltern eine prominente Rolle zu.Karin Flaake’s psychoanalytical intepretations of family constellations explore how young women experience their coming of age and entering womanhood. Her analysis focuses on the bodily changes which women undergo during puberty and the explicit as well as hidden meanings assigned to them by the parents.

  19. Collaboration in crisis: Carer perspectives on police and mental health professional's responses to mental health crises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Alice; Warren, Narelle; Peterson, Violeta; Hollander, Yitzchak; Boscarato, Kara; Lee, Stuart

    2016-10-01

    For many situations involving a mental health crisis, carers (e.g. family or friends) are present and either attempt to help the person overcome the crisis or request assistance from professional services (e.g. mental health or police). Comparatively, little research has explored how carers experience the crisis, the professional response and how the nature of the response, in turn, impacts carers. The current study was conducted to explore these issues during individual interviews with nine carers who had previous contact with police and mental health services during a crisis response. Collected data described the definition and perceived impact of a mental health crisis for carers, how carers had experienced a crisis response from police and mental health services, and how the professional response had impacted on carers. Of importance was the finding that carers were often themselves traumatized by witnessing or being involved in the crisis, however, were rarely offered direct education or support to help them cope or prevent future crises. A number of carers described a reluctance to request assistance from professional services due to previous poor experiences. This highlighted the importance of implementing strategies to deliver more timely, respectful, specialist and collaborative crisis responses to improve carer and consumer outcomes. © 2016 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  20. Managing hope, denial or temporal anomie? Informal cancer carers' accounts of spouses' cancer diagnoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Rebecca Eileen

    2011-09-01

    Carers of cancer patients' emotional responses to cancer diagnoses have been a central focus within psycho-oncology. Some of this literature asserts that the maladaptive coping strategy denial is prevalent amongst carers. Using semi-structured, longitudinal interviews with 32 Australian Capital Territory carers of a spouse with cancer and an interactionist sociology of emotions framework to understanding their emotions, this study aimed to both contribute to the literature on cancer carers' coping strategies and provide a richer sociological depiction of carers' emotional reactions to a cancer diagnosis. The results raise questions about the value of singularly examining denial in cancer carers. Instead, these data suggest that carers use a range of coping strategies in the short-term and do emotion work to adapt to a challenged temporal orientation. The term temporal anomie is offered to describe carers' disrupted orientations in time and facilitate further discussion on the link between time and emotion work. Findings also show the importance of medical professionals' casting of the prognosis, from imminent death to certain future, to this temporal re-orientation and emotion work process. Instead of 'managing hope,' as much of the cancer communication literature describes it, findings suggest that physicians address cancer carers' and patients' temporal anomie. Future research might benefit from moving beyond individualistic conceptualisations of carers' emotions to include the cultural, temporal and interactionist influences. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. In Their Own Words: How Family Carers of People with Dementia Understand Resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dwyer, Siobhan T; Moyle, Wendy; Taylor, Tara; Creese, Jennifer; Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie

    2017-08-21

    There is a growing body of research on resilience in family carers of people with dementia, but carers' voices are noticeably absent from it. The aim of this study was to explore carers' definitions of resilience and their opinions on the factors associated with resilience. Twenty-one in-depth interviews were conducted in Australia with people who were currently, or had previously been, caring for a family member with dementia. Transcripts were analysed thematically and three themes emerged: the presence of resilience, the path to resilience, and characteristics of the resilient carer. Although carers struggled to define resilience, the vast majority considered themselves resilient. Carers identified a range of traits, values, environments, resources, and behaviours associated with resilience, but there was no consensus on the relative importance or causal nature of these factors. Carers also considered resilience to be domain- and context-specific, but did not agree on whether resilience was a trait or a process. These findings highlight both the importance of including carers' voices in resilience research and the limitations of the extant literature. There is much to be done to develop a field of carer resilience research that is theoretically sound, methodologically rigorous, and reflects the lived experience of carers. A model is provided to prompt future research.

  2. The development and validation of a quality of life measure for the carers of people with Parkinson's disease (the PDQ-Carer).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkinson, Crispin; Dummett, Sarah; Kelly, Laura; Peters, Michele; Dawson, Jill; Morley, David; Fitzpatrick, Ray

    2012-06-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) can have substantial effects not only on the quality of life of those diagnosed with the condition but also upon the informal carers who provide support and assistance to them. However, to date no well-validated carer specific quality of life measure has been developed for carers of people with PD. This paper documents the development and validation of a PD specific carer quality of life scale. In depth interviews were undertaken with carers of people with PD. The interviews were transcribed and analysed thematically to derive a pool of potential items for the questionnaire. A pilot survey was used to refine the initial version of the questionnaire. A developmental survey was undertaken and the results analysed to produce the final 29-item measure. A validation survey was then undertaken to assess the construct validity and reliability of the measure. Survey results suggest a 29-item questionnaire tapping four dimensions of quality of life (Social and Personal Activities, Anxiety and Depression, Self care, and Strain). Internal consistency reliability was found to be high for all domains. Data completeness was high. Construct validity (assessed by correlations with a generic measure of quality of life) confirmed prior hypotheses. The 29-item Parkinson Disease Questionnaire for Carers (PDQ-Carer) is a short, meaningful quality of life instrument, which taps areas of specific salience and concern to PD carers. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Carers' Medication Administration Errors in the Domiciliary Setting: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfield, Sara; Vincent, Charles; Franklin, Bryony Dean

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Medications are mostly taken in patients’ own homes, increasingly administered by carers, yet studies of medication safety have been largely conducted in the hospital setting. We aimed to review studies of how carers cause and/or prevent medication administration errors (MAEs) within the patient’s home; to identify types, prevalence and causes of these MAEs and any interventions to prevent them. Methods A narrative systematic review of literature published between 1 Jan 1946 and 23 Sep 2013 was carried out across the databases EMBASE, MEDLINE, PSYCHINFO, COCHRANE and CINAHL. Empirical studies were included where carers were responsible for preventing/causing MAEs in the home and standardised tools used for data extraction and quality assessment. Results Thirty-six papers met the criteria for narrative review, 33 of which included parents caring for children, two predominantly comprised adult children and spouses caring for older parents/partners, and one focused on paid carers mostly looking after older adults. The carer administration error rate ranged from 1.9 to 33% of medications administered and from 12 to 92.7% of carers administering medication. These included dosage errors, omitted administration, wrong medication and wrong time or route of administration. Contributory factors included individual carer factors (e.g. carer age), environmental factors (e.g. storage), medication factors (e.g. number of medicines), prescription communication factors (e.g. comprehensibility of instructions), psychosocial factors (e.g. carer-to-carer communication), and care-recipient factors (e.g. recipient age). The few interventions effective in preventing MAEs involved carer training and tailored equipment. Conclusion This review shows that home medication administration errors made by carers are a potentially serious patient safety issue. Carers made similar errors to those made by professionals in other contexts and a wide variety of contributory factors were

  4. Good caring and vocabularies of motive among foster carers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Doyle

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Employing C. Wright Mills’ concept of vocabulary of motives, this article examines the motives and attitudes of people who volunteer to foster children with high support needs. Data is drawn from a larger qualitative study involving indepth interviewing of 23 carers. When asked why they had become foster carers participants produced conventional accounts of child-centred altruistic motives–an acceptable vocabulary of motives which satisfied institutional and cultural expectations regarding caregiving. However, closer examination of participants’ experiences and attitudes revealed the likelihood that economic motives were also factors in decisions to foster. It is argued that participants chose to exclude economic motives from their accounts so as to avoid the risk of being seen to be ‘doing it for the money’.

  5. The earnings of informal carers: wage differentials and opportunity costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitmueller, Axel; Inglis, Kirsty

    2007-07-01

    A substantial proportion of working age individuals in Britain are looking after sick, disabled or elderly people, often combining their work and caring responsibilities. Previous research has shown that informal care is linked with substantial opportunity costs for the individual due to forgone wages as a result of non-labour market participation. In this paper we show that informal carers exhibit further disadvantages even when participating. Using the British Household Panel Study (BHPS) we decompose wage differentials and show that carers can expect lower returns for a given set of characteristics, with this wage penalty varying along the pay distribution and by gender. Furthermore, opportunity costs from forgone wages and wage penalties are estimated and found to be substantial.

  6. Partnership nursing: influences on involvement of informal carers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, A

    1995-12-01

    Factors influencing family involvement in the care of children in hospital were explored in a survey of 243 inpatients in two hospitals. Eighty-five per cent of the children were receiving some or all of their care from a family member, usually the mother. Significant influences on the amount and type of involvement included acuity, type of illness, length of stay and the language spoken by the family. Other social factors, such as distance from the hospital, number of dependent siblings, social class and ethnicity were not significant influencing factors in this population. The influence of language on involvement, and conclusions from related literature, suggest that characteristics of the interaction such as communication and nursing style are more significant than social structural factors. A typology of nursing approaches to informal carers is proposed which could apply beyond the paediatric context. Further work is needed to test the hypothesis that such approaches are characterized by nurses excluding the carer, or permitting, making assumptions about, or negotiating carer involvement.

  7. Predictors of mental health problems and negative caregiving experiences in carers of adolescents with bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winn, Suzanne; Perkins, Sarah; Walwyn, Rebecca; Schmidt, Ulrike; Eisler, Ivan; Treasure, Janet; Berelowitz, Mark; Dodge, Liz; Frost, Susie; Jenkins, Mari; Johnson-Sabine, Eric; Keville, Saskia; Murphy, Rebecca; Robinson, Paul; Yi, Irene

    2007-03-01

    This exploratory study focuses on the mental health (MH) and caregiving experience of carers of adolescents with Bulimia Nervosa (BN)/Eating Disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS), aiming to determine: levels of MH problems in carers and if a negative experience of caregiving predicts carer MH status and which factors predict a negative experience of caregiving. Hundred and twelve carers and 68 adolescents with BN/EDNOS completed self-report measures (General Health Questionnaire, Experience of Caregiving Inventory, Level of Expressed Emotion, Self-report Family Inventory, Inventory of Interpersonal Problems). Over half of the carers reported some MH problems and a minority (5.4%) were experiencing considerable difficulties. A negative experience of caregiving predicted carer MH status. Higher weekly contact hours and patient ratings of expressed emotion (EE) predicted a negative experience of caregiving. Interventions focusing on reducing EE and contact hours could prove beneficial for both patient and caregiver outcomes. 2006 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. The practice of palliative care from the perspective of patients and carers

    OpenAIRE

    Sampson, Cathy; Finlay, Ilora; Byrne, Anthony; Snow, Veronica; Nelson, Annmarie

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The meaning that patients and carers attribute to their experience of palliative care is fundamental to the provision, practice and evaluation of optimal care. This analysis aims to establish contemporary key practices and priorities from the perspective of patients and carers. Methods Thematic analysis was applied to 594 anonymised free text responses from patients and carers documenting their experiences of palliative care. Results The emotional experience of care is the most sig...

  9. Ambiguity in practice? Carers' roles in personalised social care in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glendinning, Caroline; Mitchell, Wendy; Brooks, Jenni

    2015-01-01

    Carers play an ambiguous role within the personalisation paradigm currently shaping adult social care practice in England. Although carers have rights to assessments and support in their own right, these rights sit uneasily alongside the practices of assessment, support planning and personal budget (PB) allocation for older and disabled people. This paper reports how 14 dyads of older and learning disabled people with cognitive and/or communication impairments and their carers viewed the roles - desired and actual - played by carers in PBs. Interviews with carers and with older and disabled people were conducted during 2012 as part of a wider study into carers' roles in assessment, support planning and managing PBs. The interviews complemented a survey of reported practice in two English regions - interviews with adult social care services senior managers and focus groups with front-line care managers. Talking Mats(©) were used to support interviews with some service users. Interviews were transcribed and data analysed using the Framework approach. The interviews indicated that carers played important roles in service users' assessments and support planning, but were less likely to report receiving assessments or support of their own. While carers had the potential to benefit from PBs and support arrangements for service users, this did not reflect practice that aimed to enhance choice and control for carers. The paper draws on Twigg's typology of service conceptualisations of family carers and concludes that, despite the important social rights won by carers in England, current practice continues to regard carers primarily as a resource or a co-worker, rather than a co-client.

  10. Enabling the health and wellbeing of carers through district nursing support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laing, Michelle; Sprung, Sally

    2014-07-01

    Carers provide care because they want to help the people they care about, and because their care recipient could not manage without them. For many carers, looking after their own health, combining caring with work, getting access to training or having time off can be a major challenge. Patients' and carers' experiences of home-based care are a key factor in the appraisal of the quality of the professional care services they receive. This article presents the evidence from a literature review that builds a substantial body of knowledge to inform district nursing teams and community nurses to develop a supportive approach towards carers' needs. The aim of the study was to appraise the published evidence base relating to carers' needs and how professionals can support carers' needs when providing care to patients in the community. The studies consistently reported carers' requirements of practical support and information as a theme across studies, suggesting that effective ways of delivering information and support to caregivers need to be developed and implemented as a matter of priority. It also highlighted the needs of the professionals providing support to carers, to ensure the health and wellbeing needs of carers, to include signposting and referral to avoid reaching crisis point and resultant burnout.

  11. An exploratory study of barriers to promoting oral hygiene through carers of elderly people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eadie, D R; Schou, L

    1992-01-01

    This paper outlines the main findings of an exploratory study into carers' attitudes towards looking after the oral hygiene needs of their elderly patients and relatives. The data were collected using eight group discussions covering a cross-section of carers and carer settings throughout central...... Scotland. A range of barriers to improving levels of care was identified. The paper concluded that to make positive progress, a comprehensive oral hygiene programme is required to break down these barriers. It is believed that a strong educational policy based upon carers' needs should form the main...

  12. Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) for carers of patients with Parkinson's disease: a preliminary randomised controlled trial

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Secker, D L; Brown, R G

    2005-01-01

    .... Providing such long term care can be a source of significant stress, with many carers experiencing sleep difficulty, depression, anxiety, loneliness, and other symptoms of psychological strain...

  13. Carers' experiences of dysphagia in people treated for head and neck cancer: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nund, Rebecca L; Ward, Elizabeth C; Scarinci, Nerina A; Cartmill, Bena; Kuipers, Pim; Porceddu, Sandro V

    2014-08-01

    The implication of dysphagia for people treated nonsurgically for head and neck cancer (HNC) and its detrimental effects on functioning and quality of life has been well documented. To date, however, there has been a paucity of research on the effects of dysphagia following HNC on carers, independent of the consequences of a gastrostomy. The objective of this qualitative study was to report on the experiences of carers of people with dysphagia (non-gastrostomy dependent) following nonsurgical treatment for HNC and to identify the support needs of this group. A purposive, maximum-variation sampling technique was adopted to recruit 12 carers of people treated curatively for HNC since 2007. Each participated in an in-depth interview, detailing their experience of caring for someone with dysphagia and the associated impact on their life. Thematic analysis was adopted to search the transcripts for key phases and themes that emerged from the discussions. Analysis of the transcripts revealed four themes: (1) dysphagia disrupts daily life, (2) carers make adjustments to adapt to their partner's dysphagia, (3) the disconnect between carers' expectations and the reality of dysphagia, and (4) experiences of dysphagia-related services and informal supports. Carers generally felt ill-prepared for their role in dysphagia management. The qualitative methodology successfully described the impact of dysphagia on the everyday lives of carers, particularly in regard to meal preparation, social events, and family lifestyle. Clinicians should provide adequate and timely training and support to carers and view carers as copartners in dysphagia management.

  14. An exploratory study of barriers to promoting oral hygiene through carers of elderly people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eadie, D R; Schou, L

    1992-01-01

    This paper outlines the main findings of an exploratory study into carers' attitudes towards looking after the oral hygiene needs of their elderly patients and relatives. The data were collected using eight group discussions covering a cross-section of carers and carer settings throughout central...... Scotland. A range of barriers to improving levels of care was identified. The paper concluded that to make positive progress, a comprehensive oral hygiene programme is required to break down these barriers. It is believed that a strong educational policy based upon carers' needs should form the main...

  15. A systematic review of psychosocial interventions for family carers of palliative care patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Kristina

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Being a family carer to a patient nearing the end of their life is a challenging and confronting experience. Studies show that caregiving can have negative consequences on the health of family carers including fatigue, sleep problems, depression, anxiety and burnout. One of the goals of palliative care is to provide psychosocial support to patients and families facing terminal illness. A systematic review of interventions for family carers of cancer and palliative care patients conducted at the start of this millennium demonstrated that there was a dearth of rigorous inquiry on this topic and consequently limited knowledge regarding the types of interventions likely to be effective in meeting the complex needs of family carers. We wanted to discern whether or not the evidence base to support family carers has improved. Furthermore, undertaking this review was acknowledged as one of the priorities for the International Palliative Care Family Carer Research Collaboration http://www.centreforpallcare.org. Methods A systematic review was undertaken in order to identify developments in family carer support that have occurred over the last decade. The focus of the review was on interventions that targeted improvements in the psychosocial support of family carers of palliative care patients. Studies were graded to assess their quality. Results A total of fourteen studies met the inclusion criteria. The focus of interventions included psycho-education, psychosocial support, carer coping, symptom management, sleep promotion and family meetings. Five studies were randomised controlled trials, three of which met the criteria for the highest quality evidence. There were two prospective studies, five pre-test/post-test projects and two qualitative studies. Conclusions The systematic review identified a slight increase in the quality and quantity of psychosocial interventions conducted for family carers in the last decade. More rigorous

  16. Hidden attractors in dynamical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudkowski, Dawid; Jafari, Sajad; Kapitaniak, Tomasz; Kuznetsov, Nikolay V.; Leonov, Gennady A.; Prasad, Awadhesh

    2016-06-01

    Complex dynamical systems, ranging from the climate, ecosystems to financial markets and engineering applications typically have many coexisting attractors. This property of the system is called multistability. The final state, i.e., the attractor on which the multistable system evolves strongly depends on the initial conditions. Additionally, such systems are very sensitive towards noise and system parameters so a sudden shift to a contrasting regime may occur. To understand the dynamics of these systems one has to identify all possible attractors and their basins of attraction. Recently, it has been shown that multistability is connected with the occurrence of unpredictable attractors which have been called hidden attractors. The basins of attraction of the hidden attractors do not touch unstable fixed points (if exists) and are located far away from such points. Numerical localization of the hidden attractors is not straightforward since there are no transient processes leading to them from the neighborhoods of unstable fixed points and one has to use the special analytical-numerical procedures. From the viewpoint of applications, the identification of hidden attractors is the major issue. The knowledge about the emergence and properties of hidden attractors can increase the likelihood that the system will remain on the most desirable attractor and reduce the risk of the sudden jump to undesired behavior. We review the most representative examples of hidden attractors, discuss their theoretical properties and experimental observations. We also describe numerical methods which allow identification of the hidden attractors.

  17. Managing Hidden Costs of Offshoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Marcus M.; Pedersen, Torben

    2014-01-01

    This chapter investigates the concept of the ‘hidden costs’ of offshoring, i.e. unexpected offshoring costs exceeding the initially expected costs. Due to the highly undefined nature of these costs, we position our analysis towards the strategic responses of firms’ realisation of hidden costs....... In this regard, we argue that a major response to the hidden costs of offshoring is the identification and utilisation of strategic mechanisms in the organisational design to eventually achieving system integration in a globally dispersed and disaggregated organisation. This is heavily moderated by a learning...

  18. Why carers use adult day respite: a mixed method case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirling, Christine M; Dwan, Corinna A; McKenzie, Angela R

    2014-06-06

    We need to improve our understanding of the complex interactions between family carers' emotional relationships with care-recipients and carers use of support services. This study assessed carer's expectations and perceptions of adult day respite services and their commitment to using services. A mixed-method case study approach was used with psychological contract providing a conceptual framework. Data collection was situated within an organisational case study, and the total population of carers from the organisation's day respite service were approached. Fifty respondents provided quantitative and qualitative data through an interview survey. The conceptual framework was expanded to include Maslow's hierarchy of needs during analysis. Carers prioritised benefits for and experiences of care-recipients when making day respite decisions. Respondents had high levels of trust in the service and perceived that the major benefits for care-recipients were around social interaction and meaningful activity with resultant improved well-being. Carers wanted day respite experiences to include all levels of Maslow's hierarchy of needs from the provision of physiological care and safety through to the higher levels of belongingness, love and esteem. The study suggests carers need to trust that care-recipients will have quality experiences at day respite. This study was intended as a preliminary stage for further research and while not generalizable it does highlight key considerations in carers' use of day respite services.

  19. Carer Knowledge and Experiences with Menopause in Women with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Diane S.; Wishart, Jennifer G.; Muir, Walter J.

    2010-01-01

    Overall life expectancy for women with intellectual disabilities (ID) is now significantly extended, and many will live long enough to experience menopause. Little is known about how carers support women with ID through this important stage in their lives. This study investigated carer knowledge of how menopause affects women with ID under their…

  20. A randomised controlled trial of carer-focussed multi-family group psychoeducation in bipolar disorder.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Madigan, K

    2012-05-01

    In a RCT of family psychoeducation, 47 carers of 34 patients were allocated to one of three groups; Multifamily Group Psychoeducation, Solution Focussed Group Therapy or Treatment as Usual. Carers in both the MFGP intervention and the SFGP arm demonstrated greater knowledge and reduction in burden than those in the TAU arm.

  1. Occupational therapy influence on a carer peer support model in a clinical mental health service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, Cate; Sanders, Bronwyn; Allchin, Becca; Lentin, Primrose; Lang, Shannon

    2015-10-01

    Current policy frameworks call for the participation of consumers and carers in all levels of mental health service delivery in Australia. Such inclusion leads to better outcomes for all, however, it is recognised that carers have needs and occupations beyond their carer role. The aim of this article is to describe an innovative carer peer support program developed by a group of occupational therapists. The article describes the rationale, phases of development and the role that occupational therapists played in developing and sustaining the model. This is followed by an exploration of the occupational therapy attitudes, knowledge and skills that contributed to the conceptualisation and implementation of the model. Five occupational therapists engaged in a review process involving documentation, literature review, evaluation, reflection and discussion. Four of the occupational therapists had either coordinated or managed the service described. The fifth author facilitated the process. Review of the model indicates it equips carers to perform their caring occupation and helps carers recognise the need for occupations beyond caring, for their health and wellbeing. Employing carers as paid workers values their 'real life' experience in their caring occupation. Findings also illustrate that the attitudes, knowledge, skills and competency standards of occupational therapists are well suited in enabling this emerging area of service delivery. Although this model has been developed in a clinical mental health setting, the key principles could be applied with carers or consumers across a variety of settings in which occupational therapists are employed. © 2015 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  2. A 10-year Plan for Quality Living for People with Disabilities and Their Carers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Jocelyn E.; Cartwright, Collen

    2015-01-01

    Background: The concerns of older carers of an adult with disabilities have been well documented. The sudden incapacity or death of the carer can result in a crisis response rather than a planned transition to a chosen sustainable alternative care arrangement for the person with disability. Building on previous "Futures Planning"…

  3. Residential Carers' Knowledge and Attitudes towards Physiotherapy Interventions for Adults with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Stephen; Macha, Ruth; Hebblethwaite, Amy; Hames, Annette

    2009-01-01

    Through the use of face-to-face interviews, this article explores residential carers' perceptions and understanding of a physiotherapy service provided to patients with a learning disability, with the aim of highlighting potential areas for improvement in the service. Carers involved in the study reported a good relationship with the…

  4. Carer Knowledge and Experiences with Menopause in Women with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Diane S.; Wishart, Jennifer G.; Muir, Walter J.

    2010-01-01

    Overall life expectancy for women with intellectual disabilities (ID) is now significantly extended, and many will live long enough to experience menopause. Little is known about how carers support women with ID through this important stage in their lives. This study investigated carer knowledge of how menopause affects women with ID under their…

  5. Residential Carers' Knowledge and Attitudes towards Physiotherapy Interventions for Adults with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Stephen; Macha, Ruth; Hebblethwaite, Amy; Hames, Annette

    2009-01-01

    Through the use of face-to-face interviews, this article explores residential carers' perceptions and understanding of a physiotherapy service provided to patients with a learning disability, with the aim of highlighting potential areas for improvement in the service. Carers involved in the study reported a good relationship with the…

  6. Variational Infinite Hidden Conditional Random Fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bousmalis, Konstantinos; Zafeiriou, Stefanos; Morency, Louis-Philippe; Pantic, Maja; Ghahramani, Zoubin

    2015-01-01

    Hidden conditional random fields (HCRFs) are discriminative latent variable models which have been shown to successfully learn the hidden structure of a given classification problem. An Infinite hidden conditional random field is a hidden conditional random field with a countably infinite number of

  7. Developing a person-centred approach to carer assessment and support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Gail; Austin, Lynn; Diffin, Janet; Grande, Gunn

    2015-12-01

    Community nurses play an important role in providing palliative care and support for patients and carers at home. The Carer Support Needs Assessment Tool (CSNAT) provides practitioners with an evidence-based comprehensive tool to use with carers in palliative home care. As a practice tool, the CSNAT uses a person-centred approach-that is, the process of carer assessment and support is facilitated by practitioners but is carerled. In this paper, the CSNAT research team provides an overview of the development of the tool and the benefits for both carers and practitioners arising from using the CSNAT as a person-centred approach in practice. The authors outline the five stages of the CSNAT approach to assist practitioners wishing to implement the CSNAT in practice.

  8. Recommendations to support informal carers of people living with motor neurone disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergin, Susan; Mockford, Carole

    2016-10-02

    Informal carers are increasingly providing specialist care at home for people living with motor neurone disease. The carers may experience significant deterioration in their quality of life as a result of the physical and psychological burden they undertake. This systematic review seeks to provide evidence-based recommendations to enable healthcare professionals to support carers appropriately to maintain their wellbeing and to continue providing care at home. Inclusion criteria included articles focusing on the experience of informal carers of people with motor neurone disease, particularly when reporting on their perspective of professional services. Twenty-three studies were included and a thematic analysis was undertaken. Four key recommendations were identified: providing support, early access to palliative care, information regarding availability of services, and offering carers training for using specialist equipment. These recommendations offer healthcare professionals practical, cost-effective suggestions to improve existing services.

  9. Deliver us from evil: carer burden in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Martina

    2010-12-01

    Alzheimer's disease is the most common neurodegenerative disorder in today's developed world that is also increasingly picked out as a focal theme in fictional literature. In dealing with the subjectivity of human experience, such literature enhances the reader's empathy and is able to teach about moral, emotional and philosophical issues, offering the chance to see situations from a position otherwise possibly never taken by the reader. The understanding and insight so gained may well be unscientific, but the literary approach offers an insight into the whole person's perspective and the particularity and uniqueness of a situation that includes ethical conflicts. A key motif of fictional literature centred around dementia remains the burden the adult-child carer is confronted with, considering the parent's remorseless decline and personality change, the sudden demand for devoted and continuous care, and the constantly changing relationship with the declining parent. In the context of an ever increasing demand for a constructive public discussion regarding end-of-life treatment of demented patients, Christine Devars (Le Piano Désaccordé) and Andrés Barba (Ahora Tocad Música de Baile) illustrate how powerful and burdensome the impact of Alzheimer's disease is on both patient and carer and what extremes may be reached under such truly exceptional circumstances.

  10. Caring for the carer in the era of HIV diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lempye J. Sempane

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The care of terminally ill patients can be physically, emotionally as well as psychologically exhausting. In the era where everyone is busy with his or her hectic daily schedule, caring for someone diagnosed with HIV on her or his deathbed can be a daunting challenge. Caring for someone dying of AIDS does not only challenge the physical being but rather leaves the carer emotionally drained. What was of concern to the author was to see the struggle that the caregiver goes through whilst caring for the sufferer. More often than not, pastoral care and counselling concentrate mainly on the pain and the suffering of the sick person. In the process, pastoral care loses sight of the agony, the emotional strain and, above all, the trauma of the caregivers in their search for answers as they care for the infected. This scenario has prompted the author to look into the theology of caring with an emphasis on pastoral care of the carers with a view of alleviating their emotional burden in caring for the HIV patients.

  11. Hidden Statistics of Schroedinger Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zak, Michail

    2011-01-01

    Work was carried out in determination of the mathematical origin of randomness in quantum mechanics and creating a hidden statistics of Schr dinger equation; i.e., to expose the transitional stochastic process as a "bridge" to the quantum world. The governing equations of hidden statistics would preserve such properties of quantum physics as superposition, entanglement, and direct-product decomposability while allowing one to measure its state variables using classical methods.

  12. Microgenetic analysis of hidden figures

    OpenAIRE

    Marković Slobodan S.; Gvozdenović Vasilije P.

    2006-01-01

    In this study the phenomenological and processual aspects of the perception of hidden figures were compared. The question was whether the more probable percepts of hidden figures, compared to the less probable percepts, were generated in earlier stages of the perceptual process. In the pilot study the subjects were asked to say what they see in a complex linear pattern. The three most frequent and the three least frequent perceptual descriptions were selected. In the experiment the microgenes...

  13. Crouching Target, Hidden Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Stephen H.; Gunter, Helen M.

    2012-01-01

    Drawing on interviews with 33 young people between the ages of 14 to 17 attending three English schools we examine their experiences of a personalised education system. The policy climate in England has for some time been one of intense and persistent reforms. The Labour Party took office in 1997 and advanced "personalised learning" as a…

  14. Crouching Target, Hidden Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Stephen H.; Gunter, Helen M.

    2012-01-01

    Drawing on interviews with 33 young people between the ages of 14 to 17 attending three English schools we examine their experiences of a personalised education system. The policy climate in England has for some time been one of intense and persistent reforms. The Labour Party took office in 1997 and advanced "personalised learning" as a central…

  15. Access to therapy services for people with disability in rural Australia: a carers' perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego, Gisselle; Dew, Angela; Lincoln, Michelle; Bundy, Anita; Chedid, Rebecca Jean; Bulkeley, Kim; Brentnall, Jennie; Veitch, Craig

    2017-05-01

    In Australia and around the world, people with disability and their carers living in rural areas face additional challenges compared to their urban-dwelling counterparts. This cross-sectional study explored current access to therapy services for people with disability living in western New South Wales as reported by their primary carers. Data were collected using an online and paper survey distributed to carers, from December 2012 until June 2013. Information was sought about the carers, the person they care for, access to physiotherapy, speech pathology, occupational therapy and psychology services. A total of 166 carers participated. Respondents were mostly the carers of a son or daughter (83.6%) , the person they care for had an average age of 17.6 years (range 1-69 years) and more than half were males (56%). The majority of people with disability (73.5%) had received therapy services in the last 2 years. Waiting time and distance travelled to access physiotherapy, speech and occupational therapy services varied. People with disability had to wait an average of 6.6 months to receive speech pathology and had to travel an average of 2.6 hours to receive physiotherapy. The main provider of all services was the specialist disability government department, except for psychology, which is mainly provided in the private sector. From the carers' perspective, availability and accessibility to services are limited. Carers noted that availability of services was more restricted once people with disability reached adulthood. Lack of choice and frustration with the lack of availability of specialist disability services was reported frequently. Carers believed that timely allied health intervention prevented the development of more severe or complicated conditions that had a greater impact on carers, families, communities and the person with disabilities. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. The Hidden Subgroup Problem

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Frédéric

    2010-01-01

    We give an overview of the Hidden Subgroup Problem (HSP) as of July 2010, including new results discovered since the survey of arXiv:quant-ph/0411037v1. We recall how the problem provides a framework for efficient quantum algorithms and present the standard methods based on coset sampling. We study the Dihedral and Symmetric HSPs and how they relate to hard problems on lattices and graphs. Finally, we conclude with the known solutions and techniques, describe connections with efficient algorithms as well as miscellaneous variants of HSP. We also bring various contributions to the topic. We show that in theory, we can solve HSP over a given group inductively: the base case is solving HSP over its simple factor groups and the inductive step is building efficient oracles over a normal subgroup N and over the factor group G/N. We apply this analysis to the Dedekindian HSP to get an alternative abelian HSP algorithm based on a change of the underlying group. We also propose a quotient reduction by the normal group...

  17. Managing Hidden Costs of Offshoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Marcus M.; Pedersen, Torben

    2014-01-01

    This chapter investigates the concept of the ‘hidden costs’ of offshoring, i.e. unexpected offshoring costs exceeding the initially expected costs. Due to the highly undefined nature of these costs, we position our analysis towards the strategic responses of firms’ realisation of hidden costs. In......-by-doing process, where hidden costs motivate firms and their employees to search for new and better knowledge on how to successfully manage the organisation. We illustrate this thesis based on the case of the LEGO Group.......This chapter investigates the concept of the ‘hidden costs’ of offshoring, i.e. unexpected offshoring costs exceeding the initially expected costs. Due to the highly undefined nature of these costs, we position our analysis towards the strategic responses of firms’ realisation of hidden costs....... In this regard, we argue that a major response to the hidden costs of offshoring is the identification and utilisation of strategic mechanisms in the organisational design to eventually achieving system integration in a globally dispersed and disaggregated organisation. This is heavily moderated by a learning...

  18. The Hidden Costs of Offshoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller Larsen, Marcus; Manning, Stephan; Pedersen, Torben

    2011-01-01

    This study seeks to explain hidden costs of offshoring, i.e. unexpected costs resulting from the relocation of business tasks and activities outside the home country. We develop a model that highlights the role of complexity, design orientation and experience in explaining hidden costs of offshor...... of our study is to suggest how hidden costs of offshoring can be mitigated through an explicit orientation towards improving organizational processes and structures as well as experience with offshoring.......This study seeks to explain hidden costs of offshoring, i.e. unexpected costs resulting from the relocation of business tasks and activities outside the home country. We develop a model that highlights the role of complexity, design orientation and experience in explaining hidden costs...... of offshoring. Specifically, we propose that hidden costs can be explained by the combination of increasing structural, operational and social complexity of offshoring activities. In addition, we suggest that firm orientation towards organizational design as part of an offshoring strategy and offshoring...

  19. In Their Own Words: How Family Carers of People with Dementia Understand Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Dwyer, Siobhan T.; Taylor, Tara; Creese, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    There is a growing body of research on resilience in family carers of people with dementia, but carers’ voices are noticeably absent from it. The aim of this study was to explore carers’ definitions of resilience and their opinions on the factors associated with resilience. Twenty-one in-depth interviews were conducted in Australia with people who were currently, or had previously been, caring for a family member with dementia. Transcripts were analysed thematically and three themes emerged: the presence of resilience, the path to resilience, and characteristics of the resilient carer. Although carers struggled to define resilience, the vast majority considered themselves resilient. Carers identified a range of traits, values, environments, resources, and behaviours associated with resilience, but there was no consensus on the relative importance or causal nature of these factors. Carers also considered resilience to be domain- and context-specific, but did not agree on whether resilience was a trait or a process. These findings highlight both the importance of including carers’ voices in resilience research and the limitations of the extant literature. There is much to be done to develop a field of carer resilience research that is theoretically sound, methodologically rigorous, and reflects the lived experience of carers. A model is provided to prompt future research. PMID:28825686

  20. Inconsistencies in the Roles of Family- and Paid- Carers in Monitoring Health Issues in People with Learning Disabilities: Some Implications for the Integration of Health and Social Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Diane S.

    2015-01-01

    Changes in the living circumstances of people with learning disabilities have seen responsibility for their health become the provenance of paid-and family-carers. Thirteen semi-structured interviews were conducted with three family-carers and ten paid-carers. Findings revealed that the role of these carers was undefined, leading to difficulty in…

  1. Making decisions for people with dementia who lack capacity: qualitative study of family carers in UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, Gill; Leavey, Gerard; Manela, Monica; Livingston, Deborah; Rait, Greta; Sampson, Elizabeth; Bavishi, Shilpa; Shahriyarmolki, Khodayar; Cooper, Claudia

    2010-08-18

    To identify common difficult decisions made by family carers on behalf of people with dementia, and facilitators of and barriers to such decisions, in order to produce information for family carers about overcoming barriers. Qualitative study to delineate decision areas through focus groups and complexity of decision making in individual interviews. Community settings in London. 43 family carers of people with dementia in focus groups and 46 carers who had already made such decisions in individual interviews. Family carers identified five core problematic areas of decision making: accessing dementia related health and social services; care homes; legal-financial matters; non-dementia related health care; and making plans for the person with dementia if the carer became too ill to care for them. They highlighted the difficulties in making proxy decisions, especially against active resistance, and their altered role of patient manager while still a family member. Families devised strategies to gain agreement in order to ensure that the person with dementia retained dignity. The following strategies helped with implementation of decisions: introducing change slowly; organising legal changes for the carer as well as the patient; involving a professional to persuade the patient to accept services; and emphasising that services optimised, not impeded, independence. To access services, carers made patients' general practice appointments, accompanied them to the surgery, pointed out symptoms, gained permission to receive confidential information, asked for referral to specialist services, and used professionals' authority to gain patients' agreement. End of life decisions were particularly difficult. They were helped by knowledge of the person with dementia's previous views, clear prognostic information, and family support. Information sheets to help carers to overcome barriers to proxy decision making have been developed; their impact in practice has yet to be evaluated.

  2. Current perceptions of respite care: experiences of family and informal carers of people with a learning disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansell, Ian; Wilson, Christine

    2009-12-01

    Access to regular, high-quality respite care has a beneficial impact on a carer's ability to fulfil their caring role, but provision varies widely. The current study aims to report family and informal carers' perceptions of respite care services offered to them by their local authority. A mixed method, triangulated design, yielded both quantitative and qualitative data. Members of a parent/carer federation were sent a questionnaire which included a section on 'respite care'; 151 of 647 responded. Two focus groups were held with 15 carers who had previously completed the questionnaire. The majority of carers reported that their respite needs were not being met. Unmet needs were hampered by the lack of information regarding criteria for access to respite. Discrepancies were evident between professionals and carers on a shared definition of respite care. Carers were unsure of exactly which activities constituted respite care and for whom the service was being provided.

  3. Stargate of the Hidden Multiverse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Antonov

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Concept of Monoverse, which corresponds to the existing broad interpretation of the second postulate of the special theory of relativity, is not consistent with the modern astrophysical reality — existence of the dark matter and the dark energy, the total mass-energy of which is ten times greater than the mass-energy of the visible universe (which has been considered as the entire universe until very recent . This concept does not allow to explain their rather unusual properties — invisibility and lack of baryon content — which would seem to even destroy the very modern understanding of the term ‘matter’. However, all numerous alternative concepts of Multiverses, which have been proposed until today, are unable to explain these properties of the dark matter and dark energy. This article describes a new concept: the concept of the hidden Multiverse and hidden Supermultiverse, which mutual invisibility of parallel universes is explained by the physical reality of imaginary numbers. This concept completely explains the phenomenon of the dark matter and the dark energy. Moreover, it is shown that the dark matter and the dark energy are the experimental evidence for the existence of the hidden Multiverse. Described structure of the hidden Multiverse is fully consistent with the data obtained by the space stations WMAP and Planck. An extremely important property of the hidden Multiverse is an actual possibility of its permeation through stargate located on the Earth.

  4. Hidden photons in connection to dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreas, Sarah; Ringwald, Andreas [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Goodsell, Mark D. [CPhT, Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau (France)

    2013-06-15

    Light extra U(1) gauge bosons, so called hidden photons, which reside in a hidden sector have attracted much attention since they are a well motivated feature of many scenarios beyond the Standard Model and furthermore could mediate the interaction with hidden sector dark matter.We review limits on hidden photons from past electron beam dump experiments including two new limits from such experiments at KEK and Orsay. In addition, we study the possibility of having dark matter in the hidden sector. A simple toy model and different supersymmetric realisations are shown to provide viable dark matter candidates in the hidden sector that are in agreement with recent direct detection limits.

  5. A telehealth behavioral coaching intervention for neurocognitive disorder family carers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gant, Judith R.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study examined the differential impact of two telehealth programs for women caring for an older adult with a neurocognitive disorder. Outcomes examined were depressive symptoms, upset following disruptive behaviors, anxious and angry mood states, and caregiving self‐efficacy. Methods Women cohabitating with a family member diagnosed with a neurocognitive disorder were assigned via random allocation to either of the following: (1) a 14‐week behavioral intervention using video instructional materials, workbook and telephone coaching in behavioral management, pleasant events scheduling, and relaxation or (2) a basic education guide and telephone support comparison condition. Telephone assessments were conducted by interviewers blind to treatment condition at pre‐intervention, post‐intervention, and 6 months following intervention. Results For those providing in‐home care at post‐treatment, depressive symptoms, upset following disruptive behaviors, and negative mood states were statistically lower in the behavioral coaching condition than in the basic education and support condition. Reliable change index analyses for Beck Depression Inventory II scores favored the behavioral coaching condition. Caregiving self‐efficacy scores for obtaining respite and for managing patient behavioral disturbances were significantly higher in the coaching condition. Effect sizes were moderate but not maintained at the 6‐month follow‐up. Conclusions This study provides some initial evidence for the efficacy of a telehealth behavioral coaching intervention compared with basic education and telephone support. Carers' abilities to maintain strategy use during progressive disorders such as Alzheimer's disease likely require longer intervention contact than provided in the current study. Dementia carers, including those living in rural areas, can benefit from accessible and empirically supported interventions that can be easily disseminated across distances

  6. A telehealth behavioral coaching intervention for neurocognitive disorder family carers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, Ann M; Gant, Judith R

    2016-02-01

    This study examined the differential impact of two telehealth programs for women caring for an older adult with a neurocognitive disorder. Outcomes examined were depressive symptoms, upset following disruptive behaviors, anxious and angry mood states, and caregiving self-efficacy. Women cohabitating with a family member diagnosed with a neurocognitive disorder were assigned via random allocation to either of the following: (1) a 14-week behavioral intervention using video instructional materials, workbook and telephone coaching in behavioral management, pleasant events scheduling, and relaxation or (2) a basic education guide and telephone support comparison condition. Telephone assessments were conducted by interviewers blind to treatment condition at pre-intervention, post-intervention, and 6 months following intervention. For those providing in-home care at post-treatment, depressive symptoms, upset following disruptive behaviors, and negative mood states were statistically lower in the behavioral coaching condition than in the basic education and support condition. Reliable change index analyses for Beck Depression Inventory II scores favored the behavioral coaching condition. Caregiving self-efficacy scores for obtaining respite and for managing patient behavioral disturbances were significantly higher in the coaching condition. Effect sizes were moderate but not maintained at the 6-month follow-up. This study provides some initial evidence for the efficacy of a telehealth behavioral coaching intervention compared with basic education and telephone support. Carers' abilities to maintain strategy use during progressive disorders such as Alzheimer's disease likely require longer intervention contact than provided in the current study. Dementia carers, including those living in rural areas, can benefit from accessible and empirically supported interventions that can be easily disseminated across distances at modest cost. © 2015 The Authors. International

  7. Evaluation of quality of life of carers of Italian spinoni with idiopathic epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    De Risio, Luisa; Freeman, Julia; Shea, Anita

    2016-01-01

    The carers of all UK Kennel Club registered Italian spinoni (IS) born between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2011 were invited to participate in the study. The carers of 47 of 63 IS diagnosed with idiopathic epilepsy (IE) returned the questionnaire, which included numerous questions on various aspects of IE including the effect of IE on the dog's carer's quality of life. Median epileptic seizure number in the three months before study end or death was five epileptic seizures, 72 per cent of...

  8. Hidden worlds in quantum physics

    CERN Document Server

    Gouesbet, Gérard

    2014-01-01

    The past decade has witnessed a resurgence in research and interest in the areas of quantum computation and entanglement. This new book addresses the hidden worlds or variables of quantum physics. Author Gérard Gouesbet studied and worked with a former student of Louis de Broglie, a pioneer of quantum physics. His presentation emphasizes the history and philosophical foundations of physics, areas that will interest lay readers as well as professionals and advanced undergraduate and graduate students of quantum physics. The introduction is succeeded by chapters offering background on relevant concepts in classical and quantum mechanics, a brief history of causal theories, and examinations of the double solution, pilot wave, and other hidden-variables theories. Additional topics include proofs of possibility and impossibility, contextuality, non-locality, classification of hidden-variables theories, and stochastic quantum mechanics. The final section discusses how to gain a genuine understanding of quantum mec...

  9. Hidden Variables or Positive Probabilities?

    CERN Document Server

    Rothman, T; Rothman, Tony

    2001-01-01

    Despite claims that Bell's inequalities are based on the Einstein locality condition, or equivalent, all derivations make an identical mathematical assumption: that local hidden-variable theories produce a set of positive-definite probabilities for detecting a particle with a given spin orientation. The standard argument is that because quantum mechanics assumes that particles are emitted in a superposition of states the theory cannot produce such a set of probabilities. We examine a paper by Eberhard who claims to show that a generalized Bell inequality, the CHSH inequality, can be derived solely on the basis of the locality condition, without recourse to hidden variables. We point out that he nonetheless assumes a set of positive-definite probabilities, which supports the claim that hidden variables or "locality" is not at issue here, positive-definite probabilities are. We demonstrate that quantum mechanics does predict a set of probabilities that violate the CHSH inequality; however these probabilities ar...

  10. The Hidden Costs of Offshoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller Larsen, Marcus; Manning, Stephan; Pedersen, Torben

    2011-01-01

    experience moderate the relationship between complexity and hidden costs negatively i.e. reduces the cost generating impact of complexity. We develop three hypotheses and test them on comprehensive data from the Offshoring Research Network (ORN). In general, we find support for our hypotheses. A key result...... of offshoring. Specifically, we propose that hidden costs can be explained by the combination of increasing structural, operational and social complexity of offshoring activities. In addition, we suggest that firm orientation towards organizational design as part of an offshoring strategy and offshoring...

  11. Hidden symmetries in jammed systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Peter K.; Corwin, Eric I.

    2016-07-01

    There are deep, but hidden, geometric structures within jammed systems, associated with hidden symmetries. These can be revealed by repeated transformations under which these structures lead to fixed points. These geometric structures can be found in the Voronoi tesselation of space defined by the packing. In this paper we examine two iterative processes: maximum inscribed sphere (MIS) inversion and a real-space coarsening scheme. Under repeated iterations of the MIS inversion process we find invariant systems in which every particle is equal to the maximum inscribed sphere within its Voronoi cell. Using a real-space coarsening scheme we reveal behavior in geometric order parameters which is length-scale invariant.

  12. Hidden Crises and Communication : An Interactional Analysis of Hidden Crises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klarenbeek, Annette

    2011-01-01

    In this paper I describe the ways in which the communication discipline can make a hidden crisis transparent. For this purpose I examine the concept of crisis entrepreneurship from a communication point of view. Using discourse analysis, I analyse the discursive practices of crisis entrepreneurs in

  13. Caring for dementia carers: the role of general practitioners in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, C

    2011-01-29

    BACKGROUND: Dementia patients in Ireland live 8 years on average after diagnosis and health policy aims to ensure patients are cared for in the home for as long as possible. AIM: To assess the role of general practitioners in Ireland caring for dementia carers. METHODS: A PubMed search (1980-2010) was performed using MeSH terms "caregivers or carers", "Dementia or Alzheimer\\'s disease", "family physician or general practitioner". An English language restriction was imposed and the search continued to June 24th 2010. RESULTS: Psychosocial multidisciplinary interventions that unite education, skills training, management of psychological problems and family support in the community are effective in managing the problems of carers and should be facilitated by general practitioners. CONCLUSIONS: Dementia carers form an important yet understated patient group who present unique challenges for general practitioners in Ireland.

  14. Caring for dementia carers: the role of general practitioners in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, C

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Dementia patients in Ireland live 8 years on average after diagnosis and health policy aims to ensure patients are cared for in the home for as long as possible. AIM: To assess the role of general practitioners in Ireland caring for dementia carers. METHODS: A PubMed search (1980-2010) was performed using MeSH terms "caregivers or carers", "Dementia or Alzheimer\\'s disease", "family physician or general practitioner". An English language restriction was imposed and the search continued to June 24th 2010. RESULTS: Psychosocial multidisciplinary interventions that unite education, skills training, management of psychological problems and family support in the community are effective in managing the problems of carers and should be facilitated by general practitioners. CONCLUSIONS: Dementia carers form an important yet understated patient group who present unique challenges for general practitioners in Ireland.

  15. Consumers with an intellectual disability and carers: perceptions of interactions with banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Susan C; Martin, Fiona B

    2007-03-01

    As more people with an intellectual disability reside independently in the community, there is both the need and the opportunity for them to use financial services, including banks and credit unions, and products such as cash machine cards, credit cards and loans. There is a dearth of information about interactions between consumers with intellectual disabilities and their carers, and financial service providers. This study investigated the perceptions of 94 consumers with an intellectual disability and 53 carers regarding interactions with financial service providers. Consumers and carers mentioned a number of problems with banks, and reported a low rate of successful resolution of these difficulties. Carers mentioned more problems than consumers, and more frequently reported intangible problems such as discrimination. The 'digital divide' was evident, with few consumers having access to Internet or telephone banking. People with intellectual disabilities need education programmes about electronic banking, their rights as consumers and their access to problem resolution strategies.

  16. Saying it in song: music therapy as a carer support intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Kelly, Julian

    2008-06-01

    The burdens experienced by informal caregivers are likely to increase in the context of the UK's ageing demographic, and the movement towards more home-based care for those with long-term, chronic or palliative illnesses. This article combines an overview of our understanding of caregiving and carer support interventions, with an outline of the evidence base for music therapy in palliative care. Case material from the author's experiences of songwriting with a carer is used to provide a practical insight into how this emerging palliative care discipline may have the potential to alleviate carer burden, and enhance wellness. More research to explore the efficacy of music therapy as a carer support intervention is recommended.

  17. The Prostate Care Questionnaire for Carers (PCQ-C: reliability, validity and acceptability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steward William

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patient experience is commonly monitored in evaluating and improving health care, but the experience of carers (partners/relatives/friends is rarely monitored even though the role of carers can often be substantial. For carers to fulfil their role it is necessary to address their needs. This paper describes an evaluation of the reliability, validity and acceptability of the PCQ-C, a newly developed instrument designed to measure the experiences of carers of men with prostate cancer. Methods The reliability, acceptability and validity of the PCQ-C were tested through a postal survey and interviews with carers. The PCQ-C was posted to 1087 prostate cancer patients and patients were asked to pass the questionnaire on to their carer. Non-responders received one reminder. To assess test-retest reliability, 210 carers who had responded to the questionnaire were resent it a second time three weeks later. A subsample of nine carers from patients attending one hospital took part in qualitative interviews to assess validity and acceptability of the PCQ-C. Acceptability to service providers was evaluated based on four hospitals' experiences of running a survey using the PCQ-C. Results Questionnaires were returned by 514 carers (47.3%, and the majority of questions showed less than 10% missing data. Across the sections of the questionnaire internal consistency was high (Cronbach's alpha ranging from 0.80 to 0.89, and test-retest stability showed moderate to high stability (intraclass correlation coefficients ranging from 0.52 to 0.83. Interviews of carers indicated that the PCQ-C was valid and acceptable. Feedback from hospitals indicated that they found the questionnaire useful, and highlighted important considerations for its future use as part of quality improvement initiatives. Conclusions The PCQ-C has been found to be acceptable to carers and service providers having been used successfully in hospitals in England. It is ready for

  18. Modeling Multiple Risks: Hidden Domain of Attraction

    CERN Document Server

    Mitra, Abhimanyu

    2011-01-01

    Hidden regular variation is a sub-model of multivariate regular variation and facilitates accurate estimation of joint tail probabilities. We generalize the model of hidden regular variation to what we call hidden domain of attraction. We exhibit examples that illustrate the need for a more general model and discuss detection and estimation techniques.

  19. Is the qualitative research interview an acceptable medium for research with palliative care patients and carers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shipman Cathy

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Contradictory evidence exists about the emotional burden of participating in qualitative research for palliative care patients and carers and this raises questions about whether this type of research is ethically justified in a vulnerable population. This study aimed to investigate palliative care patients' and carers' perceptions of the benefits and problems associated with open interviews and to understand what causes distress and what is helpful about participation in a research interview. Methods A descriptive qualitative study. The data were collected in the context of two studies exploring the experiences of care of palliative care patients and carers. The interviews ended with questions about patients' and carers' thoughts on participating in the studies and whether this had been a distressing or helpful event. We used a qualitative descriptive analysis strategy generated from the interviews and the observational and interactional data obtained in the course of the study. Results The interviews were considered helpful: sharing problems was therapeutic and being able to contribute to research was empowering. However, thinking about the future was reported to be the most challenging. Consent forms were sometimes read with apprehension and being physically unable to sign was experienced as upsetting. Interviewing patients and carers separately was sometimes difficult and not always possible. Conclusion The open interview enables the perspectives of patients and carers to be heard, unfettered from the structure of closed questions. It also enables those patients or carers to take part who would be unable to participate in other study designs. The context is at least as important as the format of the research interview taking into account the relational circumstances with carers and appropriate ways of obtaining informed consent. Retrospective consent could be a solution to enhancing participants control over the interview.

  20. How do family carers respond to behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Kirsten; Ozanne, Elizabeth; Ames, David; Dow, Briony

    2013-05-01

    Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) have been associated with increased carer burden and early institutionalization. BPSD are more responsive to treatment than are cognitive and functional decline. Little is known about how family carers understand and try to reduce these symptoms. This study aimed to explore the strategies used by carers looking after someone with high levels of BPSD. Twenty-five carers were interviewed using a semi-structured interview with the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI). They were all caring for someone eligible for an Extended Aged Care at Home Dementia Package, which targets people with BPSD. Participants reported high levels of BPSD with a mean score of 8.2 for symptoms (range 2-12, SD = 2.38) and a mean NPI score of 51.4 (range 14-111, SD = 28.74). Distress scores were also high with a mean of 18.5 (range 2-42, SD = 11.33). Carers described on average, fewer than four strategies for managing BPSD. Encouraging activity, utilizing psychotropic medications, identifying triggers, restraining or treating in a paternalistic manner, and meeting physiological needs were the most commonly used strategies. While family carers are often at the forefront of identifying triggers and addressing unmet needs, findings from this study suggest that some carers have a limited repertoire of strategies despite experiencing a large number of symptoms. There is a clear need for ensuring evidence-based programs to educate and support carers in identifying triggers, understanding symptoms and learning to cope with these symptoms.

  1. Love stories: understanding the caring journeys of aged Greek-Australian carers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsfall, Debbie; Blignault, Ilse; Perry, Astrid; Antonopoulos, Penny

    2016-03-01

    This article documents the findings of a short-term longitudinal study that explored the caring journeys of aged Greek carers providing in-home care for their spouse. Through a deeper understanding of carers' decisions and decision-making and insights from service providers and community leaders, we aimed to inform policy makers, service managers and providers about how to develop and promote culturally appropriate support services, and negotiate them with carers and care recipients in a timely way. Initially, we conducted three focus groups and one follow-up forum with service providers and Greek community leaders. Then, over a 6-month period, we conducted two in-home interviews and two telephone interviews with 12 older Greek carers. We sought to understand factors influencing carers' decision-making regarding service uptake, and we provided information about services as required. Through our thematic analysis, we found that most carers wanted to remain as independent as possible and to avoid forced separation from the one they loved, through institutionalisation. They placed great value on their caring role which, while a struggle at times, gave them a sense of meaning, purpose and belonging. We also found that carers had great resourcefulness, strength and competence. They were all in long-term relationships, had negotiated coming to a foreign country and establishing themselves and were now in the process of negotiating old age and increasing frailty while at the same time providing care and support to family and friends. Our findings suggest that services need to be communicated in ways which support what carers value, not on outdated assumptions about cultural groups, otherwise providers will perpetuate exclusion. We propose an outreach in-home service model with an emphasis on ageing well and staying at home. This model of service provision is a model of care which emphasises relationships and community, and seeks to build social and cultural capital.

  2. Supporting activity engagement by family carers at home: maintenance of agency and personhood in dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Pat Yin Fan; Ellis-Hill, Caroline; Coleman, Peter

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT An explorative paper to describe how family carers, through the caregiving journey, reaffirm and promote the agency of people with dementia. Agency is an important concept in dementia care and is crucial to the promotion of wellbeing and the delivery of person-centred care. This article is based on one of the key findings of a study that explored family carers’ experiences of engaging their relatives in daily activities in domestic settings. Following research governance and ethical approval, 30 in-depth interviews (initial and follow-up) were carried out with 15 resident-carers of people with dementia who were recruited via local community mental health teams. Then five focus groups were conducted with 21 participants accessed through carers support groups. Interviews and focus groups were transcribed, coded and analysed using a grounded theory method. Findings showed the process in which family carers encouraged and sustained a sense of autonomy and control (agency) in their relative’s daily activities. Key strategies used by carers included: being non-judgemental; facilitating a sense of worth; taking calculated risks; maintaining the continuity of their relative’s identity; enhancing a sense of connection with their relative’s role and identity using enjoyable activities; preventing inactivity and attending to the bodily source of the agency. Lack of support for carers could ultimately pose a risk to the maintenance of the agency of people with dementia. This study provides a deeper insight into the process used by home carers to support the agency of people with dementia. This is essential if practitioners are to identify and develop more realistic intervention strategies and to work in effective partnership with family carers. The implications for the creation of dementia-friendly communities are discussed.

  3. Pentaquark states with hidden charm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijker, Roelof

    2017-07-01

    I develop an extension of the usual three-flavor quark model to four flavors (u, d, s and c), and discuss the classification of pentaquark states with hidden charm. This work is motivated by the recent observation of such states by the LHCb Collatoration at CERN.

  4. Microgenetic analysis of hidden figures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Slobodan S.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study the phenomenological and processual aspects of the perception of hidden figures were compared. The question was whether the more probable percepts of hidden figures, compared to the less probable percepts, were generated in earlier stages of the perceptual process. In the pilot study the subjects were asked to say what they see in a complex linear pattern. The three most frequent and the three least frequent perceptual descriptions were selected. In the experiment the microgenesis of the perception of hidden figures was investigated. The primed matching paradigm and the same-different task were used. In each experiment two types of test figures were contrasted: the more frequent and the less frequent ones. There were two prime types: identical (equal to test figures and complex (the pattern with hidden test figures. The prime duration was varied, 50 ms and 400 ms. The main result indicates that in the case of complex priming the more frequent test figures were processed significantly faster than the less frequent ones in both prime duration conditions. These results suggest that the faster the processing of a figure, the more probable the perceptual generation of this figure.

  5. Group cognitive behavioural therapy for stroke survivors with depression and their carers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    K Ward, Susan; Turner, Alyna; A Hambridge, John; A Halpin, Sean; E Valentine, Megan; L Sweetapple, Anne; H White, Jennifer; Hackett, Maree L

    2016-10-01

    Depression in stroke survivors is common, leads to poorer outcomes and often not treated. A group cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) program (Brainstorm) for stroke survivors with depression, and their carers has been running as part of usual care since 2007. To evaluate the implementation and acceptability of Brainstorm, a closed group intervention consisting of up to 10 sessions of education, activity planning, problem solving and thought challenging. Participating stroke survivors and their carers complete assessment measures at baseline, post-treatment and 1-month and 6-months follow-up. A mixed models for repeated measures data was conducted with depression and anxiety scores for stroke survivors (Beck Depression Inventory-II; Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale) and the assessment of depression, anxiety and carer burden for carers. Acceptability was assessed by session attendance and written and open participant feedback upon completion of the program. Forty-eight community dwelling stroke survivors and 34 carers attended Brainstorm, with a median attendance of 88% of sessions. Follow-up assessments were completed by 77% (post-treatment), 46% (1-month) and 38% (6-month) of stroke survivors. Stroke survivors' depression scores decreased from baseline to post-treatment (pBrainstorm group intervention for depression in stroke survivors appears to have been effectively implemented and is acceptable to stroke survivors and carers.

  6. Health, economic, psychological and social impact of educating carers of patients with advanced pulmonary disease (protocol).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sladek, R M; Jones, T; Phillips, P A; Luszcz, M; Rowett, D; Eckermann, S; Woodman, R J; Frith, P

    2011-09-01

    People with advanced pulmonary disease (APD), such as those with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, have markedly impaired quality of life. Home Oxygen Therapy (HOT) itself is burdensome, although it often improves survival duration and quality of life in these patients. The exact burdens on informal caregivers of these patients are unknown. The central purpose of the pragmatic randomized controlled study described in this protocol is to determine the effectiveness of improving the skills and knowledge of carers of patients with APD who use HOT. Specifically we aimed to estimate the incremental impact of this carer intervention above usual care on health, economic, psychological and social domains for patient and carer dyads relative to the level of current burden. Eligible patients and their carers were recruited through three major hospitals, and randomized to an intervention or control group. The carers in the intervention group received two home-delivered education sessions based on the principles of academic detailing. Participants are currently being followed over 12 months. The primary outcome will be the proportion of patients surviving without a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease-related readmission / residential (non respite) care over 12 months. Carer secondary outcomes include perceived caregiver burden, level of expected and received social support, perceived level of mastery, self esteem, health related quality of life and disability, and ability to conduct domestic chores and household maintenance, social activities and provide service to others, and fatigue. Secondary patient outcomes include health related quality of life and disability, and current respiratory health status.

  7. 'We have different routes for different reasons': Exploring the purpose of walks for carers of people with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Marjorie

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the purpose of walks for co-residing carers of people with dementia, using a social citizenship lens. The findings are based on the first phase of a study examining the everyday experiences of place, space, and neighbourhood of dementia carers. Using three forms of data collection - social network mapping, walking interviews, and participant-driven photography - the study brings forth information about why carers go on walks either alone or with the person with dementia. Carers explained that walks facilitate their connections with themselves, the person with dementia, their social environment, and their natural and built environment. In sum, walks provide a way of practicing and sustaining social citizenship. Carers' discourse about walks highlights their personal, everyday practices and strategies, as well as the larger tensions and contradictions of dementia care. The findings reinforce the need to bring into dialogue, from a carer perspective, a social citizenship model of dementia with the growing interest in dementia-friendly communities.

  8. Nonintentional behavioural responses to psi : hidden targets and hidden observers

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Mary-Jane Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    Psi is the phenomenon of apparently responding to or receiving information by means other than the recognised senses. Psi information may influence human behaviour, without the individual intending this or even being aware of it. This thesis seeks to investigate nonintentional behavioural responses to psi. We present five empirical studies that investigated nonintentional behavioural responses to psi information. In each study, the psi information was hidden from participants, ...

  9. Decision aids for respite service choices by carers of people with dementia: development and pilot RCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stirling Christine

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Decision aids are often used to assist individuals confronted with a diagnosis of a serious illness to make decisions about treatment options. However, they are rarely utilised to help those with chronic or age related conditions to make decisions about care services. Decision aids should also be useful for carers of people with decreased decisional capacity. These carers' choices must balance health outcomes for themselves and for salient others with relational and value-based concerns, while relying on information from health professionals. This paper reports on a study that both developed and pilot tested a decision aid aimed at assisting carers to make evaluative judgements of community services, particularly respite care. Methods A mixed method sequential study, involving qualitative development and a pilot randomised controlled trial, was conducted in Tasmania, Australia. We undertook 13 semi-structured interviews and three focus groups to inform the development of the decision aid. For the randomised control trial we randomly assigned 31 carers of people with dementia to either receive the service decision aid at the start or end of the study. The primary outcome was measured by comparing the difference in carer burden between the two groups three months after the intervention group received the decision aid. Pilot data was collected from carers using interviewer-administered questionnaires at the commencement of the project, two weeks and 12 weeks later. Results The qualitative data strongly suggest that the intervention provides carers with needed decision support. Most carers felt that the decision aid was useful. The trial data demonstrated that, using the mean change between baseline and three month follow-up, the intervention group had less increase in burden, a decrease in decisional conflict and increased knowledge compared to control group participants. Conclusions While these results must be interpreted with

  10. Mental health recovery: lived experience of consumers, carers and nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Sini; Munro, Ian; Taylor, Beverley Joan

    2015-01-01

    Background Mental health recovery is a prominent topic of discussion in the global mental health settings. The concept of mental health recovery brought about a major shift in the traditional philosophical views of many mental health systems. Aim The purpose of this article is to outline the results of a qualitative study on mental health recovery, which involved mental health consumers, carers and mental health nurses from an Area Mental Health Service in Victoria, Australia. This paper is Part One of the results that explored the meaning of recovery. Methods The study used van Manen's hermeneutic phenomenology to analyse the data. Findings Themes suggested that the cohort had varying views on recovery that were similar and dissimilar. The similar views were categorised under two processes involving the self, an internal process and an external process. These two processes involved reclaiming various aspects of oneself, living life, cure or absence of symptoms and contribution to community. The dissimilar views involved returning to pre-illness state and recovery was impossible. Conclusion This study highlights the need for placing importance on the person's sense of self in the recovery process.

  11. What motivates patients and carers to participate in dementia studies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Emma; Russ, Tom C; Connelly, Peter J

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to explore what motivates people to participate in dementia research. Three focus groups, attended by carers and people with dementia who had already volunteered to take part in dementia research, were used to explore motivation. Their thoughts and feelings about brain tissue donation were also explored. An adaptation of the participation chain model was used. A fourth focus group was given a supplementary questionnaire examining use of resources. Focus group content was analysed using a content analysis approach to identify themes. Individualistic motivations included increased confidence and a chance to have a say. Collectivistic motivations included 'helping through being part of something bigger'. Mobilisation (catalysing) issues included a desire for change, and 'being asked'. In response to the questionnaire participants identified that they would have taken part regardless of any tangible benefits, with all saying that they would not have been put off by any of the costs. Participants in these focus groups were keen to be involved in dementia research and discounted any potential costs to themselves. They highlighted that being asked was an important factor in engaging them in dementia research.

  12. A longitudinal examination of dyadic distress patterns following a skills intervention for carers of adolescents with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Laura; Rhind, Charlotte; Hibbs, Rebecca; Micali, Nadia; Schmidt, Ulrike; Gowers, Simon; Macdonald, Pamela; Goddard, Elizabeth; Todd, Gillian; Tchanturia, Kate; Lo Coco, Gianluca; Treasure, Janet

    2016-12-01

    Family interventions in anorexia nervosa (AN) have been developed to ameliorate maladaptive patterns of patient-carer interaction that can play a role in illness maintenance. The primary aim of this study is to examine the inter-relationship between baseline and post-treatment distress in dyads of carers and patients with AN to examine the interdependence between carers and patients. The secondary aim is to examine whether a carer skills intervention [Experienced Carer Helping Others (ECHO)] impacts on this inter-relationship. Dyads consisting of treatment-seeking adolescents with AN and their primary carer (n = 149; mostly mothers) were randomised to receive a carer skills intervention (ECHO) in addition to treatment as usual (TAU), or TAU alone, as part of a larger clinical trial. Carers and patients completed a standardised measure of psychological distress (The Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale) at baseline and 12 months post-treatment. The Actor Partner Interdependence Model was used to examine longitudinal changes in interdependence by treatment group. As expected, post-treatment levels of distress were related to baseline levels in both groups (actor effects). Moreover, carer distress at 12 months was related to patient distress at baseline for the TAU (partner effects), but not for the ECHO group. Finally, carers' distress change was not a significant predictor of patients' body mass index (BMI) change in the two treatment conditions. These findings are limited to predominantly mother-offspring dyads and may not generalise to other relationships. The ECHO intervention which is designed to teach carers skills in illness management and emotion regulation may be an effective addition to TAU for ameliorating interdependence of distress in patients and their primary carers over time.

  13. Facilitating change and adaptation: the experiences of current and bereaved carers of patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Jennifer; Gold, Michelle; Brand, Caroline; Miller, Belinda; Douglass, Jo; Sundararajan, Vijaya

    2014-04-01

    Patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) experience substantial symptom burden, psychological and social morbidity. The experience of this illness has an impact beyond the patient. This study seeks to understand the experiences and needs of family carers of people with severe COPD. Semistructured interviews were held with current and bereaved carers of people with severe COPD. Several areas of content were targeted in the interviews, including the experience of caring for someone with COPD, views of treatment and prognosis, information and communication needs, and the understanding of palliative care. Data were analyzed thematically. The carers' and bereaved carers' experiences and needs around COPD are best understood as a dynamic of change, recognition, and adaptation. Carers faced many changes as the patients' general condition deteriorated. These were changes in the nature of caring tasks, in their relationships, and their own expectations. Carers usually recognized change had happened and sought to adapt through new approaches, new equipment, a new stance of thinking, and in most cases, continued caring. Within this theme of change, recognition, and adaptation were a series of subthemes: (1) the impact of caring, (2) recognizing the role of the carer, and (3) the needs of the carer including their needs from palliative care services. The impact of caring borne by family carers is substantial and life changing. Health professionals may assist carers in their role through acknowledgement, facilitating recognition of the changes that have occurred (and their implications), and enabling creative adaptive responses for carers. Such assistance is likely to enhance the ability of carers to continue in this demanding role.

  14. Schizophrenia through the carers' eyes: results of a European cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svettini, A; Johnson, B; Magro, C; Saunders, J; Jones, K; Silk, S; Hargarter, L; Schreiner, A

    2015-09-01

    Schizophrenia is a serious mental disorder affecting approximately 29 million people worldwide. The ideal treatment and care of patients with schizophrenia should be provided by a multidisciplinary 'team' involving psychiatrists, nurses and other healthcare professionals, together with carers and patients. In light of the key role carers play in the care of patients with schizophrenia, the present survey was designed to assess the opinions of family members and friends of patients with schizophrenia across Europe and to ascertain their attitudes towards the illness, medication and adherence to medication. Among carers participating in this survey, there was widespread awareness of the issues involved in supporting patients with schizophrenia and the importance of their role in improving poor adherence to medication. Three differences in opinion emerged between the views of carers and psychiatrists; psychiatrists rely more on the patient themselves when assessing adherence than carers would recommend; in contrast to psychiatrists, many carers believe the illness itself contributes to non-adherence; two thirds of carers think that schizophrenia medication damages health (higher than estimated by psychiatrists). The findings from the present survey, taken together with the results from the Adherencia Terapéutica en la Esquizofrenia surveys of psychiatrists and nurses, support the need for a collaborative approach to the issue of treatment nonadherence. In particular, healthcare professionals should recognize the valuable contribution that family carers can make to improve treatment adherence and consequently clinical outcomes for patients with schizophrenia. Schizophrenia carries a significant burden for families providing care. The Adherencia Terapéutica en la Esquizofrenia (ADHES) carers' survey was designed to assess the opinions of family and friends of patients with schizophrenia across Europe and ascertain their attitudes towards the illness, medication and

  15. An evaluation of Cognitive Stimulation Therapy sessions for people with dementia and a concomitant support group for their carers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Jan; Kingston, Paul; Alford, Simon; Taylor, Louise; Tolhurst, Edward

    2016-01-18

    This research aimed to ascertain the impact of a pragmatic Cognitive Stimulation Therapy course of 10 sessions on the cognitive function of people living with dementia and whether attending a concomitant carers support group was beneficial to carers. A mixed method quasi-experimental approach was adopted; data were collected pre- and post-intervention. The quantitative arm utilised three validated questionnaires rated by the carers. Qualitative data were collected via semi-structured interviews with carers regarding their perceptions of the impact of Cognitive Stimulation Therapy and the carers support group. Quantitative data analysis found no statistically significant differences within or between groups. The qualitative data demonstrated that carers perceived Cognitive Stimulation Therapy had some benefits for the people living with dementia, especially social benefits. Carers also perceived that attending the carers support group was beneficial for them in terms of gaining a better understanding of dementia, developing coping skills and having peer support. The study was limited in scale and further research with a larger sample, using direct measures of the impact of Cognitive Stimulation Therapy with people living with dementia and supplementary research exploring which characteristic of carers support groups are effective would be worthwhile.

  16. The practice of palliative care from the perspective of patients and carers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Cathy; Finlay, Ilora; Byrne, Anthony; Snow, Veronica; Nelson, Annmarie

    2014-09-01

    The meaning that patients and carers attribute to their experience of palliative care is fundamental to the provision, practice and evaluation of optimal care. This analysis aims to establish contemporary key practices and priorities from the perspective of patients and carers. Thematic analysis was applied to 594 anonymised free text responses from patients and carers documenting their experiences of palliative care. The emotional experience of care is the most significant aspect documented by patients and carers. It refers to the process of care in key domains of respect, renewal, refuge and restorative care. Patients and carers described care as either enabling or directly provided. The emotional experience of care was not confined to psychosocial need and constituted a core practice drawing on professional expertise and interpersonal skills, some of which may be taken for granted by staff themselves. The emotional experience of care is examined as a practice rather than a topic, acknowledging that patients and carers documented the performance of care and the resulting impact in a variety of situations. The emotional experience of care comprises key aspects of contextual care facilitating autonomy and connectedness. It is embedded in relationships mediated by communication and tenor of care. The perspective of patients and carers places the emotional experience of palliative care centrally. This has implications for future service evaluation and the incorporation of this skill-based outcome alongside more traditional outcome measures such as the amelioration of physical symptoms. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  17. Psychometric properties of carer-reported outcome measures in palliative care: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michels, Charlotte T J; Boulton, Mary; Adams, Astrid; Wee, Bee; Peters, Michele

    2016-01-01

    Informal carers face many challenges in caring for patients with palliative care needs. Selecting suitable valid and reliable outcome measures to determine the impact of caring and carers' outcomes is a common problem. To identify outcome measures used for informal carers looking after patients with palliative care needs, and to evaluate the measures' psychometric properties. A systematic review was conducted. The studies identified were evaluated by independent reviewers (C.T.J.M., M.B., M.P.). Data regarding study characteristics and psychometric properties of the measures were extracted and evaluated. Good psychometric properties indicate a high-quality measure. The search was conducted, unrestricted to publication year, in the following electronic databases: Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, The Cochrane Library, EMBASE, PubMed, PsycINFO, Social Sciences Citation Index and Sociological Abstracts. Our systematic search revealed 4505 potential relevant studies, of which 112 studies met the inclusion criteria using 38 carer measures for informal carers of patients with palliative care needs. Psychometric properties were reported in only 46% (n = 52) of the studies, in relation to 24 measures. Where psychometric data were reported, the focus was mainly on internal consistency (n = 45, 87%), construct validity (n = 27, 52%) and/or reliability (n = 14, 27%). Of these, 24 measures, only four (17%) had been formally validated in informal carers in palliative care. A broad range of outcome measures have been used for informal carers of patients with palliative care needs. Little formal psychometric testing has been undertaken. Furthermore, development and refinement of measures in this field is required. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Family carers’ experiences of attending a multicomponent psychosocial intervention program for carers and persons with dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannessen A

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aud Johannessen,1 Frøydis Kristine Bruvik,1,3,4 Solveig Hauge2 1Norwegian National Advisory Unit on Ageing and Health, Vestfold Hospital Trust, Tønsberg, 2Norway Faculty of Health and Social Studies and Centre of Caring Research – Southern Norway, Telemark University College, Porsgrunn, 3Kavli Centre, Haraldsplass Deaconess Hospital, Bergen, 4Haraldsplass Deaconess University College, Bergen, Norway Background: Psychosocial interventions for persons with dementia and their primary family carers are promising approaches to reducing the challenges associated with care, but, obtaining significant outcomes may be difficult. Even though carers in general are satisfied with such interventions, few studies have evaluated the interventions by means of qualitative methods. Aim: The objective of the study reported here was to investigate family carers’ experiences of a multicomponent psychosocial intervention program, and also to offer advice on how to develop the intervention program. Methods: Content analyses were taken from individual qualitative interviews conducted in 2012 with 20 carers (aged 50–82 years who participated in a psychosocial intervention program that included education, individual and family counseling, and parallel group sessions for carers and persons with dementia. Results: Two main categories emerged: 1 benefits of the intervention program, which sets out the informants’ experiences for the benefits of participation, described in the subcategories “importance of content and group organization” and “importance of social support”; and 2 missing content in the intervention program, which details the informants’ suggestions for future interventions, contained in the subcategories “need for extended content” and “need for new group organization”. Conclusion: The carers found the interventions useful. The importance of even earlier and more flexible interventions for the family carers, the extended family, and

  19. Coaching Athletes with Hidden Disabilities: Recommendations and Strategies for Coaching Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Tiffanye; Flores, Margaret; Beyer, Robbi

    2012-01-01

    Hidden disabilities (HD) are those disabilities not readily apparent to the naked eye including specific learning disabilities, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, emotional behavioral disorders, mild intellectual disabilities, and speech or language disabilities. Young athletes with HD may have difficulty listening to and following…

  20. Coaching Athletes with Hidden Disabilities: Recommendations and Strategies for Coaching Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Tiffanye; Flores, Margaret; Beyer, Robbi

    2012-01-01

    Hidden disabilities (HD) are those disabilities not readily apparent to the naked eye including specific learning disabilities, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, emotional behavioral disorders, mild intellectual disabilities, and speech or language disabilities. Young athletes with HD may have difficulty listening to and following…

  1. Interprofessional teamwork in stroke care: Is it visible or important to patients and carers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Gillian; Sims, Sarah; Greenwood, Nan; Jones, Fiona; Ross, Fiona; Harris, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Interprofessional teamwork is seen in healthcare policy and practice as a key strategy for providing safe, efficient and holistic healthcare and is an accepted part of evidence-based stroke care. The impact of interprofessional teamwork on patient and carer experience(s) of care is unknown, although some research suggests a relationship might exist. This study aimed to explore patient and carer perceptions of good and poor teamwork and its impact on experiences of care. Critical incident interviews were conducted with 50 patients and 33 carers in acute, inpatient rehabilitation and community phases of care within two UK stroke care pathways. An analytical framework, derived from a realist synthesis of 13 'mechanisms' (processes) of interprofessional teamwork, was used to identify positive and negative 'indicators' of teamwork. Participants identified several mechanisms of teamwork, but it was not a subject most talked about readily. This suggests that interprofessional teamwork is not a concept that is particularly important to stroke patients and carers; they do not readily perceive any impacts of teamwork on their experiences. These findings are a salient reminder that what might be expected by healthcare professionals to be important influences on experience may not be perceived to be so by patients and carers.

  2. [ Low-threshold support services for people with dementia from the family carers' viewpoint].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochgraeber, Iris; Dortmann, Olga; Bartholomeyczik, Sabine; Holle, Bernhard

    2014-02-01

    Low-threshold support services are one possibility to relieve family carers with an hourly care for people with dementia. The aim of the study is to invest aspects of low-thresholdness (accessibility, flexibility, reachability, cheapness) with regards to content and to organisation. In an explorative cross-sectional study we collected the estimation according to low-threshold support services of family carers of people with dementia using those services in two regions of North-Rhine-Westphalia (Germany). The analysis was descriptive. The results show, that the 53 family carers estimate the aspects with regards to content mainly with focus on the well-being of the people with dementia as crucial, meanwhile the organisational aspects and the low-thresholdness were less important. Carers' burden was no object. For the family carers and the decision to utilise a low-threshold support service it seems to be import to have a transparent description of the care with a focus on the needs and well-being of the person with dementia.

  3. Involving carers in the teaching, learning and assessment of masters students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSherry, Robert; Duggan, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Involving patients and carers in teaching, learning and assessment focuses the students on person-centred care by providing the opportunity to listen to, and reflect on, the perspective of patient and/or carer and also allows the students the opportunity to work in partnership with them to effect meaningful change. This paper presents an example at Teesside University where two informal carers have been involved as partners in the programme team of The Master of Arts in Advancing Practice over the past four years. In year two of the programme, the student is required to work within their organisation and governance policies to identify, implement and evaluate a practice development change project. Involving carers at critical points throughout the year has enriched, supported and challenged the students' learning. Evaluation has highlighted the role that carers can play in bringing a new dimension to the students' learning experience. The authors believe that direct involvement of this kind has much potential for other programmes in improving health and social care education which, in turn, will improve health and social care services. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Skilled interaction among professional carers in special accommodations for adult people with learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonsson, H; Aström, S; Lundström, M; Graneheim, U H

    2013-09-01

    Communicative difficulties affect interactions between people with learning disabilities and their carers. Despite such difficulties, however, some carers seem to interact successfully with people who have limited ability to communicate verbally and exhibit challenging behaviour. This study aims to illuminate skilled interaction among carers working in special accommodations for people with learning disabilities. Interactions between 16 caregivers and 11 residents with learning disabilities were recorded on video. Verbal and non-verbal interaction skills among the carers were identified. Four caring situations with people with learning disabilities were chosen to illuminate skilled interaction. The transcribed text was subjected to qualitative content analysis and core stories were created. The results show that skilled interaction between the carers and the people with learning disabilities is based upon being confirming, sharing daily life experience, giving time and space, and using congruent and distinct language. In this paper we present examples that offer concrete suggestions of how to promote successful interaction and create meaning in the shared day-to-day life in special accommodations for people with learning disabilities.

  5. Exploring the Care Relationship between Grandparents/Older Carers and Children Infected with HIV in South-Western Uganda: Implications for Care for Both the Children and Their Older Carers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rwamahe Rutakumwa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The care of children orphaned by HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa is often undertaken by grandparents, yet little is known about the care relationship between grandparent and grandchild. Our aim was to examine this relationship to understand the needs and responsibilities of both the HIV positive child and older carer and the nature of the relationship, and to assess the implications for care for the children and the older carers. A qualitative study was conducted with 40 purposively sampled children (13–17 years and their older carers (50 years and above. Participants were recruited from two clinics in south-western Uganda. Up to three semi-structured interviews were held with each participant. Data were analysed using a thematic framework approach. We found that the care relationship was mostly reciprocal: HIV positive children depended on carers for basic and health needs and carers counted on the children for performing tedious household tasks. The relationship was also characterised by challenges, sometimes causing tension between child and carer. We conclude that: (1 interventions targeting HIV positive children need to also address the needs of older carers, and (2 carers and children would benefit from psychosocial support and social protection.

  6. On quantum algorithms for noncommutative hidden subgroups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ettinger, M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Hoeyer, P. [Odense Univ. (Denmark)

    1998-12-01

    Quantum algorithms for factoring and discrete logarithm have previously been generalized to finding hidden subgroups of finite Abelian groups. This paper explores the possibility of extending this general viewpoint to finding hidden subgroups of noncommutative groups. The authors present a quantum algorithm for the special case of dihedral groups which determines the hidden subgroup in a linear number of calls to the input function. They also explore the difficulties of developing an algorithm to process the data to explicitly calculate a generating set for the subgroup. A general framework for the noncommutative hidden subgroup problem is discussed and they indicate future research directions.

  7. Making Sense of Bereavement in People with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities: Carer Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Hannah; Hogg, James; Garrard, Brenda

    2016-08-24

    People with intellectual disabilities are thought to have a reduced capacity for understanding death. Drawing on cognitive theory, researchers have suggested that those with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities mainly perceive loss as a mismatch between past and present experiences. However, very little research has considered how carers conceptualize bereavement in relation to this group. Semi-structured interviews obtained responses from seven carers. Transcripts were examined using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Two superordinate themes emerged: 'difficulty articulating the experience of loss' and 'making sense of bereavement through familiar patterns'. Carers conceptualize bereavement primarily in cognitive terms, but also take account of relational factors mediating loss. Implications for training and further research are outlined. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Adding SUGAR: service user and carer collaboration in mental health nursing research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Alan; Jones, Julia; Barlow, Sally; Cox, Leonie

    2014-01-01

    SUGAR (Service User and Carer Group Advising on Research) is an initiative established to develop collaborative working in mental health nursing research between mental health service users, carers, researchers, and practitioners at City University London, United Kingdom. This article will describe the background of SUGAR; how the group operates; some of the achievements to date, including researcher reflections; and case studies of how this collaboration influences our research. Written reflective narratives of service user and carer experiences of SUGAR were analyzed using constant comparative methods by the members. Common themes are presented with illustrative quotes. The article highlights the benefits and possible limitations identified to date by members of SUGAR, outlines future plans, and considers the findings in relation to literature on involvement and empowerment. This article, written by staff and members of SUGAR, is the first venture into collaborative writing of the group and reflects the shared ethos of collaborative working. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  9. A feasibility randomised controlled trial of the DECIDE intervention: dementia carers making informed decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Kathryn; Livingston, Gill

    2017-01-01

    Summary Family carers report high levels of decisional conflict when deciding whether their relative with dementia can continue to be cared for in their own home. We tested, in a feasibility randomised controlled trial, the first decision aid (the DECIDE manual) aiming to reduce such conflict. Twenty family carers received the DECIDE intervention, and 21 received usual treatment. The intervention group had reduced decisional conflict compared with controls (mean difference −11.96, 95% confidence interval −20.10 to −3.83, P=0.005). All carers receiving the intervention completed and valued it, despite some still reporting difficulties with family conflict and problems negotiating services. Declaration of interest None. Copyright and usage © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2017. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) license.

  10. A new test of the construct validity of the CarerQol instrument: Measuring the impact of informal care giving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.J. Hoefman (Renske); N.J.A. van Exel (Job); S. Looren De Jong (Sandra); E. Orlewska (William Ken); W.B.F. Brouwer (Werner)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: Most economic evaluations of health care programmes do not consider the effects of informal care, while this could lead to suboptimal policy decisions. This study investigates the construct validity of the CarerQol instrument, which measures and values carer effects, in a new po

  11. Effectiveness of psychoeducational interventions for family carers of people with psychosis: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sin, Jacqueline; Gillard, Steve; Spain, Debbie; Cornelius, Victoria; Chen, Tao; Henderson, Claire

    2017-08-01

    Psychoeducational interventions for family carers of people with psychosis are effective for improving compliance and preventing relapse. Whether carers benefit from these interventions has been little explored. This systematic review investigated the effectiveness of psychoeducation for improving carers' outcomes, and potential treatment moderators. We searched for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) published in English or Chinese in eight databases. Carers' outcomes included wellbeing, quality of life, global morbidities, burden, and expressed emotion. Thirty-two RCTs were included, examining 2858 carers. Intervention duration ranged from 4 to 52weeks, and contact times ranged from 6 to 42hours. At post intervention, findings were equivocal for carers' wellbeing (SMD 0.103, 95% CI -0.186 to 0.392). Conversely, psychoeducation was superior in reducing carers' global morbidities (SMD -0.230, 95% CI -0.386 to -0.075), perceived burden (SMD -0.434, 95% CI -0.567 to -0.31), negative caregiving experiences (SMD -0.210, 95% CI -0.396 to -0.025) and expressed emotion (SMD -0.161, 95% CI -0.367 to -0.045). The lack of available data precluded meta-analysis of outcomes beyond short-term follow-up. Meta-regression revealed no significant associations between intervention modality, duration, or contact time and outcomes. Further research should focus on improving carers' outcomes in the longer-term and identifying factors to optimise intervention design. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Coping Well with Advanced Cancer: A Serial Qualitative Interview Study with Patients and Family Carers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Diane; Appleton, Lynda; Calman, Lynn; Large, Paul; Lloyd-Williams, Mari; Grande, Gunn

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To understand successful strategies used by people to cope well when living with advanced cancer; to explore how professionals can support effective coping strategies; to understand how to support development of effective coping strategies for patients and family carers. Design Qualitative serial (4–12 week intervals) interview study with people with advanced cancer and their informal carers followed by focus groups. The iterative design had a novel focus on positive coping strategies. Interview analysis focused on patients and carers as individuals and pairs, exploring multiple dimensions of their coping experiences. Focus group analysis explored strategies for intervention development. Participants 26 people with advanced (stage 3–4) breast, prostate, lung or colorectal cancer, or in receipt of palliative care, and 24 paired nominated informal/family carers. Setting Participants recruited through outpatient clinics at two tertiary cancer centres in Merseyside and Manchester, UK, between June 2012 and July 2013. Results 45 patient and 41 carer interviews were conducted plus 4 focus groups (16 participants). People with advanced cancer and their informal/family carers develop coping strategies which enable effective management of psychological wellbeing. People draw from pre-diagnosis coping strategies, but these develop through responding to the experience of living with advanced cancer. Strategies include being realistic, indulgence, support, and learning from others, which enabled participants to regain a sense of wellbeing after emotional challenge. Learning from peers emerged as particularly important in promoting psychological wellbeing through the development of effective ‘everyday’, non-clinical coping strategies. Conclusions Our findings challenge current models of providing psychological support for those with advanced cancer which focus on professional intervention. It is important to recognise, enable and support peoples’ own

  13. Carers' Experiences, Needs, and Preferences During Inpatient Stroke Rehabilitation: A Systematic Review of Qualitative Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luker, Julie; Murray, Carolyn; Lynch, Elizabeth; Bernhardsson, Susanne; Shannon, Michelle; Bernhardt, Julie

    2017-09-01

    To report and synthesize the experiences, needs, and preferences of carers of stroke survivors undergoing inpatient rehabilitation. MEDLINE, CINAHL, Embase, PsycINFO, and Web of Science were searched to March 2016. Reference lists of relevant publications were searched. No language restrictions were applied. Eligible qualitative studies reported the experiences of carers of stroke survivors who underwent inpatient rehabilitation. The search yielded 3532 records; 93 full-text publications were assessed for eligibility, and 34 documents (33 studies) were included. Comprehensiveness of reporting was assessed using the Consolidated Criteria for Reporting Qualitative Health Research framework. Data on the characteristics of included studies were independently extracted by 2 authors. Differences in data extraction between authors were resolved through discussion or by a third author. All text in studies' results and discussion sections were extracted for analysis. Extracted texts were analyzed inductively using thematic synthesis. Seven analytical themes were developed that related to the carers' experiences, needs, and preferences: (1) overwhelmed with emotions; (2) recognition as a stakeholder in recovery; (3) desire to be heard and informed; (4) persisting for action and outcomes; (5) being legitimate clients; (6) navigating an alien culture and environment; and (7) managing the transition home. This systematic review provides new insights into the experiences, needs, and preferences of carers of stroke survivors undergoing inpatient rehabilitation. Carers experienced distress as they navigated a foreign culture and environment without adequate communication and processes in place for their inclusion. We recommend deliberate efforts to provide a more inclusive environment that better supports and prepares carers for their new role. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. All rights reserved.

  14. Personal identity and the role of 'carer' among relatives and friends of people with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Nic; Locock, Louise; Ziebland, Sue

    2013-11-01

    Informal caregiving continues to be a crucial part of health and social care provision in the developed world, but the processes by which the identity of informal caregiver is conferred, or assumed, remain unclear. In this article we draw on data from a qualitative research study which examined the experiences of family members and friends of people with multiple sclerosis (pwMS) to explore how they interpret the label 'carer'. We conducted narrative interviews with forty people throughout the United Kingdom between June 2011 and January 2012. Participants were spouses, partners, parents, children, siblings or friends of people who have had multiple sclerosis between 6 months and fifty years. We carried out thematic analysis of the interviews, informed by identity theory. Identity theory illuminated variation in peoples' perceptions of themselves as carers, suggesting that self-identification with the role and label of carer is nuanced, shifting and variable. We propose a taxonomy of caring activity including emotional support, personal care, physical care, household tasks, advocacy and activism and describe four categories, with fluid and overlapping boundaries, in which the identity of carer was apparently embraced, enforced, absorbed or rejected. Variability and fluidity in self-identification as a carer are related to apparent expectations about whether one should assume a caring role. Those who were caring from the more tangential (and less taken for granted) relationship of sibling or ex-partner were among those who apparently embraced the role. Those who were expected to assume the caring role (typically spouses) were not always comfortable with doing so. It may be difficult to gain acknowledgement from family members and others that they occupy the role of carer if people resist the label as a bureaucratisation of their personal relationships. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Complexities in the Provision of Respite Care to Family Carers of Persons with Intellectual Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frieda Finlay

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available PurposeRespite care is generally thought to benefit family carers of persons with intellectual disabilities and is regarded as an important component of family-centred services.  However, the complexities associated with the provision of such services, from the carer’s perspective, have been rarely investigated.MethodThis qualitative research study was carried out through a participatory action research process that involved collaboration among researchers and family members as co-researchers.  Seven focus groups, involving seventy family carers (fifty mothers, fifteen fathers and five sisters, were held in seven locations across the Republic of Ireland. ResultsThree main themes dominated the discussions.  The first theme related to the ambivalence of carers towards using respite services, as expressed in their reluctance to relinquish care-giving for even a short period; the feelings of guilt they experienced; and the greater needs of other carers.  The second theme related to the benefits of respite breaks, but these were solely with respect to the carer and other family members, rather than to the person with an intellectual disability.  The third theme regarding the quality of provision was dominated by concerns for the care the person received in using the services. ConclusionsRespite care has the potential to make a difference, and these findings call for building much- needed alliances between all members of the family and professionals.  This is in order to support one another through the difficulties associated with the redesign of existing respite provision, and the extension of these services to the growing number of carers who require respite breaks.doi 10.5463/DCID.v22i2.22Key wordsIntellectual disability, respite, family members, Ireland 

  16. Prioritizing problems in and solutions to homecare safety of people with dementia: supporting carers, streamlining care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudor Car, Lorainne; El-Khatib, Mona; Perneczky, Robert; Papachristou, Nikolaos; Atun, Rifat; Rudan, Igor; Car, Josip; Vincent, Charles; Majeed, Azeem

    2017-01-19

    Dementia care is predominantly provided by carers in home settings. We aimed to identify the priorities for homecare safety of people with dementia according to dementia health and social care professionals using a novel priority-setting method. The project steering group determined the scope, the context and the criteria for prioritization. We then invited 185 North-West London clinicians via an open-ended questionnaire to identify three main problems and solutions relating to homecare safety of people with dementia. 76 clinicians submitted their suggestions which were thematically synthesized into a composite list of 27 distinct problems and 30 solutions. A group of 49 clinicians arbitrarily selected from the initial cohort ranked the composite list of suggestions using predetermined criteria. Inadequate education of carers of people with dementia (both family and professional) is seen as a key problem that needs addressing in addition to challenges of self-neglect, social isolation, medication nonadherence. Seven out of top 10 problems related to patients and/or carers signalling clearly where help and support are needed. The top ranked solutions focused on involvement and education of family carers, their supervision and continuing support. Several suggestions highlighted a need for improvement of recruitment, oversight and working conditions of professional carers and for different home safety-proofing strategies. Clinicians identified a range of suggestions for improving homecare safety of people with dementia. Better equipping carers was seen as fundamental for ensuring homecare safety. Many of the identified suggestions are highly challenging and not easily changeable, yet there are also many that are feasible, affordable and could contribute to substantial improvements to dementia homecare safety.

  17. Service user and carer experiences of seeking help for a first episode of psychosis: a UK qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raine Rosalind

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Long duration of untreated psychosis (DUP is associated with poor outcomes and low quality of life at first contact with mental health services. However, long DUP is common. In order to inform initiatives to reduce DUP, we investigated service users' and carers' experiences of the onset of psychosis and help-seeking in two multicultural, inner London boroughs and the roles of participants' social networks in their pathways to care. Method In-depth interviews were conducted with service users and carers from an early intervention service in North London, purposively sampled to achieve diversity in sociodemographic characteristics and DUP and to include service users in contact with community organisations during illness onset. Interviews covered respondents' understanding of and reaction to the onset of psychosis, their help-seeking attempts and the reactions of social networks and health services. Thematic analysis of interview transcripts was conducted. Results Multiple barriers to prompt treatment included not attributing problems to psychosis, worries about the stigma of mental illness and service contact, not knowing where to get help and unhelpful service responses. Help was often not sought until crisis point, despite considerable prior distress. The person experiencing symptoms was often the last to recognise them as mental illness. In an urban UK setting, where involved, workers in non-health community organisations were frequently willing to assist help-seeking but often lacked skills, time or knowledge to do so. Conclusion Even modest periods of untreated psychosis cause distress and disruption to individuals and their families. Early intervention services should prioritise early detection. Initiatives aimed at reducing DUP may succeed not by promoting swift service response alone, but also by targeting delays in initial help-seeking. Our study suggests that strategies for doing this may include addressing the

  18. Service user and carer involvement in learning and teaching: a faculty of health staff perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutteridge, Robin; Dobbins, Kerry

    2010-08-01

    As part of a larger evaluation study, 20 members of staff in a Faculty of Health were interviewed about the impact of service user and carer involvement on learning and teaching. A qualitative approach was adopted and semi-structured interviews were used to explore current levels of involvement, barriers and solutions. The data generated was analysed using the principles of grounded theory. Findings suggest respondents recognised the requirement to involve service users and carers in their learning activities. Most wanted to develop this aspect of their educational provision but a number of barriers were described. Strategic and operational solutions were proposed to overcome these and respondents were positive about achieving meaningful involvement.

  19. Parents' and carers' views about emollients for childhood eczema: qualitative interview study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, I; Yardley, L; Lewis-Jones, S; Ersser, S; Little, P

    2016-01-01

    Objective Leave-on emollients form the mainstay of eczema treatment, but adherence is poor. We aimed to explore parents’/carers' views on effectiveness and acceptability of leave-on emollients for childhood eczema through secondary analysis of data from 2 qualitative data sets. Setting Study 1 recruited through mail-out from 6 general practices in southern England. Study 2 recruited from a feasibility trial of an intervention to support eczema self-care in 31 practices in the same area. Participants Study 1 included 28 interviews with carers of children aged ≤5 years with eczema. Study 2 included 26 interviews with carers of children aged ≤5 years with eczema. Methods Interviews followed semistructured guides: study 1 explored carers' understandings around eczema treatments in order to develop a web-based self-care support intervention; study 2 explored carers' understandings of eczema and eczema treatments after using the intervention. Interviews were carried out face to face or by telephone, audio-recorded and transcribed. Secondary analysis of data from both studies focused on views and experiences of emollient use. Data were analysed using an inductive thematic approach facilitated by NVivo V.10 software. Results In study 1, most participants felt emollients improved eczema but held mixed views about long-term use to prevent flare-ups. In study 2, where carers had used the web-based intervention, all participants held positive views about long-term emollient use. In both studies, participants expressed a range of preferences about emollient ‘thickness’; some felt that ‘thick’ emollients (ointments) were most effective, while others found these difficult to use. Carers described a process of ‘trial and error’, trying emollients suggested by professionals, friends and family, or bought over-the-counter. Carers expressed a need for understanding differences between products and their effective use. Conclusions Providing a rationale for long

  20. Variances in family carers' quality of life based on selected relationship and caregiving indicators: A quantitative secondary analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naef, Rahel; Hediger, Hannele; Imhof, Lorenz; Mahrer-Imhof, Romy

    2017-06-01

    To determine subgroups of family carers based on family relational and caregiving variables and to explore group differences in relation to selected carer outcomes. Family caregiving in later life holds a myriad of positive and negative outcomes for family members' well-being. However, factors that constitute family carers' experience and explain variances are less well understood. A secondary data analysis using cross-sectional data from a controlled randomised trial with community-dwelling people 80 years or older and their families. A total of 277 paired data sets of older persons and their family carers were included into the analysis. Data were collected via mailed questionnaires and a geriatric nursing assessment. A two-step cluster analysis was performed to determine subgroups. To discern group differences, appropriate tests for differences with Bonferroni correction were used. Two family carer groups were identified. The low-intensity caregiver group (57% of carers) reported high relationship quality and self-perceived ease of caregiving. In contrast, the high-intensity caregiver group (43% of carers) experienced significantly lower relationship quality, felt less prepared and appraised caregiving as more difficult, time intensive and burdensome. The latter cared for older, frailer and more dependent octogenarians and had significantly lower levels of quality of life and self-perceived health compared to the low-intensity caregiver group. A combination of family relational and caregiving variables differentiates those at risk for adverse outcomes. Family carers of frailer older people tend to experience higher strain, lower relationship quality and ability to work together as a family. Nurses should explicitly assess family carer needs, in particular when older persons are frail. Family carer support interventions should address caregiving preparedness, demand and burden, as well as concerns situated in the relationship. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Decision making for people living with dementia by their carers at the end of life: a rapid scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Sue; Lynch, Mary; Hopkinson, Jane

    2017-09-02

    There are an increasing number of people living with dementia, as well as an expectation that care decisions are made collaboratively with those with the disease entering the end stage and their families. This has increased the burden on family carers. To explore the evidence on the decisional support needs of informal carers of people with end-stage dementia. A rapid scoping review was undertaken of peer-reviewed publications between 2000 and 2016, which included all health-care settings and the person's own home. Six databases were searched (CINAHL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, BNI, PSYCHINFO, Web of Science) and all papers meeting the inclusion criteria were read. A thematic analysis was undertaken of the selected papers using a pragmatic approach based on how the papers addressed the research question. Sixty papers were individually appraised, with 40 being included in the review. Of these papers, 11 were literature reviews and 29 were primary studies. The themes identified were: the influential factors in carer decision making, the scope of carer decision making, the conflicts/problems in carer decision making, the resources carers need to make decisions and the impact of carer decision making. To date, the emphasis in dementia care has been on living well with dementia, but realistically there is a need to plan for a 'good death' that includes the person and their carers. There is a need to support people with dementia and their carers to make an advance care plan, while the person with dementia can take part in the decision-making process. This proactive intervention is likely to reduce carer decision burden at end of life and facilitate achievement of death in the person's preferred place, which is usually the home or care home.

  2. Validation of the Verbal and Social Interaction questionnaire: carers' focus in the carer-resident relationship in supported housing facilities for persons with psychiatric disabilities (VSI-SH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunt, D; Rask, M

    2013-04-01

    A questionnaire to measure the verbal and social interactions between carers and residents in supported housing facilities for persons with psychiatric disabilities has been developed. It is an adaptation of a questionnaire originally used in a forensic psychiatric setting. The aim of the present study was thus to investigate the construct validity and the reliability of this new version of the Verbal and Social Interactions questionnaire for use in supported housing facilities (VSI-SH). Two hundred and twenty-three carers from municipal and privately run housing facilities completed the questionnaire. A factor analysis was performed, which resulted in six factors. The number of items was reduced from the original 47 to 30 in order to minimize factorial complexity and multiple loadings. The reliability was tested with Cronbach's alpha and good internal consistency for the questionnaire and five of the six factors was found. The resulting six factors and the items were compared to the conceptual model and four of the six factors corresponded well with the categories in this original theoretical model. The questionnaire can be a useful contribution to the study of interactions between carers and residents in supported housing facilities for persons with psychiatric disabilities.

  3. Hidden Variable Theories and Quantum Nonlocality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boozer, A. D.

    2009-01-01

    We clarify the meaning of Bell's theorem and its implications for the construction of hidden variable theories by considering an example system consisting of two entangled spin-1/2 particles. Using this example, we present a simplified version of Bell's theorem and describe several hidden variable theories that agree with the predictions of…

  4. Estimating an Activity Driven Hidden Markov Model

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, David A.; Shakeel, Asif

    2015-01-01

    We define a Hidden Markov Model (HMM) in which each hidden state has time-dependent $\\textit{activity levels}$ that drive transitions and emissions, and show how to estimate its parameters. Our construction is motivated by the problem of inferring human mobility on sub-daily time scales from, for example, mobile phone records.

  5. Insight: Exploring Hidden Roles in Collaborative Play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tricia Shi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks into interaction modes between players in co-located, collaborative games. In particular, hidden traitor games, in which one or more players is secretly working against the group mission, has the effect of increasing paranoia and distrust between players, so this paper looks into the opposite of a hidden traitor – a hidden benefactor. Rather than sabotaging the group mission, the hidden benefactor would help the group achieve the end goal while still having a reason to stay hidden. The paper explores what games with such a role can look like and how the role changes player interactions. Finally, the paper addresses the divide between video game and board game interaction modes; hidden roles are not common within video games, but they are of growing prevalence in board games. This fact, combined with the exploration of hidden benefactors, reveals that hidden roles is a mechanic that video games should develop into in order to match board games’ complexity of player interaction modes.

  6. Helioscope bounds on hidden sector photons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redondo, J.

    2007-12-15

    The flux of hypothetical ''hidden photons'' from the Sun is computed under the assumption that they interact with normal matter only through kinetic mixing with the ordinary standard model photon. Requiring that the exotic luminosity is smaller than the standard photon luminosity provides limits for the mixing parameter down to {chi} hidden photon mass. Furthermore, it is pointed point out that helioscopes looking for solar axions are also sensitive to hidden photons. The recent results of the CAST collaboration are used to further constrain the mixing parameter {chi} at low masses (m{sub {gamma}}{sub '}<1 eV) where the luminosity bound is weaker. In this regime the solar hidden photon ux has a sizable contribution of longitudinally polarized hidden photons of low energy which are invisible for current helioscopes. (orig.)

  7. Heating up the Galaxy with hidden photons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubovsky, Sergei [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University,New York, NY, 10003 (United States); Hernández-Chifflet, Guzmán [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University,New York, NY, 10003 (United States); Instituto de Física, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad de la República,Montevideo, 11300 (Uruguay)

    2015-12-29

    We elaborate on the dynamics of ionized interstellar medium in the presence of hidden photon dark matter. Our main focus is the ultra-light regime, where the hidden photon mass is smaller than the plasma frequency in the Milky Way. We point out that as a result of the Galactic plasma shielding direct detection of ultra-light photons in this mass range is especially challenging. However, we demonstrate that ultra-light hidden photon dark matter provides a powerful heating source for the ionized interstellar medium. This results in a strong bound on the kinetic mixing between hidden and regular photons all the way down to the hidden photon masses of order 10{sup −20} eV.

  8. Helioscope bounds on hidden sector photons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redondo, J.

    2007-12-15

    The flux of hypothetical ''hidden photons'' from the Sun is computed under the assumption that they interact with normal matter only through kinetic mixing with the ordinary standard model photon. Requiring that the exotic luminosity is smaller than the standard photon luminosity provides limits for the mixing parameter down to {chi} hidden photon mass. Furthermore, it is pointed point out that helioscopes looking for solar axions are also sensitive to hidden photons. The recent results of the CAST collaboration are used to further constrain the mixing parameter {chi} at low masses (m{sub {gamma}}{sub '}<1 eV) where the luminosity bound is weaker. In this regime the solar hidden photon ux has a sizable contribution of longitudinally polarized hidden photons of low energy which are invisible for current helioscopes. (orig.)

  9. Hidden Web信息获取

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈珂; 陈小英; 徐科

    2007-01-01

    如今Web上越来越多的信息可以通过查询接口获得,但为了获取某Hidden Web站点的页面,用户不得不键入一系列的关键词.由于没有直接指向Hidden Web页面的静态链接,当前大多搜索引擎不能发现和索引这些页面.然而,研究表明,由Hidden Web站点提供的高质量的信息对许多用户来说非常有价值.文章通过研究针对特定类型的表单,建立一个有效的Hidden Web爬虫,以便获取Hidden Web后台数据库信息.

  10. Explanatory models and openness about dementia in migrant communities: a qualitative study among female family carers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wezel, N. van; Francke, A.L.; Acun, E.K.; Devillé, W.L.J.M.; Grondelle, N.J. van; Blom, M.M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of dementia is increasing among people with a Turkish, Moroccan and Surinamese-Creole background. Because informal care is very important in these communities, it is pertinent to see what explanations female family carers have for dementia and whether they can discuss deme

  11. 'Am I damaging my own family?': Relational changes between foster carers and their birth children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Hayley; McPherson, Susan; Marsland, Louise

    2016-01-01

    Foster placements are more likely to break down where the foster carers already have birth children. Studies that explore the impact of fostering on foster carers and their birth children have suggested that relational changes occur, but these changes have not been examined in depth. This study aimed to explore the impact of fostering on parent-child relationships within foster families. Nine foster carers (including three couples) were interviewed separately, and the data were analysed using constructivist grounded theory methods. Analysis indicated that birth children may attribute particular importance to their position in the family (e.g. oldest child, youngest child) and that this is a key element of the way in which they relate to their parents. Emotional security and parent-child relationships can therefore be strained by a foster placement not taking this into account. Foster children also introduce significant competition for parental resources, putting a strain on relationships. Foster carers seem to prioritise, consciously or not, the preservation of relationships within the biological family. Reflecting on relationships and making changes to maximise potential improvements in relationships can lead to positive outcomes, and this can have an impact on whether families continue fostering or not. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. Teaching Intensive Interaction to Paid Carers: Using the "Communities of Practice" Model to Inform Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayner, Kelly; Bradley, Samantha; Johnson, Gemma; Mrozik, Jennifer H.; Appiah, Afua; Nagra, Maninder K.

    2016-01-01

    The engagement of people with learning disabilities in social communication is crucial to the development of relationships with others, a sense of social inclusion and self-worth. Intensive Interaction is an approach that can help carers develop their skills to engage people with severe and profound learning disabilities in personally relevant…

  13. Tracking an Elusive Population: Family Carers of Older Adults with Intellectual Disabilities in Romandy (Switzerland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jecker-Parvex, Maurice; Breitenbach, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    Despite a long-standing tradition of institutional placement in Switzerland, many older adults with intellectual disabilities continue to be supported by aging parents and siblings. For various reasons, these carers and the adults concerned have been overlooked up to now. To find out how many such families are providing housing and care of this…

  14. Menopause Experiences and Attitudes in Women with Intellectual Disability and in Their Family Carers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Yueh-Ching; Lu, Zxy-Yann Jane; Pu, Cheng-Yun

    2013-01-01

    Background: Little is known about how middle-aged and older women with intellectual disability (ID) cope with life transitions such as perimenopause and postmenopause. Method: A mixed methods approach was employed to explore the attitudes toward and experiences of menopause among women with ID and their family carers in one city in Taiwan.…

  15. Adults with Learning Disabilities Experiences of Using Community Dental Services: Service User and Carer Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, Carolyn; Poole, Helen; Brennan, Michelle; Irvine, Fiona

    2017-01-01

    Background: The government alongside other health and social care organisation have identified the need to improve the care provided for people with learning disabilities. Materials and Methods: This service evaluation aimed to explore the experiences of people with learning disabilities and their carers who accessed community dental services…

  16. End-of-Life Care for People with Intellectual Disabilities: Paid Carer Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Karen; Guerin, Suzanne; Dodd, Philip; McEvoy, John

    2011-01-01

    Background: Little is known of paid carers' perspectives when caring for people with intellectual disabilities at the end-of-life. Materials and methods: Sixty four individuals from intellectual disability services took part in 12 focus groups. Interviews were analysed using framework analysis. Results: Participants wanted to provide palliative…

  17. The Controllability Beliefs Scale Used with Carers of People with Intellectual Disabilities: Psychometric Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagnan, D.; Hull, A.; McDonnell, A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Beliefs about the controllability of behaviour have been consistently shown to be important in understanding the responses of carers to the challenging behaviour of people with intellectual disabilities (IDs). This paper reports the reliability and validity of the Controllability Beliefs Scale (CBS), a 15-item measure of beliefs…

  18. Factors influencing the person-carer relationship in people with anxiety and dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spector, Aimee; Orrell, Martin; Charlesworth, Georgina; Marston, Louise

    2016-10-01

    The relationship between people with dementia and their carers is complex and has a significant impact on the dementia experience. The aim of this current study was to determine (1) which factors are associated with the quality of the patient-carer relationship and (2) whether these differ between the two perspectives. Participants (people with dementia and their carers) were taken from a randomised controlled trial of cognitive behaviour therapy for anxiety in dementia. The quality of the relationship from both perspectives, anxiety and depression in both parties; and the quality of life, neuropsychiatric symptoms and cognitive functioning in people with dementia was examined at three time points (baseline, 15 weeks and 6 months). There were 127 observations from 50 dyads (100 individuals) across the three time points. Factors significantly related to quality of relationship from the person with dementia's perspective were their own aggression, agitation, irritability, depression, anxiety and quality of life. Factors significantly associated with quality of relationship from the carer's perspective were their own anxiety and depression, and the depression, irritability, behavioural disturbances and quality of life of the person with dementia. People with dementia generally rated the quality of relationship higher, irrespective of level of dementia, depression or anxiety. This study is novel in that it provides a valuable insight into the impact of mental health on relationship quality for both members of the dyad. The findings emphasise the importance of providing interventions which target mood for both parties, and behavioural problems for people with dementia.

  19. Understanding the impact of pulmonary arterial hypertension on patients' and carers' lives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillevin, Loïc; Armstrong, Iain; Aldrighetti, Rino; Howard, Luke S; Ryftenius, Henrik; Fischer, Aryeh; Lombardi, Sandra; Studer, Sean; Ferrari, Pisana

    2013-12-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a rare, debilitating and rapidly progressive disease. Although there have been important medical advances in PAH management, the search for a cure continues. Despite an increased understanding of the disease, data on the wider effect of PAH on patients and carers, beyond the clinical symptoms, are still limited. In order to explore this, a large-scale international survey investigated four key areas affected by PAH (physical and practical, emotional, social, and information needs) and provides new insight into patients' and carers' experiences of living with the disease. The results from the survey highlight not only the limited ability of patients to carry out everyday tasks, but also the financial impact and social isolation experienced by both patients and carers. The study confirmed that a decline in a patient's World Health Organization functional class, which indicates an increase in clinical severity of the disease, is associated with greater limitations. Results from the survey demonstrate the need for multidisciplinary PAH management and a comprehensive standard of care to assess and improve all aspects of well-being for both patients and carers. In addition, they underline the need for updated PAH guidelines that address these needs.

  20. Juxtapositioning Geriatrics and Art: The Essence of Caring, Carer, and Cared-For in Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Guzman, Allan B.; Carungcong, Bobbie Jo H.; Castillo, Jasper Q.; Castillo, Joyce Anne A.; Castro, Jenelyn S.

    2009-01-01

    The need to revolutionize geriatric nursing is dawning. However, there is a negative view regarding this nursing field. The dearth of literature on the use of theatrical films to surface universal realities in a care-driven profession has led to this attempt of bringing to reality the essences of caring, carer, and cared-for and their interactions…

  1. Foster carer experience in Spain : Analysis of the vulnerabilities of a permanent model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    López López, Mónica; Del Valle, Jorge F

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The voice of foster families is a valuable tool in the development and improvement of foster family services. Regularly evaluating the satisfaction of foster carers can facilitate the early identification of a range of problems that might pose a risk to the placement. METHOD: This articl

  2. Self Stigma in People with Intellectual Disabilities and Courtesy Stigma in Family Carers: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Afia; Hassiotis, Angela; Strydom, Andre; King, Michael

    2012-01-01

    People with intellectual disability are one of the most stigmatised groups in society. Despite this, research in this area has been limited. This paper provides a review of studies examining self stigma in people with intellectual disability, and courtesy and affiliate stigma in family carers. An electronic search of studies published between 1990…

  3. Menopause Experiences and Attitudes in Women with Intellectual Disability and in Their Family Carers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Yueh-Ching; Lu, Zxy-Yann Jane; Pu, Cheng-Yun

    2013-01-01

    Background: Little is known about how middle-aged and older women with intellectual disability (ID) cope with life transitions such as perimenopause and postmenopause. Method: A mixed methods approach was employed to explore the attitudes toward and experiences of menopause among women with ID and their family carers in one city in Taiwan.…

  4. Perseverance time of informal carers. A new concept in dementia care. Validation and exploration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraijo, H.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction and aim Because of the expected increase of dementia patients in the next decades and the growing demand for formal care, an important question appears: how to predict and influence the caring possibilities of informal carers. We introduce the concept perseverance time, describedas

  5. Shared decision-making in dementia: A review of patient and family carer involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Lyndsey M; Whitlatch, Carol J; Lyons, Karen S

    2016-09-01

    This paper reviews empirical findings concerning the decision-making process of persons with dementia and their family carers, with a particular focus on the extent and determinants of involvement of persons with dementia in the decision-making process. To be included in this review, studies needed to be published in peer-reviewed journals between 1999 and 2014, report empirical data from participants with dementia and/or their family carers, and pertain to the involvement of persons with dementia and their family carers in decisions about everyday care, medical care and treatment, or long-term care. A total of 36 studies were included. Results indicated that not all persons with dementia are excluded from participating in the decision-making process, but there is a broad spectrum of what constitutes shared decision-making in dementia. Studies concerning the determinants of shared decision-making mostly focused on non-modifiable factors. Future research is needed to better promote shared decision-making among persons with dementia and their family carers. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Hidden scale invariance of metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hummel, Felix; Kresse, Georg; Dyre, Jeppe C.

    2015-01-01

    available. Hidden scale invariance is demonstrated in detail for magnesium by showing invariance of structure and dynamics. Computed melting curves of period three metals follow curves with invariance (isomorphs). The experimental structure factor of magnesium is predicted by assuming scale invariant...... of metals making the condensed part of the thermodynamic phase diagram effectively one dimensional with respect to structure and dynamics. DFT computed density scaling exponents, related to the Grüneisen parameter, are in good agreement with experimental values for the 16 elements where reliable data were......Density functional theory (DFT) calculations of 58 liquid elements at their triple point show that most metals exhibit near proportionality between the thermal fluctuations of the virial and the potential energy in the isochoric ensemble. This demonstrates a general “hidden” scale invariance...

  7. Hidden scale in quantum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Giri, Pulak Ranjan

    2007-01-01

    We show that the intriguing localization of a free particle wave-packet is possible due to a hidden scale present in the system. Self-adjoint extensions (SAE) is responsible for introducing this scale in quantum mechanical models through the nontrivial boundary conditions. We discuss a couple of classically scale invariant free particle systems to illustrate the issue. In this context it has been shown that a free quantum particle moving on a full line may have localized wave-packet around the origin. As a generalization, it has also been shown that particles moving on a portion of a plane or on a portion of a three dimensional space can have unusual localized wave-packet.

  8. Double deprivation: a phenomenological study into the experience of being a carer during a mental health crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Rikke; Simpson, Alan

    2015-12-01

    To explore carers' experience of caring during a mental health crisis. Community mental health care including crisis care relies increasingly on carers. The relationship between carers and professionals is at times fraught due to issues of what constitutes a crisis, confidentiality and a perception of lack of empathy. The caring experience can lead carers to feel isolated and neglected. A qualitative study with a phenomenological approach. Eight carers participated and were interviewed individually using a semi-structured approach. Analysis used the Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis method including transcribing of interviews, initial noting, searching for connections and patterns across the transcripts and cases. The themes were checked with the participants for their views on the emerging themes. The data were collected from November 2011-May 2012. Carers experienced 'double deprivation' by not receiving support from professionals and protecting their social network from the trauma of the crisis. The caring in crisis invoked complex feelings of guilt and loyalty which made discussing aggression difficult. Caring was described as a terrifying experience not just because of the aggression but also because of the perception of abandonment by professionals. The experience was an overwhelmingly negative one with a wish for acknowledgement of the crisis and support from mental health services. For most of the participants the caring during crisis was traumatic which left the carer feeling isolated and unsupported. The study should be used to help educate professionals on the complexities of caring during a crisis. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Experiences of carers managing childhood eczema and their views on its treatment: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santer, Miriam; Burgess, Hana; Yardley, Lucy; Ersser, Steven; Lewis-Jones, Sue; Muller, Ingrid; Hugh, Catherine; Little, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Background Childhood eczema causes significant impact on quality of life for some families, yet non-concordance with treatment is common. Aim To explore parents' and carers' views of childhood eczema and its treatment. Design and setting Qualitative interview study in primary care in the south of England. Method Carers of children aged ≤5 years with a recorded diagnosis of eczema, who reported that eczema was still a problem, were invited to participate. Thirty-one parents were interviewed from 28 families. Results Many parents expressed frustration with both medical care and prescribed treatments. They felt their child's suffering was not ‘taken seriously’, and experienced messages about a ‘trial and error’ prescribing approach and assurance that their child would ‘grow out of it’ as a further ‘fobbing off’, or dismissal. Many carers were ambivalent about eczema treatments, mainly topical corticosteroids but also emollients. Dietary exclusions as a potential cure were of interest to most families, although they perceived healthcare professionals as uninterested in this. Families varied in the extent to which they felt able to manage eczema and the length of time taken to gain control. In some instances, this was linked to not understanding advice or receiving conflicting advice from different healthcare providers. Conclusion Poor concordance with treatments seems unsurprising in the presence of such dissonance between carers' and healthcare providers' agendas. Acknowledging the impact of the condition, greater attention to how key messages are delivered and addressing carers' treatment beliefs are likely to improve engagement with effective self-care. PMID:22520913

  10. An analysis of the experiences of radiography and radiotherapy students who are carers at one UK university

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussain, Zainab, E-mail: zay@liv.ac.u [Directorate of Medical Imaging and Radiotherapy, School of Health Sciences, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3GB (United Kingdom); Pickering, Vicki, E-mail: vmoscrip@liv.ac.u [Directorate of Medical Imaging and Radiotherapy, School of Health Sciences, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3GB (United Kingdom); Percy, Dave, E-mail: D.F.Percy@salford.ac.u [Operational Research and Applied Statistics, Salford Business School, University of Salford, Greater Manchester, M5 4WT (United Kingdom); Crane, Julie, E-mail: abbotj@liv.ac.u [Directorate of Nursing, School of Health Sciences, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3GB (United Kingdom); Bogg, Jan, E-mail: jbogg@liv.ac.u [Population, Community and Behavioural Sciences, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3GB (United Kingdom)

    2011-02-15

    Purpose: This is a mixed methods study of the experiences and attendance of radiography and radiotherapy students who are carers at one UK university, Undergraduate radiography and radiotherapy programmes are attracting increasing numbers of mature students. It is therefore likely that the number of students with carer responsibilities is also increasing. This study explores the experiences of higher education of students with caring responsibilities. The aim of the study is to identify possible strategies and practices to enhance the student experience and so to work towards compliance with the recent Equality Act 2010. Method: All students on the radiography (n = 130) and radiotherapy (n = 97) programmes were invited to complete a short questionnaire. Students who identified themselves as carers on the questionnaire were invited to participate in focus group sessions. Due to the issues raised in the focus groups by students with regard to attendance at university and clinical placement, student absence rates were also investigated for students with and without caring responsibilities. Results: 215 students completed the questionnaire. 30 of the 215 students identified themselves as carers. 18 carers agreed to take part in focus groups. Carers reported that having fees paid by the NHS was an important choice factor for higher education. Carers' main concerns were: timetabling, finances, support after exam failures, understanding from academic staff and attendance issues. Examination of absence rates demonstrated carers had significantly (p = 0.000) less absence than non-carers for radiography and no significant differences for radiotherapy (p = 0.105). Conclusion: The NHS states it must be reflective of the community it serves. Thus those responsible for delivering health professional programmes have a duty to recruit and retain a diverse student population. The introduction of the Equality Act 2010 means higher education institutions must consider the needs

  11. Evaluation of a Web-Based Training Program for Professional Carers Working With People With Learning Disabilities and Challenging Behavior: A Pilot Study with SSED-Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonsson, Helena; Graneheim, Ulla Hällgren; Isaksson, Ulf; Åström, Sture; Lundström, Mats O

    2016-10-01

    The interaction between people with intellectual disabilities and professional carers is often influenced by communicative difficulties contributing challenging behaviours. The aims of this study were to evaluate to a web-based training program aimed at improving carers' abilities to interact with people with learning disabilities who exhibit challenging behaviours and to explore carers' experiences of participating in such a program. A single-subject experimental design and mixed methods were used to integrate qualitative and quantitative data. Triangulation of questionnaires, interviews with carers, and assessments of one woman's behaviour was performed. The participants were professional carers aged 20 to 55 years. The web-based training program increased carers' abilities to handle challenging behaviours and decreased challenging behaviours in daily care. The program improved the opportunities to offer training to carers who work in community-based accommodations with limited time to receive training.

  12. Salivary cortisol: a possible biomarker in evaluating stress and effects of interventions in young foster children?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andel, H.W.H. van; Jansen, L.M.C.; Grietens, H.; Knorth, E.J.; Gaag, R.J. van der

    2014-01-01

    Young foster children undergo an early separation from their caregiver(s) and often experience severe stress before placement. However, a considerable part of the children do not show apparent signs of distress, making it difficult for the foster carer to be aware of the amount of stress in their

  13. Children and Young People in Hospitals: Doing Youth Work in Medical Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Scott; Payne, Malcolm; Dyson, Simon

    2009-01-01

    Young people in hospitals face a range of challenging issues. Many have chronic conditions and experience stigmatisation, anxiety and family conflict. They may also experience social isolation in hospitals, separation from local peer groups and sources of support, and separation from trusted carers during transition to adult care. These issues can…

  14. Salivary cortisol: a possible biomarker in evaluating stress and effects of interventions in young foster children?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andel, H.W.H. van; Jansen, L.M.C.; Grietens, H.; Knorth, E.J.; Gaag, R.J. van der

    2014-01-01

    Young foster children undergo an early separation from their caregiver(s) and often experience severe stress before placement. However, a considerable part of the children do not show apparent signs of distress, making it difficult for the foster carer to be aware of the amount of stress in their fo

  15. Salivary cortisol : A possible biomarker in evaluating interventions on stress reduction in young foster children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Andel, H.W.H.; Jansen, L.M.C.; Grietens, Hans; Knorth, Erik J.; Van der Gaag, R.J.

    2014-01-01

    Young foster children undergo an early separation from their caregiver(s) and often experience severe stress before placement. However, a considerable part of the children do not show apparent signs of distress, making it difficult for the foster carer to be aware of the amount of stress in their fo

  16. Public interest and private concern: the role of family carers for people suffering mental illness in the twenty first century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Robert; Leggatt, Margaret; Crowe, Jim

    2010-04-01

    This paper looks to examine the emerging role of carers as essential components in the management of individuals affected by severe mental illness in the context of modern legal and health policy environments. Cultural and legal concepts of confidentiality within the doctor-patient relationship are complex. Increasingly, evidence is recognizing the essential role of carers in the quality management of individuals affected by severe mental illness and this emphasis is being further supported by innovative health policy and legislation. A public health definition for the role of carers may be a more appropriate way to consider their role in mental health management strategies.

  17. Hidden torsion, 3-manifolds, and homology cobordism

    CERN Document Server

    Cha, Jae Choon

    2011-01-01

    This paper continues our exploration of homology cobordism of 3-manifolds using our recent results on Cheeger-Gromov rho-invariants associated to amenable representations. We introduce a new type of torsion in 3-manifold groups we call hidden torsion, and an algebraic approximation we call local hidden torsion. We construct infinitely many hyperbolic 3-manifolds which have local hidden torsion in the transfinite lower central subgroup. By realizing Cheeger-Gromov invariants over amenable groups, we show that our hyperbolic 3-manifolds are not pairwise homology cobordant, yet remain indistinguishable by any prior known homology cobordism invariants.

  18. A survey of hidden-variables theories

    CERN Document Server

    Belinfante, F J

    1973-01-01

    A Survey of Hidden-Variables Theories is a three-part book on the hidden-variable theories, referred in this book as """"theories of the first kind"""". Part I reviews the motives in developing different types of hidden-variables theories. The quest for determinism led to theories of the first kind; the quest for theories that look like causal theories when applied to spatially separated systems that interacted in the past led to theories of the second kind. Parts II and III further describe the theories of the first kind and second kind, respectively. This book is written to make the literat

  19. Visible Effects of Invisible Hidden Valley Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Carloni, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    Assuming there is a new gauge group in a Hidden Valley, and a new type of radiation, can we observe it through its effect on the kinematic distributions of recoiling visible particles? Specifically, what are the collider signatures of radiation in a hidden sector? We address these questions using a generic SU(N)-like Hidden Valley model that we implement in Pythia. We find that in both the e+e- and the LHC cases the kinematic distributions of the visible particles can be significantly affected by the valley radiation. Without a proper understanding of such effects, inferred masses of "communicators" and of invisible particles can be substantially off.

  20. Consumer and carer perspectives in the development of a mental health research, treatment and teaching facility: A thematic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsikitis, M; Lane, B R; Ozols, I; Statham, D

    2017-09-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: Around the world, recovery has become a focus in mental health policy. The participation of people accessing mental health services (consumers) and carers of such individuals in decision-making related to services forms part of this recovery orientation and studies suggest positive outcomes following such participation. However, little is known about consumer and carer desires at the earliest stages of development of new services. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: Consumers and carers desire changes to how mental health services are provided. Many factors affect consumer and carer experiences, including language use, physical design of spaces, accessibility, consideration of individual needs, practical help and how well care is continued from hospital to community settings. Carers may feel sidelined in treatment and be distressed as a result. They wish to be respected and involved in recovery. Consumers and carers wish for focus on broader health, with care taken to address physical health, psychological needs, social needs and treatment of the whole person rather than just an illness. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: Consumers and carers desire partnership with professionals in recovery. Tokenistic participation should be avoided. Flexibility in how services are provided and less formality may help engage consumers and carers. Specifically, professionals may help by linking consumers and carers to services that address practical needs. Professionals should communicate with carers to draw on their expertise about the individual accessing the mental health service and help carers understand how they can assist the individual's recovery. Introduction Recovery-oriented mental health policies recognize consumer and carer participation in service decision-making as essential, but little is known about the views of these individuals in the earliest stages of service development. Aim This study sought consumer and carer

  1. The structural influence of family and parenting on young people's sexual and reproductive health in rural northern Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Wamoyia, Joyce; Wight, Daniel; Remes, Pieter

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the structural role of the family and parenting in young people's sexual and reproductive health. The study involved eight weeks of participant observation, 26 in-depth interviews, and 11 group discussions with young people aged 14–24 years, and 20 in-depth interviews and 6 group discussions with parents/carers of children in this age group. At an individual level, parenting and family structure were found to affect young people's sexual behaviour by influencing children's...

  2. Hidden systematics of fission channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt Karl-Heinz

    2013-12-01

    of the fissioning system obey a hidden systematics that can be explained by the number of states in the vicinity of the outer fission barrier as a function of mass asymmetry, if the potential is constructed as the sum of the macroscopic contribution of the compound nucleus and empirically determined fragment shells. This hidden systematics also explains the transition from asymmetric to symmetric fission around 226Th and around 258Fm.

  3. Coding with partially hidden Markov models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren; Rissanen, J.

    1995-01-01

    Partially hidden Markov models (PHMM) are introduced. They are a variation of the hidden Markov models (HMM) combining the power of explicit conditioning on past observations and the power of using hidden states. (P)HMM may be combined with arithmetic coding for lossless data compression. A general...... 2-part coding scheme for given model order but unknown parameters based on PHMM is presented. A forward-backward reestimation of parameters with a redefined backward variable is given for these models and used for estimating the unknown parameters. Proof of convergence of this reestimation is given....... The PHMM structure and the conditions of the convergence proof allows for application of the PHMM to image coding. Relations between the PHMM and hidden Markov models (HMM) are treated. Results of coding bi-level images with the PHMM coding scheme is given. The results indicate that the PHMM can adapt...

  4. UV Photography Shows Hidden Sun Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mcat1=de12", ]; for (var c = 0; c UV photography shows hidden sun damage A UV photograph gives ... developing skin cancer and prematurely aged skin. Normal photography UV photography 18 months of age: This boy's ...

  5. Faddeev-Jackiw approach to hidden symmetries

    CERN Document Server

    Wotzasek, C

    1994-01-01

    The study of hidden symmetries within Dirac's formalism does not possess a systematic procedure due to the lack of first-class constraints to act as symmetry generators. On the other hand, in the Faddeev-Jackiw approach, gauge and reparametrization symmetries are generated by the null eigenvectors of the sympletic matrix and not by constraints, suggesting the possibility of dealing systematically with hidden symmetries through this formalism. It is shown in this paper that indeed hidden symmetries of noninvariant or gauge fixed systems are equally well described by null eigenvectors of the sympletic matrix, just as the explicit invariances. The Faddeev-Jackiw approach therefore provide a systematic algorithm for treating all sorts of symmetries in an unified way. This technique is illustrated here by the SL(2,R) Kac-Moody current algebra of the 2-D induced gravity proposed by Polyakov, which is a hidden symmetry in the canonical approach of constrained systems via Dirac's method, after conformal and reparamet...

  6. Fibroid Tumors in Women: A Hidden Epidemic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issue Past Issues Fibroid Tumors in Women: A Hidden Epidemic? Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents ... fibroids@rics.bwh.harvard.edu , or visit our Web site: www.fibroids.net . You may also write ...

  7. Hidden Regular Variation: Detection and Estimation

    CERN Document Server

    Mitra, Abhimanyu

    2010-01-01

    Hidden regular variation defines a subfamily of distributions satisfying multivariate regular variation on $\\mathbb{E} = [0, \\infty]^d \\backslash \\{(0,0, ..., 0) \\} $ and models another regular variation on the sub-cone $\\mathbb{E}^{(2)} = \\mathbb{E} \\backslash \\cup_{i=1}^d \\mathbb{L}_i$, where $\\mathbb{L}_i$ is the $i$-th axis. We extend the concept of hidden regular variation to sub-cones of $\\mathbb{E}^{(2)}$ as well. We suggest a procedure of detecting the presence of hidden regular variation, and if it exists, propose a method of estimating the limit measure exploiting its semi-parametric structure. We exhibit examples where hidden regular variation yields better estimates of probabilities of risk sets.

  8. The impact of volunteer mentoring schemes on carers of people with dementia and volunteer mentors: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Raymond; Greenwood, Nan

    2014-02-01

    This systematic review aims to examine the differences and similarities between the various types of volunteer mentoring (befriending, mentoring and peer support) and to identify the benefits for carers and volunteers. Literature searching was performed using 8 electronic databases, gray literature, and reference list searching of relevant systematic reviews. Searches were carried out in January 2013. Four studies fitted the inclusion criteria, with 3 investigating peer support and 1 befriending for carers. Quantitative findings highlighted a weak but statistically significant (P =.04) reduction in depression after 6 months of befriending. Qualitative findings highlighted the value carers placed on the volunteer mentors' experiential similarity. Matching was not essential for the development of successful volunteer mentoring relationships. In conclusion, the lack of need for matching and the importance of experiential similarity deserve further investigation. However, this review highlights a lack of demonstrated efficacy of volunteer mentoring for carers of people with dementia.

  9. Adapting a SSKIN bundle for carers to aid identification of pressure damage and ulcer risks in the community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoulough, Siobhan

    2016-06-01

    If pressure damage is identified and addressed at an early stage, it may be reversed. Otherwise, it may quickly progress into a serious deep tissue injury. In the community, most daily skin care is undertaken by formal and informal carers. They therefore need to know how to identify signs that pressure ulcers may develop and what immediate actions to take. NICE guidance on pressure ulcer prevention is too extensive to be a simple tool for carers, so a SSKIN bundle was adapted for community use. This ensures carers know how to prevent and identify pressure damage, and includes skin care, repositioning and use of equipment. Carers need training. This is the responsibility of all involved with the patient, including health-care and local authority services.

  10. Hidden figures are ever present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mens, L H; Leeuwenberg, E L

    1988-11-01

    Preference judgments about alternative interpretations of unambiguous patterns can be explained in terms of a rivalry between a preferred and a second-best interpretation (cf. Leeuwenberg & Buffart, 1983). We tested whether this second-best interpretation corresponds to a suppressed but concurrently present interpretation or whether it merely reflects an alternative view that happens to be preferred less often. Two patterns were present immediately following each other with a very short onset asynchrony: a complete pattern and one out of three possible subpatterns of it, corresponding to the best, the second best, or an odd interpretation of the complete pattern. Subjects indicated which subpattern was presented by choosing among the three subpatterns shown after each trial. The scores, corrected for response-bias effects, indicated a relative facilitation of the second-best interpretation, in agreement with its predicted "hidden" presence. This result is more in line with theories that capitalize on the quality of the finally selected representation than with processing models aimed at reaching one single solution as fast and as economically as possible.

  11. Hidden Local Symmetry and Beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Yamawaki, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    Gerry Brown was a godfather of our hidden local symmetry (HLS) for the vector meson from the birth of the theory throughout his life. The HLS is originated from very nature of the nonlinear realization of the symmetry G based on the manifold G/H, and thus is universal to any physics based on the nonlinear realization. Here I focus on the Higgs Lagrangian of the Standard Model (SM), which is shown to be equivalent to the nonlinear sigma model based on G/H= SU(2)_L x SU(2)_R/SU(2)_V with additional symmetry, the nonlinearly realized scale symmetry. Then the SM does have a dynamical gauge boson of the SU(2)_V HLS, "SM rho meson", in addition to the Higgs as a pseudo dilaton as well as the NG bosons to be absorbed into the W and Z. Based on the recent work done with S. Matsuzaki and H. Ohki, I discuss a novel possibility that the SM rho meson acquires kinetic term by the SM dynamics itself, which then stabilizes the skyrmion dormant in the SM as a viable candidate for the dark matter, what we call "Dark SM skyrmi...

  12. Hidden local symmetry and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamawaki, Koichi

    Gerry Brown was a godfather of our hidden local symmetry (HLS) for the vector meson from the birth of the theory throughout his life. The HLS is originated from very nature of the nonlinear realization of the symmetry G based on the manifold G/H, and thus is universal to any physics based on the nonlinear realization. Here, I focus on the Higgs Lagrangian of the Standard Model (SM), which is shown to be equivalent to the nonlinear sigma model based on G/H = SU(2)L × SU(2)R/SU(2)V with additional symmetry, the nonlinearly-realized scale symmetry. Then, the SM does have a dynamical gauge boson of the SU(2)V HLS, "SM ρ meson", in addition to the Higgs as a pseudo-dilaton as well as the NG bosons to be absorbed in to the W and Z. Based on the recent work done with Matsuzaki and Ohki, I discuss a novel possibility that the SM ρ meson acquires kinetic term by the SM dynamics itself, which then stabilizes the skyrmion dormant in the SM as a viable candidate for the dark matter, what we call "dark SM skyrmion (DSMS)".

  13. Constraining solar hidden photons using HPGe detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horvat, R.; Kekez, D., E-mail: Dalibor.Kekez@irb.hr; Krčmar, M.; Krečak, Z.; Ljubičić, A.

    2013-04-25

    In this Letter we report on the results of our search for photons from a U(1) gauge factor in the hidden sector of the full theory. With our experimental setup we observe the single spectrum in a HPGe detector arising as a result of the photoelectric-like absorption of hidden photons emitted from the Sun on germanium atoms inside the detector. The main ingredient of the theory used in our analysis, a severely constrained kinetic mixing from the two U(1) gauge factors and massive hidden photons, entails both photon into hidden state oscillations and a minuscule coupling of hidden photons to visible matter, of which the latter our experimental setup has been designed to observe. On a theoretical side, full account was taken of the effects of refraction and damping of photons while propagating in Sun's interior as well as in the detector. We exclude hidden photons with kinetic couplings χ>(2.2×10{sup −13}–3×10{sup −7}) in the mass region 0.2 eV≲m{sub γ{sup ′}}≲30 keV. Our constraints on the mixing parameter χ in the mass region from 20 eV up to 15 keV prove even slightly better then those obtained recently by using data from the CAST experiment, albeit still somewhat weaker than those obtained from solar and HB stars lifetime arguments.

  14. Carers' experiences, needs and preferences during inpatient stroke rehabilitation: a protocol for a systematic review of qualitative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luker, Julie A; Bernhardsson, Susanne; Lynch, Elizabeth; Murray, Carolyn; Hill, Olivia P; Bernhardt, Julie

    2015-08-11

    Large numbers of people provide carer roles for survivors of stroke. Person-centred stroke rehabilitation must consider the perspectives of carers, as stroke affects not only the stroke survivor but also the quality of life and health of the carers. There is little collective knowledge about stroke carers' experiences, needs and preferences during the inpatient stroke rehabilitation process to then inform person-centred service improvements. Our objective is to report and synthesise experiences, needs and preferences of the carers of stroke survivors undergoing rehabilitation in inpatient settings. We will conduct a systematic review of qualitative studies using a thematic synthesis methodology. We will follow the Enhancing Transparency in Reporting the Synthesis of Qualitative Research Guidelines (ENTREQ) and search the following databases for relevant articles: MEDLINE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), PsycINFO, Embase, and Web of Science. No language or publication date constraints will be applied. Eligible studies will have to use qualitative methods of data collection and analysis and reported data from the carers of stroke survivors who underwent inpatient stroke rehabilitation. Studies will be eligible for inclusion if they report the experiences, needs and preferences of carers regarding inpatient rehabilitation environments, organisation, care systems, therapeutic interventions, information exchange, carer training, discharge and community service planning and other issues of relevance to their roles as carers. Study selection and assessment of quality will be performed independently by two reviewers. Any disagreement will be resolved by a third reviewer. Data will be extracted by one reviewer, tabled, and checked for accuracy by another reviewer. All text reported in studies' results, discussion and conclusion sections will be entered into the NVivo software for analysis. Extracted texts will be inductively coded

  15. Experiences of the foster care process in the Republic of Ireland: retrospective accounts from biological children of foster carers

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, David

    2014-01-01

    This thesis examines the experiences of the biological children of foster carers. In particular it explores their experiences in relation to inclusion, consultation and decision-making. The study also examines the support and training needs of birth children in foster families. Using a qualitative methodology in-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with fifteen birth children of foster carers aged between 18 and 30 years. The research findings show that for the majority of birth c...

  16. Effectiveness of advance care planning with family carers in dementia nursing homes: A paired cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazil, Kevin; Carter, Gillian; Cardwell, Chris; Clarke, Mike; Hudson, Peter; Froggatt, Katherine; McLaughlin, Dorry; Passmore, Peter; Kernohan, W George

    2017-07-01

    In dementia care, a large number of treatment decisions are made by family carers on behalf of their family member who lacks decisional capacity; advance care planning can support such carers in the decision-making of care goals. However, given the relative importance of advance care planning in dementia care, the prevalence of advance care planning in dementia care is poor. To evaluate the effectiveness of advance care planning with family carers in dementia care homes. Paired cluster randomized controlled trial. The intervention comprised a trained facilitator, family education, family meetings, documentation of advance care planning decisions and intervention orientation for general practitioners and nursing home staff. A total of 24 nursing homes with a dementia nursing category located in Northern Ireland, United Kingdom. Family carers of nursing home residents classified as having dementia and judged as not having decisional capacity to participate in advance care planning discussions. The primary outcome was family carer uncertainty in decision-making about the care of the resident (Decisional Conflict Scale). There was evidence of a reduction in total Decisional Conflict Scale score in the intervention group compared with the usual care group (-10.5, 95% confidence interval: -16.4 to -4.7; p planning was effective in reducing family carer uncertainty in decision-making concerning the care of their family member and improving perceptions of quality of care in nursing homes. Given the global significance of dementia, the implications for clinicians and policy makers include them recognizing the importance of family carer education and improving communication between family carers and formal care providers.

  17. Involving users and carers in the assessment of preregistration nursing students' clinical nursing practice: a strategy for patient empowerment and quality improvement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haycock-Stuart, Elaine; Donaghy, Eddie; Darbyshire, Chris

    2016-07-01

    To examine (1) nursing lecturers' and (2) preregistration nursing students' perspectives of user and carer involvement in the formal assessment of preregistration nursing students' clinical practice. The involvement of service users and carers in the assessment of clinical practice in nursing education is a recent phenomenon. The Nursing and Midwifery Council Standards in the UK clearly reflect a shift in thinking from paternalistic approaches to person-centred approaches. This shift in thinking includes service user and carer involvement in student nursing assessment and there is evidence that this is being developed in several countries. Located in the interpretive paradigm, data from a two-staged, multicentre qualitative study are presented. Interpretive analysis of semi-structured, one to one interviews with nursing lecturers (n = 15) and focus groups with nursing students (n = 51) across 11 Higher Educational Institutions. There is a strong commitment for working alongside service users and carers in the education and training of nursing students; however, involving service users and carers in formal practice assessment is identified as more challenging compared with other areas of service user/carer involvement. Service user/carers should provide feedback/review or comment, but not necessarily formal, summative 'assessment'. The evidence base for involving users and carers in assessment is limited. Involvement of users and carers in providing feedback to nursing students is welcomed. However, concerns exist about the preparedness of users and carers for formal clinical assessment. Discussion and clarification with clinical mentors and user and carer groups is necessary to understand if they agree with the policy direction of user and carer involvement in the assessment of nursing students. Quality assurance concerns are raised by students and lecturers when involving user and carer in assessing nursing students' clinical skills. Mentors are seen as key to

  18. Conversations between carers and people with schizophrenia: a qualitative analysis using leximancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cretchley, Julia; Gallois, Cindy; Chenery, Helen; Smith, Andrew

    2010-12-01

    We examined conversations between people with schizophrenia (PwS) and family or professional carers with whom they interacted frequently. We allocated PwS to one of two communication profiles: Low-activity communicators talked much less than their conversational partners, whereas high-activity communicators talked much more. We used Leximancer text analytics software to analyze the conversations. We found that carers used different strategies to accommodate to the PwS's behavior, depending on the PwS's communication profile and their relationship. These findings indicate that optimal communication strategies depend on the PwS's conversational tendencies and the relationship context. They also suggest new opportunities for qualitative assessment via intelligent text analytics technologies.

  19. Not sick enough: Experiences of carers of people with mental illness negotiating care for their relatives with mental health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olasoji, M; Maude, P; McCauley, K

    2017-08-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: Existing literature provides insight into the general experience of carers of people with a mental illness. Previous studies have found that carers experience a range of emotions when looking after their relatives with a mental illness. However, experiences of carers as they engage with the healthcare system is largely absent from the literature. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: This paper identified the experiences of carers when their relatives are experiencing a crisis or acutely unwell. Carers found themselves in the middle between mental health services and their relatives. Strategies employed by carers to ensure their relatives receive adequate care were identified from this study. This paper identified how carers needed to become more assertive in order to receive adequate care for their relatives, and this finding has implications for any future carer education. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: The participants identified the need to work more collaboratively with carers of people with a mental illness as they seek treatment for their relatives in order to achieve better health outcomes for the patients. Improved health service engagement of carers was seen by participants to assist them to better care for their relative. The study also found that there needs to be a clearer definition as to what constitutes mental health crisis and how carers are able to intervene during this period. Services could provide clear information concerning crisis services and in particular triage. Aim The literature reporting experiences of relatives of people with mental illness regarding their interactions with mental health services identifies many commonalities. However, the actual experience of carers engaging the services and understanding healthcare systems remains a gap in the literature. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of carers (of people with a severe mental illness) in a major area mental health

  20. Experiences with using information and communication technology to build a multi-municipal support network for informal carers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torp, Steffen; Bing-Jonsson, Pia C; Hanson, Elizabeth

    2013-09-01

    This multi-municipal intervention study explored whether informal carers of frail older people and disabled children living at home made use of information and communication technology (ICT) to gain knowledge about caring and to form informal support networks, thereby improving their health. Seventy-nine informal carers accessed web-based information about caring and an e-based discussion forum via their personal computers. They were able to maintain contact with each other using a web camera and via normal group meetings. After the first 12 months, 17 informal carers participated in focus group interviews and completed a short questionnaire. Four staff members were also interviewed. Participant carers who had prior experiences with a similar ICT-based support network reported greater satisfaction and more extensive use of the network than did participants with no such prior experience. It seems that infrequent usage of the service may be explained by too few other carers to identify with and inappropriate recruitment procedures. Nevertheless, carers of disabled children reported that the intervention had resulted in improved services across the participant municipalities. To achieve optimal effects of an ICT-based support network due attention must be given to recruitment processes and social environment building for which care practitioners require training and support.

  1. The development and validation of the Dementia Quality of Life Scale for Older Family Carers (DQoL-OC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Deborah C; Vass, Catherine; Aubeeluck, Aimee

    2017-03-02

    Little is known about how caregiving affects the quality of life (QoL) of older family carers and no dementia and age-specific QoL scale is available for use with this population. This study aimed to develop and validate a unique dementia caregiving- and age-specific tool - the 'Dementia Quality of Life Scale for Older Family Carers' (DQoL-OC). The scale items were identified in focus groups with older family carers in the UK. Content and face validity were evaluated by a panel of six experts. A set of 100 items assessed on a 5-point Likert scale was tested with 182 older family carers. Test-re-test reliability was conducted with 18 individuals. Exploratory factor analysis was used to identify the QoL model and reduce the number of scale items. Convergent construct validity and internal consistency were also established. A one-factor solution containing 22 items was obtained. Test-re-test reliability (lower bound r = 0.835; p scale that will be useful for research and in clinical practice with older family carers of people with dementia. These study results will inform future health and social care aiming to improve life quality for this overlooked population of carers.

  2. The human dimensions of post-stroke homecare: experiences of older carers from diverse ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pound, Carole; Greenwood, Nan

    2016-10-01

    Very little is known about how older people from black and minority ethnic (BME) groups caring for someone after a stroke access and engage with social care services. This paper explores both the experiences of carers whose relative was receiving social care services in their own home and the value of a theory of humanising care to understand and explain these experiences. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with 50 carers from five different ethnic groups: Asian Indian, Asian Pakistani, Black African, Black Caribbean and White British. Data were thematically analysed within a phenomenological framework. Five interacting themes emerged: communication and bureaucracy; time and timing; communication and rapport building; trust and safety; humanity and the human dimensions of care. Many of the experiences could be interpreted within a conceptual framework of humanising care underpinned by eight interacting dimensions of what it means to be treated as an individual and a human. Carers from BME and White British groups share many experiences of homecare although language and cultural difference may exacerbate common pressures and stresses. The framework for humanising care is a useful tool to evaluate aspects of homecare that are responsive to dignity and diversity. Implications for Rehabilitation Explicitly identifying, describing and valuing the human dimensions of care may support services in responding appropriately to homecare users from black minority ethnic communities as well as those from white majority groups. Unresponsive services and poor communication may lead to loss of trust with care agencies and undermine BME carers' sense of entitlement and competence in engaging with homecare services. Care worker continuity investing time in building relationships and care worker familiarity is important to many families who access social care services.

  3. DEFINING SECLUSION AND RESTRAINT: LEGAL AND POLICY DEFINITIONS VERSUS CONSUMER AND CARER PERSPECTIVES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roper, Cath; McSherry, Bernadette; Brophy, Lisa

    2015-12-01

    The practices of seclusion and restraint may be used in a variety of health settings to control behaviour. Laws and policies that seek to regulate these practices define seclusion and restraint in various ways and there are gaps as to which practices are regulated and in what circumstances. This column provides an overview of consumer and carer perspectives as to what is meant by these practices.

  4. Patients' and carers' experiences of gaining access to acute stroke care: A qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison, M; Ryan, T.; Gardiner, C.; Jones, A

    2012-01-01

    Background: Rapid access to acute stroke care is essential to improve stroke patient outcomes. Policy recommendations for the emergency management of stroke have resulted in signi ficant changes to stroke services, including the introduction of hyper-acute care. Objective: To explore patients' and carers' experiences of gaining access to acute stroke care and identify the factors that enabled or prevented stroke from being treated as a medical emergency. Methods: Qualitative semi-structured i...

  5. Slow Steps Towards Dual Earner/ Dual Carer Family Model: Why Fathers do not Take Parental Leave

    OpenAIRE

    Karu, Marre; Kasearu, Kairi

    2011-01-01

    "The article looks at the transition of Estonian society towards dual earner/ dual carer family model and focuses on fathers' decision regarding taking their parental leave. Based on theory of planned behaviour by Ajzen, data from 20 qualitative interviews with fathers of small children are analysed to explore the beliefs fathers have when it comes to parental leave. The analysis distinguishes between two images of 'good parenting' that play a role in the fathers' intention to take parental l...

  6. Investigating consumers' and informal carers' views and preferences for consumer directed care: A discrete choice experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaambwa, Billingsley; Lancsar, Emily; McCaffrey, Nicola; Chen, Gang; Gill, Liz; Cameron, Ian D; Crotty, Maria; Ratcliffe, Julie

    2015-09-01

    Consumer directed care (CDC) is currently being embraced internationally as a means to promote autonomy and choice for consumers (people aged 65 and over) receiving community aged care services (CACSs). CDC involves giving CACS clients (consumers and informal carers of consumers) control over how CACSs are administered. However, CDC models have largely developed in the absence of evidence on clients' views and preferences. We explored CACS clients' preferences for a variety of CDC attributes and identified factors that may influence these preferences and potentially inform improved design of future CDC models. Study participants were clients of CACSs delivered by five Australian providers. Using a discrete choice experiment (DCE) approach undertaken in a group setting between June and December 2013, we investigated the relative importance to CACS consumers and informal (family) carers of gradations relating to six salient features of CDC (choice of service provider(s), budget management, saving unused/unspent funds, choice of support/care worker(s), support-worker flexibility and level of contact with service coordinator). The DCE data were analysed using conditional, mixed and generalised logit regression models, accounting for preference and scale heterogeneity. Mean ages for 117 study participants were 80 years (87 consumers) and 74 years (30 informal carers). All participants preferred a CDC approach that allowed them to: save unused funds from a CACS package for future use; have support workers that were flexible in terms of changing activities within their CACS care plan and; choose the support workers that provide their day-to-day CACSs. The CDC attributes found to be important to both consumers and informal carers receiving CACSs will inform the design of future CDC models of service delivery. The DCE approach used in this study has the potential for wide applicability and facilitates the assessment of preferences for elements of potential future aged care

  7. Service User and Carer Involvement in Mental Health Education, Training and Research – A Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Minogue, Virginia; Holt, Barrie; Karban, Kate; Gelsthorpe, Simon; Firth, Sarah; Ramsay, Trevor

    2009-01-01

    As part of an evaluation of service users’ and carers’ experience of involvement in mental health education, training and research, an extended literature review was undertaken. The purpose of this was to review policy underpinning service user and carer involvement in those areas, identify the extent and range of involvement, the processes involved, and the extent to which the effectiveness and impact of involvement had been evaluated. The review found that there was a range of different way...

  8. What parents and carers think medical students should be learning about communication with children and families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Margaret; McLean, Elspeth

    2009-09-01

    Our objective was to dynamically engage with parents and carers of children treated in a large children's hospital as experts by experience, to find out what they thought medical students should be learning about communicating with children and families in order to inform our communication teaching. We used focus groups to facilitate parents and carers in articulating the communication issues they felt were important for medical students to learn. These data were analysed, using qualitative and quantitative methods, to produce a survey for a Delphi consultation. The results of this stage were mapped onto the Calgary-Cambridge framework for the medical interview. There was considerable overlap of the data on the Calgary-Cambridge framework. There was, however, an emphasis by respondents on perceptual skills, self-awareness and partnership. Within the main tasks of the Calgary-Cambridge framework, new objectives emerged, including giving information in the right place, and the importance of the family in the multidisciplinary team. A new main task, Preparation, was highlighted. Active collaboration with parents and carers revealed areas for enhancement in our communication skill teaching, particularly with regard to relational and perceptual skills. Ways of including effective teaching of perceptual skills and the relational and humanistic aspects of communication must be explored in order to meet the needs of child patients and their families.

  9. Home-based carers' perceptions of health promotion on sexual health communication in Vhembe District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramathuba, Dorah U; Mashau, Ntsieni S; Tugli, Augustine

    2015-05-05

    The introduction of home-based care in rural communities in the 1980s contributed immensely toward the upliftment of the personal and environmental health of communities. Women's groups provided health promotion skills and health education to communities and made a difference in health-related behaviour change. The purpose of the study was to explore and describe the home-based carers' perception regarding health promotion concerning sexual health communication in Vhembe district, in the context of HIV, amongst communities still rooted in their culture. A qualitative, explorative and descriptive design was used in order to understand home-based carers' perceptions regarding health promotion on sexual health communication amongst rural communities which may adversely impact on health promotion practices. The population were home-based organisations in Vhembe. The sample was purposive and randomly selected and data were gathered through semi-structured face-to-face interviews and focus groups which determined data saturation. Open coding was used for analysis of data. The results indicated that sexual communication was absent in most relationships and was not seen as necessary amongst married couples. Socioeconomic conditions, power inequity and emotional dependence had a negative impact on decision making and sexual communication. This study, therefore, recommends that educational and outreach efforts should focus on motivating change by improving the knowledge base of home-based carers. Since they are health promoters, they should be able to change the perceptions of the communities toward sexually-transmitted infections and HIV by promoting sexual health communication.

  10. Understanding the impact of pulmonary arterial hypertension on patients' and carers' lives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loïc Guillevin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH is a rare, debilitating and rapidly progressive disease. Although there have been important medical advances in PAH management, the search for a cure continues. Despite an increased understanding of the disease, data on the wider effect of PAH on patients and carers, beyond the clinical symptoms, are still limited. In order to explore this, a large-scale international survey investigated four key areas affected by PAH (physical and practical, emotional, social, and information needs and provides new insight into patients’ and carers’ experiences of living with the disease. The results from the survey highlight not only the limited ability of patients to carry out everyday tasks, but also the financial impact and social isolation experienced by both patients and carers. The study confirmed that a decline in a patient’s World Health Organization functional class, which indicates an increase in clinical severity of the disease, is associated with greater limitations. Results from the survey demonstrate the need for multidisciplinary PAH management and a comprehensive standard of care to assess and improve all aspects of well-being for both patients and carers. In addition, they underline the need for updated PAH guidelines that address these needs.

  11. Probing hidden sector photons through the Higgs window

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlers, M. [Oxford Univ. (United Kingdom). Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics; Jaeckel, J. [Durham Univ. (United Kingdom). Inst. for Particle Physics and Phenomenology; Redondo, J.; Ringwald, A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2008-07-15

    We investigate the possibility that a (light) hidden sector extra photon receives its mass via spontaneous symmetry breaking of a hidden sector Higgs boson, the so-called hidden-Higgs. The hidden-photon can mix with the ordinary photon via a gauge kinetic mixing term. The hidden-Higgs can couple to the Standard Model Higgs via a renormalizable quartic term - sometimes called the Higgs Portal. We discuss the implications of this light hidden-Higgs in the context of laser polarization and light-shining-through-the-wall experiments as well as cosmological, astrophysical, and non-Newtonian force measurements. For hidden-photons receiving their mass from a hidden-Higgs we find in the small mass regime significantly stronger bounds than the bounds on massive hidden sector photons alone. (orig.)

  12. 'It terrifies me, the thought of the future': listening to the current concerns of informal carers of people with a learning disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansell, Ian; Wilson, Christine

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this article is to report findings from a study that asked carers for their views on a wide range of topics. Issues relevant to the current concerns of carers are reported here. A mixed method triangulated design yielded both quantitative and qualitative data. A total of 647 members of a parent/carer federation were sent a questionnaire with a section on 'current concerns'. The response rate was 23 percent (151 participants). Two focus groups were held with 15 carers who had completed the questionnaire. Issues of concern to carers included access to health and social care information and services; quality and quantity of respite care; suitable educational provision; independence and quality of life (for a person with learning disability); and what would happen to the person with learning disability when the carer was no longer able to carry out their caring role.

  13. Lepton mixing from the hidden sector

    CERN Document Server

    Ludl, P O

    2015-01-01

    Experimental results indicate a possible relation between the lepton and quark mixing matrices of the form U_PMNS \\approx V_CKM^\\dagger U_X, where U_X is a matrix with special structure related to the mechanism of neutrino mass generation. We propose a framework which can realize such a relation. The main ingredients of the framework are the double seesaw mechanism, SO(10) Grand Unification and a hidden sector of theory. The latter is composed of singlets (fermions and bosons) of the GUT symmetry with masses between the GUT and Planck scale. The interactions in this sector obey certain symmetries G_hidden. We explore the conditions under which symmetries G_hidden can produce flavour structures in the visible sector. Here the key elements are the basis-fixing symmetry and mediators which communicate information about properties of the hidden sector to the visible one. The interplay of SO(10) symmetry, basis-fixing symmetry identified as Z2 x Z2 and G_hidden can lead to the required form of U_X. A different kin...

  14. Fitting Hidden Markov Models to Psychological Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingmar Visser

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Markov models have been used extensively in psychology of learning. Applications of hidden Markov models are rare however. This is partially due to the fact that comprehensive statistics for model selection and model assessment are lacking in the psychological literature. We present model selection and model assessment statistics that are particularly useful in applying hidden Markov models in psychology. These statistics are presented and evaluated by simulation studies for a toy example. We compare AIC, BIC and related criteria and introduce a prediction error measure for assessing goodness-of-fit. In a simulation study, two methods of fitting equality constraints are compared. In two illustrative examples with experimental data we apply selection criteria, fit models with constraints and assess goodness-of-fit. First, data from a concept identification task is analyzed. Hidden Markov models provide a flexible approach to analyzing such data when compared to other modeling methods. Second, a novel application of hidden Markov models in implicit learning is presented. Hidden Markov models are used in this context to quantify knowledge that subjects express in an implicit learning task. This method of analyzing implicit learning data provides a comprehensive approach for addressing important theoretical issues in the field.

  15. Probing Hidden Sector Photons through the Higgs Window.

    OpenAIRE

    Ahlers, M.; Jaeckel, J; Redondo, J.; Ringwald, A.

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the possibility that a (light) hidden sector extra photon receives its mass via spontaneous symmetry breaking of a hidden sector Higgs boson, the so-called hidden-Higgs. The hidden-photon can mix with the ordinary photon via a gauge kinetic mixing term. The hidden-Higgs can couple to the Standard Model Higgs via a renormalizable quartic term - sometimes called the Higgs Portal. We discuss the implications of this light hidden-Higgs in the context of laser polarization and light...

  16. Enhancement of carer skills and patient function in the non-pharmacological management of frontotemporal dementia (FTD): A call for randomised controlled studies

    OpenAIRE

    Claire M.O.'Connor; Lindy Clemson; Thaís Bento Lima da Silva; Olivier Piguet; Hodges, John R.; Eneida Mioshi

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT FTD is a unique condition which manifests with a range of behavioural symptoms, marked dysfunction in activities of daily living (ADL) and increased levels of carer burden as compared to carers of other dementias. No efficacious pharmacological interventions to treat FTD currently exist, and research on pharmacological symptom management is variable. The few studies on non-pharmacological interventions in FTD focus on either the carer or the patients' symptoms, and lack methodologica...

  17. A comparison of strategies to recruit older patients and carers to end-of-life research in primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanratty Barbara

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Older adults receive most of their end-of-life care in the community, but there are few published data to guide researchers on recruitment to studies in primary care. The aim of this study was to compare recruitment of patients and bereaved carers from general practices in areas with different research network support, and identify challenges in obtaining samples representative of those in need of end-of-life care. Methods Comparative analysis of recruitment from general practices to two face-to-face interview studies concerned with 1 carers’ perceptions of transitions between settings for decedents aged over 75 years and 2 the experiences of older patients living with cancer at the end-of-life. Results 33 (15% of invitees patients and 118 (25% carers were interviewed. Carers from disadvantaged areas were under-represented. Recruitment was higher when researchers, rather than research network staff, were in direct contact with general practices. Most practices recruited no more than one carer, despite a seven fold difference in the number of registered patients. The proportion identified as eligible for patient interviews varied by a factor of 38 between practices. Forty-four Primary Care Trusts granted approval to interview carers; two refused. One gave no reason; a second did not believe that general practitioners would be able to identify carers. Conclusion Obtaining a representative sample of patients or carers in end-of-life research is a resource intensive challenge. Review of the regulatory and organisational barriers to end-of-life researchers in primary care is required. Research support networks provide invaluable assistance, but researchers should ensure that they are alert to the ways in which they may influence study recruitment.

  18. Instruments measuring the disease-specific quality of life of family carers of people with neurodegenerative diseases: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Thomas E; Farina, Nicolas; Brown, Anna; Daley, Stephanie; Bowling, Ann; Basset, Thurstine; Livingston, Gill; Knapp, Martin; Murray, Joanna; Banerjee, Sube

    2017-01-01

    Objective Neurodegenerative diseases, such as dementia, have a profound impact on those with the conditions and their family carers. Consequently, the accurate measurement of family carers' quality of life (QOL) is important. Generic measures may miss key elements of the impact of these conditions, so using disease-specific instruments has been advocated. This systematic review aimed to identify and examine the psychometric properties of disease-specific outcome measures of QOL of family carers of people with neurodegenerative diseases (Alzheimer's disease and other dementias; Huntington's disease; Parkinson's disease; multiple sclerosis; and motor neuron disease). Design Systematic review. Methods Instruments were identified using 5 electronic databases (PubMed, PsycINFO, Web of Science, Scopus and the International Bibliography of the Social Sciences (IBSS)) and lateral search techniques. Only studies which reported the development and/or validation of a disease-specific measure for adult family carers, and which were written in English, were eligible for inclusion. The methodological quality of the included studies was evaluated using the COnsensus based Standards for the selection of health Measurement Instruments (COSMIN) checklist. The psychometric properties of each instrument were examined. Results 676 articles were identified. Following screening and lateral searches, a total of 8 articles were included; these reported 7 disease-specific carer QOL measures. Limited evidence was available for the psychometric properties of the 7 instruments. Psychometric analyses were mainly focused on internal consistency, reliability and construct validity. None of the measures assessed either criterion validity or responsiveness to change. Conclusions There are very few measures of carer QOL that are specific to particular neurodegenerative diseases. The findings of this review emphasise the importance of developing and validating psychometrically robust disease

  19. A review of patient and carer participation and the use of qualitative research in the development of core outcome sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Janet E; Jones, Laura L; Keeley, Thomas J H; Calvert, Melanie J; Mathers, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    To be meaningful, a core outcome set (COS) should be relevant to all stakeholders including patients and carers. This review aimed to explore the methods by which patients and carers have been included as participants in COS development exercises and, in particular, the use and reporting of qualitative methods. In August 2015, a search of the Core Outcomes Measures in Effectiveness Trials (COMET) database was undertaken to identify papers involving patients and carers in COS development. Data were extracted to identify the data collection methods used in COS development, the number of health professionals, patients and carers participating in these, and the reported details of qualitative research undertaken. Fifty-nine papers reporting patient and carer participation were included in the review, ten of which reported using qualitative methods. Although patients and carers participated in outcome elicitation for inclusion in COS processes, health professionals tended to dominate the prioritisation exercises. Of the ten qualitative papers, only three were reported as a clear pre-designed part of a COS process. Qualitative data were collected using interviews, focus groups or a combination of these. None of the qualitative papers reported an underpinning methodological framework and details regarding data saturation, reflexivity and resource use associated with data collection were often poorly reported. Five papers reported difficulty in achieving a diverse sample of participants and two reported that a large and varied range of outcomes were often identified by participants making subsequent rating and ranking difficult. Consideration of the best way to include patients and carers throughout the COS development process is needed. Additionally, further work is required to assess the potential role of qualitative methods in COS, to explore the knowledge produced by different qualitative data collection methods, and to evaluate the time and resources required to

  20. A potential model for the first all Wales mental health service user and carer-led research group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, C; Fothergill, A; Rees, H

    2010-02-01

    This paper will inform mental health service users and carers on how a University in Wales established a service user and carer-led research group. * The group's primary aim will be to undertake its own service user and carer-led research projects. * Mental health service users have undergone empowerment and research training at a University in Wales. This is an important initiative because it is the first service user and carer-led research group in Wales. * This paper is co-authored by a mental health service user and includes transcripts of service users' stories written in their words. Abstract Service user and carer involvement in research has been gaining momentum in recent years. However, this involvement to date has primarily been as research respondents or 'subjects' in research studies. A group of mental health service users at a University in Wales underwent empowerment and research training to enable them to become active participants in the research process; this training was a necessary step to equip mental health service users with the skills to become independent researchers and to carry out service user-led research. We included transcripts from mental health service users on their views of the empowerment and research training received. We are not reporting, in this paper, on the findings from a research study rather it aims to inform readers how a service user and carer-led research group has been established in Wales. The group has two purposes: (1) to train service users in research methodologies, and thus for them to gain essential research skills; and (2) to undertake their own service user and carer-led research projects thereby implementing the research skills they have acquired from the training. The latter is a primary aim of the group; a future paper will report on its development.

  1. A structured multicomponent group programme for carers of people with acquired brain injury: Effects on perceived criticism, strain, and psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortune, Dónal G; Rogan, Carol R; Richards, Helen L

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether a brief structured multicomponent group programme for carers of people with acquired brain injury (ABI) was effective in reducing carer distress, strain, and critical comments between carer and person with an ABI compared to a waiting list control condition. Waiting list controlled study. Pre- and post-test design with outcomes measured at induction, at the end of the intervention, and at the 3-month follow-up. One hundred and thirteen carers took part in the study: 75 carers in the intervention group and 38 in the waiting list control group (2:1 ratio). All participants completed assessments of caregiver strain (Caregiver Strain Index), perceived criticism towards and from the person with an ABI (Perceived Criticism Scale), and psychological distress (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale). The person with an ABI was also assessed on the Functional Independence Measure/Functional Assessment Measure. Using an intention to treat analysis, there were significant effects of group (intervention vs. waiting list control) at the 3-month follow-up on carers' perceptions of stress and strain resulting from caring, and perceptions of criticism received by the carer from the person with an ABI. A subsequent per-protocol analysis showed an additional reduction at 3 months in levels of criticism expressed towards the person with an ABI by the carer. There was no significant effect of the intervention on psychological distress. The structured multicomponent carers programme showed beneficial effects in terms of reducing carer strain and in the reduction of elements of perceived criticism at the 3-month follow-up; however, it did not significantly affect psychological distress in carers, suggesting the need for additional support for this group of carers. What is already known on this subject? A number of studies have suggested that carers of people with acquired brain injury (ABI) experience greater levels of carer burden and

  2. Supersymmetric leptogenesis and light hidden sectors

    CERN Document Server

    Weniger, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    Thermal leptogenesis and supergravity are attractive scenarios for physics beyond the standard model. However, it is well known that the super-weak interaction of the gravitino often leads to problems with primordial nucleosynthesis in the standard scenario of matter parity conserving MSSM + three right-handed neutrinos. We will present and compare two related solutions to these problems: 1) The conflict between BBN and leptogenesis can be avoided in presence of a hidden sector with light supersymmetric particles which open new decay channels for the dangerous long-lived particles. 2) If there is a condensate in the hidden sector, such additional decay channels can be alternatively opened by dynamical breaking of matter parity in the hidden sector.

  3. Spitzer Digs Up Hidden Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] 3-Panel Version Figure 1 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Visible Light Figure 2 Infrared (IRAC) Figure 3 Combined Figure 4 Two rambunctious young stars are destroying their natal dust cloud with powerful jets of radiation, in an infrared image from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope. The stars are located approximately 600 light-years away in a cosmic cloud called BHR 71. In visible light (left panel), BHR 71 is just a large black structure. The burst of yellow light toward the bottom of the cloud is the only indication that stars might be forming inside. In infrared light (center panel), the baby stars are shown as the bright yellow smudges toward the center. Both of these yellow spots have wisps of green shooting out of them. The green wisps reveal the beginning of a jet. Like a rainbow, the jet begins as green, then transitions to orange, and red toward the end. The combined visible-light and infrared composite (right panel) shows that a young star's powerful jet is responsible for the rupture at the bottom of the dense cloud in the visible-light image. Astronomers know this because burst of light in the visible-light image overlaps exactly with a jet spouting-out of the left star, in the infrared image. The jets' changing colors reveal a cooling effect, and may suggest that the young stars are spouting out radiation in regular bursts. The green tints at the beginning of the jet reveal really hot hydrogen gas, the orange shows warm gas, and the reddish wisps at the end represent the coolest gas. The fact that gas toward the beginning of the jet is hotter than gas near the middle suggests that the stars must give off regular bursts of energy -- and the material closest to the star is being heated by shockwaves from a recent stellar outburst. Meanwhile, the tints of orange reveal gas that is currently being

  4. Hidden Markov models estimation and control

    CERN Document Server

    Elliott, Robert J; Moore, John B

    1995-01-01

    As more applications are found, interest in Hidden Markov Models continues to grow. Following comments and feedback from colleagues, students and other working with Hidden Markov Models the corrected 3rd printing of this volume contains clarifications, improvements and some new material, including results on smoothing for linear Gaussian dynamics. In Chapter 2 the derivation of the basic filters related to the Markov chain are each presented explicitly, rather than as special cases of one general filter. Furthermore, equations for smoothed estimates are given. The dynamics for the Kalman filte

  5. Hidden simplicity of gauge theory amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drummond, J M, E-mail: drummond@lapp.in2p3.f [LAPTH, Universite de Savoie, CNRS, B.P. 110, F-74941 Annecy-le-Vieux, Cedex (France)

    2010-11-07

    These notes were given as lectures at the CERN Winter School on Supergravity, Strings and Gauge Theory 2010. We describe the structure of scattering amplitudes in gauge theories, focussing on the maximally supersymmetric theory to highlight the hidden symmetries which appear. Using the Britto, Cachzo, Feng and Witten (BCFW) recursion relations we solve the tree-level S-matrix in N=4 super Yang-Mills theory and describe how it produces a sum of invariants of a large symmetry algebra. We review amplitudes in the planar theory beyond tree level, describing the connection between amplitudes and Wilson loops, and discuss the implications of the hidden symmetries.

  6. Hidden simplicity of gauge theory amplitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, J. M.

    2010-11-01

    These notes were given as lectures at the CERN Winter School on Supergravity, Strings and Gauge Theory 2010. We describe the structure of scattering amplitudes in gauge theories, focussing on the maximally supersymmetric theory to highlight the hidden symmetries which appear. Using the Britto, Cachzo, Feng and Witten (BCFW) recursion relations we solve the tree-level S-matrix in \\ {N}=4 super Yang-Mills theory and describe how it produces a sum of invariants of a large symmetry algebra. We review amplitudes in the planar theory beyond tree level, describing the connection between amplitudes and Wilson loops, and discuss the implications of the hidden symmetries.

  7. Hidden neural networks: application to speech recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Søren Kamaric

    1998-01-01

    We evaluate the hidden neural network HMM/NN hybrid on two speech recognition benchmark tasks; (1) task independent isolated word recognition on the Phonebook database, and (2) recognition of broad phoneme classes in continuous speech from the TIMIT database. It is shown how hidden neural networks...... (HNNs) with much fewer parameters than conventional HMMs and other hybrids can obtain comparable performance, and for the broad class task it is illustrated how the HNN can be applied as a purely transition based system, where acoustic context dependent transition probabilities are estimated by neural...

  8. Dark Radiation from a hidden U(1)

    CERN Document Server

    Vogel, Hendrik

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the impact of a hidden sector consisting of Minicharged Particles (MCPs) and massless hidden photons on the expansion history of our Universe. We present parameter scans for the amount of extra relativistic particles (Neff) and the abundance of light nuclei for fermionic MCPs with masses between ~100 keV and 10 GeV and minicharges in the range 10^(-11)-1. Current CMB and BBN data significantly constrain the available parameter space of MCPs. The shown results are a valuable indicator for future experimental searches and are presented in a flexible way so that more accurate results on Neff can be easily interpreted.

  9. Hidden Symmetries, Central Charges and All That

    CERN Document Server

    de Wit, Bernard; Wit, Bernard de; Nicolai, Hermann

    2001-01-01

    In this review we discuss hidden symmetries of toroidal compactifications of eleven-dimensional supergravity. We recall alternative versions of this theory which exhibit traces of the hidden symmetries when still retaining the massive Kaluza-Klein states. We reconsider them in the broader perspective of M-theory which incorporates a more extended variety of BPS states. We also argue for a new geometry that may underly these theories. All our arguments point towards an extension of the number of space-time coordinates beyond eleven.

  10. Hidden Subgroup States are Almost Orthogonal

    CERN Document Server

    Ettinger, M; Knill, E H; Ettinger, Mark; Hoyer, Peter; Knill, Emanuel

    1999-01-01

    It is well known that quantum computers can efficiently find a hidden subgroup $H$ of a finite Abelian group $G$. This implies that after only a polynomial (in $\\log |G|$) number of calls to the oracle function, the states corresponding to different candidate subgroups have exponentially small inner product. We show that this is true for noncommutative groups also. We present a quantum algorithm which identifies a hidden subgroup of an arbitrary finite group $G$ in only a linear (in $\\log |G|$) number of calls to the oracle function. This is exponentially better than the best classical algorithm. However our quantum algorithm requires an exponential amount of time, as in the classical case.

  11. Searching for hidden sectors in multiparticle production at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Sanchis-Lozano, Miguel-Angel; Moreno-Picot, Salvador

    2015-01-01

    We study the impact of a hidden sector beyond the Standard Model, e.g. a Hidden Valley model, on factorial moments and cumulants of multiplicity distributions in multiparticle production with a special emphasis on the prospects for LHC results.

  12. Entropy Rate for Hidden Markov Chains with rare transitions

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    We consider Hidden Markov Chains obtained by passing a Markov Chain with rare transitions through a noisy memoryless channel. We obtain asymptotic estimates for the entropy of the resulting Hidden Markov Chain as the transition rate is reduced to zero.

  13. The Corporate Illiterates: The Hidden Illiterates of Silicon Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Sharon

    1991-01-01

    Describes the writing and business communication problems of college-educated workers in Silicon Valley. Discusses hidden illiterates in the universities and in the workplace. Offers solutions for professors and managers faced with the problem of hidden illiterates. (PRA)

  14. Information and communication technologies for informal carers and paid assistants: benefits from micro-, meso-, and macro-levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carretero, Stephanie; Stewart, James; Centeno, Clara

    The aim of this study was to explore the benefits of information and communication technologies (ICT)-based services for informal carers and paid assistants of older people living in the community. We cross-case analysed the effects of twelve initiatives in the EU, the USA and Canada, based on their individual analysis documented through interviews with promoters and a literature review. We carried out the cross-case analysis following a variables-oriented strategy on seven dimensions of impact at micro-, meso- and macro-levels: the quality of life of informal carers and paid assistants, quality of life of care recipients, quality of care, care efficiency and sustainability, acceptability, and infrastructure and accessibility. ICT-based services for informal carers and paid assistants improve the quality of life of older people and their carers and access to qualified care. They also generate savings which contribute to the sustainability of the care systems. These findings constitute a first look at the benefits of the use of ICT-based services for informal carers and paid assistants. Nevertheless, more research using experimental methods is needed to demonstrate the impact of these ICT-based services at meso- and macro-levels. This would help to support policy-makers to deploy these technologies for long-term care delivery.

  15. Family carers' experiences of receiving the news of a diagnosis of Motor Neurone Disease: A national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoun, Samar M; Breen, Lauren J; Oliver, David; Henderson, Robert D; Edis, Robert; O'Connor, Margaret; Howting, Denise; Harris, Rodney; Birks, Carol

    2017-01-15

    Family carers have a central role in the care and support of people with MND and face the challenges of the disease from diagnosis to progression and the multiple losses of MND, but their support needs are often neglected. This study aimed to investigate the experiences of family carers at the time of diagnosis and their satisfaction with receiving the news. An anonymous postal survey was facilitated by all MND Associations in Australia (2014) and 190 family carers completed the questionnaire. The questions centred on the SPIKES protocol for communicating bad news. Two-thirds of family carers rated the skills of their neurologists as above average and were satisfied with the delivery of the diagnosis, in terms of having a significantly longer consultation time, the neurologist being warm and caring, satisfaction with the amount and content of information they received and relevant supports, and a plan for following up support. Conversely those who rated the neurologist's skills as below average commented on the difficulties they encountered and the long term emotional stress engendered by poor communication. The study emphasises previous research that suggested that neurologists may require education and training in communicating the diagnosis and this should include family carers as a vital member in MND care. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Design and Implementation of Domain based Semantic Hidden Web Crawler

    OpenAIRE

    Manvi; Bhatia, Komal Kumar; Dixit, Ashutosh

    2015-01-01

    Web is a wide term which mainly consists of surface web and hidden web. One can easily access the surface web using traditional web crawlers, but they are not able to crawl the hidden portion of the web. These traditional crawlers retrieve contents from web pages, which are linked by hyperlinks ignoring the information hidden behind form pages, which cannot be extracted using simple hyperlink structure. Thus, they ignore large amount of data hidden behind search forms. This paper emphasizes o...

  17. Six key topics informal carers of patients with breathlessness in advanced disease want to learn about and why: MRC phase I study to inform an educational intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquhar, Morag; Penfold, Clarissa; Benson, John; Lovick, Roberta; Mahadeva, Ravi; Howson, Sophie; Burkin, Julie; Booth, Sara; Gilligan, David; Todd, Christopher; Ewing, Gail

    2017-01-01

    Breathlessness is a common symptom of advanced disease placing a huge burden on patients, health systems and informal carers (families and friends providing daily help and support). It causes distress and isolation. Carers provide complex personal, practical and emotional support yet often feel ill-prepared to care. They lack knowledge and confidence in their caring role. The need to educate carers and families about breathlessness is established, yet we lack robustly developed carer-targeted educational interventions to meet their needs. We conducted a qualitative interview study with twenty five purposively-sampled patient-carer dyads living with breathlessness in advanced disease (half living with advanced cancer and half with advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We sought to identify carers' educational needs (including what they wanted to learn about) and explore differences by diagnostic group in order to inform an educational intervention for carers of patients with breathlessness in advanced disease. There was a strong desire among carers for an educational intervention on breathlessness. Six key topics emerged as salient for them: 1) understanding breathlessness, 2) managing anxiety, panic and breathlessness, 3) managing infections, 4) keeping active, 5) living positively and 6) knowing what to expect in the future. A cross-cutting theme was relationship management: there were tensions within dyads resulting from mismatched expectations related to most topics. Carers felt that knowledge-gains would not only help them to support the patient better, but also help them to manage their own frustrations, anxieties, and quality of life. Different drivers for education need were identified by diagnostic group, possibly related to differences in caring role duration and resulting impacts. Meeting the educational needs of carers requires robustly developed and evaluated interventions. This study provides the evidence-base for the content of an

  18. The place for emotions in professional carers' thinking: reflections on two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koren, E

    2010-12-01

    How do carers know what is right for their patient? What can they do further to relying on the two pillars of knowledge and ethics? Knowledge foregrounds rational decision-making based on scientific evidence. It allows cost-benefit rationalization and the choice of the best feasible objective. The steady advance of medical science drives responsible carers to keep their knowledge and skills up-to-date. Bioethics grants primary attention to the prevention of causing harm in general, to pursuant of patients' subjective wellbeing and to allow the latter enjoy their autonomy and to guarantee them the sense of justice. There are, however, cases where these values collide and any care decision violates one principle or another. How are carers expected to act then? This article concerns the choices made by carers, as presented and discussed in two cases. These cases deal with a clash between two principles: parenthood vs. fertility, religious rite vs. social affiliation. This class has generated an ethical dilemma. In each case carers try to justify their choices by expert knowledge and other ethical values, but later reflection reveals that the predominant element in 'solving' these dilemmas was "emotions." Professional training submits that: 'Set aside feelings in order to keep your thinking 'straight.' However, reality proves this simply infeasible. The more complex the medical-ethical situation, it is more likely that "emotions" take over. We have no choice as responsible carers but to allow our emotions the status of a factor of influence in their own right. Nowadays, a basic medical training for doctors and nurses offers an integrated body of knowledge and therapeutic skills. In addition, trainees are introduced to bioethics, supposedly sufficient to guide their future steps in their chosen profession. But how does this training in fact shape their future ethical conduct, if at all? How does it affect their ability to maintain ethical responsibility throughout

  19. Variational Hidden Conditional Random Fields with Coupled Dirichlet Process Mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bousmalis, K.; Zafeiriou, S.; Morency, L.P.; Pantic, Maja; Ghahramani, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Hidden Conditional Random Fields (HCRFs) are discriminative latent variable models which have been shown to successfully learn the hidden structure of a given classification problem. An infinite HCRF is an HCRF with a countably infinite number of hidden states, which rids us not only of the necessit

  20. Perceptual consequences of "hidden" hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plack, Christopher J; Barker, Daphne; Prendergast, Garreth

    2014-09-09

    Dramatic results from recent animal experiments show that noise exposure can cause a selective loss of high-threshold auditory nerve fibers without affecting absolute sensitivity permanently. This cochlear neuropathy has been described as hidden hearing loss, as it is not thought to be detectable using standard measures of audiometric threshold. It is possible that hidden hearing loss is a common condition in humans and may underlie some of the perceptual deficits experienced by people with clinically normal hearing. There is some evidence that a history of noise exposure is associated with difficulties in speech discrimination and temporal processing, even in the absence of any audiometric loss. There is also evidence that the tinnitus experienced by listeners with clinically normal hearing is associated with cochlear neuropathy, as measured using Wave I of the auditory brainstem response. To date, however, there has been no direct link made between noise exposure, cochlear neuropathy, and perceptual difficulties. Animal experiments also reveal that the aging process itself, in the absence of significant noise exposure, is associated with loss of auditory nerve fibers. Evidence from human temporal bone studies and auditory brainstem response measures suggests that this form of hidden loss is common in humans and may have perceptual consequences, in particular, regarding the coding of the temporal aspects of sounds. Hidden hearing loss is potentially a major health issue, and investigations are ongoing to identify the causes and consequences of this troubling condition.

  1. The structural strength of glass: hidden damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veer, F.A.; Rodichev, Y.M.

    2011-01-01

    We discuss “hidden damage” of glass by the rolling process, which results in heterogeneous distribution of microcracks on the edge surface of glass element, which are the fracture source deteriorating glass element strength. It is shown that removal of this damage on the edges of glass elements

  2. Discovering Hidden Treasures with GPS Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Paul; Palmer, Roger

    2014-01-01

    "I found it!" Addison proudly proclaimed, as she used an iPhone and Global Positioning System (GPS) software to find the hidden geocache along the riverbank. Others in Lisa Bostick's fourth grade class were jealous, but there would be other geocaches to find. With the excitement of movies like "Pirates of the Caribbean" and…

  3. Hidden Markov Models for Human Genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baldi, Pierre; Brunak, Søren; Chauvin, Yves

    1997-01-01

    We analyse the sequential structure of human genomic DNA by hidden Markov models. We apply models of widely different design: conventional left-right constructs and models with a built-in periodic architecture. The models are trained on segments of DNA sequences extracted such that they cover...

  4. Dermatologic hazards from hidden contacts with penicillin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boonk, W.J.

    1981-01-01

    The unbridled use of penicillin after its discovery by Fleming has resulted in possible hazards to human health due to traces of the drug being present in food and other hidden sources. These hazards may include toxic effects, hypersensitivity reactions and possibly a raising of the frequency and duration of allergy to penicillin.

  5. The structural strength of glass: hidden damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veer, F.A.; Rodichev, Y.M.

    2011-01-01

    We discuss “hidden damage” of glass by the rolling process, which results in heterogeneous distribution of microcracks on the edge surface of glass element, which are the fracture source deteriorating glass element strength. It is shown that removal of this damage on the edges of glass elements incr

  6. Computerized Testing: The Hidden Figures Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Ronald L.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    This study adapted the Hidden Figures Test for use on PLATO and determined the reliability of the computerized version compared to the paper and pencil version. Results indicate the test was successfully adapted with some modifications, and it was judged reliable although it may be measuring additional constructs. (MBR)

  7. Towards gauge unified, supersymmetric hidden strong dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Chiang, Cheng-Wei; Ye, Fang

    2016-01-01

    We consider a class of models with extra complex scalars that are charged under both the Standard Model and a hidden strongly coupled $SU(N)_H$ gauge sector, and discuss the scenarios where the new scalars are identified as the messenger fields that mediate the spontaneously broken supersymmetries from the hidden sector to the visible sector. The new scalars are embedded into 5-plets and 10-plets of an $SU(5)_V$ gauge group that potentially unifies the Standard Model gauge groups. They also form a tower of bound states via hidden strong dynamics around the TeV scale. The Higgs bosons remain as elementary particles. Quadratically divergent contributions to the Higgs mass from the Standard Model fermions are canceled by the new scalar contributions to alleviate the fine-tuning problem. We also discuss a supersymmetrized version of this class of models, consisting of the minimal supersymmetric Standard Model plus extra chiral multiplets where the new scalars reside. Due to the hidden strong force, the new low-en...

  8. Hidden Costs and Challenges of Servitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yifan; Slepniov, Dmitrij

    of these labels, the potential benefits of servitization are often overshadowed by costs associated with it. By using the cases of Chinese and Danish manufacturing firms, this study takes a closer look at possible hidden costs of servitization and contributes to our understanding of servitization performance...

  9. Interprofessional education in the care of people diagnosed with dementia and their carers: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Marcus; Pelone, Ferruccio; Reeves, Scott; Hassenkamp, Anne Marie; Emery, Claire; Titmarsh, Kumud; Greenwood, Nan

    2016-08-16

    This systematic review is linked to the multifaceted social, economic and personal challenges of dementia and the international recognition of the value of interprofessional education (IPE) and its influence on health and social care outcomes. This review therefore aimed to identify, describe and evaluate the impact of IPE interventions on health and social care practitioners (prequalification and postqualification) understanding of dementia, the quality of care for people with dementia and support for their carers. Following PRISMA guidelines, 9 databases were searched (MEDLINE, EMBASE, The Cochrane Library, PsycINFO, CINAHL Plus, Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts, Healthcare Management Information Consortium, ERIC and British Education Index). Narrative analysis of the findings was undertaken. Systematic review. 6 studies meeting the inclusion criteria were identified. The majority of studies were conducted in North America. Participants in 4 studies were health and social care practitioners caring for people with dementia, whereas the remaining studies focused on training graduate or undergraduate students. Diverse IPE activities with varying content, delivery mode and duration were reported. Although some studies reported more positive attitudes to interprofessional working as a result of the interventions, none reported benefits to patients or carers. The quality of the included studies varied. Overall, the evidence for the reported outcomes was considered weak. This review identified 6 studies describing IPE interventions intended to improve collaborative knowledge, skills, interprofessional practice and organisational awareness of dementia and dementia care. The small number of studies, their varied nature, scope and settings combined with poor quality of evidence limits our understanding of the effectiveness of IPE on the care and support of people with dementia and their carers. Further research is required to develop the evidence base and

  10. Patient, carer and professional perspectives on barriers and facilitators to quality care in advanced heart failure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Browne

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Those with advanced heart failure (HF experience high levels of morbidity and mortality, similar to common cancers. However, there remains evidence of inequity of access to palliative care services compared to people with cancer. This study examines patient, carer, and professional perspectives on current management of advanced HF and barriers and facilitators to improved care. METHODS: Qualitative study involving semi-structured interviews and focus groups with advanced HF patients (n = 30, carers (n = 20, and professionals (n = 65. Data analysed using Normalisation Process Theory (NPT as the underpinning conceptual framework. FINDINGS: Uncertainty is ubiquitous in accounts from advanced HF patients and their caregivers. This uncertainty relates to understanding of the implications of their diagnosis, appropriate treatments, and when and how to seek effective help. Health professionals agree this is a major problem but feel they lack knowledge, opportunities, or adequate support to improve the situation. Fragmented care with lack of coordination and poor communication makes life difficult. Poor understanding of the condition extends to the wider circle of carers and means that requests for help may not be perceived as legitimate, and those with advanced HF are not prioritised for social and financial supports. Patient and caregiver accounts of emergency care are uniformly poor. Managing polypharmacy and enduring concomitant side effects is a major burden, and the potential for rationalisation exists. This study has potential limitations because it was undertaken within a single geographical location within the United Kingdom. CONCLUSIONS: Little progress is being made to improve care experiences for those with advanced HF. Even in the terminal stages, patients and caregivers are heavily and unnecessarily burdened by health care services that are poorly coordinated and offer fragmented care. There is evidence that these poor

  11. Hidden love: sexual ideologies and relationship ideals among rural South African adolescents in the context of HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Abigail

    2008-02-01

    In KwaZulu/Natal, South Africa, the social construction of young people's sexuality reflects both a complex historical process of cultural and religious integration, as well as the contemporary resurgence of 'traditionalism'. How do young people interpret these factors to construct and give meaning to their own sexualities? This multi-method qualitative study examined sexuality and relationship formation among sexually experienced young people aged 14-19 in a rural sub-district. In this setting, sexual activity is highly stigmatised, particularly for young teenage women. Dominant sexual ideologies centre on 'good behaviour', the idea that 'sex is wrong', and abstinence as a preferred prevention strategy. Young women's relationships are often hidden but sexual relationships are also an important part of the transition to adulthood. These dichotomies of love and romance versus stigma and secrecy frame young people's discourse about sexuality. A discourse about healthy sexuality is largely absent, impeding the prevention of HIV in this setting.

  12. Long-term care of dependent elderly and quality of life their carers

    OpenAIRE

    Macková, Marie

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on the issue of long-term care of dependent elderly and quality of life of their carers. Elderly care has an impact on the quality of life of family members. The research was carried out through a questionnaire and interview. The quality of life was measured using the WHOQOL instrument. The research aimed to identify the current levels of family members’ quality of life and the factors influencing the quality of life thereof. The research findings showed a lower quality o...

  13. Does evening work predict sickness absence among female carers of the elderly?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tüchsen, Finn; Christensen, Karl Bang; Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to predict the risk ratio of sickness absence lasting > or = 2 weeks due to shift work among Danish workers caring for the elderly during the evening and at night. METHODS: A sample of Danish carers of the elderly were interviewed in 2005. The response...... rate was 78%. A cohort of 5627 shift and day workers was followed for sickness absence lasting > or = 2 weeks and for sickness absence lasting > or = 8 weeks in a sickness compensation register covering all social transfer payments in Denmark. RESULTS: Among the evening workers, the rate ratio (RR...

  14. Quantum Discord, CHSH Inequality and Hidden Variables -- Critical reassessment of hidden-variables models

    CERN Document Server

    Fujikawa, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    Hidden-variables models are critically reassessed. It is first examined if the quantum discord is classically described by the hidden-variable model of Bell in the Hilbert space with $d=2$. The criterion of vanishing quantum discord is related to the notion of reduction and, surprisingly, the hidden-variable model in $d=2$, which has been believed to be consistent so far, is in fact inconsistent and excluded by the analysis of conditional measurement and reduction. The description of the full contents of quantum discord by the deterministic hidden-variables models is not possible. We also re-examine CHSH inequality. It is shown that the well-known prediction of CHSH inequality $|B|\\leq 2$ for the CHSH operator $B$ introduced by Cirel'son is not unique. This non-uniqueness arises from the failure of linearity condition in the non-contextual hidden-variables model in $d=4$ used by Bell and CHSH, in agreement with Gleason's theorem which excludes $d=4$ non-contextual hidden-variables models. If one imposes the l...

  15. A new indicator of the oral hygiene habits of disabled persons: relevance of the carer's personal appearance and interest in oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limeres, J; Martínez, F; Feijoo, J F; Ramos, I; Liñares, A; Diz, P

    2014-05-01

    To investigate whether there is a relationship between the oral hygiene habits of individuals with severe disability the carer's personal appearance and interest in oral health. The study group was formed of 60 disabled persons and their respective carers who came for the first time to consultation in the Special-Needs Dentistry Unit of the University of Santiago de Compostela, Spain. All the carers answered a standardised questionnaire of 28 questions divided into four sections: disabled individual's demographic data, disabled individual's general medical details, social aspects of the carer (personal appearance of the carer and interest in oral health), and disabled individual's oral hygiene habits. The personal appearance of the carers and their interest in the disabled individual's oral health were evaluated using independent scales designed specifically for the study, with five binary items in each scale. The carer's personal appearance and interest in the disabled individual's oral health showed a statistically significant relationship with the individual's oral hygiene habits, particularly with respect to the frequency and duration of toothbrushing, need for physical restraint during toothbrushing, use of a manual toothbrush and use of toothpaste. The carer's personal appearance and interest in the disabled individual's oral health are good indicators of the oral hygiene habits of an individual with severe disability. Consideration should be given to the inclusion of these aspects as a complementary element of the dental record. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Health Status, Social Support, and Quality of Life among Family Carers of Adults with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities (PIMD) in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Yueh-Ching; Chiao, Chi; Fu, Li-Yeh

    2011-01-01

    Background: Primary family carers of adults with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) experience a range of considerable demands. Method: A census survey was conducted in a city of Taiwan; 796 family carers of adults (aged 18 or older) diagnosed with intellectual disability and/or with multiple disabilities living with the family…

  17. Unmet needs of people with severe multiple sclerosis and their carers: qualitative findings for a home-based intervention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Borreani

    Full Text Available Few data on services for people with severe multiple sclerosis (MS are available. The Palliative Network for Severely Affected Adults with MS in Italy (PeNSAMI developed a home palliative care program for MS patients and carers, preceded by a literature review and qualitative study (here reported.To identify unmet needs of people with severe MS living at home by qualitative research involving key stakeholders, and theorize broad areas of intervention to meet those needs.Data were collected from: at least 10 personal interviews with adults with severe MS (primary/secondary progressive, EDSS≥8.0; three focus group meetings (FGs of carers of people with severe MS; and two FGs of health professionals (HPs. Grounded theory guided the analysis of interview and FG transcripts, from which the areas of intervention were theorized.Between October 2012 and May 2013, 22 MS patients, 30 carers and 18 HPs participated. Forty-eight needs themes were identified, grouped into 14 categories and four domains. Seven, highly interdependent intervention areas were theorized. Patients had difficulties expressing needs; experiences of burden and loneliness were prominent, chiefly in dysfunctional, less affluent families, and among parent carers. Needs differed across Italy with requirements for information and access to services highest in the South. All participants voiced a strong need for qualified personnel and care coordination in day-to-day home care. Personal hygiene emerged as crucial, as did the need for a supportive network and preservation of patient/carer roles within family and community.Unmet needs transcended medical issues and embraced organizational and psychosocial themes, as well as health policies. The high interdependence of the seven intervention areas theorized is in line with the multifaceted approach of palliative care. At variance with typical palliative contexts, coping with disability rather than end-of-life was a major concern of patients

  18. Children as carers: an integrative review Niños como cuidadores: revisión integrativa Crianças como cuidadoras: revisão integrativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Sofia Filipe Marote

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to undertake an integrative literature review on the issue of "Children as carers". This is an emerging topic in the provision of health care, but nevertheless has a low profile in the literature. METHODOLOGY: this study was based in a survey of nine databases of scientific articles, using as descriptor: child, young, caregivers, lay carer and nursing role, as well as the corresponding terms in Portuguese. 21 articles were analyzed. RESULTS: these were organized into six categories - factors which motivate the child to take on the role of caregiver; these children's characteristics; tasks performed; time spent in caring; consequences of providing care and the role of the nurse in partnership with these children and their families. CONCLUSION: the children as carers are a focus of attention relevant to nursing practice, this issue representing an opportunity for investigation in Portuguese-speaking countries, as no article was found on the subject in Portuguese. In addition, with this first study in Portuguese, a work of the creation of a bibliography is begun, allowing an awareness of the issue and the identification of ways to respond to the families involved, in line with their needs.OBJETIVO: realizar una revisión bibliográfica integrativa del tema "Niños como Cuidadores". Se Trata de un tema emergente en la prestación de atenciones de salud, que sin embargo se mantiene poco visible en la literatura. METODOLOGÍA: se basó en una investigación sobre nueve bases de datos de artículos científicos, utilizándose como descriptores: child, young, caregivers, lay carer y nursing role, así como los correspondientes en portugués. Fueron analizados 21 artículos. RESULTADOS: fueron organizados en seis categorías - factores que motivan el niño a asumir el papel de cuidador; características de esos niños; tareas desempeñadas; tiempo pasado a cuidar; consecuencias de la prestación de atenciones y papel del enfermero junto de

  19. Self-efficacy and health-related quality of life in family carers of people with dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crellin, Nadia E.; Orrell, Martin; McDermott, Orii

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This review aims to explore the role of self-efficacy (SE) in the health-related quality of life (QoL) of family carers of people with dementia. Methods: A systematic review of literature identified a range of qualitative and quantitative studies. Search terms related to caring, SE......, and dementia. Narrative synthesis was adopted to synthesise the findings. Results: Twenty-two studies met the full inclusion criteria, these included 17 quantitative, four qualitative, and one mixed-method study. A model describing the role of task/domain-specific SE beliefs in family carer health-related Qo...

  20. Implementing a health promotion model in a young offender institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Sarah; Carter, Helen

    Young people in young offender institutions experience more physical and mental health problems than the general population. This article explores how the primary nursing service at HM Young Offenders Institution Huntercombe used national policy as a framework for managing change. In outlining the challenges and opportunities that influence practice development, we hope to demystify nursing in a prison setting, which is a hidden and often misunderstood aspect of healthcare.

  1. A systematic review on the factors associated with positive experiences in carers of someone with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, J; Snowden, A

    2016-07-27

    The aim of this review was to identify the factors associated with positive experiences in non-professional carers of someone with a cancer diagnosis. A systematic search of the following electronic databases was undertaken: Cochrane Library, CINAHL, PsycINFO, SocINDEX and Medline. Literature was searched using terms relating to cancer, caring and positive experiences. Additional records were identified through a manual search of relevant reference lists. The search included studies published in English from 1990 to June 2015. Two raters were involved in data extraction, quality appraisal, coding, synthesis and analysis. Evolutionary concept analysis was used as a guiding framework in order to focus on attributes associated with positive experiences. Fifty-two articles were included in this review. Analysis identified four overarching attributes: "gender," "personal resources," "finding meaning" and "social context." Despite the challenges associated with caring, this combination of internal and external factors enabled some carers to report positive experiences related to caring. This knowledge may be clinically helpful when designing supportive interventions. Strengths and limitations of these claims are discussed. Systematic review registration number: CRD42014014129.

  2. Nurses' Perceptions of Their Relationships with Informal Carers in Institutional Respite Care for Older People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirpa Salin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to describe nurses' experiences of their collaboration and relationships with family members in institutional respite care for the elderly. The family has a particularly important role in respite care, which is an extension of care provided at home. However no published studies were found on this subject. The data were collected through qualitative interviews (N=22. Content analysis of the nurses’ descriptions of their collaboration with family members yielded four main categories as follows: (1 conscious ignoring, (2 attempting to understand the family’s situation, (3 hinting at private family matters, and (4 being a friend. The results lend support to earlier findings which emphasize the complexity of relationships between nurses and family carers. A novel finding here is that these relationships may also develop into friendships. Greater emphasis must be placed on primary nursing so that the nurse and informal carer can build up a genuine relationship of trust. If periods of respite care are to help older people and their families to manage independently, it is imperative that nurses have the opportunity to visit their patients at home.

  3. Patients' and carers' experiences of gaining access to acute stroke care: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Madeleine; Ryan, Tony; Gardiner, Clare; Jones, Amanda

    2013-12-01

    Rapid access to acute stroke care is essential to improve stroke patient outcomes. Policy recommendations for the emergency management of stroke have resulted in significant changes to stroke services, including the introduction of hyper-acute care. To explore patients' and carers' experiences of gaining access to acute stroke care and identify the factors that enabled or prevented stroke from being treated as a medical emergency. Qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted with 59 stroke survivors and carers who had received care at seven UK centres. The interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim and thematic analysis was undertaken. Themes emerging showed that participants recognised signs and symptoms, they were satisfied with access to emergency medical services (EMS), and they experienced setbacks in the emergency department and delays caused by the lack of availability of specialist services outside normal working hours. Awareness of the importance of time to treatment was generally attributed to the UK stroke awareness campaign, although some felt the message was not sufficiently comprehensive. This awareness led to increased frustration when participants perceived a lack of urgency in the provision of assessment and medical care. The stroke awareness social marketing campaign has contributed to public knowledge and was perceived to assist in reducing prehospital delay. It has also resulted in an enhanced knowledge of the significance of rapid treatment on admission to hospital and raised public expectation of EMS and stroke services to act fast. More research is required to assist organisational change to reduce in-hospital delay.

  4. Homecare user needs from the perspective of the patient and carers: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keeling DI

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Debbie Isobel Keeling School of Business and Economics, Loughborough University, Loughborough, UK Abstract: There is a global shift towards a blending of care delivery within formal and informal environments in direct response to economic and demographic pressures. Homecare is at the hub of this activity, enabling people to age in place and keeping families intact. However, our understanding of patient and carer needs is fragmented; understandably so, given the complexity of these needs. This descriptive review offers a content analysis of papers focused on patients' and carers' needs and homecare published between January 2010 and October 2013. It is evident that homecare is an intensely researched area, yet it is disjointed. Emerging research emphasizes the need to take a holistic approach. Firstly, incorporating emotional psychosocial and cultural elements will help to draw together our current understanding within a more cohesive framework. Secondly, tensions that hinder communication and collaboration between stakeholders must be resolved. Thirdly, information and communications technology is rapidly becoming synonymous with homecare, and offers solutions for facilitating care delivery, collaboration, and training of future professionals. The rate of international activity promises much for future research collaborations to compare, contrast, and identify best practices for the future of homecare as we endeavor to meet the ever-increasing pressures on health and social care systems. Keywords: homecare, home health care, patient needs, caregiver needs, telehealth, telemonitoring, patient-centered care

  5. Privacy and confidentiality: perspectives of mental health consumers and carers in pharmacy settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattingh, Hendrika Laetitia; Knox, Kathy; Fejzic, Jasmina; McConnell, Denise; Fowler, Jane L; Mey, Amary; Kelly, Fiona; Wheeler, Amanda J

    2015-02-01

    The study aims to explore within the community pharmacy practice context the views of mental health stakeholders on: (1) current and past experiences of privacy, confidentiality and support; and (2) expectations and needs in relation to privacy and confidentiality. In-depth interviews and focus groups were conducted in three states in Australia, namely Queensland, the northern region of New South Wales and Western Australia, between December 2011 and March 2012. There were 98 participants consisting of consumers and carers (n = 74), health professionals (n = 13) and representatives from consumer organisations (n = 11). Participants highlighted a need for improved staff awareness. Consumers indicated a desire to receive information in a way that respects their privacy and confidentiality, in an appropriate space. Areas identified that require improved protection of privacy and confidentiality during pharmacy interactions were the number of staff having access to sensitive information, workflow models causing information exposure and pharmacies' layout not facilitating private discussions. Challenges experienced by carers created feelings of isolation which could impact on care. This study explored mental health stakeholders' experiences and expectations regarding privacy and confidentiality in the Australian community pharmacy context. A need for better pharmacy staff training about the importance of privacy and confidentiality and strategies to enhance compliance with national pharmacy practice requirements was identified. Findings provided insight into privacy and confidentiality needs and will assist in the development of pharmacy staff training material to better support consumers with sensitive conditions. © 2014 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  6. Expanding a Care Network for People with Dementia and their Carers Through Musicking: Participant Observation with

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariko Hara

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 0 2 false false false EN-US JA X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Music use in dementia care often takes place within a music therapy context, where music therapy sessions aim to reduce agitated behaviour, access emotions or enhance inter-personal communication. Such sessions usually take place within care homes and their effect has been evaluated by a number of studies. However, there is little research on music use that takes place outside of care homes (e.g. in community centres for people with dementia who are cared for at home by their family. This paper discusses this type of music use, focusing on the meaning of weekly local music making activities in relation to every day dementia care. I use empirical data from a study of a community based music activity called "Singing for the Brain" (SFTB run by the Alzheimer's Society in the UK. The data was collected through extensive participant observation research and interviews with organisers, carers and care receivers. The preliminary findings from the data analysis are discussed: how SFTB can be seen as a ecological practice; its various “spin-off’ effects in the everyday care of the members with dementia; how SFTB, together with other local music groups, constitute the music and care world in the town; and how this develops into fluid support networks to support local people with dementia and their carers.

  7. Hidden penis release: adjunctive suprapubic lipectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, C E; Vorstman, B; Teasley, D; Winslow, B

    1987-08-01

    We believe the hidden penis may be caused and concealed by a prominent suprapubic fat pad in addition to the restrictive fibrous bands of the dartos fascia fixing the shaft of the penis proximally while loose skin folds prolapse distally over the phallus. A penis of inadequate length or appearance may affect body image. Patients with this problem often require psychological support. Hidden penis may be distinguished from micropenis by palpating adequate corpora and showing a stretched penile length within 2 SD of normal. Excision of suprapubic fat with sectioning of the tethering dartos bands will release and increase the length of the penis. Suprapubic fat pad resection may also be helpful to elongate a short penis in cases of adult microphallus, or after partial penectomy because of trauma or cancer. Circumcision is contraindicated.

  8. Laser experiments explore the hidden sector

    CERN Document Server

    Ahlers, M; Jaeckel, J; Redondo, J; Ringwald, A

    2007-01-01

    Recently, the laser experiments BMV and GammeV, searching for light shining through walls, have published data and calculated new limits on the allowed masses and couplings for axion-like particles. In this note we point out that these experiments can serve to constrain a much wider variety of hidden-sector particles such as, e.g., minicharged particles and hidden-sector photons. The new experiments improve the existing bounds from the older BFRT experiment by a factor of two. Moreover, we use the new PVLAS constraints on a possible rotation and ellipticity of light after it has passed through a strong magnetic field to constrain pure minicharged particle models. For masses <~0.05 eV, the charge is now restricted to be less than (3-4)x10^(-7) times the electron electric charge. This is the best laboratory bound and comparable to bounds inferred from the energy spectrum of the cosmic microwave background.

  9. Extended abstract of a hidden agenda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goguen, J.; Malcolm, G. [Oxford Univ. (United Kingdom)

    1996-12-31

    The initial goal of our hidden research programme was both straightforward and ambitious: give a semantics for software engineering, and in particular for the object paradigm, supporting correctness proofs that are as simple and mechanical as possible. This emphasizes proofs rather than models, and thus suggests an equational approach, rather than one based on higher order logic, denotational semantics, or any kind of model, because equational proofs achieve maximal simplicity and mechanization, and yet are fully expressive. We introduce powerful coinduction techniques for proving behavioral properties of complex systems. We make the no doubt outrageous claim that our hidden approach gives simpler proofs than other formalisms; this is because we exploit algebraic structure that most other approaches discard.

  10. Hidden geometric correlations in real multiplex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleineberg, Kaj-Kolja; Boguñá, Marián; Ángeles Serrano, M.; Papadopoulos, Fragkiskos

    2016-11-01

    Real networks often form interacting parts of larger and more complex systems. Examples can be found in different domains, ranging from the Internet to structural and functional brain networks. Here, we show that these multiplex systems are not random combinations of single network layers. Instead, they are organized in specific ways dictated by hidden geometric correlations between the layers. We find that these correlations are significant in different real multiplexes, and form a key framework for answering many important questions. Specifically, we show that these geometric correlations facilitate the definition and detection of multidimensional communities, which are sets of nodes that are simultaneously similar in multiple layers. They also enable accurate trans-layer link prediction, meaning that connections in one layer can be predicted by observing the hidden geometric space of another layer. And they allow efficient targeted navigation in the multilayer system using only local knowledge, outperforming navigation in the single layers only if the geometric correlations are sufficiently strong.

  11. Binary hidden Markov models and varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Critch, Andrew J

    2012-01-01

    The technological applications of hidden Markov models have been extremely diverse and successful, including natural language processing, gesture recognition, gene sequencing, and Kalman filtering of physical measurements. HMMs are highly non-linear statistical models, and just as linear models are amenable to linear algebraic techniques, non-linear models are amenable to commutative algebra and algebraic geometry. This paper examines closely those HMMs in which all the random variables, called nodes, are binary. Its main contributions are (1) minimal defining equations for the 4-node model, comprising 21 quadrics and 29 cubics, which were computed using Gr\\"obner bases in the cumulant coordinates of Sturmfels and Zwiernik, and (2) a birational parametrization for every binary HMM, with an explicit inverse for recovering the hidden parameters in terms of observables. The new model parameters in (2) are hence rationally identifiable in the sense of Sullivant, Garcia-Puente, and Spielvogel, and each model's Zar...

  12. The Carer's Cookbook - A Month of Balanced Meals and Recipes Carolyn Peacock The Carer's Cookbook - A Month of Balanced Meals and Recipes Draycott Nursing & Care 143pp £15.99 0 954 1024 0 1 0954102401 [Formula: see text].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-26

    First published in 2001, this cookbook is a godsend for nurses and carers who lack confidence in the kitchen. Angela Hamlin, founder of Draycott Nursing & Care, says the need for a simple recipe book became apparent when interviewing prospective staff: 'Their repertoire often consisted of cooking sausages or stir-fry.'

  13. The Hidden Gifts of Quiet Kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trierweiler, Hannah

    2006-01-01

    The author relates that she was an introvert child. It has always taken her time and energy to find her place in a group. As a grown-up, she still needed quiet time to regroup during a busy day. In this article, the author presents an interview with Marti Olsen Laney, author of "The Hidden Gifts of the Introverted Child." During the interview,…

  14. Finite State Transducers Approximating Hidden Markov Models

    CERN Document Server

    Kempe, A

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the conversion of a Hidden Markov Model into a sequential transducer that closely approximates the behavior of the stochastic model. This transformation is especially advantageous for part-of-speech tagging because the resulting transducer can be composed with other transducers that encode correction rules for the most frequent tagging errors. The speed of tagging is also improved. The described methods have been implemented and successfully tested on six languages.

  15. Hidden symmetries in dilaton-axion gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Kechkin, O V

    1996-01-01

    Four--dimensional Einstein--Maxwell--dilaton--axion system restricted to space--times with one non--null Killing symmetry is formulated as the three--dimensional gravity coupled sigma--model. Several alternative representations are discussed and the associated hidden symmetries are revealed. The action of target space isometries on the initial set of (non--dualized ) variables is found. New mulicenter solutions are obtained via generating technique based on the formulation in terms of the non--dualized variables.

  16. Caldera rim collapse: A hidden volcanic hazard

    OpenAIRE

    Merle, Olivier; Michon, Laurent; Bachèlery, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    International audience; Following the emblematic flank collapse of Mount St Helens in 1981, numerous models of flank sliding have been proposed. These models have allowed to largely improve the understanding of mechanisms involved in such landslides, which represent a tremendous risk for populations living around volcanoes. In this article, a new mode of landslide formation, related to buried calderas, is described. The model emphasizes the paramount importance of the hidden ring fault that, ...

  17. Killing and letting die: hidden value assumptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, G

    1983-01-01

    In this paper I argue for several related theses: first, that the distinction between killing and letting die, as it is drawn by ordinary persons in ordinary contexts, is more complex than is generally understood; second, that the key feature of this complexity lies in the presence of a hidden normative component in what appears to be a straightforwardly descriptive distinction; and, third, that this complexity renders the killing/letting die distinction an inadequate and hazardous guide for moral reasoning.

  18. Online Learning in Discrete Hidden Markov Models

    OpenAIRE

    Alamino, Roberto C.; Caticha, Nestor

    2007-01-01

    We present and analyse three online algorithms for learning in discrete Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) and compare them with the Baldi-Chauvin Algorithm. Using the Kullback-Leibler divergence as a measure of generalisation error we draw learning curves in simplified situations. The performance for learning drifting concepts of one of the presented algorithms is analysed and compared with the Baldi-Chauvin algorithm in the same situations. A brief discussion about learning and symmetry breaking b...

  19. Young Market: Young Consumers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shang Lin'aiyi

    2009-01-01

    @@ This young generation enjoys a staggering amount of purchasing power in China.That's because the population of young consumers in China is massive. They were born after China instituted its one-child policy in the late 1970s and grew up in the context of China launching its economic reforms and opening up to the world outside.

  20. Lepton mixing from the hidden sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludl, P. O.; Smirnov, A. Yu.

    2015-10-01

    Experimental results indicate a possible relation between the lepton and quark mixing matrices of the form UPMNS≈VCKM†UX , where UX is a matrix with special structure related to the mechanism of neutrino mass generation. We propose a framework which can realize such a relation. The main ingredients of the framework are the double seesaw mechanism, SO(10) grand unification and a hidden sector of theory. The latter is composed of singlets (fermions and bosons) of the grand unified theory (GUT) symmetry with masses between the GUT and Planck scale. The interactions in this sector obey certain symmetries Ghidden. We explore the conditions under which symmetries Ghidden can produce flavor structures in the visible sector. Here the key elements are the basis-fixing symmetry and mediators which communicate information about properties of the hidden sector to the visible one. The interplay of SO(10) symmetry, basis-fixing symmetry identified as Z2×Z2 and Ghidden can lead to the required form of UX. A different kind of new physics is responsible for generation of the CKM mixing. We present the simplest realizations of the framework which differ by nature of the mediators and by symmetries of the hidden sector.

  1. Otoendoscopic treatment of hidden lesions in otomastoiditis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yang; SUN Jian-jun; LIN Yong-sheng; ZHAO Dan-heng; ZHAO Jing; LEI Fei

    2010-01-01

    Background Surgical treatments for chronic suppurative and cholesteatoma otitis media have been discussed for several decades, but recurrences still occur because of the complex dissection required and hidden lesions associated with otomastoiditis. This study investigated the technology and strategy behind the use of otoendoscopic-assisted otosurgery.Methods We reported on hidden lesions in 32 ears of patients with otomastoiditis between November 2006 and January 2009. All the patients were treated with the aid of an otoendoscope. The advantages of otoendoscopy, including multi-angle light scattering, aperture illumination, and magnification of the local operative field, were utilized in otologic microsurgery, and otoendoscopic operative techniques were introduced for operative sites such as the epitympanum, aditus of the antrum, facial recess, sinus tympani and the mastoid tip.Results All patients were followed up from 3 months to 2 years after surgery. All patients recovered well within 3 months following surgery, except for one case of epithelialization of the mastoid cavity occurring 6 months after surgery for cholesteatoma on the cerebellar surface and another case with Bezold's abscess, hyperplastic granulation tissue developed at the antrum.Conclusions Otoendoscopy can overcome the technical deficiency of rectilinearity of the visual axis associated with otomicroscopic illumination, which presents a problem when dealing with otomastoiditis lesions in hidden areas. This technique allows such lesions within the complex three-dimensional structure to be visualized and cleaned. Otoendoscopy thus has significant potential for improving the quality of surgery and reducing the risk of postoperative recurrence.

  2. Dark matter in the hidden gauge theory

    CERN Document Server

    Yamanaka, Nodoka; Gongyo, Shinya; Iida, Hideaki

    2014-01-01

    The cosmological scenario of the dark matter generated in the hidden gauge theory based on the grand unification is discussed. It is found that the stability of the dark matter halo of our Galaxy and the cosmic ray observation constrain, respectively, the dark matter mass and the unification scale between the standard model and the hidden gauge theory sectors. To obtain a phenomenologically consistent thermal evolution, the entropy of the standard model sector needs to be increased. We therefore propose a scenario where the mini-inflation is induced from the potential coupled to the Standard model sector, in particular the Higgs sector. This scenario makes consistent the current dark matter density as well as the baryon-to-photon ratio for the case of pion dark matter. For the glueball or heavy pion of hidden gauge theory, an additional mini-inflation in the standard model sector before the leptogenesis is required. We also propose the possibility to confirm this scenario by known prospective experimental app...

  3. Pre- and post-training evaluation of dental efficacy and activation measures in carers of adults with disabilities in South Australia - a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Archana; Keuskamp, Dominic; Brennan, David

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to train carers to provide oral care for adults with disabilities and to evaluate the training programme. Forty-one carers of 103 care recipients from three disability organisations in South Australia were trained in providing oral care for adults with disabilities (April 2013-April 2014). The training included an oral presentation and practical session by a special needs dentist on completing oral health assessments (OHA), developing oral healthcare plans, providing oral hygiene care and assessing the need for dental referral. Continued support was provided via home visits by dental hygienists for the first 2 months and a dentist visit at 3 months. At 6 months, agreement on OHAs between the dentist and trained carers was assessed. Pre- and post-training questionnaires (at 6 months) collected information on dental behaviours of carers and psychosocial factors: carer activation measure-knowledge (CAM-Knowledge), carer activation measure-skills (CAM-Skills), carer activation measure-confidence (CAM-Confidence) and carer dental efficacy (CDE) items (carer diligence, self-efficacy and priority). Post-training (among 16 retained carers), there were significant increases in the mean scores of CAM-Knowledge and CAM-Confidence, but not for CAM-Skills (paired-samples t-tests, α = 0.05). Per cent agreement of CDE items varied little between questionnaires. Carer-dentist agreement on OHAs was generally high with kappa values ranging from 0.63 for the assessment of gums to 1.0 for the assessment of tongue, roof of mouth, denture and dental pain. Further, carers were able to assess the need for referral of their care recipients' oral health similar to the dentist. These findings suggest that with combined theoretical and practical training and continued support, non-dental professionals like carers can improve their knowledge and confidence in providing oral care for adults with disabilities. However, the findings of this pilot study need

  4. Information Needs of Family Carers of People with Diabetes at the End of Life: A Literature Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dikkers, M.F.; Dunning, T.; Savage, S.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Recent research identified the issue that family carers of people with diabetes at the end of life (EOL) did not receive sufficient information to enable them to help their relative manage their diabetes at the EOL. Aim: The aim of the current study was to identify by conducting a litera

  5. Dying from cancer in developed and developing countries: lessons from two qualitative interview studies of patients and their carers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Scott A; Grant, Elizabeth; Grant, Angus; Kendall, Marilyn

    2003-02-15

    To describe the experiences of illness and needs and use of services in two groups of patients with incurable cancer, one in a developed country and the other in a developing country. Scotland: longitudinal study with qualitative interviews. Kenya: cross sectional study with qualitative interviews. Lothian region, Scotland, and Meru District, Kenya. Scotland: 20 patients with inoperable lung cancer and their carers. Kenya: 24 patients with common advanced cancers and their main informal carers. Descriptions of experiences, needs, and available services. 67 interviews were conducted in Scotland and 46 in Kenya. The emotional pain of facing death was the prime concern of Scottish patients and their carers, while physical pain and financial worries dominated the lives of Kenyan patients and their carers. In Scotland, free health and social services (including financial assistance) were available, but sometimes underused. In Kenya, analgesia, essential equipment, suitable food, and assistance in care were often inaccessible and unaffordable, resulting in considerable unmet physical needs. Kenyan patients thought that their psychological, social, and spiritual needs were met by their families, local community, and religious groups. Some Scottish patients thought that such non-physical needs went unmet. In patients living in developed and developing countries there are differences not only in resources available for patients dying from cancer but also in their lived experience of illness. The expression of needs and how they are met in different cultural contexts can inform local assessment of needs and provide insights for initiatives in holistic cancer care.

  6. Perceived Barriers and Facilitators to Positive Therapeutic Change for People with Intellectual Disabilities: Client, Carer and Clinical Psychologist Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsden, Sarah; Tickle, Anna; Dawson, David L.; Harris, Samantha

    2016-01-01

    Studies have highlighted successful outcomes of psychological therapies for people with intellectual disabilities. However, processes underlying these outcomes are uncertain. Thematic analysis was used to explore the perceptions of three clinical psychologists, six clients and six carers of barriers and facilitators to therapeutic change for…

  7. Impact of gastrostomy tube feeding on the quality of life of carers of children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Peter B; Juszczak, Edmund; Bachlet, Allison M E; Thomas, Adrian G; Lambert, Bridget; Vernon-Roberts, Angharad; Grant, Hugh W; Eltumi, Muftah; Alder, Nicola; Jenkinson, Crispin

    2004-12-01

    The aim of this prospective cohort study was to evaluate the impact of gastrostomy tube feeding on the quality of life of carers of children with cerebral palsy (CP). Short-Form 36 version II was used to measure quality of life in carers of 57 Caucasian children with CP (28 females, 29 males; median age 4y 4mo, range 5mo to 17y 3mo) six and 12 months after insertion of a gastrostomy tube. Responses were calibrated against a normative dataset (Oxford Healthy Life Survey III). Six months after gastrostomy feeding was started, a substantial rise in mean domain scores for mental health, role limitations due to emotional problems, physical functioning, social functioning, and energy/vitality were observed. At 12 months after gastrostomy placement, carers reported significant improvements in social functioning, mental health, energy/vitality (mean increase >9.8 points;pnutritional status. This study has demonstrated a significant, measurable improvement in the quality of life of carers after insertion of a gastrostomy feeding tube.

  8. Carer-Reported Contemporary Health Problems in People with Severe and Profound Intellectual Disability and Genetic Syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Katy; Arron, Kate; Burbidge, Cheryl; Moss, Joanna; Oliver, Chris

    2007-01-01

    Identifying health problems in people with severe and profound disabilities and genetic syndromes can be problematic, and unidentified or unmanaged health problems may adversely impact an individual's quality of life. The authors studied carer-reported contemporary health problems in three genetic syndromes (Angelman, Cornelia de Lange, and Cri du…

  9. Consumers and carers as partners in mental health research: reflections on the experience of two project teams in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callander, Rosemary; Ning, Lei; Crowley, Anna; Childs, Bianca; Brisbane, Pam; Salter, Tony

    2011-08-01

    A successful working partnership in research between a consumer project team from the Victorian Mental Illness Awareness Council and a carer project team from the Victorian Mental Health Carers Network was forged during their collaborative involvement in an innovative 2-year pilot project funded by the Victorian Government of Australia. This project trialled new ways of capturing consumer and carer experiences of mental health services, and that feedback was integrated into service quality improvement. Towards the end of the project, an external facilitator was used to enable the two teams to reflect on their experience of working together so that their joint story could be shared with others and used to promote further use of this approach in the mental health field. Main findings included the importance of having strong support and belief at leadership levels, opportunities to build the relationship and develop mutual trust and respect, a common vision and a clearly articulated set of values, targeted training appropriate to the needs of the team members, independent work bases, and mutual support to overcome challenges encountered during the project. The experience forged a close working relationship between the two teams and has set the scene for further participation of consumers and carers in research and innovative quality-improvement processes in the mental health field. © 2011 The Authors. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing © 2011 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  10. The Application of the Theory of Planned Behaviour to Diet in Carers of People with an Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Catherine M.; McKenzie, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Background: The utility of the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) in predicting the intentions of care staff to encourage healthy eating behaviour in those they supported was examined. Method: A quantitative, within-participant, questionnaire based design was used with 112 carers to assess the performance of two TPB models. The first contained the…

  11. A qualitative analysis of changes in relationship dynamics and roles between people with cancer and their primary informal carer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ussher, Jane M; Tim Wong, W K; Perz, Janette

    2011-11-01

    It is widely accepted that cancer is an intersubjective experience that impacts upon the psychological well-being of people with cancer and informal carers, as well as on couple relationships. This qualitative study examined the nature and consequences of cancer on the relationship between informal carers and the person with cancer, from the perspective of Australian cancer carers. Sixty-two carers (42 women and 20 men), across a range of cancer types, stages and relationship dyads took part in semi-structured interviews. Participants reported that cancer had precipitated a change in roles and in the dynamics of the relationship, including having to take on quasi-medical tasks and decisions, neglecting self and other relationships, changes to the emotions or personality of the person with cancer, changed patterns of communication, and changes to sexuality and intimacy. The impact of the changed relationship included sadness, anger and frustration, as well as feelings of love and being closer together, resulting in relationship enhancement. Women were more likely to report changes in the person with cancer and to mourn the previous relationship, while more men reported relationship enhancement.

  12. Perceived Barriers and Facilitators to Positive Therapeutic Change for People with Intellectual Disabilities: Client, Carer and Clinical Psychologist Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsden, Sarah; Tickle, Anna; Dawson, David L.; Harris, Samantha

    2016-01-01

    Studies have highlighted successful outcomes of psychological therapies for people with intellectual disabilities. However, processes underlying these outcomes are uncertain. Thematic analysis was used to explore the perceptions of three clinical psychologists, six clients and six carers of barriers and facilitators to therapeutic change for…

  13. The Application of the Theory of Planned Behaviour to Diet in Carers of People with an Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Catherine M.; McKenzie, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Background: The utility of the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) in predicting the intentions of care staff to encourage healthy eating behaviour in those they supported was examined. Method: A quantitative, within-participant, questionnaire based design was used with 112 carers to assess the performance of two TPB models. The first contained the…

  14. Communication training for centre-based carers of children with severe or profound disabilities in the Western Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Geiger

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to provide a preliminary, qualitative review of an approach to training centre-based carers in supporting basic communication development and providing communication opportunities for the children with severe and profound disabilities in their care. In South Africa, these children are often the most neglected in terms of planning and providing appropriate interventions. For those with severe communication disabilities, an additional lack is in the area of the basic human right to meaningful interactions and communication. Sustainable strategies to provide opportunities for basic communication development of these children are urgently sought. Several effective international and local parent training programmes have been developed, but the urgent need remains to train centre-based carers who are taking care of groups of diversely disabled children in severely under-resourced settings. Non-profit organisations (NPOs have been exploring practical centre-based approaches to skills sharing in physical rehabilitation, activities for daily living, feeding and support for basic communication development. As a freelance speech therapist contracted by four NPOs to implement hands-on training in basic communication for centre-based carers of non-verbal children, the author describes a training approach that evolved over three years, in collaboration with the carers and centre managements. Implications for training (for speech therapists and for community-based rehabilitation workers and for further research are identified.

  15. Professional carers' knowledge and response to depression among their aged-care clients: the care recipients' perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, David; Davison, Tanya; McCabe, Marita; George, Kuruvilla

    2008-05-01

    Depression is an under-diagnosed disorder among the elderly, even in those who are in receipt of aged-care services. One factor associated with this under diagnosis has been identified as a reluctance amongst the elderly to discuss their mood and emotions with their medical practitioners. The current study focused on why depression is not recognised and acted on by those providing residential or home-based care to older people. We interviewed 15 elderly people residing in high-level or low-level aged-care facilities, and three elderly people who were receiving personal care in their homes. All participants had been identified by their care agencies as depressed. Participants reported their perceptions of their personal carers' knowledge and practices in managing the residents' depression. Although the participants described their carers in positive terms, they were critical of their knowledge and skills in recognising depression, and indicated that the communication between personal carers and care recipients about depressive symptomatology was seriously flawed. Training for personal carers in these areas, and efforts to change organisational culture are recommended.

  16. Challenging Behavior Training for Teaching Staff and Family Carers of Children with Intellectual Disabilities: A Preliminary Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, Nick; Umizawa, Hiromi

    2011-01-01

    Training programs on the topic of challenging behaviors have often been offered to teaching staff and family carers of children with intellectual disabilities (ID). These efforts have been found to be effective in bringing about positive changes for both children with ID and those who support them. Generally, such training has been offered to…

  17. Caring for a Child with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Parents' Quality of Life: Application of the CarerQol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.J. Hoefman (Renske); N. Payakachat (Nalin); N.J.A. van Exel (Job); K.A. Kuhlthau (Karen); E.M. Kovacs (Erica); J.M. Pyne (Jeffrey); J.M. Tilford (John Mick)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractThis study describes the impact of caregiving on parents of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Secondly, we investigate construct validation of the care-related quality of life instrument (CarerQol) measuring impact of caregiving. Primary caregivers of children with ASDs wer

  18. Information Needs of Family Carers of People with Diabetes at the End of Life: A Literature Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dikkers, M.F.; Dunning, T.; Savage, S.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Recent research identified the issue that family carers of people with diabetes at the end of life (EOL) did not receive sufficient information to enable them to help their relative manage their diabetes at the EOL. Aim: The aim of the current study was to identify by conducting a

  19. [2-COM: presentation of an instrument facilitating communication between physicians and carers in daily practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, P H; Michel, E; Van Os, J; Altamura, A C; Bobes, J; Gerlach, J; Hellewell, J S E; Kasper, S; Nabel, D

    2007-01-01

    Communication between the patient and the professional carer lies at the heart of all decisions regarding diagnosis and treatment. However, patients and doctors often have divergent views on care needs; 2-COM (for 2-communication) is a simple patient-completed self-report instrument designed in order to facilitate patient-professional carer communication. Aims - To present 2-COM and to examine whether providing patients with an opportunity to identify and discuss their needs would improve communication and induce changes in care. Methods - The 2-COM is a simple list of 20 common problems, or areas of perceived need, that might be experienced by patients with severe mental illness. The list includes problems with housing, relationships, money, lack of activities, psychological distress, sexuality, symptoms and treatment side effects; 2-COM has shown adequate test-retest reliability and is well accepted by patients as a valued aid to communication with their doctor; 134 patients in a clinical diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were recruited at seven European centres: Maastricht, Oviedo, Gijon, Hamburg, Copenhagen, Milan and Nice. The assessment took place over 3 out patient clinic visits; at visit 1, the clinician recorded a list of all current interventions, including medication and non-medical treatments, together with demographic information and an assessment of current level of functioning, using the Global Assessment of Functioning scale. Prior to the second visit, patients were randomised to receive either 2-COM or "standard care" - a routine appointment without 2-COM. Immediately after the interview, all patients, whether they had completed 2-COM or not, completed a confidential questionnaire in which they could indicate the perceived quality of communication. Similarly, clinicians completed a repeat of the list of all current interventions, together with an assessment of any changes to the treatment plan implemented after the interview

  20. Filling the gaps and finding our way: family carers navigating the healthcare system to access physical health services for the people they care for.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happell, Brenda; Wilson, Karen; Platania-Phung, Chris; Stanton, Robert

    2017-07-01

    To elicit the perspectives of carers of people with mental illness regarding access to, and experience with, physical healthcare services for mental health consumers. People diagnosed with mental illness have increased risks of physical illness and earlier death, problems able to be addressed through better physical health services. Carers of people with mental illness play a significant role in the mental healthcare system yet research examining their views is lacking. Qualitative exploratory. In-depth interviews were conducted with 13 mental health carers. They were asked to describe their views and experiences pertaining to the physical health and availability of physical health care for the people they care for. Data were analysed using the framework of Braun and Clarke. Analysis of carer responses identified two important themes: responsiveness and access, and a shortage of care coordination. Carers felt alienated from physical healthcare providers and were compelled to fill gaps in available care through persistence in ensuring access to physical healthcare services. The findings identify carers as key stakeholders in the physical health care for the people they care for. Their involvement in accessing and coordinating care provides vital perspective on health service capacity, which requires further consideration in the practice and research domains. Carers of people diagnosed with mental illness are crucial to the effective delivery of mental health services. Their perspectives must be central to their research agenda and contribute to the development of initiatives to improve clinical practice and promote improved physical health care. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Hidden laser communications through matter. An application of meV-scale hidden photons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeckel, Joerg [Durham Univ. (United Kingdom). Inst. for Particle Physics and Phenomenology; Redondo, Javier; Ringwald, Andreas [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2009-04-15

    Currently, there are a number of light-shining-through-walls experiments searching for hidden photons - light, sub-eV-scale, abelian gauge bosons beyond the standard model which mix kinetically with the standard photon. We show that in the case that one of these experiments finds evidence for hidden photons, laser communications through matter, using methods from free-space optics, can be realized in the very near future, with a channel capacity of more than 1 bit per second, for a distance up to the Earth's diameter. (orig.)

  2. Tracing the successful incorporation of assistive technology into everyday life for younger people with dementia and family carers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arntzen, Cathrine; Holthe, Torhild; Jentoft, Rita

    2016-07-01

    Research shows that people with late-onset dementia and their relatives can benefit from using assistive technology (AT). Few researchers have investigated the use and utility of AT in everyday life for younger people with dementia (YPD) and their family carers. The aim of this study is to explore what characterised the implementation process when the AT was experienced as beneficial to the YPD and the family carer in their daily life. The qualitative longitudinal study followed 12 younger people (i.e. those under 65 years of age), who had recently been diagnosed with dementia and 14 of their family carers. In-depth interviews and observations during the process were conducted at the beginning, and were repeated every 3rd month for up to 12 months. The data were analysed, and the participants' experiences further discussed on the basis of embodied, social- and everyday life-situated approaches, in order to provide a deeper understanding of the interactive processes involved in the trajectory. Five elements in the process were identified as important for the experience of usefulness and successful incorporation of AT. The AT had to: (1) be valuable by addressing practical, emotional, and relational challenges; (2) fit well into, or be a better solution for, habitual practice and established strategies; (3) generate positive emotions, and become a reliable and trustworthy tool; (4) be user-friendly, adaptable, and manageable; and (5) interest and engage the family carer. The study demonstrated the importance of understanding the use and utility of AT on the basis of embodied and social participation in daily life. The family carers played a significant role in whether or not, and in which ways, AT was absorbed into the everyday life practice of YPD.

  3. Working with the effects of traumatic bereavement by uxoricide (spouse killing) on young children's attachment behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, D

    1998-01-01

    This is a clinical description of the work of the Traumatic Stress Clinic, London with children where one parent kills the other, paying special attention to the disorder of attachment which occurs in a majority of the young children. It is suggested that this arises from the combination of the extreme trauma of witnessing the homicide, the frequent changes of carer, and the relative lack of therapeutic help.

  4. Microwave background constraints on mixing of photons with hidden photons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirizzi, Alessandro [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Redondo, Javier [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Sigl, Guenter [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2008-12-15

    Various extensions of the Standard Model predict the existence of hidden photons kinetically mixing with the ordinary photon. This mixing leads to oscillations between photons and hidden photons, analogous to the observed oscillations between different neutrino flavors. In this context, we derive new bounds on the photon-hidden photon mixing parameters using the high precision cosmic microwave background spectral data collected by the Far Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer instrument on board of the Cosmic Background Explorer. Requiring the distortions of the CMB induced by the photon-hidden photon mixing to be smaller than experimental upper limits, this leads to a bound on the mixing angle {chi}{sub 0} hidden photon masses between 10{sup -14} eV and 10{sup -7} eV. This low-mass and low-mixing region of the hidden photon parameter space was previously unconstrained. (orig.)

  5. Experiences of going to court: Witnesses with intellectual disabilities and their carers speak up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckene, Tessy; Forrester-Jones, Rachel; Murphy, Glynis H

    2017-03-31

    People with intellectual disabilities are more vulnerable to sexual abuse and are more disadvantaged in the criminal justice system than the general population. However, little is known about the experiences of people with intellectual disabilities who have allegedly been victims of sexual abuse and also been witnesses in court. This study used semi-structured interviews and a Grounded Theory approach to examine the experiences of four people with intellectual disabilities and four carers/supporters who had all attended trials. Findings showed that after the traumatic incident of abuse, a court experience could become a secondary source of trauma. Experience of this trauma was dependent on the quality and quantity of support people received and the understanding of intellectual disabilities amongst the legal participants. The findings argue for better training for legal participants who are in contact with vulnerable witnesses and better support structures for alleged victims. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Developing an information pack for the Asian carers of people with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, S; Upadhyaya, S; McNeil, J; Venkateswaran, S; Gilderdale, D

    2001-01-01

    An investigation is described which forms the basis for the development of an information package for the Asian carers of people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and learning disabilities. The results of semi-structured interviews and planning for questionnaires with three different linguistic Asian groups (Urdu, Gujarati and Bengali) are presented. The views, attitudes and awareness of autism, knowledge of support services and perceived priority of needs are analysed for the three different communities. The investigation concludes with recommendations as to whether separate information is needed by each culture or whether a single information pack can be used and presented in each language format. The possible presentation format in which the information can be produced is also discussed.

  7. VISIBLE COSTS AND HIDDEN COSTS IN THE BAKING INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Criveanu Maria

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Hidden costs are present in the activity of any company, hardly identified in the traditional administrative accounting. The high levels of the hidden costs and their unknown presence have serious consequences on the decisions made by the managers. This paper aims at presenting some aspects related to the hidden costs that occur in the activity of the companies in the baking industry and the possibilities to reduce their level.

  8. Hidden History: A Mobile Application for Discovering Surrounding Landscapes

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This thesis work describes the design, development and evaluation of a mobile application called Hidden History. This application lets users discover and explore three types of landscapes (Historic, Scenic and Cultural) using three different modes of discovery (Route, Explore and Tour). Before designing Hidden History, the feature set of other applications that help users explore surrounding landscapes were identified and analyzed. Hidden History was then designed to implement the best fea...

  9. HIDDEN WEB EXTRACTOR DYNAMIC WAY TO UNCOVER THE DEEP WEB

    OpenAIRE

    DR. ANURADHA; BABITA AHUJA

    2012-01-01

    In this era of digital tsunami of information on the web, everyone is completely dependent on the WWW for information retrieval. This has posed a challenging problem in extracting relevant data. Traditional web crawlers focus only on the surface web while the deep web keeps expanding behind the scene. The web databases are hidden behind the query interfaces. In this paper, we propose a Hidden Web Extractor (HWE) that can automatically discover and download data from the Hidden Web databases. ...

  10. ADAPTIVE LEARNING OF HIDDEN MARKOV MODELS FOR EMOTIONAL SPEECH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Tkachenia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An on-line unsupervised algorithm for estimating the hidden Markov models (HMM parame-ters is presented. The problem of hidden Markov models adaptation to emotional speech is solved. To increase the reliability of estimated HMM parameters, a mechanism of forgetting and updating is proposed. A functional block diagram of the hidden Markov models adaptation algorithm is also provided with obtained results, which improve the efficiency of emotional speech recognition.

  11. Hidden Photons in Aharonov-Bohm-Type Experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Arias, Paola; Diaz, Christian; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Jaeckel, Joerg; Koch, Benjamin; Redondo, Javier

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the Aharonov-Bohm effect in the presence of hidden photons kinetically mixed with the ordinary electromagnetic photons. The hidden photon field causes a slight phase shift in the observable interference pattern. It is then shown how the limited sensitivity of this experiment can be largely improved. The key observation is that the hidden photon field causes a leakage of the ordinary magnetic field into the supposedly field-free region. The direct measurement of this magnetic field ...

  12. VISIBLE COSTS AND HIDDEN COSTS IN THE BAKING INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Criveanu Maria; Ţaicu Marian

    2013-01-01

    Hidden costs are present in the activity of any company, hardly identified in the traditional administrative accounting. The high levels of the hidden costs and their unknown presence have serious consequences on the decisions made by the managers. This paper aims at presenting some aspects related to the hidden costs that occur in the activity of the companies in the baking industry and the possibilities to reduce their level.

  13. Singing modulates mood, stress, cortisol, cytokine and neuropeptide activity in cancer patients and carers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fancourt, Daisy; Williamon, Aaron; Carvalho, Livia A; Steptoe, Andrew; Dow, Rosie; Lewis, Ian

    2016-01-01

    There is growing evidence that psychosocial interventions can have psychological benefits for people affected by cancer, including improved symptoms of mental health and wellbeing and optimised immune responses. However, despite growing numbers of music interventions, particularly singing, in cancer care, there is less research into their impact. We carried out a multicentre single-arm preliminary study to assess the impact of singing on mood, stress and immune response in three populations affected by cancer: carers (n = 72), bereaved carers (n = 66) and patients (n = 55). Participants were excluded if pregnant or if they were currently being treated with chemotherapy, radiotherapy or oral immunosuppressive drugs. Participants were regular participants in five choirs across South Wales and took part in one hour of group singing. Before and after singing, visual analogue mood scales, stress scales and saliva samples testing for cortisol, beta-endorphin, oxytocin and ten cytokines were taken. Across all five centres and in all four participant groups, singing was associated with significant reductions in negative affect and increases in positive affect (p < .01) alongside significant increases in cytokines including GM-CSF, IL17, IL2, IL4 and sIL-2rα (all p < .01). In addition, singing was associated with reductions in cortisol, beta-endorphin and oxytocin levels. This study provides preliminary evidence that singing improves mood state and modulates components of the immune system. Further work is needed to ascertain how this differs for more specific patient groups and whether repeat exposure could lead to meaningful, longitudinal effects.

  14. Important features of home-based support services for older Australians and their informal carers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaffrey, Nikki; Gill, Liz; Kaambwa, Billingsley; Cameron, Ian D; Patterson, Jan; Crotty, Maria; Ratcliffe, Julie

    2015-11-01

    In Australia, newly initiated, publicly subsidised 'Home-Care Packages' designed to assist older people (≥ 65 years of age) living in their own home must now be offered on a 'consumer-directed care' (CDC) basis by service providers. However, CDC models have largely developed in the absence of evidence on users' views and preferences. The aim of this study was to determine what features (attributes) of consumer-directed, home-based support services are important to older people and their informal carers to inform the design of a discrete choice experiment (DCE). Semi-structured, face-to-face interviews were conducted in December 2012-November 2013 with 17 older people receiving home-based support services and 10 informal carers from 5 providers located in South Australia and New South Wales. Salient service characteristics important to participants were determined using thematic and constant comparative analysis and formulated into attributes and attribute levels for presentation within a DCE. Initially, eight broad themes were identified: information and knowledge, choice and control, self-managed continuum, effective co-ordination, effective communication, responsiveness and flexibility, continuity and planning. Attributes were formulated for the DCE by combining overlapping themes such as effective communication and co-ordination, and the self-managed continuum and planning into single attributes. Six salient service features that characterise consumer preferences for the provision of home-based support service models were identified: choice of provider, choice of support worker, flexibility in care activities provided, contact with the service co-ordinator, managing the budget and saving unspent funds. Best practice indicates that qualitative research with individuals who represent the population of interest should guide attribute selection for a DCE and this is the first study to employ such methods in aged care service provision. Further development of

  15. Patients' and carers' experiences of interacting with home haemodialysis technology: implications for quality and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkomar, Atish; Farrington, Ken; Mayer, Astrid; Walker, Diane; Blandford, Ann

    2014-12-11

    Little is known about patients' and carers' experiences of interacting with home haemodialysis (HHD) technology, in terms of user experience, how the design of the technology supports safety and fits with home use, and how the broader context of service provision impacts on patients' use of the technology. Data were gathered through ethnographic observations and interviews with 19 patients and their carers associated with four different hospitals in the UK, using five different HHD machines. All patients were managing their condition successfully on HHD. Data were analysed qualitatively, focusing on themes of how individuals used the machines and how they managed their own safety. Findings are organised by three themes: learning to use the technology, usability of the technology, and managing safety during dialysis. Home patients want to live their lives fully, and value the freedom and autonomy that HHD gives them; they adapt use of the technology to their lives and their home context. They also consider the machines to be safe; nevertheless, most participants reported feeling scared and having to learn through mistakes in the early months of dialysing at home. Home care nurses and technicians provide invaluable support. Although participants reported on strategies for anticipating problems and keeping safe, perceived limitations of the technology and of the broader system of care led some to trade off safety against immediate quality of life. Enhancing the quality and safety of the patient experience in HHD involves designing technology and the broader system of care to take account of how individuals manage their dialysis in the home. Possible design improvements to enhance the quality and safety of the patient experience include features to help patients manage their dialysis (e.g. providing timely reminders of next steps) and features to support communication between families and professionals (e.g. through remote monitoring).

  16. Patient and carer identified factors which contribute to safety incidents in primary care: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernan, Andrea L; Giles, Sally J; Fuller, Jeffrey; Johnson, Julie K; Walker, Christine; Dunbar, James A

    2015-09-01

    Patients can have an important role in reducing harm in primary-care settings. Learning from patient experience and feedback could improve patient safety. Evidence that captures patients' views of the various contributory factors to creating safe primary care is largely absent. The aim of this study was to address this evidence gap. Four focus groups and eight semistructured interviews were conducted with 34 patients and carers from south-east Australia. Participants were asked to describe their experiences of primary care. Audio recordings were transcribed verbatim and specific factors that contribute to safety incidents were identified in the analysis using the Yorkshire Contributory Factors Framework (YCFF). Other factors emerging from the data were also ascertained and added to the analytical framework. Thirteen factors that contribute to safety incidents in primary care were ascertained. Five unique factors for the primary-care setting were discovered in conjunction with eight factors present in the YCFF from hospital settings. The five unique primary care contributing factors to safety incidents represented a range of levels within the primary-care system from local working conditions to the upstream organisational level and the external policy context. The 13 factors included communication, access, patient factors, external policy context, dignity and respect, primary-secondary interface, continuity of care, task performance, task characteristics, time in the consultation, safety culture, team factors and the physical environment. Patient and carer feedback of this type could help primary-care professionals better understand and identify potential safety concerns and make appropriate service improvements. The comprehensive range of factors identified provides the groundwork for developing tools that systematically capture the multiple contributory factors to patient safety. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not

  17. Simple estimates of the hidden beauty pentaquarks masses

    CERN Document Server

    Kopeliovich, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    The masses of cryptoexotic pentaquarks with hidden beauty are estimated phenomenologically using the results by the LHCb collaboration which discovered recently the cryptoexotic pentaquarks with hidden charm. The expected masses of the hidden beauty pentaquarks are about $10.8\\, GeV$ and $10.7\\,GeV$ in the limit of some kind of heavy quark symmetry. The states with hidden strangeness considered in similar way have masses above $2\\, Gev$, by several hundreds of $MeV$ higher than states discussed previously in connection with the relatively light positive strangeness pentaquark $\\theta^+$.

  18. Critical scaling in hidden state inference for linear Langevin dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Bravi, Barbara; Sollich, Peter

    2016-01-01

    We consider the problem of inferring the dynamics of unknown (i.e. hidden) nodes from a set of observed trajectories and we study analytically the average prediction error given by the Extended Plefka Expansion applied to it, as presented in [1]. We focus on a stochastic linear dynamics of continuous degrees of freedom interacting via random Gaussian couplings in the infinite network size limit. The expected error on the hidden time courses can be found as the equal-time hidden-to-hidden cova...

  19. Error statistics of hidden Markov model and hidden Boltzmann model results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newberg Lee A

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hidden Markov models and hidden Boltzmann models are employed in computational biology and a variety of other scientific fields for a variety of analyses of sequential data. Whether the associated algorithms are used to compute an actual probability or, more generally, an odds ratio or some other score, a frequent requirement is that the error statistics of a given score be known. What is the chance that random data would achieve that score or better? What is the chance that a real signal would achieve a given score threshold? Results Here we present a novel general approach to estimating these false positive and true positive rates that is significantly more efficient than are existing general approaches. We validate the technique via an implementation within the HMMER 3.0 package, which scans DNA or protein sequence databases for patterns of interest, using a profile-HMM. Conclusion The new approach is faster than general naïve sampling approaches, and more general than other current approaches. It provides an efficient mechanism by which to estimate error statistics for hidden Markov model and hidden Boltzmann model results.

  20. Error statistics of hidden Markov model and hidden Boltzmann model results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newberg, Lee A

    2009-01-01

    Background Hidden Markov models and hidden Boltzmann models are employed in computational biology and a variety of other scientific fields for a variety of analyses of sequential data. Whether the associated algorithms are used to compute an actual probability or, more generally, an odds ratio or some other score, a frequent requirement is that the error statistics of a given score be known. What is the chance that random data would achieve that score or better? What is the chance that a real signal would achieve a given score threshold? Results Here we present a novel general approach to estimating these false positive and true positive rates that is significantly more efficient than are existing general approaches. We validate the technique via an implementation within the HMMER 3.0 package, which scans DNA or protein sequence databases for patterns of interest, using a profile-HMM. Conclusion The new approach is faster than general naïve sampling approaches, and more general than other current approaches. It provides an efficient mechanism by which to estimate error statistics for hidden Markov model and hidden Boltzmann model results. PMID:19589158

  1. Evolving the structure of hidden Markov Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    won, K. J.; Prugel-Bennett, A.; Krogh, A.

    2006-01-01

    A genetic algorithm (GA) is proposed for finding the structure of hidden Markov Models (HMMs) used for biological sequence analysis. The GA is designed to preserve biologically meaningful building blocks. The search through the space of HMM structures is combined with optimization of the emission...... and transition probabilities using the classic Baum-Welch algorithm. The system is tested on the problem of finding the promoter and coding region of C. jejuni. The resulting HMM has a superior discrimination ability to a handcrafted model that has been published in the literature....

  2. OFDM System Channel Estimation with Hidden Pilot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Feng; LIN Cheng-yu; ZHANG Wen-jun

    2007-01-01

    Channel estimation using pilot is common used in OFDM system. The pilot is usually time division multiplexed with the informative sequence. One of the main drawbacks is bandwidth losing. In this paper, a new method was proposed to perform channel estimation in OFDM system. The pilot is arithmetically added to the output of OFDM modulator. Receiver uses the hidden pilot to get an accurate estimation of the channel. Then pilot is removed after channel estimation. The Cramer-Rao lower bound for this method was deprived. The performance of the algorithm is then shown. Compared with traditional methods, the proposed algorithm increases the bandwidth efficiency dramatically.

  3. Pruning Boltzmann networks and hidden Markov models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten With; Stork, D.

    1996-01-01

    We present sensitivity-based pruning algorithms for general Boltzmann networks. Central to our methods is the efficient calculation of a second-order approximation to the true weight saliencies in a cross-entropy error. Building upon previous work which shows a formal correspondence between linear...... Boltzmann chains and hidden Markov models (HMMs), we argue that our method can be applied to HMMs as well. We illustrate pruning on Boltzmann zippers, which are equivalent to two HMMs with cross-connection links. We verify that our second-order approximation preserves the rank ordering of weight saliencies...

  4. Hidden photon CDM search at Tokyo

    CERN Document Server

    Suzuki, Jun'ya; Horie, Tomoki; Minowa, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    We report on a search for hidden photon cold dark matter (HP CDM) using a novel technique with a dish antenna. We constructed two independent apparatus: one is aiming at the detection of the HP with a mass of $\\sim\\,\\rm{eV}$ which employs optical instruments, and the other is for a mass of $\\sim5\\times10^{-5}\\, \\rm{eV}$ utilizing a commercially available parabolic antenna facing on a plane reflector. From the result of the measurements, we found no evidence for the existence of HP CDM and set upper limits on the photon-HP mixing parameter $\\chi$.

  5. Maurice Halbwachs: Official and hidden memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carretero, Angel

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This article tries to show, in general terms, how Maurice Halbwachs has discovered presence and vitality in the collective memorieswhich have been excluded from the socially-institutionalized world. In order to decipher his opaque writing, one should try for a sociology of the depths, for a sociological look that, separating itself from the dominant positivism of the social sciences, manages to penetrate the hidden logic that permanently underlies social life. This article seeks to uncover the nature of a collective memory that respects the vicissitudes of time, as well as its difficult relations both with official memory and with the dominant historical record.

  6. Scaling dimensions in hidden Kerr/CFT

    CERN Document Server

    Lowe, David A; Skanata, Antun

    2011-01-01

    It has been proposed that a hidden conformal field theory (CFT) governs the dynamics of low frequency scattering in a general Kerr black hole background. We further investigate this correspondence by mapping higher order corrections to the massless wave equations in a Kerr background to an expansion within the CFT in terms of higher dimension operators. This implies the presence of infinite towers of CFT primary operators with positive conformal dimensions compatible with unitarity. The exact Kerr background softly breaks the conformal symmetry and the scaling dimensions of these operators run with frequency. The scale-invariant fixed point is dual to a degenerate case of flat spacetime.

  7. Hidden Kerr/CFT at finite frequencies

    CERN Document Server

    Lowe, David A; Skanata, Antun

    2013-01-01

    Massless fields propagating in a generic Kerr black hole background enjoy a hidden SL(2,R)xSL(2,R) symmetry. We determine how the exact mode functions decompose into representations of this symmetry group. This extends earlier results on the low frequency limit of the massless scalar case to finite frequencies and general spin. As an application, we numerically determine the parameters of the representations that appear in quasinormal modes. These results represent a first step to formulating a more precise mapping to a holographic dual conformal field theory for generic black holes.

  8. A New Hidden Web Crawling Approach

    OpenAIRE

    L.Saoudi; A.Boukerram; S.Mhamedi

    2015-01-01

    Traditional search engines deal with the Surface Web which is a set of Web pages directly accessible through hyperlinks and ignores a large part of the Web called hidden Web which is a great amount of valuable information of online database which is “hidden” behind the query forms. To access to those information the crawler have to fill the forms with a valid data, for this reason we propose a new approach which use SQLI technique in order to find the most promising keywords of a specific dom...

  9. Hidden Scale Invariance in Condensed Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyre, J. C.

    2014-01-01

    . This means that the phase diagram becomes effectively one-dimensional with regard to several physical properties. Liquids and solids with isomorphs include most or all van der Waals bonded systems and metals, as well as weakly ionic or dipolar systems. On the other hand, systems with directional bonding...... (hydrogen bonds or covalent bonds) or strong Coulomb forces generally do not exhibit hidden scale invariance. The article reviews the theory behind this picture of condensed matter and the evidence for it coming from computer simulations and experiments...

  10. Genetic Algorithms Principles Towards Hidden Markov Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabil M. Hewahi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose a general approach based on Genetic Algorithms (GAs to evolve Hidden Markov Models (HMM. The problem appears when experts assign probability values for HMM, they use only some limited inputs. The assigned probability values might not be accurate to serve in other cases related to the same domain. We introduce an approach based on GAs to find
    out the suitable probability values for the HMM to be mostly correct in more cases than what have been used to assign the probability values.

  11. Fifty Years After, Hidden Children Speak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Léa Marcou

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available “For fifty years, I have not spoken of my childhood years in France during the second world war. A hidden child, I lived under a false name amongst unknown people, being careful – as I had been taught – not to reveal, by a gesture or by a word, that I was Jewish. I knew I was in danger, still not understanding why and I was constantly afraid. I didn't know whether I would see again one day my parents from whom I had been suddenly taken away. Nonetheless what were my pains compared to those of...

  12. Detecting Structural Breaks using Hidden Markov Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ntantamis, Christos

    Testing for structural breaks and identifying their location is essential for econometric modeling. In this paper, a Hidden Markov Model (HMM) approach is used in order to perform these tasks. Breaks are defined as the data points where the underlying Markov Chain switches from one state to another....... The locations of the breaks are subsequently obtained by assigning states to data points according to the Maximum Posterior Mode (MPM) algorithm. The Integrated Classification Likelihood-Bayesian Information Criterion (ICL-BIC) allows for the determination of the number of regimes by taking into account...... in the monetary policy of United States, the dierent functional form being variants of the Taylor (1993) rule....

  13. Uncovering the Hidden Costs of Offshoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Marcus M.; Manning, Stephan; Pedersen, Torben

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates estimation errors due to hidden costs—the costs of implementation that are neglected in strategic decision-making processes—in the context of services offshoring. Based on data from the Offshoring Research Network, we find that decision makers are more likely to make cost......-estimation errors given increasing configuration and task complexity in captive offshoring and offshore outsourcing, respectively. Moreover, we show that experience and a strong orientation toward organizational design in the offshoring strategy reduce the cost-estimation errors that follow from complexity. Our...

  14. Development and validation of an Eating Disorders Symptom Impact Scale (EDSIS for carers of people with eating disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hankins Matthew

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Family members of relatives with eating disorders experience high levels of distress due to the difficulties in their care giving role. However no measures have been developed to measure the specific impact that an individual with an eating disorder has on family life. The aim of this study was to develop a measure to assess the specific caregiving burden of both anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. A secondary aim was to examine whether this measure was sensitive to change. Methods A new scale, the Eating Disorders Symptom Impact Scale (EDSIS, was generated by a panel of clinicians and researchers based upon quantitative and qualitative work with carers and reviewed by a panel of "expert carers". A cross-sectional study was conducted among carers of relatives with an eating disorder to examine the properties of the new scale. In addition, participants from an ongoing pre-and-post design study completed several self-report questionnaires to assess the sensitivity of the EDSIS to change. Results A sample of 196 carers of relatives with an eating disorder aged 25–68 compted the scale. A 24-item EDSIS scale was derived with four factors: nutrition, guilt, dysregulated behaviour and social isolation. These explained 58.4% of the variance in carer distress. Reliability was acceptable (Cronbach's alpha ranged from 0.84 to 0.90. The convergent validity of the EDSIS subscales was moderately supported by correlations with a general caregiving measure (Experience of Caregiving Inventory (ECI, r = 0.42 to 0.60, psychological distress (General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12, r = 0.33 and perceived functioning of the relative (Children Global Assessment Scale (CGAS, r = -30. A sample of 57 primary caregivers completed pre-post intervention assessments and the overall scale (t = 2.3, p Conclusion The EDSIS instrument has good psychometric properties and may be of value to assess the impact of eating disorder symptoms on family members. It

  15. Women's hidden transcripts about abortion in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nations, M K; Misago, C; Fonseca, W; Correia, L L; Campbell, O M

    1997-06-01

    Two folk medical conditions, "delayed" (atrasada) and "suspended" (suspendida) menstruation, are described as perceived by poor Brazilian women in Northeast Brazil. Culturally prescribed methods to "regulate" these conditions and provoke menstrual bleeding are also described, including ingesting herbal remedies, patent drugs, and modern pharmaceuticals. The ingestion of such self-administered remedies is facilitated by the cognitive ambiguity, euphemisms, folklore, etc., which surround conception and gestation. The authors argue that the ethnomedical conditions of "delayed" and "suspended" menstruation and subsequent menstrual regulation are part of the "hidden reproductive transcript" of poor and powerless Brazilian women. Through popular culture, they voice their collective dissent to the official, public opinion about the illegality and immorality of induced abortion and the chronic lack of family planning services in Northeast Brazil. While many health professionals consider women's explanations of menstrual regulation as a "cover-up" for self-induced abortions, such popular justifications may represent either an unconscious or artful manipulation of hegemonic, anti-abortion ideology expressed in prudent, unobtrusive and veiled ways. The development of safer abortion alternatives should consider women's hidden reproductive transcripts.

  16. Atlas of solar hidden photon emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redondo, Javier [Departamento de Física Teórica, Universidad de Zaragoza,Pedro Cerbuna 12, E-50009, Zaragoza (Spain); Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, Werner-Heisenberg-Institut,Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany)

    2015-07-20

    Hidden photons, gauge bosons of a U(1) symmetry of a hidden sector, can constitute the dark matter of the universe and a smoking gun for large volume compactifications of string theory. In the sub-eV mass range, a possible discovery experiment consists on searching the copious flux of these particles emitted from the Sun in a helioscope setup à la Sikivie. In this paper, we compute in great detail the flux of HPs from the Sun, a necessary ingredient for interpreting such experiments. We provide a detailed exposition of transverse photon-HP oscillations in inhomogenous media, with special focus on resonance oscillations, which play a leading role in many cases. The region of the Sun emitting HPs resonantly is a thin spherical shell for which we justify an averaged-emission formula and which implies a distinctive morphology of the angular distribution of HPs on Earth in many cases. Low mass HPs with energies in the visible and IR have resonances very close to the photosphere where the solar plasma is not fully ionised and requires building a detailed model of solar refraction and absorption. We present results for a broad range of HP masses (from 0–1 keV) and energies (from the IR to the X-ray range), the most complete atlas of solar HP emission to date.

  17. Epitope discovery with phylogenetic hidden Markov models.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lacerda, Miguel

    2010-05-01

    Existing methods for the prediction of immunologically active T-cell epitopes are based on the amino acid sequence or structure of pathogen proteins. Additional information regarding the locations of epitopes may be acquired by considering the evolution of viruses in hosts with different immune backgrounds. In particular, immune-dependent evolutionary patterns at sites within or near T-cell epitopes can be used to enhance epitope identification. We have developed a mutation-selection model of T-cell epitope evolution that allows the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genotype of the host to influence the evolutionary process. This is one of the first examples of the incorporation of environmental parameters into a phylogenetic model and has many other potential applications where the selection pressures exerted on an organism can be related directly to environmental factors. We combine this novel evolutionary model with a hidden Markov model to identify contiguous amino acid positions that appear to evolve under immune pressure in the presence of specific host immune alleles and that therefore represent potential epitopes. This phylogenetic hidden Markov model provides a rigorous probabilistic framework that can be combined with sequence or structural information to improve epitope prediction. As a demonstration, we apply the model to a data set of HIV-1 protein-coding sequences and host HLA genotypes.

  18. Atlas of solar hidden photon emission

    CERN Document Server

    Redondo, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Hidden photons, gauge bosons of a U(1) symmetry of a hidden sector, can constitute the dark matter of the universe and a smoking gun for large volume compactifications of string theory. In the sub-eV mass range, a possible discovery experiment consists on searching the copious flux of these particles emitted from the Sun in a helioscope setup \\`a la Sikivie. In this paper, we compute the flux of transversely polarised HPs from the Sun, a necessary ingredient for interpreting such experiments. We provide a detailed exposition of photon-HP oscillations in inhomogenous media, with special focus on resonance oscillations, which play a leading role in many cases. The region of the Sun emitting HPs resonantly is a thin spherical shell for which we justify an averaged-emission formula and which implies a distinctive morphology of the angular distribution of HPs on Earth in many cases. Low mass HPs with energies in the visible and IR have resonances very close to the photosphere where the solar plasma is not fully io...

  19. Quantum Hidden Subgroup Problems A Mathematical Perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Lomonaco, S J; Lomonaco, Samuel J.; Kauffman, Louis H.

    2002-01-01

    The ultimate objective of this paper is to create a stepping stone to the development of new quantum algorithms. The strategy chosen is to begin by focusing on the class of abelian quantum hidden subgroup algorithms, i.e., the class of abelian algorithms of the Shor/Simon genre. Our strategy is to make this class of algorithms as mathematically transparent as possible. By the phrase "mathematically transparent" we mean to expose, to bring to the surface, and to make explicit the concealed mathematical structures that are inherently and fundamentally a part of such algorithms. In so doing, we create symbolic abelian quantum hidden subgroup algorithms that are analogous to the those symbolic algorithms found within such software packages as Axiom, Cayley, Maple, Mathematica, and Magma. As a spin-off of this effort, we create three different generalizations of Shor's quantum factoring algorithm to free abelian groups of finite rank. We refer to these algorithms as wandering (or vintage Z_Q) Shor algorithms. They...

  20. ESO's Hidden Treasures Brought to Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    ESO's Hidden Treasures 2010 astrophotography competition attracted nearly 100 entries, and ESO is delighted to announce the winners. Hidden Treasures gave amateur astronomers the opportunity to search ESO's vast archives of astronomical data for a well-hidden cosmic gem. Astronomy enthusiast Igor Chekalin from Russia won the first prize in this difficult but rewarding challenge - the trip of a lifetime to ESO's Very Large Telescope at Paranal, Chile. The pictures of the Universe that can be seen in ESO's releases are impressive. However, many hours of skilful work are required to assemble the raw greyscale data captured by the telescopes into these colourful images, correcting them for distortions and unwanted signatures of the instrument, and enhancing them so as to bring out the details contained in the astronomical data. ESO has a team of professional image processors, but for the ESO's Hidden Treasures 2010 competition, the experts decided to give astronomy and photography enthusiasts the opportunity to show the world what they could do with the mammoth amount of data contained in ESO's archives. The enthusiasts who responded to the call submitted nearly 100 entries in total - far exceeding initial expectations, given the difficult nature of the challenge. "We were completely taken aback both by the quantity and the quality of the images that were submitted. This was not a challenge for the faint-hearted, requiring both an advanced knowledge of data processing and an artistic eye. We are thrilled to have discovered so many talented people," said Lars Lindberg Christensen, Head of ESO's education and Public Outreach Department. Digging through many terabytes of professional astronomical data, the entrants had to identify a series of greyscale images of a celestial object that would reveal the hidden beauty of our Universe. The chance of a great reward for the lucky winner was enough to spur on the competitors; the first prize being a trip to ESO's Very Large

  1. Hidden Markov Model for Stock Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyet Nguyen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The hidden Markov model (HMM is typically used to predict the hidden regimes of observation data. Therefore, this model finds applications in many different areas, such as speech recognition systems, computational molecular biology and financial market predictions. In this paper, we use HMM for stock selection. We first use HMM to make monthly regime predictions for the four macroeconomic variables: inflation (consumer price index (CPI, industrial production index (INDPRO, stock market index (S&P 500 and market volatility (VIX. At the end of each month, we calibrate HMM’s parameters for each of these economic variables and predict its regimes for the next month. We then look back into historical data to find the time periods for which the four variables had similar regimes with the forecasted regimes. Within those similar periods, we analyze all of the S&P 500 stocks to identify which stock characteristics have been well rewarded during the time periods and assign scores and corresponding weights for each of the stock characteristics. A composite score of each stock is calculated based on the scores and weights of its features. Based on this algorithm, we choose the 50 top ranking stocks to buy. We compare the performances of the portfolio with the benchmark index, S&P 500. With an initial investment of $100 in December 1999, over 15 years, in December 2014, our portfolio had an average gain per annum of 14.9% versus 2.3% for the S&P 500.

  2. Hidden charm molecules in finite volume

    CERN Document Server

    Albaladejo, Miguel; Nieves, Juan; Oset, Eulogio

    2013-01-01

    In the present paper we address the interaction of pairs of charmed mesons with hidden charm in a finite box. We use the interaction from a recent model based on heavy quark spin symmetry that predicts molecules of hidden charm in the infinite volume. The energy levels in the box are generated within this model, and from them some synthetic data are generated. These data are then employed to study the inverse problem of getting the energies of the bound states and phase shifts for $D \\bar D$ or $D^* {\\bar D}^*$. Different strategies are investigated using the lowest two levels for different values of the box size, carrying a study of the errors produced. Starting from the upper level, fits to the synthetic data are carried out to determine the scattering length and effective range plus the binding energy of the ground state. A similar strategy using the effective range formula is considered with a simultaneous fit to the two levels, one above and the other one below threshold. This method turns out to be more...

  3. Laser experiments explore the hidden sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlers, M. [Oxford Univ. (United Kingdom). Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics; Gies, H. [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Jaeckel, J. [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik]|[Durham Univ. (United Kingdom). Inst. for Particle Physics Phenomenology; Redondo, J.; Ringwald, A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2007-11-15

    Recently, the laser experiments BMV and GammeV, searching for light shining through walls, have published data and calculated new limits on the allowed masses and couplings for axion-like particles. In this note we point out that these experiments can serve to constrain a much wider variety of hidden-sector particles such as, e.g., minicharged particles and hidden-sector photons. The new experiments improve the existing bounds from the older BFRT experiment by a factor of two. Moreover, we use the new PVLAS constraints on a possible rotation and ellipticity of light after it has passed through a strong magnetic field to constrain pure minicharged particle models. For masses

  4. Bayesian structural inference for hidden processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strelioff, Christopher C; Crutchfield, James P

    2014-04-01

    We introduce a Bayesian approach to discovering patterns in structurally complex processes. The proposed method of Bayesian structural inference (BSI) relies on a set of candidate unifilar hidden Markov model (uHMM) topologies for inference of process structure from a data series. We employ a recently developed exact enumeration of topological ε-machines. (A sequel then removes the topological restriction.) This subset of the uHMM topologies has the added benefit that inferred models are guaranteed to be ε-machines, irrespective of estimated transition probabilities. Properties of ε-machines and uHMMs allow for the derivation of analytic expressions for estimating transition probabilities, inferring start states, and comparing the posterior probability of candidate model topologies, despite process internal structure being only indirectly present in data. We demonstrate BSI's effectiveness in estimating a process's randomness, as reflected by the Shannon entropy rate, and its structure, as quantified by the statistical complexity. We also compare using the posterior distribution over candidate models and the single, maximum a posteriori model for point estimation and show that the former more accurately reflects uncertainty in estimated values. We apply BSI to in-class examples of finite- and infinite-order Markov processes, as well to an out-of-class, infinite-state hidden process.

  5. EQUIP training the trainers: an evaluation of a training programme for service users and carers involved in training mental health professionals in user-involved care planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, C; Grundy, A; Meade, O; Callaghan, P; Lovell, K

    2017-01-20

    WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: UK NHS policy highlights the importance of user and carer involvement in health professional training. We know little about service user and carer motivations and experiences of accessing training courses for delivering training to health professionals and how well such courses prepare them for delivering training to healthcare professionals. 'Involvement' in training has often been tokenistic and too narrowly focused on preregistration courses. There is limited data on how best to prepare and support potential service user and carer trainers. WHAT DOES THIS PAPER ADD TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: This study adds to the international literature by highlighting service user and carer motivations for accessing a training course for delivering training to health professionals. Service users and carers wanted to gain new skills and confidence in presentation/facilitation as well as to make a difference to healthcare practice. We also learned that service users desired different levels of involvement in training facilitation - some wanted to take a more active role than others. A one-size-fits-all approach is not always appropriate. Encountering resistance from staff in training was a previously unidentified challenge to service user and carers' experience of delivering training in practice and is a key challenge for trainers to address in future. Professional training involvement can be enhanced via specialist training such as the EQUIP training the trainers programme evaluated here. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: When training service users and carers to deliver training to mental health professionals, it is important that service users are equipped to deal with resistance from staff. It is important that service user and carer roles are negotiated and agreed prior to delivering training to healthcare professionals to accommodate individual preferences and allay anxieties. Training for service users and carers must be offered

  6. Systematic review and meta-analysis of the impact of carer stress on subsequent institutionalisation of community-dwelling older people.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora-Ann Donnelly

    Full Text Available In the caregiving literature there is a common assertion that a higher level of carer stress is a critical determinant of premature ending of homecare. However, this contention has not been systematically assessed. We therefore systematically reviewed and meta-analysed the prospective association between various forms of carer stress and subsequent institutionalisation of community-dwelling older people.Systematic literature search of prospective studies measuring carer stress at baseline and institutionalisation at follow-up. Given substantial interchangeability in the measurement of carer stress, we included a wide number of exposure measures, namely: carer stress, burden, depression, distress, anxiety, burnout, and strain. Institutionalisation included both acute and long-term care utilisation. The standardised mean difference between stressed and non-stressed carers was the primary measure of effect. We assessed study quality with the Crowe Critical Appraisal Tool (CCAT. Pre-planned sensitivity analysis included examination of estimates according to study size; decade published; study quality according to quartiles of CCAT scores; population; follow-up period; study design and impact of adjusted or unadjusted estimates.The search yielded 6,963 articles. After exclusions, we analysed data from 54 datasets. The meta-analysis found that while carer stress has a significant effect on subsequent institutionalisation of care recipients, the overall effect size was negligible (SMD = 0 · 05, 95% CI = 0 · 04-0 · 07. Sensitivity analyses found that, the effect size was higher for measurements of stress than for other measures, though still relatively small (SMD = 0 · 23, 95% CI = 0 · 09-0 · 38. Thus, whether analysing the association between carer stress, burden, distress, or depression with either acute or long-term care, the effect size remains small to negligible. Concurrently, we found estimates reduce over time and were smaller with larger

  7. Quantum algorithm for identifying hidden polynomial function graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Decker, T.; Draisma, J.; Wocjan, P.

    2009-01-01

    We consider a natural generalization of an abelian Hidden Subgroup Problem where the subgroups and their cosets correspond to graphs of linear functions over a finite field F with d elements. The hidden functions of the generalized problem are not restricted to be linear but can also be m-variate po

  8. Hidden attractor in the Rabinovich system, Chua circuits and PLL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, N. V.; Leonov, G. A.; Mokaev, T. N.; Seledzhi, S. M.

    2016-06-01

    In this report the existence of hidden attractors in Rabinovich system, phase-locked loop and coupled Chua circuits is considered. It is shown that the existence of hidden attractors may complicate the analysis of the systems and significantly affect the synchronization.

  9. Hidden Curriculum as One of Current Issue of Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsubaie, Merfat Ayesh

    2015-01-01

    There are several issues in the education system, especially in the curriculum field that affect education. Hidden curriculum is one of current controversial curriculum issues. Many hidden curricular issues are the result of assumptions and expectations that are not formally communicated, established, or conveyed within the learning environment.…

  10. Searching for hidden sector in multiparticle production at LHC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel-Angel Sanchis-Lozano

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We study the impact of a hidden sector beyond the Standard Model, e.g. a Hidden Valley model, on factorial moments and cumulants of multiplicity distributions in multiparticle production with a special emphasis on the prospects for LHC results.

  11. Secret Codes: The Hidden Curriculum of Semantic Web Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Richard; Carmichael, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    There is a long tradition in education of examination of the hidden curriculum, those elements which are implicit or tacit to the formal goals of education. This article draws upon that tradition to open up for investigation the hidden curriculum and assumptions about students and knowledge that are embedded in the coding undertaken to facilitate…

  12. Secret Codes: The Hidden Curriculum of Semantic Web Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Richard; Carmichael, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    There is a long tradition in education of examination of the hidden curriculum, those elements which are implicit or tacit to the formal goals of education. This article draws upon that tradition to open up for investigation the hidden curriculum and assumptions about students and knowledge that are embedded in the coding undertaken to facilitate…

  13. Seuss's Butter Battle Book: Is There Hidden Harm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Cleaf, David W.; Martin, Rita J.

    1986-01-01

    Examines whether elementary school children relate to the "harmful hidden message" about nuclear war in Dr. Seuss's THE BUTTER BATTLE BOOK. After ascertaining the children's cognitive level, they participated in activities to find hidden meanings in stories, including Seuss's book. Students failed to identify the nuclear war message in Seuss's…

  14. An introduction to hidden Markov models for biological sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Anders Stærmose

    1998-01-01

    A non-matematical tutorial on hidden Markov models (HMMs) plus a description of one of the applications of HMMs: gene finding.......A non-matematical tutorial on hidden Markov models (HMMs) plus a description of one of the applications of HMMs: gene finding....

  15. Detecting Hidden Hierarchy of Non Hierarchical Terrorist Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Memon, Nasrullah

    to analyze terrorist networks and prioritize their targets. Applying recently introduced mathematical methods for constructing the hidden hierarchy of "nonhierarchical" terrorist networks; we present case studies of the terrorist attacks occurred / planned in the past, in order to identify hidden hierarchy...

  16. How people with dementia and carers understand and react to social functioning changes in mild dementia: a UK-based qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, David; Mukadam, Naaheed; Livingston, Gill; Sommerlad, Andrew

    2017-07-12

    To analyse people with dementia and their family carers' attribution of social changes in dementia and the consequences of these attributions. Qualitative study, using a semi-structured interview guide. Individual interviews continued to theoretical saturation. Two researchers independently analysed interview transcripts. People with mild dementia and family carers purposively selected from London-based memory services for diverse demographic characteristics to encompass a range of experiences. Attribution of social changes experienced by the person with dementia and the consequences of these attributions. We interviewed nine people with dementia and nine carers, encompassing a range of age, ethnicity and educational backgrounds.Both groups reported that the person with dementia had changed socially. People with dementia tended to give one or two explanations for social change, but carers usually suggested several. People with dementia were often socially embarrassed or less interested in going out, and they or their relatives' physical illness or fear of falls led to reduced social activity. Carers often attributed not going out to a choice or premorbid personality. Carers found that their relative needed more support to go out than they could give and carers needed time to themselves because of carer stress or other problems from which they shielded the person with dementia. Additionally, there was decreased opportunity to socialise, as people were bereaved of friends and family. Participants acknowledged the direct impact of dementia symptoms on their ability to socially engage but sometimes decided to give up socialising when they knew they had dementia. There were negative consequences from social changes being attributed to factors such as choice, rather than dementia. Clinicians should ask about social changes in people with dementia. Explaining that these may be due to dementia and considering strategies to overcome them may be beneficial. © Article author

  17. Effectiveness of weekly cognitive stimulation therapy for people with dementia and the additional impact of enhancing cognitive stimulation therapy with a carer training program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cove, Jennifer; Jacobi, Nicola; Donovan, Helen; Orrell, Martin; Stott, Josh; Spector, Aimee

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of the study Cognitive stimulation therapy (CST) is a widely used, evidence-based intervention for people with dementia (PwD). Although designed as a 14 session, twice weekly intervention, many services in the UK deliver CST once a week for 14 weeks. However, this method of delivery has yet to be evaluated. In addition, CST does not include any formal carer training. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of once weekly CST and determine any additional impact when enhanced with a carer training program. Design and methods A single blind, randomized controlled trial was conducted. Sixty eight PwD and their carers were recruited through three community Memory Assessment Services. PwD and their carers were randomized to one of three conditions: CST plus carer training, CST only, or a wait list control. PwD were administered standardized measures of cognition, quality of life, and quality of relationship with carer at baseline and the 15 week follow-up. Results There were no baseline differences across the three groups. At follow-up, there were no significant differences between PwD in the three groups on any outcomes. Implications Weekly CST with or without carer training may not be an effective form of delivery. Several possible explanations for the outcomes are proposed. Weekly CST may not offer the necessary “dose” required to combat decline, and equally the carer training may have been too brief to have made a difference. Services currently offering weekly CST should collect routine outcome data to support its use and provide practice-based evidence. PMID:25525349

  18. Evaluating and Quantifying User and Carer Involvement in Mental Health Care Planning (EQUIP: Co-Development of a New Patient-Reported Outcome Measure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penny Bee

    Full Text Available International and national health policy seeks to increase service user and carer involvement in mental health care planning, but suitable user-centred tools to assess the success of these initiatives are not yet available. The current study describes the development of a new reliable and valid, interval-scaled service-user and carer reported outcome measure for quantifying user/carer involvement in mental health care planning. Psychometric development reduced a 70-item item bank to a short form questionnaire using a combination of Classical Test, Mokken and Rasch Analyses. Test-retest reliability was calculated using t-tests of interval level scores between baseline and 2-4 week follow-up. Items were worded to be relevant to both service users and carers. Nine items were removed following cognitive debriefing with a service user and carer advisory group. An iterative process of item removal reduced the remaining 61 items to a final 14-item scale. The final scale has acceptable scalability (Ho = .69, reliability (alpha = .92, fit to the Rasch model (χ2(70 = 97.25, p = .02, and no differential item functioning or locally dependent items. Scores remained stable over the 4 week follow-up period, indicating good test-retest reliability. The 'Evaluating the Quality of User and Carer Involvement in Care Planning (EQUIP' scale displays excellent psychometric properties and is capable of unidimensional linear measurement. The scale is short, user and carer-centred and will be of direct benefit to clinicians, services, auditors and researchers wishing to quantify levels of user and carer involvement in care planning.

  19. Acquiring a Pet Dog Significantly Reduces Stress of Primary Carers for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Prospective Case Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, H. F.; Hall, S.; Hames, A.; Hardiman, J.; Mills, R.; Mills, D. S.

    2015-01-01

    This study describes the impact of pet dogs on stress of primary carers of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Stress levels of 38 primary carers acquiring a dog and 24 controls not acquiring a dog were sampled at: Pre-intervention (17 weeks before acquiring a dog), post-intervention (3-10 weeks after acquisition) and follow-up…

  20. A Radio for Hidden-Photon Dark Matter Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Chaudhuri, Saptarshi; Irwin, Kent; Mardon, Jeremy; Rajendran, Surjeet; Zhao, Yue

    2014-01-01

    We propose a resonant electromagnetic detector to search for hidden-photon dark matter over an extensive range of masses. Hidden-photon dark matter can be described as a weakly coupled "hidden electric field," oscillating at a frequency fixed by the mass, and able to penetrate any shielding. At low frequencies (compared to the inverse size of the shielding), we find that observable effect of the hidden photon inside any shielding is a real, oscillating magnetic field. We outline experimental setups designed to search for hidden-photon dark matter, using a tunable, resonant LC circuit designed to couple to this magnetic field. Our "straw man" setups take into consideration resonator design, readout architecture and noise estimates. At high frequencies,there is an upper limit to the useful size of a single resonator set by $1/\

  1. Secluded Dark Matter Coupled to a Hidden CFT

    CERN Document Server

    von Harling, Benedict

    2012-01-01

    Models of secluded dark matter offer a variant on the standard WIMP picture and can modify our expectations for hidden sector phenomenology and detection. In this work we extend a minimal model of secluded dark matter, comprised of a U(1)'-charged dark matter candidate, to include a confining hidden-sector CFT. This provides a technically natural explanation for the hierarchically small mediator-scale, with hidden-sector confinement generating m_{gamma'}>0. Furthermore, the thermal history of the universe can differ markedly from the WIMP picture due to (i) new annihilation channels, (ii) a (potentially) large number of hidden-sector degrees of freedom, and (iii) a hidden-sector phase transition at temperatures T << M_{dm} after freeze out. The mediator allows both the dark matter and the Standard Model to communicate with the CFT, thus modifying the low-energy phenomenology and cosmic-ray signals from the secluded sector.

  2. Abelian Hidden Sectors at a GeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrissey, David E.; Poland, David; /Harvard U.; Zurek, Kathryn; /Fermilab /Michigan U.

    2009-04-16

    We discuss mechanisms for naturally generating GeV-scale hidden sectors in the context of weak-scale supersymmetry. Such low mass scales can arise when hidden sectors are more weakly coupled to supersymmetry breaking than the visible sector, as happens when supersymmetry breaking is communicated to the visible sector by gauge interactions under which the hidden sector is uncharged, or if the hidden sector is sequestered from gravity-mediated supersymmetry breaking. We study these mechanisms in detail in the context of gauge and gaugino mediation, and present specific models of Abelian GeV-scale hidden sectors. In particular, we discuss kinetic mixing of a U(1){sub x} gauge force with hypercharge, singlets or bi-fundamentals which couple to both sectors, and additional loop effects. Finally, we investigate the possible relevance of such sectors for dark matter phenomenology, as well as for low- and high-energy collider searches.

  3. HIDDEN WEB EXTRACTOR DYNAMIC WAY TO UNCOVER THE DEEP WEB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DR. ANURADHA

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this era of digital tsunami of information on the web, everyone is completely dependent on the WWW for information retrieval. This has posed a challenging problem in extracting relevant data. Traditional web crawlers focus only on the surface web while the deep web keeps expanding behind the scene. The web databases are hidden behind the query interfaces. In this paper, we propose a Hidden Web Extractor (HWE that can automatically discover and download data from the Hidden Web databases. Since the only “entry point” to a Hidden Web site is a query interface, the main challenge that a Hidden WebExtractor has to face is how to automatically generate meaningful queries for the unlimited number of website pages.

  4. Gauge Coupling Unification with Hidden Photon, and Minicharged Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Daido, Ryuji; Yokozaki, Norimi

    2016-01-01

    We show that gauge coupling unification is realized with a greater accuracy in the presence of a massless hidden photon which has a large kinetic mixing with hypercharge. We solve the renormalization group equations at two-loop level and find that the GUT unification scale is around $10^{16.5}$ GeV which sufficiently suppresses the proton decay rate, and that the unification depends only on the kinetic mixing, but not on the hidden gauge coupling nor the presence of vector-like matter fields charged under U(1)$_H$ and/or SU(5). Matter fields charged under the unbroken hidden U(1)$_H$ are stable and they contribute to dark matter. Interestingly, they become minicharged dark matter which carries a small but non-zero electric charge, if the hidden gauge coupling is tiny. The minicharged dark matter is a natural outcome of the gauge coupling unification with a hidden photon.

  5. A Hidden-Removal Model of Dam Perspective Drawing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zi-ru; ZHOU Hui-cheng; LI Ming-qiu

    2011-01-01

    Aming at water conservancy project visualization, a hidden-removal method of dam perspective drawings is realized by building a hidden-removal mathematical model for overlapping points location to set up the hidden relationship among point and plane, plane and plane in space. On this basis, as an example of panel rockfill dam, a dam hidden-removal perspective drawing is generated in different directions and different visual angles through adapting VC++ and OpenGL visualizing technology. The results show that the data construction of the model is simple which can overcome the disadvantages of considerable and complicated calculation. This method also provides the new means to draw hidden-removal perspective drawings for those landforms and ground objects.

  6. Individual music therapy for managing neuropsychiatric symptoms for people with dementia and their carers: a cluster randomised controlled feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ming Hung; Flowerdew, Rosamund; Parker, Michael; Fachner, Jörg; Odell-Miller, Helen

    2015-07-18

    Previous research highlights the importance of staff involvement in psychosocial interventions targeting neuropsychiatric symptoms of dementia. Music therapy has shown potential effects, but it is not clear how this intervention can be programmed to involve care staff within the delivery of patients' care. This study reports initial feasibility and outcomes from a five month music therapy programme including weekly individual active music therapy for people with dementia and weekly post-therapy video presentations for their carers in care homes. 17 care home residents and 10 care staff were randomised to the music therapy intervention group or standard care control group. The cluster randomised, controlled trial included baseline, 3-month, 5-month and post-intervention 7-month measures of residents' symptoms and well-being. Carer-resident interactions were also assessed. Feasibility was based on carers' feedback through semi-structured interviews, programme evaluations and track records of the study. The music therapy programme appeared to be a practicable and acceptable intervention for care home residents and staff in managing dementia symptoms. Recruitment and retention data indicated feasibility but also challenges. Preliminary outcomes indicated differences in symptoms (13.42, 95 % CI: [4.78 to 22.07; p = 0.006]) and in levels of wellbeing (-0.74, 95 % CI: [-1.15 to -0.33; p = 0.003]) between the two groups, indicating that residents receiving music therapy improved. Staff in the intervention group reported enhanced caregiving techniques as a result of the programme. The data supports the value of developing a music therapy programme involving weekly active individual music therapy sessions and music therapist-carer communication. The intervention is feasible with modifications in a more rigorous evaluation of a larger sample size. Clinicaltrials.gov, number NCT01744600.

  7. Discrimination and other barriers to accessing health care: perspectives of patients with mild and moderate intellectual disability and their carers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afia Ali

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: People with intellectual disability have a higher prevalence of physical health problems but often experience disparities in accessing health care. In England, a number of legislative changes, policies and recommendations have been introduced to improve health care access for this population. The aim of this qualitative study was to examine the extent to which patients with intellectual disability and their carers experience discrimination or other barriers in accessing health services, and whether health care experiences have improved over the last decade years. METHOD AND MAIN FINDINGS: Twenty nine participants (14 patient and carer dyads, and one carer took part in semi-structured interviews. The interviews were audio-taped and transcribed and analysed using thematic analysis. Eight themes were identified. Half the participants thought that the patient had been treated unfairly or had been discriminated against by health services. There were accounts of negative staff attitudes and behaviour, and failure of services to make reasonable adjustments. Other barriers included problems with communication, and accessing services because of lack of knowledge of local services and service eligibility issues; lack of support and involvement of carers; and language problems in participants from minority ethnic groups. Most participants were able to report at least one example of good practice in health care provision. Suggestions for improving services are presented. CONCLUSION: Despite some improvements to services as a result of health policies and recommendations, more progress is required to ensure that health services make reasonable adjustments to reduce both direct and indirect discrimination of people with intellectual disability.

  8. Slow Steps towards Dual Earner/Dual Carer Family Model: Why Do Fathers Not Take Parental Leave

    OpenAIRE

    Marre Karu; Kairi Kasearu

    2011-01-01

    The article looks at the transition of Estonian society towards dual earner/dual carer family model and focuses on fathers’ decision regarding taking their parental leave. Based on theory of planned behaviour by Ajzen, data from 20 qualitative interviews with fathers of small children are analysed to explore the beliefs fathers have when it comes to parental leave. The analysis distinguishes between two images of ‘good parenting’ that play a role in the fathers’ intention to take parental lea...

  9. The Application of the Theory of Planned Behaviour to Diet in Carers of People with an Intellectual Disability

    OpenAIRE

    Jenkins, Catherine; McKenzie, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Background - The utility of the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) in predicting the intentions of care staff to encourage healthy eating behaviour in those they supported was examined.\\ud \\ud Method - A quantitative, within-participant, questionnaire based design was used with 112 carers to assess the performance of two TPB models. The first contained the variables: attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavioural control. The second had additional variables of self efficacy and self ident...

  10. Association of quality of life of carers with quality of life and functional independence of stroke survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Ganjiwale

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stroke has a great impact not only on patients′ but also on their caregivers′ lives. Carers may experience high levels of burden that can result in deterioration of their health status, social life, and well-being. Association between quality of life (QOL of carers and that of stroke survivors in Indian setting is not much researched. Aims and Settings: To find out QOL and mental health of caregivers of individuals with stroke visiting Physiotherapy Department of Tertiary Care Center in Western India. Design and Methodology: A cross-sectional survey to find QOL and mental health of caregiver of stroke survivors, self-administered screening instrument WHO-QOL BREF, functional independence measurement (FIM scale, and BRIEF COPE were used for data collection on adult populations. Statistical Analysis Used: The statistical analysis was performed by descriptive analysis and correlation. Result: Fifty-four stroke patients and their caregivers (all adults were included in the study. Average FIM score was 83.75 (18.46 while median was 90 (25. FIM score of patients did not much affect QOL of caregivers. Discussion: Analysis of QOL data showed that QOL of caregivers was good in all domains, but patient′s QOL was good only in social relations. There was no correlation found in QOL of carers and stroke survivors. Nine percent of change in caregivers social relationship scores can be attributed to patients′ sphincter scores. Conclusion: QOL of carers and stroke survivors may be independent. Stroke patients in the study required a moderate assistance for their functional independence which does not seem to affect the caregivers QOL significantly.

  11. Identifying hidden sexual bridging communities in Chicago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youm, Yoosik; Mackesy-Amiti, Mary Ellen; Williams, Chyvette T; Ouellet, Lawrence J

    2009-07-01

    Bridge populations can play a central role in the spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) by providing transmission links between higher and lower prevalence populations. While social network methods are well suited to the study of bridge populations, analyses tend to focus on dyads (i.e., risk between drug and/or sex partners) and ignore bridges between distinct subpopulations. This study takes initial steps toward moving the analysis of sexual network linkages beyond individual and risk group levels to a community level in which Chicago's 77 community areas are examined as subpopulations for the purpose of identifying potential bridging communities. Of particular interest are "hidden" bridging communities; that is, areas with above-average levels of sexual ties with other areas but whose below-average AIDS prevalence may hide their potential importance for HIV prevention. Data for this analysis came from the first wave of recruiting at the Chicago Sexual Acquisition and Transmission of HIV Cooperative Agreement Program site. Between August 2005 through October 2006, respondent-driven sampling was used to recruit users of heroin, cocaine, or methamphetamine, men who have sex with men regardless of drug use, the sex partners of these two groups, and sex partners of the sex partners. In this cross-sectional study of the sexual transmission of HIV, participants completed a network-focused computer-assisted self-administered interview, which included questions about the geographic locations of sexual contacts with up to six recent partners. Bridging scores for each area were determined using a matrix representing Chicago's 77 community areas and were assessed using two measures: non-redundant ties and flow betweenness. Bridging measures and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) case prevalence rates were plotted for each community area on charts representing four conditions: below-average bridging and AIDS prevalence, below-average bridging and above

  12. Coping strategies and styles of family carers of persons with enduring mental illness: a mixed methods analysis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kartalova-O'Doherty, Yulia

    2008-03-01

    A qualitative exploratory study investigated the experiences and needs of family carers of persons with enduring mental illness in Ireland. The current mixed-methods secondary study used content analysis and statistical procedures to identify and explore the coping strategies emerging from the original interviews. The majority of family carers reported use of active behavioural coping strategies, sometimes combined with active cognitive or avoidance strategies. The percentage of cares reporting use of active cognitive strategies was the lowest among those whose ill relative lived in their home, and the highest among those whose relative lived independently. Participants with identified active cognitive strategies often reported that their relative was employed or in training. Participants who reported use of avoidance strategies were significantly younger than participants who did not report use of such strategies. The lowest percentage of avoidance strategies was among participants whose ill relative lived independently, whereas the highest was among carers whose relative lived in their home. The findings of this study highlight the importance of a contextual approach to studying coping styles and processes. Further research questions and methodological implications are discussed.

  13. Guilt, shame and expressed emotion in carers of people with long-term mental health difficulties: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, Mary Gemma; Taylor, Peter James; Brown, Stephen Lloyd; Rigby, Jake Wilfred; Sellwood, William

    2017-03-01

    Expressed emotion (EE) is a global index of familial emotional climate, whose primary components are emotional over-involvement (EOI) and critical comments (CC)/hostility. There is a strong theoretical rationale for hypothesising that carers' guilt and shame may be differentially associated with their EOI and CC/hostility respectively. This systematic review investigates the magnitude of these theorised associations in carers of people with long-term mental health difficulties. Electronic searches (conducted in May 2016 across Medline, CINAHL, Embase, PsycINFO and ProQuest) were supplemented with iterative hand searches. Ten papers, reporting data from eight studies, were included. Risk of bias was assessed using a standardised checklist. Relevant data were extracted and synthesised narratively. EOI was positively associated with both guilt and shame, whereas CC/hostility was positively associated with shame. The strength of associations varied depending on whether or not guilt and shame were assessed within the context of the caring relationship. Based on these data, an argument can be made for the refinement, development and evaluation of systemic and individual interventions designed to target carers' guilt and shame. However, more research is needed to clarify the strength of these associations and their direction of effect before firm conclusions can be drawn.

  14. Magneto-Radar Hidden Metal Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McEwan, Thomas E. (Las Vegas, NV)

    2005-07-05

    A varying magnetic field excites slight vibrations in an object and a radar sensor detects the vibrations at a harmonic of the excitation frequency. The synergy of the magnetic excitation and radar detection provides increased detection range compared to conventional magnetic metal detectors. The radar rejects background clutter by responding only to reflecting objects that are vibrating at a harmonic excitation field, thereby significantly improving detection reliability. As an exemplary arrangement, an ultra-wideband micropower impulse radar (MIR) is capable of being employed to provide superior materials penetration while providing range information. The magneto-radar may be applied to pre-screening magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) patients, landmine detection and finding hidden treasures.

  15. Effect of Noise on hidden data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garima Tomar

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper simulates an effective data hiding technique i.e. steganography based on LSB insertion and RSA encryption in order to provide seven million times better security than the previous work. The Main idea of proposed scheme is to encrypt secret data by RSA 1024 algorithm, convert it in to binary sequence bit and then embedded into each cover pixels by modifying the least significant bits (LSBs of cover pixels. The result image is also known as steganography image. The PSNR value of this steganography image is 54.34 db. In this paper Baboon image is used for experimental purpous.This steganography image is transmitted through AWGN channel, and performance is simulated. The image and hidden data are reconstructed with the SNR level ≥9 dB.

  16. Sending Hidden Data via Google Suggest

    CERN Document Server

    Bialczak, Piotr; Szczypiorski, Krzysztof

    2011-01-01

    Google Suggest is a service incorporated within Google Web Search which was created to help user find the right search phrase by proposing the autocompleting popular phrases while typing. The paper presents a new network steganography method called StegSuggest which utilizes suggestions generated by Google Suggest as a hidden data carrier. The detailed description of the method's idea is backed up with the analysis of the network traffic generated by the Google Suggest to prove its feasibility. The traffic analysis was also performed to discover the occurrence of two TCP options: Window Scale and Timestamp which StegSuggest uses to operate. Estimation of method steganographic bandwidth proves that it is possible to insert 100 bits of steganogram into every suggestions list sent by Google Suggest service.

  17. Grand unified hidden-sector dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonsdale, Stephen J.; Volkas, Raymond R.

    2014-10-01

    We explore G×G unified theories with the visible and the hidden or dark sectors paired under a Z2 symmetry. Developing a system of "asymmetric symmetry breaking" we motivate such models on the basis of their ability to generate dark baryons that are confined with a mass scale just above that of the proton, as motivated by asymmetric dark matter. This difference is achieved from the distinct but related confinement scales that develop in unified theories that have the two factors of G spontaneously breaking in an asymmetric manner. We show how Higgs potentials that admit different gauge group breaking chains in each sector can be constructed, and demonstrate the capacity for generating different fermion mass scales. Lastly we discuss supersymmetric extensions of such schemes.

  18. Hidden caries’ challenge diagnosis: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Mara de Paiva Bertoli

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hidden caries is a term used to describe occlusal dentine caries that is missed on a visual examination, but is large and demineralised enough to be detected by another exam for example, radiographs. Case report: This article reports a case of large dentine caries, which presented as to be a small pit-and-fissure carious lesion on the occlusal surface of the right mandibular permanent first molar in a 10-year-old girl. The treatment included root canal treatment and the sealing of the cavity with composite resin. Conclusion: Careful visual examination, with cleaning and drying of teeth, associated to bitewing radiographs may improve occlusal caries detection. Dentists should examine bitewing radiographs carefully for proximal caries and occlusal demineralization. Radiographs are an effective method of caries diagnosis that can avoid large destruction and allows less invasive treatment.

  19. Hidden expectations within the Danish VET system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjort-Madsen, Peder

    Researching the pressing retention and dropout problems of the Danish VET system (app. 20 pct. of a year group never achieve an upper secondary education) this paper takes its point of departure in the hypothesis that low performing students are kept in a marginal position (at the risk of dropping...... out) within the VET system, because of hidden expectations related to e.g. individualized responsibility, a certain student behavior (sitting still, participating actively), etc. By approaching the VET system as a cultural context (cultural praxis) the subtle reproductive mechanisms of the VET system...... are shown. With empirical examples from different introductory VET courses, it is shown how the school, the teachers and the students themselves are reproducing poor school performance and student background – being it gendered, ethnical or social – and hereby proving to the students, that school...

  20. Hidden expectations within the Danish VET system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjort-Madsen, Peder

    2011-01-01

    Researching the pressing retention and dropout problems of the Danish VET system (app. 20 pct. of a year group never achieve an upper secondary education) this paper takes its point of departure in the hypothesis that low performing students are kept in a marginal position (at the risk of dropping...... out) within the VET system, because of hidden expectations related to e.g. individualized responsibility, a certain student behavior (sitting still, participating actively), etc. By approaching the VET system as a cultural context (cultural praxis) the subtle reproductive mechanisms of the VET system...... are shown. With empirical examples from different introductory VET courses, it is shown how the school, the teachers and the students themselves are reproducing poor school performance and student background – being it gendered, ethnical or social – and hereby proving to the students, that school...

  1. Nuclear scissors modes and hidden angular momenta

    CERN Document Server

    Balbutsev, E B; Schuck, P

    2016-01-01

    The coupled dynamics of low lying modes and various giant resonances are studied with the help of the Wigner Function Moments method generalized to take into account spin degrees of freedom and pair correlations simultaneously. The method is based on Time Dependent Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov equations. The model of the harmonic oscillator including spin-orbit potential plus quadrupole-quadrupole and spin-spin interactions is considered. New low lying spin dependent modes are analyzed. Special attention is paid to the scissors modes. A new source of nuclear magnetism, connected with counter-rotation of spins up and down around the symmetry axis (hidden angular momenta), is discovered. Its inclusion into the theory allows one to improve substantially the agreement with experimental data in the description of energies and transition probabilities of scissors modes.

  2. Hidden expectations within the Danish VET system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjort-Madsen, Peder

    2011-01-01

    out) within the VET system, because of hidden expectations related to e.g. individualized responsibility, a certain student behavior (sitting still, participating actively), etc. By approaching the VET system as a cultural context (cultural praxis) the subtle reproductive mechanisms of the VET system...... are shown. With empirical examples from different introductory VET courses, it is shown how the school, the teachers and the students themselves are reproducing poor school performance and student background – being it gendered, ethnical or social – and hereby proving to the students, that school......Researching the pressing retention and dropout problems of the Danish VET system (app. 20 pct. of a year group never achieve an upper secondary education) this paper takes its point of departure in the hypothesis that low performing students are kept in a marginal position (at the risk of dropping...

  3. Hidden baryons: The physics of Compton composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Frederick J.

    2016-06-01

    A large fraction of the mass-energy of the Universe appears to be composed of Compton composites. How is it then that these composites are not frequently observed in experiments? This paper addresses this question, and others, by reviewing recent publications that: 1) introduced Compton composites, 2) showed how and where they are formed and 3) explained how they interact with other systems. Though ubiquitous in many physical situations, Compton composites are almost completely hidden in experiments due to their unique interaction characteristics. Still, their presence has been indirectly observed, though not interpreted as such until recently. Looking to the future, direct-detection experiments are proposed that could verify the composites' components. It is with deep sadness that I dedicate this paper to my mentor, collaborator, and friend, Dr. John R. Reitz, who passed away within days of the publication of our paper “Compton Composites Late in the Early Universe”.

  4. Hidden realities inside PBL design processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihl, Ole Verner

    2015-01-01

    Design Process, but is a group-based architecture and design education better than that which is individually based? How does PBL affect space, form, and creative processes? Hans Kiib, professor and one of the founders of the Department of Architecture and Design in Aalborg, describes his intentions...... within the group work, as it is closer related to the actual PBL process”. Is the Integrated Design Process (Knudstrup 2004) and is Colb (1975) still current and valid? Can we still use these methodologies when we must create “learning for an unknown future,” as Ronald Barnett (2004) claims that we...... investigates the creative processes of the collective and the individual and clarifies some of the hidden realities behind the PBL-based creative processes, both through an inquiry with the students and a more methodological and theoretical approach. The paper also explores how to integrate artistic...

  5. Aluminium Diphosphamethanides: Hidden Frustrated Lewis Pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styra, Steffen; Radius, Michael; Moos, Eric; Bihlmeier, Angela; Breher, Frank

    2016-07-04

    The synthesis and characterisation of two aluminium diphosphamethanide complexes, [Al(tBu)2 {κ(2) P,P'-Mes*PCHPMes*}] (3) and [Al(C6 F5 )2 {κ(2) P,P'-Mes*PCHPMes*}] (4), and the silylated analogue, Mes*PCHP(SiMe3 )Mes* (5), are reported. The aluminium complexes feature four-membered PCPAl core structures consisting of diphosphaallyl ligands. The silylated phosphine 5 was found to be a valuable precursor for the synthesis of 4 as it cleanly reacts with the diaryl aluminium chloride [(C6 F5 )2 AlCl]2 . The aluminium complex 3 reacts with molecular dihydrogen at room temperature under formation of the acyclic σ(2) λ(3) ,σ(3) λ(3) -diphosphine Mes*PCHP(H)Mes* and the corresponding dialkyl aluminium hydride [tBu2 AlH]3 . Thus, 3 belongs to the family of so-called hidden frustrated Lewis pairs.

  6. Wavelet domain hidden markovian bayesian document segmentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Junxi; Xiao Changyan; Zhang Su; Chen Yazhu

    2005-01-01

    A novel algorithm for Bayesian document segmentation is proposed based on the wavelet domain hidden Markov tree (HMT) model. Once the parameters of model are known, according to the sequential maximum a posterior probability (SMAP) rule, firstly, the likelihood probability of HMT model for each pattern is computed from fine to coarse procedure. Then, the interscale state transition probability is solved using Expectation Maximum (EM) algorithm based on hybrid-quadtree and multiscale context information is fused from coarse to fine procedure. In order to get pixellevel segmentation, the redundant wavelet domain Gaussian mixture model (GMM) is employed to formulate pixel-level statistical property. The experiment results show that the proposed scheme is feasible and robust.

  7. The Detection of Hidden Periodicities in EEG

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YOU Rong-yi

    2007-01-01

    Abstract.A novel method for detecting the hidden periodicities in EEG is proposed.By using a width-varying window in the time domain, the structure function of EEG time series is defined. It is found that the minima of the structure function, within a finite window width, can be found regularly, which indicate that there are some certain periodicities associated with EEG time series. Based on the structure function, a further quadratic structure function of EEG time series is defined. By quadratic structure function, it can be seen that the periodicities of EEG become more obvious, moreover, the period of EEG can be determined accurately. These results will be meaningful for studying the neuron activity inside the human brain.

  8. Hidden fungi, emergent properties: endophytes and microbiomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porras-Alfaro, Andrea; Bayman, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Endophytes are microorganisms that live within plant tissues without causing symptoms of disease. They are important components of plant microbiomes. Endophytes interact with, and overlap in function with, other core microbial groups that colonize plant tissues, e.g., mycorrhizal fungi, pathogens, epiphytes, and saprotrophs. Some fungal endophytes affect plant growth and plant responses to pathogens, herbivores, and environmental change; others produce useful or interesting secondary metabolites. Here, we focus on new techniques and approaches that can provide an integrative understanding of the role of fungal endophytes in the plant microbiome. Clavicipitaceous endophytes of grasses are not considered because they have unique properties distinct from other endophytes. Hidden from view and often overlooked, endophytes are emerging as their diversity, importance for plant growth and survival, and interactions with other organisms are revealed.

  9. A New Hidden Web Crawling Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.Saoudi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Traditional search engines deal with the Surface Web which is a set of Web pages directly accessible through hyperlinks and ignores a large part of the Web called hidden Web which is a great amount of valuable information of online database which is “hidden” behind the query forms. To access to those information the crawler have to fill the forms with a valid data, for this reason we propose a new approach which use SQLI technique in order to find the most promising keywords of a specific domain for automatic form submission. The effectiveness of proposed framework has been evaluated through experiments using real web sites and encouraging preliminary results were obtained

  10. Probabilistic Resilience in Hidden Markov Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panerati, Jacopo; Beltrame, Giovanni; Schwind, Nicolas; Zeltner, Stefan; Inoue, Katsumi

    2016-05-01

    Originally defined in the context of ecological systems and environmental sciences, resilience has grown to be a property of major interest for the design and analysis of many other complex systems: resilient networks and robotics systems other the desirable capability of absorbing disruption and transforming in response to external shocks, while still providing the services they were designed for. Starting from an existing formalization of resilience for constraint-based systems, we develop a probabilistic framework based on hidden Markov models. In doing so, we introduce two new important features: stochastic evolution and partial observability. Using our framework, we formalize a methodology for the evaluation of probabilities associated with generic properties, we describe an efficient algorithm for the computation of its essential inference step, and show that its complexity is comparable to other state-of-the-art inference algorithms.

  11. Identifying Exotic Hidden-Charm Pentaquarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rui; Liu, Xiang; Li, Xue-Qian; Zhu, Shi-Lin

    2015-09-25

    The LHCb Collaboration at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN discovered two pentaquark states P_{c}(4380) and P_{c}(4450). These two hidden-charm states are interpreted as the loosely bound Σ_{c}(2455)D^{*} and Σ_{c}^{*}(2520)D^{*} molecular states in the boson exchange interaction model, which provides an explanation for why the experimental width of P_{c}(4450) is much narrower than that of P_{c}(4380). The discovery of the new resonances P_{c}(4380) and P_{c}(4450), indeed, opens a new page for hadron physics. The partners of P_{c}(4380) and P_{c}(4450) should be pursued in future experiments.

  12. [Information and communication technology interventions supporting carers of people with Alzheimer's disease: a literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ya-Huei; Faucounau, Véronique; de Rotrou, Jocelyne; Riguet, Mathilde; Rigaud, Anne-Sophie

    2009-09-01

    Caregivers of patients with Alzheimer's disease or related disorders are exposed to many stress factors which increase the risk of developing physical and psychological disturbances. To limit these negative effects, different psychosocial interventions for carers have been proposed. With progress in technologies, telephone or the internet can offer flexible and tailored means to deliver this kind of interventions. In this literature review, we listed and analysed the articles devoted to this topic. Sixteen papers concerning nine intervention programs were selected. The analysis shows that the internet, as a means to deliver an intervention programme, is more interactive, attractive and less intrusive than telephone. Efficacy of the interventions via this kind of technologies can be compared to that observed in face to face ones: despite weak methodology and inconsistent outcomes of the studies, they showed some improvement in burden, anxiety, depression and self-efficacy. Finally, before implementation of this kind of technologies, it is necessary to test learnability, adaptability and acceptability. Usability of a technology is a key factor for its adoption and efficacy.

  13. Childhood disability in Turkana, Kenya: Understanding how carers cope in a complex humanitarian setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuurmond, Maria; Nyapera, Velma; Mwenda, Victoria; Kisia, James; Rono, Hilary; Palmer, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Although the consequences of disability are magnified in humanitarian contexts, research into the difficulties of caring for children with a disability in such settings has received limited attention. Based on in-depth interviews with 31 families, key informants and focus group discussions in Turkana, Kenya, this article explores the lives of families caring for children with a range of impairments (hearing, vision, physical and intellectual) in a complex humanitarian context characterised by drought, flooding, armed conflict, poverty and historical marginalisation. The challenging environmental and social conditions of Turkana magnified not only the impact of impairment on children, but also the burden of caregiving. The remoteness of Turkana, along with the paucity and fragmentation of health, rehabilitation and social services, posed major challenges and created opportunity costs for families. Disability-related stigma isolated mothers of children with disabilities, especially, increasing their burden of care and further limiting their access to services and humanitarian programmes. In a context where social systems are already stressed, the combination of these factors compounded the vulnerabilities faced by children with disabilities and their families. The needs of children with disabilities and their carers in Turkana are not being met by either community social support systems or humanitarian aid programmes. There is an urgent need to mainstream disability into Turkana services and programmes.

  14. Identifying changes in the support networks of end-of-life carers using social network analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Rosemary; Horsfall, Debbie; Noonan, Kerrie

    2015-06-01

    End-of-life caring is often associated with reduced social networks for both the dying person and for the carer. However, those adopting a community participation and development approach, see the potential for the expansion and strengthening of networks. This paper uses Knox, Savage and Harvey's definitions of three generations social network analysis to analyse the caring networks of people with a terminal illness who are being cared for at home and identifies changes in these caring networks that occurred over the period of caring. Participatory network mapping of initial and current networks was used in nine focus groups. The analysis used key concepts from social network analysis (size, density, transitivity, betweenness and local clustering) together with qualitative analyses of the group's reflections on the maps. The results showed an increase in the size of the networks and that ties between the original members of the network strengthened. The qualitative data revealed the importance between core and peripheral network members and the diverse contributions of the network members. The research supports the value of third generation social network analysis and the potential for end-of-life caring to build social capital. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  15. Cultural safety, diversity and the servicer user and carer movement in mental health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Leonie G; Simpson, Alan

    2015-12-01

    This study will be of interest to anyone concerned with a critical appraisal of mental health service users' and carers' participation in research collaboration and with the potential of the postcolonial paradigm of cultural safety to contribute to the service user research (SUR) movement. The history and nature of the mental health field and its relationship to colonial processes provokes a consideration of whether cultural safety could focus attention on diversity, power imbalance, cultural dominance and structural inequality, identified as barriers and tensions in SUR. We consider these issues in the context of state-driven approaches towards SUR in planning and evaluation and the concurrent rise of the SUR movement in the UK and Australia, societies with an intimate involvement in processes of colonisation. We consider the principles and motivations underlying cultural safety and SUR in the context of the policy agenda informing SUR. We conclude that while both cultural safety and SUR are underpinned by social constructionism constituting similarities in principles and intent, cultural safety has additional dimensions. Hence, we call on researchers to use the explicitly political and self-reflective process of cultural safety to think about and address issues of diversity, power and social justice in research collaboration.

  16. Using HPGe detector for a solar hidden-photons search

    CERN Document Server

    Horvat, R; Krcmar, M; Krecak, Z; Ljubicic, A

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we report on the results of our search for photons from a U(1) gauge factor in the hidden sector of the full theory, by observing the single spectrum in a HPGe detector arising as a result of the photoelectric-like absorption of hidden photons emitted from the Sun on germanium atoms inside the detector. The main ingredient of the theory used in our analysis, a severely constrained kinetic mixing from the two U(1) gauge factors and massive hidden photons, leads to both photon into hidden states oscillations and to a minuscule coupling of hidden photons to visible matter, of which the latter our experimental setup has been designed to observe. On a theoretical side, full account was taken of the effects of refraction and damping of photons while propagating in the Sun's interior. We exclude hidden photons with kinetic couplings chi > (1.5x10^{-6}-2.6x10^{-11}) for the mass region 1.7x10^{-4} eV < m_\\gamma' < 3.4 eV. Our constraints on the mixing parameter chi at sub-eV hidden-photon masses p...

  17. Feasibility of brief psychological distress screening by a community-based telephone helpline for cancer patients and carers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hutchison Sandy D

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Up to one-third of people affected by cancer experience ongoing psychological distress and would benefit from screening followed by an appropriate level of psychological intervention. This rarely occurs in routine clinical practice due to barriers such as lack of time and experience. This study investigated the feasibility of community-based telephone helpline operators screening callers affected by cancer for their level of distress using a brief screening tool (Distress Thermometer, and triaging to the appropriate level of care using a tiered model. Methods Consecutive cancer patients and carers who contacted the helpline from September-December 2006 (n = 341 were invited to participate. Routine screening and triage was conducted by helpline operators at this time. Additional socio-demographic and psychosocial adjustment data were collected by telephone interview by research staff following the initial call. Results The Distress Thermometer had good overall accuracy in detecting general psychosocial morbidity (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale cut-off score ≥ 15 for cancer patients (AUC = 0.73 and carers (AUC = 0.70. We found 73% of participants met the Distress Thermometer cut-off for distress caseness according to the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (a score ≥ 4, and optimal sensitivity (83%, 77% and specificity (51%, 48% were obtained with cut-offs of ≥ 4 and ≥ 6 in the patient and carer groups respectively. Distress was significantly associated with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale scores (total, as well as anxiety and depression subscales and level of care in cancer patients, as well as with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale anxiety subscale for carers. There was a trend for more highly distressed callers to be triaged to more intensive care, with patients with distress scores ≥ 4 more likely to receive extended or specialist care. Conclusions Our data suggest that it was feasible

  18. Strain and its correlates among carers of people with dementia in low-income and middle-income countries. A 10/66 Dementia Research Group population-based survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Martin; Brodaty, Henry; Uwakwe, Richard; Acosta, Daisy; Ferri, Cleusa P; Guerra, Mariella; Huang, Yueqin; Jacob, KS; Llibre Rodriguez, Juan J; Salas, Aquiles; Sosa, Ana Luisa; Williams, Joseph D; Jotheeswaran, AT; Liu, Zhaorui

    2012-01-01

    Objectives In a multi-site population-based study in several middle-income countries, we aimed to investigate relative contributions of care arrangements and characteristics of carers and care recipients to strain among carers of people with dementia. Based on previous research, hypotheses focused on carer sex, care inputs, behavioural and psychological symptoms (BPSD) and socioeconomic status, together with potential buffering effects of informal support and employing paid carers. Methods In population-based catchment area surveys in 11 sites in Latin America, India and China, we analysed data collected from people with dementia and care needs, and their carers. Carer strain was assessed with the Zarit Burden Interview. Results With 673 care recipient/carer dyads interviewed (99% of those eligible), mean Zarit Burden Interview scores ranged between 17.1 and 27.9 by site. Women carers reported more strain than men. The most substantial correlates of carer strain were primary stressors BPSD, dementia severity, needs for care and time spent caring. Socioeconomic status was not associated with carer strain. Those cutting back on work experienced higher strain. There was tentative evidence for a protective effect of having additional informal or paid support. Conclusions Our findings underline the global impact of caring for a person with dementia and support the need for scaling up carer support, education and training. That giving up work to care was prevalent and associated with substantial increased strain emphasizes the economic impact of caring on the household. Carer benefits, disability benefits for people with dementia and respite care should all be considered. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:22460403

  19. Hidden photon dark matter search with large metallic mirror

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doebrich, Babette; Lindner, Axel [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Daumiller, Kai; Engel, Ralph; Roth, Markus [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany); Kowalski, Marek [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Redondo, Javier [Zaragoza Univ. (Spain)

    2014-10-15

    If Dark Matter is composed of hidden-sector photons that kinetically mix with photons of the visible sector, then Dark Matter has a tiny oscillating electric field component. Its presence would lead to a small amount of visible radiation being emitted from a conducting surface, with the photon frequency given approximately by the mass of the hidden photon. Here, we report on experimental efforts that have started recently to search for such hidden photon Dark Matter in the (sub-)eV regime with a prototype mirror for the Auger fluorescence detector at the Karlsruhe Institute for Technology.

  20. Suppressing the QCD axion abundance by hidden monopoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawasaki, Masahiro [Tokyo Univ., Chiba (Japan). Inst. for Cosmic Ray Research; Tokyo Univ., Chiba (Japan). Kavli IPMU (WPI), UTIAS; Takahashi, Fuminobu [Tokyo Univ., Miyagi (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Tokyo Univ., Chiba (Japan). Kavli IPMU (WPI), UTIAS; Yamada, Masaki [Tokyo Univ., Chiba (Japan). Inst. for Cosmic Ray Research; Tokyo Univ., Chiba (Japan). Kavli IPMU (WPI), UTIAS; DESY Hamburg (Germany)

    2015-11-15

    We study the Witten effect of hidden monopoles on the QCD axion dynamics, and show that its abundance as well as isocurvature perturbations can be significantly suppressed if there is a sufficient amount of hidden monopoles. When the hidden monopoles make up a significant fraction of dark matter, the Witten effect suppresses the abundance of axion with the decay constant smaller than 10{sup 12} GeV. The cosmological domain wall problem of the QCD axion can also be avoided, relaxing the upper bound on the decay constant when the Peccei-Quinn symmetry is spontaneously broken after inflation.

  1. Suppressing the QCD axion abundance by hidden monopoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Kawasaki

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We study the Witten effect of hidden monopoles on the QCD axion dynamics, and show that its abundance as well as isocurvature perturbations can be significantly suppressed if there is a sufficient amount of hidden monopoles. When the hidden monopoles make up a significant fraction of dark matter, the Witten effect suppresses the abundance of axion with the decay constant smaller than 1012GeV. The cosmological domain wall problem of the QCD axion can also be avoided, relaxing the upper bound on the decay constant when the Peccei–Quinn symmetry is spontaneously broken after inflation.

  2. Naturally light hidden photons in LARGE volume string compactifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodsell, M. [LPTHE, Univ. Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (France); Jaeckel, J. [Inst. for Particle Physics Phenomenology, Univ. Durham (United Kingdom); Redondo, J.; Ringwald, A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2009-09-15

    Extra ''hidden'' U(1) gauge factors are a generic feature of string theory that is of particular phenomenological interest. They can kinetically mix with the Standard Model photon and are thereby accessible to a wide variety of astrophysical and cosmological observations and laboratory experiments. In this paper we investigate the masses and the kinetic mixing of hidden U(1)s in LARGE volume compactifications of string theory. We find that in these scenarios the hidden photons can be naturally light and that their kinetic mixing with the ordinary electromagnetic photon can be of a size interesting for near future experiments and observations. (orig.)

  3. Preferences of Informal Carers on Technology Packages to Support Meal Production by People Living with Dementia, Elicited from Personalised AT and ICT Product Brochures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Laura De Filippis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Assistive technology (AT can help support the continued independence of people living with dementia, supported by informal carers. Opinions and preferences of informal carers towards a range of assistive and digital information and communication technologies (ICT to support food purchase and menu selection, including navigation and online shopping, and safe meal-making by individuals living with dementia were investigated. General attitudes and experiences with assistive technologies were first probed by means of a focus group with carers (n = 6, organised through the Alzheimer’s Society in Nottingham, England. A series of AT/ICT product brochures were then produced, describing packages of technologies to enable meal production. Task-specific questions were asked of carers (n = 10 at local Memory Cafés as to the perceived capabilities of each individual for shopping and meal-making. Carers were asked to make pair-wise choices in order to select a personalised brochure and to complete a questionnaire to elicit the practicality, desirability and affordability of specific products and to probe for preferences amongst key features. Opinions on ease-of-use, aesthetics, expected safety-in-use, independence of use and stigma related to the technology packages were also collected. Results showed that carers are able to make detailed choices and express preferences about assistive and digital technologies for the individuals in their care, and customise their enabler package. Most believed that having an enabler package would improve safety. Greater exposure of carers to newer digital products would be beneficial. The brochure method could be employed on consumer websites and by AT assessors.

  4. Systematic review of the effects of telecare provided for a person with social care needs on outcomes for their informal carers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Anna; Rixon, Lorna; Newman, Stanton

    2013-11-01

    Telecare devices have been put forward as a potentially effective intervention to benefit the well-being and functioning of informal carers of people with social care needs, and to reduce the negative effects of providing care to a family member or friend. Much of the evidence used to support this view is qualitative, and therefore does not provide good-quality evidence to answer questions about its effect on carer outcomes. This review aimed to document and evaluate the quantitative evidence base for the effect of telecare interventions on outcomes for informal carers. A systematic search was conducted between October 2009 and January 2010 to identify peer-reviewed and 'grey' intervention evaluations, using electronic databases and expert/interested party recommendations. Clear inclusion and exclusion criteria and a reliable screening process were applied to select papers for inclusion in the review, and a checklist was used to assess risk of bias for each evaluation. Of 1071 identified evaluations, seven fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Of these, two were peer-reviewed, and the remainder were unpublished or internal reports. Included evaluations were heterogeneous; they had investigated diverse technologies and outcomes, using varied evaluation designs and measures. All included evaluations were rated as being of weak methodological quality, indicating risk of bias within the evidence base. The evidence tentatively indicated that telecare exerts a positive effect on carer stress and strain, but there is no evidence to indicate benefits on burden or quality of life. The evidence is conflicting about the effect of telecare on the amount of time carers spend on their caring duties, and on relationships between the carer, cared-for person and other family members. Additional good-quality evaluations are required to establish the effects of telecare on informal carer outcomes.

  5. Isovector and hidden-beauty partners of the X(3872)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Høgaasen, Hallstein, E-mail: hallstein.hogasen@fys.uio.no [Department of Physics, University of Oslo, Box 1048, NO-0316 Oslo (Norway); Kou, Emi, E-mail: kou@lal.in2p3.fr [Laboratoire de l' Accélérateur Linéaire, Université Paris-Sud, IN2P3-CNRS, Centre Scientifique d' Orsay, 91898 Orsay Cedex (France); Richard, Jean-Marc, E-mail: j-m.richard@ipnl.in2p3.fr [Université de Lyon, Institut de Physique Nucléaire de Lyon, UCBL–IN2P3-CNRS, 4, rue Enrico Fermi, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Sorba, Paul, E-mail: paul.sorba@lapth.cnrs.fr [LAPTh, Laboratoire d' Annecy-le-Vieux de Physique Théorique, CNRS, Université de Savoie, BP 110, 74941 Annecy-le-Vieux Cedex (France)

    2014-05-01

    The isovector partners of the X(3872), recently found at BES III, Belle and CLEO-c were predicted in a simple model based on the chromomagnetic interaction among quarks. The extension to the hidden-beauty sector is discussed.

  6. Local clustering in scale-free networks with hidden variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Hofstad, Remco; Janssen, A J E M; van Leeuwaarden, Johan S H; Stegehuis, Clara

    2017-02-01

    We investigate the presence of triangles in a class of correlated random graphs in which hidden variables determine the pairwise connections between vertices. The class rules out self-loops and multiple edges. We focus on the regime where the hidden variables follow a power law with exponent τ∈(2,3), so that the degrees have infinite variance. The natural cutoff h_{c} characterizes the largest degrees in the hidden variable models, and a structural cutoff h_{s} introduces negative degree correlations (disassortative mixing) due to the infinite-variance degrees. We show that local clustering decreases with the hidden variable (or degree). We also determine how the average clustering coefficient C scales with the network size N, as a function of h_{s} and h_{c}. For scale-free networks with exponent 2vanish only for networks as large as N=10^{9}.

  7. A Bell-type Theorem Without Hidden Variables

    CERN Document Server

    Stapp, Henry P

    2002-01-01

    Bell's theorem rules out local hidden-variable theories. The locality condition is the demand that what an experimenter freely chooses to measure in one space-time region has no influence in a second space-time region that is spacelike separated from the first. The hidden-variable stipulation means that this demand is implemented through requirements on an assumed-to-exist substructure involving hidden variables. The question thus arises whether the locality condition itself fails, or only its implementation by means of the assumed hidden-variable structure. This paper shows that any theory that satisfies two generally accepted features of orthodox quantum theory and that yields certain predictions of quantum theory cannot satisfy the afore-mentioned locality condition. These two features are that the choices made by the experimenters can be treated as localized free variables and that such free choices do not affect outcomes that have already occurred.

  8. Modelling proteins' hidden conformations to predict antibiotic resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Kathryn M.; Ho, Chris M. W.; Dutta, Supratik; Gross, Michael L.; Bowman, Gregory R.

    2016-10-01

    TEM β-lactamase confers bacteria with resistance to many antibiotics and rapidly evolves activity against new drugs. However, functional changes are not easily explained by differences in crystal structures. We employ Markov state models to identify hidden conformations and explore their role in determining TEM's specificity. We integrate these models with existing drug-design tools to create a new technique, called Boltzmann docking, which better predicts TEM specificity by accounting for conformational heterogeneity. Using our MSMs, we identify hidden states whose populations correlate with activity against cefotaxime. To experimentally detect our predicted hidden states, we use rapid mass spectrometric footprinting and confirm our models' prediction that increased cefotaxime activity correlates with reduced Ω-loop flexibility. Finally, we design novel variants to stabilize the hidden cefotaximase states, and find their populations predict activity against cefotaxime in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, we expect this framework to have numerous applications in drug and protein design.

  9. Recent Applications of Hidden Markov Models in Computational Biology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Khar Heng Choo; Joo Chuan Tong; Louxin Zhang

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines recent developments and applications of Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) to various problems in computational biology, including multiple sequence alignment, homology detection, protein sequences classification, and genomic annotation.

  10. Self-similarity of complex networks and hidden metric spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Serrano, M Angeles; Boguna, Marian

    2007-01-01

    We demonstrate that the self-similarity of some scale-free networks with respect to a simple degree-thresholding renormalization scheme finds a natural interpretation in the assumption that network nodes exist in hidden metric spaces. Clustering, i.e., cycles of length three, plays a crucial role in this framework as a topological reflection of the triangle inequality in the hidden geometry. We prove that a class of hidden variable models with underlying metric spaces are able to accurately reproduce the self-similarity properties that we measured in the real networks. Our findings indicate that hidden geometries underlying these real networks are a plausible explanation for their observed topologies and, in particular, for their self-similarity with respect to the degree-based renormalization.

  11. Search for hidden particles with the SHiP experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagner, Caren; Bick, Daniel; Bieschke, Stefan; Ebert, Joachim; Schmidt-Parzefall, Walter [Universitaet Hamburg, Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Many theories beyond the standard model predict long lived neutral (hidden) particles. There might be a whole Hidden Sector (HS) of weakly interacting particles, which cannot be detected in existing high energy experiments. The SHiP experiment (Search for Hidden Particles) requires a high intensity beam dump, which could be realized by a new facility at the CERN SPS accelerator. New superweakly interacting particles with masses below O(10) GeV could be produced in the beam dump and detected in a general purpose Hidden Sector (HS) detector. In addition there will be a dedicated tau neutrino subdetector. I present the major requirements and technical challenges for the HS detector and discuss how the HS can be accessed through several portals: neutrino portal, scalar portal, vector portal and many more.

  12. Dark matter in the nonabelian hidden gauge theory

    CERN Document Server

    Yamanaka, Nodoka; Gongyo, Shinya; Iida, Hideaki

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the dark matter in the hidden gauge theory. We propose a scenario where the mini-inflation dilutes the dark matter density. This scenario is consistent with the current baryon number asymmetry.

  13. Hidden Symmetry from Supersymmetry in One-Dimensional Quantum Mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander A. Andrianov

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available When several inequivalent supercharges form a closed superalgebra in Quantum Mechanics it entails the appearance of hidden symmetries of a Super-Hamiltonian. We examine this problem in one-dimensional QM for the case of periodic potentials and potentials with finite number of bound states. After the survey of the results existing in the subject the algebraic and analytic properties of hidden-symmetry differential operators are rigorously elaborated in the Theorems and illuminated by several examples.

  14. Stabilization of stochastic systems with hidden Markovian jumps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This paper considers the adaptive control of discrete-time hybrid stochastic systems with unknown randomly jumping parameters described by a finite-state hidden Markov chain. An intuitive yet longstanding conjecture in this area is that such hybrid systems can be adaptively stabilized whenever the rate of transition of the hidden Markov chain is small enough. This paper provides a rigorous positive answer to this conjecture by establishing the global stability of a gradient-algorithm-based adaptive linear-quadratic control.

  15. Extracting hidden trails and roads under canopy using LIDAR

    OpenAIRE

    Krougios, Prokopios

    2008-01-01

    The field of Remote Sensing has been greatly benefited by the development of LIDAR. The extraction of bare earth under tree canopies and especially the identification of hidden trails are important tools for military and civilian operations in dense forests. LIDAR data from Sequoia National Park in California (2008) and Fort Belvoir Military Base in Virginia (2007) were two areas that were selected for analysis. Quick Terrain Modeler software was used in order to recognize hidden trails....

  16. Physical nature of a hidden mass in the Universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doroshkevich, A.G.; Khlopov, M.Yu. (AN SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Prikladnoj Matematiki)

    1984-04-01

    The problem of an origin of the hidden mass of the Universe is discussed. Observation astronomic data on large-scale Universe structure and hidden mass distribution within the framework of the adiabatic theory of galaxies formation point out the dominance in nowadays Universe of weakly-interacting particles with 15-60 eV mass. Restrictions are obtained for a possible admixture of other relict particles.

  17. Hidden Markov Models with Factored Gaussian Mixtures Densities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hao-zheng; LIU Zhi-qiang; ZHU Xiang-hua

    2004-01-01

    We present a factorial representation of Gaussian mixture models for observation densities in Hidden Markov Models(HMMs), which uses the factorial learning in the HMM framework. We derive the reestimation formulas for estimating the factorized parameters by the Expectation Maximization (EM) algorithm. We conduct several experiments to compare the performance of this model structure with Factorial Hidden Markov Models(FHMMs) and HMMs, some conclusions and promising empirical results are presented.

  18. Aligning the Hidden Curriculum of Management Education With PRME

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blasco, Maribel

    2012-01-01

    This article argues that mainstreaming responsible management education in line with the Principles of Responsible Management Education (PRME) requires close attention to the hidden curriculum (HC), that is, the implicit dimensions of educational experiences. Altering formal curricular goals...... combined with transformative learning and communities of practice theory, the article offers an inquiry-based framework for PRME implementation that takes these moral learning and socialization processes into account. It provides suggestions for how to address the hidden curriculum both in the diagnostic...

  19. Evaluation of exercise on individuals with dementia and their carers: a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonard Claire

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Almost all of the 820,000 people in the UK with dementia will experience Behavioural and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia (BPSD. However, research has traditionally focused on treating cognitive symptoms, thus neglecting core clinical symptoms that often have a more profound impact on living with dementia. Recent evidence (Kales et al, 2007; Ballard et al, 2009 indicates that the popular approach to managing BPSD - prescription of anti-psychotic medication - can increase mortality and the risk of stroke in people with dementia as well as impair quality of life and accelerate cognitive decline. Consequently, there is a need to evaluate the impact that non-pharmacological interventions have on BPSD; we believe physical exercise is a particularly promising approach. Methods/Design We will carry out a pragmatic, randomised, single-blind controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of exercise (planned walking on the behavioural and psychological symptoms of individuals with dementia. We aim to recruit 146 people with dementia and their carers to be randomized into two groups; one will be trained in a structured, tailored walking programme, while the other will continue with treatment as usual. The primary outcome (BPSD will be assessed with the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI along with relevant secondary outcomes at baseline, 6 and 12 weeks. Discussion Designing this study has been challenging both ethically and methodologically. In particular to design an intervention that is simple, measurable, safe, non-invasive and enjoyable has been testing and has required a lot of thought. Throughout the design, we have attempted to balance methodological rigour with study feasibility. We will discuss the challenges that were faced and overcome in this paper. Trial Registration ISRCTN01423159

  20. Childhood disability in Turkana, Kenya: Understanding how carers cope in a complex humanitarian setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Zuurmond

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although the consequences of disability are magnified in humanitarian contexts, research into the difficulties of caring for children with a disability in such settings has received limited attention.Methods: Based on in-depth interviews with 31 families, key informants and focus group discussions in Turkana, Kenya, this article explores the lives of families caring for children with a range of impairments (hearing, vision, physical and intellectual in a complex humanitarian context characterised by drought, flooding, armed conflict, poverty and historical marginalisation.Results: The challenging environmental and social conditions of Turkana magnified not only the impact of impairment on children, but also the burden of caregiving. The remoteness of Turkana, along with the paucity and fragmentation of health, rehabilitation and social services, posed major challenges and created opportunity costs for families. Disability-related stigma isolated mothers of children with disabilities, especially, increasing their burden of care and further limiting their access to services and humanitarian programmes. In a context where social systems are already stressed, the combination of these factors compounded the vulnerabilities faced by children with disabilities and their families.Conclusion: The needs of children with disabilities and their carers in Turkana are not being met by either community social support systems or humanitarian aid programmes. There is an urgent need to mainstream disability into Turkana services and programmes.

  1. Silent strain of caregiving: exploring the best predictors of distress in family carers of geriatric patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bień-Barkowska, Katarzyna; Doroszkiewicz, Halina; Bień, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this article was to identify the best predictors of distress suffered by family carers (FCs) of geriatric patients. Methods A cross-sectional study of 100 FC-geriatric patient dyads was conducted. The negative impact of care (NIoC) subscale of the COPE index was dichotomized to identify lower stress (score of ≤15 on the scale) and higher stress (score of ≥16 on the scale) exerted on FCs by the process of providing care. The set of explanatory variables comprised a wide range of sociodemographic and care-related attributes, including patient-related results from comprehensive geriatric assessments and disease profiles. The best combination of explanatory variables that provided the highest predictive power for distress among FCs in the multiple logistic regression (LR) model was determined according to statistical information criteria. The statistical robustness of the observed relationships and the discriminative power of the model were verified with the cross-validation method. Results The mean age of FCs was 57.2 (±10.6) years, whereas that of geriatric patients was 81.7 (±6.4) years. Despite the broad initial set of potential explanatory variables, only five predictors were jointly selected for the best statistical model. A higher level of distress was independently predicted by lower self-evaluation of health; worse self-appraisal of coping well as a caregiver; lower sense of general support; more hours of care per week; and the motor retardation of the cared-for person measured with the speed of the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test. Conclusion Worse performance on the TUG test was only the patient-related predictor of distress among the variables examined as contributors to the higher NIoC. Enhancing the mobility of geriatric patients through suitably tailored kinesitherapeutic methods during their hospital stay may mitigate the burden endured by FCs. PMID:28203067

  2. Caring For Me and You: the co-production of a computerised cognitive behavioural therapy (cCBT) package for carers of people with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, Susie A; Fossey, Jane

    2017-07-10

    Carers of people with dementia face barriers in accessing therapy for mental health difficulties. Computerised cognitive behavioural therapy (cCBT) packages can be effective in treating a range of presentations; however, tailored packages for carers' unique needs are lacking. Our aim was to design a cCBT package for carers to address the limitations of previous online interventions, by including users and experts as consultants and collaborators throughout the project. We adopted a three-phase approach to the development process. Firstly, a data-gathering phase in which current literature and best practice was reviewed, and semi-structured interviews conducted with service users, academic and clinical experts. Secondly, a co-production and refinement phase with carers testing materials and providing feedback. Thirdly, a pilot field testing phase of service users and the research team testing the package. The 'Caring For Me and You' package adopted a transdiagnostic approach to take account of the range of difficulties that carers face. The package consisted of 20 short sessions with features built in to engage users and personalise content to meet individuals' needs. User involvement was central to the design of the 'Caring For Me and You' package which is currently being evaluated in a three-arm randomised controlled trial.

  3. Reduced-Rank Hidden Markov Models

    CERN Document Server

    Siddiqi, Sajid M; Gordon, Geoffrey J

    2009-01-01

    We introduce the Reduced-Rank Hidden Markov Model (RR-HMM), a generalization of HMMs that can model smooth state evolution as in Linear Dynamical Systems (LDSs) as well as non-log-concave predictive distributions as in continuous-observation HMMs. RR-HMMs assume an m-dimensional latent state and n discrete observations, with a transition matrix of rank k <= m. This implies the dynamics evolve in a k-dimensional subspace, while the shape of the set of predictive distributions is determined by m. Latent state belief is represented with a k-dimensional state vector and inference is carried out entirely in R^k, making RR-HMMs as computationally efficient as k-state HMMs yet more expressive. To learn RR-HMMs, we relax the assumptions of a recently proposed spectral learning algorithm for HMMs (Hsu, Kakade and Zhang 2009) and apply it to learn k-dimensional observable representations of rank-k RR-HMMs. The algorithm is consistent and free of local optima, and we extend its performance guarantees to cover the RR-...

  4. Search algorithms, hidden labour and information control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paško Bilić

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines some of the processes of the closely knit relationship between Google’s ideologies of neutrality and objectivity and global market dominance. Neutrality construction comprises an important element sustaining the company’s economic position and is reflected in constant updates, estimates and changes to utility and relevance of search results. Providing a purely technical solution to these issues proves to be increasingly difficult without a human hand in steering algorithmic solutions. Search relevance fluctuates and shifts through continuous tinkering and tweaking of the search algorithm. The company also uses third parties to hire human raters for performing quality assessments of algorithmic updates and adaptations in linguistically and culturally diverse global markets. The adaptation process contradicts the technical foundations of the company and calculations based on the initial Page Rank algorithm. Annual market reports, Google’s Search Quality Rating Guidelines, and reports from media specialising in search engine optimisation business are analysed. The Search Quality Rating Guidelines document provides a rare glimpse into the internal architecture of search algorithms and the notions of utility and relevance which are presented and structured as neutral and objective. Intertwined layers of ideology, hidden labour of human raters, advertising revenues, market dominance and control are discussed throughout the paper.

  5. A hidden classical symmetry of QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Glozman, L Ya

    2016-01-01

    The classical part of the QCD partition function (the integrand) has, ignoring irrelevant exact zero modes of the Dirac operator, a local SU(2N_F) \\supset SU(N_F)_L \\times SU(N_F)_R \\times U(1)_A symmetry which is absent at the Lagrangian level. This symmetry is broken anomalously and spontaneously. Effects of spontaneous breaking of chiral symmetry are contained in the near-zero modes of the Dirac operator. If physics of anomaly is also encoded in the same near-zero modes, then their truncation on the lattice should recover a hidden classical SU(2N_F) symmetry in correlators and spectra. This naturally explains observation on the lattice of a large degeneracy of hadrons, that is higher than the SU(N_F)_L \\times SU(N_F)_R \\times U(1)_A chiral symmetry, upon elimination by hands of the lowest-lying modes of the Dirac operator. We also discuss an implication of this symmetry for the high temperature QCD.

  6. Seiberg duality versus hidden local symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Abel, Steven

    2012-01-01

    It is widely believed that the emergent magnetic gauge symmetry of SQCD is analogous to a hidden local symmetry (HLS). We explore this idea in detail, deriving the entire (spontaneously broken) magnetic theory by applying the HLS formalism to spontaneously broken SU(N) SQCD. We deduce the K\\"ahler potential in the HLS description, and show that gauge and flavour symmetry are smoothly restored along certain scaling directions in moduli space. We propose that it is these symmetry restoring directions, associated with the R-symmetry of the theory, that allow full Seiberg duality. Reconsidering the origin of the magnetic gauge bosons as the rho-mesons of the electric theory, colour-flavour locking allows a simple determination of the parameter "a". Its value continuously interpolates between a=2 on the baryonic branch of moduli space - corresponding to "vector meson dominance" - and a=1 on the mesonic branch. Both limiting values are consistent with previous results in the literature. The HLS formalism is further...

  7. Natural inflation with hidden scale invariance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil D. Barrie

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new class of natural inflation models based on a hidden scale invariance. In a very generic Wilsonian effective field theory with an arbitrary number of scalar fields, which exhibits scale invariance via the dilaton, the potential necessarily contains a flat direction in the classical limit. This flat direction is lifted by small quantum corrections and inflation is realised without need for an unnatural fine-tuning. In the conformal limit, the effective potential becomes linear in the inflaton field, yielding to specific predictions for the spectral index and the tensor-to-scalar ratio, being respectively: ns−1≈−0.025(N⋆60−1 and r≈0.0667(N⋆60−1, where N⋆≈30–65 is a number of efolds during observable inflation. This predictions are in reasonable agreement with cosmological measurements. Further improvement of the accuracy of these measurements may turn out to be critical in falsifying our scenario.

  8. Search algorithms, hidden labour and information control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paško Bilić

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines some of the processes of the closely knit relationship between Google’s ideologies of neutrality and objectivity and global market dominance. Neutrality construction comprises an important element sustaining the company’s economic position and is reflected in constant updates, estimates and changes to utility and relevance of search results. Providing a purely technical solution to these issues proves to be increasingly difficult without a human hand in steering algorithmic solutions. Search relevance fluctuates and shifts through continuous tinkering and tweaking of the search algorithm. The company also uses third parties to hire human raters for performing quality assessments of algorithmic updates and adaptations in linguistically and culturally diverse global markets. The adaptation process contradicts the technical foundations of the company and calculations based on the initial Page Rank algorithm. Annual market reports, Google’s Search Quality Rating Guidelines, and reports from media specialising in search engine optimisation business are analysed. The Search Quality Rating Guidelines document provides a rare glimpse into the internal architecture of search algorithms and the notions of utility and relevance which are presented and structured as neutral and objective. Intertwined layers of ideology, hidden labour of human raters, advertising revenues, market dominance and control are discussed throughout the paper.

  9. Natural Inflation with Hidden Scale Invariance

    CERN Document Server

    Barrie, Neil D; Liang, Shelley

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new class of natural inflation models based on a hidden scale invariance. In a very generic Wilsonian effective field theory with an arbitrary number of scalar fields, which exhibits scale invariance via the dilaton, the potential necessarily contains a flat direction in the classical limit. This flat direction is lifted by small quantum corrections and inflation is realised without need for an unnatural fine-tuning. In the conformal limit, the effective potential becomes linear in the inflaton field, yielding to specific predictions for the spectral index and the tensor-to-scalar ratio, being respectively: $n_s-1\\approx 0.025\\left(\\frac{N_{\\star}}{60}\\right)^{-1}$ and $r\\approx 0.0667\\left(\\frac{N_{\\star}}{60}\\right)^{-1}$, where $N_{\\star}\\approx 30-65$ is a number of efolds during observable inflation. This predictions are in reasonable agreement with cosmological measurements. Further improvement of the accuracy of these measurements may turn out to be critical in falsifying our scenario.

  10. Hidden Markov models in automatic speech recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrzoskowicz, Adam

    1993-11-01

    This article describes a method for constructing an automatic speech recognition system based on hidden Markov models (HMMs). The author discusses the basic concepts of HMM theory and the application of these models to the analysis and recognition of speech signals. The author provides algorithms which make it possible to train the ASR system and recognize signals on the basis of distinct stochastic models of selected speech sound classes. The author describes the specific components of the system and the procedures used to model and recognize speech. The author discusses problems associated with the choice of optimal signal detection and parameterization characteristics and their effect on the performance of the system. The author presents different options for the choice of speech signal segments and their consequences for the ASR process. The author gives special attention to the use of lexical, syntactic, and semantic information for the purpose of improving the quality and efficiency of the system. The author also describes an ASR system developed by the Speech Acoustics Laboratory of the IBPT PAS. The author discusses the results of experiments on the effect of noise on the performance of the ASR system and describes methods of constructing HMM's designed to operate in a noisy environment. The author also describes a language for human-robot communications which was defined as a complex multilevel network from an HMM model of speech sounds geared towards Polish inflections. The author also added mandatory lexical and syntactic rules to the system for its communications vocabulary.

  11. Stochastic precipitation generator with hidden state covariates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yongku; Lee, GyuWon

    2017-08-01

    Time series of daily weather such as precipitation, minimum temperature and maximum temperature are commonly required for various fields. Stochastic weather generators constitute one of the techniques to produce synthetic daily weather. The recently introduced approach for stochastic weather generators is based on generalized linear modeling (GLM) with covariates to account for seasonality and teleconnections (e.g., with the El Niño). In general, stochastic weather generators tend to underestimate the observed interannual variance of seasonally aggregated variables. To reduce this overdispersion, we incorporated time series of seasonal dry/wet indicators in the GLM weather generator as covariates. These seasonal time series were local (or global) decodings obtained by a hidden Markov model of seasonal total precipitation and implemented in the weather generator. The proposed method is applied to time series of daily weather from Seoul, Korea and Pergamino, Argentina. This method provides a straightforward translation of the uncertainty of the seasonal forecast to the corresponding conditional daily weather statistics.

  12. Academic mobbing: hidden health hazard at workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoo, Sb

    2010-01-01

    Academic mobbing is a non-violent, sophisticated, 'ganging up' behaviour adopted by academicians to "wear and tear" a colleague down emotionally through unjustified accusation, humiliation, general harassment and emotional abuse. These are directed at the target under a veil of lies and justifications so that they are "hidden" to others and difficult to prove. Bullies use mobbing activities to hide their own weaknesses and incompetence. Targets selected are often intelligent, innovative high achievers, with good integrity and principles. Mobbing activities appear trivial and innocuous on its own but the frequency and pattern of their occurrence over long period of time indicates an aggressive manipulation to "eliminate" the target. Mobbing activities typically progress through five stereotypical phases that begins with an unsolved minor conflict between two workers and ultimately escalates into a senseless mobbing whereby the target is stigmatized and victimized to justify the behaviours of the bullies. The result is always physical, mental, social distress or illness and, most often, expulsion of target from the workplace. Organizations are subjected to great financial loss, loss of key workers and a tarnished public image and reputation. Public awareness, education, effective counselling, establishment of anti-bullying policies and legislations at all levels are necessary to curb academic mobbing. General practitioners (GPs) play an important role in supporting patients subjected to mental and physical health injury caused by workplace bullying and mobbing.

  13. Coulomb gauge model for hidden charm tetraquarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, W.; Mo, L. Q.; Wang, Ping; Cotanch, Stephen R.

    2013-08-01

    The spectrum of tetraquark states with hidden charm is studied within an effective Coulomb gauge Hamiltonian approach. Of the four independent color schemes, two are investigated, the (qcbar)1(cqbar)1 singlet-singlet (molecule) and the (qc)3(qbarcbar)3 triplet-triplet (diquark), for selected JPC states using a variational method. The predicted masses of triplet-triplet tetraquarks are roughly a GeV heavier than the singlet-singlet states. There is also an interesting flavor dependence with (qqbar)1 (ccbar1) states about half a GeV lighter than (qcbar)1(qbarc)1. The lightest 1++ and 1-- predictions are in agreement with the observed X (3872) and Y (4008) masses suggesting they are molecules with ωJ / ψ and ηhc, rather than D*Dbar* and DDbar, type structure, respectively. Similarly, the lightest isovector 1++ molecule, having a ρJ / ψ flavor composition, has mass near the recently observed charged Zc (3900) value. These flavor configurations are consistent with observed X, Y and Zc decays to ππJ / ψ.

  14. Hidden topological angles and Lefschetz thimbles

    CERN Document Server

    Behtash, Alireza; Schaefer, Thomas; Unsal, Mithat

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate the existence of hidden topological angles (HTAs) in a large class of quantum field theories and quantum mechanical systems. HTAs are distinct from theta-parameters in the lagrangian. They arise as invariant angle associated with saddle points of the complexified path integral and their descent manifolds (Lefschetz thimbles). Physical effects of HTAs become most transparent upon analytic continuation in $n_f$ to non-integer number of flavors, reducing in the integer $n_f$ limit to a $\\mathbb Z_2$ valued phase difference between dominant saddles. In ${\\cal N}=1$ super Yang-Mills theory we demonstrate the microscopic mechanism for the vanishing of the gluon condensate. The same effect leads to an anomalously small condensate in a QCD-like $SU(N)$ gauge theory with fermions in the two-index representation. The basic phenomenon is that, contrary to folklore, the gluon condensate can receive both positive and negative contributions in a semi-classical expansion. In quantum mechanics, a HTA leads to ...

  15. Detecting hidden sources-STUK/HUT team

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikkinen, M.; Aarnio, P. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland); Honkamaa, T.; Tiilikainen, H. [Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, Helsinki (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    The task of the team was to locate and to identify hidden sources in a specified area in Padasjoki Auttoinen village. The team used AB-420 helicopter of the Finnish Frontier Guard. The team had two measuring systems: HPGe system (relative efficiency 18%) and 5`x5` NaI system. The team found two sources in real-time and additional two sources after 24 h analysis time. After the locations and characteristics of the sources were announced it was found out that altogether six sources would have been possible to find using the measured data. The total number of sources was ten. The NaI detector was good at detecting and locating the sources and HPGe was most useful in identification and calculation of the activity estimates. The following development should be made: 1) larger detectors are needed, 2) the software has to be improved. (This has been performed after the exercise) and 3) the navigation must be based on DGPS. visual navigation causes easily gaps between the flight lines and some sources may not be detected. (au).

  16. Hidden Web Data Extraction Using Dynamic Rule Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuradha

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available World Wide Web is a global information medium of interlinked hypertext documents accessed via computers connected to the internet. Most of the users rely on traditional search engines to search theinformation on the web. These search engines deal with the Surface Web which is a set of Web pages directly accessible through hyperlinks and ignores a large part of the Web called Hidden Web which is hidden to present-day search engines. It lies behind search forms and this part of the web containing an almost endless amount of sources providing high quality information stored in specialized databases can be found in the depths of the WWW. A large amount of this Hidden web is structured i.e Hidden websites contain the information in the form of lists and tables. However visiting dozens of these sites and analyzing the results is very much time consuming task for user. Hence, it is desirable to build a prototype which will minimize user’s effort and give him high quality information in integrated form. This paper proposes a novel method that extracts the data records from the lists and tables of various hidden web sites of same domain using dynamic rule generation and forms a repository which is used for later searching. By searching the data from this repository, user will find the desired data at one place. It reduces the user’s effort to look at various result pages of different hidden websites.

  17. Market-oriented management method of coalmine accident hidden dangers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhao-xia; LI Xing-dong; LU Ying; REN Da-wei

    2007-01-01

    By analyzing the problems which exist currently in the accident hidden dangers management of the coal mine, this paper proposed a new kind of management method-"simulating the market", in which an operation pattern of simulating the market to transact hidden troubles was constructed. This method introduces "Market Mechanism"into safe management, and adopts measurable value to describe the hidden dangers such as" human behavior, technique, environment, equipments etc.". It regards the hidden dangers as "the goods produced by labor" which are found out by the safety managers and the security inspectors, then sells as "commodity". By the process of disposing, counterchecking, re-selling, and redisposing. It forms a set of market-oriented closed-form management pattern of coalmine accident hidden dangers. This kind of management method changes the past traditional methods in which the wageworkers treat safety management passively, but to encourage and restrict them to participate in the check-up and improvement of the hidden dangers.

  18. QCD sum rule study of hidden-charm pentaquarks

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Hua-Xing; Chen, Wei; Steele, T G; Liu, Xiang; Zhu, Shi-Lin

    2016-01-01

    We study the mass spectra of hidden-charm pentaquarks having spin $J = {1\\over2},{3\\over2},{5\\over2}$ and quark contents $uud c \\bar c$. We systematically construct all the relevant local hidden-charm pentaquark currents, and select some of them to perform QCD sum rule analyses. We find that the $P_c(4380)$ and $P_c(4450)$ can be identified as hidden-charm pentaquark states composed of an anti-charmed meson and a charmed baryon. We also find the lowest-lying hidden-charm $J^P = 1/2^-$ pentaquark state of mass $4.33^{+0.17}_{-0.13}$ GeV, while the $J^P = 1/2^+$ mass prediction of 4.7--4.9 GeV is significantly higher. Similarly, the lowest-lying hidden-charm $J^P = 3/2^-$ pentaquark state mass is $4.37^{+0.18}_{-0.13}$ GeV, consistent with the $J^P = 3/2^-$ $P_c(4380)$, while the $J^P = 3/2^+$ is also significantly higher with a mass above 4.6 GeV. The hidden-charm $J^P = 5/2^-$ pentaquark state mass is 4.5--4.6 GeV, slightly larger than the $J^P = 5/2^+$ $P_c(4450)$.

  19. Was ist das Hidden Web? Die Entstehung, Eigenschaften und gesellschaftliche Bedeutung von anonymer Kommunikation im Hidden Web.

    OpenAIRE

    Papsdorf, Christian

    2016-01-01

    More than two-and-a-half million people currently use the Tor network to communicate anonymously via the Internet and gain access to online media that are not accessible using standard Internet technology. This sphere of communication can be described as the hidden web. In part because this phenomenon is very recent, the subject has scarcely been studied in the social sciences. It is therefore the purpose of this paper to answer four fundamental questions: What is the hidden web? What charact...

  20. Carer and service providers' experiences of individual funding models for children with a disability in rural and remote areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dew, Angela; Bulkeley, Kim; Veitch, Craig; Bundy, Anita; Lincoln, Michelle; Brentnall, Jennie; Gallego, Gisselle; Griffiths, Scott

    2013-07-01

    There is a global movement for people with a disability towards person-centred practices with opportunities for self-determination and choice. Person-centred approaches may involve individual funding (IF) for the purchase of required support. A shift to a person-centred model and IF should allow people with a disability and their carers greater choice in therapy access. However, individuals who live in rural and remote areas have less choice and access to therapy services than their metropolitan counterparts. Drawing on data from a larger study into therapy service delivery in a rural and remote area of New South Wales, Australia, this study describes some benefits and barriers to using IF to access therapy services in rural areas. Ten carers and 60 service providers participated in audio-recorded focus groups and individual interviews during which IF was discussed. Transcribed data were analysed using thematic analysis and constant comparison. Greater access to and choice of therapy providers were identified as benefits of IF. Four barriers were identified: (i) lack of information and advice; (ii) limited local service options and capacity; (iii) higher costs and fewer services and (iv) complexity of self-managing packages. A range of strategies is required to address the barriers to using IF in rural and remote areas. Carers indicated a need for: accessible information; a local contact person for support and guidance; adequate financial compensation to offset additional travel expenses and coordinated eligibility and accountability systems. Service providers required: coordinated cross-sector approaches; local workforce planning to address therapist shortages; certainty around service viability and growth; clear policies and procedures around implementation of IF. This study highlights the need for further discussion and research about how to overcome the barriers to the optimal use of an IF model for those living in rural and remote areas. © 2013 John Wiley

  1. Measuring the Impact of Cognitive Prosthetics on the Daily Life of People with Dementia and Their Carers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiland, Franka; Dröes, Rose-Marie; Sävenstedt, Stefan

    Assistive technologies to support persons with dementia and their carers are used increasingly often. However, little is known about the effectiveness of most assistive devices. Much technology is put on the market without having been properly tested with potential end-users. To increase the chance that an assistive device is well accepted and useful for the target group, it is important, especially in the case of disabled persons, to involve potential users in the development process and to evaluate the impact of using the device on them before implementing it in the daily care and support. When evaluating the impact, decisions have to be made regarding the selection of measuring instruments. Important considerations in the selection process are the underlying domains to be addressed by the assistive technology, the target group and the availability of standardized instruments with good psychometric properties. In this chapter the COGKNOW project is used as a case example to explain how the impact of cognitive prosthetics on the daily lives of people with dementia and their carers can be measured. In COGKNOW a cognitive prosthetic device is being developed to improve the quality of life and autonomy of persons with dementia and to help them to remember and remind, to have social contact, to perform daily activities and to enhance feelings of safety. For all these areas, potential measuring instruments are described. Besides (standardized) measuring instruments, other data collection methods are used as well, such as semi-structured interviews and observations, diaries and in situ measurement. Within the COGKNOW project a first uncontrolled small-scale impact measurement takes place during the development process of the assistive device. However, it is recommended to perform a larger randomized controlled study as soon as the final product is ready to evaluate the impact of the device on persons with dementia and carers before it is released on the market.

  2. Management of total cancer pain: A case of young adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aanchal Satija

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pain due to cancer is one of the most distressing symptoms experienced by the patients at some or the other time during the course of treatment or disease progression. The multidimensional nature of cancer pain is characterized by various dimensions including physical, social, psychological, and spiritual; which together constitute the term "total pain". Young cancer patients illustrate their unique psychological and developmental needs. This case report highlights the concept of "total cancer pain" in a young adult and demonstrates his distinctive social, spiritual, and psychological sufferings. The report emphasizes that addressing all these concerns is considerably significant in order to provide optimal pain relief to the patient. In the present scenario, it has been done by a skillful multiprofessional team communicating effectively with both the patient and the carer.

  3. Feasibility randomised controlled trial of a self-help acceptance and commitment therapy intervention for grief and psychological distress in carers of palliative care patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Esther L; Deane, Frank P; Lyons, Geoffrey Cb; Barclay, Gregory D; Bourne, Joan; Connolly, Vivienne

    2017-06-01

    We tested the feasibility and preliminary effectiveness of an acceptance and commitment therapy self-help intervention for grief and psychological distress in carers of patients in palliative care. Carers were randomised to the control group, which received treatment as usual, or the intervention group, which received treatment as usual plus an acceptance and commitment therapy-based self-help booklet and telephone support call. Questionnaires were completed at baseline, 1-month post-allocation and 6 months post-loss. Results indicated that the intervention was generally feasible and viewed as acceptable to carers. Preliminary effectiveness analyses showed at least a small effect in acceptance, valued-living, grief and psychological distress.

  4. Matching and accepting assistive technology in multiple sclerosis: A focus group study with people with multiple sclerosis, carers and occupational therapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squires, Luke A; Williams, Nefyn; Morrison, Val L

    2016-11-15

    To explore experiences and perceptions of assistive technology, 14 people with multiple sclerosis, 5 carers and 4 occupational therapists participated in focus groups. Transcripts were analysed thematically drawing from illness self-regulation theory. Identified themes are as follows: critical multiple sclerosis events (developing symptoms/disability, delayed diagnosis and coping, public reaction and multiple sclerosis progression to assistive technology), matching assistive technology for continued use (acceptance of multiple sclerosis and assistive technology, realistic expectations, occupational therapist responsiveness, timing is crucial and carers and others) and impact of assistive technology (promoting or losing independence, stigma and embarrassment and redefining the carer). Acceptance and communication among those involved ensures assistive technology matches needs and maximises health and psychosocial outcomes.

  5. Disease surveillance using a hidden Markov model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wright Graeme

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Routine surveillance of disease notification data can enable the early detection of localised disease outbreaks. Although hidden Markov models (HMMs have been recognised as an appropriate method to model disease surveillance data, they have been rarely applied in public health practice. We aimed to develop and evaluate a simple flexible HMM for disease surveillance which is suitable for use with sparse small area count data and requires little baseline data. Methods A Bayesian HMM was designed to monitor routinely collected notifiable disease data that are aggregated by residential postcode. Semi-synthetic data were used to evaluate the algorithm and compare outbreak detection performance with the established Early Aberration Reporting System (EARS algorithms and a negative binomial cusum. Results Algorithm performance varied according to the desired false alarm rate for surveillance. At false alarm rates around 0.05, the cusum-based algorithms provided the best overall outbreak detection performance, having similar sensitivity to the HMMs and a shorter average time to detection. At false alarm rates around 0.01, the HMM algorithms provided the best overall outbreak detection performance, having higher sensitivity than the cusum-based Methods and a generally shorter time to detection for larger outbreaks. Overall, the 14-day HMM had a significantly greater area under the receiver operator characteristic curve than the EARS C3 and 7-day negative binomial cusum algorithms. Conclusion Our findings suggest that the HMM provides an effective method for the surveillance of sparse small area notifiable disease data at low false alarm rates. Further investigations are required to evaluation algorithm performance across other diseases and surveillance contexts.

  6. 'Hidden messages' emerging from Afrocentric management perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Van den Heuvel

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper aims to examine how 'African management' discourse has emerged in South Africa. Altogether, it has stimulated debates - sometimes in controversial ways - on 'taboo issues', e.g. relating to 'cultural diversity' and 'ethnicity'. The stimulation of such debates within organisations is probably a more valuable contribution than a static, essentialised 'African identity' that it proclaims. Design/Methodology/Approach: The paper draws on a qualitative research project conducted in South Africa in 2003-2004. Its relevance lies in gaining in-depth insights into ('non-western' local management discourse. It seeks to contribute to the body of knowledge on political and cultural contexts in which South African organizations operate, and how they impact on local management perspectives, and vice versa. Findings: The research findings make clear how and under what circumstances 'African management' discourse has come about in South Africa, and how it could be interpreted. Implications: 'African management' advocates allegedly attempt to revise dominant management thinking and promote 'humane-ness' and participatory decision-making in South African organisations, in search of a contextualised management approach. Amongst others, it has produced new meanings of 'Africanness' and has opened up space for 'hidden messages', resentments and aspirations to become openly articulated. This throws another light on phenomena such as cultural diversity and ethnicity that usually tend to be 'neutralised'. This may turn out to be far healthier for blooming organisational cultures in South Africa than relentlessly hammering on prescribed 'corporate values'. Originality/Value: This paper informs the reader in detail about the emergence and evolvement of 'African management' discourse in South Africa. It is a unique attempt to develop an interpretative viewpoint on this intriguing phenomenon that offers a potentially valuable contribution in reading

  7. Foundational Forces & Hidden Variables in Technology Commercialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Brandon

    2011-03-01

    The science of physics seems vastly different from the process of technology commercialization. Physics strives to understand our world through the experimental deduction of immutable laws and dependent variables and the resulting macro-scale phenomenon. In comparison, the~goal of business is to make a profit by addressing the needs, preferences, and whims of individuals in a market. It may seem that this environment is too dynamic to identify all the hidden variables and deduct the foundational forces that impact a business's ability to commercialize innovative technologies. One example of a business ``force'' is found in the semiconductor industry. In 1965, Intel co-founder Gordon Moore predicted that the number of transistors incorporated in a chip will approximately double every 24 months. Known as Moore's Law, this prediction has become the guiding principle for the semiconductor industry for the last 40 years. Of course, Moore's Law is not really a law of nature; rather it is the result of efforts by Intel and the entire semiconductor industry. A closer examination suggests that there are foundational principles of business that underlie the macro-scale phenomenon of Moore's Law. Principles of profitability, incentive, and strategic alignment have resulted in a coordinated influx of resources that has driven technologies to market, increasing the profitability of the semiconductor industry and optimizing the fitness of its participants. New innovations in technology are subject to these same principles. So, in addition to traditional market forces, these often unrecognized forces and variables create challenges for new technology commercialization. In this talk, I will draw from ethnographic research, complex adaptive theory, and industry data to suggest a framework with which to think about new technology commercialization. Intel's bio-silicon initiative provides a case study.

  8. A qualitative study protocol of ageing carers' caregiving experiences and their planning for continuation of care for their immediate family members with intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Lisa Pau Le; Chien, Wai Tong; Lam, Lai Wah; Wong, Kayla Ka Yin

    2017-04-07

    Understanding the difficulties and needs of the family carers in taking care of a person with ID can facilitate the development of appropriate intervention programmes and services to strengthen their caring capacity and empower them to continue with their caring roles. This study aims to explore ageing family carers' caregiving experiences and the plans they have to provide care for themselves and their ageing children with mild or moderate intellectual disability (ID). A constructivist grounded theory will be used to interview around 60 carers who have a family member with mild or moderate ID and attending sheltered workshops in Hong Kong. Constant comparative analysis methods will be used for data analysis. The theory will capture family caregiving experiences and the processes of carers in addressing caregiving needs, support received and plans to continue to provide care for themselves and their relatives with ID in their later life. New insights into the emerging issues, needs and plights of family caregivers will be provided to inform the policies and practices of improving the preparation for the ageing process of the persons with ID, and to better support the ageing carers. The theoretical framework that will be generated will be highly practical and useful in generating knowledge about factors that influence the caregiving processes; and, tracking the caregiving journey at different time-points to clearly delineate areas to implement practice changes. In this way, the theoretical framework will be highly useful in guiding timely and appropriate interventions to target at the actual needs of family carers as they themselves are ageing and will need to continue to take care of their family members with ID in the community.

  9. An Educational Intervention to Reduce Pain and Improve Pain Management for Malawian People Living With HIV/AIDS and Their Family Carers: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkhoma, Kennedy; Seymour, Jane; Arthur, Antony

    2015-07-01

    Advances being made in improving access to HIV drugs in resource-poor countries mean HIV patients are living longer, and, therefore, experiencing pain over a longer period of time. There is a need to provide effective interventions for alleviating and managing pain. To assess whether a pain educational intervention compared with usual care reduces pain severity and improves pain management in patients with HIV/AIDS and their family carers. This was a randomized, parallel group, superiority trial conducted at HIV and palliative care clinics of two public hospitals in Malawi. A total of 182 adults with HIV/AIDS (Stage III or IV) and their family carers participated; carer participants were those individuals most involved in the patient's unpaid care. The educational intervention comprised a 30 minute face-to-face meeting, a leaflet, and a follow-up telephone call at two weeks. The content of the educational intervention covered definition, causes, and characteristics of pain in HIV/AIDS; beliefs and myths about pain and pain medication; assessment of pain; and pharmacological and nonpharmacological management. The primary outcome was average pain severity measured by the Brief Pain Inventory-Pain Severity subscale. Assessments were recorded at baseline before randomization and at eight weeks after randomization. Of the 182 patient/carer dyads randomly allocated, 157 patient/carer dyads completed the trial. Patients in the intervention group experienced a greater decrease in pain severity (mean difference = 21.09 points, 95% confidence interval = 16.56-25.63; P HIV/AIDS and their family carers. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Acquiring a pet dog significantly reduces stress of primary carers for children with autism spectrum disorder: a prospective case control study

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, H. F.; Hall, S; Hames, A.; Hardiman, J; Mills, R.; ,; Mills, D. S.

    2015-01-01

    This study describes the impact of pet dogs on stress of primary carers of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Stress levels of 38 primary carers acquiring a dog and 24 controls not acquiring a dog were sampled at: Pre-intervention (17 weeks before acquiring a dog), post-intervention (3–10 weeks after acquisition) and follow-up (25–40 weeks after acquisition), using the Parenting Stress Index. Analysis revealed significant improvements in the intervention compared to the control gro...

  11. Preferences for support services among adolescents and young adults with cancer or a blood disorder: a discrete choice experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodall, Stephen; King, Madeleine; Ewing, Jane; Smith, Narelle; Kenny, Patricia

    2012-10-01

    Life-threatening illnesses in young people are traumatic for patients and their families. Support services can help patients and families deal with various non-medical impacts of diagnosis, disease and treatment. The aim of this study was to determine which types of support are most valued by adolescents and young adults (AYA) with cancer or blood disorders and their families. A discrete choice experiment (DCE). Separate experiments were conducted with AYA and their carers. Completed surveys were returned by 83 patients and 78 carers. AYA preferred emotional support for themselves (either by counsellors and/or peers), emotional support for their family, financial support and assistance returning to school/work over services relating to cultural and spiritual needs. Covariate analysis indicated female AYA were more likely than males to prefer emotional support, while males were more likely to prefer assistance returning to work/school. Carers preferred emotional support for their AYA and assistance returning to school/work. Like AYA, they were indifferent about services relating to cultural and spiritual needs. Providing the types of support services that people prefer should maximise effectiveness. This study suggests that AYA patients require support services that included financial aid, assistance returning to work/study, emotional support for themselves and for their family. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Learning for carers as a means to empowerment: a Welsh vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Donnelly

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available I have thought about how this reflection on my experiences could help other nurses who feel they have an idea that may make a difference to their practice or to patient experience, yet are hesitant to act on it. During my career I have often spoken out for what I or other Royal College of Nursing (RCN members believe is the right thing to do, and always reflect to ensure that my actions are underpinned by positive intent and consideration of the greater good. Some might see this as leadership in action. In many arenas of care provision, we can be influenced by the latest trends. Recently the buzz words of ‘integrated care’, ‘prudent healthcare’ or ‘co-production’ are being applied to ‘cross-professional boundary working’, or ‘working in professional silos’. I would like this reflection to show how these buzz words can really lead to positive action and win-win outcomes. An area I am most passionate about is enabling carers to have the opportunity to sustain as ‘normal’ a family life as possible while meeting the daily needs of those they care for. To realise this, I believe it is necessary for nurses to think outside our usual arena of care provision. I was passionately reminded about this at a conference about 12 months ago. At this conference, I spoke informally with representatives of a carers’ support group, who told me about the problems they had maintaining any personal quality of life. Their daily routines were wholly focused on the care they afforded to the person they were responsible for. They had no real personal time, insufficient respite, no time for a career or to gain employment, few if any holidays and certainly no idea how long their work at home would continue or how their future life would unfold. Some of the complex care needs they were dealing with surprised me and my thoughts turned to ways in which nurses or nursing could contribute.

  13. Silent strain of caregiving: exploring the best predictors of distress in family carers of geriatric patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bień-Barkowska K

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Katarzyna Bień-Barkowska,1 Halina Doroszkiewicz,2 Barbara Bień2 1Institute of Econometrics, Warsaw School of Economics, Warsaw, 2Department of Geriatrics, Medical University of Bialystok, Bialystok, Poland Objectives: The aim of this article was to identify the best predictors of distress suffered by family carers (FCs of geriatric patients.Methods: A cross-sectional study of 100 FC-geriatric patient dyads was conducted. The negative impact of care (NIoC subscale of the COPE index was dichotomized to identify lower stress (score of ≤15 on the scale and higher stress (score of ≥16 on the scale exerted on FCs by the process of providing care. The set of explanatory variables comprised a wide range of sociodemographic and care-related attributes, including patient-related results from comprehensive geriatric assessments and disease profiles. The best combination of explanatory variables that provided the highest predictive power for distress among FCs in the multiple logistic regression (LR model was determined according to statistical information criteria. The statistical robustness of the observed relationships and the discriminative power of the model were verified with the cross-validation method.Results: The mean age of FCs was 57.2 (±10.6 years, whereas that of geriatric patients was 81.7 (±6.4 years. Despite the broad initial set of potential explanatory variables, only five predictors were jointly selected for the best statistical model. A higher level of distress was independently predicted by lower self-evaluation of health; worse self-appraisal of coping well as a caregiver; lower sense of general support; more hours of care per week; and the motor retardation of the cared-for person measured with the speed of the Timed Up and Go (TUG test.Conclusion: Worse performance on the TUG test was only the patient-related predictor of distress among the variables examined as contributors to the higher NIoC. Enhancing the mobility of

  14. Electric-powered indoor/outdoor wheelchairs (EPIOCs): users' views of influence on family, friends and carers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Andrew; Neophytou, Claudius; Frank, Julia; de Souza, Lorraine

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the effects of electric-powered indoor/outdoor wheelchair (EPIOC) provision to users on their family and carers. EPIOC users receiving their chairs between February and November 2002 (N = 74) were invited to participate in a telephone questionnaire/interview, and 64 agreed. This study examined the responses to the question 'Has the use of your EPIOC affected your family or friends in any way?' and related comments. Interviews were analysed using a qualitative framework approach to identify emergent themes. In addition, the proportion of individuals raising issues related to each theme was determined. Participants were interviewed 10-19 (mean = 14.3) months after chair delivery. The following themes emerged: reduced physical burden on family/friends and increased independence and freedom. However, an EPIOC does not eliminate other practical problems particularly during transportation and negotiating kerbs and slopes. Users also reported anxiety/worry in relationship to EPIOC use, e.g., weather conditions, personal safety (muggings), use of ramps and kerbs. There are considerable benefits to families and carers associated with powered wheelchair use. A reduction in the physical demand for pushing and increased freedom were identified. These benefits appear to outweigh the residual practical difficulties and worries.

  15. Working family carers in Portugal: between the duty and the burden of caring for old vulnerable people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, António M; Gonçalves, Daniela C; Pereira, Sandra M

    2010-10-01

    This paper intends to reflect on some of the predominant traits of caring for older vulnerable people in Portugal, where the most common care model is a mix of informal home-based provision and support from the public and private sectors. We shall address some issues concerning the risks and limits of informal caretaking of older dependent people based on a case study of a woman who has to fulfil multiple roles, pushing her to the limit of her ability to cope. Evidence indicates that solutions to the challenges of caring for an ageing population, especially those in a vulnerable condition, require a consideration of material, social, cultural, and psychological measures. On the basis of the nature of the links between these areas, the quality of the care provided and the consequences for the working family carers, we can define standards of caring solutions for older people and hence derive policies for preventive and optimized interventions. Our final aim is to emphasize the importance of palliative care settings to improve the quality of life and minimize the suffering of both older people and their carers.

  16. People with dementia and carers' experiences of dementia care and services: Outcomes of a focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutcliffe, Caroline L; Roe, Brenda; Jasper, Rowan; Jolley, David; Challis, David J

    2015-11-01

    An ageing population and an associated increase in the prevalence of dementia are of increasing concern in the United Kingdom and worldwide. Recently, the United Kingdom and other European countries implemented national dementia strategies to address this. This paper reports on the outcomes of a focus group study involving people with dementia and carers on their experiences of dementia care and support services in relation to government and third sector agencies' objectives and recommendations. Three focus groups comprising carers and people with dementia (n = 27) were undertaken covering topics related to experiences, service receipt, information sharing and service development. Some participants experienced difficulties or delays in receiving a dementia diagnosis and in accessing appropriate care. The provision of training, timeliness of information, access to appropriate advice, and consistent and flexible services were deemed important. The findings suggest that some issues raised by participants were highlighted in earlier policy objectives and recommendations but remain of central concern. The projected growth in the number of people with dementia coupled with reduced availability of informal care and increased demand for services emphasises the need to transform dementia care in the United Kingdom.

  17. The Future Demand for Long-term Carers in Germany: Model Calculations for the Federal Länder until 2020

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carsten Pohl

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The increase in the birth rate shortfall, at the same time as an increase in life expectancy, will lead to more elderly people living in Germany in future, in both relative and absolute terms. The possible development in the demand for professional long-term carers until 2020 for the individual Federal Länder is illustrated in this essay using model calculations. Because of the differences in demographic change between the Federal Länder, the labour market for long-term care will develop heterogeneously in the federal territory as a whole. The increase in the number of persons in need of long-term care from its current level of 2.25 million to a forecast level of 2.9 million by 2020 will mean that professional long-term care in particular will continue to become more significant in Germany as a whole. The demand for long-term carers (in full-time equivalent posts could increase from its current level of 561,000 to up to 900,000 by 2020. The actual development on the professional labour market will however be heavily dependent on the commitment of care-giving relatives. Additionally, possible productivity advances in the provision of long-term care services will play a role, as can be shown in various scenarios of the model calculations.

  18. The relationship between carers' report of autistic traits and clinical diagnoses of autism spectrum disorders in adults with intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaumik, Sabyasachi; Tyrer, Freya; Barrett, Mary; Tin, Nyunt; McGrother, Catherine W; Kiani, Reza

    2010-01-01

    It is often difficult to determine the triad of impairments and whether autistic features are the consequence of intellectual impairment or autism spectrum disorders in people with intellectual disability (ID). The aim of the current study was to investigate the relationship between carer-reported autistic traits and independent diagnoses of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Data were collected on carers' subjective report of autistic traits and clinical diagnoses of ASD. Of 1145 adults with ID identified, 220 (19%) individuals had a diagnosis of ASD, and 778 (68%) individuals had at least one autistic trait. Optimal sensitivity and specificity were achieved with two or more autistic traits (sensitivity 63%; specificity 79%) and the positive predictive value increased substantially as the number of autistic traits increased. However, a significant proportion of individuals with ID who did not have a diagnosis of ASD also displayed autistic traits. Our findings suggest that in the absence of other measures, the presence of autistic traits can serve as a useful proxy measure for ASD in research (and/or clinical settings). However, although information on autistic traits may help healthcare practitioners to identify people with possible ASD, it cannot be used alone to make a formal diagnosis.

  19. Hidden Gauge Structure of Supersymmetric Free Differential Algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Andrianopoli, L; Ravera, L

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to clarify the role of the nilpotent fermionic generator Q' introduced in Ref. [3] and appearing in the hidden supergroup underlying the free differential algebra (FDA) of D=11 supergravity. We give a physical explanation of its role by looking at the gauge properties of the theory. We find that its presence is necessary, in order that the extra 1-forms of the hidden supergroup give rise to the correct gauge transformations of the p-forms of the FDA. This interpretation is actually valid for any supergravity containing antisymmetric tensor fields, and any supersymmetric FDA can always be traded for a hidden Lie superalgebra containing extra fermionic nilpotent generators. As an interesting example we construct the hidden superalgebra associated with the FDA of N=2, D=7 supergravity. In this case we are able to parametrize the mutually non local 2- and 3-form B^(2) and B^(3) in terms of hidden 1-forms and find that supersymmetry and gauge invariance require in general the presence of t...

  20. What do parents and preschool staff tell us about young children's physical activity: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baur Louise A

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity and small screen recreation are two modifiable behaviours associated with childhood obesity and the development of chronic health problems. Parents and preschool staff shape behaviour habits in young children. The aims of this qualitative study were to explore the attitudes, values, knowledge and understanding of parents and carers of preschool-age children in relation to physical activity and small screen recreation and to identify influences upon these behaviours. Methods This research involved a focus group study with parents and carers of the target population. A purposive sample of 39 participants (22 parents, 17 carers participated in 9 focus groups. Participants were drawn from three populations of interest: those from lower socioeconomic status, and Middle-Eastern and Chinese communities in the Sydney (Australia metropolitan region. Results All participants understood the value of physical activity and the impact of excessive small screen recreation but were unfamiliar with national guidelines for these behaviours. Participants described the nature and activity patterns of young children; however, the concept of activity 'intensity' in this age group was not a meaningful term. Factors which influenced young children's physical activity behaviour included the child's personality, the physical activity facilities available, and the perceived safety of their community. Factors facilitating physical activity included a child's preference for being active, positive parent or peer modelling, access to safe play areas, organised activities, preschool programs and a sense of social connectedness. Barriers to physical activity included safety concerns exacerbated by negative media stories, time restraints, financial constraints, cultural values favouring educational achievement, and safety regulations about equipment design and use within the preschool environment. Parents considered that young children are

  1. Evidence Feed Forward Hidden Markov Model: A New Type of Hidden Markov Model

    CERN Document Server

    DelRose, Michael; Frederick, Philip; 10.5121/ijaia.2011.2101

    2011-01-01

    The ability to predict the intentions of people based solely on their visual actions is a skill only performed by humans and animals. The intelligence of current computer algorithms has not reached this level of complexity, but there are several research efforts that are working towards it. With the number of classification algorithms available, it is hard to determine which algorithm works best for a particular situation. In classification of visual human intent data, Hidden Markov Models (HMM), and their variants, are leading candidates. The inability of HMMs to provide a probability in the observation to observation linkages is a big downfall in this classification technique. If a person is visually identifying an action of another person, they monitor patterns in the observations. By estimating the next observation, people have the ability to summarize the actions, and thus determine, with pretty good accuracy, the intention of the person performing the action. These visual cues and linkages are important...

  2. Hidden Statistics Approach to Quantum Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zak, Michail

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in quantum information theory have inspired an explosion of interest in new quantum algorithms for solving hard computational (quantum and non-quantum) problems. The basic principle of quantum computation is that the quantum properties can be used to represent structure data, and that quantum mechanisms can be devised and built to perform operations with this data. Three basic non-classical properties of quantum mechanics superposition, entanglement, and direct-product decomposability were main reasons for optimism about capabilities of quantum computers that promised simultaneous processing of large massifs of highly correlated data. Unfortunately, these advantages of quantum mechanics came with a high price. One major problem is keeping the components of the computer in a coherent state, as the slightest interaction with the external world would cause the system to decohere. That is why the hardware implementation of a quantum computer is still unsolved. The basic idea of this work is to create a new kind of dynamical system that would preserve the main three properties of quantum physics superposition, entanglement, and direct-product decomposability while allowing one to measure its state variables using classical methods. In other words, such a system would reinforce the advantages and minimize limitations of both quantum and classical aspects. Based upon a concept of hidden statistics, a new kind of dynamical system for simulation of Schroedinger equation is proposed. The system represents a modified Madelung version of Schroedinger equation. It preserves superposition, entanglement, and direct-product decomposability while allowing one to measure its state variables using classical methods. Such an optimal combination of characteristics is a perfect match for simulating quantum systems. The model includes a transitional component of quantum potential (that has been overlooked in previous treatment of the Madelung equation). The role of the

  3. Riboswitch Detection Using Profile Hidden Markov Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnamachari A

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Riboswitches are a type of noncoding RNA that regulate gene expression by switching from one structural conformation to another on ligand binding. The various classes of riboswitches discovered so far are differentiated by the ligand, which on binding induces a conformational switch. Every class of riboswitch is characterized by an aptamer domain, which provides the site for ligand binding, and an expression platform that undergoes conformational change on ligand binding. The sequence and structure of the aptamer domain is highly conserved in riboswitches belonging to the same class. We propose a method for fast and accurate identification of riboswitches using profile Hidden Markov Models (pHMM. Our method exploits the high degree of sequence conservation that characterizes the aptamer domain. Results Our method can detect riboswitches in genomic databases rapidly and accurately. Its sensitivity is comparable to the method based on the Covariance Model (CM. For six out of ten riboswitch classes, our method detects more than 99.5% of the candidates identified by the much slower CM method while being several hundred times faster. For three riboswitch classes, our method detects 97-99% of the candidates relative to the CM method. Our method works very well for those classes of riboswitches that are characterized by distinct and conserved sequence motifs. Conclusion Riboswitches play a crucial role in controlling the expression of several prokaryotic genes involved in metabolism and transport processes. As more and more new classes of riboswitches are being discovered, it is important to understand the patterns of their intra and inter genomic distribution. Understanding such patterns will enable us to better understand the evolutionary history of these genetic regulatory elements. However, a complete picture of the distribution pattern of riboswitches will emerge only after accurate identification of riboswitches across genomes

  4. Hidden beauty baryon states in the local hidden gauge approach with heavy quark spin symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, C.W.; Oset, E. [Centro Mixto Universidad de Valencia-CSIC, Institutos de Investigacion de Paterna, Departamento de Fisica Teorica and IFIC, Valencia (Spain)

    2013-11-15

    Using a coupled-channel unitary approach, combining the heavy quark spin symmetry and the dynamics of the local hidden gauge, we investigate the meson-baryon interaction with hidden beauty and obtain several new states of N around 11 GeV. We consider the basis of states {eta}{sub b} N, {Upsilon};N, B {Lambda}{sub b}, B {Sigma}{sub b}, B{sup *}{Lambda}{sub b}, B{sup *}{Sigma}{sub b}, B{sup *}{Sigma}{sub b}{sup *} and find four basic bound states which correspond to B {Sigma}{sub b}, B {Sigma}{sub b}{sup *}, B{sup *}{Sigma}{sub b} and B{sup *}{Sigma}{sub b}{sup *}, decaying mostly into {eta}{sub b} N and {Upsilon}N and with a binding energy about 50-130 MeV with respect to the thresholds of the corresponding channel. All of them have isospin I = 1/2, and we find no bound states or resonances in I = 3/2. The B {Sigma}{sub b} state appears in J = 1/2, the B {Sigma}{sub b}{sup *} in J = 3/2, the B{sup *}{Sigma}{sub b} appears nearly degenerate in J = 1/2, 3/2 and the B{sup *}{Sigma}{sub b}{sup *} appears nearly degenerate in J = 1/2, 3/2, 5/2. These states have a width from 2-110 MeV, with conservative estimates of uncertainties, except for the one in J = 5/2 which has zero width since it cannot decay into any of the states of the basis chosen. We make generous estimates of the uncertainties and find that within very large margins these states appear bound. (orig.)

  5. Evidence Feed Forward Hidden Markov Model: A New Type Of Hidden Markov Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Del Rose

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability to predict the intentions of people based solely on their visual actions is a skill only performed by humans and animals. The intelligence of current computer algorithms has not reached this level of complexity, but there are several research efforts that are working towards it. With the number of classification algorithms available, it is hard to determine which algorithm works best for a particular situation. In classification of visual human intent data, Hidden Markov Models (HMM, and their variants, are leading candidates. The inability of HMMs to provide a probability in the observation to observation linkages is a big downfall in this classification technique. If a person is visually identifying an action of another person, they monitor patterns in the observations. By estimating the next observation, people have the ability to summarize the actions, and thus determine, with pretty good accuracy, the intention of the person performing the action. These visual cues and linkages are important in creating intelligent algorithms for determining human actions based on visual observations. The Evidence Feed Forward Hidden Markov Model is a newly developed algorithm which provides observation to observation linkages. The following research addresses the theory behind Evidence Feed Forward HMMs, provides mathematical proofs of their learning of these parameters to optimize the likelihood of observations with a Evidence Feed Forwards HMM, which is important in all computational intelligence algorithm, and gives comparative examples with standard HMMs in classification of both visual action data and measurement data; thus providing a strong base for Evidence Feed Forward HMMs in classification of many types of problems.

  6. Recent Progress in Search for Hidden/Dark Photon

    CERN Document Server

    Deliyergiyev, M A

    2015-01-01

    We will try to communicate the many difficulties that we encounter when attempting to pinpoint a common origin for the several observed anomalies, or assessing their tension with existing exclusion limits. These include systematics affecting the operation of the detectors, our knowledge of their response, astrophysical uncertainties, and the broad range of particle couplings that can mediate the interaction with a detector target. The interesting astrophysical evidence that motivates a search for dark-photon and focuses our attention on a Hidden Valleys model with a GeV-scale dark sector that produces the exciting signatures, which may include the possible constituent of dark matter, the possible existence of extra gauge groups. Results from the recent underground experiments are also considered. Many models of new physics beyond the Standard Model contain a 'light' hidden sector (dark sector) with a colorful spectrum of new particles. Recently, it has been shown that the hidden sector can give rise to unique...

  7. Applications of hidden symmetries to black hole physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frolov, Valeri, E-mail: vfrolov@ualberta.ca [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2G7 (Canada)

    2011-02-01

    This work is a brief review of applications of hidden symmetries to black hole physics. Symmetry is one of the most important concepts of the science. In physics and mathematics the symmetry allows one to simplify a problem, and often to make it solvable. According to the Noether theorem symmetries are responsible for conservation laws. Besides evident (explicit) spacetime symmetries, responsible for conservation of energy, momentum, and angular momentum of a system, there also exist what is called hidden symmetries, which are connected with higher order in momentum integrals of motion. A remarkable fact is that black holes in four and higher dimensions always possess a set ('tower') of explicit and hidden symmetries which make the equations of motion of particles and light completely integrable. The paper gives a general review of the recently obtained results. The main focus is on understanding why at all black holes have something (symmetry) to hide.

  8. The hidden-charm pentaquark and tetraquark states

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Hua-Xing; Liu, Xiang; Zhu, Shi-Lin

    2016-01-01

    In the past decade many charmonium-like states were observed experimentally. Especially those charged charmonium-like $Z_c$ states and bottomonium-like $Z_b$ states can not be accommodated within the naive quark model. These charged $Z_c$ states are good candidates of either the hidden-charm tetraquark states or molecules composed of a pair of charmed mesons. Recently, the LHCb Collaboration discovered two hidden-charm pentaquark states, which are also beyond the quark model. In this work, we review the current experimental progress and investigate various theoretical interpretations of these candidates of the multiquark states. We list the puzzles and theoretical challenges of these models when confronted with the experimental data. We also discuss possible future measurements which may distinguish the theoretical schemes on the underlying structures of the hidden-charm multiquark states.

  9. Ontology-based Knowledge Extraction from Hidden Web

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Hui; MA Fan-yuan; LIU Xiao-qiang

    2004-01-01

    Hidden Web provides great amount of domain-specific data for constructing knowledge services. Most previous knowledge extraction researches ignore the valuable data hidden in Web database, and related works do not refer how to make extracted information available for knowledge system. This paper describes a novel approach to build a domain-specific knowledge service with the data retrieved from Hidden Web. Ontology serves to model the domain knowledge. Queries forms of different Web sites are translated into machine-understandable format, defined knowledge concepts, so that they can be accessed automatically. Also knowledge data are extracted from Web pages and organized in ontology format knowledge. The experiment proves the algorithm achieves high accuracy and the system facilitates constructing knowledge services greatly.

  10. Applications of hidden symmetries to black hole physics

    CERN Document Server

    Frolov, Valeri

    2010-01-01

    This work is a brief review of applications of hidden symmetries to black hole physics. Symmetry is one of the most important concepts of the science. In physics and mathematics the symmetry allows one to simplify a problem, and often to make it solvable. According to the Noether theorem symmetries are responsible for conservation laws. Besides evident (explicit) spacetime symmetries, responsible for conservation of energy, momentum, and angular momentum of a system, there also exist what is called hidden symmetries, which are connected with higher order in momentum integrals of motion. A remarkable fact is that black holes in four and higher dimensions always possess a set (`tower') of explicit and hidden symmetries which make the equations of motion of particles and light completely integrable. The paper gives a general review of the recently obtained results. The main focus is on understanding why at all black holes have something (symmetry) to hide.

  11. Using the hidden curriculum to teach professionalism in nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Zohreh; Ashktorab, Tahereh; Mohammadi, Easa; Abedi, Heidar Ali

    2014-03-01

    Professionalism in nursing is critical for creating credibility and a positive image. This study was carried out to explain the use of hidden curriculum in teaching professionalism in nursing students. This qualitative study was conducted through purposeful sampling strategy by the participation of 32 nursing students. The data were collected by using semi-structured interviews, and this process was continued until achieving data saturation and themes' emergence. Content analysis method was used for data analysis. DATA ANALYSIS REVEALED THREE MAIN THEMES: Development of understanding the professionalism elements, Variety of influenceability strategies, and Influenceability to various resources. Each theme consisted of some subthemes. The nursing students learnt the professionalism elements by different methods from different resources through the hidden curriculum. Therefore, exploration of the currently administered hidden curricula is suggested.

  12. QCD sum rule study of hidden-charm pentaquarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Hua-Xing; Cui, Er-Liang [Beihang University, School of Physics and Beijing Key Laboratory of Advanced Nuclear Materials and Physics, Beijing (China); Chen, Wei; Steele, T.G. [University of Saskatchewan, Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada); Liu, Xiang [Lanzhou University, School of Physical Science and Technology, Lanzhou (China); Lanzhou University and Institute of Modern Physics of CAS, Research Center for Hadron and CSR Physics, Lanzhou (China); Zhu, Shi-Lin [Peking University, School of Physics and State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Beijing (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing (China); Peking University, Center of High Energy Physics, Beijing (China)

    2016-10-15

    We study the mass spectra of hidden-charm pentaquarks having spin J = (1)/(2)/(3)/(2)/(5)/(2) and quark contents uudc anti c. We systematically construct all the relevant local hidden-charm pentaquark currents, and we select some of them to perform QCD sum rule analyses. We find that the P{sub c}(4380) and P{sub c}(4450) can be identified as hidden-charm pentaquark states composed of an anti-charmed meson and a charmed baryon. Besides them, we also find (a) the lowest-lying hidden-charm pentaquark state of J{sup P} = 1/2{sup -} has the mass 4.33{sup +0.17}{sub -0.13} GeV, while the one of J{sup P} = 1/2{sup +} is significantly higher, that is, around 4.7-4.9 GeV; (b) the lowest-lying hidden-charm pentaquark state of J{sup P} = 3/2{sup -} has the mass 4.37{sup +0.18}{sub -0.13} GeV, consistent with the P{sub c}(4380) of J{sup P} = 3/2{sup -}, while the one of J{sup P} = 3/2{sup +} is also significantly higher, that is, above 4.6 GeV; (c) the hidden-charm pentaquark state of J{sup P} = 5/2{sup -} has a mass around 4.5-4.6 GeV, slightly larger than the P{sub c}(4450) of J{sup P} = 5/2{sup +}. (orig.)

  13. Detect and exploit hidden structure in fatty acid signature data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budge, Suzanne; Bromaghin, Jeffrey; Thiemann, Gregory

    2017-01-01

    Estimates of predator diet composition are essential to our understanding of their ecology. Although several methods of estimating diet are practiced, methods based on biomarkers have become increasingly common. Quantitative fatty acid signature analysis (QFASA) is a popular method that continues to be refined and extended. Quantitative fatty acid signature analysis is based on differences in the signatures of prey types, often species, which are recognized and designated by investigators. Similarly, predator signatures may be structured by known factors such as sex or age class, and the season or region of sample collection. The recognized structure in signature data inherently influences QFASA results in important and typically beneficial ways. However, predator and prey signatures may contain additional, hidden structure that investigators either choose not to incorporate into an analysis or of which they are unaware, being caused by unknown ecological mechanisms. Hidden structure also influences QFASA results, most often negatively. We developed a new method to explore signature data for hidden structure, called divisive magnetic clustering (DIMAC). Our DIMAC approach is based on the same distance measure used in diet estimation, closely linking methods of data exploration and parameter estimation, and it does not require data transformation or distributional assumptions, as do many multivariate ordination methods in common use. We investigated the potential benefits of the DIMAC method to detect and subsequently exploit hidden structure in signature data using two prey signature libraries with quite different characteristics. We found that the existence of hidden structure in prey signatures can increase the confusion between prey types and thereby reduce the accuracy and precision of QFASA diet estimates. Conversely, the detection and exploitation of hidden structure represent a potential opportunity to improve predator diet estimates and may lead to new

  14. Performance based analysis of hidden beams in reinforced concrete structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helou Samir H.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Local and perhaps regional vernacular reinforced concrete building construction leans heavily against designing slabs with imbedded hidden beams for flooring systems in most structures including major edifices. The practice is distinctive in both framed and in shear wall structures. Hidden beams are favoured structural elements due to their many inherent features that characterize them; they save on floor height clearance; they also save on formwork, labour and material cost. Moreover, hidden beams form an acceptable aesthetic appearance that does not hinder efficient interior space partitioning. Such beams have the added advantage of clearing the way for horizontal electromechanical ductwork. However, seismic considerations, in all likelihood, are seldom seriously addressed. The mentioned structural system of shallow beams is adopted in ribbed slabs, waffle slabs and at times with solid slabs. Ribbed slabs and waffle slabs are more prone to hidden beam inclusion due to the added effective height of the concrete section. Due to the presence of a relatively high reinforcement ratio at the joints the sections at such location tend to become less ductile with unreliable contribution to spandrel force resistance. In the following study the structural influence of hidden beams within slabs is investigated. With the primary focus on a performance based analysis of such elements within a structure. This is investigated with due attention to shear wall contribution to the overall behaviour of such structures. Numerical results point in the direction that the function of hidden beams is not as adequate as desired. Therefore it is strongly believed that they are generally superfluous and maybe eliminated altogether. Conversely, shallow beams seem to render the overall seismic capacity of the structure unreliable. Since such an argument is rarely manifested within the linear analysis domain; a pushover analysis exercise is thus mandatory for behaviour

  15. Looking after children and young people: ensuring their voices are heard in the pre-registration nursing curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Wendy; Camps, Laura; Bibi, Fatima

    2012-07-01

    'Looked after Children' refers to those under the age of 18 years, who have been subject to a care order under The Children Act (1989). In England there are approximately 64,400 young people who are subject of a care order, with evidence suggesting that these young people are likely to experience greater health problems than their peers. While service user involvement is seen as integral to the nursing curriculum much of the literature to date has revolved around adult service users and carers. For a number of years professionals have been urged to hear the voices of young service users and carers, and in particular, those who regularly use health and social care services. This paper will highlight the importance of collaborating with looked after children and young people to inform the nursing curriculum. By focussing on the experiences of delivering a seminar in collaboration with this group of young people in a pre-registration BSc (Hons) in Children's Nursing, the paper will first describe how the session is organised followed by a discussion of the key issues arising these being explored from a nurse lecturer and student nurse perspective.

  16. Exploring the role of knowledge of condition and psycho-social profiles of young people with epilepsy during transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Victoria; Palmer, Lucy; Whelby, Kayleigh; Vinten, Jacqui; Gait, Lucy

    2017-08-01

    Transitioning from paediatric to adult care can be a particularly challenging time for young people with epilepsy and research has shown that there are a range of factors which may influence a young person's ability to successfully cope with this difficult time. The following study aimed to explore the psychosocial characteristics of this transitioning population, as well as investigate how knowledgeable the young person and their parent/carer are of their own condition throughout transition. Young people with epilepsy were recruited from two specialist epilepsy clinics in the North West and allocated to one of three groups; Group 1 pre-transition, Group 2 transitioning, and Group 3 post-transition. Results found that the young person's knowledge increased significantly throughout transition, whilst parent/carer's knowledge decreased. In addition, anxiety was found to be significantly lower in Group 2 (transitioning group) compared to Group 1 (pre-transition) and Group 3 (post-transition) and a number of significant gender differences were also identified across the groups. The study highlights the importance of considering all relevant psychosocial factors, such as anxiety, gender and the degree of knowledge the individual holds of their own condition during the transition process in order to develop psycho-educational programmes and transition pathways. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Reheating the Standard Model from a hidden sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenkanen, Tommi; Vaskonen, Ville

    2016-10-01

    We consider a scenario where the inflaton decays to a hidden sector thermally decoupled from the visible Standard Model sector. A tiny portal coupling between the hidden and the visible sectors later heats the visible sector so that the Standard Model degrees of freedom come to dominate the energy density of the Universe before big bang nucleosynthesis. We find that this scenario is viable, although obtaining the correct dark matter abundance and retaining successful big bang nucleosynthesis is not obvious. We also show that the isocurvature perturbations constituted by a primordial Higgs condensate are not problematic for the viability of the scenario.

  18. On Noncontextual, Non-Kolmogorovian Hidden Variable Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feintzeig, Benjamin H.; Fletcher, Samuel C.

    2017-01-01

    One implication of Bell's theorem is that there cannot in general be hidden variable models for quantum mechanics that both are noncontextual and retain the structure of a classical probability space. Thus, some hidden variable programs aim to retain noncontextuality at the cost of using a generalization of the Kolmogorov probability axioms. We generalize a theorem of Feintzeig (Br J Philos Sci 66(4): 905-927, 2015) to show that such programs are committed to the existence of a finite null cover for some quantum mechanical experiments, i.e., a finite collection of probability zero events whose disjunction exhausts the space of experimental possibilities.

  19. Backward causation, hidden variables and the meaning of completeness

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Huw Price

    2001-02-01

    Bell’s theorem requires the assumption that hidden variables are independent of future measurement settings. This independence assumption rests on surprisingly shaky ground. In particular, it is puzzlingly time-asymmetric. The paper begins with a summary of the case for considering hidden variable models which, in abandoning this independence assumption, allow a degree of ‘backward causation’. The remainder of the paper clarifies the physical significance of such models, in relation to the issue as to whether quantum mechanics provides a complete description of physical reality.

  20. Dynamically Generated Open and Hidden Charm Meson Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Gamermann, D; Strottman, D D; Vacas, M J V

    2006-01-01

    The lowest order chiral Lagrangian successfully applied to study the interaction of the SU(3) octet of pseudo-scalar mesons is generalized to include all mesons from the SU(4) 15-plet of pseudo-scalar mesons. Exchanges of heavy vector mesons, which are indirectly taken into account via this approach, are suppressed. Unitarization in coupled channels leads to dynamical generation of resonances in the open and hidden charm sectors. In particular, for reasonable values of the input, a new narrow scalar resonance in the hidden charm sector appears with a mass of 3.7 GeV.