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Sample records for hidden units randomly

  1. Variational Infinite Hidden Conditional Random Fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bousmalis, Konstantinos; Zafeiriou, Stefanos; Morency, Louis-Philippe; Pantic, Maja; Ghahramani, Zoubin

    2015-01-01

    Hidden conditional random fields (HCRFs) are discriminative latent variable models which have been shown to successfully learn the hidden structure of a given classification problem. An Infinite hidden conditional random field is a hidden conditional random field with a countably infinite number of

  2. Multilayer Neural Networks with Extensively Many Hidden Units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen-Zvi, Michal; Engel, Andreas; Kanter, Ido

    2001-01-01

    The information processing abilities of a multilayer neural network with a number of hidden units scaling as the input dimension are studied using statistical mechanics methods. The mapping from the input layer to the hidden units is performed by general symmetric Boolean functions, whereas the hidden layer is connected to the output by either discrete or continuous couplings. Introducing an overlap in the space of Boolean functions as order parameter, the storage capacity is found to scale with the logarithm of the number of implementable Boolean functions. The generalization behavior is smooth for continuous couplings and shows a discontinuous transition to perfect generalization for discrete ones

  3. Infinite hidden conditional random fields for human behavior analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousmalis, Konstantinos; Zafeiriou, Stefanos; Morency, Louis-Philippe; Pantic, Maja

    2013-01-01

    Hidden conditional random fields (HCRFs) are discriminative latent variable models that have been shown to successfully learn the hidden structure of a given classification problem (provided an appropriate validation of the number of hidden states). In this brief, we present the infinite HCRF (iHCRF), which is a nonparametric model based on hierarchical Dirichlet processes and is capable of automatically learning the optimal number of hidden states for a classification task. We show how we learn the model hyperparameters with an effective Markov-chain Monte Carlo sampling technique, and we explain the process that underlines our iHCRF model with the Restaurant Franchise Rating Agencies analogy. We show that the iHCRF is able to converge to a correct number of represented hidden states, and outperforms the best finite HCRFs--chosen via cross-validation--for the difficult tasks of recognizing instances of agreement, disagreement, and pain. Moreover, the iHCRF manages to achieve this performance in significantly less total training, validation, and testing time.

  4. Optimal random search for a single hidden target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snider, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    A single target is hidden at a location chosen from a predetermined probability distribution. Then, a searcher must find a second probability distribution from which random search points are sampled such that the target is found in the minimum number of trials. Here it will be shown that if the searcher must get very close to the target to find it, then the best search distribution is proportional to the square root of the target distribution regardless of dimension. For a Gaussian target distribution, the optimum search distribution is approximately a Gaussian with a standard deviation that varies inversely with how close the searcher must be to the target to find it. For a network where the searcher randomly samples nodes and looks for the fixed target along edges, the optimum is either to sample a node with probability proportional to the square root of the out-degree plus 1 or not to do so at all.

  5. Hidden power system inflexibilities imposed by traditional unit commitment formulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales-España, Germán; Ramírez-Elizondo, Laura; Hobbs, Benjamin F.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Quality and accuracy of traditional-energy- and power-based UCs are evaluated. • Real-time performance evaluation simulating “perfect” stochastic UCs. • Ideal energy-based stochastic UC formulations impose hidden system inflexibilities. • A deterministic power-based UC may outperform an ideal energy-based stochastic UC. • Power-based UC overcomes flaws of energy-based UC: lower cost and wind curtailment. - Abstract: Approximations made in traditional day-ahead unit commitment model formulations can result in suboptimal or even infeasible schedules for slow-start units and inaccurate predictions of actual costs and wind curtailment. With increasing wind penetration, these errors will become economically more significant. Here, we consider inaccuracies from three approximations: the use of hourly intervals in which energy production from each generator is modeled as being constant; the disregarding of startup and shutdown energy trajectories; and optimization based on expected wind profiles. The results of unit commitment formulations with those assumptions are compared to models that: (1) use a piecewise-linear power profiles of generation, load and wind, instead of the traditional stepwise energy profiles; (2) consider startup/shutdown trajectories; and (3) include many possible wind trajectories in a stochastic framework. The day-ahead hourly schedules of slow-start generators are then evaluated against actual wind and load profiles using a model real-time dispatch and quick-start unit commitment with a 5 min time step. We find that each simplification usually causes expected generation costs to increase by several percentage points, and results in significant understatement of expected wind curtailment and, in some cases, load interruptions. The inclusion of startup and shutdown trajectories often yielded the largest improvements in schedule performance.

  6. Efficient tests for equivalence of hidden Markov processes and quantum random walks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    U. Faigle; A. Schönhuth (Alexander)

    2011-01-01

    htmlabstractWhile two hidden Markov process (HMP) resp.~quantum random walk (QRW) parametrizations can differ from one another, the stochastic processes arising from them can be equivalent. Here a polynomial-time algorithm is presented which can determine equivalence of two HMP parametrizations

  7. Bokanmeldelse: "Fooled by randomness : the hidden role of chance in the markets and in life" / Nassim Nicholas Taleb

    OpenAIRE

    Sommervoll, Dag Einar

    2007-01-01

    Artikkelen er gjengitt med tillatelse fra Samfunnsøkonomenes Forening. Bokanmeldelse av: Taleb, Nassim Nicholas (2005) "Fooled by randomness : the hidden role of chance in the markets and in life", New York: Random House.

  8. Optimized hardware framework of MLP with random hidden layers for classification applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyarah, Abdullah M.; Ramesh, Abhishek; Merkel, Cory; Kudithipudi, Dhireesha

    2016-05-01

    Multilayer Perceptron Networks with random hidden layers are very efficient at automatic feature extraction and offer significant performance improvements in the training process. They essentially employ large collection of fixed, random features, and are expedient for form-factor constrained embedded platforms. In this work, a reconfigurable and scalable architecture is proposed for the MLPs with random hidden layers with a customized building block based on CORDIC algorithm. The proposed architecture also exploits fixed point operations for area efficiency. The design is validated for classification on two different datasets. An accuracy of ~ 90% for MNIST dataset and 75% for gender classification on LFW dataset was observed. The hardware has 299 speed-up over the corresponding software realization.

  9. Estimates of Storage Capacity of Multilayer Perceptron with Threshold Logic Hidden Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczyk, Adam

    1997-11-01

    We estimate the storage capacity of multilayer perceptron with n inputs, h(1) threshold logic units in the first hidden layer and 1 output. We show that if the network can memorize 50% of all dichotomies of a randomly selected N-tuple of points of R(n) with probability 1, then Nmemory capacity (in the sense of Cover) between nh(1)+1 and 2(nh(1)+1) input patterns and for the most efficient networks in this class between 1 and 2 input patterns per connection. Comparing these results with the recent estimates of VC-dimension we find that in contrast to a single neuron case, the VC-dimension exceeds the capacity for a sufficiently large n and h(1). The results are based on the derivation of an explicit expression for the number of dichotomies which can be implemented by such a network for a special class of N-tuples of input patterns which has a positive probability of being randomly chosen.

  10. Measuring the usefulness of hidden units in Boltzmann machines with mutual information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berglund, Mathias; Raiko, Tapani; Cho, Kyunghyun

    2015-04-01

    Restricted Boltzmann machines (RBMs) and deep Boltzmann machines (DBMs) are important models in deep learning, but it is often difficult to measure their performance in general, or measure the importance of individual hidden units in specific. We propose to use mutual information to measure the usefulness of individual hidden units in Boltzmann machines. The measure is fast to compute, and serves as an upper bound for the information the neuron can pass on, enabling detection of a particular kind of poor training results. We confirm experimentally that the proposed measure indicates how much the performance of the model drops when some of the units of an RBM are pruned away. We demonstrate the usefulness of the measure for early detection of poor training in DBMs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Anti-pairing in learning of a neural network with redundant hidden units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Chulan; Kim, Hyong Kyun

    2005-01-01

    We study the statistical mechanics of learning from examples between the two-layered committee machines with different numbers of hidden units using the replica theory. The number M of hidden units of the student network is larger than the number M T of those of the target network called the teacher. We choose the networks to have binary synaptic weights, ±1, which makes it possible to compare the calculation with the Monte Carlo simulation. We propose an effective teacher as a virtual target network which has the same M hidden units as the student and gives identical outputs with those of the original teacher. This is a way of making a conjecture for a ground state of a thermodynamic system, given by the weights of the effective teacher in our study. We suppose that the weights on M T hidden units of the effective teacher are the same as those of the original teacher while those on M - M T redundant hidden units are composed of anti-pairs, {1, - 1}, with probability 1 - p in the limit p → 0. For p = 0 exact, there are no terms related to the effective teacher in the calculation, for the contributions of anti-pairs to outputs are exactly cancelled. In the limit p → 0, however, we find that the learnt weights of the student are actually equivalent to those of the suggested effective teacher, which is not possible from the calculation for p = 0. p plays the role of a symmetry breaking parameter for anti-pairing ordering, which is analogous to the magnetic field for the Ising model. A first-order phase transition is found to be signalled by breaking of symmetry in permuting hidden units. Above a critical number of examples, the student is shown to learn perfectly the effective teacher. Anti-pairing can be measured by a set of order parameters; zero in the permutation-symmetric phase and nonzero in the permutation symmetry breaking phase. Results from the Monte Carlo simulation are shown to be in good agreement with those from the replica calculation

  12. Child Labor Trafficking in the United States: A Hidden Crime

    OpenAIRE

    Kaufka Walts, Katherine

    2017-01-01

    Emerging research brings more attention to labor trafficking in the United States. However, very few efforts have been made to better understand or respond to labor trafficking of minors. Cases of children forced to work as domestic servants, in factories, restaurants, peddling candy or other goods, or on farms may not automatically elicit suspicion from an outside observer as compared to a child providing sexual services for money. In contrast to sex trafficking, labor trafficking is often t...

  13. Child Labor Trafficking in the United States: A Hidden Crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Kaufka Walts

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Emerging research brings more attention to labor trafficking in the United States. However, very few efforts have been made to better understand or respond to labor trafficking of minors. Cases of children forced to work as domestic servants, in factories, restaurants, peddling candy or other goods, or on farms may not automatically elicit suspicion from an outside observer as compared to a child providing sexual services for money. In contrast to sex trafficking, labor trafficking is often tied to formal economies and industries, which often makes it more difficult to distinguish from "legitimate" work, including among adolescents. This article seeks to provide examples of documented cases of child labor trafficking in the United States, and to provide an overview of systemic gaps in law, policy, data collection, research, and practice. These areas are currently overwhelmingly focused on sex trafficking, which undermines the policy intentions of the Trafficking Victims Protection Act (2000, the seminal statute criminalizing sex and labor trafficking in the United States, its subsequent reauthorizations, and international laws and protocols addressing human trafficking.

  14. The Hidden Flow Structure and Metric Space of Network Embedding Algorithms Based on Random Walks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Weiwei; Gong, Li; Lou, Xiaodan; Zhang, Jiang

    2017-10-13

    Network embedding which encodes all vertices in a network as a set of numerical vectors in accordance with it's local and global structures, has drawn widespread attention. Network embedding not only learns significant features of a network, such as the clustering and linking prediction but also learns the latent vector representation of the nodes which provides theoretical support for a variety of applications, such as visualization, link prediction, node classification, and recommendation. As the latest progress of the research, several algorithms based on random walks have been devised. Although those algorithms have drawn much attention for their high scores in learning efficiency and accuracy, there is still a lack of theoretical explanation, and the transparency of those algorithms has been doubted. Here, we propose an approach based on the open-flow network model to reveal the underlying flow structure and its hidden metric space of different random walk strategies on networks. We show that the essence of embedding based on random walks is the latent metric structure defined on the open-flow network. This not only deepens our understanding of random- walk-based embedding algorithms but also helps in finding new potential applications in network embedding.

  15. A Coupled Hidden Markov Random Field Model for Simultaneous Face Clustering and Tracking in Videos

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Baoyuan

    2016-10-25

    Face clustering and face tracking are two areas of active research in automatic facial video processing. They, however, have long been studied separately, despite the inherent link between them. In this paper, we propose to perform simultaneous face clustering and face tracking from real world videos. The motivation for the proposed research is that face clustering and face tracking can provide useful information and constraints to each other, thus can bootstrap and improve the performances of each other. To this end, we introduce a Coupled Hidden Markov Random Field (CHMRF) to simultaneously model face clustering, face tracking, and their interactions. We provide an effective algorithm based on constrained clustering and optimal tracking for the joint optimization of cluster labels and face tracking. We demonstrate significant improvements over state-of-the-art results in face clustering and tracking on several videos.

  16. Hidden State Conditional Random Field for Abnormal Activity Recognition in Smart Homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Tong

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available As the number of elderly people has increased worldwide, there has been a surge of research into assistive technologies to provide them with better care by recognizing their normal and abnormal activities. However, existing abnormal activity recognition (AAR algorithms rarely consider sub-activity relations when recognizing abnormal activities. This paper presents an application of the Hidden State Conditional Random Field (HCRF method to detect and assess abnormal activities that often occur in elderly persons’ homes. Based on HCRF, this paper designs two AAR algorithms, and validates them by comparing them with a feature vector distance based algorithm in two experiments. The results demonstrate that the proposed algorithms favorably outperform the competitor, especially when abnormal activities have same sensor type and sensor number as normal activities.

  17. Microcomputer Unit: Generating Random Numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haigh, William E.

    1986-01-01

    Presents an activity, suitable for students in grades 6-12, on generating random numbers. Objectives, equipment needed, list of prerequisite experiences, instructional strategies, and ready-to-copy student worksheets are included. (JN)

  18. A Coupled Hidden Conditional Random Field Model for Simultaneous Face Clustering and Naming in Videos

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Yifan

    2016-08-18

    For face naming in TV series or movies, a typical way is using subtitles/script alignment to get the time stamps of the names, and tagging them to the faces. We study the problem of face naming in videos when subtitles are not available. To this end, we divide the problem into two tasks: face clustering which groups the faces depicting a certain person into a cluster, and name assignment which associates a name to each face. Each task is formulated as a structured prediction problem and modeled by a hidden conditional random field (HCRF) model. We argue that the two tasks are correlated problems whose outputs can provide prior knowledge of the target prediction for each other. The two HCRFs are coupled in a unified graphical model called coupled HCRF where the joint dependence of the cluster labels and face name association is naturally embedded in the correlation between the two HCRFs. We provide an effective algorithm to optimize the two HCRFs iteratively and the performance of the two tasks on real-world data set can be both improved.

  19. Detection of a periodic structure hidden in random background: the role of signal amplitude in the matched filter detection method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vani, V C; Chatterjee, S

    2010-01-01

    The matched filter method for detecting a periodic structure on a surface hidden behind randomness is known to detect up to (r 0 /Λ)≥0.11, where r 0 is the coherence length of light on scattering from the rough part and Λ is the wavelength of the periodic part of the surface-the above limit being much lower than what is allowed by conventional detection methods. The primary goal of this technique is the detection and characterization of the periodic structure hidden behind randomness without the use of any complicated experimental or computational procedures. This paper examines this detection procedure for various values of the amplitude a of the periodic part beginning from a=0 to small finite values of a. We thus address the importance of the following quantities: '(a/λ)', which scales the amplitude of the periodic part with the wavelength of light, and (r 0 /Λ), in determining the detectability of the intensity peaks.

  20. Improper colouring of (random) unit disk graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kang, R.J.; Müller, T.; Sereni, J.S.

    2008-01-01

    For any graph G, the k-improper chromatic number ¿k(G) is the smallest number of colours used in a colouring of G such that each colour class induces a subgraph of maximum degree k. We investigate ¿k for unit disk graphs and random unit disk graphs to generalise results of McDiarmid and Reed

  1. Employing open/hidden administration in psychotherapy research: A randomized-controlled trial of expressive writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tondorf, Theresa; Kaufmann, Lisa-Katrin; Degel, Alexander; Locher, Cosima; Birkhäuer, Johanna; Gerger, Heike; Ehlert, Ulrike

    2017-01-01

    Psychotherapy has been shown to be effective, but efforts to prove specific effects by placebo-controlled trials have been practically and conceptually hampered. We propose that adopting open/hidden designs from placebo research would offer a possible way to establish specificity in psychotherapy. Therefore, we tested the effects of providing opposing treatment rationales in an online expressive writing intervention on affect in healthy subjects. Results indicate that it was possible to conduct the expressive writing intervention both covertly and openly, but that participants in the hidden administration condition did not fully benefit from the otherwise effective expressive writing intervention in the long-run. Effect sizes between open and hidden administration groups were comparable to pre-post effect sizes of the intervention. While this finding is important for the understanding of psychotherapy's effects per se, it also proves that alternative research approaches to establish specificity are feasible and informative in psychotherapy research. Trial registration: German Clinical Trials Register DRKS00009428 PMID:29176768

  2. Conditional Random Fields versus Hidden Markov Models for activity recognition in temporal sensor data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kasteren, T.L.M.; Noulas, A.K.; Kröse, B.J.A.; Smit, G.J.M.; Epema, D.H.J.; Lew, M.S.

    2008-01-01

    Conditional Random Fields are a discriminative probabilistic model which recently gained popularity in applications that require modeling nonindependent observation sequences. In this work, we present the basic advantages of this model over generative models and argue about its suitability in the

  3. Random power series in the unit ball of Cn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Jihuai.

    1989-07-01

    The random power series in the unit disc has been studied by many authors. In this paper, we studied the random power series in the unit ball of C n and generalized some results in the unit disc to the unit ball, in particular, the result obtained recently by Duren has been generalized to the unit ball. The main tool used here is the generalized Salem-Zygmund's theorem. (author). 12 refs

  4. Preprocessing of 18F-DMFP-PET Data Based on Hidden Markov Random Fields and the Gaussian Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fermín Segovia

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available 18F-DMFP-PET is an emerging neuroimaging modality used to diagnose Parkinson's disease (PD that allows us to examine postsynaptic dopamine D2/3 receptors. Like other neuroimaging modalities used for PD diagnosis, most of the total intensity of 18F-DMFP-PET images is concentrated in the striatum. However, other regions can also be useful for diagnostic purposes. An appropriate delimitation of the regions of interest contained in 18F-DMFP-PET data is crucial to improve the automatic diagnosis of PD. In this manuscript we propose a novel methodology to preprocess 18F-DMFP-PET data that improves the accuracy of computer aided diagnosis systems for PD. First, the data were segmented using an algorithm based on Hidden Markov Random Field. As a result, each neuroimage was divided into 4 maps according to the intensity and the neighborhood of the voxels. The maps were then individually normalized so that the shape of their histograms could be modeled by a Gaussian distribution with equal parameters for all the neuroimages. This approach was evaluated using a dataset with neuroimaging data from 87 parkinsonian patients. After these preprocessing steps, a Support Vector Machine classifier was used to separate idiopathic and non-idiopathic PD. Data preprocessed by the proposed method provided higher accuracy results than the ones preprocessed with previous approaches.

  5. Improved longitudinal gray and white matter atrophy assessment via application of a 4-dimensional hidden Markov random field model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Michael G; Bergsland, Niels; Zivadinov, Robert

    2014-04-15

    SIENA and similar techniques have demonstrated the utility of performing "direct" measurements as opposed to post-hoc comparison of cross-sectional data for the measurement of whole brain (WB) atrophy over time. However, gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) atrophy are now widely recognized as important components of neurological disease progression, and are being actively evaluated as secondary endpoints in clinical trials. Direct measures of GM/WM change with advantages similar to SIENA have been lacking. We created a robust and easily-implemented method for direct longitudinal analysis of GM/WM atrophy, SIENAX multi-time-point (SIENAX-MTP). We built on the basic halfway-registration and mask composition components of SIENA to improve the raw output of FMRIB's FAST tissue segmentation tool. In addition, we created LFAST, a modified version of FAST incorporating a 4th dimension in its hidden Markov random field model in order to directly represent time. The method was validated by scan-rescan, simulation, comparison with SIENA, and two clinical effect size comparisons. All validation approaches demonstrated improved longitudinal precision with the proposed SIENAX-MTP method compared to SIENAX. For GM, simulation showed better correlation with experimental volume changes (r=0.992 vs. 0.941), scan-rescan showed lower standard deviations (3.8% vs. 8.4%), correlation with SIENA was more robust (r=0.70 vs. 0.53), and effect sizes were improved by up to 68%. Statistical power estimates indicated a potential drop of 55% in the number of subjects required to detect the same treatment effect with SIENAX-MTP vs. SIENAX. The proposed direct GM/WM method significantly improves on the standard SIENAX technique by trading a small amount of bias for a large reduction in variance, and may provide more precise data and additional statistical power in longitudinal studies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Woodrow Wilson's hidden stroke of 1919: the impact of patient-physician confidentiality on United States foreign policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menger, Richard P; Storey, Christopher M; Guthikonda, Bharat; Missios, Symeon; Nanda, Anil; Cooper, John M

    2015-07-01

    World War I catapulted the United States from traditional isolationism to international involvement in a major European conflict. Woodrow Wilson envisaged a permanent American imprint on democracy in world affairs through participation in the League of Nations. Amid these defining events, Wilson suffered a major ischemic stroke on October 2, 1919, which left him incapacitated. What was probably his fourth and most devastating stroke was diagnosed and treated by his friend and personal physician, Admiral Cary Grayson. Grayson, who had tremendous personal and professional loyalty to Wilson, kept the severity of the stroke hidden from Congress, the American people, and even the president himself. During a cabinet briefing, Grayson formally refused to sign a document of disability and was reluctant to address the subject of presidential succession. Wilson was essentially incapacitated and hemiplegic, yet he remained an active president and all messages were relayed directly through his wife, Edith. Patient-physician confidentiality superseded national security amid the backdrop of friendship and political power on the eve of a pivotal juncture in the history of American foreign policy. It was in part because of the absence of Woodrow Wilson's vocal and unwavering support that the United States did not join the League of Nations and distanced itself from the international stage. The League of Nations would later prove powerless without American support and was unable to thwart the rise and advance of Adolf Hitler. Only after World War II did the United States assume its global leadership role and realize Wilson's visionary, yet contentious, groundwork for a Pax Americana. The authors describe Woodrow Wilson's stroke, the historical implications of his health decline, and its impact on United States foreign policy.

  7. Hidden Liquidity

    OpenAIRE

    Cebiroglu, Gökhan; Horst, Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    We cross-sectionally analyze the presence of aggregated hidden depth and trade volume in the S&P 500 and identify its key determinants. We find that the spread is the main predictor for a stock’s hidden dimension, both in terms of traded and posted liquidity. Our findings moreover suggest that large hidden orders are associated with larger transaction costs, higher price impact and increased volatility. In particular, as large hidden orders fail to attract (latent) liquidity to the market, hi...

  8. Identification and Simulation of Subsurface Soil patterns using hidden Markov random fields and remote sensing and geophysical EMI data sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Wellmann, Florian; Verweij, Elizabeth; von Hebel, Christian; van der Kruk, Jan

    2017-04-01

    Lateral and vertical spatial heterogeneity of subsurface properties such as soil texture and structure influences the available water and resource supply for crop growth. High-resolution mapping of subsurface structures using non-invasive geo-referenced geophysical measurements, like electromagnetic induction (EMI), enables a characterization of 3D soil structures, which have shown correlations to remote sensing information of the crop states. The benefit of EMI is that it can return 3D subsurface information, however the spatial dimensions are limited due to the labor intensive measurement procedure. Although active and passive sensors mounted on air- or space-borne platforms return 2D images, they have much larger spatial dimensions. Combining both approaches provides us with a potential pathway to extend the detailed 3D geophysical information to a larger area by using remote sensing information. In this study, we aim at extracting and providing insights into the spatial and statistical correlation of the geophysical and remote sensing observations of the soil/vegetation continuum system. To this end, two key points need to be addressed: 1) how to detect and recognize the geometric patterns (i.e., spatial heterogeneity) from multiple data sets, and 2) how to quantitatively describe the statistical correlation between remote sensing information and geophysical measurements. In the current study, the spatial domain is restricted to shallow depths up to 3 meters, and the geostatistical database contains normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) derived from RapidEye satellite images and apparent electrical conductivities (ECa) measured from multi-receiver EMI sensors for nine depths of exploration ranging from 0-2.7 m. The integrated data sets are mapped into both the physical space (i.e. the spatial domain) and feature space (i.e. a two-dimensional space framed by the NDVI and the ECa data). Hidden Markov Random Fields (HMRF) are employed to model the

  9. Simultaneous escaping of explicit and hidden free energy barriers: application of the orthogonal space random walk strategy in generalized ensemble based conformational sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Lianqing; Chen, Mengen; Yang, Wei

    2009-06-21

    To overcome the pseudoergodicity problem, conformational sampling can be accelerated via generalized ensemble methods, e.g., through the realization of random walks along prechosen collective variables, such as spatial order parameters, energy scaling parameters, or even system temperatures or pressures, etc. As usually observed, in generalized ensemble simulations, hidden barriers are likely to exist in the space perpendicular to the collective variable direction and these residual free energy barriers could greatly abolish the sampling efficiency. This sampling issue is particularly severe when the collective variable is defined in a low-dimension subset of the target system; then the "Hamiltonian lagging" problem, which reveals the fact that necessary structural relaxation falls behind the move of the collective variable, may be likely to occur. To overcome this problem in equilibrium conformational sampling, we adopted the orthogonal space random walk (OSRW) strategy, which was originally developed in the context of free energy simulation [L. Zheng, M. Chen, and W. Yang, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105, 20227 (2008)]. Thereby, generalized ensemble simulations can simultaneously escape both the explicit barriers along the collective variable direction and the hidden barriers that are strongly coupled with the collective variable move. As demonstrated in our model studies, the present OSRW based generalized ensemble treatments show improved sampling capability over the corresponding classical generalized ensemble treatments.

  10. Effects of tai chi qigong on psychosocial well-being among hidden elderly, using elderly neighborhood volunteer approach: a pilot randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan AW

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aileen WK Chan, Doris SF Yu, KC Choi The Nethersole School of Nursing, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, NT, Hong Kong SAR Purpose: To test the feasibility and preliminary effectiveness of a tai chi qigong program with the assistance of elderly neighborhood volunteers in strengthening social networks and enhancing the psychosocial well-being of hidden elderly. Patients and methods: “Hidden elderly” is a term used to describe older adults who are socially isolated and refuse social participation. This pilot randomized controlled trial recruited 48 older adults aged 60 or above who did not engage in any social activity. They were randomized into tai chi qigong (n=24 and standard care control (n=24 groups. The former group underwent a three-month program of two 60-minute sessions each week, with the socially active volunteers paired up with them during practice. Standard care included regular home visits by social workers. Primary outcomes were assessed by means of the Lubben social network and De Jong Gieveld loneliness scales, and by a revised social support questionnaire. Secondary outcomes were covered by a mental health inventory and the Rosenberg self-esteem scale, and quality of life by using the 12-Item Short Form Health Survey. Data was collected at baseline, and at three and six months thereafter. Results: The generalized estimating equations model revealed general improvement in outcomes among participants on the tai chi qigong program. In particular, participants reported a significantly greater improvement on the loneliness scale (B=-1.32, 95% confidence interval [CI] -2.54 to -0.11, P=0.033 and the satisfaction component of the social support questionnaire (B=3.43, 95% CI 0.10–6.76, P=0.044 than the control group. Conclusion: The pilot study confirmed that tai chi qigong with elderly neighborhood volunteers is a safe and feasible social intervention for hidden elderly. Its potential benefits in

  11. Hidden Statistics of Schroedinger Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zak, Michail

    2011-01-01

    Work was carried out in determination of the mathematical origin of randomness in quantum mechanics and creating a hidden statistics of Schr dinger equation; i.e., to expose the transitional stochastic process as a "bridge" to the quantum world. The governing equations of hidden statistics would preserve such properties of quantum physics as superposition, entanglement, and direct-product decomposability while allowing one to measure its state variables using classical methods.

  12. A model for abnormal activity recognition and alert generation system for elderly care by hidden conditional random fields using R-transform and generalized discriminant analysis features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Zafar Ali; Sohn, Won

    2012-10-01

    The growing population of elderly people living alone increases the need for automatic healthcare monitoring systems for elderly care. Automatic vision sensor-based systems are increasingly used for human activity recognition (HAR) in recent years. This study presents an improved model, tested using actors, of a sensor-based HAR system to recognize daily life activities of elderly people at home and generate an alert in case of abnormal HAR. Datasets consisting of six abnormal activities (falling backward, falling forward, falling rightward, falling leftward, chest pain, and fainting) and four normal activities (walking, rushing, sitting down, and standing up) are generated from different view angles (90°, -90°, 45°, -45°). Feature extraction and dimensions reduction are performed by R-transform followed by generalized discriminant analysis (GDA) methods. R-transform extracts symmetric, scale, and translation-invariant features from the sequences of activities. GDA increases the discrimination between different classes of highly similar activities. Silhouette sequences are quantified by the Linde-Buzo-Gray algorithm and recognized by hidden conditional random fields. Experimental results provide an average recognition rate of 94.2% for abnormal activities and 92.7% for normal activities. The recognition rate for the highly similar activities from different view angles shows the flexibility and efficacy of the proposed abnormal HAR and alert generation system for elderly care.

  13. Asymmetry in retail gasoline and crude oil price movements in the United States. An application of hidden cointegration technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honarvar, Afshin

    2009-01-01

    There is a common belief that gasoline prices respond more quickly to crude oil price increases than decreases. Some economists and politicians believe that asymmetry in oil and gasoline price movements is the outcome of a non-competitive gasoline market requiring that governments take policy action to address 'unfair pricing'. There is no consensus as to the existence, or nature, of the asymmetric relationship between prices of gasoline and crude oil. Much of this literature specifies asymmetry in the speed of adjustment and short-run adjustment coefficients. In contrast, Granger and Yoon's [Granger, C.W. and Yoon, G. 'Hidden Cointegration', University of California, San Diego, Department of Economics Working Paper, (2002).] Crouching Error Correction Model (CECM) identifies asymmetry of the cointegrating vectors between components (cumulative positive and negative changes) of the series. Applying the CECM to retail gasoline and crude oil prices for the U.S., we find that there is only evidence of cointegration between positive components of crude oil prices and negative components of gasoline prices. In contrast to the literature which attributes asymmetric price movements to market power of refiners, these findings suggest that gasoline prices -in the long run- are more influenced by the technological changes on the demand side than crude oil price movements on the supply side. (author)

  14. Hidden loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kieffer-Kristensen, Rikke; Johansen, Karen Lise Gaardsvig

    2013-01-01

    to participate. RESULTS: All children were affected by their parents' ABI and the altered family situation. The children's expressions led the authors to identify six themes, including fear of losing the parent, distress and estrangement, chores and responsibilities, hidden loss, coping and support. The main......PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to listen to and learn from children showing high levels of post-traumatic stress symptoms after parental acquired brain injury (ABI), in order to achieve an in-depth understanding of the difficulties the children face in their everyday lives...... finding indicates that the children experienced numerous losses, many of which were often suppressed or neglected by the children to protect the ill parents. CONCLUSIONS: The findings indicated that the children seemed to make a special effort to hide their feelings of loss and grief in order to protect...

  15. Effects of tai chi qigong on psychosocial well-being among hidden elderly, using elderly neighborhood volunteer approach: a pilot randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Chan,Aileen; Yu,Doris; Choi,Kai

    2017-01-01

    Aileen WK Chan, Doris SF Yu, KC Choi The Nethersole School of Nursing, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, NT, Hong Kong SAR Purpose: To test the feasibility and preliminary effectiveness of a tai chi qigong program with the assistance of elderly neighborhood volunteers in strengthening social networks and enhancing the psychosocial well-being of hidden elderly. Patients and methods: “Hidden elderly” is a term used to describe older adults w...

  16. Hidden costs, value lost: uninsurance in America

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee on the Consequences of Uninsurance

    2003-01-01

    Hidden Cost, Value Lost , the fifth of a series of six books on the consequences of uninsurance in the United States, illustrates some of the economic and social losses to the country of maintaining...

  17. The hidden epidemic: confronting sexually transmitted diseases

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eng, Thomas R; Butler, William T

    .... In addition, STDs increase the risk of HIV transmission. The Hidden Epidemic examines the scope of sexually transmitted infections in the United States and provides a critical assessment of the nation's response to this public health crisis...

  18. Hidden variables and locality in quantum theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiva, Vandana.

    1978-12-01

    The status of hidden variables in quantum theory has been debated since the 1920s. The author examines the no-hidden-variable theories of von Neumann, Kochen, Specker and Bell, and finds that they all share one basic assumption: averaging over the hidden variables should reproduce the quantum mechanical probabilities. Von Neumann also makes a linearity assumption, Kochen and Specker require the preservation of certain functional relations between magnitudes, and Bell proposes a locality condition. It has been assumed that the extrastatistical requirements are needed to serve as criteria of success for the introduction of hidden variables because the statistical condition is trivially satisfied, and that Bell's result is based on a locality condition that is physically motivated. The author shows that the requirement of weak locality, which is not physically motivated, is enough to give Bell's result. The proof of Bell's inequality works equally well for any pair of commuting magnitudes satisfying a condition called the degeneracy principle. None of the no-hidden-variable proofs apply to a class of hidden variable theories that are not phase-space reconstructions of quantum mechanics. The author discusses one of these theories, the Bohm-Bub theory, and finds that hidden variable theories that re all the quantum statistics, for single and sequential measurements, must introduce a randomization process for the hidden variables after each measurement. The philosophical significance of this theory lies in the role it can play in solving the conceptual puzzles posed by quantum theory

  19. Sociology of Hidden Curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Moradi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the concept of hidden curriculum in the sociological theories and wants to explain sociological aspects of formation of hidden curriculum. The main question concentrates on the theoretical approaches in which hidden curriculum is explained sociologically.For this purpose it was applied qualitative research methodology. The relevant data include various sociological concepts and theories of hidden curriculum collected by the documentary method. The study showed a set of rules, procedures, relationships and social structure of education have decisive role in the formation of hidden curriculum. A hidden curriculum reinforces by existed inequalities among learners (based on their social classes or statues. There is, in fact, a balance between the learner's "knowledge receptions" with their "inequality proportion".The hidden curriculum studies from different major sociological theories such as Functionalism, Marxism and critical theory, Symbolic internationalism and Feminism. According to the functionalist perspective a hidden curriculum has a social function because it transmits social values. Marxists and critical thinkers correlate between hidden curriculum and the totality of social structure. They depicts that curriculum prepares learners for the exploitation in the work markets. Symbolic internationalism rejects absolute hegemony of hidden curriculum on education and looks to the socialization as a result of interaction between learner and instructor. Feminism theory also considers hidden curriculum as a vehicle which legitimates gender stereotypes.

  20. POVMs and hidden variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stairs, Allen

    2007-01-01

    Recent results by Paul Busch and Adan Cabello claim to show that by appealing to POVMs, non-contextual hidden variables can be ruled out in two dimensions. While the results of Busch and Cabello are mathematically correct, interpretive problems render them problematic as no hidden variable proofs

  1. Partially Hidden Markov Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren Otto; Rissanen, Jorma

    1996-01-01

    Partially Hidden Markov Models (PHMM) are introduced. They differ from the ordinary HMM's in that both the transition probabilities of the hidden states and the output probabilities are conditioned on past observations. As an illustration they are applied to black and white image compression where...

  2. Hidden gauge symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Raifeartaigh, L.

    1979-01-01

    This review describes the principles of hidden gauge symmetry and of its application to the fundamental interactions. The emphasis is on the structure of the theory rather than on the technical details and, in order to emphasise the structure, gauge symmetry and hidden symmetry are first treated as independent phenomena before being combined into a single (hidden gauge symmetric) theory. The main application of the theory is to the weak and electromagnetic interactions of the elementary particles, and although models are used for comparison with experiment and for illustration, emphasis is placed on those features of the application which are model-independent. (author)

  3. The hidden universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disney, M.

    1985-01-01

    Astronomer Disney has followed a somewhat different tack than that of most popular books on cosmology by concentrating on the notion of hidden (as in not directly observable by its own radiation) matter in the universe

  4. Locating Hidden Servers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Oeverlier, Lasse; Syverson, Paul F

    2006-01-01

    .... Announced properties include server resistance to distributed DoS. Both the EFF and Reporters Without Borders have issued guides that describe using hidden services via Tor to protect the safety of dissidents as well as to resist censorship...

  5. Hidden charged dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Jonathan L.; Kaplinghat, Manoj; Tu, Huitzu; Yu, Hai-Bo

    2009-01-01

    Can dark matter be stabilized by charge conservation, just as the electron is in the standard model? We examine the possibility that dark matter is hidden, that is, neutral under all standard model gauge interactions, but charged under an exact (\\rm U)(1) gauge symmetry of the hidden sector. Such candidates are predicted in WIMPless models, supersymmetric models in which hidden dark matter has the desired thermal relic density for a wide range of masses. Hidden charged dark matter has many novel properties not shared by neutral dark matter: (1) bound state formation and Sommerfeld-enhanced annihilation after chemical freeze out may reduce its relic density, (2) similar effects greatly enhance dark matter annihilation in protohalos at redshifts of z ∼ 30, (3) Compton scattering off hidden photons delays kinetic decoupling, suppressing small scale structure, and (4) Rutherford scattering makes such dark matter self-interacting and collisional, potentially impacting properties of the Bullet Cluster and the observed morphology of galactic halos. We analyze all of these effects in a WIMPless model in which the hidden sector is a simplified version of the minimal supersymmetric standard model and the dark matter is a hidden sector stau. We find that charged hidden dark matter is viable and consistent with the correct relic density for reasonable model parameters and dark matter masses in the range 1 GeV ∼ X ∼< 10 TeV. At the same time, in the preferred range of parameters, this model predicts cores in the dark matter halos of small galaxies and other halo properties that may be within the reach of future observations. These models therefore provide a viable and well-motivated framework for collisional dark matter with Sommerfeld enhancement, with novel implications for astrophysics and dark matter searches

  6. High-Performance Pseudo-Random Number Generation on Graphics Processing Units

    OpenAIRE

    Nandapalan, Nimalan; Brent, Richard P.; Murray, Lawrence M.; Rendell, Alistair

    2011-01-01

    This work considers the deployment of pseudo-random number generators (PRNGs) on graphics processing units (GPUs), developing an approach based on the xorgens generator to rapidly produce pseudo-random numbers of high statistical quality. The chosen algorithm has configurable state size and period, making it ideal for tuning to the GPU architecture. We present a comparison of both speed and statistical quality with other common parallel, GPU-based PRNGs, demonstrating favourable performance o...

  7. Transfusion strategy in hematological intensive care unit: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantepie, Sylvain P; Mear, Jean-Baptiste; Guittet, Lydia; Dervaux, Benoît; Marolleau, Jean-Pierre; Jardin, Fabrice; Dutheil, Jean-Jacques; Parienti, Jean-Jacques; Vilque, Jean-Pierre; Reman, Oumedaly

    2015-11-23

    Packed red blood cell (PRBC) transfusion is required in hematology patients treated with chemotherapy for acute leukemia, autologous (auto) or allogeneic (allo) hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). In certain situations like septic shock, hip surgery, coronary disease or gastrointestinal hemorrhage, a restrictive transfusion strategy is associated with a reduction of infection and death. A transfusion strategy using a single PRBC unit has been retrospectively investigated and showed a safe reduction of PRBC consumption and costs. We therefore designed a study to prospectively demonstrate that the transfusion of a single PRBC unit is safe and not inferior to standard care. The 1versus2 trial is a randomized trial which will determine if a single-unit transfusion policy is not inferior to a double-unit transfusion policy. The primary endpoint is the incidence of severe complication (grade ≥ 3) defined as stroke, transient ischemic attack, acute coronary syndrome, heart failure, elevated troponin level, intensive care unit transfer, death, new pulmonary infiltrates, and transfusion-related infections during hospital stays. The secondary endpoint is the number of PRBC units transfused per patient per hospital stay. Two hundred and thirty patients will be randomized to receive a single unit or double unit every time the hemoglobin level is less than 8 g/dL. All patients admitted for induction remission chemotherapy, auto-HSCT or allo-HSCT in hematology intensive care units will be eligible for inclusion. Sample size calculation has determined that a patient population of 230 will be required to prove that the 1-unit PRBC strategy is non-inferior to the 2-unit PRBC strategy. Hemoglobin threshold for transfusion is below 8 g/dL. Estimated percentage of complication-free hospital stays is 93 %. In a non-inferiority hypothesis, the number of patients to include is 230 with a power of 90 % and an alpha risk of 5 %. 14-128; Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02461264

  8. Search for Hidden Particles

    CERN Multimedia

    Solovev, V

    The SHiP Experiment is a new general-purpose fixed target facility at the SPS to search for hidden particles as predicted by a very large number of recently elaborated models of Hidden Sectors which are capable of accommodating dark matter, neutrino oscillations, and the origin of the full baryon asymmetry in the Universe. Specifically, the experiment is aimed at searching for very weakly interacting long lived particles including Heavy Neutral Leptons - right-handed partners of the active neutrinos; light supersymmetric particles - sgoldstinos, etc.; scalar, axion and vector portals to the hidden sector. The high intensity of the SPS and in particular the large production of charm mesons with the 400 GeV beam allow accessing a wide variety of light long-lived exotic particles of such models and of SUSY. Moreover, the facility is ideally suited to study the interactions of tau neutrinos.

  9. The hidden curriculum in undergraduate medical education: qualitative study of medical students' perceptions of teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lempp, Heidi; Seale, Clive

    2004-10-02

    To study medical students' views about the quality of the teaching they receive during their undergraduate training, especially in terms of the hidden curriculum. Semistructured interviews with individual students. One medical school in the United Kingdom. 36 undergraduate medical students, across all stages of their training, selected by random and quota sampling, stratified by sex and ethnicity, with the whole medical school population as a sampling frame. Medical students' experiences and perceptions of the quality of teaching received during their undergraduate training. Students reported many examples of positive role models and effective, approachable teachers, with valued characteristics perceived according to traditional gendered stereotypes. They also described a hierarchical and competitive atmosphere in the medical school, in which haphazard instruction and teaching by humiliation occur, especially during the clinical training years. Following on from the recent reforms of the manifest curriculum, the hidden curriculum now needs attention to produce the necessary fundamental changes in the culture of undergraduate medical education.

  10. Pseudo-random number generators for Monte Carlo simulations on ATI Graphics Processing Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demchik, Vadim

    2011-03-01

    Basic uniform pseudo-random number generators are implemented on ATI Graphics Processing Units (GPU). The performance results of the realized generators (multiplicative linear congruential (GGL), XOR-shift (XOR128), RANECU, RANMAR, RANLUX and Mersenne Twister (MT19937)) on CPU and GPU are discussed. The obtained speed up factor is hundreds of times in comparison with CPU. RANLUX generator is found to be the most appropriate for using on GPU in Monte Carlo simulations. The brief review of the pseudo-random number generators used in modern software packages for Monte Carlo simulations in high-energy physics is presented.

  11. The hidden values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgitte; Jensen, Karsten Klint

    “The Hidden Values - Transparency in Decision-Making Processes Dealing with Hazardous Activities”. The report seeks to shed light on what is needed to create a transparent framework for political and administrative decisions on the use of GMOs and chemical products. It is our hope that the report...

  12. Hidden neural networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Anders Stærmose; Riis, Søren Kamaric

    1999-01-01

    A general framework for hybrids of hidden Markov models (HMMs) and neural networks (NNs) called hidden neural networks (HNNs) is described. The article begins by reviewing standard HMMs and estimation by conditional maximum likelihood, which is used by the HNN. In the HNN, the usual HMM probability...... parameters are replaced by the outputs of state-specific neural networks. As opposed to many other hybrids, the HNN is normalized globally and therefore has a valid probabilistic interpretation. All parameters in the HNN are estimated simultaneously according to the discriminative conditional maximum...... likelihood criterion. The HNN can be viewed as an undirected probabilistic independence network (a graphical model), where the neural networks provide a compact representation of the clique functions. An evaluation of the HNN on the task of recognizing broad phoneme classes in the TIMIT database shows clear...

  13. A hidden history

    OpenAIRE

    Peppers, Emily

    2008-01-01

    The Cultural Collections Audit project began at the University of Edinburgh in 2004, searching for hidden treasures in its 'distributed heritage collections' across the university. The objects and collections recorded in the Audit ranged widely from fine art and furniture to historical scientific and teaching equipment and personalia relating to key figures in the university's long tradition of academic excellence. This information was gathered in order to create a central database of informa...

  14. Distinguishing Hidden Markov Chains

    OpenAIRE

    Kiefer, Stefan; Sistla, A. Prasad

    2015-01-01

    Hidden Markov Chains (HMCs) are commonly used mathematical models of probabilistic systems. They are employed in various fields such as speech recognition, signal processing, and biological sequence analysis. We consider the problem of distinguishing two given HMCs based on an observation sequence that one of the HMCs generates. More precisely, given two HMCs and an observation sequence, a distinguishing algorithm is expected to identify the HMC that generates the observation sequence. Two HM...

  15. Coupling of Hidden Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Królikowski, Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    A hypothetic Hidden Sector of the Universe, consisting of sterile fer\\-mions (``sterinos'') and sterile mediating bosons (``sterons'') of mass dimension 1 (not 2!) --- the last described by an antisymmetric tensor field --- requires to exist also a scalar isovector and scalar isoscalar in order to be able to construct electroweak invariant coupling (before spontaneously breaking its symmetry). The introduced scalar isoscalar might be a resonant source for the diphoton excess of 750 GeV, sugge...

  16. Teaching Emotional Intelligence to Intensive Care Unit Nurses and their General Health: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Sharif

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Emotion and how people manage it is an important part of personality that would immensely affect their health. Investigations showed that emotional intelligence is significantly related to and can predict psychological health. Objective: To determine the effect of teaching emotional intelligence to intensive care unit nurses on their general health. Methods: This randomized clinical trial (registered as IRCT201208022812N9 was conducted on 52 of 200 in intensive care unit nurses affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. They were recruited through purposeful convenience sampling and then randomly categorized into two groups. The intervention group members were trained in emotional intelligence. Bar-on emotional intelligence and Goldberg's general health questionnaires were administered to each participant before, immediately after, and one month after the intervention. Results: While the mean score of general health for the intervention group decreased from 25.4 before the intervention, to 18.1 immediately after the intervention and to 14.6 one month later, for the control group, it increased from 22.0, to 24.2 and to 26.5, respectively (p<0.001. Conclusion: Teaching emotional intelligence improved the general health of intensive care unit nurses.

  17. Localization of hidden Chua's attractors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonov, G.A.; Kuznetsov, N.V.; Vagaitsev, V.I.

    2011-01-01

    The classical attractors of Lorenz, Rossler, Chua, Chen, and other widely-known attractors are those excited from unstable equilibria. From computational point of view this allows one to use numerical method, in which after transient process a trajectory, started from a point of unstable manifold in the neighborhood of equilibrium, reaches an attractor and identifies it. However there are attractors of another type: hidden attractors, a basin of attraction of which does not contain neighborhoods of equilibria. In the present Letter for localization of hidden attractors of Chua's circuit it is suggested to use a special analytical-numerical algorithm. -- Highlights: → There are hidden attractors: basin doesn't contain neighborhoods of equilibria. → Hidden attractors cannot be reached by trajectory from neighborhoods of equilibria. → We suggested special procedure for localization of hidden attractors. → We discovered hidden attractor in Chua's system, L. Chua in his work didn't expect this.

  18. Another Look at the Draft Mil-Std-1540E Unit Random Vibration Test Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perl, E.; Peterson, A. J..; Davis, D.

    2012-07-01

    The draft Mil-Std-1540E has been updated to reflect lessons learned since its publication as an SMC Standard in 2008, [1], and an earlier Aerospace Corporation Technical Report released in 2006, [2]. This paper discusses the technical rationale supporting some of the unit random vibration test requirements to provide better insight into their derivation and application to programs. It is intended that these requirements be tailored for each program to reflect the customer risk profile. Several tailoring options are provided and a two phase test strategy is discussed to highlight its applicability to utilizing heritage hardware in new applications.

  19. Hidden Liquidity: Determinants and Impact

    OpenAIRE

    Gökhan Cebiroglu; Ulrich Horst

    2012-01-01

    We cross-sectionally analyze the presence of aggregated hidden depth and trade volume in the S&P 500 and identify its key determinants. We find that the spread is the main predictor for a stock’s hidden dimension, both in terms of traded and posted liquidity. Our findings moreover suggest that large hidden orders are associated with larger transaction costs, higher price impact and increased volatility. In particular, as large hidden orders fail to attract (latent) liquidity to the market, ...

  20. Hidden Risk Factors for Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A.S.T. Quiz Hidden Stroke Risk Factors for Women Updated:Nov 22,2016 Excerpted from "What Women Need To Know About The Hidden Risk Factors ... 2012) This year, more than 100,000 U.S. women under 65 will have a stroke. Stroke is ...

  1. Higgs Portal into Hidden Sectors

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    Several attractive theoretical ideas suggest the existence of one or more 'hidden sectors' consisting of standard model singlet fields, some of which may not be too heavy. There is a profound reason to think that the Higgs sector might provide the first access to these hidden sectors. This scenario could affect Higgs phenomenology in drastic ways.

  2. Hidden attractors in dynamical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudkowski, Dawid; Jafari, Sajad; Kapitaniak, Tomasz; Kuznetsov, Nikolay V.; Leonov, Gennady A.; Prasad, Awadhesh

    2016-06-01

    Complex dynamical systems, ranging from the climate, ecosystems to financial markets and engineering applications typically have many coexisting attractors. This property of the system is called multistability. The final state, i.e., the attractor on which the multistable system evolves strongly depends on the initial conditions. Additionally, such systems are very sensitive towards noise and system parameters so a sudden shift to a contrasting regime may occur. To understand the dynamics of these systems one has to identify all possible attractors and their basins of attraction. Recently, it has been shown that multistability is connected with the occurrence of unpredictable attractors which have been called hidden attractors. The basins of attraction of the hidden attractors do not touch unstable fixed points (if exists) and are located far away from such points. Numerical localization of the hidden attractors is not straightforward since there are no transient processes leading to them from the neighborhoods of unstable fixed points and one has to use the special analytical-numerical procedures. From the viewpoint of applications, the identification of hidden attractors is the major issue. The knowledge about the emergence and properties of hidden attractors can increase the likelihood that the system will remain on the most desirable attractor and reduce the risk of the sudden jump to undesired behavior. We review the most representative examples of hidden attractors, discuss their theoretical properties and experimental observations. We also describe numerical methods which allow identification of the hidden attractors.

  3. Managing Hidden Costs of Offshoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Marcus M.; Pedersen, Torben

    2014-01-01

    This chapter investigates the concept of the ‘hidden costs’ of offshoring, i.e. unexpected offshoring costs exceeding the initially expected costs. Due to the highly undefined nature of these costs, we position our analysis towards the strategic responses of firms’ realisation of hidden costs....... In this regard, we argue that a major response to the hidden costs of offshoring is the identification and utilisation of strategic mechanisms in the organisational design to eventually achieving system integration in a globally dispersed and disaggregated organisation. This is heavily moderated by a learning......-by-doing process, where hidden costs motivate firms and their employees to search for new and better knowledge on how to successfully manage the organisation. We illustrate this thesis based on the case of the LEGO Group....

  4. The Hidden Costs of Offshoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller Larsen, Marcus; Manning, Stephan; Pedersen, Torben

    2011-01-01

    of offshoring. Specifically, we propose that hidden costs can be explained by the combination of increasing structural, operational and social complexity of offshoring activities. In addition, we suggest that firm orientation towards organizational design as part of an offshoring strategy and offshoring......This study seeks to explain hidden costs of offshoring, i.e. unexpected costs resulting from the relocation of business tasks and activities outside the home country. We develop a model that highlights the role of complexity, design orientation and experience in explaining hidden costs...... experience moderate the relationship between complexity and hidden costs negatively i.e. reduces the cost generating impact of complexity. We develop three hypotheses and test them on comprehensive data from the Offshoring Research Network (ORN). In general, we find support for our hypotheses. A key result...

  5. Child Abuse: The Hidden Bruises

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Families - Vietnamese Spanish Facts for Families Guide Child Abuse - The Hidden Bruises No. 5; Updated November 2014 The statistics on physical child abuse are alarming. It is estimated hundreds of thousands ...

  6. Hidden Curriculum: An Analytical Definition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Andarvazh

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The concept of hidden curriculum was first used by Philip Jackson in 1968, and Hafferty brought this concept to the medical education. Many of the subjects that medical students learn are attributed to this curriculum. So far several definitions have been presented for the hidden curriculum, which on the one hand made this concept richer, and on the other hand, led to confusion and ambiguity.This paper tries to provide a clear and comprehensive definition of it.Methods: In this study, concept analysis of McKenna method was used. Using keywords and searching in the databases, 561 English and 26 Persian references related to the concept was found, then by limitingthe research scope, 125 abstracts and by finding more relevant references, 55 articles were fully studied.Results: After analyzing the definitions by McKenna method, the hidden curriculum is defined as follows: The hidden curriculum is a hidden, powerful, intrinsic in organizational structure and culture and sometimes contradictory message, conveyed implicitly and tacitly in the learning environment by structural and human factors and its contents includes cultural habits and customs, norms, values, belief systems, attitudes, skills, desires and behavioral and social expectations can have a positive or negative effect, unplanned, neither planners nor teachers, nor learners are aware of it. The ultimate consequence of the hidden curriculum includes reproducing the existing class structure, socialization, and familiarizing learners for transmission and joining the professional world.Conclusion: Based on the concept analysis, we arrived at an analytical definition of the hidden curriculum that could be useful for further studies in this area.Keywords: CONCEPT ANALYSIS, HIDDEN CURRICULUM, MCKENNA’S METHOD

  7. The effects of a tailored intensive care unit delirium prevention protocol: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Kyoung-Ja; Lee, Sun-Mi

    2015-09-01

    A decreased incidence of delirium following the application of non-pharmacologic intervention protocols to several patient populations has been previously reported. However, few studies have been conducted to examine the effects of their application to intensive care unit (ICU) patients. To examine the effects of applying a tailored delirium preventive protocol, developed by the authors, to ICU patients by analyzing its effects on delirium incidence, in-hospital mortality, ICU readmission, and length of ICU stay in a Korean hospital. A single-blind randomized controlled trial. A 1049-bed general hospital with a 105-bed ICU. Sixty and 63 ICU patients were randomly assigned to the intervention and control groups, respectively. The researchers applied the delirium prevention protocol to the intervention group every day for the first 7 days of ICU hospitalization. Delirium incidence, mortality, and re-admission to the ICU during the same hospitalization period were analyzed by logistic regression analysis; the 7- and 30-day in-hospital mortality by Kaplan-Meier survival and Cox proportional hazard regression analysis; and length of ICU stay was assessed by linear regression analysis. Application of the protocol had no significant effect on delirium incidence, in-hospital mortality, re-admission to the ICU, or length of ICU stay. Whereas the risk of 30-day in-hospital mortality was not significantly lower in the intervention than in the control group (OR: 0.33; 95% CI: 0.10-1.09), we found a significantly decreased 7-day in-hospital mortality in the intervention group after protocol application (HR: 0.09; 95% CI: 0.01-0.72). Application of a tailored delirium prevention protocol to acute stage patients during the first 7 days of ICU hospitalization appeared to reduce the 7-day in-hospital risk of mortality only for this patient population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Hidden ion population: Revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, R.C.; Chappell, C.R.; Gallagher, D.L.; Green, J.L.; Gurnett, D.A.

    1985-01-01

    Satellite potentials in the outer plasmasphere range from near zero to +5 to +10 V. Under such conditions ion measurements may not include the low energy core of the plasma population. In eclipse, the photoelectron current drops to zero, and the spacecraft potential can drop to near zero volts. In regions where the ambient plasma density is below 100 cm -3 , previously unobserved portions of the ambient plasma distribution function can become visible in eclipse. A survey of the data obtained from the retarding ion mass spectrometer (RIMS) on Dynamics Explorer 1 shows that the RIMS detector generally measured the isotropic background in both sunlight and eclipse in the plasma-sphere. Absolute density measurements for the ''hidden'' ion population are obtained for the first time using the plasma wave instrument observations of the upper hybrid resonance. Agreement in total density is found in sunlight and eclipse measurements at densities above 80 cm -3 . In eclipse, agreement is found at densities as low as 20 cm -3 . The isotropic plasma composition is primarily H + , with approx.10% He + , and 0.1 to 1.0% O + . A low energy field-aligned ion population appears in eclipse measurements outside the plasmasphere, which is obscured in sunlight. These field-aligned ions can be interpreted as field-aligned flows with densities of a few particles per cubic centimeter, flowing at 5-20 km/s. The problem in measuring these field-aligned flows in sunlight is the masking of the high energy tail of the field-aligned distribution by the isotropic background. Effective measurement of the core of the magnetospheric plasma distribution awaits satellites with active means of controlling the satellite potential

  9. Multivariate longitudinal data analysis with mixed effects hidden Markov models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffa, Jesse D; Dubin, Joel A

    2015-09-01

    Multiple longitudinal responses are often collected as a means to capture relevant features of the true outcome of interest, which is often hidden and not directly measurable. We outline an approach which models these multivariate longitudinal responses as generated from a hidden disease process. We propose a class of models which uses a hidden Markov model with separate but correlated random effects between multiple longitudinal responses. This approach was motivated by a smoking cessation clinical trial, where a bivariate longitudinal response involving both a continuous and a binomial response was collected for each participant to monitor smoking behavior. A Bayesian method using Markov chain Monte Carlo is used. Comparison of separate univariate response models to the bivariate response models was undertaken. Our methods are demonstrated on the smoking cessation clinical trial dataset, and properties of our approach are examined through extensive simulation studies. © 2015, The International Biometric Society.

  10. Introducing random safety audits (RSA) in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU).

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Szymanska, M

    2012-01-31

    Random safety audits (RSA) have been shown to be effective in improving standards of clinical practice. 19 data collection audits were performed relating to hygiene, safe prescribing, oxygen pulse oximetry monitoring and documentation in keeping with the requirements of the new Medical Practitioners Act (MPA) 2007. Hygiene audits (range from 20\\/25 to 21\\/21 80%-100%) and safe prescribing audits (range from 23\\/25 to 25\\/25 86%-100%) achieved n=25 100% compliance with unit guidelines over a 3 month period. Compliance with oxygen pulse oximetry monitoring guideline limits improved from 4\\/27 (15%) to 9\\/16 (56%). Compliance with requirement and use of Physician IMC registration number in documentation was only 10\\/18 (56%). RSA\\'s led to improvements in hygiene and prescribing. Compliance with oxygen monitoring guideline limits highlighted the need for greater education. Awareness of legal requirements relating to documentation improved but this has not translated into a change in practice. RSA\\'s can facilitate real time quality improvement in daily clinical practice.

  11. Random Attractors for the Stochastic Navier-Stokes Equations on the 2D Unit Sphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzeźniak, Z.; Goldys, B.; Le Gia, Q. T.

    2018-03-01

    In this paper we prove the existence of random attractors for the Navier-Stokes equations on 2 dimensional sphere under random forcing irregular in space and time. We also deduce the existence of an invariant measure.

  12. Stargate of the Hidden Multiverse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Antonov

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Concept of Monoverse, which corresponds to the existing broad interpretation of the second postulate of the special theory of relativity, is not consistent with the modern astrophysical reality — existence of the dark matter and the dark energy, the total mass-energy of which is ten times greater than the mass-energy of the visible universe (which has been considered as the entire universe until very recent . This concept does not allow to explain their rather unusual properties — invisibility and lack of baryon content — which would seem to even destroy the very modern understanding of the term ‘matter’. However, all numerous alternative concepts of Multiverses, which have been proposed until today, are unable to explain these properties of the dark matter and dark energy. This article describes a new concept: the concept of the hidden Multiverse and hidden Supermultiverse, which mutual invisibility of parallel universes is explained by the physical reality of imaginary numbers. This concept completely explains the phenomenon of the dark matter and the dark energy. Moreover, it is shown that the dark matter and the dark energy are the experimental evidence for the existence of the hidden Multiverse. Described structure of the hidden Multiverse is fully consistent with the data obtained by the space stations WMAP and Planck. An extremely important property of the hidden Multiverse is an actual possibility of its permeation through stargate located on the Earth.

  13. Hidden acoustic information revealed by intentional nonlinearity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, David R.

    2017-11-01

    Acoustic waves are omnipresent in modern life and are well described by the linearized equations of fluid dynamics. Once generated, acoustic waves carry and collect information about their source and the environment through which they propagate, respectively, and this information may be retrieved by analyzing recordings of these waves. Because of this, acoustics is the primary means for observation, surveillance, reconnaissance, and remote sensing in otherwise opaque environments, such as the Earth's oceans and crust, and the interior of the human body. For such information-retrieval tasks, acoustic fields are nearly always interrogated within their recorded frequency range or bandwidth. However, this frequency-range restriction is not general; acoustic fields may also carry (hidden) information at frequencies outside their bandwidth. Although such a claim may seem counter intuitive, hidden acoustic-field information can be revealed by re-introducing a marquee trait of fluid dynamics: nonlinearity. In particular, an intentional quadratic nonlinearity - a form of intra-signal heterodyning - can be used to obtain acoustic field information at frequencies outside a recorded acoustic field's bandwidth. This quadratic nonlinearity enables a variety of acoustic remote sensing applications that were long thought to be impossible. In particular, it allows the detrimental effects of sparse recordings and random scattering to be suppressed when the original acoustic field has sufficient bandwidth. In this presentation, the topic is developed heuristically, with a just brief exposition of the relevant mathematics. Hidden acoustic field information is then revealed from simulated and measured acoustic fields in simple and complicated acoustic environments involving frequencies from a few Hertz to more than 100 kHz, and propagation distances from tens of centimeters to hundreds of kilometers. Sponsored by ONR, NAVSEA, and NSF.

  14. Hidden photons in connection to dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreas, Sarah; Ringwald, Andreas [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Goodsell, Mark D. [CPhT, Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau (France)

    2013-06-15

    Light extra U(1) gauge bosons, so called hidden photons, which reside in a hidden sector have attracted much attention since they are a well motivated feature of many scenarios beyond the Standard Model and furthermore could mediate the interaction with hidden sector dark matter.We review limits on hidden photons from past electron beam dump experiments including two new limits from such experiments at KEK and Orsay. In addition, we study the possibility of having dark matter in the hidden sector. A simple toy model and different supersymmetric realisations are shown to provide viable dark matter candidates in the hidden sector that are in agreement with recent direct detection limits.

  15. Hidden photons in connection to dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreas, Sarah; Ringwald, Andreas; Goodsell, Mark D.

    2013-06-01

    Light extra U(1) gauge bosons, so called hidden photons, which reside in a hidden sector have attracted much attention since they are a well motivated feature of many scenarios beyond the Standard Model and furthermore could mediate the interaction with hidden sector dark matter.We review limits on hidden photons from past electron beam dump experiments including two new limits from such experiments at KEK and Orsay. In addition, we study the possibility of having dark matter in the hidden sector. A simple toy model and different supersymmetric realisations are shown to provide viable dark matter candidates in the hidden sector that are in agreement with recent direct detection limits.

  16. Hidden worlds in quantum physics

    CERN Document Server

    Gouesbet, Gérard

    2014-01-01

    The past decade has witnessed a resurgence in research and interest in the areas of quantum computation and entanglement. This new book addresses the hidden worlds or variables of quantum physics. Author Gérard Gouesbet studied and worked with a former student of Louis de Broglie, a pioneer of quantum physics. His presentation emphasizes the history and philosophical foundations of physics, areas that will interest lay readers as well as professionals and advanced undergraduate and graduate students of quantum physics. The introduction is succeeded by chapters offering background on relevant concepts in classical and quantum mechanics, a brief history of causal theories, and examinations of the double solution, pilot wave, and other hidden-variables theories. Additional topics include proofs of possibility and impossibility, contextuality, non-locality, classification of hidden-variables theories, and stochastic quantum mechanics. The final section discusses how to gain a genuine understanding of quantum mec...

  17. Management of diabetes by a healthcare team in a cardiology unit: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Antonieta P. de Moraes

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of healthcare team guidance in the implementation of a glycemic control protocol in the non-intensive care unit of a cardiology hospital. METHODS: This was a randomized clinical trial comparing 9 months of intensive guidance by a healthcare team on a protocol for diabetes care (Intervention Group, n = 95 with 9 months of standard care (Control Group, n = 87. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01154413. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 61.7±10 years, and the mean glycated hemoglobin level was 71±23 mmol/mol (8.7±2.1%. The mean capillary glycemia during hospitalization was similar between the groups (9.8±2.9 and 9.1±2.4 mmol/l for the Intervention Group and Control Group, respectively, p = 0.078. The number of hypoglycemic episodes (p = 0.77, hyperglycemic episodes (47 vs. 50 in the Intervention Group and Control Group, p = 0.35, respectively, and the length of stay in the hospital were similar between the groups (p = 0.64. The amount of regular insulin administered was 0 (0-10 IU in the Intervention Group and 28 (7-56 IU in the Control Group (p<0.001, and the amount of NPH insulin administered was similar between the groups (p = 0.16. CONCLUSIONS: While guidance on a glycemic control protocol given by a healthcare team resulted in a modification of the therapeutic strategy, no changes in glycemic control, frequency of episodes of hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia, or hospitalization duration were observed.

  18. Detecting hidden particles with MATHUSLA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Jared A.

    2018-03-01

    A hidden sector containing light long-lived particles provides a well-motivated place to find new physics. The recently proposed MATHUSLA experiment has the potential to be extremely sensitive to light particles originating from rare meson decays in the very long lifetime region. In this work, we illustrate this strength with the specific example of a light scalar mixed with the standard model-like Higgs boson, a model where MATHUSLA can further probe unexplored parameter space from exotic Higgs decays. Design augmentations should be considered in order to maximize the ability of MATHUSLA to discover very light hidden sector particles.

  19. Bayesian structural inference for hidden processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strelioff, Christopher C.; Crutchfield, James P.

    2014-04-01

    We introduce a Bayesian approach to discovering patterns in structurally complex processes. The proposed method of Bayesian structural inference (BSI) relies on a set of candidate unifilar hidden Markov model (uHMM) topologies for inference of process structure from a data series. We employ a recently developed exact enumeration of topological ɛ-machines. (A sequel then removes the topological restriction.) This subset of the uHMM topologies has the added benefit that inferred models are guaranteed to be ɛ-machines, irrespective of estimated transition probabilities. Properties of ɛ-machines and uHMMs allow for the derivation of analytic expressions for estimating transition probabilities, inferring start states, and comparing the posterior probability of candidate model topologies, despite process internal structure being only indirectly present in data. We demonstrate BSI's effectiveness in estimating a process's randomness, as reflected by the Shannon entropy rate, and its structure, as quantified by the statistical complexity. We also compare using the posterior distribution over candidate models and the single, maximum a posteriori model for point estimation and show that the former more accurately reflects uncertainty in estimated values. We apply BSI to in-class examples of finite- and infinite-order Markov processes, as well to an out-of-class, infinite-state hidden process.

  20. Hidden Crises and Communication: An Interactional Analysis of Hidden Crises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr. Annette Klarenbeek

    2011-01-01

    In this paper I describe the ways in which the communication discipline can make a hidden crisis transparent. For this purpose I examine the concept of crisis entrepreneurship from a communication point of view. Using discourse analysis, I analyse the discursive practices of crisis entrepreneurs in

  1. Hidden Crises and Communication : An Interactional Analysis of Hidden Crises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr. Annette Klarenbeek

    2011-01-01

    In this paper I describe the ways in which the communication discipline can make a hidden crisis transparent. For this purpose I examine the concept of crisis entrepreneurship from a communication point of view. Using discourse analysis, I analyse the discursive practices of crisis entrepreneurs in

  2. PERSONAL NETWORK SAMPLING, OUTDEGREE ANALYSIS AND MULTILEVEL ANALYSIS - INTRODUCING THE NETWORK CONCEPT IN STUDIES OF HIDDEN POPULATIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SPREEN, M; ZWAAGSTRA, R

    1994-01-01

    Populations, such as heroin and cocaine users, the homeless and the like (hidden populations), are among the most difficult populations to which to apply classic random sampling procedures. A frequently used data collection method for these hidden populations is the snowball procedure. The

  3. Entry deterrence and hidden competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lavrutich, Maria; Huisman, Kuno; Kort, Peter

    This paper studies strategic investment behavior of firms facing an uncertain demand in a duopoly setting. Firms choose both investment timing and the capacity level while facing additional uncertainty about market participants, which is introduced via the concept of hidden competition. We focus on

  4. Adaptive Partially Hidden Markov Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren Otto; Rasmussen, Tage

    1996-01-01

    Partially Hidden Markov Models (PHMM) have recently been introduced. The transition and emission probabilities are conditioned on the past. In this report, the PHMM is extended with a multiple token version. The different versions of the PHMM are applied to bi-level image coding....

  5. The Hidden Dimensions of Databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacso, Peter

    1994-01-01

    Discusses methods of evaluating commercial online databases and provides examples that illustrate their hidden dimensions. Topics addressed include size, including the number of records or the number of titles; the number of years covered; and the frequency of updates. Comparisons of Readers' Guide Abstracts and Magazine Article Summaries are…

  6. Neuroevolution Mechanism for Hidden Markov Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabil M. Hewahi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Hidden Markov Model (HMM is a statistical model based on probabilities. HMM is becoming one of the major models involved in many applications such as natural language
    processing, handwritten recognition, image processing, prediction systems and many more. In this research we are concerned with finding out the best HMM for a certain application domain. We propose a neuroevolution process that is based first on converting the HMM to a neural network, then generating many neural networks at random where each represents a HMM. We proceed by
    applying genetic operators to obtain new set of neural networks where each represents HMMs, and updating the population. Finally select the best neural network based on a fitness function.

  7. Exact solution of the hidden Markov processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saakian, David B.

    2017-11-01

    We write a master equation for the distributions related to hidden Markov processes (HMPs) and solve it using a functional equation. Thus the solution of HMPs is mapped exactly to the solution of the functional equation. For a general case the latter can be solved only numerically. We derive an exact expression for the entropy of HMPs. Our expression for the entropy is an alternative to the ones given before by the solution of integral equations. The exact solution is possible because actually the model can be considered as a generalized random walk on a one-dimensional strip. While we give the solution for the two second-order matrices, our solution can be easily generalized for the L values of the Markov process and M values of observables: We should be able to solve a system of L functional equations in the space of dimension M -1 .

  8. Infinite conditional random fields for human behavior analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bousmalis, Konstantinos; Zafeiriou, Stefanos; Morency, Louis-Philippe; Pantic, Maja

    Hidden conditional random fields (HCRFs) are discriminative latent variable models that have been shown to successfully learn the hidden structure of a given classification problem (provided an appropriate validation of the number of hidden states). In this brief, we present the infinite HCRF

  9. ESO's Hidden Treasures Brought to Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Adam Kiil. 19. NGC 2467 - number 2 by Josh Barrington. 20. Haffner 18 and 19 by Javier Fuentes. Igor Chekalin, winner of the trip to Paranal, says: "It was a great experience and pleasure to work with such amazing data. As an amateur astrophotographer, this was the most difficult processing and post-processing job I have ever done. My participation in the Hidden Treasures competition gave me a range of challenges, from installing new software to studying techniques and even operating systems that I did not know before." The success of the ESO's Hidden Treasures 2010 competition and the enthusiasm of the skilled participants made it easy to decide to run a follow-up to the competition. Stay tuned and check www.eso.org for news about ESO's Hidden Treasures 2011. More information ESO, the European Southern Observatory, is the foremost intergovernmental astronomy organisation in Europe and the world's most productive astronomical observatory. It is supported by 15 countries: Austria, Belgium, Brazil, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Finland, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. ESO carries out an ambitious programme focused on the design, construction and operation of powerful ground-based observing facilities enabling astronomers to make important scientific discoveries. ESO also plays a leading role in promoting and organising cooperation in astronomical research. ESO operates three unique world-class observing sites in Chile: La Silla, Paranal and Chajnantor. At Paranal, ESO operates the Very Large Telescope, the world's most advanced visible-light astronomical observatory and VISTA, the world's largest survey telescope. ESO is the European partner of a revolutionary astronomical telescope ALMA, the largest astronomical project in existence. ESO is currently planning a 42-metre European Extremely Large optical/near-infrared Telescope, the E-ELT, which will become "the world's biggest eye on the sky".

  10. Hidden supersymmetry and large N

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfaro, J.

    1988-01-01

    In this paper we present a new method to deal with the leading order in the large-N expansion of a quantum field theory. The method uses explicitly the hidden supersymmetry that is present in the path-integral formulation of a stochastic process. In addition to this we derive a new relation that is valid in the leading order of the large-N expansion of the hermitian-matrix model for any spacetime dimension. (orig.)

  11. The hidden dragons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Ming; Williamson, Peter J

    2003-10-01

    Most multinational corporations are fascinated with China. Carried away by the number of potential customers and the relatively cheap labor, firms seeking a presence in China have traditionally focused on selling products, setting up manufacturing facilities, or both. But they've ignored an important development: the emergence of Chinese firms as powerful rivals--in China and also in the global market. In this article, Ming Zeng and Peter Williamson describe how Chinese companies like Haier, Legend, and Pearl River Piano have quietly managed to grab market share from older, bigger, and financially stronger rivals in Asia, Europe, and the United States. Global managers tend to offer the usual explanations for why Chinese companies don't pose a threat: They aren't big enough or profitable enough to compete overseas, the managers say, and these primarily state-owned companies are ill-financed and ill-equipped for global competition. As the government's policies about the private ownership of companies changed from forbidding the practice to encouraging it, a new breed of Chinese companies evolved. The authors outline the four types of hybrid Chinese companies that are simultaneously tackling the global market. China's national champions are using their advantages as domestic leaders to build global brands. The dedicated exporters are entering foreign markets on the strength of their economies of scale. The competitive networks have taken on world markets by bringing together small, specialized companies that operate in close proximity. And the technology upstarts are using innovations developed by China's government-owned research institutes to enter emerging sectors such as biotechnology. Zeng and Williamson identify these budding multinationals, analyze their strategies, and evaluate their weaknesses.

  12. Efficient Statistical Extraction of the Per-Unit-Length Capacitance and Inductance Matrices of Cables with Random Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Manfredi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Cable bundles often exhibit random parameter variations due to uncertain or uncontrollable physical properties and wire positioning. Efficient tools, based on the so-called polynomial chaos, exist to rapidly assess the impact of such variations on the per-unit-length capacitance and inductance matrices, and on the pertinent cable response. Nevertheless, the state-of-the-art method for the statistical extraction of the per-unit-length capacitance and inductance matrices of cables suffers from several inefficiencies that hinder its applicability to large problems, in terms of number of random parameters and/or conductors. This paper presents an improved methodology that overcomes the aforementioned limitations by exploiting a recently-published, alternative approach to generate the pertinent polynomial chaos system of equations. A sparse and decoupled system is obtained that provides remarkable benefits in terms of speed, memory consumption and problem size that can be dealt with. The technique is thoroughly validated through the statistical analysis of two canonical structures, i.e. a ribbon cable and a shielded cable with random geometry and position.

  13. Hidden particle production at the ILC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Keisuke; Itoh, Hideo; Okada, Nobuchika; Hano, Hitoshi; Yoshioka, Tamaki

    2008-01-01

    In a class of new physics models, the new physics sector is completely or partly hidden, namely, a singlet under the standard model (SM) gauge group. Hidden fields included in such new physics models communicate with the standard model sector through higher-dimensional operators. If a cutoff lies in the TeV range, such hidden fields can be produced at future colliders. We consider a scalar field as an example of the hidden fields. Collider phenomenology on this hidden scalar is similar to that of the SM Higgs boson, but there are several features quite different from those of the Higgs boson. We investigate productions of the hidden scalar at the International Linear Collider (ILC) and study the feasibility of its measurements, in particular, how well the ILC distinguishes the scalar from the Higgs boson, through realistic Monte Carlo simulations.

  14. TITRATION: A Randomized Study to Assess 2 Treatment Algorithms with New Insulin Glargine 300 units/mL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yale, Jean-François; Berard, Lori; Groleau, Mélanie; Javadi, Pasha; Stewart, John; Harris, Stewart B

    2017-10-01

    It was uncertain whether an algorithm that involves increasing insulin dosages by 1 unit/day may cause more hypoglycemia with the longer-acting insulin glargine 300 units/mL (GLA-300). The objective of this study was to compare safety and efficacy of 2 titration algorithms, INSIGHT and EDITION, for GLA-300 in people with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus, mainly in a primary care setting. This was a 12-week, open-label, randomized, multicentre pilot study. Participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 algorithms: they either increased their dosage by 1 unit/day (INSIGHT, n=108) or the dose was adjusted by the investigator at least once weekly, but no more often than every 3 days (EDITION, n=104). The target fasting self-monitored blood glucose was in the range of 4.4 to 5.6 mmol/L. The percentages of participants reaching the primary endpoint of fasting self-monitored blood glucose ≤5.6 mmol/L without nocturnal hypoglycemia were 19.4% (INSIGHT) and 18.3% (EDITION). At week 12, 26.9% (INSIGHT) and 28.8% (EDITION) of participants achieved a glycated hemoglobin value of ≤7%. No differences in the incidence of hypoglycemia of any category were noted between algorithms. Participants in both arms of the study were much more satisfied with their new treatment as assessed by the Diabetes Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire. Most health-care professionals (86%) preferred the INSIGHT over the EDITION algorithm. The frequency of adverse events was similar between algorithms. A patient-driven titration algorithm of 1 unit/day with GLA-300 is effective and comparable to the previously tested EDITION algorithm and is preferred by health-care professionals. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Hidden measurements, hidden variables and the volume representation of transition probabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Oliynyk, Todd A.

    2005-01-01

    We construct, for any finite dimension $n$, a new hidden measurement model for quantum mechanics based on representing quantum transition probabilities by the volume of regions in projective Hilbert space. For $n=2$ our model is equivalent to the Aerts sphere model and serves as a generalization of it for dimensions $n \\geq 3$. We also show how to construct a hidden variables scheme based on hidden measurements and we discuss how joint distributions arise in our hidden variables scheme and th...

  16. Dissipative hidden sector dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot, R.; Vagnozzi, S.

    2015-01-01

    A simple way of explaining dark matter without modifying known Standard Model physics is to require the existence of a hidden (dark) sector, which interacts with the visible one predominantly via gravity. We consider a hidden sector containing two stable particles charged under an unbroken U (1 )' gauge symmetry, hence featuring dissipative interactions. The massless gauge field associated with this symmetry, the dark photon, can interact via kinetic mixing with the ordinary photon. In fact, such an interaction of strength ε ˜10-9 appears to be necessary in order to explain galactic structure. We calculate the effect of this new physics on big bang nucleosynthesis and its contribution to the relativistic energy density at hydrogen recombination. We then examine the process of dark recombination, during which neutral dark states are formed, which is important for large-scale structure formation. Galactic structure is considered next, focusing on spiral and irregular galaxies. For these galaxies we modeled the dark matter halo (at the current epoch) as a dissipative plasma of dark matter particles, where the energy lost due to dissipation is compensated by the energy produced from ordinary supernovae (the core-collapse energy is transferred to the hidden sector via kinetic mixing induced processes in the supernova core). We find that such a dynamical halo model can reproduce several observed features of disk galaxies, including the cored density profile and the Tully-Fisher relation. We also discuss how elliptical and dwarf spheroidal galaxies could fit into this picture. Finally, these analyses are combined to set bounds on the parameter space of our model, which can serve as a guideline for future experimental searches.

  17. Hidden inventory and safety considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, A.R.; James, R.H.; Morgan, F.

    1976-01-01

    Preliminary results are described of the evaluation of residual plutonium in a process line used for the production of experimental fast reactor fuel. Initial attention has been focussed on a selection of work boxes used for processing powders and solutions. Amounts of material measured as ''hidden inventory'' are generally less than 0.1 percent of throughput but in one box containing very complex equipment the amount was exceptionally about 0.5 percent. The total surface area of the box and the installed equipment appears to be the most significant factor in determining the amount of plutonium held-up as ''hidden inventory,'' representing an average of about 4 x 10 -4 g cm -2 . Present results are based on gamma spectrometer measurements but neutron techniques are being developed to overcome some of the inherent uncertainties in the gamma method. It is suggested that the routine use of sample plates of known surface area would be valuable in monitoring the deposition of plutonium in work boxes

  18. Hidden costs of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    England, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    Mr. England contends that these hidden costs add up to a figure much higher than those that appear in the electric utilities' profit and loss account - costs that are borne by Federal taxpayers, by nuclear industry workers, and by all those people who must share their environment with nuclear facilities. Costs he details are additional deaths and illnesses resulting from exposure to radiation, and the use of tax dollars to clean up the lethal garbage produced by those activities. He asserts that careless handling of uranium ore and mill tailings in past years has apparently resulted in serious public health problems in those mining communities. In another example, Mr. England states that the failure to isolate uranium tailings physically from their environment has probably contributed to an acute leukemia rate in Mesa County, Colorado. He mentions much of the technology development for power reactors being done by the Federal government, not by private reactor manufacturers - thus, again, hidden costs that do not show up in electric bills of customers. The back end of the nuclear fuel cycle as a place for Federally subsidized research and development is discussed briefly. 1 figure, 2 tables

  19. Hidden temporal order unveiled in stock market volatility variance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Shapira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available When analyzed by standard statistical methods, the time series of the daily return of financial indices appear to behave as Markov random series with no apparent temporal order or memory. This empirical result seems to be counter intuitive since investor are influenced by both short and long term past market behaviors. Consequently much effort has been devoted to unveil hidden temporal order in the market dynamics. Here we show that temporal order is hidden in the series of the variance of the stocks volatility. First we show that the correlation between the variances of the daily returns and means of segments of these time series is very large and thus cannot be the output of random series, unless it has some temporal order in it. Next we show that while the temporal order does not show in the series of the daily return, rather in the variation of the corresponding volatility series. More specifically, we found that the behavior of the shuffled time series is equivalent to that of a random time series, while that of the original time series have large deviations from the expected random behavior, which is the result of temporal structure. We found the same generic behavior in 10 different stock markets from 7 different countries. We also present analysis of specially constructed sequences in order to better understand the origin of the observed temporal order in the market sequences. Each sequence was constructed from segments with equal number of elements taken from algebraic distributions of three different slopes.

  20. The Hidden Reason Behind Children's Misbehavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nystul, Michael S.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses hidden reason theory based on the assumptions that: (1) the nature of people is positive; (2) a child's most basic psychological need is involvement; and (3) a child has four possible choices in life (good somebody, good nobody, bad somebody, or severely mentally ill.) A three step approach for implementing hidden reason theory is…

  1. Hidden neural networks: application to speech recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Søren Kamaric

    1998-01-01

    We evaluate the hidden neural network HMM/NN hybrid on two speech recognition benchmark tasks; (1) task independent isolated word recognition on the Phonebook database, and (2) recognition of broad phoneme classes in continuous speech from the TIMIT database. It is shown how hidden neural networks...

  2. Insight: Exploring Hidden Roles in Collaborative Play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tricia Shi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks into interaction modes between players in co-located, collaborative games. In particular, hidden traitor games, in which one or more players is secretly working against the group mission, has the effect of increasing paranoia and distrust between players, so this paper looks into the opposite of a hidden traitor – a hidden benefactor. Rather than sabotaging the group mission, the hidden benefactor would help the group achieve the end goal while still having a reason to stay hidden. The paper explores what games with such a role can look like and how the role changes player interactions. Finally, the paper addresses the divide between video game and board game interaction modes; hidden roles are not common within video games, but they are of growing prevalence in board games. This fact, combined with the exploration of hidden benefactors, reveals that hidden roles is a mechanic that video games should develop into in order to match board games’ complexity of player interaction modes.

  3. Hidden supersymmetry and Fermion number fractionalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhoury, R.

    1985-01-01

    This paper discusses how a hidden supersymmetry of the underlying field theories can be used to interpret and to calculate fermion number fractionalization in different dimensions. This is made possible by relating it to a corresponding Witten index of the hidden supersymmetry. The closely related anomalies in odd dimensions are also discussed

  4. Helioscope bounds on hidden sector photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redondo, J.

    2008-01-01

    The flux of hypothetical ''hidden photons'' from the Sun is computed under the assumption that they interact with normal matter only through kinetic mixing with the ordinary standard model photon. Requiring that the exotic luminosity is smaller than the standard photon luminosity provides limits for the mixing parameter down to χ -14 , depending on the hidden photon mass. Furthermore, it is pointed point out that helioscopes looking for solar axions are also sensitive to hidden photons. The recent results of the CAST collaboration are used to further constrain the mixing parameter χ at low masses (m γ' <1 eV) where the luminosity bound is weaker. In this regime the solar hidden photon ux has a sizable contribution of longitudinally polarized hidden photons of low energy which are invisible for current helioscopes. (orig.)

  5. Life imitating art: depictions of the hidden curriculum in medical television programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanek, Agatha; Clarkin, Chantalle; Bould, M Dylan; Writer, Hilary; Doja, Asif

    2015-09-26

    The hidden curriculum represents influences occurring within the culture of medicine that indirectly alter medical professionals' interactions, beliefs and clinical practices throughout their training. One approach to increase medical student awareness of the hidden curriculum is to provide them with readily available examples of how it is enacted in medicine; as such the purpose of this study was to examine depictions of the hidden curriculum in popular medical television programs. One full season of ER, Grey's Anatomy and Scrubs were selected for review. A summative content analysis was performed to ascertain the presence of depictions of the hidden curriculum, as well as to record the type, frequency and quality of examples. A second reviewer also viewed a random selection of episodes from each series to establish coding reliability. The most prevalent themes across all television programs were: the hierarchical nature of medicine; challenges during transitional stages in medicine; the importance of role modeling; patient dehumanization; faking or overstating one's capabilities; unprofessionalism; the loss of idealism; and difficulties with work-life balance. The hidden curriculum is frequently depicted in popular medical television shows. These examples of the hidden curriculum could serve as a valuable teaching resource in undergraduate medical programs.

  6. Hidden scale invariance of metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hummel, Felix; Kresse, Georg; Dyre, Jeppe C.

    2015-01-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) calculations of 58 liquid elements at their triple point show that most metals exhibit near proportionality between the thermal fluctuations of the virial and the potential energy in the isochoric ensemble. This demonstrates a general “hidden” scale invariance...... of metals making the condensed part of the thermodynamic phase diagram effectively one dimensional with respect to structure and dynamics. DFT computed density scaling exponents, related to the Grüneisen parameter, are in good agreement with experimental values for the 16 elements where reliable data were...... available. Hidden scale invariance is demonstrated in detail for magnesium by showing invariance of structure and dynamics. Computed melting curves of period three metals follow curves with invariance (isomorphs). The experimental structure factor of magnesium is predicted by assuming scale invariant...

  7. Hidden Valley Search at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Verducci, M

    2011-01-01

    A number of extensions of the Standard Model result in neutral and weakly-coupled particles that decay to multi hadrons or multi leptons with macroscopic decay lengths. These particles with decay paths that can be comparable with ATLAS detector dimensions represent, from an experimental point of view, a challenge both for the trigger and for the reconstruction capabilities of the ATLAS detector. We will present a set of signature driven triggers for the ATLAS detector that target such displaced decays and evaluate their performances for some benchmark models and describe analysis strategies and limits on the production of such long-lived particles. A first estimation of the Hidden Valley trigger rates has been evaluated with 6 pb-1 of data collected at ATLAS during the data taking of 2010.

  8. Effects of lyric analysis interventions on treatment motivation in patients on a detoxification unit: a randomized effectiveness study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Treatment motivation is a key component in the early rehabilitative stages for people with substance use disorders. To date, no music therapy researcher has studied how lyric analysis interventions might affect motivation in a randomized controlled design. The primary purpose of this study was to determine the effect of lyric analysis interventions on treatment motivation in patients on a detoxification unit using a single-session wait-list control design. A secondary purpose was to determine if there were between-group differences concerning two contrasting songs used for the lyric analyses. Participants (N=104) were cluster randomized to a group lyric analysis condition or a wait-list control condition. Participants received either a "Hurt" or a "How to Save a Life" lyric analysis treatment. The Texas Christian University Treatment Motivation Scale-Client Evaluation of Self at Intake (CESI) (Simpson, 2008[2005]) was used to measure aspects of treatment motivation: problem recognition, desire for help, treatment readiness, pressures for treatment, and total motivation. Results indicated significant between-group differences in measures of problem recognition, desire for help, treatment readiness, and total motivation, with experimental participants having higher treatment motivation means than control participants. There was no difference between the two lyric analysis interventions. Although the song used for lyric analysis interventions did not affect outcome, a single group-based music therapy lyric analysis session can be an effective psychosocial treatment intervention to enhance treatment motivation in patients on a detoxification unit. Limitations, implications for clinical practice, and suggestions for future research are provided. © the American Music Therapy Association 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Hidden Markov models: the best models for forager movements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Rocio; Bertrand, Sophie; Tam, Jorge; Fablet, Ronan

    2013-01-01

    One major challenge in the emerging field of movement ecology is the inference of behavioural modes from movement patterns. This has been mainly addressed through Hidden Markov models (HMMs). We propose here to evaluate two sets of alternative and state-of-the-art modelling approaches. First, we consider hidden semi-Markov models (HSMMs). They may better represent the behavioural dynamics of foragers since they explicitly model the duration of the behavioural modes. Second, we consider discriminative models which state the inference of behavioural modes as a classification issue, and may take better advantage of multivariate and non linear combinations of movement pattern descriptors. For this work, we use a dataset of >200 trips from human foragers, Peruvian fishermen targeting anchovy. Their movements were recorded through a Vessel Monitoring System (∼1 record per hour), while their behavioural modes (fishing, searching and cruising) were reported by on-board observers. We compare the efficiency of hidden Markov, hidden semi-Markov, and three discriminative models (random forests, artificial neural networks and support vector machines) for inferring the fishermen behavioural modes, using a cross-validation procedure. HSMMs show the highest accuracy (80%), significantly outperforming HMMs and discriminative models. Simulations show that data with higher temporal resolution, HSMMs reach nearly 100% of accuracy. Our results demonstrate to what extent the sequential nature of movement is critical for accurately inferring behavioural modes from a trajectory and we strongly recommend the use of HSMMs for such purpose. In addition, this work opens perspectives on the use of hybrid HSMM-discriminative models, where a discriminative setting for the observation process of HSMMs could greatly improve inference performance.

  10. Hidden Markov models: the best models for forager movements?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocio Joo

    Full Text Available One major challenge in the emerging field of movement ecology is the inference of behavioural modes from movement patterns. This has been mainly addressed through Hidden Markov models (HMMs. We propose here to evaluate two sets of alternative and state-of-the-art modelling approaches. First, we consider hidden semi-Markov models (HSMMs. They may better represent the behavioural dynamics of foragers since they explicitly model the duration of the behavioural modes. Second, we consider discriminative models which state the inference of behavioural modes as a classification issue, and may take better advantage of multivariate and non linear combinations of movement pattern descriptors. For this work, we use a dataset of >200 trips from human foragers, Peruvian fishermen targeting anchovy. Their movements were recorded through a Vessel Monitoring System (∼1 record per hour, while their behavioural modes (fishing, searching and cruising were reported by on-board observers. We compare the efficiency of hidden Markov, hidden semi-Markov, and three discriminative models (random forests, artificial neural networks and support vector machines for inferring the fishermen behavioural modes, using a cross-validation procedure. HSMMs show the highest accuracy (80%, significantly outperforming HMMs and discriminative models. Simulations show that data with higher temporal resolution, HSMMs reach nearly 100% of accuracy. Our results demonstrate to what extent the sequential nature of movement is critical for accurately inferring behavioural modes from a trajectory and we strongly recommend the use of HSMMs for such purpose. In addition, this work opens perspectives on the use of hybrid HSMM-discriminative models, where a discriminative setting for the observation process of HSMMs could greatly improve inference performance.

  11. Hidden long evolutionary memory in a model biochemical network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Md. Zulfikar; Wingreen, Ned S.; Mukhopadhyay, Ranjan

    2018-04-01

    We introduce a minimal model for the evolution of functional protein-interaction networks using a sequence-based mutational algorithm, and apply the model to study neutral drift in networks that yield oscillatory dynamics. Starting with a functional core module, random evolutionary drift increases network complexity even in the absence of specific selective pressures. Surprisingly, we uncover a hidden order in sequence space that gives rise to long-term evolutionary memory, implying strong constraints on network evolution due to the topology of accessible sequence space.

  12. In Brief: Hidden environment and health costs of energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2009-10-01

    The hidden costs of energy production and use in the United States amounted to an estimated $120 billion in 2005, according to a 19 October report by the U.S. National Research Council. The report, “Hidden Costs of Energy: Unpriced Consequences of Energy Production and Use,” examines hidden costs, including the cost of air pollution damage to human health, which are not reflected in market prices of energy sources, electricity, or gasoline. The report found that in 2005, the total annual external damages from sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and particulate matter created by coal-burning power plants that produced 95% of the nation's coal-generated electricity were about $62 billion, with nonclimate damages averaging about 3.2 cents for every kilowatt-hour of energy produced. It is estimated that by 2030, nonclimate damages will fall to 1.7 cents per kilowatt-hour. The 2030 figure assumes that new policies already slated for implementation are put in place.

  13. A survey of hidden-variables theories

    CERN Document Server

    Belinfante, F J

    1973-01-01

    A Survey of Hidden-Variables Theories is a three-part book on the hidden-variable theories, referred in this book as """"theories of the first kind"""". Part I reviews the motives in developing different types of hidden-variables theories. The quest for determinism led to theories of the first kind; the quest for theories that look like causal theories when applied to spatially separated systems that interacted in the past led to theories of the second kind. Parts II and III further describe the theories of the first kind and second kind, respectively. This book is written to make the literat

  14. A classification of hidden-variable properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandenburger, Adam; Yanofsky, Noson

    2008-01-01

    Hidden variables are extra components added to try to banish counterintuitive features of quantum mechanics. We start with a quantum-mechanical model and describe various properties that can be asked of a hidden-variable model. We present six such properties and a Venn diagram of how they are related. With two existence theorems and three no-go theorems (EPR, Bell and Kochen-Specker), we show which properties of empirically equivalent hidden-variable models are possible and which are not. Formally, our treatment relies only on classical probability models, and physical phenomena are used only to motivate which models to choose

  15. UV Photography Shows Hidden Sun Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mcat1=de12", ]; for (var c = 0; c UV photography shows hidden sun damage A UV photograph gives ... developing skin cancer and prematurely aged skin. Normal photography UV photography 18 months of age: This boy's ...

  16. Coding with partially hidden Markov models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren; Rissanen, J.

    1995-01-01

    Partially hidden Markov models (PHMM) are introduced. They are a variation of the hidden Markov models (HMM) combining the power of explicit conditioning on past observations and the power of using hidden states. (P)HMM may be combined with arithmetic coding for lossless data compression. A general...... 2-part coding scheme for given model order but unknown parameters based on PHMM is presented. A forward-backward reestimation of parameters with a redefined backward variable is given for these models and used for estimating the unknown parameters. Proof of convergence of this reestimation is given....... The PHMM structure and the conditions of the convergence proof allows for application of the PHMM to image coding. Relations between the PHMM and hidden Markov models (HMM) are treated. Results of coding bi-level images with the PHMM coding scheme is given. The results indicate that the PHMM can adapt...

  17. Perspective: Disclosing hidden sources of funding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, David B

    2009-09-01

    In this article, the author discusses ethical and policy issues related to the disclosure of hidden sources of funding in research. The author argues that authors have an ethical obligation to disclose hidden sources of funding and that journals should adopt policies to enforce this obligation. Journal policies should require disclosure of hidden sources of funding that authors know about and that have a direct relation to their research. To stimulate this discussion, the author describes a recent case: investigators who conducted a lung cancer screening study had received funding from a private foundation that was supported by a tobacco company, but they did not disclose this relationship to the journal. Investigators and journal editors must be prepared to deal with these issues in a manner that promotes honesty, transparency, fairness, and accountability in research. The development of well-defined, reasonable policies pertaining to hidden sources of funding can be a step in this direction.

  18. Petro Rents, Political Institutions, and Hidden Wealth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jørgen Juel; Johannesen, Niels; Lassen, David Dreyer

    2017-01-01

    Do political institutions limit rent seeking by politicians? We study the transformation of petroleum rents, almost universally under direct government control, into hidden wealth using unique data on bank deposits in offshore financial centers that specialize in secrecy and asset protection. Our...... rulers is diverted to secret accounts. We find very limited evidence that shocks to other types of income not directly controlled by governments affect hidden wealth....

  19. Hidden charm molecules in a finite volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albaladejo, M.; Hidalgo-Duque, C.; Nieves, J.; Oset, E.

    2014-01-01

    In the present paper we address the interaction of charmed mesons in hidden charm channels in a finite box. We use the interaction from a recent model based on heavy quark spin symmetry that predicts molecules of hidden charm in the infinite volume. The energy levels in the box are generated within this model, and several methods for the analysis of these levels ("inverse problem") are investigated. (author)

  20. Workplace ageism: discovering hidden bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinen, Sanna; Johnston, Lucy

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND/STUDY CONTEXT: Research largely shows no performance differences between older and younger employees, or that older workers even outperform younger employees, yet negative attitudes towards older workers can underpin discrimination. Unfortunately, traditional "explicit" techniques for assessing attitudes (i.e., self-report measures) have serious drawbacks. Therefore, using an approach that is novel to organizational contexts, the authors supplemented explicit with implicit (indirect) measures of attitudes towards older workers, and examined the malleability of both. This research consists of two studies. The authors measured self-report (explicit) attitudes towards older and younger workers with a survey, and implicit attitudes with a reaction-time-based measure of implicit associations. In addition, to test whether attitudes were malleable, the authors measured attitudes before and after a mental imagery intervention, where the authors asked participants in the experimental group to imagine respected and valued older workers from their surroundings. Negative, stable implicit attitudes towards older workers emerged in two studies. Conversely, explicit attitudes showed no age bias and were more susceptible to change intervention, such that attitudes became more positive towards older workers following the experimental manipulation. This research demonstrates the unconscious nature of bias against older workers, and highlights the utility of implicit attitude measures in the context of the workplace. In the current era of aging workforce and skill shortages, implicit measures may be necessary to illuminate hidden workplace ageism.

  1. Hidden slow pulsars in binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavani, Marco; Brookshaw, Leigh

    1993-01-01

    The recent discovery of the binary containing the slow pulsar PSR 1718-19 orbiting around a low-mass companion star adds new light on the characteristics of binary pulsars. The properties of the radio eclipses of PSR 1718-19 are the most striking observational characteristics of this system. The surface of the companion star produces a mass outflow which leaves only a small 'window' in orbital phase for the detection of PSR 1718-19 around 400 MHz. At this observing frequency, PSR 1718-19 is clearly observable only for about 1 hr out of the total 6.2 hr orbital period. The aim of this Letter is twofold: (1) to model the hydrodynamical behavior of the eclipsing material from the companion star of PSR 1718-19 and (2) to argue that a population of binary slow pulsars might have escaped detection in pulsar surveys carried out at 400 MHz. The possible existence of a population of partially or totally hidden slow pulsars in binaries will have a strong impact on current theories of binary evolution of neutron stars.

  2. Music Listening Among Postoperative Patients in the Intensive Care Unit: A Randomized Controlled Trial with Mixed-Methods Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Ames

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Music listening may reduce the physiological, emotional, and mental effects of distress and anxiety. It is unclear whether music listening may reduce the amount of opioids used for pain management in critical care, postoperative patients or whether music may improve patient experience in the intensive care unit (ICU. Methods: A total of 41 surgical patients were randomized to either music listening or controlled non-music listening groups on ICU admission. Approximately 50-minute music listening interventions were offered 4 times per day (every 4-6 hours during the 48 hours of patients’ ICU stays. Pain, distress, and anxiety scores were measured immediately before and after music listening or controlled resting periods. Total opioid intake was recorded every 24 hours and during each intervention. Results: There was no significant difference in pain, opioid intake, distress, or anxiety scores between the control and music listening groups during the first 4 time points of the study. However, a mixed modeling analysis examining the pre- and post-intervention scores at the first time point revealed a significant interaction in the Numeric Rating Scale (NRS for pain between the music and the control groups ( P  = .037. The Numeric Rating Score decreased in the music group but remained stable in the control group. Following discharge from the ICU, the music group’s interviews were analyzed for themes. Conclusions: Despite the limited sample size, this study identified music listening as an appropriate intervention that improved patients’ post-intervention experience, according to patients’ self-report. Future mixed methods studies are needed to examine both qualitative patient perspectives and methodology to improve music listening in critical care units.

  3. Cognitive and physical rehabilitation of intensive care unit survivors: results of the RETURN randomized controlled pilot investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, James C; Ely, E Wesley; Morey, Miriam C; Anderson, Venice M; Denne, Laural B; Clune, Jennifer; Siebert, Carol S; Archer, Kristin R; Torres, Renee; Janz, David; Schiro, Elena; Jones, Julie; Shintani, Ayumi K; Levine, Brian; Pun, Brenda T; Thompson, Jennifer; Brummel, Nathan E; Hoenig, Helen

    2012-04-01

    Millions of patients who survive medical and surgical general intensive care unit care every year experience newly acquired long-term cognitive impairment and profound physical and functional disabilities. To overcome the current reality in which patients receive inadequate rehabilitation, we devised a multifaceted, in-home, telerehabilitation program implemented using social workers and psychology technicians with the goal of improving cognitive and functional outcomes. This was a single-site, feasibility, pilot, randomized trial of 21 general medical/surgical intensive care unit survivors (8 controls and 13 intervention patients) with either cognitive or functional impairment at hospital discharge. After discharge, study controls received usual care (sporadic rehabilitation), whereas intervention patients received a combination of in-home cognitive, physical, and functional rehabilitation over a 3-month period via a social worker or master's level psychology technician utilizing telemedicine to allow specialized multidisciplinary treatment. Interventions over 12 wks included six in-person visits for cognitive rehabilitation and six televisits for physical/functional rehabilitation. Outcomes were measured at the completion of the rehabilitation program (i.e., at 3 months), with cognitive functioning as the primary outcome. Analyses were conducted using linear regression to examine differences in 3-month outcomes between treatment groups while adjusting for baseline scores. Patients tolerated the program with only one adverse event reported. At baseline both groups were well-matched. At 3-month follow-up, intervention group patients demonstrated significantly improved cognitive executive functioning on the widely used and well-normed Tower test (for planning and strategic thinking) vs. controls (median [interquartile range], 13.0 [11.5-14.0] vs. 7.5 [4.0-8.5]; adjusted p improving cognitive performance and functional outcomes in just 3 months. Future investigations

  4. Randomized controlled trial of toothbrushing to reduce ventilator-associated pneumonia pathogens and dental plaque in a critical care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needleman, Ian G; Hirsch, Nicholas P; Leemans, Michele; Moles, David R; Wilson, Michael; Ready, Derren R; Ismail, Salim; Ciric, Lena; Shaw, Michael J; Smith, Martin; Garner, Anne; Wilson, Sally

    2011-03-01

    To investigate the effect of a powered toothbrush on colonization of dental plaque by ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP)-associated organisms and dental plaque removal. Parallel-arm, single-centre, examiner- and analyst-masked randomized controlled trial. Forty-six adults were recruited within 48 h of admission. Test intervention: powered toothbrush, control intervention: sponge toothette, both used four times per day for 2 min. Groups received 20 ml, 0.2% chlorhexidine mouthwash at each time point. The results showed a low prevalence of respiratory pathogens throughout with no statistically significant differences between groups. A highly statistically significantly greater reduction in dental plaque was produced by the powered toothbrush compared with the control treatment; mean plaque index at day 5, powered toothbrush 0.75 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.53, 1.00], sponge toothette 1.35 (95% CI 0.95, 1.74), p=0.006. Total bacterial viable count was also highly statistically significantly lower in the test group at day 5; Log(10) mean total bacterial counts: powered toothbrush 5.12 (95% CI 4.60, 5.63), sponge toothette 6.61 (95% CI 5.93, 7.28), p=0.002. Powered toothbrushes are highly effective for plaque removal in intubated patients in a critical unit and should be tested for their potential to reduce VAP incidence and health complications. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  5. Smart pumps and random safety audits in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit: a new challenge for patient safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergon-Sendin, Elena; Perez-Grande, Carmen; Lora-Pablos, David; Moral-Pumarega, María Teresa; Melgar-Bonis, Ana; Peña-Peloche, Carmen; Diezma-Rodino, Mercedes; García-San Jose, Lidia; Cabañes-Alonso, Esther; Pallas-Alonso, Carmen Rosa

    2015-12-11

    Random safety audits (RSA) are a safety tool enabling prevention of adverse events, but they have not been widely used in hospitals. The aim of this study was to use RSAs to assess and compare the frequency of appropriate use of infusion pump safety systems in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) before and after quality improvement interventions and to analyse the intravenous medication programming data. Prospective, observational study comparing the frequency of appropriate use of Alaris® CC smart pumps through RSAs over two periods, from 1 January to 31 December 2012 and from 1 November 2014 to 31 January 2015. Appropriate use was defined as all evaluated variables being correctly programmed into the same device. Between the two periods they were established interventions to improve the use of pumps. The information recorded at the pumps with the new security system, also extracted for one year. Fifty-two measurements were collected during the first period and 160 measurements during the second period. The frequency of appropriate use was 73.13 % (117/160) in the second period versus 0 % (0/52) in the first period (p pumps in the NICU. The improvement strategies were effective for improving appropriate use and programming of the intravenous medication infusion pumps in our NICU.

  6. Whose Immigration Story?: Attending to Hidden Messages of Material in Social Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikonomidoy, Eleni; Williams, Gwendolyn

    2010-01-01

    Sometimes materials used in schools with good intentions can have effects opposite from those stated. Through the microscopic analysis of a parent-student immigration interview assignment on a social studies unit on immigration, this article aims to uncover the hidden story that underlies the questions asked. In so doing, it intends not only to…

  7. Probing hidden sector photons through the Higgs window

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlers, M.

    2008-07-01

    We investigate the possibility that a (light) hidden sector extra photon receives its mass via spontaneous symmetry breaking of a hidden sector Higgs boson, the so-called hidden-Higgs. The hidden-photon can mix with the ordinary photon via a gauge kinetic mixing term. The hidden-Higgs can couple to the Standard Model Higgs via a renormalizable quartic term - sometimes called the Higgs Portal. We discuss the implications of this light hidden-Higgs in the context of laser polarization and light-shining-through-the-wall experiments as well as cosmological, astrophysical, and non-Newtonian force measurements. For hidden-photons receiving their mass from a hidden-Higgs we find in the small mass regime significantly stronger bounds than the bounds on massive hidden sector photons alone. (orig.)

  8. Probing hidden sector photons through the Higgs window

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlers, Markus; Jaeckel, Joerg; Redondo, Javier; Ringwald, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the possibility that a (light) hidden sector extra photon receives its mass via spontaneous symmetry breaking of a hidden sector Higgs boson, the so-called hidden-Higgs. The hidden-photon can mix with the ordinary photon via a gauge kinetic mixing term. The hidden-Higgs can couple to the standard model Higgs via a renormalizable quartic term - sometimes called the Higgs portal. We discuss the implications of this light hidden-Higgs in the context of laser polarization and light-shining-through-the-wall experiments as well as cosmological, astrophysical, and non-Newtonian force measurements. For hidden-photons receiving their mass from a hidden-Higgs, we find in the small mass regime significantly stronger bounds than the bounds on massive hidden sector photons alone.

  9. Fitting Hidden Markov Models to Psychological Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingmar Visser

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Markov models have been used extensively in psychology of learning. Applications of hidden Markov models are rare however. This is partially due to the fact that comprehensive statistics for model selection and model assessment are lacking in the psychological literature. We present model selection and model assessment statistics that are particularly useful in applying hidden Markov models in psychology. These statistics are presented and evaluated by simulation studies for a toy example. We compare AIC, BIC and related criteria and introduce a prediction error measure for assessing goodness-of-fit. In a simulation study, two methods of fitting equality constraints are compared. In two illustrative examples with experimental data we apply selection criteria, fit models with constraints and assess goodness-of-fit. First, data from a concept identification task is analyzed. Hidden Markov models provide a flexible approach to analyzing such data when compared to other modeling methods. Second, a novel application of hidden Markov models in implicit learning is presented. Hidden Markov models are used in this context to quantify knowledge that subjects express in an implicit learning task. This method of analyzing implicit learning data provides a comprehensive approach for addressing important theoretical issues in the field.

  10. Geometric phases and hidden local gauge symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujikawa, Kazuo

    2005-01-01

    The analysis of geometric phases associated with level crossing is reduced to the familiar diagonalization of the Hamiltonian in the second quantized formulation. A hidden local gauge symmetry, which is associated with the arbitrariness of the phase choice of a complete orthonormal basis set, becomes explicit in this formulation (in particular, in the adiabatic approximation) and specifies physical observables. The choice of a basis set which specifies the coordinate in the functional space is arbitrary in the second quantization, and a subclass of coordinate transformations, which keeps the form of the action invariant, is recognized as the gauge symmetry. We discuss the implications of this hidden local gauge symmetry in detail by analyzing geometric phases for cyclic and noncyclic evolutions. It is shown that the hidden local symmetry provides a basic concept alternative to the notion of holonomy to analyze geometric phases and that the analysis based on the hidden local gauge symmetry leads to results consistent with the general prescription of Pancharatnam. We however note an important difference between the geometric phases for cyclic and noncyclic evolutions. We also explain a basic difference between our hidden local gauge symmetry and a gauge symmetry (or equivalence class) used by Aharonov and Anandan in their definition of generalized geometric phases

  11. Hidden Randomness between Fitness Landscapes Limits Reverse Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Longzhi; Serene, Stephen; Xiao Chao, Hui; Gore, Jeff

    2012-02-01

    Natural populations must constantly adapt to the ever-changing environment. A fundamental question in evolutionary biology is whether adaptations can be reversed by returning the population to its ancestral environment. Traditionally, reverse evolution is defined as restoring an ancestral phenotype (physical characteristics such as body size), and the classic Dollo's Law has hypothesized the impossibility of reversing complex adaptations. However, this ``law'' remains ambiguous unless reverse evolution can be studied at the level of genotypes (the underlying genome sequence). We measured the fitness landscapes of a bacterial antibiotic-resistance gene and analyzed the reversibility of evolution as a global, statistical feature of the landscapes. In both experiments and simulations, we find that an adaptation's reversibility declines as the number of mutations it involves increases, suggesting a probabilistic form of Dollo's Law at the molecular level. We also show computationally that slowly switching between environments facilitates reverse evolution in small populations, where clonal interference is negligible or moderate. This is an analogy to thermodynamics, where the reversibility of a physical process is maximized when conditions are modified infinitely slowly.

  12. Massive hidden photons as lukewarm dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redondo, Javier; Postma, Marieke

    2008-11-01

    We study the possibility that a keV-MeV mass hidden photon (HP), i.e. a hidden sector U(1) gauge boson, accounts for the observed amount of dark matter. We focus on the case where the HP interacts with the standard model sector only through kinetic mixing with the photon. The relic abundance is computed including all relevant plasma effects into the photon's self-energy, which leads to a resonant yield almost independent of the HP mass. The HP can decay into three photons. Moreover, if light enough it can be copiously produced in stars. Including bounds from cosmic photon backgrounds and stellar evolution, we find that the hidden photon can only give a subdominant contribution to the dark matter. This negative conclusion may be avoided if another production mechanism besides kinetic mixing is operative. (orig.)

  13. Massive hidden photons as lukewarm dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redondo, Javier [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Postma, Marieke [Nationaal Inst. voor Kernfysica en Hoge-Energiefysica (NIKHEF), Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2008-11-15

    We study the possibility that a keV-MeV mass hidden photon (HP), i.e. a hidden sector U(1) gauge boson, accounts for the observed amount of dark matter. We focus on the case where the HP interacts with the standard model sector only through kinetic mixing with the photon. The relic abundance is computed including all relevant plasma effects into the photon's self-energy, which leads to a resonant yield almost independent of the HP mass. The HP can decay into three photons. Moreover, if light enough it can be copiously produced in stars. Including bounds from cosmic photon backgrounds and stellar evolution, we find that the hidden photon can only give a subdominant contribution to the dark matter. This negative conclusion may be avoided if another production mechanism besides kinetic mixing is operative. (orig.)

  14. Religious Tolerance in the Hidden Curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Nobel Kurniawan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Religious intolerance is spreading within the Indonesian institution of education. Previous studies have shown that the growth of intolerance is due to the state’s regulation and pedagogical apparatus. In contrast to the previous studies, I argue that the intolerance is related to hidden curriculum applied by the institution of education.  Normatively, the hidden curriculum contains the value of religious tolerance. However, factually, the author found that there are practices of intolerance, through the formal and informal spheres in the school’s structure, within the hidden curriculum. This article applies a qualitative approach with a mixed method research strategy to analyze data collected from students, teachers, and alumnis through field observation, in-depth interview, and survey.

  15. Hidden treasures - 50 km points of interests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lommi, Matias; Kortelainen, Jaana

    2015-04-01

    Tampere is third largest city in Finland and a regional centre. During 70's there occurred several communal mergers. Nowadays this local area has both strong and diversed identity - from wilderness and agricultural fields to high density city living. Outside the city center there are interesting geological points unknown for modern city settlers. There is even a local proverb, "Go abroad to Teisko!". That is the area the Hidden Treasures -student project is focused on. Our school Tammerkoski Upper Secondary School (or Gymnasium) has emphasis on visual arts. We are going to offer our art students scientific and artistic experiences and knowledge about the hidden treasures of Teisko area and involve the Teisko inhabitants into this project. Hidden treasures - Precambrian subduction zone and a volcanism belt with dense bed of gold (Au) and arsenic (As), operating goldmines and quarries of minerals and metamorphic slates. - North of subduction zone a homogenic precambrian magmastone area with quarries, products known as Kuru Grey. - Former ashores of post-glasial Lake Näsijärvi and it's sediments enabled the developing agriculture and sustained settlement. Nowadays these ashores have both scenery and biodiversity values. - Old cattle sheds and dairy buildings made of local granite stones related to cultural stonebuilding inheritance. - Local active community of Kapee, about 100 inhabitants. Students will discover information of these "hidden" phenomena, and rendering this information trough Enviromental Art Method. Final form of this project will be published in several artistic and informative geocaches. These caches are achieved by a GPS-based special Hidden Treasures Cycling Route and by a website guiding people to find these hidden points of interests.

  16. The origin of the hidden supersymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakubsky, Vit; Nieto, Luis-Miguel; Plyushchay, Mikhail S.

    2010-01-01

    The hidden supersymmetry and related tri-supersymmetric structure of the free particle system, the Dirac delta potential problem and the Aharonov-Bohm effect (planar, bound state, and tubule models) are explained by a special nonlocal unitary transformation, which for the usual N=2 supercharges has a nature of Foldy-Wouthuysen transformation. We show that in general case, the bosonized supersymmetry of nonlocal, parity even systems emerges in the same construction, and explain the origin of the unusual N=2 supersymmetry of electron in three-dimensional parity even magnetic field. The observation extends to include the hidden superconformal symmetry.

  17. Signatures of a hidden cosmic microwave background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeckel, Joerg; Redondo, Javier; Ringwald, Andreas

    2008-09-26

    If there is a light Abelian gauge boson gamma' in the hidden sector its kinetic mixing with the photon can produce a hidden cosmic microwave background (HCMB). For meV masses, resonant oscillations gammagamma' happen after big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) but before CMB decoupling, increasing the effective number of neutrinos Nnu(eff) and the baryon to photon ratio, and distorting the CMB blackbody spectrum. The agreement between BBN and CMB data provides new constraints. However, including Lyman-alpha data, Nnu(eff) > 3 is preferred. It is tempting to attribute this effect to the HCMB. The interesting parameter range will be tested in upcoming laboratory experiments.

  18. Hidden simplicity of gauge theory amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drummond, J M, E-mail: drummond@lapp.in2p3.f [LAPTH, Universite de Savoie, CNRS, B.P. 110, F-74941 Annecy-le-Vieux, Cedex (France)

    2010-11-07

    These notes were given as lectures at the CERN Winter School on Supergravity, Strings and Gauge Theory 2010. We describe the structure of scattering amplitudes in gauge theories, focussing on the maximally supersymmetric theory to highlight the hidden symmetries which appear. Using the Britto, Cachzo, Feng and Witten (BCFW) recursion relations we solve the tree-level S-matrix in N=4 super Yang-Mills theory and describe how it produces a sum of invariants of a large symmetry algebra. We review amplitudes in the planar theory beyond tree level, describing the connection between amplitudes and Wilson loops, and discuss the implications of the hidden symmetries.

  19. Using hidden Markov models to align multiple sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mount, David W

    2009-07-01

    A hidden Markov model (HMM) is a probabilistic model of a multiple sequence alignment (msa) of proteins. In the model, each column of symbols in the alignment is represented by a frequency distribution of the symbols (called a "state"), and insertions and deletions are represented by other states. One moves through the model along a particular path from state to state in a Markov chain (i.e., random choice of next move), trying to match a given sequence. The next matching symbol is chosen from each state, recording its probability (frequency) and also the probability of going to that state from a previous one (the transition probability). State and transition probabilities are multiplied to obtain a probability of the given sequence. The hidden nature of the HMM is due to the lack of information about the value of a specific state, which is instead represented by a probability distribution over all possible values. This article discusses the advantages and disadvantages of HMMs in msa and presents algorithms for calculating an HMM and the conditions for producing the best HMM.

  20. Searching for hidden sectors in multiparticle production at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Sanchis-Lozano, Miguel-Angel; Moreno-Picot, Salvador

    2016-01-01

    We study the impact of a hidden sector beyond the Standard Model, e.g. a Hidden Valley model, on factorial moments and cumulants of multiplicity distributions in multiparticle production with a special emphasis on the prospects for LHC results.

  1. Hidden Statistics Approach to Quantum Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zak, Michail

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in quantum information theory have inspired an explosion of interest in new quantum algorithms for solving hard computational (quantum and non-quantum) problems. The basic principle of quantum computation is that the quantum properties can be used to represent structure data, and that quantum mechanisms can be devised and built to perform operations with this data. Three basic non-classical properties of quantum mechanics superposition, entanglement, and direct-product decomposability were main reasons for optimism about capabilities of quantum computers that promised simultaneous processing of large massifs of highly correlated data. Unfortunately, these advantages of quantum mechanics came with a high price. One major problem is keeping the components of the computer in a coherent state, as the slightest interaction with the external world would cause the system to decohere. That is why the hardware implementation of a quantum computer is still unsolved. The basic idea of this work is to create a new kind of dynamical system that would preserve the main three properties of quantum physics superposition, entanglement, and direct-product decomposability while allowing one to measure its state variables using classical methods. In other words, such a system would reinforce the advantages and minimize limitations of both quantum and classical aspects. Based upon a concept of hidden statistics, a new kind of dynamical system for simulation of Schroedinger equation is proposed. The system represents a modified Madelung version of Schroedinger equation. It preserves superposition, entanglement, and direct-product decomposability while allowing one to measure its state variables using classical methods. Such an optimal combination of characteristics is a perfect match for simulating quantum systems. The model includes a transitional component of quantum potential (that has been overlooked in previous treatment of the Madelung equation). The role of the

  2. Compressing the hidden variable space of a qubit

    OpenAIRE

    Montina, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    In previously exhibited hidden variable models of quantum state preparation and measurement, the number of continuous hidden variables describing the actual state of a single realization is never smaller than the quantum state manifold dimension. We introduce a simple model for a qubit whose hidden variable space is one-dimensional, i.e., smaller than the two-dimensional Bloch sphere. The hidden variable probability distributions associated with the quantum states satisfy reasonable criteria ...

  3. Hidden Markov Models for Human Genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baldi, Pierre; Brunak, Søren; Chauvin, Yves

    1997-01-01

    We analyse the sequential structure of human genomic DNA by hidden Markov models. We apply models of widely different design: conventional left-right constructs and models with a built-in periodic architecture. The models are trained on segments of DNA sequences extracted such that they cover com...

  4. The Hidden Cost of Buying a Computer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Michael

    1983-01-01

    In order to process data in a computer, application software must be either developed or purchased. Costs for modifications of the software package and maintenance are often hidden. The decision to buy or develop software packages should be based upon factors of time and maintenance. (MLF)

  5. Hidden symmetries in five-dimensional supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poessel, M.

    2003-05-01

    This thesis is concerned with the study of hidden symmetries in supergravity, which play an important role in the present picture of supergravity and string theory. Concretely, the appearance of a hidden G 2(+2) /SO(4) symmetry is studied in the dimensional reduction of d=5, N=2 supergravity to three dimensions - a parallel model to the more famous E 8(+8) /SO(16) case in eleven-dimensional supergravity. Extending previous partial results for the bosonic part, I give a derivation that includes fermionic terms. This sheds new light on the appearance of the local hidden symmetry SO(4) in the reduction, and shows up an unusual feature which follows from an analysis of the R-symmetry associated with N=4 supergravity and of the supersymmetry variations, and which has no parallel in the eleven-dimensional case: The emergence of an additional SO(3) as part of the enhanced local symmetry, invisible in the dimensional reduction of the gravitino, and corresponding to the fact that, of the SO(4) used in the coset model, only the diagonal SO(3) is visible immediately upon dimensional reduction. The uncovering of the hidden symmetries proceeds via the construction of the proper coset gravity in three dimensions, and matching it with the Lagrangian obtained from the reduction. (orig.)

  6. Discovering hidden sectors with monophoton Z' searches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gershtein, Yuri; Petriello, Frank; Quackenbush, Seth; Zurek, Kathryn M.

    2008-01-01

    In many theories of physics beyond the standard model, from extra dimensions to Hidden Valleys and models of dark matter, Z ' bosons mediate between standard model particles and hidden sector states. We study the feasibility of observing such hidden states through an invisibly decaying Z ' at the LHC. We focus on the process pp→γZ ' →γXX † , where X is any neutral, (quasi-) stable particle, whether a standard model neutrino or a new state. This complements a previous study using pp→ZZ ' →l + l - XX † . Only the Z ' mass and two effective charges are needed to describe this process. If the Z ' decays invisibly only to standard model neutrinos, then these charges are predicted by observation of the Z ' through the Drell-Yan process, allowing discrimination between Z ' decays to standard model ν's and invisible decays to new states. We carefully discuss all backgrounds and systematic errors that affect this search. We find that hidden sector decays of a 1 TeV Z ' can be observed at 5σ significance with 50 fb -1 at the LHC. Observation of a 1.5 TeV state requires super-LHC statistics of 1 ab -1 . Control of the systematic errors, in particular, the parton distribution function uncertainty of the dominant Zγ background, is crucial to maximize the LHC search reach.

  7. Hidden Markov models for labeled sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Anders Stærmose

    1994-01-01

    A hidden Markov model for labeled observations, called a class HMM, is introduced and a maximum likelihood method is developed for estimating the parameters of the model. Instead of training it to model the statistics of the training sequences it is trained to optimize recognition. It resembles MMI...

  8. Detection of hidden explosives by fast neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xinnian; Guo Junpeng; Luo Wenyun; Wang Chuanshan; Fang Xiaoming; Yu Tailiu

    2008-01-01

    The paper describes the method and principle for detection of hidden explosive by fast neutron activation analysis (FNAA). The method of detection of explosives by FNAA has the specific properties of simple determination equipments, high reliability, and low detecting cost, and would be beneficial to the applicability and popularization in the field of protecting and securing nation. The contents of nitrogen and oxygen in four explosives, more then ten common materials and TNT samples covered with soil, were measured by FNAA. 14 MeV fast neutrons were generated from (d, t) reaction with a 400 kV Cockcroft Walton type accelerator. The two-dimension distributions for nitro- gen and oxygen counting rates per unit mass of determined matters were obtained, and the characteristic area of explosives and non-explosives can be defined. By computer aided pattern recognition, the samples were identified with low false alarm or omission rates. The Monte-Carlo simulation indicates that there is no any radiation at 15 m apart from neutron source and is safe for irradiation after 1 h. It is suggested that FNAA may be potential in remote controlling for detection hidden explosive system with multi-probe large array. (authors)

  9. Geolocating fish using Hidden Markov Models and Data Storage Tags

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Uffe Høgsbro; Pedersen, Martin Wæver; Madsen, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    Geolocation of fish based on data from archival tags typically requires a statistical analysis to reduce the effect of measurement errors. In this paper we present a novel technique for this analysis, one based on Hidden Markov Models (HMM's). We assume that the actual path of the fish is generated...... by a biased random walk. The HMM methodology produces, for each time step, the probability that the fish resides in each grid cell. Because there is no Monte Carlo step in our technique, we are able to estimate parameters within the likelihood framework. The method does not require the distribution...... of inference in state-space models of animals. The technique can be applied to geolocation based on light, on tidal patterns, or measurement of other variables that vary with space. We illustrate the method through application to a simulated data set where geolocation relies on depth data exclusively....

  10. Filling of a Poisson trap by a population of random intermittent searchers

    KAUST Repository

    Bressloff, Paul C.; Newby, Jay M.

    2012-01-01

    We extend the continuum theory of random intermittent search processes to the case of N independent searchers looking to deliver cargo to a single hidden target located somewhere on a semi-infinite track. Each searcher randomly switches between a

  11. Preventive nebulization of mucolytic agents and bronchodilating drugs in invasively ventilated intensive care unit patients (NEBULAE): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Hoeven, Sophia M; Binnekade, Jan M; de Borgie, Corianne A J M; Bosch, Frank H; Endeman, Henrik; Horn, Janneke; Juffermans, Nicole P; van der Meer, Nardo J M; Merkus, Maruschka P; Moeniralam, Hazra S; van Silfhout, Bart; Slabbekoorn, Mathilde; Stilma, Willemke; Wijnhoven, Jan Willem; Schultz, Marcus J; Paulus, Frederique

    2015-09-02

    Preventive nebulization of mucolytic agents and bronchodilating drugs is a strategy aimed at the prevention of sputum plugging, and therefore atelectasis and pneumonia, in intubated and ventilated intensive care unit (ICU) patients. The present trial aims to compare a strategy using the preventive nebulization of acetylcysteine and salbutamol with nebulization on indication in intubated and ventilated ICU patients. The preventive nebulization of mucolytic agents and bronchodilating drugs in invasively ventilated intensive care unit patients (NEBULAE) trial is a national multicenter open-label, two-armed, randomized controlled non-inferiority trial in the Netherlands. Nine hundred and fifty intubated and ventilated ICU patients with an anticipated duration of invasive ventilation of more than 24 hours will be randomly assigned to receive either a strategy consisting of preventive nebulization of acetylcysteine and salbutamol or a strategy consisting of nebulization of acetylcysteine and/or salbutamol on indication. The primary endpoint is the number of ventilator-free days and surviving on day 28. Secondary endpoints include ICU and hospital length of stay, ICU and hospital mortality, the occurrence of predefined pulmonary complications (acute respiratory distress syndrome, pneumonia, large atelectasis and pneumothorax), and the occurrence of predefined side effects of the intervention. Related healthcare costs will be estimated in a cost-benefit and budget-impact analysis. The NEBULAE trial is the first randomized controlled trial powered to investigate whether preventive nebulization of acetylcysteine and salbutamol shortens the duration of ventilation in critically ill patients. NCT02159196, registered on 6 June 2014.

  12. Extended abstract of a hidden agenda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goguen, J.; Malcolm, G. [Oxford Univ. (United Kingdom)

    1996-12-31

    The initial goal of our hidden research programme was both straightforward and ambitious: give a semantics for software engineering, and in particular for the object paradigm, supporting correctness proofs that are as simple and mechanical as possible. This emphasizes proofs rather than models, and thus suggests an equational approach, rather than one based on higher order logic, denotational semantics, or any kind of model, because equational proofs achieve maximal simplicity and mechanization, and yet are fully expressive. We introduce powerful coinduction techniques for proving behavioral properties of complex systems. We make the no doubt outrageous claim that our hidden approach gives simpler proofs than other formalisms; this is because we exploit algebraic structure that most other approaches discard.

  13. Laser experiments explore the hidden sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlers, M.

    2007-11-01

    Recently, the laser experiments BMV and GammeV, searching for light shining through walls, have published data and calculated new limits on the allowed masses and couplings for axion-like particles. In this note we point out that these experiments can serve to constrain a much wider variety of hidden-sector particles such as, e.g., minicharged particles and hidden-sector photons. The new experiments improve the existing bounds from the older BFRT experiment by a factor of two. Moreover, we use the new PVLAS constraints on a possible rotation and ellipticity of light after it has passed through a strong magnetic field to constrain pure minicharged particle models. For masses -7 times the electron electric charge. This is the best laboratory bound and comparable to bounds inferred from the energy spectrum of the cosmic microwave background. (orig.)

  14. Quantum mechanics and hidden superconformal symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonezzi, R.; Corradini, O.; Latini, E.; Waldron, A.

    2017-12-01

    Solvability of the ubiquitous quantum harmonic oscillator relies on a spectrum generating osp (1 |2 ) superconformal symmetry. We study the problem of constructing all quantum mechanical models with a hidden osp (1 |2 ) symmetry on a given space of states. This problem stems from interacting higher spin models coupled to gravity. In one dimension, we show that the solution to this problem is the Vasiliev-Plyushchay family of quantum mechanical models with hidden superconformal symmetry obtained by viewing the harmonic oscillator as a one dimensional Dirac system, so that Grassmann parity equals wave function parity. These models—both oscillator and particlelike—realize all possible unitary irreducible representations of osp (1 |2 ).

  15. Hidden Costs and the Role of Modularity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Marcus M.

    2013-01-01

    that the inability to effectively estimate the costs of implementing an activity in a foreign location has a negative impact on the process performance of that activity. Performance is deterred as operations are likely to be disrupted by opportunity costs and managerial responses. However, this relationship......This paper addresses estimation errors in strategic decision-making processes due to hidden costs. While previous research has investigated the antecedents of hidden costs, this paper investigates performance consequences. Using unique data on 221 offshoring implementations, it is argued...... is mitigated by the degree of modularity in the activity as it reduces the need for costly coordination in offshoring. This paper contributes to research on offshoring and strategic decision-making by emphasizing the importance of organizational design and of estimating the costs of internal organizational...

  16. The Hidden Gifts of Quiet Kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trierweiler, Hannah

    2006-01-01

    The author relates that she was an introvert child. It has always taken her time and energy to find her place in a group. As a grown-up, she still needed quiet time to regroup during a busy day. In this article, the author presents an interview with Marti Olsen Laney, author of "The Hidden Gifts of the Introverted Child." During the interview,…

  17. Hidden neuronal correlations in cultured networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segev, Ronen; Baruchi, Itay; Hulata, Eyal; Ben-Jacob, Eshel

    2004-01-01

    Utilization of a clustering algorithm on neuronal spatiotemporal correlation matrices recorded during a spontaneous activity of in vitro networks revealed the existence of hidden correlations: the sequence of synchronized bursting events (SBEs) is composed of statistically distinguishable subgroups each with its own distinct pattern of interneuron spatiotemporal correlations. These findings hint that each of the SBE subgroups can serve as a template for coding, storage, and retrieval of a specific information

  18. A masking index for quantifying hidden glitches

    OpenAIRE

    Berti-Equille, Laure; Loh, J. M.; Dasu, T.

    2015-01-01

    Data glitches are errors in a dataset. They are complex entities that often span multiple attributes and records. When they co-occur in data, the presence of one type of glitch can hinder the detection of another type of glitch. This phenomenon is called masking. In this paper, we define two important types of masking and propose a novel, statistically rigorous indicator called masking index for quantifying the hidden glitches. We outline four cases of masking: outliers masked by missing valu...

  19. Cold dark matter from the hidden sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arias, Paola; Pontificia Univ. Catolica de Chile, Santiago

    2012-02-01

    Weakly interacting slim particles (WISPs) such as hidden photons (HP) and axion-like particles (ALPs) have been proposed as cold dark matter candidates. They might be produced non-thermally via the misalignment mechanism, similarly to cold axions. In this talk we review the main processes of thermalisation of HP and we compute the parameter space that may survive as cold dark matter population until today. Our findings are quite encouraging for experimental searches in the laboratory in the near future.

  20. Completing Quantum Mechanics with Quantized Hidden Variables

    OpenAIRE

    van Enk, S. J.

    2015-01-01

    I explore the possibility that a quantum system S may be described completely by the combination of its standard quantum state $|\\psi\\rangle$ and a (hidden) quantum state $|\\phi\\rangle$ (that lives in the same Hilbert space), such that the outcome of any standard projective measurement on the system S is determined once the two quantum states are specified. I construct an algorithm that retrieves the standard quantum-mechanical probabilities, which depend only on $|\\psi\\rangle$, by assuming t...

  1. Cold dark matter from the hidden sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arias, Paola [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Pontificia Univ. Catolica de Chile, Santiago (Chile). Facultad de Fisica

    2012-02-15

    Weakly interacting slim particles (WISPs) such as hidden photons (HP) and axion-like particles (ALPs) have been proposed as cold dark matter candidates. They might be produced non-thermally via the misalignment mechanism, similarly to cold axions. In this talk we review the main processes of thermalisation of HP and we compute the parameter space that may survive as cold dark matter population until today. Our findings are quite encouraging for experimental searches in the laboratory in the near future.

  2. Hidden histories: challenges for pedagogy and participation

    OpenAIRE

    Morrice, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Higher Education has become and an increasingly diverse and globalised system in which the binaries between ‘traditional’ and ‘non-traditional’ students, exclusion and inclusion have less resonance and analytical purchase. Drawing on research with refugees Linda will suggest that higher education can be marked simultaneously by belonging and recognition, deficit and exclusion. Complex differences and inequalities remain hidden and unspoken, raising new questions and challenges for pedagogy an...

  3. Random preferences towards bioenergy environmental externalities: a case study of woody biomass based electricity in the Southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres Susaeta; Pankaj Lal; Janaki Alavalapati; Evan Mercer

    2011-01-01

    This paper contrasts alternate methodological approaches of investigating public preferences, the random parameter logit (RPL) where tastes and preferences of respondents are assumed to be heterogeneous and the conditional logit (CL) approach where tastes and preferences remain fixed for individuals. We conducted a choice experiment to assess preferences for woody...

  4. Hidden sector behind the CKM matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okawa, Shohei; Omura, Yuji

    2017-08-01

    The small quark mixing, described by the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix in the standard model, may be a clue to reveal new physics around the TeV scale. We consider a simple scenario that extra particles in a hidden sector radiatively mediate the flavor violation to the quark sector around the TeV scale and effectively realize the observed CKM matrix. The lightest particle in the hidden sector, whose contribution to the CKM matrix is expected to be dominant, is a good dark matter (DM) candidate. There are many possible setups to describe this scenario, so that we investigate some universal predictions of this kind of model, focusing on the contribution of DM to the quark mixing and flavor physics. In this scenario, there is an explicit relation between the CKM matrix and flavor violating couplings, such as four-quark couplings, because both are radiatively induced by the particles in the hidden sector. Then, we can explicitly find the DM mass region and the size of Yukawa couplings between the DM and quarks, based on the study of flavor physics and DM physics. In conclusion, we show that DM mass in our scenario is around the TeV scale, and the Yukawa couplings are between O (0.01 ) and O (1 ). The spin-independent DM scattering cross section is estimated as O (10-9) [pb]. An extra colored particle is also predicted at the O (10 ) TeV scale.

  5. Random Assignment: Practical Considerations from Field Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunford, Franklyn W.

    1990-01-01

    Seven qualitative issues associated with randomization that have the potential to weaken or destroy otherwise sound experimental designs are reviewed and illustrated via actual field experiments. Issue areas include ethics and legality, liability risks, manipulation of randomized outcomes, hidden bias, design intrusiveness, case flow, and…

  6. Perfectly Secure Oblivious RAM without Random Oracles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Meldgaard, Sigurd Torkel; Nielsen, Jesper Buus

    2011-01-01

    We present an algorithm for implementing a secure oblivious RAM where the access pattern is perfectly hidden in the information theoretic sense, without assuming that the CPU has access to a random oracle. In addition we prove a lower bound on the amount of randomness needed for implementing...

  7. Single-hidden-layer feed-forward quantum neural network based on Grover learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cheng-Yi; Chen, Chein; Chang, Ching-Ter; Shih, Lun-Min

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, a novel single-hidden-layer feed-forward quantum neural network model is proposed based on some concepts and principles in the quantum theory. By combining the quantum mechanism with the feed-forward neural network, we defined quantum hidden neurons and connected quantum weights, and used them as the fundamental information processing unit in a single-hidden-layer feed-forward neural network. The quantum neurons make a wide range of nonlinear functions serve as the activation functions in the hidden layer of the network, and the Grover searching algorithm outstands the optimal parameter setting iteratively and thus makes very efficient neural network learning possible. The quantum neuron and weights, along with a Grover searching algorithm based learning, result in a novel and efficient neural network characteristic of reduced network, high efficient training and prospect application in future. Some simulations are taken to investigate the performance of the proposed quantum network and the result show that it can achieve accurate learning. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Feasibility randomized-controlled trial of online Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for patients with complex chronic pain in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, W; Chilcot, J; Guildford, B; Daly-Eichenhardt, A; McCracken, L M

    2018-04-28

    Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) has growing support for chronic pain. However, more accessible treatment delivery is needed. This study evaluated the feasibility of online ACT for patients with complex chronic pain in the United Kingdom to determine whether a larger trial is justified. Participants with chronic pain and clinically meaningful disability and distress were randomly assigned to ACT online plus specialty medical pain management, or specialty medical management alone. Participants completed questionnaires at baseline, and 3- and 9-month post-randomization. Primary feasibility outcomes included recruitment, retention and treatment completion rates. Secondary outcomes were between-groups effects on treatment outcomes and psychological flexibility. Of 139 potential participants, 63 were eligible and randomized (45% recruitment rate). Retention rates were 76-78% for follow-up assessments. Sixty-one per cent of ACT online participants completed treatment. ACT online was less often completed by employed (44%) compared to unemployed (80%) participants. Fifty-six per cent of ACT online participants rated themselves as 'much improved' or better on a global impression of change rating, compared to only 20 per cent of control participants. Three-month effects favouring ACT online were small for functioning, medication and healthcare use, committed action and decentring, medium for mood, and large for acceptance. Small-to-medium effects were maintained for functioning, healthcare use and committed action at 9 months. Online ACT for patients with chronic pain in the United Kingdom appears feasible to study in a larger efficacy trial. Some adjustments to treatment and trial procedures are warranted, particularly to enhance engagement among employed participants. This study supports the feasibility of online Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for chronic pain in the United Kingdom and a larger efficacy trial. Refinements to treatment delivery, particularly to

  9. Hyperbaric oxygen for post-concussive symptoms in United States military service members: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Lindell K; Wilson, Steffanie H; Lindblad, Anne S; Churchill, Susan; Deru, Kayla; Price, Robert C; Williams, Chris S; Orrison, William W; Walker, James M; Meehan, Anna; Mirow, Susan

    2018-01-01

    In prior military randomized trials, participants with persistent symptoms after mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) reported improvement regardless of receiving hyperbaric oxygen (HBO₂) or sham intervention. This study's objectives were to identify outcomes for future efficacy trials and describe changes by intervention. This Phase II, randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled trial enrolled military personnel with mild TBI and persistent post-concussive symptoms. Participants were randomized to receive 40 HBO₂ (1.5 atmospheres absolute (ATA), ⟩99% oxygen, 60 minutes) or sham chamber sessions (1.2 ATA, room air, 60 minutes) over 12 weeks. Participants and evaluators were blinded to allocation. Outcomes assessed at baseline, 13 weeks and six months included symptoms, quality of life, neuropsychological, neurological, electroencephalography, sleep, auditory, vestibular, autonomic, visual, neuroimaging, and laboratory testing. Participants completed 12-month questionnaires. Intention-to-treat results are reported. From 9/11/2012 to 5/19/2014, 71 randomized participants received HBO₂ (n=36) or sham (n=35). At baseline, 35 participants (49%) met post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) criteria. By the Neurobehavioral Symptom Inventory, the HBO₂ group had improved 13-week scores (mean change -3.6 points, P=0.03) compared to sham (+3.9 points). In participants with PTSD, change with HBO₂ was more pronounced (-8.6 vs. +4.8 points with sham, P=0.02). PTSD symptoms also improved in the HBO₂ group, and more so in the subgroup with PTSD. Improvements regressed at six and 12 months. Hyperbaric oxygen improved some cognitive processing speed and sleep measures. Participants with PTSD receiving HBO₂ had improved functional balance and reduced vestibular complaints at 13 weeks. By 13 weeks, HBO₂ improved post-concussive and PTSD symptoms, cognitive processing speed, sleep quality, and balance function, most dramatically in those with PTSD. Changes did not persist

  10. A Fast SVD-Hidden-nodes based Extreme Learning Machine for Large-Scale Data Analytics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Wan-Yu; Bai, Zuo; Huang, Guang-Bin; Zheng, Qing-Hua

    2016-05-01

    Big dimensional data is a growing trend that is emerging in many real world contexts, extending from web mining, gene expression analysis, protein-protein interaction to high-frequency financial data. Nowadays, there is a growing consensus that the increasing dimensionality poses impeding effects on the performances of classifiers, which is termed as the "peaking phenomenon" in the field of machine intelligence. To address the issue, dimensionality reduction is commonly employed as a preprocessing step on the Big dimensional data before building the classifiers. In this paper, we propose an Extreme Learning Machine (ELM) approach for large-scale data analytic. In contrast to existing approaches, we embed hidden nodes that are designed using singular value decomposition (SVD) into the classical ELM. These SVD nodes in the hidden layer are shown to capture the underlying characteristics of the Big dimensional data well, exhibiting excellent generalization performances. The drawback of using SVD on the entire dataset, however, is the high computational complexity involved. To address this, a fast divide and conquer approximation scheme is introduced to maintain computational tractability on high volume data. The resultant algorithm proposed is labeled here as Fast Singular Value Decomposition-Hidden-nodes based Extreme Learning Machine or FSVD-H-ELM in short. In FSVD-H-ELM, instead of identifying the SVD hidden nodes directly from the entire dataset, SVD hidden nodes are derived from multiple random subsets of data sampled from the original dataset. Comprehensive experiments and comparisons are conducted to assess the FSVD-H-ELM against other state-of-the-art algorithms. The results obtained demonstrated the superior generalization performance and efficiency of the FSVD-H-ELM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Statistical Power and Optimum Sample Allocation Ratio for Treatment and Control Having Unequal Costs Per Unit of Randomization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaofeng

    2003-01-01

    This article considers optimal sample allocation between the treatment and control condition in multilevel designs when the costs per sampling unit vary due to treatment assignment. Optimal unequal allocation may reduce the cost from that of a balanced design without sacrificing any power. The optimum sample allocation ratio depends only on the…

  12. On the entropy of a hidden Markov process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquet, Philippe; Seroussi, Gadiel; Szpankowski, Wojciech

    2008-05-01

    We study the entropy rate of a hidden Markov process (HMP) defined by observing the output of a binary symmetric channel whose input is a first-order binary Markov process. Despite the simplicity of the models involved, the characterization of this entropy is a long standing open problem. By presenting the probability of a sequence under the model as a product of random matrices, one can see that the entropy rate sought is equal to a top Lyapunov exponent of the product. This offers an explanation for the elusiveness of explicit expressions for the HMP entropy rate, as Lyapunov exponents are notoriously difficult to compute. Consequently, we focus on asymptotic estimates, and apply the same product of random matrices to derive an explicit expression for a Taylor approximation of the entropy rate with respect to the parameter of the binary symmetric channel. The accuracy of the approximation is validated against empirical simulation results. We also extend our results to higher-order Markov processes and to Rényi entropies of any order.

  13. Microwave background constraints on mixing of photons with hidden photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirizzi, Alessandro; Redondo, Javier; Sigl, Guenter

    2008-12-01

    Various extensions of the Standard Model predict the existence of hidden photons kinetically mixing with the ordinary photon. This mixing leads to oscillations between photons and hidden photons, analogous to the observed oscillations between different neutrino flavors. In this context, we derive new bounds on the photon-hidden photon mixing parameters using the high precision cosmic microwave background spectral data collected by the Far Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer instrument on board of the Cosmic Background Explorer. Requiring the distortions of the CMB induced by the photon-hidden photon mixing to be smaller than experimental upper limits, this leads to a bound on the mixing angle χ 0 -7 - 10 -5 for hidden photon masses between 10 -14 eV and 10 -7 eV. This low-mass and low-mixing region of the hidden photon parameter space was previously unconstrained. (orig.)

  14. Microwave background constraints on mixing of photons with hidden photons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirizzi, Alessandro [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Redondo, Javier [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Sigl, Guenter [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2008-12-15

    Various extensions of the Standard Model predict the existence of hidden photons kinetically mixing with the ordinary photon. This mixing leads to oscillations between photons and hidden photons, analogous to the observed oscillations between different neutrino flavors. In this context, we derive new bounds on the photon-hidden photon mixing parameters using the high precision cosmic microwave background spectral data collected by the Far Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer instrument on board of the Cosmic Background Explorer. Requiring the distortions of the CMB induced by the photon-hidden photon mixing to be smaller than experimental upper limits, this leads to a bound on the mixing angle {chi}{sub 0} hidden photon masses between 10{sup -14} eV and 10{sup -7} eV. This low-mass and low-mixing region of the hidden photon parameter space was previously unconstrained. (orig.)

  15. VISIBLE COSTS AND HIDDEN COSTS IN THE BAKING INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Criveanu Maria

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Hidden costs are present in the activity of any company, hardly identified in the traditional administrative accounting. The high levels of the hidden costs and their unknown presence have serious consequences on the decisions made by the managers. This paper aims at presenting some aspects related to the hidden costs that occur in the activity of the companies in the baking industry and the possibilities to reduce their level.

  16. Is hand hygiene before putting on nonsterile gloves in the intensive care unit a waste of health care worker time?--a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, Clare; Harris, Anthony D; Reich, Nicholas G; Johnson, J Kristie; Thom, Kerri A

    2013-11-01

    Hand hygiene (HH) is recognized as a basic effective measure in prevention of nosocomial infections. However, the importance of HH before donning nonsterile gloves is unknown, and few published studies address this issue. Despite the lack of evidence, the World Health Organization and other leading bodies recommend this practice. The aim of this study was to assess the utility of HH before donning nonsterile gloves prior to patient contact. A prospective, randomized, controlled trial of health care workers entering Contact Isolation rooms in intensive care units was performed. Baseline finger and palm prints were made from dominant hands onto agar plates. Health care workers were then randomized to directly don nonsterile gloves or perform HH and then don nonsterile gloves. Postgloving finger and palm prints were then made from the gloved hands. Plates were incubated and colony-forming units (CFU) of bacteria were counted. Total bacterial colony counts of gloved hands did not differ between the 2 groups (6.9 vs 8.1 CFU, respectively, P = .52). Staphylococcus aureus was identified from gloves (once in "hand hygiene prior to gloving" group, twice in "direct gloving" group). All other organisms were expected commensal flora. HH before donning nonsterile gloves does not decrease already low bacterial counts on gloves. The utility of HH before donning nonsterile gloves may be unnecessary. Copyright © 2013 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Compressing the hidden variable space of a qubit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montina, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    In previously exhibited hidden variable models of quantum state preparation and measurement, the number of continuous hidden variables describing the actual state of single realizations is never smaller than the quantum state manifold dimension. We introduce a simple model for a qubit whose hidden variable space is one-dimensional, i.e., smaller than the two-dimensional Bloch sphere. The hidden variable probability distributions associated with quantum states satisfy reasonable criteria of regularity. Possible generalizations of this shrinking to an N-dimensional Hilbert space are discussed.

  18. Zipf exponent of trajectory distribution in the hidden Markov model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochkarev, V. V.; Lerner, E. Yu

    2014-03-01

    This paper is the first step of generalization of the previously obtained full classification of the asymptotic behavior of the probability for Markov chain trajectories for the case of hidden Markov models. The main goal is to study the power (Zipf) and nonpower asymptotics of the frequency list of trajectories of hidden Markov frequencys and to obtain explicit formulae for the exponent of the power asymptotics. We consider several simple classes of hidden Markov models. We prove that the asymptotics for a hidden Markov model and for the corresponding Markov chain can be essentially different.

  19. Zipf exponent of trajectory distribution in the hidden Markov model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bochkarev, V V; Lerner, E Yu

    2014-01-01

    This paper is the first step of generalization of the previously obtained full classification of the asymptotic behavior of the probability for Markov chain trajectories for the case of hidden Markov models. The main goal is to study the power (Zipf) and nonpower asymptotics of the frequency list of trajectories of hidden Markov frequencys and to obtain explicit formulae for the exponent of the power asymptotics. We consider several simple classes of hidden Markov models. We prove that the asymptotics for a hidden Markov model and for the corresponding Markov chain can be essentially different

  20. Recovering a hidden polarization by ghost polarimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janassek, Patrick; Blumenstein, Sébastien; Elsäßer, Wolfgang

    2018-02-15

    By exploiting polarization correlations of light from a broadband fiber-based amplified spontaneous emission source we succeed in reconstructing a hidden polarization in a ghost polarimetry experiment in close analogy to ghost imaging and ghost spectroscopy. Thereby, an original linear polarization state in the object arm of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer configuration which has been camouflaged by a subsequent depolarizer is recovered by correlating it with light from a reference beam. The variation of a linear polarizer placed inside the reference beam results in a Malus law type second-order intensity correlation with high contrast, thus measuring a ghost polarigram.

  1. Pruning Boltzmann networks and hidden Markov models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten With; Stork, D.

    1996-01-01

    We present sensitivity-based pruning algorithms for general Boltzmann networks. Central to our methods is the efficient calculation of a second-order approximation to the true weight saliencies in a cross-entropy error. Building upon previous work which shows a formal correspondence between linear...... Boltzmann chains and hidden Markov models (HMMs), we argue that our method can be applied to HMMs as well. We illustrate pruning on Boltzmann zippers, which are equivalent to two HMMs with cross-connection links. We verify that our second-order approximation preserves the rank ordering of weight saliencies...

  2. Hidden Scale Invariance in Condensed Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyre, J. C.

    2014-01-01

    . This means that the phase diagram becomes effectively one-dimensional with regard to several physical properties. Liquids and solids with isomorphs include most or all van der Waals bonded systems and metals, as well as weakly ionic or dipolar systems. On the other hand, systems with directional bonding...... (hydrogen bonds or covalent bonds) or strong Coulomb forces generally do not exhibit hidden scale invariance. The article reviews the theory behind this picture of condensed matter and the evidence for it coming from computer simulations and experiments...

  3. Uncovering the Hidden Costs of Offshoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Marcus M.; Manning, Stephan; Pedersen, Torben

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates estimation errors due to hidden costs—the costs of implementation that are neglected in strategic decision-making processes—in the context of services offshoring. Based on data from the Offshoring Research Network, we find that decision makers are more likely to make cost......-estimation errors given increasing configuration and task complexity in captive offshoring and offshore outsourcing, respectively. Moreover, we show that experience and a strong orientation toward organizational design in the offshoring strategy reduce the cost-estimation errors that follow from complexity. Our...

  4. The hidden face of the petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurent, E.

    2006-02-01

    For the first time, a book reveals what that was hidden to the public opinions: why the petroleum crisis of 1973 what only a manipulation, an arrangement between the OPEC and the petroleum companies, why the data concerning the petroleum reserves are wrong and increased by the producers countries, how Washington used the Saudi petroleum weapon to create the Soviet Union fall, and why from march 2001 maps of the Iraq (where were drawn the future petroleum explorations) were working documents for the vice President Cheney and petroleum managers for the ''secret society''. (A.L.B.)

  5. Evolving the structure of hidden Markov Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    won, K. J.; Prugel-Bennett, A.; Krogh, A.

    2006-01-01

    A genetic algorithm (GA) is proposed for finding the structure of hidden Markov Models (HMMs) used for biological sequence analysis. The GA is designed to preserve biologically meaningful building blocks. The search through the space of HMM structures is combined with optimization of the emission...... and transition probabilities using the classic Baum-Welch algorithm. The system is tested on the problem of finding the promoter and coding region of C. jejuni. The resulting HMM has a superior discrimination ability to a handcrafted model that has been published in the literature....

  6. The hidden costs of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keough, C.

    1981-01-01

    The two basic hidden costs of nuclear power are public money and public health. Nuclear power appears to be economical because many of the costs of producins electricity in these plants are paid by the federal government. So, like it or not, the citizens are footing the bill with their taxes. Design and development of plants have been paid for with public money, and disposal and cleanup costs will also be paid in this manner. The economic and health costs associated with nuclear accidents are staggering

  7. Genetic Algorithms Principles Towards Hidden Markov Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabil M. Hewahi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose a general approach based on Genetic Algorithms (GAs to evolve Hidden Markov Models (HMM. The problem appears when experts assign probability values for HMM, they use only some limited inputs. The assigned probability values might not be accurate to serve in other cases related to the same domain. We introduce an approach based on GAs to find
    out the suitable probability values for the HMM to be mostly correct in more cases than what have been used to assign the probability values.

  8. Detecting Structural Breaks using Hidden Markov Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ntantamis, Christos

    Testing for structural breaks and identifying their location is essential for econometric modeling. In this paper, a Hidden Markov Model (HMM) approach is used in order to perform these tasks. Breaks are defined as the data points where the underlying Markov Chain switches from one state to another....... The estimation of the HMM is conducted using a variant of the Iterative Conditional Expectation-Generalized Mixture (ICE-GEMI) algorithm proposed by Delignon et al. (1997), that permits analysis of the conditional distributions of economic data and allows for different functional forms across regimes...

  9. Unit-specific calibration of Actigraph accelerometers in a mechanical setup - is it worth the effort? The effect on random output variation caused by technical inter-instrument variability in the laboratory and in the field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moeller, Niels C; Korsholm, Lars; Kristensen, Peter L

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Potentially, unit-specific in-vitro calibration of accelerometers could increase field data quality and study power. However, reduced inter-unit variability would only be important if random instrument variability contributes considerably to the total variation in field data. Therefor...

  10. Vitamin D measurement in the intensive care unit: methodology, clinical relevance and interpretation of a random value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Anand; Venkatesh, Bala

    2013-08-01

    Vitamin D deficiency, as measured by a random level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D is very prevalent in critically ill patients admitted to the ICU and is associated with adverse outcomes. Both 25(OH)vitamin D and 1α,25(OH)2D3 are difficult to analyse because of their lipophilic nature, affinity for VDBP and small concentrations. Also, the various tests used to estimate vitamin D levels show significant inter- and intra-assay variability, which significantly affect the veracity of the results obtained and confound their interpretation. The two main types of assays include those that directly estimate vitamin D levels (HPLC, LC-MS/MS) and competitive binding assays (RIA, EIA). The former methods require skilled operators, with prolonged assay times and increased cost, whereas the latter are cheaper and easy to perform, but with decreased accuracy. The direct assays are not affected by lipophilic substances in plasma and heterophile antibodies, but may overestimate vitamin D levels by measuring the 3-epimers. These problems can be eliminated by adequate standardization of the test using SRMs provided by NIST, as well as participating in proficiency schemes like DEQAS. It is therefore important to consider the test employed as well as laboratory quality control, while interpreting vitamin D results. A single random measurement may not be reflective of the vitamin D status in ICU patients because of changes with fluid administration, and intra-day variation in 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels. 1α,25(OH)2D3 may behave differently to 25-hydroxyvitamin D, both in plasma and at tissue level, in inflammatory states. Measurement of tissue 1α,25(OH)2D3 levels may provide the true estimate of vitamin D activity.

  11. Global Update and Trends of Hidden Hunger, 1995-2011: The Hidden Hunger Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Gretchen A.; Ezzati, Majid; Black, Robert E.; Kraemer, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Background Deficiencies in essential vitamins and minerals–also termed hidden hunger–are pervasive and hold negative consequences for the cognitive and physical development of children. Methods This analysis evaluates the change in hidden hunger over time in the form of one composite indicator–the Hidden Hunger Index (HHI)–using an unweighted average of prevalence estimates from the Nutrition Impact Model Study for anemia due to iron deficiency, vitamin A deficiency, and stunting (used as a proxy indicator for zinc deficiency). Net changes from 1995–2011 and population weighted regional means for various time periods are measured. Findings Globally, hidden hunger improved (-6.7 net change in HHI) from 1995–2011. Africa was the only region to see a deterioration in hidden hunger (+1.9) over the studied time period; East Asia and the Pacific performed exceptionally well (-13.0), while other regions improved only slightly. Improvements in HHI were mostly due to reductions in zinc and vitamin A deficiencies, while anemia due to iron deficiency persisted and even increased. Interpretation This analysis is critical for informing and tracking the impact of policy and programmatic efforts to reduce micronutrient deficiencies, to advance the global nutrition agenda, and to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). However, there remains an unmet need to invest in gathering frequent, nationally representative, high-quality micronutrient data as we renew our efforts to scale up nutrition, and as we enter the post-2015 development agenda. Funding Preparation of this manuscript was funded by Sight and Life. There was no funding involved in the study design, data collection, analysis, or decision to publish. PMID:26673631

  12. Global Update and Trends of Hidden Hunger, 1995-2011: The Hidden Hunger Index.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie C Ruel-Bergeron

    Full Text Available Deficiencies in essential vitamins and minerals-also termed hidden hunger-are pervasive and hold negative consequences for the cognitive and physical development of children.This analysis evaluates the change in hidden hunger over time in the form of one composite indicator-the Hidden Hunger Index (HHI-using an unweighted average of prevalence estimates from the Nutrition Impact Model Study for anemia due to iron deficiency, vitamin A deficiency, and stunting (used as a proxy indicator for zinc deficiency. Net changes from 1995-2011 and population weighted regional means for various time periods are measured.Globally, hidden hunger improved (-6.7 net change in HHI from 1995-2011. Africa was the only region to see a deterioration in hidden hunger (+1.9 over the studied time period; East Asia and the Pacific performed exceptionally well (-13.0, while other regions improved only slightly. Improvements in HHI were mostly due to reductions in zinc and vitamin A deficiencies, while anemia due to iron deficiency persisted and even increased.This analysis is critical for informing and tracking the impact of policy and programmatic efforts to reduce micronutrient deficiencies, to advance the global nutrition agenda, and to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs. However, there remains an unmet need to invest in gathering frequent, nationally representative, high-quality micronutrient data as we renew our efforts to scale up nutrition, and as we enter the post-2015 development agenda.Preparation of this manuscript was funded by Sight and Life. There was no funding involved in the study design, data collection, analysis, or decision to publish.

  13. Hidden in plain sight: the formal, informal, and hidden curricula of a psychiatry clerkship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wear, Delese; Skillicorn, Jodie

    2009-04-01

    To examine perceptions of the formal, informal, and hidden curricula in psychiatry as they are observed and experienced by (1) attending physicians who have teaching responsibilities for residents and medical students, (2) residents who are taught by those same physicians and who have teaching responsibilities for medical students, and (3) medical students who are taught by attendings and residents during their psychiatry rotation. From June to November 2007, the authors conducted focus groups with attendings, residents, and students in one midwestern academic setting. The sessions were audiotaped, transcribed, and analyzed for themes surrounding the formal, informal, and hidden curricula. All three groups offered a similar belief that the knowledge, skills, and values of the formal curriculum focused on building relationships. Similarly, all three suggested that elements of the informal and hidden curricula were expressed primarily as the values arising from attendings' role modeling, as the nature and amount of time attendings spend with patients, and as attendings' advice arising from experience and intuition versus "textbook learning." Whereas students and residents offered negative values arising from the informal and hidden curricula, attendings did not, offering instead the more positive values they intended to encourage through the informal and hidden curricula. The process described here has great potential in local settings across all disciplines. Asking teachers and learners in any setting to think about how they experience the educational environment and what sense they make of all curricular efforts can provide a reality check for educators and a values check for learners as they critically reflect on the meanings of what they are learning.

  14. Atlas of solar hidden photon emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redondo, Javier [Departamento de Física Teórica, Universidad de Zaragoza,Pedro Cerbuna 12, E-50009, Zaragoza (Spain); Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, Werner-Heisenberg-Institut,Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany)

    2015-07-20

    Hidden photons, gauge bosons of a U(1) symmetry of a hidden sector, can constitute the dark matter of the universe and a smoking gun for large volume compactifications of string theory. In the sub-eV mass range, a possible discovery experiment consists on searching the copious flux of these particles emitted from the Sun in a helioscope setup à la Sikivie. In this paper, we compute in great detail the flux of HPs from the Sun, a necessary ingredient for interpreting such experiments. We provide a detailed exposition of transverse photon-HP oscillations in inhomogenous media, with special focus on resonance oscillations, which play a leading role in many cases. The region of the Sun emitting HPs resonantly is a thin spherical shell for which we justify an averaged-emission formula and which implies a distinctive morphology of the angular distribution of HPs on Earth in many cases. Low mass HPs with energies in the visible and IR have resonances very close to the photosphere where the solar plasma is not fully ionised and requires building a detailed model of solar refraction and absorption. We present results for a broad range of HP masses (from 0–1 keV) and energies (from the IR to the X-ray range), the most complete atlas of solar HP emission to date.

  15. Atlas of solar hidden photon emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redondo, Javier, E-mail: redondo@mpp.mpg.de [Departamento de Física Teórica, Universidad de Zaragoza, Pedro Cerbuna 12, E-50009, Zaragoza, España (Spain)

    2015-07-01

    Hidden photons, gauge bosons of a U(1) symmetry of a hidden sector, can constitute the dark matter of the universe and a smoking gun for large volume compactifications of string theory. In the sub-eV mass range, a possible discovery experiment consists on searching the copious flux of these particles emitted from the Sun in a helioscope setup à la Sikivie. In this paper, we compute in great detail the flux of HPs from the Sun, a necessary ingredient for interpreting such experiments. We provide a detailed exposition of transverse photon-HP oscillations in inhomogenous media, with special focus on resonance oscillations, which play a leading role in many cases. The region of the Sun emitting HPs resonantly is a thin spherical shell for which we justify an averaged-emission formula and which implies a distinctive morphology of the angular distribution of HPs on Earth in many cases. Low mass HPs with energies in the visible and IR have resonances very close to the photosphere where the solar plasma is not fully ionised and requires building a detailed model of solar refraction and absorption. We present results for a broad range of HP masses (from 0–1 keV) and energies (from the IR to the X-ray range), the most complete atlas of solar HP emission to date.

  16. Hidden Markov Model for Stock Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyet Nguyen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The hidden Markov model (HMM is typically used to predict the hidden regimes of observation data. Therefore, this model finds applications in many different areas, such as speech recognition systems, computational molecular biology and financial market predictions. In this paper, we use HMM for stock selection. We first use HMM to make monthly regime predictions for the four macroeconomic variables: inflation (consumer price index (CPI, industrial production index (INDPRO, stock market index (S&P 500 and market volatility (VIX. At the end of each month, we calibrate HMM’s parameters for each of these economic variables and predict its regimes for the next month. We then look back into historical data to find the time periods for which the four variables had similar regimes with the forecasted regimes. Within those similar periods, we analyze all of the S&P 500 stocks to identify which stock characteristics have been well rewarded during the time periods and assign scores and corresponding weights for each of the stock characteristics. A composite score of each stock is calculated based on the scores and weights of its features. Based on this algorithm, we choose the 50 top ranking stocks to buy. We compare the performances of the portfolio with the benchmark index, S&P 500. With an initial investment of $100 in December 1999, over 15 years, in December 2014, our portfolio had an average gain per annum of 14.9% versus 2.3% for the S&P 500.

  17. Hidden ion population of the magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, R.C.

    1982-01-01

    Particle data from two geosynchronous satellites (Applied Technology Satellite 6 and SCATHA) show a normally hidden ion population appearing when the satellites are in the earth's shadow. Ion and electron data show the spacecraft potential dropping from +10 V in sunlight to +4 and +5 V in eclipse at local midnight, in low-energy (T/sub e/ -2 ), isotropic ion population appears which was invisible in sunlight because of the larger positive spacecraft potential. Higher-energy populations generally cover the tails of the hidden ion populations, so they cannot be inferred from daylight data. The isotropic populations appears only in a few percent of the spacecraft eclipse events, appearing only at times of low Kp (2 or less, preceded by a day with Σ Kp< or =20). A low-energy (T = 1--2 eV) field-aligned population often appears with and without the isotropic population, at slightly higher flux levels. These fluxes are visible in sunlight, but again the distribution functions obtained in eclipse differ from those that would be inferred from daylight data. Measurement of the thermal plasma population on a consistent basis, particularly in the plasma sheet, will require some method of controlling the detector potential with respect to the ambient plamsa

  18. Epitope discovery with phylogenetic hidden Markov models.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lacerda, Miguel

    2010-05-01

    Existing methods for the prediction of immunologically active T-cell epitopes are based on the amino acid sequence or structure of pathogen proteins. Additional information regarding the locations of epitopes may be acquired by considering the evolution of viruses in hosts with different immune backgrounds. In particular, immune-dependent evolutionary patterns at sites within or near T-cell epitopes can be used to enhance epitope identification. We have developed a mutation-selection model of T-cell epitope evolution that allows the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genotype of the host to influence the evolutionary process. This is one of the first examples of the incorporation of environmental parameters into a phylogenetic model and has many other potential applications where the selection pressures exerted on an organism can be related directly to environmental factors. We combine this novel evolutionary model with a hidden Markov model to identify contiguous amino acid positions that appear to evolve under immune pressure in the presence of specific host immune alleles and that therefore represent potential epitopes. This phylogenetic hidden Markov model provides a rigorous probabilistic framework that can be combined with sequence or structural information to improve epitope prediction. As a demonstration, we apply the model to a data set of HIV-1 protein-coding sequences and host HLA genotypes.

  19. Pentaquarks with hidden charm as hadroquarkonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eides, Michael I. [University of Kentucky, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Lexington, KY (United States); Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Petrov, Victor Yu. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Polyakov, Maxim V. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik II, Bochum (Germany)

    2018-01-15

    We consider hidden charm pentaquarks as hadroquarkonium states in a QCD inspired approach. Pentaquarks arise naturally as bound states of quarkonia excitations and ordinary baryons. The LHCb P{sub c}(4450) pentaquark is interpreted as a ψ{sup '}-nucleon bound state with spin-parity J{sup P} = 3/2{sup -}. The partial decay width Γ(P{sub c}(4450) → J/ψ + N) ∼ 11 MeV is calculated and turned out to be in agreement with the experimental data for P{sub c}(4450). The P{sub c}(4450) pentaquark is predicted to be a member of one of the two almost degenerate hidden-charm baryon octets with spin-parities J{sup P} = 1/2{sup -}, 3/2{sup -}. The masses and decay widths of the octet pentaquarks are calculated. The widths are small and comparable with the width of the P{sub c}(4450) pentaquark, and the masses of the octet pentaquarks satisfy the Gell-Mann-Okubo relation. Interpretation of pentaquarks as loosely bound Σ{sub c} anti D* and Σ{sub c}{sup *} anti D* deuteronlike states is also considered. We determine quantum numbers of these bound states and calculate their masses in the one-pion exchange scenario. The hadroquarkonium and molecular approaches to exotic hadrons are compared and the relative advantages and drawbacks of each approach are discussed. (orig.)

  20. Low energy theorems of hidden local symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harada, Masayasu; Kugo, Taichiro; Yamawaki, Koichi.

    1994-01-01

    We prove to all orders of the loop expansion the low energy theorems of hidden local symmetries in four-dimensional nonlinear sigma models based on the coset space G/H, with G and H being arbitrary compact groups. Although the models are non-renormalizable, the proof is done in an analogous manner to the renormalization proof of gauge theories and two-dimensional nonlinear sigma models by restricting ourselves to the operators with two derivatives (counting a hidden gauge boson field as one derivative), i.e., with dimension 2, which are the only operators relevant to the low energy limit. Through loop-wise mathematical induction based on the Ward-Takahashi identity for the BRS symmetry, we solve renormalization equation for the effective action up to dimension-2 terms plus terms with the relevant BRS sources. We then show that all the quantum corrections to the dimension-2 operators, including the finite parts as well as the divergent ones, can be entirely absorbed into a re-definition (renormalization) of the parameters and the fields in the dimension-2 part of the tree-level Lagrangian. (author)

  1. Black holes, hidden symmetries, and complete integrability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frolov, Valeri P; Krtouš, Pavel; Kubizňák, David

    2017-01-01

    The study of higher-dimensional black holes is a subject which has recently attracted vast interest. Perhaps one of the most surprising discoveries is a realization that the properties of higher-dimensional black holes with the spherical horizon topology and described by the Kerr-NUT-(A)dS metrics are very similar to the properties of the well known four-dimensional Kerr metric. This remarkable result stems from the existence of a single object called the principal tensor. In our review we discuss explicit and hidden symmetries of higher-dimensional Kerr-NUT-(A)dS black hole spacetimes. We start with discussion of the Killing and Killing-Yano objects representing explicit and hidden symmetries. We demonstrate that the principal tensor can be used as a "seed object" which generates all these symmetries. It determines the form of the geometry, as well as guarantees its remarkable properties, such as special algebraic type of the spacetime, complete integrability of geodesic motion, and separability of the Hamilton-Jacobi, Klein-Gordon, and Dirac equations. The review also contains a discussion of different applications of the developed formalism and its possible generalizations.

  2. One-session treatment of specific phobias in youth: a randomized clinical trial in the United States and Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollendick, Thomas H; Ost, Lars-Göran; Reuterskiöld, Lena; Costa, Natalie; Cederlund, Rio; Sirbu, Cristian; Davis, Thompson E; Jarrett, Matthew A

    2009-06-01

    One hundred and ninety-six youth, ages 7-16, who fulfilled Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.) criteria for various specific phobias were randomized to a one-session exposure treatment, education support treatment, or a wait list control group. After the waiting period, the wait list participants were offered treatment and, if interested, rerandomized to 1 of the 2 active treatments. The phobias were assessed with semistructured diagnostic interviews, clinician severity ratings, and behavioral avoidance tests, whereas fears, general anxiety, depression, and behavior problems were assessed with self- and parent report measures. Assessments were completed pretreatment, posttreatment, and at 6 months following treatment. Results showed that both treatment conditions were superior to the wait list control condition and that 1-session exposure treatment was superior to education support treatment on clinician ratings of phobic severity, percentage of participants who were diagnosis free, child ratings of anxiety during the behavioral avoidance test, and treatment satisfaction as reported by the youth and their parents. There were no differences on self-report measures. Treatment effects were maintained at follow-up. Implications of these findings are discussed. Copyright 2009 APA

  3. An introduction to hidden Markov models for biological sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Anders Stærmose

    1998-01-01

    A non-matematical tutorial on hidden Markov models (HMMs) plus a description of one of the applications of HMMs: gene finding.......A non-matematical tutorial on hidden Markov models (HMMs) plus a description of one of the applications of HMMs: gene finding....

  4. Asymptotics for Estimating Equations in Hidden Markov Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jørgen Vinsløv; Jensen, Jens Ledet

    Results on asymptotic normality for the maximum likelihood estimate in hidden Markov models are extended in two directions. The stationarity assumption is relaxed, which allows for a covariate process influencing the hidden Markov process. Furthermore a class of estimating equations is considered...

  5. Secret Codes: The Hidden Curriculum of Semantic Web Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Richard; Carmichael, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    There is a long tradition in education of examination of the hidden curriculum, those elements which are implicit or tacit to the formal goals of education. This article draws upon that tradition to open up for investigation the hidden curriculum and assumptions about students and knowledge that are embedded in the coding undertaken to facilitate…

  6. Searching for hidden sector in multiparticle production at LHC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel-Angel Sanchis-Lozano

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We study the impact of a hidden sector beyond the Standard Model, e.g. a Hidden Valley model, on factorial moments and cumulants of multiplicity distributions in multiparticle production with a special emphasis on the prospects for LHC results.

  7. Hidden Agendas in Marriage: Affective and Longitudinal Dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krokoff, Lowell J.

    1990-01-01

    Examines how couples' discussions of troublesome problems reveal hidden agendas (issues not directly discussed or explored). Finds disgust and contempt are at the core of both love and respect agendas for husbands and wives. Finds that wives' more than husbands' hidden agendas are directly predictive of how negatively they argue at home. (SR)

  8. Hidden symmetries in minimal five-dimensional supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poessel, Markus; Silva, Sebastian

    2004-01-01

    We study the hidden symmetries arising in the dimensional reduction of d=5, N=2 supergravity to three dimensions. Extending previous partial results for the bosonic part, we give a derivation that includes fermionic terms, shedding light on the appearance of the local hidden symmetry SO(4) in the reduction

  9. Abelian hidden sectors at a GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrissey, David E.; Poland, David; Zurek, Kathryn M.

    2009-01-01

    We discuss mechanisms for naturally generating GeV-scale hidden sectors in the context of weak-scale supersymmetry. Such low mass scales can arise when hidden sectors are more weakly coupled to supersymmetry breaking than the visible sector, as happens when supersymmetry breaking is communicated to the visible sector by gauge interactions under which the hidden sector is uncharged, or if the hidden sector is sequestered from gravity-mediated supersymmetry breaking. We study these mechanisms in detail in the context of gauge and gaugino mediation, and present specific models of Abelian GeV-scale hidden sectors. In particular, we discuss kinetic mixing of a U(1) x gauge force with hypercharge, singlets or bi-fundamentals which couple to both sectors, and additional loop effects. Finally, we investigate the possible relevance of such sectors for dark matter phenomenology, as well as for low- and high-energy collider searches.

  10. Comparison of Metal-Ceramic and All-Ceramic Three-Unit Posterior Fixed Dental Prostheses: A 3-Year Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolaisen, Maj H; Bahrami, Golnosh; Schropp, Lars; Isidor, Flemming

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this randomized clinical study was to compare the 3-year clinical outcome of metal-ceramic fixed dental prostheses (MC-FDPs) and zirconia all-ceramic fixed dental prostheses (AC-FDPs) replacing a posterior tooth. A sample of 34 patients with a missing posterior tooth were randomly chosen to receive either a MC-FDP (n = 17) or an AC-FDP (n = 17). The FDPs were evaluated at baseline and yearly until 3 years after cementation. They were assessed using the California Dental Association assessment system. Periodontal parameters were measured at the abutment teeth, and the contralateral teeth served as control. The statistical unit was the FDP/patient. The survival rates for MC-FDPs and AC-FDPs were 100%. The success rate was 76% and 71% for MC-FDPs and AC-FDPs, respectively. Three technical complications were observed in the MC-FDP group and five in the AC-FDP group, all chipping fractures of the ceramic veneer. Furthermore, one biologic complication in the MC-FDP group (an apical lesion) was observed. No framework fractures occurred. All patients had optimal oral hygiene and showed no bleeding on periodontal probing at any of the recalls. Only minor changes in the periodontal parameters were observed during the 3 years of observation. Three-unit posterior MC-FDPs and AC-FDPs showed similar high survival rates and acceptable success rates after 3 years of function, and ceramic veneer chipping fracture was the most frequent complication for both types of restorations.

  11. Identifying hidden sexual bridging communities in Chicago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youm, Yoosik; Mackesy-Amiti, Mary Ellen; Williams, Chyvette T; Ouellet, Lawrence J

    2009-07-01

    Bridge populations can play a central role in the spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) by providing transmission links between higher and lower prevalence populations. While social network methods are well suited to the study of bridge populations, analyses tend to focus on dyads (i.e., risk between drug and/or sex partners) and ignore bridges between distinct subpopulations. This study takes initial steps toward moving the analysis of sexual network linkages beyond individual and risk group levels to a community level in which Chicago's 77 community areas are examined as subpopulations for the purpose of identifying potential bridging communities. Of particular interest are "hidden" bridging communities; that is, areas with above-average levels of sexual ties with other areas but whose below-average AIDS prevalence may hide their potential importance for HIV prevention. Data for this analysis came from the first wave of recruiting at the Chicago Sexual Acquisition and Transmission of HIV Cooperative Agreement Program site. Between August 2005 through October 2006, respondent-driven sampling was used to recruit users of heroin, cocaine, or methamphetamine, men who have sex with men regardless of drug use, the sex partners of these two groups, and sex partners of the sex partners. In this cross-sectional study of the sexual transmission of HIV, participants completed a network-focused computer-assisted self-administered interview, which included questions about the geographic locations of sexual contacts with up to six recent partners. Bridging scores for each area were determined using a matrix representing Chicago's 77 community areas and were assessed using two measures: non-redundant ties and flow betweenness. Bridging measures and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) case prevalence rates were plotted for each community area on charts representing four conditions: below-average bridging and AIDS prevalence, below-average bridging and above

  12. Effects of music therapy on drug avoidance self-efficacy in patients on a detoxification unit: a three-group randomized effectiveness study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Self-efficacy is a component of Bandura's social cognitive theory and can lead to abstinence and a reduction of relapse potential for people who have substance abuse disorders. To date, no music therapy researcher has utilized this theoretical model to address abstinence and reduce the likelihood of relapse in people who have addictions. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of music therapy on drug avoidance self-efficacy in a randomized three-group wait-list control design with patients on a detoxification unit. Participants (N = 131) were cluster randomized to one of three single-session conditions: music therapy, verbal therapy, or wait-list control. Music therapy participants received a group lyric analysis intervention, verbal therapy participants received a group talk therapy session, and wait-list control participants eventually received a group recreational music therapy intervention. Although there was no significant between-group difference in drug avoidance self-efficacy, participants in the music therapy condition tended to have the highest mean drug avoidance self-efficacy scores. Posttest written comments supported the use of both music therapy and verbal therapy sessions. Two music therapy participants specifically noted that their initial skepticism had dissipated after receiving music therapy. Despite a lack of significant differences, the theoretical support of self-efficacy for substance abuse rehabilitation suggests that this may be an area of continued clinical focus and empirical investigation. Clinical anecdotes, limitations of the study, and suggestions for future research are provided.

  13. Intermittent pneumatic compression to prevent venous thromboembolism in patients with high risk of bleeding hospitalized in intensive care units: the CIREA1 randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignon, Philippe; Dequin, Pierre-François; Renault, Anne; Mathonnet, Armelle; Paleiron, Nicolas; Imbert, Audrey; Chatellier, Delphine; Gissot, Valérie; Lhéritier, Gwenaelle; Aboyans, Victor; Prat, Gwenael; Garot, Denis; Boulain, Thierry; Diehl, Jean-Luc; Bressollette, Luc; Delluc, Aurélien; Lacut, Karine

    2013-05-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a frequent and serious problem in intensive care units (ICU). Anticoagulant treatments have demonstrated their efficacy in preventing VTE. However, when the bleeding risk is high, they are contraindicated, and mechanical devices are recommended. To date, mechanical prophylaxis has not been rigorously evaluated in any trials in ICU patients. In this multicenter, open-label, randomized trial with blinded evaluation of endpoints, we randomly assigned 407 patients with a high risk of bleeding to receive intermittent pneumatic compression (IPC) associated with graduated compression stockings (GCS) or GCS alone for 6 days during their ICU stay. The primary endpoint was the occurrence of a VTE between days 1 and 6, including nonfatal symptomatic documented VTE, or death due to a pulmonary embolism, or asymptomatic deep vein thrombosis detected by ultrasonography systematically performed on day 6. The primary outcome was assessed in 363 patients (89.2%). By day 6, the incidence of the primary outcome was 5.6% (10 of 179 patients) in the IPC + GCS group and 9.2% (17 of 184 patients) in the GCS group (relative risk 0.60; 95% confidence interval 0.28-1.28; p = 0.19). Tolerance of IPC was poor in only 12 patients (6.0%). No intergroup difference in mortality rate was observed. With the limitation of a low statistical power, our results do not support the superiority of the combination of IPC + GCS compared to GCS alone to prevent VTE in ICU patients at high risk of bleeding.

  14. Effects of Live and Educational Music Therapy on Working Alliance and Trust With Patients on Detoxification Unit: A Four-Group Cluster-Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Michael J

    2016-11-09

    Lyric analysis is a commonly utilized music therapy intervention for clients in substance abuse rehabilitation wherein participants interpret song lyrics related to their clinical objectives. For these patients, working alliance and trust in the therapist represent consequential factors that may influence outcomes. However, there is a lack of randomized controlled music therapy studies investigating working alliance and trust in the therapist within lyric analysis interventions for patients with addictions. The purpose of this study was to quantitatively differentiate live versus recorded and educational versus recreational music therapy interventions via measures of working alliance and trust with patients on a detoxification unit. Participants (N = 130) were cluster randomized in a single-session posttest-only design to one of four conditions: Live educational music therapy, recorded educational music therapy, education without music, or recreational music therapy. Dependent measures included working alliance and trust in the therapist. Educational music therapy interventions were scripted lyric analyses. There was no statistically significant between-group difference in any of the measures. Although not significant, a greater number of patients and research participants attended live educational music therapy sessions. Between-group descriptive data were consistently similar but attendance trends may have implications for engaging patients and billing. Implications for clinical practice, limitations of the study, and suggestions for future research are provided.

  15. An innovative telemedicine knowledge translation program to improve quality of care in intensive care units: protocol for a cluster randomized pragmatic trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinto Ruxandra

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are challenges to timely adoption of, and ongoing adherence to, evidence-based practices known to improve patient care in the intensive care unit (ICU. Quality improvement initiatives using a collaborative network approach may increase the use of such practices. Our objective is to evaluate the effectiveness of a novel knowledge translation program for increasing the proportion of patients who appropriately receive the following six evidence-based care practices: venous thromboembolism prophylaxis; ventilator-associated pneumonia prevention; spontaneous breathing trials; catheter-related bloodstream infection prevention; decubitus ulcer prevention; and early enteral nutrition. Methods and design We will conduct a pragmatic cluster randomized active control trial in 15 community ICUs and one academic ICU in Ontario, Canada. The intervention is a multifaceted videoconferenced educational and problem-solving forum to organize knowledge translation strategies, including comparative audit and feedback, educational sessions from content experts, and dissemination of algorithms. Fifteen individual ICUs (clusters will be randomized to receive quality improvement interventions targeting one of the best practices during each of six study phases. Each phase lasts four months during the first study year and three months during the second. At the end of each study phase, ICUs are assigned to an intervention for a best practice not yet received according to a random schedule. The primary analysis will use patient-level process-of-care data to measure the intervention's effect on rates of adoption and adherence of each best practice in the targeted ICU clusters versus controls. Discussion This study design evaluates a new system for knowledge translation and quality improvement across six common ICU problems. All participating ICUs receive quality improvement initiatives during every study phase, improving buy-in. This study design

  16. Hidden Connectivity in Networks with Vulnerable Classes of Nodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian M. Krause

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In many complex systems representable as networks, nodes can be separated into different classes. Often these classes can be linked to a mutually shared vulnerability. Shared vulnerabilities may be due to a shared eavesdropper or correlated failures. In this paper, we show the impact of shared vulnerabilities on robust connectivity and how the heterogeneity of node classes can be exploited to maintain functionality by utilizing multiple paths. Percolation is the field of statistical physics that is generally used to analyze connectivity in complex networks, but in its existing forms, it cannot treat the heterogeneity of multiple vulnerable classes. To analyze the connectivity under these constraints, we describe each class as a color and develop a “color-avoiding” percolation. We present an analytic theory for random networks and a numerical algorithm for all networks, with which we can determine which nodes are color-avoiding connected and whether the maximal set percolates in the system. We find that the interaction of topology and color distribution implies a rich critical behavior, with critical values and critical exponents depending both on the topology and on the color distribution. Applying our physics-based theory to the Internet, we show how color-avoiding percolation can be used as the basis for new topologically aware secure communication protocols. Beyond applications to cybersecurity, our framework reveals a new layer of hidden structure in a wide range of natural and technological systems.

  17. Human Taeniasis in the Republic of Korea: Hidden or Gone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    History and current status of human taeniasis in the Republic of Korea, due to Taenia solium, Taenia asiatica, and Taenia saginata, are briefly reviewed. Until the 1980s, human taeniasis had been quite common in various localities of Korea. A study from 1924 reported 12.0% egg prevalence in fecal examinations. Thereafter, the prevalence of Taenia spp. ranged from 3% to 14% depending on the time and locality. Jeju-do, where pigs were reared in a conventional way, was the highest endemic area of taeniasis. An analysis of internal transcribed spacer 2 and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase 1 genes of 68 taeniasis cases reported from 1935 to 2005 in Korea by a research group revealed the relative occurrence of the 3 Taenia spp. as follows: T. solium (4.4%), T. asiatica (75.0%), and T. saginata (20.6%). However, national surveys on intestinal helminths conducted every 5 years on randomly selected people revealed that the Taenia egg prevalence dropped from 1.9% in 1971 to 0.02% in 1997 and finally to 0.0% in 2004. With the exception of 3 egg-positive cases reported in 2008 and 2 worm-proven cases in 2011, no more cases have been officially recorded. Based on these surveys and also on other literature, it can be concluded that taeniasis has virtually disappeared from Korea, although a few sporadic cases may remain hidden. Human cysticercosis is also expected to disappear within a couple of decades in Korea. PMID:23467688

  18. Chloroatranol, an extremely potent allergen hidden in perfumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Svedman, Cecilia

    2003-01-01

    Oak moss absolute is a long-known, popular natural extract widely used in perfumes. It is reported as the cause of allergic reactions in a significant number of those with perfume allergy. Oak moss absolute has been the target of recent research to identify its allergenic components. Recently...... an open test simulating the use of perfumes on the volar aspect of the forearms in a randomized and double-blinded design. A solution with 5 p.p.m. chloroatranol was used for 14 days, and, in case of no reaction, the applications were continued for another 14 days with a solution containing 25 p.p.m. All....... The dose eliciting a reaction in 50% of the test subjects at patch testing was 0.2 p.p.m. In conclusion, the hidden exposure to a potent allergen widely used in perfumes has caused a highly sensitized cohort of individuals. Judged from the elicitation profile, chloroatranol is the most potent allergen...

  19. Human taeniasis in the Republic of Korea: hidden or gone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Jong-Yil

    2013-02-01

    History and current status of human taeniasis in the Republic of Korea, due to Taenia solium, Taenia asiatica, and Taenia saginata, are briefly reviewed. Until the 1980s, human taeniasis had been quite common in various localities of Korea. A study from 1924 reported 12.0% egg prevalence in fecal examinations. Thereafter, the prevalence of Taenia spp. ranged from 3% to 14% depending on the time and locality. Jeju-do, where pigs were reared in a conventional way, was the highest endemic area of taeniasis. An analysis of internal transcribed spacer 2 and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase 1 genes of 68 taeniasis cases reported from 1935 to 2005 in Korea by a research group revealed the relative occurrence of the 3 Taenia spp. as follows: T. solium (4.4%), T. asiatica (75.0%), and T. saginata (20.6%). However, national surveys on intestinal helminths conducted every 5 years on randomly selected people revealed that the Taenia egg prevalence dropped from 1.9% in 1971 to 0.02% in 1997 and finally to 0.0% in 2004. With the exception of 3 egg-positive cases reported in 2008 and 2 worm-proven cases in 2011, no more cases have been officially recorded. Based on these surveys and also on other literature, it can be concluded that taeniasis has virtually disappeared from Korea, although a few sporadic cases may remain hidden. Human cysticercosis is also expected to disappear within a couple of decades in Korea.

  20. Detection of bursts in extracellular spike trains using hidden semi-Markov point process models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokdar, Surya; Xi, Peiyi; Kelly, Ryan C; Kass, Robert E

    2010-08-01

    Neurons in vitro and in vivo have epochs of bursting or "up state" activity during which firing rates are dramatically elevated. Various methods of detecting bursts in extracellular spike trains have appeared in the literature, the most widely used apparently being Poisson Surprise (PS). A natural description of the phenomenon assumes (1) there are two hidden states, which we label "burst" and "non-burst," (2) the neuron evolves stochastically, switching at random between these two states, and (3) within each state the spike train follows a time-homogeneous point process. If in (2) the transitions from non-burst to burst and burst to non-burst states are memoryless, this becomes a hidden Markov model (HMM). For HMMs, the state transitions follow exponential distributions, and are highly irregular. Because observed bursting may in some cases be fairly regular-exhibiting inter-burst intervals with small variation-we relaxed this assumption. When more general probability distributions are used to describe the state transitions the two-state point process model becomes a hidden semi-Markov model (HSMM). We developed an efficient Bayesian computational scheme to fit HSMMs to spike train data. Numerical simulations indicate the method can perform well, sometimes yielding very different results than those based on PS.

  1. … To be hidden does not mean to be merely revealed – Part 1 Artistic research on hidden curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette Krause

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This text revisits the long-term project Hidden Curriculum, initiated by Annette Krauss. The project addresses unquestioned routines, hierarchies of knowledge (part 1, and the role of the body in learning processes (part 2 from the perspective of secondary/high school education (in the research on a hidden curriculum. A deeper analysis of educational studies on the phenomenon of ‘hidden curriculum’ in relation to the feminist and critical pedagogies of bell hooks, Paulo Freire, and Jacques Rancière brings forward important insights generated through the artistic research within hidden curriculum. The aim of this text is to address academic canons, corporeality, and investigate everyday norms through revisiting the framework, results, and processes of the collaborative research into hidden curriculum with secondary high school students.

  2. Dynamic portfolio optimization across hidden market regimes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nystrup, Peter; Madsen, Henrik; Lindström, Erik

    2017-01-01

    Regime-based asset allocation has been shown to add value over rebalancing to static weights and, in particular, reduce potential drawdowns by reacting to changes in market conditions. The predominant approach in previous studies has been to specify in advance a static decision rule for changing...... the allocation based on the state of financial markets or the economy. In this article, model predictive control (MPC) is used to dynamically optimize a portfolio based on forecasts of the mean and variance of financial returns from a hidden Markov model with time-varying parameters. There are computational...... than a buy-and-hold investment in various major stock market indices. This is after accounting for transaction costs, with a one-day delay in the implementation of allocation changes, and with zero-interest cash as the only alternative to the stock indices. Imposing a trading penalty that reduces...

  3. Supersymmetric leptogenesis with a light hidden sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Simone, Andrea

    2010-04-01

    Supersymmetric scenarios incorporating thermal leptogenesis as the origin of the observed matter-antimatter asymmetry generically predict abundances of the primordial elements which are in conflict with observations. In this paper we pro- pose a simple way to circumvent this tension and accommodate naturally ther- mal leptogenesis and primordial nucleosynthesis. We postulate the existence of a light hidden sector, coupled very weakly to the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model, which opens up new decay channels for the next-to-lightest supersymmetric particle, thus diluting its abundance during nucleosynthesis. We present a general model-independent analysis of this mechanism as well as two concrete realizations, and describe the relevant cosmological and astrophysical bounds and implications for this dark matter scenario. Possible experimental signatures at colliders and in cosmic-ray observations are also discussed. (orig.)

  4. Nuclear scissors modes and hidden angular momenta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balbutsev, E. B., E-mail: balbuts@theor.jinr.ru; Molodtsova, I. V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation); Schuck, P. [Université Paris-Sud, Institut de Physique Nucléaire, IN2P3–CNRS (France)

    2017-01-15

    The coupled dynamics of low-lying modes and various giant resonances are studied with the help of the Wigner Function Moments method generalized to take into account spin degrees of freedom and pair correlations simultaneously. The method is based on Time-Dependent Hartree–Fock–Bogoliubov equations. The model of the harmonic oscillator including spin–orbit potential plus quadrupole–quadrupole and spin–spin interactions is considered. New low-lying spin-dependent modes are analyzed. Special attention is paid to the scissors modes. A new source of nuclear magnetism, connected with counter-rotation of spins up and down around the symmetry axis (hidden angular momenta), is discovered. Its inclusion into the theory allows one to improve substantially the agreement with experimental data in the description of energies and transition probabilities of scissors modes.

  5. Improved hidden Markov model for nosocomial infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khader, Karim; Leecaster, Molly; Greene, Tom; Samore, Matthew; Thomas, Alun

    2014-12-01

    We propose a novel hidden Markov model (HMM) for parameter estimation in hospital transmission models, and show that commonly made simplifying assumptions can lead to severe model misspecification and poor parameter estimates. A standard HMM that embodies two commonly made simplifying assumptions, namely a fixed patient count and binomially distributed detections is compared with a new alternative HMM that does not require these simplifying assumptions. Using simulated data, we demonstrate how each of the simplifying assumptions used by the standard model leads to model misspecification, whereas the alternative model results in accurate parameter estimates. © The Authors 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute of Mathematics and its Applications. All rights reserved.

  6. The elliptic genus and Hidden symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaffe, A.

    2001-01-01

    We study the elliptic genus (a partition function) in certain interacting, twist quantum field theories. Without twists, these theories have N=2 supersymmetry. The twists provide a regularization, and also partially break the supersymmetry. In spite of the regularization, one can establish a homotopy of the elliptic genus in a coupling parameter. Our construction relies on a priori estimates and other methods from constructive quantum field theory; this mathematical underpinning allows us to justify evaluating the elliptic genus at one endpoint of the homotopy. We obtain a version of Witten's proposed formula for the elliptic genus in terms of classical theta functions. As a consequence, the elliptic genus has a hidden SL(2,Z) symmetry characteristic of conformal theory, even though the underlying theory is not conformal. (orig.)

  7. Hidden conformal symmetry of extremal black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Bin; Long Jiang; Zhang Jiaju

    2010-01-01

    We study the hidden conformal symmetry of extremal black holes. We introduce a new set of conformal coordinates to write the SL(2,R) generators. We find that the Laplacian of the scalar field in many extremal black holes, including Kerr(-Newman), Reissner-Nordstrom, warped AdS 3 , and null warped black holes, could be written in terms of the SL(2,R) quadratic Casimir. This suggests that there exist dual conformal field theory (CFT) descriptions of these black holes. From the conformal coordinates, the temperatures of the dual CFTs could be read directly. For the extremal black hole, the Hawking temperature is vanishing. Correspondingly, only the left (right) temperature of the dual CFT is nonvanishing, and the excitations of the other sector are suppressed. In the probe limit, we compute the scattering amplitudes of the scalar off the extremal black holes and find perfect agreement with the CFT prediction.

  8. Family nurture intervention improves the quality of maternal caregiving in the neonatal intensive care unit: evidence from a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hane, Amie A; Myers, Michael M; Hofer, Myron A; Ludwig, Robert J; Halperin, Meeka S; Austin, Judy; Glickstein, Sara B; Welch, Martha G

    2015-04-01

    This study assessed the impact of Family Nurture Intervention (FNI) on the quality of maternal caregiving behavior (MCB) while in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). FNI is a randomized controlled trial conducted in a high-acuity NICU to facilitate an emotional connection between mothers and their premature infants. FNI begins shortly after birth, continues until discharge, and involves mother/infant calming sessions that include scent cloth exchange, vocal soothing and emotion expression, eye contact, skin-to-skin and clothed holding, and family-based support sessions. Maternal caregiving behavior was coded during a single holding and feeding session (∼30 min) in the NICU before discharge at approximately 36 weeks gestational age (GA). Sixty-five mothers and their premature infants (34 male, 31 female; 26-34 wk GA) were included in these analyses (FNI, n = 35; standard care [SC], n = 30). Relative to mothers in the SC condition, those in the FNI group showed significantly higher quality MCB, which remained significant when controlling for birth order, twin status, maternal depression, and maternal anxiety. This is the first study to demonstrate that in-unit MCB can be enhanced by a hospital-based intervention. FNI provides a new rationale for integrating nurture-based interventions into standard NICU care.

  9. Use of simulation-based education to improve resident learning and patient care in the medical intensive care unit: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroedl, Clara J; Corbridge, Thomas C; Cohen, Elaine R; Fakhran, Sherene S; Schimmel, Daniel; McGaghie, William C; Wayne, Diane B

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of simulation-based education on the knowledge and skills of internal medicine residents in the medical intensive care unit (MICU). From January 2009 to January 2010, 60 first-year residents at a tertiary care teaching hospital were randomized by month of rotation to an intervention group (simulator-trained, n = 26) and a control group (traditionally trained, n = 34). Simulator-trained residents completed 4 hours of simulation-based education before their medical intensive care unit (MICU) rotation. Topics included circulatory shock, respiratory failure, and mechanical ventilation. After their rotation, residents completed a standardized bedside skills assessment using a 14-item checklist regarding respiratory mechanics, ventilator settings, and circulatory parameters. Performance of simulator-trained and traditionally trained residents was compared using a 2-tailed independent-samples t test. Simulator-trained residents scored significantly higher on the bedside skills assessment compared with traditionally trained residents (82.5% ± 10.6% vs 74.8% ± 14.1%, P = .027). Simulator-trained residents were highly satisfied with the simulation curriculum. Simulation-based education significantly improved resident knowledge and skill in the MICU. Knowledge acquired in the simulated environment was transferred to improved bedside skills caring for MICU patients. Simulation-based education is a valuable adjunct to standard clinical training for residents in the MICU. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Social exclusion, health and hidden homelessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, J; Crawley, J; Kane, D

    2016-10-01

    Homelessness and poverty are extreme forms of social exclusion which extend beyond the lack of physical or material needs. The purpose of this study was to explore and expand the concept of social exclusion within the social determinants of health perspective - to understand how the social environment, health behaviours and health status are associated with material and social deprivation. Fundamental qualitative description with tones of focused ethnography. Participants who identified as hidden homeless described their everyday living conditions and how these everyday conditions were impacted and influenced by their social environments, coping/health behaviours and current health status. Research Ethics Board approval was granted and informed consents were obtained from 21 participants prior to the completion of individual interviews. Qualitative content analysis examined the descriptions of men and women experiencing hidden homelessness. Participants described the 'lack of quality social interactions and supports' and their 'daily struggles of street life'. They also shared the 'pain of addiction' and how coping strategies influenced health. Participants were hopeful that their insights would 'better the health of homeless people' by helping shape public policy and funding of community resources that would reduce barriers and improve overall health. Health professionals who understand health behaviours as coping mechanisms for poor quality social environments can provide more comprehensive and holistic care. The findings of this study can be used to support the importance of housing as a key factor in the health and well-being of people experiencing poverty, homelessness and social exclusion; and consequently, reinforces the need for a national housing strategy. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Skyrmions with holography and hidden local symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nawa, Kanabu; Hosaka, Atsushi; Suganuma, Hideo

    2009-01-01

    We study baryons as Skyrmions in holographic QCD with D4/D8/D8 multi-D brane system in type IIA superstring theory, and also in the nonlinear sigma model with hidden local symmetry. Comparing these two models, we find that the extra dimension and its nontrivial curvature can largely change the role of (axial) vector mesons for baryons in four-dimensional space-time. In the hidden local symmetry approach, the ρ-meson field as a massive Yang-Mills field has a singular configuration in Skyrmion, which gives a strong repulsion for the baryon as a stabilizer. When the a 1 meson is added in this approach, the stability of Skyrmion is lost by the cancellation of ρ and a 1 contributions. On the contrary, in holographic QCD, the ρ-meson field does not appear as a massive Yang-Mills field due to the extra dimension and its nontrivial curvature. We show that the ρ-meson field has a regular configuration in Skyrmion, which gives a weak attraction for the baryon in holographic QCD. We argue that Skyrmion with π, ρ, and a 1 mesons become stable due to the curved extra dimension and also the presence of the Skyrme term in holographic QCD. From this result, we also discuss the features of our truncated-resonance analysis on baryon properties with π and ρ mesons below the cutoff scale M KK ∼1 GeV in holographic QCD, which is compared with other 5D instanton analysis.

  12. Adaptive filtering for hidden node detection and tracking in networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Franz; Setzer, Beverly; Chavez, Sergio; Tran, Hien; Lloyd, Alun L

    2017-07-01

    The identification of network connectivity from noisy time series is of great interest in the study of network dynamics. This connectivity estimation problem becomes more complicated when we consider the possibility of hidden nodes within the network. These hidden nodes act as unknown drivers on our network and their presence can lead to the identification of false connections, resulting in incorrect network inference. Detecting the parts of the network they are acting on is thus critical. Here, we propose a novel method for hidden node detection based on an adaptive filtering framework with specific application to neuronal networks. We consider the hidden node as a problem of missing variables when model fitting and show that the estimated system noise covariance provided by the adaptive filter can be used to localize the influence of the hidden nodes and distinguish the effects of different hidden nodes. Additionally, we show that the sequential nature of our algorithm allows for tracking changes in the hidden node influence over time.

  13. Hidden gauge structure of supersymmetric free differential algebras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrianopoli, Laura [DISAT, Politecnico di Torino,Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, I-10129 Turin (Italy); INFN - Sezione di Torino,Torino (Italy); D’Auria, Riccardo [DISAT, Politecnico di Torino,Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, I-10129 Turin (Italy); Ravera, Lucrezia [DISAT, Politecnico di Torino,Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, I-10129 Turin (Italy); INFN - Sezione di Torino,Torino (Italy)

    2016-08-16

    The aim of this paper is to clarify the role of the nilpotent fermionic generator Q{sup ′} introduced in http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0550-3213(82)90376-5 and appearing in the hidden supergroup underlying the free differential algebra (FDA) of D=11 supergravity. We give a physical explanation of its role by looking at the gauge properties of the theory. We find that its presence is necessary, in order that the extra 1-forms of the hidden supergroup give rise to the correct gauge transformations of the p-forms of the FDA. This interpretation is actually valid for any supergravity containing antisymmetric tensor fields, and any supersymmetric FDA can always be traded for a hidden Lie superalgebra containing extra fermionic nilpotent generators. As an interesting example we construct the hidden superalgebra associated with the FDA of N=2, D=7 supergravity. In this case we are able to parametrize the mutually non local 2- and 3-form B{sup (2)} and B{sup (3)} in terms of hidden 1-forms and find that supersymmetry and gauge invariance require in general the presence of two nilpotent fermionic generators in the hidden algebra. We propose that our approach, where all the invariances of the FDA are expressed as Lie derivatives of the p-forms in the hidden supergroup manifold, could be an appropriate framework to discuss theories defined in enlarged versions of superspace recently considered in the literature, such us double field theory and its generalizations.

  14. Optical character recognition of handwritten Arabic using hidden Markov models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulama, Mohannad M.; Natsheh, Asem M.; Abandah, Gheith A.; Olama, Mohammed M.

    2011-04-01

    The problem of optical character recognition (OCR) of handwritten Arabic has not received a satisfactory solution yet. In this paper, an Arabic OCR algorithm is developed based on Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) combined with the Viterbi algorithm, which results in an improved and more robust recognition of characters at the sub-word level. Integrating the HMMs represents another step of the overall OCR trends being currently researched in the literature. The proposed approach exploits the structure of characters in the Arabic language in addition to their extracted features to achieve improved recognition rates. Useful statistical information of the Arabic language is initially extracted and then used to estimate the probabilistic parameters of the mathematical HMM. A new custom implementation of the HMM is developed in this study, where the transition matrix is built based on the collected large corpus, and the emission matrix is built based on the results obtained via the extracted character features. The recognition process is triggered using the Viterbi algorithm which employs the most probable sequence of sub-words. The model was implemented to recognize the sub-word unit of Arabic text raising the recognition rate from being linked to the worst recognition rate for any character to the overall structure of the Arabic language. Numerical results show that there is a potentially large recognition improvement by using the proposed algorithms.

  15. A Framework for Bioacoustic Vocalization Analysis Using Hidden Markov Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebenezer Out-Nyarko

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Using Hidden Markov Models (HMMs as a recognition framework for automatic classification of animal vocalizations has a number of benefits, including the ability to handle duration variability through nonlinear time alignment, the ability to incorporate complex language or recognition constraints, and easy extendibility to continuous recognition and detection domains. In this work, we apply HMMs to several different species and bioacoustic tasks using generalized spectral features that can be easily adjusted across species and HMM network topologies suited to each task. This experimental work includes a simple call type classification task using one HMM per vocalization for repertoire analysis of Asian elephants, a language-constrained song recognition task using syllable models as base units for ortolan bunting vocalizations, and a stress stimulus differentiation task in poultry vocalizations using a non-sequential model via a one-state HMM with Gaussian mixtures. Results show strong performance across all tasks and illustrate the flexibility of the HMM framework for a variety of species, vocalization types, and analysis tasks.

  16. Sociocultural Dimension of Hidden Content in a Professional Language Curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina E. Shishlova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: studying curriculum as a pedagogical problem has traditionally been reduced to the analysis of its explicit content, set in official educational documents. However, a much less studied hidden content plays a significant role in education. So, what is the role of the hidden curriculum during professional language training? The purpose of the article is to determine the potential impact of hidden curriculum on students’ conceptual worldview. Comparing the worldview presented in textbooks with students’ one has allowed us to estimate the rate of influence of hidden curr iculum. Materials and Methods: the methodological basis of the work is the cultural concept of personalityoriented education. The methodology for studying the role of hidden curriculum includes four stages: at the first stage, the authors set the criteria for selecting textbooks for analysis and do the selection; at the second stage, the authors select sociocultural concepts for analysis; at the third stage, the scheme of analysis is designed and the analysis of textbooks is done; at the fourth stage, the authors identify the potential influence of hidden curriculum on students’ conceptual worldview. Results: the structure of hidden curriculum has been determined and the scheme for analysing its subject component has been developed. The authors have identified a significant influence of hidden curriculum on students’ worldview, which represents the scientific novelty of the article. Discussion and Conclusions: the article gives the definition of a hidden curriculum which is new for Russian pedagogy and presents a methodology for its analysis in EFL textbooks. That analysis is recommended to be conducted when selecting teaching materials both i n languages and other humanities.

  17. Temporal framing and the hidden-zero effect: rate-dependent outcomes on delay discounting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naudé, Gideon P; Kaplan, Brent A; Reed, Derek D; Henley, Amy J; DiGennaro Reed, Florence D

    2018-05-01

    Recent research suggests that presenting time intervals as units (e.g., days) or as specific dates, can modulate the degree to which humans discount delayed outcomes. Another framing effect involves explicitly stating that choosing a smaller-sooner reward is mutually exclusive to receiving a larger-later reward, thus presenting choices as an extended sequence. In Experiment 1, participants (N = 201) recruited from Amazon Mechanical Turk completed the Monetary Choice Questionnaire in a 2 (delay framing) by 2 (zero framing) design. Regression suggested a main effect of delay, but not zero, framing after accounting for other demographic variables and manipulations. We observed a rate-dependent effect for the date-framing group, such that those with initially steep discounting exhibited greater sensitivity to the manipulation than those with initially shallow discounting. Subsequent analyses suggest these effects cannot be explained by regression to the mean. Experiment 2 addressed the possibility that the null effect of zero framing was due to within-subject exposure to the hidden- and explicit-zero conditions. A new Amazon Mechanical Turk sample completed the Monetary Choice Questionnaire in either hidden- or explicit-zero formats. Analyses revealed a main effect of reward magnitude, but not zero framing, suggesting potential limitations to the generality of the hidden-zero effect. © 2018 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  18. Hidden Markov models and other machine learning approaches in computational molecular biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldi, P. [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    This tutorial was one of eight tutorials selected to be presented at the Third International Conference on Intelligent Systems for Molecular Biology which was held in the United Kingdom from July 16 to 19, 1995. Computational tools are increasingly needed to process the massive amounts of data, to organize and classify sequences, to detect weak similarities, to separate coding from non-coding regions, and reconstruct the underlying evolutionary history. The fundamental problem in machine learning is the same as in scientific reasoning in general, as well as statistical modeling: to come up with a good model for the data. In this tutorial four classes of models are reviewed. They are: Hidden Markov models; artificial Neural Networks; Belief Networks; and Stochastic Grammars. When dealing with DNA and protein primary sequences, Hidden Markov models are one of the most flexible and powerful alignments and data base searches. In this tutorial, attention is focused on the theory of Hidden Markov Models, and how to apply them to problems in molecular biology.

  19. Update on hidden sectors with dark forces and dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreas, Sarah

    2012-11-15

    Recently there has been much interest in hidden sectors, especially in the context of dark matter and ''dark forces'', since they are a common feature of beyond standard model scenarios like string theory and SUSY and additionally exhibit interesting phenomenological aspects. Various laboratory experiments place limits on the so-called hidden photon and continuously further probe and constrain the parameter space; an updated overview is presented here. Furthermore, for several hidden sector models with light dark matter we study the viability with respect to the relic abundance and direct detection experiments.

  20. Hidden photon dark matter search with large metallic mirror

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doebrich, Babette; Lindner, Axel; Daumiller, Kai; Engel, Ralph; Roth, Markus; Kowalski, Marek

    2014-10-01

    If Dark Matter is composed of hidden-sector photons that kinetically mix with photons of the visible sector, then Dark Matter has a tiny oscillating electric field component. Its presence would lead to a small amount of visible radiation being emitted from a conducting surface, with the photon frequency given approximately by the mass of the hidden photon. Here, we report on experimental efforts that have started recently to search for such hidden photon Dark Matter in the (sub-)eV regime with a prototype mirror for the Auger fluorescence detector at the Karlsruhe Institute for Technology.

  1. Naturally light hidden photons in LARGE volume string compactifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodsell, M.; Jaeckel, J.; Redondo, J.; Ringwald, A.

    2009-09-01

    Extra ''hidden'' U(1) gauge factors are a generic feature of string theory that is of particular phenomenological interest. They can kinetically mix with the Standard Model photon and are thereby accessible to a wide variety of astrophysical and cosmological observations and laboratory experiments. In this paper we investigate the masses and the kinetic mixing of hidden U(1)s in LARGE volume compactifications of string theory. We find that in these scenarios the hidden photons can be naturally light and that their kinetic mixing with the ordinary electromagnetic photon can be of a size interesting for near future experiments and observations. (orig.)

  2. Hidden Area and Mechanical Nonlinearities in Freestanding Graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholl, Ryan J. T.; Lavrik, Nickolay V.; Vlassiouk, Ivan; Srijanto, Bernadeta R.; Bolotin, Kirill I.

    2017-06-01

    We investigated the effect of out-of-plane crumpling on the mechanical response of graphene membranes. In our experiments, stress was applied to graphene membranes using pressurized gas while the strain state was monitored through two complementary techniques: interferometric profilometry and Raman spectroscopy. By comparing the data obtained through these two techniques, we determined the geometric hidden area which quantifies the crumpling strength. While the devices with hidden area ˜0 % obeyed linear mechanics with biaxial stiffness 428 ±10 N /m , specimens with hidden area in the range 0.5%-1.0% were found to obey an anomalous nonlinear Hooke's law with an exponent ˜0.1 .

  3. Context Tree Estimation in Variable Length Hidden Markov Models

    OpenAIRE

    Dumont, Thierry

    2011-01-01

    We address the issue of context tree estimation in variable length hidden Markov models. We propose an estimator of the context tree of the hidden Markov process which needs no prior upper bound on the depth of the context tree. We prove that the estimator is strongly consistent. This uses information-theoretic mixture inequalities in the spirit of Finesso and Lorenzo(Consistent estimation of the order for Markov and hidden Markov chains(1990)) and E.Gassiat and S.Boucheron (Optimal error exp...

  4. Local models and hidden nonlocality in Quantum Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Guerini, Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    This Master's thesis has two central subjects: the simulation of correlations generated by local measurements on entangled quantum states by local hidden-variables models and the revelation of hidden nonlocality. We present and detail the Werner's local model and the hidden nonlocality of some Werner states of dimension $d\\geq5$, the Gisin-Degorre's local model for a Werner state of dimension $d=2$ and the local model of Hirsch et al. for mixtures of the singlet state and noise, all of them f...

  5. Suppressing the QCD axion abundance by hidden monopoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawasaki, Masahiro

    2015-11-01

    We study the Witten effect of hidden monopoles on the QCD axion dynamics, and show that its abundance as well as isocurvature perturbations can be significantly suppressed if there is a sufficient amount of hidden monopoles. When the hidden monopoles make up a significant fraction of dark matter, the Witten effect suppresses the abundance of axion with the decay constant smaller than 10 12 GeV. The cosmological domain wall problem of the QCD axion can also be avoided, relaxing the upper bound on the decay constant when the Peccei-Quinn symmetry is spontaneously broken after inflation.

  6. The perception of the hidden curriculum on medical education: an exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murakami Manabu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Major curriculum reform of undergraduate medical education occurred during the past decades in the United Kingdom (UK; however, the effects of the hidden curriculum, which influence the choice of primary care as a career, have not been sufficiently recognized. While Japan, where traditionally few institutions systematically foster primary care physicians and very few have truly embraced family medicine as their guiding discipline, has also experienced meaningful curriculum reform, the effect of the hidden curriculum is not well known. The aim of this study is to identify themes pertaining to the students' perceptions of the hidden curriculum affecting undergraduate medical education in bedside learning in Japan. Methods Semi-structured interviews with thematic content analysis were implemented. Undergraduate year-5 students from a Japanese medical school at a Japanese teaching hospital were recruited. Interview were planned to last between 30 to 60 minutes each, over an 8-month period in 2007. The interviewees' perceptions concerning the quality of teaching in their bedside learning and related experiences were collected and analysed thematically. Results Twenty five medical students (18 males and 7 females, mean age 25 years old consented to participate in the interviews, and seven main themes emerged: "the perception of education as having a low priority," "the prevalence of positive/negative role models," "the persistence of hierarchy and exclusivity," "the existence of gender issues," "an overburdened medical knowledge," "human relationships with colleagues and medical team members," and "first experience from the practical wards and their patients." Conclusions Both similarities and differences were found when comparing the results to those of previous studies in the UK. Some effects of the hidden curriculum in medical education likely exist in common between the UK and Japan, despite the differences in their demographic

  7. Effects of alteplase for acute stroke according to criteria defining the European Union and United States marketing authorizations: Individual-patient-data meta-analysis of randomized trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacke, Werner; Lyden, Patrick; Emberson, Jonathan; Baigent, Colin; Blackwell, Lisa; Albers, Gregory; Bluhmki, Erich; Brott, Thomas; Cohen, Geoffrey; Davis, Stephen M; Donnan, Geoffrey A; Grotta, James C; Howard, George; Kaste, Markku; Koga, Masatoshi; von Kummer, Rüdiger; Lansberg, Maarten G; Lindley, Richard I; Olivot, Jean-Marc; Parsons, Mark; Sandercock, Peter Ag; Toni, Danilo; Toyoda, Kazunori; Wahlgren, Nils; Wardlaw, Joanna M; Whiteley, William N; Del Zoppo, Gregory; Lees, Kennedy R

    2018-02-01

    Background The recommended maximum age and time window for intravenous alteplase treatment of acute ischemic stroke differs between the Europe Union and United States. Aims We compared the effects of alteplase in cohorts defined by the current Europe Union or United States marketing approval labels, and by hypothetical revisions of the labels that would remove the Europe Union upper age limit or extend the United States treatment time window to 4.5 h. Methods We assessed outcomes in an individual-patient-data meta-analysis of eight randomized trials of intravenous alteplase (0.9 mg/kg) versus control for acute ischemic stroke. Outcomes included: excellent outcome (modified Rankin score 0-1) at 3-6 months, the distribution of modified Rankin score, symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage, and 90-day mortality. Results Alteplase increased the odds of modified Rankin score 0-1 among 2449/6136 (40%) patients who met the current European Union label and 3491 (57%) patients who met the age-revised label (odds ratio 1.42, 95% CI 1.21-1.68 and 1.43, 1.23-1.65, respectively), but not in those outside the age-revised label (1.06, 0.90-1.26). By 90 days, there was no increased mortality in the current and age-revised cohorts (hazard ratios 0.98, 95% CI 0.76-1.25 and 1.01, 0.86-1.19, respectively) but mortality remained higher outside the age-revised label (1.19, 0.99-1.42). Similarly, alteplase increased the odds of modified Rankin score 0-1 among 1174/6136 (19%) patients who met the current US approval and 3326 (54%) who met a 4.5-h revised approval (odds ratio 1.55, 1.19-2.01 and 1.37, 1.17-1.59, respectively), but not for those outside the 4.5-h revised approval (1.14, 0.97-1.34). By 90 days, no increased mortality remained for the current and 4.5-h revised label cohorts (hazard ratios 0.99, 0.77-1.26 and 1.02, 0.87-1.20, respectively) but mortality remained higher outside the 4.5-h revised approval (1.17, 0.98-1.41). Conclusions An age-revised European Union label or 4

  8. Prediction of Cascading Collapse Occurrence due to the Effect of Hidden Failure of a Protection System using Artificial Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Hazwani Idris

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Transmission line act as a medium of transportation for electrical energy from a power station to the consumer. There are many factors that could cause the cascading collapse such as instability of voltage and frequency, the change of environment and weather, the software and operator error and also the failure in protection system. Protection system plays an important function in maintaining the stability and reliability of the power grid. Hidden failures in relay protection systems are the primary factors for triggering the cascading collapse. This paper presents an Artificial Neural Network (ANN model for prediction of cascading collapse occurrence due to the effect of hidden failure of protection system. The ANN model has been developed through the normalized training and testing data process with optimum number of hidden layer, the momentum rate and the learning rate. The ANN model employs probability of hidden failure, random number of line limit power flow and exposed line as its input while trip index of cascading collapse occurrence as its output. IEEE 14 bus system is used in this study to illustrate the proposed approach. The performance of the results is analysed in terms of its Mean Square Error (MSE and Correlation Coefficient (R. The results show the ANN model produce reliable prediction of cascading collapse occurrence.

  9. Reduction of self-perceived discomforts in critically ill patients in French intensive care units: study protocol for a cluster-randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalfon, Pierre; Mimoz, Olivier; Loundou, Anderson; Geantot, Marie-Agnès; Revel, Nathalie; Villard, Isabelle; Amour, Julien; Azoulay, Elie; Garrouste-Orgeas, Maïté; Martin, Claude; Sharshar, Tarek; Baumstarck, Karine; Auquier, Pascal

    2016-02-16

    It is now well documented that critically ill patients are exposed to stressful conditions and experience discomforts from multiple sources. Improved identification of the discomforts of patients in intensive care units (ICUs) may have implications for managing their care, including consideration of ethical issues, and may assist clinicians in choosing the most appropriate interventions. The primary objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a multicomponent program of discomfort reduction in critically ill patients. The secondary objectives were to assess the sustainability of the impact of the program and the potential seasonality effect. We conducted a multicenter, cluster-randomized, controlled, single (patient)-blind study involving 34 French adult ICUs. The experimental intervention was a 6-month period during which the multicomponent program was implemented in the ICU and included the following steps: identification of discomforts, immediate feedback to the healthcare team, and implementation of targeted interventions. The control intervention was a 6-month period during which any program was implemented. The primary endpoint was the monthly overall score of self-reported discomfort from the French questionnaire on discomforts in ICU patients (IPREA). The secondary endpoints were the scores of the discomfort items of IPREA. The sample size was 660 individuals to obtain 80% power to detect a 25% difference in the overall discomfort score of IPREA between the two groups (design effect: 2.9). The results of this cluster-randomized controlled study are expected to confirm that a multicomponent program of discomfort reduction may be a new strategy in the management of care for critically ill patients. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02442934, registered 11 May 2015.

  10. High Energy Colliders and Hidden Sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dror, Asaf Jeff

    This thesis explores two dominant frontiers of theoretical physics, high energy colliders and hidden sectors. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is just starting to reach its maximum operational capabilities. However, already with the current data, large classes of models are being put under significant pressure. It is crucial to understand whether the (thus far) null results are a consequence of a lack of solution to the hierarchy problem around the weak scale or requires expanding the search strategy employed at the LHC. It is the duty of the current generation of physicists to design new searches to ensure that no stone is left unturned. To this end, we study the sensitivity of the LHC to the couplings in the Standard Model top sector. We find it can significantly improve the measurements on ZtRtR coupling by a novel search strategy, making use of an implied unitarity violation in such models. Analogously, we show that other couplings in the top sector can also be measured with the same technique. Furthermore, we critically analyze a set of anomalies in the LHC data and how they may appear from consistent UV completions. We also propose a technique to measure lifetimes of new colored particles with non-trivial spin. While the high energy frontier will continue to take data, it is likely the only collider of its kind for the next couple decades. On the other hand, low-energy experiments have a promising future with many new proposed experiments to probe the existence of particles well below the weak scale but with small couplings to the Standard Model. In this work we survey the different possibilities, focusingon the constraints as well as possible new hidden sector dynamics. In particular, we show that vector portals which couple to an anomalous current, e.g., baryon number, are significantly constrained from flavor changing meson decays and rare Z decays. Furthermore, we present a new mechanism for dark matter freezeout which depletes the dark sector through an

  11. Alleviating hidden hunger. Approaches that work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, E.; Mannar, V.; Iyengar, V.

    2003-01-01

    The world has come a long way in understanding the nature, magnitude and range of solutions to micronutrient malnutrition - often called 'hidden hunger'. The most sustainable solutions - that is those that are likely to be maintained in the long term - almost surely will include food-based approaches including diet diversity, food fortification and biofortification. Food fortification and biofortification could be some of the most cost-effective of all public health interventions and thus within the economic reach of even the world's poorest. In order to implement them in a sustainable manner, a combination of technical, operational, economic, behavioural and political factors need to be addressed. In some ways the technological issues are the easiest. Because of attention to research, we now have a variety of ways for both single and multiple micronutrients to reach the target population. We also know what is needed in order to ensure delivery systems. The key factor for continued success in reducing micronutrient malnutrition through fortification is a political commitment at the national and international level and creating effective public-private partnerships at the national level. The payoff for eliminating hidden hunger through nutrient fortification is enormous and few other public health interventions offer such a promising health, nutrition and economic success story. Nuclear and isotopic techniques are valuable tools in helping to meet the multifaceted challenges posed by nutritional disorders affecting the entire human life span (embryonic to elderly). Among the numerous applications available, isotopic techniques are uniquely well suited for targeting and tracking progress in food and nutrition development programmes (See box: How Nutrients are Tracked). These include: use of the stable isotopes of iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) as a kind of gold standard in studies of their bioavailability from foods; trace element bioavailability and pool sizes for

  12. Effects of Modes, Obesity, and Body Position on Non-invasive Positive Pressure Ventilation Success in the Intensive Care Unit: A Randomized Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türk, Murat; Aydoğdu, Müge; Gürsel, Gül

    2018-01-01

    Different outcomes and success rates of non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) in patients with acute hypercapnic respiratory failure (AHRF) still pose a significant problem in intensive care units. Previous studies investigating different modes, body positioning, and obesity-associated hypoventilation in patients with chronic respiratory failure showed that these factors may affect ventilator mechanics to achieve a better minute ventilation. This study tried to compare pressure support (BiPAP-S) and average volume targeted pressure support (AVAPS-S) modes in patients with acute or acute-on-chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure. In addition, short-term effects of body position and obesity within both modes were analyzed. We conducted a randomized controlled study in a 7-bed intensive care unit. The course of blood gas analysis and differences in ventilation variables were compared between BiPAP-S (n=33) and AVAPS-S (n=29), and between semi-recumbent and lateral positions in both modes. No difference was found in the length of hospital stay and the course of PaCO2, pH, and HCO3 levels between the modes. There was a mean reduction of 5.7±4.1 mmHg in the PaCO2 levels in the AVAPS-S mode, and 2.7±2.3 mmHg in the BiPAP-S mode per session (ppositioning had no notable effect in both modes. Although the decrease in the PaCO2 levels in the AVAPS-S mode per session was remarkably high, the course was similar in both modes. Furthermore, obesity and body positioning had no prominent effect on the PaCO2 response and ventilator mechanics. Post hoc power analysis showed that the sample size was not adequate to detect a significant difference between the modes.

  13. Prediction of Annual Rainfall Pattern Using Hidden Markov Model ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Hidden Markov model is very influential in stochastic world because of its ... the earth from the clouds. The usual ... Rainfall modelling and ... Markov Models have become popular tools ... environment sciences, University of Jos, plateau state,.

  14. New limits on hidden photons from past electron beam dumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreas, Sarah; Niebuhr, Carsten; Ringwald, Andreas

    2012-09-01

    Hidden sectors with light extra U(1) gauge bosons, so called hidden photons, have recently attracted some attention because they are a common feature of physics beyond the Standard Model like string theory and SUSY and additionally are phenomenologically of great interest regarding recent astrophysical observations. The hidden photon is already constrained by various laboratory experiments and presently searched for in running as well as upcoming experiments. We summarize the current status of limits on hidden photons from past electron beam dump experiments including two new limits from such experiments at KEK and Orsay that have so far not been considered. All our limits take into account the experimental acceptances obtained from Monte Carlo simulations.

  15. Search for hidden particles with the SHiP experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagner, Caren; Bick, Daniel; Bieschke, Stefan; Ebert, Joachim; Schmidt-Parzefall, Walter [Universitaet Hamburg, Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Many theories beyond the standard model predict long lived neutral (hidden) particles. There might be a whole Hidden Sector (HS) of weakly interacting particles, which cannot be detected in existing high energy experiments. The SHiP experiment (Search for Hidden Particles) requires a high intensity beam dump, which could be realized by a new facility at the CERN SPS accelerator. New superweakly interacting particles with masses below O(10) GeV could be produced in the beam dump and detected in a general purpose Hidden Sector (HS) detector. In addition there will be a dedicated tau neutrino subdetector. I present the major requirements and technical challenges for the HS detector and discuss how the HS can be accessed through several portals: neutrino portal, scalar portal, vector portal and many more.

  16. Cosmological abundance of the QCD axion coupled to hidden photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitajima, Naoya; Sekiguchi, Toyokazu; Takahashi, Fuminobu

    2018-06-01

    We study the cosmological evolution of the QCD axion coupled to hidden photons. For a moderately strong coupling, the motion of the axion field leads to an explosive production of hidden photons by tachyonic instability. We use lattice simulations to evaluate the cosmological abundance of the QCD axion. In doing so, we incorporate the backreaction of the produced hidden photons on the axion dynamics, which becomes significant in the non-linear regime. We find that the axion abundance is suppressed by at most O (102) for the decay constant fa =1016GeV, compared to the case without the coupling. For a sufficiently large coupling, the motion of the QCD axion becomes strongly damped, and as a result, the axion abundance is enhanced. Our results show that the cosmological upper bound on the axion decay constant can be relaxed by a few hundred for a certain range of the coupling to hidden photons.

  17. Dopamine reward prediction errors reflect hidden state inference across time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkweather, Clara Kwon; Babayan, Benedicte M.; Uchida, Naoshige; Gershman, Samuel J.

    2017-01-01

    Midbrain dopamine neurons signal reward prediction error (RPE), or actual minus expected reward. The temporal difference (TD) learning model has been a cornerstone in understanding how dopamine RPEs could drive associative learning. Classically, TD learning imparts value to features that serially track elapsed time relative to observable stimuli. In the real world, however, sensory stimuli provide ambiguous information about the hidden state of the environment, leading to the proposal that TD learning might instead compute a value signal based on an inferred distribution of hidden states (a ‘belief state’). In this work, we asked whether dopaminergic signaling supports a TD learning framework that operates over hidden states. We found that dopamine signaling exhibited a striking difference between two tasks that differed only with respect to whether reward was delivered deterministically. Our results favor an associative learning rule that combines cached values with hidden state inference. PMID:28263301

  18. Optimisation of Hidden Markov Model using Baum–Welch algorithm ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The present work is a part of development of Hidden Markov Model. (HMM) based ... the Himalaya. In this work, HMMs have been developed for forecasting of maximum and minimum ..... data collection teams of Snow and Avalanche Study.

  19. On the LHC sensitivity for non-thermalised hidden sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahlhoefer, Felix

    2018-04-01

    We show under rather general assumptions that hidden sectors that never reach thermal equilibrium in the early Universe are also inaccessible for the LHC. In other words, any particle that can be produced at the LHC must either have been in thermal equilibrium with the Standard Model at some point or must be produced via the decays of another hidden sector particle that has been in thermal equilibrium. To reach this conclusion, we parametrise the cross section connecting the Standard Model to the hidden sector in a very general way and use methods from linear programming to calculate the largest possible number of LHC events compatible with the requirement of non-thermalisation. We find that even the HL-LHC cannot possibly produce more than a few events with energy above 10 GeV involving states from a non-thermalised hidden sector.

  20. Risk from the frontlines of a hidden epidemic sexuality, masculinities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Risk from the frontlines of a hidden epidemic sexuality, masculinities and social pressures ... It frames risk in the context of the dynamics governing sexuality, underlined ... MSM risk and practice, in these contexts, are consequently shaped by ...

  1. New limits on hidden photons from past electron beam dumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreas, Sarah; Niebuhr, Carsten; Ringwald, Andreas

    2012-09-15

    Hidden sectors with light extra U(1) gauge bosons, so called hidden photons, have recently attracted some attention because they are a common feature of physics beyond the Standard Model like string theory and SUSY and additionally are phenomenologically of great interest regarding recent astrophysical observations. The hidden photon is already constrained by various laboratory experiments and presently searched for in running as well as upcoming experiments. We summarize the current status of limits on hidden photons from past electron beam dump experiments including two new limits from such experiments at KEK and Orsay that have so far not been considered. All our limits take into account the experimental acceptances obtained from Monte Carlo simulations.

  2. Online mixted sampling: An application in hidden populations Muestreo mixto online: Una aplicación en poblaciones ocultas Online mixted sampling: An application in hidden populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Tatiana Gorjup

    2012-04-01

    inmigrante argentino y utilizando como fuentes de información los grupos virtuales.Purpose: The objective of the article is to explore the possibilities offered by new technologies and virtual social networks for the recruitment of sampling units in hidden populations and as a support of the use of mixed methods.Design/methodology: The objective was to identify Argentinean entrepreneurs who start their business in Spain. The observation unit has the characteristics of a hidden population: 1 high geographic dispersion which makes it difficult to localize them; 2 underestimation of the size of Argentinean residents in the official statistics; 3 Argentinean residents in illegal situation; and, 4 in some cases, the factors that led the emigration were negative, making them reluctant to answer. In this context, the researchers used (1 an online virtual sampling and, (2 the traditional snowball sampling. The online virtual sampling was carried out by using a social network (Facebook through which 52 virtual groups of ‘Argentinean living in Spain’ were identified. Subsequently, each member was contacted by an individual message which explained the aim of the research and invited them to participate in the study. Findings: Through the development of this study, it was possible to prove that the use of virtual groups in social networks led to detect observation units that are not registered officially (administrative register, census, etc.. This finding contributed to increase the scope and size of the sample, it favoured the design of the qualitative sample and the triangulation of the results. Therefore, it increased the validity of the hidden population.Originality/value: The article presents an experience of application of virtual sampling and mixed methods in the study of hidden populations. In particular, it analysed Argentinean immigrant entrepreneurs by using virtual groups as a source of information.Purpose: The objective of the article is to explore the possibilities

  3. A Novel Method for Decoding Any High-Order Hidden Markov Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Ye

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel method for decoding any high-order hidden Markov model. First, the high-order hidden Markov model is transformed into an equivalent first-order hidden Markov model by Hadar’s transformation. Next, the optimal state sequence of the equivalent first-order hidden Markov model is recognized by the existing Viterbi algorithm of the first-order hidden Markov model. Finally, the optimal state sequence of the high-order hidden Markov model is inferred from the optimal state sequence of the equivalent first-order hidden Markov model. This method provides a unified algorithm framework for decoding hidden Markov models including the first-order hidden Markov model and any high-order hidden Markov model.

  4. A two particle hidden sector and the oscillations with photons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, Pedro D. [Universidad de Antofagasta, Departamento de Fisica, Antofagasta (Chile); Arias, Paola; Maldonado, Carlos [Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Departmento de Fisica, Santiago (Chile)

    2018-01-15

    We present a detailed study of the oscillations and optical properties for vacuum, in a model for the dark sector that contains axion-like particles and hidden photons. We provide bounds for the couplings versus the mass, using current results from ALPS-I and PVLAS. We also discuss the challenges for the detection of models with more than one hidden particle in light shining trough wall-like experiments. (orig.)

  5. Rare Z boson decays to a hidden sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinov, Nikita; Izaguirre, Eder; Shuve, Brian

    2018-01-01

    We demonstrate that rare decays of the Standard Model Z boson can be used to discover and characterize the nature of new hidden-sector particles. We propose new searches for these particles in soft, high-multiplicity leptonic final states at the Large Hadron Collider. The proposed searches are sensitive to low-mass particles produced in Z decays, and we argue that these striking signatures can shed light on the hidden-sector couplings and mechanism for mass generation.

  6. Anticipating hidden text salting in emails (extended abstract)

    OpenAIRE

    Lioma, Christina; Moens, Marie-Francine; Gomez, Juan Carlos; De Beer, Jan; Bergholz, Andre; Paass, Gerhard; Horkan, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    Salting is the intentional addition or distortion of content, aimed to evade automatic filtering. Salting is usually found in spam emails. Salting can also be hidden in phishing emails, which aim to steal personal information from users. We present a novel method that detects hidden salting tricks as visual anomalies in text. We solely use these salting tricks to successfully classify emails as phishing (F-measure >90%).

  7. Hidden twelve-dimensional super Poincare symmetry in eleven dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bars, Itzhak; Deliduman, Cemsinan; Pasqua, Andrea; Zumino, Bruno

    2004-01-01

    First, we review a result in our previous paper, of how a ten-dimensional superparticle, taken off-shell, has a hidden eleven-dimensional super Poincare symmetry. Then, we show that the physical sector is defined by three first-class constraints which preserve the full eleven-dimensional symmetry. Applying the same concepts to the eleven-dimensional superparticle, taken off-shell, we discover a hidden twelve-dimensional super Poincare symmetry that governs the theory

  8. Hidden charged dark matter and chiral dark radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, P.; Nagata, Natsumi; Tang, Yong

    2017-10-01

    In the light of recent possible tensions in the Hubble constant H0 and the structure growth rate σ8 between the Planck and other measurements, we investigate a hidden-charged dark matter (DM) model where DM interacts with hidden chiral fermions, which are charged under the hidden SU(N) and U(1) gauge interactions. The symmetries in this model assure these fermions to be massless. The DM in this model, which is a Dirac fermion and singlet under the hidden SU(N), is also assumed to be charged under the U(1) gauge symmetry, through which it can interact with the chiral fermions. Below the confinement scale of SU(N), the hidden quark condensate spontaneously breaks the U(1) gauge symmetry such that there remains a discrete symmetry, which accounts for the stability of DM. This condensate also breaks a flavor symmetry in this model and Nambu-Goldstone bosons associated with this flavor symmetry appear below the confinement scale. The hidden U(1) gauge boson and hidden quarks/Nambu-Goldstone bosons are components of dark radiation (DR) above/below the confinement scale. These light fields increase the effective number of neutrinos by δNeff ≃ 0.59 above the confinement scale for N = 2, resolving the tension in the measurements of the Hubble constant by Planck and Hubble Space Telescope if the confinement scale is ≲1 eV. DM and DR continuously scatter with each other via the hidden U(1) gauge interaction, which suppresses the matter power spectrum and results in a smaller structure growth rate. The DM sector couples to the Standard Model sector through the exchange of a real singlet scalar mixing with the Higgs boson, which makes it possible to probe our model in DM direct detection experiments. Variants of this model are also discussed, which may offer alternative ways to investigate this scenario.

  9. Hidden Markov models in automatic speech recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrzoskowicz, Adam

    1993-11-01

    This article describes a method for constructing an automatic speech recognition system based on hidden Markov models (HMMs). The author discusses the basic concepts of HMM theory and the application of these models to the analysis and recognition of speech signals. The author provides algorithms which make it possible to train the ASR system and recognize signals on the basis of distinct stochastic models of selected speech sound classes. The author describes the specific components of the system and the procedures used to model and recognize speech. The author discusses problems associated with the choice of optimal signal detection and parameterization characteristics and their effect on the performance of the system. The author presents different options for the choice of speech signal segments and their consequences for the ASR process. The author gives special attention to the use of lexical, syntactic, and semantic information for the purpose of improving the quality and efficiency of the system. The author also describes an ASR system developed by the Speech Acoustics Laboratory of the IBPT PAS. The author discusses the results of experiments on the effect of noise on the performance of the ASR system and describes methods of constructing HMM's designed to operate in a noisy environment. The author also describes a language for human-robot communications which was defined as a complex multilevel network from an HMM model of speech sounds geared towards Polish inflections. The author also added mandatory lexical and syntactic rules to the system for its communications vocabulary.

  10. Search algorithms, hidden labour and information control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paško Bilić

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines some of the processes of the closely knit relationship between Google’s ideologies of neutrality and objectivity and global market dominance. Neutrality construction comprises an important element sustaining the company’s economic position and is reflected in constant updates, estimates and changes to utility and relevance of search results. Providing a purely technical solution to these issues proves to be increasingly difficult without a human hand in steering algorithmic solutions. Search relevance fluctuates and shifts through continuous tinkering and tweaking of the search algorithm. The company also uses third parties to hire human raters for performing quality assessments of algorithmic updates and adaptations in linguistically and culturally diverse global markets. The adaptation process contradicts the technical foundations of the company and calculations based on the initial Page Rank algorithm. Annual market reports, Google’s Search Quality Rating Guidelines, and reports from media specialising in search engine optimisation business are analysed. The Search Quality Rating Guidelines document provides a rare glimpse into the internal architecture of search algorithms and the notions of utility and relevance which are presented and structured as neutral and objective. Intertwined layers of ideology, hidden labour of human raters, advertising revenues, market dominance and control are discussed throughout the paper.

  11. Hidden Structural Codes in Protein Intrinsic Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkosky, Silvia S; Camporeale, Gabriela; Chemes, Lucía B; Risso, Marikena; Noval, María Gabriela; Sánchez, Ignacio E; Alonso, Leonardo G; de Prat Gay, Gonzalo

    2017-10-17

    Intrinsic disorder is a major structural category in biology, accounting for more than 30% of coding regions across the domains of life, yet consists of conformational ensembles in equilibrium, a major challenge in protein chemistry. Anciently evolved papillomavirus genomes constitute an unparalleled case for sequence to structure-function correlation in cases in which there are no folded structures. E7, the major transforming oncoprotein of human papillomaviruses, is a paradigmatic example among the intrinsically disordered proteins. Analysis of a large number of sequences of the same viral protein allowed for the identification of a handful of residues with absolute conservation, scattered along the sequence of its N-terminal intrinsically disordered domain, which intriguingly are mostly leucine residues. Mutation of these led to a pronounced increase in both α-helix and β-sheet structural content, reflected by drastic effects on equilibrium propensities and oligomerization kinetics, and uncovers the existence of local structural elements that oppose canonical folding. These folding relays suggest the existence of yet undefined hidden structural codes behind intrinsic disorder in this model protein. Thus, evolution pinpoints conformational hot spots that could have not been identified by direct experimental methods for analyzing or perturbing the equilibrium of an intrinsically disordered protein ensemble.

  12. Dietary phytate, zinc and hidden zinc deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandstead, Harold H; Freeland-Graves, Jeanne H

    2014-10-01

    Epidemiological data suggest at least one in five humans are at risk of zinc deficiency. This is in large part because the phytate in cereals and legumes has not been removed during food preparation. Phytate, a potent indigestible ligand for zinc prevents it's absorption. Without knowledge of the frequency of consumption of foods rich in phytate, and foods rich in bioavailable zinc, the recognition of zinc deficiency early in the illness may be difficult. Plasma zinc is insensitive to early zinc deficiency. Serum ferritin concentration≤20μg/L is a potential indirect biomarker. Early effects of zinc deficiency are chemical, functional and may be "hidden". The clinical problem is illustrated by 2 studies that involved US Mexican-American children, and US premenopausal women. The children were consuming home diets that included traditional foods high in phytate. The premenopausal women were not eating red meat on a regular basis, and their consumption of phytate was mainly from bran breakfast cereals. In both studies the presence of zinc deficiency was proven by functional responses to controlled zinc treatment. In the children lean-mass, reasoning, and immunity were significantly affected. In the women memory, reasoning, and eye-hand coordination were significantly affected. A screening self-administered food frequency questionnaire for office might help caregiver's identify patients at risk of zinc deficiency. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Natural inflation with hidden scale invariance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil D. Barrie

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new class of natural inflation models based on a hidden scale invariance. In a very generic Wilsonian effective field theory with an arbitrary number of scalar fields, which exhibits scale invariance via the dilaton, the potential necessarily contains a flat direction in the classical limit. This flat direction is lifted by small quantum corrections and inflation is realised without need for an unnatural fine-tuning. In the conformal limit, the effective potential becomes linear in the inflaton field, yielding to specific predictions for the spectral index and the tensor-to-scalar ratio, being respectively: ns−1≈−0.025(N⋆60−1 and r≈0.0667(N⋆60−1, where N⋆≈30–65 is a number of efolds during observable inflation. This predictions are in reasonable agreement with cosmological measurements. Further improvement of the accuracy of these measurements may turn out to be critical in falsifying our scenario.

  14. Detecting hidden sources-STUK/HUT team

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikkinen, M.; Aarnio, P. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland); Honkamaa, T.; Tiilikainen, H. [Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, Helsinki (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    The task of the team was to locate and to identify hidden sources in a specified area in Padasjoki Auttoinen village. The team used AB-420 helicopter of the Finnish Frontier Guard. The team had two measuring systems: HPGe system (relative efficiency 18%) and 5`x5` NaI system. The team found two sources in real-time and additional two sources after 24 h analysis time. After the locations and characteristics of the sources were announced it was found out that altogether six sources would have been possible to find using the measured data. The total number of sources was ten. The NaI detector was good at detecting and locating the sources and HPGe was most useful in identification and calculation of the activity estimates. The following development should be made: 1) larger detectors are needed, 2) the software has to be improved. (This has been performed after the exercise) and 3) the navigation must be based on DGPS. visual navigation causes easily gaps between the flight lines and some sources may not be detected. (au).

  15. Gauging hidden symmetries in two dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samtleben, Henning; Weidner, Martin

    2007-01-01

    We initiate the systematic construction of gauged matter-coupled supergravity theories in two dimensions. Subgroups of the affine global symmetry group of toroidally compactified supergravity can be gauged by coupling vector fields with minimal couplings and a particular topological term. The gauge groups typically include hidden symmetries that are not among the target-space isometries of the ungauged theory. The gaugings constructed in this paper are described group-theoretically in terms of a constant embedding tensor subject to a number of constraints which parametrizes the different theories and entirely encodes the gauged Lagrangian. The prime example is the bosonic sector of the maximally supersymmetric theory whose ungauged version admits an affine e 9 global symmetry algebra. The various parameters (related to higher-dimensional p-form fluxes, geometric and non-geometric fluxes, etc.) which characterize the possible gaugings, combine into an embedding tensor transforming in the basic representation of e 9 . This yields an infinite-dimensional class of maximally supersymmetric theories in two dimensions. We work out and discuss several examples of higher-dimensional origin which can be systematically analyzed using the different gradings of e 9

  16. Academic mobbing: hidden health hazard at workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoo, Sb

    2010-01-01

    Academic mobbing is a non-violent, sophisticated, 'ganging up' behaviour adopted by academicians to "wear and tear" a colleague down emotionally through unjustified accusation, humiliation, general harassment and emotional abuse. These are directed at the target under a veil of lies and justifications so that they are "hidden" to others and difficult to prove. Bullies use mobbing activities to hide their own weaknesses and incompetence. Targets selected are often intelligent, innovative high achievers, with good integrity and principles. Mobbing activities appear trivial and innocuous on its own but the frequency and pattern of their occurrence over long period of time indicates an aggressive manipulation to "eliminate" the target. Mobbing activities typically progress through five stereotypical phases that begins with an unsolved minor conflict between two workers and ultimately escalates into a senseless mobbing whereby the target is stigmatized and victimized to justify the behaviours of the bullies. The result is always physical, mental, social distress or illness and, most often, expulsion of target from the workplace. Organizations are subjected to great financial loss, loss of key workers and a tarnished public image and reputation. Public awareness, education, effective counselling, establishment of anti-bullying policies and legislations at all levels are necessary to curb academic mobbing. General practitioners (GPs) play an important role in supporting patients subjected to mental and physical health injury caused by workplace bullying and mobbing.

  17. Detecting hidden sources-STUK/HUT team

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikkinen, M; Aarnio, P [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland); Honkamaa, T; Tiilikainen, H [Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, Helsinki (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    The task of the team was to locate and to identify hidden sources in a specified area in Padasjoki Auttoinen village. The team used AB-420 helicopter of the Finnish Frontier Guard. The team had two measuring systems: HPGe system (relative efficiency 18%) and 5`x5` NaI system. The team found two sources in real-time and additional two sources after 24 h analysis time. After the locations and characteristics of the sources were announced it was found out that altogether six sources would have been possible to find using the measured data. The total number of sources was ten. The NaI detector was good at detecting and locating the sources and HPGe was most useful in identification and calculation of the activity estimates. The following development should be made: 1) larger detectors are needed, 2) the software has to be improved. (This has been performed after the exercise) and 3) the navigation must be based on DGPS. visual navigation causes easily gaps between the flight lines and some sources may not be detected. (au).

  18. Hidden-Sector Dynamics and the Supersymmetric Seesaw

    CERN Document Server

    Campbell, Bruce A; Maybury, David W

    2008-01-01

    In light of recent analyses that have shown that nontrivial hidden-sector dynamics in models of supersymmetry breaking can lead to a significant impact on the predicted low-energy supersymmetric spectrum, we extend these studies to consider hidden-sector effects in extensions of the MSSM to include a seesaw model for neutrino masses. A dynamical hidden sector in an interval of mass scales below the seesaw scale would yield renormalization-group running involving both the anomalous dimension from the hidden sector and the seesaw-extended MSSM renormalization group equations (RGEs). These effects interfere in general, altering the generational mixing of the sleptons, and allowing for a substantial change to the expected level of charged-lepton flavour violation in seesaw-extended MSSM models. These results provide further support for recent theoretical observations that knowledge of the hidden sector is required in order to make concrete low-energy predictions, if the hidden sector is strongly coupled. In parti...

  19. Predicting the effect of maternal docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation to reduce early preterm birth in Australia and the United States using results of within country randomized controlled trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yelland, LN; Gajewski, BJ; Colombo, J; Gibson, RA; Makrides, M; Carlson, SE

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY The DHA to Optimize Mother Infant Outcome (DOMInO) and Kansas DHA Outcomes Study (KUDOS) were randomized controlled trials that supplemented mothers with 800 and 600 mg DHA/day, respectively, or a placebo during pregnancy. DOMInO was conducted in Australia and KUDOS in the United States. Both trials found an unanticipated and statistically significant reduction in early preterm birth (ePTB; i.e., birth before 34 weeks gestation). However, in each trial, the number of ePTBs were small. We used a novel Bayesian approach and an arbitrary sample of 120,000 pregnancies to estimate statistically derived low, moderate or high risk for ePTB, and to test for differences between the DHA and placebo groups. In both trials, the model predicted DHA would significantly reduce the expected proportion of deliveries in the high risk group under the trial conditions of the parent studies. From these proportions we estimated the number of ePTB that could be prevented. PMID:27637340

  20. Modification of Hidden Layer Weight in Extreme Learning Machine Using Gain Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anggraeny Fetty Tri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Extreme Learning Machine (ELM is a method of learning feed forward neural network quickly and has a fairly good accuracy. This method is devoted to a feed forward neural network with one hidden layer where the parameters (i.e. weight and bias are adjusted one time randomly at the beginning of the learning process. In neural network, the input layer is connected to all characteristics/features, and the output layer is connected to all classes of species. This research used three datasets from UCI database, which were Iris, Breast Wisconsin, and Dermatology, with each dataset having several features. Each characteristic/feature of the data has a role in the process of classification levels, starting from the most influencing role to non-influencing at all. Gain ratio was used to extract each feature role on each datasets. Gain ratio is a method to extract feature role in order to develop a decision tree structure. In this study, ELM structure has been modified, where the random weights of the hidden layer were adjusted to the level of each feature role in determining the species class, so as to improve the level of training and testing accuracy. The proposed method has higher classification accuracy rate than basic ELM on all three datasets, which were 99%, 96%, and 82%, respectively.

  1. Comparison of oral psoralen-UV-A with a portable tanning unit at home vs hospital-administered bath psoralen-UV-A in patients with chronic hand eczema - An open-label randomized controlled trial of efficacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Coevorden, AM; Kamphof, WG; van Sonderen, E; Bruynzeel, DP; Coenraads, PJ

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study whether oral psoralen-UV-A (PUVA) with a portable tanning unit at home is as effective as hospital-administered bath PUVA in patients with chronic hand eczema. Design: Open-label randomized controlled trial, with a 10-week treatment period and an 8-week follow-up period. Setting:

  2. Accelerating Information Retrieval from Profile Hidden Markov Model Databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamimi, Ahmad; Ashhab, Yaqoub; Tamimi, Hashem

    2016-01-01

    Profile Hidden Markov Model (Profile-HMM) is an efficient statistical approach to represent protein families. Currently, several databases maintain valuable protein sequence information as profile-HMMs. There is an increasing interest to improve the efficiency of searching Profile-HMM databases to detect sequence-profile or profile-profile homology. However, most efforts to enhance searching efficiency have been focusing on improving the alignment algorithms. Although the performance of these algorithms is fairly acceptable, the growing size of these databases, as well as the increasing demand for using batch query searching approach, are strong motivations that call for further enhancement of information retrieval from profile-HMM databases. This work presents a heuristic method to accelerate the current profile-HMM homology searching approaches. The method works by cluster-based remodeling of the database to reduce the search space, rather than focusing on the alignment algorithms. Using different clustering techniques, 4284 TIGRFAMs profiles were clustered based on their similarities. A representative for each cluster was assigned. To enhance sensitivity, we proposed an extended step that allows overlapping among clusters. A validation benchmark of 6000 randomly selected protein sequences was used to query the clustered profiles. To evaluate the efficiency of our approach, speed and recall values were measured and compared with the sequential search approach. Using hierarchical, k-means, and connected component clustering techniques followed by the extended overlapping step, we obtained an average reduction in time of 41%, and an average recall of 96%. Our results demonstrate that representation of profile-HMMs using a clustering-based approach can significantly accelerate data retrieval from profile-HMM databases.

  3. Accelerating Information Retrieval from Profile Hidden Markov Model Databases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Tamimi

    Full Text Available Profile Hidden Markov Model (Profile-HMM is an efficient statistical approach to represent protein families. Currently, several databases maintain valuable protein sequence information as profile-HMMs. There is an increasing interest to improve the efficiency of searching Profile-HMM databases to detect sequence-profile or profile-profile homology. However, most efforts to enhance searching efficiency have been focusing on improving the alignment algorithms. Although the performance of these algorithms is fairly acceptable, the growing size of these databases, as well as the increasing demand for using batch query searching approach, are strong motivations that call for further enhancement of information retrieval from profile-HMM databases. This work presents a heuristic method to accelerate the current profile-HMM homology searching approaches. The method works by cluster-based remodeling of the database to reduce the search space, rather than focusing on the alignment algorithms. Using different clustering techniques, 4284 TIGRFAMs profiles were clustered based on their similarities. A representative for each cluster was assigned. To enhance sensitivity, we proposed an extended step that allows overlapping among clusters. A validation benchmark of 6000 randomly selected protein sequences was used to query the clustered profiles. To evaluate the efficiency of our approach, speed and recall values were measured and compared with the sequential search approach. Using hierarchical, k-means, and connected component clustering techniques followed by the extended overlapping step, we obtained an average reduction in time of 41%, and an average recall of 96%. Our results demonstrate that representation of profile-HMMs using a clustering-based approach can significantly accelerate data retrieval from profile-HMM databases.

  4. A single hidden layer feedforward network with only one neuron in the hidden layer can approximate any univariate function

    OpenAIRE

    Guliyev , Namig; Ismailov , Vugar

    2016-01-01

    The possibility of approximating a continuous function on a compact subset of the real line by a feedforward single hidden layer neural network with a sigmoidal activation function has been studied in many papers. Such networks can approximate an arbitrary continuous function provided that an unlimited number of neurons in a hidden layer is permitted. In this paper, we consider constructive approximation on any finite interval of $\\mathbb{R}$ by neural networks with only one neuron in the hid...

  5. Hidden burden of malaria in Indian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Vinod P

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Malaria is endemic in India with an estimated 70-100 million cases each year (1.6-1.8 million reported by NVBDCP; of this 50-55% are Plasmodium vivax and 45-50% Plasmodium falciparum. A recent study on malaria in pregnancy reported from undivided Madhya Pradesh state (includes Chhattisgarh state, that an estimated over 220,000 pregnant women contract malaria infection each year. Malaria in pregnancy caused- abortions 34.5%; stillbirths 9%; and maternal deaths 0.45%. Bulk of this tragic outcome can be averted by following the Roll Back Malaria/WHO recommendations of the use of malaria prevention i.e. indoor residual spraying (IRS/insecticide-treated bed nets (ITN preferably long-lasting treated bed nets (LLIN; intermittent preventive therapy (IPT; early diagnosis, prompt and complete treatment using microscopic/malaria rapid diagnostics test (RDT and case management. High incidence in pregnancy has arisen because of malaria surveillance lacking coverage, lack of age and sex wise data, staff shortages, and intermittent preventive treatment (IPT applicable in high transmission states/pockets is not included in the national drug policy- an essential component of fighting malaria in pregnancy in African settings. Inadequate surveillance and gross under-reporting has been highlighted time and again for over three decades. As a result the huge problem of malaria in pregnancy reported occasionally by researchers has remained hidden. Malaria in pregnancy may quicken severity in patients with drug resistant parasites, anaemia, endemic poverty, and malnutrition. There is, therefore, urgent need to streamline malaria control strategies to make a difference in tackling this grim scenario in human health.

  6. Hydrogeophysical investigations at Hidden Dam, Raymond, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minsley, Burke J.; Burton, Bethany L.; Ikard, Scott; Powers, Michael H.

    2011-01-01

    Self-potential and direct current resistivity surveys are carried out at the Hidden Dam site in Raymond, California to assess present-day seepage patterns and better understand the hydrogeologic mechanisms that likely influence seepage. Numerical modeling is utilized in conjunction with the geophysical measurements to predict variably-saturated flow through typical two-dimensional dam cross-sections as a function of reservoir elevation. Several different flow scenarios are investigated based on the known hydrogeology, as well as information about typical subsurface structures gained from the resistivity survey. The flow models are also used to simulate the bulk electrical resistivity in the subsurface under varying saturation conditions, as well as the self-potential response using petrophysical relationships and electrokinetic coupling equations.The self-potential survey consists of 512 measurements on the downstream area of the dam, and corroborates known seepage areas on the northwest side of the dam. Two direct-current resistivity profiles, each approximately 2,500 ft (762 m) long, indicate a broad sediment channel under the northwest side of the dam, which may be a significant seepage pathway through the foundation. A focusing of seepage in low-topography areas downstream of the dam is confirmed from the numerical flow simulations, which is also consistent with past observations. Little evidence of seepage is identified from the self-potential data on the southeast side of the dam, also consistent with historical records, though one possible area of focused seepage is identified near the outlet works. Integration of the geophysical surveys, numerical modeling, and observation well data provides a framework for better understanding seepage at the site through a combined hydrogeophysical approach.

  7. 'Hidden messages' emerging from Afrocentric management perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Van den Heuvel

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper aims to examine how 'African management' discourse has emerged in South Africa. Altogether, it has stimulated debates - sometimes in controversial ways - on 'taboo issues', e.g. relating to 'cultural diversity' and 'ethnicity'. The stimulation of such debates within organisations is probably a more valuable contribution than a static, essentialised 'African identity' that it proclaims. Design/Methodology/Approach: The paper draws on a qualitative research project conducted in South Africa in 2003-2004. Its relevance lies in gaining in-depth insights into ('non-western' local management discourse. It seeks to contribute to the body of knowledge on political and cultural contexts in which South African organizations operate, and how they impact on local management perspectives, and vice versa. Findings: The research findings make clear how and under what circumstances 'African management' discourse has come about in South Africa, and how it could be interpreted. Implications: 'African management' advocates allegedly attempt to revise dominant management thinking and promote 'humane-ness' and participatory decision-making in South African organisations, in search of a contextualised management approach. Amongst others, it has produced new meanings of 'Africanness' and has opened up space for 'hidden messages', resentments and aspirations to become openly articulated. This throws another light on phenomena such as cultural diversity and ethnicity that usually tend to be 'neutralised'. This may turn out to be far healthier for blooming organisational cultures in South Africa than relentlessly hammering on prescribed 'corporate values'. Originality/Value: This paper informs the reader in detail about the emergence and evolvement of 'African management' discourse in South Africa. It is a unique attempt to develop an interpretative viewpoint on this intriguing phenomenon that offers a potentially valuable contribution in reading

  8. Identifying hidden voice and video streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jieyan; Wu, Dapeng; Nucci, Antonio; Keralapura, Ram; Gao, Lixin

    2009-04-01

    Given the rising popularity of voice and video services over the Internet, accurately identifying voice and video traffic that traverse their networks has become a critical task for Internet service providers (ISPs). As the number of proprietary applications that deliver voice and video services to end users increases over time, the search for the one methodology that can accurately detect such services while being application independent still remains open. This problem becomes even more complicated when voice and video service providers like Skype, Microsoft, and Google bundle their voice and video services with other services like file transfer and chat. For example, a bundled Skype session can contain both voice stream and file transfer stream in the same layer-3/layer-4 flow. In this context, traditional techniques to identify voice and video streams do not work. In this paper, we propose a novel self-learning classifier, called VVS-I , that detects the presence of voice and video streams in flows with minimum manual intervention. Our classifier works in two phases: training phase and detection phase. In the training phase, VVS-I first extracts the relevant features, and subsequently constructs a fingerprint of a flow using the power spectral density (PSD) analysis. In the detection phase, it compares the fingerprint of a flow to the existing fingerprints learned during the training phase, and subsequently classifies the flow. Our classifier is not only capable of detecting voice and video streams that are hidden in different flows, but is also capable of detecting different applications (like Skype, MSN, etc.) that generate these voice/video streams. We show that our classifier can achieve close to 100% detection rate while keeping the false positive rate to less that 1%.

  9. Midodrine as adjunctive support for treatment of refractory hypotension in the intensive care unit: a multicenter, randomized, placebo controlled trial (the MIDAS trial).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anstey, Matthew H; Wibrow, Bradley; Thevathasan, Tharusan; Roberts, Brigit; Chhangani, Khushi; Ng, Pauline Yeung; Levine, Alexander; DiBiasio, Alan; Sarge, Todd; Eikermann, Matthias

    2017-03-21

    Patients admitted to intensive care units (ICU) are often treated with intravenous (IV) vasopressors. Persistent hypotension and dependence on IV vasopressors in otherwise resuscitated patients lead to delay in discharge from ICU. Midodrine is an oral alpha-1 adrenergic agonist approved for treatment of symptomatic orthostatic hypotension. This trial aims to evaluate whether oral administration of midodrine is an effective adjunct to standard therapy to reduce the duration of IV vasopressor treatment, and allow earlier discharge from ICU and hospital. The MIDAS trial is an international, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial being conducted in the USA and Australia. We are targeting 120 patients. Adult patients admitted to the ICU who are resuscitated and otherwise stable on low dose IV vasopressors for at least 24 h will be considered for recruitment. Participants will be randomized to receive midodrine (20 mg) or placebo three times a day, in addition to standard care. The primary outcome is time (hours) from initiation of midodrine or placebo to discontinuation of IV vasopressors. Secondary outcomes include time (hours) from ICU admission to discharge readiness, ICU length of stay (LOS) (days), hospital LOS (days), rates of ICU readmission, and rates of adverse events related to midodrine administration. Midodrine is approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of symptomatic orthostatic hypotension. In August 2010, FDA proposed to withdraw approval of midodrine because of lack of studies that verify the clinical benefit of the drug. We obtained Investigational New Drug (IND 113,330) approval to study its effects in critically ill patients who require IV vasopressors but are otherwise ready for discharge from the ICU. A pilot observational study in a cohort of surgical ICU patients showed that the rate of decline in vasopressor requirements increased after initiation of midodrine treatment. We

  10. Increased taxon sampling reveals thousands of hidden orthologs in flatworms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Gains and losses shape the gene complement of animal lineages and are a fundamental aspect of genomic evolution. Acquiring a comprehensive view of the evolution of gene repertoires is limited by the intrinsic limitations of common sequence similarity searches and available databases. Thus, a subset of the gene complement of an organism consists of hidden orthologs, i.e., those with no apparent homology to sequenced animal lineages—mistakenly considered new genes—but actually representing rapidly evolving orthologs or undetected paralogs. Here, we describe Leapfrog, a simple automated BLAST pipeline that leverages increased taxon sampling to overcome long evolutionary distances and identify putative hidden orthologs in large transcriptomic databases by transitive homology. As a case study, we used 35 transcriptomes of 29 flatworm lineages to recover 3427 putative hidden orthologs, some unidentified by OrthoFinder and HaMStR, two common orthogroup inference algorithms. Unexpectedly, we do not observe a correlation between the number of putative hidden orthologs in a lineage and its “average” evolutionary rate. Hidden orthologs do not show unusual sequence composition biases that might account for systematic errors in sequence similarity searches. Instead, gene duplication with divergence of one paralog and weak positive selection appear to underlie hidden orthology in Platyhelminthes. By using Leapfrog, we identify key centrosome-related genes and homeodomain classes previously reported as absent in free-living flatworms, e.g., planarians. Altogether, our findings demonstrate that hidden orthologs comprise a significant proportion of the gene repertoire in flatworms, qualifying the impact of gene losses and gains in gene complement evolution. PMID:28400424

  11. The Second International Conference on Nutrition: Implications for Hidden Hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoroso, Leslie

    2016-01-01

    The Second International Conference on Nutrition (ICN2) was jointly organized by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO) and was held at the FAO Headquarters in Rome, Italy, from 19 to 21 November 2014. The ICN2 was a high-level intergovernmental meeting that focused global attention on addressing malnutrition in all its forms: undernutrition, including micronutrient deficiencies, overweight, and obesity. The ICN2 was held to specifically address the persistent and unacceptably high levels of malnutrition. Despite much progress in reducing hunger globally, 795 million people remain undernourished, over 2 billion people suffer from various micronutrient deficiencies, and an estimated 161 million children under 5 years of age are stunted, 99 million underweight, and 51 million wasted. Meanwhile, more than 600 million adults are obese. Global problems require global solutions. The ICN2 brought together national policy-makers from food, agriculture, health, education, social protection and other relevant sectors to address the complex problem of malnutrition through a multi-sectoral approach. Two outcome documents - the Rome Declaration on Nutrition and the Framework for Action - were endorsed by participating governments at the Conference, committing world leaders to establishing national policies aimed at eradicating malnutrition in all its forms and transforming food systems to make nutritious diets available to all. The Rome Declaration on Nutrition is a political statement of 10 commitments for more effective and coordinated action to improve nutrition, while the Framework for Action is a voluntary technical guide of 60 recommendations for the implementation of the political commitments. This chapter provides information on the ICN2 and its outcomes as well as follow-up activities. Emphasis is placed on the Rome Declaration on Nutrition and the Framework for Action, with special focus on hidden

  12. Combating hidden hunger: the role of international agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalmiya, Nita; Schultink, Werner

    2003-12-01

    The importance of micronutrient deficiencies or "hidden hunger" was clearly emphasized by the inclusion of specific goals on iron, vitamin A, and iodine deficiency at the 1990 World Summit for Children and other major international nutrition conferences. Significant progress has since been made toward eliminating vitamin A and iodine deficiencies, with less progress made toward reducing the burden of iron-deficiency anemia. The role of international agencies, such as the World Health Organization, United Nations Children's Fund, Food and Agricultural Organization, and World Bank in assisting countries to make progress toward the World Summit for Children goals has been very important. International agencies have played a critical role in advocating for and raising awareness of these issues at the international, regional, and national levels among policymakers and the general population. Using a rights-based approach, UNICEF and other agencies have been instrumental in elevating to the highest political level the discussion of every child's right to adequate nutrition. International agencies have also been very supportive at the national level in providing technical guidance for programs, including monitoring and evaluation. These agencies have played a critical role in engaging the cooperation of other partners, including bilateral donors, non-governmental organizations, and the private sector for micronutrient programs. Furthermore, international agencies provide financial and material support for micronutrient programs. In the future, such agencies must continue to be heavily involved in programs to achieve the newly confirmed goals for 2010. The present paper focuses on the role of international agencies in combating micronutrient deficiencies, drawing on the lessons learned over the last decade. The first section of the paper summarizes the progress achieved since 1990, and the second section describes the specific role of international agencies in contributing

  13. Next generation sequencing reveals the hidden diversity of zooplankton assemblages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penelope K Lindeque

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Zooplankton play an important role in our oceans, in biogeochemical cycling and providing a food source for commercially important fish larvae. However, difficulties in correctly identifying zooplankton hinder our understanding of their roles in marine ecosystem functioning, and can prevent detection of long term changes in their community structure. The advent of massively parallel next generation sequencing technology allows DNA sequence data to be recovered directly from whole community samples. Here we assess the ability of such sequencing to quantify richness and diversity of a mixed zooplankton assemblage from a productive time series site in the Western English Channel. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: Plankton net hauls (200 µm were taken at the Western Channel Observatory station L4 in September 2010 and January 2011. These samples were analysed by microscopy and metagenetic analysis of the 18S nuclear small subunit ribosomal RNA gene using the 454 pyrosequencing platform. Following quality control a total of 419,041 sequences were obtained for all samples. The sequences clustered into 205 operational taxonomic units using a 97% similarity cut-off. Allocation of taxonomy by comparison with the National Centre for Biotechnology Information database identified 135 OTUs to species level, 11 to genus level and 1 to order, <2.5% of sequences were classified as unknowns. By comparison a skilled microscopic analyst was able to routinely enumerate only 58 taxonomic groups. CONCLUSIONS: Metagenetics reveals a previously hidden taxonomic richness, especially for Copepoda and hard-to-identify meroplankton such as Bivalvia, Gastropoda and Polychaeta. It also reveals rare species and parasites. We conclude that Next Generation Sequencing of 18S amplicons is a powerful tool for elucidating the true diversity and species richness of zooplankton communities. While this approach allows for broad diversity assessments of plankton it may

  14. A randomized controlled clinical trial of 3-unit posterior zirconia-ceramic fixed dental prostheses (FDP) with layered or pressed veneering ceramics: 3-year results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naenni, Nadja; Bindl, Andreas; Sax, Caroline; Hämmerle, Christoph; Sailer, Irena

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the present pilot study was to test whether or not posterior zirconia-ceramic fixed dental prostheses (FDPs) with pressed veneering ceramic exhibit less chipping than FDPs with layered veneering ceramics. Forty patients (13 female, 27 male; mean age 54 years (range 26.1-80.7 years) in need of one maxillary or mandibular three-unit FDP in the second premolar or molar region were recruited and treated at two separate centers at the University of Zurich according to the same study protocol. The frameworks were made out of zirconia using a CAD/CAM system (Cerec Sirona, Bensheim, Germany). The patients were randomly assigned to either the test group (zirconia frameworks veneered with pressed ceramic; IPS e.max ZirPress, Ivoclar Vivadent AG, Schaan, Liechtenstein; n=20) or the control group (layered veneering ceramic; IPS e.max Ceram, Ivoclar Vivadent AG, Schaan, Liechtenstein; n=20). All FDPs were adhesively cemented and evaluated at baseline (i.e., cementation), at 6 months and at 1 and 3 years of clinical service. The survival of the reconstruction was recorded. The technical outcome was assessed using modified United States Public Health Services (USPHS) criteria. The biologic parameters analyzed at abutment teeth and analogous non-restored teeth included probing pocket depth (PPD), plaque control record (PCR), bleeding on probing (BOP), and tooth vitality (CO2). Data was descriptively analyzed and survival was calculated using Kaplan-Meier statistics. 36 patients (25 female, 11 male; mean age 52.3 years) with 18 test and 18 control FDPs were examined after a mean follow-up of 36 months (95% CI: 32.6-39.1 months). Comparison of groups was done by Crosstabulation showing even distribution of the respective restored teeth amidst the groups. Survival rate was 100% for both test and control FDPs. Chipping of the veneering ceramic tended to occur more frequently in test (n=8; 40%) than in control (n=4; 20%) FDPs, albeit not significantly (p=0.3). No further

  15. Web-Based STAR E-Learning Course Increases Empathy and Understanding in Dementia Caregivers: Results from a Randomized Controlled Trial in the Netherlands and the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiland, Franka; van der Roest, Henriëtte; Kevern, Peter; Abiuso, Francesca; Bengtsson, Johan; Giuliano, Angele; Duca, Annalise; Sanders, Jennifer; Basnett, Fern; Nugent, Chris; Kingston, Paul; Dröes, Rose-Marie

    2015-01-01

    Background The doubling of the number of people with dementia in the coming decades coupled with the rapid decline in the working population in our graying society is expected to result in a large decrease in the number of professionals available to provide care to people with dementia. As a result, care will be supplied increasingly by untrained informal caregivers and volunteers. To promote effective care and avoid overburdening of untrained and trained caregivers, they must become properly skilled. To this end, the European Skills Training and Reskilling (STAR) project, which comprised experts from the domains of education, technology, and dementia care from 6 countries (the Netherlands, Sweden, Italy, Malta, Romania, and the United Kingdom), worked together to create and evaluate a multilingual e-learning tool. The STAR training portal provides dementia care training both for informal and formal caregivers. Objective The objective of the current study was to evaluate the user friendliness, usefulness, and impact of STAR with informal caregivers, volunteers, and professional caregivers. Methods For 2 to 4 months, the experimental group had access to the STAR training portal, a Web-based portal consisting of 8 modules, 2 of which had a basic level and 6 additional modules at intermediate and advanced levels. The experimental group also had access to online peer and expert communities for support and information exchange. The control group received free access to STAR after the research had ended. The STAR training portal was evaluated in a randomized controlled trial among informal caregivers and volunteers in addition to professional caregivers (N=142) in the Netherlands and the United Kingdom. Assessments were performed with self-assessed, online, standardized questionnaires at baseline and after 2 to 4 months. Primary outcome measures were user friendliness, usefulness, and impact of STAR on knowledge, attitudes, and approaches of caregivers regarding dementia

  16. Web-Based STAR E-Learning Course Increases Empathy and Understanding in Dementia Caregivers: Results from a Randomized Controlled Trial in the Netherlands and the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattink, Bart; Meiland, Franka; van der Roest, Henriëtte; Kevern, Peter; Abiuso, Francesca; Bengtsson, Johan; Giuliano, Angele; Duca, Annalise; Sanders, Jennifer; Basnett, Fern; Nugent, Chris; Kingston, Paul; Dröes, Rose-Marie

    2015-10-30

    The doubling of the number of people with dementia in the coming decades coupled with the rapid decline in the working population in our graying society is expected to result in a large decrease in the number of professionals available to provide care to people with dementia. As a result, care will be supplied increasingly by untrained informal caregivers and volunteers. To promote effective care and avoid overburdening of untrained and trained caregivers, they must become properly skilled. To this end, the European Skills Training and Reskilling (STAR) project, which comprised experts from the domains of education, technology, and dementia care from 6 countries (the Netherlands, Sweden, Italy, Malta, Romania, and the United Kingdom), worked together to create and evaluate a multilingual e-learning tool. The STAR training portal provides dementia care training both for informal and formal caregivers. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the user friendliness, usefulness, and impact of STAR with informal caregivers, volunteers, and professional caregivers. For 2 to 4 months, the experimental group had access to the STAR training portal, a Web-based portal consisting of 8 modules, 2 of which had a basic level and 6 additional modules at intermediate and advanced levels. The experimental group also had access to online peer and expert communities for support and information exchange. The control group received free access to STAR after the research had ended. The STAR training portal was evaluated in a randomized controlled trial among informal caregivers and volunteers in addition to professional caregivers (N=142) in the Netherlands and the United Kingdom. Assessments were performed with self-assessed, online, standardized questionnaires at baseline and after 2 to 4 months. Primary outcome measures were user friendliness, usefulness, and impact of STAR on knowledge, attitudes, and approaches of caregivers regarding dementia. Secondary outcome measures

  17. Randomness and locality in quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bub, J.

    1976-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of representing the statistical states of a quantum mechanical system by measures on a classical probability space. The Kochen and Specker theorem proves the impossibility of embedding the possibility structure of a quantum mechanical system into a Boolean algebra. It is shown that a hidden variable theory involves a Boolean representation which is not an embedding, and that such a representation cannot recover the quantum statistics for sequential probabilities without introducing a randomization process for the hidden variables which is assumed to apply only on measurement. It is suggested that the relation of incompatability is to be understood as a type of stochastic independence, and that the indeterminism of a quantum mechanical system is engendered by the existence of independent families of properties. Thus, the statistical relations reflect the possibility structure of the system: the probabilities are logical. The hidden variable thesis is influenced by the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics, i.e. by some version of the disturbance theory of measurement. Hence, the significance of the representation problem is missed, and the completeness of quantum mechanics is seen to turn on the possibility of recovering the quantum statistics by a hidden variable scheme which satisfies certain physically motivated conditions, such as locality. Bell's proof that no local hidden variable theory can reproduce the statistical relations of quantum mechanics is considered. (Auth.)

  18. Explore the Buffering Effects of Perceived Hidden Inflation on Survival of Mobile Phone Service Providers in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Wen Liu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine the moderating role of perceived hidden inflation on the relationships between service quality, brand trust and brand loyalty. All data collected from the target population are analyzed through two-step structural equation modeling (SEM and moderated multiple regression (MMR to examine the hypotheses. 1,050 questionnaires are randomly distributed at 21 telecommunication service stores in Taiwan. Findings indicated that service quality has no direct impact on behavioral loyalty but it has a significant indirect impact on behavioral loyalty through brand trust or attitudinal loyalty. Moreover, findings identify perceived hidden inflation as the moderating role in the service quality–brand trust–brand loyalty chain. Besides the need for empirical confirmation of the hypotheses given, finally, there are several practical implications for service marketers and future research directions for scholars.

  19. Lutein and zeaxanthin supplementation in preterm very low-birth-weight neonates in neonatal intensive care units: a multicenter randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoni, Paolo; Guardione, Roberta; Bonetti, Paolo; Priolo, Claudio; Maestri, Andrea; Mansoldo, Caterina; Mostert, Michael; Anselmetti, Giovanni; Sardei, Daniela; Bellettato, Massimo; Biban, Paolo; Farina, Daniele

    2013-01-01

    Human milk feeding protects against oxidative stress-induced damage in preterm neonates, including severe multifactorial diseases such as retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). The carotenoids, which are not found in formula milk, might play a key role in these actions. A multicenter, double-blind, randomized controlled trial was conducted in three tertiary Italian neonatal intensive care units. All preterm infants lutein + 0.0006 mg zeaxanthin) or placebo (5% glucose solution) from birth till 36 weeks' corrected gestational age. Primary outcomes were threshold ROP, NEC > second stage, and BPD. Surveillance for detection of these diseases and for intolerance/adverse effects was performed. No treatment-related adverse effect was documented in the 229 analyzed infants, whose clinical/demographical characteristics were similar in the two groups. Threshold ROP incidence did not significantly differ in treated (6.2%) versus not treated infants (10.3%; p = 0.18). The same occurred for NEC (1.7% versus 5.1%; p = 0.15) and BPD (4.5% versus 10.3%; p = 0.07). Noteworthy, the progression rate from early ROP stages to threshold ROP was decreased by 50% (0.30 versus 0.44; p = 0.23). Lutein/zeaxanthin supplementation in preterm infants is well tolerated. No significant effect was seen on threshold ROP, NEC, or BPD. The decreasing trends of these outcomes in the treatment group need to be assessed and confirmed on larger sample-sizes. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  20. Comparing effects between music intervention and aromatherapy on anxiety of patients undergoing mechanical ventilation in the intensive care unit: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chiu-Hsiang; Lai, Chiung-Ling; Sung, Yi-Hui; Lai, Mei Yu; Lin, Chung-Ying; Lin, Long-Yau

    2017-07-01

    Using patient-reported outcomes and physiological indicators to test the effects of music intervention and aromatherapy on reducing anxiety for intensive care unit (ICU) patients undergoing mechanical ventilation. Patients with ICU admission duration >24 h were randomly assigned to a Music intervention group (n = 41), Aromatherapy group (n = 47), or Control group (rest only; n = 44). Each patient in the Music group listened to music; each patient in the Aromatherapy group received lavender essential oil massage on his/her back for 5 min; each patient in the Control group wore noise-canceling headphones. Anxiety was measured using the Chinese version of the Stage-Trait Anxiety Inventory (C-STAI) and the Visual Analogue Scale for Anxiety (VAS-A) at baseline, post-test, and 30-min follow-up. Heart rate, breathing rate, and blood pressure were measured every 10 min from baseline to the 30-min follow-up. The Music group had significantly better post-test VAS-A and C-STAI scores, and had lower heart rate and blood pressure than the Control group. The Aromatherapy group had significantly better VAS-A score and lower heart rate than the Control group. The 30-min follow-up showed that both Music and Aromatherapy groups had lower heart rate and blood pressure than the Control group. Music and aromatherapy interventions were both effective for ICU patients. The effects of music intervention were greater than that of aromatherapy; both interventions maintained the effects for at least 30 min.

  1. Use of a Parabolic Microphone to Detect Hidden Subjects in Search and Rescue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowditch, Nathaniel L; Searing, Stanley K; Thomas, Jeffrey A; Thompson, Peggy K; Tubis, Jacqueline N; Bowditch, Sylvia P

    2018-03-01

    This study compares a parabolic microphone to unaided hearing in detecting and comprehending hidden callers at ranges of 322 to 2510 m. Eight subjects were placed 322 to 2510 m away from a central listening point. The subjects were concealed, and their calling volume was calibrated. In random order, subjects were asked to call the name of a state for 5 minutes. Listeners with parabolic microphones and others with unaided hearing recorded the direction of the call (detection) and name of the state (comprehension). The parabolic microphone was superior to unaided hearing in both detecting subjects and comprehending their calls, with an effect size (Cohen's d) of 1.58 for detection and 1.55 for comprehension. For each of the 8 hidden subjects, there were 24 detection attempts with the parabolic microphone and 54 to 60 attempts by unaided listeners. At the longer distances (1529-2510 m), the parabolic microphone was better at detecting callers (83% vs 51%; P<0.00001 by χ 2 ) and comprehension (57% vs 12%; P<0.00001). At the shorter distances (322-1190 m), the parabolic microphone offered advantages in detection (100% vs 83%; P=0.000023) and comprehension (86% vs 51%; P<0.00001), although not as pronounced as at the longer distances. Use of a 66-cm (26-inch) parabolic microphone significantly improved detection and comprehension of hidden calling subjects at distances between 322 and 2510 m when compared with unaided hearing. This study supports the use of a parabolic microphone in search and rescue to locate responsive subjects in favorable weather and terrain. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Hidden beauty baryon states in the local hidden gauge approach with heavy quark spin symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, C.W.; Oset, E. [Centro Mixto Universidad de Valencia-CSIC, Institutos de Investigacion de Paterna, Departamento de Fisica Teorica and IFIC, Valencia (Spain)

    2013-11-15

    Using a coupled-channel unitary approach, combining the heavy quark spin symmetry and the dynamics of the local hidden gauge, we investigate the meson-baryon interaction with hidden beauty and obtain several new states of N around 11 GeV. We consider the basis of states {eta}{sub b} N, {Upsilon};N, B {Lambda}{sub b}, B {Sigma}{sub b}, B{sup *}{Lambda}{sub b}, B{sup *}{Sigma}{sub b}, B{sup *}{Sigma}{sub b}{sup *} and find four basic bound states which correspond to B {Sigma}{sub b}, B {Sigma}{sub b}{sup *}, B{sup *}{Sigma}{sub b} and B{sup *}{Sigma}{sub b}{sup *}, decaying mostly into {eta}{sub b} N and {Upsilon}N and with a binding energy about 50-130 MeV with respect to the thresholds of the corresponding channel. All of them have isospin I = 1/2, and we find no bound states or resonances in I = 3/2. The B {Sigma}{sub b} state appears in J = 1/2, the B {Sigma}{sub b}{sup *} in J = 3/2, the B{sup *}{Sigma}{sub b} appears nearly degenerate in J = 1/2, 3/2 and the B{sup *}{Sigma}{sub b}{sup *} appears nearly degenerate in J = 1/2, 3/2, 5/2. These states have a width from 2-110 MeV, with conservative estimates of uncertainties, except for the one in J = 5/2 which has zero width since it cannot decay into any of the states of the basis chosen. We make generous estimates of the uncertainties and find that within very large margins these states appear bound. (orig.)

  3. Gauge mediation scenario with hidden sector renormalization in MSSM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Masato; Kawai, Shinsuke; Okada, Nobuchika

    2010-01-01

    We study the hidden sector effects on the mass renormalization of a simplest gauge-mediated supersymmetry breaking scenario. We point out that possible hidden sector contributions render the soft scalar masses smaller, resulting in drastically different sparticle mass spectrum at low energy. In particular, in the 5+5 minimal gauge-mediated supersymmetry breaking with high messenger scale (that is favored by the gravitino cold dark matter scenario), we show that a stau can be the next lightest superparticle for moderate values of hidden sector self-coupling. This provides a very simple theoretical model of long-lived charged next lightest superparticles, which imply distinctive signals in ongoing and upcoming collider experiments.

  4. Gauge mediation scenario with hidden sector renormalization in MSSM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Masato; Kawai, Shinsuke; Okada, Nobuchika

    2010-02-01

    We study the hidden sector effects on the mass renormalization of a simplest gauge-mediated supersymmetry breaking scenario. We point out that possible hidden sector contributions render the soft scalar masses smaller, resulting in drastically different sparticle mass spectrum at low energy. In particular, in the 5+5¯ minimal gauge-mediated supersymmetry breaking with high messenger scale (that is favored by the gravitino cold dark matter scenario), we show that a stau can be the next lightest superparticle for moderate values of hidden sector self-coupling. This provides a very simple theoretical model of long-lived charged next lightest superparticles, which imply distinctive signals in ongoing and upcoming collider experiments.

  5. Applications of hidden symmetries to black hole physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frolov, Valeri

    2011-01-01

    This work is a brief review of applications of hidden symmetries to black hole physics. Symmetry is one of the most important concepts of the science. In physics and mathematics the symmetry allows one to simplify a problem, and often to make it solvable. According to the Noether theorem symmetries are responsible for conservation laws. Besides evident (explicit) spacetime symmetries, responsible for conservation of energy, momentum, and angular momentum of a system, there also exist what is called hidden symmetries, which are connected with higher order in momentum integrals of motion. A remarkable fact is that black holes in four and higher dimensions always possess a set ('tower') of explicit and hidden symmetries which make the equations of motion of particles and light completely integrable. The paper gives a general review of the recently obtained results. The main focus is on understanding why at all black holes have something (symmetry) to hide.

  6. Discovering Hidden Controlling Parameters using Data Analytics and Dimensional Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Rosario, Zachary; Lee, Minyong; Iaccarino, Gianluca

    2017-11-01

    Dimensional Analysis is a powerful tool, one which takes a priori information and produces important simplifications. However, if this a priori information - the list of relevant parameters - is missing a relevant quantity, then the conclusions from Dimensional Analysis will be incorrect. In this work, we present novel conclusions in Dimensional Analysis, which provide a means to detect this failure mode of missing or hidden parameters. These results are based on a restated form of the Buckingham Pi theorem that reveals a ridge function structure underlying all dimensionless physical laws. We leverage this structure by constructing a hypothesis test based on sufficient dimension reduction, allowing for an experimental data-driven detection of hidden parameters. Both theory and examples will be presented, using classical turbulent pipe flow as the working example. Keywords: experimental techniques, dimensional analysis, lurking variables, hidden parameters, buckingham pi, data analysis. First author supported by the NSF GRFP under Grant Number DGE-114747.

  7. Supersymmetry, p-brane duality, and hidden spacetime dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bars, I.

    1996-01-01

    A global superalgebra with 32 supercharges and all possible central extensions is studied in order to extract some general properties of duality and hidden dimensions in a theory that treats p-branes democratically. The maximal number of dimensions is 12, with signature (10,2), containing one space and one time dimension that are hidden from the point of view of perturbative ten-dimensional string theory or its compactifications. When the theory is compactified on R d-1,1 circle-times T c+1,1 with d+c+2=12, there are isometry groups that relate to the hidden dimensions as well as to duality. Their combined intersecting classification schemes provide some properties of nonperturbative states and their couplings. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  8. Analysing the hidden curriculum: use of a cultural web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossop, Liz; Dennick, Reg; Hammond, Richard; Robbé, Iain

    2013-02-01

    Major influences on learning about medical professionalism come from the hidden curriculum. These influences can contribute positively or negatively towards the professional enculturation of clinical students. The fact that there is no validated method for identifying the components of the hidden curriculum poses problems for educators considering professionalism. The aim of this study was to analyse whether a cultural web, adapted from a business context, might assist in the identification of elements of the hidden curriculum at a UK veterinary school. A qualitative approach was used. Seven focus groups consisting of three staff groups and four student groups were organised. Questioning was framed using the cultural web, which is a model used by business owners to assess their environment and consider how it affects their employees and customers. The focus group discussions were recorded, transcribed and analysed thematically using a combination of a priori and emergent themes. The cultural web identified elements of the hidden curriculum for both students and staff. These included: core assumptions; routines; rituals; control systems; organisational factors; power structures, and symbols. Discussions occurred about how and where these issues may affect students' professional identity development. The cultural web framework functioned well to help participants identify elements of the hidden curriculum. These aspects aligned broadly with previously described factors such as role models and institutional slang. The influence of these issues on a student's development of a professional identity requires discussion amongst faculty staff, and could be used to develop learning opportunities for students. The framework is promising for the analysis of the hidden curriculum and could be developed as an instrument for implementation in other clinical teaching environments. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2013.

  9. QCD sum rule study of hidden-charm pentaquarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Hua-Xing; Cui, Er-Liang [Beihang University, School of Physics and Beijing Key Laboratory of Advanced Nuclear Materials and Physics, Beijing (China); Chen, Wei; Steele, T.G. [University of Saskatchewan, Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada); Liu, Xiang [Lanzhou University, School of Physical Science and Technology, Lanzhou (China); Lanzhou University and Institute of Modern Physics of CAS, Research Center for Hadron and CSR Physics, Lanzhou (China); Zhu, Shi-Lin [Peking University, School of Physics and State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Beijing (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing (China); Peking University, Center of High Energy Physics, Beijing (China)

    2016-10-15

    We study the mass spectra of hidden-charm pentaquarks having spin J = (1)/(2)/(3)/(2)/(5)/(2) and quark contents uudc anti c. We systematically construct all the relevant local hidden-charm pentaquark currents, and we select some of them to perform QCD sum rule analyses. We find that the P{sub c}(4380) and P{sub c}(4450) can be identified as hidden-charm pentaquark states composed of an anti-charmed meson and a charmed baryon. Besides them, we also find (a) the lowest-lying hidden-charm pentaquark state of J{sup P} = 1/2{sup -} has the mass 4.33{sup +0.17}{sub -0.13} GeV, while the one of J{sup P} = 1/2{sup +} is significantly higher, that is, around 4.7-4.9 GeV; (b) the lowest-lying hidden-charm pentaquark state of J{sup P} = 3/2{sup -} has the mass 4.37{sup +0.18}{sub -0.13} GeV, consistent with the P{sub c}(4380) of J{sup P} = 3/2{sup -}, while the one of J{sup P} = 3/2{sup +} is also significantly higher, that is, above 4.6 GeV; (c) the hidden-charm pentaquark state of J{sup P} = 5/2{sup -} has a mass around 4.5-4.6 GeV, slightly larger than the P{sub c}(4450) of J{sup P} = 5/2{sup +}. (orig.)

  10. Detecting Hidden Hierarchy of Non Hierarchical Terrorist Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Memon, Nasrullah

    measures (and combinations of them) to identify key players (important nodes) in terrorist networks. Our recently introduced techniques and algorithms (which are also implemented in the investigative data mining toolkit known as iMiner) will be particularly useful for law enforcement agencies that need...... to analyze terrorist networks and prioritize their targets. Applying recently introduced mathematical methods for constructing the hidden hierarchy of "nonhierarchical" terrorist networks; we present case studies of the terrorist attacks occurred / planned in the past, in order to identify hidden hierarchy...

  11. Low-intensity interference effects and hidden-variable theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buonomano, V [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (Brazil). Inst. de Matematica

    1978-05-11

    The double-slit interference experiment and other similar experiments in the low-intensity limit (that is, one photon in the apparatus at a time) are examined in the spirit of Bell's work from the point of view of hidden-variable theories. It is found that there exists a class of hidden-variable theories which disagrees with quantum mechanics for a certain type of interference experiment. A manufactured conceptualization of this class, which is a particle view of interference, is described. An experiment, which appears to be feasible, is proposed to examine this disagreement.

  12. Application of Hidden Markov Models in Biomolecular Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Saurabh; Shamsi, Zahra; Moffett, Alexander S; Selvam, Balaji; Shukla, Diwakar

    2017-01-01

    Hidden Markov models (HMMs) provide a framework to analyze large trajectories of biomolecular simulation datasets. HMMs decompose the conformational space of a biological molecule into finite number of states that interconvert among each other with certain rates. HMMs simplify long timescale trajectories for human comprehension, and allow comparison of simulations with experimental data. In this chapter, we provide an overview of building HMMs for analyzing bimolecular simulation datasets. We demonstrate the procedure for building a Hidden Markov model for Met-enkephalin peptide simulation dataset and compare the timescales of the process.

  13. Enhanced axion-photon coupling in GUT with hidden photon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daido, Ryuji; Takahashi, Fuminobu; Yokozaki, Norimi

    2018-05-01

    We show that the axion coupling to photons can be enhanced in simple models with a single Peccei-Quinn field, if the gauge coupling unification is realized by a large kinetic mixing χ = O (0.1) between hypercharge and unbroken hidden U(1)H. The key observation is that the U(1)H gauge coupling should be rather strong to induce such large kinetic mixing, leading to enhanced contributions of hidden matter fields to the electromagnetic anomaly. We find that the axion-photon coupling is enhanced by about a factor of 10-100 with respect to the GUT-axion models with E / N = 8 / 3.

  14. Hidden Neural Networks: A Framework for HMM/NN Hybrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Søren Kamaric; Krogh, Anders Stærmose

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a general framework for hybrids of hidden Markov models (HMM) and neural networks (NN). In the new framework called hidden neural networks (HNN) the usual HMM probability parameters are replaced by neural network outputs. To ensure a probabilistic interpretation the HNN is nor...... HMMs on TIMIT continuous speech recognition benchmarks. On the task of recognizing five broad phoneme classes an accuracy of 84% is obtained compared to 76% for a standard HMM. Additionally, we report a preliminary result of 69% accuracy on the TIMIT 39 phoneme task...

  15. Search for hidden Higgs decay in ATLAS detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabrielli, A.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a brief overview of the search for the Higgs boson in Hidden Valley models is given. Hidden Valley models predict Higgs decays to neutral particles, which can be also long lived with decay paths comparable to the LHC detectors dimensions. Decay final states consist of collimated leptons (Lepton Jets). Results are presented of a search for Higgs decays to long lived particles in the ATLAS detector at the LHC, based on 1.92 fb −1 data collected during 2011 at a 7TeV center-of-mass energy.

  16. Detecting Faults By Use Of Hidden Markov Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Padhraic J.

    1995-01-01

    Frequency of false alarms reduced. Faults in complicated dynamic system (e.g., antenna-aiming system, telecommunication network, or human heart) detected automatically by method of automated, continuous monitoring. Obtains time-series data by sampling multiple sensor outputs at discrete intervals of t and processes data via algorithm determining whether system in normal or faulty state. Algorithm implements, among other things, hidden first-order temporal Markov model of states of system. Mathematical model of dynamics of system not needed. Present method is "prior" method mentioned in "Improved Hidden-Markov-Model Method of Detecting Faults" (NPO-18982).

  17. From the solar system fo hidden cosmic structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benes, K

    1987-01-01

    The development of experimental astrophysics showed that in the evolution of planets, natural processes of a common nature take place. They include, e.g., radiogenic heat, the production of magmas, volcanic activity, degassing, etc. The solar system is a cosmic formation in an advanced stage of development and it is a realistic assumption that in the Galaxy other hidden planetary systems in various stages of development exist. The views on the possibility of the origination of life in other systems differ; life, however, is seen as a hidden property of cosmic matter. (M.D.).

  18. Evidence of hidden leprosy in a supposedly low endemic area of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardes, Fred; Paula, Natália Aparecida de; Leite, Marcel Nani; Abi-Rached, Thania Loyola Cordeiro; Vernal, Sebastian; Silva, Moises Batista da; Barreto, Josafá Gonçalves; Spencer, John Stewart; Frade, Marco Andrey Cipriani

    2017-12-01

    Show that hidden endemic leprosy exists in a municipality of inner São Paulo state (Brazil) with active surveillance actions based on clinical and immunological evaluations. The study sample was composed by people randomly selected by a dermatologist during medical care in the public emergency department and by active surveillance carried out during two days at a mobile clinic. All subjects received a dermato-neurological examination and blood sampling to determine anti-PGL-I antibody titers by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). From July to December 2015, 24 new cases of leprosy were diagnosed; all were classified as multibacillary (MB) leprosy, one with severe Lucio's phenomenon. Seventeen (75%) were found with grade-1 or 2 disability at the moment of diagnosis. Anti-PGL-I titer was positive in 31/133 (23.3%) individuals, only 6/24 (25%) were positive in newly diagnosed leprosy cases. During the last ten years before this study, the average new case detection rate (NCDR) in this town was 2.62/100,000 population. After our work, the NCDR was raised to 42.8/100,000. These results indicate a very high number of hidden leprosy cases in this supposedly low endemic area of Brazil.

  19. Patient safety, resident well-being and continuity of care with different resident duty schedules in the intensive care unit: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parshuram, Christopher S; Amaral, Andre C K B; Ferguson, Niall D; Baker, G Ross; Etchells, Edward E; Flintoft, Virginia; Granton, John; Lingard, Lorelei; Kirpalani, Haresh; Mehta, Sangeeta; Moldofsky, Harvey; Scales, Damon C; Stewart, Thomas E; Willan, Andrew R; Friedrich, Jan O

    2015-03-17

    Shorter resident duty periods are increasingly mandated to improve patient safety and physician well-being. However, increases in continuity-related errors may counteract the purported benefits of reducing fatigue. We evaluated the effects of 3 resident schedules in the intensive care unit (ICU) on patient safety, resident well-being and continuity of care. Residents in 2 university-affiliated ICUs were randomly assigned (in 2-month rotation-blocks from January to June 2009) to in-house overnight schedules of 24, 16 or 12 hours. The primary patient outcome was adverse events. The primary resident outcome was sleepiness, measured by the 7-point Stanford Sleepiness Scale. Secondary outcomes were patient deaths, preventable adverse events, and residents' physical symptoms and burnout. Continuity of care and perceptions of ICU staff were also assessed. We evaluated 47 (96%) of 49 residents, all 971 admissions, 5894 patient-days and 452 staff surveys. We found no effect of schedule (24-, 16- or 12-h shifts) on adverse events (81.3, 76.3 and 78.2 events per 1000 patient-days, respectively; p = 0.7) or on residents' sleepiness in the daytime (mean rating 2.33, 2.61 and 2.30, respectively; p = 0.3) or at night (mean rating 3.06, 2.73 and 2.42, respectively; p = 0.2). Seven of 8 preventable adverse events occurred with the 12-hour schedule (p = 0.1). Mortality rates were similar for the 3 schedules. Residents' somatic symptoms were more severe and more frequent with the 24-hour schedule (p = 0.04); however, burnout was similar across the groups. ICU staff rated residents' knowledge and decision-making worst with the 16-hour schedule. Our findings do not support the purported advantages of shorter duty schedules. They also highlight the trade-offs between residents' symptoms and multiple secondary measures of patient safety. Further delineation of this emerging signal is required before widespread system change. ClinicalTrials.gov, no. NCT00679809. © 2015 Canadian Medical

  20. Hidden Pair of Supermassive Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-08-01

    Could a pair of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) be lurking at the center of the galaxy Mrk 231? A recent study finds that this may be the case and the unique spectrum of this galaxy could be the key to discovering more hidden binary SMBH systems.Where Are the Binary Supermassive Black Holes?Its believed that most, if not all, galaxies have an SMBH at their centers. As two galaxies merge, the two SMBHs should evolve into a closely-bound binary system before they eventually merge. Given the abundance of galaxy mergers, we would expect to see the kinematic and visual signatures of these binary SMBHs among observed active galactic nuclei yet such evidence for sub-parsec binary SMBH systems remains scarce and ambiguous. This has led researchers to wonder: is there another way that we might detect these elusive systems?A collaboration led by Chang-Shuo Yan (National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences) thinks that there is. The group suggests that these systems might have distinct signatures in their optical-to-UV spectra, and they identify a system that might be just such a candidate: Mrk 231.A Binary CandidateProposed model of Mrk 231. Two supermassive black holes, each with their own mini-disk, orbit each other in the center of a circumbinary disk. The secondary black hole has cleared gap in the circumbinary disk as a result of its orbit around the primary black hole. [Yan et al. 2015]Mrk 231 is a galaxy with a disturbed morphology and tidal tails strong clues that it might be in the final stages of a galactic merger. In addition to these signs, Mrk 231 also has an unusual spectrum for a quasar: its continuum emission displays an unexpected drop in the near-UV band.Yan and her collaborators propose that the odd behavior of Mrk 231s spectrum can be explained if the center of the galaxy houses a pair of SMBHs each with its own mini accretion disk surrounded by a circumbinary accretion disk. As the secondary SMBH orbits the primary SMBH (with a

  1. Photoacoustic imaging of hidden dental caries by using a fiber-based probing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Takuya; Kakino, Satoko; Matsuura, Yuji

    2017-04-01

    Photoacoustic method to detect hidden dental caries is proposed. It was found that high frequency ultrasonic waves are generated from hidden carious part when radiating laser light to occlusal surface of model tooth. By making a map of intensity of these high frequency components, photoacoustic images of hidden caries were successfully obtained. A photoacoustic imaging system using a bundle of hollow optical fiber was fabricated for using clinical application, and clear photoacoustic image of hidden caries was also obtained by this system.

  2. Low-scale gravity mediation in warped extra dimension and collider phenomenology on hidden sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, H.; Okada, N.; Yamashita, T.

    2007-01-01

    We propose a new scenario of gravity-mediated supersymmetry breaking (gravity mediation) in a supersymmetric Randall-Sundrum model, where the gravity mediation takes place at a low scale due to the warped metric. We investigate collider phenomenology involving the hidden sector field, and find a possibility that the hidden sector field can be produced at the LHC and the ILC. The hidden sector may no longer be hidden. (author)

  3. Wishart and anti-Wishart random matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janik, Romuald A; Nowak, Maciej A

    2003-01-01

    We provide a compact exact representation for the distribution of the matrix elements of the Wishart-type random matrices A † A, for any finite number of rows and columns of A, without any large N approximations. In particular, we treat the case when the Wishart-type random matrix contains redundant, non-random information, which is a new result. This representation is of interest for a procedure for reconstructing the redundant information hidden in Wishart matrices, with potential applications to numerous models based on biological, social and artificial intelligence networks

  4. A randomized controlled trial on early physiotherapy intervention versus usual care in acute care unit for elderly: potential benefits in light of dietary intakes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blanc-Bisson, C.; Dechamps, A.A.; Gouspillou, G.; Dehail, P.; Bourdel-Marchasson, I.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate effects of early intensive physiotherapy during acute illness on post hospitalization activity daily living autonomy (ADL). DESIGN: Prospective randomized controlled trial of intensive physiotherapy rehabilitation on day 1 to 2 after admission until clinical stability or usual

  5. On the hidden maxwell superalgebra underlying D = 4 supergravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penafiel, D.M. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Concepcion (Chile); DISAT, Politecnico di Torino (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Torino (Italy); Ravera, L. [DISAT, Politecnico di Torino (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Torino (Italy)

    2017-09-15

    In this work, we expand the hidden AdS-Lorentz superalgebra underlying D = 4 supergravity, reaching a (hidden) Maxwell superalgebra. The latter can be viewed as an extension involving cosmological constant of the superalgebra underlying D = 4 supergravity in flat spacetime. We write the Maurer-Cartan equations in this context and we find some interesting extensions of the antisymmetric 3-form A{sup (3)} appearing in the Free Differential Algebra in Minkowski space. The structure of Free Differential Algebras is obtained by considering the zero curvature equations. We write the parametrization of A{sup (3)} in terms of 1-forms and we rend the topological features of its extensions manifest. We interestingly find out that the structure of these extensions, and consequently the structure of the corresponding boundary contribution dA{sup (3)}, strongly depends on the form of the extra fermionic generator appearing in the hidden Maxwell superalgebra. The model we develop in this work is defined in an enlarged superspace with respect to the ordinary one, and the extra bosonic and fermionic 1-forms required for the closure of the hidden Maxwell superalgebra must be considered as physical fields in this enlarged superspace. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  6. Generalized inequalities for quantum correlations with hidden variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinduska, M.

    1991-01-01

    Renowned inequalities for quantum correlations are generalized for the case when quantum system cannot be described with an absolute independent measure of the probability. Such a formulation appears to be suitable for the formulation of the hidden variables theory in terms of non-Euclidean geometry. 10 refs

  7. Hidden conic quadratic representation of some nonconvex quadratic optimization problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ben-Tal, A.; den Hertog, D.

    The problem of minimizing a quadratic objective function subject to one or two quadratic constraints is known to have a hidden convexity property, even when the quadratic forms are indefinite. The equivalent convex problem is a semidefinite one, and the equivalence is based on the celebrated

  8. Measurement problem and local hidden variables with entangled photons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muchowski Eugen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that there is no remote action with polarization measurements of photons in singlet state. A model is presented introducing a hidden parameter which determines the polarizer output. This model is able to explain the polarization measurement results with entangled photons. It is not ruled out by Bell’s Theorem.

  9. The incompatibility between local hidden variable theories and the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    I discuss in detail the result that the Bell's inequalities derived in the context of local hidden variable theories for discrete quantized observables can be satisfied only if a fundamental conservation law is violated on the average. This result shows that such theories are physically nonviable, and makes the demarcating criteria ...

  10. A novel design of hidden web crawler using ontology

    OpenAIRE

    Manvi; Bhatia, Komal Kumar; Dixit, Ashutosh

    2015-01-01

    Deep Web is content hidden behind HTML forms. Since it represents a large portion of the structured, unstructured and dynamic data on the Web, accessing Deep-Web content has been a long challenge for the database community. This paper describes a crawler for accessing Deep-Web using Ontologies. Performance evaluation of the proposed work showed that this new approach has promising results.

  11. Hidden symmetries of the Principal Chiral Model unveiled

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devchand, C.; Schiff, J.

    1996-12-01

    By relating the two-dimensional U(N) Principal Chiral Model to a Simple linear system we obtain a free-field parametrization of solutions. Obvious symmetry transformations on the free-field data give symmetries of the model. In this way all known 'hidden symmetries' and Baecklund transformations, as well as a host of new symmetries, arise. (author). 21 refs

  12. A hidden bias in a common calorimeter calibration scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lincoln, Don; Morrow, Greg; Kasper, Peter

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, a common calorimeter calibration scheme is explored and a hidden bias found. Since this bias mimics a non-linearity in response in the calorimeter, it must be understood and removed from the calibration before true non-linearities are investigated. The effect and its removal are explored and understood through straightforward calculus and algebra. ((orig.))

  13. Exposing the Hidden-Web Induced by Ajax

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mesbah, A.; Van Deursen, A.

    2008-01-01

    AJAX is a very promising approach for improving rich interactivity and responsiveness of web applications. At the same time, AJAX techniques increase the totality of the hidden web by shattering the metaphor of a web ‘page’ upon which general search engines are based. This paper describes a

  14. Crisis Entrepreneurs and Hidden Crises : Illustrative Examples of Interactional

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prof. Cees van Woerkum; dr. Annette Klarenbeek

    2012-01-01

    We examine the ways in which a hidden crisis can be exposed from a communication point of view. In which way can organisations create general awareness of a crisis and try to understand the dynamic nature of interactions? With the help of discourse analysis, we have examined the interactional

  15. Hidden symmetry of the quantum Calogero-Moser system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuzentsov, Vadim b

    1996-01-01

    The hidden symmetry of the quantum Calogero-Moser system with an inverse-square potential is algebraically demonstrated making use of Dunkl's operators. We find the underlying algebra explaining the super-integrability phenomenon for this system. Applications to related multi-variable Bessel...... functions are also discussed....

  16. Duality and hidden symmetries in interacting particle systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giardinà, C.; Kurchan, J.; Redig, F.H.J.; Vafayi, K.

    2009-01-01

    In the context of Markov processes, both in discrete and continuous setting, we show a general relation between duality functions and symmetries of the generator. If the generator can be written in the form of a Hamiltonian of a quantum spin system, then the "hidden" symmetries are easily derived.

  17. A Constraint Model for Constrained Hidden Markov Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning; Have, Christian Theil; Lassen, Ole Torp

    2009-01-01

    A Hidden Markov Model (HMM) is a common statistical model which is widely used for analysis of biological sequence data and other sequential phenomena. In the present paper we extend HMMs with constraints and show how the familiar Viterbi algorithm can be generalized, based on constraint solving ...

  18. Is There Hidden Potential for Rural Population Growth in Sweden?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedomysl, Thomas; Amcoff, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Rural depopulation is a concern in many countries, and various policy initiatives have been taken to combat such trends. This article examines whether hidden potential for rural population growth can be found in Sweden. If such potential exists, it implies that the development prospects for many rural areas are not as unpromising as they may seem…

  19. Optimisation of Hidden Markov Model using Baum–Welch algorithm

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 126; Issue 1. Optimisation of Hidden Markov Model using Baum–Welch algorithm for prediction of maximum and minimum temperature over Indian Himalaya. J C Joshi Tankeshwar Kumar Sunita Srivastava Divya Sachdeva. Volume 126 Issue 1 February 2017 ...

  20. Hidden Markov Model for quantitative prediction of snowfall

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Hidden Markov Model (HMM) has been developed for prediction of quantitative snowfall in Pir-Panjal and Great Himalayan mountain ranges of Indian Himalaya. The model predicts snowfall for two days in advance using daily recorded nine meteorological variables of past 20 winters from 1992–2012. There are six ...

  1. Light hidden-sector U(1)s in string compactifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodsell, Mark; Ringwald, Andreas

    2010-02-15

    We review the case for light U(1) gauge bosons in the hidden-sector of heterotic and type II string compactifications, present estimates of the size of their kinetic mixing with the visible-sector hypercharge U(1), and discuss their possibly very interesting phenomenological consequences in particle physics and cosmology. (orig.)

  2. Book Review: "Hidden Markov Models for Time Series: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hidden Markov Models for Time Series: An Introduction using R. by Walter Zucchini and Iain L. MacDonald. Chapman & Hall (CRC Press), 2009. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/saaj.v10i1.61717 · AJOL African Journals Online.

  3. TeraHertz imaging of hidden paint layers on canvas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adam, A.J.L.; Planken, P.C.M.; Meloni, S.; Dik, J.

    2009-01-01

    We show terahertz reflection images of hidden paint layers in a painting on canvas and compare the results with X-ray Radiography and Infrared Reflectography. Our terahertz measurements show strong reflections from both the canvas/paint interface and from the raw umber/lead white interface,

  4. K­MEANS CLUSTERING FOR HIDDEN MARKOV MODEL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perrone, M.P.; Connell, S.D.

    2004-01-01

    An unsupervised k­means clustering algorithm for hidden Markov models is described and applied to the task of generating subclass models for individual handwritten character classes. The algorithm is compared to a related clustering method and shown to give a relative change in the error rate of as

  5. EVALUASI HIDDEN CURRICULUM DI SMP NEGERI BOJA, KABUPATEN KENDAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neni Lestari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the implementation and impact of Hidden Curriculum, as well as the determinant factors of success and sustainability in SMPN 2 Boja Kendal. This study was an evaluative research using qualitative approach. The data collected by using observation, interviews, and documentation. Data analyzed by collecting and selecting to be deduce. Validity used triangulation data that combined the result of observation, interviews, and documentation. The results of the study were: 1 The activities of hidden curriculum development at SMPN 2 Boja Kendal, namely: flag ceremony, school environmental management, establishing and enforcing discipline, special religious worship, smiles, greetings and courtesies, exemplary, relationship among students and principal, teachers, and staff, school canteen services. 2 The impact of the hidden curriculum development was the changing of school community’s behavior being better, created clean and beautiful school environment, the improvement of public trust to the school toward their kids’ education. Development of the hidden curriculum could establish students good character and an optimal achievement as well as a good school culture. 3 Internal supporting factors including: qualified human resources, the availability of school facilities, school environment was clean and beautiful. External supporting factors occur in the form of endorsement of the parents, school committees and communities in establishing good and virtuous character for the students.

  6. Hidden and generalized conformal symmetry of Kerr–Sen spacetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghezelbash, A M; Siahaan, H M

    2013-01-01

    It is recently conjectured that generic non-extremal Kerr black hole could be holographically dual to a hidden conformal field theory (CFT) in two dimensions. Moreover, it is known that there are two CFT duals (pictures) to describe the charged rotating black holes which correspond to angular momentum J and electric charge Q of the black hole. Furthermore these two pictures can be incorporated by the CFT duals (general picture) that are generated by SL(2,Z) modular group. The general conformal structure can be revealed by looking at charged scalar wave equation in some appropriate values of frequency and charge. In this regard, we consider the wave equation of a charged massless scalar field in the background of Kerr–Sen black hole and show that in the ‘near region’, the wave equation can be reproduced by the Casimir operator of a local SL(2,R) L ×SL(2,R) R hidden conformal symmetry. We find the exact agreement between macroscopic and microscopic physical quantities like entropy and absorption cross section of scalars for Kerr–Sen black hole. We then find an extension of vector fields that in turn yields an extended local family of SL(2,R) L ×SL(2,R) R hidden conformal symmetry, parameterized by one parameter. For some special values of the parameter, we find a copy of SL(2,R) hidden conformal algebra for the charged Gibbons–Maeda–Garfinkle–Horowitz–Strominger black hole in the strong deflection limit. (paper)

  7. Light hidden-sector U(1)s in string compactifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodsell, Mark; Ringwald, Andreas

    2010-02-01

    We review the case for light U(1) gauge bosons in the hidden-sector of heterotic and type II string compactifications, present estimates of the size of their kinetic mixing with the visible-sector hypercharge U(1), and discuss their possibly very interesting phenomenological consequences in particle physics and cosmology. (orig.)

  8. Securing Localization With Hidden and Mobile Base Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capkun, Srdjan; Srivastava, Mani; Cagalj, Mario

    2006-01-01

    localization based on hidden and mobile base stations. Our approach enables secure localization with a broad spectrum of localization techniques: ultrasonic or radio, based on received signal strength or signal time of flight. Through several examples we show how this approach can be used to secure nodecentric...

  9. Optimal Number of States in Hidden Markov Models and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, Hidden Markov Model is applied to model human movements as to facilitate an automatic detection of the same. A number of activities were simulated with the help of two persons. The four movements considered are walking, sitting down-getting up, fall while walking and fall while standing. The data is ...

  10. Book review: Troubling possibility, hidden fires and secret drawers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Book review: Troubling possibility, hidden fires and secret drawers: Tiyambe Zeleza's smouldering charcoal. H.F. Ross. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL.

  11. Charm and Hidden Charm Scalar Resonances in Nuclear Matter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolos, Laura; Molina, Raquel; Gamermann, Daniel; Oset, Eulogio

    2009-01-01

    We study the properties of the scalar charm resonances D(s0)(2317) and D(0)(2400), and the theoretical hidden charm state X(3700) in nuclear matter. We find that for the D(s0)(2317) and X(3700) resonances, with negligible and small width at zero density, respectively, the width becomes about 100 MeV

  12. Hidden Markov model for improved ultrasound-based presence detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaramillo Garcia, P.A.; Linnartz, J.P.M.G.

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive lighting systems typically use a presence detector to save energy by switching off lights in unoccupied rooms. However, it is highly annoying when lights are erroneously turned off while a user is present (false negative, FN). This paper focuses on the estimation of presence, using a Hidden

  13. Job Clubs: Getting into the Hidden Labor Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimeldorf, Martin; Tornow, Janice A.

    1984-01-01

    A job club approach for secondary disabled youth focuses on mastering job seeking skills by behaviorally sequenced steps learned in situational experiences within a self-help group process framework. Students learn to penetrate the hidden job market, to use social networking via the telephone, and to participate successfully in job interviews. (CL)

  14. Unpacking the Hidden Efficacies of Learning in Productive Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, David; Chen, Victor; Lim, Seo Hong

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a framework for learning where learners undergo experimentations with the phenomena at hand according to progressive and staged goals. Bowling is used as a case study in this paper. The premise for experimentations is that learners can experience hidden efficacies, including the formation of "bad habits." A distinction is made…

  15. Thermoelectric generator hidden in a shirt with a fabric radiator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leonov, V.; Vullers, R.J.M.; Hoof, C.V.

    2012-01-01

    Integration of thermopiles in garments has been performed in this work in different ways. It is shown that textile has a minor effect on power generation, which enables completely hidden and unobtrusive energy harvester. A one-milliwatt thermoelectric generator is then integrated between two layers

  16. B-graph sampling to estimate the size of a hidden population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spreen, M.; Bogaerts, S.

    2015-01-01

    Link-tracing designs are often used to estimate the size of hidden populations by utilizing the relational links between their members. A major problem in studies of hidden populations is the lack of a convenient sampling frame. The most frequently applied design in studies of hidden populations is

  17. Zero velocity interval detection based on a continuous hidden Markov model in micro inertial pedestrian navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Ding, Wei; Yan, Huifang; Duan, Shunli

    2018-06-01

    Shoe-mounted pedestrian navigation systems based on micro inertial sensors rely on zero velocity updates to correct their positioning errors in time, which effectively makes determining the zero velocity interval play a key role during normal walking. However, as walking gaits are complicated, and vary from person to person, it is difficult to detect walking gaits with a fixed threshold method. This paper proposes a pedestrian gait classification method based on a hidden Markov model. Pedestrian gait data are collected with a micro inertial measurement unit installed at the instep. On the basis of analyzing the characteristics of the pedestrian walk, a single direction angular rate gyro output is used to classify gait features. The angular rate data are modeled into a univariate Gaussian mixture model with three components, and a four-state left–right continuous hidden Markov model (CHMM) is designed to classify the normal walking gait. The model parameters are trained and optimized using the Baum–Welch algorithm and then the sliding window Viterbi algorithm is used to decode the gait. Walking data are collected through eight subjects walking along the same route at three different speeds; the leave-one-subject-out cross validation method is conducted to test the model. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can accurately detect different walking gaits of zero velocity interval. The location experiment shows that the precision of CHMM-based pedestrian navigation improved by 40% when compared to the angular rate threshold method.

  18. Using signage to promote stair use on a university campus in hidden and visible stairwells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimstvedt, Megan E; Kerr, Jacqueline; Oswalt, Sara B; Fogt, Donovan L; Vargas-Tonsing, Tiffanye M; Yin, Zenong

    2010-03-01

    This study tested the effectiveness of a stair use promotion strategy in visible and hidden stairwells during intervention and post intervention follow up. A quasi-experimental study design was used with a 1 week baseline, a 3 week intervention, and post intervention at 2 and 4 weeks in 4 university buildings in San Antonio, Texas with stairwells varying in visibility. Participants were students, faculty, staff, and visitors to the 4 buildings. A total of 8431 observations were made. The intervention incorporated motivational signs with direction to nearby stairwells placed by elevators to promote stair use. Stair and elevator use was directly observed and recorded. Logistic regression analyses were used to test whether stair versus elevator use varied by intervention phase and stairwell visibility. Stair use increased significantly (12% units) during the intervention period and remained above baseline levels during post intervention follow-up. At baseline, visible stairs were 4 times more likely to be used than hidden stairs; however, the increase in stair use during intervention was similar in both types of stairwells. Motivational and directional signage can significantly increase stair use on a university campus. Furthermore, stairwell visibility is an important aspect of stair use promotion.

  19. Segmenting Continuous Motions with Hidden Semi-markov Models and Gaussian Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoaki Nakamura

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Humans divide perceived continuous information into segments to facilitate recognition. For example, humans can segment speech waves into recognizable morphemes. Analogously, continuous motions are segmented into recognizable unit actions. People can divide continuous information into segments without using explicit segment points. This capacity for unsupervised segmentation is also useful for robots, because it enables them to flexibly learn languages, gestures, and actions. In this paper, we propose a Gaussian process-hidden semi-Markov model (GP-HSMM that can divide continuous time series data into segments in an unsupervised manner. Our proposed method consists of a generative model based on the hidden semi-Markov model (HSMM, the emission distributions of which are Gaussian processes (GPs. Continuous time series data is generated by connecting segments generated by the GP. Segmentation can be achieved by using forward filtering-backward sampling to estimate the model's parameters, including the lengths and classes of the segments. In an experiment using the CMU motion capture dataset, we tested GP-HSMM with motion capture data containing simple exercise motions; the results of this experiment showed that the proposed GP-HSMM was comparable with other methods. We also conducted an experiment using karate motion capture data, which is more complex than exercise motion capture data; in this experiment, the segmentation accuracy of GP-HSMM was 0.92, which outperformed other methods.

  20. A Duration Hidden Markov Model for the Identification of Regimes in Stock Market Returns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ntantamis, Christos

    This paper introduces a Duration Hidden Markov Model to model bull and bear market regime switches in the stock market; the duration of each state of the Markov Chain is a random variable that depends on a set of exogenous variables. The model not only allows the endogenous determination...... of the different regimes and but also estimates the effect of the explanatory variables on the regimes' durations. The model is estimated here on NYSE returns using the short-term interest rate and the interest rate spread as exogenous variables. The bull market regime is assigned to the identified state...... with the higher mean and lower variance; bull market duration is found to be negatively dependent on short-term interest rates and positively on the interest rate spread, while bear market duration depends positively the short-term interest rate and negatively on the interest rate spread....

  1. Baryon states with hidden charm in the extended local hidden gauge approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchino, T.; Oset, E.; Liang, Wei-Hong

    2016-01-01

    The s-wave interaction of anti DΛ c , anti DΣ c , anti D * Λ c , anti D * Σ c and anti DΣ c * , anti D * Σ c * , is studied within a unitary coupled channels scheme with the extended local hidden gauge approach. In addition to the Weinberg-Tomozawa term, several additional diagrams via the pion exchange are also taken into account as box potentials. Furthermore, in order to implement the full coupled channels calculation, some of the box potentials which mix the vector-baryon and pseudoscalar-baryon sectors are extended to construct the effective transition potentials. As a result, we have observed six possible states in several angular momenta. Four of them correspond to two pairs of admixture states, two of anti DΣ c - anti D * Σ c with J = 1/2, and two of anti DΣ c * - anti D * Σ c * with J = 3/2. Moreover, we find a anti D * Σ c resonance which couples to the anti DΛ c channel and one spin degenerated bound state of anti D * Σ c * with J = 1/2,5/2. (orig.)

  2. Baryon states with hidden charm in the extended local hidden gauge approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchino, T.; Oset, E. [Centro Mixto Universidad de Valencia-CSIC, Institutos de Investigacion de Paterna, Departamento de Fisica Teorica y IFIC, Valencia (Spain); Liang, Wei-Hong [Guangxi Normal University, Department of Physics, Guilin (China)

    2016-03-15

    The s-wave interaction of anti DΛ{sub c}, anti DΣ{sub c}, anti D{sup *}Λ{sub c}, anti D{sup *}Σ{sub c} and anti DΣ{sub c}{sup *}, anti D{sup *}Σ{sub c}{sup *}, is studied within a unitary coupled channels scheme with the extended local hidden gauge approach. In addition to the Weinberg-Tomozawa term, several additional diagrams via the pion exchange are also taken into account as box potentials. Furthermore, in order to implement the full coupled channels calculation, some of the box potentials which mix the vector-baryon and pseudoscalar-baryon sectors are extended to construct the effective transition potentials. As a result, we have observed six possible states in several angular momenta. Four of them correspond to two pairs of admixture states, two of anti DΣ{sub c} - anti D{sup *}Σ{sub c} with J = 1/2, and two of anti DΣ{sub c}{sup *} - anti D{sup *}Σ{sub c}{sup *} with J = 3/2. Moreover, we find a anti D{sup *}Σ{sub c} resonance which couples to the anti DΛ{sub c} channel and one spin degenerated bound state of anti D{sup *}Σ{sub c}{sup *} with J = 1/2,5/2. (orig.)

  3. Hidden imperfect synchronization of wall turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardu, Sedat F

    2010-03-01

    Instantaneous amplitude and phase concept emerging from analytical signal formulation is applied to the wavelet coefficients of streamwise velocity fluctuations in the buffer layer of a near wall turbulent flow. Experiments and direct numerical simulations show both the existence of long periods of inert zones wherein the local phase is constant. These regions are separated by random phase jumps. The local amplitude is globally highly intermittent, but not in the phase locked regions wherein it varies smoothly. These behaviors are reminiscent of phase synchronization phenomena observed in stochastic chaotic systems. The lengths of the constant phase inert (laminar) zones reveal a type I intermittency behavior, in concordance with saddle-node bifurcation, and the periodic orbits of saddle nature recently identified in Couette turbulence. The imperfect synchronization is related to the footprint of coherent Reynolds shear stress producing eddies convecting in the low buffer.

  4. Bildung: A hidden reason for adult mathematics?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Lene Østergaard

    2005-01-01

    ). PAE will be offered to all persons over 18 who wish to improve their general skills to become better equipped for the labour market and as citizens in a democratic society. The question "Why teach numeracy to adults with lack of basic mathematical skills?" has been the core question in my research...... politicians and researchers in adult numeracy education and that formal education also is a shared argument as a way to reach this ideal, however how beautiful it seems and how much it looks like a united community of practise I will show and discuss important issues where there are crucial differences...

  5. The use of hidden curriculum in the interpretation of climate change on infographics in higher education students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abner Colón Ortiz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The importance of environmental issues is evident deemed climate change to educate students. The main purpose of this study was to explore the interpretation of climate change on infographics in higher education students using the hidden curriculum. To achieve the purpose, a content analysis was performed to analyze the infographics that present students before (diagnostic and after (formative to use a hidden curriculum concepts of climate change in a course of General Biology. The study was conducted was a qualitative content analysis approach. The sample consisted of undergraduate students of an institution of higher education in Puerto Rico who took a course in General Biology.The results of the content analysis reflected that 81% of students had some misconceptions of climate change at the beginning of the course. Then offer the course General Biology and integrate concepts of climate change with a hidden curriculum, students downplayed their erroneous concepts to 9%. Therefore, we conclude that concepts should be integrated in climate change science courses for better environmental education. This explains why there is a need to educate students on climate change as recommended by the state and international agencies. So states to consider the potential of universities to develop environmental education and close collaboration between institutions of higher education as well as established the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. 

  6. Hidden photons in beam dump experiments and in connection with dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreas, Sarah

    2012-12-15

    Hidden sectors with light extra U(1) gauge bosons, so-called hidden photons, recently received much interest as natural feature of beyond standard model scenarios like string theory and SUSY and because of their possible connection to dark matter. This paper presents limits on hidden photons from past electron beam dump experiments including two new limits from experiments at KEK and Orsay. Additionally, various hidden sector models containing both a hidden photon and a dark matter candidate are discussed with respect to their viability and potential signatures in direct detection.

  7. Hidden photons in beam dump experiments and in connection with dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreas, Sarah

    2012-12-01

    Hidden sectors with light extra U(1) gauge bosons, so-called hidden photons, recently received much interest as natural feature of beyond standard model scenarios like string theory and SUSY and because of their possible connection to dark matter. This paper presents limits on hidden photons from past electron beam dump experiments including two new limits from experiments at KEK and Orsay. Additionally, various hidden sector models containing both a hidden photon and a dark matter candidate are discussed with respect to their viability and potential signatures in direct detection.

  8. Coding deficits in noise-induced hidden hearing loss may stem from incomplete repair of ribbon synapses in the cochlea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijuan eShi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence has shown that noise-induced damage to the synapse between inner hair cells (IHCs and type I afferent auditory nerve fibers (ANFs may occur in the absence of permanent threshold shift (PTS, and that synapses connecting IHCs with low spontaneous rate (SR ANFs are disproportionately affected. Due to the functional importance of low-SR ANF units for temporal processing and signal coding in noisy backgrounds, deficits in cochlear coding associated with noise-induced damage may result in significant difficulties with temporal processing and hearing in noise (i.e., hidden hearing loss. However, significant noise-induced coding deficits have not been reported at the single unit level following the loss of low-SR units. We have found evidence to suggest that some aspects of neural coding are not significantly changed with the initial loss of low-SR ANFs, and that further coding deficits arise in association with the subsequent reestablishment of the synapses. This suggests that synaptopathy in hidden hearing loss may be the result of insufficient repair of disrupted synapses, and not simply due to the loss of low-SR units. These coding deficits include decreases in driven spike rate for intensity coding as well as several aspects of temporal coding: spike latency, peak-to-sustained spike ratio and the recovery of spike rate as a function of click-interval.

  9. Structure and Randomness of Continuous-Time, Discrete-Event Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzen, Sarah E.; Crutchfield, James P.

    2017-10-01

    Loosely speaking, the Shannon entropy rate is used to gauge a stochastic process' intrinsic randomness; the statistical complexity gives the cost of predicting the process. We calculate, for the first time, the entropy rate and statistical complexity of stochastic processes generated by finite unifilar hidden semi-Markov models—memoryful, state-dependent versions of renewal processes. Calculating these quantities requires introducing novel mathematical objects (ɛ -machines of hidden semi-Markov processes) and new information-theoretic methods to stochastic processes.

  10. Effect of random edge failure on the average path length

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo Dongchao; Liang Mangui; Li Dandan; Jiang Zhongyuan, E-mail: mgliang58@gmail.com, E-mail: 08112070@bjtu.edu.cn [Institute of Information Science, Beijing Jiaotong University, 100044, Beijing (China)

    2011-10-14

    We study the effect of random removal of edges on the average path length (APL) in a large class of uncorrelated random networks in which vertices are characterized by hidden variables controlling the attachment of edges between pairs of vertices. A formula for approximating the APL of networks suffering random edge removal is derived first. Then, the formula is confirmed by simulations for classical ER (Erdoes and Renyi) random graphs, BA (Barabasi and Albert) networks, networks with exponential degree distributions as well as random networks with asymptotic power-law degree distributions with exponent {alpha} > 2. (paper)

  11. An impossibility theorem for parameter independent hidden variable theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leegwater, Gijs

    2016-05-01

    Recently, Roger Colbeck and Renato Renner (C&R) have claimed that '[n]o extension of quantum theory can have improved predictive power' (Colbeck & Renner, 2011, 2012b). If correct, this is a spectacular impossibility theorem for hidden variable theories, which is more general than the theorems of Bell (1964) and Leggett (2003). Also, C&R have used their claim in attempt to prove that a system's quantum-mechanical wave function is in a one-to-one correspondence with its 'ontic' state (Colbeck & Renner, 2012a). C&R's claim essentially means that in any hidden variable theory that is compatible with quantum-mechanical predictions, probabilities of measurement outcomes are independent of these hidden variables. This makes such variables otiose. On closer inspection, however, the generality and validity of the claim can be contested. First, it is based on an assumption called 'Freedom of Choice'. As the name suggests, this assumption involves the independence of an experimenter's choice of measurement settings. But in the way C&R define this assumption, a no-signalling condition is surreptitiously presupposed, making the assumption less innocent than it sounds. When using this definition, any hidden variable theory violating parameter independence, such as Bohmian Mechanics, is immediately shown to be incompatible with quantum-mechanical predictions. Also, the argument of C&R is hard to follow and their mathematical derivation contains several gaps, some of which cannot be closed in the way they suggest. We shall show that these gaps can be filled. The issue with the 'Freedom of Choice' assumption can be circumvented by explicitly assuming parameter independence. This makes the result less general, but better founded. We then obtain an impossibility theorem for hidden variable theories satisfying parameter independence only. As stated above, such hidden variable theories are impossible in the sense that any supplemental variables have no bearing on outcome probabilities

  12. Non-intrusive gesture recognition system combining with face detection based on Hidden Markov Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jing; Wang, Yuanqing; Xu, Liujing; Cao, Liqun; Han, Lei; Zhou, Biye; Li, Minggao

    2014-11-01

    A non-intrusive gesture recognition human-machine interaction system is proposed in this paper. In order to solve the hand positioning problem which is a difficulty in current algorithms, face detection is used for the pre-processing to narrow the search area and find user's hand quickly and accurately. Hidden Markov Model (HMM) is used for gesture recognition. A certain number of basic gesture units are trained as HMM models. At the same time, an improved 8-direction feature vector is proposed and used to quantify characteristics in order to improve the detection accuracy. The proposed system can be applied in interaction equipments without special training for users, such as household interactive television

  13. Improving Support for America's Hidden Heroes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terri, Tanielian; Kathryn E., Bouskill; Rajeev, Ramchand; Esther M., Friedman; Thomas E., Trail; Angela, Clague

    2018-01-01

    Abstract The United States is home to more than 21 million veterans, many of whom deployed to support combat operations around the globe during their military service and sustained service-related conditions or disabilities. Supporting these wounded, ill, and injured warriors once home are millions of informal caregivers—individuals who provide unpaid support with activities that enable the service member or veteran to live in a noninstitutionalized setting. In this study, researchers describe elements of a research blueprint to inform future efforts to improve support for military and veteran caregivers. To construct this blueprint, researchers inventoried currently available research on caregiving for disabled adults and children and gathered stakeholder input by conducting a survey and facilitating an online panel. The study highlights the need for more studies that examine how military and veteran caregiver needs evolve over time, how programs are working, and how caregiving affects specific subgroups. The resulting blueprint should serve as a guide for the caregiver support community to use in prioritizing and facilitating future research. PMID:29416949

  14. Heavy superpartners with less tuning from hidden sector renormalisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, Edward

    2014-01-01

    In supersymmetric extensions of the Standard Model, superpartner masses consistent with collider bounds typically introduce significant tuning of the electroweak scale. We show that hidden sector renormalisation can greatly reduce such a tuning if the supersymmetry breaking, or mediating, sector runs through a region of strong coupling not far from the weak scale. In the simplest models, only the tuning due to the gaugino masses is improved, and a weak scale gluino mass in the region of 5 TeV may be obtained with an associated tuning of only one part in ten. In models with more complex couplings between the visible and hidden sectors, the tuning with respect to sfermions can also be reduced. We give an example of a model, with low scale gauge mediation and superpartner masses allowed by current LHC bounds, that has an overall tuning of one part in twenty

  15. Hidden order and disorder effects in URu2Si2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal, O. O.; Moroz, M. E.; Ishida, K.; Murakawa, H.; Reyes, A. P.; Kuhns, P. L.; MacLaughlin, D. E.; Mydosh, J. A.; Gortenmulder, T. J.

    2006-05-01

    NMR experiments at ambient pressure in URu 2Si 2 demonstrate a linewidth enhancement effect below the hidden order transition temperature T0. We present single-crystal 29Si NMR parameters for various temperatures and for an applied magnetic field perpendicular to the crystal c-axis. By comparing oriented-powder and single-crystal data, we observe that the size of the linewidth enhancement below T0 correlates with the size of the high- T broadening. We measure a 29Si up-field line shift below T0 which indicates the presence of an internal-field average for the entire crystal. This shift also correlates with the high-temperature width. The 101Ru NQR frequency as a function of temperature was also measured. No strong effect on the NQR frequency is observed at T0. Both NMR and NQR measurements suggest a connection between linewidth/disorder effects and the transition to hidden order.

  16. Inference with constrained hidden Markov models in PRISM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning; Have, Christian Theil; Lassen, Ole Torp

    2010-01-01

    A Hidden Markov Model (HMM) is a common statistical model which is widely used for analysis of biological sequence data and other sequential phenomena. In the present paper we show how HMMs can be extended with side-constraints and present constraint solving techniques for efficient inference. De......_different are integrated. We experimentally validate our approach on the biologically motivated problem of global pairwise alignment.......A Hidden Markov Model (HMM) is a common statistical model which is widely used for analysis of biological sequence data and other sequential phenomena. In the present paper we show how HMMs can be extended with side-constraints and present constraint solving techniques for efficient inference...

  17. Hidden Valley Higgs Decays in the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Ciapetti, G

    2009-01-01

    A number of extensions of the Standard Model result in particles that are neutral, weakly-coupled and have macroscopic decay lengths that can be comparable with LHC detector dimensions. These particles represent, from an experimental point of view, a challenge both for the trigger and for the reconstruction capabilities of the ATLAS apparatus. For the purpose of exploring the challenges to the trigger posed by long-lived particles, the Hidden Valley scenario serves as an excellent setting. In this note we present the results of a first study of ATLAS detector performance for some Hidden Valley processes with long-lived, neutral states that decay throughout the detector volume to multi heavy-flavor jets, mainly b-bbar.

  18. HMMEditor: a visual editing tool for profile hidden Markov model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Jianlin

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Profile Hidden Markov Model (HMM is a powerful statistical model to represent a family of DNA, RNA, and protein sequences. Profile HMM has been widely used in bioinformatics research such as sequence alignment, gene structure prediction, motif identification, protein structure prediction, and biological database search. However, few comprehensive, visual editing tools for profile HMM are publicly available. Results We develop a visual editor for profile Hidden Markov Models (HMMEditor. HMMEditor can visualize the profile HMM architecture, transition probabilities, and emission probabilities. Moreover, it provides functions to edit and save HMM and parameters. Furthermore, HMMEditor allows users to align a sequence against the profile HMM and to visualize the corresponding Viterbi path. Conclusion HMMEditor provides a set of unique functions to visualize and edit a profile HMM. It is a useful tool for biological sequence analysis and modeling. Both HMMEditor software and web service are freely available.

  19. Hidden magnetism in periodically modulated one dimensional dipolar fermions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazzini, S.; Montorsi, A.; Roncaglia, M.; Barbiero, L.

    2017-12-01

    The experimental realization of time-dependent ultracold lattice systems has paved the way towards the implementation of new Hubbard-like Hamiltonians. We show that in a one-dimensional two-components lattice dipolar Fermi gas the competition between long range repulsion and correlated hopping induced by periodically modulated on-site interaction allows for the formation of hidden magnetic phases, with degenerate protected edge modes. The magnetism, characterized solely by string-like nonlocal order parameters, manifests in the charge and/or in the spin degrees of freedom. Such behavior is enlighten by employing Luttinger liquid theory and numerical methods. The range of parameters for which hidden magnetism is present can be reached by means of the currently available experimental setups and probes.

  20. What are the Hidden Quantum Processes Behind Newton's Laws?

    OpenAIRE

    Ostoma, Tom; Trushyk, Mike

    1999-01-01

    We investigate the hidden quantum processes that are responsible for Newton's laws of motion and Newton's universal law of gravity. We apply Electro-Magnetic Quantum Gravity or EMQG to investigate Newtonian classical physics. EQMG is a quantum gravity theory that is manifestly compatible with Cellular Automata (CA) theory, a new paradigm for physical reality. EMQG is also based on a theory of inertia proposed by R. Haisch, A. Rueda, and H. Puthoff, which we modified and called Quantum Inertia...

  1. Uncovering Hidden Mathematics of the Multiplication Table Using Spreadsheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei Abramovich

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper reveals a number of learning activities emerging from a spreadsheetgenerated multiplication table. These activities are made possible by using such features of the software as conditional formatting, circular referencing, calculation through iteration, scroll bars, and graphing. The paper is a reflection on a mathematics content course designed for prospective elementary teachers using the hidden mathematics curriculum framework. It is written in support of standards for teaching and recommendations for teachers in North America.

  2. Sterile neutrino, hidden dark matter and their cosmological signatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Subinoy

    2012-01-01

    Though thermal dark matter has been the central idea behind the dark matter candidates, it is highly possible that dark matter of the universe is non-thermal in origin or it might be in thermal contact with some hidden or dark sector but not with standard model. Here we explore the cosmological bounds as well as the signatures on two types of non-thermal dark matter candidates. First we discuss a hidden dark matter with almost no interaction (or very feeble) with standard model particles so that it is not in thermal contact with visible sector but we assume it is thermalized with in a hidden sector due to some interaction. While encompassing the standard cold WIMP scenario, we do not require the freeze-out process to be non-relativistic. Rather, freeze-out may also occur when dark matter particles are semi-relativistic or relativistic. Especially we focus on the warm dark matter scenario in this set up and find the constraints on the warm dark matter mass, cross-section and hidden to visible sector temperature ratio which accounts for the observed dark-matter density, satisfies the Tremaine-Gunn bound on dark-matter phase space density and has a free-streaming length consistent with cosmological constraints on the matter power spectrum. Our method can also be applied to keV sterile neutrino dark matter which is not thermalized with standard model but is thermalized with in a dark sector. The second part of this proceeding focuses on an exotic dark matter candidate which arises from the existence of eV mass sterile neutrino through a late phase transition. Due to existence of a strong scalar force the light sterile states get trapped into stable degenerate micro nuggets. We find that its signature in matter power spectra is close to a warm dark matter candidate.

  3. Pendidikan Anti Korupsi melalui Hidden Curriculum dan Pendidikan Moral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Salistina

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article is intended to elaborate strategies in incorporating anti corruption awareness through hidden curriculum and morality education. It is of necessity to increase such kind of awareness among students so that they can avoid any action related to corruption. In this case, some practices such as good behavior, discipline, and good relationship among students-teachers are fostered in the daily activities at school. The effect is the increase of students’ honesty, responsibility, and solidarity across level of education.

  4. Einstein-Bohr controversy and theory of hidden variables

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lokajíček, Miloš V.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 4 (2010), s. 638-645 ISSN 1303-5150 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LA08015 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : Schroedinger equation * EPR paradox * hidden variables Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 0.697, year: 2010 http://arxiv.org/abs/1004.3005

  5. MOBILE APP FOR HIDDEN DATA ANALYTICS OF ONLINE MARKETPLACE SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Aqle, Aboubakr

    2016-01-01

    In this project, an extensive analysis and evaluation of the existing e-marketplaces is performed. The aim of this analysis is to improve the experience of end-users through an Android application that is capable of summarizing multiple heterogeneous hidden data sources and unify received responses to one single, structured and homogenous source. The proposed Android application is based on the multi-level conceptual analysis and modeling strategy. In which, the data is analyzed in a way ...

  6. About hidden influence of predictor variables: Suppressor and mediator variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milovanović Boško

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper procedure for researching hidden influence of predictor variables in regression models and depicting suppressor variables and mediator variables is shown. It is also shown that detection of suppressor variables and mediator variables could provide refined information about the research problem. As an example for applying this procedure, relation between Atlantic atmospheric centers and air temperature and precipitation amount in Serbia is chosen. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 47007

  7. Hidden mission of the psyche in abuse and addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gostecnik, Christian; Repic, Tanja; Cvetek, Mateja; Cvetek, Robert

    2010-09-01

    Traumatic experiences can become the central mental content in our psychic structure and can deeply mark all our later perceptions and experiences of our surroundings. We can claim something similar also for addictions of all kinds. In this article, we will demonstrate that recurring traumatic experiences and abuse as well as addiction represent a hidden mission of psyche for resolution and a great cry of longing for salvation.

  8. A preon model with hidden electric and magnetic type charges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pati, J.C.; Strathdee, J.

    1980-11-01

    The U(1) x U(1) binding forces in an earlier preonic composite model of quarks and leptons are interpreted as arising from hidden electric and magnetic type charges. The preons may possess intrinsic spin zero; the half-integer spins of the composites being contributed by the force field. The quark-lepton gauge symmetry is interpreted as an effective low-energy symmetry arising at the composite level. Some remarks are made regarding the possible composite nature of the graviton. (author)

  9. Randomization tests

    CERN Document Server

    Edgington, Eugene

    2007-01-01

    Statistical Tests That Do Not Require Random Sampling Randomization Tests Numerical Examples Randomization Tests and Nonrandom Samples The Prevalence of Nonrandom Samples in Experiments The Irrelevance of Random Samples for the Typical Experiment Generalizing from Nonrandom Samples Intelligibility Respect for the Validity of Randomization Tests Versatility Practicality Precursors of Randomization Tests Other Applications of Permutation Tests Questions and Exercises Notes References Randomized Experiments Unique Benefits of Experiments Experimentation without Mani

  10. Exploring inequality violations by classical hidden variables numerically

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vongehr, Sascha

    2013-01-01

    There are increasingly suggestions for computer simulations of quantum statistics which try to violate Bell type inequalities via classical, common cause correlations. The Clauser–Horne–Shimony–Holt (CHSH) inequality is very robust. However, we argue that with the Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen setup, the CHSH is inferior to the Bell inequality, although and because the latter must assume anti-correlation of entangled photon singlet states. We simulate how often quantum behavior violates both inequalities, depending on the number of photons. Violating Bell 99% of the time is argued to be an ideal benchmark. We present hidden variables that violate the Bell and CHSH inequalities with 50% probability, and ones which violate Bell 85% of the time when missing 13% anti-correlation. We discuss how to present the quantum correlations to a wide audience and conclude that, when defending against claims of hidden classicality, one should demand numerical simulations and insist on anti-correlation and the full amount of Bell violation. -- Highlights: •The widely assumed superiority of the CHSH fails in the EPR problem. •We simulate Bell type inequalities behavior depending on the number of photons. •The core of Bell’s theorem in the EPR setup is introduced in a simple way understandable to a wide audience. •We present hidden variables that violate both inequalities with 50% probability. •Algorithms have been supplied in form of Mathematica programs

  11. Quasiparticle scattering image in hidden order phases and chiral superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thalmeier, Peter [Max Planck Institute for Chemical Physics of Solids, 01187 Dresden (Germany); Akbari, Alireza, E-mail: alireza@apctp.org [Asia Pacific Center for Theoretical Physics, Pohang, Gyeongbuk 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Physics, and Max Planck POSTECH Center for Complex Phase Materials, POSTECH, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    The technique of Bogoliubov quasiparticle interference (QPI) has been successfully used to investigate the symmetry of unconventional superconducting gaps, also in heavy fermion compounds. It was demonstrated that QPI can distinguish between the d-wave singlet candidates in CeCoIn{sub 5}. In URu{sub 2}Si{sub 2} presumably a chiral d-wave singlet superconducting (SC) state exists inside a multipolar hidden order (HO) phase. We show that hidden order leaves an imprint on the symmetry of QPI pattern that may be used to determine the essential question whether HO in URu{sub 2}Si{sub 2} breaks the in-plane rotational symmetry or not. We also demonstrate that the chiral d-wave SC gap leads to a crossover to a quasi-2D QPI spectrum below T{sub c} which sharpens the HO features. Furthermore we investigate the QPI image of chiral p-wave multigap superconductor Sr{sub 2}RuO{sub 4}. - Highlights: • The chiral multigap structure of Sr{sub 2}RuO{sub 4} leads to rotation of QPI spectrum with bias voltage. • 5f band reconstruction in hidden order phase of URu{sub 2}Si{sub 2} is obtained from two orbital model. • The chiral superconductivity in URu{sub 2}Si{sub 2} leads to quasi-2D quasiparticle interference (QPI).

  12. Mass spectra of hidden-charm molecular pentaquarks states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, Smruti; Vinodkumar, P.C.

    2016-01-01

    Very recently, the LHCb Collaboration has reported two hidden-charmed resonances P_c(4380) and P_c(4450) consistent with pentaquark states in the Λ_b"0 → K"-J/Ψp process with masses (widths) (4380 ±8 ± 29) MeV ((205 ±18 ± 86) MeV) and (4449.8 ±1.7 ± 2.5) MeV ((39 ±5 ±19) MeV), respectively. The observation of the P_c states has aroused the theorist's strong interest in the hidden-charm pentaquark states. They have been studied in various frameworks, such as the molecule-like pentaquark states, the diquark-diquark-antiquark type pentaquark states, the diquark-triquark type pentaquark states, re-scattering effects, etc. An identification of pentaquark states as exotic hadron has been one of the long standing problems in the physics of strong interaction and quantum chromodynamics (QCD). A decade ago lots of discussion were made about pentaquarks states but due to lack of further experimental evidences the study of pentaquarks have been almost gone in the darkness. But, recent remarkable observation of two resonances i.e. P_c(4380) and P_c(4450) with hidden charm and the minimal quark content cc-baruud provided new impact for studies of pentaquark states and opens a new window to study the exotic hadronic matter

  13. Searching for confining hidden valleys at LHCb, ATLAS, and CMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Aaron; Shakya, Bibhushan; Tsai, Yuhsin; Zhao, Yue

    2018-05-01

    We explore strategies for probing hidden valley scenarios exhibiting confinement. Such scenarios lead to a moderate multiplicity of light hidden hadrons for generic showering and hadronization similar to QCD. Their decays are typically soft and displaced, making them challenging to probe with traditional LHC searches. We show that the low trigger requirements and excellent track and vertex reconstruction at LHCb provide a favorable environment to search for such signals. We propose novel search strategies in both muonic and hadronic channels. We also study existing ATLAS and CMS searches and compare them with our proposals at LHCb. We find that the reach at LHCb is generically better in the parameter space we consider here, even with optimistic background estimations for ATLAS and CMS searches. We discuss potential modifications at ATLAS and CMS that might make these experiments competitive with the LHCb reach. Our proposed searches can be applied to general hidden valley models as well as exotic Higgs boson decays, such as in twin Higgs models.

  14. The selection and implementation of hidden line algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, A.

    1983-06-01

    One of the most challenging problems in the field of computer graphics is the elimination of hidden lines in images of nontransparent bodies. In the real world the nontransparent material hinders the light ray coming from hidden regions to the observer. In the computer based image formation process there is no automatic visibility regulation of this kind. So many lines are created which result in a poor quality of the spacial representation. Therefore a three-dimensional representation on the screen is only meaningfull if the hidden lines are eliminated. For this process many algorithms have been developed in the past. A common feature of these codes is the large amount of computer time needed. In the first generation of algorithms, which are commonly used today, the bodies are modeled by plane polygons. More recently, however, also algorithms are in use, which are able to treat curved surfaces without discretisation by plane surfaces. In this paper the first group of algorithms is reviewed, and the most important codes are described. The experience obtained during the implementation of two algorithms is presented. (orig.) [de

  15. Effects of music therapy on self- and experienced stigma in patients on an acute care psychiatric unit: a randomized three group effectiveness study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Michael J

    2013-10-01

    Stigma is a major social barrier that can restrict access to and willingness to seek psychiatric care. Psychiatric consumers may use secrecy and withdrawal in an attempt to cope with stigma. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of music therapy on self- and experienced stigma in acute care psychiatric inpatients using a randomized design with wait-list control. Participants (N=83) were randomly assigned by cluster to one of three single-session group-based conditions: music therapy, education, or wait-list control. Participants in the music therapy and education conditions completed only posttests while participants in the wait-list control condition completed only pretests. The music therapy condition was a group songwriting intervention wherein participants composed lyrics for "the stigma blues." Results indicated significant differences in measures of discrimination (experienced stigma), disclosure (self-stigma), and total stigma between participants in the music therapy condition and participants in the wait-list control condition. From the results of this randomized controlled investigation, music therapy may be an engaging and effective psychosocial technique to treat stigma. Limitations, suggestions for future research, and implications for clinical practice and psychiatric music therapy research are provided. © 2013.

  16. Hidden Markov event sequence models: toward unsupervised functional MRI brain mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faisan, Sylvain; Thoraval, Laurent; Armspach, Jean-Paul; Foucher, Jack R; Metz-Lutz, Marie-Noëlle; Heitz, Fabrice

    2005-01-01

    Most methods used in functional MRI (fMRI) brain mapping require restrictive assumptions about the shape and timing of the fMRI signal in activated voxels. Consequently, fMRI data may be partially and misleadingly characterized, leading to suboptimal or invalid inference. To limit these assumptions and to capture the broad range of possible activation patterns, a novel statistical fMRI brain mapping method is proposed. It relies on hidden semi-Markov event sequence models (HSMESMs), a special class of hidden Markov models (HMMs) dedicated to the modeling and analysis of event-based random processes. Activation detection is formulated in terms of time coupling between (1) the observed sequence of hemodynamic response onset (HRO) events detected in the voxel's fMRI signal and (2) the "hidden" sequence of task-induced neural activation onset (NAO) events underlying the HROs. Both event sequences are modeled within a single HSMESM. The resulting brain activation model is trained to automatically detect neural activity embedded in the input fMRI data set under analysis. The data sets considered in this article are threefold: synthetic epoch-related, real epoch-related (auditory lexical processing task), and real event-related (oddball detection task) fMRI data sets. Synthetic data: Activation detection results demonstrate the superiority of the HSMESM mapping method with respect to a standard implementation of the statistical parametric mapping (SPM) approach. They are also very close, sometimes equivalent, to those obtained with an "ideal" implementation of SPM in which the activation patterns synthesized are reused for analysis. The HSMESM method appears clearly insensitive to timing variations of the hemodynamic response and exhibits low sensitivity to fluctuations of its shape (unsustained activation during task). Real epoch-related data: HSMESM activation detection results compete with those obtained with SPM, without requiring any prior definition of the expected

  17. Procalcitonin-guided interventions against infections to increase early appropriate antibiotics and improve survival in the intensive care unit: a randomized trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens U; Hein, Lars; Lundgren, Bettina

    2011-01-01

    For patients in intensive care units, sepsis is a common and potentially deadly complication and prompt initiation of appropriate antimicrobial therapy improves prognosis. The objective of this trial was to determine whether a strategy of antimicrobial spectrum escalation, guided by daily measure...

  18. A Pragmatic Randomized Controlled Trial of 6-Step vs 3-Step Hand Hygiene Technique in Acute Hospital Care in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Jacqui S; Price, Lesley; Lang, Sue; Robertson, Chris; Cheater, Francine; Skinner, Kirsty; Chow, Angela

    2016-06-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the microbiologic effectiveness of the World Health Organization's 6-step and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's 3-step hand hygiene techniques using alcohol-based handrub. DESIGN A parallel group randomized controlled trial. SETTING An acute care inner-city teaching hospital (Glasgow). PARTICIPANTS Doctors (n=42) and nurses (n=78) undertaking direct patient care. INTERVENTION Random 1:1 allocation of the 6-step (n=60) or the 3-step (n=60) technique. RESULTS The 6-step technique was microbiologically more effective at reducing the median log10 bacterial count. The 6-step technique reduced the count from 3.28 CFU/mL (95% CI, 3.11-3.38 CFU/mL) to 2.58 CFU/mL (2.08-2.93 CFU/mL), whereas the 3-step reduced it from 3.08 CFU/mL (2.977-3.27 CFU/mL) to 2.88 CFU/mL (-2.58 to 3.15 CFU/mL) (P=.02). However, the 6-step technique did not increase the total hand coverage area (98.8% vs 99.0%, P=.15) and required 15% (95% CI, 6%-24%) more time (42.50 seconds vs 35.0 seconds, P=.002). Total hand coverage was not related to the reduction in bacterial count. CONCLUSIONS Two techniques for hand hygiene using alcohol-based handrub are promoted in international guidance, the 6-step by the World Health Organization and 3-step by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The study provides the first evidence in a randomized controlled trial that the 6-step technique is superior, thus these international guidance documents should consider this evidence, as should healthcare organizations using the 3-step technique in practice. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016;37:661-666.

  19. Two controlled trials to increase participant retention in a randomized controlled trial of mobile phone-based smoking cessation support in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severi, Ettore; Free, Caroline; Knight, Rosemary; Robertson, Steven; Edwards, Philip; Hoile, Elizabeth

    2011-10-01

    Loss to follow-up of trial participants represents a threat to research validity. To date, interventions designed to increase participants' awareness of benefits to society of completing follow-up, and the impact of a telephone call from a senior female clinician and researcher requesting follow-up have not been evaluated robustly. Trial 1 aimed to evaluate the effect on trial follow-up of written information regarding the benefits of participation to society. Trial 2 aimed to evaluate the effect on trial follow-up of a telephone call from a senior female clinician and researcher. Two single-blind randomized controlled trials were nested within a larger trial, Txt2stop. In Trial 1, participants were allocated using minimization to receive a refrigerator magnet and a text message emphasizing the benefits to society of completing follow-up, or to a control group receiving a simple reminder regarding follow-up. In Trial 2, participants were randomly allocated to receive a telephone call from a senior female clinician and researcher, or to a control group receiving standard Txt2stop follow-up procedures. Trial 1: 33.5% (327 of 976) of the intervention group and 33.8% (329 of 974) of the control group returned the questionnaire within 26 weeks of randomization, risk ratio (RR) 0.99; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.88-1.12. In all, 83.3% (813 of 976) of the intervention group and 82.2% (801 of/974) of the control group sent back the questionnaire within 30 weeks of randomization, RR 1.01; 95% CI 0.97, 1.05. Trial 2: 31% (20 of 65) of the intervention group and 32% (20 of 62) of the control group completed trial follow-up, RR 0.93; 95%CI 0.44, 1.98. In presence of other methods to increase follow-up neither experimental method (refrigerator magnet and text message emphasizing participation's benefits to society nor a telephone call from study's principal investigator) increased participant follow-up in the Txt2stop trial.

  20. Comparison the Effects of Shallow and Deep Endotracheal Tube Suctioning on Respiratory Rate, Arterial Blood Oxygen Saturation and Number of Suctioning in Patients Hospitalized in the Intensive Care Unit: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Abbasinia

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Endotracheal tube suctioning is essential for improve oxygenation in the patients undergoing mechanical ventilation. There are two types of shallow and deep endotracheal tube suctioning. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of shallow and deep suctioning methods on respiratory rate (RR, arterial blood oxygen saturation (SpO2 and number of suctioning in patients hospitalized in the intensive care units of Al-Zahra Hospital, Isfahan, Iran. Methods: In this randomized controlled trial, 74 patients who hospitalized in the intensive care units of Isfahan Al-Zahra Hospital were randomly allocated to the shallow and deep suctioning groups. RR and SpO2 were measured immediately before, immediately after, 1 and 3 minute after each suctioning. Number of suctioning was also noted in each groups. Data were analyzed using repeated measures analysis of variance (RMANOVA, chi-square and independent t-tests. Results: RR was significantly increased and SpO2 was significantly decreased after each suctioning in the both groups. However, these changes were not significant between the two groups. The numbers of suctioning was significantly higher in the shallow suctioning group than in the deep suctioning group. Conclusion: Shallow and deep suctioning had a similar effect on RR and SpO2. However, shallow suctioning caused further manipulation of patient’s trachea than deep suctioning method. Therefore, it seems that deep endotracheal tube suctioning method can be used to clean the airway with lesser manipulation of the trachea.

  1. Comparison the effects of shallow and deep endotracheal tube suctioning on respiratory rate, arterial blood oxygen saturation and number of suctioning in patients hospitalized in the intensive care unit: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasinia, Mohammad; Irajpour, Alireza; Babaii, Atye; Shamali, Mehdi; Vahdatnezhad, Jahanbakhsh

    2014-09-01

    Endotracheal tube suctioning is essential for improve oxygenation in the patients undergoing mechanical ventilation. There are two types of shallow and deep endotracheal tube suctioning. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of shallow and deep suctioning methods on respiratory rate (RR), arterial blood oxygen saturation (SpO2) and number of suctioning in patients hospitalized in the intensive care units of Al-Zahra Hospital, Isfahan, Iran. In this randomized controlled trial, 74 patients who hospitalized in the intensive care units of Isfahan Al-Zahra Hospital were randomly allocated to the shallow and deep suctioning groups. RR and SpO2 were measured immediately before, immediately after, 1 and 3 minute after each suctioning. Number of suctioning was also noted in each groups. Data were analyzed using repeated measures analysis of variance (RMANOVA), chi-square and independent t-tests. RR was significantly increased and SpO2 was significantly decreased after each suctioning in the both groups. However, these changes were not significant between the two groups. The numbers of suctioning was significantly higher in the shallow suctioning group than in the deep suctioning group. Conclusion : Shallow and deep suctioning had a similar effect on RR and SpO2. However, shallow suctioning caused further manipulation of patient's trachea than deep suctioning method. Therefore, it seems that deep endotracheal tube suctioning method can be used to clean the airway with lesser manipulation of the trachea.

  2. Efficacy and mode of action of a noise-sensor light alarm to decrease noise in the pediatric intensive care unit: a prospective, randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jousselme, Chloé; Vialet, Renaud; Jouve, Elisabeth; Lagier, Pierre; Martin, Claude; Michel, Fabrice

    2011-03-01

    To determine whether a sound-activated light-alarm device could reduce the noise in the central area of our pediatric intensive care unit and to determine whether this reduction was significant enough to decrease the noise that could be perceived by a patient located in a nearby room. The secondary objective was to determine the mode of action of the device. In a 16-bed pediatric and neonatal intensive care unit, a large and clearly noticeable sound-activated light device was set in the noisiest part of the central area of our unit, and noise measurements were made in the central area and in a nearby room. In a prospective, quasi-experimental design, sound levels were compared across three different situations--no device present, device present and turned on, and device present but turned off--and noise level measurements were made over a total of 18 days. None. Setting a sound-activated light device on or off. When the device was present, the noise was about 2 dB lower in the central area and in a nearby room, but there was no difference in noise level with the device turned on vs. turned off. The noise decrease in the central area was of limited importance but was translated in a nearby room. The sound-activated light device did not directly decrease noise when turned on, but repetition of the visual signal throughout the day raised staff awareness of noise levels over time.

  3. Hidden Markov Model Application to Transfer The Trader Online Forex Brokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farida Suharleni

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Hidden Markov Model is elaboration of Markov chain, which is applicable to cases that can’t directly observe. In this research, Hidden Markov Model is used to know trader’s transition to broker forex online. In Hidden Markov Model, observed state is observable part and hidden state is hidden part. Hidden Markov Model allows modeling system that contains interrelated observed state and hidden state. As observed state in trader’s transition to broker forex online is category 1, category 2, category 3, category 4, category 5 by condition of every broker forex online, whereas as hidden state is broker forex online Marketiva, Masterforex, Instaforex, FBS and Others. First step on application of Hidden Markov Model in this research is making construction model by making a probability of transition matrix (A from every broker forex online. Next step is making a probability of observation matrix (B by making conditional probability of five categories, that is category 1, category 2, category 3, category 4, category 5 by condition of every broker forex online and also need to determine an initial state probability (π from every broker forex online. The last step is using Viterbi algorithm to find hidden state sequences that is broker forex online sequences which is the most possible based on model and observed state that is the five categories. Application of Hidden Markov Model is done by making program with Viterbi algorithm using Delphi 7.0 software with observed state based on simulation data. Example: By the number of observation T = 5 and observed state sequences O = (2,4,3,5,1 is found hidden state sequences which the most possible with observed state O as following : where X1 = FBS, X2 = Masterforex, X3 = Marketiva, X4 = Others, and X5 = Instaforex.

  4. Invisible axion in the hidden sector of no-scale supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Hikaru

    1987-01-01

    We propose a new axion model which incorporates the U(1) PQ symmetry into a hidden sector, as well as an observable sector, of no-scale supergravity models. The axion is a spin-zero field in the hidden sector. The U(1) PQ symmetry is naturally embedded in the family symmetry of the no-scale models. Invisible axions live in the gravity hidden sector without conflict with the cosmological and astrophysical constraints. (orig.)

  5. Deep-Subwavelength Resolving and Manipulating of Hidden Chirality in Achiral Nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zu, Shuai; Han, Tianyang; Jiang, Meiling; Lin, Feng; Zhu, Xing; Fang, Zheyu

    2018-04-24

    The chiral state of light plays a vital role in light-matter interactions and the consequent revolution of nanophotonic devices and advanced modern chiroptics. As the light-matter interaction goes into the nano- and quantum world, numerous chiroptical technologies and quantum devices require precise knowledge of chiral electromagnetic modes and chiral radiative local density of states (LDOS) distributions in detail, which directly determine the chiral light-matter interaction for applications such as chiral light detection and emission. With classical optical techniques failing to directly measure the chiral radiative LDOS, deep-subwavelength imaging and control of circular polarization (CP) light associated phenomena are introduced into the agenda. Here, we simultaneously reveal the hidden chiral electromagnetic mode and acquire its chiral radiative LDOS distribution of a single symmetric nanostructure at the deep-subwavelength scale by using CP-resolved cathodoluminescence (CL) microscopy. The chirality of the symmetric nanostructure under normally incident light excitation, resulting from the interference between the symmetric and antisymmetric modes of the V-shaped nanoantenna, is hidden in the near field with a giant chiral distribution (∼99%) at the arm-ends, which enables the circularly polarized CL emission from the radiative LDOS hot-spot and the following active helicity control at the deep-subwavelength scale. The proposed V-shaped nanostructure as a functional unit is further applied to the helicity-dependent binary encoding and the two-dimensional display applications. The proposed physical principle and experimental configuration can promote the future chiral characterization and manipulation at the deep-subwavelength scale and provide direct guidelines for the optimization of chiral light-matter interactions for future quantum studies.

  6. Learning and inference in a nonequilibrium Ising model with hidden nodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Benjamin; Roudi, Yasser

    2013-02-01

    We study inference and reconstruction of couplings in a partially observed kinetic Ising model. With hidden spins, calculating the likelihood of a sequence of observed spin configurations requires performing a trace over the configurations of the hidden ones. This, as we show, can be represented as a path integral. Using this representation, we demonstrate that systematic approximate inference and learning rules can be derived using dynamical mean-field theory. Although naive mean-field theory leads to an unstable learning rule, taking into account Gaussian corrections allows learning the couplings involving hidden nodes. It also improves learning of the couplings between the observed nodes compared to when hidden nodes are ignored.

  7. Complicated basins and the phenomenon of amplitude death in coupled hidden attractors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaudhuri, Ushnish [Department of Physics, Sri Venkateswara College, University of Delhi, New Delhi 110021 (India); Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117551 (Singapore); Prasad, Awadhesh, E-mail: awadhesh@physics.du.ac.in [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India)

    2014-02-07

    Understanding hidden attractors, whose basins of attraction do not contain the neighborhood of equilibrium of the system, are important in many physical applications. We observe riddled-like complicated basins of coexisting hidden attractors both in coupled and uncoupled systems. Amplitude death is observed in coupled hidden attractors with no fixed point using nonlinear interaction. A new route to amplitude death is observed in time-delay coupled hidden attractors. Numerical results are presented for systems with no or one stable fixed point. The applications are highlighted.

  8. Incremental discovery of hidden structure: Applications in theory of elementary particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zytkow, J.M.; Fischer, P.J.

    1996-01-01

    Discovering hidden structure is a challenging, universal research task in Physics, Chemistry, Biology, and other disciplines. Not only must the elements of hidden structure be postulated by the discoverer, but they can only be verified by indirect evidence, at the level of observable objects. In this paper we describe a framework for hidden structure discovery, built on a constructive definition of hidden structure. This definition leads to operators that build models of hidden structure step by step, postulating hidden objects, their combinations and properties, reactions described in terms of hidden objects, and mapping between the hidden and the observed structure. We introduce the operator dependency diagram, which shows the order of operator application and model evaluation. Different observational knowledge supports different evaluation criteria, which lead to different search systems with verifiable sequences of operator applications. Isomorph-free structure generation is another issue critical for efficiency of search. We apply our framework in the system GELL-MANN, that hypothesizes hidden structure for elementary particles and we present the results of a large scale search for quark models

  9. People ageing with spinal cord injury in New Zealand: a hidden population? The need for a spinal cord injury registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smaill, Richard; Schluter, Philip J; Barnett, Pauline; Keeling, Sally

    2016-07-15

    To identify and establish a research database of ageing New Zealand people who sustained a traumatic or non-traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) before 1990. All living New Zealand residents incurring a SCI before 1 January 1990 were eligible. A co-ordinated consultation with apposite New Zealand organisations was undertaken to identify and access existing SCI databases, and remove duplicate or ineligible records. 1,400 people were identified. Using the national patient information management system to determine eligibility, 1,174 people remained after exclusions; 600 (51.1%) through the Auckland Spinal Rehabilitation Unit and 574 (48.9%) through the Burwood Spinal Unit. Common to both databases were people's National Health Index number, contact details, basic demographic data, date of injury, and neurological level of SCI. An unexpectedly large SCI population was uncovered; a population largely hidden due to the uncoordinated, fragmented and inconsistently collected information held within different organisations. As life expectancy rapidly increases for those with SCI, coupled with an accelerated ageing general population, this hidden SCI population can be expected to grow. A single, well-managed and coordinated national SCI registry is urgently needed in New Zealand for planning and delivery of services, especially for those developing age-related complex interwoven secondary conditions.

  10. Discriminative training of self-structuring hidden control neural models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Helge Bjarup Dissing; Hartmann, Uwe; Hunnerup, Preben

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents a new training algorithm for self-structuring hidden control neural (SHC) models. The SHC models were trained non-discriminatively for speech recognition applications. Better recognition performance can generally be achieved, if discriminative training is applied instead. Thus...... we developed a discriminative training algorithm for SHC models, where each SHC model for a specific speech pattern is trained with utterances of the pattern to be recognized and with other utterances. The discriminative training of SHC neural models has been tested on the TIDIGITS database...

  11. The "Hidden Homeless" in Japan’s Contemporary Mobile Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miya Yoshida

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Mobile telephony and all it ensues has frequently gained incredible attention due to the massive impacts, which has had on the organization of daily life as well as on popular and youth cultures. This has been widely discussed in recent years as one significant aspect of the changes brought by the device; however that is not all. Attributed to capitalism, there are other, very contemporary socio-political issues at stake around the mobile telephone, especially among the younger people. In my article, I will focus on one specific phenomenon in Japanese society where the media have taken to speaking of so-called "hidden homeless".

  12. Everyday calculus discovering the hidden math all around us

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandez, Oscar E

    2014-01-01

    Calculus. For some of us, the word conjures up memories of ten-pound textbooks and visions of tedious abstract equations. And yet, in reality, calculus is fun, accessible, and surrounds us everywhere we go. In Everyday Calculus, Oscar Fernandez shows us how to see the math in our coffee, on the highway, and even in the night sky. Fernandez uses our everyday experiences to skillfully reveal the hidden calculus behind a typical day's events. He guides us through how math naturally emerges from simple observations-how hot coffee cools down, for example-and in discussions of over fifty familia

  13. Overcoming the Law of the Hidden in Cyberinfrastructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucksch, Alexander; Das, Abhiram; Schneider, Hannah; Merchant, Nirav; Weitz, Joshua S

    2017-02-01

    Cyberinfrastructure projects (CIPs) are complex, integrated systems that require interaction and organization amongst user, developer, hardware, technical infrastructure, and funding resources. Nevertheless, CIP usability, functionality, and growth do not scale with the sum of these resources. Instead, growth and efficient usage of CIPs require access to 'hidden' resources. These include technical resources within CIPs as well as social and functional interactions among stakeholders. We identify approaches to overcome resource limitations following the conceptual basis of Liebig's Law of the Minimum. In so doing, we recommend practical steps towards efficient and scaleable resource use, taking the iPlant/CyVerse CIP as an example. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Hidden symmetries in one-dimensional quantum Hamiltonians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curado, E.M.F.; Rego-Monteiro, M.A.; Nazareno, H.N.

    2000-11-01

    We construct a Heisenberg-like algebra for the one dimensional infinite square-well potential in quantum mechanics. The number-type and ladder operators are realized in terms of physical operators of the system as in the harmonic oscillator algebra. These physical operators are obtained with the help of variables used in a recently developed non commutative differential calculus. This square-well algebra is an example of an algebra in large class of generalized Heisenberg algebras recently constructed. This class of algebras also contains q-oscillators as a particular case. We also show here how this general algebra can address hidden symmetries present in several quantum systems. (author)

  15. New ALPS results on hidden-sector lightweights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehret, Klaus [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestrasse 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Frede, Maik [Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V., Hollerithallee 8, D-30419 Hannover (Germany); Ghazaryan, Samvel [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestrasse 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Hildebrandt, Matthias [Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V., Hollerithallee 8, D-30419 Hannover (Germany); Knabbe, Ernst-Axel [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestrasse 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Kracht, Dietmar [Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V., Hollerithallee 8, D-30419 Hannover (Germany); Lindner, Axel, E-mail: axel.lindner@desy.d [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestrasse 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); List, Jenny [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestrasse 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Meier, Tobias [Max-Planck-Institute for Gravitational Physics, Albert-Einstein-Institute, Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, Leibniz Universitaet, Hannover, Callinstrasse 38, D-30167 Hannover (Germany); Meyer, Niels; Notz, Dieter; Redondo, Javier; Ringwald, Andreas [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestrasse 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Wiedemann, Guenter [Hamburger Sternwarte, Gojenbergsweg 112, D-21029 Hamburg (Germany); Willke, Benno [Max-Planck-Institute for Gravitational Physics, Albert-Einstein-Institute, Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, Leibniz Universitaet, Hannover, Callinstrasse 38, D-30167 Hannover (Germany)

    2010-05-31

    The ALPS Collaboration runs a 'Light Shining through a Wall' (LSW) experiment to search for photon oscillations into 'Weakly Interacting Sub-eV Particles' (WISPs) often predicted by extensions of the Standard Model. The experiment is set up around a superconducting HERA dipole magnet at the site of DESY. Due to several upgrades of the experiment we are able to place limits on the probability of photon-WISP-photon conversions of a fewx10{sup -25}. These limits result in today's most stringent laboratory constraints on the existence of low mass axion-like particles, hidden photons and minicharged particles.

  16. Multistability and hidden attractors in a relay system with hysteresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhusubaliyev, Zhanybai T.; Mosekilde, Erik; Rubanov, Vasily G.

    2015-01-01

    with the neighborhood of that cycle. We show how the equilibrium point of a relay system disappears in a boundary-equilibrium bifurcation as the system enters the region of autonomous switching dynamics and demonstrate experimentally how a relay system can exhibit large amplitude chaotic oscillations at high values...... of the supply voltage. By investigating a four-dimensional model of the experimental relay system we finally show how a variety of hidden periodic, quasiperiodic and chaotic attractors arise, transform and disappear through different bifurcations. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  17. Hidden vortex lattices in a thermally paired superfluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahl, E. K.; Sudboe, A.; Babaev, E.

    2008-01-01

    We study the evolution of rotational response of a statistical mechanical model of two-component superfluid with a nondissipative drag interaction as the system undergoes a transition into a paired superfluid phase at finite temperature. The transition manifests itself in a change of (i) vortex-lattice symmetry and (ii) nature of the vortex state. Instead of a vortex lattice, the system forms a highly disordered tangle which constantly undergoes merger and reconnecting processes involving different types of vortices with a 'hidden' breakdown of translation symmetry

  18. Abdominal candidiasis is a hidden reservoir of echinocandin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Ryan K; Nguyen, M Hong; Press, Ellen G; Clancy, Cornelius J

    2014-12-01

    FKS mutant Candida isolates were recovered from 24% (6/25) of abdominal candidiasis patients exposed to echinocandin. Candida glabrata (29%) and Candida albicans (14%) mutants were identified. Multidrug-resistant bacteria were recovered from 83% of FKS mutant infections. Mutations were associated with prolonged echinocandin exposure (P = 0.01), breakthrough infections (P = 0.03), and therapeutic failures despite source control interventions (100%). Abdominal candidiasis is a hidden reservoir for the emergence of echinocandin-resistant Candida. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  19. How to Align the Hidden Curriculum of RM Education?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blasco, Maribel

    2015-01-01

    Graduates are reputedly still leaving business school with poor morals, despite considerable focus on responsible management education? The ‘hidden curriculum’ (HC) directs the attention to the idea that what is taught in educational institutions is not necessarily what is actually learned. The HC...... operates through many areas of business schools, most notably in i) formal curriculum; ii) interaction; and iii) school governance. This means recognizing that changing curricula alone is not enough to bring about transformation in students’ moral attitudes because signals about appropriate conduct...

  20. Hidden Markov processes theory and applications to biology

    CERN Document Server

    Vidyasagar, M

    2014-01-01

    This book explores important aspects of Markov and hidden Markov processes and the applications of these ideas to various problems in computational biology. The book starts from first principles, so that no previous knowledge of probability is necessary. However, the work is rigorous and mathematical, making it useful to engineers and mathematicians, even those not interested in biological applications. A range of exercises is provided, including drills to familiarize the reader with concepts and more advanced problems that require deep thinking about the theory. Biological applications are t

  1. APPLICATION OF HIDDEN MARKOV CHAINS IN QUALITY CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanife DEMIRALP

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The ever growing technological innovations and sophistication in industrial processes require adequate checks on quality. Thus, there is an increasing demand for simple and efficient quality control methods. In this regard the control charts stand out in simplicity and efficiency. In this paper, we propose a method of controlling quality based on the theory of hidden Markov chains. Based on samples drawn at different times from the production process, the method obtains the state of the process probabilistically. The main advantage of the method is that it requires no assumption on the normality of the process output.

  2. Quantum interference of probabilities and hidden variable theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivas, M.D.

    1984-01-01

    One of the fundamental contributions of Louis de Broglie, which does not get cited often, has been his analysis of the basic difference between the calculus of the probabilities as predicted by quantum theory and the usual calculus of probabilities - the one employed by most mathematicians, in its standard axiomatised version due to Kolmogorov. This paper is basically devoted to a discussion of the 'quantum interference of probabilities', discovered by de Broglie. In particular, it is shown that it is this feature of the quantum theoretic probabilities which leads to some serious constraints on the possible 'hidden-variable formulations' of quantum mechanics, including the celebrated theorem of Bell. (Auth.)

  3. Dark matter and dark forces from a supersymmetric hidden sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreas, S.; Goodsell, M.D.; Ringwald, A.

    2011-09-15

    We show that supersymmetric ''Dark Force'' models with gravity mediation are viable. To this end, we analyse a simple supersymmetric hidden sector model that interacts with the visible sector via kinetic mixing of a light Abelian gauge boson with the hypercharge. We include all induced interactions with the visible sector such as neutralino mass mixing and the Higgs portal term. We perform a detailed parameter space scan comparing the produced dark matter relic abundance and direct detection cross-sections to current experiments. (orig.)

  4. Uncovering the Hidden Transaction Costs of Market Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Kirsten; Foss, Nicolai J.; Klein, Peter G.

    2018-01-01

    A central construct in competitive strategy research is market power, the ability to raise price above marginal cost. Positioning research focuses on attempts to build, protect, and exercise market power. However, this approach contains hidden assumptions about transaction costs. Parties made worse...... off by the exercise of market power can negotiate, bargain, form coalitions, and otherwise contract around the focal firm's attempts to appropriate monopoly profits—depending on transaction costs. We build on property rights economics to explain how transaction costs affect positioning and offer...

  5. Characterization of prokaryotic and eukaryotic promoters using hidden Markov models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anders Gorm; Baldi, P.; Chauvin, Y.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we utilize hidden Markov models (HMMs) and information theory to analyze prokaryotic and eukaryotic promoters. We perform this analysis with special emphasis on the fact that promoters are divided into a number of different classes, depending on which polymerase-associated factors...... that bind to them. We find that HMMs trained on such subclasses of Escherichia coli promoters (specifically, the so-called sigma 70 and sigma 54 classes) give an excellent classification of unknown promoters with respect to sigma-class. HMMs trained on eukaryotic sequences from human genes also model nicely...

  6. Scaling dimensions in hidden Kerr/CFT correspondence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowe, David A.; Messamah, Ilies; Skanata, Antun

    2011-01-01

    It has been proposed that a hidden conformal field theory (CFT) governs the dynamics of low frequency scattering in a general Kerr black hole background. We further investigate this correspondence by mapping higher order corrections to the massless wave equations in a Kerr background to an expansion within the CFT in terms of higher dimension operators. This implies the presence of infinite towers of CFT primary operators with positive conformal dimensions compatible with unitarity. The exact Kerr background softly breaks the conformal symmetry and the scaling dimensions of these operators run with frequency. The scale-invariant fixed point is dual to a degenerate case of flat spacetime.

  7. Hidden-Markov-Model Analysis Of Telemanipulator Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannaford, Blake; Lee, Paul

    1991-01-01

    Mathematical model and procedure based on hidden-Markov-model concept undergoing development for use in analysis and prediction of outputs of force and torque sensors of telerobotic manipulators. In model, overall task broken down into subgoals, and transition probabilities encode ease with which operator completes each subgoal. Process portion of model encodes task-sequence/subgoal structure, and probability-density functions for forces and torques associated with each state of manipulation encode sensor signals that one expects to observe at subgoal. Parameters of model constructed from engineering knowledge of task.

  8. New ALPS results on hidden-sector lightweights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehret, Klaus; Ghazaryan, Samvel; Frede, Maik

    2010-01-01

    The ALPS collaboration runs a ''Light Shining through a Wall'' (LSW) experiment to search for photon oscillations into ''Weakly Interacting Sub-eV Particles'' (WISPs) often predicted by extensions of the Standard Model. The experiment is set up around a superconducting HERA dipole magnet at the site of DESY. Due to several upgrades of the experiment we are able to place limits on the probability of photon-WISP-photon conversions of a few x 10 -25 . These limits result in today's most stringent laboratory constraints on the existence of low mass axion-like particles, hidden photons and minicharged particles. (orig.)

  9. Hidden attraction the history and mystery of magnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Verschuur, Gerrit L

    1993-01-01

    Long one of nature's most fascinating phenomena, magnetism was once the subject of many superstitions. Magnets were thought useful to thieves, effective as a love potion or as a cure for gout or spasms. They could remove sorcery from women and put demons to flight and even reconcile married couples. It was said that a lodestone pickled in the salt of sucking fish had the power to attract gold. Today, these beliefs have been put aside, but magnetism is no less remarkable for our modern understanding of it. In Hidden Attraction, Gerrit L. Verschuur, a noted astronomer and National Book Award nom

  10. Hidden Symmetries for Thermodynamics and Emergence of Relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Liu

    2010-01-01

    Erik Verlinde recently proposed an idea about the thermodynamic origin of gravity. Though this is a beautiful idea, which may resolve many long standing problems in the theories of gravity, it also raises many other problems. In this article I will comment on some of the problems of Verlinde's proposal with special emphasis on the thermodynamical origin of the principle of relativity. It is found that there is a large group of hidden symmetries of thermodynamics, which contains the Poincare group of the spacetime for which space is emergent. This explains the thermodynamic origin of the principle of relativity. (general)

  11. Hidden Markov models for the activity profile of terrorist groups

    OpenAIRE

    Raghavan, Vasanthan; Galstyan, Aram; Tartakovsky, Alexander G.

    2012-01-01

    The main focus of this work is on developing models for the activity profile of a terrorist group, detecting sudden spurts and downfalls in this profile, and, in general, tracking it over a period of time. Toward this goal, a $d$-state hidden Markov model (HMM) that captures the latent states underlying the dynamics of the group and thus its activity profile is developed. The simplest setting of $d=2$ corresponds to the case where the dynamics are coarsely quantized as Active and Inactive, re...

  12. A Coupled Hidden Markov Random Field Model for Simultaneous Face Clustering and Tracking in Videos

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Baoyuan; Hu, Bao-Gang; Ji, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Face clustering and face tracking are two areas of active research in automatic facial video processing. They, however, have long been studied separately, despite the inherent link between them. In this paper, we propose to perform simultaneous face

  13. A Coupled Hidden Conditional Random Field Model for Simultaneous Face Clustering and Naming in Videos

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Yifan; Tang, Zhiqiang; Wu, Baoyuan; Ji, Qiang; Lu, Hanqing

    2016-01-01

    , we divide the problem into two tasks: face clustering which groups the faces depicting a certain person into a cluster, and name assignment which associates a name to each face. Each task is formulated as a structured prediction problem and modeled

  14. Effect of Spike Lavender Lakhlakhe on Pain Intensity Due to Phlebotomy Procedure in Premature Infants Hospitalized in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noushin Beheshtipoor

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: A Premature infants undergo multiple painful procedures during treatment; thus, it must be tried to limit complications caused by diagnostic and treatment procedures using simple and practical methods. This study was performed to evaluate the effect of spike lavender lakhlakhe on pain intensity due to phlebotomy in hospitalized premature infants.Methods: This single-arm, randomized clinical trial was performed on 30 infants chosen through convenience sampling method. Each newborn was considered as its own control. For the test group, one drop of pure (100% spike lavender lakhlakhe was taken by a standard dropper and diluted with 4 ml of warm distilled water by the research assistant. This mixture was stirred at 2-3 cm distance of the newborns’ nose from 60 minutes before until 2 minutes after phlebotomy, such that it could be smelled by the newborns. In both groups, heart rate and blood oxygen saturation were measured by a standard portable device, and the corresponding data was recorded in data collection sheets. Moreover, the infants’ facial expression changes were recorded by a camera and the intensity of pain was measured by Premature Infant Pain Profile before and after the procedure. Finally, the data was analyzed by paired comparison analysis test in SPSS, version 17.Results: Comparison of mean pain intensity caused by phlebotomy in the control and test groups showed a significant difference (7.667±0.311 vs. 4.882±0.311; P

  15. Impact of one-to-one tutoring on fundamentals of laparoscopic surgery (FLS) passing rate in a single center experience outside the United States: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheza, Federico; Raimondi, Paolo; Solaini, Leonardo; Coccolini, Federico; Baiocchi, Gian Luca; Portolani, Nazario; Tiberio, Guido Alberto Massimo

    2018-04-11

    Outside the US, FLS certification is not required and its teaching methods are not well standardized. Even if the FLS was designed as "stand alone" training system, most of Academic Institution offer support to residents during training. We present the first systematic application of FLS in Italy. Our aim was to evaluate the role of mentoring/coaching on FLS training in terms of the passing rate and global performance in the search for resource optimization. Sixty residents in general surgery, obstetrics & gynecology, and urology were selected to be enrolled in a randomized controlled trial, practicing FLS with the goal of passing a simulated final exam. The control group practiced exclusively with video material from SAGES, whereas the interventional group was supported by a mentor. Forty-six subjects met the requirements and completed the trial. For the other 14 subjects no results are available for comparison. One subject for each group failed the exam, resulting in a passing rate of 95.7%, with no obvious differences between groups. Subgroup analysis did not reveal any difference between the groups for FLS tasks. We confirm that methods other than video instruction and deliberate FLS practice are not essential to pass the final exam. Based on these results, we suggest the introduction of the FLS system even where a trained tutor is not available. This trial is the first single institution application of the FLS in Italy and one of the few experiences outside the US. Trial Number: NCT02486575 ( https://www.clinicaltrials.gov ).

  16. Randomized trial to compare the safety and immunogenicity of CSL Limited's 2009 trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine to an established vaccine in United States children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Rebecca C; Hu, Wilson; Houchin, Vonda G; Eder, Frank S; Jackson, Kenneth C; Hartel, Gunter F; Sawlwin, Daphne C; Albano, Frank R; Greenberg, Michael

    2014-12-12

    A trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (CSL's TIV, CSL Limited) was licensed under USA accelerated approval regulations for use in persons≥18 years. We performed a randomized, observer-blind study to assess the safety and immunogenicity of CSL's TIV versus an established US-licensed vaccine in a population≥6 months to vaccination history determined the dosing regimen (one or two vaccinations). Subjects received CSL's TIV (n=739) or the established vaccine (n=735) in the autumn of 2009. Serum hemagglutination-inhibition titers were determined pre-vaccination and 30 days after the last vaccination. No febrile seizures or other vaccine-related SAEs were reported. After the first vaccination for Cohorts A and B, respectively, the relative risks of fever were 2.73 and 2.32 times higher for CSL's TIV compared to the established vaccine. Irritability and loss of appetite (for Cohort A) and malaise (for Cohort B) were also significantly higher for CSL's TIV compared to the established vaccine. Post-vaccination geometric mean titers (GMTs) for CSL's TIV versus the established vaccine were 385.49 vs. 382.45 for H1N1; 669.13 vs. 705.61 for H3N2; and 100.65 vs. 93.72 for B. CSL's TIV demonstrated immunological non-inferiority to the established vaccine in all cohorts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A randomized controlled trial on early physiotherapy intervention versus usual care in acute care unit for elderly: potential benefits in light of dietary intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanc-Bisson, C; Dechamps, A; Gouspillou, G; Dehail, P; Bourdel-Marchasson, I

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate effects of early intensive physiotherapy during acute illness on post hospitalization activity daily living autonomy (ADL). Prospective randomized controlled trial of intensive physiotherapy rehabilitation on day 1 to 2 after admission until clinical stability or usual care. acute care geriatric medicine ward. A total of 76 acutely ill patients, acutely bedridden or with reduced mobility but who were autonomous for mobility within the previous 3 months. Patients in palliative care or with limiting mobility pathology were excluded. Mean age was 85.4 (SD 6.6) years. At admission, at clinical stability and one month later: anthropometry, energy and protein intakes, hand grip strength, ADL scores, and baseline inflammatory parameters. An exploratory principal axis analysis was performed on the baseline characteristics and general linear models were used to explore the course of ADL and nutritional variables. A 4-factor solution was found explaining 71.7% of variance with a factor "nutrition", a factor "function" (18.8% of variance) for ADL, handgrip strength, bedridden state, energy and protein intakes, serum albumin and C-reactive protein concentrations; a factor "strength" and a fourth factor . During follow-up, dietary intakes, handgrip strength, and ADL scores improved but no changes occurred for anthropometric variables. Intervention was associated only with an increase in protein intake. Better improvement in ADL was found in intervention group when model was adjusted on "function" factor items. Physical intervention programs should be proposed according to nutritional intakes with the aim of preventing illness induced disability.

  18. Random walk on random walks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilário, M.; Hollander, den W.Th.F.; Sidoravicius, V.; Soares dos Santos, R.; Teixeira, A.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we study a random walk in a one-dimensional dynamic random environment consisting of a collection of independent particles performing simple symmetric random walks in a Poisson equilibrium with density ¿¿(0,8). At each step the random walk performs a nearest-neighbour jump, moving to

  19. New diagnostic technology and hidden pits and fissures caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Guerra

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The accuracy in pits and fissures caries detection is of paramount importance in dental caries primary and secondary prevention. A combination of visual examination and probing is currently the mainstay of occlusal caries diagnosis. Unfortunately, these types of inspection alone may leave a certain number of pit and fissure caries undetected. The Vista Cam iX fluorescence camera (Durr Dental, Bietigheim-Bissingen, Germany is a novel dental diagnostic tool for quantitative assessment of dental caries with high specificity for carious lesions detection. In the presented cases photographic images, representing the visual diagnostic approach, are applied as integration to VistaCam iX Proof images. A step-by-step sequence of inspection and assessment of operative treatment need is presented in a case of hidden pit and fissure caries on a permanent molar. Based on the reported case, it could be observed that VistaCam iX Proof shows promising results in hidden pits and fissures caries detection and could be considered a non-invasive examination method that facilitate the detection of early lesions and a potential diagnostic aid.

  20. Analysis of changing hidden energy flow in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Thi Anh Tuyet; Ishihara, Keiichi N.

    2006-01-01

    The energy consumption in production process is changing especially in developing countries by substituting technology. Input-output analysis for energy flows has been developing and is one of the best solutions for investigating macroscopic exchanges of both economy and energy. Since each element in the Leontief inverse contains both direct and indirect effects of any change in final demand, to separate those direct and indirect effects, the power series expansion is available. In this work, the changes of embodied energy intensity in Vietnam from 1996 to 2000 were analyzed using the structural decomposition and its power series expansion. By illustrating the change of causal relationship between direct energy consumption and embodied energy consumption, the change of hidden energy flow, which indicates how the changing embodied energy builds up the change of direct energy consumption in every sector, can be seen. In the case study, the rice processing sector, which is one of the important food processing sectors in Vietnam, is focused. By drawing a diagrammatic map for the change of hidden energy flow, it is clarified that in the case of raising embodied energy intensity, cultivation sector and trade and repaired service sector are the main contributors, and, on the contrary, in the case of reducing embodied energy intensity, paper pulp sector is the main contributor

  1. Invisible waves and hidden realms: augmented reality and experimental art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzanka, Silvia

    2012-03-01

    Augmented reality is way of both altering the visible and revealing the invisible. It offers new opportunities for artistic exploration through virtual interventions in real space. In this paper, the author describes the implementation of two art installations using different AR technologies, one using optical marker tracking on mobile devices and one integrating stereoscopic projections into the physical environment. The first artwork, De Ondas y Abejas (The Waves and the Bees), is based on the widely publicized (but unproven) hypothesis of a link between cellphone radiation and the phenomenon of bee colony collapse disorder. Using an Android tablet, viewers search out small fiducial markers in the shape of electromagnetic waves hidden throughout the gallery, which reveal swarms of bees scattered on the floor. The piece also creates a generative soundscape based on electromagnetic fields. The second artwork, Urban Fauna, is a series of animations in which features of the urban landscape become plants and animals. Surveillance cameras become flocks of birds while miniature cellphone towers, lampposts, and telephone poles grow like small seedlings in time-lapse animation. The animations are presented as small stereoscopic projections, integrated into the physical space of the gallery. These two pieces explore the relationship between nature and technology through the visualization of invisible forces and hidden alternate realities.

  2. Results from the solar hidden photon search (SHIPS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, Matthias; Schneide, Magnus; Susol, Jaroslaw; Wiedemann, Guenter; Redondo, Javier

    2015-02-01

    We present the results of a search for transversely polarised hidden photons (HPs) with ∝3 eV energies emitted from the Sun. These hypothetical particles, known also as paraphotons or dark sector photons, are theoretically well motivated for example by string theory inspired extensions of the Standard Model. Solar HPs of sub-eV mass can convert into photons of the same energy (photon<->HP oscillations are similar to neutrino flavour oscillations). At SHIPS this would take place inside a long light-tight high-vacuum tube, which tracks the Sun. The generated photons would then be focused into a low-noise photomultiplier at the far end of the tube. Our analysis of 330 h of data (and 330 h of background characterisation) reveals no signal of photons from solar hidden photon conversion. We estimate the rate of newly generated photons due to this conversion to be smaller than 25 mHz/m 2 at the 95%C.L. Using this and a recent model of solar HP emission, we set stringent constraints on χ, the coupling constant between HPs and photons, as a function of the HP mass.

  3. Results from the Solar Hidden Photon Search (SHIPS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarz, Matthias [Hamburger Sternwarte, Gojenbergsweg 112, D-21029 Hamburg (Germany); Knabbe, Ernst-Axel; Lindner, Axel [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestraße 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Redondo, Javier [Departamento de Física Teórica, Universidad de Zaragoza, Pedro Cerbuna 12, E-50009, Zaragoza (Spain); Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, D-80805 München (Germany); Ringwald, Andreas [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestraße 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Schneide, Magnus; Susol, Jaroslaw; Wiedemann, Günter [Hamburger Sternwarte, Gojenbergsweg 112, D-21029 Hamburg (Germany)

    2015-08-07

    We present the results of a search for transversely polarised hidden photons (HPs) with ∼3 eV energies emitted from the Sun. These hypothetical particles, known also as paraphotons or dark sector photons, are theoretically well motivated for example by string theory inspired extensions of the Standard Model. Solar HPs of sub-eV mass can convert into photons of the same energy (photon ↔ HP oscillations are similar to neutrino flavour oscillations). At SHIPS this would take place inside a long light-tight high-vacuum tube, which tracks the Sun. The generated photons would then be focused into a low-noise photomultiplier at the far end of the tube. Our analysis of 330 h of data (and 330 h of background characterisation) reveals no signal of photons from solar hidden photon conversion. We estimate the rate of newly generated photons due to this conversion to be smaller than 25 mHz/m{sup 2} at the 95% C.L. Using this and a recent model of solar HP emission, we set stringent constraints on χ, the coupling constant between HPs and photons, as a function of the HP mass.

  4. Hidden Markov latent variable models with multivariate longitudinal data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xinyuan; Xia, Yemao; Zhu, Hongtu

    2017-03-01

    Cocaine addiction is chronic and persistent, and has become a major social and health problem in many countries. Existing studies have shown that cocaine addicts often undergo episodic periods of addiction to, moderate dependence on, or swearing off cocaine. Given its reversible feature, cocaine use can be formulated as a stochastic process that transits from one state to another, while the impacts of various factors, such as treatment received and individuals' psychological problems on cocaine use, may vary across states. This article develops a hidden Markov latent variable model to study multivariate longitudinal data concerning cocaine use from a California Civil Addict Program. The proposed model generalizes conventional latent variable models to allow bidirectional transition between cocaine-addiction states and conventional hidden Markov models to allow latent variables and their dynamic interrelationship. We develop a maximum-likelihood approach, along with a Monte Carlo expectation conditional maximization (MCECM) algorithm, to conduct parameter estimation. The asymptotic properties of the parameter estimates and statistics for testing the heterogeneity of model parameters are investigated. The finite sample performance of the proposed methodology is demonstrated by simulation studies. The application to cocaine use study provides insights into the prevention of cocaine use. © 2016, The International Biometric Society.

  5. The hidden X-ray breaks in afterglow light curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curran, P. A.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.; Horst, A. J. van der; Starling, R. L. C.

    2008-01-01

    Gamma-Ray Burst (GRB) afterglow observations in the Swift era have a perceived lack of achromatic jet breaks compared to the BeppoSAX, or pre-Swift era. Specifically, relatively few breaks, consistent with jet breaks, are observed in the X-ray light curves of these bursts. If these breaks are truly missing, it has serious consequences for the interpretation of GRB jet collimation and energy requirements, and the use of GRBs as standard candles.Here we address the issue of X-ray breaks which are possibly 'hidden' and hence the light curves are misinterpreted as being single power-laws. We show how a number of precedents, including GRB 990510 and GRB 060206, exist for such hidden breaks and how, even with the well sampled light curves of the Swift era, these breaks may be left misidentified. We do so by synthesising X-ray light curves and finding general trends via Monte Carlo analysis. Furthermore, in light of these simulations, we discuss how to best identify achromatic breaks in afterglow light curves via multi-wavelength analysis

  6. Results from the Solar Hidden Photon Search (SHIPS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarz, Matthias; Schneide, Magnus; Susol, Jaroslaw; Wiedemann, Günter [Hamburger Sternwarte, Gojenbergsweg 112, D-21029 Hamburg (Germany); Knabbe, Ernst-Axel; Lindner, Axel; Ringwald, Andreas [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestraße 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Redondo, Javier, E-mail: mschwarz@hs.uni-hamburg.de, E-mail: ernst-axel.knabbe@desy.de, E-mail: Axel-lindner@desy.de, E-mail: jredondo@unizar.es, E-mail: Andreas.Ringwald@desy.de, E-mail: mschneide@hs.uni-hamburg.de, E-mail: jsusol@hs.uni-hamburg.de, E-mail: gwiedemann@hs.uni-hamburg.de [Departamento de Física Teórica, Universidad de Zaragoza, Pedro Cerbuna 12, E-50009, Zaragoza (Spain)

    2015-08-01

    We present the results of a search for transversely polarised hidden photons (HPs) with ∼ 3 eV energies emitted from the Sun. These hypothetical particles, known also as paraphotons or dark sector photons, are theoretically well motivated for example by string theory inspired extensions of the Standard Model. Solar HPs of sub-eV mass can convert into photons of the same energy (photon ↔ HP oscillations are similar to neutrino flavour oscillations). At SHIPS this would take place inside a long light-tight high-vacuum tube, which tracks the Sun. The generated photons would then be focused into a low-noise photomultiplier at the far end of the tube. Our analysis of 330 h of data (and 330 h of background characterisation) reveals no signal of photons from solar hidden photon conversion. We estimate the rate of newly generated photons due to this conversion to be smaller than 25 mHz/m{sup 2} at the 95% C.L . Using this and a recent model of solar HP emission, we set stringent constraints on χ, the coupling constant between HPs and photons, as a function of the HP mass.

  7. Results from the solar hidden photon search (SHIPS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarz, Matthias; Schneide, Magnus; Susol, Jaroslaw; Wiedemann, Guenter [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Sternwarte; Knabbe, Ernst-Axel; Lindner, Axel; Ringwald, Andreas [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Redondo, Javier [Zaragoza Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Teorica; Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany)

    2015-02-15

    We present the results of a search for transversely polarised hidden photons (HPs) with ∝3 eV energies emitted from the Sun. These hypothetical particles, known also as paraphotons or dark sector photons, are theoretically well motivated for example by string theory inspired extensions of the Standard Model. Solar HPs of sub-eV mass can convert into photons of the same energy (photon<->HP oscillations are similar to neutrino flavour oscillations). At SHIPS this would take place inside a long light-tight high-vacuum tube, which tracks the Sun. The generated photons would then be focused into a low-noise photomultiplier at the far end of the tube. Our analysis of 330 h of data (and 330 h of background characterisation) reveals no signal of photons from solar hidden photon conversion. We estimate the rate of newly generated photons due to this conversion to be smaller than 25 mHz/m{sup 2} at the 95%C.L. Using this and a recent model of solar HP emission, we set stringent constraints on χ, the coupling constant between HPs and photons, as a function of the HP mass.

  8. Chaotic secure content-based hidden transmission of biometric templates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Muhammad Khurram; Zhang Jiashu; Tian Lei

    2007-01-01

    The large-scale proliferation of biometric verification systems creates a demand for effective and reliable security and privacy of its data. Like passwords and PIN codes, biometric data is also not secret and if it is compromised, the integrity of the whole verification system could be at high risk. To address these issues, this paper presents a novel chaotic secure content-based hidden transmission scheme of biometric data. Encryption and data hiding techniques are used to improve the security and secrecy of the transmitted templates. Secret keys are generated by the biometric image and used as the parameter value and initial condition of the chaotic map, and each transaction session has different secret keys to protect from the attacks. Two chaotic maps are incorporated for the encryption to resolve the finite word length effect and to improve the system's resistance against attacks. Encryption is applied on the biometric templates before hiding into the cover/host images to make them secure, and then templates are hidden into the cover image. Experimental results show that the security, performance, and accuracy of the presented scheme are encouraging comparable with other methods found in the current literature

  9. Chaotic secure content-based hidden transmission of biometric templates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Muhammad Khurram [Research Group for Biometrics and Security, Sichuan Province Key Lab of Signal and Information Processing, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031, Sichuan (China)]. E-mail: khurram.khan@scientist.com; Zhang Jiashu [Research Group for Biometrics and Security, Sichuan Province Key Lab of Signal and Information Processing, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031, Sichuan (China); Tian Lei [Research Group for Biometrics and Security, Sichuan Province Key Lab of Signal and Information Processing, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031, Sichuan (China)

    2007-06-15

    The large-scale proliferation of biometric verification systems creates a demand for effective and reliable security and privacy of its data. Like passwords and PIN codes, biometric data is also not secret and if it is compromised, the integrity of the whole verification system could be at high risk. To address these issues, this paper presents a novel chaotic secure content-based hidden transmission scheme of biometric data. Encryption and data hiding techniques are used to improve the security and secrecy of the transmitted templates. Secret keys are generated by the biometric image and used as the parameter value and initial condition of the chaotic map, and each transaction session has different secret keys to protect from the attacks. Two chaotic maps are incorporated for the encryption to resolve the finite word length effect and to improve the system's resistance against attacks. Encryption is applied on the biometric templates before hiding into the cover/host images to make them secure, and then templates are hidden into the cover image. Experimental results show that the security, performance, and accuracy of the presented scheme are encouraging comparable with other methods found in the current literature.

  10. The Hidden Diversity of Flagellated Protists in Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venter, Paul Christiaan; Nitsche, Frank; Arndt, Hartmut

    2018-07-01

    Protists are among the most diverse and abundant eukaryotes in soil. However, gaps between described and sequenced protist morphospecies still present a pending problem when surveying environmental samples for known species using molecular methods. The number of sequences in the molecular PR 2 database (∼130,000) is limited compared to the species richness expected (>1 million protist species) - limiting the recovery rate. This is important, since high throughput sequencing (HTS) methods are used to find associative patterns between functional traits, taxa and environmental parameters. We performed HTS to survey soil flagellates in 150 grasslands of central Europe, and tested the recovery rate of ten previously isolated and cultivated cercomonad species, among locally found diversity. We recovered sequences for reference soil flagellate species, but also a great number of their phylogenetically evaluated genetic variants, among rare and dominant taxa with presumably own biogeography. This was recorded among dominant (cercozoans, Sandona), rare (apusozoans) and a large hidden diversity of predominantly aquatic protists in soil (choanoflagellates, bicosoecids) often forming novel clades associated with uncultured environmental sequences. Evaluating the reads, instead of the OTUs that individual reads are usually clustered into, we discovered that much of this hidden diversity may be lost due to clustering. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Recent Developments in Supersymmetric and Hidden Sector Dark Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, Daniel; Liu Zuowei; Nath, Pran

    2008-01-01

    New results which correlate SUSY dark matter with LHC signals are presented, and a brief review of recent developments in supersymmetric and hidden sector dark matter is given. It is shown that the direct detection of dark matter is very sensitive to the hierarchical SUSY sparticle spectrum and the spectrum is very useful in distinguishing models. It is shown that the prospects of the discovery of neutralino dark matter are very bright on the 'Chargino Wall' due to a copious number of model points on the Wall, where the NLSP is the Chargino, and the spin independent neutralino-proton cross section is maintained at high values in the 10 -44 cm 2 range for neutralino masses up to ∼850 GeV. It is also shown that the direct detection of dark matter along with lepton plus jet signatures and missing energy provide dual, and often complementary, probes of supersymmetry. Finally, we discuss an out of the box possibility for dark matter, which includes dark matter from the hidden sector, which could either consist of extra weakly interacting dark matter (a Stino XWIMP), or milli-charged dark matter arising from the Stueckelberg extensions of the MSSM or the SM.

  12. Automatic Hidden-Web Table Interpretation by Sibling Page Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Cui; Embley, David W.

    The longstanding problem of automatic table interpretation still illudes us. Its solution would not only be an aid to table processing applications such as large volume table conversion, but would also be an aid in solving related problems such as information extraction and semi-structured data management. In this paper, we offer a conceptual modeling solution for the common special case in which so-called sibling pages are available. The sibling pages we consider are pages on the hidden web, commonly generated from underlying databases. We compare them to identify and connect nonvarying components (category labels) and varying components (data values). We tested our solution using more than 2,000 tables in source pages from three different domains—car advertisements, molecular biology, and geopolitical information. Experimental results show that the system can successfully identify sibling tables, generate structure patterns, interpret tables using the generated patterns, and automatically adjust the structure patterns, if necessary, as it processes a sequence of hidden-web pages. For these activities, the system was able to achieve an overall F-measure of 94.5%.

  13. Context-invariant quasi hidden variable (qHV) modelling of all joint von Neumann measurements for an arbitrary Hilbert space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loubenets, Elena R.

    2015-01-01

    We prove the existence for each Hilbert space of the two new quasi hidden variable (qHV) models, statistically noncontextual and context-invariant, reproducing all the von Neumann joint probabilities via non-negative values of real-valued measures and all the quantum product expectations—via the qHV (classical-like) average of the product of the corresponding random variables. In a context-invariant model, a quantum observable X can be represented by a variety of random variables satisfying the functional condition required in quantum foundations but each of these random variables equivalently models X under all joint von Neumann measurements, regardless of their contexts. The proved existence of this model negates the general opinion that, in terms of random variables, the Hilbert space description of all the joint von Neumann measurements for dimH≥3 can be reproduced only contextually. The existence of a statistically noncontextual qHV model, in particular, implies that every N-partite quantum state admits a local quasi hidden variable model introduced in Loubenets [J. Math. Phys. 53, 022201 (2012)]. The new results of the present paper point also to the generality of the quasi-classical probability model proposed in Loubenets [J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 45, 185306 (2012)

  14. PELACAKAN DAN PENGENALAN WAJAH MENGGUNAKAN METODE EMBEDDED HIDDEN MARKOV MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arie Wirawan Margono

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Tracking and recognizing human face becomes one of the important research subjects nowadays, where it is applicable in security system like room access, surveillance, as well as searching for person identity in police database. Because of applying in security case, it is necessary to have robust system for certain conditions such as: background influence, non-frontal face pose of male or female in different age and race. The aim of this research is to develop software which combines human face tracking using CamShift algorithm and face recognition system using Embedded Hidden Markov Models. The software uses video camera (webcam for real-time input, video AVI for dynamic input, and image file for static input. The software uses Object Oriented Programming (OOP coding style with C++ programming language, Microsoft Visual C++ 6.0® compiler, and assisted by some libraries of Intel Image Processing Library (IPL and Intel Open Source Computer Vision (OpenCV. System testing shows that object tracking based on skin complexion using CamShift algorithm comes out well, for tracking of single or even two face objects at once. Human face recognition system using Embedded Hidden Markov Models method has reach accuracy percentage of 82.76%, using 341 human faces in database that consists of 31 individuals with 11 poses and 29 human face testers. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Pelacakan dan pengenalan wajah manusia merupakan salah satu bidang yang cukup berkembang dewasa ini, dimana aplikasi dapat diterapkan dalam bidang keamanan (security system seperti ijin akses masuk ruangan, pengawasan lokasi (surveillance, maupun pencarian identitas individu pada database kepolisian. Karena diterapkan dalam kasus keamanan, dibutuhkan sistem yang handal terhadap beberapa kondisi, seperti: pengaruh latar belakang, pose wajah non-frontal terhadap pria maupun wanita dalam perbedaan usia dan ras. Tujuan penelitiam ini adalah untuk membuat perangkat lunak yang menggabungkan

  15. [Intel random number generator-based true random number generator].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Feng; Shen, Hong

    2004-09-01

    To establish a true random number generator on the basis of certain Intel chips. The random numbers were acquired by programming using Microsoft Visual C++ 6.0 via register reading from the random number generator (RNG) unit of an Intel 815 chipset-based computer with Intel Security Driver (ISD). We tested the generator with 500 random numbers in NIST FIPS 140-1 and X(2) R-Squared test, and the result showed that the random number it generated satisfied the demand of independence and uniform distribution. We also compared the random numbers generated by Intel RNG-based true random number generator and those from the random number table statistically, by using the same amount of 7500 random numbers in the same value domain, which showed that the SD, SE and CV of Intel RNG-based random number generator were less than those of the random number table. The result of u test of two CVs revealed no significant difference between the two methods. Intel RNG-based random number generator can produce high-quality random numbers with good independence and uniform distribution, and solves some problems with random number table in acquisition of the random numbers.

  16. Bayesian Mixed Hidden Markov Models: A Multi-Level Approach to Modeling Categorical Outcomes with Differential Misclassification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yue; Berhane, Kiros

    2014-01-01

    Questionnaire-based health status outcomes are often prone to misclassification. When studying the effect of risk factors on such outcomes, ignoring any potential misclassification may lead to biased effect estimates. Analytical challenges posed by these misclassified outcomes are further complicated when simultaneously exploring factors for both the misclassification and health processes in a multi-level setting. To address these challenges, we propose a fully Bayesian Mixed Hidden Markov Model (BMHMM) for handling differential misclassification in categorical outcomes in a multi-level setting. The BMHMM generalizes the traditional Hidden Markov Model (HMM) by introducing random effects into three sets of HMM parameters for joint estimation of the prevalence, transition and misclassification probabilities. This formulation not only allows joint estimation of all three sets of parameters, but also accounts for cluster level heterogeneity based on a multi-level model structure. Using this novel approach, both the true health status prevalence and the transition probabilities between the health states during follow-up are modeled as functions of covariates. The observed, possibly misclassified, health states are related to the true, but unobserved, health states and covariates. Results from simulation studies are presented to validate the estimation procedure, to show the computational efficiency due to the Bayesian approach and also to illustrate the gains from the proposed method compared to existing methods that ignore outcome misclassification and cluster level heterogeneity. We apply the proposed method to examine the risk factors for both asthma transition and misclassification in the Southern California Children's Health Study (CHS). PMID:24254432

  17. Family Nurture Intervention in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit improves social-relatedness, attention, and neurodevelopment of preterm infants at 18 months in a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Martha G; Firestein, Morgan R; Austin, Judy; Hane, Amie A; Stark, Raymond I; Hofer, Myron A; Garland, Marianne; Glickstein, Sara B; Brunelli, Susan A; Ludwig, Robert J; Myers, Michael M

    2015-11-01

    Preterm infants are at high risk for adverse neurodevelopmental and behavioral outcomes. Family Nurture Intervention (FNI) in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) is designed to counteract adverse effects of separation of mothers and their preterm infants. Here, we evaluate effects of FNI on neurobehavioral outcomes. Data were collected at 18 months corrected age from preterm infants. Infants were assigned at birth to FNI or standard care (SC). Bayley Scales of Infant Development III (Bayley-III) were assessed for 76 infants (SC, n = 31; FNI, n = 45); the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) for 57 infants (SC, n = 31; FNI, n = 26); and the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT) was obtained for 59 infants (SC, n = 33; FNI, n = 26). Family Nurture Intervention significantly improved Bayley-III cognitive (p = .039) and language (p = .008) scores for infants whose scores were greater than 85. FNI infants had fewer attention problems on the CBCL (p Nurture Intervention is the first NICU intervention to show significant improvements in preterm infants across multiple domains of neurodevelopment, social-relatedness, and attention problems. These gains suggest that an intervention that facilitates emotional interactions between mothers and infants in the NICU may be key to altering developmental trajectories of preterm infants. © 2015 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  18. Algorithms for a parallel implementation of Hidden Markov Models with a small state space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper; Sand, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Two of the most important algorithms for Hidden Markov Models are the forward and the Viterbi algorithms. We show how formulating these using linear algebra naturally lends itself to parallelization. Although the obtained algorithms are slow for Hidden Markov Models with large state spaces...

  19. Review of hidden carbon emissions, trade, and labor income share in China, 2001–2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Shu-Hong; Song, Ma-Lin

    2014-01-01

    Coordinated development between the economy and the environment is currently one of the most important issues in China. By establishing models concerning labor income share and hidden carbon emissions, and taking trade as the link in their relationship, this study puts forward the scale effects, technological effects, and structural effects that relate to labor income share under the function of trade. We then establish multi-index and multi-indicator constitutive (MIMIC) equation to measure the ratio of hidden carbon emissions to total emissions, which is further considered the basis of the measurement model. Results of regression analysis carried out on labor income share show that hidden carbon emissions do have a positive effect on labor income share. In the meantime, we also prove that under scale effects, technological effects, and the structural effects of trade, hidden carbon emissions affect labor income shares in different directions. Our conclusions and policy implications are obtained from the calculated results. - Highlights: • This study establishes models concerning labor income share and hidden carbon emissions. • MIMIC is established to measure the ratio of hidden carbon emissions to total discharge. • Hidden carbon emissions have a positive effect on labor income share. • Hidden carbon emissions have various effects on the labor income share

  20. 438 Optimal Number of States in Hidden Markov Models and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, Hidden Markov Model is applied to model human movements as to .... emit either discrete information or a continuous data derived from a Probability .... For each hidden state in the test set, the probability = ... by applying the Kullback-Leibler distance (Juang & Rabiner, 1985) which ..... One Size Does Not Fit.

  1. Limits of performance for the model reduction problem of hidden Markov models

    KAUST Repository

    Kotsalis, Georgios

    2015-12-15

    We introduce system theoretic notions of a Hankel operator, and Hankel norm for hidden Markov models. We show how the related Hankel singular values provide lower bounds on the norm of the difference between a hidden Markov model of order n and any lower order approximant of order n̂ < n.

  2. Dimensional reduction in field theory and hidden symmetries in extended supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kremmer, E.

    1985-01-01

    Dimensional reduction in field theories is discussed both in theories which do not include gravity and in gravity theories. In particular, 11-dimensional supergravity and its reduction to 4 dimensions is considered. Hidden symmetries of supergravity with N=8 in 4 dimensions, global E 7 and local SU(8)-invariances in particular are detected. The hidden symmmetries permit to interpret geometrically the scalar fields

  3. Hidden School Dropout among Immigrant Students: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarova, Elena; Herzog, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Actual school dropout among immigrant youth has been addressed in a number of studies, but research on hidden school dropout among immigrant students is rare. Thus, the objective of this paper is to analyze hidden school dropout among primary school students with an immigrant background. The analyses were performed using survey data of 1186…

  4. Raising awareness of the hidden curriculum in veterinary medical education: a review and call for research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitcomb, Tiffany L

    2014-01-01

    The hidden curriculum is characterized by information that is tacitly conveyed to and among students about the cultural and moral environment in which they find themselves. Although the hidden curriculum is often defined as a distinct entity, tacit information is conveyed to students throughout all aspects of formal and informal curricula. This unconsciously communicated knowledge has been identified across a wide spectrum of educational environments and is known to have lasting and powerful impacts, both positive and negative. Recently, medical education research on the hidden curriculum of becoming a doctor has come to the forefront as institutions struggle with inconsistencies between formal and hidden curricula that hinder the practice of patient-centered medicine. Similarly, the complex ethical questions that arise during the practice and teaching of veterinary medicine have the potential to cause disagreement between what the institution sets out to teach and what is actually learned. However, the hidden curriculum remains largely unexplored for this field. Because the hidden curriculum is retained effectively by students, elucidating its underlying messages can be a key component of program refinement. A review of recent literature about the hidden curriculum in a variety of fields, including medical education, will be used to explore potential hidden curricula in veterinary medicine and draw attention to the need for further investigation.

  5. Nurture Hidden Talents: Transform School Culture into One That Values Teacher Expertise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Diane P.

    2014-01-01

    This article looks into the school culture where teacher expertise is often hidden and underused. While the media-rich culture places a high value on talent, the irony is that talent is underrated in most schools, and educators often remain silent about their hidden talents. Many school cultures are not conducive to dialogue that supports displays…

  6. 77 FR 8253 - Notice of Proposed Settlement Agreement and Opportunity for Public Comment: Hidden Lane Landfill...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-14

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9631-3] Notice of Proposed Settlement Agreement and Opportunity for Public Comment: Hidden Lane Landfill Superfund Site ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: In accordance... (``DOJ'') on behalf of EPA, in connection with the Hidden Lane Landfill Superfund Site, Sterling, Loudoun...

  7. Limits of performance for the model reduction problem of hidden Markov models

    KAUST Repository

    Kotsalis, Georgios; Shamma, Jeff S.

    2015-01-01

    We introduce system theoretic notions of a Hankel operator, and Hankel norm for hidden Markov models. We show how the related Hankel singular values provide lower bounds on the norm of the difference between a hidden Markov model of order n and any lower order approximant of order n̂ < n.

  8. The Consensus String Problem and the Complexity of Comparing Hidden Markov Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngsø, Rune Bang; Pedersen, Christian Nørgaard Storm

    2002-01-01

    The basic theory of hidden Markov models was developed and applied to problems in speech recognition in the late 1960s, and has since then been applied to numerous problems, e.g. biological sequence analysis. Most applications of hidden Markov models are based on efficient algorithms for computing...... the probability of generating a given string, or computing the most likely path generating a given string. In this paper we consider the problem of computing the most likely string, or consensus string, generated by a given model, and its implications on the complexity of comparing hidden Markov models. We show...... that computing the consensus string, and approximating its probability within any constant factor, is NP-hard, and that the same holds for the closely related labeling problem for class hidden Markov models. Furthermore, we establish the NP-hardness of comparing two hidden Markov models under the L∞- and L1...

  9. The hidden costs of self-management services in the accounting activity of a company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Ioan TOPOR

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses relevant aspects regarding the hidden costs of self-management services in the accounting area, within the accounting department of a company. With this aim, the authors conducted a study using a questionnaire, whose results were analyzed and interpreted. The hidden costs of the self-management of business accounting services observed in the accounting department of the company have been assessed and the causes of their generating sources were identified and analyzed. The debate of these hidden costs involved the treating of notions that exist in the accounting language, but are still not sufficiently explored by the specialists in the area. We also presented and analyzed the causes of the hidden costs of self-management in the accounting activity, as well as a reporting document for failures, arising from the case study. The article ends with the authors' conclusions regarding the hidden costs of self-management services in the accounting area.

  10. A hidden service model based on HS-HS anonymous network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yitong; Zhao, Xing; Fei, Jinlong; Zhu, Yuefei

    2017-10-01

    The Hidden Service provided by Tor anonymous network can effectively protect the anonymity and security of the Hidden server, this article through the analysis of the data packet structure of Tor, three jump transmission mechanism and link establishment protocol and Hidden Service communication process, in view of the Hidden node number too much, link building Service for too long and too redundant link problem. An improved hidden service model HS-HS is proposed that incorporating multiple transmission link and reuse, and at the same time will be important transit point for reuse protection link anonymity, through the ExperimenTor simulation environment test, verify the improved model of HS-HS can be more effective in guarantee anonymity and security, improve the overall efficiency of data transmission, to meet the needs of today's anonymous service.

  11. Application of ANNS in tube CHF prediction: effect on neuron number in hidden layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, L.; Shan, J.; Zhang, B.

    2004-01-01

    Prediction of the Critical Heat Flux (CHF) for upward flow of water in uniformly heated vertical round tube is studied with Artificial Neuron Networks (ANNs) method utilizing different neuron number in hidden layers. This study is based on thermal equilibrium conditions. The neuron number in hidden layers is chosen to vary from 5 to 30 with the step of 5. The effect due to the variety of the neuron number in hidden layers is analyzed. The analysis shows that the neuron number in hidden layers should be appropriate, too less will affect the prediction accuracy and too much may result in abnormal parametric trends. It is concluded that the appropriate neuron number in two hidden layers should be [15 15]. (authors)

  12. Exponential gain of randomness certified by quantum contextuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Um, Mark; Zhang, Junhua; Wang, Ye; Wang, Pengfei; Kim, Kihwan

    2017-04-01

    We demonstrate the protocol of exponential gain of randomness certified by quantum contextuality in a trapped ion system. The genuine randomness can be produced by quantum principle and certified by quantum inequalities. Recently, randomness expansion protocols based on inequality of Bell-text and Kochen-Specker (KS) theorem, have been demonstrated. These schemes have been theoretically innovated to exponentially expand the randomness and amplify the randomness from weak initial random seed. Here, we report the experimental evidence of such exponential expansion of randomness. In the experiment, we use three states of a 138Ba + ion between a ground state and two quadrupole states. In the 138Ba + ion system, we do not have detection loophole and we apply a methods to rule out certain hidden variable models that obey a kind of extended noncontextuality.

  13. SHIFT: server for hidden stops analysis in frame-shifted translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Arun; Singh, Tiratha Raj

    2013-02-23

    Frameshift is one of the three classes of recoding. Frame-shifts lead to waste of energy, resources and activity of the biosynthetic machinery. In addition, some peptides synthesized after frame-shifts are probably cytotoxic which serve as plausible cause for innumerable number of diseases and disorders such as muscular dystrophies, lysosomal storage disorders, and cancer. Hidden stop codons occur naturally in coding sequences among all organisms. These codons are associated with the early termination of translation for incorrect reading frame selection and help to reduce the metabolic cost related to the frameshift events. Researchers have identified several consequences of hidden stop codons and their association with myriad disorders. However the wealth of information available is speckled and not effortlessly acquiescent to data-mining. To reduce this gap, this work describes an algorithmic web based tool to study hidden stops in frameshifted translation for all the lineages through respective genetic code systems. This paper describes SHIFT, an algorithmic web application tool that provides a user-friendly interface for identifying and analyzing hidden stops in frameshifted translation of genomic sequences for all available genetic code systems. We have calculated the correlation between codon usage frequencies and the plausible contribution of codons towards hidden stops in an off-frame context. Markovian chains of various order have been used to model hidden stops in frameshifted peptides and their evolutionary association with naturally occurring hidden stops. In order to obtain reliable and persuasive estimates for the naturally occurring and predicted hidden stops statistical measures have been implemented. This paper presented SHIFT, an algorithmic tool that allows user-friendly exploration, analysis, and visualization of hidden stop codons in frameshifted translations. It is expected that this web based tool would serve as a useful complement for

  14. Random magnetism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahir-Kheli, R.A.

    1975-01-01

    A few simple problems relating to random magnetic systems are presented. Translational symmetry, only on the macroscopic scale, is assumed for these systems. A random set of parameters, on the microscopic scale, for the various regions of these systems is also assumed. A probability distribution for randomness is obeyed. Knowledge of the form of these probability distributions, is assumed in all cases [pt

  15. Enhancing Speech Recognition Using Improved Particle Swarm Optimization Based Hidden Markov Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lokesh Selvaraj

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Enhancing speech recognition is the primary intention of this work. In this paper a novel speech recognition method based on vector quantization and improved particle swarm optimization (IPSO is suggested. The suggested methodology contains four stages, namely, (i denoising, (ii feature mining (iii, vector quantization, and (iv IPSO based hidden Markov model (HMM technique (IP-HMM. At first, the speech signals are denoised using median filter. Next, characteristics such as peak, pitch spectrum, Mel frequency Cepstral coefficients (MFCC, mean, standard deviation, and minimum and maximum of the signal are extorted from the denoised signal. Following that, to accomplish the training process, the extracted characteristics are given to genetic algorithm based codebook generation in vector quantization. The initial populations are created by selecting random code vectors from the training set for the codebooks for the genetic algorithm process and IP-HMM helps in doing the recognition. At this point the creativeness will be done in terms of one of the genetic operation crossovers. The proposed speech recognition technique offers 97.14% accuracy.

  16. Pseudo-random bit generator based on lag time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Martínez, M.; Campos-Cantón, E.

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we present a pseudo-random bit generator (PRBG) based on two lag time series of the logistic map using positive and negative values in the bifurcation parameter. In order to hidden the map used to build the pseudo-random series we have used a delay in the generation of time series. These new series when they are mapped xn against xn+1 present a cloud of points unrelated to the logistic map. Finally, the pseudo-random sequences have been tested with the suite of NIST giving satisfactory results for use in stream ciphers.

  17. Prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia, mortality and all intensive care unit acquired infections by topically applied antimicrobial or antiseptic agents: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials in intensive care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pileggi, Claudia; Bianco, Aida; Flotta, Domenico; Nobile, Carmelo G A; Pavia, Maria

    2011-06-24

    Given the high morbidity and mortality attributable to ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in intensive care unit (ICU) patients, prevention plays a key role in the management of patients undergoing mechanical ventilation. One of the candidate preventive interventions is the selective decontamination of the digestive or respiratory tract (SDRD) by topical antiseptic or antimicrobial agents. We performed a meta-analysis to investigate the effect of topical digestive or respiratory tract decontamination with antiseptics or antibiotics in the prevention of VAP, of mortality and of all ICU-acquired infections in mechanically ventilated ICU patients. A meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials was performed. The U.S. National Library of Medicine's MEDLINE database, Embase, and Cochrane Library computerized bibliographic databases, and reference lists of selected studies were used. Selection criteria for inclusion were: randomised controlled trials (RCTs); primary studies; examining the reduction of VAP and/or mortality and/or all ICU-acquired infections in ICU patients by prophylactic use of one or more of following topical treatments: 1) oropharyngeal decontamination using antiseptics or antibiotics, 2) gastrointestinal tract decontamination using antibiotics, 3) oropharyngeal plus gastrointestinal tract decontamination using antibiotics and 4) respiratory tract decontamination using antibiotics; reported enough data to estimate the odds ratio (OR) or risk ratio (RR) and their variance; English language; published through June 2010. A total of 28 articles met all inclusion criteria and were included in the meta-analysis. The overall estimate of efficacy of topical SDRD in the prevention of VAP was 27% (95% CI of efficacy = 16% to 37%) for antiseptics and 36% (95% CI of efficacy = 18% to 50%) for antibiotics, whereas in none of the meta-analyses conducted on mortality was a significant effect found. The effect of topical SDRD in the prevention of all ICU

  18. Multilayer Networks of Self-Interested Adaptive Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-07-01

    used the magnitude of the hidden unit’s single output weight as an indication of influence, though, as Klopf and Gose 1261 showed, other measures might...Rochester, NY, 1983. 125] M. I. Jordan. Personal communication. 1261 A. H. Klopf and E. Gose . An evolutionary pattern recognition network. IEEE

  19. Revelation of `Hidden' Balinese Geospatial Heritage on A Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soeria Atmadja, Dicky A. S.; Wikantika, Ketut; Budi Harto, Agung; Putra, Daffa Gifary M.

    2018-05-01

    Bali is not just about beautiful nature. It also has a unique and interesting cultural heritage, including `hidden' geospatial heritage. Tri Hita Karana is a Hinduism concept of life consisting of human relation to God, to other humans and to the nature (Parahiyangan, Pawongan and Palemahan), Based on it, - in term of geospatial aspect - the Balinese derived its spatial orientation, spatial planning & lay out, measurement as well as color and typography. Introducing these particular heritage would be a very interesting contribution to Bali tourism. As a respond to these issues, a question arise on how to reveal these unique and highly valuable geospatial heritage on a map which can be used to introduce and disseminate them to the tourists. Symbols (patterns & colors), orientation, distance, scale, layout and toponimy have been well known as elements of a map. There is an chance to apply Balinese geospatial heritage in representing these map elements.

  20. Rational first integrals of geodesic equations and generalised hidden symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Arata; Houri, Tsuyoshi; Tomoda, Kentaro

    2016-01-01

    We discuss novel generalisations of Killing tensors, which are introduced by considering rational first integrals of geodesic equations. We introduce the notion of inconstructible generalised Killing tensors, which cannot be constructed from ordinary Killing tensors. Moreover, we introduce inconstructible rational first integrals, which are constructed from inconstructible generalised Killing tensors, and provide a method for checking the inconstructibility of a rational first integral. Using the method, we show that the rational first integral of the Collinson–O’Donnell solution is not inconstructible. We also provide several examples of metrics admitting an inconstructible rational first integral in two and four-dimensions, by using the Maciejewski–Przybylska system. Furthermore, we attempt to generalise other hidden symmetries such as Killing–Yano tensors. (paper)

  1. Food allergy in breastfeeding babies. Hidden allergens in human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Muñoz, M F; Pineda, F; García Parrado, G; Guillén, D; Rivero, D; Belver, T; Quirce, S

    2016-07-01

    Food allergy is a rare disorder among breastfeeding babies. Our aim was to identify responsible allergens in human milk. We studied babies developing allergic symptoms at the time they were breastfeeding. Skin prick tests (SPT) were performed with breast milk and food allergens. Specific IgE was assessed and IgE Immunoblotting experiments with breast milk were carried out to identify food allergens. Clinical evolution was evaluated after a maternal free diet. Five babies had confirmed breast milk allergy. Peanut, white egg and/or cow's milk were demonstrated as the hidden responsible allergens. No baby returned to develop symptoms once mother started a free diet. Three of these babies showed tolerance to other food allergens identified in human milk. A maternal free diet should be recommended only if food allergy is confirmed in breastfed babies.

  2. Modeling promoter grammars with evolving hidden Markov models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Won, Kyoung-Jae; Sandelin, Albin; Marstrand, Troels Torben

    2008-01-01

    MOTIVATION: Describing and modeling biological features of eukaryotic promoters remains an important and challenging problem within computational biology. The promoters of higher eukaryotes in particular display a wide variation in regulatory features, which are difficult to model. Often several...... factors are involved in the regulation of a set of co-regulated genes. If so, promoters can be modeled with connected regulatory features, where the network of connections is characteristic for a particular mode of regulation. RESULTS: With the goal of automatically deciphering such regulatory structures......, we present a method that iteratively evolves an ensemble of regulatory grammars using a hidden Markov Model (HMM) architecture composed of interconnected blocks representing transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) and background regions of promoter sequences. The ensemble approach reduces the risk...

  3. New ALPS results on hidden-sector lightweights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehret, Klaus; Ghazaryan, Samvel [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Frede, Maik [Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (DE)] (and others)

    2010-04-08

    The ALPS collaboration runs a ''Light Shining through a Wall'' (LSW) experiment to search for photon oscillations into ''Weakly Interacting Sub-eV Particles'' (WISPs) often predicted by extensions of the Standard Model. The experiment is set up around a superconducting HERA dipole magnet at the site of DESY. Due to several upgrades of the experiment we are able to place limits on the probability of photon-WISP-photon conversions of a few x 10{sup -25}. These limits result in today's most stringent laboratory constraints on the existence of low mass axion-like particles, hidden photons and minicharged particles. (orig.)

  4. New infinite-dimensional hidden symmetries for heterotic string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Yajun

    2007-01-01

    The symmetry structures of two-dimensional heterotic string theory are studied further. A (2d+n)x(2d+n) matrix complex H-potential is constructed and the field equations are extended into a complex matrix formulation. A pair of Hauser-Ernst-type linear systems are established. Based on these linear systems, explicit formulations of new hidden symmetry transformations for the considered theory are given and then these symmetry transformations are verified to constitute infinite-dimensional Lie algebras: the semidirect product of the Kac-Moody o(d,d+n-circumflex) and Virasoro algebras (without center charges). These results demonstrate that the heterotic string theory under consideration possesses more and richer symmetry structures than previously expected

  5. Directed Hidden-Code Extractor for Environment-Sensitive Malwares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Chunfu; Wang, Zhi; Lu, Kai; Liu, Xinhai; Liu, Xin

    Malware writers often use packing technique to hide malicious payload. A number of dynamic unpacking tools are.designed in order to identify and extract the hidden code in the packed malware. However, such unpacking methods.are all based on a highly controlled environment that is vulnerable to various anti-unpacking techniques. If execution.environment is suspicious, malwares may stay inactive for a long time or stop execution immediately to evade.detection. In this paper, we proposed a novel approach that automatically reasons about the environment requirements.imposed by malware, then directs a unpacking tool to change the controlled environment to extract the hide code at.the new environment. The experimental results show that our approach significantly increases the resilience of the.traditional unpacking tools to environment-sensitive malware.

  6. Aligning the Hidden Curriculum of Management Education With PRME

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blasco, Maribel

    2012-01-01

    and content alone is not enough to improve students’ sense of social responsibility. Business schools are conceptualized in this article as multilevel learning environments comprising various message sites where students undergo moral learning and socialization processes. Using perspectives from HC research...... combined with transformative learning and communities of practice theory, the article offers an inquiry-based framework for PRME implementation that takes these moral learning and socialization processes into account. It provides suggestions for how to address the hidden curriculum both in the diagnostic...... phase of assessing a school’s PRME needs and in the implementation phase where PRME is integrated into business school learning environments. The concept of meta-messages is introduced to account for how students apprehend the HC at business schools....

  7. Scalar Hidden-Charm Tetraquark States with QCD Sum Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Zun-Yan; Wang, Zhi-Gang; Zhang, Jun-Xia; Yu, Guo-Liang

    2018-02-01

    In this article, we study the masses and pole residues of the pseudoscalar-diquark-pseudoscalar-antidiquark type and vector-diquark-vector-antidiquark type scalar hidden-charm cu\\bar{c}\\bar{d} (cu\\bar{c}\\bar{s}) tetraquark states with QCD sum rules by taking into account the contributions of the vacuum condensates up to dimension-10 in the operator product expansion. The predicted masses can be confronted with the experimental data in the future. Possible decays of those tetraquark states are also discussed. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 11375063, the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities under Grant Nos. 2016MS155 and 2016MS133

  8. New experimental limit on photon hidden-sector paraphoton mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afanasev, A. [Department of Physics, Hampton University, Hampton, VA 23668 (United States); Baker, O.K. [Department of Physics, Yale University, PO Box 208120, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States)], E-mail: oliver.baker@yale.edu; Beard, K.B. [Muons, Inc., 552 N. Batavia Avenue, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Biallas, G.; Boyce, J. [Free Electron Laser Division, Jefferson Laboratory, 12000 Jefferson Avenue, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); Minarni, M. [Department of Physics, Universitas Riau (UNRI), Pekanbaru, Riau 28293 (Indonesia); Ramdon, R. [Department of Physics, Hampton University, Hampton, VA 23668 (United States); Shinn, M. [Free Electron Laser Division, Jefferson Laboratory, 12000 Jefferson Avenue, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); Slocum, P. [Department of Physics, Yale University, PO Box 208120, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States)

    2009-08-31

    We report on the first results of a search for optical-wavelength photons mixing with hypothetical hidden-sector paraphotons in the mass range between 10{sup -5} and 10{sup -2} electron volts for a mixing parameter greater than 10{sup -7}. This was a generation-regeneration experiment using the 'light shining through a wall' technique in which regenerated photons are searched for downstream of an optical barrier that separates it from an upstream generation region. The new limits presented here are the most stringent limits to date on the mixing parameter. The present results indicate no evidence for photon-paraphoton mixing for the range of parameters investigated.

  9. Engineering of Algorithms for Hidden Markov models and Tree Distances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sand, Andreas

    Bioinformatics is an interdisciplinary scientific field that combines biology with mathematics, statistics and computer science in an effort to develop computational methods for handling, analyzing and learning from biological data. In the recent decades, the amount of available biological data has...... speed up all the classical algorithms for analyses and training of hidden Markov models. And I show how two particularly important algorithms, the forward algorithm and the Viterbi algorithm, can be accelerated through a reformulation of the algorithms and a somewhat more complicated parallelization...... contribution to the theoretically fastest set of algorithms presently available to compute two closely related measures of tree distance, the triplet distance and the quartet distance. And I further demonstrate that they are also the fastest algorithms in almost all cases when tested in practice....

  10. Revealing hidden covariation detection: evidence for implicit abstraction at study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossnagel, C S

    2001-09-01

    Four experiments in the brain scans paradigm (P. Lewicki, T. Hill, & I. Sasaki, 1989) investigated hidden covariation detection (HCD). In Experiment 1 HCD was found in an implicit- but not in an explicit-instruction group. In Experiment 2 HCD was impaired by nonholistic perception of stimuli but not by divided attention. In Experiment 3 HCD was eliminated by interspersing stimuli that deviated from the critical covariation. In Experiment 4 a transfer procedure was used. HCD was found with dissimilar test stimuli that preserved the covariation but was almost eliminated with similar stimuli that were neutral as to the covariation. Awareness was assessed both by objective and subjective tests in all experiments. Results suggest that HCD is an effect of implicit rule abstraction and that similarity processing plays only a minor role. HCD might be suppressed by intentional search strategies that induce inappropriate aggregation of stimulus information.

  11. Asymmetric dark matter and the hadronic spectra of hidden QCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonsdale, Stephen J.; Schroor, Martine; Volkas, Raymond R.

    2017-09-01

    The idea that dark matter may be a composite state of a hidden non-Abelian gauge sector has received great attention in recent years. Frameworks such as asymmetric dark matter motivate the idea that dark matter may have similar mass to the proton, while mirror matter and G ×G grand unified theories provide rationales for additional gauge sectors which may have minimal interactions with standard model particles. In this work we explore the hadronic spectra that these dark QCD models can allow. The effects of the number of light colored particles and the value of the confinement scale on the lightest stable state, the dark matter candidate, are examined in the hyperspherical constituent quark model for baryonic and mesonic states.

  12. The Hidden Complexity of Mendelian Traits across Natural Yeast Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Hou

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Mendelian traits are considered to be at the lower end of the complexity spectrum of heritable phenotypes. However, more than a century after the rediscovery of Mendel’s law, the global landscape of monogenic variants, as well as their effects and inheritance patterns within natural populations, is still not well understood. Using the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we performed a species-wide survey of Mendelian traits across a large population of isolates. We generated offspring from 41 unique parental pairs and analyzed 1,105 cross/trait combinations. We found that 8.9% of the cases were Mendelian. Further tracing of causal variants revealed background-specific expressivity and modified inheritances, gradually transitioning from Mendelian to complex traits in 30% of the cases. In fact, when taking into account the natural population diversity, the hidden complexity of traits could be substantial, confounding phenotypic predictability even for simple Mendelian traits.

  13. "Guess What?": On Hidden-Camera Pranks' Revelation Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Javier Izquierdo-Martín

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Conceived as public communication objects, hidden-camera pranks (HCPs are a type of documentary on ordinary pranks. Defined versus classical Garfinkelian breaching experiments, HCPs also offer a natural form of ethnomethodological experimentation. Here I present some results of an analysis of a sample of forty-nine HCPs' revelation sequences (RSs. These little clips of five to fifty seconds long allow for the description of audio-visual details of the interactional work that actors, accomplices and victims of a HCP have to perform, in a finely coordinated manner in order "to put an end" to an artificially constructed social situation. My study focuses on a set of practical relevances of the work of revelation (offering and awakening (acceptation/rejection endogenously pointed at and topicalized by the agents enmeshed in the HCP situation. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0402126

  14. Pre-quantum mechanics. Introduction to models with hidden variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grea, J.

    1976-01-01

    Within the context of formalism of hidden variable type, the author considers the models used to describe mechanical systems before the introduction of the quantum model. An account is given of the characteristics of the theoretical models and their relationships with experimental methodology. The models of analytical, pre-ergodic, stochastic and thermodynamic mechanics are studied in succession. At each stage the physical hypothesis is enunciated by postulate corresponding to the type of description of the reality of the model. Starting from this postulate, the physical propositions which are meaningful for the model under consideration are defined and their logical structure is indicated. It is then found that on passing from one level of description to another, one can obtain successively Boolean lattices embedded in lattices of continuous geometric type, which are themselves embedded in Boolean lattices. It is therefore possible to envisage a more detailed description than that given by the quantum lattice and to construct it by analogy. (Auth.)

  15. Dealing with the Hidden Effects of Global Business Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slepniov, Dmitrij; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum; Gubi, Ebbe

    2011-01-01

    Companies are actively seeking competitive advantage through their choice of location and ownership of manufacturing processes. This has, however, increased the distance between the headquarters and the increasingly dispersed operations network. The purpose of this paper is to identify how...... companies may reduce this distance through reorganization and development of adequate global business systems solutions. The paper draws on a case study of a Danish industrial equipment firm. The paper describes and analyzes the company’s operations network configurations, which lay at the foundations...... of the company’s global business system. It is demonstrated how the operations configurations have been changing over time and affecting the overall business system. The paper identifies the key determinants and outcomes of this change and hidden effects of this change. Moreover, it proposes how the design...

  16. Search for Hidden Particles: a new experiment proposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lellis, G.

    2015-08-01

    Searches for new physics with accelerators are being performed at the LHC, looking for high massive particles coupled to matter with ordinary strength. We propose a new experiment meant to search for very weakly coupled particles in the few GeV mass domain. The existence of such particles, foreseen in different models beyond the Standard Model, is largely unexplored from the experimental point of view. A beam dump facility, built at CERN in the north area, using 400 GeV protons is a copious factory of charmed hadrons and it could be used to probe the existence of such particles. The beam dump is also an ideal source of tau neutrinos, the less known particle in the Standard Model. In particular, tau anti-neutrinos have not been observed so far. We therefore propose an experiment to search for hidden particles and study tau neutrino physics at the same time.

  17. Motion Imitation and Recognition using Parametric Hidden Markov Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herzog, Dennis; Ude, Ales; Krüger, Volker

    2008-01-01

    ) are important. Only together they convey the whole meaning of an action. Similarly, to imitate a movement, the robot needs to select the proper action and parameterize it, e.g., by the relative position of the object that needs to be grasped. We propose to utilize parametric hidden Markov models (PHMMs), which...... extend the classical HMMs by introducing a joint parameterization of the observation densities, to simultaneously solve the problems of action recognition, parameterization of the observed actions, and action synthesis. The proposed approach was fully implemented on a humanoid robot HOAP-3. To evaluate...... the approach, we focused on reaching and pointing actions. Even though the movements are very similar in appearance, our approach is able to distinguish the two movement types and discover the parameterization, and is thus enabling both, action recognition and action synthesis. Through parameterization we...

  18. A hidden Markov model approach to neuron firing patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camproux, A C; Saunier, F; Chouvet, G; Thalabard, J C; Thomas, G

    1996-11-01

    Analysis and characterization of neuronal discharge patterns are of interest to neurophysiologists and neuropharmacologists. In this paper we present a hidden Markov model approach to modeling single neuron electrical activity. Basically the model assumes that each interspike interval corresponds to one of several possible states of the neuron. Fitting the model to experimental series of interspike intervals by maximum likelihood allows estimation of the number of possible underlying neuron states, the probability density functions of interspike intervals corresponding to each state, and the transition probabilities between states. We present an application to the analysis of recordings of a locus coeruleus neuron under three pharmacological conditions. The model distinguishes two states during halothane anesthesia and during recovery from halothane anesthesia, and four states after administration of clonidine. The transition probabilities yield additional insights into the mechanisms of neuron firing.

  19. Old, new and hidden causes of perioperative hypersensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garvey, Lene Heise

    2016-01-01

    intravenously such as neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBA), induction agents and antibiotics have traditionally been reported to be implicated most commonly. It has recently become apparent that there are geographical differences in sensitization patterns related to variation in exposures, referral patterns...... and performance and interpretation of investigations. Differences in sensitization to NMBAs are partly explained by cross sensitization to pholcodine, an ingredient in cough-medicines available in some countries. While NMBAs are the most common causes of perioperative hypersensitivity in some countries, this may...... in causes of perioperative hypersensitivity emerging over time and to increase awareness about the “hidden allergens” in the perioperative setting. Some practical advice on how to approach the patient testing negative on all initial investigations is also included....

  20. LHCb - Search for hidden-sector bosons at LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    Mauri, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    A search is presented for a hidden-sector boson, $\\chi$, produced in the decay $B^0 \\rightarrow K^* (892)^0 \\chi$, with $K^* (892)^0 \\rightarrow K^+ \\pi^-$ and $\\chi \\rightarrow \\mu^+ \\mu^-$ . The search is performed using a $pp$-collision data sample collected at $\\sqrt{s}=7$ and 8 TeV with the LHCb detector, corresponding to integrated luminosities of 1 and 2 fb$^{-1}$ respectively. No significant signal is observed in the mass range $214 \\le m_\\chi \\le 4350$ MeV, and upper limits are placed on the branching fraction product $\\mathcal{B}(B^0 \\rightarrow K^* (892)^0 \\chi) \\times \\mathcal{B}(\\chi \\rightarrow \\mu^+ \\mu^- )$ as a function of the mass and lifetime of the $\\chi$ boson. These limits place the most stringent constraints to date on many theories that predict the existence of additional low-mass dark bosons.