Darmann, Andreas; Nicosia, Gaia; Pferschy, Ulrich; Schauer, Joachim
2014-03-16
In this work we address a game theoretic variant of the Subset Sum problem, in which two decision makers (agents/players) compete for the usage of a common resource represented by a knapsack capacity. Each agent owns a set of integer weighted items and wants to maximize the total weight of its own items included in the knapsack. The solution is built as follows: Each agent, in turn, selects one of its items (not previously selected) and includes it in the knapsack if there is enough capacity. The process ends when the remaining capacity is too small for including any item left. We look at the problem from a single agent point of view and show that finding an optimal sequence of items to select is an [Formula: see text]-hard problem. Therefore we propose two natural heuristic strategies and analyze their worst-case performance when (1) the opponent is able to play optimally and (2) the opponent adopts a greedy strategy. From a centralized perspective we observe that some known results on the approximation of the classical Subset Sum can be effectively adapted to the multi-agent version of the problem.
A Quantum Approach to Subset-Sum and Similar Problems
Daskin, Ammar
2017-01-01
In this paper, we study the subset-sum problem by using a quantum heuristic approach similar to the verification circuit of quantum Arthur-Merlin games. Under described certain assumptions, we show that the exact solution of the subset sum problem my be obtained in polynomial time and the exponential speed-up over the classical algorithms may be possible. We give a numerical example and discuss the complexity of the approach and its further application to the knapsack problem.
Subset-sum phase transitions and data compression
Merhav, Neri
2011-09-01
We propose a rigorous analysis approach for the subset-sum problem in the context of lossless data compression, where the phase transition of the subset-sum problem is directly related to the passage between ambiguous and non-ambiguous decompression, for a compression scheme that is based on specifying the sequence composition. The proposed analysis lends itself to straightforward extensions in several directions of interest, including non-binary alphabets, incorporation of side information at the decoder (Slepian-Wolf coding), and coding schemes based on multiple subset sums. It is also demonstrated that the proposed technique can be used to analyze the critical behavior in a more involved situation where the sequence composition is not specified by the encoder.
QCD sum rule study of hidden-charm pentaquarks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen, Hua-Xing; Cui, Er-Liang [Beihang University, School of Physics and Beijing Key Laboratory of Advanced Nuclear Materials and Physics, Beijing (China); Chen, Wei; Steele, T.G. [University of Saskatchewan, Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada); Liu, Xiang [Lanzhou University, School of Physical Science and Technology, Lanzhou (China); Lanzhou University and Institute of Modern Physics of CAS, Research Center for Hadron and CSR Physics, Lanzhou (China); Zhu, Shi-Lin [Peking University, School of Physics and State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Beijing (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing (China); Peking University, Center of High Energy Physics, Beijing (China)
2016-10-15
We study the mass spectra of hidden-charm pentaquarks having spin J = (1)/(2)/(3)/(2)/(5)/(2) and quark contents uudc anti c. We systematically construct all the relevant local hidden-charm pentaquark currents, and we select some of them to perform QCD sum rule analyses. We find that the P{sub c}(4380) and P{sub c}(4450) can be identified as hidden-charm pentaquark states composed of an anti-charmed meson and a charmed baryon. Besides them, we also find (a) the lowest-lying hidden-charm pentaquark state of J{sup P} = 1/2{sup -} has the mass 4.33{sup +0.17}{sub -0.13} GeV, while the one of J{sup P} = 1/2{sup +} is significantly higher, that is, around 4.7-4.9 GeV; (b) the lowest-lying hidden-charm pentaquark state of J{sup P} = 3/2{sup -} has the mass 4.37{sup +0.18}{sub -0.13} GeV, consistent with the P{sub c}(4380) of J{sup P} = 3/2{sup -}, while the one of J{sup P} = 3/2{sup +} is also significantly higher, that is, above 4.6 GeV; (c) the hidden-charm pentaquark state of J{sup P} = 5/2{sup -} has a mass around 4.5-4.6 GeV, slightly larger than the P{sub c}(4450) of J{sup P} = 5/2{sup +}. (orig.)
Scalar Hidden-Charm Tetraquark States with QCD Sum Rules
Di, Zun-Yan; Wang, Zhi-Gang; Zhang, Jun-Xia; Yu, Guo-Liang
2018-02-01
In this article, we study the masses and pole residues of the pseudoscalar-diquark-pseudoscalar-antidiquark type and vector-diquark-vector-antidiquark type scalar hidden-charm cu\\bar{c}\\bar{d} (cu\\bar{c}\\bar{s}) tetraquark states with QCD sum rules by taking into account the contributions of the vacuum condensates up to dimension-10 in the operator product expansion. The predicted masses can be confronted with the experimental data in the future. Possible decays of those tetraquark states are also discussed. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 11375063, the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities under Grant Nos. 2016MS155 and 2016MS133
Searching for hidden-charm baryonium signals in QCD sum rules
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen, Hua-Xing; Zhou, Dan [Beihang University, School of Physics, Beijing Key Laboratory of Advanced Nuclear Materials and Physics, Beijing (China); Chen, Wei [University of Saskatchewan, Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Liu, Xiang [Lanzhou University, School of Physical Science and Technology, Lanzhou (China); Lanzhou University, Research Center for Hadron and CSR Physics, Institute of Modern Physics of CAS, Lanzhou (China); Zhu, Shi-Lin [Peking University, School of Physics, State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Beijing (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing (China); Peking University, Center of High Energy Physics, Beijing (China)
2016-11-15
We give an explicit QCD sum rule investigation for hidden-charm baryonium states with the quark content u anti ud anti dc anti c, spin J = 0/1/2/3, and of both positive and negative parities. We systematically construct the relevant local hidden-charm baryonium interpolating currents, which can actually couple to various structures, including hidden-charm baryonium states, charmonium states plus two pions, and hidden-charm tetraquark states plus one pion, etc. We do not know which structure these currents couple to at the beginning, but after sum rule analyses we can obtain some information. We find some of them can couple to hidden-charm baryonium states, using which we evaluate the masses of the lowest-lying hidden-charm baryonium states with quantum numbers J{sup P} = 2{sup -}/3{sup -}/0{sup +}/1{sup +}/2{sup +} to be around 5.0 GeV. We suggest to search for hidden-charm baryonium states, especially the one of J = 3{sup -}, in the D-wave J/ψππ and P-wave J/ψρ and J/ψω channels in this energy region. (orig.)
Optimal Compensation with Hidden Action and Lump-Sum Payment in a Continuous-Time Model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cvitanic, Jaksa; Wan, Xuhu; Zhang Jianfeng
2009-01-01
We consider a problem of finding optimal contracts in continuous time, when the agent's actions are unobservable by the principal, who pays the agent with a one-time payoff at the end of the contract. We fully solve the case of quadratic cost and separable utility, for general utility functions. The optimal contract is, in general, a nonlinear function of the final outcome only, while in the previously solved cases, for exponential and linear utility functions, the optimal contract is linear in the final output value. In a specific example we compute, the first-best principal's utility is infinite, while it becomes finite with hidden action, which is increasing in value of the output. In the second part of the paper we formulate a general mathematical theory for the problem. We apply the stochastic maximum principle to give necessary conditions for optimal contracts. Sufficient conditions are hard to establish, but we suggest a way to check sufficiency using non-convex optimization
Cycles through subsets with large degree sums
Broersma, Haitze J.; Li, Hao; Li, Jianping; Tian, Feng; Veldman, H.J.
1997-01-01
Let G be a 2-connected graph on n vertices and let X V(G). We say that G is X-cyclable if G has an X-cycle, i.e., a cycle containing all vertices of X. We denote by ¿(X) the maximum number of pairwise nonadjacent vertices in the subgraph G[X] of G induced by X. If G[X] is not complete, we denote by
Cebiroglu, Gökhan; Horst, Ulrich
2012-01-01
We cross-sectionally analyze the presence of aggregated hidden depth and trade volume in the S&P 500 and identify its key determinants. We find that the spread is the main predictor for a stock’s hidden dimension, both in terms of traded and posted liquidity. Our findings moreover suggest that large hidden orders are associated with larger transaction costs, higher price impact and increased volatility. In particular, as large hidden orders fail to attract (latent) liquidity to the market, hi...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jackson, A.D.; Weiss, C.; Wirzba, A.
1990-01-01
The Skyrme model has the same high density behavior as a free quark gas. However, the inclusion of higher-order terms spoils this agreement. We consider the all-order sum of a class of chiral invariant Lagrangians of even order in L μ suggested by Marleau. We prove Marleau's conjecture that these terms are of second order in the derivatives of the chiral angle for the hedgehog case and show the terms are unique under the additional condition that, for each order, the identity map on the 3-sphere S 3 (L) is a solution. The general form of the summation can be restricted by physical constraints leading to stable results. Under the assumption that the Lagrangian scales like the non-linear sigma model at low densities and like the free quark gas at high densities, we prove that a chiral phase transition must occur. (orig.)
Structural relations between nested harmonic sums
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bluemlein, J.
2008-07-01
We describe the structural relations between nested harmonic sums emerging in the description of physical single scale quantities up to the 3-loop level in renormalizable gauge field theories. These are weight w=6 harmonic sums. We identify universal basic functions which allow to describe a large class of physical quantities and derive their complex analysis. For the 3-loop QCD Wilson coefficients 35 basic functions are required, whereas a subset of 15 describes the 3-loop anomalous dimensions. (orig.)
Structural relations between nested harmonic sums
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bluemlein, J.
2008-07-15
We describe the structural relations between nested harmonic sums emerging in the description of physical single scale quantities up to the 3-loop level in renormalizable gauge field theories. These are weight w=6 harmonic sums. We identify universal basic functions which allow to describe a large class of physical quantities and derive their complex analysis. For the 3-loop QCD Wilson coefficients 35 basic functions are required, whereas a subset of 15 describes the 3-loop anomalous dimensions. (orig.)
Alabdulmohsin, Ibrahim M.
2018-01-01
In this chapter, we extend the previous results of Chap. 2 to the more general case of composite finite sums. We describe what composite finite sums are and how their analysis can be reduced to the analysis of simple finite sums using the chain rule. We apply these techniques, next, on numerical integration and on some identities of Ramanujan.
Alabdulmohsin, Ibrahim M.
2018-03-07
In this chapter, we extend the previous results of Chap. 2 to the more general case of composite finite sums. We describe what composite finite sums are and how their analysis can be reduced to the analysis of simple finite sums using the chain rule. We apply these techniques, next, on numerical integration and on some identities of Ramanujan.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kieffer-Kristensen, Rikke; Johansen, Karen Lise Gaardsvig
2013-01-01
to participate. RESULTS: All children were affected by their parents' ABI and the altered family situation. The children's expressions led the authors to identify six themes, including fear of losing the parent, distress and estrangement, chores and responsibilities, hidden loss, coping and support. The main......PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to listen to and learn from children showing high levels of post-traumatic stress symptoms after parental acquired brain injury (ABI), in order to achieve an in-depth understanding of the difficulties the children face in their everyday lives...... finding indicates that the children experienced numerous losses, many of which were often suppressed or neglected by the children to protect the ill parents. CONCLUSIONS: The findings indicated that the children seemed to make a special effort to hide their feelings of loss and grief in order to protect...
Unsupervised Feature Subset Selection
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Søndberg-Madsen, Nicolaj; Thomsen, C.; Pena, Jose
2003-01-01
This paper studies filter and hybrid filter-wrapper feature subset selection for unsupervised learning (data clustering). We constrain the search for the best feature subset by scoring the dependence of every feature on the rest of the features, conjecturing that these scores discriminate some ir...... irrelevant features. We report experimental results on artificial and real data for unsupervised learning of naive Bayes models. Both the filter and hybrid approaches perform satisfactorily....
Subset selection in regression
Miller, Alan
2002-01-01
Originally published in 1990, the first edition of Subset Selection in Regression filled a significant gap in the literature, and its critical and popular success has continued for more than a decade. Thoroughly revised to reflect progress in theory, methods, and computing power, the second edition promises to continue that tradition. The author has thoroughly updated each chapter, incorporated new material on recent developments, and included more examples and references. New in the Second Edition:A separate chapter on Bayesian methodsComplete revision of the chapter on estimationA major example from the field of near infrared spectroscopyMore emphasis on cross-validationGreater focus on bootstrappingStochastic algorithms for finding good subsets from large numbers of predictors when an exhaustive search is not feasible Software available on the Internet for implementing many of the algorithms presentedMore examplesSubset Selection in Regression, Second Edition remains dedicated to the techniques for fitting...
Alabdulmohsin, Ibrahim M.
2018-03-07
We will begin our treatment of summability calculus by analyzing what will be referred to, throughout this book, as simple finite sums. Even though the results of this chapter are particular cases of the more general results presented in later chapters, they are important to start with for a few reasons. First, this chapter serves as an excellent introduction to what summability calculus can markedly accomplish. Second, simple finite sums are encountered more often and, hence, they deserve special treatment. Third, the results presented in this chapter for simple finite sums will, themselves, be used as building blocks for deriving the most general results in subsequent chapters. Among others, we establish that fractional finite sums are well-defined mathematical objects and show how various identities related to the Euler constant as well as the Riemann zeta function can actually be derived in an elementary manner using fractional finite sums.
Alabdulmohsin, Ibrahim M.
2018-01-01
We will begin our treatment of summability calculus by analyzing what will be referred to, throughout this book, as simple finite sums. Even though the results of this chapter are particular cases of the more general results presented in later chapters, they are important to start with for a few reasons. First, this chapter serves as an excellent introduction to what summability calculus can markedly accomplish. Second, simple finite sums are encountered more often and, hence, they deserve special treatment. Third, the results presented in this chapter for simple finite sums will, themselves, be used as building blocks for deriving the most general results in subsequent chapters. Among others, we establish that fractional finite sums are well-defined mathematical objects and show how various identities related to the Euler constant as well as the Riemann zeta function can actually be derived in an elementary manner using fractional finite sums.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arenhoevel, H.; Drechsel, D.; Weber, H.J.
1978-01-01
Generalized sum rules are derived by integrating the electromagnetic structure functions along lines of constant ratio of momentum and energy transfer. For non-relativistic systems these sum rules are related to the conventional photonuclear sum rules by a scaling transformation. The generalized sum rules are connected with the absorptive part of the forward scattering amplitude of virtual photons. The analytic structure of the scattering amplitudes and the possible existence of dispersion relations have been investigated in schematic relativistic and non-relativistic models. While for the non-relativistic case analyticity does not hold, the relativistic scattering amplitude is analytical for time-like (but not for space-like) photons and relations similar to the Gell-Mann-Goldberger-Thirring sum rule exist. (Auth.)
Hidden simplicity of gauge theory amplitudes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Drummond, J M, E-mail: drummond@lapp.in2p3.f [LAPTH, Universite de Savoie, CNRS, B.P. 110, F-74941 Annecy-le-Vieux, Cedex (France)
2010-11-07
These notes were given as lectures at the CERN Winter School on Supergravity, Strings and Gauge Theory 2010. We describe the structure of scattering amplitudes in gauge theories, focussing on the maximally supersymmetric theory to highlight the hidden symmetries which appear. Using the Britto, Cachzo, Feng and Witten (BCFW) recursion relations we solve the tree-level S-matrix in N=4 super Yang-Mills theory and describe how it produces a sum of invariants of a large symmetry algebra. We review amplitudes in the planar theory beyond tree level, describing the connection between amplitudes and Wilson loops, and discuss the implications of the hidden symmetries.
Yurinsky, Vadim Vladimirovich
1995-01-01
Surveys the methods currently applied to study sums of infinite-dimensional independent random vectors in situations where their distributions resemble Gaussian laws. Covers probabilities of large deviations, Chebyshev-type inequalities for seminorms of sums, a method of constructing Edgeworth-type expansions, estimates of characteristic functions for random vectors obtained by smooth mappings of infinite-dimensional sums to Euclidean spaces. A self-contained exposition of the modern research apparatus around CLT, the book is accessible to new graduate students, and can be a useful reference for researchers and teachers of the subject.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Jørgensen, Allan Grønlund
2008-01-01
In an array of n numbers each of the \\binomn2+nUnknown control sequence '\\binom' contiguous subarrays define a sum. In this paper we focus on algorithms for selecting and reporting maximal sums from an array of numbers. First, we consider the problem of reporting k subarrays inducing the k largest...... sums among all subarrays of length at least l and at most u. For this problem we design an optimal O(n + k) time algorithm. Secondly, we consider the problem of selecting a subarray storing the k’th largest sum. For this problem we prove a time bound of Θ(n · max {1,log(k/n)}) by describing...... an algorithm with this running time and by proving a matching lower bound. Finally, we combine the ideas and obtain an O(n· max {1,log(k/n)}) time algorithm that selects a subarray storing the k’th largest sum among all subarrays of length at least l and at most u....
Sociology of Hidden Curriculum
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alireza Moradi
2017-06-01
Full Text Available This paper reviews the concept of hidden curriculum in the sociological theories and wants to explain sociological aspects of formation of hidden curriculum. The main question concentrates on the theoretical approaches in which hidden curriculum is explained sociologically.For this purpose it was applied qualitative research methodology. The relevant data include various sociological concepts and theories of hidden curriculum collected by the documentary method. The study showed a set of rules, procedures, relationships and social structure of education have decisive role in the formation of hidden curriculum. A hidden curriculum reinforces by existed inequalities among learners (based on their social classes or statues. There is, in fact, a balance between the learner's "knowledge receptions" with their "inequality proportion".The hidden curriculum studies from different major sociological theories such as Functionalism, Marxism and critical theory, Symbolic internationalism and Feminism. According to the functionalist perspective a hidden curriculum has a social function because it transmits social values. Marxists and critical thinkers correlate between hidden curriculum and the totality of social structure. They depicts that curriculum prepares learners for the exploitation in the work markets. Symbolic internationalism rejects absolute hegemony of hidden curriculum on education and looks to the socialization as a result of interaction between learner and instructor. Feminism theory also considers hidden curriculum as a vehicle which legitimates gender stereotypes.
Multiparty symmetric sum types
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Lasse; Yoshida, Nobuko; Honda, Kohei
2010-01-01
This paper introduces a new theory of multiparty session types based on symmetric sum types, by which we can type non-deterministic orchestration choice behaviours. While the original branching type in session types can represent a choice made by a single participant and accepted by others...... determining how the session proceeds, the symmetric sum type represents a choice made by agreement among all the participants of a session. Such behaviour can be found in many practical systems, including collaborative workflow in healthcare systems for clinical practice guidelines (CPGs). Processes...... with the symmetric sums can be embedded into the original branching types using conductor processes. We show that this type-driven embedding preserves typability, satisfies semantic soundness and completeness, and meets the encodability criteria adapted to the typed setting. The theory leads to an efficient...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
T. Frandsen, Mads; Masina, Isabella; Sannino, Francesco
2011-01-01
We introduce new sum rules allowing to determine universal properties of the unknown component of the cosmic rays and show how it can be used to predict the positron fraction at energies not yet explored by current experiments and to constrain specific models.......We introduce new sum rules allowing to determine universal properties of the unknown component of the cosmic rays and show how it can be used to predict the positron fraction at energies not yet explored by current experiments and to constrain specific models....
Guliyev , Namig; Ismailov , Vugar
2016-01-01
The possibility of approximating a continuous function on a compact subset of the real line by a feedforward single hidden layer neural network with a sigmoidal activation function has been studied in many papers. Such networks can approximate an arbitrary continuous function provided that an unlimited number of neurons in a hidden layer is permitted. In this paper, we consider constructive approximation on any finite interval of $\\mathbb{R}$ by neural networks with only one neuron in the hid...
Prediction based on mean subset
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Øjelund, Henrik; Brown, P. J.; Madsen, Henrik
2002-01-01
, it is found that the proposed mean subset method has superior prediction performance than prediction based on the best subset method, and in some settings also better than the ridge regression and lasso methods. The conclusions drawn from the Monte Carlo study is corroborated in an example in which prediction......Shrinkage methods have traditionally been applied in prediction problems. In this article we develop a shrinkage method (mean subset) that forms an average of regression coefficients from individual subsets of the explanatory variables. A Bayesian approach is taken to derive an expression of how...... the coefficient vectors from each subset should be weighted. It is not computationally feasible to calculate the mean subset coefficient vector for larger problems, and thus we suggest an algorithm to find an approximation to the mean subset coefficient vector. In a comprehensive Monte Carlo simulation study...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Tracie1
Résumé. L'activité traduisant est un processus très compliqué qui exige la connaissance extralinguistique chez le traducteur. Ce travail est basé sur la traduction littéraire. La traduction littéraire consistedes textes littéraires que comprennent la poésie, le théâtre, et la prose. La traduction littéraire a quelques problèmes ...
Geometric optimization and sums of algebraic functions
Vigneron, Antoine E.
2014-01-01
We present a new optimization technique that yields the first FPTAS for several geometric problems. These problems reduce to optimizing a sum of nonnegative, constant description complexity algebraic functions. We first give an FPTAS for optimizing such a sum of algebraic functions, and then we apply it to several geometric optimization problems. We obtain the first FPTAS for two fundamental geometric shape-matching problems in fixed dimension: maximizing the volume of overlap of two polyhedra under rigid motions and minimizing their symmetric difference. We obtain the first FPTAS for other problems in fixed dimension, such as computing an optimal ray in a weighted subdivision, finding the largest axially symmetric subset of a polyhedron, and computing minimum-area hulls.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stairs, Allen
2007-01-01
Recent results by Paul Busch and Adan Cabello claim to show that by appealing to POVMs, non-contextual hidden variables can be ruled out in two dimensions. While the results of Busch and Cabello are mathematically correct, interpretive problems render them problematic as no hidden variable proofs
Partially Hidden Markov Models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Forchhammer, Søren Otto; Rissanen, Jorma
1996-01-01
Partially Hidden Markov Models (PHMM) are introduced. They differ from the ordinary HMM's in that both the transition probabilities of the hidden states and the output probabilities are conditioned on past observations. As an illustration they are applied to black and white image compression where...
Alabdulmohsin, Ibrahim M.
2018-03-07
In this chapter, we use the theory of summability of divergent series, presented earlier in Chap. 4, to derive the analogs of the Euler-Maclaurin summation formula for oscillating sums. These formulas will, in turn, be used to perform many remarkable deeds with ease. For instance, they can be used to derive analytic expressions for summable divergent series, obtain asymptotic expressions of oscillating series, and even accelerate the convergence of series by several orders of magnitude. Moreover, we will prove the notable fact that, as far as the foundational rules of summability calculus are concerned, summable divergent series behave exactly as if they were convergent.
Alabdulmohsin, Ibrahim M.
2018-01-01
In this chapter, we use the theory of summability of divergent series, presented earlier in Chap. 4, to derive the analogs of the Euler-Maclaurin summation formula for oscillating sums. These formulas will, in turn, be used to perform many remarkable deeds with ease. For instance, they can be used to derive analytic expressions for summable divergent series, obtain asymptotic expressions of oscillating series, and even accelerate the convergence of series by several orders of magnitude. Moreover, we will prove the notable fact that, as far as the foundational rules of summability calculus are concerned, summable divergent series behave exactly as if they were convergent.
Generalized Sum of Fuzzy Subgroup and α-cut Subgroup
Daher Waly Freh Al-Rekabi; Alia Shany Hassan
2012-01-01
p>In this paper we study some results of the generalized sum of a fuzzynbsp;subgroup and alpha;-cut subgroup, we define a alpha;-cut subset and alpha;-cut subgroup, and then. We study some of their properties./p>
Counting Triangles to Sum Squares
DeMaio, Joe
2012-01-01
Counting complete subgraphs of three vertices in complete graphs, yields combinatorial arguments for identities for sums of squares of integers, odd integers, even integers and sums of the triangular numbers.
DeTemple, Duane
2010-01-01
Purely combinatorial proofs are given for the sum of squares formula, 1[superscript 2] + 2[superscript 2] + ... + n[superscript 2] = n(n + 1) (2n + 1) / 6, and the sum of sums of squares formula, 1[superscript 2] + (1[superscript 2] + 2[superscript 2]) + ... + (1[superscript 2] + 2[superscript 2] + ... + n[superscript 2]) = n(n + 1)[superscript 2]…
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
O'Raifeartaigh, L.
1979-01-01
This review describes the principles of hidden gauge symmetry and of its application to the fundamental interactions. The emphasis is on the structure of the theory rather than on the technical details and, in order to emphasise the structure, gauge symmetry and hidden symmetry are first treated as independent phenomena before being combined into a single (hidden gauge symmetric) theory. The main application of the theory is to the weak and electromagnetic interactions of the elementary particles, and although models are used for comparison with experiment and for illustration, emphasis is placed on those features of the application which are model-independent. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Disney, M.
1985-01-01
Astronomer Disney has followed a somewhat different tack than that of most popular books on cosmology by concentrating on the notion of hidden (as in not directly observable by its own radiation) matter in the universe
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Oeverlier, Lasse; Syverson, Paul F
2006-01-01
.... Announced properties include server resistance to distributed DoS. Both the EFF and Reporters Without Borders have issued guides that describe using hidden services via Tor to protect the safety of dissidents as well as to resist censorship...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Feng, Jonathan L.; Kaplinghat, Manoj; Tu, Huitzu; Yu, Hai-Bo
2009-01-01
Can dark matter be stabilized by charge conservation, just as the electron is in the standard model? We examine the possibility that dark matter is hidden, that is, neutral under all standard model gauge interactions, but charged under an exact (\\rm U)(1) gauge symmetry of the hidden sector. Such candidates are predicted in WIMPless models, supersymmetric models in which hidden dark matter has the desired thermal relic density for a wide range of masses. Hidden charged dark matter has many novel properties not shared by neutral dark matter: (1) bound state formation and Sommerfeld-enhanced annihilation after chemical freeze out may reduce its relic density, (2) similar effects greatly enhance dark matter annihilation in protohalos at redshifts of z ∼ 30, (3) Compton scattering off hidden photons delays kinetic decoupling, suppressing small scale structure, and (4) Rutherford scattering makes such dark matter self-interacting and collisional, potentially impacting properties of the Bullet Cluster and the observed morphology of galactic halos. We analyze all of these effects in a WIMPless model in which the hidden sector is a simplified version of the minimal supersymmetric standard model and the dark matter is a hidden sector stau. We find that charged hidden dark matter is viable and consistent with the correct relic density for reasonable model parameters and dark matter masses in the range 1 GeV ∼ X ∼< 10 TeV. At the same time, in the preferred range of parameters, this model predicts cores in the dark matter halos of small galaxies and other halo properties that may be within the reach of future observations. These models therefore provide a viable and well-motivated framework for collisional dark matter with Sommerfeld enhancement, with novel implications for astrophysics and dark matter searches
Social Security Administration — Staging Instance for all SUMs Counts related projects including: Redeterminations/Limited Issue, Continuing Disability Resolution, CDR Performance Measures, Initial...
Solovev, V
The SHiP Experiment is a new general-purpose fixed target facility at the SPS to search for hidden particles as predicted by a very large number of recently elaborated models of Hidden Sectors which are capable of accommodating dark matter, neutrino oscillations, and the origin of the full baryon asymmetry in the Universe. Specifically, the experiment is aimed at searching for very weakly interacting long lived particles including Heavy Neutral Leptons - right-handed partners of the active neutrinos; light supersymmetric particles - sgoldstinos, etc.; scalar, axion and vector portals to the hidden sector. The high intensity of the SPS and in particular the large production of charm mesons with the 400 GeV beam allow accessing a wide variety of light long-lived exotic particles of such models and of SUSY. Moreover, the facility is ideally suited to study the interactions of tau neutrinos.
Damanik, Asan
2018-03-01
Neutrino mass sum-rele is a very important research subject from theoretical side because neutrino oscillation experiment only gave us two squared-mass differences and three mixing angles. We review neutrino mass sum-rule in literature that have been reported by many authors and discuss its phenomenological implications.
Maua, Denis Deratani; Cozman, Fabio Gagli; Conaty, Diarmaid; de Campos, Cassio P.
2017-01-01
Sum-product networks are a relatively new and increasingly popular class of (precise) probabilistic graphical models that allow for marginal inference with polynomial effort. As with other probabilistic models, sum-product networks are often learned from data and used to perform classification.
Moreno, Carlos J
2005-01-01
Introduction Prerequisites Outline of Chapters 2 - 8 Elementary Methods Introduction Some Lemmas Two Fundamental Identities Euler's Recurrence for Sigma(n)More Identities Sums of Two Squares Sums of Four Squares Still More Identities Sums of Three Squares An Alternate Method Sums of Polygonal Numbers Exercises Bernoulli Numbers Overview Definition of the Bernoulli Numbers The Euler-MacLaurin Sum Formula The Riemann Zeta Function Signs of Bernoulli Numbers Alternate The von Staudt-Clausen Theorem Congruences of Voronoi and Kummer Irregular Primes Fractional Parts of Bernoulli Numbers Exercises Examples of Modular Forms Introduction An Example of Jacobi and Smith An Example of Ramanujan and Mordell An Example of Wilton: t (n) Modulo 23 An Example of Hamburger Exercises Hecke's Theory of Modular FormsIntroduction Modular Group ? and its Subgroup ? 0 (N) Fundamental Domains For ? and ? 0 (N) Integral Modular Forms Modular Forms of Type Mk(? 0(N);chi) and Euler-Poincare series Hecke Operators Dirichlet Series and ...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, Birgitte; Jensen, Karsten Klint
“The Hidden Values - Transparency in Decision-Making Processes Dealing with Hazardous Activities”. The report seeks to shed light on what is needed to create a transparent framework for political and administrative decisions on the use of GMOs and chemical products. It is our hope that the report...
Efficient Secure Multiparty Subset Computation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sufang Zhou
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Secure subset problem is important in secure multiparty computation, which is a vital field in cryptography. Most of the existing protocols for this problem can only keep the elements of one set private, while leaking the elements of the other set. In other words, they cannot solve the secure subset problem perfectly. While a few studies have addressed actual secure subsets, these protocols were mainly based on the oblivious polynomial evaluations with inefficient computation. In this study, we first design an efficient secure subset protocol for sets whose elements are drawn from a known set based on a new encoding method and homomorphic encryption scheme. If the elements of the sets are taken from a large domain, the existing protocol is inefficient. Using the Bloom filter and homomorphic encryption scheme, we further present an efficient protocol with linear computational complexity in the cardinality of the large set, and this is considered to be practical for inputs consisting of a large number of data. However, the second protocol that we design may yield a false positive. This probability can be rapidly decreased by reexecuting the protocol with different hash functions. Furthermore, we present the experimental performance analyses of these protocols.
Proximinality in generalized direct sums
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Darapaneni Narayana
2004-01-01
Full Text Available We consider proximinality and transitivity of proximinality for subspaces of finite codimension in generalized direct sums of Banach spaces. We give several examples of Banach spaces where proximinality is transitive among subspaces of finite codimension.
'Sum rules' for preequilibrium reactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hussein, M.S.
1981-03-01
Evidence that suggests a correct relationship between the optical transmission matrix, P, and the several correlation widths, gamma sub(n), found in nsmission matrix, P, and the several correlation widths, n, found in multistep compound (preequilibrium) nuclear reactions, is presented. A second sum rule is also derived within the shell model approach to nuclear reactions. Indications of the potential usefulness of the sum rules in preequilibrium studies are given. (Author) [pt
Sum rules in classical scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bolle, D.; Osborn, T.A.
1981-01-01
This paper derives sum rules associated with the classical scattering of two particles. These sum rules are the analogs of Levinson's theorem in quantum mechanics which provides a relationship between the number of bound-state wavefunctions and the energy integral of the time delay of the scattering process. The associated classical relation is an identity involving classical time delay and an integral over the classical bound-state density. We show that equalities between the Nth-order energy moment of the classical time delay and the Nth-order energy moment of the classical bound-state density hold in both a local and a global form. Local sum rules involve the time delay defined on a finite but otherwise arbitrary coordinate space volume S and the bound-state density associated with this same region. Global sum rules are those that obtain when S is the whole coordinate space. Both the local and global sum rules are derived for potentials of arbitrary shape and for scattering in any space dimension. Finally the set of classical sum rules, together with the known quantum mechanical analogs, are shown to provide a unified method of obtaining the high-temperature expansion of the classical, respectively the quantum-mechanical, virial coefficients
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Krogh, Anders Stærmose; Riis, Søren Kamaric
1999-01-01
A general framework for hybrids of hidden Markov models (HMMs) and neural networks (NNs) called hidden neural networks (HNNs) is described. The article begins by reviewing standard HMMs and estimation by conditional maximum likelihood, which is used by the HNN. In the HNN, the usual HMM probability...... parameters are replaced by the outputs of state-specific neural networks. As opposed to many other hybrids, the HNN is normalized globally and therefore has a valid probabilistic interpretation. All parameters in the HNN are estimated simultaneously according to the discriminative conditional maximum...... likelihood criterion. The HNN can be viewed as an undirected probabilistic independence network (a graphical model), where the neural networks provide a compact representation of the clique functions. An evaluation of the HNN on the task of recognizing broad phoneme classes in the TIMIT database shows clear...
Peppers, Emily
2008-01-01
The Cultural Collections Audit project began at the University of Edinburgh in 2004, searching for hidden treasures in its 'distributed heritage collections' across the university. The objects and collections recorded in the Audit ranged widely from fine art and furniture to historical scientific and teaching equipment and personalia relating to key figures in the university's long tradition of academic excellence. This information was gathered in order to create a central database of informa...
Distinguishing Hidden Markov Chains
Kiefer, Stefan; Sistla, A. Prasad
2015-01-01
Hidden Markov Chains (HMCs) are commonly used mathematical models of probabilistic systems. They are employed in various fields such as speech recognition, signal processing, and biological sequence analysis. We consider the problem of distinguishing two given HMCs based on an observation sequence that one of the HMCs generates. More precisely, given two HMCs and an observation sequence, a distinguishing algorithm is expected to identify the HMC that generates the observation sequence. Two HM...
Królikowski, Wojciech
2016-01-01
A hypothetic Hidden Sector of the Universe, consisting of sterile fer\\-mions (``sterinos'') and sterile mediating bosons (``sterons'') of mass dimension 1 (not 2!) --- the last described by an antisymmetric tensor field --- requires to exist also a scalar isovector and scalar isoscalar in order to be able to construct electroweak invariant coupling (before spontaneously breaking its symmetry). The introduced scalar isoscalar might be a resonant source for the diphoton excess of 750 GeV, sugge...
Small sum privacy and large sum utility in data publishing.
Fu, Ada Wai-Chee; Wang, Ke; Wong, Raymond Chi-Wing; Wang, Jia; Jiang, Minhao
2014-08-01
While the study of privacy preserving data publishing has drawn a lot of interest, some recent work has shown that existing mechanisms do not limit all inferences about individuals. This paper is a positive note in response to this finding. We point out that not all inference attacks should be countered, in contrast to all existing works known to us, and based on this we propose a model called SPLU. This model protects sensitive information, by which we refer to answers for aggregate queries with small sums, while queries with large sums are answered with higher accuracy. Using SPLU, we introduce a sanitization algorithm to protect data while maintaining high data utility for queries with large sums. Empirical results show that our method behaves as desired. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sum rules for collisional processes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oreg, J.; Goldstein, W.H.; Bar-Shalom, A.; Klapisch, M.
1991-01-01
We derive level-to-configuration sum rules for dielectronic capture and for collisional excitation and ionization. These sum rules give the total transition rate from a detailed atomic level to an atomic configuration. For each process, we show that it is possible to factor out the dependence on continuum-electron wave functions. The remaining explicit level dependence of each rate is then obtained from the matrix element of an effective operator acting on the bound orbitals only. In a large class of cases, the effective operator reduces to a one-electron monopole whose matrix element is proportional to the statistical weight of the level. We show that even in these cases, nonstatistical level dependence enters through the dependence of radial integrals on continuum orbitals. For each process, explicit analytic expressions for the level-to-configuration sum rules are given for all possible cases. Together with the well-known J-file sum rule for radiative rates [E. U. Condon and G. H. Shortley, The Theory of Atomic Spectra (University Press, Cambridge, 1935)], the sum rules offer a systematic and efficient procedure for collapsing high-multiplicity configurations into ''effective'' levels for the purpose of modeling the population kinetics of ionized heavy atoms in plasma
Localization of hidden Chua's attractors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leonov, G.A.; Kuznetsov, N.V.; Vagaitsev, V.I.
2011-01-01
The classical attractors of Lorenz, Rossler, Chua, Chen, and other widely-known attractors are those excited from unstable equilibria. From computational point of view this allows one to use numerical method, in which after transient process a trajectory, started from a point of unstable manifold in the neighborhood of equilibrium, reaches an attractor and identifies it. However there are attractors of another type: hidden attractors, a basin of attraction of which does not contain neighborhoods of equilibria. In the present Letter for localization of hidden attractors of Chua's circuit it is suggested to use a special analytical-numerical algorithm. -- Highlights: → There are hidden attractors: basin doesn't contain neighborhoods of equilibria. → Hidden attractors cannot be reached by trajectory from neighborhoods of equilibria. → We suggested special procedure for localization of hidden attractors. → We discovered hidden attractor in Chua's system, L. Chua in his work didn't expect this.
Increased taxon sampling reveals thousands of hidden orthologs in flatworms
2017-01-01
Gains and losses shape the gene complement of animal lineages and are a fundamental aspect of genomic evolution. Acquiring a comprehensive view of the evolution of gene repertoires is limited by the intrinsic limitations of common sequence similarity searches and available databases. Thus, a subset of the gene complement of an organism consists of hidden orthologs, i.e., those with no apparent homology to sequenced animal lineages—mistakenly considered new genes—but actually representing rapidly evolving orthologs or undetected paralogs. Here, we describe Leapfrog, a simple automated BLAST pipeline that leverages increased taxon sampling to overcome long evolutionary distances and identify putative hidden orthologs in large transcriptomic databases by transitive homology. As a case study, we used 35 transcriptomes of 29 flatworm lineages to recover 3427 putative hidden orthologs, some unidentified by OrthoFinder and HaMStR, two common orthogroup inference algorithms. Unexpectedly, we do not observe a correlation between the number of putative hidden orthologs in a lineage and its “average” evolutionary rate. Hidden orthologs do not show unusual sequence composition biases that might account for systematic errors in sequence similarity searches. Instead, gene duplication with divergence of one paralog and weak positive selection appear to underlie hidden orthology in Platyhelminthes. By using Leapfrog, we identify key centrosome-related genes and homeodomain classes previously reported as absent in free-living flatworms, e.g., planarians. Altogether, our findings demonstrate that hidden orthologs comprise a significant proportion of the gene repertoire in flatworms, qualifying the impact of gene losses and gains in gene complement evolution. PMID:28400424
Hidden Liquidity: Determinants and Impact
Gökhan Cebiroglu; Ulrich Horst
2012-01-01
We cross-sectionally analyze the presence of aggregated hidden depth and trade volume in the S&P 500 and identify its key determinants. We find that the spread is the main predictor for a stockâ€™s hidden dimension, both in terms of traded and posted liquidity. Our findings moreover suggest that large hidden orders are associated with larger transaction costs, higher price impact and increased volatility. In particular, as large hidden orders fail to attract (latent) liquidity to the market, ...
Polarizability sum rules in QED
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Llanta, E.; Tarrach, R.
1978-01-01
The well founded total photoproduction and the, assumed subtraction free, longitudinal photoproduction polarizability sum rules are checked in QED at the lowest non-trivial order. The first one is shown to hold, whereas the second one turns out to need a subtraction, which makes its usefulness for determining the electromagnetic polarizabilities of the nucleons quite doubtful. (Auth.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Frandsen, Mads T.; Masina, Isabella; Sannino, Francesco
2011-01-01
We introduce new sum rules allowing to determine universal properties of the unknown component of the cosmic rays; we show how they can be used to predict the positron fraction at energies not yet explored by current experiments, and to constrain specific models.
Sum rules for neutrino oscillations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kobzarev, I.Yu.; Martemyanov, B.V.; Okun, L.B.; Schepkin, M.G.
1981-01-01
Sum rules for neutrino oscillations are obtained. The derivation of the general form of the s matrix for two stage process lsub(i)sup(-)→ν→lsub(k)sup(+-) (where lsub(i)sup(-)e, μ, tau, ... are initial leptons with flavor i and lsub(k)sup(+-) is final lepton) is presented. The consideration of two stage process lsub(i)sup(-)→ν→lsub(k)sup(+-) gives the possibility to take into account neutrino masses and to obtain the expressions for the oscillating cross sections. In the case of Dirac and left-handed Majorana neutrino is obtained the sum rule for the quantities 1/Vsub(K)σ(lsub(i)sup(-)→lsub(K)sup(+-)), (where Vsub(K) is a velocity of lsub(K)). In the left-handed Majorana neutrino case there is an additional antineutrino admixture leading to lsub(i)sup(-)→lsub(K)sup(+) process. Both components (neutrino and antineutrino) oscillate independently. The sums Σsub(K)1/Vsub(k)σ(lsub(i)sup(-) - lsub(K)sup(+-) then oscillate due to the presence of left-handed antineutrinos and right-handed neutrinos which do not take part in weak interactions. If right-handed currents are added sum rules analogous to considered above may be obtained. All conclusions are valid in the general case when CP is not conserved [ru
Sums of Generalized Harmonic Series
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 20; Issue 9. Sums of Generalized Harmonic Series: For Kids from Five to Fifteen. Zurab Silagadze. General Article Volume 20 Issue 9 September 2015 pp 822-843. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:
Bayesian structural inference for hidden processes
Strelioff, Christopher C.; Crutchfield, James P.
2014-04-01
We introduce a Bayesian approach to discovering patterns in structurally complex processes. The proposed method of Bayesian structural inference (BSI) relies on a set of candidate unifilar hidden Markov model (uHMM) topologies for inference of process structure from a data series. We employ a recently developed exact enumeration of topological ɛ-machines. (A sequel then removes the topological restriction.) This subset of the uHMM topologies has the added benefit that inferred models are guaranteed to be ɛ-machines, irrespective of estimated transition probabilities. Properties of ɛ-machines and uHMMs allow for the derivation of analytic expressions for estimating transition probabilities, inferring start states, and comparing the posterior probability of candidate model topologies, despite process internal structure being only indirectly present in data. We demonstrate BSI's effectiveness in estimating a process's randomness, as reflected by the Shannon entropy rate, and its structure, as quantified by the statistical complexity. We also compare using the posterior distribution over candidate models and the single, maximum a posteriori model for point estimation and show that the former more accurately reflects uncertainty in estimated values. We apply BSI to in-class examples of finite- and infinite-order Markov processes, as well to an out-of-class, infinite-state hidden process.
MODIS/Aqua Atmosphere Aeronet Subsetting Product
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS/Aqua Atmosphere Aeronet Subsetting Product (MYDARNSS) consists of MODIS Atmosphere and Ancillary Products subsets that are generated over a number of...
On subset selection from Logistic populations
Laan, van der P.
1990-01-01
Some distributional results are derived for subset selection from Logistic populations, differing only in their location parameter. The probability of correct selection is determined. Exact and numerical results concerning the expected subset size are presented.
... A.S.T. Quiz Hidden Stroke Risk Factors for Women Updated:Nov 22,2016 Excerpted from "What Women Need To Know About The Hidden Risk Factors ... 2012) This year, more than 100,000 U.S. women under 65 will have a stroke. Stroke is ...
Higgs Portal into Hidden Sectors
CERN. Geneva
2007-01-01
Several attractive theoretical ideas suggest the existence of one or more 'hidden sectors' consisting of standard model singlet fields, some of which may not be too heavy. There is a profound reason to think that the Higgs sector might provide the first access to these hidden sectors. This scenario could affect Higgs phenomenology in drastic ways.
Structural relations of harmonic sums and Mellin transforms up to weight w=5
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bluemlein, Johannes
2009-01-15
We derive the structural relations between the Mellin transforms of weighted Nielsen integrals emerging in the calculation of massless or massive single-scale quantities in QED and QCD, such as anomalous dimensions and Wilson coefficients, and other hard scattering cross sections depending on a single scale. The set of all multiple harmonic sums up to weight five cover the sums needed in the calculation of the 3-loop anomalous dimensions. The relations extend the set resulting from the quasi-shuffle product between harmonic sums studied earlier. Unlike the shuffle relations, they depend on the value of the quantities considered. Up to weight w=5, 242 nested harmonic sums contribute. In the present physical applications it is sufficient to consider the sub-set of harmonic sums not containing an index i=-1, which consists out of 69 sums. The algebraic relations reduce this set to 30 sums. Due to the structural relations a final reduction of the number of harmonic sums to 15 basic functions is obtained. These functions can be represented in terms of factorial series, supplemented by harmonic sums which are algebraically reducible. Complete analytic representations are given for these 15 meromorphic functions in the complex plane deriving their asymptotic- and recursion relations. A general outline is presented on the way nested harmonic sums and multiple zeta values emerge in higher order calculations of zero- and single scale quantities. (orig.)
African Journals Online (AJOL)
ISONIC
Résumé. Cardisoma armatum, est une espèce de crabe de terre rencontrée en Afrique de l'ouest en particulier en ... optique suite au traitement histologique ont permis la mise en évidence de quelques critères d'identification de l'espèce et ...... En Côte d'Ivoire il n'est pas rare de voir durant les saisons propices. Cardisoma ...
Hidden attractors in dynamical systems
Dudkowski, Dawid; Jafari, Sajad; Kapitaniak, Tomasz; Kuznetsov, Nikolay V.; Leonov, Gennady A.; Prasad, Awadhesh
2016-06-01
Complex dynamical systems, ranging from the climate, ecosystems to financial markets and engineering applications typically have many coexisting attractors. This property of the system is called multistability. The final state, i.e., the attractor on which the multistable system evolves strongly depends on the initial conditions. Additionally, such systems are very sensitive towards noise and system parameters so a sudden shift to a contrasting regime may occur. To understand the dynamics of these systems one has to identify all possible attractors and their basins of attraction. Recently, it has been shown that multistability is connected with the occurrence of unpredictable attractors which have been called hidden attractors. The basins of attraction of the hidden attractors do not touch unstable fixed points (if exists) and are located far away from such points. Numerical localization of the hidden attractors is not straightforward since there are no transient processes leading to them from the neighborhoods of unstable fixed points and one has to use the special analytical-numerical procedures. From the viewpoint of applications, the identification of hidden attractors is the major issue. The knowledge about the emergence and properties of hidden attractors can increase the likelihood that the system will remain on the most desirable attractor and reduce the risk of the sudden jump to undesired behavior. We review the most representative examples of hidden attractors, discuss their theoretical properties and experimental observations. We also describe numerical methods which allow identification of the hidden attractors.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gross, Fridolin; Green, Sara
2017-01-01
Systems biologists often distance themselves from reductionist approaches and formulate their aim as understanding living systems “as a whole”. Yet, it is often unclear what kind of reductionism they have in mind, and in what sense their methodologies offer a more comprehensive approach. To addre......-up”. Specifically, we point out that system-level properties constrain lower-scale processes. Thus, large-scale modeling reveals how living systems at the same time are more and less than the sum of the parts....
Borwein, J M; McPhedran, R C
2013-01-01
The study of lattice sums began when early investigators wanted to go from mechanical properties of crystals to the properties of the atoms and ions from which they were built (the literature of Madelung's constant). A parallel literature was built around the optical properties of regular lattices of atoms (initiated by Lord Rayleigh, Lorentz and Lorenz). For over a century many famous scientists and mathematicians have delved into the properties of lattices, sometimes unwittingly duplicating the work of their predecessors. Here, at last, is a comprehensive overview of the substantial body of
Variational Infinite Hidden Conditional Random Fields
Bousmalis, Konstantinos; Zafeiriou, Stefanos; Morency, Louis-Philippe; Pantic, Maja; Ghahramani, Zoubin
2015-01-01
Hidden conditional random fields (HCRFs) are discriminative latent variable models which have been shown to successfully learn the hidden structure of a given classification problem. An Infinite hidden conditional random field is a hidden conditional random field with a countably infinite number of
Managing Hidden Costs of Offshoring
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, Marcus M.; Pedersen, Torben
2014-01-01
This chapter investigates the concept of the ‘hidden costs’ of offshoring, i.e. unexpected offshoring costs exceeding the initially expected costs. Due to the highly undefined nature of these costs, we position our analysis towards the strategic responses of firms’ realisation of hidden costs....... In this regard, we argue that a major response to the hidden costs of offshoring is the identification and utilisation of strategic mechanisms in the organisational design to eventually achieving system integration in a globally dispersed and disaggregated organisation. This is heavily moderated by a learning......-by-doing process, where hidden costs motivate firms and their employees to search for new and better knowledge on how to successfully manage the organisation. We illustrate this thesis based on the case of the LEGO Group....
The Hidden Costs of Offshoring
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Møller Larsen, Marcus; Manning, Stephan; Pedersen, Torben
2011-01-01
of offshoring. Specifically, we propose that hidden costs can be explained by the combination of increasing structural, operational and social complexity of offshoring activities. In addition, we suggest that firm orientation towards organizational design as part of an offshoring strategy and offshoring......This study seeks to explain hidden costs of offshoring, i.e. unexpected costs resulting from the relocation of business tasks and activities outside the home country. We develop a model that highlights the role of complexity, design orientation and experience in explaining hidden costs...... experience moderate the relationship between complexity and hidden costs negatively i.e. reduces the cost generating impact of complexity. We develop three hypotheses and test them on comprehensive data from the Offshoring Research Network (ORN). In general, we find support for our hypotheses. A key result...
Child Abuse: The Hidden Bruises
... for Families - Vietnamese Spanish Facts for Families Guide Child Abuse - The Hidden Bruises No. 5; Updated November 2014 The statistics on physical child abuse are alarming. It is estimated hundreds of thousands ...
Hidden Statistics of Schroedinger Equation
Zak, Michail
2011-01-01
Work was carried out in determination of the mathematical origin of randomness in quantum mechanics and creating a hidden statistics of Schr dinger equation; i.e., to expose the transitional stochastic process as a "bridge" to the quantum world. The governing equations of hidden statistics would preserve such properties of quantum physics as superposition, entanglement, and direct-product decomposability while allowing one to measure its state variables using classical methods.
Hidden Curriculum: An Analytical Definition
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohammad Reza Andarvazh
2018-03-01
Full Text Available Background: The concept of hidden curriculum was first used by Philip Jackson in 1968, and Hafferty brought this concept to the medical education. Many of the subjects that medical students learn are attributed to this curriculum. So far several definitions have been presented for the hidden curriculum, which on the one hand made this concept richer, and on the other hand, led to confusion and ambiguity.This paper tries to provide a clear and comprehensive definition of it.Methods: In this study, concept analysis of McKenna method was used. Using keywords and searching in the databases, 561 English and 26 Persian references related to the concept was found, then by limitingthe research scope, 125 abstracts and by finding more relevant references, 55 articles were fully studied.Results: After analyzing the definitions by McKenna method, the hidden curriculum is defined as follows: The hidden curriculum is a hidden, powerful, intrinsic in organizational structure and culture and sometimes contradictory message, conveyed implicitly and tacitly in the learning environment by structural and human factors and its contents includes cultural habits and customs, norms, values, belief systems, attitudes, skills, desires and behavioral and social expectations can have a positive or negative effect, unplanned, neither planners nor teachers, nor learners are aware of it. The ultimate consequence of the hidden curriculum includes reproducing the existing class structure, socialization, and familiarizing learners for transmission and joining the professional world.Conclusion: Based on the concept analysis, we arrived at an analytical definition of the hidden curriculum that could be useful for further studies in this area.Keywords: CONCEPT ANALYSIS, HIDDEN CURRICULUM, MCKENNA’S METHOD
Statistical sums of strings on hyperellyptic surfaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lebedev, D.; Morozov, A.
1987-01-01
Contributions of hyperellyptic surfaces to statistical sums of string theories are presented. Available results on hyperellyptic surface give the apportunity to check factorization of three-loop statsum. Some remarks on the vanishing statistical sum are presented
Subset Selection by Local Convex Approximation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Øjelund, Henrik; Sadegh, Payman; Madsen, Henrik
1999-01-01
This paper concerns selection of the optimal subset of variables in a lenear regression setting. The posed problem is combinatiorial and the globally best subset can only be found in exponential time. We define a cost function for the subset selection problem by adding the penalty term to the usual...... of the subset selection problem so as to guarantee positive definiteness of the Hessian term, hence avoiding numerical instability. The backward Elemination type algorithm attempts to improve the results upon termination of the modified Newton-Raphson search by sing the current solution as an initial guess...
Momentum sum rules for fragmentation functions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Meissner, S.; Metz, A.; Pitonyak, D.
2010-01-01
Momentum sum rules for fragmentation functions are considered. In particular, we give a general proof of the Schaefer-Teryaev sum rule for the transverse momentum dependent Collins function. We also argue that corresponding sum rules for related fragmentation functions do not exist. Our model-independent analysis is supplemented by calculations in a simple field-theoretical model.
Overcoming the Law of the Hidden in Cyberinfrastructures.
Bucksch, Alexander; Das, Abhiram; Schneider, Hannah; Merchant, Nirav; Weitz, Joshua S
2017-02-01
Cyberinfrastructure projects (CIPs) are complex, integrated systems that require interaction and organization amongst user, developer, hardware, technical infrastructure, and funding resources. Nevertheless, CIP usability, functionality, and growth do not scale with the sum of these resources. Instead, growth and efficient usage of CIPs require access to 'hidden' resources. These include technical resources within CIPs as well as social and functional interactions among stakeholders. We identify approaches to overcome resource limitations following the conceptual basis of Liebig's Law of the Minimum. In so doing, we recommend practical steps towards efficient and scaleable resource use, taking the iPlant/CyVerse CIP as an example. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hidden ion population: Revisited
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Olsen, R.C.; Chappell, C.R.; Gallagher, D.L.; Green, J.L.; Gurnett, D.A.
1985-01-01
Satellite potentials in the outer plasmasphere range from near zero to +5 to +10 V. Under such conditions ion measurements may not include the low energy core of the plasma population. In eclipse, the photoelectron current drops to zero, and the spacecraft potential can drop to near zero volts. In regions where the ambient plasma density is below 100 cm -3 , previously unobserved portions of the ambient plasma distribution function can become visible in eclipse. A survey of the data obtained from the retarding ion mass spectrometer (RIMS) on Dynamics Explorer 1 shows that the RIMS detector generally measured the isotropic background in both sunlight and eclipse in the plasma-sphere. Absolute density measurements for the ''hidden'' ion population are obtained for the first time using the plasma wave instrument observations of the upper hybrid resonance. Agreement in total density is found in sunlight and eclipse measurements at densities above 80 cm -3 . In eclipse, agreement is found at densities as low as 20 cm -3 . The isotropic plasma composition is primarily H + , with approx.10% He + , and 0.1 to 1.0% O + . A low energy field-aligned ion population appears in eclipse measurements outside the plasmasphere, which is obscured in sunlight. These field-aligned ions can be interpreted as field-aligned flows with densities of a few particles per cubic centimeter, flowing at 5-20 km/s. The problem in measuring these field-aligned flows in sunlight is the masking of the high energy tail of the field-aligned distribution by the isotropic background. Effective measurement of the core of the magnetospheric plasma distribution awaits satellites with active means of controlling the satellite potential
Stargate of the Hidden Multiverse
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alexander Antonov
2016-02-01
Full Text Available Concept of Monoverse, which corresponds to the existing broad interpretation of the second postulate of the special theory of relativity, is not consistent with the modern astrophysical reality — existence of the dark matter and the dark energy, the total mass-energy of which is ten times greater than the mass-energy of the visible universe (which has been considered as the entire universe until very recent . This concept does not allow to explain their rather unusual properties — invisibility and lack of baryon content — which would seem to even destroy the very modern understanding of the term ‘matter’. However, all numerous alternative concepts of Multiverses, which have been proposed until today, are unable to explain these properties of the dark matter and dark energy. This article describes a new concept: the concept of the hidden Multiverse and hidden Supermultiverse, which mutual invisibility of parallel universes is explained by the physical reality of imaginary numbers. This concept completely explains the phenomenon of the dark matter and the dark energy. Moreover, it is shown that the dark matter and the dark energy are the experimental evidence for the existence of the hidden Multiverse. Described structure of the hidden Multiverse is fully consistent with the data obtained by the space stations WMAP and Planck. An extremely important property of the hidden Multiverse is an actual possibility of its permeation through stargate located on the Earth.
Hidden photons in connection to dark matter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Andreas, Sarah; Ringwald, Andreas [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Goodsell, Mark D. [CPhT, Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau (France)
2013-06-15
Light extra U(1) gauge bosons, so called hidden photons, which reside in a hidden sector have attracted much attention since they are a well motivated feature of many scenarios beyond the Standard Model and furthermore could mediate the interaction with hidden sector dark matter.We review limits on hidden photons from past electron beam dump experiments including two new limits from such experiments at KEK and Orsay. In addition, we study the possibility of having dark matter in the hidden sector. A simple toy model and different supersymmetric realisations are shown to provide viable dark matter candidates in the hidden sector that are in agreement with recent direct detection limits.
Hidden photons in connection to dark matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andreas, Sarah; Ringwald, Andreas; Goodsell, Mark D.
2013-06-01
Light extra U(1) gauge bosons, so called hidden photons, which reside in a hidden sector have attracted much attention since they are a well motivated feature of many scenarios beyond the Standard Model and furthermore could mediate the interaction with hidden sector dark matter.We review limits on hidden photons from past electron beam dump experiments including two new limits from such experiments at KEK and Orsay. In addition, we study the possibility of having dark matter in the hidden sector. A simple toy model and different supersymmetric realisations are shown to provide viable dark matter candidates in the hidden sector that are in agreement with recent direct detection limits.
Hidden worlds in quantum physics
Gouesbet, Gérard
2014-01-01
The past decade has witnessed a resurgence in research and interest in the areas of quantum computation and entanglement. This new book addresses the hidden worlds or variables of quantum physics. Author Gérard Gouesbet studied and worked with a former student of Louis de Broglie, a pioneer of quantum physics. His presentation emphasizes the history and philosophical foundations of physics, areas that will interest lay readers as well as professionals and advanced undergraduate and graduate students of quantum physics. The introduction is succeeded by chapters offering background on relevant concepts in classical and quantum mechanics, a brief history of causal theories, and examinations of the double solution, pilot wave, and other hidden-variables theories. Additional topics include proofs of possibility and impossibility, contextuality, non-locality, classification of hidden-variables theories, and stochastic quantum mechanics. The final section discusses how to gain a genuine understanding of quantum mec...
Variable and subset selection in PLS regression
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Høskuldsson, Agnar
2001-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to present some useful methods for introductory analysis of variables and subsets in relation to PLS regression. We present here methods that are efficient in finding the appropriate variables or subset to use in the PLS regression. The general conclusion...... is that variable selection is important for successful analysis of chemometric data. An important aspect of the results presented is that lack of variable selection can spoil the PLS regression, and that cross-validation measures using a test set can show larger variation, when we use different subsets of X, than...
Detecting hidden particles with MATHUSLA
Evans, Jared A.
2018-03-01
A hidden sector containing light long-lived particles provides a well-motivated place to find new physics. The recently proposed MATHUSLA experiment has the potential to be extremely sensitive to light particles originating from rare meson decays in the very long lifetime region. In this work, we illustrate this strength with the specific example of a light scalar mixed with the standard model-like Higgs boson, a model where MATHUSLA can further probe unexplored parameter space from exotic Higgs decays. Design augmentations should be considered in order to maximize the ability of MATHUSLA to discover very light hidden sector particles.
Hidden Crises and Communication: An Interactional Analysis of Hidden Crises
dr. Annette Klarenbeek
2011-01-01
In this paper I describe the ways in which the communication discipline can make a hidden crisis transparent. For this purpose I examine the concept of crisis entrepreneurship from a communication point of view. Using discourse analysis, I analyse the discursive practices of crisis entrepreneurs in
Hidden Crises and Communication : An Interactional Analysis of Hidden Crises
dr. Annette Klarenbeek
2011-01-01
In this paper I describe the ways in which the communication discipline can make a hidden crisis transparent. For this purpose I examine the concept of crisis entrepreneurship from a communication point of view. Using discourse analysis, I analyse the discursive practices of crisis entrepreneurs in
Sum rules for quasifree scattering of hadrons
Peterson, R. J.
2018-02-01
The areas d σ /d Ω of fitted quasifree scattering peaks from bound nucleons for continuum hadron-nucleus spectra measuring d2σ /d Ω d ω are converted to sum rules akin to the Coulomb sums familiar from continuum electron scattering spectra from nuclear charge. Hadronic spectra with or without charge exchange of the beam are considered. These sums are compared to the simple expectations of a nonrelativistic Fermi gas, including a Pauli blocking factor. For scattering without charge exchange, the hadronic sums are below this expectation, as also observed with Coulomb sums. For charge exchange spectra, the sums are near or above the simple expectation, with larger uncertainties. The strong role of hadron-nucleon in-medium total cross sections is noted from use of the Glauber model.
Extremum uncertainty product and sum states
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mehta, C L; Kumar, S [Indian Inst. of Tech., New Delhi. Dept. of Physics
1978-01-01
The extremum product states and sum states of the uncertainties in non-commuting observables have been examined. These are illustrated by two specific examples of harmonic oscillator and the angular momentum states. It shows that the coherent states of the harmonic oscillator are characterized by the minimum uncertainty sum <(..delta..q)/sup 2/>+<(..delta..p)/sup 2/>. The extremum values of the sums and products of the uncertainties of the components of the angular momentum are also obtained.
QCD Sum Rules, a Modern Perspective
Colangelo, Pietro; Colangelo, Pietro; Khodjamirian, Alexander
2001-01-01
An introduction to the method of QCD sum rules is given for those who want to learn how to use this method. Furthermore, we discuss various applications of sum rules, from the determination of quark masses to the calculation of hadronic form factors and structure functions. Finally, we explain the idea of the light-cone sum rules and outline the recent development of this approach.
Development of a synchronous subset of AADL
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Filali, Mamoun; Lawall, Julia
2010-01-01
We study the definition and the mapping of an AADL subset: the so called synchronous subset. We show that the data port protocol used for delayed and immediate connections between periodic threads can be interpreted in a synchronous way. In this paper, we formalize this interpretation and study ...... the development of its mapping such that the original synchronous semantics is preserved. For that purpose, we use refinements through the Event B method....
Decompounding random sums: A nonparametric approach
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Martin Bøgsted; Pitts, Susan M.
Observations from sums of random variables with a random number of summands, known as random, compound or stopped sums arise within many areas of engineering and science. Quite often it is desirable to infer properties of the distribution of the terms in the random sum. In the present paper we...... review a number of applications and consider the nonlinear inverse problem of inferring the cumulative distribution function of the components in the random sum. We review the existing literature on non-parametric approaches to the problem. The models amenable to the analysis are generalized considerably...
Sum rules in the response function method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takayanagi, Kazuo
1990-01-01
Sum rules in the response function method are studied in detail. A sum rule can be obtained theoretically by integrating the imaginary part of the response function over the excitation energy with a corresponding energy weight. Generally, the response function is calculated perturbatively in terms of the residual interaction, and the expansion can be described by diagrammatic methods. In this paper, we present a classification of the diagrams so as to clarify which diagram has what contribution to which sum rule. This will allow us to get insight into the contributions to the sum rules of all the processes expressed by Goldstone diagrams. (orig.)
Entry deterrence and hidden competition
Lavrutich, Maria; Huisman, Kuno; Kort, Peter
This paper studies strategic investment behavior of firms facing an uncertain demand in a duopoly setting. Firms choose both investment timing and the capacity level while facing additional uncertainty about market participants, which is introduced via the concept of hidden competition. We focus on
Adaptive Partially Hidden Markov Models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Forchhammer, Søren Otto; Rasmussen, Tage
1996-01-01
Partially Hidden Markov Models (PHMM) have recently been introduced. The transition and emission probabilities are conditioned on the past. In this report, the PHMM is extended with a multiple token version. The different versions of the PHMM are applied to bi-level image coding....
The Hidden Dimensions of Databases.
Jacso, Peter
1994-01-01
Discusses methods of evaluating commercial online databases and provides examples that illustrate their hidden dimensions. Topics addressed include size, including the number of records or the number of titles; the number of years covered; and the frequency of updates. Comparisons of Readers' Guide Abstracts and Magazine Article Summaries are…
Some Finite Sums Involving Generalized Fibonacci and Lucas Numbers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
E. Kılıç
2011-01-01
Full Text Available By considering Melham's sums (Melham, 2004, we compute various more general nonalternating sums, alternating sums, and sums that alternate according to (−12+1 involving the generalized Fibonacci and Lucas numbers.
Where Does Latin "Sum" Come From?
Nyman, Martti A.
1977-01-01
The derivation of Latin "sum,""es(s),""est" from Indo-European "esmi,""est,""esti" involves methodological problems. It is claimed here that the development of "sum" from "esmi" is related to the origin of the variation "est-st" (less than"esti"). The study is primarily concerned with this process, but chronological suggestions are also made. (CHK)
Compound sums and their applications in finance
R. Helmers (Roelof); B. Tarigan
2003-01-01
textabstractCompound sums arise frequently in insurance (total claim size in a portfolio) and in accountancy (total error amount in audit populations). As the normal approximation for compound sums usually performs very badly, one may look for better methods for approximating the distribution of a
Gauss Sum Factorization with Cold Atoms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gilowski, M.; Wendrich, T.; Mueller, T.; Ertmer, W.; Rasel, E. M.; Jentsch, Ch.; Schleich, W. P.
2008-01-01
We report the first implementation of a Gauss sum factorization algorithm by an internal state Ramsey interferometer using cold atoms. A sequence of appropriately designed light pulses interacts with an ensemble of cold rubidium atoms. The final population in the involved atomic levels determines a Gauss sum. With this technique we factor the number N=263193
Shapley Value for Constant-sum Games
Khmelnitskaya, A.B.
2002-01-01
It is proved that Young's axiomatization for the Shapley value by marginalism, efficiency, and symmetry is still valid for the Shapley value defined on the class of nonnegative constant-sum games and on the entire class of constant-sum games as well. To support an interest to study the class of
Superconvergent sum rules for the normal reflectivity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Furuya, K.; Zimerman, A.H.; Villani, A.
1976-05-01
Families of superconvergent relations for the normal reflectivity function are written. Sum rules connecting the difference of phases of the reflectivities of two materials are also considered. Finally superconvergence relations and sum rules for magneto-reflectivity in the Faraday and Voigt regimes are also studied
Sums and products of sets and estimates of rational trigonometric sums in fields of prime order
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Garaev, Mubaris Z [National Autonomous University of Mexico, Institute of Mathematics (Mexico)
2010-11-16
This paper is a survey of main results on the problem of sums and products of sets in fields of prime order and their applications to estimates of rational trigonometric sums. Bibliography: 85 titles.
Current algebra sum rules for Reggeons
Carlitz, R
1972-01-01
The interplay between the constraints of chiral SU/sub 2/*SU/sub 2/ symmetry and Regge asymptotic behaviour is investigated. The author reviews the derivation of various current algebra sum rules in a study of the reaction pi + alpha to pi + beta . These sum rules imply that all particles may be classified in multiplets of SU/sub 2/*SU/sub 2/ and that each of these multiplets may contain linear combinations of an infinite number of physical states. Extending his study to the reaction pi + alpha to pi + pi + beta , he derives new sum rules involving commutators of the axial charge with the reggeon coupling matrices of the rho and f Regge trajectories. Some applications of these new sum rules are noted, and the general utility of these and related sum rules is discussed. (17 refs).
Study of QCD medium by sum rules
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mallik, S [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Calcutta (India)
1998-08-01
Though it has no analogue in condensed matter physics, the thermal QCD sum rules can, nevertheless, answer questions of condensed matter type about the QCD medium. The ingredients needed to write such sum rules, viz. the operator product expansion and the spectral representation at finite temperature, are reviewed in detail. The sum rules are then actually written for the case of correlation function of two vector currents. Collecting information on the thermal average of the higher dimension operators from other sources, we evaluate these sum rules for the temperature dependent {rho}-meson parameters. Possibility of extracting more information from the combined set of all sum rules from different correlation functions is also discussed. (author) 30 refs., 2 figs.
Coloring sums of extensions of certain graphs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Johan Kok
2017-12-01
Full Text Available We recall that the minimum number of colors that allow a proper coloring of graph $G$ is called the chromatic number of $G$ and denoted $\\chi(G$. Motivated by the introduction of the concept of the $b$-chromatic sum of a graph the concept of $\\chi'$-chromatic sum and $\\chi^+$-chromatic sum are introduced in this paper. The extended graph $G^x$ of a graph $G$ was recently introduced for certain regular graphs. This paper furthers the concepts of $\\chi'$-chromatic sum and $\\chi^+$-chromatic sum to extended paths and cycles. Bipartite graphs also receive some attention. The paper concludes with patterned structured graphs. These last said graphs are typically found in chemical and biological structures.
A New Sum Analogous to Gauss Sums and Its Fourth Power Mean
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shaofeng Ru
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to use the analytic methods and the properties of Gauss sums to study the computational problem of one kind of new sum analogous to Gauss sums and give an interesting fourth power mean and a sharp upper bound estimate for it.
Band Subset Selection for Hyperspectral Image Classification
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chunyan Yu
2018-01-01
Full Text Available This paper develops a new approach to band subset selection (BSS for hyperspectral image classification (HSIC which selects multiple bands simultaneously as a band subset, referred to as simultaneous multiple band selection (SMMBS, rather than one band at a time sequentially, referred to as sequential multiple band selection (SQMBS, as most traditional band selection methods do. In doing so, a criterion is particularly developed for BSS that can be used for HSIC. It is a linearly constrained minimum variance (LCMV derived from adaptive beamforming in array signal processing which can be used to model misclassification errors as the minimum variance. To avoid an exhaustive search for all possible band subsets, two numerical algorithms, referred to as sequential (SQ and successive (SC algorithms are also developed for LCMV-based SMMBS, called SQ LCMV-BSS and SC LCMV-BSS. Experimental results demonstrate that LCMV-based BSS has advantages over SQMBS.
Effects of low dose radiation on regulatory function between lymphocyte subsets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tian Hailin; Su Liaoyuan; Du Zeji; Zou Huawei; Wang Aiqing
1997-01-01
Four kinds of McAbs (anti CD 4 , CD 8 , CD 19 and CD 57 ) were used to separate CD 4 , CD 8 , CD 19 (B) and CD 57 (NK) lymphocyte subsets from human peripheral blood by 'Panning-direct' method. First the natural killing activity of each subsets and the regulatory functions between CD 57 and other subsets were studied. Then the effects of low dose radiation on the function of CD 57 cells and the regulatory functions between CD 57 and other subsets were studied. The results showed that the NK activity was found in all of the four subsets, with CD 57 cell having the strongest activity. When CD 4 and CD 57 cells were co-cultured, the total NK activity was higher than that of the sum of these two single subsets, i.e. there was synergistic effect between CD 4 and CD 57 cells. When CD 8 or CD 19 cells were co-cultured separately with CD 57 cells, no synergistic effect was found. Irradiation by gamma rays at doses of 50 cGy and 80 cGy was able to stimulate the function of CD 57 cells. After Cd 4 or CD 57 cells were irradiated, the total NK activity of their co-culture increased significantly. This phenomenon was not found in other subsets. This suggested that low dose radiation can enhance the synergistic action between CD 4 and CD 57 cells. So at least four subsets (CD 4 , CD 8 , CD 19 , CD 57 ) contribute to the total NK activity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells. (15 refs., 4 tabs.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Akbari, S.; Khosrovshahi, G.B.; Mofidi, A.
2010-07-01
Let D be a t-(v, k, λ) design and let N i (D), for 1 ≤ i ≤ t, be the higher incidence matrix of D, a (0, 1)-matrix of size (v/i) x b, where b is the number of blocks of D. A zero-sum flow of D is a nowhere-zero real vector in the null space of N 1 (D). A zero-sum k-flow of D is a zero-sum flow with values in {±,...,±(k-1)}. In this paper we show that every non-symmetric design admits an integral zero-sum flow, and consequently we conjecture that every non-symmetric design admits a zero-sum 5-flow. Similarly, the definition of zero-sum flow can be extended to N i (D), 1 ≤ i ≤ t. Let D = t-(v,k, (v-t/k-t)) be the complete design. We conjecture that N t (D) admits a zero-sum 3-flow and prove this conjecture for t = 2. (author)
Hidden supersymmetry and large N
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alfaro, J.
1988-01-01
In this paper we present a new method to deal with the leading order in the large-N expansion of a quantum field theory. The method uses explicitly the hidden supersymmetry that is present in the path-integral formulation of a stochastic process. In addition to this we derive a new relation that is valid in the leading order of the large-N expansion of the hermitian-matrix model for any spacetime dimension. (orig.)
Fixed mass and scaling sum rules
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ward, B.F.L.
1975-01-01
Using the correspondence principle (continuity in dynamics), the approach of Keppell-Jones-Ward-Taha to fixed mass and scaling current algebraic sum rules is extended so as to consider explicitly the contributions of all classes of intermediate states. A natural, generalized formulation of the truncation ideas of Cornwall, Corrigan, and Norton is introduced as a by-product of this extension. The formalism is illustrated in the familiar case of the spin independent Schwinger term sum rule. New sum rules are derived which relate the Regge residue functions of the respective structure functions to their fixed hadronic mass limits for q 2 → infinity. (Auth.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Irene Machado
2008-11-01
Full Text Available Nem sempre os temas candentes da investigação, numa determinada área do conhecimento, são colocados de maneira orgânica e organizada para o conjunto dos pesquisadores que sobre eles se debruçam. Quase nunca as edições cientícas, que se propõem a torná-los acessíveis a seus leitores, conseguem harmonizá-los sem correr os riscos de aproximações indevidas. A única forma de não incorrer em equívocos perigosos é assumir a idiossincrasia do temário diversificado que constitui o campo em questão. O leitor que ora inicia seu diálogo com este sétimo número de Galáxia não deve tomar esse preâmbulo por alerta, mas sim como tentativa de a revista manter a coerência face a seu compromisso de ser porta-voz dos temas e problemas da comunicação e da cultura pelo prisma das teorias semióticas que orientam o olhar dos vários colaboradores que encontram neste espaço uma tribuna aberta ao trânsito das diferenças. Basta um relance pelo sumário desta edição para que tal armação possa ser confirmada. Os textos que constituem o Fórum, respeitadas as singularidades, tratam de temas que são caros para as abordagens da comunicação e da semiótica na cultura. Temos o privilégio de publicar o texto inédito em português de Jakob von Uexküll em que o autor apresenta sua teoria da Umwelt, caracterizando formulações da biossemiótica sobre o signi.cado do entorno ou do espaço circundante, que são valiosas para compreender a percepção, a interação, o contexto, a informação, os códigos em ambientes de semiose. De um outro lugar - aquele modulado pela lógica da linguagem - Lucrécia Ferrara perscruta o campo conceitual que entende o design não pelo viés da operatividade, mas como processo semiótico-cognitivo. A outra ponta deste que pode ser um triálogo nos é dado pela comunicologia de Vilém Flusser. Para Michael Hanke, Flusser foi um dos grandes teóricos a investigar a importância da mídia para os
Distributional and efficiency results for subset selection
Laan, van der P.
1996-01-01
Assume k (??k \\geq 2) populations are given. The associated independent random variables have continuous distribution functions with an unknown location parameter. The statistical selec??tion goal is to select a non??empty subset which contains the best population,?? that is the pop??ulation with
Invariant subsets under compact quantum group actions
Huang, Huichi
2012-01-01
We investigate compact quantum group actions on unital $C^*$-algebras by analyzing invariant subsets and invariant states. In particular, we come up with the concept of compact quantum group orbits and use it to show that countable compact metrizable spaces with infinitely many points are not quantum homogeneous spaces.
Subset specification of central serotonergic neurons
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marten P Smidt
2013-10-01
Full Text Available The last decade the serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT system has received enormous attention due to its role in regulation of behavior, exemplified by the discovery that increased 5-HT tone in the central nervous system is able to alleviate affective disorders. Here, we review the developmental processes, with a special emphasis on subset specification, leading to the formation of the 5-HT system in the brain. Molecular classification of 5-HT neuronal groups leads to the definition of two independent rostral groups positioned in rhombomere 1 and 2/3 and a caudal group in rhombomere 5-8. In addition, more disperse refinement of these subsets is present as shown by the selective expression of the 5-HT1A autoreceptor, indicating functional diversity between 5-HT subsets. The functional significance of the molecular coding differences is not well known and the molecular basis of described specific connectivity patterns remain to be elucidated. Recent developments in genetic lineage tracing models will provide these data and form a major step-up towards the full understanding of the importance of developmental programming and function of 5-HT neuronal subsets.
A Bayesian analysis of QCD sum rules
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gubler, Philipp; Oka, Makoto
2011-01-01
A new technique has recently been developed, in which the Maximum Entropy Method is used to analyze QCD sum rules. This approach has the virtue of being able to directly generate the spectral function of a given operator, without the need of making an assumption about its specific functional form. To investigate whether useful results can be extracted within this method, we have first studied the vector meson channel, where QCD sum rules are traditionally known to provide a valid description of the spectral function. Our results show a significant peak in the region of the experimentally observed ρ-meson mass, which is in agreement with earlier QCD sum rules studies and suggests that the Maximum Entropy Method is a strong tool for analyzing QCD sum rules.
Sum rules for nuclear collective excitations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bohigas, O.
1978-07-01
Characterizations of the response function and of integral properties of the strength function via a moment expansion are discussed. Sum rule expressions for the moments in the RPA are derived. The validity of these sum rules for both density independent and density dependent interactions is proved. For forces of the Skyrme type, analytic expressions for the plus one and plus three energy weighted sum rules are given for isoscalar monopole and quadrupole operators. From these, a close relationship between the monopole and quadrupole energies is shown and their dependence on incompressibility and effective mass is studied. The inverse energy weighted sum rule is computed numerically for the monopole operator, and an upper bound for the width of the monopole resonance is given. Finally the reliability of moments given by the RPA with effective interactions is discussed using simple soluble models for the hamiltonian, and also by comparison with experimental data
3He electron scattering sum rules
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Y.E.; Tornow, V.
1982-01-01
Electron scattering sum rules for 3 He are derived with a realistic ground-state wave function. The theoretical results are compared with the experimentally measured integrated cross sections. (author)
Sum formulas for reductive algebraic groups
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Henning Haahr; Kulkarni, Upendra
2008-01-01
\\supset V^1 \\cdots \\supset V^r = 0$. The sum of the positive terms in this filtration satisfies a well known sum formula. If $T$ denotes a tilting module either for $G$ or $U_q$ then we can similarly filter the space $\\Hom_G(V,T)$, respectively $\\Hom_{U_q}(V,T)$ and there is a sum formula for the positive...... terms here as well. We give an easy and unified proof of these two (equivalent) sum formulas. Our approach is based on an Euler type identity which we show holds without any restrictions on $p$ or $l$. In particular, we get rid of previous such restrictions in the tilting module case....
Gaussian sum rules for optical functions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kimel, I.
1981-12-01
A new (Gaussian) type of sum rules (GSR) for several optical functions, is presented. The functions considered are: dielectric permeability, refractive index, energy loss function, rotatory power and ellipticity (circular dichroism). While reducing to the usual type of sum rules in a certain limit, the GSR contain in general, a Gaussian factor that serves to improve convergence. GSR might be useful in analysing experimental data. (Author) [pt
The Gross-Llewellyn Smith sum rule
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Scott, W.G.
1981-01-01
We present the most recent data on the Gross-Llewellyn Smith sum rule obtained from the combined BEBC Narrow Band Neon and GGM-PS Freon neutrino/antineutrino experiments. The data for the Gross-Llewellyn Smith sum rule as a function of q 2 suggest a smaller value for the QCD coupling constant parameter Λ than is obtained from the analysis of the higher moments. (author)
Electronuclear sum rules for the lightest nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Efros, V.D.
1992-01-01
It is shown that the model-independent longitudinal electronuclear sum rules for nuclei with A = 3 and A = 4 have an accuracy on the order of a percent in the traditional single-nucleon approximation with free nucleons for the nuclear charge-density operator. This makes it possible to test this approximation by using these sum rules. The longitudinal sum rules for A = 3 and A = 4 are calculated using the wave functions of these nuclei corresponding to a large set of realistic NN interactions. The values of the model-independent sum rules lie in the range of values calculated by this method. Model-independent expressions are obtained for the transverse sum rules for nuclei with A = 3 and A = 4. These sum rules are calculated using a large set of realistic wave functions of these nuclei. The contribution of the convection current and the changes in the results for different versions of realistic NN forces are given. 29 refs., 4 tabs
Transition sum rules in the shell model
Lu, Yi; Johnson, Calvin W.
2018-03-01
An important characterization of electromagnetic and weak transitions in atomic nuclei are sum rules. We focus on the non-energy-weighted sum rule (NEWSR), or total strength, and the energy-weighted sum rule (EWSR); the ratio of the EWSR to the NEWSR is the centroid or average energy of transition strengths from an nuclear initial state to all allowed final states. These sum rules can be expressed as expectation values of operators, which in the case of the EWSR is a double commutator. While most prior applications of the double commutator have been to special cases, we derive general formulas for matrix elements of both operators in a shell model framework (occupation space), given the input matrix elements for the nuclear Hamiltonian and for the transition operator. With these new formulas, we easily evaluate centroids of transition strength functions, with no need to calculate daughter states. We apply this simple tool to a number of nuclides and demonstrate the sum rules follow smooth secular behavior as a function of initial energy, as well as compare the electric dipole (E 1 ) sum rule against the famous Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn version. We also find surprising systematic behaviors for ground-state electric quadrupole (E 2 ) centroids in the s d shell.
Geometric optimization and sums of algebraic functions
Vigneron, Antoine E.
2014-01-01
rigid motions and minimizing their symmetric difference. We obtain the first FPTAS for other problems in fixed dimension, such as computing an optimal ray in a weighted subdivision, finding the largest axially symmetric subset of a polyhedron
Hidden particle production at the ILC
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fujii, Keisuke; Itoh, Hideo; Okada, Nobuchika; Hano, Hitoshi; Yoshioka, Tamaki
2008-01-01
In a class of new physics models, the new physics sector is completely or partly hidden, namely, a singlet under the standard model (SM) gauge group. Hidden fields included in such new physics models communicate with the standard model sector through higher-dimensional operators. If a cutoff lies in the TeV range, such hidden fields can be produced at future colliders. We consider a scalar field as an example of the hidden fields. Collider phenomenology on this hidden scalar is similar to that of the SM Higgs boson, but there are several features quite different from those of the Higgs boson. We investigate productions of the hidden scalar at the International Linear Collider (ILC) and study the feasibility of its measurements, in particular, how well the ILC distinguishes the scalar from the Higgs boson, through realistic Monte Carlo simulations.
Hidden measurements, hidden variables and the volume representation of transition probabilities
Oliynyk, Todd A.
2005-01-01
We construct, for any finite dimension $n$, a new hidden measurement model for quantum mechanics based on representing quantum transition probabilities by the volume of regions in projective Hilbert space. For $n=2$ our model is equivalent to the Aerts sphere model and serves as a generalization of it for dimensions $n \\geq 3$. We also show how to construct a hidden variables scheme based on hidden measurements and we discuss how joint distributions arise in our hidden variables scheme and th...
Selecting Optimal Subset of Security Controls
Yevseyeva, I.; Basto-Fernandes, V.; Michael, Emmerich, T. M.; Moorsel, van, A.
2015-01-01
Open Access journal Choosing an optimal investment in information security is an issue most companies face these days. Which security controls to buy to protect the IT system of a company in the best way? Selecting a subset of security controls among many available ones can be seen as a resource allocation problem that should take into account conflicting objectives and constraints of the problem. In particular, the security of the system should be improved without hindering productivity, ...
Dissipative hidden sector dark matter
Foot, R.; Vagnozzi, S.
2015-01-01
A simple way of explaining dark matter without modifying known Standard Model physics is to require the existence of a hidden (dark) sector, which interacts with the visible one predominantly via gravity. We consider a hidden sector containing two stable particles charged under an unbroken U (1 )' gauge symmetry, hence featuring dissipative interactions. The massless gauge field associated with this symmetry, the dark photon, can interact via kinetic mixing with the ordinary photon. In fact, such an interaction of strength ε ˜10-9 appears to be necessary in order to explain galactic structure. We calculate the effect of this new physics on big bang nucleosynthesis and its contribution to the relativistic energy density at hydrogen recombination. We then examine the process of dark recombination, during which neutral dark states are formed, which is important for large-scale structure formation. Galactic structure is considered next, focusing on spiral and irregular galaxies. For these galaxies we modeled the dark matter halo (at the current epoch) as a dissipative plasma of dark matter particles, where the energy lost due to dissipation is compensated by the energy produced from ordinary supernovae (the core-collapse energy is transferred to the hidden sector via kinetic mixing induced processes in the supernova core). We find that such a dynamical halo model can reproduce several observed features of disk galaxies, including the cored density profile and the Tully-Fisher relation. We also discuss how elliptical and dwarf spheroidal galaxies could fit into this picture. Finally, these analyses are combined to set bounds on the parameter space of our model, which can serve as a guideline for future experimental searches.
Expansion around half-integer values, binomial sums, and inverse binomial sums
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weinzierl, Stefan
2004-01-01
I consider the expansion of transcendental functions in a small parameter around rational numbers. This includes in particular the expansion around half-integer values. I present algorithms which are suitable for an implementation within a symbolic computer algebra system. The method is an extension of the technique of nested sums. The algorithms allow in addition the evaluation of binomial sums, inverse binomial sums and generalizations thereof
QCD sum rules in a Bayesian approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gubler, Philipp; Oka, Makoto
2011-01-01
A novel technique is developed, in which the Maximum Entropy Method is used to analyze QCD sum rules. The main advantage of this approach lies in its ability of directly generating the spectral function of a given operator. This is done without the need of making an assumption about the specific functional form of the spectral function, such as in the 'pole + continuum' ansatz that is frequently used in QCD sum rule studies. Therefore, with this method it should in principle be possible to distinguish narrow pole structures form continuum states. To check whether meaningful results can be extracted within this approach, we have first investigated the vector meson channel, where QCD sum rules are traditionally known to provide a valid description of the spectral function. Our results exhibit a significant peak in the region of the experimentally observed ρ-meson mass, which agrees with earlier QCD sum rules studies and shows that the Maximum Entropy Method is a useful tool for analyzing QCD sum rules.
A bayesian approach to QCD sum rules
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gubler, Philipp; Oka, Makoto
2010-01-01
QCD sum rules are analyzed with the help of the Maximum Entropy Method. We develop a new technique based on the Bayesion inference theory, which allows us to directly obtain the spectral function of a given correlator from the results of the operator product expansion given in the deep euclidean 4-momentum region. The most important advantage of this approach is that one does not have to make any a priori assumptions about the functional form of the spectral function, such as the 'pole + continuum' ansatz that has been widely used in QCD sum rule studies, but only needs to specify the asymptotic values of the spectral function at high and low energies as an input. As a first test of the applicability of this method, we have analyzed the sum rules of the ρ-meson, a case where the sum rules are known to work well. Our results show a clear peak structure in the region of the experimental mass of the ρ-meson. We thus demonstrate that the Maximum Entropy Method is successfully applied and that it is an efficient tool in the analysis of QCD sum rules. (author)
Fermion zero modes in the vortex background of a Chern-Simons-Higgs theory with a hidden sector
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lozano, Gustavo [Departamento de Física, FCEYN Universidad de Buenos Aires & IFIBA CONICET,Pabellón 1 Ciudad Universitaria, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Mohammadi, Azadeh [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal da Paraíba,58.059-970, Caixa Postal 5.008, João Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Schaposnik, Fidel A. [Departamento de Física, Universidad Nacional de La Plata/IFLP/CICBA,CC 67, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)
2015-11-06
In this paper we study a 2+1 dimensional system in which fermions are coupled to the self-dual topological vortex in U(1)×U(1) Chern-Simons theory, where both U(1) gauge symmetries are spontaneously broken. We consider two Abelian Higgs scalars with visible and hidden sectors coupled to a fermionic field through three interaction Lagrangians, where one of them violates the fermion number. Using a fine tuning procedure, we could obtain the number of the fermionic zero modes which is equal to the absolute value of the sum of the vortex numbers in the visible and hidden sectors.
Hidden inventory and safety considerations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anderson, A.R.; James, R.H.; Morgan, F.
1976-01-01
Preliminary results are described of the evaluation of residual plutonium in a process line used for the production of experimental fast reactor fuel. Initial attention has been focussed on a selection of work boxes used for processing powders and solutions. Amounts of material measured as ''hidden inventory'' are generally less than 0.1 percent of throughput but in one box containing very complex equipment the amount was exceptionally about 0.5 percent. The total surface area of the box and the installed equipment appears to be the most significant factor in determining the amount of plutonium held-up as ''hidden inventory,'' representing an average of about 4 x 10 -4 g cm -2 . Present results are based on gamma spectrometer measurements but neutron techniques are being developed to overcome some of the inherent uncertainties in the gamma method. It is suggested that the routine use of sample plates of known surface area would be valuable in monitoring the deposition of plutonium in work boxes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
England, R.W.
1979-01-01
Mr. England contends that these hidden costs add up to a figure much higher than those that appear in the electric utilities' profit and loss account - costs that are borne by Federal taxpayers, by nuclear industry workers, and by all those people who must share their environment with nuclear facilities. Costs he details are additional deaths and illnesses resulting from exposure to radiation, and the use of tax dollars to clean up the lethal garbage produced by those activities. He asserts that careless handling of uranium ore and mill tailings in past years has apparently resulted in serious public health problems in those mining communities. In another example, Mr. England states that the failure to isolate uranium tailings physically from their environment has probably contributed to an acute leukemia rate in Mesa County, Colorado. He mentions much of the technology development for power reactors being done by the Federal government, not by private reactor manufacturers - thus, again, hidden costs that do not show up in electric bills of customers. The back end of the nuclear fuel cycle as a place for Federally subsidized research and development is discussed briefly. 1 figure, 2 tables
Vacuum structure and QCD sum rules
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shifman, M.A.
1992-01-01
The method of the QCD sum rules was and still is one of the most productive tools in a wide range of problems associated with the hadronic phenomenology. Many heuristic ideas, computational devices, specific formulae which are useful to theorists working not only in hadronic physics, have been accumulated in this method. Some of the results and approaches which have originally been developed in connection with the QCD sum rules can be and are successfully applied in related fields, as supersymmetric gauge theories, nontraditional schemes of quarks and leptons, etc. The amount of literature on these and other more basic problems in hadronic physics has grown enormously in recent years. This volume presents a collection of papers which provide an overview of all basic elements of the sum rule approach and priority has been given to the works which seemed most useful from a pedagogical point of view
Experimental results of the betatron sum resonance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Y.; Ball, M.; Brabson, B.
1993-06-01
The experimental observations of motion near the betatron sum resonance, ν x + 2ν z = 13, are presented. A fast quadrupole (Panofsky-style ferrite picture-frame magnet with a pulsed power supplier) producing a betatron tune shift of the order of 0.03 at rise time of 1 μs was used. This quadrupole was used to produce betatron tunes which jumped past and then crossed back through a betatron sum resonance line. The beam response as function of initial betatron amplitudes were recorded turn by turn. The correlated growth of the action variables, J x and J z , was observed. The phase space plots in the resonance frame reveal the features of particle motion near the nonlinear sum resonance region
Inverse-moment chiral sum rules
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Golowich, E.; Kambor, J.
1996-01-01
A general class of inverse-moment sum rules was previously derived by the authors in a chiral perturbation theory (ChPT) study at two-loop order of the isospin and hypercharge vector-current propagators. Here, we address the evaluation of the inverse-moment sum rules in terms of existing data and theoretical constraints. Two kinds of sum rules are seen to occur: those which contain as-yet undetermined O(q 6 ) counterterms and those free of such quantities. We use the former to obtain phenomenological evaluations of two O(q 6 ) counterterms. Light is shed on the important but difficult issue regarding contributions of higher orders in the ChPT expansion. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society
Least square regularized regression in sum space.
Xu, Yong-Li; Chen, Di-Rong; Li, Han-Xiong; Liu, Lu
2013-04-01
This paper proposes a least square regularized regression algorithm in sum space of reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces (RKHSs) for nonflat function approximation, and obtains the solution of the algorithm by solving a system of linear equations. This algorithm can approximate the low- and high-frequency component of the target function with large and small scale kernels, respectively. The convergence and learning rate are analyzed. We measure the complexity of the sum space by its covering number and demonstrate that the covering number can be bounded by the product of the covering numbers of basic RKHSs. For sum space of RKHSs with Gaussian kernels, by choosing appropriate parameters, we tradeoff the sample error and regularization error, and obtain a polynomial learning rate, which is better than that in any single RKHS. The utility of this method is illustrated with two simulated data sets and five real-life databases.
Systematics of strength function sum rules
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Calvin W. Johnson
2015-11-01
Full Text Available Sum rules provide useful insights into transition strength functions and are often expressed as expectation values of an operator. In this letter I demonstrate that non-energy-weighted transition sum rules have strong secular dependences on the energy of the initial state. Such non-trivial systematics have consequences: the simplification suggested by the generalized Brink–Axel hypothesis, for example, does not hold for most cases, though it weakly holds in at least some cases for electric dipole transitions. Furthermore, I show the systematics can be understood through spectral distribution theory, calculated via traces of operators and of products of operators. Seen through this lens, violation of the generalized Brink–Axel hypothesis is unsurprising: one expects sum rules to evolve with excitation energy. Furthermore, to lowest order the slope of the secular evolution can be traced to a component of the Hamiltonian being positive (repulsive or negative (attractive.
Vacuum structure and QCD sum rules
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shifman, M.A.
1992-01-01
The method of the QCD sum rules was and still is one of the most productive tools in a wide range of problems associated with the hadronic phenomenology. Many heuristic ideas, computational devices, specific formulae which are useful to theorists working not only in hadronic physics, have been accumulated in this method. Some of the results and approaches which have been originally developed in connection with the QCD sum rules can be and are successfully applied in related fields, such as supersymmetric gauge theories, nontraditional schemes of quarks and leptons, etc. The amount of literature on these and other more basic problems in hadronic physics has grown enormously in recent years. This collection of papers provides an overview of all basic elements of the sum rule approach. Priority has been given to those works which seemed most useful from a pedagogical point of view
On the Computation of Correctly Rounded Sums
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kornerup, Peter; Lefevre, Vincent; Louvet, Nicolas
2012-01-01
This paper presents a study of some basic blocks needed in the design of floating-point summation algorithms. In particular, in radix-2 floating-point arithmetic, we show that among the set of the algorithms with no comparisons performing only floating-point additions/subtractions, the 2Sum...... algorithm introduced by Knuth is minimal, both in terms of number of operations and depth of the dependency graph. We investigate the possible use of another algorithm, Dekker's Fast2Sum algorithm, in radix-10 arithmetic. We give methods for computing, in radix 10, the floating-point number nearest...... the average value of two floating-point numbers. We also prove that under reasonable conditions, an algorithm performing only round-to-nearest additions/subtractions cannot compute the round-to-nearest sum of at least three floating-point numbers. Starting from an algorithm due to Boldo and Melquiond, we also...
Sum rules for the quarkonium systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burnel, A.; Caprasse, H.
1980-01-01
In the framework of the radial Schroedinger equation we derive in a very simple way sum rules relating the potential to physical quantities such as the energy eigenvalues and the square of the lth derivative of the eigenfunctions at the origin. These sum rules contain as particular cases well-known results such as the quantum version of the Clausius theorem in classical mechanics as well as Kramers's relations for the Coulomb potential. Several illustrations are given and the possibilities of applying them to the quarkonium systems are considered
Integrals of Lagrange functions and sum rules
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Baye, Daniel, E-mail: dbaye@ulb.ac.be [Physique Quantique, CP 165/82, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, B 1050 Bruxelles (Belgium); Physique Nucleaire Theorique et Physique Mathematique, CP 229, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, B 1050 Bruxelles (Belgium)
2011-09-30
Exact values are derived for some matrix elements of Lagrange functions, i.e. orthonormal cardinal functions, constructed from orthogonal polynomials. They are obtained with exact Gauss quadratures supplemented by corrections. In the particular case of Lagrange-Laguerre and shifted Lagrange-Jacobi functions, sum rules provide exact values for matrix elements of 1/x and 1/x{sup 2} as well as for the kinetic energy. From these expressions, new sum rules involving Laguerre and shifted Jacobi zeros and weights are derived. (paper)
The Hidden Reason Behind Children's Misbehavior.
Nystul, Michael S.
1986-01-01
Discusses hidden reason theory based on the assumptions that: (1) the nature of people is positive; (2) a child's most basic psychological need is involvement; and (3) a child has four possible choices in life (good somebody, good nobody, bad somebody, or severely mentally ill.) A three step approach for implementing hidden reason theory is…
Hidden neural networks: application to speech recognition
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Riis, Søren Kamaric
1998-01-01
We evaluate the hidden neural network HMM/NN hybrid on two speech recognition benchmark tasks; (1) task independent isolated word recognition on the Phonebook database, and (2) recognition of broad phoneme classes in continuous speech from the TIMIT database. It is shown how hidden neural networks...
Insight: Exploring Hidden Roles in Collaborative Play
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tricia Shi
2015-06-01
Full Text Available This paper looks into interaction modes between players in co-located, collaborative games. In particular, hidden traitor games, in which one or more players is secretly working against the group mission, has the effect of increasing paranoia and distrust between players, so this paper looks into the opposite of a hidden traitor – a hidden benefactor. Rather than sabotaging the group mission, the hidden benefactor would help the group achieve the end goal while still having a reason to stay hidden. The paper explores what games with such a role can look like and how the role changes player interactions. Finally, the paper addresses the divide between video game and board game interaction modes; hidden roles are not common within video games, but they are of growing prevalence in board games. This fact, combined with the exploration of hidden benefactors, reveals that hidden roles is a mechanic that video games should develop into in order to match board games’ complexity of player interaction modes.
Hidden variables and locality in quantum theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shiva, Vandana.
1978-12-01
The status of hidden variables in quantum theory has been debated since the 1920s. The author examines the no-hidden-variable theories of von Neumann, Kochen, Specker and Bell, and finds that they all share one basic assumption: averaging over the hidden variables should reproduce the quantum mechanical probabilities. Von Neumann also makes a linearity assumption, Kochen and Specker require the preservation of certain functional relations between magnitudes, and Bell proposes a locality condition. It has been assumed that the extrastatistical requirements are needed to serve as criteria of success for the introduction of hidden variables because the statistical condition is trivially satisfied, and that Bell's result is based on a locality condition that is physically motivated. The author shows that the requirement of weak locality, which is not physically motivated, is enough to give Bell's result. The proof of Bell's inequality works equally well for any pair of commuting magnitudes satisfying a condition called the degeneracy principle. None of the no-hidden-variable proofs apply to a class of hidden variable theories that are not phase-space reconstructions of quantum mechanics. The author discusses one of these theories, the Bohm-Bub theory, and finds that hidden variable theories that re all the quantum statistics, for single and sequential measurements, must introduce a randomization process for the hidden variables after each measurement. The philosophical significance of this theory lies in the role it can play in solving the conceptual puzzles posed by quantum theory
Hidden supersymmetry and Fermion number fractionalization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Akhoury, R.
1985-01-01
This paper discusses how a hidden supersymmetry of the underlying field theories can be used to interpret and to calculate fermion number fractionalization in different dimensions. This is made possible by relating it to a corresponding Witten index of the hidden supersymmetry. The closely related anomalies in odd dimensions are also discussed
Helioscope bounds on hidden sector photons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Redondo, J.
2008-01-01
The flux of hypothetical ''hidden photons'' from the Sun is computed under the assumption that they interact with normal matter only through kinetic mixing with the ordinary standard model photon. Requiring that the exotic luminosity is smaller than the standard photon luminosity provides limits for the mixing parameter down to χ -14 , depending on the hidden photon mass. Furthermore, it is pointed point out that helioscopes looking for solar axions are also sensitive to hidden photons. The recent results of the CAST collaboration are used to further constrain the mixing parameter χ at low masses (m γ' <1 eV) where the luminosity bound is weaker. In this regime the solar hidden photon ux has a sizable contribution of longitudinally polarized hidden photons of low energy which are invisible for current helioscopes. (orig.)
Pentaquarks in QCD Sum Rule Approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rodrigues da Silva, R.; Matheus, R.D.; Navarra, F.S.; Nielsen, M.
2004-01-01
We estimate the mass of recently observed pentaquak staes Ξ- (1862) and Θ+(1540) using two kinds of interpolating fields, containing two highly correlated diquarks, in the QCD sum rule approach. We obtained good agreement with the experimental value, using standard continuum threshold
Sums of two-dimensional spectral triples
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christensen, Erik; Ivan, Cristina
2007-01-01
construct a sum of two dimensional modules which reflects some aspects of the topological dimensions of the compact metric space, but this will only give the metric back approximately. At the end we make an explicit computation of the last module for the unit interval in. The metric is recovered exactly...
Summing threshold logs in a parton shower
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nagy, Zoltan; Soper, Davison E.
2016-05-01
When parton distributions are falling steeply as the momentum fractions of the partons increases, there are effects that occur at each order in α s that combine to affect hard scattering cross sections and need to be summed. We show how to accomplish this in a leading approximation in the context of a parton shower Monte Carlo event generator.
On Learning Ring-Sum-Expansions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fischer, Paul; Simon, H. -U.
1992-01-01
The problem of learning ring-sum-expansions from examples is studied. Ring-sum-expansions (RSE) are representations of Boolean functions over the base {#123;small infinum, (+), 1}#125;, which reflect arithmetic operations in GF(2). k-RSE is the class of ring-sum-expansions containing only monomials...... of length at most k:. term-RSE is the class of ring-sum-expansions having at most I: monomials. It is shown that k-RSE, k>or=1, is learnable while k-term-RSE, k>2, is not learnable if RPnot=NP. Without using a complexity-theoretical hypothesis, it is proven that k-RSE, k>or=1, and k-term-RSE, k>or=2 cannot...... be learned from positive (negative) examples alone. However, if the restriction that the hypothesis which is output by the learning algorithm is also a k-RSE is suspended, then k-RSE is learnable from positive (negative) examples only. Moreover, it is proved that 2-term-RSE is learnable by a conjunction...
Stark resonances: asymptotics and distributional Borel sum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Caliceti, E.; Grecchi, V.; Maioli, M.
1993-01-01
We prove that the Stark effect perturbation theory of a class of bound states uniquely determines the position and the width of the resonances by Distributional Borel Sum. In particular the small field asymptotics of the width is uniquely related to the large order asymptotics of the perturbation coefficients. Similar results apply to all the ''resonances'' of the anharmonic and double well oscillators. (orig.)
Fibonacci Identities via the Determinant Sum Property
Spivey, Michael
2006-01-01
We use the sum property for determinants of matrices to give a three-stage proof of an identity involving Fibonacci numbers. Cassini's and d'Ocagne's Fibonacci identities are obtained at the ends of stages one and two, respectively. Catalan's Fibonacci identity is also a special case.
Summing threshold logs in a parton shower
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nagy, Zoltán [DESY,Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Soper, Davison E. [Institute of Theoretical Science, University of Oregon,Eugene, OR 97403-5203 (United States)
2016-10-05
When parton distributions are falling steeply as the momentum fractions of the partons increases, there are effects that occur at each order in α{sub s} that combine to affect hard scattering cross sections and need to be summed. We show how to accomplish this in a leading approximation in the context of a parton shower Monte Carlo event generator.
Demonstration of a Quantum Nondemolition Sum Gate
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Yoshikawa, J.; Miwa, Y.; Huck, Alexander
2008-01-01
The sum gate is the canonical two-mode gate for universal quantum computation based on continuous quantum variables. It represents the natural analogue to a qubit C-NOT gate. In addition, the continuous-variable gate describes a quantum nondemolition (QND) interaction between the quadrature...
Sum rule approach to nuclear vibrations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suzuki, T.
1983-01-01
Velocity field of various collective states is explored by using sum rules for the nuclear current. It is shown that an irrotational and incompressible flow model is applicable to giant resonance states. Structure of the hydrodynamical states is discussed according to Tomonaga's microscopic theory for collective motions. (author)
Generalizations of some zero sum theorems
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Let G be an abelian group of order n, written additively. The Davenport constant D(G) is defined to be the smallest natural number t such that any sequence of length t over G has a non-empty subsequence whose sum is zero. Another combinatorial invariant E(G). (known as the EGZ constant) is the smallest natural number t ...
Succinct partial sums and fenwick trees
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bille, Philip; Christiansen, Anders Roy; Prezza, Nicola
2017-01-01
We consider the well-studied partial sums problem in succint space where one is to maintain an array of n k-bit integers subject to updates such that partial sums queries can be efficiently answered. We present two succint versions of the Fenwick Tree â€“ which is known for its simplicity...... and practicality. Our results hold in the encoding model where one is allowed to reuse the space from the input data. Our main result is the first that only requires nk + o(n) bits of space while still supporting sum/update in O(logbn)/O(blogbn) time where 2 â‰¤ b â‰¤ log O(1)n. The second result shows how optimal...... time for sum/update can be achieved while only slightly increasing the space usage to nk + o(nk) bits. Beyond Fenwick Trees, the results are primarily based on bit-packing and sampling â€“ making them very practical â€“ and they also allow for simple optimal parallelization....
Hidden scale invariance of metals
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hummel, Felix; Kresse, Georg; Dyre, Jeppe C.
2015-01-01
Density functional theory (DFT) calculations of 58 liquid elements at their triple point show that most metals exhibit near proportionality between the thermal fluctuations of the virial and the potential energy in the isochoric ensemble. This demonstrates a general “hidden” scale invariance...... of metals making the condensed part of the thermodynamic phase diagram effectively one dimensional with respect to structure and dynamics. DFT computed density scaling exponents, related to the Grüneisen parameter, are in good agreement with experimental values for the 16 elements where reliable data were...... available. Hidden scale invariance is demonstrated in detail for magnesium by showing invariance of structure and dynamics. Computed melting curves of period three metals follow curves with invariance (isomorphs). The experimental structure factor of magnesium is predicted by assuming scale invariant...
Verducci, M
2011-01-01
A number of extensions of the Standard Model result in neutral and weakly-coupled particles that decay to multi hadrons or multi leptons with macroscopic decay lengths. These particles with decay paths that can be comparable with ATLAS detector dimensions represent, from an experimental point of view, a challenge both for the trigger and for the reconstruction capabilities of the ATLAS detector. We will present a set of signature driven triggers for the ATLAS detector that target such displaced decays and evaluate their performances for some benchmark models and describe analysis strategies and limits on the production of such long-lived particles. A first estimation of the Hidden Valley trigger rates has been evaluated with 6 pb-1 of data collected at ATLAS during the data taking of 2010.
Core Hunter 3: flexible core subset selection.
De Beukelaer, Herman; Davenport, Guy F; Fack, Veerle
2018-05-31
Core collections provide genebank curators and plant breeders a way to reduce size of their collections and populations, while minimizing impact on genetic diversity and allele frequency. Many methods have been proposed to generate core collections, often using distance metrics to quantify the similarity of two accessions, based on genetic marker data or phenotypic traits. Core Hunter is a multi-purpose core subset selection tool that uses local search algorithms to generate subsets relying on one or more metrics, including several distance metrics and allelic richness. In version 3 of Core Hunter (CH3) we have incorporated two new, improved methods for summarizing distances to quantify diversity or representativeness of the core collection. A comparison of CH3 and Core Hunter 2 (CH2) showed that these new metrics can be effectively optimized with less complex algorithms, as compared to those used in CH2. CH3 is more effective at maximizing the improved diversity metric than CH2, still ensures a high average and minimum distance, and is faster for large datasets. Using CH3, a simple stochastic hill-climber is able to find highly diverse core collections, and the more advanced parallel tempering algorithm further increases the quality of the core and further reduces variability across independent samples. We also evaluate the ability of CH3 to simultaneously maximize diversity, and either representativeness or allelic richness, and compare the results with those of the GDOpt and SimEli methods. CH3 can sample equally representative cores as GDOpt, which was specifically designed for this purpose, and is able to construct cores that are simultaneously more diverse, and either are more representative or have higher allelic richness, than those obtained by SimEli. In version 3, Core Hunter has been updated to include two new core subset selection metrics that construct cores for representativeness or diversity, with improved performance. It combines and outperforms the
Lymphocytic subsets and low-dose exposure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tuschl, H.; Kovac, R.; Eybl, E.
1993-03-01
The present investigations proved the differential radiosensitivity of lymphocytic subpopulations: From in vivo and in vitro irradiations it may be followed that the most sensitive subset are CD8 positive suppressor T cells. CD4/CD8 ratios are increased both in peripheral blood and after mitogen stimulation of lymphocytes of exposed persons. The decrease in B cells is pronounced only at higher radiation doses. Though the rate of DNA synthesis after mitogen stimulation was reduced in some exposed persons, that was no general phenomenon. Especially after tritium exposure, the observed lymphopenia correlated with an increased stimulation by PHA and an increased rate of DNA synthesis in some probands. Thus the present investigations indicate that - despite an inhibition of some immune parameters by radioexposure - the body is able to maintain its immunological homoeostasis. (authors)
Cho, Jae-Ho; Sprent, Jonathan
2018-05-01
After selection in the thymus, the post-thymic T cell compartments comprise heterogenous subsets of naive and memory T cells that make continuous T cell receptor (TCR) contact with self-ligands bound to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules. T cell recognition of self-MHC ligands elicits covert TCR signaling and is particularly important for controlling survival of naive T cells. Such tonic TCR signaling is tightly controlled and maintains the cells in a quiescent state to avoid autoimmunity. Here, we review how naive and memory T cells are differentially tuned and wired for TCR sensitivity to self and foreign ligands. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Subset simulation for structural reliability sensitivity analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Song Shufang; Lu Zhenzhou; Qiao Hongwei
2009-01-01
Based on two procedures for efficiently generating conditional samples, i.e. Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulation and importance sampling (IS), two reliability sensitivity (RS) algorithms are presented. On the basis of reliability analysis of Subset simulation (Subsim), the RS of the failure probability with respect to the distribution parameter of the basic variable is transformed as a set of RS of conditional failure probabilities with respect to the distribution parameter of the basic variable. By use of the conditional samples generated by MCMC simulation and IS, procedures are established to estimate the RS of the conditional failure probabilities. The formulae of the RS estimator, its variance and its coefficient of variation are derived in detail. The results of the illustrations show high efficiency and high precision of the presented algorithms, and it is suitable for highly nonlinear limit state equation and structural system with single and multiple failure modes
Maximum parsimony on subsets of taxa.
Fischer, Mareike; Thatte, Bhalchandra D
2009-09-21
In this paper we investigate mathematical questions concerning the reliability (reconstruction accuracy) of Fitch's maximum parsimony algorithm for reconstructing the ancestral state given a phylogenetic tree and a character. In particular, we consider the question whether the maximum parsimony method applied to a subset of taxa can reconstruct the ancestral state of the root more accurately than when applied to all taxa, and we give an example showing that this indeed is possible. A surprising feature of our example is that ignoring a taxon closer to the root improves the reliability of the method. On the other hand, in the case of the two-state symmetric substitution model, we answer affirmatively a conjecture of Li, Steel and Zhang which states that under a molecular clock the probability that the state at a single taxon is a correct guess of the ancestral state is a lower bound on the reconstruction accuracy of Fitch's method applied to all taxa.
A survey of hidden-variables theories
Belinfante, F J
1973-01-01
A Survey of Hidden-Variables Theories is a three-part book on the hidden-variable theories, referred in this book as """"theories of the first kind"""". Part I reviews the motives in developing different types of hidden-variables theories. The quest for determinism led to theories of the first kind; the quest for theories that look like causal theories when applied to spatially separated systems that interacted in the past led to theories of the second kind. Parts II and III further describe the theories of the first kind and second kind, respectively. This book is written to make the literat
A classification of hidden-variable properties
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brandenburger, Adam; Yanofsky, Noson
2008-01-01
Hidden variables are extra components added to try to banish counterintuitive features of quantum mechanics. We start with a quantum-mechanical model and describe various properties that can be asked of a hidden-variable model. We present six such properties and a Venn diagram of how they are related. With two existence theorems and three no-go theorems (EPR, Bell and Kochen-Specker), we show which properties of empirically equivalent hidden-variable models are possible and which are not. Formally, our treatment relies only on classical probability models, and physical phenomena are used only to motivate which models to choose
The Zb(10610) and Zb(10650) as axial-vector tetraquark states in the QCD sum rules
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Zhi-Gang; Huang, Tao
2014-01-01
In this article, we study the axial-vector mesons Z b (10610) and Z b (10650) with the Cγ μ –Cγ 5 type and Cγ μ –Cγ ν type interpolating currents, respectively, by carrying out the operator product expansion to the vacuum condensates up to dimension 10. In calculations, we explore the energy scale dependence of the QCD spectral densities of the hidden bottom tetraquark states in detail for the first time, and suggest a formula μ=√(M X/Y/Z 2 −(2M b ) 2 ) with the effective mass M b =5.13 GeV to determine the energy scales. The numerical results favor assigning the Z b (10610) and Z b (10650) as the Cγ μ –Cγ 5 type and Cγ μ –Cγ ν type hidden bottom tetraquark states, respectively. We obtain the mass of the J PC =1 ++ hidden bottom tetraquark state as a byproduct, which can be compared to the experimental data in the futures. Furthermore, we study the strong decays Z b ± (10610)→ϒπ ± ,η b ρ ± with the three-point QCD sum rules, the decay widths also support assigning the Z b (10610) as the Cγ μ –Cγ 5 type hidden bottom tetraquark state
Limiting law excess sum rule for polyelectrolytes.
Landy, Jonathan; Lee, YongJin; Jho, YongSeok
2013-11-01
We revisit the mean-field limiting law screening excess sum rule that holds for rodlike polyelectrolytes. We present an efficient derivation of this law that clarifies its region of applicability: The law holds in the limit of small polymer radius, measured relative to the Debye screening length. From the limiting law, we determine the individual ion excess values for single-salt electrolytes. We also consider the mean-field excess sum away from the limiting region, and we relate this quantity to the osmotic pressure of a dilute polyelectrolyte solution. Finally, we consider numerical simulations of many-body polymer-electrolyte solutions. We conclude that the limiting law often accurately describes the screening of physical charged polymers of interest, such as extended DNA.
Second harmonic generation and sum frequency generation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pellin, M.J.; Biwer, B.M.; Schauer, M.W.; Frye, J.M.; Gruen, D.M.
1990-01-01
Second harmonic generation and sum frequency generation are increasingly being used as in situ surface probes. These techniques are coherent and inherently surface sensitive by the nature of the mediums response to intense laser light. Here we will review these two techniques using aqueous corrosion as an example problem. Aqueous corrosion of technologically important materials such as Fe, Ni and Cr proceeds from a reduced metal surface with layer by layer growth of oxide films mitigated by compositional changes in the chemical makeup of the growing film. Passivation of the metal surface is achieved after growth of only a few tens of atomic layers of metal oxide. Surface Second Harmonic Generation and a related nonlinear laser technique, Sum Frequency Generation have demonstrated an ability to probe the surface composition of growing films even in the presence of aqueous solutions. 96 refs., 4 figs
Old tensor mesons in QCD sum rules
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aliev, T.M.; Shifman, M.A.
1981-01-01
Tensor mesons f, A 2 and A 3 are analyzed within the framework of QCD sum rules. The effects of gluon and quark condensate is accounted for phenomenologically. Accurate estimates of meson masses and coupling constants of the lowest-lying states are obtained. It is shown that the masses are reproduced within theoretical uncertainty of about 80 MeV. The coupling of f meson to the corresponding quark current is determined. The results are in good aqreement with experimental data [ru
Disjoint sum forms in reliability theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
B. Anrig
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The structure function f of a binary monotone system is assumed to be known and given in a disjunctive normal form, i.e. as the logical union of products of the indicator variables of the states of its subsystems. Based on this representation of f, an improved Abraham algorithm is proposed for generating the disjoint sum form of f. This form is the base for subsequent numerical reliability calculations. The approach is generalized to multivalued systems. Examples are discussed.
Singlet axial constant from QCD sum rules
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Belitskij, A.V.; Teryaev, O.V.
1995-01-01
We analyze the singlet axial form factor of the proton for small momentum transferred in the framework of QCD sum rules using the interpolating nucleon current which explicitly accounts for the gluonic degrees of freedom. As the result we come to the quantitative prediction of the singlet axial constant. It is shown that the bilocal power corrections play the most important role in the analysis. 21 refs., 3 figs
Beautiful mesons from QCD spectral sum rules
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Narison, S.
1991-01-01
We discuss the beautiful meson from the point of view of the QCD spectral sum rules (QSSR). The bottom quark mass and the mixed light quark-gluon condensates are determined quite accurately. The decay constant f B is estimated and we present some arguments supporting this result. The decay constants and the masses of the other members of the beautiful meson family are predicted. (orig.)
A 2-categorical state sum model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Baratin, Aristide, E-mail: abaratin@uwaterloo.ca [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Waterloo, 200 University Ave W, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Freidel, Laurent, E-mail: lfreidel@perimeterinstitute.ca [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, 31 Caroline Str. N, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 2Y5 (Canada)
2015-01-15
It has long been argued that higher categories provide the proper algebraic structure underlying state sum invariants of 4-manifolds. This idea has been refined recently, by proposing to use 2-groups and their representations as specific examples of 2-categories. The challenge has been to make these proposals fully explicit. Here, we give a concrete realization of this program. Building upon our earlier work with Baez and Wise on the representation theory of 2-groups, we construct a four-dimensional state sum model based on a categorified version of the Euclidean group. We define and explicitly compute the simplex weights, which may be viewed a categorified analogue of Racah-Wigner 6j-symbols. These weights solve a hexagon equation that encodes the formal invariance of the state sum under the Pachner moves of the triangulation. This result unravels the combinatorial formulation of the Feynman amplitudes of quantum field theory on flat spacetime proposed in A. Baratin and L. Freidel [Classical Quantum Gravity 24, 2027–2060 (2007)] which was shown to lead after gauge-fixing to Korepanov’s invariant of 4-manifolds.
UV Photography Shows Hidden Sun Damage
... mcat1=de12", ]; for (var c = 0; c UV photography shows hidden sun damage A UV photograph gives ... developing skin cancer and prematurely aged skin. Normal photography UV photography 18 months of age: This boy's ...
Coding with partially hidden Markov models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Forchhammer, Søren; Rissanen, J.
1995-01-01
Partially hidden Markov models (PHMM) are introduced. They are a variation of the hidden Markov models (HMM) combining the power of explicit conditioning on past observations and the power of using hidden states. (P)HMM may be combined with arithmetic coding for lossless data compression. A general...... 2-part coding scheme for given model order but unknown parameters based on PHMM is presented. A forward-backward reestimation of parameters with a redefined backward variable is given for these models and used for estimating the unknown parameters. Proof of convergence of this reestimation is given....... The PHMM structure and the conditions of the convergence proof allows for application of the PHMM to image coding. Relations between the PHMM and hidden Markov models (HMM) are treated. Results of coding bi-level images with the PHMM coding scheme is given. The results indicate that the PHMM can adapt...
Hidden costs, value lost: uninsurance in America
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Committee on the Consequences of Uninsurance
2003-01-01
Hidden Cost, Value Lost , the fifth of a series of six books on the consequences of uninsurance in the United States, illustrates some of the economic and social losses to the country of maintaining...
The hidden epidemic: confronting sexually transmitted diseases
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Eng, Thomas R; Butler, William T
.... In addition, STDs increase the risk of HIV transmission. The Hidden Epidemic examines the scope of sexually transmitted infections in the United States and provides a critical assessment of the nation's response to this public health crisis...
Perspective: Disclosing hidden sources of funding.
Resnik, David B
2009-09-01
In this article, the author discusses ethical and policy issues related to the disclosure of hidden sources of funding in research. The author argues that authors have an ethical obligation to disclose hidden sources of funding and that journals should adopt policies to enforce this obligation. Journal policies should require disclosure of hidden sources of funding that authors know about and that have a direct relation to their research. To stimulate this discussion, the author describes a recent case: investigators who conducted a lung cancer screening study had received funding from a private foundation that was supported by a tobacco company, but they did not disclose this relationship to the journal. Investigators and journal editors must be prepared to deal with these issues in a manner that promotes honesty, transparency, fairness, and accountability in research. The development of well-defined, reasonable policies pertaining to hidden sources of funding can be a step in this direction.
Identification of scalp EEG circadian variation using a novel correlation sum measure
Shahidi Zandi, Ali; Boudreau, Philippe; Boivin, Diane B.; Dumont, Guy A.
2015-10-01
Objective. In this paper, we propose a novel method to determine the circadian variation of scalp electroencephalogram (EEG) in both individual and group levels using a correlation sum measure, quantifying self-similarity of the EEG relative energy across waking epochs. Approach. We analysed EEG recordings from central-parietal and occipito-parietal montages in nine healthy subjects undergoing a 72 h ultradian sleep-wake cycle protocol. Each waking epoch (˜1 s) of every nap opportunity was decomposed using the wavelet packet transform, and the relative energy for that epoch was calculated in the desired frequency band using the corresponding wavelet coefficients. Then, the resulting set of energy values was resampled randomly to generate different subsets with equal number of elements. The correlation sum of each subset was then calculated over a range of distance thresholds, and the average over all subsets was computed. This average value was finally scaled for each nap opportunity and considered as a new circadian measure. Main results. According to the evaluation results, a clear circadian rhythm was identified in some EEG frequency ranges, particularly in 4-8 Hz and 10-12 Hz. The correlation sum measure not only was able to disclose the circadian rhythm on the group data but also revealed significant circadian variations in most individual cases, as opposed to previous studies only reporting the circadian rhythms on a population of subjects. Compared to a naive measure based on the EEG absolute energy in the frequency band of interest, the proposed measure showed a clear superiority using both individual and group data. Results also suggested that the acrophase (i.e., the peak) of the circadian rhythm in 10-12 Hz occurs close to the core body temperature minimum. Significance. These results confirm the potential usefulness of the proposed EEG-based measure as a non-invasive circadian marker.
T-Cell Subsets Predict Mortality in Malnourished Zambian Adults Initiating Antiretroviral Therapy.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Caroline C Chisenga
Full Text Available To estimate the prognostic value of T-cell subsets in Zambian patients initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART, and to assess the impact of a nutritional intervention on T-cell subsets.This was a sub-study of a randomised clinical trial of a nutritional intervention for malnourished adults initiating ART. Participants in a randomised controlled trial (NUSTART trial were enrolled between April and December 2012. Participants received lipid-based nutritional supplement either with or without additional vitamins and minerals. Immunophenotyping was undertaken at baseline and, in survivors, after 12 weeks of ART to characterize T-cell subsets using the markers CD3, CD4, CD8, CD45RA, CCR7, CD28, CD57, CD31, α4β7, Ki67, CD25 and HLA-DR. Univariate and multivariate survival analysis was performed, and responses to treatment were analysed using the Wicoxon rank-sum test.Among 181 adults, 36 (20% died by 12 weeks after starting ART. In univariate analysis, patients who died had fewer proliferating, more naïve and fewer gut homing CD4+ T-cells compared to survivors; and more senescent and fewer proliferating CD8+ T-cells. In a multivariate Cox regression model high naïve CD4+, low proliferating CD4+, high senescent CD8+ and low proliferating CD8+ subsets were independently associated with increased risk of death. Recent CD4+ thymic emigrants increased less between recruitment and 12 weeks of ART in the intervention group compared to the control group.Specific CD4+ T-cell subsets are of considerable prognostic significance for patients initiating ART in Zambia, but only thymic output responded to this nutritional intervention.
Petro Rents, Political Institutions, and Hidden Wealth
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Jørgen Juel; Johannesen, Niels; Lassen, David Dreyer
2017-01-01
Do political institutions limit rent seeking by politicians? We study the transformation of petroleum rents, almost universally under direct government control, into hidden wealth using unique data on bank deposits in offshore financial centers that specialize in secrecy and asset protection. Our...... rulers is diverted to secret accounts. We find very limited evidence that shocks to other types of income not directly controlled by governments affect hidden wealth....
Hidden charm molecules in a finite volume
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Albaladejo, M.; Hidalgo-Duque, C.; Nieves, J.; Oset, E.
2014-01-01
In the present paper we address the interaction of charmed mesons in hidden charm channels in a finite box. We use the interaction from a recent model based on heavy quark spin symmetry that predicts molecules of hidden charm in the infinite volume. The energy levels in the box are generated within this model, and several methods for the analysis of these levels ("inverse problem") are investigated. (author)
Workplace ageism: discovering hidden bias.
Malinen, Sanna; Johnston, Lucy
2013-01-01
BACKGROUND/STUDY CONTEXT: Research largely shows no performance differences between older and younger employees, or that older workers even outperform younger employees, yet negative attitudes towards older workers can underpin discrimination. Unfortunately, traditional "explicit" techniques for assessing attitudes (i.e., self-report measures) have serious drawbacks. Therefore, using an approach that is novel to organizational contexts, the authors supplemented explicit with implicit (indirect) measures of attitudes towards older workers, and examined the malleability of both. This research consists of two studies. The authors measured self-report (explicit) attitudes towards older and younger workers with a survey, and implicit attitudes with a reaction-time-based measure of implicit associations. In addition, to test whether attitudes were malleable, the authors measured attitudes before and after a mental imagery intervention, where the authors asked participants in the experimental group to imagine respected and valued older workers from their surroundings. Negative, stable implicit attitudes towards older workers emerged in two studies. Conversely, explicit attitudes showed no age bias and were more susceptible to change intervention, such that attitudes became more positive towards older workers following the experimental manipulation. This research demonstrates the unconscious nature of bias against older workers, and highlights the utility of implicit attitude measures in the context of the workplace. In the current era of aging workforce and skill shortages, implicit measures may be necessary to illuminate hidden workplace ageism.
Hidden slow pulsars in binaries
Tavani, Marco; Brookshaw, Leigh
1993-01-01
The recent discovery of the binary containing the slow pulsar PSR 1718-19 orbiting around a low-mass companion star adds new light on the characteristics of binary pulsars. The properties of the radio eclipses of PSR 1718-19 are the most striking observational characteristics of this system. The surface of the companion star produces a mass outflow which leaves only a small 'window' in orbital phase for the detection of PSR 1718-19 around 400 MHz. At this observing frequency, PSR 1718-19 is clearly observable only for about 1 hr out of the total 6.2 hr orbital period. The aim of this Letter is twofold: (1) to model the hydrodynamical behavior of the eclipsing material from the companion star of PSR 1718-19 and (2) to argue that a population of binary slow pulsars might have escaped detection in pulsar surveys carried out at 400 MHz. The possible existence of a population of partially or totally hidden slow pulsars in binaries will have a strong impact on current theories of binary evolution of neutron stars.
A Method of Approximating Expectations of Functions of Sums of Independent Random Variables
Klass, Michael J.
1981-01-01
Let $X_1, X_2, \\cdots$ be a sequence of independent random variables with $S_n = \\sum^n_{i = 1} X_i$. Fix $\\alpha > 0$. Let $\\Phi(\\cdot)$ be a continuous, strictly increasing function on $\\lbrack 0, \\infty)$ such that $\\Phi(0) = 0$ and $\\Phi(cx) \\leq c^\\alpha\\Phi(x)$ for all $x > 0$ and all $c \\geq 2$. Suppose $a$ is a real number and $J$ is a finite nonempty subset of the positive integers. In this paper we are interested in approximating $E \\max_{j \\in J} \\Phi(|a + S_j|)$. We construct a nu...
Randomly Generating Four Mixed Bell-Diagonal States with a Concurrences Sum to Unity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Toh, S. P.; Zainuddin Hishamuddin; Foo Kim Eng
2012-01-01
A two-qubit system in quantum information theory is the simplest bipartite quantum system and its concurrence for pure and mixed states is well known. As a subset of two-qubit systems, Bell-diagonal states can be depicted by a very simple geometrical representation of a tetrahedron with sides of length 2√2. Based on this geometric representation, we propose a simple approach to randomly generate four mixed Bell decomposable states in which the sum of their concurrence is equal to one. (general)
Isolation of Human Skin Dendritic Cell Subsets.
Gunawan, Merry; Jardine, Laura; Haniffa, Muzlifah
2016-01-01
Dendritic cells (DCs) are specialized leukocytes with antigen-processing and antigen-presenting functions. DCs can be divided into distinct subsets by anatomical location, phenotype and function. In human, the two most accessible tissues to study leukocytes are peripheral blood and skin. DCs are rare in human peripheral blood (skin covering an average total surface area of 1.8 m(2) has approximately tenfold more DCs than the average 5 L of total blood volume (Wang et al., J Invest Dermatol 134:965-974, 2014). DCs migrate spontaneously from skin explants cultured ex vivo, which provide an easy method of cell isolation (Larsen et al., J Exp Med 172:1483-1493, 1990; Lenz et al., J Clin Invest 92:2587-2596, 1993; Nestle et al., J Immunol 151:6535-6545, 1993). These factors led to the extensive use of skin DCs as the "prototype" migratory DCs in human studies. In this chapter, we detail the protocols to isolate DCs and resident macrophages from human skin. We also provide a multiparameter flow cytometry gating strategy to identify human skin DCs and to distinguish them from macrophages.
Unraveling the hidden heterogeneities of breast cancer based on functional miRNA cluster.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Li Li
Full Text Available It has become increasingly clear that the current taxonomy of clinical phenotypes is mixed with molecular heterogeneity, which potentially affects the treatment effect for involved patients. Defining the hidden molecular-distinct diseases using modern large-scale genomic approaches is therefore useful for refining clinical practice and improving intervention strategies. Given that microRNA expression profiling has provided a powerful way to dissect hidden genetic heterogeneity for complex diseases, the aim of the study was to develop a bioinformatics approach that identifies microRNA features leading to the hidden subtyping of complex clinical phenotypes. The basic strategy of the proposed method was to identify optimal miRNA clusters by iteratively partitioning the sample and feature space using the two-ways super-paramagnetic clustering technique. We evaluated the obtained optimal miRNA cluster by determining the consistency of co-expression and the chromosome location among the within-cluster microRNAs, and concluded that the optimal miRNA cluster could lead to a natural partition of disease samples. We applied the proposed method to a publicly available microarray dataset of breast cancer patients that have notoriously heterogeneous phenotypes. We obtained a feature subset of 13 microRNAs that could classify the 71 breast cancer patients into five subtypes with significantly different five-year overall survival rates (45%, 82.4%, 70.6%, 100% and 60% respectively; p = 0.008. By building a multivariate Cox proportional-hazards prediction model for the feature subset, we identified has-miR-146b as one of the most significant predictor (p = 0.045; hazard ratios = 0.39. The proposed algorithm is a promising computational strategy for dissecting hidden genetic heterogeneity for complex diseases, and will be of value for improving cancer diagnosis and treatment.
Remark on the computation of mode sums
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Allen, Theodore J.; Olsson, M. G.; Schmidt, Jeffrey R.
2000-01-01
The computation of mode sums of the types encountered in basic quantum field theoretic applications is addressed with an emphasis on their expansions into functions of distance that can be interpreted as potentials. We show how to regularize and calculate the Casimir energy for the continuum Nambu-Goto string with massive ends as well as for the discrete Isgur-Paton non-relativistic string with massive ends. As an additional example, we examine the effect on the interquark potential of a constant Kalb-Ramond field strength interacting with a QCD string. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society
Sum rules in extended RPA theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adachi, S.; Lipparini, E.
1988-01-01
Different moments m k of the excitation strength function are studied in the framework of the second RPA and of the extended RPA in which 2p2h correlations are explicitly introduced into the ground state by using first-order perturbation theory. Formal properties of the equations of motion concerning sum rules are derived and compared with those exhibited by the usual 1p1h RPA. The problem of the separation of the spurious solutions in extended RPA calculations is also discussed. (orig.)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Triantafillou, Peter
2017-01-01
Supreme audit institutions (SAIs) are fundamental institutions in liberal democracies as they enable control of the exercise of state power. In order to maintain this function, SAIs must enjoy a high level of independence. Moreover, SAIs are increasingly expected to be also relevant for government...... and the execution of its policies by way of performance auditing. This article examines how and why the performance auditing of the Danish SAI pursues independence and relevance. It is argued that, in general, the simultaneous pursuit of independence and relevance is highly challenging and amounts to a zero-sum or...
Nuclear Symmetry Energy with QCD Sum Rule
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jeong, K.S.; Lee, S.H.
2013-01-01
We calculate the nucleon self-energies in an isospin asymmetric nuclear matter using QCD sum rule. Taking the difference of these for the neutron and proton enables us to express an important part of the nuclear symmetry energy in terms of local operators. Calculating the operator product expansion up to mass dimension six operators, we find that the main contribution to the difference comes from the iso-vector scalar and vector operators, which is reminiscent to the case of relativistic mean field type theories where mesons with aforementioned quantum numbers produce the difference and provide the dominant mechanism for nuclear symmetry energy. (author)
A Fast SVD-Hidden-nodes based Extreme Learning Machine for Large-Scale Data Analytics.
Deng, Wan-Yu; Bai, Zuo; Huang, Guang-Bin; Zheng, Qing-Hua
2016-05-01
Big dimensional data is a growing trend that is emerging in many real world contexts, extending from web mining, gene expression analysis, protein-protein interaction to high-frequency financial data. Nowadays, there is a growing consensus that the increasing dimensionality poses impeding effects on the performances of classifiers, which is termed as the "peaking phenomenon" in the field of machine intelligence. To address the issue, dimensionality reduction is commonly employed as a preprocessing step on the Big dimensional data before building the classifiers. In this paper, we propose an Extreme Learning Machine (ELM) approach for large-scale data analytic. In contrast to existing approaches, we embed hidden nodes that are designed using singular value decomposition (SVD) into the classical ELM. These SVD nodes in the hidden layer are shown to capture the underlying characteristics of the Big dimensional data well, exhibiting excellent generalization performances. The drawback of using SVD on the entire dataset, however, is the high computational complexity involved. To address this, a fast divide and conquer approximation scheme is introduced to maintain computational tractability on high volume data. The resultant algorithm proposed is labeled here as Fast Singular Value Decomposition-Hidden-nodes based Extreme Learning Machine or FSVD-H-ELM in short. In FSVD-H-ELM, instead of identifying the SVD hidden nodes directly from the entire dataset, SVD hidden nodes are derived from multiple random subsets of data sampled from the original dataset. Comprehensive experiments and comparisons are conducted to assess the FSVD-H-ELM against other state-of-the-art algorithms. The results obtained demonstrated the superior generalization performance and efficiency of the FSVD-H-ELM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Probing hidden sector photons through the Higgs window
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ahlers, M.
2008-07-01
We investigate the possibility that a (light) hidden sector extra photon receives its mass via spontaneous symmetry breaking of a hidden sector Higgs boson, the so-called hidden-Higgs. The hidden-photon can mix with the ordinary photon via a gauge kinetic mixing term. The hidden-Higgs can couple to the Standard Model Higgs via a renormalizable quartic term - sometimes called the Higgs Portal. We discuss the implications of this light hidden-Higgs in the context of laser polarization and light-shining-through-the-wall experiments as well as cosmological, astrophysical, and non-Newtonian force measurements. For hidden-photons receiving their mass from a hidden-Higgs we find in the small mass regime significantly stronger bounds than the bounds on massive hidden sector photons alone. (orig.)
Probing hidden sector photons through the Higgs window
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ahlers, Markus; Jaeckel, Joerg; Redondo, Javier; Ringwald, Andreas
2008-01-01
We investigate the possibility that a (light) hidden sector extra photon receives its mass via spontaneous symmetry breaking of a hidden sector Higgs boson, the so-called hidden-Higgs. The hidden-photon can mix with the ordinary photon via a gauge kinetic mixing term. The hidden-Higgs can couple to the standard model Higgs via a renormalizable quartic term - sometimes called the Higgs portal. We discuss the implications of this light hidden-Higgs in the context of laser polarization and light-shining-through-the-wall experiments as well as cosmological, astrophysical, and non-Newtonian force measurements. For hidden-photons receiving their mass from a hidden-Higgs, we find in the small mass regime significantly stronger bounds than the bounds on massive hidden sector photons alone.
Statistical sum of bosonic string, compactified on an orbifold
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Morozov, A.; Ol'shanetskij, M.
1986-01-01
Expression for statistical sum of bosonic string, compactified on a singular orbifold, is presented. All the information about the orbifold is encoded the specific combination of theta-functions, which the statistical sum is expressed through
Robinson's radiation damping sum rule: Reaffirmation and extension
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mane, S.R.
2011-01-01
Robinson's radiation damping sum rule is one of the classic theorems of accelerator physics. Recently Orlov has claimed to find serious flaws in Robinson's proof of his sum rule. In view of the importance of the subject, I have independently examined the derivation of the Robinson radiation damping sum rule. Orlov's criticisms are without merit: I work through Robinson's derivation and demonstrate that Orlov's criticisms violate well-established mathematical theorems and are hence not valid. I also show that Robinson's derivation, and his damping sum rule, is valid in a larger domain than that treated by Robinson himself: Robinson derived his sum rule under the approximation of a small damping rate, but I show that Robinson's sum rule applies to arbitrary damping rates. I also display more concise derivations of the sum rule using matrix differential equations. I also show that Robinson's sum rule is valid in the vicinity of a parametric resonance.
A new generalization of Hardy–Berndt sums
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
4,11,18]. Berndt and Goldberg [4] found analytic properties of these sums and established infinite trigonometric series representations for them. The most important properties of Hardy–. Berndt sums are reciprocity theorems due to Berndt [3] ...
Isospin sum rules for inclusive cross-sections
Rotelli, P.; Suttorp, L.G.
1972-01-01
A systematic analysis of isospin sum rules is presented for the distribution functions of strong, electromagnetic weak inclusive processes. The general expression for these sum rules is given and some new examples are presented.
QCD sum-rules for V-A spectral functions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chakrabarti, J.; Mathur, V.S.
1980-01-01
The Borel transformation technique of Shifman et al is used to obtain QCD sum-rules for V-A spectral functions. In contrast to the situation in the original Weinberg sum-rules and those of Bernard et al, the problem of saturating the sum-rules by low lying resonances is brought under control. Furthermore, the present sum-rules, on saturation, directly determine useful phenomenological parameters
7 CFR 42.132 - Determining cumulative sum values.
2010-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determining cumulative sum values. 42.132 Section 42... Determining cumulative sum values. (a) The parameters for the on-line cumulative sum sampling plans for AQL's... 3 1 2.5 3 1 2 1 (b) At the beginning of the basic inspection period, the CuSum value is set equal to...
Deriving the Normalized Min-Sum Algorithm from Cooperative Optimization
Huang, Xiaofei
2006-01-01
The normalized min-sum algorithm can achieve near-optimal performance at decoding LDPC codes. However, it is a critical question to understand the mathematical principle underlying the algorithm. Traditionally, people thought that the normalized min-sum algorithm is a good approximation to the sum-product algorithm, the best known algorithm for decoding LDPC codes and Turbo codes. This paper offers an alternative approach to understand the normalized min-sum algorithm. The algorithm is derive...
Fitting Hidden Markov Models to Psychological Data
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ingmar Visser
2002-01-01
Full Text Available Markov models have been used extensively in psychology of learning. Applications of hidden Markov models are rare however. This is partially due to the fact that comprehensive statistics for model selection and model assessment are lacking in the psychological literature. We present model selection and model assessment statistics that are particularly useful in applying hidden Markov models in psychology. These statistics are presented and evaluated by simulation studies for a toy example. We compare AIC, BIC and related criteria and introduce a prediction error measure for assessing goodness-of-fit. In a simulation study, two methods of fitting equality constraints are compared. In two illustrative examples with experimental data we apply selection criteria, fit models with constraints and assess goodness-of-fit. First, data from a concept identification task is analyzed. Hidden Markov models provide a flexible approach to analyzing such data when compared to other modeling methods. Second, a novel application of hidden Markov models in implicit learning is presented. Hidden Markov models are used in this context to quantify knowledge that subjects express in an implicit learning task. This method of analyzing implicit learning data provides a comprehensive approach for addressing important theoretical issues in the field.
Geometric phases and hidden local gauge symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fujikawa, Kazuo
2005-01-01
The analysis of geometric phases associated with level crossing is reduced to the familiar diagonalization of the Hamiltonian in the second quantized formulation. A hidden local gauge symmetry, which is associated with the arbitrariness of the phase choice of a complete orthonormal basis set, becomes explicit in this formulation (in particular, in the adiabatic approximation) and specifies physical observables. The choice of a basis set which specifies the coordinate in the functional space is arbitrary in the second quantization, and a subclass of coordinate transformations, which keeps the form of the action invariant, is recognized as the gauge symmetry. We discuss the implications of this hidden local gauge symmetry in detail by analyzing geometric phases for cyclic and noncyclic evolutions. It is shown that the hidden local symmetry provides a basic concept alternative to the notion of holonomy to analyze geometric phases and that the analysis based on the hidden local gauge symmetry leads to results consistent with the general prescription of Pancharatnam. We however note an important difference between the geometric phases for cyclic and noncyclic evolutions. We also explain a basic difference between our hidden local gauge symmetry and a gauge symmetry (or equivalence class) used by Aharonov and Anandan in their definition of generalized geometric phases
Gottfried sum rule and mesonic exchanges in deuteron
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaptari, L.P.
1991-01-01
Recent NMC data on the experimental value of the Gottfried Sum are discussed. It is shown that the Gottfried Sum is sensitive to the nuclear structure corrections, viz. themesonic exchanges and binding effects. A new estimation of the Gottfried Sum is given. The obtained result is close to the quark-parton prediction of 1/3. 11 refs.; 2 figs
Extremal extensions for the sum of nonnegative selfadjoint relations
Hassi, Seppo; Sandovici, Adrian; De Snoo, Henk; Winkler, Henrik
2007-01-01
The sum A + B of two nonnegative selfadjoint relations (multivalued operators) A and B is a nonnegative relation. The class of all extremal extensions of the sum A + B is characterized as products of relations via an auxiliary Hilbert space associated with A and B. The so-called form sum extension
Moments of the weighted sum-of-digits function | Larcher ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The weighted sum-of-digits function is a slight generalization of the well known sum-of-digits function with the difference that here the digits are weighted by some weights. So for example in this concept also the alternated sum-of-digits function is included. In this paper we compute the first and the second moment of the ...
7 CFR 1726.205 - Multiparty lump sum quotations.
2010-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Multiparty lump sum quotations. 1726.205 Section 1726....205 Multiparty lump sum quotations. The borrower or its engineer must contact a sufficient number of... basis of written lump sum quotations, the borrower will select the supplier or contractor based on the...
Should fatty acid signature proportions sum to 1 for diet estimation?
Bromaghin, Jeffrey F.; Budge, Suzanne M.; Thiemann, Gregory W.
2016-01-01
Knowledge of predator diets, including how diets might change through time or differ among predators, provides essential insights into their ecology. Diet estimation therefore remains an active area of research within quantitative ecology. Quantitative fatty acid signature analysis (QFASA) is an increasingly common method of diet estimation. QFASA is based on a data library of prey signatures, which are vectors of proportions summarizing the fatty acid composition of lipids, and diet is estimated as the mixture of prey signatures that most closely approximates a predator’s signature. Diets are typically estimated using proportions from a subset of all fatty acids that are known to be solely or largely influenced by diet. Given the subset of fatty acids selected, the current practice is to scale their proportions to sum to 1.0. However, scaling signature proportions has the potential to distort the structural relationships within a prey library and between predators and prey. To investigate that possibility, we compared the practice of scaling proportions with two alternatives and found that the traditional scaling can meaningfully bias diet estimators under some conditions. Two aspects of the prey types that contributed to a predator’s diet influenced the magnitude of the bias: the degree to which the sums of unscaled proportions differed among prey types and the identifiability of prey types within the prey library. We caution investigators against the routine scaling of signature proportions in QFASA.
Massive hidden photons as lukewarm dark matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Redondo, Javier; Postma, Marieke
2008-11-01
We study the possibility that a keV-MeV mass hidden photon (HP), i.e. a hidden sector U(1) gauge boson, accounts for the observed amount of dark matter. We focus on the case where the HP interacts with the standard model sector only through kinetic mixing with the photon. The relic abundance is computed including all relevant plasma effects into the photon's self-energy, which leads to a resonant yield almost independent of the HP mass. The HP can decay into three photons. Moreover, if light enough it can be copiously produced in stars. Including bounds from cosmic photon backgrounds and stellar evolution, we find that the hidden photon can only give a subdominant contribution to the dark matter. This negative conclusion may be avoided if another production mechanism besides kinetic mixing is operative. (orig.)
Massive hidden photons as lukewarm dark matter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Redondo, Javier [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Postma, Marieke [Nationaal Inst. voor Kernfysica en Hoge-Energiefysica (NIKHEF), Amsterdam (Netherlands)
2008-11-15
We study the possibility that a keV-MeV mass hidden photon (HP), i.e. a hidden sector U(1) gauge boson, accounts for the observed amount of dark matter. We focus on the case where the HP interacts with the standard model sector only through kinetic mixing with the photon. The relic abundance is computed including all relevant plasma effects into the photon's self-energy, which leads to a resonant yield almost independent of the HP mass. The HP can decay into three photons. Moreover, if light enough it can be copiously produced in stars. Including bounds from cosmic photon backgrounds and stellar evolution, we find that the hidden photon can only give a subdominant contribution to the dark matter. This negative conclusion may be avoided if another production mechanism besides kinetic mixing is operative. (orig.)
Religious Tolerance in the Hidden Curriculum
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kevin Nobel Kurniawan
2018-03-01
Full Text Available Religious intolerance is spreading within the Indonesian institution of education. Previous studies have shown that the growth of intolerance is due to the state’s regulation and pedagogical apparatus. In contrast to the previous studies, I argue that the intolerance is related to hidden curriculum applied by the institution of education. Normatively, the hidden curriculum contains the value of religious tolerance. However, factually, the author found that there are practices of intolerance, through the formal and informal spheres in the school’s structure, within the hidden curriculum. This article applies a qualitative approach with a mixed method research strategy to analyze data collected from students, teachers, and alumnis through field observation, in-depth interview, and survey.
Sum rules for charge transition density
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gul' karov, I S [Tashkentskij Politekhnicheskij Inst. (USSR)
1979-01-01
The form factors of the quadrupole and octupole oscillations of the /sup 12/C nucleus are compared with the predictions of the sum rules for the charge transition density (CTD). These rules allow one to obtain various CTDs which contain the components k: r/sup lambda + 2k-2/rho(r) and r/sup lambda + 2k-1)(drho(r)/dr) (k = 0, 1, 2...) and can be applied to analyze the inelastic scattering of high energy particles by nuclei. It is shown that the CTD under consideration have different radius dependence and describe the data essentially better (though ambiguously) than the Tassy and Steinwedel-Jensen models do. Recurrence formulas are derived for the ratios of the higher-order transition matrix elements and CTD. These formulas can be used to predict the CTD behavior for highly excited nuclear states.
Neutron matter within QCD sum rules
Cai, Bao-Jun; Chen, Lie-Wen
2018-05-01
The equation of state (EOS) of pure neutron matter (PNM) is studied in QCD sum rules (QCDSRs ). It is found that the QCDSR results on the EOS of PNM are in good agreement with predictions by current advanced microscopic many-body theories. Moreover, the higher-order density terms in quark condensates are shown to be important to describe the empirical EOS of PNM in the density region around and above nuclear saturation density although they play a minor role at subsaturation densities. The chiral condensates in PNM are also studied, and our results indicate that the higher-order density terms in quark condensates, which are introduced to reasonably describe the empirical EOS of PNM at suprasaturation densities, tend to hinder the appearance of chiral symmetry restoration in PNM at high densities.
Scattering and; Delay, Scale, and Sum Migration
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lehman, S K
2011-07-06
How do we see? What is the mechanism? Consider standing in an open field on a clear sunny day. In the field are a yellow dog and a blue ball. From a wave-based remote sensing point of view the sun is a source of radiation. It is a broadband electromagnetic source which, for the purposes of this introduction, only the visible spectrum is considered (approximately 390 to 750 nanometers or 400 to 769 TeraHertz). The source emits an incident field into the known background environment which, for this example, is free space. The incident field propagates until it strikes an object or target, either the yellow dog or the blue ball. The interaction of the incident field with an object results in a scattered field. The scattered field arises from a mis-match between the background refractive index, considered to be unity, and the scattering object refractive index ('yellow' for the case of the dog, and 'blue' for the ball). This is also known as an impedance mis-match. The scattering objects are referred to as secondary sources of radiation, that radiation being the scattered field which propagates until it is measured by the two receivers known as 'eyes'. The eyes focus the measured scattered field to form images which are processed by the 'wetware' of the brain for detection, identification, and localization. When time series representations of the measured scattered field are available, the image forming focusing process can be mathematically modeled by delayed, scaled, and summed migration. This concept of optical propagation, scattering, and focusing have one-to-one equivalents in the acoustic realm. This document is intended to present the basic concepts of scalar scattering and migration used in wide band wave-based remote sensing and imaging. The terms beamforming and (delayed, scaled, and summed) migration are used interchangeably but are to be distinguished from the narrow band (frequency domain) beamforming to determine
On sum rules for charge transition density
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gul'karov, I.S.
1979-01-01
The form factors of the quadrupole and octupole oscillations of the 12 C nucleus are compared with the predictions of the sum rules for the charge transition density (CTD). These rules allow to obtain various CTD which contain the components k: rsup(lambda+2k-2)rho(r) and rsup(lambda+2k-1)(drho(r)/dr) (k=0, 1, 2...) and can be applied to analyze the inelastic scattering of high energy particles by nuclei. It is shown that the CTD under consideration have different radius dependence and describe the data essentially better (though ambiguously) than the Tassy and Steinwedel-Jensen models do. The recurrent formulas are derived for the ratios of the higher order transition matrix elements and CTD. These formulas can be used to predict the CTD behaviour for highly excited nuclear states
Hidden treasures - 50 km points of interests
Lommi, Matias; Kortelainen, Jaana
2015-04-01
Tampere is third largest city in Finland and a regional centre. During 70's there occurred several communal mergers. Nowadays this local area has both strong and diversed identity - from wilderness and agricultural fields to high density city living. Outside the city center there are interesting geological points unknown for modern city settlers. There is even a local proverb, "Go abroad to Teisko!". That is the area the Hidden Treasures -student project is focused on. Our school Tammerkoski Upper Secondary School (or Gymnasium) has emphasis on visual arts. We are going to offer our art students scientific and artistic experiences and knowledge about the hidden treasures of Teisko area and involve the Teisko inhabitants into this project. Hidden treasures - Precambrian subduction zone and a volcanism belt with dense bed of gold (Au) and arsenic (As), operating goldmines and quarries of minerals and metamorphic slates. - North of subduction zone a homogenic precambrian magmastone area with quarries, products known as Kuru Grey. - Former ashores of post-glasial Lake Näsijärvi and it's sediments enabled the developing agriculture and sustained settlement. Nowadays these ashores have both scenery and biodiversity values. - Old cattle sheds and dairy buildings made of local granite stones related to cultural stonebuilding inheritance. - Local active community of Kapee, about 100 inhabitants. Students will discover information of these "hidden" phenomena, and rendering this information trough Enviromental Art Method. Final form of this project will be published in several artistic and informative geocaches. These caches are achieved by a GPS-based special Hidden Treasures Cycling Route and by a website guiding people to find these hidden points of interests.
The origin of the hidden supersymmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jakubsky, Vit; Nieto, Luis-Miguel; Plyushchay, Mikhail S.
2010-01-01
The hidden supersymmetry and related tri-supersymmetric structure of the free particle system, the Dirac delta potential problem and the Aharonov-Bohm effect (planar, bound state, and tubule models) are explained by a special nonlocal unitary transformation, which for the usual N=2 supercharges has a nature of Foldy-Wouthuysen transformation. We show that in general case, the bosonized supersymmetry of nonlocal, parity even systems emerges in the same construction, and explain the origin of the unusual N=2 supersymmetry of electron in three-dimensional parity even magnetic field. The observation extends to include the hidden superconformal symmetry.
Signatures of a hidden cosmic microwave background.
Jaeckel, Joerg; Redondo, Javier; Ringwald, Andreas
2008-09-26
If there is a light Abelian gauge boson gamma' in the hidden sector its kinetic mixing with the photon can produce a hidden cosmic microwave background (HCMB). For meV masses, resonant oscillations gammagamma' happen after big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) but before CMB decoupling, increasing the effective number of neutrinos Nnu(eff) and the baryon to photon ratio, and distorting the CMB blackbody spectrum. The agreement between BBN and CMB data provides new constraints. However, including Lyman-alpha data, Nnu(eff) > 3 is preferred. It is tempting to attribute this effect to the HCMB. The interesting parameter range will be tested in upcoming laboratory experiments.
Searching for hidden sectors in multiparticle production at the LHC
Sanchis-Lozano, Miguel-Angel; Moreno-Picot, Salvador
2016-01-01
We study the impact of a hidden sector beyond the Standard Model, e.g. a Hidden Valley model, on factorial moments and cumulants of multiplicity distributions in multiparticle production with a special emphasis on the prospects for LHC results.
The efficiency of subset selection of an almost best treatment
Laan, van der P.
1991-01-01
A generalized goal using subset selection is discussed for the location parameter case. This goal is to select a non-empty subset from a set of k (k \\geq 2) treatments that contains at least one \\epsilon-best treatment with confidence level P*. For a set of treatments an \\epsilon-best treatment is
Indirect Positive Evidence in the Acquisition of a Subset Grammar
Schwartz, Misha; Goad, Heather
2017-01-01
This article proposes that second language learners can use indirect positive evidence (IPE) to acquire a phonological grammar that is a subset of their L1 grammar. IPE is evidence from errors in the learner's L1 made by native speakers of the learner's L2. It has been assumed that subset grammars may be acquired using direct or indirect negative…
';Best' Practices for Aggregating Subset Results from Archived Datasets
Baskin, W. E.; Perez, J.
2013-12-01
In response to the exponential growth in science data analysis and visualization capabilities Data Centers have been developing new delivery mechanisms to package and deliver large volumes of aggregated subsets of archived data. New standards are evolving to help data providers and application programmers deal with growing needs of the science community. These standards evolve from the best practices gleaned from new products and capabilities. The NASA Atmospheric Sciences Data Center (ASDC) has developed and deployed production provider-specific search and subset web applications for the CALIPSO, CERES, TES, and MOPITT missions. This presentation explores several use cases that leverage aggregated subset results and examines the standards and formats ASDC developers applied to the delivered files as well as the implementation strategies for subsetting and processing the aggregated products. The following topics will be addressed: - Applications of NetCDF CF conventions to aggregated level 2 satellite subsets - Data-Provider-Specific format requirements vs. generalized standards - Organization of the file structure of aggregated NetCDF subset output - Global Attributes of individual subsetted files vs. aggregated results - Specific applications and framework used for subsetting and delivering derivative data files
Compressing the hidden variable space of a qubit
Montina, Alberto
2010-01-01
In previously exhibited hidden variable models of quantum state preparation and measurement, the number of continuous hidden variables describing the actual state of a single realization is never smaller than the quantum state manifold dimension. We introduce a simple model for a qubit whose hidden variable space is one-dimensional, i.e., smaller than the two-dimensional Bloch sphere. The hidden variable probability distributions associated with the quantum states satisfy reasonable criteria ...
Hidden Markov Models for Human Genes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Baldi, Pierre; Brunak, Søren; Chauvin, Yves
1997-01-01
We analyse the sequential structure of human genomic DNA by hidden Markov models. We apply models of widely different design: conventional left-right constructs and models with a built-in periodic architecture. The models are trained on segments of DNA sequences extracted such that they cover com...
The Hidden Cost of Buying a Computer.
Johnson, Michael
1983-01-01
In order to process data in a computer, application software must be either developed or purchased. Costs for modifications of the software package and maintenance are often hidden. The decision to buy or develop software packages should be based upon factors of time and maintenance. (MLF)
Hidden symmetries in five-dimensional supergravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Poessel, M.
2003-05-01
This thesis is concerned with the study of hidden symmetries in supergravity, which play an important role in the present picture of supergravity and string theory. Concretely, the appearance of a hidden G 2(+2) /SO(4) symmetry is studied in the dimensional reduction of d=5, N=2 supergravity to three dimensions - a parallel model to the more famous E 8(+8) /SO(16) case in eleven-dimensional supergravity. Extending previous partial results for the bosonic part, I give a derivation that includes fermionic terms. This sheds new light on the appearance of the local hidden symmetry SO(4) in the reduction, and shows up an unusual feature which follows from an analysis of the R-symmetry associated with N=4 supergravity and of the supersymmetry variations, and which has no parallel in the eleven-dimensional case: The emergence of an additional SO(3) as part of the enhanced local symmetry, invisible in the dimensional reduction of the gravitino, and corresponding to the fact that, of the SO(4) used in the coset model, only the diagonal SO(3) is visible immediately upon dimensional reduction. The uncovering of the hidden symmetries proceeds via the construction of the proper coset gravity in three dimensions, and matching it with the Lagrangian obtained from the reduction. (orig.)
Discovering hidden sectors with monophoton Z' searches
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gershtein, Yuri; Petriello, Frank; Quackenbush, Seth; Zurek, Kathryn M.
2008-01-01
In many theories of physics beyond the standard model, from extra dimensions to Hidden Valleys and models of dark matter, Z ' bosons mediate between standard model particles and hidden sector states. We study the feasibility of observing such hidden states through an invisibly decaying Z ' at the LHC. We focus on the process pp→γZ ' →γXX † , where X is any neutral, (quasi-) stable particle, whether a standard model neutrino or a new state. This complements a previous study using pp→ZZ ' →l + l - XX † . Only the Z ' mass and two effective charges are needed to describe this process. If the Z ' decays invisibly only to standard model neutrinos, then these charges are predicted by observation of the Z ' through the Drell-Yan process, allowing discrimination between Z ' decays to standard model ν's and invisible decays to new states. We carefully discuss all backgrounds and systematic errors that affect this search. We find that hidden sector decays of a 1 TeV Z ' can be observed at 5σ significance with 50 fb -1 at the LHC. Observation of a 1.5 TeV state requires super-LHC statistics of 1 ab -1 . Control of the systematic errors, in particular, the parton distribution function uncertainty of the dominant Zγ background, is crucial to maximize the LHC search reach.
Hidden Markov models for labeled sequences
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Krogh, Anders Stærmose
1994-01-01
A hidden Markov model for labeled observations, called a class HMM, is introduced and a maximum likelihood method is developed for estimating the parameters of the model. Instead of training it to model the statistics of the training sequences it is trained to optimize recognition. It resembles MMI...
Evaluation of the convolution sum involving the sum of divisors function for 22, 44 and 52
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ntienjem Ebénézer
2017-04-01
\\end{array} $ where αβ = 22, 44, 52, is evaluated for all natural numbers n. Modular forms are used to achieve these evaluations. Since the modular space of level 22 is contained in that of level 44, we almost completely use the basis elements of the modular space of level 44 to carry out the evaluation of the convolution sums for αβ = 22. We then use these convolution sums to determine formulae for the number of representations of a positive integer by the octonary quadratic forms a(x12+x22+x32+x42+b(x52+x62+x72+x82, $a\\,(x_{1}^{2}+x_{2}^{2}+x_{3}^{2}+x_{4}^{2}+b\\,(x_{5}^{2}+x_{6}^{2}+x_{7}^{2}+x_{8}^{2},$ where (a, b = (1, 11, (1, 13.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Menezes, Filipe; Fedorov, Alexander; Baleizão, Carlos; Berberan-Santos, Mário N; Valeur, Bernard
2013-01-01
Ensemble fluorescence decays are usually analyzed with a sum of exponentials. However, broad continuous distributions of lifetimes, either unimodal or multimodal, occur in many situations. A simple and flexible fitting function for these cases that encompasses the exponential is the Becquerel function. In this work, the applicability of the Becquerel function for the analysis of complex decays of several kinds is tested. For this purpose, decays of mixtures of four different fluorescence standards (binary, ternary and quaternary mixtures) are measured and analyzed. For binary and ternary mixtures, the expected sum of narrow distributions is well recovered from the Becquerel functions analysis, if the correct number of components is used. For ternary mixtures, however, satisfactory fits are also obtained with a number of Becquerel functions smaller than the true number of fluorophores in the mixture, at the expense of broadening the lifetime distributions of the fictitious components. The quaternary mixture studied is well fitted with both a sum of three exponentials and a sum of two Becquerel functions, showing the inevitable loss of information when the number of components is large. Decays of a fluorophore in a heterogeneous environment, known to be represented by unimodal and broad continuous distributions (as previously obtained by the maximum entropy method), are also measured and analyzed. It is concluded that these distributions can be recovered by the Becquerel function method with an accuracy similar to that of the much more complex maximum entropy method. It is also shown that the polar (or phasor) plot is not always helpful for ascertaining the degree (and kind) of complexity of a fluorescence decay. (paper)
The Asymptotic Joint Distribution of Self-Normalized Censored Sums and Sums of Squares
Hahn, Marjorie G.; Kuelbs, Jim; Weiner, Daniel C.
1990-01-01
Empirical versions of appropriate centering and scale constants for random variables which can fail to have second or even first moments are obtainable in various ways via suitable modifications of the summands in the partial sum. This paper discusses a particular modification, called censoring (which is a kind of winsorization), where the (random) number of summands altered tends to infinity but the proportion altered tends to zero as the number of summands increases. Some analytic advantage...
Sum rules and constraints on passive systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bernland, A; Gustafsson, M; Luger, A
2011-01-01
A passive system is one that cannot produce energy, a property that naturally poses constraints on the system. A system in convolution form is fully described by its transfer function, and the class of Herglotz functions, holomorphic functions mapping the open upper half-plane to the closed upper half-plane, is closely related to the transfer functions of passive systems. Following a well-known representation theorem, Herglotz functions can be represented by means of positive measures on the real line. This fact is exploited in this paper in order to rigorously prove a set of integral identities for Herglotz functions that relate weighted integrals of the function to its asymptotic expansions at the origin and infinity. The integral identities are the core of a general approach introduced here to derive sum rules and physical limitations on various passive physical systems. Although similar approaches have previously been applied to a wide range of specific applications, this paper is the first to deliver a general procedure together with the necessary proofs. This procedure is described thoroughly and exemplified with examples from electromagnetic theory.
Sum frequency generation for surface vibrational spectroscopy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hunt, J.H.; Guyot-Sionnest, P.; Shen, Y.R.
1987-01-01
Surface vibrational spectroscopy is one of the best means for characterizing molecular adsorbates. For this reason, many techniques have been developed in the past. However, most of them suffer from poor sensitivity, low spectral and temporal resolution, and applications limited to vacuum solid interfaces. Recently, the second harmonic generation (SHG) technique was proved repeatedly to be a simple but versatile surface probe. It is highly sensitive and surface specific; it is also capable of achieving high temporal, spatial, and spectral resolution. Being an optical technique, it can be applied to any interface accessible by light. The only serious drawback is its lack of molecular selectivity. An obvious remedy is the extension of the technique to IR-visible sum frequency generation (SFG). Surface vibrational spectroscopy with submonolayer sensitivity is then possible using SFG with the help of a tunable IR laser. The authors report here an SFG measurement of the C-H stretch vibration of monolayers of molecules at air-solid and air-liquid interfaces
On Maximal Non-Disjoint Families of Subsets
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yu. A. Zuev
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The paper studies maximal non-disjoint families of subsets of a finite set. Non-disjointness means that any two subsets of a family have a nonempty intersection. The maximality is expressed by the fact that adding a new subset to the family cannot increase its power without violating a non-disjointness condition. Studying the properties of such families is an important section of the extreme theory of sets. Along with purely combinatorial interest, the problems considered here play an important role in informatics, anti-noise coding, and cryptography.In 1961 this problem saw the light of day in the Erdos, Ko and Rado paper, which established a maximum power of the non-disjoint family of subsets of equal power. In 1974 the Erdos and Claytman publication estimated the number of maximal non-disjoint families of subsets without involving the equality of their power. These authors failed to establish an asymptotics of the logarithm of the number of such families when the power of a basic finite set tends to infinity. However, they suggested such an asymptotics as a hypothesis. A.D. Korshunov in two publications in 2003 and 2005 established the asymptotics for the number of non-disjoint families of the subsets of arbitrary powers without maximality condition of these families.The basis for the approach used in the paper to study the families of subsets is their description in the language of Boolean functions. A one-to-one correspondence between a family of subsets and a Boolean function is established by the fact that the characteristic vectors of subsets of a family are considered to be the unit sets of a Boolean function. The main theoretical result of the paper is that the maximal non-disjoint families are in one-to-one correspondence with the monotonic self-dual Boolean functions. When estimating the number of maximal non-disjoint families, this allowed us to use the result of A.A. Sapozhenko, who established the asymptotics of the number of the
Light cone sum rules in nonabelian gauge field theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mallik, S [Bern Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik
1981-03-24
The author examines, in the context of nonabelian gauge field theory, the derivation of the light cone sum rules which were obtained earlier on the assumption of dominance of canonical singularity in the current commutator on the light cone. The retarded scaling functions appearing in the sum rules are numbers known in terms of the charges of the quarks and the number of quarks and gluons in the theory. Possible applications of the sum rules are suggested.
On the Laplace transform of the Weinberg type sum rules
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Narison, S.
1981-09-01
We consider the Laplace transform of various sum rules of the Weinberg type including the leading non-perturbative effects. We show from the third type Weinberg sum rules that 7.5 to 8.9 1 coupling to the W boson, while the second sum rule gives an upper bound on the A 1 mass (Msub(A 1 ) < or approx. 1.25 GeV). (author)
Premium Pricing of Liability Insurance Using Random Sum Model
Kartikasari, Mujiati Dwi
2017-01-01
Premium pricing is one of important activities in insurance. Nonlife insurance premium is calculated from expected value of historical data claims. The historical data claims are collected so that it forms a sum of independent random number which is called random sum. In premium pricing using random sum, claim frequency distribution and claim severity distribution are combined. The combination of these distributions is called compound distribution. By using liability claim insurance data, we ...
On poisson-stopped-sums that are mixed poisson
Valero Baya, Jordi; Pérez Casany, Marta; Ginebra Molins, Josep
2013-01-01
Maceda (1948) characterized the mixed Poisson distributions that are Poisson-stopped-sum distributions based on the mixing distribution. In an alternative characterization of the same set of distributions here the Poisson-stopped-sum distributions that are mixed Poisson distributions is proved to be the set of Poisson-stopped-sums of either a mixture of zero-truncated Poisson distributions or a zero-modification of it. Peer Reviewed
Inclusive sum rules and spectra of neutrons at the ISR
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grigoryan, A.A.
1975-01-01
Neutron spectra in pp collisions at ISR energies are studied in the framework of sum rules for inclusive processes. The contributions of protons, π- and E- mesons to the energy sum rule are calculated at √5 = 53 GeV. It is shown by means of this sum rule that the spectra of neutrons at the ISR are in contradiction with the spectra of other particles also measured at the ISR
Singular f-sum rule for superfluid 4He
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wong, V.K.
1979-01-01
The validity and applicability to inelastic neutron scattering of a singular f-sum rule for superfluid helium, proposed by Griffin to explain the rhosub(s) dependence in S(k, ω) as observed by Woods and Svensson, are examined in the light of similar sum rules rigorously derived for anharmonic crystals and Bose liquids. It is concluded that the singular f-sum rules are only of microscopic interest. (Auth,)
Compound Poisson Approximations for Sums of Random Variables
Serfozo, Richard F.
1986-01-01
We show that a sum of dependent random variables is approximately compound Poisson when the variables are rarely nonzero and, given they are nonzero, their conditional distributions are nearly identical. We give several upper bounds on the total-variation distance between the distribution of such a sum and a compound Poisson distribution. Included is an example for Markovian occurrences of a rare event. Our bounds are consistent with those that are known for Poisson approximations for sums of...
Coulomb sum rules in the relativistic Fermi gas model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Do Dang, G.; L'Huillier, M.; Nguyen Giai, Van.
1986-11-01
Coulomb sum rules are studied in the framework of the Fermi gas model. A distinction is made between mathematical and observable sum rules. Differences between non-relativistic and relativistic Fermi gas predictions are stressed. A method to deduce a Coulomb response function from the longitudinal response is proposed and tested numerically. This method is applied to the 40 Ca data to obtain the experimental Coulomb sum rule as a function of momentum transfer
Premium Pricing of Liability Insurance Using Random Sum Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mujiati Dwi Kartikasari
2017-03-01
Full Text Available Premium pricing is one of important activities in insurance. Nonlife insurance premium is calculated from expected value of historical data claims. The historical data claims are collected so that it forms a sum of independent random number which is called random sum. In premium pricing using random sum, claim frequency distribution and claim severity distribution are combined. The combination of these distributions is called compound distribution. By using liability claim insurance data, we analyze premium pricing using random sum model based on compound distribution
QCD sum rules and applications to nuclear physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cohen, T.D.; Xuemin, J.
1994-12-01
Applications of QCD sum-rule methods to the physics of nuclei are reviewed, with an emphasis on calculations of baryon self-energies in infinite nuclear matter. The sum-rule approach relates spectral properties of hadrons propagating in the finite-density medium, such as optical potentials for quasinucleons, to matrix elements of QCD composite operators (condensates). The vacuum formalism for QCD sum rules is generalized to finite density, and the strategy and implementation of the approach is discussed. Predictions for baryon self-energies are compared to those suggested by relativistic nuclear physics phenomenology. Sum rules for vector mesons in dense nuclear matter are also considered. (author)
Adler Function, DIS sum rules and Crewther Relations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baikov, P.A.; Chetyrkin, K.G.; Kuehn, J.H.
2010-01-01
The current status of the Adler function and two closely related Deep Inelastic Scattering (DIS) sum rules, namely, the Bjorken sum rule for polarized DIS and the Gross-Llewellyn Smith sum rule are briefly reviewed. A new result is presented: an analytical calculation of the coefficient function of the latter sum rule in a generic gauge theory in order O(α s 4 ). It is demonstrated that the corresponding Crewther relation allows to fix two of three colour structures in the O(α s 4 ) contribution to the singlet part of the Adler function.
An electrophysiological signature of summed similarity in visual working memory.
van Vugt, Marieke K; Sekuler, Robert; Wilson, Hugh R; Kahana, Michael J
2013-05-01
Summed-similarity models of short-term item recognition posit that participants base their judgments of an item's prior occurrence on that item's summed similarity to the ensemble of items on the remembered list. We examined the neural predictions of these models in 3 short-term recognition memory experiments using electrocorticographic/depth electrode recordings and scalp electroencephalography. On each experimental trial, participants judged whether a test face had been among a small set of recently studied faces. Consistent with summed-similarity theory, participants' tendency to endorse a test item increased as a function of its summed similarity to the items on the just-studied list. To characterize this behavioral effect of summed similarity, we successfully fit a summed-similarity model to individual participant data from each experiment. Using the parameters determined from fitting the summed-similarity model to the behavioral data, we examined the relation between summed similarity and brain activity. We found that 4-9 Hz theta activity in the medial temporal lobe and 2-4 Hz delta activity recorded from frontal and parietal cortices increased with summed similarity. These findings demonstrate direct neural correlates of the similarity computations that form the foundation of several major cognitive theories of human recognition memory. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
Model dependence of energy-weighted sum rules
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kirson, M.W.
1977-01-01
The contribution of the nucleon-nucleon interaction to energy-weighted sum rules for electromagnetic multipole transitions is investigated. It is found that only isoscalar electric transitions might have model-independent energy-weighted sum rules. For these transitions, explicit momentum and angular momentum dependence of the nuclear force give rise to corrections to the sum rule which are found to be negligibly small, thus confirming the model independence of these specific sum rules. These conclusions are unaffected by correlation effects. (author)
Comprehensive Ocean - Atmosphere Data Set (COADS) LMRF Arctic Subset
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Comprehensive Ocean - Atmosphere Data Set (COADS) LMRF Arctic subset contains marine surface weather reports for the region north of 65 degrees N from ships,...
Subset Statistics in the linear IV regression model
Kleibergen, F.R.
2005-01-01
We show that the limiting distributions of subset generalizations of the weak instrument robust instrumental variable statistics are boundedly similar when the remaining structural parameters are estimated using maximum likelihood. They are bounded from above by the limiting distributions which
Extended abstract of a hidden agenda
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Goguen, J.; Malcolm, G. [Oxford Univ. (United Kingdom)
1996-12-31
The initial goal of our hidden research programme was both straightforward and ambitious: give a semantics for software engineering, and in particular for the object paradigm, supporting correctness proofs that are as simple and mechanical as possible. This emphasizes proofs rather than models, and thus suggests an equational approach, rather than one based on higher order logic, denotational semantics, or any kind of model, because equational proofs achieve maximal simplicity and mechanization, and yet are fully expressive. We introduce powerful coinduction techniques for proving behavioral properties of complex systems. We make the no doubt outrageous claim that our hidden approach gives simpler proofs than other formalisms; this is because we exploit algebraic structure that most other approaches discard.
Laser experiments explore the hidden sector
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ahlers, M.
2007-11-01
Recently, the laser experiments BMV and GammeV, searching for light shining through walls, have published data and calculated new limits on the allowed masses and couplings for axion-like particles. In this note we point out that these experiments can serve to constrain a much wider variety of hidden-sector particles such as, e.g., minicharged particles and hidden-sector photons. The new experiments improve the existing bounds from the older BFRT experiment by a factor of two. Moreover, we use the new PVLAS constraints on a possible rotation and ellipticity of light after it has passed through a strong magnetic field to constrain pure minicharged particle models. For masses -7 times the electron electric charge. This is the best laboratory bound and comparable to bounds inferred from the energy spectrum of the cosmic microwave background. (orig.)
Quantum mechanics and hidden superconformal symmetry
Bonezzi, R.; Corradini, O.; Latini, E.; Waldron, A.
2017-12-01
Solvability of the ubiquitous quantum harmonic oscillator relies on a spectrum generating osp (1 |2 ) superconformal symmetry. We study the problem of constructing all quantum mechanical models with a hidden osp (1 |2 ) symmetry on a given space of states. This problem stems from interacting higher spin models coupled to gravity. In one dimension, we show that the solution to this problem is the Vasiliev-Plyushchay family of quantum mechanical models with hidden superconformal symmetry obtained by viewing the harmonic oscillator as a one dimensional Dirac system, so that Grassmann parity equals wave function parity. These models—both oscillator and particlelike—realize all possible unitary irreducible representations of osp (1 |2 ).
Hidden Costs and the Role of Modularity
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, Marcus M.
2013-01-01
that the inability to effectively estimate the costs of implementing an activity in a foreign location has a negative impact on the process performance of that activity. Performance is deterred as operations are likely to be disrupted by opportunity costs and managerial responses. However, this relationship......This paper addresses estimation errors in strategic decision-making processes due to hidden costs. While previous research has investigated the antecedents of hidden costs, this paper investigates performance consequences. Using unique data on 221 offshoring implementations, it is argued...... is mitigated by the degree of modularity in the activity as it reduces the need for costly coordination in offshoring. This paper contributes to research on offshoring and strategic decision-making by emphasizing the importance of organizational design and of estimating the costs of internal organizational...
Stochastic subset selection for learning with kernel machines.
Rhinelander, Jason; Liu, Xiaoping P
2012-06-01
Kernel machines have gained much popularity in applications of machine learning. Support vector machines (SVMs) are a subset of kernel machines and generalize well for classification, regression, and anomaly detection tasks. The training procedure for traditional SVMs involves solving a quadratic programming (QP) problem. The QP problem scales super linearly in computational effort with the number of training samples and is often used for the offline batch processing of data. Kernel machines operate by retaining a subset of observed data during training. The data vectors contained within this subset are referred to as support vectors (SVs). The work presented in this paper introduces a subset selection method for the use of kernel machines in online, changing environments. Our algorithm works by using a stochastic indexing technique when selecting a subset of SVs when computing the kernel expansion. The work described here is novel because it separates the selection of kernel basis functions from the training algorithm used. The subset selection algorithm presented here can be used in conjunction with any online training technique. It is important for online kernel machines to be computationally efficient due to the real-time requirements of online environments. Our algorithm is an important contribution because it scales linearly with the number of training samples and is compatible with current training techniques. Our algorithm outperforms standard techniques in terms of computational efficiency and provides increased recognition accuracy in our experiments. We provide results from experiments using both simulated and real-world data sets to verify our algorithm.
The Hidden Gifts of Quiet Kids
Trierweiler, Hannah
2006-01-01
The author relates that she was an introvert child. It has always taken her time and energy to find her place in a group. As a grown-up, she still needed quiet time to regroup during a busy day. In this article, the author presents an interview with Marti Olsen Laney, author of "The Hidden Gifts of the Introverted Child." During the interview,…
Hidden neuronal correlations in cultured networks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Segev, Ronen; Baruchi, Itay; Hulata, Eyal; Ben-Jacob, Eshel
2004-01-01
Utilization of a clustering algorithm on neuronal spatiotemporal correlation matrices recorded during a spontaneous activity of in vitro networks revealed the existence of hidden correlations: the sequence of synchronized bursting events (SBEs) is composed of statistically distinguishable subgroups each with its own distinct pattern of interneuron spatiotemporal correlations. These findings hint that each of the SBE subgroups can serve as a template for coding, storage, and retrieval of a specific information
A masking index for quantifying hidden glitches
Berti-Equille, Laure; Loh, J. M.; Dasu, T.
2015-01-01
Data glitches are errors in a dataset. They are complex entities that often span multiple attributes and records. When they co-occur in data, the presence of one type of glitch can hinder the detection of another type of glitch. This phenomenon is called masking. In this paper, we define two important types of masking and propose a novel, statistically rigorous indicator called masking index for quantifying the hidden glitches. We outline four cases of masking: outliers masked by missing valu...
Cold dark matter from the hidden sector
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arias, Paola; Pontificia Univ. Catolica de Chile, Santiago
2012-02-01
Weakly interacting slim particles (WISPs) such as hidden photons (HP) and axion-like particles (ALPs) have been proposed as cold dark matter candidates. They might be produced non-thermally via the misalignment mechanism, similarly to cold axions. In this talk we review the main processes of thermalisation of HP and we compute the parameter space that may survive as cold dark matter population until today. Our findings are quite encouraging for experimental searches in the laboratory in the near future.
Completing Quantum Mechanics with Quantized Hidden Variables
van Enk, S. J.
2015-01-01
I explore the possibility that a quantum system S may be described completely by the combination of its standard quantum state $|\\psi\\rangle$ and a (hidden) quantum state $|\\phi\\rangle$ (that lives in the same Hilbert space), such that the outcome of any standard projective measurement on the system S is determined once the two quantum states are specified. I construct an algorithm that retrieves the standard quantum-mechanical probabilities, which depend only on $|\\psi\\rangle$, by assuming t...
Cold dark matter from the hidden sector
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Arias, Paola [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Pontificia Univ. Catolica de Chile, Santiago (Chile). Facultad de Fisica
2012-02-15
Weakly interacting slim particles (WISPs) such as hidden photons (HP) and axion-like particles (ALPs) have been proposed as cold dark matter candidates. They might be produced non-thermally via the misalignment mechanism, similarly to cold axions. In this talk we review the main processes of thermalisation of HP and we compute the parameter space that may survive as cold dark matter population until today. Our findings are quite encouraging for experimental searches in the laboratory in the near future.
Hidden histories: challenges for pedagogy and participation
Morrice, Linda
2013-01-01
Higher Education has become and an increasingly diverse and globalised system in which the binaries between ‘traditional’ and ‘non-traditional’ students, exclusion and inclusion have less resonance and analytical purchase. Drawing on research with refugees Linda will suggest that higher education can be marked simultaneously by belonging and recognition, deficit and exclusion. Complex differences and inequalities remain hidden and unspoken, raising new questions and challenges for pedagogy an...
Hidden sector behind the CKM matrix
Okawa, Shohei; Omura, Yuji
2017-08-01
The small quark mixing, described by the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix in the standard model, may be a clue to reveal new physics around the TeV scale. We consider a simple scenario that extra particles in a hidden sector radiatively mediate the flavor violation to the quark sector around the TeV scale and effectively realize the observed CKM matrix. The lightest particle in the hidden sector, whose contribution to the CKM matrix is expected to be dominant, is a good dark matter (DM) candidate. There are many possible setups to describe this scenario, so that we investigate some universal predictions of this kind of model, focusing on the contribution of DM to the quark mixing and flavor physics. In this scenario, there is an explicit relation between the CKM matrix and flavor violating couplings, such as four-quark couplings, because both are radiatively induced by the particles in the hidden sector. Then, we can explicitly find the DM mass region and the size of Yukawa couplings between the DM and quarks, based on the study of flavor physics and DM physics. In conclusion, we show that DM mass in our scenario is around the TeV scale, and the Yukawa couplings are between O (0.01 ) and O (1 ). The spin-independent DM scattering cross section is estimated as O (10-9) [pb]. An extra colored particle is also predicted at the O (10 ) TeV scale.
Direct and reverse inclusions for strongly multiple summing operators
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
and strongly multiple summing operators under the assumption that the range has finite cotype. Keywords. .... multiple (q, p)-summing, if there exists a constant C ≥ 0 such that for every choice of systems (x j i j )1≤i j ≤m j ...... Ideals and their Applications in Theoretical Physics (1983) (Leipzig: Teubner-Texte) pp. 185–199.
29 CFR 4044.75 - Other lump sum benefits.
2010-07-01
... sum benefits. The value of a lump sum benefit which is not covered under § 4044.73 or § 4044.74 is equal to— (a) The value under the qualifying bid, if an insurer provides the benefit; or (b) The present value of the benefit as of the date of distribution, determined using reasonable actuarial assumptions...
Lattice QCD evaluation of baryon magnetic moment sum rules
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leinweber, D.B.
1991-05-01
Magnetic moment combinations and sum rules are evaluated using recent results for the magnetic moments of octet baryons determined in a numerical simulation of quenched QCD. The model-independent and parameter-free results of the lattice calculations remove some of the confusion and contradiction surrounding past magnetic moment sum rule analyses. The lattice results reveal the underlying quark dynamics investigated by magnetic moment sum rules and indicate the origin of magnetic moment quenching for the non-strange quarks in Σ. In contrast to previous sum rule analyses, the magnetic moments of nonstrange quarks in Ξ are seen to be enhanced in the lattice results. In most cases, the spin-dependent dynamics and center-of-mass effects giving rise to baryon dependence of the quark moments are seen to be sufficient to violate the sum rules in agreement with experimental measurements. In turn, the sum rules are used to further examine the results of the lattice simulation. The Sachs sum rule suggests that quark loop contributions not included in present lattice calculations may play a key role in removing the discrepancies between lattice and experimental ratios of magnetic moments. This is supported by other sum rules sensitive to quark loop contributions. A measure of the isospin symmetry breaking in the effective quark moments due to quark loop contributions is in agreement with model expectations. (Author) 16 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs
Luttinger and Hubbard sum rules: are they compatible?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matho, K.
1992-01-01
A so-called Hubbard sum rule determines the weight of a satellite in fermionic single-particle excitations with strong local repulsion (U→∞). Together with the Luttinger sum rule, this imposes two different energy scales on the remaining finite excitations. In the Hubbard chain, this has been identified microscopically as being due to a separation of spin and charge. (orig.)
Chain hexagonal cacti with the extremal eccentric distance sum.
Qu, Hui; Yu, Guihai
2014-01-01
Eccentric distance sum (EDS), which can predict biological and physical properties, is a topological index based on the eccentricity of a graph. In this paper we characterize the chain hexagonal cactus with the minimal and the maximal eccentric distance sum among all chain hexagonal cacti of length n, respectively. Moreover, we present exact formulas for EDS of two types of hexagonal cacti.
A sum rule description of giant resonances at finite temperature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Meyer, J.; Quentin, P.; Brack, M.
1983-01-01
A generalization of the sum rule approach to collective motion at finite temperature is presented. The m 1 and msub(-1) sum rules for the isovector dipole and the isoscalar monopole electric modes have been evaluated with the modified SkM force for the 208 Pb nucleus. The variation of the resulting giant resonance energies with temperature is discussed. (orig.)
Finding Sums for an Infinite Class of Alternating Series
Chen, Zhibo; Wei, Sheng; Xiao, Xuerong
2012-01-01
Calculus II students know that many alternating series are convergent by the Alternating Series Test. However, they know few alternating series (except geometric series and some trivial ones) for which they can find the sum. In this article, we present a method that enables the students to find sums for infinitely many alternating series in the…
Partial sums of arithmetical functions with absolutely convergent ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Keywords. Ramanujan expansions; average order; error terms; sum-of-divisors functions; Jordan's totient functions. 2010 Mathematics Subject Classification. 11N37, 11A25, 11K65. 1. Introduction. The theory of Ramanujan sums and Ramanujan expansions has emerged from the seminal article [10] of Ramanujan. In 1918 ...
28 CFR 523.16 - Lump sum awards.
2010-07-01
... satisfactory performance of an unusually hazardous assignment; (c) An act which protects the lives of staff or... TRANSFER COMPUTATION OF SENTENCE Extra Good Time § 523.16 Lump sum awards. Any staff member may recommend... award is calculated. No seniority is accrued for such awards. Staff may recommend lump sum awards of...
Analytic and algorithmic aspects of generalized harmonic sums and polylogarithms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ablinger, Jakob; Schneider, Carsten
2013-01-01
In recent three-loop calculations of massive Feynman integrals within Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) and, e.g., in recent combinatorial problems the so-called generalized harmonic sums (in short S-sums) arise. They are characterized by rational (or real) numerator weights also different from ±1. In this article we explore the algorithmic and analytic properties of these sums systematically. We work out the Mellin and inverse Mellin transform which connects the sums under consideration with the associated Poincare iterated integrals, also called generalized harmonic polylogarithms. In this regard, we obtain explicit analytic continuations by means of asymptotic expansions of the S-sums which started to occur frequently in current QCD calculations. In addition, we derive algebraic and structural relations, like differentiation w.r.t. the external summation index and different multi-argument relations, for the compactification of S-sum expressions. Finally, we calculate algebraic relations for infinite S-sums, or equivalently for generalized harmonic polylogarithms evaluated at special values. The corresponding algorithms and relations are encoded in the computer algebra package HarmonicSums.
On contribution of instantons to nucleon sum rules
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dorokhov, A.E.; Kochelev, N.I.
1989-01-01
The contribution of instantons to nucleon QCD sum rules is obtained. It is shown that this contribution does provide stabilization of the sum rules and leads to formation of a nucleon as a bound state of quarks in the instanton field. 17 refs.; 3 figs
Analytic and algorithmic aspects of generalized harmonic sums and polylogarithms
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ablinger, Jakob; Schneider, Carsten [Johannes Kepler Univ., Linz (Austria). Research Inst. for Symbolic Computation; Bluemlein, Johannes [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany)
2013-01-15
In recent three-loop calculations of massive Feynman integrals within Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) and, e.g., in recent combinatorial problems the so-called generalized harmonic sums (in short S-sums) arise. They are characterized by rational (or real) numerator weights also different from {+-}1. In this article we explore the algorithmic and analytic properties of these sums systematically. We work out the Mellin and inverse Mellin transform which connects the sums under consideration with the associated Poincare iterated integrals, also called generalized harmonic polylogarithms. In this regard, we obtain explicit analytic continuations by means of asymptotic expansions of the S-sums which started to occur frequently in current QCD calculations. In addition, we derive algebraic and structural relations, like differentiation w.r.t. the external summation index and different multi-argument relations, for the compactification of S-sum expressions. Finally, we calculate algebraic relations for infinite S-sums, or equivalently for generalized harmonic polylogarithms evaluated at special values. The corresponding algorithms and relations are encoded in the computer algebra package HarmonicSums.
Sum formula for SL2 over imaginary quadratic number fields
Lokvenec-Guleska, H.
2004-01-01
The subject of this thesis is generalization of the classical sum formula of Bruggeman and Kuznetsov to the upper half-space H3. The derivation of the preliminary sum formula involves computation of the inner product of two specially chosen Poincar´e series in two different ways: the spectral
An electrophysiological signature of summed similarity in visual working memory
Van Vugt, Marieke K.; Sekuler, Robert; Wilson, Hugh R.; Kahana, Michael J.
Summed-similarity models of short-term item recognition posit that participants base their judgments of an item's prior occurrence on that item's summed similarity to the ensemble of items on the remembered list. We examined the neural predictions of these models in 3 short-term recognition memory
Faraday effect revisited: sum rules and convergence issues
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cornean, Horia; Nenciu, Gheorghe
2010-01-01
This is the third paper of a series revisiting the Faraday effect. The question of the absolute convergence of the sums over the band indices entering the Verdet constant is considered. In general, sum rules and traces per unit volume play an important role in solid-state physics, and they give...
Semiempirical search for oxide superconductors based on bond valence sums
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tanaka, S.; Fukushima, N.; Niu, H.; Ando, K.
1992-01-01
Relationships between crystal structures and electronic states of layered transition-metal oxides are analyzed in the light of bond valence sums. Correlations between the superconducting transition temperature T c and the bond-valence-sum parameters are investigated for the high-T c cuprate compounds. Possibility of making nonsuperconducting oxides superconducting is discussed. (orig.)
Efficient yellow beam generation by intracavity sum frequency ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2014-02-06
Feb 6, 2014 ... We present our studies on dual wavelength operation using a single Nd:YVO4 crystal and its intracavity sum frequency generation by considering the influence of the thermal lensing effect on the performance of the laser. A KTP crystal cut for type-II phase matching was used for intracavity sum frequency ...
Analytic and algorithmic aspects of generalized harmonic sums and polylogarithms
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ablinger, Jakob; Schneider, Carsten [Research Institute for Symbolic Computation (RISC), Johannes Kepler University, Altenbergerstraße 69, A-4040, Linz (Austria); Blümlein, Johannes [Deutsches Elektronen–Synchrotron, DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany)
2013-08-15
In recent three-loop calculations of massive Feynman integrals within Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) and, e.g., in recent combinatorial problems the so-called generalized harmonic sums (in short S-sums) arise. They are characterized by rational (or real) numerator weights also different from ±1. In this article we explore the algorithmic and analytic properties of these sums systematically. We work out the Mellin and inverse Mellin transform which connects the sums under consideration with the associated Poincaré iterated integrals, also called generalized harmonic polylogarithms. In this regard, we obtain explicit analytic continuations by means of asymptotic expansions of the S-sums which started to occur frequently in current QCD calculations. In addition, we derive algebraic and structural relations, like differentiation with respect to the external summation index and different multi-argument relations, for the compactification of S-sum expressions. Finally, we calculate algebraic relations for infinite S-sums, or equivalently for generalized harmonic polylogarithms evaluated at special values. The corresponding algorithms and relations are encoded in the computer algebra package HarmonicSums.
Volume sums of polar Blaschke–Minkowski homomorphisms
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
In this article, we establish Minkowski and Aleksandrov–Fenchel type inequalities for the volume sum of polars of Blaschke–Minkowski homomorphisms. Keywords. Blaschke–Minkowski homomorphism; volume differences; volume sum; projection body operator. 2010 Mathematics Subject Classification. 52A40, 52A30. 1.
Harmonic sums, polylogarithms, special numbers, and their generalizations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ablinger, Jakob
2013-04-01
In these introductory lectures we discuss classes of presently known nested sums, associated iterated integrals, and special constants which hierarchically appear in the evaluation of massless and massive Feynman diagrams at higher loops. These quantities are elements of stuffle and shuffle algebras implying algebraic relations being widely independent of the special quantities considered. They are supplemented by structural relations. The generalizations are given in terms of generalized harmonic sums, (generalized) cyclotomic sums, and sums containing in addition binomial and inverse-binomial weights. To all these quantities iterated integrals and special numbers are associated. We also discuss the analytic continuation of nested sums of different kind to complex values of the external summation bound N.
Evaluation of the multi-sums for large scale problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bluemlein, J.; Hasselhuhn, A.; Schneider, C.
2012-02-01
A big class of Feynman integrals, in particular, the coefficients of their Laurent series expansion w.r.t. the dimension parameter ε can be transformed to multi-sums over hypergeometric terms and harmonic sums. In this article, we present a general summation method based on difference fields that simplifies these multi--sums by transforming them from inside to outside to representations in terms of indefinite nested sums and products. In particular, we present techniques that assist in the task to simplify huge expressions of such multi-sums in a completely automatic fashion. The ideas are illustrated on new calculations coming from 3-loop topologies of gluonic massive operator matrix elements containing two fermion lines, which contribute to the transition matrix elements in the variable flavor scheme. (orig.)
Harmonic sums, polylogarithms, special numbers, and their generalizations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ablinger, Jakob [Johannes Kepler Univ., Linz (Austria). Research Inst. for Symbolic Computation; Bluemlein, Johannes [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany)
2013-04-15
In these introductory lectures we discuss classes of presently known nested sums, associated iterated integrals, and special constants which hierarchically appear in the evaluation of massless and massive Feynman diagrams at higher loops. These quantities are elements of stuffle and shuffle algebras implying algebraic relations being widely independent of the special quantities considered. They are supplemented by structural relations. The generalizations are given in terms of generalized harmonic sums, (generalized) cyclotomic sums, and sums containing in addition binomial and inverse-binomial weights. To all these quantities iterated integrals and special numbers are associated. We also discuss the analytic continuation of nested sums of different kind to complex values of the external summation bound N.
Evaluation of the multi-sums for large scale problems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bluemlein, J.; Hasselhuhn, A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Schneider, C. [Johannes Kepler Univ., Linz (Austria). Research Inst. for Symbolic Computation
2012-02-15
A big class of Feynman integrals, in particular, the coefficients of their Laurent series expansion w.r.t. the dimension parameter {epsilon} can be transformed to multi-sums over hypergeometric terms and harmonic sums. In this article, we present a general summation method based on difference fields that simplifies these multi--sums by transforming them from inside to outside to representations in terms of indefinite nested sums and products. In particular, we present techniques that assist in the task to simplify huge expressions of such multi-sums in a completely automatic fashion. The ideas are illustrated on new calculations coming from 3-loop topologies of gluonic massive operator matrix elements containing two fermion lines, which contribute to the transition matrix elements in the variable flavor scheme. (orig.)
Lim, Kim-Hui,; Har, Wai-Mun
2008-01-01
The lack of academic and thinking culture is getting more worried and becomes a major challenge to our academia society this 21st century. Few directions that move academia from "cogito ergo sum" to "consumo ergo sum" are actually leading us to "the end of academia". Those directions are: (1) the death of dialectic;…
Microwave background constraints on mixing of photons with hidden photons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mirizzi, Alessandro; Redondo, Javier; Sigl, Guenter
2008-12-01
Various extensions of the Standard Model predict the existence of hidden photons kinetically mixing with the ordinary photon. This mixing leads to oscillations between photons and hidden photons, analogous to the observed oscillations between different neutrino flavors. In this context, we derive new bounds on the photon-hidden photon mixing parameters using the high precision cosmic microwave background spectral data collected by the Far Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer instrument on board of the Cosmic Background Explorer. Requiring the distortions of the CMB induced by the photon-hidden photon mixing to be smaller than experimental upper limits, this leads to a bound on the mixing angle χ 0 -7 - 10 -5 for hidden photon masses between 10 -14 eV and 10 -7 eV. This low-mass and low-mixing region of the hidden photon parameter space was previously unconstrained. (orig.)
Microwave background constraints on mixing of photons with hidden photons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mirizzi, Alessandro [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Redondo, Javier [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Sigl, Guenter [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik
2008-12-15
Various extensions of the Standard Model predict the existence of hidden photons kinetically mixing with the ordinary photon. This mixing leads to oscillations between photons and hidden photons, analogous to the observed oscillations between different neutrino flavors. In this context, we derive new bounds on the photon-hidden photon mixing parameters using the high precision cosmic microwave background spectral data collected by the Far Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer instrument on board of the Cosmic Background Explorer. Requiring the distortions of the CMB induced by the photon-hidden photon mixing to be smaller than experimental upper limits, this leads to a bound on the mixing angle {chi}{sub 0}
Zero-sum bias: perceived competition despite unlimited resources
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Daniel V Meegan
2010-11-01
Full Text Available Zero-sum bias describes intuitively judging a situation to be zero-sum (i.e., resources gained by one party are matched by corresponding losses to another party when it is actually non-zero-sum. The experimental participants were students at a university where students’ grades are determined by how the quality of their work compares to a predetermined standard of quality rather than to the quality of the work produced by other students. This creates a non-zero-sum situation in which high grades are an unlimited resource. In three experiments, participants were shown the grade distribution after a majority of the students in a course had completed an assigned presentation, and asked to predict the grade of the next presenter. When many high grades had already been given, there was a corresponding increase in low grade predictions. This suggests a zero-sum bias, in which people perceive a competition for a limited resource despite unlimited resource availability. Interestingly, when many low grades had already been given, there was not a corresponding increase in high grade predictions. This suggests that a zero-sum heuristic is only applied in response to the allocation of desirable resources. A plausible explanation for the findings is that a zero-sum heuristic evolved as a cognitive adaptation to enable successful intra-group competition for limited resources. Implications for understanding inter-group interaction are also discussed.
Zero-sum bias: perceived competition despite unlimited resources.
Meegan, Daniel V
2010-01-01
Zero-sum bias describes intuitively judging a situation to be zero-sum (i.e., resources gained by one party are matched by corresponding losses to another party) when it is actually non-zero-sum. The experimental participants were students at a university where students' grades are determined by how the quality of their work compares to a predetermined standard of quality rather than to the quality of the work produced by other students. This creates a non-zero-sum situation in which high grades are an unlimited resource. In three experiments, participants were shown the grade distribution after a majority of the students in a course had completed an assigned presentation, and asked to predict the grade of the next presenter. When many high grades had already been given, there was a corresponding increase in low grade predictions. This suggests a zero-sum bias, in which people perceive a competition for a limited resource despite unlimited resource availability. Interestingly, when many low grades had already been given, there was not a corresponding increase in high grade predictions. This suggests that a zero-sum heuristic is only applied in response to the allocation of desirable resources. A plausible explanation for the findings is that a zero-sum heuristic evolved as a cognitive adaptation to enable successful intra-group competition for limited resources. Implications for understanding inter-group interaction are also discussed.
Harmonic sums and polylogarithms generated by cyclotomic polynomials
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ablinger, Jakob; Schneider, Carsten [Johannes Kepler Univ., Linz (Austria). Research Inst. for Symbolic Computation; Bluemlein, Johannes [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany)
2011-05-15
The computation of Feynman integrals in massive higher order perturbative calculations in renormalizable Quantum Field Theories requires extensions of multiply nested harmonic sums, which can be generated as real representations by Mellin transforms of Poincare-iterated integrals including denominators of higher cyclotomic polynomials. We derive the cyclotomic harmonic polylogarithms and harmonic sums and study their algebraic and structural relations. The analytic continuation of cyclotomic harmonic sums to complex values of N is performed using analytic representations. We also consider special values of the cyclotomic harmonic polylogarithms at argument x=1, resp., for the cyclotomic harmonic sums at N{yields}{infinity}, which are related to colored multiple zeta values, deriving various of their relations, based on the stuffle and shuffle algebras and three multiple argument relations. We also consider infinite generalized nested harmonic sums at roots of unity which are related to the infinite cyclotomic harmonic sums. Basis representations are derived for weight w=1,2 sums up to cyclotomy l=20. (orig.)
Measurement sum theory and application - Application to low level measurements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Puydarrieux, S.; Bruel, V.; Rivier, C.; Crozet, M.; Vivier, A.; Manificat, G.; Thaurel, B.; Mokili, M.; Philippot, B.; Bohaud, E.
2015-09-01
In laboratories, most of the Total Sum methods implemented today use substitution or censure methods for nonsignificant or negative values, and thus create biases which can sometimes be quite large. They are usually positive, and generate, for example, becquerel (Bq) counting or 'administrative' quantities of materials (= 'virtual'), thus artificially falsifying the records kept by the laboratories under regulatory requirements (environment release records, waste records, etc.). This document suggests a methodology which will enable the user to avoid such biases. It is based on the following two fundamental rules: - The Total Sum of measurement values must be established based on all the individual measurement values, even those considered non-significant including the negative values. Any modification of these values, under the pretext that they are not significant, will inevitably lead to biases in the accumulated result and falsify the evaluation of its uncertainty. - In Total Sum operations, the decision thresholds are arrived at in a similar way to the approach used for uncertainties. The document deals with four essential aspects of the notion of 'measurement Total Sums': - The expression of results and associated uncertainties close to Decision Thresholds, and Detection or Quantification Limits, - The Total Sum of these measurements: sum or mean, - The calculation of the uncertainties associated with the Total Sums, - Result presentation (particularly when preparing balance sheets or reports, etc.) Several case studies arising from different situations are used to illustrate the methodology: environmental monitoring reports, release reports, and chemical impurity Total Sums for the qualification of a finished product. The special case of material balances, in which the measurements are usually all significant and correlated (the covariance term cannot then be ignored) will be the subject of a future second document. This
VISIBLE COSTS AND HIDDEN COSTS IN THE BAKING INDUSTRY
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Criveanu Maria
2013-04-01
Full Text Available Hidden costs are present in the activity of any company, hardly identified in the traditional administrative accounting. The high levels of the hidden costs and their unknown presence have serious consequences on the decisions made by the managers. This paper aims at presenting some aspects related to the hidden costs that occur in the activity of the companies in the baking industry and the possibilities to reduce their level.
Probabilistic quantum cloning of a subset of linearly dependent states
Rui, Pinshu; Zhang, Wen; Liao, Yanlin; Zhang, Ziyun
2018-02-01
It is well known that a quantum state, secretly chosen from a certain set, can be probabilistically cloned with positive cloning efficiencies if and only if all the states in the set are linearly independent. In this paper, we focus on probabilistic quantum cloning of a subset of linearly dependent states. We show that a linearly-independent subset of linearly-dependent quantum states {| Ψ 1⟩,| Ψ 2⟩,…,| Ψ n ⟩} can be probabilistically cloned if and only if any state in the subset cannot be expressed as a linear superposition of the other states in the set {| Ψ 1⟩,| Ψ 2⟩,…,| Ψ n ⟩}. The optimal cloning efficiencies are also investigated.
Light cone sum rules for single-pion electroproduction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mallik, S.
1978-01-01
Light cone dispersion sum rules (of low energy and superconvergence types) are derived for nucleon matrix elements of the commutator involving electromagnetic and divergence of axial vector currents. The superconvergence type sum rules in the fixed mass limit are rewritten without requiring the knowledge of Regge subtractions. The retarded scaling functions occurring in these sum rules are evaluated within the framework of quark light cone algebra of currents. Besides a general consistency check of the framework underlying the derivation, the author infers, on the basis of crude evaluation of scaling functions, an upper limit of 100 MeV for the bare mass of nonstrange quarks. (Auth.)
Parity of Θ+(1540) from QCD sum rules
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Su Houng; Kim, Hungchong; Kwon, Youngshin
2005-01-01
The QCD sum rule for the pentaquark Θ + , first analyzed by Sugiyama, Doi and Oka, is reanalyzed with a phenomenological side that explicitly includes the contribution from the two-particle reducible kaon-nucleon intermediate state. The magnitude for the overlap of the Θ + interpolating current with the kaon-nucleon state is obtained by using soft-kaon theorem and a separate sum rule for the ground state nucleon with the pentaquark nucleon interpolating current. It is found that the K-N intermediate state constitutes only 10% of the sum rule so that the original claim that the parity of Θ + is negative remains valid
The Eccentric-distance Sum of Some Graphs
P, Padmapriya; Mathad, Veena
2017-01-01
Let $G = (V,E)$ be a simple connected graph. Theeccentric-distance sum of $G$ is defined as$\\xi^{ds}(G) =\\ds\\sum_{\\{u,v\\}\\subseteq V(G)} [e(u)+e(v)] d(u,v)$, where $e(u)$ %\\dsis the eccentricity of the vertex $u$ in $G$ and $d(u,v)$ is thedistance between $u$ and $v$. In this paper, we establish formulaeto calculate the eccentric-distance sum for some graphs, namelywheel, star, broom, lollipop, double star, friendship, multi-stargraph and the join of $P_{n-2}$ and $P_2$.
The eccentric-distance sum of some graphs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Padmapriya P
2017-04-01
Full Text Available Let $G = (V,E$ be a simple connected graph. Theeccentric-distance sum of $G$ is defined as$\\xi^{ds}(G =\\ds\\sum_{\\{u,v\\}\\subseteq V(G} [e(u+e(v] d(u,v$, where $e(u$ %\\dsis the eccentricity of the vertex $u$ in $G$ and $d(u,v$ is thedistance between $u$ and $v$. In this paper, we establish formulaeto calculate the eccentric-distance sum for some graphs, namelywheel, star, broom, lollipop, double star, friendship, multi-stargraph and the join of $P_{n-2}$ and $P_2$.
Neutrino mass sum rules and symmetries of the mass matrix
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gehrlein, Julia [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institut fuer Theoretische Teilchenphysik, Karlsruhe (Germany); Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Fisica Teorica UAM/CSIC, Madrid (Spain); Spinrath, Martin [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institut fuer Theoretische Teilchenphysik, Karlsruhe (Germany); National Center for Theoretical Sciences, Physics Division, Hsinchu (China)
2017-05-15
Neutrino mass sum rules have recently gained again more attention as a powerful tool to discriminate and test various flavour models in the near future. A related question which has not yet been discussed fully satisfactorily was the origin of these sum rules and if they are related to any residual or accidental symmetry. We will address this open issue here systematically and find previous statements confirmed. Namely, the sum rules are not related to any enhanced symmetry of the Lagrangian after family symmetry breaking but they are simply the result of a reduction of free parameters due to skillful model building. (orig.)
Moessbauer sum rules for use with synchrotron sources
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lipkin, Harry J.
1999-01-01
The availability of tunable synchrotron radiation sources with millivolt resolution has opened new prospects for exploring dynamics of complex systems with Moessbauer spectroscopy. Early Moessbauer treatments and moment sum rules are extended to treat inelastic excitations measured in synchrotron experiments, with emphasis on the unique new conditions absent in neutron scattering and arising in resonance scattering: prompt absorption, delayed emission, recoil-free transitions and coherent forward scattering. The first moment sum rule normalizes the inelastic spectrum. New sum rules obtained for higher moments include the third moment proportional to the second derivative of the potential acting on the Moessbauer nucleus and independent of temperature in the the harmonic approximation
Derivation of sum rules for quark and baryon fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bongardt, K.
1978-01-01
In an analogous way to the Weinberg sum rules, two spectral-function sum rules for quark and baryon fields are derived by means of the concept of lightlike charges. The baryon sum rules are valid for the case of SU 3 as well as for SU 4 and the one-particle approximation yields a linear mass relation. This relation is not in disagreement with the normal linear GMO formula for the baryons. The calculated masses of the first resonance states agree very well with the experimental data
Adler-Weisberger sum rule for WLWL→WLWL scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pham, T.N.
1991-01-01
We analyse the Adler-Weisberger sum rule for W L W L →W L W L scattering. We find that at some energy, the W L W L total cross section must be large to saturate the sum rule. Measurements at future colliders would be needed to check the sum rule and to obtain the decay rates Γ(H→W L W L , Z L Z L ) which would be modified by the existence of a P-wave vector meson resonance in the standard model with strongly interacting Higgs sector or in technicolour models. (orig.)
A toolbox for Harmonic Sums and their analytic continuations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ablinger, Jakob; Schneider, Carsten [RISC, J. Kepler University, Linz (Austria); Bluemlein, Johannes [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany)
2010-07-01
The package HarmonicSums implemented in the computer algebra system Mathematica is presented. It supports higher loop calculations in QCD and QED to represent single-scale quantities like anomalous dimensions and Wilson coefficients. The package allows to reduce general harmonic sums due to their algebraic and different structural relations. We provide a general framework for these reductions and the explicit representations up to weight w=8. For the use in experimental analyzes we also provide an analytic formalism to continue the harmonic sums form their integer arguments into the complex plane, which includes their recursions and asymptotic representations. The main ideas are illustrated by specific examples.
Investigating evolutionary conservation of dendritic cell subset identity and functions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Thien-Phong eVu Manh
2015-06-01
Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DC were initially defined as mononuclear phagocytes with a dendritic morphology and an exquisite efficiency for naïve T cell activation. DC encompass several subsets initially identified by their expression of specific cell surface molecules and later shown to excel in distinct functions and to develop under the instruction of different transcription factors or cytokines. Very few cell surface molecules are expressed in a specific manner on any immune cell type. Hence, to identify cell types, the sole use of a small number of cell surface markers in classical flow cytometry can be deceiving. Moreover, the markers currently used to define mononuclear phagocyte subsets vary depending on the tissue and animal species studied and even between laboratories. This has led to confusion in the definition of DC subset identity and in their attribution of specific functions. There is a strong need to identify a rigorous and consensus way to define mononuclear phagocyte subsets, with precise guidelines potentially applicable throughout tissues and species. We will discuss the advantages, drawbacks and complementarities of different methodologies: cell surface phenotyping, ontogeny, functional characterization and molecular profiling. We will advocate that gene expression profiling is a very rigorous, largely unbiased and accessible method to define the identity of mononuclear phagocyte subsets, which strengthens and refines surface phenotyping. It is uniquely powerful to yield new, experimentally testable, hypotheses on the ontogeny or functions of mononuclear phagocyte subsets, their molecular regulation and their evolutionary conservation. We propose defining cell populations based on a combination of cell surface phenotyping, expression analysis of hallmark genes and robust functional assays, in order to reach a consensus and integrate faster the huge but scattered knowledge accumulated by different laboratories on different cell types
Compressing the hidden variable space of a qubit
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Montina, Alberto
2011-01-01
In previously exhibited hidden variable models of quantum state preparation and measurement, the number of continuous hidden variables describing the actual state of single realizations is never smaller than the quantum state manifold dimension. We introduce a simple model for a qubit whose hidden variable space is one-dimensional, i.e., smaller than the two-dimensional Bloch sphere. The hidden variable probability distributions associated with quantum states satisfy reasonable criteria of regularity. Possible generalizations of this shrinking to an N-dimensional Hilbert space are discussed.
Zipf exponent of trajectory distribution in the hidden Markov model
Bochkarev, V. V.; Lerner, E. Yu
2014-03-01
This paper is the first step of generalization of the previously obtained full classification of the asymptotic behavior of the probability for Markov chain trajectories for the case of hidden Markov models. The main goal is to study the power (Zipf) and nonpower asymptotics of the frequency list of trajectories of hidden Markov frequencys and to obtain explicit formulae for the exponent of the power asymptotics. We consider several simple classes of hidden Markov models. We prove that the asymptotics for a hidden Markov model and for the corresponding Markov chain can be essentially different.
Zipf exponent of trajectory distribution in the hidden Markov model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bochkarev, V V; Lerner, E Yu
2014-01-01
This paper is the first step of generalization of the previously obtained full classification of the asymptotic behavior of the probability for Markov chain trajectories for the case of hidden Markov models. The main goal is to study the power (Zipf) and nonpower asymptotics of the frequency list of trajectories of hidden Markov frequencys and to obtain explicit formulae for the exponent of the power asymptotics. We consider several simple classes of hidden Markov models. We prove that the asymptotics for a hidden Markov model and for the corresponding Markov chain can be essentially different
On the size of the subset partial order
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Elmasry, Amr Ahmed Abd Elmoneim
2012-01-01
Given a family of k sets with cardinalities S 1,S 2,⋯, S k and N=Σ k i=1S i, we show that the size of the partial order graph induced by the subset relation (called the subset graph) is O(Σ si≤B 2si+N/lgN·Σ si>Blg(s i/B)), 2 where B=lg(N/lg 2N). This implies a simpler proof to the O(N 2/lg 2N...
Hidden acoustic information revealed by intentional nonlinearity
Dowling, David R.
2017-11-01
Acoustic waves are omnipresent in modern life and are well described by the linearized equations of fluid dynamics. Once generated, acoustic waves carry and collect information about their source and the environment through which they propagate, respectively, and this information may be retrieved by analyzing recordings of these waves. Because of this, acoustics is the primary means for observation, surveillance, reconnaissance, and remote sensing in otherwise opaque environments, such as the Earth's oceans and crust, and the interior of the human body. For such information-retrieval tasks, acoustic fields are nearly always interrogated within their recorded frequency range or bandwidth. However, this frequency-range restriction is not general; acoustic fields may also carry (hidden) information at frequencies outside their bandwidth. Although such a claim may seem counter intuitive, hidden acoustic-field information can be revealed by re-introducing a marquee trait of fluid dynamics: nonlinearity. In particular, an intentional quadratic nonlinearity - a form of intra-signal heterodyning - can be used to obtain acoustic field information at frequencies outside a recorded acoustic field's bandwidth. This quadratic nonlinearity enables a variety of acoustic remote sensing applications that were long thought to be impossible. In particular, it allows the detrimental effects of sparse recordings and random scattering to be suppressed when the original acoustic field has sufficient bandwidth. In this presentation, the topic is developed heuristically, with a just brief exposition of the relevant mathematics. Hidden acoustic field information is then revealed from simulated and measured acoustic fields in simple and complicated acoustic environments involving frequencies from a few Hertz to more than 100 kHz, and propagation distances from tens of centimeters to hundreds of kilometers. Sponsored by ONR, NAVSEA, and NSF.
Recovering a hidden polarization by ghost polarimetry.
Janassek, Patrick; Blumenstein, Sébastien; Elsäßer, Wolfgang
2018-02-15
By exploiting polarization correlations of light from a broadband fiber-based amplified spontaneous emission source we succeed in reconstructing a hidden polarization in a ghost polarimetry experiment in close analogy to ghost imaging and ghost spectroscopy. Thereby, an original linear polarization state in the object arm of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer configuration which has been camouflaged by a subsequent depolarizer is recovered by correlating it with light from a reference beam. The variation of a linear polarizer placed inside the reference beam results in a Malus law type second-order intensity correlation with high contrast, thus measuring a ghost polarigram.
Pruning Boltzmann networks and hidden Markov models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Morten With; Stork, D.
1996-01-01
We present sensitivity-based pruning algorithms for general Boltzmann networks. Central to our methods is the efficient calculation of a second-order approximation to the true weight saliencies in a cross-entropy error. Building upon previous work which shows a formal correspondence between linear...... Boltzmann chains and hidden Markov models (HMMs), we argue that our method can be applied to HMMs as well. We illustrate pruning on Boltzmann zippers, which are equivalent to two HMMs with cross-connection links. We verify that our second-order approximation preserves the rank ordering of weight saliencies...
Hidden Scale Invariance in Condensed Matter
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dyre, J. C.
2014-01-01
. This means that the phase diagram becomes effectively one-dimensional with regard to several physical properties. Liquids and solids with isomorphs include most or all van der Waals bonded systems and metals, as well as weakly ionic or dipolar systems. On the other hand, systems with directional bonding...... (hydrogen bonds or covalent bonds) or strong Coulomb forces generally do not exhibit hidden scale invariance. The article reviews the theory behind this picture of condensed matter and the evidence for it coming from computer simulations and experiments...
Uncovering the Hidden Costs of Offshoring
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, Marcus M.; Manning, Stephan; Pedersen, Torben
2013-01-01
This study investigates estimation errors due to hidden costs—the costs of implementation that are neglected in strategic decision-making processes—in the context of services offshoring. Based on data from the Offshoring Research Network, we find that decision makers are more likely to make cost......-estimation errors given increasing configuration and task complexity in captive offshoring and offshore outsourcing, respectively. Moreover, we show that experience and a strong orientation toward organizational design in the offshoring strategy reduce the cost-estimation errors that follow from complexity. Our...
The hidden face of the petroleum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Laurent, E.
2006-02-01
For the first time, a book reveals what that was hidden to the public opinions: why the petroleum crisis of 1973 what only a manipulation, an arrangement between the OPEC and the petroleum companies, why the data concerning the petroleum reserves are wrong and increased by the producers countries, how Washington used the Saudi petroleum weapon to create the Soviet Union fall, and why from march 2001 maps of the Iraq (where were drawn the future petroleum explorations) were working documents for the vice President Cheney and petroleum managers for the ''secret society''. (A.L.B.)
Evolving the structure of hidden Markov Models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
won, K. J.; Prugel-Bennett, A.; Krogh, A.
2006-01-01
A genetic algorithm (GA) is proposed for finding the structure of hidden Markov Models (HMMs) used for biological sequence analysis. The GA is designed to preserve biologically meaningful building blocks. The search through the space of HMM structures is combined with optimization of the emission...... and transition probabilities using the classic Baum-Welch algorithm. The system is tested on the problem of finding the promoter and coding region of C. jejuni. The resulting HMM has a superior discrimination ability to a handcrafted model that has been published in the literature....
The hidden costs of nuclear power
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Keough, C.
1981-01-01
The two basic hidden costs of nuclear power are public money and public health. Nuclear power appears to be economical because many of the costs of producins electricity in these plants are paid by the federal government. So, like it or not, the citizens are footing the bill with their taxes. Design and development of plants have been paid for with public money, and disposal and cleanup costs will also be paid in this manner. The economic and health costs associated with nuclear accidents are staggering
Genetic Algorithms Principles Towards Hidden Markov Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nabil M. Hewahi
2011-10-01
Full Text Available In this paper we propose a general approach based on Genetic Algorithms (GAs to evolve Hidden Markov Models (HMM. The problem appears when experts assign probability values for HMM, they use only some limited inputs. The assigned probability values might not be accurate to serve in other cases related to the same domain. We introduce an approach based on GAs to find
out the suitable probability values for the HMM to be mostly correct in more cases than what have been used to assign the probability values.
Detecting Structural Breaks using Hidden Markov Models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ntantamis, Christos
Testing for structural breaks and identifying their location is essential for econometric modeling. In this paper, a Hidden Markov Model (HMM) approach is used in order to perform these tasks. Breaks are defined as the data points where the underlying Markov Chain switches from one state to another....... The estimation of the HMM is conducted using a variant of the Iterative Conditional Expectation-Generalized Mixture (ICE-GEMI) algorithm proposed by Delignon et al. (1997), that permits analysis of the conditional distributions of economic data and allows for different functional forms across regimes...
Compton scattering from nuclei and photo-absorption sum rules
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gorchtein, Mikhail; Hobbs, Timothy; Londergan, J. Timothy; Szczepaniak, Adam P.
2011-01-01
We revisit the photo-absorption sum rule for real Compton scattering from the proton and from nuclear targets. In analogy with the Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn sum rule appropriate at low energies, we propose a new 'constituent quark model' sum rule that relates the integrated strength of hadronic resonances to the scattering amplitude on constituent quarks. We study the constituent quark model sum rule for several nuclear targets. In addition, we extract the α=0 pole contribution for both proton and nuclei. Using the modern high-energy proton data, we find that the α=0 pole contribution differs significantly from the Thomson term, in contrast with the original findings by Damashek and Gilman.
Unidirectional ring-laser operation using sum-frequency mixing
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter; Cheng, Haynes Pak Hay; Pedersen, Christian
2010-01-01
A technique enforcing unidirectional operation of ring lasers is proposed and demonstrated. The approach relies on sum-frequency mixing between a single-pass laser and one of the two counterpropagating intracavity fields of the ring laser. Sum-frequency mixing introduces a parametric loss for the...... where lossless second-order nonlinear materials are available. Numerical modeling and experimental demonstration of parametric-induced unidirectional operation of a diode-pumped solid-state 1342 nm cw ring laser are presented.......A technique enforcing unidirectional operation of ring lasers is proposed and demonstrated. The approach relies on sum-frequency mixing between a single-pass laser and one of the two counterpropagating intracavity fields of the ring laser. Sum-frequency mixing introduces a parametric loss...
A simple derivation of new sum rules of Bessel functions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ciocci, F.; Dattoli, G.; Dipace, A.
1985-01-01
In this note it is exploited a recently suggested technique to get simple expressions for a class of sum rules of Bessel functions appearing in plasma physics; their relevance to the numerical evaluation of the Turkin function is also discussed
Asymptotic distribution of products of sums of independent random ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
integrable random variables (r.v.) are asymptotically log-normal. This fact ... the product of the partial sums of i.i.d. positive random variables as follows. .... Now define ..... by Henan Province Foundation and Frontier Technology Research Plan.
QCD sum rules and applications to nuclear physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cohen, T D [Maryland Univ., College Park, MD (United States). Dept. of Physics; [Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Inst. for Nuclear Theory; Furnstahl, R J [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Dept. of Physics; Griegel, D K [Maryland Univ., College Park, MD (United States). Dept. of Physics; [TRIUMF, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Xuemin, J
1994-12-01
Applications of QCD sum-rule methods to the physics of nuclei are reviewed, with an emphasis on calculations of baryon self-energies in infinite nuclear matter. The sum-rule approach relates spectral properties of hadrons propagating in the finite-density medium, such as optical potentials for quasinucleons, to matrix elements of QCD composite operators (condensates). The vacuum formalism for QCD sum rules is generalized to finite density, and the strategy and implementation of the approach is discussed. Predictions for baryon self-energies are compared to those suggested by relativistic nuclear physics phenomenology. Sum rules for vector mesons in dense nuclear matter are also considered. (author). 153 refs., 8 figs.
Effectiveness evaluation of contingency sum as a risk management ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management ... manage risks prone projects have adopted several methods, one of which is contingency sum. ... initial project cost, cost overrun and percentage allowed for contingency.
Power sums of fibonacci and Lucas numbers | Chu | Quaestiones ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Lucas numbers are established, which include, as special cases, four for-mulae for odd power sums of Melham type on Fibonacci and Lucas numbers, obtained recently by Ozeki and Prodinger (2009). Quaestiones Mathematicae 34(2011), 75- ...
Global Update and Trends of Hidden Hunger, 1995-2011: The Hidden Hunger Index
Stevens, Gretchen A.; Ezzati, Majid; Black, Robert E.; Kraemer, Klaus
2015-01-01
Background Deficiencies in essential vitamins and minerals–also termed hidden hunger–are pervasive and hold negative consequences for the cognitive and physical development of children. Methods This analysis evaluates the change in hidden hunger over time in the form of one composite indicator–the Hidden Hunger Index (HHI)–using an unweighted average of prevalence estimates from the Nutrition Impact Model Study for anemia due to iron deficiency, vitamin A deficiency, and stunting (used as a proxy indicator for zinc deficiency). Net changes from 1995–2011 and population weighted regional means for various time periods are measured. Findings Globally, hidden hunger improved (-6.7 net change in HHI) from 1995–2011. Africa was the only region to see a deterioration in hidden hunger (+1.9) over the studied time period; East Asia and the Pacific performed exceptionally well (-13.0), while other regions improved only slightly. Improvements in HHI were mostly due to reductions in zinc and vitamin A deficiencies, while anemia due to iron deficiency persisted and even increased. Interpretation This analysis is critical for informing and tracking the impact of policy and programmatic efforts to reduce micronutrient deficiencies, to advance the global nutrition agenda, and to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). However, there remains an unmet need to invest in gathering frequent, nationally representative, high-quality micronutrient data as we renew our efforts to scale up nutrition, and as we enter the post-2015 development agenda. Funding Preparation of this manuscript was funded by Sight and Life. There was no funding involved in the study design, data collection, analysis, or decision to publish. PMID:26673631
Global Update and Trends of Hidden Hunger, 1995-2011: The Hidden Hunger Index.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Julie C Ruel-Bergeron
Full Text Available Deficiencies in essential vitamins and minerals-also termed hidden hunger-are pervasive and hold negative consequences for the cognitive and physical development of children.This analysis evaluates the change in hidden hunger over time in the form of one composite indicator-the Hidden Hunger Index (HHI-using an unweighted average of prevalence estimates from the Nutrition Impact Model Study for anemia due to iron deficiency, vitamin A deficiency, and stunting (used as a proxy indicator for zinc deficiency. Net changes from 1995-2011 and population weighted regional means for various time periods are measured.Globally, hidden hunger improved (-6.7 net change in HHI from 1995-2011. Africa was the only region to see a deterioration in hidden hunger (+1.9 over the studied time period; East Asia and the Pacific performed exceptionally well (-13.0, while other regions improved only slightly. Improvements in HHI were mostly due to reductions in zinc and vitamin A deficiencies, while anemia due to iron deficiency persisted and even increased.This analysis is critical for informing and tracking the impact of policy and programmatic efforts to reduce micronutrient deficiencies, to advance the global nutrition agenda, and to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs. However, there remains an unmet need to invest in gathering frequent, nationally representative, high-quality micronutrient data as we renew our efforts to scale up nutrition, and as we enter the post-2015 development agenda.Preparation of this manuscript was funded by Sight and Life. There was no funding involved in the study design, data collection, analysis, or decision to publish.
Hidden in plain sight: the formal, informal, and hidden curricula of a psychiatry clerkship.
Wear, Delese; Skillicorn, Jodie
2009-04-01
To examine perceptions of the formal, informal, and hidden curricula in psychiatry as they are observed and experienced by (1) attending physicians who have teaching responsibilities for residents and medical students, (2) residents who are taught by those same physicians and who have teaching responsibilities for medical students, and (3) medical students who are taught by attendings and residents during their psychiatry rotation. From June to November 2007, the authors conducted focus groups with attendings, residents, and students in one midwestern academic setting. The sessions were audiotaped, transcribed, and analyzed for themes surrounding the formal, informal, and hidden curricula. All three groups offered a similar belief that the knowledge, skills, and values of the formal curriculum focused on building relationships. Similarly, all three suggested that elements of the informal and hidden curricula were expressed primarily as the values arising from attendings' role modeling, as the nature and amount of time attendings spend with patients, and as attendings' advice arising from experience and intuition versus "textbook learning." Whereas students and residents offered negative values arising from the informal and hidden curricula, attendings did not, offering instead the more positive values they intended to encourage through the informal and hidden curricula. The process described here has great potential in local settings across all disciplines. Asking teachers and learners in any setting to think about how they experience the educational environment and what sense they make of all curricular efforts can provide a reality check for educators and a values check for learners as they critically reflect on the meanings of what they are learning.
The black hole interior and a curious sum rule
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Giveon, Amit; Itzhaki, Nissan; Troost, Jan
2014-01-01
We analyze the Euclidean geometry near non-extremal NS5-branes in string theory, including regions beyond the horizon and beyond the singularity of the black brane. The various regions have an exact description in string theory, in terms of cigar, trumpet and negative level minimal model conformal field theories. We study the worldsheet elliptic genera of these three superconformal theories, and show that their sum vanishes. We speculate on the significance of this curious sum rule for black hole physics
QCD sum rule for nucleon in nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mallik, S.; Sarkar, Sourav
2010-01-01
We consider the two-point function of nucleon current in nuclear matter and write a QCD sum rule to analyse the residue of the nucleon pole as a function of nuclear density. The nucleon self-energy needed for the sum rule is taken as input from calculations using phenomenological N N potential. Our result shows a decrease in the residue with increasing nuclear density, as is known to be the case with similar quantities. (orig.)
Convolutional Codes with Maximum Column Sum Rank for Network Streaming
Mahmood, Rafid; Badr, Ahmed; Khisti, Ashish
2015-01-01
The column Hamming distance of a convolutional code determines the error correction capability when streaming over a class of packet erasure channels. We introduce a metric known as the column sum rank, that parallels column Hamming distance when streaming over a network with link failures. We prove rank analogues of several known column Hamming distance properties and introduce a new family of convolutional codes that maximize the column sum rank up to the code memory. Our construction invol...
The black hole interior and a curious sum rule
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Giveon, Amit [Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University,Jerusalem, 91904 (Israel); Itzhaki, Nissan [Physics Department, Tel-Aviv University,Ramat-Aviv, 69978 (Israel); Troost, Jan [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique,Unité Mixte du CRNS et de l’École Normale Supérieure,associée à l’Université Pierre et Marie Curie 6,UMR 8549 École Normale Supérieure,24 Rue Lhomond Paris 75005 (France)
2014-03-12
We analyze the Euclidean geometry near non-extremal NS5-branes in string theory, including regions beyond the horizon and beyond the singularity of the black brane. The various regions have an exact description in string theory, in terms of cigar, trumpet and negative level minimal model conformal field theories. We study the worldsheet elliptic genera of these three superconformal theories, and show that their sum vanishes. We speculate on the significance of this curious sum rule for black hole physics.
GDH sum rule measurement at low Q2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bianchi, N.
1996-01-01
The Gerasimov-Drell-Hearn (GDH) sum rule is based on a general dispersive relation for the forward Compton scattering. Multipole analysis suggested the possible violation of the sum rule. Some propositions have been made to modify the original GDH expression. An effort is now being made in several laboratories to shred some light on this topic. The purposes of the different planned experiments are briefly presented according to their Q 2 range
Spectral sum rule for time delay in R2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Osborn, T.A.; Sinha, K.B.; Bolle, D.; Danneels, C.
1985-01-01
A local spectral sum rule for nonrelativistic scattering in two dimensions is derived for the potential class velement ofL 4 /sup // 3 (R 2 ). The sum rule relates the integral over all scattering energies of the trace of the time-delay operator for a finite region Σis contained inR 2 to the contributions in Σ of the pure point and singularly continuous spectra
Light-cone sum rules: A SCET-based formulation
De Fazio, F; Hurth, Tobias; Feldmann, Th.
2007-01-01
We describe the construction of light-cone sum rules (LCSRs) for exclusive $B$-meson decays into light energetic hadrons from correlation functions within soft-collinear effective theory (SCET). As an example, we consider the SCET sum rule for the $B \\to \\pi$ transition form factor at large recoil, including radiative corrections from hard-collinear loop diagrams at first order in the strong coupling constant.
A Global Optimization Algorithm for Sum of Linear Ratios Problem
Yuelin Gao; Siqiao Jin
2013-01-01
We equivalently transform the sum of linear ratios programming problem into bilinear programming problem, then by using the linear characteristics of convex envelope and concave envelope of double variables product function, linear relaxation programming of the bilinear programming problem is given, which can determine the lower bound of the optimal value of original problem. Therefore, a branch and bound algorithm for solving sum of linear ratios programming problem is put forward, and the c...
An Algorithm to Solve the Equal-Sum-Product Problem
Nyblom, M. A.; Evans, C. D.
2013-01-01
A recursive algorithm is constructed which finds all solutions to a class of Diophantine equations connected to the problem of determining ordered n-tuples of positive integers satisfying the property that their sum is equal to their product. An examination of the use of Binary Search Trees in implementing the algorithm into a working program is given. In addition an application of the algorithm for searching possible extra exceptional values of the equal-sum-product problem is explored after...
Hadronic final states and sum rules in deep inelastic processes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pal, B.K.
1977-01-01
In order to get maximum information on the hadronic final states and sum rules in deep inelastic processes, Regge phenomenology and quarks parton model have been used. The unified picture for the production of hadrons of type i as a function of Bjorken and Feyman variables with only one adjustable parameter is formulated. The results of neutrino experiments and the production of charm particles are discussed in sum rules. (author)
Comment on QCD sum rules and weak bottom decays
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guberina, B.; Machet, B.
1982-07-01
QCD sum rules derived by Bourrely et al. are applied to B-decays to get a lower and an upper bound for the decay rate. The sum rules are shown to be essentially controlled by the large mass scales involved in the process. These bounds combined with the experimental value of BR (B→eνX) provide an upper bound for the lifetime of the B + meson. A comparison is made with D-meson decays
On the general Dedekind sums and its reciprocity formula
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
if x is an integer. The various properties of S(h, q) were investigated by many authors. Maybe the most famous property of Dedekind sums is the reciprocity formula (see [2–4]):. S(h, q) + S(q, h) = h2 + q2 + 1. 12hq. −. 1. 4. (1) for all (h, q) = 1,q > 0,h> 0. The main purpose of this paper is to introduce a general. Dedekind sum:.
Root and Critical Point Behaviors of Certain Sums of Polynomials
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
13
There is an extensive literature concerning roots of sums of polynomials. Many papers and books([5], [6],. [7]) have written about these polynomials. Perhaps the most immediate question of sums of polynomials,. A + B = C, is “given bounds for the roots of A and B, what bounds can be given for the roots of C?” By. Fell [3], if ...
Range-reference determination of lymphocyte subsets in Moroccan
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Administrator
Centre de Transfusion Sanguine, Hôpital Militaire d'Instruction Med V Rabat, Morocco. 3. Service ... The percentage of CD3-CD56+ subsets was affected by smoking (p < 0.01). Our analysis .... lymphocyte subpopulations in non-smokers and.
Subset selection for an epsilon-best population : efficiency results
Laan, van der P.
1991-01-01
An almost best or an \\epsilon-best population is defined as a population with location parameter on a distance not larger than \\epsilon (\\geq 0) from the best population (with largest value of the location parameter). For the subset selection tables with the relative efficiency of selecting an
T-lymphocyte subsets, thymic size and breastfeeding in infancy
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jeppesen, Dorthe Lisbeth; Hasselbalch, Helle; Lisse, Ida M
2004-01-01
We followed the changes in concentration of T-lymphocyte subsets (CD4+ and CD8+ cells) in peripheral blood and thymus size during infancy. Previous studies have found increased thymus size in breastfed infants. The present study analyzed the association between breastfeeding and the number of CD4...
T lymphocyte subsets in prostate cancer subjects in south eastern ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Humoral and cellular mechanisms play roles in immune response to foreign antigens. The present study was designed to determine the T lymphocyte subsets (CD4 + T cells, CD8 + T cells and CD4/CD8 ratio) in the prostate cancer subjects and control subjects. CD4 + T cells (`l/count) and CD8 + T cells (`l/count) were ...
Chiral corrections to the Adler-Weisberger sum rule
Beane, Silas R.; Klco, Natalie
2016-12-01
The Adler-Weisberger sum rule for the nucleon axial-vector charge, gA , offers a unique signature of chiral symmetry and its breaking in QCD. Its derivation relies on both algebraic aspects of chiral symmetry, which guarantee the convergence of the sum rule, and dynamical aspects of chiral symmetry breaking—as exploited using chiral perturbation theory—which allow the rigorous inclusion of explicit chiral symmetry breaking effects due to light-quark masses. The original derivations obtained the sum rule in the chiral limit and, without the benefit of chiral perturbation theory, made various attempts at extrapolating to nonvanishing pion masses. In this paper, the leading, universal, chiral corrections to the chiral-limit sum rule are obtained. Using PDG data, a recent parametrization of the pion-nucleon total cross sections in the resonance region given by the SAID group, as well as recent Roy-Steiner equation determinations of subthreshold amplitudes, threshold parameters, and correlated low-energy constants, the Adler-Weisberger sum rule is confronted with experimental data. With uncertainty estimates associated with the cross-section parametrization, the Goldberger-Treimann discrepancy, and the truncation of the sum rule at O (Mπ4) in the chiral expansion, this work finds gA=1.248 ±0.010 ±0.007 ±0.013 .
Atlas of solar hidden photon emission
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Redondo, Javier [Departamento de Física Teórica, Universidad de Zaragoza,Pedro Cerbuna 12, E-50009, Zaragoza (Spain); Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, Werner-Heisenberg-Institut,Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany)
2015-07-20
Hidden photons, gauge bosons of a U(1) symmetry of a hidden sector, can constitute the dark matter of the universe and a smoking gun for large volume compactifications of string theory. In the sub-eV mass range, a possible discovery experiment consists on searching the copious flux of these particles emitted from the Sun in a helioscope setup à la Sikivie. In this paper, we compute in great detail the flux of HPs from the Sun, a necessary ingredient for interpreting such experiments. We provide a detailed exposition of transverse photon-HP oscillations in inhomogenous media, with special focus on resonance oscillations, which play a leading role in many cases. The region of the Sun emitting HPs resonantly is a thin spherical shell for which we justify an averaged-emission formula and which implies a distinctive morphology of the angular distribution of HPs on Earth in many cases. Low mass HPs with energies in the visible and IR have resonances very close to the photosphere where the solar plasma is not fully ionised and requires building a detailed model of solar refraction and absorption. We present results for a broad range of HP masses (from 0–1 keV) and energies (from the IR to the X-ray range), the most complete atlas of solar HP emission to date.
Atlas of solar hidden photon emission
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Redondo, Javier, E-mail: redondo@mpp.mpg.de [Departamento de Física Teórica, Universidad de Zaragoza, Pedro Cerbuna 12, E-50009, Zaragoza, España (Spain)
2015-07-01
Hidden photons, gauge bosons of a U(1) symmetry of a hidden sector, can constitute the dark matter of the universe and a smoking gun for large volume compactifications of string theory. In the sub-eV mass range, a possible discovery experiment consists on searching the copious flux of these particles emitted from the Sun in a helioscope setup à la Sikivie. In this paper, we compute in great detail the flux of HPs from the Sun, a necessary ingredient for interpreting such experiments. We provide a detailed exposition of transverse photon-HP oscillations in inhomogenous media, with special focus on resonance oscillations, which play a leading role in many cases. The region of the Sun emitting HPs resonantly is a thin spherical shell for which we justify an averaged-emission formula and which implies a distinctive morphology of the angular distribution of HPs on Earth in many cases. Low mass HPs with energies in the visible and IR have resonances very close to the photosphere where the solar plasma is not fully ionised and requires building a detailed model of solar refraction and absorption. We present results for a broad range of HP masses (from 0–1 keV) and energies (from the IR to the X-ray range), the most complete atlas of solar HP emission to date.
Hidden Markov Model for Stock Selection
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nguyet Nguyen
2015-10-01
Full Text Available The hidden Markov model (HMM is typically used to predict the hidden regimes of observation data. Therefore, this model finds applications in many different areas, such as speech recognition systems, computational molecular biology and financial market predictions. In this paper, we use HMM for stock selection. We first use HMM to make monthly regime predictions for the four macroeconomic variables: inflation (consumer price index (CPI, industrial production index (INDPRO, stock market index (S&P 500 and market volatility (VIX. At the end of each month, we calibrate HMM’s parameters for each of these economic variables and predict its regimes for the next month. We then look back into historical data to find the time periods for which the four variables had similar regimes with the forecasted regimes. Within those similar periods, we analyze all of the S&P 500 stocks to identify which stock characteristics have been well rewarded during the time periods and assign scores and corresponding weights for each of the stock characteristics. A composite score of each stock is calculated based on the scores and weights of its features. Based on this algorithm, we choose the 50 top ranking stocks to buy. We compare the performances of the portfolio with the benchmark index, S&P 500. With an initial investment of $100 in December 1999, over 15 years, in December 2014, our portfolio had an average gain per annum of 14.9% versus 2.3% for the S&P 500.
Hidden ion population of the magnetosphere
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Olsen, R.C.
1982-01-01
Particle data from two geosynchronous satellites (Applied Technology Satellite 6 and SCATHA) show a normally hidden ion population appearing when the satellites are in the earth's shadow. Ion and electron data show the spacecraft potential dropping from +10 V in sunlight to +4 and +5 V in eclipse at local midnight, in low-energy (T/sub e/ -2 ), isotropic ion population appears which was invisible in sunlight because of the larger positive spacecraft potential. Higher-energy populations generally cover the tails of the hidden ion populations, so they cannot be inferred from daylight data. The isotropic populations appears only in a few percent of the spacecraft eclipse events, appearing only at times of low Kp (2 or less, preceded by a day with Σ Kp< or =20). A low-energy (T = 1--2 eV) field-aligned population often appears with and without the isotropic population, at slightly higher flux levels. These fluxes are visible in sunlight, but again the distribution functions obtained in eclipse differ from those that would be inferred from daylight data. Measurement of the thermal plasma population on a consistent basis, particularly in the plasma sheet, will require some method of controlling the detector potential with respect to the ambient plamsa
ESO's Hidden Treasures Brought to Light
2011-01-01
ESO's Hidden Treasures 2010 astrophotography competition attracted nearly 100 entries, and ESO is delighted to announce the winners. Hidden Treasures gave amateur astronomers the opportunity to search ESO's vast archives of astronomical data for a well-hidden cosmic gem. Astronomy enthusiast Igor Chekalin from Russia won the first prize in this difficult but rewarding challenge - the trip of a lifetime to ESO's Very Large Telescope at Paranal, Chile. The pictures of the Universe that can be seen in ESO's releases are impressive. However, many hours of skilful work are required to assemble the raw greyscale data captured by the telescopes into these colourful images, correcting them for distortions and unwanted signatures of the instrument, and enhancing them so as to bring out the details contained in the astronomical data. ESO has a team of professional image processors, but for the ESO's Hidden Treasures 2010 competition, the experts decided to give astronomy and photography enthusiasts the opportunity to show the world what they could do with the mammoth amount of data contained in ESO's archives. The enthusiasts who responded to the call submitted nearly 100 entries in total - far exceeding initial expectations, given the difficult nature of the challenge. "We were completely taken aback both by the quantity and the quality of the images that were submitted. This was not a challenge for the faint-hearted, requiring both an advanced knowledge of data processing and an artistic eye. We are thrilled to have discovered so many talented people," said Lars Lindberg Christensen, Head of ESO's education and Public Outreach Department. Digging through many terabytes of professional astronomical data, the entrants had to identify a series of greyscale images of a celestial object that would reveal the hidden beauty of our Universe. The chance of a great reward for the lucky winner was enough to spur on the competitors; the first prize being a trip to ESO's Very Large
Epitope discovery with phylogenetic hidden Markov models.
LENUS (Irish Health Repository)
Lacerda, Miguel
2010-05-01
Existing methods for the prediction of immunologically active T-cell epitopes are based on the amino acid sequence or structure of pathogen proteins. Additional information regarding the locations of epitopes may be acquired by considering the evolution of viruses in hosts with different immune backgrounds. In particular, immune-dependent evolutionary patterns at sites within or near T-cell epitopes can be used to enhance epitope identification. We have developed a mutation-selection model of T-cell epitope evolution that allows the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genotype of the host to influence the evolutionary process. This is one of the first examples of the incorporation of environmental parameters into a phylogenetic model and has many other potential applications where the selection pressures exerted on an organism can be related directly to environmental factors. We combine this novel evolutionary model with a hidden Markov model to identify contiguous amino acid positions that appear to evolve under immune pressure in the presence of specific host immune alleles and that therefore represent potential epitopes. This phylogenetic hidden Markov model provides a rigorous probabilistic framework that can be combined with sequence or structural information to improve epitope prediction. As a demonstration, we apply the model to a data set of HIV-1 protein-coding sequences and host HLA genotypes.
Pentaquarks with hidden charm as hadroquarkonia
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Eides, Michael I. [University of Kentucky, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Lexington, KY (United States); Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Petrov, Victor Yu. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Polyakov, Maxim V. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik II, Bochum (Germany)
2018-01-15
We consider hidden charm pentaquarks as hadroquarkonium states in a QCD inspired approach. Pentaquarks arise naturally as bound states of quarkonia excitations and ordinary baryons. The LHCb P{sub c}(4450) pentaquark is interpreted as a ψ{sup '}-nucleon bound state with spin-parity J{sup P} = 3/2{sup -}. The partial decay width Γ(P{sub c}(4450) → J/ψ + N) ∼ 11 MeV is calculated and turned out to be in agreement with the experimental data for P{sub c}(4450). The P{sub c}(4450) pentaquark is predicted to be a member of one of the two almost degenerate hidden-charm baryon octets with spin-parities J{sup P} = 1/2{sup -}, 3/2{sup -}. The masses and decay widths of the octet pentaquarks are calculated. The widths are small and comparable with the width of the P{sub c}(4450) pentaquark, and the masses of the octet pentaquarks satisfy the Gell-Mann-Okubo relation. Interpretation of pentaquarks as loosely bound Σ{sub c} anti D* and Σ{sub c}{sup *} anti D* deuteronlike states is also considered. We determine quantum numbers of these bound states and calculate their masses in the one-pion exchange scenario. The hadroquarkonium and molecular approaches to exotic hadrons are compared and the relative advantages and drawbacks of each approach are discussed. (orig.)
Low energy theorems of hidden local symmetries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Harada, Masayasu; Kugo, Taichiro; Yamawaki, Koichi.
1994-01-01
We prove to all orders of the loop expansion the low energy theorems of hidden local symmetries in four-dimensional nonlinear sigma models based on the coset space G/H, with G and H being arbitrary compact groups. Although the models are non-renormalizable, the proof is done in an analogous manner to the renormalization proof of gauge theories and two-dimensional nonlinear sigma models by restricting ourselves to the operators with two derivatives (counting a hidden gauge boson field as one derivative), i.e., with dimension 2, which are the only operators relevant to the low energy limit. Through loop-wise mathematical induction based on the Ward-Takahashi identity for the BRS symmetry, we solve renormalization equation for the effective action up to dimension-2 terms plus terms with the relevant BRS sources. We then show that all the quantum corrections to the dimension-2 operators, including the finite parts as well as the divergent ones, can be entirely absorbed into a re-definition (renormalization) of the parameters and the fields in the dimension-2 part of the tree-level Lagrangian. (author)
Black holes, hidden symmetries, and complete integrability.
Frolov, Valeri P; Krtouš, Pavel; Kubizňák, David
2017-01-01
The study of higher-dimensional black holes is a subject which has recently attracted vast interest. Perhaps one of the most surprising discoveries is a realization that the properties of higher-dimensional black holes with the spherical horizon topology and described by the Kerr-NUT-(A)dS metrics are very similar to the properties of the well known four-dimensional Kerr metric. This remarkable result stems from the existence of a single object called the principal tensor. In our review we discuss explicit and hidden symmetries of higher-dimensional Kerr-NUT-(A)dS black hole spacetimes. We start with discussion of the Killing and Killing-Yano objects representing explicit and hidden symmetries. We demonstrate that the principal tensor can be used as a "seed object" which generates all these symmetries. It determines the form of the geometry, as well as guarantees its remarkable properties, such as special algebraic type of the spacetime, complete integrability of geodesic motion, and separability of the Hamilton-Jacobi, Klein-Gordon, and Dirac equations. The review also contains a discussion of different applications of the developed formalism and its possible generalizations.
An introduction to hidden Markov models for biological sequences
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Krogh, Anders Stærmose
1998-01-01
A non-matematical tutorial on hidden Markov models (HMMs) plus a description of one of the applications of HMMs: gene finding.......A non-matematical tutorial on hidden Markov models (HMMs) plus a description of one of the applications of HMMs: gene finding....
Asymptotics for Estimating Equations in Hidden Markov Models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Jørgen Vinsløv; Jensen, Jens Ledet
Results on asymptotic normality for the maximum likelihood estimate in hidden Markov models are extended in two directions. The stationarity assumption is relaxed, which allows for a covariate process influencing the hidden Markov process. Furthermore a class of estimating equations is considered...
Secret Codes: The Hidden Curriculum of Semantic Web Technologies
Edwards, Richard; Carmichael, Patrick
2012-01-01
There is a long tradition in education of examination of the hidden curriculum, those elements which are implicit or tacit to the formal goals of education. This article draws upon that tradition to open up for investigation the hidden curriculum and assumptions about students and knowledge that are embedded in the coding undertaken to facilitate…
Searching for hidden sector in multiparticle production at LHC
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Miguel-Angel Sanchis-Lozano
2016-03-01
Full Text Available We study the impact of a hidden sector beyond the Standard Model, e.g. a Hidden Valley model, on factorial moments and cumulants of multiplicity distributions in multiparticle production with a special emphasis on the prospects for LHC results.
Hidden Agendas in Marriage: Affective and Longitudinal Dimensions.
Krokoff, Lowell J.
1990-01-01
Examines how couples' discussions of troublesome problems reveal hidden agendas (issues not directly discussed or explored). Finds disgust and contempt are at the core of both love and respect agendas for husbands and wives. Finds that wives' more than husbands' hidden agendas are directly predictive of how negatively they argue at home. (SR)
Hidden symmetries in minimal five-dimensional supergravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Poessel, Markus; Silva, Sebastian
2004-01-01
We study the hidden symmetries arising in the dimensional reduction of d=5, N=2 supergravity to three dimensions. Extending previous partial results for the bosonic part, we give a derivation that includes fermionic terms, shedding light on the appearance of the local hidden symmetry SO(4) in the reduction
Abelian hidden sectors at a GeV
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Morrissey, David E.; Poland, David; Zurek, Kathryn M.
2009-01-01
We discuss mechanisms for naturally generating GeV-scale hidden sectors in the context of weak-scale supersymmetry. Such low mass scales can arise when hidden sectors are more weakly coupled to supersymmetry breaking than the visible sector, as happens when supersymmetry breaking is communicated to the visible sector by gauge interactions under which the hidden sector is uncharged, or if the hidden sector is sequestered from gravity-mediated supersymmetry breaking. We study these mechanisms in detail in the context of gauge and gaugino mediation, and present specific models of Abelian GeV-scale hidden sectors. In particular, we discuss kinetic mixing of a U(1) x gauge force with hypercharge, singlets or bi-fundamentals which couple to both sectors, and additional loop effects. Finally, we investigate the possible relevance of such sectors for dark matter phenomenology, as well as for low- and high-energy collider searches.
Identifying hidden sexual bridging communities in Chicago.
Youm, Yoosik; Mackesy-Amiti, Mary Ellen; Williams, Chyvette T; Ouellet, Lawrence J
2009-07-01
Bridge populations can play a central role in the spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) by providing transmission links between higher and lower prevalence populations. While social network methods are well suited to the study of bridge populations, analyses tend to focus on dyads (i.e., risk between drug and/or sex partners) and ignore bridges between distinct subpopulations. This study takes initial steps toward moving the analysis of sexual network linkages beyond individual and risk group levels to a community level in which Chicago's 77 community areas are examined as subpopulations for the purpose of identifying potential bridging communities. Of particular interest are "hidden" bridging communities; that is, areas with above-average levels of sexual ties with other areas but whose below-average AIDS prevalence may hide their potential importance for HIV prevention. Data for this analysis came from the first wave of recruiting at the Chicago Sexual Acquisition and Transmission of HIV Cooperative Agreement Program site. Between August 2005 through October 2006, respondent-driven sampling was used to recruit users of heroin, cocaine, or methamphetamine, men who have sex with men regardless of drug use, the sex partners of these two groups, and sex partners of the sex partners. In this cross-sectional study of the sexual transmission of HIV, participants completed a network-focused computer-assisted self-administered interview, which included questions about the geographic locations of sexual contacts with up to six recent partners. Bridging scores for each area were determined using a matrix representing Chicago's 77 community areas and were assessed using two measures: non-redundant ties and flow betweenness. Bridging measures and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) case prevalence rates were plotted for each community area on charts representing four conditions: below-average bridging and AIDS prevalence, below-average bridging and above
Implementing Modifed Burg Algorithms in Multivariate Subset Autoregressive Modeling
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Alexandre Trindade
2003-02-01
Full Text Available The large number of parameters in subset vector autoregressive models often leads one to procure fast, simple, and efficient alternatives or precursors to maximum likelihood estimation. We present the solution of the multivariate subset Yule-Walker equations as one such alternative. In recent work, Brockwell, Dahlhaus, and Trindade (2002, show that the Yule-Walker estimators can actually be obtained as a special case of a general recursive Burg-type algorithm. We illustrate the structure of this Algorithm, and discuss its implementation in a high-level programming language. Applications of the Algorithm in univariate and bivariate modeling are showcased in examples. Univariate and bivariate versions of the Algorithm written in Fortran 90 are included in the appendix, and their use illustrated.
Design of a verifiable subset for HAL/S
Browne, J. C.; Good, D. I.; Tripathi, A. R.; Young, W. D.
1979-01-01
An attempt to evaluate the applicability of program verification techniques to the existing programming language, HAL/S is discussed. HAL/S is a general purpose high level language designed to accommodate the software needs of the NASA Space Shuttle project. A diversity of features for scientific computing, concurrent and real-time programming, and error handling are discussed. The criteria by which features were evaluated for inclusion into the verifiable subset are described. Individual features of HAL/S with respect to these criteria are examined and justification for the omission of various features from the subset is provided. Conclusions drawn from the research are presented along with recommendations made for the use of HAL/S with respect to the area of program verification.
Optimum unambiguous discrimination between subsets of nonorthogonal quantum states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sun Yuqing; Hillery, Mark; Bergou, Janos A.
2002-01-01
It is known that unambiguous discrimination among nonorthogonal but linearly independent quantum states is possible with a certain probability of success. Here, we consider a variant of that problem. Instead of discriminating among all of the different states, we shall only discriminate between two subsets of them. In particular, for the case of three nonorthogonal states, { vertical bar ψ 1 >, vertical bar ψ 2 >, vertical bar ψ 3 >}, we show that the optimal strategy to distinguish vertical bar ψ 1 > from the set { vertical bar ψ 2 >, vertical bar ψ 3 >} has a higher success rate than if we wish to discriminate among all three states. Somewhat surprisingly, for unambiguous discrimination the subsets need not be linearly independent. A fully analytical solution is presented, and we also show how to construct generalized interferometers (multiport) which provide an optical implementation of the optimal strategy
Auditing Complex Concepts in Overlapping Subsets of SNOMED
Wang, Yue; Wei, Duo; Xu, Junchuan; Elhanan, Gai; Perl, Yehoshua; Halper, Michael; Chen, Yan; Spackman, Kent A.; Hripcsak, George
2008-01-01
Limited resources and the sheer volume of concepts make auditing a large terminology, such as SNOMED CT, a daunting task. It is essential to devise techniques that can aid an auditor by automatically identifying concepts that deserve attention. A methodology for this purpose based on a previously introduced abstraction network (called the p-area taxonomy) for a SNOMED CT hierarchy is presented. The methodology algorithmically gathers concepts appearing in certain overlapping subsets, defined exclusively with respect to the p-area taxonomy, for review. The results of applying the methodology to SNOMED’s Specimen hierarchy are presented. These results are compared against a control sample composed of concepts residing in subsets without the overlaps. With the use of the double bootstrap, the concept group produced by our methodology is shown to yield a statistically significant higher proportion of error discoveries. PMID:18998838
Massive two-loop Bhabha scattering - the factorizable subset
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fleischer, J.; Tarasov, O.V.; Werthenbach, A.
2002-11-01
The experimental precision that will be reached at the next generation of colliders makes it indispensable to improve theoretical predictions significantly. Bhabha scattering (e + e - → e + e - ) is one of the prime processes calling for a better theoretical precision, in particular for non-zero electron masses. We present a first subset of the full two-loop calculation, namely the factorizable subset. Our calculation is based on DIANA. We reduce tensor integrals to scalar integrals in shifted (increased) dimensions and additional powers of various propagators, so-called dots-on-lines. Recurrence relations remove those dots-on-lines as well as genuine dots-on-lines (originating from mass renormalization) and reduce the dimension of the integrals to the generic d=4-2ε dimensions. The resulting master integrals have to be expanded to O(ε) to ensure proper treatment of all finite terms. (orig.)
Individual discriminative face recognition models based on subsets of features
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder; Gomez, David Delgado; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær
2007-01-01
The accuracy of data classification methods depends considerably on the data representation and on the selected features. In this work, the elastic net model selection is used to identify meaningful and important features in face recognition. Modelling the characteristics which distinguish one...... person from another using only subsets of features will both decrease the computational cost and increase the generalization capacity of the face recognition algorithm. Moreover, identifying which are the features that better discriminate between persons will also provide a deeper understanding...... of the face recognition problem. The elastic net model is able to select a subset of features with low computational effort compared to other state-of-the-art feature selection methods. Furthermore, the fact that the number of features usually is larger than the number of images in the data base makes feature...
… To be hidden does not mean to be merely revealed – Part 1 Artistic research on hidden curriculum
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Annette Krause
2015-09-01
Full Text Available This text revisits the long-term project Hidden Curriculum, initiated by Annette Krauss. The project addresses unquestioned routines, hierarchies of knowledge (part 1, and the role of the body in learning processes (part 2 from the perspective of secondary/high school education (in the research on a hidden curriculum. A deeper analysis of educational studies on the phenomenon of ‘hidden curriculum’ in relation to the feminist and critical pedagogies of bell hooks, Paulo Freire, and Jacques Rancière brings forward important insights generated through the artistic research within hidden curriculum. The aim of this text is to address academic canons, corporeality, and investigate everyday norms through revisiting the framework, results, and processes of the collaborative research into hidden curriculum with secondary high school students.
Dynamic portfolio optimization across hidden market regimes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nystrup, Peter; Madsen, Henrik; Lindström, Erik
2017-01-01
Regime-based asset allocation has been shown to add value over rebalancing to static weights and, in particular, reduce potential drawdowns by reacting to changes in market conditions. The predominant approach in previous studies has been to specify in advance a static decision rule for changing...... the allocation based on the state of financial markets or the economy. In this article, model predictive control (MPC) is used to dynamically optimize a portfolio based on forecasts of the mean and variance of financial returns from a hidden Markov model with time-varying parameters. There are computational...... than a buy-and-hold investment in various major stock market indices. This is after accounting for transaction costs, with a one-day delay in the implementation of allocation changes, and with zero-interest cash as the only alternative to the stock indices. Imposing a trading penalty that reduces...
Supersymmetric leptogenesis with a light hidden sector
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
De Simone, Andrea
2010-04-01
Supersymmetric scenarios incorporating thermal leptogenesis as the origin of the observed matter-antimatter asymmetry generically predict abundances of the primordial elements which are in conflict with observations. In this paper we pro- pose a simple way to circumvent this tension and accommodate naturally ther- mal leptogenesis and primordial nucleosynthesis. We postulate the existence of a light hidden sector, coupled very weakly to the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model, which opens up new decay channels for the next-to-lightest supersymmetric particle, thus diluting its abundance during nucleosynthesis. We present a general model-independent analysis of this mechanism as well as two concrete realizations, and describe the relevant cosmological and astrophysical bounds and implications for this dark matter scenario. Possible experimental signatures at colliders and in cosmic-ray observations are also discussed. (orig.)
Nuclear scissors modes and hidden angular momenta
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Balbutsev, E. B., E-mail: balbuts@theor.jinr.ru; Molodtsova, I. V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation); Schuck, P. [Université Paris-Sud, Institut de Physique Nucléaire, IN2P3–CNRS (France)
2017-01-15
The coupled dynamics of low-lying modes and various giant resonances are studied with the help of the Wigner Function Moments method generalized to take into account spin degrees of freedom and pair correlations simultaneously. The method is based on Time-Dependent Hartree–Fock–Bogoliubov equations. The model of the harmonic oscillator including spin–orbit potential plus quadrupole–quadrupole and spin–spin interactions is considered. New low-lying spin-dependent modes are analyzed. Special attention is paid to the scissors modes. A new source of nuclear magnetism, connected with counter-rotation of spins up and down around the symmetry axis (hidden angular momenta), is discovered. Its inclusion into the theory allows one to improve substantially the agreement with experimental data in the description of energies and transition probabilities of scissors modes.
Neuroevolution Mechanism for Hidden Markov Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nabil M. Hewahi
2011-12-01
Full Text Available Hidden Markov Model (HMM is a statistical model based on probabilities. HMM is becoming one of the major models involved in many applications such as natural language
processing, handwritten recognition, image processing, prediction systems and many more. In this research we are concerned with finding out the best HMM for a certain application domain. We propose a neuroevolution process that is based first on converting the HMM to a neural network, then generating many neural networks at random where each represents a HMM. We proceed by
applying genetic operators to obtain new set of neural networks where each represents HMMs, and updating the population. Finally select the best neural network based on a fitness function.
Improved hidden Markov model for nosocomial infections.
Khader, Karim; Leecaster, Molly; Greene, Tom; Samore, Matthew; Thomas, Alun
2014-12-01
We propose a novel hidden Markov model (HMM) for parameter estimation in hospital transmission models, and show that commonly made simplifying assumptions can lead to severe model misspecification and poor parameter estimates. A standard HMM that embodies two commonly made simplifying assumptions, namely a fixed patient count and binomially distributed detections is compared with a new alternative HMM that does not require these simplifying assumptions. Using simulated data, we demonstrate how each of the simplifying assumptions used by the standard model leads to model misspecification, whereas the alternative model results in accurate parameter estimates. © The Authors 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute of Mathematics and its Applications. All rights reserved.
The elliptic genus and Hidden symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jaffe, A.
2001-01-01
We study the elliptic genus (a partition function) in certain interacting, twist quantum field theories. Without twists, these theories have N=2 supersymmetry. The twists provide a regularization, and also partially break the supersymmetry. In spite of the regularization, one can establish a homotopy of the elliptic genus in a coupling parameter. Our construction relies on a priori estimates and other methods from constructive quantum field theory; this mathematical underpinning allows us to justify evaluating the elliptic genus at one endpoint of the homotopy. We obtain a version of Witten's proposed formula for the elliptic genus in terms of classical theta functions. As a consequence, the elliptic genus has a hidden SL(2,Z) symmetry characteristic of conformal theory, even though the underlying theory is not conformal. (orig.)
Hidden conformal symmetry of extremal black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen Bin; Long Jiang; Zhang Jiaju
2010-01-01
We study the hidden conformal symmetry of extremal black holes. We introduce a new set of conformal coordinates to write the SL(2,R) generators. We find that the Laplacian of the scalar field in many extremal black holes, including Kerr(-Newman), Reissner-Nordstrom, warped AdS 3 , and null warped black holes, could be written in terms of the SL(2,R) quadratic Casimir. This suggests that there exist dual conformal field theory (CFT) descriptions of these black holes. From the conformal coordinates, the temperatures of the dual CFTs could be read directly. For the extremal black hole, the Hawking temperature is vanishing. Correspondingly, only the left (right) temperature of the dual CFT is nonvanishing, and the excitations of the other sector are suppressed. In the probe limit, we compute the scattering amplitudes of the scalar off the extremal black holes and find perfect agreement with the CFT prediction.
Exact solution of the hidden Markov processes
Saakian, David B.
2017-11-01
We write a master equation for the distributions related to hidden Markov processes (HMPs) and solve it using a functional equation. Thus the solution of HMPs is mapped exactly to the solution of the functional equation. For a general case the latter can be solved only numerically. We derive an exact expression for the entropy of HMPs. Our expression for the entropy is an alternative to the ones given before by the solution of integral equations. The exact solution is possible because actually the model can be considered as a generalized random walk on a one-dimensional strip. While we give the solution for the two second-order matrices, our solution can be easily generalized for the L values of the Markov process and M values of observables: We should be able to solve a system of L functional equations in the space of dimension M -1 .
Roquin Paralogs Differentially Regulate Functional NKT Cell Subsets.
Drees, Christoph; Vahl, J Christoph; Bortoluzzi, Sabrina; Heger, Klaus D; Fischer, Julius C; Wunderlich, F Thomas; Peschel, Christian; Schmidt-Supprian, Marc
2017-04-01
NKT cells represent a small subset of glycolipid-recognizing T cells that are heavily implicated in human allergic, autoimmune, and malignant diseases. In the thymus, precursor cells recognize self-glycolipids by virtue of their semi-invariant TCR, which triggers NKT cell lineage commitment and maturation. During their development, NKT cells are polarized into the NKT1, NKT2, and NKT17 subsets, defined through their cytokine-secretion patterns and the expression of key transcription factors. However, we have largely ignored how the differentiation into the NKT cell subsets is regulated. In this article, we describe the mRNA-binding Roquin-1 and -2 proteins as central regulators of murine NKT cell fate decisions. In the thymus, T cell-specific ablation of the Roquin paralogs leads to a dramatic expansion of NKT17 cells, whereas peripheral mature NKT cells are essentially absent. Roquin-1/2-deficient NKT17 cells show exaggerated lineage-specific expression of nearly all NKT17-defining proteins tested. We show through mixed bone marrow chimera experiments that NKT17 polarization is mediated through cell-intrinsic mechanisms early during NKT cell development. In contrast, the loss of peripheral NKT cells is due to cell-extrinsic factors. Surprisingly, Roquin paralog-deficient NKT cells are, in striking contrast to conventional T cells, compromised in their ability to secrete cytokines. Altogether, we show that Roquin paralogs regulate the development and function of NKT cell subsets in the thymus and periphery. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.
Phenotypic and functional characterization of earthworm coelomocyte subsets
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Engelmann, Péter; Hayashi, Yuya; Bodo, Kornélia
2016-01-01
Flow cytometry is a common approach to study invertebrate immune cells including earthworm coelomocytes. However, the link between light-scatter- and microscopy-based phenotyping remains obscured. Here we show, by means of light scatter-based cell sorting, both subpopulations (amoebocytes...... amoebocytes and eleocytes, with the former being in favor of bacterial engulfment. This study has proved successful in linking flow cytometry and microscopy analysis and provides further experimental evidence of phenotypic and functional heterogeneity in earthworm coelomocyte subsets....
Social exclusion, health and hidden homelessness.
Watson, J; Crawley, J; Kane, D
2016-10-01
Homelessness and poverty are extreme forms of social exclusion which extend beyond the lack of physical or material needs. The purpose of this study was to explore and expand the concept of social exclusion within the social determinants of health perspective - to understand how the social environment, health behaviours and health status are associated with material and social deprivation. Fundamental qualitative description with tones of focused ethnography. Participants who identified as hidden homeless described their everyday living conditions and how these everyday conditions were impacted and influenced by their social environments, coping/health behaviours and current health status. Research Ethics Board approval was granted and informed consents were obtained from 21 participants prior to the completion of individual interviews. Qualitative content analysis examined the descriptions of men and women experiencing hidden homelessness. Participants described the 'lack of quality social interactions and supports' and their 'daily struggles of street life'. They also shared the 'pain of addiction' and how coping strategies influenced health. Participants were hopeful that their insights would 'better the health of homeless people' by helping shape public policy and funding of community resources that would reduce barriers and improve overall health. Health professionals who understand health behaviours as coping mechanisms for poor quality social environments can provide more comprehensive and holistic care. The findings of this study can be used to support the importance of housing as a key factor in the health and well-being of people experiencing poverty, homelessness and social exclusion; and consequently, reinforces the need for a national housing strategy. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Skyrmions with holography and hidden local symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nawa, Kanabu; Hosaka, Atsushi; Suganuma, Hideo
2009-01-01
We study baryons as Skyrmions in holographic QCD with D4/D8/D8 multi-D brane system in type IIA superstring theory, and also in the nonlinear sigma model with hidden local symmetry. Comparing these two models, we find that the extra dimension and its nontrivial curvature can largely change the role of (axial) vector mesons for baryons in four-dimensional space-time. In the hidden local symmetry approach, the ρ-meson field as a massive Yang-Mills field has a singular configuration in Skyrmion, which gives a strong repulsion for the baryon as a stabilizer. When the a 1 meson is added in this approach, the stability of Skyrmion is lost by the cancellation of ρ and a 1 contributions. On the contrary, in holographic QCD, the ρ-meson field does not appear as a massive Yang-Mills field due to the extra dimension and its nontrivial curvature. We show that the ρ-meson field has a regular configuration in Skyrmion, which gives a weak attraction for the baryon in holographic QCD. We argue that Skyrmion with π, ρ, and a 1 mesons become stable due to the curved extra dimension and also the presence of the Skyrme term in holographic QCD. From this result, we also discuss the features of our truncated-resonance analysis on baryon properties with π and ρ mesons below the cutoff scale M KK ∼1 GeV in holographic QCD, which is compared with other 5D instanton analysis.
Closed-form summations of Dowker's and related trigonometric sums
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cvijović, Djurdje; Srivastava, H M
2012-01-01
Through a unified and relatively simple approach which uses complex contour integrals, particularly convenient integration contours and calculus of residues, closed-form summation formulas for 12 very general families of trigonometric sums are deduced. One of them is a family of cosecant sums which was first summed in closed form in a series of papers by Dowker (1987 Phys. Rev. D 36 3095–101; 1989 J. Math. Phys. 30 770–3; 1992 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 25 2641–8), whose method has inspired our work in this area. All of the formulas derived here involve the higher-order Bernoulli polynomials. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical in honour of Stuart Dowker's 75th birthday devoted to ‘Applications of zeta functions and other spectral functions in mathematics and physics’. (paper)
A Bayesian analysis of the nucleon QCD sum rules
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ohtani, Keisuke; Gubler, Philipp; Oka, Makoto
2011-01-01
QCD sum rules of the nucleon channel are reanalyzed, using the maximum-entropy method (MEM). This new approach, based on the Bayesian probability theory, does not restrict the spectral function to the usual ''pole + continuum'' form, allowing a more flexible investigation of the nucleon spectral function. Making use of this flexibility, we are able to investigate the spectral functions of various interpolating fields, finding that the nucleon ground state mainly couples to an operator containing a scalar diquark. Moreover, we formulate the Gaussian sum rule for the nucleon channel and find that it is more suitable for the MEM analysis to extract the nucleon pole in the region of its experimental value, while the Borel sum rule does not contain enough information to clearly separate the nucleon pole from the continuum. (orig.)
Limit theorems for multi-indexed sums of random variables
Klesov, Oleg
2014-01-01
Presenting the first unified treatment of limit theorems for multiple sums of independent random variables, this volume fills an important gap in the field. Several new results are introduced, even in the classical setting, as well as some new approaches that are simpler than those already established in the literature. In particular, new proofs of the strong law of large numbers and the Hajek-Renyi inequality are detailed. Applications of the described theory include Gibbs fields, spin glasses, polymer models, image analysis and random shapes. Limit theorems form the backbone of probability theory and statistical theory alike. The theory of multiple sums of random variables is a direct generalization of the classical study of limit theorems, whose importance and wide application in science is unquestionable. However, to date, the subject of multiple sums has only been treated in journals. The results described in this book will be of interest to advanced undergraduates, graduate students and researchers who ...
Power loss analysis in altered tooth-sum spur gearing
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sachidananda H. K.
2018-01-01
Full Text Available The main cause of power loss or dissipation of heat in case of meshed gears is due to friction existing between gear tooth mesh and is a major concern in low rotational speed gears, whereas in case of high operating speed the power loss taking place due to compression of air-lubricant mixture (churning losses and windage losses due to aerodynamic trial of air lubricant mixture which controls the total efficiency needs to be considered. Therefore, in order to improve mechanical efficiency it is necessary for gear designer during gear tooth optimization to consider these energy losses. In this research paper the power loss analysis for a tooth-sum of 100 altered by ±4% operating between a specified center distance is considered. The results show that negative altered tooth-sum gearing performs better as compared to standard and positive altered tooth-sum gearing.
Efficient simulation of tail probabilities of sums of correlated lognormals
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Asmussen, Søren; Blanchet, José; Juneja, Sandeep
We consider the problem of efficient estimation of tail probabilities of sums of correlated lognormals via simulation. This problem is motivated by the tail analysis of portfolios of assets driven by correlated Black-Scholes models. We propose two estimators that can be rigorously shown to be eff......We consider the problem of efficient estimation of tail probabilities of sums of correlated lognormals via simulation. This problem is motivated by the tail analysis of portfolios of assets driven by correlated Black-Scholes models. We propose two estimators that can be rigorously shown...... optimize the scaling parameter of the covariance. The second estimator decomposes the probability of interest in two contributions and takes advantage of the fact that large deviations for a sum of correlated lognormals are (asymptotically) caused by the largest increment. Importance sampling...
Convergence problems of Coulomb and multipole sums in crystals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kholopov, Evgenii V
2004-01-01
Different ways of calculating Coulomb and dipole sums over crystal lattices are analyzed comparatively. It is shown that the currently alleged disagreement between various approaches originates in ignoring the requirement for the self-consistency of surface conditions, which are of fundamental importance due to the long-range nature of the bulk interactions that these sums describe. This is especially true of surfaces arising when direct sums for infinite translation-invariant structures are truncated. The charge conditions for actual surfaces being self-consistently adjusted to the bulk state are formally the same as those on the truncation surface, consistent with the concept of the thermodynamic limit for the bulk-state absolute equilibrium and with the fact that the surface energy contribution in this case is, naturally, statistically small compared to the bulk contribution. Two-point multipole expansions are briefly discussed, and the problems associated with the boundary of their convergence circle are pointed out. (reviews of topical problems)
Closed-form summations of Dowker's and related trigonometric sums
Cvijović, Djurdje; Srivastava, H. M.
2012-09-01
Through a unified and relatively simple approach which uses complex contour integrals, particularly convenient integration contours and calculus of residues, closed-form summation formulas for 12 very general families of trigonometric sums are deduced. One of them is a family of cosecant sums which was first summed in closed form in a series of papers by Dowker (1987 Phys. Rev. D 36 3095-101 1989 J. Math. Phys. 30 770-3 1992 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 25 2641-8), whose method has inspired our work in this area. All of the formulas derived here involve the higher-order Bernoulli polynomials. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical in honour of Stuart Dowker's 75th birthday devoted to ‘Applications of zeta functions and other spectral functions in mathematics and physics’.
Spectral sum rules for the three-body problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bolle, D.; Osborn, T.A.
1982-01-01
This paper derives a number of sum rules for nonrelativistic three-body scattering. These rules are valid for any finite region μ in the six-dimensional coordinate space. They relate energy moments of the trace of the onshell time-delay operator to the energy-weighted probability for finding the three-body bound-state wave functions in the region μ. If μ is all of the six-dimensional space, the global form of the sum rules is obtained. In this form the rules constitute higher-order Levinson's theorems for the three-body problem. Finally, the sum rules are extended to allow the energy momtns have complex powers
Moessbauer sum rules for use with synchrotron sources
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lipkin, H.J.
1995-01-01
The availability of tunable synchrotron radiation sources with millivolt resolution has opened prospects for exploring dynamics of complex systems with Moessbauer spectroscopy. Early Moessbauer treatments and moment sum rules are extended to treat inelastic excitations measured in synchrotron experiments, with emphasis on the unique conditions absent in neutron scattering and arising in resonance scattering: prompt absorption, delayed emission, recoilfree transitions, and coherent forward scattering. The first moment sum rule normalizes the inelastic spectrum. Sum rules obtained for higher moments include the third moment proportional to the second derivative of the potential acting on the Moessbauer nucleus and independent of temperature in the harmonic approximation. Interesting information may be obtained on the behavior of the potential acting on this nucleus in samples not easily investigated with neutron scattering, e.g., small samples, thin films, time-dependent structures, and amorphous-metallic high pressure phases
Ramanujan sums via generalized Möbius functions and applications
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vichian Laohakosol
2006-01-01
Full Text Available A generalized Ramanujan sum (GRS is defined by replacing the usual Möbius function in the classical Ramanujan sum with the Souriau-Hsu-Möbius function. After collecting basic properties of a GRS, mostly containing existing ones, seven aspects of a GRS are studied. The first shows that the unique representation of even functions with respect to GRSs is possible. The second is a derivation of the mean value of a GRS. The third establishes analogues of the remarkable Ramanujan's formulae connecting divisor functions with Ramanujan sums. The fourth gives a formula for the inverse of a GRS. The fifth is an analysis showing when a reciprocity law exists. The sixth treats the problem of dependence. Finally, some characterizations of completely multiplicative function using GRSs are obtained and a connection of a GRS with the number of solutions of certain congruences is indicated.
A Shuttle Upper Atmosphere Mass Spectrometer /SUMS/ experiment
Blanchard, R. C.; Duckett, R. J.; Hinson, E. W.
1982-01-01
A magnetic mass spectrometer is currently being adapted to the Space Shuttle Orbiter to provide repeated high altitude atmosphere data to support in situ rarefied flow aerodynamics research, i.e., in the high velocity, low density flight regime. The experiment, called Shuttle Upper Atmosphere Mass Spectrometer (SUMS), is the first attempt to design mass spectrometer equipment for flight vehicle aerodynamic data extraction. The SUMS experiment will provide total freestream atmospheric quantitites, principally total mass density, above altitudes at which conventional pressure measurements are valid. Experiment concepts, the expected flight profile, tradeoffs in the design of the total system and flight data reduction plans are discussed. Development plans are based upon a SUMS first flight after the Orbiter initial development flights.
Dynamical local field, compressibility, and frequency sum rules for quasiparticles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Morawetz, Klaus
2002-01-01
The finite temperature dynamical response function including the dynamical local field is derived within a quasiparticle picture for interacting one-, two-, and three-dimensional Fermi systems. The correlations are assumed to be given by a density-dependent effective mass, quasiparticle energy shift, and relaxation time. The latter one describes disorder or collisional effects. This parametrization of correlations includes local-density functionals as a special case and is therefore applicable for density-functional theories. With a single static local field, the third-order frequency sum rule can be fulfilled simultaneously with the compressibility sum rule by relating the effective mass and quasiparticle energy shift to the structure function or pair-correlation function. Consequently, solely local-density functionals without taking into account effective masses cannot fulfill both sum rules simultaneously with a static local field. The comparison to the Monte Carlo data seems to support such a quasiparticle picture
Adaptive filtering for hidden node detection and tracking in networks.
Hamilton, Franz; Setzer, Beverly; Chavez, Sergio; Tran, Hien; Lloyd, Alun L
2017-07-01
The identification of network connectivity from noisy time series is of great interest in the study of network dynamics. This connectivity estimation problem becomes more complicated when we consider the possibility of hidden nodes within the network. These hidden nodes act as unknown drivers on our network and their presence can lead to the identification of false connections, resulting in incorrect network inference. Detecting the parts of the network they are acting on is thus critical. Here, we propose a novel method for hidden node detection based on an adaptive filtering framework with specific application to neuronal networks. We consider the hidden node as a problem of missing variables when model fitting and show that the estimated system noise covariance provided by the adaptive filter can be used to localize the influence of the hidden nodes and distinguish the effects of different hidden nodes. Additionally, we show that the sequential nature of our algorithm allows for tracking changes in the hidden node influence over time.
Hidden gauge structure of supersymmetric free differential algebras
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Andrianopoli, Laura [DISAT, Politecnico di Torino,Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, I-10129 Turin (Italy); INFN - Sezione di Torino,Torino (Italy); D’Auria, Riccardo [DISAT, Politecnico di Torino,Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, I-10129 Turin (Italy); Ravera, Lucrezia [DISAT, Politecnico di Torino,Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, I-10129 Turin (Italy); INFN - Sezione di Torino,Torino (Italy)
2016-08-16
The aim of this paper is to clarify the role of the nilpotent fermionic generator Q{sup ′} introduced in http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0550-3213(82)90376-5 and appearing in the hidden supergroup underlying the free differential algebra (FDA) of D=11 supergravity. We give a physical explanation of its role by looking at the gauge properties of the theory. We find that its presence is necessary, in order that the extra 1-forms of the hidden supergroup give rise to the correct gauge transformations of the p-forms of the FDA. This interpretation is actually valid for any supergravity containing antisymmetric tensor fields, and any supersymmetric FDA can always be traded for a hidden Lie superalgebra containing extra fermionic nilpotent generators. As an interesting example we construct the hidden superalgebra associated with the FDA of N=2, D=7 supergravity. In this case we are able to parametrize the mutually non local 2- and 3-form B{sup (2)} and B{sup (3)} in terms of hidden 1-forms and find that supersymmetry and gauge invariance require in general the presence of two nilpotent fermionic generators in the hidden algebra. We propose that our approach, where all the invariances of the FDA are expressed as Lie derivatives of the p-forms in the hidden supergroup manifold, could be an appropriate framework to discuss theories defined in enlarged versions of superspace recently considered in the literature, such us double field theory and its generalizations.
Chiral symmetry breaking parameters from QCD sum rules
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mallik, S [Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Theoretische Kernphysik; Bern Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik)
1982-10-04
We obtain new QCD sum rules by considering vacuum expectation values of two-point functions, taking all the five quark bilinears into account. These sum rules are employed to extract values of different chiral symmetry breaking parameters in QCD theory. We find masses of light quarks, m=1/2msub(u)+msub(d)=8.4+-1.2 MeV, msub(s)=205+-65 MeV. Further, we obtain corrections to certain soft pion (kaon) PCAC relations and the violation of SU(3) flavour symmetry by the non-strange and strange quark-antiquark vacuum condensate.
Dispersion relations and sum rules for natural optical activity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thomaz, M.T.; Nussenzveig, H.M.
1981-06-01
Dispersion relations and sum rules are derived for the complex rotatory power of an arbitrary linear (nonmagnetic) isotropic medium showing natural optical activity. Both previously known dispersion relations and sum rules as well as new ones are obtained. It is shown that the Rosenfeld-Condon dispersion formula is inconsistent with the expected asymptotic behavior at high frequencies. A new dispersion formula based on quantum eletro-dynamics removes this inconsistency; however, it still requires modification in the low-frequency limit. (Author) [pt
Chiral restoration and the extended photoabsorption sum rule in nuclei
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ericson, M [Lyon-1 Univ., 69 - Villeurbanne (France). Inst. de Physique Nucleaire; [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland); Rosa-Clot, M [Florence Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica; [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Florence (Italy); Kulagin, S A [Akademiya Meditsinskikh Nauk SSSR, Moscow (Russian Federation)
1996-07-01
The Bethe-Levinger sum rule is extended beyond the potential model. The pion degrees of freedom are taken into account and the modifications of the potential theory are analyzed within two different approaches: dipole sum rule and dispersion relation on the Compton amplitude. Our aim is to extract from the photon data experimental information on the expectation value of the square of the pion field, a quantity which enters also in the restoration of chiral symmetry in nuclei and in pion-nucleus scattering. We are led to incorporate in the description the {Delta} resonance, which is strongly excited by the pion degrees of freedom. 11 refs.
Chiral restoration and the extended photoabsorption sum rule in nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ericson, M.; Rosa-Clot, M.; Kulagin, S.A.
1996-07-01
The Bethe-Levinger sum rule is extended beyond the potential model. The pion degrees of freedom are taken into account and the modifications of the potential theory are analyzed within two different approaches: dipole sum rule and dispersion relation on the Compton amplitude. Our aim is to extract from the photon data experimental information on the expectation value of the square of the pion field, a quantity which enters also in the restoration of chiral symmetry in nuclei and in pion-nucleus scattering. We are led to incorporate in the description the Δ resonance, which is strongly excited by the pion degrees of freedom
A zero-sum monetary system, interest rates, and implications
Hanley, Brian P.
2015-01-01
To the knowledge of the author, this is the first time it has been shown that interest rates that are extremely high by modern standards (100% and higher) are necessary within a zero-sum monetary system, and not just driven by greed. Extreme interest rates that appeared in various places and times reinforce the idea that hard money may have contributed to high rates of interest. Here a model is presented that examines the interest rate required to succeed as an investor in a zero-sum fixed qu...
Computation and theory of Euler sums of generalized hyperharmonic numbers
Xu, Ce
2017-01-01
Recently, Dil and Boyadzhiev \\cite{AD2015} proved an explicit formula for the sum of multiple harmonic numbers whose indices are the sequence $\\left( {{{\\left\\{ 0 \\right\\}}_r},1} \\right)$. In this paper we show that the sums of multiple harmonic numbers whose indices are the sequence $\\left( {{{\\left\\{ 0 \\right\\}}_r,1};{{\\left\\{ 1 \\right\\}}_{k-1}}} \\right)$ can be expressed in terms of (multiple) zeta values, multiple harmonic numbers and Stirling numbers of the first kind, and give an explic...
A Global Optimization Algorithm for Sum of Linear Ratios Problem
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yuelin Gao
2013-01-01
Full Text Available We equivalently transform the sum of linear ratios programming problem into bilinear programming problem, then by using the linear characteristics of convex envelope and concave envelope of double variables product function, linear relaxation programming of the bilinear programming problem is given, which can determine the lower bound of the optimal value of original problem. Therefore, a branch and bound algorithm for solving sum of linear ratios programming problem is put forward, and the convergence of the algorithm is proved. Numerical experiments are reported to show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.
Sociocultural Dimension of Hidden Content in a Professional Language Curriculum
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ekaterina E. Shishlova
2017-12-01
Full Text Available Introduction: studying curriculum as a pedagogical problem has traditionally been reduced to the analysis of its explicit content, set in official educational documents. However, a much less studied hidden content plays a significant role in education. So, what is the role of the hidden curriculum during professional language training? The purpose of the article is to determine the potential impact of hidden curriculum on students’ conceptual worldview. Comparing the worldview presented in textbooks with students’ one has allowed us to estimate the rate of influence of hidden curr iculum. Materials and Methods: the methodological basis of the work is the cultural concept of personalityoriented education. The methodology for studying the role of hidden curriculum includes four stages: at the first stage, the authors set the criteria for selecting textbooks for analysis and do the selection; at the second stage, the authors select sociocultural concepts for analysis; at the third stage, the scheme of analysis is designed and the analysis of textbooks is done; at the fourth stage, the authors identify the potential influence of hidden curriculum on students’ conceptual worldview. Results: the structure of hidden curriculum has been determined and the scheme for analysing its subject component has been developed. The authors have identified a significant influence of hidden curriculum on students’ worldview, which represents the scientific novelty of the article. Discussion and Conclusions: the article gives the definition of a hidden curriculum which is new for Russian pedagogy and presents a methodology for its analysis in EFL textbooks. That analysis is recommended to be conducted when selecting teaching materials both i n languages and other humanities.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Warburton, P.E.; Gosden, J.; Lawson, D. [Western General Hospital, Edinburgh (United Kingdom)] [and others
1996-04-15
Alpha satellite DNA is a tandemly repeated DNA family found at the centromeres of all primate chromosomes examined. The fundamental repeat units of alpha satellite DNA are diverged 169- to 172-bp monomers, often found to be organized in chromosome-specific higher-order repeat units. The chromosomes of human (Homo sapiens (HSA)), chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes (PTR) and Pan paniscus), and gorilla (Gorilla gorilla) share a remarkable similarity and synteny. It is of interest to ask if alpha satellite arrays at centromeres of homologous chromosomes between these species are closely related (evolving in an orthologous manner) or if the evolutionary processes that homogenize and spread these arrays within and between chromosomes result in nonorthologous evolution of arrays. By using PCR primers specific for human chromosome 17-specific alpha satellite DNA, we have amplified, cloned, and characterized a chromosome-specific subset from the PTR chimpanzee genome. Hybridization both on Southern blots and in situ as well as sequence analysis show that this subset is most closely related, as expected, to sequences on HSA 17. However, in situ hybridization reveals that this subset is not found on the homologous chromosome in chimpanzee (PTR 19), but instead on PTR 12, which is homologous to HSA 2p. 40 refs., 3 figs.
Multilayer Neural Networks with Extensively Many Hidden Units
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rosen-Zvi, Michal; Engel, Andreas; Kanter, Ido
2001-01-01
The information processing abilities of a multilayer neural network with a number of hidden units scaling as the input dimension are studied using statistical mechanics methods. The mapping from the input layer to the hidden units is performed by general symmetric Boolean functions, whereas the hidden layer is connected to the output by either discrete or continuous couplings. Introducing an overlap in the space of Boolean functions as order parameter, the storage capacity is found to scale with the logarithm of the number of implementable Boolean functions. The generalization behavior is smooth for continuous couplings and shows a discontinuous transition to perfect generalization for discrete ones
Update on hidden sectors with dark forces and dark matter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Andreas, Sarah
2012-11-15
Recently there has been much interest in hidden sectors, especially in the context of dark matter and ''dark forces'', since they are a common feature of beyond standard model scenarios like string theory and SUSY and additionally exhibit interesting phenomenological aspects. Various laboratory experiments place limits on the so-called hidden photon and continuously further probe and constrain the parameter space; an updated overview is presented here. Furthermore, for several hidden sector models with light dark matter we study the viability with respect to the relic abundance and direct detection experiments.
Hidden photon dark matter search with large metallic mirror
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Doebrich, Babette; Lindner, Axel; Daumiller, Kai; Engel, Ralph; Roth, Markus; Kowalski, Marek
2014-10-01
If Dark Matter is composed of hidden-sector photons that kinetically mix with photons of the visible sector, then Dark Matter has a tiny oscillating electric field component. Its presence would lead to a small amount of visible radiation being emitted from a conducting surface, with the photon frequency given approximately by the mass of the hidden photon. Here, we report on experimental efforts that have started recently to search for such hidden photon Dark Matter in the (sub-)eV regime with a prototype mirror for the Auger fluorescence detector at the Karlsruhe Institute for Technology.
Naturally light hidden photons in LARGE volume string compactifications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goodsell, M.; Jaeckel, J.; Redondo, J.; Ringwald, A.
2009-09-01
Extra ''hidden'' U(1) gauge factors are a generic feature of string theory that is of particular phenomenological interest. They can kinetically mix with the Standard Model photon and are thereby accessible to a wide variety of astrophysical and cosmological observations and laboratory experiments. In this paper we investigate the masses and the kinetic mixing of hidden U(1)s in LARGE volume compactifications of string theory. We find that in these scenarios the hidden photons can be naturally light and that their kinetic mixing with the ordinary electromagnetic photon can be of a size interesting for near future experiments and observations. (orig.)
Hidden Area and Mechanical Nonlinearities in Freestanding Graphene
Nicholl, Ryan J. T.; Lavrik, Nickolay V.; Vlassiouk, Ivan; Srijanto, Bernadeta R.; Bolotin, Kirill I.
2017-06-01
We investigated the effect of out-of-plane crumpling on the mechanical response of graphene membranes. In our experiments, stress was applied to graphene membranes using pressurized gas while the strain state was monitored through two complementary techniques: interferometric profilometry and Raman spectroscopy. By comparing the data obtained through these two techniques, we determined the geometric hidden area which quantifies the crumpling strength. While the devices with hidden area ˜0 % obeyed linear mechanics with biaxial stiffness 428 ±10 N /m , specimens with hidden area in the range 0.5%-1.0% were found to obey an anomalous nonlinear Hooke's law with an exponent ˜0.1 .
Context Tree Estimation in Variable Length Hidden Markov Models
Dumont, Thierry
2011-01-01
We address the issue of context tree estimation in variable length hidden Markov models. We propose an estimator of the context tree of the hidden Markov process which needs no prior upper bound on the depth of the context tree. We prove that the estimator is strongly consistent. This uses information-theoretic mixture inequalities in the spirit of Finesso and Lorenzo(Consistent estimation of the order for Markov and hidden Markov chains(1990)) and E.Gassiat and S.Boucheron (Optimal error exp...
Local models and hidden nonlocality in Quantum Theory
Guerini, Leonardo
2014-01-01
This Master's thesis has two central subjects: the simulation of correlations generated by local measurements on entangled quantum states by local hidden-variables models and the revelation of hidden nonlocality. We present and detail the Werner's local model and the hidden nonlocality of some Werner states of dimension $d\\geq5$, the Gisin-Degorre's local model for a Werner state of dimension $d=2$ and the local model of Hirsch et al. for mixtures of the singlet state and noise, all of them f...
Suppressing the QCD axion abundance by hidden monopoles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kawasaki, Masahiro
2015-11-01
We study the Witten effect of hidden monopoles on the QCD axion dynamics, and show that its abundance as well as isocurvature perturbations can be significantly suppressed if there is a sufficient amount of hidden monopoles. When the hidden monopoles make up a significant fraction of dark matter, the Witten effect suppresses the abundance of axion with the decay constant smaller than 10 12 GeV. The cosmological domain wall problem of the QCD axion can also be avoided, relaxing the upper bound on the decay constant when the Peccei-Quinn symmetry is spontaneously broken after inflation.
Sum Rules, Classical and Quantum - A Pedagogical Approach
Karstens, William; Smith, David Y.
2014-03-01
Sum rules in the form of integrals over the response of a system to an external probe provide general analytical tools for both experiment and theory. For example, the celebrated f-sum rule gives a system's plasma frequency as an integral over the optical-dipole absorption spectrum regardless of the specific spectral distribution. Moreover, this rule underlies Smakula's equation for the number density of absorbers in a sample in terms of the area under their absorption bands. Commonly such rules are derived from quantum-mechanical commutation relations, but many are fundamentally classical (independent of ℏ) and so can be derived from more transparent mechanical models. We have exploited this to illustrate the fundamental role of inertia in the case of optical sum rules. Similar considerations apply to sum rules in many other branches of physics. Thus, the ``attenuation integral theorems'' of ac circuit theory reflect the ``inertial'' effect of Lenz's Law in inductors or the potential energy ``storage'' in capacitors. These considerations are closely related to the fact that the real and imaginary parts of a response function cannot be specified independently, a result that is encapsulated in the Kramers-Kronig relations. Supported in part by the US Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Physics under contract DE-AC02-06CH11357.
Coincidence summing corrections for positron emitters in germanium gamma spectrometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Richardson, A.E.; Sallee, W.W.; New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces
1990-01-01
For positron emitters, 511 keV annihilation quanta are in coincidence with other gamma rays in the decay scheme. If the positrons are not localized at the point of decay, annihilation quanta will be produced at a site some distance from the point of emission. The magnitude of the summing coincidence effect will depend upon the position of annihilation. A method for determining the magnitude of the summing effect for a single gamma of energy E in coincidence with the annihilation gammas from non-localized positrons has been developed which makes use of the counting data for the full energy peaks for both the gamma ray (E) and the 511 keV annihilation gammas. With this data and efficiency calibration data one can determine the average total efficiency for the annihilation positions from which 511 keV gammas originate, and thereby obtain the summing correction factor, SCF, for gamma ray (E). Application of the method to a 22 Na NIST standard gave excellent agreement of observed emission rates for the 1275 keV gamma with the NIST value for wide ranging degrees of positron localization having summing correction factors ranging from 1.021 to 1.505. The method was also applied successfully to 58 Co in neutron-irradiated nickel foils. The method shows promise as a check on the accuracy of the efficiency calibration for a particular detector geometry at the 511 keV energy and energies for other gammas associated with positron emission. (orig.)
TAIL ASYMPTOTICS OF LIGHT-TAILED WEIBULL-LIKE SUMS
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Asmussen, Soren; Hashorva, Enkelejd; Laub, Patrick J.
2017-01-01
We consider sums of n i.i.d. random variables with tails close to exp{-x(beta)} for some beta > 1. Asymptotics developed by Rootzen (1987) and Balkema, Kluppelberg, and Resnick (1993) are discussed from the point of view of tails rather than of densities, using a somewhat different angle...
Numerical Radius Inequalities for Finite Sums of Operators
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mirmostafaee Alireza Kamel
2014-12-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we obtain some sharp inequalities for numerical radius of finite sums of operators. Moreover, we give some applications of our result in estimation of spectral radius. We also compare our results with some known results.
Standardization of I-125. Sum-Peak Coincidence Counting
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grau Carles, A.; Grau Malonda, A.
2011-01-01
I-125 is a nuclide which presents difficulties for standardization. The sum-peak method is one of the procedures used to standardize this radionuclide. Initially NaI (Tl)detectors and then the semiconductor detectors with higher resolution have been used.This paper describes the different methods based on the sum-peak procedure and the different expressions used to calculate the activity are deduced. We describe a general procedure for obtaining all of the above equations and many more. We analyze the influence of uncertainties in the used parameters in the uncertainty of the activity. We give a complete example of the transmission of uncertainty and the effects of correlations in the uncertainty of the activity of the sample. High-resolution spectra show an unresolved doublet of 62.0 keV and 62.8 keV. The paper presents two approaches to solve this problem. One is based on the calculation of area ratio and the sum of peak areas obtained from atomic and nuclear data, in the other we modify the equations so that the sum of the peak areas doublet, rather than its components, is present. (Author) 19 refs.
Root and critical point behaviors of certain sums of polynomials
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Seon-Hong Kim
2018-04-24
Apr 24, 2018 ... Root and critical point behaviors of certain sums of polynomials. SEON-HONG KIM1,∗. , SUNG YOON KIM2, TAE HYUNG KIM2 and SANGHEON LEE2. 1Department of Mathematics, Sookmyung Women's University, Seoul 140-742, Korea. 2Gyeonggi Science High School, Suwon 440-800, Korea.
A Critique of Zero-sum Games and Palliative Economics
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Africa's economic growth and dependence since independence has been characterised by a zero-sum economic interaction with the West. This was no more than a continuation of the Centre-Periphery relationship that existed during colonial times. The result of the zerosum game interaction between Africa and the West ...
Counter-ions at single charged wall: Sum rules.
Samaj, Ladislav
2013-09-01
For inhomogeneous classical Coulomb fluids in thermal equilibrium, like the jellium or the two-component Coulomb gas, there exists a variety of exact sum rules which relate the particle one-body and two-body densities. The necessary condition for these sum rules is that the Coulomb fluid possesses good screening properties, i.e. the particle correlation functions or the averaged charge inhomogeneity, say close to a wall, exhibit a short-range (usually exponential) decay. In this work, we study equilibrium statistical mechanics of an electric double layer with counter-ions only, i.e. a globally neutral system of equally charged point-like particles in the vicinity of a plain hard wall carrying a fixed uniform surface charge density of opposite sign. At large distances from the wall, the one-body and two-body counter-ion densities go to zero slowly according to the inverse-power law. In spite of the absence of screening, all known sum rules are shown to hold for two exactly solvable cases of the present system: in the weak-coupling Poisson-Boltzmann limit (in any spatial dimension larger than one) and at a special free-fermion coupling constant in two dimensions. This fact indicates an extended validity of the sum rules and provides a consistency check for reasonable theoretical approaches.
Counting Your Way to the Sum of Squares Formula
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
IAS Admin
This gives us a brand new formula for the sum of the squares of the first n positive integers! A small tweak gives us a second formula, for free! For, we have the following identity for the binomial coeffi- cients which comes from the well known recursive rela- tion which the binomial coefficients satisfy: (n + 1. 3 )+ ( n + 1. 2 )= (.
Sums over geometries and improvements on the mean field approximation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sacksteder, Vincent E. IV
2007-01-01
The saddle points of a Lagrangian due to Efetov are analyzed. This Lagrangian was originally proposed as a tool for calculating systematic corrections to the Bethe approximation, a mean-field approximation which is important in statistical mechanics, glasses, coding theory, and combinatorial optimization. Detailed analysis shows that the trivial saddle point generates a sum over geometries reminiscent of dynamically triangulated quantum gravity, which suggests new possibilities to design sums over geometries for the specific purpose of obtaining improved mean-field approximations to D-dimensional theories. In the case of the Efetov theory, the dominant geometries are locally treelike, and the sum over geometries diverges in a way that is similar to quantum gravity's divergence when all topologies are included. Expertise from the field of dynamically triangulated quantum gravity about sums over geometries may be able to remedy these defects and fulfill the Efetov theory's original promise. The other saddle points of the Efetov Lagrangian are also analyzed; the Hessian at these points is nonnormal and pseudo-Hermitian, which is unusual for bosonic theories. The standard formula for Gaussian integrals is generalized to nonnormal kernels
Λ-bar from QCD sum rules for heavy quarkonium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kiselev, V.V.
1994-01-01
Using a specific scheme of the QCD sum rules for heavy quarkonium int he leading approximation over the inverse heavy quark, one gets the estimate of the difference between the masses of the heavy meson and heavy quark Λ=o.59+-0.02 GeV. 10 refs
Isospin sum rule for nuclear photoabsorption: Effect of retardation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maize, M.A.; Fallieros, S.
1987-01-01
Motivated by the close similarity between a sum rule originally derived by Cabibbo and Radicati and a simplified version based on nonrelativistic nuclear physics in the long-wavelength limit, we have investigated the effect of retardation corrections. An account of the contributions due to higher multipolarities is presented, together with a physical interpretation of the results
QCD Sum Rule External Field Approach and Vacuum Susceptibilities
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZONG Hong-Shi; PING Jia-Lun; CHANG Chao-His; WANG Fan; ZHAO En-Guang
2002-01-01
Based on QCD sum rule three-point and two-point external field formulas respectively, the vector vacuumsusceptibilities are calculated at the mean-field level in the framework of the global color symmetry model. It is shownthat the above two approaches of determination of the vector vacuum susceptibility may lead to different results. Thereason of this contradiction is discussed.
Stable limits for sums of dependent infinite variance random variables
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bartkiewicz, Katarzyna; Jakubowski, Adam; Mikosch, Thomas
2011-01-01
The aim of this paper is to provide conditions which ensure that the affinely transformed partial sums of a strictly stationary process converge in distribution to an infinite variance stable distribution. Conditions for this convergence to hold are known in the literature. However, most of these...
Lump Sum Moving Cost and Aggregate Office Space Use
G. Romijn
1997-01-01
textabstractWhen firms decide to change office space use, in many instances this involves relocation. Relocation involves sizable costs to the firm that can to a large extent be characterized as lump sum, i.e. independent of the change in demand. In this paper we propose and solve a model of the
Efficient yellow beam generation by intracavity sum frequency ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2014-02-06
Feb 6, 2014 ... petition leading to instability in the output sum frequency power and ... Nd:YVO4 crystal has been identified as one of the promising laser materials for diode ... very important to achieve small laser mode size as well as proper ...
Madhava, Gregory, Leibnitz, and Sums of Two Squares
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
IAS Admin
Keywords. Gregory–Leibnitz series, lattice points, sums of two squares,. Gauss circle problem. Shailesh Shirali heads the. Community Math Centre in Rishi Valley School and works in the field of teacher education. He is the author of many books and articles in mathemat- ics, written for interested students in the age range.
The Distribution of the Sum of Signed Ranks
Albright, Brian
2012-01-01
We describe the calculation of the distribution of the sum of signed ranks and develop an exact recursive algorithm for the distribution as well as an approximation of the distribution using the normal. The results have applications to the non-parametric Wilcoxon signed-rank test.
Lower limits for distribution tails of randomly stopped sums
Denisov, D.E.; Korshunov, D.A.; Foss, S.G.
2008-01-01
We study lower limits for the ratio $\\overline{F^{*\\tau}}(x)/\\,\\overline F(x)$ of tail distributions, where $F^{*\\tau}$ is a distribution of a sum of a random size $\\tau$ of independent identically distributed random variables having a common distribution $F$, and a random variable $\\tau$ does not
Large-Nc quantum chromodynamics and harmonic sums
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
In the large- limit of QCD, two-point functions of local operators become harmonic sums. I review some properties which follow from this fact and which are relevant for phenomenological applications. This has led us to consider a class of analytic number theory functions as toy models of large- QCD which also is ...
QCD sum rule studies at finite density and temperature
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kwon, Youngshin
2010-01-21
In-medium modifications of hadronic properties have a strong connection to the restoration of chiral symmetry in hot and/or dense medium. The in-medium spectral functions for vector and axial-vector mesons are of particular interest in this context, considering the experimental dilepton production data which signal the in-medium meson properties. In this thesis, finite energy sum rules are employed to set constraints for the in-medium spectral functions of vector and axial-vector mesons. Finite energy sum rules for the first two moments of the spectral functions are investigated with emphasis on the role of a scale parameter related to the spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in QCD. It is demonstrated that these lowest moments of vector current spectral functions do permit an accurate sum rule analysis with controlled inputs, such as the QCD condensates of lowest dimensions. In contrast, the higher moments contain uncertainties from the higher dimensional condensates. It turns out that the factorization approximation for the four-quark condensate is not applicable in any of the cases studied in this work. The accurate sum rules for the lowest two moments of the spectral functions are used to clarify and classify the properties of vector meson spectral functions in a nuclear medium. Possible connections with the Brown-Rho scaling hypothesis are also discussed. (orig.)
Standardization of I-125. Sum-Peak Coincidence Counting
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Grau Carles, A.; Grau Malonda, A.
2011-07-01
I-125 is a nuclide which presents difficulties for standardization. The sum-peak method is one of the procedures used to standardize this radionuclide. Initially NaI (Tl)detectors and then the semiconductor detectors with higher resolution have been used.This paper describes the different methods based on the sum-peak procedure and the different expressions used to calculate the activity are deduced. We describe a general procedure for obtaining all of the above equations and many more. We analyze the influence of uncertainties in the used parameters in the uncertainty of the activity. We give a complete example of the transmission of uncertainty and the effects of correlations in the uncertainty of the activity of the sample. High-resolution spectra show an unresolved doublet of 62.0 keV and 62.8 keV. The paper presents two approaches to solve this problem. One is based on the calculation of area ratio and the sum of peak areas obtained from atomic and nuclear data, in the other we modify the equations so that the sum of the peak areas doublet, rather than its components, is present. (Author) 19 refs.
27 CFR 24.148 - Penal sums of bonds.
2010-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Penal sums of bonds. 24.148 Section 24.148 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Vinegar Plant Bond, TTB F 5510.2 Not less than the tax on all wine on hand, in transit, or unaccounted for...
Melham's conjecture on odd power sums of fibonacci numbers | Sun ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Ozeki and Prodinger showed that the odd power sum of the first several consecutive Fibonacci numbers of even order is equal to a polynomial evaluated at a certain Fibonacci number of odd order. We prove that this polynomial and its derivative both vanish at 1, and will be an integer polynomial after multiplying it by a ...
Tight bounds on angle sums of nonobtuse simplices
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Brandts, J.; Cihangir, A.; Křížek, Michal
2015-01-01
Roč. 267, 15 September (2015), s. 397-408 ISSN 0096-3003 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-02067S Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : nonobtuse simplex * angle sum s * spherical geometry * polar simplex Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.345, year: 2015 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0096300315002155
Partial sums of arithmetical functions with absolutely convergent ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
For an arithmetical function f with absolutely convergent Ramanujan expansion, we derive an asymptotic formula for the ∑ n ≤ N f(n)$ with explicit error term. As a corollary we obtain new results about sum-of-divisors functions and Jordan's totient functions.
Beauty vector meson decay constants from QCD sum rules
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lucha, Wolfgang [Institute for High Energy Physics, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Nikolsdorfergasse 18, A-1050 Vienna (Austria); Melikhov, Dmitri [Institute for High Energy Physics, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Nikolsdorfergasse 18, A-1050 Vienna (Austria); D. V. Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119991, Moscow (Russian Federation); Simula, Silvano [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Roma Tre, Via della Vasca Navale 84, I-00146, Roma (Italy)
2016-01-22
We present the outcomes of a very recent investigation of the decay constants of nonstrange and strange heavy-light beauty vector mesons, with special emphasis on the ratio of any such decay constant to the decay constant of the corresponding pseudoscalar meson, by means of Borel-transformed QCD sum rules. Our results suggest that both these ratios are below unity.
Selecting a climate model subset to optimise key ensemble properties
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
N. Herger
2018-02-01
Full Text Available End users studying impacts and risks caused by human-induced climate change are often presented with large multi-model ensembles of climate projections whose composition and size are arbitrarily determined. An efficient and versatile method that finds a subset which maintains certain key properties from the full ensemble is needed, but very little work has been done in this area. Therefore, users typically make their own somewhat subjective subset choices and commonly use the equally weighted model mean as a best estimate. However, different climate model simulations cannot necessarily be regarded as independent estimates due to the presence of duplicated code and shared development history. Here, we present an efficient and flexible tool that makes better use of the ensemble as a whole by finding a subset with improved mean performance compared to the multi-model mean while at the same time maintaining the spread and addressing the problem of model interdependence. Out-of-sample skill and reliability are demonstrated using model-as-truth experiments. This approach is illustrated with one set of optimisation criteria but we also highlight the flexibility of cost functions, depending on the focus of different users. The technique is useful for a range of applications that, for example, minimise present-day bias to obtain an accurate ensemble mean, reduce dependence in ensemble spread, maximise future spread, ensure good performance of individual models in an ensemble, reduce the ensemble size while maintaining important ensemble characteristics, or optimise several of these at the same time. As in any calibration exercise, the final ensemble is sensitive to the metric, observational product, and pre-processing steps used.
Selecting a climate model subset to optimise key ensemble properties
Herger, Nadja; Abramowitz, Gab; Knutti, Reto; Angélil, Oliver; Lehmann, Karsten; Sanderson, Benjamin M.
2018-02-01
End users studying impacts and risks caused by human-induced climate change are often presented with large multi-model ensembles of climate projections whose composition and size are arbitrarily determined. An efficient and versatile method that finds a subset which maintains certain key properties from the full ensemble is needed, but very little work has been done in this area. Therefore, users typically make their own somewhat subjective subset choices and commonly use the equally weighted model mean as a best estimate. However, different climate model simulations cannot necessarily be regarded as independent estimates due to the presence of duplicated code and shared development history. Here, we present an efficient and flexible tool that makes better use of the ensemble as a whole by finding a subset with improved mean performance compared to the multi-model mean while at the same time maintaining the spread and addressing the problem of model interdependence. Out-of-sample skill and reliability are demonstrated using model-as-truth experiments. This approach is illustrated with one set of optimisation criteria but we also highlight the flexibility of cost functions, depending on the focus of different users. The technique is useful for a range of applications that, for example, minimise present-day bias to obtain an accurate ensemble mean, reduce dependence in ensemble spread, maximise future spread, ensure good performance of individual models in an ensemble, reduce the ensemble size while maintaining important ensemble characteristics, or optimise several of these at the same time. As in any calibration exercise, the final ensemble is sensitive to the metric, observational product, and pre-processing steps used.
Cytokine profile and lymphocyte subsets in type 2 diabetes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C.O. Francisco
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D is a metabolic disease with inflammation as an important pathogenic background. However, the pattern of immune cell subsets and the cytokine profile associated with development of T2D are unclear. The objective of this study was to evaluate different components of the immune system in T2D patients' peripheral blood by quantifying the frequency of lymphocyte subsets and intracellular pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine production by T cells. Clinical data and blood samples were collected from 22 men (51.6±6.3 years old with T2D and 20 nonsmoking men (49.4±7.6 years old who were matched for age and sex as control subjects. Glycated hemoglobin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein concentrations, and the lipid profile were measured by a commercially available automated system. Frequencies of lymphocyte subsets in peripheral blood and intracellular production of interleukin (IL-4, IL-10, IL-17, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interferon-γ cytokines by CD3+ T cells were assessed by flow cytometry. No differences were observed in the frequency of CD19+ B cells, CD3+CD8+ and CD3+CD4+ T cells, CD16+56+ NK cells, and CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T regulatory cells in patients with T2D compared with controls. The numbers of IL-10- and IL-17-producing CD3+ T cells were significantly higher in patients with T2D than in controls (P<0.05. The frequency of interferon-γ-producing CD3+ T cells was positively correlated with body mass index (r=0.59; P=0.01. In conclusion, this study shows increased numbers of circulating IL-10- and IL-17-producing CD3+ T cells in patients with T2D, suggesting that these cytokines are involved in the immune pathology of this disease.
Psychological stress during exercise: lymphocyte subset redistribution in firefighters.
Huang, Chun-Jung; Webb, Heather E; Garten, Ryan S; Kamimori, Gary H; Acevedo, Edmund O
2010-10-05
The purpose of this study examined the changes in heart rate (HR), catecholamines (NE, EPI) and percentages of blood lymphocyte subsets (CD3+ T cells, CD3+CD4+ helper T cells, CD3+CD8+ cytotoxic T cells, CD3- CD56+ NK cells, CD4/CD8 ratio, CD19+ B cells, and total lymphocytes [NK cells+T cells+B cells]) in firefighters exposed to a computerized firefighting strategies and tactics decision-making challenge while participating in moderate intensity exercise. Furthermore, this study also examined the possible relationships between catecholamines (NE and EPI) and blood lymphocyte subsets following combined mental and physical challenge. Ten professional male firefighters participated in two counterbalanced exercise conditions on a cycle ergometer: (1) 37min of cycle ergometry at 60% VO(2max) (exercise alone condition; EAC) and (2) 37min of cycle ergometry at 60% VO(2max) along with 20min of a computerized firefighting strategies and tactics decision-making challenge (firefighting strategies condition; FSC). FSC elicited significantly greater HR, NE, and EPI when compared to EAC. Both EAC and FSC elicited increases in CD3- CD56+ NK cells. The percentages of CD3+ T cells, CD3+CD4+ helper T cells, CD4/CD8 ratio, CD19+ B cells, and total lymphocytes were lower immediately following both conditions. Following dual challenge NE AUC was negatively correlated with percentage of CD19+ B cells immediately post challenge, and HR was negatively associated with the percent change in the CD4/CD8 ratio from pre to post challenge. These elevations in NE and heart rate simultaneously in response to the dual challenge suggest greater sympathetic activation that in turn would possibly explain the alteration in the distribution of lymphocyte subsets. Published by Elsevier Inc.
High Energy Colliders and Hidden Sectors
Dror, Asaf Jeff
This thesis explores two dominant frontiers of theoretical physics, high energy colliders and hidden sectors. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is just starting to reach its maximum operational capabilities. However, already with the current data, large classes of models are being put under significant pressure. It is crucial to understand whether the (thus far) null results are a consequence of a lack of solution to the hierarchy problem around the weak scale or requires expanding the search strategy employed at the LHC. It is the duty of the current generation of physicists to design new searches to ensure that no stone is left unturned. To this end, we study the sensitivity of the LHC to the couplings in the Standard Model top sector. We find it can significantly improve the measurements on ZtRtR coupling by a novel search strategy, making use of an implied unitarity violation in such models. Analogously, we show that other couplings in the top sector can also be measured with the same technique. Furthermore, we critically analyze a set of anomalies in the LHC data and how they may appear from consistent UV completions. We also propose a technique to measure lifetimes of new colored particles with non-trivial spin. While the high energy frontier will continue to take data, it is likely the only collider of its kind for the next couple decades. On the other hand, low-energy experiments have a promising future with many new proposed experiments to probe the existence of particles well below the weak scale but with small couplings to the Standard Model. In this work we survey the different possibilities, focusingon the constraints as well as possible new hidden sector dynamics. In particular, we show that vector portals which couple to an anomalous current, e.g., baryon number, are significantly constrained from flavor changing meson decays and rare Z decays. Furthermore, we present a new mechanism for dark matter freezeout which depletes the dark sector through an
Alleviating hidden hunger. Approaches that work
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kennedy, E.; Mannar, V.; Iyengar, V.
2003-01-01
The world has come a long way in understanding the nature, magnitude and range of solutions to micronutrient malnutrition - often called 'hidden hunger'. The most sustainable solutions - that is those that are likely to be maintained in the long term - almost surely will include food-based approaches including diet diversity, food fortification and biofortification. Food fortification and biofortification could be some of the most cost-effective of all public health interventions and thus within the economic reach of even the world's poorest. In order to implement them in a sustainable manner, a combination of technical, operational, economic, behavioural and political factors need to be addressed. In some ways the technological issues are the easiest. Because of attention to research, we now have a variety of ways for both single and multiple micronutrients to reach the target population. We also know what is needed in order to ensure delivery systems. The key factor for continued success in reducing micronutrient malnutrition through fortification is a political commitment at the national and international level and creating effective public-private partnerships at the national level. The payoff for eliminating hidden hunger through nutrient fortification is enormous and few other public health interventions offer such a promising health, nutrition and economic success story. Nuclear and isotopic techniques are valuable tools in helping to meet the multifaceted challenges posed by nutritional disorders affecting the entire human life span (embryonic to elderly). Among the numerous applications available, isotopic techniques are uniquely well suited for targeting and tracking progress in food and nutrition development programmes (See box: How Nutrients are Tracked). These include: use of the stable isotopes of iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) as a kind of gold standard in studies of their bioavailability from foods; trace element bioavailability and pool sizes for
REST represses a subset of the pancreatic endocrine differentiation program
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Martin, David; Kim, Yung-Hae; Sever, Dror
2015-01-01
in neurons and in endocrine cells, which is necessary for their normal function. During development, REST represses a subset of genes in the neuronal differentiation program and Rest is down-regulated as neurons differentiate. Here, we investigate the role of REST in the differentiation of pancreatic...... endocrine cells, which are molecularly close to neurons. We show that Rest is widely expressed in pancreas progenitors and that it is down-regulated in differentiated endocrine cells. Sustained expression of REST in Pdx1(+) progenitors impairs the differentiation of endocrine-committed Neurog3...
Prediction of Annual Rainfall Pattern Using Hidden Markov Model ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
ADOWIE PERE
Hidden Markov model is very influential in stochastic world because of its ... the earth from the clouds. The usual ... Rainfall modelling and ... Markov Models have become popular tools ... environment sciences, University of Jos, plateau state,.
New limits on hidden photons from past electron beam dumps
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andreas, Sarah; Niebuhr, Carsten; Ringwald, Andreas
2012-09-01
Hidden sectors with light extra U(1) gauge bosons, so called hidden photons, have recently attracted some attention because they are a common feature of physics beyond the Standard Model like string theory and SUSY and additionally are phenomenologically of great interest regarding recent astrophysical observations. The hidden photon is already constrained by various laboratory experiments and presently searched for in running as well as upcoming experiments. We summarize the current status of limits on hidden photons from past electron beam dump experiments including two new limits from such experiments at KEK and Orsay that have so far not been considered. All our limits take into account the experimental acceptances obtained from Monte Carlo simulations.
Search for hidden particles with the SHiP experiment
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hagner, Caren; Bick, Daniel; Bieschke, Stefan; Ebert, Joachim; Schmidt-Parzefall, Walter [Universitaet Hamburg, Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg (Germany)
2016-07-01
Many theories beyond the standard model predict long lived neutral (hidden) particles. There might be a whole Hidden Sector (HS) of weakly interacting particles, which cannot be detected in existing high energy experiments. The SHiP experiment (Search for Hidden Particles) requires a high intensity beam dump, which could be realized by a new facility at the CERN SPS accelerator. New superweakly interacting particles with masses below O(10) GeV could be produced in the beam dump and detected in a general purpose Hidden Sector (HS) detector. In addition there will be a dedicated tau neutrino subdetector. I present the major requirements and technical challenges for the HS detector and discuss how the HS can be accessed through several portals: neutrino portal, scalar portal, vector portal and many more.
Cosmological abundance of the QCD axion coupled to hidden photons
Kitajima, Naoya; Sekiguchi, Toyokazu; Takahashi, Fuminobu
2018-06-01
We study the cosmological evolution of the QCD axion coupled to hidden photons. For a moderately strong coupling, the motion of the axion field leads to an explosive production of hidden photons by tachyonic instability. We use lattice simulations to evaluate the cosmological abundance of the QCD axion. In doing so, we incorporate the backreaction of the produced hidden photons on the axion dynamics, which becomes significant in the non-linear regime. We find that the axion abundance is suppressed by at most O (102) for the decay constant fa =1016GeV, compared to the case without the coupling. For a sufficiently large coupling, the motion of the QCD axion becomes strongly damped, and as a result, the axion abundance is enhanced. Our results show that the cosmological upper bound on the axion decay constant can be relaxed by a few hundred for a certain range of the coupling to hidden photons.
Dopamine reward prediction errors reflect hidden state inference across time
Starkweather, Clara Kwon; Babayan, Benedicte M.; Uchida, Naoshige; Gershman, Samuel J.
2017-01-01
Midbrain dopamine neurons signal reward prediction error (RPE), or actual minus expected reward. The temporal difference (TD) learning model has been a cornerstone in understanding how dopamine RPEs could drive associative learning. Classically, TD learning imparts value to features that serially track elapsed time relative to observable stimuli. In the real world, however, sensory stimuli provide ambiguous information about the hidden state of the environment, leading to the proposal that TD learning might instead compute a value signal based on an inferred distribution of hidden states (a ‘belief state’). In this work, we asked whether dopaminergic signaling supports a TD learning framework that operates over hidden states. We found that dopamine signaling exhibited a striking difference between two tasks that differed only with respect to whether reward was delivered deterministically. Our results favor an associative learning rule that combines cached values with hidden state inference. PMID:28263301
Optimisation of Hidden Markov Model using Baum–Welch algorithm ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The present work is a part of development of Hidden Markov Model. (HMM) based ... the Himalaya. In this work, HMMs have been developed for forecasting of maximum and minimum ..... data collection teams of Snow and Avalanche Study.
On the LHC sensitivity for non-thermalised hidden sectors
Kahlhoefer, Felix
2018-04-01
We show under rather general assumptions that hidden sectors that never reach thermal equilibrium in the early Universe are also inaccessible for the LHC. In other words, any particle that can be produced at the LHC must either have been in thermal equilibrium with the Standard Model at some point or must be produced via the decays of another hidden sector particle that has been in thermal equilibrium. To reach this conclusion, we parametrise the cross section connecting the Standard Model to the hidden sector in a very general way and use methods from linear programming to calculate the largest possible number of LHC events compatible with the requirement of non-thermalisation. We find that even the HL-LHC cannot possibly produce more than a few events with energy above 10 GeV involving states from a non-thermalised hidden sector.
Risk from the frontlines of a hidden epidemic sexuality, masculinities ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Risk from the frontlines of a hidden epidemic sexuality, masculinities and social pressures ... It frames risk in the context of the dynamics governing sexuality, underlined ... MSM risk and practice, in these contexts, are consequently shaped by ...
New limits on hidden photons from past electron beam dumps
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Andreas, Sarah; Niebuhr, Carsten; Ringwald, Andreas
2012-09-15
Hidden sectors with light extra U(1) gauge bosons, so called hidden photons, have recently attracted some attention because they are a common feature of physics beyond the Standard Model like string theory and SUSY and additionally are phenomenologically of great interest regarding recent astrophysical observations. The hidden photon is already constrained by various laboratory experiments and presently searched for in running as well as upcoming experiments. We summarize the current status of limits on hidden photons from past electron beam dump experiments including two new limits from such experiments at KEK and Orsay that have so far not been considered. All our limits take into account the experimental acceptances obtained from Monte Carlo simulations.
A Novel Method for Decoding Any High-Order Hidden Markov Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fei Ye
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel method for decoding any high-order hidden Markov model. First, the high-order hidden Markov model is transformed into an equivalent first-order hidden Markov model by Hadar’s transformation. Next, the optimal state sequence of the equivalent first-order hidden Markov model is recognized by the existing Viterbi algorithm of the first-order hidden Markov model. Finally, the optimal state sequence of the high-order hidden Markov model is inferred from the optimal state sequence of the equivalent first-order hidden Markov model. This method provides a unified algorithm framework for decoding hidden Markov models including the first-order hidden Markov model and any high-order hidden Markov model.
A two particle hidden sector and the oscillations with photons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alvarez, Pedro D. [Universidad de Antofagasta, Departamento de Fisica, Antofagasta (Chile); Arias, Paola; Maldonado, Carlos [Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Departmento de Fisica, Santiago (Chile)
2018-01-15
We present a detailed study of the oscillations and optical properties for vacuum, in a model for the dark sector that contains axion-like particles and hidden photons. We provide bounds for the couplings versus the mass, using current results from ALPS-I and PVLAS. We also discuss the challenges for the detection of models with more than one hidden particle in light shining trough wall-like experiments. (orig.)
Rare Z boson decays to a hidden sector
Blinov, Nikita; Izaguirre, Eder; Shuve, Brian
2018-01-01
We demonstrate that rare decays of the Standard Model Z boson can be used to discover and characterize the nature of new hidden-sector particles. We propose new searches for these particles in soft, high-multiplicity leptonic final states at the Large Hadron Collider. The proposed searches are sensitive to low-mass particles produced in Z decays, and we argue that these striking signatures can shed light on the hidden-sector couplings and mechanism for mass generation.
Anticipating hidden text salting in emails (extended abstract)
Lioma, Christina; Moens, Marie-Francine; Gomez, Juan Carlos; De Beer, Jan; Bergholz, Andre; Paass, Gerhard; Horkan, Patrick
2008-01-01
Salting is the intentional addition or distortion of content, aimed to evade automatic filtering. Salting is usually found in spam emails. Salting can also be hidden in phishing emails, which aim to steal personal information from users. We present a novel method that detects hidden salting tricks as visual anomalies in text. We solely use these salting tricks to successfully classify emails as phishing (F-measure >90%).
Hidden twelve-dimensional super Poincare symmetry in eleven dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bars, Itzhak; Deliduman, Cemsinan; Pasqua, Andrea; Zumino, Bruno
2004-01-01
First, we review a result in our previous paper, of how a ten-dimensional superparticle, taken off-shell, has a hidden eleven-dimensional super Poincare symmetry. Then, we show that the physical sector is defined by three first-class constraints which preserve the full eleven-dimensional symmetry. Applying the same concepts to the eleven-dimensional superparticle, taken off-shell, we discover a hidden twelve-dimensional super Poincare symmetry that governs the theory
Hidden charged dark matter and chiral dark radiation
Ko, P.; Nagata, Natsumi; Tang, Yong
2017-10-01
In the light of recent possible tensions in the Hubble constant H0 and the structure growth rate σ8 between the Planck and other measurements, we investigate a hidden-charged dark matter (DM) model where DM interacts with hidden chiral fermions, which are charged under the hidden SU(N) and U(1) gauge interactions. The symmetries in this model assure these fermions to be massless. The DM in this model, which is a Dirac fermion and singlet under the hidden SU(N), is also assumed to be charged under the U(1) gauge symmetry, through which it can interact with the chiral fermions. Below the confinement scale of SU(N), the hidden quark condensate spontaneously breaks the U(1) gauge symmetry such that there remains a discrete symmetry, which accounts for the stability of DM. This condensate also breaks a flavor symmetry in this model and Nambu-Goldstone bosons associated with this flavor symmetry appear below the confinement scale. The hidden U(1) gauge boson and hidden quarks/Nambu-Goldstone bosons are components of dark radiation (DR) above/below the confinement scale. These light fields increase the effective number of neutrinos by δNeff ≃ 0.59 above the confinement scale for N = 2, resolving the tension in the measurements of the Hubble constant by Planck and Hubble Space Telescope if the confinement scale is ≲1 eV. DM and DR continuously scatter with each other via the hidden U(1) gauge interaction, which suppresses the matter power spectrum and results in a smaller structure growth rate. The DM sector couples to the Standard Model sector through the exchange of a real singlet scalar mixing with the Higgs boson, which makes it possible to probe our model in DM direct detection experiments. Variants of this model are also discussed, which may offer alternative ways to investigate this scenario.
Hidden Markov models in automatic speech recognition
Wrzoskowicz, Adam
1993-11-01
This article describes a method for constructing an automatic speech recognition system based on hidden Markov models (HMMs). The author discusses the basic concepts of HMM theory and the application of these models to the analysis and recognition of speech signals. The author provides algorithms which make it possible to train the ASR system and recognize signals on the basis of distinct stochastic models of selected speech sound classes. The author describes the specific components of the system and the procedures used to model and recognize speech. The author discusses problems associated with the choice of optimal signal detection and parameterization characteristics and their effect on the performance of the system. The author presents different options for the choice of speech signal segments and their consequences for the ASR process. The author gives special attention to the use of lexical, syntactic, and semantic information for the purpose of improving the quality and efficiency of the system. The author also describes an ASR system developed by the Speech Acoustics Laboratory of the IBPT PAS. The author discusses the results of experiments on the effect of noise on the performance of the ASR system and describes methods of constructing HMM's designed to operate in a noisy environment. The author also describes a language for human-robot communications which was defined as a complex multilevel network from an HMM model of speech sounds geared towards Polish inflections. The author also added mandatory lexical and syntactic rules to the system for its communications vocabulary.
Search algorithms, hidden labour and information control
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Paško Bilić
2016-06-01
Full Text Available The paper examines some of the processes of the closely knit relationship between Google’s ideologies of neutrality and objectivity and global market dominance. Neutrality construction comprises an important element sustaining the company’s economic position and is reflected in constant updates, estimates and changes to utility and relevance of search results. Providing a purely technical solution to these issues proves to be increasingly difficult without a human hand in steering algorithmic solutions. Search relevance fluctuates and shifts through continuous tinkering and tweaking of the search algorithm. The company also uses third parties to hire human raters for performing quality assessments of algorithmic updates and adaptations in linguistically and culturally diverse global markets. The adaptation process contradicts the technical foundations of the company and calculations based on the initial Page Rank algorithm. Annual market reports, Google’s Search Quality Rating Guidelines, and reports from media specialising in search engine optimisation business are analysed. The Search Quality Rating Guidelines document provides a rare glimpse into the internal architecture of search algorithms and the notions of utility and relevance which are presented and structured as neutral and objective. Intertwined layers of ideology, hidden labour of human raters, advertising revenues, market dominance and control are discussed throughout the paper.
Hidden Structural Codes in Protein Intrinsic Disorder.
Borkosky, Silvia S; Camporeale, Gabriela; Chemes, Lucía B; Risso, Marikena; Noval, María Gabriela; Sánchez, Ignacio E; Alonso, Leonardo G; de Prat Gay, Gonzalo
2017-10-17
Intrinsic disorder is a major structural category in biology, accounting for more than 30% of coding regions across the domains of life, yet consists of conformational ensembles in equilibrium, a major challenge in protein chemistry. Anciently evolved papillomavirus genomes constitute an unparalleled case for sequence to structure-function correlation in cases in which there are no folded structures. E7, the major transforming oncoprotein of human papillomaviruses, is a paradigmatic example among the intrinsically disordered proteins. Analysis of a large number of sequences of the same viral protein allowed for the identification of a handful of residues with absolute conservation, scattered along the sequence of its N-terminal intrinsically disordered domain, which intriguingly are mostly leucine residues. Mutation of these led to a pronounced increase in both α-helix and β-sheet structural content, reflected by drastic effects on equilibrium propensities and oligomerization kinetics, and uncovers the existence of local structural elements that oppose canonical folding. These folding relays suggest the existence of yet undefined hidden structural codes behind intrinsic disorder in this model protein. Thus, evolution pinpoints conformational hot spots that could have not been identified by direct experimental methods for analyzing or perturbing the equilibrium of an intrinsically disordered protein ensemble.
Dietary phytate, zinc and hidden zinc deficiency.
Sandstead, Harold H; Freeland-Graves, Jeanne H
2014-10-01
Epidemiological data suggest at least one in five humans are at risk of zinc deficiency. This is in large part because the phytate in cereals and legumes has not been removed during food preparation. Phytate, a potent indigestible ligand for zinc prevents it's absorption. Without knowledge of the frequency of consumption of foods rich in phytate, and foods rich in bioavailable zinc, the recognition of zinc deficiency early in the illness may be difficult. Plasma zinc is insensitive to early zinc deficiency. Serum ferritin concentration≤20μg/L is a potential indirect biomarker. Early effects of zinc deficiency are chemical, functional and may be "hidden". The clinical problem is illustrated by 2 studies that involved US Mexican-American children, and US premenopausal women. The children were consuming home diets that included traditional foods high in phytate. The premenopausal women were not eating red meat on a regular basis, and their consumption of phytate was mainly from bran breakfast cereals. In both studies the presence of zinc deficiency was proven by functional responses to controlled zinc treatment. In the children lean-mass, reasoning, and immunity were significantly affected. In the women memory, reasoning, and eye-hand coordination were significantly affected. A screening self-administered food frequency questionnaire for office might help caregiver's identify patients at risk of zinc deficiency. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Natural inflation with hidden scale invariance
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Neil D. Barrie
2016-05-01
Full Text Available We propose a new class of natural inflation models based on a hidden scale invariance. In a very generic Wilsonian effective field theory with an arbitrary number of scalar fields, which exhibits scale invariance via the dilaton, the potential necessarily contains a flat direction in the classical limit. This flat direction is lifted by small quantum corrections and inflation is realised without need for an unnatural fine-tuning. In the conformal limit, the effective potential becomes linear in the inflaton field, yielding to specific predictions for the spectral index and the tensor-to-scalar ratio, being respectively: ns−1≈−0.025(N⋆60−1 and r≈0.0667(N⋆60−1, where N⋆≈30–65 is a number of efolds during observable inflation. This predictions are in reasonable agreement with cosmological measurements. Further improvement of the accuracy of these measurements may turn out to be critical in falsifying our scenario.
Detecting hidden sources-STUK/HUT team
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nikkinen, M.; Aarnio, P. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland); Honkamaa, T.; Tiilikainen, H. [Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, Helsinki (Finland)
1997-12-31
The task of the team was to locate and to identify hidden sources in a specified area in Padasjoki Auttoinen village. The team used AB-420 helicopter of the Finnish Frontier Guard. The team had two measuring systems: HPGe system (relative efficiency 18%) and 5`x5` NaI system. The team found two sources in real-time and additional two sources after 24 h analysis time. After the locations and characteristics of the sources were announced it was found out that altogether six sources would have been possible to find using the measured data. The total number of sources was ten. The NaI detector was good at detecting and locating the sources and HPGe was most useful in identification and calculation of the activity estimates. The following development should be made: 1) larger detectors are needed, 2) the software has to be improved. (This has been performed after the exercise) and 3) the navigation must be based on DGPS. visual navigation causes easily gaps between the flight lines and some sources may not be detected. (au).
Gauging hidden symmetries in two dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Samtleben, Henning; Weidner, Martin
2007-01-01
We initiate the systematic construction of gauged matter-coupled supergravity theories in two dimensions. Subgroups of the affine global symmetry group of toroidally compactified supergravity can be gauged by coupling vector fields with minimal couplings and a particular topological term. The gauge groups typically include hidden symmetries that are not among the target-space isometries of the ungauged theory. The gaugings constructed in this paper are described group-theoretically in terms of a constant embedding tensor subject to a number of constraints which parametrizes the different theories and entirely encodes the gauged Lagrangian. The prime example is the bosonic sector of the maximally supersymmetric theory whose ungauged version admits an affine e 9 global symmetry algebra. The various parameters (related to higher-dimensional p-form fluxes, geometric and non-geometric fluxes, etc.) which characterize the possible gaugings, combine into an embedding tensor transforming in the basic representation of e 9 . This yields an infinite-dimensional class of maximally supersymmetric theories in two dimensions. We work out and discuss several examples of higher-dimensional origin which can be systematically analyzed using the different gradings of e 9
Academic mobbing: hidden health hazard at workplace.
Khoo, Sb
2010-01-01
Academic mobbing is a non-violent, sophisticated, 'ganging up' behaviour adopted by academicians to "wear and tear" a colleague down emotionally through unjustified accusation, humiliation, general harassment and emotional abuse. These are directed at the target under a veil of lies and justifications so that they are "hidden" to others and difficult to prove. Bullies use mobbing activities to hide their own weaknesses and incompetence. Targets selected are often intelligent, innovative high achievers, with good integrity and principles. Mobbing activities appear trivial and innocuous on its own but the frequency and pattern of their occurrence over long period of time indicates an aggressive manipulation to "eliminate" the target. Mobbing activities typically progress through five stereotypical phases that begins with an unsolved minor conflict between two workers and ultimately escalates into a senseless mobbing whereby the target is stigmatized and victimized to justify the behaviours of the bullies. The result is always physical, mental, social distress or illness and, most often, expulsion of target from the workplace. Organizations are subjected to great financial loss, loss of key workers and a tarnished public image and reputation. Public awareness, education, effective counselling, establishment of anti-bullying policies and legislations at all levels are necessary to curb academic mobbing. General practitioners (GPs) play an important role in supporting patients subjected to mental and physical health injury caused by workplace bullying and mobbing.
Detecting hidden sources-STUK/HUT team
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nikkinen, M; Aarnio, P [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland); Honkamaa, T; Tiilikainen, H [Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, Helsinki (Finland)
1998-12-31
The task of the team was to locate and to identify hidden sources in a specified area in Padasjoki Auttoinen village. The team used AB-420 helicopter of the Finnish Frontier Guard. The team had two measuring systems: HPGe system (relative efficiency 18%) and 5`x5` NaI system. The team found two sources in real-time and additional two sources after 24 h analysis time. After the locations and characteristics of the sources were announced it was found out that altogether six sources would have been possible to find using the measured data. The total number of sources was ten. The NaI detector was good at detecting and locating the sources and HPGe was most useful in identification and calculation of the activity estimates. The following development should be made: 1) larger detectors are needed, 2) the software has to be improved. (This has been performed after the exercise) and 3) the navigation must be based on DGPS. visual navigation causes easily gaps between the flight lines and some sources may not be detected. (au).
Endothelial progenitor cell subsets and preeclampsia: Findings and controversies
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Armin Attar
2017-10-01
Full Text Available Vascular remodeling is an essential component of gestation. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs play an important role in the regulation of vascular homeostasis. The results of studies measuring the number of EPCs in normal pregnancies and in preeclampsia have been highly controversial or even contradictory because of some variations in technical issues and different methodologies enumerating three distinct subsets of EPCs: circulating angiogenic cells (CAC, colony forming unit endothelial cells (CFU-ECs, and endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs. In general, most studies have shown an increase in the number of CACs in the maternal circulation with a progression in the gestational age in normal pregnancies, while functional capacities measured by CFU-ECs and ECFCs remain intact. In the case of preeclampsia, mobilization of CACs and ECFCs occurs in the peripheral blood of pregnant women, but the functional capacities shown by culture of the derived colony-forming assays (CFU-EC and ECFC assays are altered. Furthermore, the number of all EPC subsets will be reduced in umbilical cord blood in the case of preeclampsia. As EPCs play an important role in the homeostasis of vascular networks, the difference in their frequency and functionality in normal pregnancies and those with preeclampsia can be expected. In this review, there was an attempt to provide a justification for these controversies.
A Hybrid Soft Computing Approach for Subset Problems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Broderick Crawford
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Subset problems (set partitioning, packing, and covering are formal models for many practical optimization problems. A set partitioning problem determines how the items in one set (S can be partitioned into smaller subsets. All items in S must be contained in one and only one partition. Related problems are set packing (all items must be contained in zero or one partitions and set covering (all items must be contained in at least one partition. Here, we present a hybrid solver based on ant colony optimization (ACO combined with arc consistency for solving this kind of problems. ACO is a swarm intelligence metaheuristic inspired on ants behavior when they search for food. It allows to solve complex combinatorial problems for which traditional mathematical techniques may fail. By other side, in constraint programming, the solving process of Constraint Satisfaction Problems can dramatically reduce the search space by means of arc consistency enforcing constraint consistencies either prior to or during search. Our hybrid approach was tested with set covering and set partitioning dataset benchmarks. It was observed that the performance of ACO had been improved embedding this filtering technique in its constructive phase.
Monocyte Subsets in Schistosomiasis Patients with Periportal Fibrosis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jamille Souza Fernandes
2014-01-01
Full Text Available A major issue with Schistosoma mansoni infection is the development of periportal fibrosis, which is predominantly caused by the host immune response to egg antigens. Experimental studies have pointed to the participation of monocytes in the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis. The aim of this study was to characterize the subsets of monocytes in individuals with different degrees of periportal fibrosis secondary to schistosomiasis. Monocytes were classified into classical (CD14++CD16−, intermediate (CD14++CD16+, and nonclassical (CD14+CD16++. The expressions of monocyte markers and cytokines were assessed using flow cytometry. The frequency of classical monocytes was higher than the other subsets. The expression of HLA-DR, IL-6, TNF-α, and TGF-β was higher in monocytes from individuals with moderate to severe fibrosis as compared to other groups. Although no differences were observed in receptors expression (IL-4R and IL-10R between groups of patients, the expression of IL-12 was lower in monocytes from individuals with moderate to severe fibrosis, suggesting a protective role of this cytokine in the development of fibrosis. Our data support the hypothesis that the three different monocyte populations participate in the immunopathogenesis of periportal fibrosis, since they express high levels of proinflammatory and profibrotic cytokines and low levels of regulatory markers.
Changes in T-cell subsets after radiation therapy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang, S.J.; Rafla, S.; Youssef, E.; Selim, H.; Salloum, N.; Chuang, J.Y.
1988-01-01
The T-cell subsets of 129 patients with cancer were counted before and after radiation therapy. The cells were labeled with monoclonal antibodies that were specific for each type of T cell. Significant changes after therapy were decreases in the proportion of T-helper/inducer cells, pan-T cells, and in the ratio of T-helper/inducer to T-suppressor/cytotoxic cells. There was an increase in the percentage of T-suppressor/cytotoxic cells. When the site of the primary cancer was considered, genitourinary cancer and cancer of the head and neck both showed a decreased percentage of T-helper/inducer cells and a reduced ratio of T-helper/inducer to T-suppressor/cytotoxic cells. The percentage of pan-T cells in head and neck cancer and the ratio of T-helper/inducer to T-suppressor/cytotoxic cells in breast cancer were decreased. The percentage of T-helper cells was particularly decreased by radiation therapy in advanced stages of cancer, in higher grade tumors, and in larger tumors. The absolute numbers of various T-cell subsets were decreased in all groups
Peripheral blood and milk leukocytes subsets of lactating Sarda ewes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Piero Bonelli
2013-05-01
Full Text Available Leukocytes subpopulations in blood and milk of lactating Sarda ewes were investigated. Animals characterized by a SSC level <500×103cells/mL and a negative bacteriological examination were sampled in early, mid and late lactation. Milk differential cell count evidenced that macrophage represented the main population (42.8%±3.5 followed by lymphocytes (40.2%±3.4 and neutrophils (8,6%±2.1. Flow cytometry analysis showed that lymphocytes subsets in milk were quite different from blood. High CD8+ and low CD4+ lymphocytes percentages determined a CD4/CD8 ratio inversion in milk compared to blood (0.3%±0.03 vs 1.8%±0.08. CD8+ decreased while, conversely, CD4+ increased in late lactation. γδ T cells were more represented in milk (12.6%±1.3 than in blood (6.8%±0.3 and their proportions appeared similar throughout lactation in both compartments. IL-2 receptor was mainly expressed in milk on T cytotoxic lymphocytes. Data obtained in uninfected mammary glands could allow an early discrimination between physiological and pathological changes occurring in ewe milk. Further phenotypical and functional studies on milk leukocytes subsets might help to understand defense mechanisms of the ovine mammary gland against IMI.
The regulatory roles of B cell subsets in transplantation.
Chu, Zhulang; Zou, Weilong; Xu, Yanan; Sun, Qiquan; Zhao, Yong
2018-02-01
B cells mediate allograft rejection through antigen presentation, and production of cytokines and antibodies. More and more immunosuppressive agents specifically targeting B cells and plasma cells have been applied in clinical transplantation. However, recent studies have indicated the regulatory roles of B cells. Therefore, it is vital to clarify the different effects of B cell subsets in organ transplantation so that we can completely understand the diverse functions of B cells in transplantation. Areas covered: This review focuses on the regulatory roles of B cells in transplantation. B cell subsets with immune modulation and factors mediating immunosuppressive functions of regulatory B (Breg) cells were analyzed. Therapies targeting B cells and the application of B cells for transplant tolerance induction were discussed. Expert commentary: Besides involving rejection, B cells could also play regulatory roles in transplantation. Breg cells and the related markers may be used to predict the immune tolerant state in transplant recipients. New therapeutic strategies targeting B cells should be explored to promote tolerance induction with less impact on the host's protective immunity in organ transplanted patients.
Mast cell subsets and neuropeptides in leprosy reactions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Antunes Sérgio Luiz Gomes
2003-01-01
Full Text Available The immunohistochemical identification of neuropeptides (calcitonin gene-related peptide, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, substance P, alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone and gamma-melanocyte stimulating hormone quantification of mast cells and their subsets (tryptase/chymase-immunoreactive mast cells = TCMC and tryptase-immunoreactive mast cells = TMC were determined in biopsies of six patients with leprosy reactions (three patients with type I reaction and three with type II. Biopsies were compared with those taken from the same body site in the remission stage of the same patient. We found a relative increase of TMC in the inflammatory infiltrate of the reactional biopsies compared to the post-reactional biopsy. Also, the total number of mast cells and the TMC/TCMC ratio in the inflammatory infiltrate was significantly higher than in the intervening dermis of the biopsies of both periods. No significant difference was found regarding neuroptide expression in the reactional and post-reactional biopsies. The relative increase of TMC in the reactional infiltrates could implicate this mast cell subset in the reported increase of the immune response in leprosy reactions.
Rao-Blackwellization for Adaptive Gaussian Sum Nonlinear Model Propagation
Semper, Sean R.; Crassidis, John L.; George, Jemin; Mukherjee, Siddharth; Singla, Puneet
2015-01-01
When dealing with imperfect data and general models of dynamic systems, the best estimate is always sought in the presence of uncertainty or unknown parameters. In many cases, as the first attempt, the Extended Kalman filter (EKF) provides sufficient solutions to handling issues arising from nonlinear and non-Gaussian estimation problems. But these issues may lead unacceptable performance and even divergence. In order to accurately capture the nonlinearities of most real-world dynamic systems, advanced filtering methods have been created to reduce filter divergence while enhancing performance. Approaches, such as Gaussian sum filtering, grid based Bayesian methods and particle filters are well-known examples of advanced methods used to represent and recursively reproduce an approximation to the state probability density function (pdf). Some of these filtering methods were conceptually developed years before their widespread uses were realized. Advanced nonlinear filtering methods currently benefit from the computing advancements in computational speeds, memory, and parallel processing. Grid based methods, multiple-model approaches and Gaussian sum filtering are numerical solutions that take advantage of different state coordinates or multiple-model methods that reduced the amount of approximations used. Choosing an efficient grid is very difficult for multi-dimensional state spaces, and oftentimes expensive computations must be done at each point. For the original Gaussian sum filter, a weighted sum of Gaussian density functions approximates the pdf but suffers at the update step for the individual component weight selections. In order to improve upon the original Gaussian sum filter, Ref. [2] introduces a weight update approach at the filter propagation stage instead of the measurement update stage. This weight update is performed by minimizing the integral square difference between the true forecast pdf and its Gaussian sum approximation. By adaptively updating
Hidden-Sector Dynamics and the Supersymmetric Seesaw
Campbell, Bruce A; Maybury, David W
2008-01-01
In light of recent analyses that have shown that nontrivial hidden-sector dynamics in models of supersymmetry breaking can lead to a significant impact on the predicted low-energy supersymmetric spectrum, we extend these studies to consider hidden-sector effects in extensions of the MSSM to include a seesaw model for neutrino masses. A dynamical hidden sector in an interval of mass scales below the seesaw scale would yield renormalization-group running involving both the anomalous dimension from the hidden sector and the seesaw-extended MSSM renormalization group equations (RGEs). These effects interfere in general, altering the generational mixing of the sleptons, and allowing for a substantial change to the expected level of charged-lepton flavour violation in seesaw-extended MSSM models. These results provide further support for recent theoretical observations that knowledge of the hidden sector is required in order to make concrete low-energy predictions, if the hidden sector is strongly coupled. In parti...
On QCD sum rules of the Laplace transform type and light quark masses
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Narison, S.
1981-04-01
We discuss the relation between the usual dispersion relation sum rules and the Laplace transform type sum rules in quantum chromodynamics. Two specific examples corresponding to the S-coupling constant sum rule and the light quark masses sum rules are considered. An interpretation, within QCD, of Leutwyler's formula for the current algebra quark masses is also given
Regularised integrals, sums and traces an analytic point of view
Paycha, Sylvie
2012-01-01
"Regularization techniques" is the common name for a variety of methods used to make sense of divergent series, divergent integrals, or traces of linear operators in infinite-dimensional spaces. Such methods are often indispensable in problems of number theory, geometry, quantum field theory, and other areas of mathematics and theoretical physics. However arbitrary and noncanonical they might seem at first glance, regularized sums, integrals, and traces often contain canonical concepts, and the main purpose of this book is to illustrate and explain this. This book provides a unified and self-contained mathematical treatment of various regularization techniques. The author shows how to derive regularized sums, integrals, and traces from certain canonical building blocks of the original divergent object. In the process of putting together these "building blocks", one encounters many problems and ambiguities caused by various so-called anomalies, which are investigated and explained in detail. Nevertheless, it t...
Path-sum calculations for rf current drive
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Belo, Jorge H.; Bizarro, Joao P.S.; Rodrigues, Paulo
2001-01-01
Path sums and Gaussian short-time propagators are used to solve two-dimensional Fokker-Planck models of lower-hybrid (LH) and electron-cyclotron (EC) current drive (CD), and are shown to be well suited to the two limiting situations where the rf quasilinear diffusion coefficient is either relatively small, D rf ≅0.1, or very large, D rf →∞, the latter case enabling a special treatment. Results are given for both LHCD and ECCD in the small D rf case, whereas the limiting situation is illustrated only for ECCD. To check the accuracy of path-sum calculations, comparisons with finite difference solutions are provided
Spectral representation and QCD sum rules in hot nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mallik, S.; Sarkar, Sourav
2009-01-01
We construct the spectral representation of spinsor two-point functions in medium, that is, at finite temperature and chemical potential. We first deal with the free spinor two-point function. Then we construct the same for interacting fields leading to the Kaellen-Lehmann representation. It is emphasised that although these two point functions have the structure of 2 x 2 matrices in the real time formulation of field theory, any one component actually suffices to describe the dynamics of the system. Our construction is then applied to write the QCD sum rules for two-point function of nucleon currents in medium. We discuss a subtracted version to increase the sensitivity of such a sum rule and point out how it differs from a conventional one. (author)
A fast summation method for oscillatory lattice sums
Denlinger, Ryan; Gimbutas, Zydrunas; Greengard, Leslie; Rokhlin, Vladimir
2017-02-01
We present a fast summation method for lattice sums of the type which arise when solving wave scattering problems with periodic boundary conditions. While there are a variety of effective algorithms in the literature for such calculations, the approach presented here is new and leads to a rigorous analysis of Wood's anomalies. These arise when illuminating a grating at specific combinations of the angle of incidence and the frequency of the wave, for which the lattice sums diverge. They were discovered by Wood in 1902 as singularities in the spectral response. The primary tools in our approach are the Euler-Maclaurin formula and a steepest descent argument. The resulting algorithm has super-algebraic convergence and requires only milliseconds of CPU time.
Direct sum matrix game with prisoner's dilemma and snowdrift game.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chengzhang Ma
Full Text Available A direct sum form is proposed for constructing a composite game from two 2 x 2 games, prisoner's dilemma and snowdrift game. This kind of direct sum form game is called a multiple roles game. The replicator dynamics of the multiple roles game with will-mixed populations is explored. The dynamical behaviors on square lattice are investigated by numerical simulation. It is found that the dynamical behaviors of population on square lattice depend on the mixing proportion of the two simple games. Mixing SD activities to pure PD population inhibits the proportion of cooperators in PD, and mixing PD activities to pure SD population stimulates the proportion of cooperators in SD. Besides spatial reciprocity, our results show that there are roles reciprocities between different types of individuals.
Summability calculus a comprehensive theory of fractional finite sums
Alabdulmohsin, Ibrahim M
2018-01-01
This book develops the foundations of "summability calculus", which is a comprehensive theory of fractional finite sums. It fills an important gap in the literature by unifying and extending disparate historical results. It also presents new material that has not been published before. Importantly, it shows how the study of fractional finite sums benefits from and contributes to many areas of mathematics, such as divergent series, numerical integration, approximation theory, asymptotic methods, special functions, series acceleration, Fourier analysis, the calculus of finite differences, and information theory. As such, it appeals to a wide audience of mathematicians whose interests include the study of special functions, summability theory, analytic number theory, series and sequences, approximation theory, asymptotic expansions, or numerical methods. Richly illustrated, it features chapter summaries, and includes numerous examples and exercises. The content is mostly developed from scratch using only undergr...
Parton model (Moessbauer) sum rules for b → c decays
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lipkin, H.J.
1993-01-01
The parton model is a starting point or zero-order approximation in many treatments. The author follows an approach previously used for the Moessbauer effect and shows how parton model sum rules derived for certain moments of the lepton energy spectrum in b → c semileptonic decays remain valid even when binding effects are included. The parton model appears as a open-quote semiclassical close-quote model whose results for certain averages also hold (correspondence principle) in quantum mechanics. Algebraic techniques developed for the Moessbauer effect exploit simple features of the commutator between the weak current operator and the bound state Hamiltonian to find the appropriate sum rules and show the validity of the parton model in the classical limit, ℎ → 0, where all commutators vanish